PIAS / Fairway English - Sarc
Generated on November 22, 2014
Manual of PIAS1
Program for the Integral Approach of
Shipdesign
Scheepsbouwkundig Advies en Reken Centrum (SARC) BV
Brinklaan 109 A11
1404 GA Bussum, The Netherlands
Phone +31 35 6915024
Fax +31 35 6918303
E-mail [email protected]
✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧
1 The software described in this manual is furnished under a licence agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance
with the terms of that agreement. The software is protected by the copyright laws which pertain to computer software, it is illegal to make
copies of the program or this manual other than for the use or backup by a ligitimate user. Copyright (©1993-2014) of software and manual is
held by SARC BV.
Contents
1
Preface
1.1 Structure of this manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Contact details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
2
2
PIAS renewals (2012-2014)
2.1 An alternative system of module identification . . . . . . .
2.2 Re-distribution of modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 New main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Typographical modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 File and backup system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Copy, paste, undo and redo in input windows . . . . . . .
2.8 Indication of the options of cells in input sheets . . . . . .
2.9 Simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project
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3
3
3
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
Getting started with PIAS
3.1 PIAS renewal 2012-2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Installation of PIAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Sentinel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Digitizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Manuals, exercises and information sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Typographical conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Working with PIAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 PIAS Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Working with PIAS’ modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Export of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Definitions and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.1 Project Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.2 Program setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.3 Print options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.4 Night colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.5 Screen Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.6 Default Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.7 Screen colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8.8 Restore column widths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.1 Save data on disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.2 Create backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.3 Restore data from backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.4 Import data from other project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.5 Quit program without saving the data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10 Files and extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11 Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project
3.12 Frequently asked questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.13 Closing remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7
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13
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14
16
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CONTENTS
4
5
6
Installation details
4.1 Sentinel, additional information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Required DLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Network Sentinel SuperPro . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Manual and utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Possible problems Sentinel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Digitizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Temporary files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 ASCII text file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Output in multiple languages . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 List of environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 Key sequence macro’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 Macro commands for PIAS and Fairway . . . . . . . . . . .
4.A Appendix: Speed enhancing mechanisms in PIAS: PIAS/ES
4.A.1 Minimization of disc usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.A.2 Dualthreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.A.3 Total speed gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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22
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27
28
Operation of PIAS
5.1 Selection window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Input window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Indication of the options in the cells of selection windows and input windows
5.4 Copy, paste etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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29
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32
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Config: General project configurations
6.1 General setup for stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Output language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Apply Local cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3 Stability with the free to trim effect (constant LCB) . . . . . . . . .
6.1.4 (Damage) stability including calculation shift of COGs of liquid . .
6.1.5 (Damage-) stability including calculation the effect of VCG on trim
6.1.6 Preferential format of hull files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.7 Wave amplitude for stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.7.1 Location of the top of the wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.8 Wave length for stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.9 Wave direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.10 Wave type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.11 Angle between ‘axis of inclination’ and centre plane . . . . . . . .
6.1.12 Specific weight outside water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.13 Calculate intact stability etc. with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic) .
6.1.14 Calculate damage stability with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic) . .
6.1.15 Output to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Angles of inclination for stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Settings damage stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 Intermediate stages with global equal liquid level . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2 Significant wave height for SOLAS STAB90+50 (RoRo) . . . . . .
6.4.3 Compute probabilistic damage stability on basis of . . . . . . . . .
6.4.4 Damage stability with correction 0.05’ x cos(phi) . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Sections tanks/compartments/damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Stability criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 E-mail settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8 Definition of asymmetrical hull forms and composed hull forms . . . . . .
6.9 Definition of frame spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10 Trims for hydrostatics, cross-curves and maximum VCG’ . . . . . . . . . .
6.11 Setup for hydrostatics, cross-curves and maximum VCG’ . . . . . . . . . .
6.12 Definition of draft marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
7
Fairway: hull shape design
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 Basics of Fairway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2 Geometrical notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2.1 Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2.2 Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2.3 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3 Definitions and concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3.1 Phantom face . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3.2 Polycurve visibility . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3.3 Polycurve locked . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3.4 Construction Water Line (CWL) . . .
7.1.3.5 Deck at side . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3.6 Polycurve positions sets . . . . . . . .
7.2 Start and main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Graphical User Interface (GUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 Start up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 GUI Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2.1 Modelling Views . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2.2 Tree view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2.3 Levels of information and control . . .
7.3.2.4 Keyboard operation . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3 Navigation: Pan, Zoom and Rotate . . . . . . . .
7.3.3.1 Current orientation . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3.2 Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3.3 Zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3.4 Rotating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3.5 Perspective views . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3.6 3Dconnexion navigation device . . . .
7.3.3.7 Navigation mode . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4 The dragger: interactive graphical positioning . .
7.3.4.1 Freedom of motion . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4.2 View point induced constraints . . . .
7.3.4.3 Snapping to other points in the model .
7.3.4.4 Dragger customization . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5 Modelling actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.1 Common functionality . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.2 Change the shape of a curve . . . . . .
7.3.5.3 New Planar Polycurve by Intersection
7.3.5.4 New Polycurve by Projection . . . . .
7.3.5.5 Move polycurve . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.6 Remove Polycurve . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.7 Properties of polycurves . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.8 Curve Properties . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.9 Systemize polycurve names . . . . . .
7.3.5.10 Join polycurves . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.11 Split polycurve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.12 Connect Points . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.13 Generate Fillet Points . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.14 Show Indicative Intersections . . . . .
7.3.5.15 Change the shape of the SAC . . . . .
7.3.5.16 Phantom Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.17 Define Shell Region . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.18 Remove Shell Region . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5.19 Seams and Butts . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.6 Supporting functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.6.1 Clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.6.2 Hydrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
iii
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.3.7 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main dimensions and other ship parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 Main dimensions (design) & hull coefficients . . . . . . . .
Hullform transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 Transformation parameter menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 Specify envelop lines midship section . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3 Transformation types and their properties . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3.1 Linear scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3.2 Ordinate shift (Lackenby) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3.3 Inflate/deflate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3.4 Increase / decrease parallel part . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3.5 Shift complete vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4 Hints for and backgrounds of the transformation process . .
7.5.4.1 Which transformation type to apply? . . . . . . .
7.5.4.2 Transformation of the target SAC only . . . . . .
7.5.4.3 The use of Lap diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4.4 Parent hulls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.5 General rotation and scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Settings and miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1 General configuration options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1.1 Program setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1.2 With curved surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1.3 Configuration GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1.4 Title block lines plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.2 Define special points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.3 Uniform weight factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.4 Uniform mean deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.5 Check network and lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.6 Make all lines consistent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.7 Remove all "internal" points from all lines . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.8 Close vessel at deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.9 Change color scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.10 Define default window layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show (rendered and colored) surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.1 Option in the render window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export of hullform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.1 Create file in PIAS-ordinate format (.hyd file) . . . . . . . .
7.8.2 Create file in PIAS surface format (.TRI file) . . . . . . . .
7.8.3 Offsets to ASCII-file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.4 All lines to AutoCAD DXF format in three 2D views . . . .
7.8.5 All lines to 3D AutoCAD DXF-POLYLINE format . . . . .
7.8.6 All lines to 3-D AutoCAD NURBS format (Acad V14+) . .
7.8.7 All lines as NURBS to IGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.8 All faces to IGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.9 IGES faces with refined shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.10 IGES faces with raw shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.11 All lines to NUPAS import format . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.12 All lines to Eagle format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.13 Relevant lines to Stearbear / Tribon format . . . . . . . . .
7.8.14 Relevant lines to Schiffko format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.15 Create finite element model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.16 Create Dawson-model (MARIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.17 Create Rapid Prototyping file (.STL file) . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.18 Frames to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd) . . . . . . . . .
7.8.19 Frames to Castor (ASC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.20 Relevant lines to ShipConstructor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.21 Enable hullform to be used as a Hull Server shape data base
7.8.22 On production fairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
iv
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90
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.A
8
v
Define and generate lines plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.1 Definition of the layout of the lines plan . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.1.1 Views of [linesplan name] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.2 General lines plan setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.3 Draw and extent linesplan, on screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.4 Draw selected linesplan on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shell plate expansions and templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.1 Processing the current plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.2 Processing selected plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3 Production of plate expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.3.1 Warnings and error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.4 Production of templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10.4.1 Position and shape of templates . . . . . . . . . . . .
File and solid management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.1 File history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.2 Save current design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.3 Solid management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.4 Quit the program without saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legacy UI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12.1 Alphanumerical manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12.2 Legacy GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12.3 Domains and surfaces (deprecated format) . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.12.4 Polycurve position sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.A.1 File extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.A.2 File format of diagrams for generation of a sectional area curve
7.A.3 Customizing the dragger appearance (advanced) . . . . . . . .
7.A.3.1 File format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.A.3.2 Increasing the dragger size . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.A.3.3 Changing the arrow head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.A.3.4 Adjusting hotspot appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.A.3.5 Switching off the feedback plane . . . . . . . . . . .
To_fair: import hull shape from DXF or IGES and convert to Fairway
8.1 Drawing exchange formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Neutral file formats for the exchange of curves and solids . . . . . . .
8.3 Capabilities of this preprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1 Import lines from DXF format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1.1 Intermezzo on polylines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2 Import lines from IGES format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3 Merge single-connected lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.4 Edit line geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.5 Generate wireframe model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6 Edit wireframe modelleren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.7 Check wireframe model (to some extent) . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.8 Generate solid model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.9 Remove solid, lines or points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.10 Tolerance (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Using a CXF file in Fairway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 Using a SXF file in Fairway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Final remarks on file formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 A brief introduction to topology and connectivity of solids . . . . . .
8.9 Syntax of Curve eXchange Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10 Syntax of Solid eXchange Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
9
Hulldef: hullform definition and output
9.1 Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data . . . . . . .
9.1.1 Main dimensions and other ship parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.1 Main dimensions and allowance for shell and appendages
9.1.1.2 Roll data (for IMO weather criterion). . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.3 Definition of frame spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.4 Definition of draftmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.5 Maximum drafts / minimum freeboards . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.6 Maximum / minimum drafts fore and aft . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.7 Maximum trims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.8 Yacht characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.9 Passenger vessel characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.10 Anchor-handler characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.11 Towing hook and bollard pull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1.12 Line-of-sight and air draft points . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2 Hullforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.3 Extra bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4 Frame shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4.1 longitudinal frame distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4.2 Double frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4.3 Deckhouses as appendage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4.4 hole in the hullform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4.5 How to define a frame correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4.6 Defining the shape of the frames . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5 Appendages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5.1 Deck camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5.2 Deck slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5.3 Rectangular upper appendage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5.4 Trapezoidal upper appendage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5.5 Upper appendage parallel to deck at side . . . . . . . . .
9.1.6 Wind contour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.7 Wind data sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.8 Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.9 Deck line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Output of hull geometry data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1 Main dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2 Coordinates of all frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3 Two dimensional output of hullform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4 Three dimensional output ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.5 Frame location tableFrame location table . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.6 Combined output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Export of hull shape data to a number of specific file formats . . . . . . . .
9.4 Import frames from (a number of specific formats of) a text file . . . . . . .
9.5 Generate cylindrical shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6 File and backup management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7 Rendered views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.1 View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.2 Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3.1 Save image in file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3.2 Copy to clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3.3 Print image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3.4 Generate VRML file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.4 Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.4.1 Select Nearest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.4.2 Auto apply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
vii
10 Hulltran: hullform transformation
10.1 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 Transform hullform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1.1 Enter main dimensions and coefficients of the transformed vessel
10.1.1.2 Perform the transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2 Change length of parallel midbody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.1 Enter parallel midbody particulars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2.2 Perform midbody modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.3 Combine two ship hulls (aft ship and fore ship) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11 Newlay: Design and utilization of the ship’s layout
11.1 Definitions and basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.2 Use of different types of subcompartments . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.3 Naming convention for compartments etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.4 Links to subcompartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.5 Processing the hull shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 GUI components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2 General operations and modus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2.1 Mouse buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2.2 Left mouse button and modus . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2.3 How long stays a function assigned to a mouse button?
11.3.2.4 Operation in the 3D subwindows . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2.5 Shortcut keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2.6 The shape of a plane (the green dots) . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3 GUI functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3.1 Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3.2 View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3.3 Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3.4 Compartment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3.5 Refplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4 Compartment list, calculation of tank tables etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 Compartment definition window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1.1 Design of the compartment definition window . . . . .
11.4.1.2 Compartment data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1.3 Subcompartment data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2 Calculate and print tank tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2.1 Setup: define computation scripts and output scripts . .
11.4.2.2 Calculate: compute the tank tables . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2.3 Print: print tank tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2.4 Remove: remove alle calculated tank tables . . . . . .
11.5 Other lists, and program configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.1 List of openings and other special points . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2 List of physical planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2.1 Popup menu plane orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.2.2 Angled planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.3 List of reference planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.4 Compartment tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.5 General configurations and function colors . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.6 Names and color per part category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.7 Define weight groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5.8 Notes and remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6 Threedimensional presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7 Subdivision plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.1 Configuration subdivision plan and DXF export . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.2 Names and color per part category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
viii
11.7.3 Subdivision plan layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.4 Subdivision plan preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.5 Subdivision plan to paper or file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.6 3D-plan to DXF file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8 Print compartment input data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.1 Print input data of selected compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.2 Three-dimensional views of selected compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.3 Difference between internal and external geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.4 Define views/sections of compartment plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.5 Draw compartment plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9 Conversion, and import and export of subdivision data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.1 Generate physical planes from the totality of convertible subcompartments
11.9.2 Apply advices on converting to physical planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.3 Clean pre-2012 PIAS compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.4 Import PIAS compartments from pre-2012 format . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.5 Export compartments to PIAS’ pre-2012 format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.6 Export decks and bulkheads to Rapid Prototyping format (STL) . . . . . .
11.9.7 Export bulkheads and decks to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd) . . . . . .
11.9.8 Export bulkheads and decks to NUPAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.9 Write XML file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.10 Read XML file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.10File and backup management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11Compatibilitity with the former compartment module of PIAS . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11.1 Compartment files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.11.2 Functional enhancements of Newlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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12 Sounding: calculate tank particulars including effects of heel and trim
12.1 Specify list and trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Calculate tank particulars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Print all tank particulars on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4 Cargo/ullage report, and historical cargo summary . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Print Cargo/Ullage report on screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6 Print Cargo/Ullage report on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.7 Print historical database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.8 Database of saved cargo data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.9 Export tank data to a loading condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.10Import tank data from tank measurement systeem . . . . . . . . . .
12.10.1 Current overview of filling and flow per tank . . . . . . . .
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13 Hydrotables: hydrostatics and stability tables
13.1 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 Parameters per table or diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1 Hydrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2 Cross curve tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.3 Cross curve diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.4 Bonjean tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.5 Deadweight tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.6 Deadweight scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.7 Wind heeling moment tables . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.8 Maximum VCG’ intact tables . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.9 Maximum VCG’ intact diagrams . . . . . . . . .
13.2.10 Maximum VCG’ damaged tables . . . . . . . .
13.2.10.1 Specify calculation parameters . . . .
13.2.10.2 Damage cases menu . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.10.3 Define intermediate stages of flooding
13.2.11 Floodable lengths curve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.12 Maximum grain heeling moment tables . . . . .
13.2.13 van der Ham’s trim diagram . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 Specify output sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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205
205
205
206
206
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207
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209
209
209
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210
211
211
211
212
213
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
ix
Output according to the specified output sequence . . . . .
Export to XML according to the specified output sequence
Configure the Local cloud monitors . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activate the Local cloud monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File management of configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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213
213
214
214
214
14 Grainmom: calculation of grain heeling moments according to the IMO Grain Code
14.1 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.1 Define void space and longitudinal girder of this grain compartment: . . . .
14.1.2 Define volume interval for calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.3 Calculate volume & COGs of graincompartment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.4 Calculate volume & grain moments grain compartment . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.5 Configuration for drawing of cross-sections of grain compartment . . . . .
14.1.6 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void space on screen
14.1.7 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including grainlevel on screen
14.1.8 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void space on paper
14.1.9 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including grainlevel on paper .
14.2 Definition of compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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215
215
215
216
216
216
217
217
217
218
218
218
15 Tonnage: calculation of gross and net tonnage
15.1 Definition of superstructures not included in the hullform
15.2 Definition general data for net tonnage . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 Plot plan view hull plus superstructures on screen . . . .
15.4 Calculate and print tonnage calculation (GT and NT) . .
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221
221
221
221
222
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16 Maxchain: calculation of maximum allowable anchor-handling chain forces
223
16.1 Input specific ship data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
16.2 Main menu of this module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
16.2.1 Input data maximum anchor-handling chain forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
16.2.2 Calculate and print maximum anchor-handling chain forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
16.2.3 Polar diagram with maximum allowable anchor chain forces for a particular loading condition226
17 Rhine: maximum allowable VCG’ for container vessels on the river Rhine
228
17.1 Specific data for the Rhine stability calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
17.2 Enter drafts/displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
17.3 Enter tank data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
18 Wind heeling moments
230
18.1 Input data for the wind heeling moments computations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
18.2 Where do wind moments exert their effects? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
18.3 Recommended working sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
19 Stability criteria for intact stability and damage stability
19.1 Manipulating and selecting sets of stability criteria . . . .
19.2 Select standard stability criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2.1 Standard stability criteria intact stability . . . . . .
19.2.2 Variants for standard sets of stability requirements
19.2.3 Standard stability criteria damaged stability . . . .
19.3 Manipulating individual criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3.1 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3.3 Types of basic criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3.4 Valid up to statical angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3.5 Critical (toolbar function) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4 Defining the parameters of the stability criteria . . . . . .
19.4.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.2 Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.3 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.4 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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233
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235
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242
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242
November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
x
19.4.5 Bollard pull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.6 Applicability of the criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.7 Applicable for a minimum number of damaged compartments . . . . . . . . .
19.4.8 Applicable to a maximum number of damaged compartments . . . . . . . . .
19.4.9 Wave influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5 The nature of the stability criterion parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.1 Types of parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.2 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.3 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4 Defining heeling moments to be accounted for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4.1 Wind lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4.2 Grain heeling lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4.3 Turning circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4.4 Shift of weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4.5 External heeling moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.4.6 Whether or not to apply heeling moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.5 Input of externally defined tables of maximum allowable VCG’ . . . . . . . .
19.6 Answers to frequently asked questions on stability assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.6.1 The effect of openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.6.2 Virtual inconsistency weather criterion Intact Stability Code . . . . . . . . . .
19.6.3 Extent for determining the minimum lever of the area under the stability curve.
19.7 On the various criteria and parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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20 Loading: loading conditions, intact stability, damage stability and longitudinal strength (elder
20.1 Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2 Loading conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2.1 Define/edit weight items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2.2 Weight items of the common list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3 Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.1 Settings intact stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.2 Settings longitudinal strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.3 Settings damage stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.4 Definition of weight groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.5 Definition maximum allowable shearforces and bending moments . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.6 Define sections for sketches of tank contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.7 Define external forces such as anchor chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3.8 Re-read ALL tank capacity tables for existing tank weight items . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.4 Inputdata for hopper stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.5 Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6 Input damage stability data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6.1 Select and edit damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6.2 Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6.3 Define stages of flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6.4 Print input data of selected damage cases on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6.5 Define sections for sketches of damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6.6 Drawing of all selected damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.7 Combined output to paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
xi
21 Loading: loading conditions, intact stability, damage stability and longitudinal strength
21.1 Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.2 Loading conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.2.1 Define/edit weight items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3 Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.1 Settings intact stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.2 Settings longitudinal strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.3 Settings damage stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.4 Definition of weight groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.5 Definition maximum allowable shearforces and bending moments . . . . . . .
21.3.6 Define sections for sketches of tank contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.7 Define external forces such as anchor chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3.8 Re-read ALL tank capacity tables for existing tank weight items . . . . . . . .
21.4 Inputdata for hopper stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.5 Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6 Input damage stability data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6.1 Select and edit damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6.2 Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6.3 Define stages of flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6.4 Print input data of selected damage cases on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6.5 Define sections for sketches of damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6.6 Drawing of all selected damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.7 Combined output to paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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22 Graphical interfaces for tank filling and crane loading
22.1 Graphical interface for tank filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1 Screen layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1.1 List of tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1.2 Hydrostatic particulars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1.3 Tank information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1.4 Active horizontal section, Active vertical section, Active cross-section
22.1.1.5 Other sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.1.6 Default window layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2 Toolbar options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2.1 Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2.2 Help screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2.3 Zoom in/out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2.4 Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.1.2.5 Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2 Crane loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.1.1 ‘Accidental loss/drop of crane load’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.2 Toolbar functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.2.1 Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.2.2 Graphical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.2.3 Seagoing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2.3 Inputdata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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23 Hopstab: stability for hopper vessels
23.1 Define file name hopper, calculation method, maximum draft etc.
23.2 Define overflow locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.3 Define points of pouring out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.4 Define weights and specific weights of cargo . . . . . . . . . . .
23.5 Define basic loading conditions (lightship and consumables) . .
23.6 Calculate stability on screen/paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.7 Elucidation on and an example of the output . . . . . . . . . . .
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24 Loadgen: generation of loading conditions for simulation of Ro-Ro operations
278
24.1 Guidelines for this module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
xii
25 Tools for data overview, intact stability and damage stability
25.1 Weight groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2 Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.3 Input and edit damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.4 Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.5 Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.5.1 Specify calculation type, number of intermediate stages and other parameters . . . . . . .
25.5.2 Specify intermediate stages and critical points, with calculation type ‘Non-uniform intermediate stages of flooding’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.5.2.1 Water on deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.5.3 Specify intermediate stages and critical points, with calculation type ‘Time calculation for
cross-flooding arrangements’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.5.4 Side effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.5.5 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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26 Damstab: floodability and deterministic damage stability
26.1 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.1 Select and edit loading conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.2 Select and edit damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.3 Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.4 Select stages of flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5 Select stages of flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.1 First block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.2 Second block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.3 Third block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.4 Fourth block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.5 Fifth block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.6 Sixth block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.5.7 Seventh block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.6 Summary damage stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.7 Calculate cross-flooding times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.8 Print input data of selected damage cases on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.9 Define sections for sketches of damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.10 Draw all selected damagecases in top/side view on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.1.11 Three-dimensional view of the ship in equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26.2 Deterministic damage stability including effect of spilling out of cargo and inflow of seawater
26.3 Appendix: example of the output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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27 Probdam: probabilistic damage stability
27.1 The background of the probabilistic damage stability method . . . . . . . . .
27.2 Introduction to the module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.2.2 External compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.2.3 PIAS software history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3 Main menu of the module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1 Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters . . . . . . .
27.3.1.1 Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters . .
27.3.1.2 Drafts, trims and VCG’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1.3 Define hopper stability particulars (incl. pouring in or out) .
27.3.1.4 View scheme of standard permeabilities . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1.5 Edit scheme of user-defined permeabilities . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1.6 Define compartment connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1.7 Define zonal boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1.8 Notes (free text) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.1.9 Determine the VCG’ for which A=R . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.2 Generation of damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.2.1 Generate ALL possible NEW damage cases . . . . . . . .
27.3.2.2 Generate additional damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.2.3 Generate high sub damages as complex stages of flooding .
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© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
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27.3.2.4 Collect damage cases into damage zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.3 Select and edit damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.4 Output of input data of damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.4.1 Print permeabilities and selected damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.4.2 Define sections for plots of zonal boundaries and damage cases . . .
27.3.4.3 Create plots of damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.4.4 Create plot of zonal boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.5 Remove (parts of) saved information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.5.1 Remove all results of former calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.5.2 Remove all complex intermediate stages of flooding . . . . . . . . .
27.3.5.3 Remove all damage cases with a non-positive probability of damage
27.3.5.4 Remove all damage cases which do not contribute to ‘A’ . . . . . . .
27.3.5.5 Remove all damage cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.6 Execute and/or print calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.6.1 Execute and print the calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.6.2 “Only execute” and “Print the complete calculation” . . . . . . . . .
27.3.6.3 Print calculation results, subtotalized by zone . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.7 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.9 Appendix 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.10 Appendix 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.11 Appendix 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.12 Appendix 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.13 Appendix 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.3.14 Appendix 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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28 Outflow: probabilistic oil outflow with the simplified method
28.1 Background of the probabilistic oil outflow calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.2 Introduction to this module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3 Main menu of this module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1 Setup calculation parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.1 Type of outflow calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.2 Calculation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.3 Ship and compartments are symmetrical . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.4 Light ship draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.5 Load line draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.6 Which oil density to apply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.7 Generic oil density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.8 Which tank permeability to apply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.9 Generic permeability of all tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.10 With fixed minimum height for determination of y . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.11 Fixed minimum height for determination of y . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1.12 There are 2 continuous longitudinal bulkheads in the cargo tanks
28.4 Specify damage boundaries and outflow parameters manually . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.5 Execute the oil outflow calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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29 Resist: resistance prediction with empirical methods
29.1 Overview and applicability of the calculation methods.
29.1.1 Hollenbach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.2 Holtrop and Mennen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.3 Oortmersen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.4 British Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.5 Barge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.6 Preplan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.7 Savitsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.8 Robinson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1.9 Delft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2.1 Input data resistance prediction . . . . . . . .
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© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
29.2.2
29.2.3
29.2.4
29.2.5
29.2.6
29.2.7
xiv
Calculate and print . . . . . . . .
Diagram of resistance components
Calculate and send to Prop . . . .
Calculate and send to Manoeuv .
Local cloud monitor . . . . . . .
File and backup management . . .
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329
30 Prop: propeller calculations with standard propeller series
30.1 Overview and applicability of the calculation methods . . . . . . . .
30.1.1 B-serie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.1.2 Ka/Kd-series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.1.3 Gawn-series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.1.4 AU-series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.2 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.3 Input of ship hull parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.4 Input of propeller data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.5 Input of speed and resistance range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.6 Calculate propeller with maximum efficiency in a range of diameters
30.7 Calculate propeller with revolutions variation . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.8 Calculate resistance with fixed propeller dimensions . . . . . . . . .
30.9 Calculate speed-power curve with fixed propeller dimensions . . . .
30.10Calculate thrust force for a fixed pitch propeller . . . . . . . . . . .
30.11Calculate thrust force for a controlable pitch propeller . . . . . . . .
30.12Local cloud monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30.13File and backup management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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330
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31 Frboard: freeboard calculation according to the load line convention
31.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31.2 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31.2.1 Main dimensions (before 2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31.2.2 Main dimensions (after 2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31.2.3 Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31.2.4 Sheer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31.2.5 Calculate freeboard with output to paper . . . . . . . . . . .
31.3 File and backup management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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32 Incltest: inclining test or draft survey report
32.1 General data inclining test report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.2 Set calculation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.2.1 Calculation with correction for sagging . . . . . . . . .
32.2.2 Weight on board during measuring of draught/freeboard
32.2.3 Correction LCG due to trim (acc. to Bureau Veritas) . .
32.2.4 VCG for trim correction at light weight check . . . . . .
32.2.5 Calculation with transverse centre of gravity . . . . . .
32.2.6 Calculation of inclining test / light weight check . . . .
32.3 Measured Freeboards / drafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.4 Inclining test weights, data and strokes of pendula . . . . . . . .
32.4.1 Number of pendula and length of pendula . . . . . . . .
32.4.2 Data inclining test weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.4.3 Movement of test weights and stroke of pendula . . . .
32.5 Weights to add or to subtract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.6 Calculate and output on screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.7 Calculate and output to printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.8 File management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
xv
33 Inclmeas: registration and processing of digital inclination measurement
33.1 Guidelines for installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.1 Test measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.2 Inclination measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.3 Last measurement again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.4 Remove all saved measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.5 Output of measurements to screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.6 Output of measurements to printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.7 Output of measurements to ASCII file . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33.2.8 Settings of digital inclinometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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348
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34 Launch: launching calculation
34.1 Define and edit the situation of the vessel and the slipway . .
34.2 Define and edit the friction coefficient of the cradle . . . . .
34.3 Define and edit the resistance coefficient of the wetted hull .
34.4 Define and edit the dragging forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.5 Executxe launching calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.6 Appendix 1: calculation results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.7 Appendix 2: parameter definition for longitudinal launching
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35 Cntslot: container slot definition
35.1 General method of working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.2 Input general data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.2.1 General slot data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.2.2 Define types of containerslots . . . . . . . . . .
35.2.3 Define kinds of containerslots . . . . . . . . . .
35.2.4 Selection of silhouette side-views . . . . . . . .
35.3 Define basic configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.3.1 Define 40ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.4 Generate container slots according to basic configuration
35.5 Process container slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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36 Photoship: measuring a ship hull by photogrammetry
366
36.1 The role of Photoship in the reverse engineering process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
36.2 The principal of photogrammetric measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
36.3 Measuring a ship hull by Photoship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
37 Sikopias: conversion from SIKOB to PIAS
368
37.1 Guidelines for this module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
38 Compart: obsolete module for tank capacities and definition of compartments
38.1 Main menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.1 Define/edit compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.1.1 Define/edit general particulars of this compartment . . . .
38.1.1.2 Define/edit sub-compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.1.3 Define/edit curved sounding pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.1.4 Define location alarm sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.1.5 Three-dimensional plot of this compartment . . . . . . . .
38.1.1.6 Print or plot inputdata compartments on screen or paper . .
38.1.2 Print input data of selected compartments on paper . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.3 Three-dimensional plot of selected compartments on paper . . . . . .
38.1.4 Plot cross sections of selected compartment on paper . . . . . . . . .
38.1.5 Compare internal and external geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.6 Plot tank plan on screen or on paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.6.1 Define views/sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.6.2 Selected views/sections on screen/paper . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.6.3 Calculate and print tank sounding tables . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.7 Define/edit trim and vertical increment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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369
369
369
370
371
374
374
374
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
376
376
376
November 22, 2014
CONTENTS
38.1.7.1 Edit trim for the tank sounding calculations . . . . . . . .
38.1.7.2 Edit vertical increment for the tan ksounding calculations
38.1.7.3 Define 1 trim for the tank sounding table to print . . . . .
38.1.8 Calculate tank sounding tables of selected compartments . . . . . .
38.1.9 View/edit calculated compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.10 Print selected sounding tables according to output script on paper .
38.1.11 Print tables of litres of selected compartments on paper . . . . . . .
38.1.12 Print trim tables of selected compartments on paper . . . . . . . . .
38.1.13 View date of tables or remove calculated tables . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.14 Print summary of maximum tank volumes on paper . . . . . . . . .
38.1.15 Change output script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.1.16 Calculate and print tank sounding/ullage correction tables . . . . .
38.2 Define reference planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38.3 Basic version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
xvi
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376
376
376
376
377
377
377
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378
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379
380
November 22, 2014
Chapter 1
Preface
This is the manual for the Program of Integral Approach of Ship design, PIAS. PIAS contains modules for hull form
design, fairing, definition of compartments, bulkheads and decks and a wide variety of modules for naval architectural design calculations, such as stability, (probabilistic) damage stability, longiitudinal strength and a number of
hydrodynamical modules. In this manual all functions and options of all modules are being discussed into detail.
For more general information and (theoretical) background we refer to internet, to ✇✇✇✳ s❛r❝✳ ♥❧✴ ♣✐❛s .
1.1
Structure of this manual
The basic structure of this manual is a one-to-one relationship between chapters and PIAS modules. For this reason,
most chapter titles start with the corresponding module naam, although there are also a number of supporting
chapters where for instance installation or frequently used menus are discussed, or general instructions are given.
The chapter sequence is roughly:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Introductory chapters and installation details.
Hull form design, linesplan and fairing, notably the Fairway module.
Definition of hullform and other items related to the external geometry, on module Hulldef.
Hull form transformation.
Everything related to internal geometry, such as bulkheads, decks, compartments, tank volume, sounding
tables etc., in particular on the Newlay module.
The production of hydrostatics or stability-related tables, notably on the Hydrotables module, but also ob
e.g. Maxchain and Grainmom.
Loading and intact stability, on module Loading.
Damage stability, also probabilistic with the Probdam module.
Resistance and propulsion.
And finally a number of auxiliary chapters on modules which play no central role in PIAS, although they
may provide useful assistance, and on conversion.
A novice is advised to start with the introductory chapter 3 on page 7, Getting started with PIAS, while the
more advanced users will find their way browsing. For the latter it might be useful to go through the chapter 2 on
page 3, PIAS renewals (2012-2014), where recent structural modernizations are being introduced.
1.2 Contact details
1.2
2
Contact details
PIAS is produced by the company SARC, with the following full contact details:
Scheepsbouwkundig Advies en Reken Centrum (SARC) BV
Brinklaan 109 A11
1404 GA Bussum
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 35 6915024
Fax +31 35 6918303
Web ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧
Email s❛r❝❅s❛r❝✳♥❧
Figure 1.1: SARC website (2014)
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 2
PIAS renewals (2012-2014)
In the years 2012-2014 the look-and-feel of PIAS will be renewed, with the focus on:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An alternative system of module identification.
A re-distribution of modules, with some modules to be completely rewritten.
A new main menu.
A new manuals system.
Typographical modifications.
A generic file and backup system.
Copy, paste, undo and redo in input windows.
Simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project.
These modifications will be discussed briefly in this (temporary) chapter. By the way, this chapter deals specifically with the modifications in PIAS. A novel user, not yet aquainted with existing PIAS, is advised to skip this chapter
for a while, and possibly to return in a later stage.
2.1
An alternative system of module identification
PIAS is subdivided into modules, e.g. for compartment definition or computation of hydrostatic tables. These
modules were identified by a module number, which was at the same time the manual chapter number. Those
chapter numbers were fixed, and to allow for a later insertion of a new chapter they were not consecutive. Besides,
the module had a general description in main menu and manual (and a program executable name too, but that was
not used). E.g. the module for intact stability was chapter 240, with description ‘Integrated loading conditions and
longitudinal strength calculation’, and with program name ‘loading.exe’. In new PIAS there is an unambiguous
identification, which is a short word, describing the essence of the module (and which is, not coincidential, also
the programs executable name, Loading in our example). This identification is used the main menu, in the manual
and in references within the manual. By the way, when pointing to a specific module in the main menu a tooltip
pops up with a short module description, so that also a novel user can see the core functionality of that module at
a single glance. Chapter numbers in the present manual are sequentially assigned and play no role anymore.
2.2
Re-distribution of modules
PIAS contains so many functions, configurations and tools that, in order to maintain an overview, a subdivision in
parts, or modules, is nessecary. However, PIAS did contain a number of modules which only performed a small
task. Those are being merged in less, but larger collection modules, such as summarized in the table below:
New module
Purpose
Replaces old module(s)
Fairway
Hull design, fairing, visualisation and hull shape conversion.
A combination of existing Fairway
(chapter 20) and To_fair (chapter
19).
Hulldef
Input of hull-related data, such as an existing body plan,
openings, appendages, deck line and wind contour.
Chapters 70, 75, 76, 90, 100, 110,
120, 250 (only input part), 355 en
357.
2.3 New main menu
4
New module
Purpose
Replaces old module(s)
Newlay
Input of internal geometry such as bulkheads, decks and
compartments, as well as the calculation of tank sounding tables etc.
Compart (chapter 210).
Hulltran
Hull form transformation.
Chapters 80 and 85.
Hydrotables
Calculations and outpput of stability-related tables, such
as hydrostatics, cross curves, maximum allowable V←
CG’ (intact and damaged) and deadweight tables and
deadweight scale.
Chapters 170, 180, 185, 190, 200,
250, 260, 280, 292 and 295.
Loading
Input of loading conditions and computation of intact
stability, longitudinal strength and deterministic damage
stability.
Chapters 240, 275 and 290.
Probdam
Probabilistic damage stability.
Same as module 294.
Config
General project configurations.
Same as module 130.
Unmodified
Other modules remain unchanged, such as those for the —
computation of freeboard, grain heeling moments, resistance and propulsion.
Additionally, a number of obsolete modules will be written off, for instance the modules to convert transverse
section lines to a CAD system (such as PIASAcad and PIASEagl, the old chapters 360 and 375), because Fairway
is a much better tools to convert hull lines because its shape representation is much more complete. And around
2006-2007 modules for probabilistic damage stability have been replaced by the present Probdam, however, those
elder modules (IMOA265 and Oldprob) have still been continued but that will come to an end now. And those
missing Pversion - a module to print the program version date - should look now under [Help], see the example in
section 5.2 on page 29, Input window.
Until th eend of 2014 the elder modules as well as the new ones will be distributed. Then the elder modules
will gradually be removed from the software distributions, to start with the elder GUI and alphanumercial interface
from Fairway, as well as the the modules which have been replaced by Hulldef and Hydrotables.
Attention
If you feel safe to have a prolonged disposal of the elder modules, please make sure to copy and save them
still in 2014.
2.3
New main menu
The new module distribution also requires a new organisation of PIAS’ main menu, which is also equipped with
a new look. This new main menu is further discussed in section 3.5.1 on page 10, PIAS Main menu, and to see
the difference at a glance both the old and new menus are depicted below. Please bear in mind that some elder
modules have disappeared, because their functionalities are incorporated in new, more comprehensive modules.
Those vanished modules are no longer included in the new main menu, so in order to activate them, the old menu
will have to be used. Until February 2014 the program name of the old menu is yet PIASmenu and that of the new
one newPIASmenu. while from that date on the names have been swapped to classicPIASmenu and PIASmenu
respectively.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
2.4 Manuals
5
Figure 2.1: PIAS’ new main menu
Figure 2.2: Classic PIAS main menu
2.4
Manuals
For a long time past, the manuals of PIAS existed from a single PDF file for each module. However, at this moment
they are being converted to a new system where they will become available in three formats; PDF, HTML and in
a help reader. In section 3.3 on page 9, Manuals, exercises and information sources this subject is addressed. In
this transition period from old to new the situation is a bit confusing; new software parts (such as Newlay and the
new GUI from Fairway) are discussed in the new manual, while older modules still exist in the old manual. SARC
is busy to bring the entire manual to the new system as quickly as possible, however, in the mean time we ask for
your understanding.
2.5
Typographical modifications
Until recently in PIAS only the use of so-called non-proportional fonts was allowed, such as ❝♦✉r✐❡r. In new
PIAS als proportional fonts can be used, such as Times new Roman or Sans serif, for monitor as well as output to
paper (or export file such as .rtf). For that purpose all modules have to be slightly adapted, a process which will
take some time. At modules which are not yet adapted only a non-proportional font will be used, regardsless which
font was specified by the user. However, the number of such modules will decrease gradually.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
2.6 File and backup system
2.6
6
File and backup system
It can be useful to have a backup copy of design data at a certain stage, e.g. if it concerns a design variant which
needs to be saved for future reference. Obviously, file copies can be created outside control of PIAS, but that has
not proven to be rather handy. So, the PIAS modules will gradually be equipped with a uniform system for file
and backup management of that specific module. That system is discussed in section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
Some modules (such as the inclining test or freeboard modules) already had a file history facility, that will also be
replaced by the new system.
2.7
Copy, paste, undo and redo in input windows
The software libraries which manage the input windows have been extended with facilities for undo and redo, and
for functions to copy and paste cell contents to or from Windows’ clipboard (for example to be able to exchange
cell values with a spreadshtee), see section 5.4 on page 33, Copy, paste etc. for more details. Starting in January
2014 these functions will - where relevant - gradually be included in the different PIAS modules.
2.8
Indication of the options of cells in input sheets
With cells in input menus more than one actions is often possible, such as ‘selection’, entering a value or name, or
chosing from a number of predefined values. Until now it was not evident which actions could be applied in which
cell, however, now this is depicted with symbols. In section 5.3 on page 32, Indication of the options in the cells
of selection windows and input windows this mechanism is further elaborated.
2.9
Simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project
This mechanism is discussed in section 3.11 on page 20, Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on the
same project. It will in due time optionally be available, configurable per project in module Config.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 3
Getting started with PIAS
The PIAS suite consists of many modules, each module addresses a specific area of ship design, such as hull
form definition, hull form design, extended hydrostatics, intact- and damage stability calculations and resistance
and propulsion estimations. In subsequent chapters each module will be elaborated. But first, in this chapter the
installation of the program, the main menu, general menu options, and definitions will be addressed.
3.1
PIAS renewal 2012-2014
In these years PIAS is being refurbished, a proccess which is discussed in chapter 2 on page 3, PIAS renewals
(2012-2014). It is advised to take notice of the details as discussed in that chapter.
3.2
Installation of PIAS
Installation of PIAS software is started bij executing the program username.exe, which can be found on the CDrom or USB stick on which the software is supplied or downloaded from ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞. After starting
the installation you need to agree with the licence agreement, which is shown on screen. Next step is to choose a
location for the installation of the program and whether or not a shortcut will be created on the desktop. Hereafter,
the PIAS programs are installed in the selected folder and the shortcut may be created.
3.2.1
System requirements
PIAS is an MS-Windows program, and has proven to work properly on Windows desktop versions XP/NT/VIST←
A/7/8, both 32-bits and 64-bits. According to current hardware standards the memory requirements are rather low;
some tens of megabytes of internal (RAM) memory and 1 GB of external memory (hard disc or network) will do.
Concerning processor type and processor speed the slogan is ‘the faster, the better’. Furthermore, a dual threading
version of PIAS is available, obviously the computer must be equipped with a dual core or multi-processor to take
advantage.
Figure 3.1: (LOCO-)PIAS under Windows 7, 64 bits.
3.2 Installation of PIAS
8
The module Fairway achieves its high efficiency through intensive use of the graphics adapter. The adapter
should support at least OpenGL 2.0; which is a standard from 2004 and supported by most cards these days. Although the program doesn’t put further requirements on the graphics adapter, the capabilities of modern hardware
are fully utilized.
There are exceptional cases in which Fairway exposes weaknesses in the driver software of the graphics adapter,
which cause it to malfunction or not work at all. The cases that we know of can be resolved with specific driver
settings, or by installing a different version of the driver. Details are discussed in section 7.3.7 on page 90, Troubleshooting.
3.2.2
Sentinel
The PIAS programs are equipped with a hardwarelock of the brand Safe-Net and type Sentinel SuperPro. The
Sentinel has a USB connector (a Sentinel with a parallel port is available as well). Sentinel SuperPro is available
in two versions and requires support:
Sentinel SuperPro
For use of one licence on one computer.
Network Sentinel SuperPro
For use in a network environment with one or more licences on multiple computers.
Sentinel system driver
For use of both versions a Sentinel system driver is required.
Sentinel protection server
For use of the Network Sentinel the Sentinel protection server must be installed.
The Sentinel system driver and server software can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s website. A direct
download link can be found on the SARC website: ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞. The driver and, if necessary, the
Sentinel protection server must be installed on the computer in which the Sentinel is inserted. For additional
information about the Sentinel, see section 4.1 on page 22, Sentinel, additional information.
Figure 3.2: Hardware lock (brand Sentinel) for USB port.
Figure 3.3: Installation options for USB Net Sentinel Pro.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.3 Manuals, exercises and information sources
9
Figure 3.4: Installation options for USB Sentinel Pro.
3.2.3
Digitizer
If you plan to use a digitizing tablet a so-called Wintab driver must be installed. This driver should be provided by
the manufacturer of your digitizer, or can possibly be found on internet (search for brandname of the digitizer +
Wintab). For further information about the digitizer also see section 4.2 on page 23, Digitizer.
3.3
Manuals, exercises and information sources
The manuals are available in three incarnations, and are identical by content:
• One PDF file which contains all chapters, and is called PIASmanual_en.pdf for the english version. A
PDF-reader is required to open this file.
• HTML pages, viewable with a web browser, e.g. from the manuals page of the SARC website.
• A help reader, which is directly accessible from each module, which shows directly the module-specific
manual chapter. This reader (of which an example is presented below) contains also the usual functions such
as search, select on index words, print etc.
The manual is primarily organized per module, so each module has a dedicated manual chapter where the
role of the module, and the several functions and tools are being discussed. The role of the manual is to provide
background information and support in the use of PIAS. The manual can not be considered as a course in ship
design. The PDF and HTML version can be downloaded from ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴♣✐❛s✴♠❛♥✉❛❧s. This location als
contains a number of exercises aimed at working with PIAS and Fairway.
Significant software changes or enhancements are communicated in a newsletter which is distributed by email, for which you can (un-)subscribe with a mail to s❛r❝❅s❛r❝✳♥❧. The newsletters are also collected on the
website, at ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴♥❡✇s❧❡tt❡rs. Another information channel is the Linkedin
group SARC BV, see ❤tt♣s✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❧✐♥❦❡❞✐♥✳❝♦♠✴❝♦♠♣❛♥②✴s❛r❝✲❜✈. Finally, on a number of subjects
which touch PIAS or Fairway some background references are available, in the shape of papers, as presented on a
conference or published in a journal. These papers - from wich the majority is in English, with an occasional one
in Dutch - can be found on ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.4 Typographical conventions
10
Figure 3.5: Manual in help reader.
3.4
Typographical conventions
Text between < > symbols indicates the letter or name of a keyboard key to be pressed, e.g. <Enter>. Key
combinations are typeset with a + as in <Ctrl + Q>, and a sequence of key presses is written as, e.g., <Alt><C>.
A menu option (from the menu bar of the window, or a push button in the window) is indicated as [Option].
3.5
Working with PIAS
This section describes the PIAS main menu en how to start a project from there.
3.5.1
PIAS Main menu
Figure 3.6: PIASmenu shortcut.
When you start PIAS (with the PIASmenu shortcut on your desktop or, for example, by clicking PIASmenu.exe
in Windows’ Explorer), PIAS’ main menu appears:
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.5 Working with PIAS
11
Figure 3.7: PIAS main menu.
In the main menu, the following actions can be performed:
• You can start a module by double clicking the left mouse button or by hitting <enter> when the mouse
pointer is above the module button. Each PIAS module opens in its own window, the standard MS-Windows
commands can be applied, such as move, resize, minimize, maximize, restore etc. Also the menus in upper
bar of the module’s window act in the standard MS-Windows fashion.
• By clicking the right mouse button, or <F1>, on a module or submenu, the help-reader opens the chapter
corresponding to that specific module or submenu.
• By clicking the SARC-logo with the left mouse button, contact information is displayed. By right-clicking
the SARC-logo,the PDF-version of the PIAS manual is started.
• At the bottom of the main menu you can specify a fixed project file, which is subsequently used by all
modules. Providing a fixed file is optional, if no fixed file is specified each individual module asks for the
file to be used. Next to this fixed file field, there are two more buttons: [Browse], this function can be used
to browse your folders, and choose a PIASfiles, and [None] which indicates you don’t want to use a fixed
project file.
The main menu consists of buttons which symbolize a module or a sub menu. Their purposes are summarized
in the table below.
Fairway
Hull form design, fairing, visualization and export.
Hulldef
Input of hull-related items, such as an existing body plan, non-watertight openings, appendages, deck line
and wind contour.
Newlay
Input or design of internal shape, such as bulkheads, decks and compartments. Computation of tank zounding tables etc.
Hulltran
Hull form transformation.
Hydrotables
Computation and output of hydrostatics-related tables, such as hydrostatics, cross-curves, maximum allowable VCG’ (intact as well as damaged), deadweight tables and deadweight scale and van der Ham’s trim
diagram.
Loading
Definition of loading conditions and computation of intact stability, longitudinal strength and (deterministic)
damage stability.
Probdam
Probabilistic damage stability.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.5 Working with PIAS
12
Config
General project setups and configurations.
Other
This option opens a subwindow of the main menu, which contains a number of other modules:
Incltest
Inclining test or draft survey report
Tonnage
Calculation of gross and net tonnage
Outflow
Oil outflow according to MARPOL
Maxchain
Maximum allowable anchor chain forces
for anchor-handling vessels
Grainmom
Maximum allowable grain heeling
moments
Sounding
Calculate tank particulars including
effects of heel and trim
Rhine
Maximum allowable VCG’ for container
vessels on the river Rhine
Loadgen
Generation of loading conditions for
simulation of Ro-Ro operations
Launch
Longitudinal launching
Frboard
Freeboard calculation according to the
loadline convention
Cntslot
Container slot definition
Hopstab
Stability of hopper dredgers
To_fair
Import hull shape from DXF or IGES and
convert to Fairway
Inclmeas
Registration and processing of digital
inclination measurement
Photoship
Measuring a ship hull by
photogrammetry
Compart
Obsolete module for tank capacities and
definition of compartments, which for the
time being plays a role as bridge between
Newlay and teh damage stability modules
Hydrodynamics
This option also opens a sub window, containing modules for resistance and power predictions:
Resist
Resistance predictions according to
empirical methods
Prop
propeller calculations with standard
series, for B-series, ducted propellers etc.
These PIAS modules do neccesarily act strictly separated, the modules can be instructed to share their data in
the background, in order to achieve that changes in one module, for example a hull shape modification, is directly
processed in other modules, such as the stability calculation. This mechanism is baptized local cloud and is further
discussed in secref{general,general_local_cloud}.
Finally, the question might be posed whether multiple PIAS modules can be used simultanelously. The answer
is:
• Obviously, it is useless to invoke the same module twice. So the PIAS manin menu does not allow so.
• With the local cloud mechanism multiple modules share their data instantaneously, without the involvment
of files. For this reason multiple different modules for the same project can be invoked, which is exactly the
reason of existence of the cloud.
• If the cloud is not in use, still multiple modules can be invoked simultaneously (which is unavoidable,
because this must be facilitated for projects which do use the cloud mechanism). However, one should
realize that in this case all modules read their data from file only once, at startup, from file. So, later
changes from one module will not be processed in other modules. Errors are easily made in this case, so it
is discouraged to do so.
• If it is desired to work on two different projects at the same time, the PIAS main menu can simply be started
twice. The question whether this is convenient or confusing is left to the user.
• Besides, the different modules can also be started directly from Windows, after all they are simply independent executable programs. Except for very specific applications — e.g. in the context of a larger automated
ship design system — this is strongly discouraged.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.6 Export of results
3.5.2
13
Working with PIAS’ modules
Figure 3.8: File selection popup window.
When invoking a PIAS module, a ship or project file name must be given. For that purpose a selection window
pops up, as shown in the figure above, offering three options:
• Enter a file name in the topmost row. Here always the most recently used file name shows up as default, so
that in general a simple <Enter> will suffice to continue with that file.
• Choose one of the twenty most recently used files, as depicted in the text box in the middle.
• Browse the directories to find your file.
Note
It is recommended to create a new subdirectory where PIAS stores all project files. This is not obliged,
however, experience has shown this practice to be clear.
The ship or project file name which one is supposed to give is excluding extension and in principle including the
name of the path (=filder =subdirectory). If no path is given at all, Windows will choose a path at own choice,
which is presented to you for approval (and if you disapprove, by the way, then the module stops and can be
re-invoked while including the desired path explicitly). More details on files and their management is given in
section 3.10 on page 19, Files and extensions.
After choosing the file name the module main menu comes up. Its operation and input facilities are discussed
in a separate manual chapter, which is chapter 5 on page 29, Operation of PIAS. It is recommended to take a quiet
read at that chapter.
Note
If one wishes to avoid the labour of entering the filename each time a module is invoked, in the main PIAS
menu a fixed file name can be specified, as discussed in section 3.5.1 on page 10, PIAS Main menu.
3.6
Export of results
Output of PIAS can be exported to file (see section 6.1.15 on page 39, Output to) or to Windows’ clipboard
(plsease refer to section 3.8.3 on page 17, Print options for how to configure). The user can choose from a number
of standard formats, viz:
Text
This is the simplest output, just plain ASCII text, without drawings and without attributes for font types, font
sizes, paper sizes etc. This format can be read by every text editor or spreadsheet program. However, many
details will be lost.
Tabbed text
Almost identical to the Text format, albeit that multiple spaces have been replaced by ‘Tab’ characters. This
enables some spreadsheet programs to separate multiple figures on one line into spreadsheet columns.
Image
With this format a graphical map of a page is generated. This map contains all font types, character attributes
and of course all possible plots. However, the disadvantage of this format is that characters are not recognized
by many receiving applications, so, for example, text modification with a text editor will not be possible in
many cases. In this area MS Word is a little smarter than some other editors, because it recognizes the
characters and enables their manipulation.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.7 Definitions and units
14
Rich Text Format
Rich Text Format (RTF) is a Microsoft-defined format, which is suitable to transfer documents between text
editors, or to generate documents for text editors. RTF is supported by Star Office, MS-Word and Windows’
Wordpad. With RTF the entire output of PIAS can be sent to a text editor. The RTF specification can be
found on ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳♠✐❝r♦s♦❢t✳❝♦♠✴❡♥✲✉s✴❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞✴❞❡t❛✐❧s✳❛s♣①❄✐❞❂✼✶✵✺.
3.7
Definitions and units
Figure 3.9: Definition of viewing angles in threedimensional views.
• Standard units of PIAS are metric.
• Threedimensional views ar edefined by means of the engles with the horizontal plane (from above is positive,
at < 180°) and with the longitudinal plane (from PS is positive, at < 180°), see the sketch above.
• All dimensions are in meters, unless explicitly stated otherwise.
• Widths are measured from the centreline, positive to starboard, negative to portside.
• Heights are measures from the base, positive upwards. The user is free to choose the base, so the base
doesn’t have to be at the bottom of the ship.
• Lengths are measured from a reference point, which can be chosen by the user. It is common practice to
measure the lengths from the aft perpendicular. However, sometimes it is convenient to measure from the
aftermost point of the vessel. In any case, the measurements are positive forward of the reference point and
negative backward of the measuring point.
• Drafts are measured in the centre line plane. At large angles this can lead to large positive- or negative drafts
as a consequence of this coordinate system. For examples, see the image below.
• Draft aft is taken at length = 0.00 meter. The draft fore is taken at length = length perpendiculars, in
which case the length perpendiculars is determined as in section 9.1.1.1 on page 141, Main dimensions and
allowance for shell and appendages or section 7.4 on page 93, Main dimensions and other ship parameters.
• Mean draft is taken at length = length between perpendiculars / 2.
• Trim is the difference between draft fore and draft aft.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.7 Definitions and units
15
Figure 3.10: Definition of draft.
Figure 3.11: Definition of length and draft.
And finally the stability lever. KN.sin(ϕ) is defined as the least distance between the vector of the buoyancy
force (which intersects centerline at the false metacentrum N) and keel point K. As depicted in the figure below,
where B is the center of buoyancy. Assuming that center of gravity G is located at centerline, the righting lever
can be determined with the equation GZ = NG.sin(ϕ) = KN.sin(ϕ) - KG.sin(ϕ).
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.8 Setup
16
Figure 3.12: Convention of stability lever and KN.sin(ϕ).
3.8
Setup
Each module contains the PIAS [Setup] menu. This menu contains the following options (by the way, not the whole
lot is relevant to work properly with the software):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3.8.1
Project Setup
Program setup
Print options
Night colors
Screen Fonts
Default Fonts
Screen colors
Restore column widths
Project Setup
Here the setup for the specific ship or project of the contemporary opened file can be given. These options are
discussed in detail in chapter 6 on page 35, Config: General project configurations.
3.8.2
Program setup
In the menu bar, by choosing [Setup][Program setup] a menu pops up, as shown at the end of this paragraph, where
a number of program configuration choices can be made. This setup is valid for entire PIAS - not only the project
at hand - and are stored and used on the computer where it is made. Options are:
Keyboard interpretation Edit.
When this option is activated, the keyboard can be used to directly select and edit input fields. To use
commands like [Insert], the <Alt> key must be used. For example: [Insert] is: <Alt> + <I>.
Keyboard interpretation Command.
When this option is activated, the keyboard can be used to directly give commands. The command [Insert]
can be given by striking the <I> key. To edit an input field, the <X> (eXchange) must be pressed first. The
use of this configuration is discouraged, because in due time this option will be discontinued.
Output to screen in black/white.
Activate this option to display output to screen in black and white.
Icon size in toolbars.
With this selector the toolbar button format is specified. This is only applicable to icons from the Windowsmanaged, as located directly under the function button bar, at the top of the window. All other icons or
buttons are not affected by this selector.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.8 Setup
17
Figure 3.13: Program Setup.
3.8.3
Print options
Choose printer
Under [Setup][Print options][ Choose printer] you can choose if output is sent to:
• One of the installed printers as configured by Windows Devices and printers option (or whatever its
name will be in your Windows version).
• Preview/clipboard, which offers a preview on the output and a facility to copy the output to clipboard.
When using the clipboard, its menu bar contains four functions:
Copypage
Copies the current page to clipboard. In other Windows applications, such as word processors or
spreadsheets, this page can be imported with the [Paste] option. The page can be copied to clipboard in several formats, please refer to section 3.6 on page 13, Export of results for a discussion.
CopyAll
Copies all pages of the output to clipboard.
Print&Quit
Print yet all output, and close the preview window.
Quit
Close the preview window.
Output to printer in black/white.
Activate this option to print output in black and white.
Printer page setup.
Choose this option to open the page setup menu of the printer as selected under [Choose printer].
Printer font.
Modify the printer font size.
3.8.4
Night colors
This options can be activated to set darker screen colours for use at night.
3.8.5
Screen Fonts
Adjust the fonts on screen to your preferences. With this option the font type and font size of the main windows
which are managed by PIAS are set. However, with this option the font properties in a popup box are not affected,
because those are being managed by Windows. That particular font size may occasionally be somewhat small, see
the example just below, but can be configured in Windows. With Win 7 use Control panel, Personalization and
finally Windows color and Appearance to do so. With other WIndows versions this setting might be in a different
location or have a different name.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.9 Backups
18
Figure 3.14: Popup box, from which the font properties can be set in Windows.
3.8.6
Default Fonts
Restore the fonts for printer and screen to the default settings.
3.8.7
Screen colors
Change the screen foreground and background colors.
3.8.8
Restore column widths
The widths of columns and cells in input windows have default values which are tuned to the anticipated largest
size of the cell contents. If desired, a user can adjust those widths, as is explained in section 5.2 on page 29, Input
window. With the present function, [Restore column widths], all columns, throughout PIAS, will be restored to
their default widths.
3.9
Backups
Quite some PIAS modules have (or will have) a backup system which works with their specific files, but has a
generic way of operation. A typical menu for this functionality is:
File and backup management
1. Save data on disc
1. Create backup
2. Restore data from backup
3. Import data from other project
4. Quit program without saving the data
3.9.1
Save data on disc
In general the PIAS-modules save their data (on disc) on a regular basis, while with some modules a time interval
can be given in which the data are saved. This has the advantage that with a sudden failure (a part of) the data are
saved at least. However, one can feel the need to save data explicitly, which is possible with the present option.
3.9.2
Create backup
With this option a backup copy can be made from all data as managed by the particular PIAS module. With this
backup the time and calender date are also saved. Additionally, a window appears, where a description of the
backup can be given, which will be saved together with the backup.
3.9.3
Restore data from backup
Here a list comes up which shows all backups that are available on the ship directory (which is the folder which
contains the files of the current project). This can be used for three actions:
• In the third column the first line of the backup description is presented. With an <Enter> on that field the
whole description appears, which can be modified if desired.
• With [Remove] the highlighted backup is permanently erased.
• With [restOre] the data of the highlighted text cursor are being restored. It speaks for itself that all current data
of the current project are brutally overwritten. Because that is notalways the users’ intent, two precautionary
provisions have been made:
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.10 Files and extensions
19
– When usingthis [restOre] first all available backups are compared with the present data. If this shows
that a backup exists which is a copy of the present data, then there is no risk of losing data, because this
copy can always be restored. However, if this is not the case it might be wise to make a quick backup
from the present data, so, if program detects this situation it shows a popup box offering this option.
By the way, please see that this comparison i svery accurate, a copy should be perfect to be recognized
as such. That means that for example a minor setup modification (if stored) will result in the backup
not beeing seen as a copy.
– In the ‘Duplicate’ column the user can see for each backup whether or not it is such a copy. For clarity:
this means that the backup is identical to the present data, however, it still remains a stand alone copy
without any further link to the module data.
Furthermore, in this window also a greyish backup might be visible. That is an automatic backup as produced
by the module at startup, which only use is in combination with option Quit program without saving the data
(besproken on the current page). This backup cannot be utilized for other purposes.
3.9.4
Import data from other project
The previous option is intended to restore data from the current project, with this optio data from an other project
can be imported. After selecting this option a file browser appears which must be used to select the desired backup.
It can be that this backup contains multiple data categories (e.g. ‘frames’, ‘openings’ or ‘wind contour’), in which
case the user is asked which category or categories to import. By the way, with this import action all current data
(of the appropriate category) are replaced, so they are not added or someting alike.
3.9.5
Quit program without saving the data
This option works as it suggests; the current PIAS module is closed, and the invloved files are restored to the state
at the start of the module. All intermediate changes and actions are being discarded with this option, that does
not only apply to ‘typed in’ changes, but also for restoring or importing backups, and for automatic data saves.
However, an exception is made for deliberate manual save actions (e.g. with section 3.9.1 on the preceding page,
Save data on disc), which constitutes a new starting point, and makes that with the present [quit without save] action
the files are restored to the content of the moment of this deliberate manual save.
3.10
Files and extensions
PIAS distributes shipdata or projectdata over many files, where each contains a separate type of information. In
the vast majority of these files the information is stored binary, so they are not readable by a human. The files start
with the project file name and end with an extension chosen by PIAS, which indicates the type of information.
Occasionally, users have asked for a list of file extensions, and although such an overview existed, in 2012 it was
withdrawn for two reasons. In the first place many of these files are mutually associated, so data consistency might
be jeopardized if files are replaced at random. And, secondly, it is no longer neccessary to exchange individual
files because with the backup facility - which has been discussed just above - all information which is managed by
a particular module is combined into a single file which can be imported elsewhere. By the way, if all data of a
project must be transferred or backed up then nothing is easier than zipping - compressing - into a single file.
Furthermore, files are in principle compatible between all PIAS versions, although there are three exceptions:
• New PIAS versions often have more capabilities, which sometimes require an enhancement of the file format.
So, the files have to be converted than, which remains unnoticed by the user because it happens automatically.
So PIAS versions are upwards compatible. However, if files are subsequently transferred and used in an elder
version then this will obviously not recognize the new format. The remedy is rather simple by replacing the
elder version with an update.
• Although files of the LocoPIAS loading software originate from PIAS, they are encrypted and consequently
no longer usable in PIAS. This is deliberate, in order to ensure the file integrity of LocoPIAS.
• PIAS versions supplied to educational institutes are also (deliberately) incompatible with other PIAS versions. The reason is to disencourage the use of an educational license for commercial work.
In the last two cases it is yet possible to convert the files, so they can still be reused. You can contact SARC for
this purpose.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.11 Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project
3.11
20
Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project
Ship data are saved on file, however, an additional communication system has been developped, which is baptized
local cloud. This facilitates inter-communication between PIAS modules, without using discfiles, and without the
user involvement. The advantage is that the effect of modified input on a calculation result can directly be made
visible. Three examples:
• When a user has the screens of the new PIAS modules form input and loading conditions open, with the last
one showing the bar chart of the stability index, then a modification of, for example, the height of an opening
in module form input is directly translated to another stability index in the loading conditions module. That
may change, for example, from red into green.
• If one has the modules Fairway and Newlay simultaneously open, then one sees that a hull form modification
in Fairway is directly processed in Newlay. We have made a short video clip of this example, which can be
found on ❤tt♣✿✴✴②♦✉t✉✳❜❡✴▲❯❢❜♣❥♣rr❢s, in which you can see how a hull form modification in Fairway
is converted in a modification of the form of the tank top in Newlay.
• When designing a hull form with Fairway, with the so-called ‘local cloud monitor’ of Hydrotables for instance volume, LCB and maximum allowable VCG’ can be shown on the fly. An example is presented in
section 13.7 on page 214, Activate the Local cloud monitors.
3.12
Frequently asked questions
In this manual it has been pursuit to elucidate per module its background and modus operandi. However, an
occasional question of general nature appears to arise, which will be discussed in this section.
During lenghty calculations the program appears to ‘hang’, with occasionally the Windows message that
the program is not responsive anymore.
This message is incorrect. Windows is aimed at communication and user interaction, however, during a long
computation there is no interaction between an application program and the operating system. Windows
then draws the erroneous conclusion that the program is not responsive, however, in the ‘task manager’ it
can easily be seen that the processor is quite busy computing (which is just what computers have been made
for).
Does PIAS also work on 64-bits Windows?
Yes. Please see the screen dump at section 3.2.1 on page 7, System requirements.
During computations the processor is not working at 100% performance
In the first place there is the possibility that other tasks or processes prevent the processor from working at
full throttle. More frequent, this question is posed when working on a multi-processor (or multi-core) machine, and assuming that the computation task will automatically be distributed over the multiple processors.
Unfortunately, that is not the case, parallelisation - which is the name of this game - cannot be applied for
all task, and must be implemented for each and every task explicitly. For PIAS a dual-threading facility is
available, which is discussed in section 4.A.2 on page 27, Dualthreading.
Stability criteria
Answers on a number of questions regarding stability criteria are given in section 19.6 on page 248, Answers
to frequently asked questions on stability assessments.
3.13
Closing remarks
Because legislation, hardware capacities and opinions about program design are subject to permanent change, the
PIAS software is frequently updated. Consequently, it is strongly recommended to install on a regular basis the
most recent software versions. These can be obtained in two ways:
• Order on CD or memorystick at SARC, against cost price.
• Download from ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞. A login name and password will be supplied on demand.
This chapter ends with some good advices, the terms of usage including copyright notice:
• It is recommended to make a backup of your project data on a regular basis.
• PIAS uses the system date and time to check on any changes made since the last session. It is therefore of
vital importance that date and time of your computer are set correctly.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
3.13 Closing remarks
21
• When this manual refers to criteria from e.g. (inter-)national legislation or classification societies,
it is not meant to replace the original text of those criteria. Good knowledge of up-to-date naval
architectural standards and common practices is required to use PIAS.
• The software described in this manual is furnished under a licence agreement. The software may be used or
copied only in accordance with the terms of that agreement. The software is protected by the copyright laws
which pertain to computer software, it is illegal to make copies of the program or this manual other than for
the use or backup by a ligitimate user. Copyright (© 1993-2014) of software and manual is held by SARC
BV.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 4
Installation details
In this chapter additional functions and properties of PIAS are described. A common user can safely skip this
chapter, however, in quest of installation details or specific functions one could benefit from reading this material.
4.1
Sentinel, additional information
4.1.1
Required DLL
To enable communication between PIAS programs and the Sentinel, the file SX32W.DLL is required. When
installing PIAS this DLL is automatically installed at the location of the PIAS program. The DLL must remain
available at the location of the PIAS program.
4.1.2
Network Sentinel SuperPro
The Network Sentinel Superpro is a hardware lock which can be used in a network The Sentinel is plugged into one
of the computers on the network, other computers on the network can retrieve licenses from this sentinel. In this
way PIAS is available throughout the network, without the need to exchange a hardware lock between computers,
as is the case with a regular Sentinel SuperPro. The program ‘Sentinel server protection’ must be installed on the
computer where the Network Sentinel SuperPro is plugged in. This program provides the connection between the
Sentinel and the network and can be downloaded from t❤❡ ❙❛❢❡♥❡t ❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞ s✐t❡1 or via a direct link on
the SARC website, ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞. The server allows a maximum number of PIAS modules to be used
simultaneously which corresponds to the maximum number of available licenses. All PIAS modules are taken into
account, whether they operate on the same computer or on different computers.
4.1.3
Manual and utilities
From ✇✇✇✳s❛❢❡♥❡t✲✐♥❝✳❝♦♠ manuals and utilities for the (Network-) Sentinel SuperPro are available for download.
The manual is available through this link: ❙❛❢❡◆❡t ❯s❡r ●✉✐❞❡✳♣❞❢2 .
One of the available utilities is ‘Safenet Sentinel Advanced Medic’, with this program it is possible to check
whether the required driver and server are installed correctly. Another handy utility is ‘Monitor’, which can be
used to see how many licenses are in use.
4.1.4
Possible problems Sentinel
Pending licenses
A PIAS program asks the Sentinel if a license is available and uses a license if possible. When the program is
stopped that license is released. If a PIAS program is closed (even if it is removed from the task list via <CtrlAlt-Del>), the sentinel always receives a signal from the operating system that the program is terminated,
so the license can be properly released. If a program is terminated using the reset button, or by turning off
the computer, the license will not be released and is ‘pending’. However, the system includes a timer which
releases the pending license after about 1 ½ minutes.
1 ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛❢❡♥❡t✲✐♥❝✳❝♦♠✴s✉♣♣♦rt❴❛♥❞❴❞♦✇♥❧♦❛❞s✴❉♦✇♥❧♦❛❞❴❉r✐✈❡rs✴❙❡♥t✐♥❡❧❴❉r✐✈❡rs✴
2 ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛❢❡♥❡t✲✐♥❝✳❝♦♠✴✉♣❧♦❛❞❡❞❋✐❧❡s✴❙❛❢❡◆❡t❴❙❡♥t✐♥❡❧❴❊♥❞❴❯s❡r❴●✉✐❞❡✳♣❞❢
4.2 Digitizer
23
Sentinel not found
If the sentinel is not found, the program displays an error message. Here are some possible causes of this
problem:
• Windows firewall or anti-virus software may prevent communication between PIAS programs and the
sentinel. In this case the anti-virus software must be configured to allow the PIAS programs to communicate.
• In a network environment, you may find that it takes a long time to contact the sentinel or the sentinel
is not found at all. With a so-called external variable SENTINEL_SERVER = IP ADDRESS you can
specify the system (IP address) on which the sentinel is plugged in (see section 4.5 on page 25, Environment variables). When the external variable is used, the sentinel software connects directly to the
computer with the specified variable instead of searching the entire network.
4.2
Digitizer
In the image below, the digitizer sticker displayed. Print the sticker and place it in the top right corner of the
digitizer in order to give digitizer commands. A command is given by placing the mouse over the specific command
and clicking <LMB>. Notice that the width of the printed sticker must be 27.5 mm. In order to get the correct
size, print the Digitizersticker as shown in the ♣❞❢ ♠❛♥✉❛❧3 Alternatively, the sticker can be placed in the bottom
left corner, in that case an additional setting is required, refer to Functions_digitizer_low in section 4.5 on page 25,
Environment variables.
3 ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴♠❛♥✉❛❧s✴♣✐❛s✴P■❆❙♠❛♥✉❛❧❴❡♥✳♣❞❢
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
4.3 Temporary files
24
PIAS DIGITIZER
SARC BUSSUM
Knik
Begin
opnieuw
Nieuwe
schaal
Niet
opslaan
en
stoppen
Opslaan
en
stoppen
PIAS DIGITIZER
SARC BUSSUM
Knuckle
Restart
New
scale
Do not
save and
quit
Save
and
quit
Figure 4.1: Digitizersticker to print
4.3
Temporary files
The PIAS software makes use of temporary files. The use of these files will be unknown to the user unless there is
a problem while creating or writing to these temporary files. For example if PIAS tries to create a temporary file in
a directory where the user is not allowed to create/write files. The location for temporary files is fully handled by
the operating system. The path for the directory designated for temporary files is set as follows:
• The path specified by the TMP environment variable
• The path specified by the TEMP environment variable, if TMP is not defined
• The Windows directory, if both TMP and TEMP are not defined
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
4.4 ASCII text file
4.4
25
ASCII text file
When the manual mentions ASCII text files, it means a plain text file without control codes. A text file generated
with a ‘normal’ word processor (such as MS-Word) frequently contains control codes for the purpose of formatting.
To create a plain text file the word processor must be configured such that control codes are not added. An
alternative option is editing ASCII files with a simple editor, such as Wordpad or Notepad++ (available from
♥♦t❡♣❛❞✲♣❧✉s✲♣❧✉s✳♦r❣✴).
4.4.1
Output in multiple languages
The output of a program can be generated in different languages. All Dutch and foreign text is in the file named
name.Txt (eg. Hydrotables.txt at the Hydro Tables program). Such a file is an ASCII text file. It is possible to
increase the number of languages by editing this file.
4.5
Environment variables
With external variables PIAS can be configured. Either for a particular option, or for an exotic switch that found
to place in a regular menu. It must be considered that the application of external variables is an exception, only
intended for specific options or limited to a small number of users. A regular user should not specifically need to
apply them. An external variable consists of an argument and a value. There are four distinct ways to specify an
external variable:
• As an environment variable (set-variable) of the operating system, in the form argument=value, for example
set PIASmailserver=ABC. For more details of environment variables we refer to operating system manuals.
• In an ASCII text file named PIAS.CFG, which must be located in the same directory which contains the
PIAS programs themselves. This file contains a number of lines, with on each line 1 argument and the
accompanying value (without the = symbol).
• As an argument of the PIASMENU program (Windows version only). For example PIASMENU PIA←
Smailserver=PQR.
• As defined in the Windows registry, in entry HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Sarc\General. For more
information about the registry we refer to Windows manuals.
4.5.1
List of environment variables
piasname=XXX
To specify a fixed file name.
pias_mode=edit
To use PIAS in edit mode. In this mode you can directly select a field and change its content. Command
keys must be pressed in conjunction with the <Alt>. This happens to be the standard mode of PIAS, so it
is not required to set it explicitly. The only reason for this text is to underline the difference with the next
setting:
pias_mode=command
To use PIAS in command mode. In this mode a field can only be modified after the <X> key has been
pressed. Command keys do not have to be combined with other keys. It is not advised to use this option,
because it will eventually disappear.
pias_page_height=XXX
Applicable to the output to preview/clipboard, where it can be used to specify the target paper height (in
mm).
pias_preview_character_hb_ratio=XXX
In order to specify, at the output to preview/clipboard, that PIAS should apply a character height/breadth
ratio of XXX, when composing the lay-out of a page. When the variable is set as follows: pias_preview_←
character_hb_ratio=standard, PIAS sets the ratio to 1.80.
central_stabmenu=input
In order to centralize the stability module of PIAS around the input screen (instead of an organization in
menu’s, as normally applied).
Functions_digitizer_low=1
Functions_digitizer_low=1 to specify that on the digitizing tablet the sticker with function keys is placed on
the lower-left corner (instead of the default upper-right corner).
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4.6 Key sequence macro’s
26
Australian_livestock=yes
Specifies that in the calculation of intact stability, instead of the default heeling grain moments, the heeling
moments according to the Australian (AMSA) requirements for livestock transport will be used. For a
complete output according to AMSA intact stability criteria for the carriage of cattle this variable must be
set; only applying the AMSA stability criteria is not sufficient.
Windcontour_merge=1
Offers at the input of the wind contour (see section 9.1.6 on page 153, Wind contour) the option to merge
two wind contours. One could wonder why for this useful function such a weird setup should be made. The
reason is tha this merge option is rather limited; the coordinate lists of the two merging contours are simply
sticked after each other, and that is it. With the use of this setting you implicitly agree with this limited
operation.
Frame_interpolate=1
Offers at the module for hull form definition (see section 9.1.4 on page 145, Frame shapes) the option to
interpolatie intermediate frames. Here the same question could be raised as with the previous setting, and the
answer would be similar: this interpolation options is rather limited, in the first place there is the requirement
that the frames at both sides of the new frames to be created have the same number of points. And then all
corresponding points are connected and new points are linearly interpolated. It could not be simpler, if a
more advanced method of interpolation is required, Fairway is recommended, this module has been designed
for these kind of operations. And also here by using this setting you agree to accept this simple method.
Lekstab_create_new_condition=yes
Generates a new loading condition based on a damage case in which the damaged compartment contents are
included as tank weights in the new loading condition. This new loading condition can be used to calculate
longitudinal strength.
Lekstab=met_windarm
Draws a heeling wind lever in GZ-plot at computation of deterministic damage stability
PIASmailserver=xxx
Specifies the address of the e-mailserver to be used by PIAS. This server should be configured in such a way
that the workstation on which PIAS runs is allowed to send e-mails with the SMTP-protocol. Moreover these
email settings can be specified per project as well, See also: E-mail settings
PIASemailsender=xxx
The e-mail address of the sender.
PIASemailrecipient=xxx
The e-mail address of the recipient.
PIAS_TIME_RECORD_FILE=XXX\ YYY
A file YYY will be written/updated in the directory XXX. A record of time of usage of PIAS software is kept
in this file. Every PIAS module writes the following information per session: Elapsed seconds between start
time and end time [sec], start time [dd/mm/yy hh:mm], end time [dd/mm/yy hh:mm], username, program
name, project directory+filename.
SENTINEL_SERVER=(IP-address van server)
The IP-address of the PC in the network where the superpro netsentinel is plugged in. If this environment
variable is set, the application will only look for the sentinel on this address.
ANSIcharset=1
By mid-2011 Fairway switched to the use of the Unicode character set for the representation of international
characters. ❤tt♣✿✴✴♥❧✳✇✐❦✐♣❡❞✐❛✳♦r❣✴✇✐❦✐✴❯♥✐❝♦❞❡ With Unicode much more characters are available, which benefits non-western languages in particular. Some PIAS users applied non-standard characters
for e.g. the names of tanks or loading conditions. These characters were coded (by Windows) in ANSI or
OEM, which is unfortunately incompatible with Unicode. In order to avoid too much inconvenience, PIAS
can be instructed with this external variable to treat special characters in the same fashion as before (although 100% correctness can not be guaranteed). However, please be advised that the ANSI/OEM standard
is basically incompatible with Unicode, so that it is better to avoid this method from now on. In due time an
integrated facility will be created in Fairway to use special characters according to the Unicode standard.
No_multithreading=1
To switch off PIAS’ multithreading facility (which is active by default, if purchased).
4.6
Key sequence macro’s
Under the function keys F5 to F9 keyboard macros can be defined. Recording is started and stopped in combination
with the <Shift>, playing back is activated when the key itself is pressed. The key combinations are not saved
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4.7 Macro commands for PIAS and Fairway
27
with the program, or the project, but on the computer of each particular user instead, so each computer can have its
own keyboard macros. With the free version, the Key sequence macro functionality is limited to key combinations
within a single menu. With PIAS’ extended macro control functionality it is also possible to enter and exit other
menus, see also section 4.7 on the current page, Macro commands for PIAS and Fairway.
4.7
Macro commands for PIAS and Fairway
Macro control for of PIAS or Fairway is only applicable in very rare cases, where the program is controlled by an
other computer program. In normal use, or for a regular user, this mechanism is not applicable. Consequently, this
section is only available in Dutch. An English translation can be furnished on demand.
4.A
Appendix: Speed enhancing mechanisms in PIAS: PIAS/ES
A characteristic of our naval architectural profession is that we often encounter intensive calculation tasks. Although the computer serves us well in this area for decades already, the processing time may still be a bottleneck,
also because man has adapted himself to the increased processing power, and demands more extended calculations than without the computer would have been the case. This mechanism also manifests itself with PIAS, so it is
worthwhile to strive for an optimized calculation process. For that purpose PIAS is equipped with two mechanisms
which increase the speed, namely minimization of disc usage and dualthreading. These options, which are further
discussed below, are offered combined in a package with the name PIAS /ES, where ES stands for Enhanced
Speed.
4.A.1
Minimization of disc usage
Like any substantial computer program PIAS uses disc files for the storage of permanent data. Additionally, internal intermediate results are stored in temporary files. Unfortunately, we have experienced that the disc performance
gets slower as the operating system version gets newer. Under Windows 95 disc IO is slower than under MS-DOS,
XP is slower than ’95, and this process seems to continue occasionally to Win7. One even succeeded to nullify the
strongly increased speed of hardware and networks, quite an achievement indeed. This effect did gradually lead
to considerable slower PIAS performance. At SARC we have been experimenting with the setup of the operating
system or the network, however, without significant improvement. We also have not found proper documentation
which describes this problem or suggests a remedy. Because apparently the problem is intractable we decided to
work around it. For that purpose an alternative mechanism was designed, where the disc usage is minimized and
the intermediate results are kept as much as possible in RAM memory. In technical terms a RAM-cache is placed
between the program and the disc.
4.A.2
Dualthreading
This option utilizes the computer technology that has become generally available in the years 2004-2006. For a
long time past a PC generally has one processor, while this processor contains one core. That implies that the
computer can process one task at a time (although the operating system may fool you, and give the impression
that multiple tasks are processed simultaneously). However, there is a tendency where a computer is equipped
with multiple real or virtual processors (which are multi-processor and multi-core machines respectively). So, this
technology enables a program to execute tasks parallel, but the software will have to be adapted for that facility,
where tasks which are suitable for simultaneous processing are explicitly offered to the processor for parallel
processing. That implies that for every function of a software package it must be considered whether or not it is
suitable for parallel processing, and it must be adapted accordingly, if appropriate. Limiting ourselves to PIAS,
many tasks can be recognized which can be processed parallel, such as calculating damage stability for multiple
angles of inclination, or drawing hull lines with Fairway. On the other hand, there are also jobs which are not
suitable, such as the calculation of intermediate stages of flooding, where at first the final stage must be determined,
whereupon the water level which corresponds to the filling percentage can be calculated. The following subjects
have been implemented:
• At all intact and damage stability calculations: the computation of stability, simultaneously for all angles of
inclination (except for the first angle).
• At probabilistic damage stability: the computation of the probability of damage by means of numerical
integration (by applying multiple integration lines simultaneously).
• At Newlay the computation of the several intersections between bulkheads and/or compartment boundaries.
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4.A Appendix: Speed enhancing mechanisms in PIAS: PIAS/ES
4.A.3
28
Total speed gain
As indicated, for the dualthreading option the acceleration gain can be motivated upon. Concerning the possible
gain of processing speed of the other option, no general statement can be made. It depends on the combination of
computer, Windows version, network hardware and network software. For a specific configuration one will have
to a bit of experimenting, SARC can cannot provide advice in this field.
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Chapter 5
Operation of PIAS
In section 3.5.1 on page 10, PIAS Main menu a discussion is included on PIAS’ main menu, which is used to switch
between the different modules. Those modules make intensive use of selection windows and input windows, from
which the operation and control is generally the same everywhere. Functions specific to a particular module will be
discussed in the corresponding emodule-specific chapter, but the general process and options are covered here.
5.1
Selection window
After the module is invoked and the project file has been chosen, with the majority of modules a selection window
appears. Selection windows are used all over PIAS and present a list of options or functions which can be selected
by the user. As shown in the figure below, one of the options is highlighted, this is the ‘text cursor’. The text cursor
can be navigated with mouse (select cell by a click of the left mouse button) or the keyboards’ cursor keys. An
option can be selected with <Enter> or a mouse left button double click.
Figure 5.1: A selection window.
5.2
Input window
An input window is somewhat similar to a selection window, however, in general it will contain more cells. The
prime difference between the two is that an input window also facilitates the input of data or options. An example
is depicted below.
5.2 Input window
30
Figure 5.2: An input window.
The selection windows and input windows offer the following navigation options:
Keyboard navigation
PIAS has been designed to work swiftly with mouse as well as keyboard. For th elatter, the following keys
can be used:
• The arrow keys for moving the text cursor. In combination with <Ctrl> the curor keeps its position,
and it will be the whole text block that moves (so the block will scroll).
• <Page Up> and <Page Down> to mov ethe text cursor one page.
• <Home> and <End> to jump to the first or last row. In combination with <Ctrl> to the first or last
row of the entire text block.
<Enter>
Just as in a selection window, to select a cell, in other words to go to the window or menu one level deeper
into an option or cell where the text cursor is situated.
<Esc>
Also just as in a selection window, to return to the previous window, in other words to go one level back.
<Esc> performs the same function as [Quit]. When <Esc> is pressed in the main menu of a module, PIAS
returns to the PIAS main menu.
Mouse
By default, the mouse buttons have the following functions in PIAS:
• The <left mouse button> for selecting the cell below the mouse pointer.
• <Double click left mouse button> is equivalent to <Enter>.
• The <middle button> to choose from predefined values, as discussed in section 5.3 on page 32, Indication of the options in the cells of selection windows and input windows.
• The <right mouse button> is equivalent to <Esc>.
• The mouse wheel to steer the text cursor up or down.
Mouse buttons may be assigned a different function in Windows, which will make the mouse to behave
unexpectately. This can be solved by reconfiguring Windows. Specific PIAS modules may assign specific
functions to mouse buttons, notably within the context of a GUI. If so, this will be discussed in the chapter
on that module.
Keyboard input
Names and numbers etc. can simple be typed into a cell, as is custom in e.g. spreadsheets. The specific input
and selection facilities will be discussed in section 5.3 on page 32, Indication of the options in the cells of
selection windows and input windows.
Furthermore, the menu bar may display the following functions:
Help
This option contains five sub options:
• Open the help reader (can also be done by pressing function key <F1>), see also section 3.3 on page 9,
Manuals, exercises and information sources).
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5.2 Input window
31
• Open the entire manual in PDF format.
• Connect to ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧.
• Show the creation date of the present module, because occasionally it may be useful to know the exact
production date of the program (and also to see whether time has come to check for a new PIAS
version). The revision number of the software is included as well.
• Print the program version details to a preview window, from which it can be printed on paper, or copied
& pasted into another document, for example to a stability booklet in order to record the particulars
of the software used for the calculations. Copy preferably as image, not as RTF because that can be
interpreted differently by the various text editors, which might lead to small layout diifferences. While
as image the entire content, including the rounded frame, is exactly transferred. An example is depicted
below.
Quit
Leave the module.
Insert
Add a line above the current line.
New
Add a line below the current line.
Remove
Remove the current line.
Edit
Contains a number of editing tools - such as copy, paste and nudo - which are discussed at section 5.4 on
page 33, Copy, paste etc..
Figure 5.3: Printout of program version.
Figure 5.4: Longitudinal position in multiple systems of units, activated by F4.
And, finally, the following options facilitate in the use of input window further:
<F1>
Opens the context-sensitive help reader, of which section 3.3 on page 9, Manuals, exercises and information
sources contains an example.
Function key F2
In order to edit text in a cell press <F2>. Use <Delete> to remove characters and use <Enter> to finalise
editing the cell.
Function key F3
To edit a longitudinal position, <F3> enables the conversion from frames to meters. After <F3> the
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5.3 Indication of the options in the cells of selection windows and input windows
32
program will display ’Fr.?’, inviting you to enter a frame position, which will directly be converted to meters.
A non-integer frame position can be entered in two ways; the first is simply with the decimal point, for
instance frame 3 3/4 can be given as <3.75>, and the second contains an offset in millimeters, e.g. 150
mm before frame 14 can be typed as <14+150>. This conversion mechanism is only available when frame
spaces have actually been defined in in the menu of the ship’s general particulars, see section 9.1.1.3 on
page 142, Definition of frame spaces for a discussion.
Function key F4
<F4> is an extended version of <F3>. It offers the same frame position conversion options, however, now
shown in a popup window, which shows also the frame position and offset, see the picture above for an
example. Please be informed that the meter values are leading, and that those are converted each time to
frame positions. Frame positions as such are never stored.
Set column width of input window
An input window usually contains a header with titles above each column. Inbetween those header vertical
division lines are visible, and when hovering the mouse pointer above such a line (or above the rightmost
line of the entire heading) a horizontal arrow appears. By pressing the left mouse button the can be adjusted,
see the figure below for an example. If a header is not present, individual cells can be adjusted in the same
way. With function [Setup][Restore column width], (see section 3.8.8 on page 18, Restore column widths) all
column widths, throughout PIAS, will be restored to their defaults.
Besides these standard options, most modules contain specific functions, which are discussed in the chapters
of those modules.
Figure 5.5: Adjust column width with horizontal arrow.
5.3
Indication of the options in the cells of selection windows and input windows
With respect to the cells of an input window, distinction can be made in three methods of interaction;
• Select. I.e. go to the underlying window or menu, with <Enter> or <double click left mouse button>.
• Enter a content. This can be further subdivided in the following two options, viz:
– Enter a free value or name, such as the vertical of center of gravity for a weight item, or the name of a
compartment. That value or this name can simply be typed on the keyboard.
– Choose from a limited number of predefined values, such as the side of a compartment which can either
be ‘SB’ or ’PS’ or ‘double (=SB and PS)’. With such a choice a popup window comes up where the
selection can can be made. An exception is if there is only a binary choice - a choice between two (such
as yes/no or selected/deselected). In this case it is pointless to present that choice in a popup window
because it is evident that one whishes to choose the single alternative. In order to increase the speed
of working with PIAS, the value will therefore be immediately switched to the other value without
showing such a popup window. So, although a choice of two is presented differently than a choice
of multiple options, they are essentially the same, and therefore also the same in terms of operating.
Making a choice of predefined types is simply also a way of data input, just like the entry of a name
or a number, and is therefore also invoked by a common key on the keyboard, such as a letter or a
number, but most conveniently with an easily accessible key such as the spacebar or the <+> or <->
on the numeric keypad. Working with the mouse, the choice of such a predefined type is initiated by
the <middle mouse button>. A third way to invoke the selection of predefined types is described in
the bold text below.
In order to indicate which of these three actions apply in a particular cell, symbols are located on the side of
the cell with the most free space, that is to say, on the left if the text in the cell is right aligned, and on the right if
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5.4 Copy, paste etc.
33
the text is placed left. There may be, moreover, also combinations possible of the three actions, such as that at a
loading condition its name can be changed by typing and, by pressing <Enter>, that this loading condition can be
accessed in order to enter tank fillings and weights. These symbols are as follows:
• Select with <Enter>: a small triangle at the top of the cell.
• To choose from predefined values: a rectangle in the middle of the cell. For completeness, this rectangle is
not only a passive indication that this cell contains predefined types, but also an active switch which will
pop up the selection window when doubly clicked with the left mouse button.
• Typing text: a small triangle at the bottom of the cell.
Figure 5.6: Symbolic indications at the edges of the cells.
5.4
Copy, paste etc.
Quite some numerical input in PIAS is done in an input window, which justifies to extend this facility with some
supporting functions. The availability of these functions is determined for each module individually, so some
variations may occur, however, the majority of input windows is equipped with the [Edit] function, which contains
the following sub-functions:
Undo (or ctrl-Z)
Undoes the last modification.
Redo (or ctrl-Y)
Redoes the last modification.
Copy cell (of ctrl-C)
Copies the content of a cell to Windows’ clipboard. Except the content of a single cell, also the content of a
selection of multiple cells can be copied. For this purpose first such a selection should be made by holding
the <Shift> key while extending the selected area by moving the text cursor with the cursor keys or the
mouse. Alternatively, all cells of the input screen can be selected with the [Select all] function. With the text
cursor in the selected area, the entire selection will be copied, otherwise only the single cell on which the
text cursor resides will be copied.
Paste cell (or ctrl-V)
With this function the clipboard content will be pasted into this input window. This function has two variants,
the first one is actually the exception, which occurs if the clipboard contains only the content of a single cell
which is pasted into a selection of multiple cells. In this case the clipboard content will be copied into every
cell of the selection. In all other cases the clipboard content, irrespective whether it contains one or more
cells, is copied starting on the location of the text cursor.
Copy a row entirely
Which makes the entire row where the text cursor is located to be copied into internal PIAS format (so, not
to clipboard). The difference with the previous [Copy] is that under the visible row much more information
can be available, which is also copied in this fashion. Examples are frames (which includes points of the
frames ‘below’ the frame itself) and loading conditions (which contain weight items ‘below’), which can be
copied integrally in the input window with this function.
Paste a row entirely
If a row has been copied with the previous option, with this [Paste] function a copy will be made into the
line of the text cursor.
Info
In a particular input window paste or undo may not be supported for each column. In this case, with this
function one can enquire for which columns this applies.
Select all (or ctrl-A)
Which selects all cells of the input window.
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5.4 Copy, paste etc.
34
Select 1 (or ctrl-S)
Selects the column on which the text cursor resides.
On these supporting functions a few remarks still can be made:
• A selection is cleared by the <Esc> key.
• Selected areas consisting of multiple cells can be used for copy and paste, as discussed above, and for
concurrent input as well. They have no meaning for other actions, such as calculations, output or other
functions which are specific for a particular module or input window.
• Undo and redo information remains available per session of an input window. So it is not stored permanently.
• The exchange format between a selection and the clipboard is according to Excel convention, which means
that columns are separated by a Tab, and rows are terminated by a CR (Carriage Return) LF (Line Feed)
combination.
• The GUI of Fairway has its own integrated undo/redo facilities, which have nothing to do with those in the
input windows.
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Chapter 6
Config: General project configurations
With this module the choices and parameters for calculations, calculation variants and output can be set. This
module can be activated as independant PIAS module from the PIAS main menu, althoug hmost options are also
available thourgh the Project setup function, at the left hand side in the upper bar of each other PIAS moodule, as
depicted below.
Figure 6.1: Project setup function in each PIAS module.
Letit be clear thatin this module program settings are defined, and no general ship particulars. The latter are
defined in ship hull design or definition modules Fairway or Hulldef, as discussed in section 9.1.1 on page 141,
Main dimensions and other ship parameters. Config starts by showing its main menu, which contains the distinct
setup categories:
Settings for (project name)
1.
General setup for stability calculations
2.
Angles of inclination for stability calculations
3.
Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables
4.
Settings damage stability
5.
Sections tanks/compartments/damage cases
6.
Stability criteria
7.
E-mail settings
8.
Definition of asymmetrical hull forms and composed hull forms
9.
Definition of frame spaces
10. Trims for hydrostatics, cross-curves and maximum VCG’
11. Setup for hydrostatics, cross-curves and maximum VCG’
12. Definition of draft marks
6.1 General setup for stability calculations
6.1
36
General setup for stability calculations
General setup for PIAS
1.
Output language
2.
Apply Local cloud
3.
Stability with the free to trim effect (constant LCB)
4.
(Damage) stability including calculation shift of COGs of liquid
5.
(Damage-) stability including calculation the effect of VCG on trim
6.
Preferential format of hull files
7.
Wave amplitude for stability calculations
8.
Location of the top of the wave
9.
Wave length for stability calculations
10. Wave direction
11. Wave type
12. Angle between ‘axis of inclination’ and centre plane
13. Specific weight outside water
14. Calculate intact stability etc. with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic)
15. Calculate damage stability with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic)
16. Output to
6.1.1
Output language
Here the output language is set.
6.1.2
Apply Local cloud
With thi soption set to ‘yes’ for this project the local cloud, a concept which is discussed at section 3.11 on page 20,
Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project, will be activated. However, for the time
being this option is still experimental, so it is not yet released for general use.
The module Loading always prints an item in the loading conditions which represents the total light ship weight.
This total weight represents the combined weight of items from the ’common list’. The name of this light ship
weight can be specified here.
6.1.3
Stability with the free to trim effect (constant LCB)
here you can specify whether the (damage) stablity calculations should be executed with the free trim effect (a.k.a.
the ‘constant LCB method’):
• Without free trim: at zero inclination the ship has its initial trim, depending on the difference between LCB
and LCG, and maintains this trim for all angles of inclination. The stability is computed for all angles, on
this fixed trim.
• With free to trim: also in this case the ship has its initial trim. When the vessel heels for each heeling angle
the real trim is calculated so that the longitudinal centre of gravity coincides with the longitudinal centre
of buoyancy. It will be obvious that in general the trims will be larger with a vessel of a longitudinally
asymmetric nature, such as a supply vessel, and specifically for larger heeling angles.
6.1.4
(Damage) stability including calculation shift of COGs of liquid
The conventional way to take free surfaces into account is by correcting the vertical centre of gravity by a virtual
increase due to the free surface(s) at heeling angle zero. This virtual increase of the actual VCG is taken constant
at all heeling angles. However, in reality the free surface effects change due to heel and trim.
• If this option is answered with ‘No’, the (damage) stability is calculated in the traditional way with a VCG
correction which is constant for all heeling angles.
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6.1 General setup for stability calculations
37
• If this option is set to ‘Yes’, and if this option has been purchased, then for every compartment containing a
liquid the actual centre of gravity is calculated at the actual heeling angle and trim at the intact stability and
damage stability calculations (with the Loading module).
This option set to ‘Yes’ has the following consequences:
• Tables of maximum allowable VCG’ are no longer valid while the virtual centre of gravity G’ has become
meaningless.
• Centres of gravity and free surface moments printed in loading conditions do NOT have to correspond with
the input data. Due to heel and trim the centres of gravity may have shifted and the surface of the liquid may
have a different shape than at zero heel and trim.
• All weight items in Loading that refer to liquid cargo should be read from the tank capacity tables.
• Weight items which do have a free surface moment but which are not read from a tank capacity table are not
allowed.
6.1.5
(Damage-) stability including calculation the effect of VCG on trim
By default, when calculating intact or damaged stability, PIAS determines longitudinal equilibrium (and consequently trim) by coinciding londitudinal center of buoyancy with the longitudinal center of gravity, which means
that the are on the same longitudinal location. The implicit assumption behind this method is that the forces act
perpendicular to the base line (which is the longitudinal axis), however, with a trimmed vessel this is obviously
not the case. This simplification results in a small trim inaccuracy, which is larger at larger trims and higher VCGs,
but which is sufficiently small in normal cases. However, it might be desirable to make a somewhat more accurate
computation by taking the forces perpendicular on the waterline, which is done with this setting at ‘yes’. With this
setting one should also realize the other effects, such as:
• Stability calculation results do not neccessarily have to agree with results of computations based on tables
of maximum allowable VCGs, because there the effect of VCGon trim is not included (which would be a bit
difficult to do, because the actual VCG of the loading condition was unknown on forehand, when composing
the VCG tables.
• Stability calculation results might differ from manual calculations as composed with the aid of cross curves,
because it would not be possible to compose them for the actual VCG’ of the loading condition, as well as
for all other VCGs of all other loading conditions. In theory multiple cross curves for multiple trims could
be composed, but nobody does and nobody requires so.
6.1.6
Preferential format of hull files
PIAS can perform hydrostatic calculations and (damage-)stability calculations on the basis of two representations:
• A wireframe model, which essentially consists of cross sections or ordinates, and which e.g. can be defined
with module Hulldef. A file with a wireframe model has the extension .hyd.
• A solid model, which is essentially a description of the hull surface (including information about what is
inside and what is outside), which can be produced by the Fairway hull design and fairing module. A file
with a solid model has the extension .tri. In general, a solid model is more flexible than a wireframe model. It
also gives more possibilities, e.g. in the area of the geometric composition of compartments from elementary
building blocks (the so-called sub compartments).
6.1.7
Wave amplitude for stability calculations
All hydrostatics and stability calculations can also be executed for the ship in a (statical) wave. For this case the
wave amplitude, the position of the top of the wave and the wave length should be specified, see the figure below.
To do the calculations without a wave, a wave amplitude of zero will suffice.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
6.1 General setup for stability calculations
38
Note
With damage stability calculations the wave does not extent in the damaged compartments.
Figure 6.2: Wave characteristics
6.1.7.1
Location of the top of the wave
See above, at wave amplitude
6.1.8
Wave length for stability calculations
See above, at wave amplitude
6.1.9
Wave direction
As a rule a wave as used for the calculation of longitudinal strength or stability is taken to be longitudinally.
By exception, it can be required to take an oblique wave, in which case here the angle of the wave direction (in
degrees, relative to the centerline) should be specified at this option. Besides, the wave effect in transverse direction
is liniarized, which implies that the intersection of the ordinates with the wave surface is approximated by a straight
line.
6.1.10
Wave type
Two types of waves can be chosen, sinusoidal or a trochoidal. The standard is sinusoidal.
6.1.11
Angle between ‘axis of inclination’ and centre plane
As a rule the ship is assumed to heel about its longitudinal axis - although this fixation may be relaxed by the
free to trim effect, as can be specified at section 6.1.3 on page 36, Stability with the free to trim effect (constant
LCB). However, in exceptional cases the vessel may be required to heel about an oblique axis. At this option you
can enter the angle in degrees between this heeling axis and the longitudinal axis, see the figures ‘topside view of
heeling axis definition’ and ‘draft definition with oblique heeling axis’ below for the definitions.
Figure 6.3: Top view of heeling axis definition.
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November 22, 2014
6.2 Angles of inclination for stability calculations
39
Figure 6.4: Draft definition with oblique heeling axis.
6.1.12
Specific weight outside water
Enter here the specific weight of the outside water (in ton/m3 ) to apply for all hydrostatic, stability etc. computations. As a rule for sea water 1.025 is taken.
6.1.13
Calculate intact stability etc. with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic)
Implicitly, all angles as standard used - for e.g. calculation sof stability, maximum allowable VCG’ - in PIAS are
to SB. If the inclination is required to be to PS it can be specified at this option. The inclination side can also be
determined automaticaaly, in which case the program takes the side of initial heeling.
6.1.14
Calculate damage stability with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic)
This option is similar to the previous, albeit applicable for damage stability instead of intact.
6.1.15
Output to
By default output from PIAS is sent to the printer, where a page length of approximately A4-size is assumed,
which makes a longer output to be subdivided over the sheets of paper. So this option is labelled printer (sheets).
A variant is printer (roll) which does not subdivide the output because of the paper size into pages. With this
option it is assumed that the printer has an endless roll of paper (where, by the way, the application can still decide
to start on a new page, but that is because a new subject asks for it, not because of the paper format). This printer
(roll) is intended for exceptional situations - for example if the output should become available to other software
without intermediate headers, or if one wishes to create a personal page distribution - the regular choice is printer
(sheets). Except for selecting the printer type, this option can also be used to redirect the output to file, with a
file name as given in the next line. Supported file formats are (please also refer to the somewhat more detailed
discussion in section 3.6 on page 13, Export of results):
• ASCII. With this option the text will be unformatted, so only alphanumerical output will be written to file,
all graphics will be lost.
• Rich Text Format. Complete output, including all formatting and graphs in RTF, which can be imported into
a word processor such as MS-Word.
• Drawing Exchange Format (DXF). Drawings are saved in a file according to the Autodesk DXF specification.
Such a file can be imported into e.g. AutoCAD or Rhino.
• Postscript, which will save drawings in vector format. This has the advantage of being resolutionindependent, so large or highly zoomed plots can be drawn with much more sharpness.
6.2
Angles of inclination for stability calculations
With this option the angles of inclination which must be used at the intact and damage stability calculations can
be defined. The maximum number of angles is 40. The angles may be greater than 90°, however, not greater than
180°. Angles between 85°and 95°are not allowed.
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November 22, 2014
6.3 Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables
6.3
40
Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables
This menu contains three settings which are applicable to tanks and compartments:
• Tables with everywhere the maximum free surface moment. By default, the free surface moments as printed
in the tank tables are for the actual filling level of the tank. If this option is set to ‘yes’, the maximum free
surface moment will be used at every level instead. Some classification societies insist on such a precedure,
although it is physically incorrect.
• Tank sketches with automatic tank numbers. If this option is set to ‘yes’ then each compartment will be numbered automatically for identification with tank sketches (zie daarvoor section 25.2 on page 280, Sketches
of tanks, compartments and damage cases). On ‘no’, the first four letters of the second name of the compartment will be used for identification. This option also determines the choice of the names of the generated
damage cases at probabilistic damage stability.
• Difference internal/external geometry including external hullforms. This setting is applicable to the comparison of internal and external geometry, such as has been discussed in section 11.8.3 on page 194, Difference
between internal and external geometry. If set to ‘no’ this comparison does not include added hull forms (as
discussed in section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms. If set to ‘yes’ it does take such hull forms into account.
Furthermore, some settings may be available which belong to the elder (pre 2012) PIAS compartments module.
The setting on the ‘default tank percentage at reading’ is relocated to the intact stability module, Loading. For
further details on meaning of these settings we refer to chapter 130 of the old PIAS manual.
6.4
Settings damage stability
Setup for damage stability calculations
1. Intermediate stages with global equal liquid level
2. Significant wave height for SOLAS STAB90+50 (RoRo)
3. Compute probabilistic damage stability on basis of
8. Damage stability with correction 0.05’ x cos(phi)
ps. The program menu may still contain more options than discussed here, which belong to the elder (pre-2012)
program design. For details we refer to chapter 130 of the old PIAS manual.
6.4.1
Intermediate stages with global equal liquid level
This option defines the regime of intermediate stages of flooding. For the damage stability calculation the vessel
is subdivided in multiple compartments, which can be damage simultaneously. For the final stage of flooding
the presence of multiple damaged compartments gives no ambiguity, however, with nitermediate stages itis the
question how the ingressed water is distributed over the compartments. Suppose two tanks become damaged, and
the flooding stage is 50%, then there are two options:
• Compartments with an unequal water level. Every compartment has half of its weight in the final stage (the
100% stage of flooding). In this case all tanks are treated separately, the water levels of tanks and and 2
differ, and there are two free surface moments. This is depicted in situations 1 and 3 of the figure ‘Tank
fillings’.
• All compartments with an equal water level. All damaged compartments combined are half the weight of
the total weight in the final stage of flooding. So all compartments are treated as one with one single water
level and a single free surface moment, as depicted in situations 2 and 4 of the figure.
The appropriate choice of the method of calculation depends on the configuration of the compartments which
are damaged. If these compartments are separated by vertical bulkheads as in situations 1 and 2 then the first choice
would be the most realistic. If, on the other hand, the compartments are separaated by horizontal bulkheads as in
situations 3 and 4 then the second choice would be the most appropriate.
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November 22, 2014
6.5 Sections tanks/compartments/damage cases
41
Figure 6.5: Tank filling
6.4.2
Significant wave height for SOLAS STAB90+50 (RoRo)
For RoRo ferries with water on deck (a.k.a. as the ‘Stockholm agreement’ or ‘STAB90+50’) the wave height to be
used can be given here.
6.4.3
Compute probabilistic damage stability on basis of
Here it can be set for the computations of probabilistic damage stability, as well as maximum allowable VCG in
damaged condition, which angles of inclination to apply:
• Specified angles. With this choice the angles of inclination as specified at section 6.2 on page 39, Angles
of inclination for stability calculations will be used. The advantage of this choice is that this is the same
calculation basis as employed at the Loading module, where the GZ curve is also computed on the specified
engles. So this choice results in the same results for both computations.
• Automatic angles. With this choice the angles are chosen automatically, guided by the chosen stability
criteria. The advantage of this choice is that the user is relieved from choosing the angles, the range for
example will always be sufficient to match the stability criteria. The disadvantage may be that these angles
are different from the ones as employed in Loading.
This is, by the way, exactly the same setting as calculate maximum VCG on basis of as discussed in section 13.2.8 on page 209, Maximum VCG’ intact tables.
6.4.4
Damage stability with correction 0.05’ x cos(phi)
According to the US DDS-079 damage stability criteria, in the computation of damage stability the transverse
center of gravity should be corrected with 0.05 feet x cos(ϕ). That can be specified here.
6.5
Sections tanks/compartments/damage cases
Here the sections and other properties of sketches of compartments and damage cases can be given, details are
discussed in section 25.2 on page 280, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases.
6.6
Stability criteria
The stability criteria definition system has so many options and possibilities that a dedicated chapter is included,
please refer to chapter 19 on page 233, Stability criteria for intact stability and damage stability.
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November 22, 2014
6.7 E-mail settings
6.7
42
E-mail settings
It is possible to let PIAS send an e-mail after a calculation or print task is finished. The idea is that is sometimes
occurs that a computer is busy with a lengthy calculation, and it is inconvenient time after time to look personally
whether this task has already finished. In such cases it can be handy if one receives an e-mail, notifying the operator
that the job is done. If it concerns a print task with output to rtf file or text file, that file will be send as attachment,
so the print results are directly available. This facility has the following settings:
• Send e-mail, with three sub options:
– Never.
– After each print task (and damage stability calculation task).
– After print or calculation of a damage stability module.
• Senders address, recipients address and mail server. As a rule, these will always be the same for a particular
computer and user, in which case it is appropriate to set them with external variables. see section 4.5 on
page 25, Environment variables where this mechanism is explained. In other cases, settings in this menu
overrule the external variables, and are stored and used per project. By the way, both the computer and
the sender must have the right to approach the mail server with e-mail commands according to the SMTP
protocol. Furthermore sending email messages according the SMTP protocol can be blocked by anti-virus
software.
• Minimum time required to send e-mail. In general, it will not be desirable to receive mails from each short
print command. Therefore, it can be set here how long a print job or calculation task must take, for an e-mail
to actually be sent. If this time is for instance set at 10 minutes, than you will only receive a mail from really
time-consuming tasks. If set to zero an email will always be sent.
6.8
Definition of asymmetrical hull forms and composed hull forms
These settings belong to the elder (pre 2012) PIAS module for hull definition and have been relocated to Hulldef,
please refer to section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms. For details on this obsolete setup in Config reference is made
to chapter 130 of the old PIAS manual.
6.9
Definition of frame spaces
On the elder (pre 2012) PIAS module design this was the place to specify frame spaces, however, this menu has
been relocated to Hulldef, see section 9.1.1.3 on page 142, Definition of frame spaces.
6.10
Trims for hydrostatics, cross-curves and maximum VCG’
These settings belong to the elder (pre 2012) PIAS modules for hydrostatics etc., however, these have been replaced
by Hydrotables. For details on this obsolete setup we refer to chapter 130 of the elder PIAS manual.
6.11
Setup for hydrostatics, cross-curves and maximum VCG’
These settings belong to the elder (pre 2012) PIAS modules for hydrostatics etc., however, these have been replaced
by Hydrotables. For details on this obsolete setup we refer to chapter 130 of the old PIAS manual.
6.12
Definition of draft marks
On the elder (pre 2012) PIAS module design this was the place to specify draft mark specifics, however, this menu
has been relocated to Hulldef, see section 9.1.1.4 on page 142, Definition of draftmarks.
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 7
Fairway: hull shape design
Fairway is the hullform modelling module of the PIAS/Fairway suite of naval architectural software. Fairway can be
used for any activity with the hullform, such as:
• Hullform generation, both ab initio design and based on a pre-existing shape, in which developable surfaces
and doubly curved surfaces may be mixed.
• Design modifications during preliminary design and final design.
• Hullform transformation.
• Fairing with user-controllable accuracy, up to, and beyond production tolerances.
• Generation of shell plate expansions.
• Generation of linesplans and tactile scale models (Rapid Prototyping, 3D printing).
• Import or digitization of hullform data, either complete or partial.
• Perform simple hydrostatic analyses, and farm out complex analyses to the PIAS suite.
• Addition of extra, user defined curves, for example extra frames.
• Export of hullforms, for example to general CAD systems such as AutoCAD (DXF) or Rhinoceros (IGES), to
CAE systems such as NUPAS, or to Finite Element or Computational Fluid Dynamics software.
Figure 7.1: Fairway GUI showing a complex RoRo aft body, with angled skegs.
7.1 Introduction
44
Figure 7.2: Simple model in Fairway: the trunk of an oil tank.
7.1
Introduction
Fairway is a so-called solid modeller, which is based on a closed 3-D surface model, and wherein the user manipulates the shape of the hull by means of 3D lines, which coincide with the hull surface. As a rule, waterlines,
ordinates, buttocks and 3D chines will be used for this purpose, however, the user is completely free to choose
those lines which are considered necessary or handy. This introduction starts with a description of some basic
concepts, followed by a set of definitions as used in this manual.
7.1.1
Basics of Fairway
1. A line consists of one or more concatenated curves. In Fairway this is called a polycurve. The user specifies
the nature of the connections between the curves (fair, tangential or with a knuckle).
2. Curves are defined as NURBS, and the user can specify the curve type as:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Spline
Straight line
Circular arc
Parabolic, hyperbolic or elliptical arc.
3. Points are defined along the length of a curve. This can be intersection points with other curves, and socalled internal points used to anchor the shape of the curve. An important objective is to keep the distance
between points and curves below a certain tolerance.
4. The fairness of a curve can be inspected by means of the curvature, plotted perpendicularly to the curve.
Curves can be faired through its points automatically with a local scheme, where the user specifies a mean
deviation between the original points and the faired curve. The user can also specify the relative weight of
each individual point, in three grades: neutral, inactive and heavy. The mean deviation is analogous to the
stiffness of the physical spline (the larger the deviation, the stiffer the spline), while the relative weight can
be considered as a model for the weights of the so-called ducks.
5. Polycurves are connected to each other through the intersection points of point 3, and thereby form a network
that describes the hull surface. Contrary to NURBS surfaces, which only exist over a regular network, this
network is very shapeable. This is because polycurves need not extend over the full length of the ship, but
may be defined where they are really needed.
6. Polycurves must start and end at another curve, curve ends cannot dangle freely in space.
7. Internally, the network is represented unambiguously with appropriate techniques. Without the use of these
techniques a set of curves is ambivalent. Fairway, however, knows about the logical coherence between the
points, curves and surfaces, so Fairway does have an unambiguous and correct picture of the object. Together
with the methods from points 10 and 11, a solid shape representation is obtained.
8. When the program is used for hullform generation, the unambiguous representation is present from the
start. When a digitized linesplan is used or a hullshape is imported, the representation will be created
automatically. In both cases curves can be interpolated, added, removed and manipulated.
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7.1 Introduction
45
9. A network of polycurves is termed “consistent” when all polycurves run through their points within the
tolerance mentioned in item 3.
10. With special techniques, Fairway constructs surfaces over the meshes of the network, based on the shape of
neighbouring curves. Areas are automatically detected where it is appropriate to use one surface. The surfaces have curvature in two directions, unless the user explicitly specifies that a surface must be developable.
11. Individual surfaces are connected to form a contiguous shell with tangential continuity, unless a curve is
defined as a chine.
12. In this way a complete, unambiguous surface description is made, on which the following actions can be
performed:
(a) Interpolation of all kinds of intersections.
(b) Showing threedimensional views, with or without hidden line or hidden surface removal.
(c) Calculating intersections with other surfaces, or perform boolean operations with other objects.
13. The surface is defined by the curves from item 1. If a surface is shaped insatisfactorily, then the network of
curves should be adjusted.
14. If the tangent continuity from item 11 is not sufficient at some locations, extra curves should be added across
that area, which de facto makes the continuity shift to fair.
7.1.2
Geometrical notions
This section deals with a few geometric concepts that are important for using Fairway. No mathematical definitions
and backgrounds are involved, just a simple explanation, if necessary illustrated with some graphical examples.
Firstly some geometric definitions regarding lines are given, followed by definitions regarding planes.
7.1.2.1
Lines
Curve
A curve is a line segment, straight or curved, without knuckles or cusps.
Polycurve
A polycurve is a concatenation of one or more curves. Initially, curves are independent from each other,
so there will be a knuckle in the polycurve where two curves meet. By defining boundary conditions one
can achieve various forms of transition between curves, which creates a dependency of shape at start- and
end-points of adjacent curves. There are six types of polycurves:
• Frames (or ordinates), waterlines and buttocks. Thoese will speak for themselves.
• Diagonals, always with an inclination of 45°.
• Lines in an arbitrary plane. These are fixed in some plane, although not a plane of one of the previous
types. With this type also diagonals undernon-45°angles can be made.
• General 3D-lines are polycurves which are not fixed in some plane. For example a deck line of a ship
with sheer.
The division of polycurves in these six categories is made for the comfort and overview of the user. For the
program itself all polycurves are equivalent.
Knuckle
A knuckle is a point between two adjacent curves of a polycurve. These two curves are initially independent
from each other.
Chine
A chine is a polycurve on which crossing polycurves have a knuckle. It is recommended to connect knuckles
with a chine. In the Fairway GUI chines are often visualized thicker than other polycurves.
Spline
A Spline is a curve which is defined by several angular points called vertices (singular: vertex). The vertices
are sometimes called control points, and together they form the so-called control polygon. The curve, as a
matter of speaking, is attracted by the control polygon. You might say that the spline is a fair approximation
of the control polygon. By changing the vertices the shape of the spline can be manipulated.
Line direction, left and right
In Fairway a polycurve has a certain direction. For example, the possible directions of a waterline are from
’stern to bow’ or from ’bow to stern’. Fairway visualizes the direction of selected polycurves by means of an
animation that reminds of waterdroplets that run along the line in the direction of the polycurve.
In relation to this, left and right are defined in Fairway as follows: imagine yourself walking on the outside of
the ship, perpendicular to the shell, on the line from the beginning to the end of the line. From this position
Fairway’s left is at your left hand, and right at your right hand.
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7.1 Introduction
46
Radius of curvature
For each point of a curved line it is possible to imagine a circle which coincides with the line in the considered
point. The radius of this ’fitting’ circle is called the radius of curvature. In the figure the radius of curvature
(R) is illustrated.
R
R
R
Figure 7.3: Radius of curvature R.
Curvature
The curvature of a curve in a considered point is defined as the reciprocal of the radius of curvature, 1/R.
Curvature plot
In Fairway the curvature is used as a tool for fairing curves. For each point of a line the curvature can be
plotted perpendicularly to the considered curve, the curvature plot. A curve can be considered fair if the
curvature plot is without unexpected jumps. Two examples are given below. The wild sagging in the left plot
is unintended and indicates that the curve is not fair at that location. On the right the plot is discontinuous as
is to be expected, between the straight lines (no curvature) and the circular arc (constant curvature).
Figure 7.4: Curvature plot.
Moving points
A point can only be moved in the plane in which the polycurve of the point is defined. A point on a frame
can be moved both in vertical and transverse direction. A point on a spatial polycurve can be moved in all
directions. For points in which polycurves of different type intersect the following degrees of freedom arise.
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7.1 Introduction
47
hoogte-as
waterline
vertical axis
spatial curve
frame
P2
P3
P4
buttock
P1
is
l ax
d in a
itu
long
P6
tran
sver
se a
x
ina
itud
long
waterline
tran
sve
is
rse
is
l ax
P5
spatial curve
buttock
frame
axis
Figure 7.5: Degrees of freedom.
P1 : only transverse motion possible
P2 : only vertical motion possible
P3 : only longitudinal motion possible
P4 : transverse and vertical motion
possible
P5 : longitudinal and vertical motion
possible
P6 : transverse and longitudinal motion
possible
Fairway manages the degrees of freedom and will offer you the available directions of motion.
7.1.2.2
Surfaces
Figure 7.6: A tangent ribbon (in red), constructed from the shape of all curves C and D at their intersections.
Face / surface
The manual mentions faces and surfaces. A face is the smallest area generated by intersecting lines in 3D
space; faces are the meshes of the network of curves. A surface is an area defined by the user, bounded by
intersecting lines. A surface can have certain properties, like, for example, developability. No lines can exist
within a face. They can exist within a surface, as the surface may consist of several faces.
Curved surface
As discussed in the Basics of Fairway, Fairway has the option to create curved surfaces. These derive their
shape from the shape of the neighbouring curves. So, there are no handles or functions to manipulated the
surfaces, they simply arise between the curves, and the way to influence their shape is by re-shaping the
curves in the vicinity. Howeber, there is a single setting for this curved surface creation algorithm, which is
discussed just below.
Tangent ribbon
As foundation of a curved surface, ribbons of cross-boundary tangents are interpolated. These are the socalled tangent ribbons, which ensure the continuity of the curved shape over the entire surface. These are
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7.1 Introduction
48
being constructed on basis of the shape of the curves at all mutual intersections between curves, an example
is given in the figure above where the red arrows depict one such a tangent ribbon. This interpolation comes
in two flavours, ‘smooth’ or ‘articulated’ at each intersection. In general, smooth tangent ribbons produce
a smoother surface, but they can also cause unwanted undulations. In that case articulated tangent ribbons
can be selected. Articulated tangent ribbons can be appropriate very early in the design when few curves
are present that define the shape, and at the final stage of modelling when many curves are present for
construction that give a high number of intersections. The type of tangent ribbon can be set for each solid
individually, please see section 7.11.3 on page 118, Solid management for a discussion.
Developable surfaces
Developable surfaces are surfaces that are curved in one direction only. They have the advantage that shell
plates can be formed without stretch or shrinkage. Conic surfaces are the only developable surfaces. This
includes cylindrical surfaces, as these can ge seen as cones with a top at infinity. Two kinds of developable
surfaces can be distinguished: single-top cones and multi-top cones. The cones may have any base.
A single-top cone is generated by moving a straight line about a single point in 3D space. This single point
is the top of the cone. The straight line is called the ruling.
cone top
defining
chines
ruling
developable plate
A multi-top cone can be described as a cone with a shifting top. This top moves along a curved line in
3D space. Each ruling of the cone is a tangent of this curved line at the corresponding top. If a linesplan
with developable surfaces is made by hand, the use of multi-top cones is often too complicated. By using
multi-top cones it is possible to create complex developable surfaces. When working with Fairway, the user
needs not worry about the details of cones and tops, but only indicates the curves that bound the developable
surface. Fairway calculates and displays the result.
spatial curve of
cone tops
defining
chines
rulings
developable plate
A condition for a surface to be developable is that all rulings must exist. A ruling connects a point on one
defining line (see below) with a point on the other defining line in which the tangents are coplanar. The
rulings are not allowed to cross and no ‘holes’ between the rulings are allowed. This is an indication that
the shifting cone top has moved inside the surface boundaries, which is not physically possible. Crossing
rulings and holes are illustrated in the figures below.
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7.1 Introduction
49
Not developable: the rulings cross
Not developable: gap between the rulings
Figure 7.7: Forbidden constellation of rulings.
It is not necessary to watch for these defects all the time, Fairway will validate developable surfaces on its
own.
Defining lines of a developable surface
The defining lines of a surface are the two boundary lines inbetween which the rulings run. These lines are
called defining lines because only these lines determine the shape of a developable surface. The defining
lines must always be chines. No knuckles are allowed on the chine.
If a developable surface is defined by the rulings from a single fixed cone top or if a cylindrical developable
surface is defined, only one defining boundary line can be specified.
Region
A region is a domain on the surface, bounded by a closed contour, that may have specific properties. For
example, in case of developable surfaces the property is developability. The user can define a region by
defining its corners on bounding polycurves.
The figures below illustrate a developable surface. The first figure gives a 3D view of a completely developable
hull shape. The bottom plate has been selected for processing. The chine and the stem contour are the defining
borderlines. You can see the rulings on the bottom plate. The lower figure shows the developed bottom plate.
7.1.2.3
Solids
When designing the shape of a ship hull it may be convenient to consider the vessel to be composed by multiple
building blocks. Such a block can be imagined as a closed and solid bdy, so it will be denoted by the word solid
hereafter. In principle each solid is completely independent, and contains its own points, curves and surfaces.
Solids can also be imported or exported independently. Also functions are available to glue solids together, e.g., a
bulbous bow which is intersected with the hull, however, these are still experimental.
7.1.3
Definitions and concepts
7.1.3.1
Phantom face
It is important to realize that in Fairway the network of polycurves defines basically a closed surface. This implies
that without special provisions the hull will also be closed over deck and over center plane. However, for the sake
of clarity polycurves over center plane are by default not generated. This is the result of the center plane and deck
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7.1 Introduction
50
region being defined as a phantom plane, which is a face (please refer to section 7.1.2.2 on page 47, Surfaces for
its definition) in which newly generated polycurves do not extend. A phantom face can be toggled on or off at any
desired moment, see section 7.3.5.16 on page 79, Phantom Faces. However, when toggling the network remains
unchanged, so at that moment no polycurves will be added or removed, it only will have its effect on future actions.
There is rarely a need to change the phantom face setting. Only when it is explicitly desired that polycurves
do also extend over the center plane, the phantom face has to be switched off. Another case is in the modeling of a
deck with one or more hatch openings, then it can be practical to define the openings as phantom faces.
7.1.3.2
Polycurve visibility
This attribuut nidicates whether a polycurve is visiible in the GUI. The visibility will occasionally also be used at
export to other file formats, such as DXF or IGES (when it is asked whether only the visible polycurves should be
included in the export). The visibility can be set in the GUI (see paragraph 7.3.2.2.2 on page 54, Polycurves) as
well as in the alphanumerical menu (for which reference is made to section 7.12.1 on page 120, Alphanumerical
manipulation).
7.1.3.3
Polycurve locked
A polycurve can be ‘locked’, which comes in two variants, namely ‘lock against removal’ and ‘lock against removal
and modification’. Locking against removal especially comes in handy when working with ‘groups of polycurve
locations’ (please refer to section 7.12.4 on page 122, Polycurve position sets for that, however, a discussion on the
concepts of such groups should urgently be included in this section of the manual). For example, when a group of
polycurves is added, of which some coincide with the already existing polycurves. When afterwards this group is
erased, the already existing will also be removed, which obviously will not be the intention. Locking the original
polycurves before adding the groups will prevent this. Locking against modification can be used for extra safety.
Especially during fairing, it might prove to be useful to lock certain polycurves which are absolutely not allowed to
change. The polycurves can be locked in the GUI (see paragraph 7.3.2.2.2 on page 54, Polycurves) as well as in the
alphanumerical menu (for which reference is made to section 7.12.1 on page 120, Alphanumerical manipulation).
7.1.3.4
Construction Water Line (CWL)
The attribute ‘CWL’ is applicable to polycurves of the type waterline, and indicates which waterline is the ‘construction water line (CWL)’. The CWL is only applied in Fairway, in graphical presentations (such as those of
section 7.7 on page 100, Show (rendered and colored) surfaces) to show the waterplane and/or to apply differents colors below and above the water surface. The CWL attribute can be set in the GUI (see section 7.3.5.7
on page 74, Properties of polycurves) as well as in the alphanumerical menu as discussed in section 7.12.1 on
page 120, Alphanumerical manipulation.
7.1.3.5
Deck at side
Indicates whether this line is a ‘deck at side’. This is only relevant for the conversion of the hull to PIAS format
(please refer to section 7.8.1 on page 102, Create file in PIAS-ordinate format (.hyd file) for that function), because there the PIAS frames will be cut off at the level of such a deck at side. This attribute can be specified in
section 7.3.5.7 on page 74, Properties of polycurves and in the menus as discussed in section 7.12.1 on page 120,
Alphanumerical manipulation.
7.1.3.6
Polycurve positions sets
A polycurve position set (prior to 2012 known as a group of line places) is a set of systematic locations for frames,
waterlines or buttocks, which can be shown or added at those locations. This mechanism offers the option of
some kind of preview, showing polycurves without them actually being added to the model (see section 7.3.5.14
on page 77, Show Indicative Intersections). These groups of locations are managed in a menu which can be called
from paragraph 7.3.5.3.2 on page 71, Position sets and section 7.12.4 on page 122, Polycurve position sets. A
description of the menu follows below.
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Attention
A position-set is nothing more than a set of declared positions, irrespective of whether matching polylcurves
exist or not. Selecting or deselecting a certain set will not add or remove polycurves at the positions of that
set.
Selected
This value can be toggled to either ‘yes’ or ‘no’, and indicates whether this set is active in the GUI (corresponds to the check mark in the list of sets in the GUI).
Name
This value contains the name of the group. Specifying a clear name may prevent against unwanted adding
or removing of lines. A useful name may be something like a short description of the group of lines.
Line type
Defines the type of the entire group of lines, the following types can be chosen: frames, buttocks and
waterlines.
minL, minB, minH, maxL, maxB, maxH
Define the region in which the lines of the concerned group are being added. By means of this function,
frames, waterlines and buttocks that do not cover the entire hull shape, can be added. The lines are being cut
off on the nearest intersecting line outside the defined domain.
Further definition of a set can be done by clicking it, or by <Enter>. Then a window appears where the
following properties can be set:
Multiple
This value can be toggled to either ‘yes’ or ‘no’. This specifies whether this definition is appropriate for one
line or more than one.
Beginning cq. location
This is the first location of the group of lines, or, alternatively, the only location in case Multiple is toggled to
‘no’. The value is the length, breadth or heigth of the first line. Recall that length, breadth or heigth depends
on the chosen line type (frame, buttock or waterline).
End
The last location of the group of lines.
Increment
Defines the distance between each line. This value can be filled in directly, or, alternatively, indirectly by the
value number of intervals.
Number of intervals
The value is the number of lines which fit between the ‘beginning’ and the ‘end’ with the given increment.
Therefore if this value is modified, the increment value is modified automatically, since the beginning and
the end are constant during this operation.
Finally, there is a supporting function: if frame spaces have been defined in PIAS Config (as discussed in
section 6.9 on page 42, Definition of frame spaces) and a set of frame positions is being edited, then the option
[Config-import] appears in the menu bar. This option imports the frame spaces as defined in Config into the current
set.
7.2
Start and main menu
Fairway can be started by choosing in the main PIAS menu the option [Hullform definition] and then submenu
[Fairway: Lines design and fairing].
After starting Fairway, the filename of the project is asked. When you start a new Fairway project, type in the
name (and path) for the project. Next the following menu will appear:
New Fairway project (file filename)
Start with new hull design (minimal hull)
Start with new hull design (rectangular barge)
Import hull form from existing PIAS file
Import hull form from SXF file
Start with new hull design (horizontal cylinder with R=B/2)
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When choosing "Start with new hull design..." the following menu will appear:
Design main dimensions
Projectname
Length PP
Moulded breadth
Moulded draft
Moulded depth
Blok coefficient
(optional target value)
Center of Buoyancy (% of Lpp from Lpp/2) (optional target value)
Midship coefficient
(optional target value)
After entering the main dimensions in this menu, if the first option was chosen, an initial model will be generated by Fairway (with the specified main dimensions), containing one deck line, one stem/stern contour and one
frame. With the second option a rectangular barge of the correct main dimensions is created, with the last option a
cylinder.
This model is the base for subsequent actions. Values for the block coefficient, LCB and midship coefficient are
used as target values for the sectional area curves. These values are not necessarily equal to the final hydrostatic
particulars, it is up to the user to achieve those values, with the aid of the controlling mechanisms that Fairway
offers.
After the hull is read into Fairway the following main menu appears:
Hull shape design
1.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
2.
Main dimensions and other ship parameters
3.
Hullform transformation
4.
Settings and miscellaneous
5.
Show (rendered and colored) surfaces
6.
Export of hullform
7.
Define and generate lines plan
8.
Shell plate expansions and templates
9.
File and solid management
10. Legacy UI
Besides this main menu the following options are available in the menu bar:
Setup
In the [Setup] menu, general PIAS settings can be specified. The details of suboption [Project Setup] are
discussed in chapter 6 on page 35, Config: General project configurations.
Help
The [Help] option will give a help window explaining the available menubar options and provides remarks
about the current menu option.
Quit
With the [Quit] option the current window is closed. When you choose [Quit] in the main menu, you will
leave Fairway.
Memory
The [Memory] option will show the free memory space available. In DOS this option was once used to check
if sufficient memory is left.
Attention
In some Fairway pop-up boxes input is asked, for example when you want to print. You can close a box like
this using either of the following two options:
1. [OK]: You confirm the input as shown in the input fields and continue the process.
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2. [Leave]: You return to the default values of the input fields as shown in the fields before you made any
changes, and continue the process. (Thus this function is different from the often used function Cancel
because the process is not interrupted).
This chapter ends with a set of appendices in Appendices.
7.3
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
This section describes the modern Fairway GUI that was completely redesigned and first released in 2012. Fairway
has long had various user interfaces. It started with an alpha-numerical interface, then it got a graphical user
interface in parallel. In addition came an interface for rendering.
The new user interface is developed from the ground up alongside the other interfaces, and it is still possible
to switch between them without leaving the program. The GUI had its first public release when it was found to be
complete enough for production purposes. Eventually all functionality from older interfaces will be integrated into
the modern GUI, but until then those interfaces will stay around to fall back upon. This manual will be adapted as
work progresses in the new GUI.
First the general structure of the interface is presented, followed by ways to change the view on the model.
Next the dragger is introduced, which is a graphical entity for interactive manipulation of 3D positions, specifically
designed for Fairway. The section continues by documenting the various modelling actions by which the model can
be changed, and supporting functionality. Finally there is a section that you can consult if you encounter problems.
7.3.1
Start up
At start up a progress bar in the status bar indicates how solids are read into the GUI. This process is completed
when it reads “Ready” in the status bar, and the GUI is responsive to the mouse and keyboard. Curves are represented by a course polyline initially in order to get ready for user interaction quickly, and the system continues
preparing for final display accuracy and the curvature information while the user is working with the model. Care
is taken that curves that are under the mouse pointer are prioritised, so that these are always displayed at high
accuracy. Because of this task, CPU load can be high for the first moments after loading a large model, but it will
normalize eventually. For configuration of the display accuracy see section 7.6.1.3 on page 98, Configuration GUI.
7.3.2
GUI Structure
The GUI consists of a central modelling area, around which various control- and information panels can be positioned, according to the preferences of the user. The menu bar along the top and the status bar along the bottom
are the only static elements in the main window, everything else can be repositioned, detached and embedded by
means of drag-and-drop. To show or hide a particular window, click on the corresponding item in the [Window]
menu.
7.3.2.1
Modelling Views
The modelling area can be filled with one or more modelling views in various layouts. A new modelling view can
be opened with [Window][new]. When there are several views open in the modelling area, the one under the mouse
pointer is automatically activated and raised to the front in case of overlapping views. A view can be prevented
from being occluded by the active view by selecting “Stay on Top” from the drop-down menu under the top left
icon of the view window. View windows may be layed out automatically filling the modelling area by selecting
[Window][Tile].
As Fairway has excellent controls for changing the view angle and zoom level in a view window (see section 7.3.3 on page 56, Navigation: Pan, Zoom and Rotate) many people prefer working in a single maximized
window, which you get by clicking on the corresponding button in the top right corner of the view window frame.
Alternatively, several large views may be stacked on top of each other by selecting [Window][Stack]; which gives
each window a tab pane along the top for switching between views.
The projection of the view can be toggled between parallel projection and perspective projection from the
context menu, by clicking the right mouse button over the view window in question. Since manipulation of curves
in various planes is very well handled in Fairway and independent from the view angle or projection, you may even
prefer to model and manipulate in perspective, as it helps with spatial orientation and to differentiate curves in the
foreground from the rest of the model; it is a depth cue.
When the GUI is closed, the view window layout and view angles are stored and restored when the GUI is
reopened at a later time.
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54
Tree view
The tree view contains a hierarchical list of the elements of a model. It can be shown and hidden from the menu
[Window][Tree View], and be repositioned to another location — even another screen if you have one — by dragging
its title bar. A double-click on the title bar toggles between floating above the main window and embedded within.
The tree can be expanded and collapsed by clicking the small triangles to the left of the items, or by double
clicking the item itself. To expand an item and all its sub-items, select the item and press <*>. Every solid has a
sub-item for visualisation of its shell surface, followed by sub-items for every kind of polycurve.
7.3.2.2.1
Shell
The visualisation of the shell can be toggled for each solid individually with the check box behind the [Shell] item.
To reveal or hide the shells of all solids at once, the [Show All Shells] and [Hide All Shells] buttons in the [Display][
Solid Appearance...] window can be used. That window also contains the options with which the visualisation of
the shell can be adjusted.
The [Shell] item can be expanded to reveal the [Material] properties. Both the color and transparency of the
surface can be changed here with a double-click on the corresponding value. However, the shell of inactive solids
is rendered uniformly as set in [Preferences...][Curves][Solids][Inactive color].
Changes to the shell visualisation settings in the tree view are saved with the model, but they are not recorded in
the undo history as they do not affect modeling actions. The settings in the [Display][ Solid Appearance...] window
are user preferences and are thus shared across projects.
7.3.2.2.2
Polycurves
When a polycurve is selected graphically, the tree is automatically expanded and scrolled to bring the selection
into view. Selections can also be made in the tree view with the left mouse button <LMB>. A composed selection
is made with <Ctrl+LMB> and a range is selected with <Shift+LMB> or holding <LMB> while dragging over the
list. It is also possible to select all expanded items with <Ctrl+A>.
There are two additional columns in the tree view containing check boxes for visibility (see section 7.1.3.2
on page 50, Polycurve visibility) and access (see section 7.1.3.3 on page 50, Polycurve locked). If a particular
polycurve is hidden, the visibility check box of its parent item as well as of its parent solid is filled to indicate that
not all polycurves are visible. Clicking this box in the parent solid will unhide all polycurves in the solid. Clicking
this box in the parent item unhides all child polycurves if there are hidden polycurves, otherwise it hides all of
them. The menu option [Display][Unhide All] will unhide all hidden items in the entire model at once.
The access column controls the active/inactive state of solids, and the lock status of polycurves. Inactive solids
change to a uniform colour and cannot be modified. Polycurves can be in one of three lock states:
1. Unlocked
2. Irremovable
3. Fully locked
An irremovable polycurve can still be modified, but not be deleted. The polycurve lock state is cycled with a
click on its check box.
State changes are recorded in the action history and can be undone and redone, see paragraph 7.3.5.1.1 on
page 61, Undo and redo.
7.3.2.3
Levels of information and control
The Fairway GUI is designed to present both information and control at different levels of interaction, at the right
time, without the user needing to ask for them or to search for them in the menu’s. Controls that are irrelevant to
the task at hand are therefore abscent and cannot cause confusion or distraction.
7.3.2.3.1
Unselected polycurves
Unselected polycurves of active solids are colour coded according to the plane in which they are defined. Chines
are displayed with an increased line width. The colours and widths can be configured according to your preferences
from the menu [Edit][Preferences...][Curves]. Polycurves that are part of inactive solids are uniformly displayed in
the inactive colour. In short, the following information is available at first sight:
• Whether a polycurve is part of an active solid.
• Whether a polycurve is a frame, waterline, buttock, diagonal, planar or spatial polycurve.
• Whether it is a chine or regular polycurve.
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55
Prelit polycurves
When the mouse pointer is moved over the model, polycurves under it will light up in a distinct colour, the prelight
colour (yellow by default). This is done for two reasons.
Firstly, it aids the user in making selections. It hints which curve or polycurve will be selected if the left mouse
button would be pressed. In case of an ambiguity, when there are more than one polycurves under the cursor,
all will light up and at mouse press a pop-up will differentiate the items. If selection of the prelit polycurve is
prohibited in the current modelling context, e.g., when attempting to delete a locked polycurve, then it will be
prelit using the prohibited colour (red by default). The reason why selection is prohibited is given in the status bar.
Secondly, prelighting reveals more information about the polycurve:
• Knuckles are displayed with a small circle, showing the subdivision into curves.
• The existence of boundary condistions at the knuckles are indicated, by displaying tangents with dotted
lines.
• A curvature plot indicates the fairness of the polycurve, if switched on. [Display][Curvature Plots][On Polycurves] produces a plot along the full length of the polycurve, while [Display][Curvature Plots][On Curves]
only shows the curvature of the curve that is directly under the mouse cursor or that is being manipulated
(see paragraph 7.3.5.2.8.2 on page 69, Show Curvature Plot). Similar switches are found on the tool bar
[Window][Curvature Plots]. The plot is constructed by setting out the curvature value perpendicularly to the
curve. The scale of the plot can be adjusted with the <Up> and <Down> arrow keys.
• The single curve directly under the mouse cursor is further accented with additional information:
– The vertices that define the shape of the spline.
– The points through which the spline is faired.
* Inactive points are marked with an outlined arrow pointing upwards.
* Heavy points are marked with a solid arrow pointing downwards.
• In the status bar the currently prelit curve is identified with
–
–
–
–
7.3.2.3.3
The name of the solid.
The name of the polycurve, as well as its position (when applicable).
The type of the curve and its running number.
If the curve has a defined master curve, that curve is identified between braces.
Selected Polycurves
Polycurves, consisting of curves, can be selected on two levels. Firstly the polycurve as a whole can be selected,
and secondly a curve as an individual can be selected. If a curve is selected, its parent polycurve is always selected
as well. Selections can be made in the modelling area as well as in the Tree view (discussed on the preceding
page). A compound selection can be made by holding the <Ctrl> key, or by dragging over items in the tree view.
The current modelling context may limit the freedom to make selections. For example, when deleting polycurves it is not possible to select curves, and when manipulating a curve then a compound selection is not possible.
A selected curve or polycurve is highlighted using an animation reminding of a string of droplets running along
the line or of marching ants. The speed of this animation can be configured with the value of Dash animation
speed in [Edit][Preferences...][Curves]. Apart from giving a visual distinction, the animation serves an important
functional purpose:
• The direction of the polycurve is indicated (for the definition of polycurve direction see section 7.1.2.1 on
page 45, Lines).
Moving dashes are also practical, as they do not permanently obstruct the view on details of the drawing.
There is a second set of defined colours, associated with the curve type: Spline, straight line, circular arc and
(other) conic arc. A selected curve is displayed in this colour, with ants in the prelight colour. Other parts of a
selected polycurve are coloured normally, but ants are coloured according to the type of the underlying curve.
Furthermore, points and vertices of selected curves become “hot”, meaning that they themselves light up when
the mouse pointer is positioned over them. When clicked, a Change the shape of a curve (discussed on page 61)
action is started, allowing points and vertices to be dragged instantly.
If switched on, curvature plots also show on selected polycurves. If a set of consecutive polycurves is selected
in parallel planes, which is easiest done from the tree view (discussed on the previous page), a plot appears on
each of them. This visualises curvature transitions across curves, which can be a valuable insight. You way want
to enable colour coding of the curvature plot, so overlapping plots can still be read, using [Edit][Preferences...][Curves][Curvature].
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Figure 7.8: Curvature plots on a sequence of selected polycurves, coloured according to curvature gradient.
7.3.2.4
Keyboard operation
At SARC we have a focus on keeping mouse travel distances low, and the previous Fairway GUI was known for
its keyboard shortcuts and the swift operation they allowed. Even though the current GUI has more buttons and
dials than its predecessor, we have maintained our commitment and the keyboard is still a fully supported control
device.
The menu bar is activated through the <Alt> key like you are used to, after which mnemonics are displayed for
the keys that activate the menu items. Some items like [File][Save], [Edit][Undo] and [Edit][Redo] can be activated
without opening the menu, by pressing the shortcut key combination that is displayed to the right of the item in the
menu.
As discussed in section 7.3.5 on page 60, Modelling actions, many modelling actions bring up a dedicated
panel with relevant controls and information. This action panel stands out visually with a distinct background
colour, so it is easily located on the screen. Most controls on the action panel have a corresponding item in the
context menu, which can be brought up with a click on the right mouse button in a modelling view. Whenever the
context menu is up, hotkeys are displayed over the controls on the action panel, so they are easily memorised while
using the program. These keys are “hot” whenever the control is visible, unless an input field has keyboard focus.
Pressing a hotkey simulates activation of the associated control on the action panel.
7.3.2.4.1
Numerical input
Fields for numerical input always show the unit of the number, unless it is dimensionless. If digits are selected
in the field, then these are replaced instantly upon the first key-press. Double-clicking selects the digits before or
after the decimal mark, and a third click selects the entire number.
Different geographical regions use different formats for the notation of numbers. Fairway balances adherence to
the local format and flexibility of input in the following way. Numbers are displayed without thousands separators,
with a decimal mark as set in the number format setting of your operating system. This setting also affects the
interpretation of number input: If “,” is a thousands separator, then it is simply ignored. Otherwise, both “,” and
“.” are interpreted as decimal marks. If the input contains more than one decimal mark then the input is truncated
just before the second mark upon the press of <Enter>. Summarizing:
• Do not use thousands separators.
• If “,” is a decimal mark, you are free to use “.” as a decimal mark as well.
Often, real numbers are displayed in reduced precision to save space on screen, but when they are being edited
the field may expand to reveal more digits. This allows the number to be inspected and edited at a higher precision.
If small arrow buttons are shown next to the field then these may be clicked (and held) to change the value in
predefined small steps. The same can be accomplished by pressing the <Up> and <Down> arrow keys. Bigger
steps are made with the <Page Up> and <Page Down> keys. A third way of adjusting numbers is by rolling the
mouse wheel over an input field. If you do that while holding the <Ctrl> key, then bigger steps are used. For this
it is not necessary to click on the field first, it suffices to place the mouse pointer over the field and start rolling.
7.3.3
Navigation: Pan, Zoom and Rotate
Panning, zooming and rotating is collectively known under the term navigation. Fairway provides several interfaces for navigation, all of which are designed to not interfere with actions for selection and manipulation. That
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Pan
<MMB>
Zoom
Rotate
<Ctrl + MMB>
Wheel <Shift + MMB>
<MMB + RMB>
<MMB + LMB>
<F4><LMB><F4> <F4><Ctrl + LMB><F4>
<F4><Shift + LMB><F4>
3Dconnexion navigation device
Table 7.1: Navigation Controls.
is, no operation must be interrupted or cancelled for navigation. When used in isolation, the following always
applies:
• The left mouse button <LMB> is used for selection and manipulation.
• The middle mouse button <MMB> is used for navigation.
• The right mouse button <RMB> brings up the context menu.
If you don’t have a mouse with a middle button you can use the Navigation mode (discussed on the next page).
If the middle mouse button does not work then try to troubleshoot it (discussed on page 92).
Table 7.1 on the current page lists ways to control general pan, zoom and rotate functionalities. Various special
navigation instructions are given below, such as zoom all, reorient on curve, spin, fly through and others.
7.3.3.1
Current orientation
The current view direction is always displayed in the title bar of the view as two angles: one is the view direction
relative to the centre plane and the other relative to the base plane. If the view direction happens to be perpendicular
to one of the main planes, then this is also indicated in words.
The orientation of the model relative to the viewer is indicated by the set of orientation axes displayed in the
lower right corner of the view window. The positive length, breadth and height directions are each represented by
an indicidually coloured arrow. The orientation axes can be switched on and off and colours can be customized in
[Edit][Preferences...][General][Orientation axes].
For changing the orientation please consult section 7.3.3.4 on this page, Rotating.
7.3.3.2
Panning
Panning brings different parts of the model into view. Panning is possible in these ways:
• Press <MMB> and drag.
• Click and release the <MMB> to pan the clicked location to the middle of the modelling area.
7.3.3.3
Zooming
Zooming happens in the direction underneith the mouse cursor. Zooming is possible in these ways:
•
•
•
•
•
7.3.3.4
Press and hold <Ctrl> and <MMB>, then drag up or down.
Press and hold <MMB> first, followed by <RMB>, then drag up or down.
Wheel up or down.
Zoom in on a curve with just a click on the curve (<Ctrl + MMB> or <MMB + RMB>), without dragging.
Zoom all with a click in the background (<Ctrl + MMB> or <MMB + RMB>), without dragging. If you
rotate after having done this, the zoom level is adjusted on the fly to make the model fill the view, until you
pan or zoom explicitly.
Rotating
Rotating the camera around the model is possible in these ways:
• Press and hold <Shift> and <MMB>, then drag.
• Press and hold <MMB> first, followed by <LMB>, then drag.
• View a planar polycurve in-plane with just a click on the polycurve (<Shift + MMB> or <MMB + LMB>).
Click the same polycurve once more to rotate 180 degrees. This is sometimes called to reorient on a curve.
The center of rotation is set to the center of the visible part of the bounding box of the model. When dragging
the mouse from left to right the camera rotates around a vertical axis. When dragging away or towards you the
camera tilts around its horizontal axis, whilst keeping the center of rotation in view.
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58
Spinning
If, while rotating, the <MMB> is released in the middle of a dragging motion, then the camera will continue to
orbit around the rotation center, until the <MMB> is pressed again.
7.3.3.5
Perspective views
The view projection can be toggled between orthographic and perspective using the context menu, or with <Ctrl +
Shift + P>. In perspective views, panning rotates the camera around its own center, synonimous with the concept of
panning in photography. But zooming is replaced with dollying, meaning that the camera position moves forward
or backward. By combining pan and dolly it is thereby possible to “walk” or “fly” through the model in perspective
projection. And because dollying happens in the direction under the mouse pointer (as is zooming) it is possible to
translate the camera sideways without changing its orientation by dollying in and out in different directions.
7.3.3.6
3Dconnexion navigation device
Fairway has built-in support for the 6-degree of freedom navigation devices from 3Dconnexion, making it possible
to pan, zoom and rotate simultaneously in one smooth motion. The SpaceNavigator devices have two buttons. The
left button resets the view to view all of the model, the right button brings up the device configuration panel.
If you have trouble using the navigation device then try to troubleshoot it (discussed on page 92).
7.3.3.7
Navigation mode
In navigation mode, the left mouse button acts as the middle mouse button, so that it can be used for navigation.
Toggle the navigation mode on and off in either of the following ways:
• Press <F4>
• Select the menu [Display][Navigation Mode]
• Click the “hand” icon in the toolbar. If the icon is not visible, select the menu [Window][Navigation].
7.3.4
The dragger: interactive graphical positioning
Whenever a position can be manipulated graphically, a so-called dragger appears in the modelling views. It consists
of one or more arrows contained in a translucent sphere that loosely resembles a soap bubble. This sphere marks
the dragger “hotspot”: to interact with the dragger you need not aim precisely at the arrows, it suffices to click on
the hotspot and start dragging.
Figure 7.9: Dragger with status information.
The dragger attaches to a movable entity such as a point or vertex, and thereby gives a handle on its position. If
there are more than one movable entities in the view, then the dragger jumps to the one that is nearest to the mouse
pointer, so it is easy to switch focus between them.
Whenever a dragger is present, its three-dimensional coordinates are displayed in the right end of the status
bar, along with a concise usage instruction.
7.3.4.1
Freedom of motion
The arrows of the dragger indicate the positive directions of the freedom of motion. If there is just one arrow then
it can only be dragged linearly along a single axis. If there are two arrows then dragging is possible in the plane
that contains the arrows, which is also indicated by a small square at the centre of the dragger. If the dragger is
attached to an entity that is free to be positioned in three dimensions, then this is indicated by a third orthogonal
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arrow. The third arrow is transparent to indicate that it is inactive. By holding the mouse pointer over the hotspot
and pressing <Ctrl> you switch to a different pair of arrows, changing the plane of motion. The square in the
middle marks the current plane.
If a dragger has more than one arrows, you can constrain motion linearly along one of the arrows by holding
<Shift> while pressing the mouse button. This selects the arrow that is closest to the mouse pointer, as indicated
by a dash-dotted line.
Sometimes an entity’s freedom of motion does not coinside with the main axes, as is the case for points on a
curve that is defined in an oblique plane. In that case, arrows are displayed that each are contained in the oblique
plane and in one of the main planes. These are then coloured according to the respective main plane. So if, for
example, you would hold <Shift> and drag the waterline-coloured arrow (red by default) you would move the
dragger horizontally. Draggers of this type can have three arrows, but they are all coplanar. Also, the plane in the
middle of the dragger is cropped by a cube, making it possibly six-sided, so its edges still run parallel to the main
plane, helping you to interpret its orientation.
7.3.4.2
View point induced constraints
So the direction of motion is independent from the view direction; it is solely under the control of the dragger.
There is a chance however, that one arrow is close to parallel to the view direction, or that the view direction
is close to being collinear with the current plane of the dragger. This could cause excessive translation in the
view direction, and to prevent that, motion is automatically constrained to the other arrow if there is one, or fully
constrained otherwise. An arrow that is made inactive this way will be transparent to indicate that freedom of
motion does exist in that direction, but that the view direction must be changed before it can be moved accordingly.
Also, whenever a dragger is being dragged while there is a view point induced constraint, an attention notice is
given in the status bar.
7.3.4.3
Snapping to other points in the model
Sometimes a position needs to exactly coinside with or be aligned with another point that is already present in the
model. A faster alternative to keying in the coordinates manually is to bring up the context menu by clicking the
right mouse button over the dragger. You will see a sub-menu called [Dragger], containing three options:
• [Snap to Knuckle Point] will light up all knuckle and end points in active solids, from which one may be
selected to drag to.
• [Snap to Network Point] will do the same as above, but will include all points that define an intersection
between curves.
• [Snap to Any Point] will offer all points in active solids, including internal ones.
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Figure 7.10: Using dragger snap to define the direction of projection.
When a point is highlit, a dash-dotted line is drawn from the current position to where the dragger wil travel. If
the dragger is not free to translate in any direction, this might not coinside with that point. This makes it possible
to align a point in say, a frame, with another point in another frame, in height and breadth. This line of travel is
color-coded according to its direction, using the colors associated with the main planes and axes. When the line is
not parallel to any of these, then it will be colored like a curve in an oblique plane.
The coordinates displayed in the right end of the status bar normally indicate the current position of the dragger.
But when snapping to other points they indicate the position that the dragger would translate to, for the currently
highlit point.
7.3.4.4
Dragger customization
It is possible to customize the dragger. For exampple, when producing illustrations it may be desirable to adjust the
dragger to a white background. Technically confident users are referred to section 7.A.3 on page 125, Customizing
the dragger appearance (advanced) for instructions and examples.
7.3.5
Modelling actions
When we at SARC redesigned the Fairway GUI we made an inventory of the ways in which a model can be changed,
and clustered them into a smaller number of modelling actions. This has resulted in a clean user interface that is to
a high degree self-explaining, and it has enabled us to implement some very powerful features, some of which are
quite unique.
This section opens with an introduction to the common functionalities of actions, and continues with a documentation of each individual action:
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Change the shape of a curve
New Planar Polycurve by Intersection
New Polycurve by Projection
Move polycurve
Remove Polycurve
Properties of polycurves
Curve Properties
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Systemize polycurve names
Join polycurves
Split polycurve
Connect Points
Generate Fillet Points
Show Indicative Intersections
Change the shape of the SAC
Phantom Faces
Define Shell Region
Remove Shell Region
Seams and Butts
7.3.5.1
Common functionality
When you start an action from the menu bar, an action-specific panel comes up, easily identified with its distinct
background colour. Many actions require a selection of one or more items to act upon, and the panel will tell you
to make a selection when needed. Selections can be made graphically or from the tree view (discussed on page 54).
You can also make a selection first and then start the action, which will skip the display of instructions.
When the prerequisites are met, the action enters the configuration stage. In the configuration stage you are
able to adjust properties and make changes, but none of these are final. The action will show you interactively how
the model will change, but the original, unaltered model will shine through. This way it is easy to see the impact
of a change before and after.
Every action has the following four buttons at the bottom of the action panel:
The [Help] button, also operated with <F1>, brings up the help reader at the section that documents the current
action. If the configuration stage of the action has been changed, you can either [Reset] the changes (key <Esc>)
or [Apply] them (key <Enter>). When reset, the action reverses to its initial state and the model remains untouched.
When applied, the model is actually modified. Either way, the action panel stays open, ready for a new change
of the same kind. The action panel can be closed with the corresponding button (also key <Esc>) or by starting
another action.
Apart from this manual and the context-sensitive help mentioned above, most buttons and options show a tooltip with a short explanation when the mouse pointer is held still over it for a second or two. These tips may be all
you need to refresh your memory, and the manual can stay on the shelf most of the time.
7.3.5.1.1
Undo and redo
An added advantage of this staged way of working on a model is that its evolution is subdivided into well-defined
units of change, perfectly suited to be recorded and played back and forth at will. That is how undo and redo work
in Fairway. Single steps can be undone and redone in the conventional way of pressing <Ctrl+Z> and <Ctrl+Y>
but the complete string of changes can also be inspected by selecting [Edit][Navigate action history]. This brings
up a list of performed actions, which can also be embedded inside the main window just like the tree view, and by
clicking on the items in that list you can undo and redo multiple items at once.
Attention
Undo is an exclusive feature of the GUI, and in few places this functionality still needs to be implemented.
The action history will be cleared whenever you leave the GUI or use any of
•
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7.3.5.2
Split polycurve (discussed on page 76)
Join polycurves (discussed on page 76)
The [Swap] (discussed on page 64) mode of Change the shape of a curve
The option [Legacy Interface] of Properties of polycurves (discussed on page 74)
Change the shape of a curve
This action is at the core of Fairway modelling, and packed with functionality. It is started from [Curves][Change
the shape of the curve] (keys <Alt><C><S>), or by selecting a curve and clicking on one of its points or vertices.
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There are three main ways to change the shape of a curve. Firstly, it is possible to change the points of the
curve, and let Fairway fair the curve through the points. Secondly, it is possible to change the curve directly, by
changing the vertices of the control polygon or setting the curve type or specifying boundary conditions. The third
way is to define a master/slave relation between curves, in which the curve shape is derived from the shape of a
master curve.
Figure 7.11: Point manipulation.
The action panel provides three tabs to work in either of these three ways: the [Points] (key <P>), [Curve]
(key <C>) and [Master] tab (key <M>). The fourth tab provides [Settings] (discussed on page 68) with which the
behaviour of the action can be adjusted.
Below the tabbed section there are four general purpose buttons: [Fair], [Process All], [Clear] and [Redistribute].
These are discussed below.
7.3.5.2.1
Process All
When [Process All] is pressed (keys <Shift+P>), all the points of the curve are shifted onto their closest position on
the curve, within their freedom of motion. This is an important part of the effort to maintain a consistent network,
as defined in the introduction (discussed on page 45). By default, this task is automated with the option [Points
Follow Curve] (discussed on page 69).
7.3.5.2.2
Fair
When [Fair] is pressed (key <F>), a new curve shape is computed. Unless the curve type in the [Curve] tab is
different from [Spline] and/or a master curve is defined in the [Master] tab, the new shape passes closely through
the points. Exactly how close can be seen in the [Deviation] column of the coordinate table on the [Points] tab. The
accuracy of the fit depends on the [Mean fairing deviation] given underneath (the smaller that value the closer the
curve) and whether points have been given a non-neutral weight factor in the [W] column. Larger deviations, as
compared to the mean fairing deviation, are given a redish background in the table to allow for a quick optical
quality check.
After fairing, the deviations can be eliminated by processing the points, if this isn’t done automatically already.
Alternatively, the curve can be fitted exactly through the points (omitting the ones that are marked inactive
in the [W] column) by checking the [Interpolate] option. This will also change the text on the [Fair] button. Care
should be taken in using this option, because an interpolating curve may easily oscillate between points if one
of them is slightly misplaced, and inflections can spread like ripples. The ability to allow for acceptably small
deviations between points and curves is actually one of the strengths of Fairway, and helps in producing fair lines
for production.
By default, fairing (or interpolation) is done instantly and automatically with the option [Curve Follows Points]
(discussed on page 69) whenever that is appropriate. Nevertheless, that option does not make this button obsolete,
as you will see below.
Fairing, in the naval architectural sense of smoothing up and working out unwanted inflections, can often
be accomplished by alternatingly pressing [Fair] and [Process All]. Because [Fair] allows for small deviations
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and [Process All] eliminates them, both curve and points subtly converge to a higher fairness with each iteration.
Obviously, if [Points Follow Curve] (discussed on page 69) is on, points are processed immediately, and just pressing
<F> a few times will quickly improve the fairness. This can easily be visualised by the curvature plot (discussed
on page 69). The rate of convergence may be increased by increasing the [Mean fairing deviation], but when done
it is wise to reset that to the default value by means of the red arrow button behind the input field, as defined in
[Program setup] (besproken on page 98).
Because crossing curves are connected through their shared intersection points, fairing one curve may reduce
the fairness of other curves. It is easy to switch to a crossing curve and repeat the process there: crossing curves are
listed by the coloured buttons in the [Intersections] column of the coordinate table, and pressing one of these will
implicitly apply the changes to the current curve and start manipulation of the crossing curve. By repeatedly visiting and fairing the curves in a problematic area, imperfections can be eliminated, producing a fair and consistent
network of curves.
Another way to switch to another curve is by selecting a curve from the Tree view (discussed on page 54),
which will also implicitly apply changes to the current curve.
7.3.5.2.3
Clear
Pressing [Clear] (keys <Shift+Delete>) removes any and all internal points from the current curve. Of course the
intersection points with other curves remain.
7.3.5.2.4
Redistribute
When [Redistribute] is pressed (keys <Shift+R>), two things happen. First the internal points are removed, like
[Clear], and then new internal points are inserted, based on the vertex locations of the spline control polygon. This
is mainly useful after vertex manipulation, to help fixate the curve shape during future curve fairings. You may
want to [Fair] the curve after redistributing points to verify that the shape is fixated properly.
7.3.5.2.5
Points
The coordinate table forms a central part of the [Points] tab. It lists all points of the entire polycurve. The subdivision into individual curves is seen in the first column [T] (for “Type”) which differentiates knuckle points from
ordinary points. The background of points on the current curve in that column are filled with the colour associated
with the curve type. Rows for other curves are marked with a dotted background to indicate that these are not
directly manipulated. If there are more points than fit in the table, a scroll bar appears on the right with horizontal
marks to indicate the location of knuckles. The current curve is marked with a vertical line on the scroll bar. The
cells in the coordinate table can be edited much like a spreadsheet. If cells are edited outside the current curve,
changes to the current curve are applied and a new session is started on the other curve.
Directly underneath the coordinate table are the mode buttons, from which there is always one depressed←
: [Drag], [Knuckle], [Insert], [Delete], [Weighting], [Swap], [Process] and [Reposition]. The mode determines how
the mouse works in the modelling view.
7.3.5.2.5.1
Drag
The [Drag] mode (key <D>) on the [Points] tab simply allows for interactive manipulation of the positions of points
by means of a dragger, introduced in section 7.3.4 on page 58, The dragger: interactive graphical positioning. If
[Curve Follows Points] (discussed on page 69) is on, dragging points is an effective tool for manipulating the shape
of the curve.
If the position of a particular point needs to be keyed in exactly, make sure the dragger is snapped onto that
point and press <F2>. This will teleport the mouse pointer over to the corresponding row in the coordinate table
and open the first editable cell for editing. You may switch between cells with <Tab> and <Shift+Tab>. See also
paragraph 7.3.2.4.1 on page 56, Numerical input.
7.3.5.2.5.2
Knuckle
The [Knuckle] mode (key <K>) lets you toggle the type of a point between knuckle and ordinary. This effectively
splits or joins curves in the polycurve. Because the [Change the shape of a curve] action can only work on one
curve at a time, any changes to the current curve are applied right before a knuckle is toggled on or off. The point
nearest to the mouse pointer will light up and a message in the status bar shows what will happen to it if the left
mouse button is clicked.
It is also possible to toggle knuckles in the left-most column of the coordinate table by means of a double click,
<F2> or <Space>.
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Insert
The [Insert] mode (key <I>) on the [Points] tab simply allows you to insert extra internal points on the curve. The
position at which the point will be inserted is shown dynamically in the prelight colour, and you can preview its
exact coordinates on a temporary row in the coordinate table. Click to insert a point.
7.3.5.2.5.4
Delete
The [Delete] mode (key <Delete>) on the [Points] tab is for deleting internal points on the curve. If a certain point
cannot be deleted, the reason why is displayed on the status bar.
7.3.5.2.5.5
Weighting
In the [Weighting] mode (key <W>), the relative importance of points can be changed between neutral, inactive
and heavy. Instructions on how to do that appear in the status bar. An inactive point is marked with an outlined
arrow pointing upwards, a point with a heavy weight is marked with a filled arrow pointing downwards.
As with knuckles, it is also possible to change weights in the [W] column of the coordinate table by means of a
double click, <F2> or <Space>.
7.3.5.2.5.6
Swap
In the figure below a situation is sketched in which it may be necessary to swap two points on the curve.
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5
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6
frame
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5
4
3
waterline
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3
3
4
2
2
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1
buttock
1
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Figure 7.12: Use-case for swapping two points. Left: Initial situation. Middle: Frame shifted. Right: Swapped
points.
On the left a frame is shown, with points numbered in sequence. Points 3 and 4 mark the intersection with a
waterline and buttock respectively. Then a manipulation is performed (middle figure) that makes the frame pass
the intersection between waterline and buttock on the other side. Points 3 and 4 remain on their respective curves,
so now the points are ordered out of sequence as far as the frame is concerned, producing a kink in the curve. By
swapping points 3 and 4 the order can be restored and the kink removed (right figure).
The [Swap] mode is designed to do this. However, only points that form the side of a trianglar face can be
swapped, as shown in the figure. Any pair of points nearest to the mouse pointer that satisfy this requirement will
light up, and be swapped upon a click of the mouse.
Sequencing problems around faces with a higher number of sides cannot easily be repaired. Often the fastest
solution is to delete the problematic polycurve entirely and reinsert it. Another solution is to split it up, remove
the kink and reconstruct the missing part by connecting points. See section 7.3.5.11 on page 76, Split polycurve,
section 7.3.5.6 on page 73, Remove Polycurve and section 7.3.5.12 on page 76, Connect Points.
7.3.5.2.5.7
Process
In the [Process] mode, individual points can be shifted onto the curve, within their freedom of motion.
7.3.5.2.5.8
Reposition
In the [Reposition] mode, individual points may be whifted along the curve, if their freedom of motion allows this.
If not, an explanation will appear in the status bar. Care should be taken not to shift points past neighbouring
points, which would bring them out of sequence, causing a kink in the curve when it is faired.
7.3.5.2.6
Curve
The [Curve] tab is divided into two sections. In the upper section, the curve type can be specified, which also
enables controls that are relevant to the type. In the lower section, boundary conditions can be set and manipulated
to the start and end points of the spline.
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Figure 7.13: Curve manipulation.
7.3.5.2.6.1
Spline
As explained in section 7.1.2.1 on page 45, Lines, a spline is a freely malleable curve, both by vertex manipulation
and by the fairing algorithm. All other curve types produce a fixed shape. The default colour associated with
splines is light blue. Splines may have specified boundary conditions at both ends. There are four modes for vertex
manipulation.
7.3.5.2.6.2
Drag
In the [Drag] mode on the [Curve] tab vertices can be moved by means of a dragger. It is often easier to design
good curves with a low number of vertices, therefore you may want to [Delete] vertices first.
7.3.5.2.6.3
More
In the [More] mode on the [Curve] tab, more vertices may be added locally to give more shape control. Existing
vertices will be shifted to preserve the current shape of the curve. Highlighted vertices will be shown to indicate
where vertices will be positioned if the mouse button is pressed.
7.3.5.2.6.4
Insert
In the [Insert] mode on the [Curve] tab, additional vertices may be inserted into the control polygon. This will
change the shape of the curve. It is possible to quickly “sketch” a shape with a string of vertices by giving a
sequence of clicks in the graphical view.
7.3.5.2.6.5
Delete
The [Delete] mode on the [Curve] tab simply allows vertices to be deleted from the control polygon.
7.3.5.2.6.6
Straight Line
Straight lines remain straight and are unaffected by fairing operations. Curves in flat sections of the shell can
advantageously be defined as straight lines. When a curve is turned into a straight line, any existing boundary
conditions are removed. The colour associated with straight lines is green by default.
7.3.5.2.6.7
Circular Arc with given radius
The default colour for circular arcs is light grey. Arcs with a given radius can only exist in polycurves that are
defined in a plane, not in spatial polycurves. The arc can be flipped to the other side by inverting the sign of the
radius.
7.3.5.2.6.8
Circular Arc with given tangent
Arcs with a given tangent have always one tangent defined. The tangent can be changed in the lower section of the
[Curve] tab. You are free to define a tangent at the other end, which will remove the existing boundary condition.
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Circular Arc through three points
This type enables two modes. The [Drag Position] mode displays a dragger with which an arbitrary position can be
set that the arc will pass through. Using the [Pick Point] mode the arc can be made to pass through an existing point
on the curve.
7.3.5.2.6.10
Conic arc with two tangents
Straight lines and circles are conic sections as well, but this type allows the remaining conic sections to be defined:
parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptical arcs. These are defined by a two-edged control polygon, the middle vertex of
which is given by the intersection of the two tangents. Consequently, the tangents should be coplanar; if they are
not, the curve will find a plane in the middle, but not adhere to the given tangents strictly.
The type of conic section depends on the [Shape Factor]: a higher shape factor will pull the curve tighter to the
middle vertex, a factor of 0 will give a straight line. A parabolic is produced with a factor 1, higher factors produce
a hyperbolic and lower factors an elliptical arc.
The shape factor can also be determined automatically by specifying a third point that the arc should pass
through, analogous to [Circular Arc through three points].
7.3.5.2.6.11
Boundary Conditions
In the lower section of the [Curve] tab there is a table listing the boundary conditions at the start and end of the
current curve (for an explanation of curve direction see section 7.1.2.1 on page 45, Lines). In the left column an
icon indicates the current condition at each end, as follows:
No boundary conditions
Manually specified tangent
Tangent derived from adjacent curve
Manually specified tangent, straight end
Tangent derived from adjacent curve, straight end
Tangent and curvature derived from adjacent curve
The condition can be changed with a double click on the icon, which brings up a pull-down menu with available
conditions. Not all conditions may be available, for instance if there is no adjacent curve at that end. If so, the
reason will be given in a tool-tip when the mouse pointer is kept still for a few seconds.
Next to the icons are the coordinates of the current tangent vector. These can be edited in the table or manipulated interactively in the [Drag Tangent] mode, activated with the corresponding button in the table.
7.3.5.2.7
Master
On the [Master] tab a master/slave relation can be defined, in which the shape of the current curve, the slave, can
be made dependent on another curve in the model, the master curve. Whenever the master curve changes, the slave
curve will change also, according to the defined dependency. This is exemplified at the end of this section with the
construction of deck camber and sheer strake. A cascade of depedencies can exist, as master curves themselves
can be a slave of other master curves, and several curves can depend on the same master curve.
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Figure 7.14: Configuration of shape dependency
The first step in establishing a master/slave relation is to select the master curve, using the [Select] button. You
are free to select a master from any active solid; solids can be toggled active/inactive in the [Access] column of the
[tree view] before starting the selection.
An existing relation can be annulled with the [Free] button.
Next steps are to select the proper relation and the definition of the dependency.
7.3.5.2.7.1
Relation
The relation defines how points on the current curve are mapped to points on the master curve and vice versa.
Choose between these four relations:
Proportional between End Points
The start and end points of the current curve will be related to the start and end points of the master curve.
Inbetween these, points will be related proportionally to the lengths of the curves. It may be necessary to
reverse the direction of one of the polycurves using [Properties of polycurves] (discussed on page 74).
Longitudinal/Transverse/Vertical Position
Points on the current curve will relate to points on the master curve that are on the same longitudinal,
transverse or vertical position respectively. You will need to decide which direction is appropriate for the
situation; mostly this will be the direction in which lines can be drawn that cross the master and slave curves
at angles closest to 90°.
7.3.5.2.7.2
Definition
The last step in the configuration of a master/slave relation is how points on the current curve are defined, based
on points on the master curve.
Arithmetic Combination
The length, breadth and height coordinates on the current curve can be defined individually as a linear
combination of a constant value, the coordinates on the master curve and the coordinates on the unaltered
slave curve.
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Figure 7.15: Linear combination of coordinates.
Offset
The current curve will be shaped similary to the master curve, offset from the master curve in a direction
and distance that may vary over the length of the curve. The direction is perpendicular to the projection of
the master curve onto a certain projection plane. This plane can be visualized by pressing the [Drag Plane]
button, which will also reveal a rotational dragger with which the orientation of the plane can be manipulated
interactively. You may also key in the components of the vector manually, and the plane can be made to fit
the master curve using [Master Plane], or the offset can be defined in the current view-plane of the active
camera by pressing [View-Plane].
The offset distance can be specified for the start and end point individually, which will produce a linear
transition over the length of the curve. These can also be dragged interactively using the [Drag Offset] mode,
which will show a linear dragger snapped to the curve end nearest to the mouse pointer.
7.3.5.2.7.3
Example: Deck camber
Let’s say you want to construct a deck with constant camber of 2/100 of the local breadth of the deck. To do that
we start manipulating the deck profile line at the plane of symmetry. Then we select the deck line in the side as the
master curve, whose transverse coordinates mark half the local breadth. We will set the relation to [Longitudinal
Position], because both curves generally run longitudinaly. We want breadth to be unaffected (free) as well as
length, but the height should equal the height of the deck in the side plus 4/100 of its breadth. So we define an
arithmetic combination of H = 0.04 · Bmaster + Hmaster .
7.3.5.2.7.4
Example: Sheer strake
If you need to construct a sheer strake then this is one way to do it: Start manipulating the curve that marks the
lower seam of the sheer strake and select the upper seam as master curve. The relation can be set to ‘Proportional
between End Points’ or ‘Longitudinal Position’; which is the better option depends on the hull shape and you may
try both to select the appropriate one.
Now set the definition to ‘Offset’, and define an offset plane parallel to the centre plane, with normal (0.0, 1.0,
0.0). Finally the height of the sheer strake can be specified at the front and end of the seam.
This produces a sheer strake of constant width as seen from the side.
7.3.5.2.8
Settings
The fourth tab on the action panel, [Settings], contains some options with which the behaviour of the action can be
adjusted.
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Figure 7.16: Action settings and frame area
7.3.5.2.8.1
Show Target Frame Area
If a target sectional area curve (target SAC) has been constructed, see section 7.3.5.15 on page 78, Change
the shape of the SAC, you may want to compare the current frame area (below the construction waterline) with
the corresponding point on the target SAC. The option Target Frame Area [Show Target Frame Area] toggles an
additional [Frame Area] section at the top of the action panel, as shown above; provided the current curve is part of
a frame. It can be removed at any time with the cross button in the top right.
Shown is the target area according to the SAC, and a bar graph indicating the surplus or deficit area of the
current frame, as compared to the target. The [Fit] button will transform the current frame so that its area matches
the target SAC, while its shape will be preserved as much as possible. Further details are found in section 7.5 on
page 94, Hullform transformation. If no target area is available, then probably no target SAC was generated, or it
does not extend to the current frame position.
Together with the [Frame Area] section in the action panel, appears in the moddeling views a transparent
rectangular plane. The area of this plane equals the target frame area, while the height is equal to the design depth.
This may help optically in designing the frame shape, as the area under the frame within the rectangle needs to
match the area from the frame up to the construction waterline outside the rectangle.
7.3.5.2.8.2
Show Curvature Plot
With the [Show Curvature Plot] option on the [Settings] tab the curvature plot can be switched on during curve
manipulation, even if curvature plots have been switched off in general; see paragraph 7.3.2.3.2 on page 55, Prelit
polycurves. The plot is also shown for any curves in the polycurve that are directly preceding or succeeding the
curve under manipulation, as these may change shape when their common knuckle point is dragged or when they
follow a boundary condition with the current curve.
For reasons of consistency this option is automatically switched on when the general curvature plot is on or is
being switched on. Conversely, the general plot is automatically switched off when this option is being unchecked.
7.3.5.2.8.3
Curve Follows Points
If the option [Curve Follows Points] is checked, then the curve is instantly and automatically faired upon any change
in the information on which the fairing is based. Most notably, when this is on, the curve can be interactively
shaped by dragging points and tangents. In many cases this can be an effective alternative to shaping the spline
through its vertices, and has the added bonus that the shape remains fixed during future curve fairings. For vertex
manipulation, on the contrary, generally requires the shape to be explicitly fixated (discussed on page 63), which
still is no quarantee against subtle changes during future curve fairings.
7.3.5.2.8.4
Points Follow Curve
If the option [Points Follow Curve] is checked, then all points will be processed automatically (shifted onto the
curve) whenever the shape of the curve changes. Together with [Fair Crossing Curves Too] this is a great help in
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keeping the network consistent at all times.
If you switch this off, you will most probaly want to [Process] (discussed on page 64) individual points or
[Process All] (discussed on page 62) before you apply the shape changes.
7.3.5.2.8.5
Fair Crossing Curves Too
Check this if you like all curves that pass through the points of the current curve to adapt dynamically to any
changes in their position. This is a great help in keeping the network consistent.
7.3.5.3
New Planar Polycurve by Intersection
This action enables the user to quickly add planar polycurves to active solids by intersecting them with a plane,
or a set of parallel planes. It is started from [Polycurves][New Planar Polycurve by Intersection] or with the keys
<Alt><P><N>. These can then be used to manipulate the hull shape in higher detail and be exported to construction software. Polycurves also add visual detail, but if that is your only objective then you way want to see
them just temporarily, which may be easiest with [Show Indicative Intersections] (discussed on page 77). Another
way of adding polycurves is offered by the action [Connect Points] (discussed on page 76).
Figure 7.17: Adding a new polycurve in a plane through three points.
Planar polycurves can be added in two ways: either in manually configured positions and orientations or in
stored configurations, the so-called position-sets. Each of these have their own tab in the action panel.
7.3.5.3.1
Single configuration
The [Single Configuration] is pretty straightforward, consisting of a choice of [Orientation] and accompanying [Position]. For most orientations the position is determined by just one single value, except for planar polycurves in
a plane through three points. The points are colour-coded in graphics and their corresponding input fields. The
points can be moved by means of the dragger and by keying in values, and the plane through them is clipped to the
maximum dimensions of the model. The planes in other orientations also have a dragger that they can be moved
with.
There are two more groups on this tab and both of them are optional: [Repetition] and [Name]. With [Repetition]
one can add several polycurves in parallel planes at once, by increasing the [Number] and specifying the [Repetition
Interval]. The direction of repetition can be reverted by inverting the sign of the interval.
The [Name] field shows how the polycurve will be called when it is generated. You have the opportunity to
change the name here, unless the repetition number is higher than one.
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71
Position sets
The [Position-Sets] tab shows a list of existing position sets (see section 7.1.3.6 on page 50, Polycurve positions
sets) with the option to check and uncheck them. Preview-planes will be shown for checked sets. The button [Edit
Position-Sets...] allows you to add and remove sets from the list and change the positions in them.
7.3.5.3.3
Settings
In the [Settings] tab of [New Planar Polycurve by Intersection] the user can configure the accuracy in which new
curves will match the existing curved surface. This is a model-wide setting, and is saved with the model.
Not with curved surface
The curved surface is completely ignored, new polycurves are faired through intersecting polycurves only.
This can be appropriate in dense networks, where new polycurves do not need internal points.
Surface based on smooth tangent ribbons
Internal points will be generated on a high quality surface. Appropriate in sparse networks.
Surface based on linear tangent ribbons
Internal points will be generated, based on surfaces with reduced smoothness requirements. Appropriate in
moderately dense networks, where smooth tangent ribbons could oscillate and cause unwanted inflections.
Approximate distance between points on curved surface
This is the target distance between internal points. A smaller distance will make the curves match the surface
at a higher accuracy. However, the aim is often not to require more points than necessary but still enough to
produce a desirable shape.
Minimum number of points per face
By setting this to >1, internal points will be generated even if a polycurves’ entry and exit points of a face
are closer together than the above value.
7.3.5.4
New Polycurve by Projection
This action, started with the keys <Alt><P><E>, enables the user to project a polycurve of an active solid onto
other active solids. This can also be viewed as intersecting a solid with a (possibly) curved surface, defined by an
extrusion of a polycurve in a defined direction. The projection can be parallel or a point-projection.
Figure 7.18: Polycurve projection with dragger snap.
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This action does not make use of curved surfaces, the new polycurve will only have points at intersections with
existing curves in the model. Therefore, it may be desirable to add planar polycurves prior to projection to achieve
sufficient accuracy, see [New Planar Polycurve by Intersection] (discussed on page 70).
Note that if there is just one solid present in the model, no polycurve can be selected because projections of
polycurves onto its own solid are not supported. You can however create and manipulate an auxiliary polycurve
and project that.
7.3.5.4.1
Auxiliary curves
If the polycurve to be projected is not already present in another solid, it may be desirable to create a new polycurve
for the occasion, independent from any solid. SARC has plans to enable Fairway to work with independent curves:
curves that are not part of the boundary representation of a solid. Until then, Fairway offers the possibility to create
an auxiliary solid consisting of a single curve; its sole purpose being to be projected.
An auxiliary polycurve can be created from within this action by pressing the button [Manipulate New Auxiliary
Polycurve]. The new polycurve will have an initial shape of a straight line running diagonally through the model.
Most likely this is not the desired shape and therefore the current action is interrupted and intermediate manipulation of the auxiliary curve is automatically started; see [Change the shape of a curve] (discussed on page 61). As
soon as that action is closed, the projection action is continued for further configuration.
7.3.5.4.2
Parallel projection
While configuring a parallel projection of the polycurve, a translucent preview surface is shown through the selected polycurve in a given direction, intersecting the solids in the model. This surface shares the color of spatial
polycurves, as the resulting projection will be one or more spatial polycurves running along the intersection between the preview surface and active solids.
The direction vector can be keyed in on the action panel directly, and is visualized by a dotted line in one of
the ends of the selected polycurve. A dragger allows graphical manipulation of this vector: by dragging the end of
the dotted line the direction is changed, and by dragging the start the vector is simply translated without changing
its direction.
7.3.5.4.2.1
Aligning with existing curves
In some cases a straight line exists in the model that represents the direction in which the projection should be
applied. Alignment like this is easily accomplished using the dragger snap functionality discussed in section 7.3.4.3
on page 59, Snapping to other points in the model, by translating the direction vector to the start of the straight line
and selecting the end point as its direction.
7.3.5.4.3
Point-Projection
When point-projection is selected, the preview surface converges through a single point. Again, this through-point
can be keyed in manually, or translated graphically using the dragger.
Both the direction vector and the through-point are persistent across applications of the action, so that multiple
polycurves can be projected successively using the same projection.
7.3.5.5
Move polycurve
Polycurves, or even complete solids, can be translated with the action started from [Polycurves][Move Polycurve]
or with the keys <Alt><P><M>.
Figure 7.19: Moving polycurves
The translation is either keyed in relatively in the first three fields on the panel, or, if just a single planar
polycurve is selected, to an absolute position in the fourth field.
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Polycurves can be selected in the usual ways, either before or after starting the action. If you need to deselect
a single polycurve by holding the <Ctrl> key, be sure to click the original polycurve, not its shifted image.
If the option [Fair crossing curves] is checked, crossing curves will be adapted to the translation. However, if a
system of mutually intersecting polycurves is being moved then you may want to leave this option off.
A complete solid is easily translated as a whole by doing this:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Switch off [Fair crossing curves].
Collapse any other solids in the Tree view (discussed on page 54).
Expand the solid by selecting its name in the tree view and press <*>.
Select all its polycurves by pressing <Ctrl+A>.
The names of polycurves remain unchanged, you may want to update them to reflect their new position using
[Systemize polycurve names] (discussed on page 75).
7.3.5.6
Remove Polycurve
This action allows the user to remove one or more polycurves from solids. It is started from [Polycurves][Remove
Polycurve] or the keys <Alt><P><N>. Polycurves may be selected before or after starting the action, which are
then rendered transparently to show that they will be removed when the action is applied. As usual, polycurves
can be added or removed from the selection by holding the <Ctrl> key. A sequence of polycurves is easiest
selected from the tree view (discussed on page 54), by holding the <Shift> key or by dragging across items. If
the polycurve cannot be removed completely, because another polycurve starts or ends on it, then the remaining
part will be rendered in white. The action panel shows how many polycurves will be removed completely and
how many partially. A remaining part can be removed completely by adding the polycurves that end on it to the
selection.
Figure 7.20: Removing polycurves
7.3.5.6.1
Remove points
If the option [Remove Points] is checked, then the points on selected polycurves will be removed from intersecting
polycurves as well; knuckles excluded. If unchecked, then no points will be removed, which prevents crossing
curves from changing shape.
7.3.5.6.2
Position-sets
Analogous to paragraph 7.3.5.3.2 on page 71, Position sets, the [Position-Sets] tab in the [Remove Polycurve] action
panel allows all polycurves in active solids at positions in checked sets to be selected at once. Position-sets can be
edited by pressing the [Edit Position-Sets...] button, as described in section 7.1.3.6 on page 50, Polycurve positions
sets.
You may switch back to the [Individual Selection] tab see the selection information, and optionally add or
remove polycurves to and from the selection.
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Attention
Assume frames exist at 0.0m, 30.0m and 60.0m. Next, frames are added at a position-set with frames between
0.0m and 60.0m at an interval of 0.50m. Now if this set is used to remove polycurves, then the original frames
at 0.0m, 30.0m and 60.0m will be removed as well. This can be prevented by deselecting specific polycurves
before applying the action, or by locking the polycurves in the Tree view (discussed on page 54) before
checking the position set.
7.3.5.7
Properties of polycurves
Properties of one or more polycurves can be changed with the [Polycurves][Properties of Polycurves] action, which
can be started with the keys <Alt><P><O>.
Figure 7.21: Changing polycurve properties.
These are the properties that can be changed:
Name
If a single polycurve is selected, its name can be edited here. This field is unavailable when several polycurves are selected.
Chine
The chine property of polycurves can be turned on or off. Chines are often drawn with a thicker line width,
and are generally used to connect knuckles in crossing polycurves. Any new polycurves that are added to
the solid will get a knuckle where they cross a chine.
Type
Polycurves can be changed from planar polycurves into spatial polycurves and vice versa. In the latter case,
a plane is found that best fits the spatial polycurve, in which the polycurve and its points are projected. If,
for example, all points of a spatial polycurve lie in a horizontal plane, then the polycurve will turn into a
waterline.
CWL
This option is only available if a single waterline, planar polycurve or spatial polycurve is selected. It will
mark the polycurve that will be used in rendered output, see section 7.7 on page 100, Show (rendered and
colored) surfaces, to distinguish the parts above and below the waterline. It can be used to render the water
surface as well.
Deck at Side
This option is only applicable for longitudinals, and indicates that the polycurve is to be considered as (highest watertight) deck at side. When converting to a PIAS calculation model (see section 7.8.1 on page 102,
Create file in PIAS-ordinate format (.hyd file)) the frames will extend to this polycurve, not further. It is
possible to assign this attribute to multiple polycurves, so that a deck-edge jump can be modelled; but only
a complete polycurve can be deck at side, not a partial one. However, it is allowed that a frame is crossed by
multiple ‘deck at side’ polycurves, in that case the highest is ruling. Finally, it is advised that if the deck at
side mechanism is applied, each polycurve where a frame should end is assigned this attribute, even if it is
the highest polycurve in the hull model already.
Reverse Polycurve Direction
This button will reverse the direction of selected polycurves, as defined in section 7.1.2.1 on page 45, Lines.
You may want to do this to align the direction of a slave curve with its master.
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To change the position of a polycurve, users are referred to section 7.3.5.5 on page 72, Move polycurve.
Some less often used functionality has not been ported to the new GUI yet, but can be accessed by pressing the
[Legacy Interface] button, available if a single polycurve is selected. These include
• Plate boundary
• Phantom face
• Double
These are not documented here, see section 7.12.1 on page 120, Alphanumerical manipulation. The Copy/Paste
functionality is currently only available from [Alphanumerical manipulation].
7.3.5.8
Curve Properties
Most properties of curves relate to their shape, which is the domain of [Change the shape of a curve] (discussed on
page 61). Other properties can be adjusted with the action that is found in the menu at [Curves][Curve Properties],
and keystrokes <Alt><C><P>. Currently, this only concerns chines, which cause crossing polycurves that are
added to the model successively to get a knuckle at that point. Chines can be defined with [Properties of polycurves]
(discussed on the previous page) and are displayed with a greater line thickness by default. With the options here
it is possible to specify boundary conditions between the curves on either side of the knuckles, when polycurves
are added.
Figure 7.22: Setting curve properties.
Several chines can be selected, and their current properties are indicated by the radio buttons in the Old column.
They can collectively be given a new property value in the New column. Here the notions “left” and “right” are
used as defined in section 7.1.2.1 on page 45, Lines, and the term “left master, right slave” denotes that the curve
to the right of the chine has a boundary condition dependency on the curve to the left of the chine. Curvature
continuity implies tangential continuity, see also paragraph 7.3.5.2.6.11 on page 66, Boundary Conditions.
7.3.5.9
Systemize polycurve names
This action renames all polycurves in selected solids according to a specified convention.
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Figure 7.23: Systematizing polycurve names.
7.3.5.10
Join polycurves
This action, started from the menu by [Polycurves][Join Polycurves] or the keys <Alt><P><J>, is very minimalistic; its panel lacks an [Apply] button and contains instructions only. The fastest way to join two polycurves that
share an end point is to select both of them and start the action. The polycurves are joined instantly into a single
polycurve, with a knuckle at the joint. Alternatively, you can start the action first and it will inform you what to do.
Figure 7.24: Joining polycurves.
Currently, joining of polycurves cannot be undone (but they can be split manually).
7.3.5.11
Split polycurve
Polycurves can be split at a knuckle, by starting the action from the menu [Polycurves][Split Polycurve] or with
the keys <Alt><P><S>. When a polycurve is selected, the user is asked to select the knuckle to split at. The
polycurve is plit instantly.
Figure 7.25: Splitting a polycurve.
Currently, splitting a polycurve cannot be undone (but polycurves can be joined manually).
7.3.5.12
Connect Points
One way to add polycurves to a network is the use of [New Planar Polycurve by Intersection] (discussed on page 70).
Alternatively, you can weave a new polycurve through existing points with the action initiated from the menu at
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[Polycurves][Connect Points] or with the keys <Alt><P><C>. This action can also be used to extend an existing
polycurve.
Figure 7.26: Create or extend a polycurve by connecting points.
If you wish to create a new polycurve, then fill out a suitable name and press the [Create] button. Next you will
be able to pick the start point of the new polycurve, followed by successive points that the curve is to pass through.
Finish by pressing [Apply] or <Enter>.
7.3.5.13
Generate Fillet Points
A chine can be reconstructed into a fillet by rounding the knuckles in crossing curves. For this it is necessary to
find the fillet points: where a circle of a given radius touches the curves on either side of a knuckle. This action,
initiated from [Polycurves][Generate Fillet Points] or the keys <Alt><P><F>, will find these points. Afterwards,
the fillet points can be turned into knuckles and the intermediate section turned into a circular arc, using [Change
the shape of a curve] (discussed on page 61).
Figure 7.27: Generation of fillet points on either side of a knuckle (upper curve) and after fitting a circular arc
(lower curve).
Points are inserted at the instant of a mouse click, so one can just trace the chine, there is no need to select
any curves. After the fillet points have been turned into knuckles, these themselves should be connected with
new chines, using [Connect Points] (discussed on the preceding page) and [Properties of polycurves] (discussed on
page 74).
7.3.5.14
Show Indicative Intersections
This action does not change the model, but can temporarily generate intersection curves at selected position sets
without adding them to the network.
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Figure 7.28: Indicative intersections.
This can be used to visually verify the definitions of position sets, but also to visualise the surface shape. The
intersection curves disappear as soon as the action panel is closed. Position sets can be edited as described in
section 7.1.3.6 on page 50, Polycurve positions sets.
7.3.5.15
Change the shape of the SAC
If main dimensions have been determined, including target values for block coefficient (Cb ) and longitudinal center
of buoyancy (LCB), Fairway enables you to design towards these targets by means of the target sectional area curve
(target SAC). If a target SAC is available, it can be used for automated hullform transformation (see section 7.5
on page 94, Hullform transformation) and to compare the submerged frame area during frame manipulation (see
paragraph 7.3.5.2.8.1 on page 69, Show Target Frame Area). A target SAC can be generated from Lap’s diagrams
— please refer to section 7.5.4.3 on page 97, The use of Lap diagrams for more details on Lap — or derived from
the current frame area’s. The sectional area curves can be viewed in a dedicated modelling view, which also shows
the lines of the under water body for reference: [Window][Sectional Area Curve (SAC)]. The target SAC can then
be manipulated with the action started from [Curves][Change the Shape of the SAC], keys <Alt><C><A> or a
click on one of the points on the target SAC.
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Attention
The target SAC can only be used as a guide in the manipulation of frames of a single buoyant solid. This
method is unavailable if more than one solid is marked as buoyant, see Solid management (discussed on
page 118).
Figure 7.29: Manipulating the target sectional area curve.
The target SAC is represented by a polycurve fitted through a number of given area values, and can thus be
manipulated by changing these values; much in the same way as points can be changed on ordinary polycurves.
There are four manipulation modes: [Drag], [Knuckle], [Insert] and [Delete]; their operation is completely analogous
to the point manipulation modes (discussed on page 63).
7.3.5.15.1
Fit
During manipulation of the target SAC, two gauge bars in the action panel show how well the SAC matches the
target values as specified in [Main dimensions (design) & hull coefficients] (discussed on page 93). The [Fit] button
here will transform the target SAC so it matches the target values, using the same algorithm as in [Transformation
of the target SAC only] (discussed on page 96).
7.3.5.16
Phantom Faces
The shell of a solid is internally defined as a closed surface. Parts of that surface can be hidden from the eye and
omitted during the creation of new polycurves. These parts are called phantom faces. Most hulls that are modeled
on just one side of the center plane have a phantom face to hide the imaginary part of the surface that connects the
keel line to the deck line inside the hull. See also section 7.1.3.1 on page 49, Phantom face.
Phantom faces can be defined and removed by starting the action from the menu [Shell][Edit Phantom Faces],
or using the shortcut <Alt><S><P>.
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Figure 7.30: Editing phantom faces.
If there are multiple active solids in the model, then the solid of which the phantom faces are to be edited can
be selected from the [Solid] pulldown menu at the top of the action panel.
Existing phantom faces of the selected solid are shown in the table underneath, and marked graphically with
thick borders in the modeling area. A phantom face can be removed (turned into an ordinary part of the shell) by
unchecking its checkbox in the table. The second column of the table contains the coordinates of the bounding
boxes of phantom faces, to differentiate them in case there is more than one. Selecting a row in the table will
highlight the borders graphically, so the right face can easily be identified.
There are two means of adding a new phantom face. A single face can easiest be added by pressing the [Add
Strip of Faces] button. This will make the network points of the solid selectable. After selecting a corner of the face
in question, only network points on polycurves running through the selected corner become selectable. Hovering
over these will prelight faces to the left or the right of the polycurve, allowing you to select the second corner of
the same face. This identifies the face unambiguously, and it is marked as a new phantom face. Obviously, this
mode can also be used to mark a strip of contiguous faces in one go.
The rule that determines on which side of the polycurve faces are highlit is as follows: "walking on the outside
of the shell along the polycurve from corner to corner in successive order selects the faces to your right." But there
is no real need to memorize this because of the visual feedback.
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Figure 7.31: Visual feedback during face selection. The first (selected) point has emphasis, the mouse pointer
hovers above the second point. (Thick grey curves mark the contour of the phantom face through the center plane.)
Secondly, faces can be marked in bulk by defining a region of faces, using the button [Add Region of Faces].
This lets you mark the corner points bordering the region in clockwise direction, which should be closed eventually
by returning to the start point. For an illustration of this process see the sequence of figures in paragraph 7.3.5.17.2
on the next page, Definition of a region contour.
Pressing [Apply] will make the specified changes. Note that the action is implicitly reset when another solid is
selected from the list, or whenever a solid changes its state of activity in the tree view.
7.3.5.17
Define Shell Region
The shell of a solid can be partitioned in regions for various purposes. Shell regions are bounded by a sequence
of polycurves or sections thereof that form a closed border. The action for defining and modifying regions is
started from [Shell][Define a Shell Region] or the keys <Alt><S><D>. Regions can be defined for the following
purposes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Naming a specific area on the shell.
Setting surface shape properties in a region such as developability or so-called slave surfaces.
Defining shell plates.
Setting a deviating color and transparency for visualization purposes.
Most of these purposes can be combined in a single definition, like a shell plate that is also developable, but
because plates have a distinct color in order to differentiate them from adjacent plates, plate regions and colored
regions are mutually exclusive. All regions carry a name.
In general, regions are allowed to overlap. However, overlapping plates are usually undesired and regions with
a surface shape property must not overlap.
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Figure 7.32: Initial state of the Define Shell Region action panel.
7.3.5.17.1
Visibility of existing regions
As long as the action is active, existing regions can be visualized by their borders (in bold light gray) and color if
applicable. Because regions can serve various purposes and it can be distracting to see regions with a purpose that
is not of interest, it is possible to switch their visibility on and off based on purpose with the checkboxes at the
bottom of the action panel.
1. The [Plain] checkbox toggles visibility of regions that neither define a surface, plate nor specific color. Regions of this type may be defined to assign properties at a later point, or just to name a particular area of
interest.
2. The [Surfaces] checkbox toggles the visibility of developable surfaces and slave surfaces. However, the
describing lines of developable surfaces (lines that remain straight before and after bending of a plate) are
always visible, even when the action is closed.
3. The [Shell Plates] checkbox toggles the visibility of defined shell plates. When visible, the ordinary shell
is made semi-transparent to make it easier to identify the parts of the shell where no plates are defined yet,
while existing plates are shown with their border and individual color. Also, any defined seams and butts are
shown hashed, to make it easier to define plates that are to override the pattern of seams and butts.
4. The [Colors] checkbox toggles the visibility of borders of regions that solely define a deviating color and/or
transparency. Naturally, the region itself will be colored whatever the state of the checkbox.
If a region serves more than one purpose, it will be visible as long as any of the corresponding checkboxes is
checked.
7.3.5.17.2
Definition of a region contour
Regions are defined by a closed contour along (parts of) polycurves that border the region. This contour is defined
interactively by clicking in succession on corners of the region in a clockwise direction when looking from outside
at the shell.
The process of defining the contour is started directly after the [Create] button is pressed, and can be restarted
at any time by pressing the [Redefine Contour] button. The first step is to define the fist corner of the contour, and
for this any of the network points in active solids can be clicked.
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Figure 7.33: Selecting the first corner of the region contour.
Upon the first click, the start point is marked as such with a halo around it. From this moment on, the only
network points that can be selected are the ones that can be reached over the polycurves that cross through the
latest added corner. When moving the mouse pointer to the next corner, faces to the right of the path are highlit, as
a visual feedback for the inside/outside of the contour; these faces will form the periphery of the region.
Figure 7.34: Selecting the second corner of the region contour.
This process is repeated over all intermediate corners. Contours will most commonly be convex, but nonconvex contours are supported as well. When points are packed tightly on screen then looking at the last highlit
face will help to determine whether the corner is correctly identified. If at any time a mistake is made and the
wrong point is clicked, the process can be restarted by pressing the [Redefine Contour] button.
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Figure 7.35: Selecting intermediate corners of the region contour.
The process is completed by selecting the start point as the last corner, which produces a closed contour.
Figure 7.36: The contour is closed by selecting the start point.
A finished contour is displayed in bold gray curves. At this point the region can be given properties by checking
one or more checkboxes in the property tabs.
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Figure 7.37: Defining a shell plate.
7.3.5.17.3
Definition of a shell plate
Fairway can generate shell plate expansions and information for the production of shell plating, see section 7.10 on
page 114, Shell plate expansions and templates. A region can easily be marked as a plate by checking the [Shell
Plate] tab. (If the checkbox is disabled then the region has probably already a [Color] property. Uncheck the [Color]
property, or define a second version of the region.)
The [Plate Color] serves only visualization purposes, to differentiate adjacent plates. If the current plate color
does not contrast enough with an existing adjacent plate then a different color can quickly be generated with a click
on the [Randomize] button, or selected manually by pressing the colored [Select] button.
The [Plate Thickness] and [Deformation Policy] are relevant for the expansion of doubly curved plates.
1. [No deformation along borders] ensures that adjacent plates always fit during assembly. Within these constraints the expansion is optimized for minimal deformation.
2. [Only stretch; no shrinkage] optimizes for minimal stretch and prevents that the plate needs to be shrinked.
3. [Minimal deformation] minimizes the amount that the plate needs to be deformed, without additional constraints.
In case the production of shell plates requires templates (see section 7.10.4 on page 116, Production of templates) the orientation of the templates can be specified using the [Templates parallel to] pull-down.
If the plate needs to be cut somewhat bigger or smaller than the plate contour, then check the [Overcutting]
checkbox. This reveals a table in which the overcutting can be specified for each bordering curve individually. A
positive value will cause the plate to overlap the adjacent plate (in support of joggling, for example) and a negative
value produces an undercutting (to obtain a root opening for welding).
Plate expansions and templates can be generated from [Shell plate expansions and templates] in the main menu
(discussed on page 52).
7.3.5.17.4
Painting the shell
The [Color] property serves purely optical and presentation purposes. It allows to show regions of the shell with
a specific color and transparency, deviating from the overall shell material settings (see paragraph 7.3.2.2.1 on
page 54, Shell). This is the only region that remains visible (without its borders that is) outside region-oriented
actions.
Examples for usage of this property include using a different color for the underwaterbody, painting the sheer
stripe, fitting transparent windows and windshields, and painting the chimney in company colors.
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86
Surface-shaping regions
A region can impose certain shape features onto the curves that it covers, most notably surface developability.
Unlinke doubly curved surfaces, developable surfaces (discussed on page 48) have local curvature in one direction
only, which allows plates to be formed without stretching or shrinking. The [Surface] tab supports the following
types of shape-imposing properties:
1.
2.
3.
4.
[Developable Along Two Chines] is for the construction of a developable surface with a moving top.
[Developable Along a Chine and a Top] produces a conic surface with fixed top coordinates.
[Developable Through a Chine in a Direction] places the top at infinity, producing a cylindrical surface.
A [Slave Surface] copies shape characteristics such as curve type, end-conditions, radius etc. of some master
curve to all curves in parallel planes within the region.
Depending on the type of developable surface, its construction requires one or two defining borders, which
must be chines and have no internal knuckles. Fairway analyzes the borders and presents the ones that meet
these requirements in a pull-down from which they can be selected. Often there is just a single valid option
and it will automatically be picked without the need for user interaction. The defining border will be drawn in
the developable color (green by default). A defining border can also be selected graphically after pressing the
corresponding [Select] button. If the border under consideration does not meet some of the requirements then it
will be prelit in the prohibited color (red by default) with a message in the status bar explaining its deficiencies.
Figure 7.38: Surface definition with clearly indicated deficiencies.
If a developable surface can be constructed, straight rulings will be shown (finely dotted, in green by default)
indicating the direction in which the surface has zero curvature. These will remain visible after the action is
closed. However, it is not always possible to construct a developable surface for a given configuration, and regions
in general can be invalidated as well. When this occurs, a warning message appears in the action panel, describing
the problem. Nevertheless, the action will allow any changes to be applied, so that deficiencies may be resolved
later. Region validity is discussed in paragraph 7.3.5.17.6 on the current page, Region Validity.
The region will impose its shape upon affected curves after [Apply] is pressed, as well as whenever a defining
border or master curve is changed.
7.3.5.17.6
Region Validity
Clearly, the definition of regions depends on a particular state of the underlaying curve network. Instead of prohibiting relevant changes in the model, Fairway retains complete freedom and validates the correctness of regions
at appropriate times. If, for example, the removal of a polycurve removes the support for one of its borders, the
region will be marked as invalid with an icon in the tree view, and a tool-tip will explain what the problem is. In
this example the problem can be resolved at any time by opening [Define Shell Region] and redefining the contour
with the correct borders.
Changes in curve shape also have the potential to invalidate developable surfaces along two chines; as well
as the ability to heal them. As explained in section 7.1.2.2 on page 47, Surfaces, rulings connect two points on
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opposite defining borders where the tangent vectors are co-planar. If there is too much twist among the defining
borders it may happen that no rulings exist that satisfy these conditions. If this is the case, Fairway will complain
with a message like "Could not construct a developable surface that contains the current defining chines [...]". The
solution is to change the shape of the defining curves and reduce twist.
Another problem is when corresponding points do exist on opposite defining borders but their order is not
synchronous. In this case, rulings are generated but they cross or split, and it actually means that the moving top
has moved inside te region contour — a situation that is not physically possible. Fairway detects this condition,
marks the region as invalid and shows the rulings in the prohibited color (red by default). In practice, this is likely
caused by one or more bending points in one of the defining chines that is not sufficiently reflected in the other.
7.3.5.18
Remove Shell Region
This action allows the user to remove one or more defined regions (see section 7.3.5.17 on page 81, Define Shell
Region) on the shell of solids. It is started from [Shell][Remove a Shell Region] or the keys <Alt><S><R>.
Figure 7.39: Removing regions
Note that regions may serve several purposes at once, and the visibility of regions can be filtered using the
checkboxes at the bottom, as discussed in paragraph 7.3.5.17.1 on page 82, Visibility of existing regions.
7.3.5.19
Seams and Butts
Shell plating can be defined piece by piece as described in paragraph 7.3.5.17.3 on page 85, Definition of a shell
plate, but for large vessels and simple geometry there is a faster way. This action works by defining the seams and
butts where the plates should ajoin, in between which plates can be generated in one batch. The action is started
from [Shell][Seams and Butts] or using the keys <Alt><S><S>.
Figure 7.40: Defining seams and butts for batch generation of shell plates.
Depending on whether the [Toggle Seams] button or the [Toggle Butts] button is depressed, a click on a polycurve will select it as a seam or butt respectively; a second click will deselect it. Traditionally, where plates ajoin
along their longer side are called seams, butts are where plates meet with their shorter side. Fairway however treats
seams and butts equally, it does not care what is used. The only difference is that seams and butts are shown in
different colors, which may be usitlized for optical clarity.
When seams and butts are layed out properly, a click on [Generate Plates] will automatically generate plate
regions inbetween the seams and butts in all active solids at once, with a thickness and deformation policy as given
in [Default Plate Settings]. These values (as well as the plate color) can be changed individually afterwards using
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[Definition of a shell plate] (discussed on page 85). In some cases, a generated plate may not be valid, so it is wise
to check whether there are any regions marked invalid in the tree view after plates have been generated. This can
happen, for example, when a seam does not end on another seam or butt. Plate expansions and templates can be
generated from [Shell plate expansions and templates] in the main menu (discussed on page 52).
There are two details that are worth noting: Firstly, Fairway takes care not to generate plates where plates
already exist. And Secondly, if the time is not yet ripe for the generation of all plates, the layout can be retained
until later by pressing [Apply Layout]. This allows for exceptions on the regular layout of seams and butts, using
the following workflow illustrated by the sequence of figures below:
1. Define the general plate layout using [Seams and Butts], then press [Apply Layout].
2. Define exceptions on the general layout as individual plates, using [Define Shell Region].
3. Generate remaining plates in batch by pressing [Generate Plates] in [Seams and Butts].
Figure 7.41: Applying the general layout of seams and butts.
Figure 7.42: Defining exceptions as individual plates. Seams and butts are hatched.
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Figure 7.43: Generating plates in batch, save existing plates.
7.3.6
Supporting functionality
7.3.6.1
Clipping
To prevent parts of the model from occluding an area of interest, the menu option [Display][Clipping][Clip to Box]
can be used to hide the parts of the model that fall outside a resizable box.
Figure 7.44: Clip to box.
The coloured facelets can be picked and dragged to resize the box (along the edges and in the corners) or to
translate the box (in the middle of each face). The box can be resized to contain the whole model with the menu
option [Display][Clipping][Clip Box Contain All]. The option [Display][Clipping][Hide Box] will hide the box and its
facelets, but the clipping will remain active.
When a curve is being manipulated that partly falls outside the clipping box, it will not be clipped but drawn
in its entirity.
7.3.6.2
Hydrostatics
The menu option [Window][Hydrostatics] will bring up a window with hydrostatic information of the vessel. The
window can either be floating separated from the main window, or be embedded in it somewhere around the
modelling area. The information herein is in part derived from the sectional area curve (SAC), which again is
derived from the submerged shape of frames. Whenever the shape of a frame changes, the [Update] button in the
hydrostatics window will be enabled, which allows the information to be recalculated.
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Warning
Be aware of the role that frames play in the correctness of hydrostatic analyses. If a frame is not defined over
the full height of the under water body, its area will not be representative for the displacement of the body at
that location. A look at the actual SAC, [Window][Sectional Area Curve], will quickly reveal problems of this
kind, as seen in the figure below. Errors like this can be fixed in two ways: either extend the frame over the
full height of the submerged body, or convert the polycurve to spatial type using [Properties of polycurves]
(discussed on page 74).
Figure 7.45: Hydrostatics window and a defective sectional area curve due to an incomplete frame.
Note that more hydrostatic and stability-related information can be obtained from the local cloud in real time,
at potentially higher accuracy. See section 3.11 on page 20, Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on
the same project.
7.3.7
Troubleshooting
This section contains some known problems with their solutions.
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Problem
Likely cause
Solution
The drop-down for boundary conditions, point weights and
knuckles opens at double click,
but closes immediately.
This is a problem that occurs for
a certain Windows configuration
option.
The drop-down will probably stay
open for as long as you keep the
mouse button pressed as part of
the second click. You can then
make a selection by releasing the
button over the desired item.
The drop-down will also stay open
after the double click by checking
the “Slide open combo boxes” option in Control Panel -> System
and Maintenance -> System ->
Advanced system settings -> Performance Settings -> Visual Effects.
Upon entering the graphical user
interface (GUI) Fairway hangs and
freezes just before or during the
initial rendering of the model, and
remains unresponsive. The operating system may report that Fairway does not respond anymore,
with the option to terminate the
program.
This is a known problem on
Nvidia Quadro graphics adapters;
at least the Quadro 1000M and
Quadro K2000 exhibit the problem with driver versions 320.←
00 and 340.52, and possibly other
types and versions. Nvidia Ge←
Force adapters are not affected,
and work very well.
Open the Nvidia control panel by
right-clicking on the background
of the Windows Desktop. Navigate to “3D Settings -> Manage 3D settings” and switch off
the feature “Threaded optimization”. It is possible to change this
setting for ❢❛✐r✇❛②✳❡①❡ specifically. Fairway is multithreaded already, and needs no help from the
Nvidia driver.
Upon entering the graphical user
interface (GUI) Fairway crashes,
possibly with an appcrash message in ❛t✐❝❢①✸✷✳❞❧❧.
This is a known problem in
the ATi driver, specifically version 12.104.0.0 released on 1904-2013 in combination with the
AMD Radeon HD 6570 graphics
adapter, and possibly other types
and versions.
The problem has been fixed in version 14.100.0.0 of the driver, distributed as part of the AMD Software Suite 14.4, released on April
25, 2014. Version 8.850.0.0 of the
driver is also known to work.
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Problem
Likely cause
Solution
Curves of the same type show
with different intensity.
The anti-aliasing setting is on, and
you don’t like it.
Anti-aliasing is a technique to reduce distortion when representing
high precision graphics on lower
resolution devices such as a raster
display.
Without anti-aliasing,
curves have a jagged appearance
because pixels are either turned
fully on or fully off. Anti-aliasing
results in graded pixel values,
making curves look smoother and
more precise, albeit a bit woollier.
When the position of a vertical
(or horizontal) line coinsides exactly with the pixel raster, it is displayed with a width of 1 pixel at
full intensity, whether anti-aliased
or not.
When the line position falls in between two pixel positions, it may
be displayed by either of the two
pixels without anti-aliasing, at a
visual inaccuracy of half a pixel.
With anti-aliasing, both pixels are
turned on at a reduced intensity,
giving the perception of higher accuracy.
On some monitors the difference
in intensity due to anti-aliasing is
more noticeable than on others.
You can turn off anti-aliasing by
choosing
[Edit][Preferences...][OpenGL]
and turning off
“Hardware-based
smoothing”
and “Multi-sampling”.
Alternatively, you can reduce
the difference in itensity by increasing the line width in [Edit][Preferences...][Curves].
The middle mouse button does
not work.
Your mouse driver might be configured to assign a task to the middle button.
Exit or uninstall the mouse driver,
or configure the driver.
If you are using Logitech Set←
Point™:
1. Open SetPoint
2. Select the “My Mouse”
pane
3. Select the third button
4. In “Select Task”, mark
“Other”
5. Choose “Middle Button”
If nothing helps, you can use the
Navigation mode (discussed on
page 58) instead.
My 3Dconnexion Space←
Navigator does not work.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
There is no graphics area that has
input focus.
Give a mouse click in a graphics
area.
The driver has not been started
while the device was plugged in.
Make sure that the device is
plugged in. Then start the driver
from the Windows start menu,
folder “3Dconnexion”, subfolder
“3DxWare”, item “Start Driver”.
November 22, 2014
7.4 Main dimensions and other ship parameters
Problem
The appearance of some objects
on screen seems wrong. Figure
fig. 7.46 on the current page, e.←
g., shows how the ATi RADEO←
N X300 SE display adapter partly
fails to render transparency.
93
Likely cause
Solution
The driver may not be responding.
Start the Windows Task Manager <Ctrl+Alt+Del> and end the
3dxsrv.exe process. Then follow
the points above.
There may be a bug in the driver
for your display adapter.
Visit the website of your adapter
manufacturer and locate the latest
driver that matches your graphics
card. Follow the instructions for
installation.
Figure 7.46: Render defect with old display adapter driver.
Figure 7.47: Proper transparency with updated driver.
7.4
Main dimensions and other ship parameters
This menu is also found in Hulldef, and for Fairway the first option is of interest, discussed below. All other ship
hull parameters that can be specified in this menu are not relevant for Fairway, but may be important at subsequent
calculations with PIAS. See section 9.1.1 on page 141, Main dimensions and other ship parameters for a discussion
of these parameters.
7.4.1
Main dimensions (design) & hull coefficients
Here main dimensions for the hull design can be specified, and, in addition, also a number of hull form coefficients
that are used as target values in the design. With these coefficients (block coefficient, LCB and midship coefficient)
a SAC can be generated, which can be utilized in two ways:
• As basis for a global hull form transformation (see section 7.5 on the next page, Hullform transformation).
• As guide when designing the frame shapes zie paragraph 7.3.5.2.8.1 on page 69, Show Target Frame Area.
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7.5 Hullform transformation
94
Also the SAC itself can be generated in two ways, either automatically, see section 7.5 on the current page,
Hullform transformation, or by interactive graphical manipulation, see section 7.3.5.15 on page 78, Change the
shape of the SAC.
7.5
Hullform transformation
Attention
The hullform transformation is applied on and with the solid which is single selected in the solid management
menu, which is discussed in section 7.11.3 on page 118, Solid management.
A simple scaling action is obviously done by means of only multiplication factors, however, for hullform distortion
the Sectional Area Curve (SAC) is used. This comes in two flavours:
• The target SAC, which represents the design goal. This SAC can be generated, and can also be modified in
the GUI.
• The actual SAC. This is the SAC of the present hullform, which can be shown in the GUI, but not manipulated.
After the hullform transformation option has been selected, a selection menu appears with only three options:
Hullform transformation
1. Transformation parameter menu
2. Specify envelop lines midship section
3. General rotation and scaling
7.5.1
Transformation parameter menu
This menu contains the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Length between perpendiculars (Lpp )
Moulded breadth (Bm )
Draft (T )
Block coefficient (Cb )
Moulded volume (Λ)
LCB (% of Lpp from Lpp /2)
Midship coefficient (Cm )
Transformation type
Definitions:
Lpp , Bm and T as defined in [Main dimensions and other ship parameters] (discussed on the preceding page).
Cb = Λ/(Lpp · Bm · T )
Cm = Largest ordinate area/(Bm · T )
Depending on the chosen transformation type all or only some parameters will be included. If for instance the
linear scaling transformation type is selected the hull coefficients will not appear, because they ar enot modifyable
with this transformation type.
This menu comes in two versions; in the extended version, which pops up when chosen in the GUI, the
parameters are presentend in three columns. The first column shows the desired transformation parameter values,
as entered by the user. The second column contains the parameter values according to the target SAC, while the
third column contains the actual values from the hull to be transformed — the single selected solid. Interactively
‘playing around’ with the target SAC is only relevant in the context of the GUI, when the transformation parameter
menu is invoked independently (from the Fairway main menu) the target SAC information is a bit superfluous.
Therefore, in that case a condensed version of this menu is shown, where the second column is left out. In this
menu the following commands are available (with the [SAC] options only in the extended menu version):
• [Copy], which copies the parameter values of the target SAC or the actual SAC to the ‘desired value’ column.
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• With [Transform] a global hullform transformation is executed, which includes the SAC as well as the hullform.
• With [SAC][Transform] only the target SAC will be transformed. Its usefulness will be discussed in section 7.5.4.2 on the next page, Transformation of the target SAC only.
• With [SAC][Generate from hull] The target SAC is derived from the present hullform.
• With [SAC][Generate from Lap] the SAC will be generated, based on Lap’s diagrams, which are discussed
in some more detail in section 7.5.4.3 on page 97, The use of Lap diagrams. When selecting this option you
have to specify additionally whether the vessel is single or twin propellor, because different diagrams exist
for these types.
7.5.2
Specify envelop lines midship section
These ‘envelop lines’ represent the hull limits as applied by the ‘inflate/deflate’ transformation method (as discussed in section 7.5.3.3 on the current page, Inflate/deflate). For other transformation types these lines do not
have to be given. By specifying these lines, the frames are forced to stay within this envelop. A maximum of ten
points can be given, so there is ample space to accomodate knuckles, deadrise etc.
7.5.3
Transformation types and their properties
The following transformation types are supported by Fairway.
•
•
•
•
•
•
7.5.3.1
Linear scaling
Ordinate shift (Lackenby)
Inflate/deflate
Increase / decrease parallel part
Shift complete vessel
Perpendicular to the shell
Linear scaling
All transverse, vertical or longitudinal coordinates are multiplied by a factor. The modifyable parameters are LPP ,
Bm and T , the coefficients will not change.
7.5.3.2
Ordinate shift (Lackenby)
The principle of this Lackenby transformation type1 is that the frames are shifted in longitudinal direction while
the frame area and frame shape remain unchanged. This is done in such a way that the desired parameter are
obtained. All points on the hull are shifted when using this option, contrary to [Inflate/deflate] (discussed on this
page) method.
7.5.3.3
Inflate/deflate
With this transformation type the desired values of the parameters are obtained by ‘inflating and deflating’ the
frame shapes. The points of the frames are shifted perpendicular to the frame shape outwards or inwards. Care is
taken to preserve the frame shape as much as possible, without exceeding the extreme hull limits (as represented
by the lines as defined in section 7.5.2 on the current page, Specify envelop lines midship section). With this
transformation type it is possible to change all parameters (only this type can also change midship coefficient
(Cm )). With this type of transformation only points on the frames are relocated, all other points in the network,
such as points located on waterlines only, remain unchanged.
By the way, this transformation type is also used in the hullform transformation module which is applicable on
non-Fairway hulls in PIAS, Hulltran.
7.5.3.4
Increase / decrease parallel part
When selecting this type, on the first line the desired new length between perpendiculars should be given. The
second row the location of the aft side of the parallel part is entered. The additional parallel part (in case of
lengthening) starts at this point and has a constant section equal to the section at this point.
1 According
to H. Lackenby (1950) ‘On the systematic geomatrical variation of ship forms’, Trans. INA, Vol.92, pp. 289–316.
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7.5.3.5
96
Shift complete vessel
When using this transformation type the ship is shifted as a whole. With this option you can simply shift, for
example, the base, aft perpendiculars etc. After selecting this option, three input fields will appear: longitudinal
shift, transverse shift and vertical shift.
Alternatively, solids may be translated by moving all their polycurves at once using [Move polycurve] (discussed
on page 72).
7.5.3.5.1
Perpendicular to the shell
With this scheme points of the hull are shifted normal to the hull, with a user-specified positive (outwards) or
negative (inwards) offset. The normal-direction can only be determined at the intersection point of two lines. This
implies that internal points must be absent for this option and they will be removed by the program automatically.
Note that the normal-direction is undefined at knuckles; the program will take the average of the normals
around the knuckle. It is unavoidable that undulations in the vicinity of knuckles may occur, particularly with
negative offsets (inward).
7.5.4
Hints for and backgrounds of the transformation process
7.5.4.1
Which transformation type to apply?
When performing a ‘real’ transformation (so, not something simple as scaling) the question might arise which
transformation method to use; ‘inflate/deflate’ or the frame shifting method of Lackenby. The answer is up to the
user, however, the following properties can be mentioned for the two methods:
• With ‘inflate/deflate’ frames remain on their original location, while with Lackenby they will be shifted.
That is an advantage of ‘inflate/deflate’.
• With ‘inflate/deflate’ only the frame shape is modified, points not located on a frame (for example only
located in a waterline) are not midified. That is a disadvantage, which can be relieved to some extent by
removing all ‘internal points’ (which are points not situated on the intersection with an other curve), see
section 7.6.7 on page 99, Remove all "internal" points from all lines.
• With ‘inflate/deflate’ also the midship coefficient can be modified, which is not possible with Lackenby.
Limits for changes in parameter, which still leads to decent hullforms, cannot be given, those depend on the
particulars of the hullform. For example, the block coefficient modification limit of a slender ship will be higher
than that of a full ship. That is because the slender vessel has more room available in the middel, and particularly in
the ends, which facilitates an even transformation. While with the full vessel there is only limited space to expand
the hull form. For this reason no crisp transformation limits can be given, although in practice the following
guidelines have emerged:
• maximum change of block coefficient ±0.05,
• maximum change of LCB from Lpp /2: ±4% of Lpp ,
• maximum change of Cm : ±0.02.
It is useless to try to circumvent these limits by re-applying a transformation. For example, two transformations
with a block coefficient increase of 0.05 yields the same as a single transformation with a 0.10 increase. These
limits are, by the way, not a computer program limitation as such, instead they arise from the combination of hull
form particulars and transformation method.
7.5.4.2
Transformation of the target SAC only
With the option [SAC][Transform] or the button [Fit] (besproken on page 79) in the action [Change the shape of the
SAC] from the GUI the target SAC can be transformed separately (only with transformation types inflate/deflate
and Lackenby). Why should one do so? With the total hullform transformation, with a single command an entire
ship hull is transformed, which goes pretty quick. The backside is, however, this transformation acting globally, so
no control of local details is possible. Fortunately, the GUI offers also tools to adapt section shapes to the desired
area, as given by the target SAC. This process is more laborious, but offers much more local control. More details
on the GUI tools can be found in paragraph 7.3.5.2.8.1 on page 69, Show Target Frame Area.
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7.5 Hullform transformation
7.5.4.3
97
The use of Lap diagrams
When commencing a ship design from scratch, with a target displacement or LCB, an initial SAC might be a
proper tool to speed up this process. Unfortunately, not many methods are available to generate a SAC, although
Lap (NSP, Wageningen, The Netherlands) did publish one. Those are the so-called Lap-diagrams, applicable on
bulbless vessels with a conventional cruiser stern (so, no pram-type of aftship). So, at the ship extremes (for and
aft) a conflict might arise between the sectional area according to these diagrams, and the desired stem or stern
profile. Such a conflict may be solved iteratively, for instance in the following fashion:
1. Start with the SAC generated from Lap diagrams.
2. Design the hullform, making certain that in the ‘mid region’ (that is, not near the stem and stern) the frame
areas correspond to this SAC (for which teh GUI offers some dedicated tools).
3. Generate the target SAC from this hullform.
4. This SAC will now have incorrect values of Cb and LCB. So it must be transformed towards the correct
parameter values.
5. Adapt the hullform to this SAC.
6. When necessary, repeat the process from step two.
Attention
Lap diagrams offer a facility to ease the design process, which may prove to be useful for the ship designer.
However, its use is certainly not obligatory, and it must be realized that this tool does not belong to the core
of Fairway.
The Lap diagrams are numerically contained in a separate file, ❦✈s❧❛♣✳t①t, which is modifyable so a user can
use alternatives, if available. section 7.A.2 on page 122, File format of diagrams for generation of a sectional area
curve contains more information on the file format.
7.5.4.4
Parent hulls
Given a collection of parent forms, with the hullform transformation method a hull shape for a new design can be
obtained within a couple of minutes. In order to stimulate this design method a library of about twenty parent hulls
is available at SARC for general use. These hullforms, from which the majority was created at Delft University of
Technology, can be obtained at ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴❢❛✐r✇❛②✴♣❛r❡♥t❤✉❧❧s.
7.5.5
General rotation and scaling
The hullform transformation methods of options [Transformation parameter menu] have arisen in the naval architectural tradition, and have a specific ship design background. Under the current option [General rotation and
scaling] the general object transformation methods are collected. At this moment here the lineair scaling and the
rotation around an arbitrary axis is implemented, but additional variants are foreseen. For all these transformation
types the following apply:
• With function [Transform] the transformation will be executed.
• The transformation is performed on all selected solids (contrary to the conventional transformation as discussed prior, which is only applied on the single selected solid).
This method is rather simple; for each of the three directions longitudinal, transverse and vertical a factor is
given with which all coordinates will be multiplied. There is no fundamental difference between this option and
the earlier [Linear scaling] (discussed on page 95), albeit the latter is more naval architecturally oriented, because
there target values for length between perpendiculars, moulded breadth and draft are applied, while the current
option works with multiplication factors (which are applied at each transformation).
Here, must be given:
• An axis around which the object is rotated, which can be specified in two ways; either by specifying two
points of the axis, or by the combination of one point and a direction.
• The rotation angle, clockwise (seen from the first point in the direction of the second, respectively in the
direction of the axis) is positive.
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7.6
98
Settings and miscellaneous
When this option is selected the next submenu appears:
4. Settings and miscellaneous
1.
Define special points
2.
Uniform weight factors
3.
Uniform mean deviations
4.
Check network and lines, with output to screen
5.
Check network and lines, with output to file
6.
Make all lines consistent
7.
Remove all "internal" points from all lines
8.
Close vessel at deck
9.
Change color scheme
10. Define default window layout
The submenus behind these options will be discussed from section 7.6.2 on the following page, Define special
points onwards, but we start with the discussion of the general configuration options.
7.6.1
General configuration options
The general configuration appears on a property sheet that is activated using the [Config] option in the menu bar of
the window. Note that this option can be activated from the majority of screens and menus in Fairway. From the
Graphical User Interface (GUI) (discussed on page 53) this sheet is accessible from the menu [Edit][Preferences...][Common Settings...]. The configuration options are ordered in several tabs, which are discussed below.
7.6.1.1
Program setup
This configuration will be saved in
Configuration settings will be saved in the file ❋❛✐r✇❛②✳❝❢❣. Here you may choose to save that file in the
PIAS installation directory or the project directory containing the ship data.
Time interval automatic save
This option lets you specify the approximate time interval (in minutes) between two automatic save actions
of the program. With a time interval of zero the automatic save functionality is disabled. The user can control
in which of the saved design variants the hull shape is saved automatically, see section 7.11.1 on page 118,
File history.
Standard mean deviation
This is the mean deviation as used during the fairing of new curves. This value can be adjusted for individual
curves, as described in paragraph 7.3.5.2.2 on page 62, Fair. See also the option [Uniform mean deviations]
(discussed on the following page).
Naming convention cross sections
This is the naming convention used for new frames, and can also be set in [Systemize polycurve names]
(discussed on page 75).
7.6.1.2
With curved surfaces
The settings here are identical to the settings described in paragraph 7.3.5.3.3 on page 71, Settings.
7.6.1.3
Configuration GUI
This tab is only accessible when activated from the Graphical User Interface (GUI) menu [Edit][Preferences...][Common Settings...].
Maximum plotting inaccuracy
To draw a line on the screen the line has to be divided into very many little straight line ’pieces’. Dividing
a curved line into more straight line pieces increases the draw accuracy, but the calculation time will also
increase. With this option it is possible to enter the deviation of the mid of the segment and the curved line
in millimetres.
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Maximum angle of two adjacent linelets
Complementary to the previous option the maximum angle between two successive line pieces can be entered. The same rule can be applied here: the smaller the angle, the more accurate the curved line, but the
calculation time increases.
7.6.1.4
Title block lines plan
Here you can define (a maximum of five) text lines that will appear in the title block of the linesplan. The name of
the ship, the date and the used scale will always be written in this block.
7.6.2
Define special points
Special points are only shown in the Legacy GUI (discussed on page 121) for now. For the discussion of this topic
please refer to a Fairway manual from before 2012, the section titled "8.1 Define special points".
7.6.3
Uniform weight factors
This will give all points in the model a neutral weight factor. For a discussion of point weights see section 7.1.1 on
page 44, Basics of Fairway.
7.6.4
Uniform mean deviations
While fairing a curve, see paragraph 7.3.5.2.2 on page 62, Fair, it is possible to adjust the mean deviation between
the curve and its points. This option will reset the mean deviation for all curves in the model to the default value
specified in section 7.6.1.1 on the preceding page, Program setup.
7.6.5
Check network and lines
With this option it is possible to check whether all points are lying on a line. All lines in the network will be
checked one by one. Several columns with length, height and breath positions of every point of the line and length,
height and breath positions of the line ’at the point’ will be displayed. The last column displays the distance
between point and line. The goal of this option is to check whether all network points are lying on the rulings.
The eventual goal will be a network, in which the rulings have the desired geometry and all points are lying on the
rulings.
7.6.6
Make all lines consistent
When this option is selected, new splines will be calculated for all segments of all lines (with a constant mean
deviation of 0.0001 mm). This is done in such a way that the consistency between the spline rulings of all lines
and the points of the network is guaranteed. This can result in a model that deviates from the desired model. When
dealing with a line in a plane (for example a frame) all points and splines will be pressed in that plane.
7.6.7
Remove all "internal" points from all lines
With this option it is possible to remove all internal points of the lines in the network. The definition of internal
and external points within Fairway has been given in section 7.1.1 on page 44, Basics of Fairway. For example,
this option can be used before sending (converting) the hullform to the hydrodynamic program Dawson (MARIN).
7.6.8
Close vessel at deck
For some options it may be necessary to close the vessel at the top. This option connects the highest point of each
frame with the centerline plane.
7.6.9
Change color scheme
Attention
This option is deprecated, as it applies to the Legacy GUI (discussed on page 121) only. For the discussion of
this topic please refer to a Fairway manual from before 2012, the section titled "8.2 Change color settings".
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7.6.10
100
Define default window layout
Attention
This option is deprecated, as it applies to the Legacy GUI (discussed on page 121) only. For the discussion
of this topic please refer to a Fairway manual from before 2012, the section titled "8.3 Define default window
layout".
7.7
Show (rendered and colored) surfaces
This option is for the visualisation of the model. Sometimes it may be hard to interpret the model from viewing at
the wireframe model, it might also happen that surfaces are defined in another way then the user had meant by
line modelling. This option is of course also very valuable for making presentations or flyers for the company or the
customer. Because of the interactive nature of this menu option, it is less thoroughly described than other menus in
this manual.
Unlike the other main menu options, after hitting the <Escape> key the software does not return to the main
menu, but generates a rendered image of the model. To return to the main menu without generating a rendered
model, use the [Abort] function from the menu bar.
Drawing type
One can choose between ’Normal’, which means the colors of the area under and above the waterlines have
different colors, and ’Shell plate layout’, which means every defined shell plate has a different color (see the
figure below).
Figure 7.48: Rendering shell plate layout
Use "curved surfaces"
This option defines whether curved surfaces must be used that are derived from the shape of the curves,
according to the settings in the right-most column of the menu [File and solid management,fwy_solid_←
management]. If this is the case then the surface is triangulated during rendering, up to the detail level given
in the setting below. Otherwise coarse triangles are generated between the intersection points in the network
of curves.
Target dimension of planar elements
This value is an indication of the level of triangularization. A large value may cause the model to look a little
rough, while a very small value may cause the computation to take a long time.
Representation of surface curvature
In the graphical user interface of Fairway, the curvature of a line can be visualised. However, a curved surface
is curved in two directions. To visualise the curvature, the curvature in both directions have to be combined
to a single curvature parameter. In general, the curvature in the direction of the largest curvature (K1) and
the curvature in the direction of the smallest curvature (K2) are combined in one of the following ways:
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• Gausse curvature = K1 x K2
• Mean curvature = (K1 + K2) / 2
• Absolute curvature = abs(K1) + abs(K2)
Fairway can determine these curvatures, and present them by means of a color distribution. The examples
below show the Gaussian and Mean curvature:
Figure 7.49: Gaussian curvature (left) and mean curvature (right)
7.7.1
Option in the render window
The window with the rendered view contains in the menu bar a number of functies for setup, printing and export
(e.g. to bitmap or VRML format) which are discussed in section 9.7 on page 159, Rendered views.
7.8
Export of hullform
With this option the hullform can be converted and exported to a format suitable for use in other software.
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Export of hullform
0.
Create file in PIAS-ordinate format (.hyd file)
1.
Create file in PIAS surface format (.TRI file)
2.
Offsets to ASCII-file
3.
All lines to AutoCAD DXF format in three 2D views
4.
All lines to 3D AutoCAD DXF-POLYLINE format
5.
All lines to 3-D AutoCAD NURBS format (Acad V14+)
6.
All lines as NURBS to IGES
7.
All faces to IGES
8.
All lines to NUPAS import format
9.
All lines to Eagle format
10. Relevant lines to Stearbear / Tribon format
11. Relevant lines to Schiffko format
12. Create finite element model
13. Create Dawson-model (MARIN)
14. Create Rapid Prototyping file (.STL file)
15. Frames to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd)
16. Frames to Castor (ASC)
17. Relevant lines to ShipConstructor
18. Enable hullform to be used as a Hull Server shape data base
Warning
It is recommended to read section 7.8.22 on page 109, On production fairing before using any of the options
from this menu.
7.8.1
Create file in PIAS-ordinate format (.hyd file)
All visible and invisible frames are converted to a regular PIAS format — in a .hyd file. The converted hullform
can be used for all functions and calculations in PIAS. At this conversion, the following remarks can be made:
• If longitudinal polycurves, such as waterlines or 3D lines, are present which have the property ‘deck at side’
then the PIAS frames will be cut of at the level of this line or these lines. Please also refer to section 7.1.3.5
on page 50, Deck at side.
• Once upon a time all the frames present in Fairway were converted to PIAS format. Occasionally, that
proved to be a little inconvenient with frames which did not extend over the entire hull body. Such as an
auxiliary ‘frame’ which only did exist in the bilge area, or a tiny ‘frame’ just existing far above the waterline.
For PIAS is based on longitudinal integration of ordinate areas, and as such tiny ‘frames’ have little to no
area, they induce a fault in the correct sequence of ordinate areas, and to correspondingly incorrect volumes
and stability results. But that’s all in the past time; frames are only converted to PIAS only if they extend
over the entire hull surface. This ‘entire hull surface’ is interpreted as the surface which is bounded at the
edges by a phantom face (see section 7.1.3.1 on page 49, Phantom face for an introduction to this concept).
It is good to be aquainted with this background, for if Fairway frames are missing in the PIAS model, then it
is advisable to check whether in Fairway these are at the bottom and the top indeed connected to a phantom
face (which will by default be the case).
• It is advised to verify the PIAS hull shape after conversion thoroughly with Hulldef.
By the way, if you use the local cloud (for which reference is made to section 3.11 on page 20, Local cloud:
simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project), the frames do not neccessarily have to be converted
to .hyd file format, because at any moment the PIAS equivalent of the Fairway hull form is available through the
cloud.
7.8.2
Create file in PIAS surface format (.TRI file)
PIAS functions and calculations can be done based in this surface model, instead of based on the ordinate-model
as described in the previous option.
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7.8.3
103
Offsets to ASCII-file
After selecting this option you can enter the number of decimals that you want the coordinates of the points to be
written in the ASCII-file.
In the ASCII-file the lines of the hullform are defined as follows:
• name of the line
• number of points on the line
• longitudinal, transverse and vertical coordinates of every point (relative to to the intersection point of the aft
perpendicular and the base line) in metres
• whether a point is a knuckle or not
• whether a point is an intersection or not. When the point is an intersection point, the intersecting line is given
as well.
Result: ∗.OFF file.
7.8.4
All lines to AutoCAD DXF format in three 2D views
This option produces three different .DXF files. Each .DXF file contains one view (front, side and top view).
Several translation parameters can be given to configure the layout of the drawings. This will not produce a finished
linesplan, but is aids in setting up the drawing. The filename of the drawing is shortened with one character, to
make space for the numbers 1, 2 and 3.
Result: Three files ∗1.DXF, ∗2.DXF and ∗3.DXF.
Another possibility to use AutoCAD is to install the PIAS Hull Server . This option is available on request.
With Hull Server any cross-section can be loaded into AutoCAD, regardless of whether or not this cross-section is
initially available in Fairway. The option works as follows: Start Fairway and AutoCAD, next activate the option
in AutoCAD and specify the cross-section.
7.8.5
All lines to 3D AutoCAD DXF-POLYLINE format
With this option it is possible to export the 3D network to AutoCAD (version 11 or higher). After selecting the
option you can enter whether you want to convert the waterlines, frames and buttocks to real 3D lines or to 2D
lines. Both options result in the same ’picture’ in AutoCAD. But there is a difference. When you select the option
’3D lines’, the lines are real 3D lines.
When 2D lines are selected, the model in AutoCAD will for the most part be composed of 2D lines, while the
plane in which the lines lie will be rotated in such a manner that a 3D view appears. The difference will become
clear when using editing modes in AutoCAD. For example, when using the AutoCAD command [Offset]. This
command cannot easily be applied to real 3D lines.
After selecting the line type, you are asked to enter the maximum length of a line segment. In AutoCAD every
curve is represented by a so-called ’polyline’ that is composed of small line segments. The lower the segment
length the finer and more accurate the curve representation.
At last you are asked to enter if you want the (non-internal) network points to be exported. When entering
[Yes], points will also be generated at curve intersections in the AutoCAD model.
Result: .DXF file, which contains a ’polyline’ of every line. Fairway tries its best to generate ’polylines
composed of circle segments’, which allow the curvature of the curve to be approximated. Unfortunately, the
DXF format and AutoCAD itself cannot handle 3D polylines containing circle segments (i.e. lines of the Fairway
type ’Spatial polycurves’). Therefore, 3D curves will be composed of straight line segments. As a consequence,
’polylines composed of circle segments’ can only be exported when the above-mentioned option ’2D lines’ is used.
This shows that the 2D history of AutoCAD is still shining through.
7.8.6
All lines to 3-D AutoCAD NURBS format (Acad V14+)
This option generates a DXF-file that contains the Fairway lines in the AutoCAD spline format (DXF group code
100). Actually, this is a 3D NURBS curve, which is the same type as Fairway is using. So this DXF option is not
using an approximation like the two mentioned above, but translates the form coefficients of Fairway to DXF, so
that with a minimum of information transfer a maximum precision is attained.
Unfortunately, AutoCAD 2000 contains a serious bug, as a result of which the DXF file generated by Fairway
cannot be imported. After thorough experimentation we discovered that one can work around this bug if the DXF
file contains a whole bunch of fixed setups and choices. According to SARC it is undesirable that all kinds of setups
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104
are dictated by Fairway; instead each user should be able to follow his own preferences. In the years 2000/2001
SARC has communicated heavily with Autodesk in order to look for a particular DXF file content which causes
the bug not to appear, but finally we had to conclude that even at Autodesk they do not have sufficient knowledge
about their own faults.
This phenomenon is for SARC a reason to discourage the use of AutoCAD 2000. However, if one wishes to
use this software anyhow, two possibilities are open:
• Generate a DXF file for AutoCAD 14, import this one in AutoCAD 14, save as AutoCAD .DWG file, and
finally read that one into AutoCAD 2000.
• Use an external file structure. In order to be able to generate file for AutoCAD 2000, Fairway has an option
(which is sold separately) to copy the DXF file structure from an external example file. This file on its turn
contains a whole set of fixed setups which are apparently necessary for AutoCAD 2000. Fairway is delivered
with an external example file, named fairtmpl.dxf, but with the DXF manual by hand each user can create a
more appropriate example file if desired. At an hourly rate SARC can support the latter.
7.8.7
All lines as NURBS to IGES
IGES is an abbreviation of Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications. IGES encloses the international agreements
regarding the file format which is used for the exchange of information between different CAD systems.
Fairway uses the ’no.126, Rational B-spline’ for conversion. Also in this case is the closing remark of the
previous (DXF) section applicable.
Result: ∗.IGS file.
Attention
It is know that Autocad 12 does not import IGES-no. 126 correctly. As to that, we do not know about other
versions of Autocad, but we do advise to check these conscientiously.
7.8.8
All faces to IGES
With this option an IGES file is produced which containes the faces — so, the surface representation — of the
hull. This option has two variants. The second one is called ‘IGES faces with raw shape’, see section 7.8.10 on the
next page, IGES faces with raw shape, which has actually become obsolete and i sonly mainatined for backward
compatibility. The recommended option is the one just below, called ‘IGES faces with refined shape’.
7.8.9
IGES faces with refined shape
Todo: elaborate the discussion of this option.
Figure 7.50: Preview on the IGES file.
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7.8 Export of hullform
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Figure 7.51: User authorization for export.
7.8.10
IGES faces with raw shape
With this option an IGES file is created which contains the surface of the ship hull. Here a number of choices have
to be made:
• The type of surface, in IGES parlance. Please consult the documentation of the receiving system to find out
which type is supported there. From Fairway two choices can be made:
– IGES type 114, the Parametric Spline Surface;
– IGES type 128, the Rational B-Spline surface (NURBS). This is the most commonly used type (for
instance the Spanish CAE system Foran can read such a file). Per face Fairway generates a single 4x4
NURBS surface, so a surface with 16 control-points / vertices. The local geometry could be so complex
that the surface with only 16 control-points is too inaccurate, which is indicated by discontinuities at
the borders of the surface. The remedy in this case is to increase the number of surfaces, therefore the
number of faces, therefore the number of intersection curves.
• Use the ‘curved surfaces’ capability, at least, when this option is available. In general if use is made of this
option a smoother surface will be obtained. By the way, if the ’curved surfaces’ option is not used the system
will have to remove internal points. These points will be deleted permanently, so it is to be recommended
not to save the hull model on disc anymore.
• Quadruple the number of IGES patches per face. Without quadrupling, in general one IGES surface per
face in Fairway is generated. The alternative is four surfaces per face, which may give a better fit between
neighbouring IGES surfaces. This option will produce a less ‘raw’ IGES file, however, it is a) a rough
remedy, because the number of patches is bluntly quadrupled, and b) not a panacae because quadrupling
might still not be sufficient for an accurate result.
• With flattened corners. This option is rather specific; by nature the surfaces will be slightly twisted in the
vicinity of their corners, but with this option this twist is artificially flattened. In mathematical parlance this
is called ‘zero-twist’. The practical relevance is that with hull models which fit or fair badly, the common
method may lead to wild fluctuations in the IGES surface. In these cases ‘flattened corners’ could be chosen.
• Only faces which are bordered by visible lines. In this case only faces which are bounded by visible lines at
all sides will be converted.
7.8.11
All lines to NUPAS import format
This option is deprecated, there is a better alternative in the embodiment of the Fairway Hull Server . Therefore
first a warning is presented:
If you nevertheless apply this option, five files are generated, which can be used as 3D lines in NUPAS.
Result: Frames.PNU, Waterlin.PNU, Buttock.PNU, Threed.PNU, Knuckles.PNU files.
Three remarks can be made about the conversion to NUPAS:
• Around 1995 NCG and SARC agreed to create NUPAS files in a coded (which means: incomprehensible
for humans) format. However, it appears that at present NUPAS may sometimes require uncoded files. So
there is a switch where you can specify if you want to create coded or uncoded files, depending on the target
NUPAS configuration.
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106
• The function of importing PIAS/Fairway files in NUPAS should be bought as an additional NUPAS option.
For more information about importing files into NUPAS, or a possible import failure, please contact NCG.
• With this option a static model is created for NUPAS. A much more advanced possibility is the on-line
connection between NUPAS and Fairway, by means of the Fairway Hull Server , in which a Fairway hull acts
as a ‘shape database’ for NUPAS, which can supply NUPAS with all the shape information it requires. In
order to enable a hull to be used as a NUPAS shape database, please use option Enable hullform to be used
as a Hull Server shape data base (discussed on page 108).
7.8.12
All lines to Eagle format
A file is generated that can be used in Eagle. After selection of this option one is asked to enter the number of
coordinates placed at a line in the ASCII-file. Furthermore, the maximum number of points of a line can be entered.
When using the <Enter> key the number is not restricted.
Result: ∗.EAG file.
7.8.13
Relevant lines to Stearbear / Tribon format
A file, which can be used in Stearbear / Tribon, is generated.
Result: ∗.STB file.
7.8.14
Relevant lines to Schiffko format
Two files, which can be used in Schiffko, are generated. Two methods of conversion are possible: by the network
or by the exact frames.
Result: QS001.DQS & LL0001.DLL files.
7.8.15
Create finite element model
With this option a ASCII-file is generated. This file contains two parts. The first part is a list of all faces with
numbers for each point of the faces. These numbers refer to a list of coordinates at the end of the file, where this
number corresponds with the coordinates of this point. These data can be used in a finite elements program. It
should be noticed that this option exports the faces ’accidentally’ at hand. Optimization of face dimensions and
face location does not occur. In other words, it is not a mesh generator.
Result: ∗.FEM file.
7.8.16
Create Dawson-model (MARIN)
Conversion to the hydrodynamic program which has been developed by MARIN. Before generating a DAWSON
model, the ’internal’ network points on the lines have to be removed. The definition of ’internal’ network points
has been given in section 7.1.1 on page 44, Basics of Fairway. When removing the ’internal’ network points, the
hullform is not changed. If you want to keep the original model, you have to make a backup. When creating a
DAWSON model, you are asked whether all ’internal’ network points have to be removed automatically. When
entering <No>, no DAWSON model is created. When entering <Yes>, the following appears: ’For Dawson the
hullform upper boundary must be a (possibly trimmed) waterline. Give the waterline level or the name of that
waterline’. Only the hullform under the waterline is important in the Dawson program. Existing waterlines can be
entered by giving the height of this line in metres or the name of the line. It is also possible that you want to export
the hullform with a certain trim. Then you can define an angled waterline and enter this with its name. An angled
waterline can be defined as described in section 7.3.5.3 on page 70, New Planar Polycurve by Intersection.
Result: ∗.PNL file.
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7.8 Export of hullform
7.8.17
107
Create Rapid Prototyping file (.STL file)
Figure 7.52: Model designed with Fairway, produced on an Ultimaker 3D printer.
With this option, a .STL file (see ❤tt♣✿✴✴❡♥✳✇✐❦✐♣❡❞✐❛✳♦r❣✴✇✐❦✐✴❙❚▲❴✪✷✽❢✐❧❡❴❢♦r♠❛t✪✷✾ for that) can
be produced, which is suitable to produce a scale model of the ship hull with a milling machine or a 3←
D printer. On the latter has been reported in the SWZ Maritime journal, please see ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s✇③♦♥❧✐♥❡✳
♥❧✴♥❡✇s✴✷✼✵✽✴✸❞✲♣r✐♥t✐♥❣✲s❤✐♣✲♠♦❞❡❧s✲❡①tr❛s and ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴
❛♣♣❡♥❞✐①❴s✇③✷✵✶✷✳♣❞❢. In order to deal with physical limitations of the production machine, the model can
be segmented into producable blocks.
Attention
A prerequisite for producing STLfiles is that the vessel is closed to centerline — which can automatically
be done with the option as discussed in section 7.6.8 on page 99, Close vessel at deck. Furthermore, for
segmentation a sufficient number of continuous lines should be present, because the vessel can only be split
at continuous lines.
Before generating the STL file, a menu appears where the following parameters can be given:
Model scale
This is the scale at which the model is made relative to the actual size.
Optimal
When this option is answered with ‘Yes’, for all vertices of a face it is checked if they can be reached by
a 3-axis milling machine. Because this can be a lengthy calculation process for complicated shapes, you
can also answer the question with ‘No’. Now only of the centre of each plane is checked whether it can be
reached by the milling machine. If the planes are small enough, this is sufficiently precise.
Split for three-axis machining
When you are using a three-axis milling machine, the model can be segmented into producable parts, as
depecited in the example below:
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Figure 7.53: Ship model segmented for 3-axis milling.
Vessel is symmetrical relative to centerline
When the vessel is symmetrical relative to the centerline, both sides of the hull can be milled at once.
Otherwise only one side is machined.
Maximum segment dimension
Here you specify the maximum segment size, so it fits on the milling table.
Minimum segment dimension in one dimension of the base plane
Here you specify the minimum segment size, to prevent that, depending on the material used, too thin pieces
are milled.
Format for output file(s)
Here you can specify the output format.
7.8.18
Frames to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd)
Poseidon is a scantling-program of Germanischer Lloyd. With this option, all defined frames in Fairway are
written to a Poseidon readable format. PIAS also contains an option to export the internal geometry to Poeison,
more information on that can be found in section 11.9.7 on page 197, Export bulkheads and decks to Poseidon
(Germanischer Lloyd).
7.8.19
Frames to Castor (ASC)
Castor is a steelweight-estimation program developed by ASC. With this option, all defined frames in Fairway are
written to a Castor readable format.
7.8.20
Relevant lines to ShipConstructor
This option, from about 2005, exists and produces files which sould be consumable by ShipConstructor. However,
SARC has no knowledge of any test with these files in that program.
7.8.21
Enable hullform to be used as a Hull Server shape data base
The background of the Hullserver is that CAD/CAM software (the client) can communicate directly with Fairway,
without the use of files. This imnplies that the CAD system and Fairway are running simultaneously on the same
computer, with the CAD system repeatedly requesting shape data fro the ship model. The Hull Server determines
the requested shapes and returns them to the CAD system. This communication is dynamic and is not limited to
the set of lines as available in Fairway. For instance, if a client asks for a specific line which does not yet exist in
the model, the Hull Server will simply generate that new line and returns its coordinates to the client. Detailled
information on the Hull Server is available in a separate document (fwserver.pdf) which is available upon request
at SARC. Hullserver clients are available in NUPAS and Mastership engineering software.
This conversion option here in the Fairway export menu option is nothing more but a test which indicates
whether the model is sufficiently defined for its use in a production environment. If this is the case, Fairway will
mark th emodel accordingly, so it is fit for application in the Hull Server environment. This check verifies (to some
extent) that only proper data are being transferred between both programs. Please note that the model may still
contain errors, for example a line may inadvertently be designated as a knuckle (or not), the shape itself may not
be satisfactory, etc. This type of errors are caused by (poor) modeling, not by the (interfacing of) software.
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109
On production fairing
In thi schapter the export facilities of Fairway have been discussed. The results can and will be applied in other
(CAD and CAE) systems, often also for production purposes. In the latter case the Fairway hull form requires a
level of consistency and accuracy which is sufficiently high for production. Fairway offers the user tools to fair for
production. However, the actual fairness is dependent on the assessment by the user and the time that has been
invested into the fairing process. The use of Fairway as a sole fact is by no means a guarantee that a hull shape is
actually fair for production.
7.9
Define and generate lines plan
With Fairway it is possible to generate a lines plan from the threedimensional shape. The sections to draw, and
their locations are configurable, and additional texts and size markers can be generated. An example of such a
linesplan is depicted below. By the way, the mechanism behind this lines plan generation is quite similar to that for
the subdivision plan from Newlay. Details will differ, however, for a better understanding the subdivision pages might
be visited on section 11.7 on page 191, Subdivision plan. Although in this manual the line plan mechanisms will
be discussed thoroughly, experience shows that a few experiments may also be instructive. And please be assured
that although with an ‘erroneous’ lines plan definition the result may be unexpected, it is not possible to ruin the
underlying ship hull model.
If a hull consists of multiple solids, it may be desirable to include some in the lines plan, and to leave out others.
That can be specified in the solid properties, as discussed in section 7.11.3 on page 118, Solid management.
Figure 7.54: Example of linesplan, as generated by Fairway.
Define and generate lines plan
1. Definition of the layout of the lines plan
2. General lines plan setup
3. Draw and extent linesplan, on screen
4. Draw selected linesplan on paper
7.9.1
Definition of the layout of the lines plan
After selection this option an input window appears where a maximum of four linesplans can be composed, and
where one of those can be selected for actual output. The purpose of the columns in this menu is deiscussed in the
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table just below. Furthermore, when you move the text cursor to a drawing and press <Enter> the menu ‘Views
of [linesplan name]’ appears, where the views of the drawing can be defined.
Slct Here you can select the lines plan to be actually generated.
Description
Just a simple textual description, just for your own orientation.
Margin
Additional margin at the circumference of the paper, in millimetres. The default margin is 10 mm.
Frame
Whether or not a framework should be drawn.
Drawing head
Whether or not to include a drawing head. The sheet border and drawing head are not displayed when
drawing on screen. The drawing head text can be adapted in section 7.9.2 on page 113, General lines plan
setup. .
Coefficient
Whether or not the most important hydrostatic coefficients (such as the block coeffcient) should be niclude
in the lines plan.
7.9.1.1
Views of [linesplan name]
In this menu the views (with a maximum of 16) of this lines plan can be specified. With <Enter> in the first
column one goes one level deeper into each view - where the viewing parameters are given into detail as discussed
in the paragraphs below - however, first the main properties of the views have to be defined in this menu. The
purpose of the columns here is:
Description
A description of this view.
Active for text
Texts can be added to a lines plan, this is discussed in paragraph 7.9.1.1.1.6 on page 113, Define additional
legends and in section 7.9.3 on page 113, Draw and extent linesplan, on screen. These text belong to the
view which is ‘active for text’, as defined in this column. This implies that if a view is removed, then the
belonging texts are removed as well.
View
The type of view can be chosen here, avialable types are:
In standard directions
These are conventional views, on the planes of waterlines, frames, buttocks or diagonals (under 45°)
The applicable parameters will be discussed in paragraph 7.9.1.1.1 on this page, Definition of views in
standard directions.
3-Dimensional
Threedimensional view on hullform, under a user-defined viewing angle. For teh parameters please
refer to paragraph 7.9.1.1.1.2 on the next page, Definition of threedimensional views.
Plate layout
A three-dimensional view of the shiphull. The view shows the plate borders of the selected plates with
addition of the name of the plate. The parameters are identical to thos of the threedimensional view,
just above
Only SAC
The Sectional Area Curve (only of the single solid as used for this lines plan, so the contribution of
possible other buoyant solids is not included). See paragraph 7.9.1.1.1.3 on page 112, Definition of a
view on the Sectional Area Curve for details.
7.9.1.1.1
Definition of views in standard directions
With this option an intermediate menu opens up, with the following options:
View: [description]
1. Define view
2. Properties first axis
3. Properties second axis
4. Define additional legends
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Definition of views in the standard directions
You can specify which view should be drawn, here it must be placed and how it is formatted. An important concept
in this respect is the ’selection box’. That is a thee dimensional box with user-defined boundaries, with the meaning
that all hull lines inside that box will be inlcluded in this particular view, and the remainder (consequently) not.
If one does want to include for example only the aft ship in a view of the lines plan, then for that purpose a box
with aft limit -∞ to forward limit L/2 can be taken (and because in practice ∞ is quite large, e.g. 1000 can be used
instead).
Longitudinal lower limit selection box [m]
The longitudinal location, measured from APP, from which the lines should be included in this view.
Transverse and vertical lower limit selection box [m]
Similar for the other two dimensions.
Longitudinal upper limit selection box [m]
The longitudinal location to where the lines should be included in this view.
Transverse and vertical upper limit selection box [m]
Similar for the other two dimensions.
Transverse shift on paper [m]
Here you can specify, in real world coordinates, the amount of transverse shift on paper or on screen. A
positive shift is to the right, a negative to the left. The purpose is to be able to position the different views
relatively to each other The shift of the view on paper or screen in transverse direction. A positive value
means a shift to the right and a negative value means a shift to the left. The purpose is to position the
different views relatively to each other. The program will always ensure that all views are visible. So this
shift is not connected to issues of scale or dimsonsions of screen or paper. Because the shifts are relative to
each other, there is no firmly defined zeroshift; simply take an arbitrary view with zero shift, and give the
shifts of the other views relative from that one.
Vertical shift on paper [m]
Similar to the transverse shift. Positive is a shift upwards.
Mirror about CL
The view is mirrored about the centre line plane. For example to be used for aftship frames in the body plan.
Draw only visible lines
In the Graphical User Interface (GUI) it is possible to hide individual polycurves. When selecting ‘yes’ for
this option, only the visible polycurves will be drawn in the lines plan. With ‘no’, all visible and all invisible
curves will be drawn.
Type of measurements
With the option 1Draw and extent linesplan, on screen’ lines can be measured - which means that automatically legends can be allocated to lines, where the location of the line determines the value of the legend.
With the present option you can choose the naming system, with choices between ’frame number’, ’ordinate
number’, ’name of line’, ’number in arabic’, ’number in roman’, ’automatic meter’, ’automatic millimeter’.
Their properties will be discussed at ‘Types and legends of size markers’ of paragraph 7.9.1.1.1.4 on the next
page, Properties first axis.
Font height of measurements
The font height of the measurements, in millimetres.
Projection plane
here the type of view can be spcified, with the choice from frames (a front view), waterlines (top view),
buttocks (side view) or diagonals (under 45°).
7.9.1.1.1.2
Definition of threedimensional views
Defining threedimensional views is quite similar to defining a view in the standard directions, as discussed just
above. The differences are:
• The option ‘projection surface parallel to...’ is not available.
• There are two additional cells; the ‘angle between viewing axis and CL’ and ‘angle between viewing axis
and base line’. These are the angles, in degrees, under which the vessel is viewed, please refer to section 3.7
on page 14, Definitions and units for the definitions.
• There is an additional cell labelled ‘perspective’, which indicates whether this is a perspective view. If this is
set to ‘yes’ then four additional cells will appear with perspective parameters, amongst which the ‘distance
from the eye to the objectpoint’. That object point, which is the point where the eye is looking at, is defined
by means of its three coordinates in the cells just below.
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112
Definition of a view on the Sectional Area Curve
With this choice the actual Sectional Area Curve, that is the SAC of the active solid, will be plotted. Such as SAC
is only possible in a private drawing, so not in combination with other hull views. However, it still is possible to
define additional legends (consisting of fixed texts) for the SAC, this will be discussed in paragraph 7.9.1.1.1.6 on
the next page, Define additional legends.
7.9.1.1.1.4
Properties first axis
In each view two axes can be defined, which are in general used as x-axis or y-axis. With this option the orientation
and system of measurements of the first axis can be given. The axis method has two important properties:
• An axis is essentially three dimensional, and is defined by means of its start and end points, so by six figures
in total. In the lines plan views the axis will be projected in the same manner as the hull lines.
• Legends with the axis are placed at the right side of the axis, seens from startg point to end point.
Draw this axis
‘Yes’ if the axis should actually be included in the plot, ‘no’ if not.
Longitudinal coordinate start axis
The distance from aft perpendicular to start point of the axis, in longitudinal direction, in meters.
Transverse coordinate start axis
The distance from centerline to start point of the axis, in transverse direction, in meters.
Vertical coordinate start axis
The distance from baseline to start point of the axis, in vertical direction, in meters.
Coordinates end axis
Similar to the previous three coordinates, for the end point of the axis.
Types and legends of size markers
With this option it is possible to determine whether size markers should be placed and to which they refer.
As noticed earlier, the size markers are always drawn at the rightmost side, seen from start to end, of the
axis. Nine types of size markers exist:
Automatic meter
Measurement of the axis in meters. The size markers and texts are automatically generated by the
program
Automatisch millimeter
As just above, albeit in millimeters.
Frame number
With frame number. These whould have been specified in Config, as discussed in section 6.9 on
page 42, Definition of frame spaces.
Ordinate number
Measurement of the axis with ordinates. Ordinate 0 is the aft perpendicular and ordinate 20 is the fore
perpendicular. Obviously, the length between the perpendiculars has to be defined properly for this
purpose, see section 7.4 on page 93, Main dimensions and other ship parameters for that.
Name of line
The name of the line - simple the name as defined by the user - is used with this choice.
Ordinal numbering arabic
Numbers is our common western numbering system (1,2,3,4....). The numbers are the ordinal numbers
of the actually drawn lines. From ‘aft to front’, ‘bottom to top’ and ‘inside to outside’ the numbers are
increasing.
Numbering in Roman
Just as above, albeit in the Roman system (I, II, III, IV....).
Nothing
No size markers or legends.
Only size markers
Only size ticks will be drawn, without legends.
Line type for numbering
If the legend type is either ‘name of line’, ‘number arabic’ or ‘number roman’, then the type of line to follow
has to be entered. Possible line types are frames, waterlines and buttocks. If the legend type is ‘number
arabic’ or ‘number roman’ then a fourth choice is present, which is ‘fixed increment, given on line below’.
This type can be used if size ticks are required on fixed distances (for example every 5 meter), while these
tick should subsequently be numbered.
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Fixed value for numbering
If the line type for numbering as given the line above is ‘fixed increment’ then that increment, in meters, can
be given here.
Numbering about how many frames
If the legend type is ‘frame number’, then here can be specified about how many frames should be numbered.
With 1 each frame is numbered, with 5 each fifth frame.
Dimension size marker
The desired height of the size markers in millimetres.
Angle text legend
The angle of the text legends (which are the figures or number printed at a size marker) with the axis. With
0 the text is parallel to the axis, with 90 the text is rotated 90° counterclockwise.
Size of text legend
The font height of the text legend, in millimeters.
7.9.1.1.1.5
Properties second axis
Completely similar to the first axis.
7.9.1.1.1.6
Define additional legends
Here additional, fixed, texts van be specified which will be included in the lines plan. The ‘breadth’ and ‘height’
coordinates are measured from the origin of the view which is ‘active for texts’, in meter, on real-world scale, in
the same logic as the mutual shift of the different views is given. The dimension of the text is the font height, in
millimeters. The texts which are generated with the interactive measurement, as discussed in section 7.9.3 on this
page, Draw and extent linesplan, on screen, will also be included in this list.
7.9.2
General lines plan setup
here the general configuration for the lines plan is given. At this moment this is limited to the (maximally five)
lines of the drawing head.
7.9.3
Draw and extent linesplan, on screen
With this option a window pops up with a preview of the lines plan. However, there is an additional purpose of this
window, which is dynamically add measurements of lines in the plane which is viewed perpendicular in a certain
view. The issue is that measurements alongside axes can easily be automated, because they are written in empty
space on paper. However, right within a drawing puttingthe texts properly is much more cumbersome, because it
is there not only the nitention to putthe text near the intended line, but also just not near other lines. And for it
is still desired to measure such lines, for instance numbering frames in the body plan, it can be done interactively.
The prime idea is that the user clicks a line, which make the measurement legend to be attached to the cursor, while
the user puts this text on the appropriate location. In more detail, these functions are:
Zoom in
Assigns the ‘zoom’ function to the left mouse button. If this is pressed once a zoom rectangle is created
which can be used to indicate the zoom area. With a second mouseclick this zoom is executed.
Zoom back
Reverts to the previous zoom level.
Measure line
Contains the core of the measurement system. Also this fnuction is assigned to the left mouse button. With
the mouse a line can be indicated and with a mouseclick the measurement legend is determined (according
to the setting of ‘type of measurements’, see paragraph 7.9.1.1.1.1 on page 111, Definition of views in the
standard directions for discussion) and attached to the cursor. This text can now be moved to the proper
place, and with a secon dmouse click the legend is placed permanently.
Font height
Is used to set the font height (in millimeters) of the texts to be placed.
Insert text
Is used to insert a free text on a user-defined position.
Remove text
If this function is assigned to the left mouse button, then already placed texts can be indicated, and removed
with a click on the left mouse button.
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7.9.4
114
Draw selected linesplan on paper
With this option a selected lines plan can eb prnited on paper. As always, th eoutput can be redirected to file. With
a lines plan a high resolution might be desired, and the best method to obtain that is to use a file in vector format,
such as DXF or PostScript. This can be set in Config, please see section 6.1.15 on page 39, Output to.
7.10
Shell plate expansions and templates
This menu lists all plates that are currently defined in the model. The first column indicates whether the plate is
selected or not, the second column contains the solid and plate name, the last column shows whether the region is
valid or not. Valid plates may be selected for generating plate expansions and template information.
Warning
Before generating plate expansions, make sure the model is defined accurately enough. The distance between
points and curves must be less than 1 mm. See [Make all lines consistent] (discussed on page 99).
7.10.1
Processing the current plate
Whether a plate is selected or not, if the text cursor is on a valid plate then that plate can be processed using the
following menu items:
• [Plate expansion][Current plate][On Paper and/or file] brings op the dialog for output of tables and drawings
of the expansion of the current plate, see section 7.10.3 on this page, Production of plate expansions.
• [Plate expansion][Current plate][On Screen] shows a preview of the expansion of the current plate on screen.
• [Templates][Current plate] brings up the dialog for output of tables and drawings for the production of templates for the forming of the current plate, see section 7.10.4 on page 116, Production of templates.
7.10.2
Processing selected plates
Depending on the state in the leftmost column, selected plates can be processed using these menu items:
• [Plate expansion][Selected plates on paper and/or file] brings op the dialog for output of tables and drawings
of the expansions of selected plates, see section 7.10.3 on this page, Production of plate expansions.
• [Templates][Selected plates] brings up the dialog for output of tables and drawings for the production of
templates for selected plates, see section 7.10.4 on page 116, Production of templates.
7.10.3
Production of plate expansions
After selecting any of the above menu items for plate expansion, the dialog below configures the output.
Figure 7.55: Configuration of output of plate expansions.
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• Check [Tables to paper] to print out the tables with expansion information on the selected print device
(discussed on page 17). This output also contains any warnings and error messages, see section 7.10.3.1 on
the current page, Warnings and error messages.
• Check [Tables to ASCII file] to write out the tables to a textfile with extension ✳❳❚❇. This file will also contain
the plate weight, center of gravity and the approximate cutting length.
• Check [Plot(s) to IGES file] to generate a file with extension ✳■●❙ containing the expanded plate with hull
lines in the format of IGES type 126 (NURBS curve).
• Check [Plot(s) to DXF-file (spline type)] to generate a DXF file containing the expanded plate with hull curves
in NURBS representation. This file can be imported in Autocad version 14, but unfortunately version 2000
(and subsequent versions) contains a serious bug. Its consequences have been discussed in section 7.8.6 on
page 103, All lines to 3-D AutoCAD NURBS format (Acad V14+).
• Check [Plot(s) to DXF-file (polyline type)] to generate a DXF file with curves in DXF’s polyline format, which
is essentially a chain of short straight line segments.
• Check [Plot(s) to paper] for a hardcopy of the shell plate expansions on the selected print device (discussed
on page 17).
• When [Treat in IGES- or DXF file all lines on the plate commonly] is checked, the individual curves of a shell
plate expansion are grouped together. Both in IGES as well as in DXF parlance such a structure is called a
‘block’, and the advantage can be that when shifting the plate expansion the whole plate is picked up, and
not only loose lines.
• The [Maximum stepsize polylines] is, by approximation, the greatest length of the straight line segments of a
polyline in meters at scale 1:1. Note that adjacent line segments may be situated exactly on a straight line,
in which case these segments will be merged and the final segment length will consequently be greater than
the value specified at this option.
• With [All plots on a fixed scale] the scale at which all expansions will be drawn on paper can be specified. If
this option is deselected each plate will be drawn at an individual scale.
• If the above option is not checked, checking [Use a "nice" (rounded-off) scale] will result in the use of a scale
that is practical for measuring, e.g. 1:10 or 1:25. When unchecked each plate fill be printed page-filling.
• If [Draw only the visible lines on the plate expansion] is checked then hidden polycurves will not be drawn
on the expansion plot. Otherwise all polycurves in an expansion will be plotted.
• If [Each plate expansion in a separate DXF-file] is checked then a separate file will be created for each shell
plate. Otherwise all expansions will be collected in the same file.
• The option [DXF-file including database information for ShipConstructor] adds additional information to the
DXF-file with the expanded shell plate, such as plate area and COG’s. Also, with this option an additional
DXF-file will be created that contains the (approximate) three-dimensional shape of each shell plate.
• With [Maximum plate dimension] the maximum size (in meters) of an expanded shell plate can be specified. If
the option [Each plate expansion in a separate DXF-file] is not selected, this information is used to determine
the mutual distance of the expanded shell plates in the resulting IGES or DXF file.
7.10.3.1
Warnings and error messages
The output of tables with expansion information should be checked for the occurence of any of the following
messages:
The maximum number of edges for the expansion is 2000. This plate has · · · .
This message indicates that the maximum number of face edges is exceeded. This shouldn’t be confused
with the number of border curves in the contour of the plate. In this context the number of edges refers to
the total number of edges of all faces which appear in the plate under consideration.
The maximum number of points for the expansion is 2000. This plate has · · · .
This message indicates that the maximum number of points in a plate is exceeded.
Two points of the plate coincide. No expansion can be made.
This message is considered to be self-explanatory.
In line · · · a deviation between point and line of more than 1 mm occurs.
This message indicates low accuracy, but the expansion process does continue. However, the results must be
suspected!
In line · · · between the points · · · and · · · the line is not a geodetic. The length difference amounts · · · %. It is
advised to give the line more support with an additional line.
A part of the expansion process is the subdivision of the plate in triangles, with geodetic curves as sides.
A geodetic curve is the shortest line, over a curved surface, between two points. When a low number of
points is present in the plate, it can be that the edges of the triangles are not geodetic. You can improve
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that situation by the inclusion of one or more lines in the neighborhood of the coordinates which are printed
in this warning. After this warning the expansion process continues, but the results should be treated with
suspect.
The number of points on the plate is · · · . That is more than the maximum of 1000. The plate expansion is
produced, albeit not optimized for minimal deformation.
This message indicates that although the number of points in a plate is smaller than the absolute maximum,
it is still too large for minimization of deformation.
7.10.4
Production of templates
Templates aid in the forming of shell plates to get the shape right. Templates run parallel to one of the main
planes, configured when the plate was defined, see paragraph 7.3.5.17.3 on page 85, Definition of a shell plate. An
additional longitudinal template connects the others at a given angle.
The options for output of template information are mutatis mutandis equal to the ones which apply to the shell
plate expansion discussed above, section 7.10.3 on page 114, Production of plate expansions.
Figure 7.56: Configuration of output of templates.
7.10.4.1
Position and shape of templates
Each template has a name identical to the name of a polycurve on the shell plate expansion, which fixes the
position. To aid the orientation of the template relative to the shell plate, as well as the orientation of the shell plate
relative to the vessel, each template features a cut-away and a chamfer. The cut-away of 25 × 25 mm at the upper
side is for aligning the templates, and to provide support for the longitudinal template. The chamfer at one side of
the template is helps orienting the template and shell plate in relation to the vessel: If the templates run parallel to
frames then the chamfer is located furthest from the center plane. Otherwise (templates are parallel to waterlines
or buttocks) the chamfer is oriented in the direction of the fore ship.
The upper sides of all templates for the same plate are coplanar. That plane is chosen such that it minimizes
the area of the templates, providing a minimal height of 100 mm, and therefore is seldomly co-planar with one of
the main planes.
If the option [Tables to ASCII-file] has been checked, coordinates of the templates will be written to a ✳t♣❧ file,
in mm. All templates of the same plate are defined in the same coordinate system. The height is measured from
the top of template and the breadth is measured from a certain reference line. A fragment of a ✳t♣❧ file can look
like this:
▲✐♥❡ ✿ ❋r❛♠❡s
❳
✶✵✵✳✼
✶✺✻✳✵
✷✶✶✳✸
✷✻✻✳✼
✸✷✷✳✵
✸✼✼✳✸
✷✸✾✳✵
✹✵✵ ▲♦❝❛t✐♦♥ ✿ ✵✳✹✵✵ ♠
❍❡✐❣❤t
❆♥❣❧❡
✶✸✵✳✺
✽✾
✶✸✸✳✵
✶✸✹✳✸
✶✸✹✳✹
✶✸✸✳✶
✶✸✵✳✹
✽✾
✶✸✹✳✺
✭▲♦♥❣✐t✉❞✐♥❛❧ t❡♠♣❧❛t❡✮
These coordinates can be set out to yield the dimensions of the template as in the figure below.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.10 Shell plate expansions and templates
117
377.3
322.0
266.7
239.0 / template
211.3
156.0
130.4
133.1
134.4
134.5
134.3
133.0
130.5
100.7
Figure 7.57: Coordinates listed in the tables define the dimensions of the template.
The angles listed in the tables define the angle (in degrees) between the plane of the template and the formed
shell at both ends of the template. In case templates run parallel to the frames, this angle is set out aft of the
template; If the templates run parallel to the waterlines then the angle is set out underneith the template, and if they
run parallel to buttocks then the angle is set out on the inside of the template.
The tables are concluded with four additional values, illustrated in the following figure:
1. The length of the assembled framework of templates(A)
2. The length of the longitudinal template (B)
3. The angle between the longitudinal template and the other templates, measured in the plane through the
upper sides of all templates (C)
4. The angle between templates and the plane through the upper sides of all templates, measured in the plane
of the longitudinal template (D)
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.11 File and solid management
118
.
B
C
D
A
Figure 7.58: Framework of assembled templates.
7.11
File and solid management
File and solid management
1. File history
2. Save current design
3. Solid management
5. Quit the program without saving
7.11.1
File history
This option is meant to save a set of designs or design stages. It is also possible to use it as a backup option.
Maximally fifteen designs can be saved. Apart from the standard editing functions, the option [Select] is also
available. With this button you can select a design to work with. When defining a new design with [New] or
[Insert], the currently selected design is copied to a new file, for which you must specify a file name. The new
design is a copy of the selected design at that moment.
In the menu with design variants one column is marked [Automat. Save]. In this column you can specify which
design of the available set is used to save the hullform when the program performs an automatic save action. If
the automatic save option is used without a marked design variant, by default the ‘selected’ design is used for that
purpose. The time interval for automatic save is documented in section 7.6.1.1 on page 98, Program setup
7.11.2
Save current design
The current hull shape is saved without leaving the program.
7.11.3
Solid management
When designing the shape of a ship hull it may be convenient to consider the vessel to be composed by multiple building blocks. These are the so-called solids, from shich the purpose and background is discussed in
section 7.1.2.3 on page 49, Solids. The solids are managed in this menu.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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7.11 File and solid management
119
Solids are managed in a menu with the following information:
• In the first column the character of the solid for subsequent Boolean operations can be specified. This
character is a letter ❆✬ ♦rB’ which can be used subsequently with the Boolean combination union A ∪ B,
intersection A ∩ B and difference A − B (in the program represented with A+B, A∧ B en A-B). These markers
A and B are also applied to indicate which solids should be merged in a subsequent [Merge] operation.
• Name. The name of the solid.
• Side. The side where the solid resides. The four possibilities are:
– SB. The solid is a demi hull, situated at SB.
– PS. The solid is a demi hull, situated at PS.
– SB & PS. The vessel is symmetrical over centre plane, while the solid is situated at SB, and also models
the PS mirrored part.
– Complete. The solid represents a complete hull with a part at SB as well as at PS.
• Active. This cell indicates which solids are active in the GUI.
• Single, a cell which indicates that his solid is single selected for subsequent operations which only act on a
single solid, such as hullform transformation, or the alphanumerical menus as dicussed in section 7.12.1 on
the following page, Alphanumerical manipulation
• Visible. Indicates whether the solid is visible in the GUI.
• Locked. If this cell is set to ’yes’, the solid is protected against any modification.
• Buoyant. If this cell is set to ’yes’, the solid is included in hydrostatic calculations.
• PIAS, which nidicates whether this solid is included in conversion to PIAS, as discussed in section 7.8.1 on
page 102, Create file in PIAS-ordinate format (.hyd file) and section 7.8.2 on page 102, Create file in PIAS
surface format (.TRI file).
• Linesplan, which determines whether this solid is included in the lines plan, as discussed in section 7.9 on
page 109, Define and generate lines plan.
• Export, which determines whether this solid is included in conversion to other (CAD) file formats, such as
DXFor IGES, as discussed in section 7.8 on page 101, Export of hullform.
• Type. For data management reasons some auxiliary constructions are also modelled as solids. This field
indicates the type of solid. Possible values are:
–
–
–
–
The ship hull, or part of the hull.
The Sectional Area Curve.
A projection line.
Empty.
• Curved surfaces. Fairway can derive the shape of the surfaces inbetween the curves from the shape of
the curves. For this task an interpolation method on the ‘tangent ribbons’ can be set here, please refer to
section 7.1.2.2 on page 47, Surfaces for a discussion of this issue.
Apart from the general menu bar functions, which amongst other things allow copy and paste of a solid, the
menu bar in this window contains a number of additional functions:
• File IO operations:
– Export a solid. When this option is chosen the highlighted solid will be exported to a file, with a userdefined name. The file which is created can be imported into another Fairway project, but it can also
serve as a stand-alone hull shape.
– Import a solid. After specifying the desired file name, the solid is imported, at least if that Fairway file
contains only one solid.
– Generation of objects of simple shape. At this moment two shapes are available, a ’minimal ship’,
(which is an object containing a deck line, a stem/stern contour and one straight ordinate) and a 1x1x1
m cube. In due course scaling options and rotation options will be included, in order to give the
generated objects the desired size, location and orientation. While these options are still lacking, one
can use the ’hullform transformation’ to resize and translate objects.
• Split a complete hull, which contains both PS and SB, into separate PS and SB demi hulls.
• Boolean operations. With Boolean operations positive or negative combinations of two solids can be produced. Positive combinations can be used to add two solids, while negative combinations are intended for
subtraction, such as a cylinder which is subtracted from a hull, thus forming an open bow propellor channel,
see the example in the figure below. Although the Boolean operations are fully implemented, they are not yet
general available, because at this moment they are being tested thoroughly. When executing a Boolean operation the message When executing a Boolean operation it is necessary that, if a phanthom face is present,
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.12 Legacy UI
120
this face lies fully in the CL plane. With solid .... this is not the case. This can be solved by closing the vessel
at deck might be given. The background is that Boolean operations are only functional on faces which are
(almost) flat. A phantom face which runs from stem to deck edge is not flat, and therefore the deck will have
to be closed, in order to leave a flat phantom face at CL.
• [Merge]. This operation also resides under the [Boolean] menu, but is genarally available. This function will
merge two solids at the opposite sides of centre plane. In order to use this function, two requirements have
to be fulfilled:
– Both parts to merge must be distinct PS and SB hulls.
– The two parts must match exactly at centre plane. This requirement implies that the vessel must be
closed at deck. If that is not the case, the vessel can be closed automatically with a straight deck, see
section 7.6.8 on page 99, Close vessel at deck.
Figure 7.59: Result of a Boolean ‘difference’ operation.
7.11.4
Quit the program without saving
With this option it is possible to leave the program without saving the design. It deals only with changes in design.
Special points, definitions of linesplans, main dimensions and other parameters not related to the form will be
saved. To prevent mistakes when using this option, the program asks: ’Are you sure?’.
7.12
Legacy UI
This menu contains deprecated functionality.
Legacy UI
1. Alphanumerical manipulation
2. Legacy GUI
3. Domains and surfaces (deprecated format)
4. Polycurve position sets
7.12.1
Alphanumerical manipulation
With the option [Alphanumerical manipulation] from the Fairway main menu (discussed on page 52) polycurves can
be manipulated on a purely alphanumerical level. These operations are only applicable for a single solid, which
can be set in the ‘single selected’ cell of the solid poperties, as discussed in section 7.11.3 on page 118, Solid
management.
Attention
This option is deprecated, but still will continue to exist. For the reason that exceptionally it may be handy
to be able to browse through points and curves in detail, and that is accomodated by this option. However,
for regular use of Fairway this option, and consequently also this manual section, is irrelevant.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.12 Legacy UI
121
Alphanumerical manipulation
1. Edit frames
2. Edit waterlines
3. Edit buttocks
4. Edit diagonals
5. Edit lines in arbitrary planes
6. Edit general 3D lines (deck, chines etc.)
After selecting one of these options an input window appears, where for all polycurves of the selected type,
and which are presentin the selected solid, is displayed:
Name of the polycurve
Freely to be entered aor modified.
Chine
Here you can see, or enter whether the polycurve is a chine. If a line is defined as a chine, then the lines
that are generared afterwards and that intersect this chine, will get a knuckle at this intersection. (please also
refer to chine in section 7.1.2.1 on page 45, Lines).
Location
The location of the polycurve is displayed. The location of a frame is the distance from the aft perpendicular
to the considered frame. The location of waterlines is the distance from the base to the considered waterline
and for a buttock the location is the distance from mid-ship to the considered buttock. The location of a
diagonal is the perpendicular distance from the base line to the intersection of the considered diagonal and
the centerline. The location of polycurves in a arbitrary planes or of 3D lines are not displayed.
Visible
Here the user can toggle the visibility of the line in the GUI, please also see section 7.1.3.2 on page 50,
Polycurve visibility.
Plate boundary
here it can be specified whether a line is a plate boundary: a butt or a seam. This information will be used
for the automatic generation of plates.
Phantom face
Here it can be specified whether the adjacent face is a phantom face, where we refer to section 7.1.3.1
on page 49, Phantom face for its definition. In this alphanumerical menu, a phantom face is selected by
specifying at which side the the polycurve it is located. Where this ‘side’ is defined as the left side or right
side, if one would walk on the polycurve in its order, at the outside of the hull surface. As a rule, the order
of the deckline is from aft to forward, so the phantom face is located at the left side, because if we would be
walking on the deck edge we would have centerline and deck at the left hand side. Please also refer to the
definition of left and right in section 7.1.2.1 on page 45, Lines. Here, in the alphanumerical window, only a
single phatom face can be defined, contrary to the GUI which supports multiple phantom faces.
Locked
Please see section 7.1.3.3 on page 50, Polycurve locked.
CWL
Please see section 7.1.3.4 on page 50, Construction Water Line (CWL).
Deck at side
Please see section 7.1.3.5 on page 50, Deck at side.
The menu bar contains a number of supporting functions. Their functionality is nowadays not relevant anymore,
if neccessary elucidation can be found in a Fairway manual from before 2012, in the section titled "Main menu
option 1: Alphanumerical manipulation". The same applies for the window with the polycurve points and weight
factors, which can be entered by pressing <Enter> (or <leftmousebutton doubleclick>) with the text cursor located
on the desired polycurve.
7.12.2
Legacy GUI
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.A Appendices
122
Attention
This option is deprecated. As soon as all functionality herein is implemented in Graphical User Interface
(GUI) (discussed on page 53), this option will be removed. For the discussion of this topic please refer to a
Fairway manual from before 2012, the section titled "Main menu option 2: Graphical manipulation". This
old GUI is designed to only work with a single solid, which can be set in the ‘single selected’ cell of the solid
poperties, as discussed in section 7.11.3 on page 118, Solid management.
7.12.3
Domains and surfaces (deprecated format)
This format is no longer supported for production. A description can be found in a Fairway manual from before
2012, chapter "Main menu option 11: Domains and surfaces".
New regions are mainly discussed in section 7.3.5.17 on page 81, Define Shell Region and section 7.10 on
page 114, Shell plate expansions and templates.
7.12.4
Polycurve position sets
For a discussion of such ‘position groups’, reference is made to section 7.1.3.6 on page 50, Polycurve positions
sets. As a stand-alone menu option this is deprecated, because invoking the position set definition menu is now
included in the GUI, which is a much more convenient location. But because a single sole might be wandering
without GUI, this stand alone option will remain to exist for a while. In addition tothe core functionality of the
position sets, the stand alone version has two additional functions:
• [Add] adds polycurves on all positions of all selected sets.
• [Delete] removes polycurves on all positions of all selected sets.
7.A
Appendices
7.A.1
File extensions
Fairway stores model data in various files. The file names have a common stem, represented here by ∗, but different
extensions.
∗✳❢✇✶
∗✳❢✇✷
∗✳❢✇✸
∗✳❢✇✹
∗✳❢✇✺
∗✳❢✇✻
∗✳❢✇✼
∗✳❢✇✽
∗✳❢✇✾
Contains topological information consisting of points, edges and faces.
Contains general information about curves.
Contains geometric information in the form of NURBS vertices.
Contains special points.
Contains the name, main dimensions and coefficients, as well as the position sets and other
settings.
Contains data for any defined linesplans.
This is the deprecated format of defined domains and surfaces, now replaced by ∗✳❢✇✾.
Contains data for geometric dependencies between curves (master-slave).
Contains shell regions.
Warning
The files ∗✳❢✇✶, ∗✳❢✇✷, ∗✳❢✇✸, ∗✳❢✇✼, ∗✳❢✇✽ and ∗✳❢✇✾ depend on each other. Do not separate these when
copying files.
7.A.2
File format of diagrams for generation of a sectional area curve
The file ❦✈s❧❛♣✳t①t in the PIAS installation directory contains the numerical representation of the diagrams of
Lap, which are used to generate a target sectional area curve (target SAC) based on main dimensions. This is a text
file, see section 4.4 on page 25, ASCII text file. The diagrams give a frame area at various ordinates (longitudinal
positions) through which the SAC can be fitted. The file format is explained here, followed by the represented
diagrams. The information from this appendix allows you to adjust these diagrams.
The first half of the file is for single-propeller ships. After the row with the word ❉❯❇❇❊▲❙❈❍❘❖❊❋ follows the
information for twin-propeller ships. Each of these parts consists of a diagram for the aft ship and a diagram for
the fore ship.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.A Appendices
123
Each diagram starts with a row with two numbers. The first number is the number of prismatic coefficients
in the table, the second is the number of ordinates in the table. Next follow the prismatic coefficients, each on a
separate row. Finally follows the table of percent values of the midship area, each ordinate on a row of its own.
The first column gives the ordinate number, followed by a column for each prismatic coefficient.
As an example you will find the representation of the diagram for the fore ship of single-propeller hulls below.
✽
✵✳✺✺
✵✳✻✵
✵✳✻✺
✵✳✼✵
✵✳✼✺
✵✳✽✵
✵✳✽✺
✵✳✾
✶✵
✶✶
✶✷
✶✸
✶✹
✶✺
✶✻
✶✼
✶✽
✶✾
✷✵
✶✶
✶✵✵
✾✻✳✾
✾✶✳✷
✽✷✳✽
✼✵✳✺
✺✼✳✶
✹✸✳✾
✷✾✳✶
✶✻✳✾
✽✳✷
✵
✶✵✵
✾✽✳✼
✾✺✳✶
✽✾✳✻
✽✵✳✹
✻✼✳✹
✺✷✳✷
✸✻✳✹
✷✶✳✶
✽✳✼
✵
✶✵✵
✾✾✳✻
✾✽✳✶
✾✹✳✷
✽✽✳✺
✼✼✳✹
✻✷✳✶
✹✸✳✾
✷✺✳✹
✾✳✼
✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✾✾✳✽
✾✽✳✶
✾✹✳✺
✽✻✳✽
✼✷✳✽
✺✸✳✻
✸✶✳✹
✶✷✳✶
✵
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✾✾✳✽
✾✽✳✶
✾✸✳✼
✽✸✳✹
✻✺✳✷
✹✶✳✶
✶✼✳✷
✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✾✾✳✾
✾✽✳✹
✾✷✳✺
✼✽✳✺
✺✹✳✼
✷✺✳✷
✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✾✽✳✾
✾✶✳✺
✻✽✳✼
✸✻✳✶
✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✶✵✵
✾✾✳✶
✼✾✳✻
✹✺✳✷
✵
November 22, 2014
7.A Appendices
124
Figure 7.60: Frame areas for single-propeller hulls.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.A Appendices
125
Figure 7.61: Frame areas for twin-propeller hulls.
7.A.3
Customizing the dragger appearance (advanced)
The appearance of the draggers, with which the position of points and other elements can be manipulated, can be
adapted to personal preferences. This is done by editing one or more geometry files.
The default geometry of the draggers is compiled into the program, but an image thereof is contained in the
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.A Appendices
126
∗✳✐✈ files in the installation directory. These are not used by the program as it is, but it is recommended to leave
them untouched, for reference of the default geometry.
• ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✶❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ contains the geometry for the linear dragger.
• ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ contains the geometry for the planar dragger.
• ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✸❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ contains the geometry for the spatial dragger.
You should know that the linear dragger is used twice inside the planar dragger, and the planar dragger is used
three times inside the spatial dragger. So, in order to maintain uniformity, if one of these files is changed then a
similar change may be needed in the other files.
To use custom versions of these files, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Copy the ∗✳✐✈ files from the installation directory to a directory of your choice. Do not rename the files.
Edit the files with a pure text editor, e.g. ♥♦t❡♣❛❞✳❡①❡ (see section 4.4 on page 25, ASCII text file).
Define the environment variable ❙❖❴❉❘❆●●❊❘❴❉■❘ to point to the directory with the modified files.
You may have to restart the program before the changes take effect.
After a short introduction to the file format, we will give a few examples to experiment with.
7.A.3.1
File format
The format of the geometry files follow the Open Inventor File Format. You don’t need to know this format in
detail in order to make simple changes, the contents of the files are quite comprehensible. But if the format is
violated then the file will fail to load and the dragger will have no geometry at all. If you cannot get it to work, just
delete the file completely and the system will fall back to its compiled-in version.
We follow the convention that identifiers in all-capital letters are only used within the file in question. Mixed
case identifiers are referenced by the program to construct the final geometry of the draggers.
If you want to know more about the format, here are some pointers:
• MIT has a collection of files discussing the ❖♣❡♥ ■♥✈❡♥t♦r ❢✐❧❡ ❢♦r♠❛t2 . This material is dated and
has not been updated for a long time, but may still be relevant in many if not all respects.
• Chapter 11 of the Inventor Mentor (Josie Wernecke, 1994) discusses the file format from a programmer’s
perspective. This book can be found on-line in ❍❚▼▲3 and P❉❋4 .
• Most of the scene objects that are available to you, and their fields and accepted values, can be read from
the ♣r♦❣r❛♠♠❡r✬s ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❛t✐♦♥5 . Look for sections called "FILE FORMAT/DEFAULTS", as for
instance in the class documentation of ❙♦❉r❛✇❙t②❧❡6 .
7.A.3.2
Increasing the dragger size
The on-screen size of the draggers is held approximately constant, irrespective of the camera zoom level and
distance. This is accomplished by the use of a ❙♦❈♦♥st❛♥t❙✐③❡ node and its value field ♣r♦❥❡❝t❡❞❙✐③❡. Let’s
say that ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✶❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ contains the line
❉❊❋ ❆❘❘❖❲❊❉❴❚❘❆◆❙▲❆❚❊✶❴❈❖◆❙❚❆◆❚❴❙■❩❊ ❙♦❈♦♥st❛♥t❙✐③❡ ④ ♣r♦❥❡❝t❡❞❙✐③❡ ✺✵ ⑥
This defines the identifier ❆❘❘❖❲❊❉❴❚❘❆◆❙▲❆❚❊✶❴❈❖◆❙❚❆◆❚❴❙■❩❊. Whenever this identifier is used in the
file, 1 unit size in the geometry following after it (within the same ❙❡♣❛r❛t♦r) will approximately be 50 pixels on
screen.
So, in order to increase the size of the dragger, it suffices to change the above line into
❉❊❋ ❆❘❘❖❲❊❉❴❚❘❆◆❙▲❆❚❊✶❴❈❖◆❙❚❆◆❚❴❙■❩❊ ❙♦❈♦♥st❛♥t❙✐③❡ ④ ♣r♦❥❡❝t❡❞❙✐③❡ ✻✵ ⑥
You will want to repeat this exercise in ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ and ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✸←
❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈.
2 ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇❡❜✳♠✐t✳❡❞✉✴✐✈❧✐❜✴✇✇✇✴✐✈✳❤t♠❧
3 ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✲❡✈❛s✐♦♥✳✐♠❛❣✳❢r✴▼❡♠❜r❡s✴❋r❛♥❝♦✐s✳❋❛✉r❡✴❞♦❝✴✐♥✈❡♥t♦r▼❡♥t♦r✴s❣✐❴❤t♠❧✴
4 ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❡❡✳t❡❝❤♥✐♦♥✳❛❝✳✐❧✴⑦❝❣❝♦✉rs❡✴■♥✈❡♥t♦r▼❡♥t♦r✴❚❤❡✪✷✵■♥✈❡♥t♦r✪✷✵▼❡♥t♦r✳♣❞❢
5 ❤tt♣✿✴✴❝♦✐♥✸❞✳❜✐t❜✉❝❦❡t✳♦r❣✴❈♦✐♥✴❣r♦✉♣❴❴♥♦❞❡s✳❤t♠❧
6 ❤tt♣✿✴✴❝♦✐♥✸❞✳❜✐t❜✉❝❦❡t✳♦r❣✴❈♦✐♥✴❝❧❛ss❙♦❉r❛✇❙t②❧❡✳❤t♠❧★❴❞❡t❛✐❧s
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
7.A Appendices
7.A.3.3
127
Changing the arrow head
Dragger axes are represented by arrows. The arrow head is constructed by means of a ❈♦♥❡ node, with fields for
❤❡✐❣❤t (arrow head length) and ❜♦tt♦♠❘❛❞✐✉s (arrow head width). You could make the arrow more articulate
by increasing ❜♦tt♦♠❘❛❞✐✉s, for example.
Again, you will want to repeat this exercise in ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ and ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✸←
❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈.
7.A.3.4
Adjusting hotspot appearance
The “hotspot” of a dragger is the transparent sphere around the arrows that reacts to mouse clicks, which eases
picking of the dragger. Depending on your monitor, you may find that the rendering is too weak or too strong. This
can be corrected by adjusting the tr❛♥s♣❛r❡♥❝② field in the ❆❘❘❖❲❊❉❴❚❘❆◆❙▲❆❚❊❄❴❍❖❚❙P❖❚❴▼❆❚❊❘■❆▲ nodes
in ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✶❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ and ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈. If you prefer to not see the hotspot
at all, you can set tr❛♥s♣❛r❡♥❝② to 1.
If you have configured a white modelling view background, instead of the default, you way want to increase
the contrast by setting the red, green and blue values of the colour fields of the hotspot material to
❞✐❢❢✉s❡❈♦❧♦r ✶✳✵ ✶✳✵ ✶✳✵
❡♠✐ss✐✈❡❈♦❧♦r ✵✳✵ ✵✳✵ ✵✳✵
s♣❡❝✉❧❛r❈♦❧♦r ✶✳✵ ✶✳✵ ✶✳✵
tr❛♥s♣❛r❡♥❝② ✵✳✽✺
s❤✐♥✐♥❡ss ✶✳✵
7.A.3.5
Switching off the feedback plane
When translating in a plane, the plane is rendered transparently in the corresponding color. If you do not like this,
the plane can simply be disabled by editing ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❉r❛❣❣❡r✳✐✈ as follows. Comment-out all lines
between the opening and closing curly-braces of the identifiers ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❋❡❡❞❜❛❝❦❖rt❤♦❣♦♥❛❧←
❆❝t✐✈❡ and ❛rr♦✇❡❞❚r❛♥s❧❛t❡✷❋❡❡❞❜❛❝❦❆r❜✐tr❛r②❆❝t✐✈❡, by putting a “#” in front of each of these lines.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 8
To_fair: import hull shape from DXF or IGES and
convert to Fairway
In order to facilitate the import of hullforms, a dedicated preprocessor for Fairway has been developed. Currently
the preprocessor is designed to read two formats, DXF and IGES, but in the future more curve or surface formats
may be supported. Besides, two neutral file formats have been designed, which can be used by other applications
to feed Fairway directly. The application of this preprocessor is illustrated by the figures on this page, which show
the successive steps from unconnected 3-D lines, via wireframe model to solid model, of the mv ‘Berlin’ (which is
one of the parent hullforms for Fairway).
Figure 8.1: AutoCAD hullform
8.1
Drawing exchange formats
IGES and (particularly) DXF are popular file formats, and it is a lasting desire of users of Fairway to have the
possibility to import hull forms available in IGES or DXF format into Fairway. Unfortunately DXF and IGES are
not particularly suitable for that purpose. One must keep in mind that these two formats are essentially intended
for drawing exchange, and not for the exchange of product model data, an aspect which is confirmed by the
full names of the acronyms (DXF: Drawing eXchange Format, IGES: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification).
8.2 Neutral file formats for the exchange of curves and solids
129
Unfortunately, this background inhibits a guaranteed error-free, automatic import of hullforms for every case. The
DXF and IGES files have to fulfill certain requirements, in order to be useful.
Figure 8.2: Wireframe representation, shown with Fairway
Figure 8.3: Solid representation, shown with Fairway
8.2
Neutral file formats for the exchange of curves and solids
From an import file, such as IGES or DXF, the shape of spatial lines can be imported. However, more often than
not it turns out that these lines do not form a coherent, unambiguous 3-D network. So we may encounter two
categories of data:
• Unconnected 3-D lines. Because such a data set lacks topological coherence, it does not, and cannot describe
a valid hull surface.
• Connected 3-D lines, which together describe a valid solid representation of the hull surface. A solid is valid
when three conditions are met:
1: Each edge starts or ends at another edge. 2: Each edge is only used twice by the faces. 3: The so-called
Euler relation between the number of edges (E), the number of vertices (V) and the number of faces (F) is fulfilled:
V-E+F=2. In this relation the number of lines is irrelevant, because in this respect a line is just a sequence of edges.
An example is given if fig. 1, where V=13, E=19 and F=8 (Only 7 faces can be counted in fig. 1, but keep in mind
that a valid solid must be closed, so there is also a face at the backside of this object. This backside face is bounded
by the 11 outer edges).
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.3 Capabilities of this preprocessor
130
Figure 8.4: Valid wireframe
For these two data categories we have defined two neutral file formats, to support exchange of product model
data:
• CXF format (Curve eXchange Format).
• SXF (Solid eXchange Format). Imported files (such as DXF or IGES) are converted to CXF or SXF format
by the Fairway preprocessor. However, it is also possible for non-PIAS / Fairway applications to create a
CXF or SXF file directly, see fig. 5 for a flow chart. The CXF and SXF files are plain ASCII files, with a
syntax as defined in the appendices 2 and 3.
Figure 8.5: Flowchart of file import
8.3
Capabilities of this preprocessor
The preprocessor is designed to perform the following tasks:
•
•
•
•
•
Import lines from DXF or IGES files.
Construct a wireframe model, based on these curves.
Construct a solid model, based on that wireframe.
Support a limited number of edit options, concerning shape and connections of curves.
Create CXF and SXF files, which can be imported in Fairway.
The whole process is subject to the following limitations:
• Solids may contain no holes, also no through-holes.
• The solid must be valid, it must conform to Euler’s relation.
• Lines may not coincide, neither partially nor whole.
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November 22, 2014
8.4 Main menu
131
• Only one solid is supported.
• The maximum number of lines is 4000, the maximum number of curves per line is 19, the maximum number
of points per curve is 1500.
• The maximum number of (NURBS) vertices per curve is 500.
• The maximum number of vertices, edges and faces is 12000, 24000 and 12000.
• The maximum number of NURBS surfaces is 1000.
Please bear in mind that this preprocessor is essentially an algorithmic conversion tool, and not a ship design or
shape manipulation tool. The simple functions for line and wireframe editing which are available are only intended
to support the conversion process, they are neither intended nor suitable for intensive shape modifica-tion actions.
More extended editing options or visual functions are not foreseen.
A brief introduction to topology and connectivity of solids gives a short overview of some theoretical aspects
of solid modelling, which may help to under-stand the working of this preprocessor.
8.4
Main menu
Main menu
1
Import lines from DXF format
2
Import lines from IGES format
3
Merge single-connected lines
4
Edit line geometry
5
Generate wireframe model
6
Edit wireframe modelleren
7
Check wireframe model (to some extent)
8
Generate solid model
9
Remove solid, lines or points
10 Tolerance (m)
8.4.1
Import lines from DXF format
With this option a 3D DXF file can be imported. Such a file contains dimensionless coordinates in an XYZ system
of axes. So before the preprocessor can read and process the DXF file, the correspondence between DXF’s X←
YZ system of axes, and the longitudinal, transverse and vertical axes of the ship must be specified, as well as a
multiplication factor on all DXF coordinates (for instance 0.001 when the DXF data are in millimetres). These
data can be entered in the following menu:
Correlation between ship and import file
The X-axis of the import file corresponds Longitudinal axiss
with the vessels
The Y-axis of the import file corresponds Transverse axis
with the vessels
The Z-axis of the import file corresponds Vertical axis
with the vessels
Multiplication factor on the import
0.0010
coordinates
DXF allows for quite a number of geometric types, from which the following ones are supported by the
preprocessor:
• DXF POLYLINE and DXF LWPOLYLINE. With these types a curved line is approximated by a chain of
many small straight lines. A property of this representation is that knuckle points are not defined explicitly
(because theoretically each point is a knuckle). So knuckles have to be added manually (in the preprocessor,
or in Fairway). The preprocessor will generate a fair curve through all points of a polyline.
• DXF LINE. This is simply a straight line between two points. Using this type frequently has two dangers:
1: Each DXF line is converted into a CXF line (which corresponds to a Fairway line). With a great number
of DXF lines, the maximum amount of 1250 lines for the preprocessor may easily be exceeded. 2: After
importing DXF lines, one is left with a great number of unconnected short lines, which one way or another
have to be composed into a continuous line (or line segment).
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November 22, 2014
8.4 Main menu
132
• DXF ARC. A circular ARC.
• DXF SPLINE. Actually this is a NURBS curve. A property of this representation is that multiple segments
(together forming a continuous line) are not connected in DXF. So they have to be connected later on.
8.4.1.1
Intermezzo on polylines
Attention
By its nature a polyline cannot distinguish between a knuckle and a non-knuckle point, and thus the preprocessor considers a polyline as a continuously curved curve, which is smoothed right through all polyline
points. If a line contains one or more knuckles, it must be split into separate curves (which must be represented by distinct polylines) which meet at the knuckle points. If one continuous polyline is used for a
knuckled line, the knuckles must be designated manually, which may be a cumbersome job on a line containing hundreds of points.
It is a sad experience that more often than not only a model without explicit information about the knuckles is
available. For those occasions the preprocessor is equipped with three auxiliary functions, which may help to
create knuckle points automatically. However, it must be emphasized that those functions are only makeshifts, and
are in no respect a replacement for proper definition of knuckles in the input data.
These functions come in three flavours:
• A user can specify an angle (in degrees, at the option ‘Minimum angle to recognize a knuckle in a polyline’)
between two successive lines of a polyline, above which the common point of those two lines is treated as a
knuckle.
• A critical ratio between the lengths of two successive lines of a polyline may be specified. When an actual
ratio exceeds this critical one, the common point is treated as a knuckle.
• A maximum length for a line of a polyline may be specified. If an actual length exceeds this maximum,
additional points are inserted in that region (by linear interpolation). Those additional polyline points may
give the interpolating line a broader support basis.
8.4.2
Import lines from IGES format
With this option a 3D IGES file can be imported. Such a file contains coordinates in an XYZ system of axes.
Before the preprocessor can read and process the IGES file, the correspondence between IGES’s XYZ system of
axes and the longitudinal, transverse en vertical axes of the ship must be specified in the following menu:
Correlation between ship and import file
The X-axis of the import file corresponds Longitudinal axis
with the vessels
The Y-axis of the import file corresponds Transverse axis
with the vessels
The Z-axis of the import file corresponds Vertical axis
with the vessels
IGES supports a large number of geometry entities. Currently two important entities are recognized by the
preprocessor:
• Entity type 110, the straight line.
• Entity type 126, the Rational B-Spline curve. Actually this is a NURBS curve.
• Entity type 128, the Rational B-Spline surface (a NURBS surface). Importing multiple NURBS surfaces
can only be performed successfully, if the surfaces have been defined sufficiently accurate, so that they meet
exactly at their common boundaries.
• Entity type 406, forms 7 and 15. This concerns the name, which is being recognized and skipped.
8.4.3
Merge single-connected lines
After an IGES or DXF file is read, lines may have been created, which actually form a part (a segment) of a longer
line. With this option each line end is tested whether it coincides with another line end (within the user-specified
tolerance). If the line end coincides with only one other line end, the two are merged, and saved as two distinct
segments of one line.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.4 Main menu
8.4.4
133
Edit line geometry
This option shows all available lines. It is also possible to remove lines, or to edit the location, name or type of a
line. With <Enter> the points of a line (in case the line was imported as a polyline) or the NURBS vertices (in
case the line was imported as ‘NURBS) are shown. In this menu the following actions are possible:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Merge a line with another one (Function [Merge])
Split a line into two distinct lines (Function [Split])
Remove or add polyline points
Reverse the line sequence (Function [Orientation])
Toggle knuckles points of polylines (Function [Knuckle])
Edit polyline points or NURBS vertices
Attention
Polyline warning After creating, removing or adding new polyline points the shape of the line is re-created
(by fairing a curve through all polyline points). It might be possible that original polyline points have been
removed (manually, or by an executed function), in which case an unwanted line shape might be created.
8.4.5
Generate wireframe model
This option creates a wireframe model, based on the geometry of all available lines. It tries to find all intersection points (within the specified tolerance) between all lines. Those intersection points are included in a list of
vertices, and the line parts between adjacent vertices are included in a list of edges. These lists of vertices and
edges constitute a wireframe model, and form the basis for the construction of a solid model.
Attention
Polyline warning When this function is executed, it asks whether or not existing (internal) wireframe points
must be removed. Please be warned that in case of a polyline the wireframe points are also polyline points,
so after removal of the points, and a possible subsequent re-creation of the curve through the polyline points
(for example with the main-menu option [Edit line geometry]) the shape may be distorted.
8.4.6
Edit wireframe modelleren
With this option connections between lines are displayed, and the following tasks may be performed by the user:
• Edit name of each line
• Remove or edit points of the line (remark: These actions only apply to the connections of the wireframe.
The line geometry is not affected, so, in case of a polyline, no new line shape is created through the modified
points)
• Disconnect lines from other lines (function [Disconnect])
• Connect lines with other lines (function [Connect])
So, if due to a lack of accuracy no proper wireframe is created with the function section 8.4.5 on the current page, Generate wireframe model, with this menu option a user can manually specify the proper connections
between the lines.
8.4.7
Check wireframe model (to some extent)
This option performs a limited test of the validness and completeness of the wireframe model. Errors are reported
in a file with extension .log. Two aspects are tested:
• Whether line ends are actually connected with other lines (which is a requirement).
• Whether lines, or parts of lines, coincide with other lines (which is prohibited).
Please bear in mind that fulfilling these two tests does not guarantee that the wireframe can be converted into
a solid. One failure reason, for example, could be that not every line is connected to another line at the appropriate
locations. By its nature such a test is impossible on a wireframe model, and it remains the responsibility of the
program user, or the supplier of the imported file, to supply a valid wireframe model.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.5 Using a CXF file in Fairway
8.4.8
134
Generate solid model
This option creates a list of faces, based on an available wireframe model, according to the method as described in
A brief introduction to topology and connectivity of solids. If anomalies are detected, they are reported in a log file
(with extension .log). If no valid solid can be found, please study this file carefully, because it may give indications
about the regions where the cause of the invalidness can be found. As an aid for the program user, in this file are
listed:
•
•
•
•
8.4.9
Vertices which leave the wireframe unconnected at removal.
Edges which do not bound exactly two (candidate) faces.
(Candidate) faces which violate Euler’s Equation V-E+F=2.
All tests of menu option ‘Check wireframe model (to some extent)’.
Remove solid, lines or points
This option can remove the following entities:
• All internal points. Internal points are points of lines, not connected to any other line.
• The solid model and the wireframe model.
• Everything (that means, all lines, as well as the solid and wireframe model).
8.4.10
Tolerance (m)
With this option the user can specify the tolerance (in metre) which is used with the options ‘Merge singleconnected lines’ and ‘Generate wireframe model’. Points which have a mutual distance smaller than this tolerance
are considered as one point, and the lines containing those points are connected at that location.
8.5
Using a CXF file in Fairway
Because a CXF file contains information of the kind ‘Unconnected 3D lines’ the topological data (such as position
relative to other lines, or connections with other lines) are missing, and only the shape of the lines can be imported
in Fairway, replacing the shape of an existing line. So for each line in Fairway, the desired line of the CXF format
must be manually identified before its shape can be used.
In Fairway’s alphanumerical menu (where all line names are displayed on screen) a function ‘imPort’ is included. After activating this function the CXF file is opened and read, and a list of available CXF lines is displayed.
The shape of a CXF line can be imported when one of these lines has been selected (and ‘Enter’ has been pressed).
However, when a line contains one or more knuckles, the correspondence between the sequences of the points
of the original and the new line is not obvious in all cases. Therefore, the following rules apply:
• When the number of knuckles of the new line is equal to the number of knuckles of the original line, the
shape of the CXF line can be imported. However, possible internal points in the CXF line are not included.
• When there are no knuckles or internal points in the original line, a CXF line with an arbitrary number of
points can be imported. If the CXF line also contains internal points, the user is asked whether these also
have to be included into the line.
Finally, it is noted that the preprocessor is equipped with more error-checking capabilities than Fairway. So
even if an application creates a CXF file directly, it is advised to check this file by reading it with the preproces-sor.
8.6
Using a SXF file in Fairway
When Fairway is started with a new project, the user can make choices regarding the way to start this project. One
of those choices is to import a complete hull from an SXF file.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.7 Final remarks on file formats
8.7
135
Final remarks on file formats
Regardless of the data carrier (DXF or IGES), NURBS are to be preferred above polylines. The reason is that the
preprocessor converts polylines to NURBS anyway, and that conversion can always lead to a reduced accuracy;
• For applications that must frequently export their hull forms to Fairway, it is recommended to develop an
interface routine that writes an SXF file directly. With a solid object directly available in an SXF file, there
is no need for the preprocessor to reconstruct the shape of the solid, thus saving time and avoiding possible
reconstruction anomalies
• Another possibility for exporting software is to create an SXF file, with only a wireframe model (consisting
of vertices and edges). The preprocessor can read that wireframe, and convert it into a solid model (including
the faces)
• Application of importing objects in Fairway, by means of CXF and SXF files, cannot only be thought of in
the field of ship hullform transfer, but also in combination with relatively simple application programs which
generate parametric volumes, such as cilinders, gas tanks, NACA profiles, keels, rudders, etc.
8.8
A brief introduction to topology and connectivity of solids
A wireframe model is an open approximation of a solid, constituted by edges and vertices (‘vertices’ is the plural of
‘vertex’) on the boundary of the solid. For example, the object of fig. 6 contains 4 vertices and 6 edges. However,
because the wireframe model does not describe the closed object it is ambiguous. A proper unambiguous way to
describe a solid object is the method of boundary modelling, where explicit information about the faces is included.
Our example of fig. 6 contains 4 faces.
Figure 8.6: Solid, faces and vertices and edges
There is a well-known relationship between the number of vertices (V), edges (E) and faces (F); for solids
without trough-holes this so-called Euler relation is V-E+F=2. It can be verified easily that this relation is indeed
applicable on fig. 6.
The necessity of explicit face information to describe a solid unambiguously can be demonstrated with the
hypercube of fig. 7. With wireframe information only (vertices and edges) the actual shape of the object cannot
be determined. By the way, please note that this object has one through-hole, so Euler’s relation is not applicable
here.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.8 A brief introduction to topology and connectivity of solids
136
Figure 8.7: Wireframe only is ambiguous
So an important task of the preprocessor is the recognition of the faces between the edges. In general, this problem is unsolvable (for example, the faces of the hypercube cannot be determined automatically), but under some
constraints practical, iterative methods are available. One of those methods is implemented in the preprocessor.
This method implies the following constraints:
• The solid must be closed, without through-holes
• The solid may not be 2-connected.
A 2-connected solid, is a solid where the removal of 2 vertices (and their incident edges) separates the solid
in two parts. For example, the object of fig. 8 is 2-connected, because the removal of vertices 1 and 2 leaves the
small inner part unconnected from the larger, outer part. By the way, one additional edge between the vertices 3
and 4 would make this object not 2-connected anymore.
Figure 8.8: A 2-connected object
One might perhaps expect at first sight that this freak object is unlikely te be encountered when importing
ship’s lines. However, consider a very simple initial body plan of fig. 9. This one is highly 2-connected, because
24 combinations of vertices exist, which leave the object separated at deletion (vertex-pairs 2-3, 4-5, 6-7, 2-5, 3-4,
4-7, 5-6 etc.).
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November 22, 2014
8.9 Syntax of Curve eXchange Format
137
Figure 8.9: This simple bodyplan is 2-connected
A few more remarks can be made about this figure:
• Apart from the theoretical aspects of 2-connectivity, one can also imagine that this wireframe cannot be
converted into a solid automatically, because explicit information about inside and outside is missing.
• Extra waterlines or buttocks, but even the inclusion of one additional edge, between vertices 1 and 20, would
make this object not 2-connected anymore.
It would lead us too far to discuss all theoretical aspects, but contrary to our previous statements that 2connected objects are unsuitable to be converted into solids, there are some exceptions where 2-connectivity is
allowed:
• Some areas of 2-connectivity are acceptable, in the case when an unconnected part of the wireframe forms
one face with the vertices which makes the object 2-connected. In fig. 9 this is, for example, the case with
vertices 2 and 3, whose removal leaves vertex 1 unconnected from the rest, which does no harm because
vertices 1, 2 and 3 are all part of one valid face.
• For ‘open’ objects, such as the one of fig. 9, 2-connectivity may be allowed.
All these considerations have led to a two-stage face recognition procedure in the preprocessor:
• Initially an object is assumed to be not 2-connected, and faces are generated accordingly. When a valid
combination is found the generation process ends, because it is a theoretically valid solution.
• When no valid combination of faces is found, intermediate results and connectivity data are printed in a log
file. Finally the faces are constructed under the assumption that the object is 2-connected. However, this
second stage may fail to find a proper solution.
8.9
Syntax of Curve eXchange Format
• A CXF file is a plain ASCI file, with an even number of lines. Each pair of lines consists of a code (the first
line) and an argument (the second line). The code defines the meaning of the argument.
• After the code a # may be placed, which precedes comment. Text after the # is ignored.
• When a line starts with a #, it is recognized as comment, and ignored.
• All units are metres, sequence of vectors is Length, Breadth, Height. SB=+, PS=-.
❈✉rr❡♥t❧② ❞❡❢✐♥❡❞ ❝♦❞❡s ❛♥❞ ❛r❣✉♠❡♥ts ❛r❡ ✿
✶✵
★❋✐❧❡ t②♣❡ ✭♠✉st ❜❡ t❤❡ ❧❡tt❡rs ✬❈❳❋✬✮
❈❳❋
✷✵
★❋✐❧❡ ✈❡rs✐♦♥ ✭▼✉st ❜❡ ✶✮
✶
✸✵
★❈r❡❛t♦r ✭❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ♣r♦❣r❛♠ ♦r ♣❡rs♦♥ ✇❤♦ ❝r❡❛t❡❞ t❤✐s ❢✐❧❡✮
❈r❡❛t♦r ❆
✹✵
★Pr♦❥❡❝t ♥❛♠❡
Pr♦❥❡❝t ❆❇❈❉❊❋●
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.10 Syntax of Solid eXchange Format
138
✺✵
★Pr♦❥❡❝t ✈❡rs✐♦♥ ♥✉♠❜❡r
◆
✻✵
★❉❛t❡ ✭❨❡❛r ✴ ▼♦♥t❤ ✴ ❉❛②✮
②②②② ♠♠ ❞❞
✼✵
★❚✐♠❡ ✭❍♦✉r ✴ ▼✐♥✉t❡ ✴ ❙❡❝♦♥❞✮
❤❤ ♠♠
ss
✶✵✵✵
★◆❡✇ s♦❧✐❞ ✭❈✉rr❡♥t❧② ♦♥❧② ♦♥❡ s♦❧✐❞ ✐s s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞✮
❙♦❧✐❞ ♥❛♠❡
✷✵✵✵
★◆❡✇ ❧✐♥❡
▲✐♥❡ ♥❛♠❡
✷✵✶✵
★❑♥✉❝❦❧❡ ❧✐♥❡ ✭✶❂❦♥✉❝❦❧❡✱ ✵❂ ♥♦ ❦♥✉❝❦❧❡✮
◆
✷✵✷✵
★P❧❛♥❡ t②♣❡ ✭✵❂❢r❛♠❡ ✶❂✇❧ ✷❂❜✉tt♦❝❦ ✸❂❞✐❛❣♦♥❛❧ ✹❂❛r❜✐tr❛r② ♣❧❛♥❡ ✺❂✸❉ ❧✐♥❡✮
◆
✷✵✸✵
★◆♦r♠❛❧ ✈❡❝t♦r ♦❢ ♣❧❛♥❡ ✭▲✱ ❇ ❛♥❞ ❍ ❝♦♠♣♦♥❡♥ts ♦❢ ♥♦r♠❛❧ ✈❡❝t♦r✮
▲✳❧❧❧❧❧
❇✳❜❜❜❜❜
❍✳❤❤❤❤❤
✷✵✹✵
★▲♦❝❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ♣❧❛♥❡ ✭♠❡tr❡s ❢r♦♠ ♦r✐❣✐♥✮
P✳♣♣♣♣♣
✸✵✵✵
★◆❡✇ s❡❣♠❡♥t
❙❡❣♠❡♥t ♥❛♠❡
✸✵✷✵
★❇❛s✐❝ ❣❡♦♠❡tr② t②♣❡ ✭✶❂♣♦❧②❧✐♥❡ ✷❂◆❯❘❇❙✮
◆
✸✶✵✵
★❈♦♦r❞✐♥❛t❡s ♦❢ ♣♦❧②❧✐♥❡ ♣♦✐♥t ✭▲❡♥❣t❤✱ ❇r❡❛❞t❤ ❛♥❞ ❍❡✐❣❤t ♦❢ ❛ ♣♦✐♥t✮
▲✳❧❧❧❧❧
❇✳❜❜❜❜❜
❍✳❤❤❤❤❤
✸✶✶✵
★P♦❧②❧✐♥❡ ♣♦✐♥t✱ s♣❡❝✐❢✐❡❞ ❛s r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ t♦ ❛ ✭✉♥✐q✉❡✮ ✈❡rt❡① ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ t❤❡ ❙❳❋ ❢✐❧❡✱ ♣❧✉s t❤❡ ❝♦♦r❞✐♥❛t❡s
❱❡rt❡① ♥✉♠❜❡r
▲✳❧❧❧❧❧
❇✳❜❜❜❜❜
❍✳❤❤❤❤❤
✸✷✵✵
★◆❯❘❇❙ ❱❡rt❡① ✭▲❡♥❣t❤✱ ❇r❡❛❞t❤✱ ❍❡✐❣❤t ❛♥❞ ❲❡✐❣❤t ♦❢ ❛ ◆❯❘❇❙ ✈❡rt❡①✮
▲✳❧❧❧❧❧
❇✳❜❜❜❜❜
❍✳❤❤❤❤❤
❲✳✇✇✇✇✇
✸✸✵✵
★◆❯❘❇❙ ❦♥♦t
❑✳❦❦❦❦❦
✸✹✵✵
★◆❯❘❇❙ ♦r❞❡r ✭♦r❞❡r❂❞❡❣r❡❡✰✶✮
❑
✾✾✾✾
★❊♥❞ ♦❢ ❈❳❋ ❢✐❧❡
❈❘❈ ❝❤❡❝❦s✉♠✱ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ♣r❡♣r♦❝❡ss♦r
Notes
• Currently the codes 30, 50, 60 and 70 are not used in Fairway, but in the future they may be used.
• From a line either a polyline or NURBS representation has to be given. The preprocessor determines both
representations and writes them in the CXF file.
• Concerning the NURBS, please remember that number of vertices + order = number of knots.
• Polyline points may be specified directly (code 3100) or as reference to a solid vertex (code 3110). For
application in combination with the SXF file, finally, only references must be used.
• Knuckle line information (code 2010) may be omitted. The default value is ‘no knuckle’.
8.10
Syntax of Solid eXchange Format
• Similar to the CXF file, an SXF file is a plain ASCI file, with an even number of lines. Each pair of lines
consists of a code (the first line) and an argument (the second line). The code defines the meaning of the
argument.
• After the code a # may be placed, which precedes comment. Text after the # is ignored.
• When a line starts with a #, it is recognized as a comment, and ignored.
• Vertex locations are in metres, sequence is Length, Breadth, Height.
All faces must be oriented clockwise (seen from the outside)
❈✉rr❡♥t❧② ❞❡❢✐♥❡❞ ❝♦❞❡s ❛♥❞ ❛r❣✉♠❡♥ts ❛r❡ ✿
✶✵
★❋✐❧❡ t②♣❡ ✭♠✉st ❜❡ t❤❡ ❧❡tt❡rs ❙❳❋✬✮
❙❳❋
✷✵
★❋✐❧❡ ✈❡rs✐♦♥ ✭▼✉st ❜❡ ✶✮
✶
✸✵
★❈r❡❛t♦r ✭❉❡s❝r✐♣t✐♦♥ ♦❢ ♣r♦❣r❛♠ ♦r ♣❡rs♦♥ ✇❤♦ ❝r❡❛t❡❞ t❤✐s ❢✐❧❡✮
❈r❡❛t♦r ❆
✹✵
★Pr♦❥❡❝t ♥❛♠❡
Pr♦❥❡❝t ❆❇❈❉❊❋●
✺✵
★Pr♦❥❡❝t ✈❡rs✐♦♥ ♥✉♠❜❡r
◆
✻✵
★❉❛t❡ ✭❨❡❛r ✴ ▼♦♥t❤ ✴ ❉❛②✮
②②②② ♠♠ ❞❞
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
8.10 Syntax of Solid eXchange Format
139
✼✵
★❚✐♠❡ ✭❍♦✉r ✴ ▼✐♥✉t❡ ✴ ❙❡❝♦♥❞✮
❤❤ ♠♠
ss
✶✵✵✵
★◆❡✇ s♦❧✐❞ ✭❈✉rr❡♥t❧② ♦♥❧② ♦♥❡ s♦❧✐❞ ✐s s✉♣♣♦rt❡❞✮
❙♦❧✐❞ ♥❛♠❡
✷✵✵✵
★❱❡rt❡① ♥✉♠❜❡r✱ ♣❧✉s ❝♦♦r❞✐♥❛t❡s ♦❢ t❤❛t ✈❡rt❡①
❱❡rt❡①♥✉♠❜❡r
▲✳❧❧❧❧❧
❇✳❜❜❜❜❜
❍✳❤❤❤❤❤
✸✵✵✵
★❊❞❣❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r✱ ♣❧✉s t❤❡ ♥✉♠❜❡rs ♦❢ t❤❡ t✇♦ ✈❡rt✐❝❡s ❜♦✉♥❞✐♥❣ t❤✐s ❡❞❣❡
❊❞❣❡♥✉♠❜❡r
◆✉♠❜❡r❴♦❢❴✈❡rt❡①✶
◆✉♠❜❡r❴♦❢❴✈❡rt❡①✷
✹✵✵✵
★■♥❞✐❝❛t❡s st❛rt ♦❢ ❢❛❝❡✱ ❢❛❝❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r
❋❛❝❡♥✉♠❜❡r
✹✵✶✵
★❊❞❣❡ ♦❢ ❢❛❝❡✿ ❘❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ t♦ ❡❞❣❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ✫ ♦r✐❡♥t❛t✐♦♥ ✭✰✶ ♦r ✲✶✮
❊❞❣❡♥✉♠❜❡r
❖r✐❡♥t❛t✐♦♥
✾✾✾✾
★❊♥❞ ♦❢ ❙❳❋ ❢✐❧❡
❈❘❈ ❝❤❡❝❦s✉♠✱ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ♣r❡♣r♦❝❡ss♦r
Notes:
• Currently the codes 30, 50, 60 and 70 are not used in Fairway, but in the future they may be used.
• An edge orientation (as used in the face definition) of +1 means the edge is used for that face according to
the sequence of definition of that edge. An orientation of -1 means it is used for that face in the opposite
direction.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 9
Hulldef: hullform definition and output
This is the PIAS module to define, and manage the hullform, an to apply it for output and export. The notion of
‘hullform’ is intrepreted rather wide in this module: it also contains related matters, such as openings, deck line and
wind contour. Hulldef starts with its main menu:
Hull geometry data
1. Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data
2. Output of hull geometry data
3. Export of hull shape data to a number of specific file formats
4. Import frames from (a number of specific formats of) a text file
5. Generate cylindrical shapes
6. File and backup management
9.1
Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data
Figure 9.1: Input window for main particulars and hull geometry.
With this option an input window appears, from which an example is depicted above. This window consists ofthree
sub windows, from which the leftmost is used for alphanumerical data entry, the window top right for the graphical
representation of one particular type of data and the window at the bottom right to show all data types as managed
by Hulldef simultaneously, graphically and in 3D. For options in the 3D window reference is made to the last
section of this chapter, notably the orientation box which provides a tool to assist in the proper viewing direction,
see section 9.7.1 on page 160, View. With the top bar icons the appropriate input subject can be selected, which
can alternatively be acieved with a function keys-control combination, where <ctrl><F1> equals the activation
of the leftmost icon, etcetera, until <ctrl><F9> for the rightmost icon. Anyway, the different subjects are:
9.1 Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
141
Main dimensions and other ship parameters
Hullforms
Extra bodies
Frame shapes
Appendages
Wind contour
Wind data sets
Openings
Deck line
The menubar contains, besides the common function, an additional [Visible] function, which can be used to
specify which of the data elements as managed by this module (such as wind contour, openings and deck line) will
be visible in the right-under threedimensional representation window.
9.1.1
Main dimensions and other ship parameters
In this menu the general particulars of the ship can be give. These belong to the ship data definition, therefore
this menu is included in this hull definition module Hulldef, and also in the hull form design and fairing module
Fairway, see section 7.4 on page 93, Main dimensions and other ship parameters. Here only ship data are included,
program settings, on the other hand, can be defined in Config. This module is subdivided into sub menus for the
different categories:
Main dimensions and other ship parameters
1.
Main dimensions and allowance for shell and appendages
2.
Roll data (for IMO weather criterion).
3.
Definition of frame spaces
4.
Definition of draftmarks
5.
Maximum drafts / minimum freeboards
6.
Maximum / minimum drafts fore and aft
7.
Maximum trims
8.
Yacht characteristics
9.
Passenger vessel characteristics
10. Anchor-handler characteristics
11. Towing hook and bollard pull
11. Line-of-sight and air draft points
9.1.1.1
Main dimensions and allowance for shell and appendages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ship name, the project name, or the name of the vessel. This name will appear on all printed output.
Length between perpendiculars. The trim is based on this length.
Length waterline and hull length, the latter for the SOLAS probabilistisc damage stability rules.
Moulded beam, on the construction waterline.
Draught, the moulded draught on the construction waterline.
Moulded depth, the minimum depth at side above base.
Appendage coefficient, a multiplication factor for shell and appendages. In general, this factor has a value
between 1.000 and 1.010. Please be advised that the common values for the appendage coefficient are for the
effect of appendages and shell plate thickness. If a shell plate thickness is defined separately, the appendage
coefficient may not include this shell effect.
• Mean shell plate thickness, which is used to determine the shell volume explicitly, and should be given in
metres. The shell plate volume is determined offsetting the frame contours with the shell plate thickness,
a method which leads to two effects. The first one is that the thickness of a transom or a flat and vertical
stem is not taken into account. And the second effect is that the shell plate volume, contrary to the common
shipbuilding practice, is added directly to the moulded volume.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
9.1 Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data
9.1.1.2
142
Roll data (for IMO weather criterion).
• Type of midship section: Round or sharp bilge.
• Projected area of (bilge-)keels: Total area in m2 .
9.1.1.3
Definition of frame spaces
This menu facilitates the definition of the (construction) frame numbers and also the frame numbers where the
frame spacing changes. In each menu of PIAS where longitudinal distances are required it is an alternative to press
function key <F3> and enter the frame number, which is converted into meters instantaneously. Please see that
although <F3> will prove to be very convenient, it is a only a local aid to convert frames to meters, all output and
input of PIAS will still remain in meters or related units. There is also a somewhat more extended frame conversion
utility, activated with <F4> — section 5.2 on page 29, Input window contains more details on the use of <F3>
and <F4>. With the data entered in these menus an entire frame table can also be printed, please see section 9.2.5
on page 157, Frame location tableFrame location table for a discussion. The frame definition parameters as such
are given the following submenu:
Definition of frame spaces
1. Definition of frames where the frame spacing changes
2. Definition of frames spaces
3. Definition of stern most and foremost frame, and the position of
9.1.1.3.1
Definition of frames where the frame spacing changes
Here the frame numbers (with a maximum of 150) can be entered where the frame spacing changes. The actual
frame spacing can be defined at the next option, however, these ’frames of changing distances’ should be given
first.
9.1.1.3.2
Definition of frames spaces
Here the frame spacings (in meters) can be specified, for each of the regions with a distinct frame spacing.
9.1.1.3.3
Definition of stern most and foremost frame, and the position of
frame zero The location of (construction) frame zero should be specified here, in meters, in PIAS’ system of axes
of origin (see section 3.7 on page 14, Definitions and units. With the aftmost and foremost frames, which should
also be specified in this menu, the frame range is fixed.
9.1.1.4
Definition of draftmarks
In this menu the location of the draft markss can be given, which may be applied at the calculation of loading
conditions with Loading. A maximum of twenty draft marks can be defined, and for each mark should ne given:
• The name, a free, textual description which is printed on the output for identification.
• The location, which is not so much the exact location, but more its abstract notion. Options are ‘aft’,
‘midship’, ‘fore’ and ‘other’. Each of these type can be applied more than once, for example the aft mark
may consist of two parts; one on the stern and the other on the transom.
• The side, which indicates whether the mark is situated on PS, SB or on both sides (double).
• The longitudinal location and the underside. If the mark consists of a single reference point then its coordinates can be given in these two parameters. The underside of the mark will in general be the underside of
the keel, in which case the keel plate thickness should be given, negative (because in general the keel extents
below the base line) and in meters (because that happens to be the standard in PIAS).
• Print, which can be used to indicate whether this mark should be included in output of Loading. In the
majority of cases that will be the case, however, occassionally one might wish to switch the mark ‘off’.
• Plot, which indicates, similar to the previous option, whether the mark will be included in plots of Loading.
With longitudinal location and underside, as discussed above, draft marks consisting of one specific point can
be defined. However, as a rule the mark has a much more complex shape, and such a mark can be given with an
array of L, B and H coordinates, in the menu which appears after pressing <Enter> in the first column. If this
method is applied then the longitudinal location will, obviously, have no use anymore. However, the underside
still keeps its meaning, because that simply is the reference height from which the ‘draft on the draft marks’ is
measured.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
9.1 Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data
9.1.1.5
143
Maximum drafts / minimum freeboards
Here the maximum drafts or the minimal freeboard can be given, as defined by the load line convention, so for
example summer draft or WNA freeboard. One can chose either to give the freeboards, or the drafts; one is
automatically converted into the other For this purpose in the last two lines of this menu the deck plate thickness
according to the load line convention should be given, as well as the moulded depth (which might also have been
given at section 9.1.1.1 on page 141, Main dimensions and allowance for shell and appendages, however, for
convenience this parameter is also included here). The drafts or freeboards defined in this menu are amonst others
applied when producing a deadweight scale (see section 13.2.6 on page 208, Deadweight scale) and at the check
on maximum drafts in Loading, see the figure at the paragraph below.
9.1.1.6
Maximum / minimum drafts fore and aft
In this menu the minimum required and maximum allowable drafts for and aft can be entered, as well as the
exact longitudinal location where those have to be measured. In Loading, option in can be configured whether
a particular loading condition should comply to such requirements, see option [Settings] in section 20.2.1 on
page 252, Define/edit weight items as well as the figure below.
Figure 9.2: Popup window to configure verification against draft criteria, in Loading.
9.1.1.7
Maximum trims
According to the explanatory notes of the probabilistic damage stability regulations, computation results might
sometimes only be applicable to a limited trim range, which might be draft-dependant. if such trim limitations
apply they can be entered in this menu, so that at the calculation of loading conditions, in Loading, they are verified
against.
9.1.1.8
•
•
•
•
•
Yacht characteristics
Area of sails As, according to ISO 8666.
Beam of the waterline.
Center of area As, according to ISO.
Height of waterline hLP, according to ISO.
Allowance ‘delta’ on STIX, according to ISO.
9.1.1.9
Passenger vessel characteristics
• Number of persons with lifeboats provided.
• Number of persons without lifeboats provided.
9.1.1.10
Anchor-handler characteristics
Particulars to be used at the calculation of maximum anchor-handling forces. For the details we refer to the
chapter on the module for the calculation of tables of maximum anchor forces, Maxchain: calculation of maximum
allowable anchor-handling chain forces.
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9.1.1.11
•
•
•
•
•
144
Towing hook and bollard pull
Maximum bollard pull, in ton.
Height of the towing hook above baseline, in meter.
Breadth of the towing hook fro center line, in meter.
A correction factor on the heeling lever. This is a dimensionless multiplication factor on the lever.
The keel point above base line (in meter). At the definition of the tug stability criterion, also the lever to
apply on the bollard force, in order to obtain the heeling moment, can be specified. One of the options is
‘From towing hook to midway between draft and keel point’, and for this option the keel point, which equals
underside keel, has to be defined, and that can be done here. For vessels where the lower edge of the lateral
area does not coincide with base line, the actual vertical location of that lower edge (or the average location
of the lower edge) should be entered here as keel point above base, please take into consideration that this
height, as usual, should be given in meters above base line, so for vessel with a keel protruding below base
this value should be negative.
9.1.1.12
Line-of-sight and air draft points
For the assessment of the ship’s draft and trim in a certain loading condition, as is computed by Loading, it
mightbe convenient to let the draft/trim combination be verified against requirements on line-of-sight and airdraft.
The related parameters can be given in this menu and consist of:
• The name of the point, this is a textual description which is printed on the output.
• Its L, B and H coordinates.
• The type of point, which can be:
– The conning position, which is the location of the eye of the person who should have a particular line
of sight.
– Visibility obstruction, which are fixed points of the ship which obstruct the vision, such as points of the
bulwark or of a crane pedestal. Please realize that cargo items which are managed with specific cargo
modules of Loading, such as containers, are always included integrally in the determination of line of
sight, so visibility obstructions by such cargo items do not have te be entered in this menu.
– Air draft points, which is the highest fixed point of the vessel, and as such determines the air draft.
Although always a single specific point will govern the air draft, through the effects of heel and trim
it is not always certain on forehand which point that will be. For that reason it might be convenient to
give multiple air draft points here.
The data as entered in this menu are being applied in the output of Loading, particularly in its GUI, see section 21.1 on page 261, Graphical User Interface. In Loading the line of sight can also be checked against a visibility
citerion, where one can choose between IMO A.708(17), Panama canal ballast en Panama canal full load. Because
different loading conditions might be subject to different criteria, the choice of the criterion is done per loading
condition.
9.1.2
Hullforms
A hull form resides in a file which has been created by Hulldef or Fairway. Such a file may contain all hull shape
data of an entire ship, however, it can be useful to define different parts in different files, and make a composition
of them all. For example to be able to re-use certain parts in the future - such as a rudder or a coaming - or in
case of variable buoyant parts, such as a deck cargo of wood. Therefore, at this option multiple hull shapes, with a
maximum of 75, can be composed to one buoyant assembly. This menu contains oen line per added hullform, and
this line contains the following elements:
• The description where as a reminder a textual description can be given, which has no further relevance for
the calculations. By the way, for the ‘root form’ - which is the form which is always present, simply because
its filename equals the project filename - no further description otherwise then the standard can be given,
• The shifts in longitudinal, transverse and vertical directions, L-dis, B-dis and H-dis. L-dis(placement) is the
disance between APP of the form to add, and the APP of the root form. And by analogy the H-dis(placement)
is the distance between the base lines, and the B-dis(placement) the distance between the center lines.
• The perm(eability) defines the multiplication factor, with a typical value between -1 and +1, on the volume
of the added form. With a permeability of 1.00 the added form contributes for the full 100% of its volume,
with 0.00 its volum eis neglected and with -1.00 substracts the total volume of this added form from the
assembly.
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• The side defines which side of this added form had to be added to the assembly. Choices are PS, SB or both.
• The file name, which can be given in two fashions. Either by just typing the name, or by pressing <Enter>,
whichopens the familiar Windows’ file browser window where the intended file can be selected. Apart
from giving the full path/file name, PIAS offers also the provision to specify that both the root file and
the added file reside in the same folder, without specifying this folder explicitly. This is labelled ‘relative
definition’, and is achieved by precursing the file name by the ampersand, the & symbol. Moreover, it is
even encouraged to apply this facility because it prevents that the folders names of all added hullforms
have to be modified when you place the project in antoher folder or on another computer. The same
applies when using hull forms as so-called ‘external subcompartments’ in Newlay.
• A column print (yes/no) which can be used to indicate whether the hullform should be included in the output,
as is discussed in section 9.2 on page 156, Output of hull geometry data.
If a specific form has been selected by placement of the text cursor, then this one is active in the remainder of
Hulldef, so the frames and appendages you inspect or edit are from this selected form. Finally, the upper menubar
contains three specific menu buttons:
• [Copy], which makes simply a copy of the entire row. In other menus this task is performed by the generic
edit/undo/copy facility, however, because this menu contains two paste variants an exception had to be made
here.
• [Paste], which pastes the copied row into the present row. This function has two variants, the first one is
the regular, where simply the entire row content is pasted. The second one, [PC], makes a copy of the hull
form file, where you are prompted for the file name. The first variant is used if the copied hull form is
applied multiple times, on different locations. The second is used is the pasted hull form shape is going to
be modified independently from the original.
• [(A)symmetrical] which can be used to toggle between a symmetrical and and asymmetrical hull form. In
case of asymmetry the SB demi hull will obviously be represented in another file than the PS demi hull, so
you should chose the appropriate file for each side. Anyway, the first time that a hullform is switched to
asymmetrical, the programs ask whether the symmetrical hull form file should be copied. This copy might
provide a quick start for the new demi hull.
Attention
This menu shows that the hullforms to add are stored in their own file, so essentially it is another ship or
project, an dcan also be applied as such. It is even possible to define the additional hullforms simply as
another project under its own filename, instead of using this hullforms option in the main project. Moreover,
in the pre-2014 PIAS version that was the only method.
9.1.3
Extra bodies
This option is somewhat analogous to the previous one, here one can chose and select other hull forms, however,
they will not be added to the buoyant assembly. Consequently, the columns L-dis(placement) etc. are not present
here. One can wonder why one should choose another form, while not adding it to the assembly? That is because
in some occasions a full form is used as an external subcompartment, as is discussed in paragraph 11.4.1.3.7 on
page 182, Shape definition external subcompartments, and it would be somewhat silly if all added hull forms would
be treated here in Hulldef integrally, and related forms which are not added, but used in the project at a later stage,
not. Because these extra bodies do not constitute the buoyant assembly they are not included in the aggregated 3D
view on the hull — the lower right window.
Attention
The attention paragraph of the previous (Hullforms) section also applies here.
9.1.4
Frame shapes
Attention
A hull form is defined by cross sections (or frames. The words cross sections, ordinates and frames are
being used alternately in thie manual they are considered to be synonymous) only. Buttocks and waterlines
are not defined. Longitudinal discontinuities are indicated by a double frame at that location. Examples of
longitudinal discontinuities are the transition from to forecastle and the forward and aft sides of deck house,
moonpool or hatch.
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This option serves in the first place to specify all fraem locations, and secondly to define breadth-height coordinates
for each frame The maximum numbers of frames is 500. The longitudinal distance of the frame is measured to the
aft perpendicular, and it is required that all longitudinal ar estricly increasing. This menu contains the following
auxiliary functions:
• [Digit], which enables to define the section shapes by digitizing, see paragraph 9.1.4.6.2 on page 150, Defining
the section shape by means of a digitizer and paragraph 9.1.4.6.3 on page 150, Defining the section shape
by digitizing a BMP file for more details.
• [Shift], which you can use to shift a frame in vertical or transverse directions. To activate place the text cursor
on the frame to shift, and press [Shift], which pops up a menu where you can enter the translations in both
directions. After tanslation negative transverse values may occur, these have to be corrected.
• [Aftship]. At the option for twodimensional output, see section 9.2.3 on page 156, Two dimensional output
of hullform, a distinction is made between foreship and aftship. To indicate the division between the two, in
the list of frame locations the last frame of the aftship is indicated. With this function, [Aftship], you can set
the frame on which the text cursor is located as ‘last frame of aftship’.
• [inteRpolate] can be applied to interpolatie additional frames inbetween two existing frames. This function
is rather limited, for this kind of lines design it is much better to use the Fairway module. Because ofthis
limited functionality, the external variable Frame_interpolate should be set, see section 4.5.1 on page 25,
List of environment variables for detaisl on that.
• [scaLe] can be used to scale the cross section, in the upper right window. The options here are ‘maximum
dimensions frame’, in which case the frame nuder consideration is window-filling (with the X-axis drawn
through the underside of the frame) or ‘maximum dimensions hullform’, with the X and Y-axes always going
through the origin.
9.1.4.1
longitudinal frame distances
The distances between three successive points may not be smaller than 1:4, and not be larger than 4.
Figure 9.3: Frame distances.
9.1.4.2
Double frames
As mentioned before it is very important to define discontinuities in longitudinal direction by placing two frames
on the same longitudinal position, we call this a double frame. Figure 3 gives an example of a ship with one
discontinuity and two knuckles. This indicates we need three double frames at the positions 15, 18 and 75 metres
from App. The two frames at 75 m are not alike to indicate a discontinuity there and the frames at 15 and 18 metres
are alike to indicate a knuckle in the longitudinal direction.
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Figure 9.4: Frame shape.
9.1.4.3
Deckhouses as appendage
In general the hullform is defined without superstructue. Deckhouses can be added lateron with the option [appendages], see section 9.1.5 on page 151, Appendages. In order to define a deckhouse properly, their fore side and
aft side must be situated on a double frame. In order to achieve this, (identical) double frames have to be defined
on forehand, at the locations where lateron with [appendage] the extremes of the deckhouse(s) will be situated.
[Appendage] will extend one of these frames with the deckhouse shape, and the other not.
9.1.4.4
hole in the hullform
The position of the hole has to be defined by placing a double frame at the start and at the end of the hole. An
example of a hole can be a moonpool. In this case a double frame consists of one frame without the hole (the
normal frame) and one frame at the same position including the hole, see figure 4 below. The frames in the hole
area are defined according the example of in figure 5. The points 1 to 6 define the frame. The height-coordinates of
points 1,2,5 and 6 are equal but drawn differently for clarity. The water level in the hole always equals the outside
water level.
Figure 9.5: Hole in hullform.
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Figure 9.6: Frames in the hole region.
9.1.4.5
How to define a frame correctly
General tips are:
• The points of a frame should be defined in a counter-clockwise order (in the convention that the frame is
situated at the right of centerline).
• The first point should be on the centreline. The last point on the deck in the side. Deckcamber, deckhouses
etc. are usually added afterwards as appendage, see section 9.1.5 on page 151, Appendages, however, they
can also simply be incorporated in the frame shape by a continuation of defined points beyond the deck at
side, extending to centerline.
• A minimum of two points must be defined. As a rule, twenty points will suffice to define a relatively simple
frame correctly.
• The maximum number of points lies in the hundreds, however, the application of much more points than
required to define the frame shape properly is discouraged. For the reason that the more frames are used,
and the more points per frame, the longer subsequent computations will take.
• Frames with a tunnel do not need special treatment; simply follow the frame line, regardless whether it is
ascending or descending. This also applies to catamaran or trimaran types of hull shapes.
• Through non-knuckle types of points a curved curve is drawn. A knuckle is the start of a new curve.
• At a discontinuity of curvature in the line it is advised to apply a knuckle point, even if this point is no
knuckle in the strict sense of the word.
• In regions of high curvature it is advised to apply more points, where the curvature is low less points will
suffice, in general.
Figure 9.7: Unwanted undulation caused by too few points on baseline.
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Figure 9.8: Proper curve shape with additional points on baseline.
In addition to these generall rules, two pitfalls will be discussed here. The first one is the definition of a simple
midship-like section, anyway, a section with a significant flat bottom part. If this is done by manually typing in the
coordinates (re-typing a table of offsets) on emight ‘naturally’ start with a point on baseline, followed by points
on each subsequent waterline. In this case the effect might be that the frame will overshoot beneath the baseline,
as illustrated in figure 6. the can be prevented by inserting additional points on baseline, as depicted in figure 7.
Alternatively, the point in the transition between bilge and baseline is defined as knuckle, in that case no additional
points on baseline need to be given becase the line between CL and bilge is between two knuckle and consequently
strictly straight.
A second example is dedicated to the definition of the frame shape by digitizing. One might be inclined to tip
a few points, more or less evenly distributed along the frame, however in this fashion regions of high curvature
might be covered with too few points, leading to an unwanted undulation, as depicted in figure 8. A solution is
to digitize more points in highly curved regions, in our example the bilge area, although it is even better to apply
two knuckles at the begin and at the end of this region. In that case the straight parts in bottom and side need no
additional support, as illustrated in figure 9.
Figure 9.9: Unwanted undulations by too few points in region of high curvature.
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Figure 9.10: Proper curve shape by knuckles at both ends of the highly curved region.
9.1.4.6
Defining the shape of the frames
By placing the textcursor on a frame location, and pressing <Enter>, you reach the program part where the
sectional shape (the shape of the frame) can be defined. For this task there are three alternatives, in the first place
points on the frame can be defined by simply typing in their vertical and transverse coordinates, seconldy the
shapes can be digitized by an external digitizer, and thirdly a BMP-file of the sections can be digitized from screen.
9.1.4.6.1
Entering the breadth and height coordinates by keyboard
An input screen appears which displays two columns. The left column will contain the half breadth from centreline
and the right column the height from the baseline. A fair curve will be determined through the given points, unless a
point has been designated to be a knuckle, which can be done by placing the text cursor on that point and activating
the [Knuckle] function. A knuckle is indicated in the coordinate table by the word ‘Knuckle’ after the coordinates.
If any appendages have already been added a coordinate will be marked with the word ‘Start of appendage’. This
coordinate cannot be removed as it is the start of an added appendage.
9.1.4.6.2
Defining the section shape by means of a digitizer
The digitizer can only be used if it is switched on and connected to the computer from boot time. In the first place
the body plan should be taped on the digitizer, this does not neccessarily have to be completely aligned, because
the program corrects for rotation. Then the scale must be defined, for which the program asks:
• To digitize the origin (the intersection between centreline and baseline).
• To digitize a point on the baseline. It is advised to digitize a point as far as possible from the centreline for
determining an accurate scaling factor.
• To enter the breadth and height coordinates of a single reference point. For advices on this point see the
remarks on this subject in the paragraph below, on digitizing a bitmap file.
• To digitize this reference point.
Now that the scale is defined, the points of the frame are digitized by tipping of the digitizer stylus. On the
digitizer five function keys are available which play a role in the digitizing process: F0: The next frame coordinate
will be a knuckle point.
•
•
•
•
<F5>: Delete all coordinates of this frame and start again.
<F10>: Define new scaling factors.
<F20>: Stop, without saving the newly digized points.
<F21>: Finished defining this frame. After pressing <F21> the input screen appears.
If the digitizer is lacking those function keys, a sticker should be used, see section 4.2 on page 23, Digitizer for
more details and a copy of the sticker.
9.1.4.6.3
Defining the section shape by digitizing a BMP file
In the first place a BMP-file (bitmap file, see ❤tt♣✿✴✴❡♥✳✇✐❦✐♣❡❞✐❛✳♦r❣✴✇✐❦✐✴❇▼P❴❢✐❧❡❴❢♦r♠❛t) has to be
selected by option [Window][Open]. Then the system of axes and the scale have to be set up, which can be done
with:
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• Digitize the origin, which is the intersection between base line and center line, with [Origin].
• Digitize a point on the baseline with [Baseline].
• Enter the breadth and height coordinates of a reference point with [Coordinatesrefpoint]). These coordinates
are used to determine the scaling factors in breadth and height (which can differ, so there are two scalingfactor). It is advised to choose a point as far as possible from the origin. The breadth of the scaling point must
be given from CL, in general this breadth will equal half the ship’s breadth. If the frames to be digitized
are situated left of CL (as in general will be the case with the aft ship) then also a scaling point at the left
side should be used, however, the given breadth coordinate should still be positive. When changing from
frames left of CL to frames at the right (so, from aftship to foreship) a new scale should be defined. These
coordinates are used to determine the scaling factors in breadth and height.
• Digitize this reference point, by option [Refpoint].
With these parameters the scale of the BMP drawing can be determined. In principle the scale should be the
same for all directions, however, in practice it may happen that the scale in X-direction differs slightly from the Yscale. That may have been caused when copying the body plan, where one direction is stretched a bit and the other
not. Another source can lie in the scanner which may treat the two directions differently. Anyway, by means of
these different scales PIAS will nicely correct such a distorted BMP file. In case of different scales an informative
message will be given, similar to the picture below. It is advised to verify the scale differences; a small difference
could have been caused by a stretched BMP picture. However, in case of a large difference, such as the 42% in the
picture below, it is likely that the digitized points (which are used for the scale determination) are not correct.
Figure 9.11: Information message on different scales in X and Y directions.
Modus operandi and options are further:
• Digitizing is performed by subsequently touching points on a frame with the cursor, and then pressing the
left mouse button for each points of which the coordinates should be sampled.
• Digitizing a knuckle (at the intersection with a chine) is similar, except that first the function [Knuckle] must
be activated. This functions per knuckle, which implies that when digitizing three knuckles subsequently,
this [Knuckle] function should be chosen three times. In that case it might be more convenient to indicate the
knuckle with a double-click of the left mouse button, for that is another option.
• With [Markers] the colors and types of the markers (which indicate different kind of points, such as origing
or knuckle) can be set.
• With [Re-digitize] all digitized points of the frame are deleted, and the digitizing process restarts.
• [Stop without save] and [Stop] are assumed to speak for themselves. They apply on the frame under consideration.
• With the function [Frames] the already defined frames in foreship or afship can be set visible or invisible.
Might be convenient for the context, and to indicate the digitizing progress.
• The function listed above are included in the top function bar, however, they can also pop up in a floating
menu by pressing the right mouse button.
• With key <Delete> or function [Delete point] the digitized point closest to the cursor will be deleted.
• With [Window] and [Arrange] other bitmap files can be opened (it can for example be convenient to have
seperate bitmapfiles of aftship and foreship both available) or closed, windows can be re-arranged etc.
• Finally, this window offers the facility to zoom with the mouse wheel, and to pan by pressing the middle
mouse button (or the mouse wheel) while moving the mouse.
9.1.5
Appendages
This option enables you to define upper appendages, with a maximum of 30. Please be aware that an appendage,
such as a deck house, can be the cause of a longitudinal discontinuity, in which case in the hull shape definition a
double frame will be justified, see section 9.1.4.2 on page 146, Double frames for more details.
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Attention
Appendages are always symmetrical to the centreline. Asymmetrical appendages can be obtained with the
asymmetrical bull form option, see section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms for more details.
When entering this appendage definition menu a list of all present appendages is presented, which shows their
most important properties. The possible actions here are:
• [Add to hullform], which makes the appendages to be added to the hull form (which, in general, will be
initially ‘open’ at the top side). Whether a vessel is equipped with upper appendages is visible in two ways:
– In the text window with appendages, at the left side, the bottom line expresses whether or not the
appendages are actually added to the hull.
– The frames in the 3D window, lower right, are at their top side closed towards centerline.
• By pressing <Enter> a new menu appears where all appendage particulars can be given, similar to the menu
depicted below. In this menu the first line shows the type of appendage, and the second line the ‘description’,
which is just a textual line for your own reference. The other lines depend on the type of appendage, of which
five types are available:
Figure 9.12: Appendage definition menu.
•
•
•
•
•
Deck camber.
Deck slope.
Rectangular upper appendage.
Trapezoidal upper appendage.
Upper appendage parallel to deck at side.
If no upper appendages are defined the vessel will be closed with a flat deck. For each appendage a few
particulars have te be given, which are discussed below per type of appendage:
9.1.5.1
Deck camber
• Aft location of the camber. If the camber stretches itself over the entire vessel a large negative value, such
as -100 , should be given.
• Forward location of the camber. In case of a camber over the entire vessel, simply a large e value, such as
1000, should be given.
• The deck camber is given as X in deck camber=breadth/X. So for a camber of 1/50th of the vessels’ breadth
the figure 50 should be given.
9.1.5.2
Deck slope
• Aft location of the deck slope.
• Forward location of the deck slope.
• The deck slope is defined as X in deck slope=breadth/X, similar as with the deck camber.
9.1.5.3
•
•
•
•
Rectangular upper appendage
Aft location of the appendage.
Forward location of the appendage.
Half breadth (from centerline) of the rectangle.
Height (from base) of the rectangle.
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It is also possible to place two deckhouses on top of each other. For example, a deckhouse not extending
beyond centerline can be defined as follows:
• First define the deckhouse over the entire breadth.
• Then define a deckhouse that is exactly the part to be removed with a height equal to the deck. See figure
underneath. Appendage 1 is the deckhouse over the entire breadth. Appendage 2 is the appendage which
defines the part to be removed. Appendage 3 is the resulting one.
Figure 9.13: Two deckhouses on top of each other.
9.1.5.4
Trapezoidal upper appendage
The trapezoidal upper appendage is similar to the rectangular type with the exception that the forward and aft
locations can have different dimensions.
9.1.5.5
Upper appendage parallel to deck at side
This type of appendage is used to define a deckhouse with a constant distance to the deck at side.
•
•
•
•
•
9.1.6
Aft location of the deckhouse.
Forward location of the deckhouse.
Distance from deck at side to the deckhouse.
Height aft (from base).
Height fore (from base).
Wind contour
With this option the shape of wind contours (=windage areas) can be given, with a maximum of twelve contours.
The reason for defining multiple contours may be that a particular loading, such as container or a deckcargo of
wood, might increase the windage area. For all those contours different wind moments can be computed, which
e.g. also might lead to different values of maximum allowable VCG per wind conntour. By the way, the Loading
module offers specific submodules for specific types of cargo, such as for containers, where the actual loading
is taken into account at the wind heeling moment computations. If this facility is used, there is no neccessity to
define standard contours for that cargo, here in Hulldef. Anyway, if the wind contour option is selected here, a
menu similar as the one presented below appears:
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Collection of wind contours
Selected In 3D view Name wind contour
Yes
No
Without containers
Yes
No
With 1 layer of containers
Yes
Yes
With 2 layers of containers
The ‘selected’ column is only significant for selection a contour in subsequent computations, such as the maximum allowable VCG in intact or damaged condition, for which the stability regulations may contain a criterion for
the effects of wind or weather. The ‘in 3D view’ defines which of the contours is included in the threedimensional
view, at the right bottom window as well as on paper. In this menu two additional functions are available:
• [Merge], which facilitates in merging two contours, with a coordinate shift if desired. For this option the external variable windcontour_merge should be set, see section 4.5.1 on page 25, List of environment variables
for more details.
• [digiT], in order to digitize a windcontour from bitmap file or by digitizer. This is analoguous to digitizing
ordinates, for which reference is made to paragraph 9.1.4.6.2 on page 150, Defining the section shape by
means of a digitizer and paragraph 9.1.4.6.3 on page 150, Defining the section shape by digitizing a BMP
file.
With the <Enter> key the program goes one level deeper, ‘into’ the list of longitudinal and vertical coordinates
of the wind contour. This list can be aditted or extended, up to a maximum of five hundred contour points. The
complete contour should be defined including the part below the waterline. The points have to be entered clockwise
where the last point equals the first, so that a closed contour is defined.
9.1.7
Wind data sets
For an integral discussion on wind moments reference is made to chapter 18 on page 230, Wind heeling moments.
With this option wind data can be specified, such as wind pressures. These particulars are not specifically
linked to one contour, therefore they are given here ‘loosely’, so that for all combinations of contours and wind
data sets computations can be made of wind heeling moments. First, at this option a list comes up which contains
the available sets of wind data, up to a maximum of twelve:
Collection of wind heeling moments
Selected Name wind data
Yes
IMO intact stability
Yes
For damage stability, coastal zone 3a
The <Enter> key brings the user ‘into’ the set of wind data on which the text cursor rests at that moment,
where the following menu is shown:
• Windlever must be calculated about, where the choices are half draft, COG of the underwater body and a
fixed height. Commonly, the wind moment is calculated about the C.O.G. of the lateral area of the underwater
body, however, ocassionally it is required to calculate the wind moment about draft/2 or about some specific
height (for example the centre of thrusters in a dynamic positioning system).
• If on the first line the type fixed height has been chosen, on the second line, at height whereabout the moments
must be determined, that height can be given.
• At input/edit wind pressures the wind pressures (in kg/m2 ) up to a certain height above the waterline should
be specified. The upper height of the highest wind pressure region should exceed above the topmost part
of the contour. The safest way to achieve this is to specify a thousand meter as upper limit of the highest
pressure region. The figure below gives an example of the use of two wind pressure regions, and it shows
that the different wind prewssure regions are indicated by different intensities of green.
• The goal of thie [wind data] function in Hulldef is to specify the parameters for which the wind moment
calculations can be executed. However, by exception the moments or levers may already be available from
another source, for example from CFD simulations or wind tunnel experiments. In that case the wind levers
(in meter) can be entered at the option user-defined wind heeling levers, where, after pressing the <Enter>
key, an input menu appears where for each wind contour a teble of heights/levers can be entered.
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9.1 Input, edit and view general particulars and hull geometry data
155
Figure 9.14: Two regions with different wind pressures.
9.1.8
Openings
An input window appears, containing a maximum of 255 special points, such as non-waterright openings, where
the columns have the following usage:
•
•
•
•
•
Name: an identification for this point.
Length: the longitudinal distance from App of this point.
Breadth: the transverse distance from centreline, where PS is negative and SB is positive.
Height: the vertical distance from base.
Type, which depicts the specific meaning of the point:
–
–
–
–
Watertight, this is not an opening in the true sense of the word.
Weathertight: this type of opening can withstand adverse weather, however, not permanent submersion.
Open: a non-watertight opening.
Margin line: a point of the margin line, which may play a role in damage stability regulations. Please
consider that for accurate modelling many points of such a margin line should be defined.
– Point of a horizontal evacuation route. This type of points are applicable with probabilistic damage
stability calculations, according to SOLAS 2009, for passenger vessels. For details reference is made
to reg. 7-2, par. 5.2.2 of chapter II-1 of SOLAS 2009.
– Some naval stability criteria, notably DDS-079, apply the concept of V-lines, so when working with a
PIAS version equipped with these criteria, a point can be declared to be of the ‘V-line type’. Or, of the
‘buoyancy’ type, which is relevant for the buoyancy criterion. For the explanation of these concepts in
detail reference is made to the relevant regulations.
• Compartment: each opening can be connected to a compartment. In general the rules for flooding of a
vessel, when an opening is submerged, apply, however, if an opening is connected to an already flooded
compartment it is, obviously, neglected. Openings connected to compartments can also be managed in
Newlay, which is even preferable because there they are defined as part of their compartment. Such Newlayadministered openings are shown in this menu, however, in order to avoid inconsistencies they are not
editable here — and are as indication of this nature printed in grey.
Furthermore, this menu contains two auxiliary functions:
• [+/-], which toggles the sign of the transverse coordinate (so the points switches between PS and SB).
• [Sort], which can be used to sort the openings.
9.1.9
Deck line
For the calculation of intact and damae stability, and to verify against the intact or damage stability criteria, the
program sometimes needs to know the deck line, which is by default not defined as such in PIAS. The first time
this module is used on a ship, the deck line is derived from the hullform, at least, if a hullform model is available
in conventional PIAS format (.HYD file). The deck line generated in this way could be erroneous, because it is
assumed to be simple the connection line between the last points of all frames. Therefore it is advised to check
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9.2 Output of hull geometry data
156
the deck line thoroughly. With this option it is possible to check or edit the coordinates of the deck line. A menu
appears with longitudinal, transverse and vertical coordinates of the deck line. Besides the usual editting facilities,
a couple of additional functions are available:
• [Geometry] to (re-)derive the deck line from the ship hull definition.
• [Switch side (PS/SB)] to toggle between the SB and PS deck line. With an asymmetrical vessel these could
differ.
• [Mirror] to copy all points of the deckline from this side to the other, so from SB to PS, or from PS to SB.
9.2
Output of hull geometry data
Withthis option all defined hull-related data can be outputted to printer or text editor file (e.g. to be imported into
Word), with a preview to screen. Each option of the menu below produces specific output for a single data type,
with the exception of wind data (as discussed in section 9.1.7 on page 154, Wind data sets). Printing these wind
data would be a bit overdone, because these data are already printed at the wind lever calculations where they are
applied. The last option is not aimed at a specific data type, it can be used to produce combined output for multiple
data types instead.
Output of hull geometry data
1. Main dimensions
2. Coordinates of all frames
3. Two dimensional output of hullform
4. Three dimensional output ship
5. Frame location tableFrame location table
6. Openings and margin line points
7. Portside and starboard deck line points
8. Selected wind contours
9. Combined output
9.2.1
Main dimensions
This option prints a table which contains: main dimensions, added hullforms (as specified in section 9.1.2 on
page 144, Hullforms) and appendages.
9.2.2
Coordinates of all frames
With this option all defined points of all frames are printed. A K with a coordinate indicates this being a knuckle
point. With this option the coordinates of the frames of other hullforms - from which the input is discussed in
section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms and section 9.1.3 on page 145, Extra bodies - can be included as well. If
desired, this can be achieved by setting the ‘Print’ column to ‘yes’.
9.2.3
Two dimensional output of hullform
With this option several twodimensional hull shape plots can be produced, such as:
• Body plan of forship and aft ship, separately.
• Body plan of forship and aft ship combined.
• A schematic lines plan. This ‘lines plan’ is rather scematic indeed, for example waterlines and buttocks are
interpolated as good as possible, but because the sectional model of PIAS holds little information about the
extremes of these longitudinal lines - which are not required at all for accurate computations - these extremes
are omitted in the lines plan. Another simplification is configurations and colors are not configurable by the
user. For a flexible definition and production of a high-quality linesplan the Fairway module is recommended,
see section 7.9 on page 109, Define and generate lines plan.
With the first sub-option of this option a number of plot parameters can be given. The first three (on frame
numbering and upper appendages) are applicabel on all 2D plot variants, all other parameters, on waterlines and
buttocks, are applicable to the schematic linesplan only. The last sentence of the previous paragraph, on whether
hullforms are included in the output, is also applicable here.
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9.3 Export of hull shape data to a number of specific file formats
9.2.4
157
Three dimensional output ship
Here the three dimensional output of all entities defined in Hulldef can be configured and produced. Thsi output
comes in two flavours:
• As lines model. This output is intended to be included in for example a stability booklet, and for that reason
the output parameters are explicitly configurable here, and stored to produce exactly the same output format
a next time - for example in case of a sister vessel or a design modification. The output parameters include:
– Whether the plot should be made including openings, deck line, wind contour etc. If set to ‘no’ then
only the frame lines are included in the plot.
– The viewing direction of the ship. These are the angles according to the convention of section 3.7 on
page 14, Definitions and units.
– Whether the projection is in perspective, and, if so, the distance between the eye and the origin.
• As rendered model, please refer to the example and discussion of section 9.7 on page 159, Rendered views.
The viewing angles applied here are the same as used in the right-lower window of the GUI, so the positionof
the ship can be arranged there. Also the shown entities (openings, deck line etc.) ar eequal to those of the
GUI.
9.2.5
Frame location tableFrame location table
This option prints a table of frame positions (in meter from APP), which contains the range between the aftmost
and foremost frame, as specified at section 9.1.1.3 on page 142, Definition of frame spaces.
9.2.6
Combined output
With the other options of this menu individual data types can be printed. However, it might be handy if multiple
data types can be specified, and printed in a single action. In particular, in case of a design change the whole bunch
of data can be printed with a single command, without bothering about the output sequence and chapter numbers.
This background is the reason of existence of this option, which allows in multiple rows to specify the data type
chapter name and page number. With menu option [Print] the output in actually produced.
9.3
Export of hull shape data to a number of specific file formats
With this option the frames, as defined in PIAS, can be exported. In this respect one should realize that the exported
data is in princple limited to the available data, which are, in PIAS, frames. with an accuracy (more than) sufficient
to perform naval architectural computations. However, they do not necessarily on construction tolerances. Earlier
PIAS versions, from the 80s and 90s, also contained frame conversion facilities to CAD software such as Autocad,
however these functions have been scrapped with the rise of Fairway, which allows a far more accurate and above
all more complete (e.g. including waterlines, stem and stern contours and surface models) definition and export.
For this reason the export from PIAS is now limited to:
• Poseidon, the Germanischer Lloyd rules program. PIAS also contains an option to export the internal geometry to Poeison, more information on that can be found in section 11.9.7 on page 197, Export bulkheads and
decks to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd).
• Castor, the steel weight estimation prgoram by ASC, ❛s♠✉ss♦❧✉t✐♦♥✳♥❧✴❊◆✴❝❛st♦r✳♣❞❢.
• Seaway, a ship motion program by Amarcon, ✇✇✇✳❛♠❛r❝♦♥✳❝♦♠.
• Shipmo, a ship motion program from MARIN, ✇✇✇✳♠❛r✐♥✳♥❧.
• ASCII text file.
9.4
Import frames from (a number of specific formats of) a text file
This options converts section shape data from an ASCII file to standard PIAS format. Essentially the ASCII file
consists of a number of cross sections, with for each cross section a number of points on the hull surface for that
cross section. So the information in the ASCII file is completely equivalent to the information defined with Hulldef.
• Number of cross sections (frames).
• For each cross section:
– Location from APP.
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9.5 Generate cylindrical shapes
158
– Number of coordinate pairs.
• For each coordinate pair the breadth and height of this coordinate, and a 1 if this coordinate is a knuckle, or
a 0 to smooth the curve through this point.
An ASCII file for a barge with main dimensions 100 x 20 x 10 m, with two cross sections will for example
have the following content:
2
0.000
3
0.000
10.000
10.000
100.000
3
0.000
10.000
10.000
0.000 0
0.000 1
10.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 1
10.000 0
Attention
The conversion module does not perform any check. So it is neccesary that the user convinces himself
that the information in de ASCII-file is complete and correct on two levels:
• Syntactical, which means that the numbers in the ASCII-file have the right format (e.g. a decimal point
instead of a comma) and are placed on the right location in the file (e.g. the right amount of figures on
each line).
• The content. The definition of a PIAS hullform must comply to a number of requirements, which are
listed in section 9.1.4 on page 145, Frame shapes (such as the maximum number of cross sections and
the maximum number of coordinates for each cross section, the section distance ratio and the possible
coinciding cross sections).
9.5
Generate cylindrical shapes
With this option cylindrical shapes, notably a longitudinal gas tank with a more or less circular sectional shape,
can be defined parametrically, and converted into a PIAS sectional representation. The main cylinder parameter is
its orientation: longitudinal, transverse or vertical. For a longitudinal cylinder the other parameters are:
•
•
•
•
•
Outer radius, the cylinder radius.
Cylinder extremities: the aft and forward location.
Cylinder axis above base: height of the center of the cylinder above baseline.
Cylinder axis from CL: the transverse distance of the center of the cylinder from center line.
Type of tank head aft and forward, for which three types are available:
– Circle head.
– Korbogen head (R= 0.8 D).
– Deep dish head (R= 0.714 D).
• File name of PIAS frames: name (and path) of the PIAS hull shape file name.
For transverse and vertical cylinders the parameters are similar, with the expections that these types can be
hollow, while the specific types of tank heads are not applicable to these types. With the defined parameters a
hull shape in standard PIAS sectional representation can be generated, which can e.g. be applied as ‘external
compartment shape’ at the compartmemnt definition module Newlay. Below an example of such a representation
is depicted.
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9.6 File and backup management
159
Figure 9.15: Cylindrical tanks.
9.6
File and backup management
Backups of the hull-related data can be made and restored here. Here is also the option ‘Stop without saving’. See
for the details section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
Attention
These file and backup management options are applicable to data as administred under the current project
and which are consequently saved under the project file name. However, other hullforms or bodies, as
discussed in section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms en section 9.1.3 on page 145, Extra bodies, are essentially
independant projects with its own file name. These are consequently not included in this file and backup
management system.
9.7
Rendered views
In a number of places in PIAS a system is used where the threedimensional shape of curves and/or surfaces if
plotted in a rendered fashion, which means that hidden surfaces are not show„ that lighting can be applied etc. This
option is here in Hulldef available with the output, please see section 9.2.4 on page 157, Three dimensional output
ship, but is also used other modules, particularly in Newlay and Fairway. For that reason the options of this system
is discussed here in a separate section. From the rendered view in Hulldef an example is depicted below, which
shows section curves, openings, deck line etc., exactly those elements which have been specified to be included in
plots with option [View] of the input menu of this module, see section 9.1 on page 140, Input, edit and view general
particulars and hull geometry data.
Figure 9.16: Three-dimensional rendered, output.
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November 22, 2014
9.7 Rendered views
160
At the left side in each three-dimensional subwindow is a number of buttons that are specifically related to that
subwindow:
•
•
•
•
Rotate: assigns the rotation function to the right mouse button. This is the standard.
Zoom+ and Zoom-: zoom in and out. It is also possible to zoom dynamically with the mouse wheel.
Extend: zoom to full-screen.
Pan: assigns the dragging function to the right mouse button. By pressing the mouse wheel button permanently one can also drag without using this function.
• Clip: one can clip the 3D subwindow i.e. that one can define a hexagonal box, where only the contents of
that box is visible. With this clip function one switches the clipping on and off.
• Setclip: six clip boundaries can be set with this function. When this function is active, the hexagonal box
appears, a bit transparent, and by standing on one side and by pressing the right mouse button permanently
one can drag that side.
Actually these buttons are shortcuts to functions of the upper menu bar, which will be discussed in the next
paragraphs. By the way, not every render window is equipped with those lefthand buttons, because in some
occasions functions have been left out because of irrelevance in the context of that module. However, if the
functions are present they always act the same.
9.7.1
View
Most of the functions here, such as zoom and rotate, have been discussed right before. Additionally, this [View]
menu contains an option [(In)Visible] which can be used to make certain parts visible or invisible, but that will
speak for itself. More can be said about the dedicated function [Orientation box], which finds its background in
the fact that although for a rendered view a viewing direction can be chosen, an orthographic (= non-perspective)
projection of a lines model can be ambiguous; the viewing direction has been set, however, it is not evident from
which side of the viewing axis the object is viewed. So, such a projection can always be seen from two directions,
somewhat similar to the ‘optical illusion’ which can include totally different images into one picture, as illustrated
with a well-known example below.
Figure 9.17: Optical illusion: young or old woman?
Although this is a principal phenomenon, PIAS has two tools which may assist in finding the right orientation.
In the first place the viewing angles are often shown, according to the convention of section 3.7 on page 14,
Definitions and units. And secondly, the orientation box can be switched on, which gives a PS part of the object
a red envelop, and the SB part a green envelop. The top and side planes are transparent, but the bottom plane is
opaque, so if this plane covers a part of the object it will be clear that the viewing direction is from below.
These tools do not guarantee a correct mental image of the picture - the viewer should also be prepared to set
his mind’s eye properly - but experience has learned that they are a good aid.
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9.7 Rendered views
161
Figure 9.18: Orientation box.
9.7.2
Edit
With this function the position and intensity of external light sources can be set. One can also change the colors
(as well as reflection characteristics and transparency); when the mouse pointer is standing on a part of a ship then
its color can be adjusted; when the pointer is standing on nothing at all, then the background color is adjusted.
9.7.3
File
9.7.3.1
Save image in file
With this option the screen image will (twodimensionally) be saved in bitmap format. here a reduction factor can
be given from which the background is discussed in section 9.7.3.3 on this page, Print image.
9.7.3.2
Copy to clipboard
With this option a copy of the image is made to Windows’ clipboard, which can subsequently be pasted into
documents of other applications.
9.7.3.3
Print image
After the selection of this option an input box pops up, where a reduction factor can be given. This is a bit of a
technical parameter, which had to be included. For, when a printer is connfigured to print at a high resolution, a
very dense picture will be produced. The can be fairly large, which should pose no problems as such, however the
sad experience has learned that Windows is not always able to cope, which may lead to a program crash. The use
of this reduction factor reduces the picture size as well as the probability of failure significantly.
9.7.3.4
Generate VRML file
In a VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)-file a 3D representation of the model is captured. This representation can be visualized using a VRML-viewer. Various VRML-viewers are available as shareware on the Internet.
The options [File][Generate VRML 1.0 file] and [File][Generate VRML97 file] respectively produce a file according
to the original VRML 1.0 specification, and the more recent, and more popular, VRML97 format.
9.7.4
Setup
9.7.4.1
Select Nearest
With this option on, while selecting an object always the thing closest to the eye (of the viewer) is taken. However,
occasionally a deeper object might be intended to select. With this setting off a list pops up containing all objects
on the cursor location (regardsless their depth) from which the user can chose.
9.7.4.2
Auto apply
Some options from the [Edit] menu have an [Apply] button, which will make modified visualisation settings to be
processed. However, when [Setup][Auto apply] is set, each modification will immediately be processed. This gives
a much more responsive character, however, at rare occasions a computer may be too slow for auto apply
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 10
Hulltran: hullform transformation
With this module a transformation is applied on a hullform which is already available in PIAS format. This original
hull is called the parent hull, and the transformed one the daughter. With this transformation the following shape
parameters can be changed:
•
•
•
•
•
Length, breadth and draft. This is simply a matter of multiplication by linear scale factors.
The length of the parallel body.
Block coefficient.
Longitudinal centre of buoyancy.
Midship coefficient.
The parent only serves as source and remains unchanged. The daughter form lives under its own filename and
is after transformation not connected to the parent in any way. Apart from this main task, this module offers the
option to combine distinct aft ship and fore ship hulls. However, this is a bit of a side issue.
10.1
Main menu
Hullform transformation
1. Transform hullform
2. Change length of parallel midbody
3. Combine two ship hulls (aft ship and fore ship)
10.1.1
Transform hullform
This option is used for the full blown transformation, where the hull as such is distorded. The applied transformation method is the same as ‘inflate/deflate’ in Fairway, see section 7.5.3.3 on page 95, Inflate/deflate for an
introduction. With this option a sub menu appears with just two choices:
Hullform transformation
1. Enter main dimensions and coefficients of the transformed vessel
2. Perform the transformation
10.1.1.1
Enter main dimensions and coefficients of the transformed vessel
Here the following parameters can be given:
• The filename of the transformed form. Here the filename of the daughter form should be given (which
must, obviously, differ from that of the parent. Also here the ‘&’-character can be applied, which makes
the daughter to be written in the same directory as the parent (identical to the ‘&’-facility of composed
hullforms, as discussed in section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms).
• Name. This is simply a textual description attached to the daughter form.
• Length.
• Breadth.
• Draft.
10.1 Main menu
163
• Block coefficient, with a maximum modification of ±0.05.
• Longitudinal centre of buoyancy in % van LPP , with a maximum modification of ±4%.
• Midship coefficient, with a maximum modification of ±0.02.
10.1.1.2
Perform the transformation
Which make the transformation to be applied. In order to memorize the applied parameters a single page with the
existing and the new hull form parameters is printed.
10.1.2
Change length of parallel midbody
Change length of parallel midbody
1. Enter parallel midbody particulars
2. Perform midbody modification
10.1.2.1
Enter parallel midbody particulars
The change of the parallel body will be executed forward of the last frame in the aftship (For the division between
aftship and foreship reference is made to [Aftship] in section 9.1.4 on page 145, Frame shapes. In thi smenu should
be given:
• For ‘filename’ and ‘name’ we refer to the discussion in section 10.1.1.1 on the preceding page, Enter main
dimensions and coefficients of the transformed vessel.
• The length to add. There are no principal limitations on increasing the length of the parallel body. A decrease
of the length of the parallel body is defined by entering a negative length. This decrease is limited to half the
length of the parallel body.
• Whether the vessel has a sloped keelline. In that case on APP and FPP the heights above base of the
(moulded) keelline should be given. The program will then shift the ordinates vertically, in order to to match
the slope of the keelline.
• Shift baseline to intersection keelline - half length. If ‘yes’ is given then the baseline is shifted in a fashion
that, if the baseline intesects the keel line at LPP /2, with the parent, then this will also be the case with the
daughter. Whith ‘no’ the baseline will keep its position with respect to the aftship.
10.1.2.2
Perform midbody modification
With this option the daughter form is actually generated (a page with parameters changes will be printed here too).
10.1.3
Combine two ship hulls (aft ship and fore ship)
With this option two hull forms can be combined, in the sense that the aft ship of one hull form, and the fore ship
of another will be glued together in a single new file which contains the combined hull. However, this a bit of a
fringe, a single time this function may prove to be convenient, however, those are the exceptions. For normal use
PIAS also offers facilities to use multiple hull forms. Those are not aggregated into a single file, instead they are
treated in stability calculations (and the like) as a rigid combination. This mechanism, which offers more flexibility
than explicitly combininghull forms, is discussed in section 9.1.2 on page 144, Hullforms.
The operation of this option is assumed to be evident.
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 11
Newlay: Design and utilization of the ship’s layout
Newlay1 is the PIAS module with which the internal geometry of the ship is recorded, managed and used. It goes
without saying that that internal geometry can consist of bulkheads, decks, compartments and other spaces, but it
may also contain additional data, like the weight group of the volume of a specific compartment, or the sounding
pipe geometry. A description of the background of Newlay can among others be read in the paper ✇✇✇✳ s❛r❝✳
♥❧✴ ✐♠❛❣❡s✴ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴ ❜❛❝❦❣r♦✉♥❞❴ ♥❡✇❧❛②✳ ♣❞❢ , but, in brief, Newlay offers the following modelling
possibilities:
• Defining compartments through compartment limits (equivalent to the manner in which in module Compart,
at the precursor of Newlay, compartments are defined).
• Defining continuous bulkheads and decks, between which the compartments are formed.
• Support by means of reference planes, to which compartment coordinates as well as bulkheads and decks
may refer.
The first two methods are mutually convertible, which means that one is able to convert from bulkheads/decks
to compartments as well as vv. Briefly, Newlay offers, furthermore, the following functions in the field of internal
geometry:
•
•
•
•
Calculation of tank tables, trim correction tables etc., in a variety of formats.
Output of a schematic tank plan and 3D views of compartments.
Conversion from and to the precursor of Newlay: PIAS module Compart.
Definition of the layout of a 2D subdivision plan, and its output to paper, bitmap or DXF file. This subdivision
plan may function as basis of the general arrangement plan.
• Function as server of internal geometry, which is able to respond to requests of other software applications.
So, for example, the shape of a deck or of a compartment can be made available to other (CAD)software
upon request.
• Import and export of the internal geometry in XML format.
11.1
Definitions and basic concepts
11.1.1
Definitions
Plane
A plane is endless, and can have any position in the space, can therefore also be angled. But every crosssection of a plane is straight, so it cannot be curved or twisted.
Physical plane
A physical plane is a plane which can be limited, and can be the separation between subcompartments. As a
rule, physical planes are used to model bulkheads and decks.
Reference plane
A reference plane is a plane to which the sizes of other entities can be normalized. The use of reference
planes can be useful for later design modifications, but its use is not obligatory.
1 This module should have been called Layout, but there existed an earlier PIAS module with that name and that’s why this module has been
baptized NewLayout, abbreviated to Newlay.
11.1 Definitions and basic concepts
165
Compartment
A compartment is a closed, liquid-proof space in the ship; as a result, one can pour water in a compartment
and the water will not get outside of it. As for the manner of modelling, there is no distinction between a
wet compartment, a dry compartment, a hold, an engine room or a closed quarter deck. In short, anything
that is watertight is a compartment for PIAS. A compartment is built from one or more subcompartments.
Subcompartment
A subcompartment is a ‘logical’ building block of a compartment. A subcompartment has no physical
meaning, the concept has only been introduced to make it a bit orderly for people to define a complex compartment. A subcompartment can be positive or negative, in the first case the shape of the subcompartment
is added to the others, in the second case it is deducted. A subcompartment can be one of three different
types, which will be explained below:
With coordinates
A subcompartment of the type ‘with coordinates’ is simply limited by typed coordinates (which may refer to
a reference plane). The user is free to define subcompartments of this type overlappingly, or to let holes exist
between them. An example of a subcompartment of this type is depicted in the figure below, where with
four coordinate pairs a part of the ship is ‘carved out’, which constitutes the subcompartment. Please see
that the coordinates may very well fall outside the ship hull boundary, if that is the case the ship boundary is
simply taken also as subcompartment boundary (by the way, if shell or deck are indeed a subcompartment
boundary, than it is even beter to use ∞ as boundary than to exactly use the shell breadth or deck height. See
also section 11.1.5 on page 167, Processing the hull shape).
Space generated between planes
A subcompartment of the type ‘space generated between planes’ coincides with the space generated between
physical planes. This type of compartments is unique, and cannot overlap between themselves.
External PIAS hull form
A subcompartment of the type ‘external PIAS hull form’ (a.k.a. external subcompartment) is meant for a
subcompartment being too complex for one of the other types, for example because its limits are curved,
such as those of a gas tank. Such a subcompartment can be defined with a PIAS shape design or definition
module, as if it is a regular ship shape. Subsequently, that ‘hull form’ is indicated as subcompartment, after
which it is integrally included in all following steps and calculations. See the example below, where a forty
meter gas tank is defined as ordinary PIAS hull form - with Hulldef or Fairway - and subsequently positioned
in the actual vessel, with a longitudinal shift of twenty meters and a vertical shift of one meter, which brings
the tank to its real position.
Attention
From these definitions follows an important difference between a subcompartment of the type ‘space generated between planes’ and the other types. For those other types have their own shape definitions, that form
one whole with non-geometric characteristics, such as their names and permeabilities. But a space generated
between physical planes always has a shape of its own, also without a subcompartment being assigned to it.
Normally, a subcompartment of the type ‘space generated between planes’ is assigned to such a space, but
that is not necessarily so. When no subcompartment has been assigned to such a space, that is reported by
the program as non-assigned space. Functions are available in the GUI to assign such a space to or to unlink
it from a subcompartment. The last is simply done by removing the subcompartment from the tree view, the
space between the physical planes will remain, however.
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Figure 11.1: Subcompartment type ‘with coordinates’.
Figure 11.2: Subcompartment type ‘external PIAS hull form’.
11.1.2
Use of different types of subcompartments
There are three types of subcompartments, as defined above. They can be used interchangeably at random, the use
of different types of subcompartments within one compartment is also allowed. Although the user is entirely free
to choose the type, there are still a few directions to be given:
• The use of physical planes is practical, firstly because the nomenclature can be made much faster with them,
and secondly because the bulkheads and decks are known explicitly with them, which may be useful in the
event of subsequent work or computer applications. The subcompartments that are genenerated between
the planes are of the type ‘space generated between planes’, the word speaks for itself. Although this type
of subcompartment in principle can be applied anywhere, it could be practical to limit its application to
the larger spaces that are bounded by the primary physical planes. Suppose one would like to define, for
example, a fuel oil day tank in this manner, then that would very well be possible, but then one would end
with six physical planes. And in the event of a multiple of such tanks the number of physical planes will
be very large, that large that one can easily lose track of the situation. Such a tank could perhaps better be
defined as ‘with coordinates’, if necessary using reference planes so that later design modifications can be
processed faster.
• The type ‘with coordinates’ can be used anywhere where the subcompartment boundary consists of the
hull shape, combined with (maximally twelve) boundary points. This definition is conceptually simple,
overlapping subcompartments can also be defined with this, by the way, which can be an advantage or a
disadvantage, that is not relevant right now, but one should be well aware of this.
• The type ‘external PIAS hull form’ is meant for subcompartments with non-flat boundaries. Subcompartments with flat boundaries (which may very well be angled) can be defined in a more practical manner
with another type. By the way, subcompartments of the type ‘space generated between planes’ and ‘with
coordinates’ are always trimmed by the ship shape, save that of the type ‘external PIAS hull form’.
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11.2 Main menu
11.1.3
167
Naming convention for compartments etc.
Names of (sub)compartments, reference planes and physical planes can be 50 characters long, while all visible
characters are allowed. Compartment names must be unique, which is not a basic requirement in itself, but in
order to keep a compartment collection orderly it has been decided upon to require this. Names of physical planes
need not be unique, it might occur that there are planes with different shapes, but that they are still at the same
position, so one can give them the same name. It is doubtful whether this is practical, but that is up to the user.
Reference planes have infinite dimensions, so there is no need to have planes at the same position, and it may
therefore be required that their names are unique. Subcompartment names only matter within one compartment, so
it is not necessary that they have a unique name. When copying a (sub)compartment or reference plane, the copy
gets the name of the original with the addition ‘(copy)’. At least, when there is place left for that and when that
name is not yet in use, otherwise the copy keeps its original name.
11.1.4
Links to subcompartments
As mentioned at the definition of subcompartments, these can be positive or negative. It is not necessary, but a
positive and a negative subcompartment are often used to model exactly the same space. For example, a fuel oil
day tank in the ER as positive subcompartment, and exactly the same space as negative subcompartment which
is deducted from the ER. It may be practical in such cases to define the shape of that subcompartment not twice,
but only once, and to make a link to the second one. The advantage of this is that a geometry modification in one
subcompartment is directly applied to the second one.
Such a link only applies to the shape and the name, not to the permeabilities (µ). There are sound reasons
for that, because permeabilities may vary, like in our example where when the µ of the MK is 85%, that of the
subcompartment to be deducted must also be 85%, because there would be more volume deducted than added. But
the µ of the fuel oil day tank is of course 98% (or any other permability chosen by the user).
11.1.5
Processing the hull shape
Subcompartments of the type ‘with coordinates’ and ‘space generated between planes’ can be defined beyond the
hull shape, typically to plus or minus ∞ (which can be defined by typing a <I> resp. <-><I> instead of a number,
from infinite). In that case, the intersections between subcompartment and hull shape are determined automatically.
The hull shape itself can be defined through frames (with module Hulldef) or as solid model (with Fairway). In the
latter case, an entire planes model of the hull is available with which any subcompartment intersection can be made.
But in the event of a frame model, there are only frames, there is nothing in between. That does not matter at all, P←
IAS has (traditionally) sufficient methods to arithmetically find an adequate solution, but for drawing the program
must be driven back on interpolation of a subcompartment plane with those frames. In case of a longitudinal plane,
such as a deck or longitudinal bulkhead, there will be in general sufficient intersections between that plane and
the frames, so that a sufficiently accurate intersection line can be drawn. But in the event of angled bulkheads it
is very well possible that there are only a few intersections with the frames. In theory, the intersection line can
be drawn on the basis of these intersections, but as their number is small, its accuracy can be low. There are two
options here, the first one is to give a shrug, because we are only dealing with a picture and not with the calculation
results, and the second one is a more complete definition by means of more frames, that can be quickly generated,
for example, with Fairway.
11.2
Main menu
Having started up Newlay, one enters the main menu, the various options of which are explained in more detail in
the following sections.
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11.3 Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
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Design and utilization of the ship’s layout
1. Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
2. Compartment list, calculation of tank tables etc.
3. Other lists, and program configurations
4. Threedimensional presentation
5. Subdivision plan
6. Print compartment input data
7. Conversion, and import and export of subdivision data
8. File and backup management
11.3
Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
11.3.1
GUI components
Figure 11.3: GUI.
An example of the GUI (Grafical User Interface) is shown in section 11.3.2.2 on the next page, Left mouse button
and modus. The GUI can consist of eight windows:
• Three orthogonal cross-sections, namely a transverse cross-section, longitudinal cross-section and horizontal
cross-section.
• A 3D (rendered) view.
• A tree view window with a tree of compartments and subcompartments.
• A tree view window with physical planes.
• A tree view window with reference planes.
• Possibly a constraint management tree view window in which design prospects can be included. For the time
being, this constraint management mechanism is undiscussed in this manual.
Right at the bottom of the GUI window a status line is displayed, subdivided in five boxes:
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11.3 Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
169
• The first box contains a short explanation of the function of the menu bar, when the mouse pointer stands on
it.
• The second box displays the selection mode (see section 11.3.2.2 on this page, Left mouse button and
modus).
• The third box dynamically displays the coordinate (L, B and H) of the pointer position in the orthogonal
views.
• The fourth box dynamically displays the name of the physical or reference plane that is closest to the mouse
pointer.
• The fifth box dynamically displays the name of the compartment and/or subcompartment where the mouse
pointer stands above.
Furthermore, in the upper bar the GUI has a number of functions that have been subdivided in subfunctions.
Those functions can either be carried out directly, or can be ’hanged’ to the mouse button, which mechanism
is discussed in section 11.3.2.3 on the next page, How long stays a function assigned to a mouse button?. The
function bars under [Compart], [Refplane] en [Plane] are subdivided by a horizontal dividing line. The functions
above that line are only related to the tree view window in question, the functions under the line are generally
applicable.
11.3.2
General operations and modus
11.3.2.1
Mouse buttons
The mouse buttons are used as follows:
• The left button can be used for two things, namely a) the selection of compartments, physical planes and
reference planes, or b) performing functions with it.
• Pressing the right button and subsequently moving the mouse is for display. In the three orthogonal views
that is choosing the intersection locations (unless one has opted for pan at the tool bar at the left side of that
window). And in the 3D view that is default rotation (unless one has opted for another display function at
the tool bar at the left side of that window, for example, pan or clip).
• Shortly clicking the right button in the 3D view brings up a specific menu with which colors, translucency
and lighting can be set, or a screen print or 3D model (in VRML-format) can be stored in a file, see section 11.3.2.4 on the following page, Operation in the 3D subwindows for a more detailed explanation of the
possibilities in the 3D view.
• Keep on pressing the middle button and then moving the mouse is panning.
• The mouse wheel is zooming, as well in the 3D view as in the orthogonal views.
Furthermore, one can carry out the (for MS Windows) usual actions in the tree view windows such as dragging
of compartments, subcompartments, physical planes and reference planes. With function button <F2> one can
change a name into such a tree view window.
11.3.2.2
Left mouse button and modus
The left mouse button is meant default for indicating or selecting of ships’ items; compartments, physical planes
and reference planes, but it is also possible to assign a function to it, which is carried out later when such ships’
item has been indicated. When such a function (for example function [Plane], subfunction [Edit], with which data
of physical planes can be modified) has been activated, it is shown in the second block of the bottom status row.
When the box displays ‘Select’, this means that the left mouse button is in the default position: select. What is
exactly selected depends on the selection modus, which can have four positions:
Auto
This is the most extensive position; herewith the nearest item is selected, which may be a subcompartment,
physical plane or reference plane.
Subcompartments
With which only subcompartments are selected (see note below).
Planes
With ‘Planes’ only physical planes are selected.
Reference planes
Only reference planes are selected herewith.
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Attention
Instead of selecting a compartment, it could occasionally be desirable to select a subcompartment. However,
in general that would be somewhat difficult, because in the 2D views compartments are shown instead of
subcompartments. For this reason, in due time, the [view] option (see section 11.3.3.2 on page 172, View)
will be extended with the ‘subcompartment’ setting as an alternative to the current ‘compartment’ setting.
The two will be mutually exclusive, so either the compartments are shown, or the subcompartments. And
the object of selection at this point in the manual follows this view- setting. This mechanism may, however,
induce a side effect: a single specific action will imply more or less a certain selection, for example if in
the compartment tree a compartment is selected, then it might be obvious to select a compartment as well
in the 2D views, mutatis mutandis for a subcompartment. However, such ‘logic’ might be in conflict with
the present view compartment/subcompartment setting, and for that reason in such a case the program will
switch automatically to the view setting which matches this action ‘logically’.
11.3.2.3
How long stays a function assigned to a mouse button?
This is no principal matter, it is a choice, Newlay can be made thus that it is assigned once, or permanently, or
otherwise, in principle this does not matter. But users may have different wishes, and that’s why that can be set,
in section 11.5.5 on page 188, General configurations and function colors is explained how this works. There are
three options:
Never
Then the mouse function always remains attached to the left button (until one chooses another).
Cancel structural commands after use
With this setting, commands that cause an important modification in the arrangement structure (such as
adding and removing of planes) are removed as mouse function after single use. This prevents that planes or
compartments are unwantedly added or removed in the event of fast clicking.
Cancel all commands after use.
Herewith any function is removed as mouse function after single use, and therefore one has to assign any
command to the mouse button repeatedly. Apart from that, at all times the user can detach the function from
the mouse button with the key <F12>
11.3.2.4
Operation in the 3D subwindows
Figure 11.4: Three-dimensional sub window.
At the left side in each three-dimensional subwindow is a number of buttons that are specifically related to that
subwindow. When the right mouse button is pressed permanently, the [rotate] or [pan] function is carried out,
depending on what has been set. By pressing the right mouse button shortly, a popup menu appears with which one
can carry out non-modelling operations witih the ship subdivision model. These are available in four groups, are
being discussed in much more extent in section 9.7 on page 159, Rendered views, but summarized their functions
are:
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11.3 Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
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• [View]: herewith one can carry out the same operations as with the buttons at the left side, which have been
discussed above. Besides, there is still the function [(in)visible], with which one can set which individual
parts of a ship are (in)visible.
• [Edit]: with this function the position and intensity of external light sources can be set. One can also change
the colors, reflection characteristics and transparency of objects or background
• [File]: with this function one can save the present picture to file (in VRML or BMP format), print with the
printer or copy to clipboard. This function only regards the picture, it has nothing to do with the file saving
of Newlay.
• [Setup] contains two obsolete configuration options.
Attention
With emphasis a tools is recomended which can assist to determine from which side an object is viewed. This
is the orientation box, from which purpose and operation is discussed in section 9.7.1 on page 160, View.
11.3.2.5
Shortcut keys
In order to speed up work it can be practical to use shortcut keys. The following are available for this:
• In the tree view windows the <Insert> and <Delete> keys for resp. adding or removing of a
(sub)compartment, reference plane or physical plane. After <Delete> at (sub)compartment, the
(sub)compartment can be sticked in again (possibly at another position), so this button rather has the
meaning of ‘cutting’ than of ‘removing’.
• In the tree view windows the <Home>, <End>, <Page Up> and <Page Down> keys in order to jump
resp. to the top of the list, to its bottom, to the upper line of the window and to the lower line.
• In the tree view windows the <F2> to alter the name.
• <F12> to detach a function from left mouse button (see section 11.3.2.3 on the previous page, How long
stays a function assigned to a mouse button?).
• As side-effect of Windows, any function in the upper bar can be called with the key combination
<Alt><function letter>.
• In due course, other <F> function keys will be assigned to the functions that are mostly used.
11.3.2.6
The shape of a plane (the green dots)
Figure 11.5: Defining the shape of a physical plane with the green dots.
An important function of Newlay is the addition of planes. These not necessarily need to extend over the entire
ship, but can also be in a part of it. This shape is entered by means of the plane contour, which is controlled by
the ‘green dots’, as they are called in the manual. Its background is discussed here in more detail. This all takes
place in a popup window as displayed in the above figure, where you can see that the shape of the plane has been
recorded with only three green dots.
What is shown there is the cross-section of the plane, with the chosen contour indicated in purple (at least,
that is the default color, the user himself can choose another color at the Setup menu, see also section 11.5.5 on
page 188, General configurations and function colors). The contour can stop at the intersection with other planes,
so one does not enter coordinates here, one chooses to which other, already present, planes the contour extends. A
topological definition has been obtained in that manner, from which results, for example, that when the position of
another plane changes, this contour also changes. The main idea here is that a user can enter the desired contour by
indicating points of these other planes, through which that contour has to go. By the way, one need not indicate all
points, also in the event of only a few points the program itself chooses the most evident contour, see the example
from the figure where the contour has been recorded with only four indicated points (the green/yellow dots). More
precisely, indicating occurs as follows:
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• When one stands with the mouse pointer on or near a point, then the dot can be switched on or off with the
left mouse button as ‘wanted’ (green/yellow).
• When one stands with the mouse pointer near a connecting line between two points, then that piece of line
can be switched on or off with the left mouse button as ‘wanted’ (green/yellow).
• When one stands with the mouse pointer on or near a point, then the dot can be switched on or off with the
right mouse button as ‘unwanted’ (red).
• Idem for unwanted connecting lines (red).
In the event of a new plane, one can directly start to switch on/off. In the event of an already existing plane,
there is protection against accidental modification, which is called the ‘contour modus’. That contour modus is
initially ‘off’ (that is also reported in the status line at the bottom of the window) so nothing can be changed. With
menu option [Setup], suboptie [Contourmodus] one can switch this on. Further options from the upper bar menu
are:
• Undo, undo the changes, and put the original contour back.
• Abort, abort this action and stop with this contour changing window.
• Continue, stop with this contour changing window and process the change in the ship’s model. When one
presses on the right upper cross of the window then it is clear that the user wants to stop with this window,
but it is not clear whether the changes have to be included in the ship’s model. When there actually are
changes, that question is asked again.
11.3.3
GUI functions
The purpose and the operation of various functions to be chosen from the upper bar are discussed below. There are
two types of functions, namely those with a direct effect (since nothing else has to be indicated) and those that are
assigned to the left mouse button, because something has to be indicated later on to which this function is applied.
At any function below is mentioned which type it is.
11.3.3.1
11.3.3.1.1
Setup
Clear action
The action that is attached to the left mouse button at that moment is removed from it with this. Type of function:
direct.
11.3.3.1.2
Selection mode
Herewith one can choose one of the four selection modi, as explained in section 11.3.2.2 on page 169, Left mouse
button and modus.
11.3.3.1.3
Setup
Herewith one calls up the menu with program settings, which is discussed in more detail in section 11.5.5 on
page 188, General configurations and function colors.
11.3.3.1.4
Colors
Herewith one calls up the menu with which the colors of the various ships’ components can be set. This is a limited
version of a more general menu for setting ships’ components, which is discussed in more detail in section 11.5.6
on page 189, Names and color per part category.
11.3.3.1.5
Save
With this option the subdivision model is saved to file. The model is regularly saved between times, by the way,
so as little work as possible gets lost in the event of a failure. One can also choose to save the model while one
is working in the GUI at fixed times, which can be defined at the program configurations, see section 11.5.5 on
page 188, General configurations and function colors.
11.3.3.2
View
First of all, one can indicate here which things you would like to be presented in the GUI. You may select from:
• Planes, these are the physical planes and. When these have been made invisible, then the physical planes
tree view window also disappears, because this has become useless. Likewise, functions related to physical
planes cannot be activated then. Also a third choice exists, between on and off, which is separating planes
on. With this choice only those parts of the physical planes which constitute real separations between
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11.3 Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
173
compartments will be drawn. This gives a more realistic picture, however, please bear in mind that this is
a drawing switch only; in the underlying model the physical planes still extend, also if the separate parts of
the same compartment. In ‘outside’ output, such as to the subdivision plan, always the separating planes on
method is used - regardless the switch setting here in the GUI - because this is most genuine.
• Reference planes, the reference planes. When these have been made invisible, then the reference planes tree
view window also disappears, and functions related to reference planes cannot be activated.
• Hull, the hull lines (or planes), only applies to the 3D window.
• Compartments, for the 2D windows as well as the 3D window these are the compartments.
Through the last menu option one may choose the schedule in which the compartments are colored; the possibilities are:
• Uniform, where all compartments get the same color. There may be a difference in color after specific
program actions, such as in the event of a just cut or generated compartment (these colors can be set at
section 11.5.5 on page 188, General configurations and function colors).
• Individual, where any compartment gets its own coulor (automatically determined by the program).
• Per weight group, where a compartment is colored in conformity with the color that applies for the weight
group assigned to the compartment. These colors can be set as discussed in section 11.5.7 on page 190,
Define weight groups.
• Compartment Overlap, here the program conducts an overlap test between compartments, where one can
deduce from the color whether the compartments have been defined uniquely and non-overlapping, as it
should be:
– Green: good.
– Background color: this piece of a ship is not covered by a compartment, the compartment definition is
therefore not complete. - Red: Several compartments overlap here.
11.3.3.3
Plane
Here the menu options above the horizontal dividing line also apply to the tree view, and those under the line to
the graphical windows. For the time being, the first group consists of only one function:
11.3.3.3.1
Sort
With this command the compartments in the tree view are sorted. This can be done on four criteria, namely on
name, position, type and abbreviation. The sorting can be undone again with Undo. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.3.2
Draw
With this function one draws a plane interactively. The operation is as follows:
•
•
•
•
Choose this function.
Go to the orthogonal view where the plane must be perpendicular to.
Go to an endpoint of the plane and press the left mouse button. There will appear a cross-hair.
Go to the other endpoint, and press the left mouse button again. There will appear a second cross-hair, with
a connecting line.
• The bulkhead will be generated perpendicular to the view, through that line.
• In general, the line will not fall in an orthogonal plane accurately, whereas that was perhaps intended. That’s
why the program offers the opportunity of fine-tuning. There one can choose from:
– Consider the bulkhead to be orthogonal (through the mean location of the line)
– Idem, but with the possibility to adjust the location exactly, by typing a size.
– As drawn (possibly angled).
• Afterwards appears a pop-up window with the ‘green dots’ (see section 11.3.2.6 on page 171, The shape of
a plane (the green dots)) so positioned that an as reasonable as possible part of the line is covered by the
bulkhead. Is this not satisfactory, then one can still adjust the level of extension of the bulkhead by means of
the yellow dots. Type of function: left mouse button, because the location and direction of the plane have to
be entered later on by means of drawing.
11.3.3.3.3
New
With this function one adds a plane that extends over the entire ship (from stern to bow, or from bottom to top) at
the beginning. Afterwards can be indicated through the ‘green dots’ (see section 11.3.2.6 on page 171, The shape
of a plane (the green dots)) that the plane extends over a more limited part. Type of function: direct.
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11.3 Graphical User Interface of planes and compartments
11.3.3.3.4
174
Insert
With this function one adds a plane in one indicated compartment. Afterwards, one can still indicate through the
‘green dots’ that the plane extends over a larger part. Type of function: left mouse button, because the compartment
where the plane will appear has to be indicated later on.
11.3.3.3.5
Remove
A plane is removed with this function. After the removal of the plane, excess subcompartments may remain. These
are removed according to the order of the (sub)compartment list, i.e. when several subcompartments of the type
‘space generated between planes’ refer to the same space, then the first ones are removed and the last of all remains.
Type of function: left mouse button, because the plane to be removed has to be indicated later on.
11.3.3.3.6
Edit
The features of a physical plane can be changed with this function, see section 11.5.2.1 on page 186, Popup menu
plane orientation for details. Type of function: left mouse button, because the plane to be changed still has to be
indicated.
11.3.3.3.7
Geometry
With this function the contour (and therefore the shape) of a plane is changed. Type of function: left mouse button,
because the plane to be change still has to be indicated. After having indicated the plane, a window pops up with
the shape of the plane, where one can change the contour by means of the ‘green dots’ (see section 11.3.2.6 on
page 171, The shape of a plane (the green dots)).
11.3.3.3.8
Copy
Herewith one can copy a plane. Type of function: left mouse button, because the plane to be copied still has to be
indicated. The operation is:
• Choose this function.
• Point at the plane to be copied.
• A pop-up window of the copied plane appears, already filled with the copied parameters. Change the name
and position in that window (NB the orientation (position of the plane) cannot be changed, so one is not able
to copy a transverse bulkhead to a deck).
• Press the OK button, and the copied plane is added to the model.
11.3.3.4
Compartment
These menu options have been subdivided in two groups, those above the horizontal dividing line regard the
compartments tree view, those under the line are applicable in the graphical windows. We start with the first
group:
11.3.3.4.1
Compartments Tree view
The compartment tree contains the compartments in the main branches, and under each compartment the subcompartments. With this command one can collapse and expand all branches at once. Apart from that, one can of
course also collapse or expand an individual branch with the + for each compartment. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.4.2
Sort
With this command the compartments are sorted in the tree view. This is possible on two criteria, namely on
compartment name, and on location (where the compartments are sorted in length, breadth and height direction).
The sorting can be undone with Undo. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.4.3
Newcompart
Herewith a new, and empty, compartment is added in the tree, just below the compartment that was selected at that
moment. In order to control at which location in the tree the compartment is exectly added, this command can only
be given from the compartment tree window. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.4.4
NewSubcompart
Herewith a new subcompartment is added under the compartment that was selected at that moment. The subcompartment only has a default shape and type, which has no meaning, nor any connection with something else. Type
of function: direct.
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11.3.3.4.5
175
Cut
Cut a compartment or subcompartment. The type of function depends on the sub window from where the function
was activated; in a compartment treeview the function has direct working, from a 2D window the function is
assigned to the mouse button. By the way, the <Delete> key does exactly the same.
11.3.3.4.6
Paste
Paste a compartment or subcompartment. That object is then placed after the then selected compartment or subcompartment. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.4.7
Undocut
Undoes the cutting of a (sub)compartment. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.4.8
Remove eMpty
Removes all empty compartments (those compartments that have no subcompartments). This function can be
practically used after a number of compartments no longer has subcompartments after dragging (graphically, or in
the compartment tree). Those can easily be removed in this manner. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.4.9
Edit
This is the first function of the list that is applicable in the graphical windows, and therefore not in the tree
view. With this function one enters the detail window of a compartment, which is discussed in more detail in
section 11.4.1 on page 177, Compartment definition window. Type of function: assign to left mouse button.
11.3.3.4.10
Assign
Compartments and spaces as they are generated between planes have been linked. This link is as much as possible
maintained, so when, for example, a new plane is added then additional compartments will be generated for that,
the name and other features of which can be adjusted later on by the user. But if one has removed a compartment
with, for example, [Cut] or the <Delete> key the space in question still exists, but it is no longer linked to a
compartment. With this function, [Assign], a new compartment is added that is linked to the space. That new
compartment still has default parameters, such as name and specific gravity, but these can simply be changed later
on. Type of function: assign to left mouse button, because the space to which a new compartment must be assigned
has to be indicated afterwards in one of the orthogonal cross-sections.
11.3.3.4.11
Swap
When a plane is added that runs through a subcompartment, that subcompartment is divided in two parts, while
the features of the original subcompartment are assigned to one space, and a new subcompartment is made for the
second space, the features of which have to be filled in in more detail (except for its shape, of course). This choice
is arbitrary, and it might very well be the intention of the designer that the original subcompartment is assigned to
that second space. When this is the case, one can turn this assignment with this function, [Swap], again (and also
turn it back again when one is mistaken). Type of function: left mouse button, since the space to be swapped still
has to be indicated.
11.3.3.4.12
Recombine
Subcompartments are hanging under compartments, and its organisation is completely up to the user. Particularly
after the event of adding new planes, new spaces are made which are each assigned to a new subcompartment
that is hanging under a new compartment. When one wants to change that subdivision, one can do that by means
of dragging in the compartment tree view window. With this function, [Recombine], one can do the same in
one of the 2D windows. So one can point to a subcompartment, press the mouse button, and drag to another
subcompartment. When one releases the mouse button, and after confirmation, the subcompartment no longer
resides under the original compartment, but under the newly indicated compartment instead. Empty compartments
(i.e. compartments that have no subcompartments) can be arise in this manner, which is no problem in itself, but
for overview purposes it may be practical to remove these, either manually, or with the [Remove eMpty] function,
see paragraph 11.3.3.4.8 on this page, Remove eMpty.
11.3.3.5
Refplane
Here the menu options above the horizontal dividing line also apply to the tree view, and those under the line to
the graphical windows. For the time being, the first group consists of only one function:
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11.3.3.5.1
Sort
11.3.3.5.2
New
176
A new reference plane is added herewith. An input screen appears where one can put in the various data, see
section 11.5.2.1 on page 186, Popup menu plane orientation for more details. Type of function: direct.
11.3.3.5.3
Remove
With this function a reference plane is removed. Type of function: left mouse button, because the reference plane
to be removed still has to be indicated.
11.3.3.5.4
Edit
The characteristics of a reference plane can be changed with this function, see section 11.5.2.1 on page 186, Popup
menu plane orientation for the details. Type of function: left mouse button, because the reference plane to be
changed still has to be indicated.
11.4
Compartment list, calculation of tank tables etc.
A list of compartments turns up here, with eight columns, namely:
• Selected: whether the compartment has been selected for further actions, like calculations or output.
• Name: the unique name of the compartment. Although fifty characters have been reserved for the names in
Newlay, the input here is for the time being limited to 28, for the reason that this 28 still is the maximum
in subsequent modules, such as Compart and Loading. When also those modules have been upgraded to the
higher maximum, the input limitation will be removed.
• Second name: intended for an additional textual indication.
• Abbreviation, of maximally eight characters.
• Weight group: to which weight group the volume of the compartment belongs. The purpose of weight
groups and its definition is discussed in section 11.5.7 on page 190, Define weight groups.
• Convertible. A compartment can be ‘convertible’, see paragraph 11.4.1.2.4 on page 179, Convertible for an
explanation of this concept. In this column one can enter the ‘convertibility’ of all subcompartments of the
compartment.
• With computation scripts and output scripts should be used for the calculation and output of tank (sounding)
tables, see section 11.4.2 on page 182, Calculate and print tank tables).
• Calculated, which indicates per compartment whether the tank tables have already been calculated. Besides
‘yes’ and ‘no’ it might also be indicated that the table is available, albeit outdated. That will be the case
if the compartment shapes has been modified after the most recent tank table calculation. With <Enter>
a sheet is opened with all calculated values. It is possible to modify these values, but please keep in mind
that those will be lost on re-computation. The table can also be modificied by the addition or deletion of
lines, however, no more than the original amount of lines will be accepted. If tables for multiple trims are
computed the menu bar functions [Nexttable] and [Prevtable] can be used to traverse these tables. The
The upper bar contains also some specific functions:
• [Manage], with the following sub-options:
– [Copy] and [Paste] will speak for itself. One could be curious for the difference between this copy/paste
and the general copy-paste options as listed under [Edit] (as discussed in section 5.4 on page 33, Copy,
paste etc.). The difference is that the [Edit] options only exert ob the visual cell values, which can e.g.
be exhanged with a spreadsheet by copy/paste, while these options under [Manage] are applicable on
the all compartment data, including underlying subcompartments.
– [Paste Link], see the explanation at paragraph 11.4.1.1.2 on page 178, Subcompartment functions.
– [Move], which can be used to move a compartiment up or down in the compartment list.
– [Sort], herewith the compartments can be sorted according to column (i.e. in the order of the data of the
column on which the text cursor is standing), to position and to time of definition. The selection can
be undone again with [Undo].
• [tAnk tAbles], with which one can calculate and print tank tables, see section 11.4.2 on page 182, Calculate
and print tank tables.
• A row of icons, which may be used to invoke some of the other upper bar manu functions. These icons are
presumed to be self-explanatory, although additional assistance is given by hovering over the picture. When
one has entered into a tank table, by means of <Enter> in the rightmost column, these icons are also present
although they will obviously not be functioning here.
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With <Enter> in any other column one enters the compartment definition screen, which will be discussed later
on.
11.4.1
Compartment definition window
Figure 11.6: Tank definition window.
11.4.1.1
Design of the compartment definition window
The compartment definition window consists of the following items:
• Top left a list of compartment characteristics, such as name or sounding pipe data. These are explained in
detail in section 11.4.1.2 on page 179, Compartment data.
• Bottom left a 3D view of the compartment. In this window one can call up a number of functions with
the right mouse button as they have been discussed at section 11.3.2.4 on page 170, Operation in the 3D
subwindows. By the way, mouse wheel is zooming in-out.
• Left of centre an drop-down list of compartments, from which one can choose another compartment (one
can also type a name here, but nothing happens then). Choosing the previous and next compartment can also
be done with the two buttons at the right of this list.
• At the right three subscreens related to subcompartments, and which have the same purpose as the three
subwindows discussed above.
• At the bottom a status row, with explanations and/or sizes related to the cell where the text cursor is standing
on.
Changing between compartments and subcompartments can be done through indication with the mouse pointer,
but also with the <Tab> key. Subsequently, there is still a number of functions to be called up in the upper bar,
which are discussed below. The upper bar also consists of the + and - functions, with which one can jump to the
next or previous compartment (when the text cursor is standing on the left window) or subcompartment (when the
textcursor is standing on the right window). These functions have been included so one can quickly go through the
(sub)compartments with <Alt><+> and <Alt><->.
Reference planes can be used for all coordinates of compartments and subcompartments, so not only for the
compartment boundaries but for example also for openings or the sounding pipe. A reference plan ecan be selected by pressing <Enter> in that particular cell. This activates a popup window that is further discussed in
section 11.5.2.1 on page 186, Popup menu plane orientation, understanding that there this window is used to link a
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plane to a reference plane, while here a coordinate is linked to a reference plane, however, the logic is exactly the
same.
11.4.1.1.1
Compartment functions
Adding and removing will be obvious; With [Insert] a compartment is added that is included in the list of compartments before the present compartment, and with [New] behind it. [Copy] copies the compartment data, including all
subcompartments to an internal clipboard. With [Paste] the compartment data, including all subcompartments, are
copied from that internal clipboard to the present compartment. All existing compartment data (including subcompartments) are transcribed thereby. The difference between [paste] and [Paste Link] is explained in the following
paragraph.
11.4.1.1.2
Subcompartment functions
The functions [Insert] through [Remove] are entirely analogous to those discussed at the compartments, we refer to
the previous paragraph. The [Paste Link] is related to references of subcompartments, as explained in section 11.1.4
on page 167, Links to subcompartments. With [Paste] the subcompartment data are copied to the present compartment, with [paste Link] a reference is made from this subcompartment to the shape of the copied subcompartment.
11.4.1.1.3
Coordinates functions
These functions are related to a subcompartment of the type ‘with coordinates’. Such a type is always recorded
with a back and front limit, and in each of it N points that are recording the horizontal and vertical subcompartment
boundary. In general, this is a flexible definition, enabling considerable freedom of shape, but since the major part
of the subcompartments does not need this flexibility, a number of subtypes has been defined in order to increase
userfriendliness:
Simple block
A ‘simple block’ is a limited interpretation of the general subcompartment definition, namely with straight
horizontal and vertical boundaries. This type can be recorded with six numbers (aft, fore, inside, outside,
upper and bottom).
Four longitudinal ribs
This is a slightly extended interpretation, where N=4, but the upper and lateral boundaries need not necessarily run purely horizontally or vertically. This is the shape as it was also used in the precursor of Newlay,
Compart.
Other than four longitudinal ribs
This type is even more extensive, here N<>4, and therefore three-sided, five-sided or multilateral subcompartments can be recorded. An example of a subcompartment definition window for a five-sided compartment is given below:
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Most of the [Coordinates] are related to this last variety; in order to change N, one must be able to add or
remove rows, and the first three functions ( [Insertrow], [Newrow] and [removerow]) are meant for that. Because
most subcompartments are prismatic (i.e. that the aft and front sizes are equal), for practical purposes there is a
{Copyaft} function, with which all sizes of the aft side are copied to the front side.
11.4.1.1.4
View functions
Without a special setting, all subcompartments of a compartment are drawn interchangeably in the left bottom
subwindow, irrespective whether they are positive or negative. Mutual connections of two (positive) compartments
are drawn then, although one could argue that they do not exist in a physical sense, and could therefore be omitted.
With the [visually composed] function active subcompartments are actually composed graphically, so that they
render a more realistic image.
Attention
At this ‘visually composing’ of subcompartments, these are neatly cut off when they overlap. The shape of
negative subcompartments is also deducted from those of the positive ones. This offers a good insight, but do
remember that the calculation is based on the ‘bare’ subcompartment shape, so overlappings are calculated
double, and a too large negative subcompartment may result in a negative compartment volume.
When the [Surfacemodel] function has been activeated, the (sub)compartments are not drawn as wire model (on
frames), but as surface model. All this on the condition that either a surface model of the hull is available (T←
RI file, module Config option 1.5, see section 6.1 on page 36, General setup for stability calculations) or the
(sub)compartment is not at all cut through the hull. If one visualizes a (sub)compartment with a surface in this
manner, one can also switch on the [Transparent] function, with which the surfaces become partially transparent,
so that also the sounding pipe remains visible. That renders such images:
11.4.1.2
11.4.1.2.1
Compartment data
Compartment
The (unique) name of the compartment.
11.4.1.2.2
Selected
Indicates whether this compartment has been selected for further actions, such as calculations and output.
11.4.1.2.3
Second name and abbreviation
These are supportive names that can be included in some output for cosmetic or explanational purposes. For
example, the second name at tank tables, and the abbreviation, of maximally eight digits, at the tank plan (since
too long names will soon mix up there through several tanks).
11.4.1.2.4
Convertible
Here one can indicate whether a subcompartment at the implementation of option 6.1 (see section 11.9.1 on
page 195, Generate physical planes from the totality of convertible subcompartments) must be included in the automatic conversion of the type ‘with coordinates’ to ‘space generated between planes’. Here are four possibilities:
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Automatically at conversion
At the conversion is firstly considered whether the compartment overlaps another one (and complies with
other requirements, such as the completene flatness of the boundary planes). If so, it will not be converted;
if not, it will be converted.
Non-convertible
Will be obvious
Is convertible
Idem
Define per subcompartment
Which is used when it cannot be recorded for the compartment as a whole whether it must be converted, but
this has to be defined at the more detailed level of subcompartments, as described in paragraph 11.4.1.3.5 on
page 182, Convertible.
11.4.1.2.5
Design S.W.
Here one can enter the specific weight (in ton/cubic) of the substance for which this compartment and/or this tank
is intended. This value is used as default at loading conditions. When such a value is not known or desired, one
may also opt for ‘non-defining’, then there is no default.
11.4.1.2.6
Weight group
Indicates to which weight group the volume of the compartment belongs. The purpose of weight groups and its
defining has been discussed in section 11.5.7 on page 190, Define weight groups.
11.4.1.2.7
Sounding pipe
Two sounding pipes per compartment can be defined. Each of them takes up one row, where can be defined:
• The name of the pipe. These are called by default ‘sounding pipe 1’ and ‘sounding pipe 2’, but these names
can be modified.
• With ‘selected/deselected’ in the right column one indicates whether this pipe has been selected for output,
such as drawings and tank sounding tables. Besides being selected a pipe can also belong to a category
(‘A’ to ‘J’), which enables the outputscript to identify the desired sounding pipes in the sounding tables (see
paragraph 11.4.2.1.2 on page 183, Output scripts for details).
• With [enter] a window pops up in which one can define the coordinates of the pipe, which can also be
referred (via <Enter>) to the reference planes, a feature that might be useful in the event of future design
modifications. The maximum number of coordinates is fifty, so that also curved pipes can be properly
modelled. Furthermore, for verification purposes in the status line, right-under in the window, the total pipe
length is represented. Finally, this window als has a [Selected] function which does exactly the same as the
‘selected/deselected’ of the previous line.
11.4.1.2.8
Special points / openings
Characteristics can be defined here of specific items that belong to the compartment. There are four predefined
types of such items:
Open opening
This is an open opening to the outside, which is connected with the compartment, for example, an unprotected vent.
Weathertight opening
An opening to the outside which is connected with this compartment and protected such that it can be
considered to be weathertight. Some authorities consider a vent cap to be sufficient protection to that end,
others not.
Watertight ‘opening’
Obviously, this type has no effect. it is included for convenience, for example to be able to toggle an opening
‘off’, or to indicate that one has not forgotten or ignored a closable opening, but that it really securely closed.
Alarm sensor
In order to be able to process its effect in tank tables and maximum tank filling.
Pressure gauge
Its location is important for the calculation of pressure tables (i.e. the tables that indicate which tank filling
belongs to a specific sensor pressure), and in order to be able to determine the corresponding volume at
loading conditions and/or loading software at a known sensor pressure.
At [enter] a window pops up in which one can define:
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• Length, breadth and height coordinates of the special point.
• The type of point, and the name.
• Whether the point has been selected is defined in the last column. Only selected points result in an action.
When a point has not been selected, it is just as if it does not exist at all. So selection is intended to ‘throw
away’ something as it were, while it can be restored later on. Some points can also be selected from a certain
category, that serves the same purpose as with sounding pipes, as discussed just earlier.
Apart from that, ventilation openings are traditionally defined in PIAS in a separate list, managed by the
module Hulldef. This list will remain because it also contains other types of points, such as those of the margin
line. In order to prevent inconsistencies Newlay completes this list again and again with (selected) openings of
compartiments, but marks them such that they cannot be modified or removed in Hulldef. If one should wish to
manage all openings of the vessel in a single overview list, the Newlay option as discussed in section 11.5.1 on
page 185, List of openings and other special points is recommended.
11.4.1.2.9
Oil outflow parameters
• Type of tank for oil outflow calculations: for the benefit of probabilistic outflow calculations (with Outflow)
it must be known wheter a specific compartment is a fuel oil tank or a cargo oil tank (at least, within the
meaning of the regulations involved). That can be defined here.
• Tank adjacent to bottom: for that same outflow calculation it may be important whether a tank borders at the
bottom on the plane, or on a non-oil tank. That can be defined here.
• Overpressure of inert gas system: cargo oil tanks can be provided with inert gas systems. If such is the case,
then it is of importance for the outflow calculations to define its overpressure here (in kiloPascal).
11.4.1.2.10
Uniform subcompartment sides
One action can record the side for all subcompartments here, see paragraph 11.4.1.3.6 on the next page, Side for
the options.
11.4.1.2.11
Uniform permeabilities
Permeabilities or space types can be defined here for all subcompartments in one action. See paragraph 11.4.1.3.2
on this page, Permeabilities for further merits.
11.4.1.3
11.4.1.3.1
Subcompartment data
Subcompartment
The name of the subcompartment, which has to be unique within the compartment.
11.4.1.3.2
Permeabilities
There are two permeabilities, namely the permeability where is calculated at the tank volume calculation, and the
one where is calculated at the damage calculation. Physically, such a distinction can of course not be maintained,
but naval architectural practice has shown that for tank volume calculations often a permeability of 0.98 to 0.995
is used, while the rules for damage calculations often prescribe a value of 0.95. The calculation of the actual grain
heeling moments, as determined by module Grainmom, uses the ‘permeability as tank’. The permeability has been
defined as the total volume, taking into account construction parts divided by the total volume without taking into
account construction parts, and therefore as a rule has a value between 0 and 1.
Some rules, in particular the probabilistic damage stability SOLAS 2009, use a permeability that varies with the
draft, and with the type of space. So one can choose at the option ‘type of space prob.damage stab. SOLAS2009’
from the types of spaces of SOLAS. Such ‘type of space’ does not make a definition of the ‘damage permeability’
superfluous, because the first is applicable to probabilistic damage stability, and the latter to deterministic.
Apart from that, it will only occur seldomly that permeabilities or types of spaces differ among subcompartments of the same compartment. When they are all equal, it is more practical to define these data at the
compartment, since the permeabilities for all subcompartments are entered then by one action.
11.4.1.3.3
Shape type
The type of subcompartment. There are three types, as introduced in section 11.1.1 on page 164, Definitions,
namely ‘with coordinates’, ‘space generated between planes’ and ‘external PIAS hullform’.
11.4.1.3.4
Sign
Positive or negative, resp. whether this subcompartment has to be added to the subcompartment or whether it has
to be deducted from it. This sign can not be filled in at subcompartments of the type ‘space generated between
planes’, since they are always positive.
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11.4.1.3.5
182
Convertible
One can indicate here whether a subcompartment at the implementation of option 6.1 (see section 11.9.1 on
page 195, Generate physical planes from the totality of convertible subcompartments) must be included in the
automatic conversion of the type ‘with coordinates’ to ‘space generated between planes’. This row only appears
when one has entered at the compartiment at the ‘convertibility’ that this can be set per subcompartment (see
paragraph 11.4.1.2.4 on page 179, Convertible).
11.4.1.3.6
Side
SB An asymmetrical subcompartment that is only at SB.
PS An asymmetrical subcompartment that is only at PS.
Double
A symmetrical subcompartment of which only the SB half has been defined, which is reflected to PS.
According to coordinates
Where the subcompartment is simply recorded by its coordinates, without specific symmetry assumptions.
According to PIAS convention, the transverse coordinate is positive to SB, negative at PS.
11.4.1.3.7
Shape definition external subcompartments
File name and length, breadth and height shift, These are the parameters from the external PIAS hull form, a
concept which is introduced in section 11.1.1 on page 164, Definitions, where the file name from the PIAS shape
definition (as recorded with Hulldef or Fairway) and the shift of the origin of that definition to its position of this
subcompartment are defined respectively. The filename can, by using the &-symbol, also be specified as being
located in the same folder as teh hull form file. Indeed, this is encouraged, reference is made to section 9.1.2 on
page 144, Hullforms for some more detail.
11.4.1.3.8
Shape complexity
At a subcompartment of the type ‘with coordinates’ one can define here whether the subcompartment is a simple
block, that can be recorded with six digits, or has a slightly more complex shape, for which more digits are required.
One can choose here from the three types mentioned at paragraph 11.4.1.1.3 on page 178, Coordinates functions.
Attention
When a subcompartment shape is of the type ‘space generated between planes’ then the indication ‘cannot
be displayed in coordinates’ can occur. That does not mean that the shape is wrong or useless. Such a
subcompartment shape is entirely acceptable, but it only cannot be displayed with longitudinal ribs that run
from aft to front. It would be possible to further split up the shape so that displayable shapes are generated,
but that increases the number of subcompartments, so it was opted for not to do that.
11.4.1.3.9
Subcompartment coordinates
The final part of the subcomcompartment definition window consists of the coordinates, so the aft border, fore
border and the other breadth and height borders. These coordinates are only shown at the types ‘with coordinates’
and ‘space generated between planes’. At the last type they are only for information purposes, and they can
therefore not be changed (the borders are then after all entirely determined by the physical planes).
11.4.2
Calculate and print tank tables
The tank volume tables options are activated with the menu bar optie [tAnk tAbles]. It contains four suboptions that
will be addressed below.
11.4.2.1
Setup: define computation scripts and output scripts
With a script the output of the tank tables is sppecified. Scripts come in two flavours, the computation scripts
where arithmetical issues are specified, such as step size and trim range, and output scripts where quantities and
units are specified. For the sake of flexibility for both types of scripts multiple versions can be specified.
11.4.2.1.1
Computation scripts
The computation script determines the way the tank tables are computed, by specifying:
• The name of the script. Multiple scripts may be defined, and per compartment the appropriate one should be
selected>, and this script name serves for identification purposes.
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• Which script is ‘default’. If a compartment does not refer to a specific script, this ‘default’ is used at the
calculation.
• The calculation step, which is the vertical step (in meters) on which the table is calculated.
• The output step, which is the step on which the table is printed. If in a script table in the first column a
distance-quantity is used (such as height, ullage or sounding) than the table is printed with this step size in
meter. If an other quantity is used in the firstcolumn (such as volume) than the table is printed with a step size
that roughly corresponds with the output step in meters as specified here. In order to prevent the combination
of a large computation step and a small output step, in the end the maximum of the two is applied.
• The trim, or trims. A single trim can be specified in this cell directly, for multiple trims a dedicated subscreen
appears after pressing <Enter>.
• In the last column the ‘direct tank table computation’ option can be switched. However, this option has not
yet been implemented and is idle.
• Whether tables should be produced for all angles of inclination. If filled in with ‘yes’ then tables will be
produced for all combinations of the trims as specified here in Newlay, and teh angles as given in Config (as
is discussed in section 6.2 on page 39, Angles of inclination for stability calculations). If the inclinations
are modified inConfig then the possibly existing tank sounding tables are not declared invalid automatically. So, they should be explicitly removed with option ‘remove alle calculated tank tables’, please
also consult section 11.4.2.4 on page 185, Remove: remove alle calculated tank tables.
11.4.2.1.2
Output scripts
Each output script has a name so for each compartment the script to be applied can be identified easily. Per script
it can be specified which quantities should be printed, in which order and in which unit. Each script has an input
screen the quantities and units. The first row of this screen will be the first column in the table, the second row
corresponds the the second column etc., so you can specify freely the desired number of tank table columns. When
an ullage is to be printed, the sounding pipe should have a minimum of two points (because a well-defined top
side opf the pipe is required). For a table with pressure, a pressure gauge should be defined, and the pressure is
determined perpendicular to the waterline.
The ‘height’ in a tank table is the height of the level of the liquid related to the PIAS system of axes, see
sketch below. When a tank table is computed with trim, large positive or negative ‘heights’ van occur, because the
‘heights’ are defined from baseline at Lpp/2. The initial height is at a just empty tank, the final height at the tank
just completely filled. The last column of the script contains the label ‘category’, which is only applicable for th
equantities sounding, ullage and pressure. This ‘category’ is a letter from A to J and its purpose is to identify the
applicable sounding pipe or pressure gauge. For multiple pipes or sensors can be defined per compartment, and for
each tank table it should be specified which of those to use. Pipes and sensors also possess such an A to J category,
so serves as identification mechanism.
Figure 11.7: Definition of ‘height’ in a tank table.
11.4.2.2
Calculate: compute the tank tables
With this option the tank volume tables of all selected compartmemnts are calculated, according to the specified
computation scripts, and according to the setting ‘tables with everywhere the maximum free surface moment’ of
Config and as discussed in section 6.3 on page 40, Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables. With the
tank tables also the computation time is saved, so a re-computation can be done rather efficiently, because only
those tanks that have been modified since the last computation are actually re-computed. If an unconditional
re-computation of all tanks is deemed neccessary, then all existing tables should be removed, this is discussed
in section 11.4.2.4 on page 185, Remove: remove alle calculated tank tables. By the way, with the switch ‘recalculate tank tables automatically’ here in Newlay, see section 11.5.5 on page 188, General configurations and
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function colors, the tables are being calculated whenever required, so with this swtich set it will not be neccessary
to calculate here explicitly.
11.4.2.3
Print: print tank tables
With this option tank tables will be printed, in a number of variants (from which two examples are printed below):
• According to the output script, which allows for a good control over layout and content of the tables.
• Litre tables, or sounding/litre tables, to put it more precisely. This table does not contain other data, so it is
rather condensed.
If sounding or ullage is included in this table, it may contain a remark that the sounding pipe is too short. This
means that the tank can be filled to a higher level than the top of the pipe, and implies that at a reading at exactly the
top of the pipe, the volume may have any value between the volume which corresponds exactly with that level, and
the maximum volume. In order to have an indication of the maximum volume, that value is printed. However, an
additional line may be printed which is valid for a level exactly through the top of the pipe (as well as an additional
line with elucidation).
• Trim tables, where for a range of trims the volumes are depicted. Trim tables come in two fashions:
– On basis of sounding and ullage, where at each line at the sounding (in meter) for each trim the corresponding volume can be read. If a sounding pipe contains more than one point, the corresponding
ullage is also included.
– On basis of pressure, where at each line at a certain pressure (in mm water) for each trim the volume
can be read.
• Correction tables, which represent the deviation in tank volume due to list and trim. In a sens these kind of
tables are outdated, for if the volumes are diirectly calculated at multiple trims (e.g. with the ‘trim tables’
option above) such corrections are not neccesary at all. The modus operandi with the correction table is:
–
–
–
–
Look up the tables of the intended tank (there are two tables for each tank).
Look up the first correction in the trim-table at the correct sounding/ullage and trim.
Look up the second correction in the list table at the correct sounding/ullage and list.
Add the first and second correction to the sounding/ullage. This is the sounding/ullage that can be used
to read out the tank volume at trim and list zero.
Figure 11.8: Example of a table of litres.
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Figure 11.9: Example of a table according to output script.
11.4.2.4
Remove: remove alle calculated tank tables
With this option all calculated tank tables will be removed. Actually, there is no reason to do so, because the
program keeps track of the tanks whose shape has changed since the last calculation, so the tank tables is known
to have become obsolete and must be re-computed. Exceptions occurs if the switch ‘tables with everywhere the
maximum free surface moment’ is toggled or the angles of inclination are modified in Config (and as discussed
in section 6.3 on page 40, Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables and section 6.3 on page 40, Setup
for compartments and tank sounding tables respectively). In those cases the existing tables have to be removed
manually with this ‘remove’ option. And, if for whatever reason you wish to remove tank tables, this is also the
option to use.
11.5
Other lists, and program configurations
3. Lists and program configurations
1. List of openings and other special points
2. List of physical planes
3. List of reference planes
4. Compartment tree
5. General configurations and function colors
6. Names and color per part category
7. Define weight groups
8. Notes and remarks
11.5.1
List of openings and other special points
From each compartment its openings and other special points can be given, as discussed in paragraph 11.4.1.2.8
on page 180, Special points / openings. However, it may be convenient to collect all special points in a single list,
which is performed by this option, on which the following remarks can be made:
• The sequence of points in this list is primarily that of the compartments and of the compartment points. The
sequence can be modified, for example by inserting points, or by changing their compartment, however, such
a new sequence will not be saved. In the end the compartment order prevails.
• With the [Sort] option points can be sorted on compartment, or on type of point. Also this order is temporarily, ultimately the compartment order still prevails.
• Compartment openings, which are defined here, are also visible in Hulldef, please refer to section 9.1.8 on
page 155, Openings for a discussion. That Hulldef list may also contain other points, such as those of the
margin line, which are not relevant here. However, it may also conntain openings which are not connected to
a compartment, and although such points play also no role here in Newlay, as a service they are still included
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in the list of this menu option. Their compartment indication is ‘–Not from a specific compartment’. Because
their relevance is less than that of ‘real’ compartment openings, their place in the list is at the bottom (while in
Hulldef they are listed at the top, that is not a matter of sloppiness, the reason is that the focus is just different).
This type of openings will only be stored in Hulldef format if the setting “Always create conventional PIAS
compartment file at save” (please see section 11.5.5 on page 188, General configurations and function colors
is switched on.
11.5.2
List of physical planes
Here appears a list of physical planes, with five columns, namely:
• Name: the name of the plane.
• Abs.position: the position of the plane, in metres from ALL, HS or basis.
• Rel.position: the position of the plane in relation to a reference plane, at least, when the plane has been
relatively defined.
• Type of plane: longitudinal plane, transverse plane, horizontal plane or angled plane.
• Abbreviation, of maximally eight digits.
In the upper bar of this list is, apart from the usual menu options, a number of specific menu options:
• When adding a new plane, one directly enters the popup menu of section 11.5.2.1 on the current page, Popup
menu plane orientation.
• [Geometry], with which one can change the shape of the plane. Directions are described at section 11.3.2.6
on page 171, The shape of a plane (the green dots).
• [Sort], with which one can sort the planes by columns, i.e. in the order of the data of the column where the
text cursor is. This sorting can also be undone again with [Undo].
In all columns, except for the fourth one, one can directly type values. With <Enter> one enters a popup menu
with data of the plane, and when one at the absolute or relative position presses on <Enter>, one enters the plane
definition menu that is decribed hereunder.
11.5.2.1
Popup menu plane orientation
Figure 11.10: Popup menu with parameters of direction and position of a plane
This menu is used to define the orientation, which is the direction and position, of a plane. Not only of a physical
plane, but also of a reference plane. Here one can fill in:
•
•
•
•
The position in metres of the plane.
The position in frames (when it regards a transverse bulkhead or transverse plane).
Possibly the relative position, which is the position in relation to a reference plane.
When the plane has been entered referrally, then the reference plan in question can be chosen in such expendable row, either by its abbreviation (left field) or by its entire name (right field).
• As alternative for browsing through the reference planes list with those openklapbare rows the function [Find]
can be used. For that one types the plane abbreviation in the left row (or in the right one its entire name) and
presses the [Find] button.
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Furthermore, this window consists of two functions in the upper bar:
• [Edit refvlak], to jump to the reference plane menu, in order to add or adjust a reference plane.
• [anGled] to change an orthogonal bulkhead or plane into an angled plane. See section 11.5.2.2 on the current
page, Angled planes for more details. This function is not always available though. For example, when
one changes a reference plane this is lacking, since one would be able then to convert a reference plane,
for example, from transverse to angled, as a result of which all references of other transverse planes to this
reference plane would be senseless.
• [Help], with which the list of shortcut keys appears that is applicable in this window:
Enter
Tab
Shift Tab
Ctrl-A
Ctrl-Del
Alt-O
Alt-C
Alt-R
Alt-A
Alt-Z
Alt-T
Next input field
Next input field
Previous input field
Select everything in box
Remove everything from box
OK
Cancel
Relative
Absolute
Find reference plane
Transverse bulkhead (Transverse, only
applicable to a new plane)
Longitudinal plane (only applicable to a
new plane)
Deck (only applicable to a new plane)
Alt-L
Alt-D
11.5.2.2
Angled planes
Figure 11.11: Definition menu angled plane.
The orientation of an orthogonal plane, that is a transverse plane, longitudinal plane or horizontal plane, is entirely
recorded with its type and one digit. In order to record an angled plane, however, more data are required. There
are innumerable manners in which an angled plane can be recorded, but in Newlay has been opted for doing this by
means of three points in the space, because this is considered most intuitively. Those three points are in a menu,
an example of which is given above. This menu essentially includes for any of the tree points a row, with in the
columns the length, breadth and height coordinates of that point. As a matter of fact, these points are unrelated to
any other point of the ship or its general arrangement plan. The last column contains the distance from that point
to the angled plane. For the plane is not directly adjusted to the position of the three points, but for reasons of
safety it has been chosen that the function [Generate] must be called upon there later on. Other functions that are
available in the upper bar are:
• Refplane: to let a coordinate of a point refer to a reference plane. However, this provision has not yet been
implemented.
• Shift: shift this point to the plane, along the axis of this point. So, for example, for a height coordinate a
vertical shift.
• Project: project this point on the angled plane, according to the direction perpendicular to the plane.
• Orthogonal: reshape this plane to an orthogonal plane that is most similar to this angled plane.
• Cancel: leave this menu without saving the modification.
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11.5.3
188
List of reference planes
This list contains all reference planes, and is concerning operation and content similar to the list of phisical planes,
just above. However, there is an additional rightmost column which lists how often a reference plane is actually
used. When entering such a cell a popup window appears with this information split out in compartments, reference
planes and physical planes. On this info two remarks can be made:
• The summation counts all parts which can be related to a reference plane, so not only the measurements of
compartments and planes, but also those of sounding pipes and openings etc.
• Although the subcompartment shape might externally be of different types (such as ‘simple block’ and ‘four
longitudinal ribs’, seee paragraph 11.4.1.1.3 on page 178, Coordinates functions), internally it is always
stored by means of its corners. This implies that certain shape definition measurements may be counted
more than once. for instance if an aft compartment boundary has four corners, and that aft boundary is
defined by means of a reference plane, it will be inlcuded four times in the reference plane count. Nothing
to worry about, but it is good te be informed on this phenomenon.
11.5.4
Compartment tree
With this option there appears a popup box with the same compartment tree view as used in the GUI. Essentially,
this tree contains no more information than the regular compartment list of section 11.4 on page 176, Compartment
list, calculation of tank tables etc., except for that it is shown here per compartiments and subcompartiments in one
overview.
11.5.5
General configurations and function colors
Figure 11.12: Module setup.
With this option appears the above popup screen, in which a number of program features and colors can be set:
• The cross-section position of the three orthogonal cross-sections is controlled anyway by clicking in such
a cross-section on the right mouse button, then the position of the other cross-section is equalled to the
position of the cursor at that moment. But apart from this mechanism, one may also opt for adjusting that
cross-section position to a plane or compartment that has been chosen in the compartment tree or planes list.
If you want this, then you have the put the first option on yes.
• Allowance: It is useful when the reference planes are drawn slightly larger than the rest of the ship. That
extra size, the allowance, can be defined here.
• Threshold volume: at a conversion of a compartment configuration to a plane configuration, negative subcompartments can be included integrally. This may result, however, in a substantial increase in the number
of used planes, which is not necessarily desired. That’s why one can define a limit value (of volume, in cubic
metres) here under which negative subcompartments are not included in the conversion to planes, they still
exist of course, but simply as subcompartment of the type ‘wih coordinates’.
• Line thickness will be obvious.
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• At the time interval one can define per how many minutes the model is saved automatically. That can be
useful in the event of failures, then you still have at least a recent model.
• As explained in section 11.11.1 on page 198, Compartment files it is required for the benefit of subsequent
calculations to convert the compartment data to a format that is compatible with Compart. That is possible,
since the user is able to order Newlay that such a file is generated (see section 11.9.5 on page 196, Export
compartments to PIAS’ pre-2012 format). When one forgets to do this one thinks to be working at such a
subsequent calculation with the most recent general arrangement plan, but that is not the case then. That’s
why one can define at the setting “Always create conventional PIAS compartment file at save” that the
compartments always have to be saved in conventional PIAS format too when leaving the program. But do
remember that the original PIAS file with compartments is overwritten then. This setting is applicable
to the compartments as well as the openings.
• With option [re-calculate tank tables automatically] the tank tables are (re-)calculated whenever neccessary,
that is when the compartment geometry is jounger than the available table. This automatism may take some
time, however, for the benefit of table consistency.
• For the cancel regime see section 11.3.2.3 on page 170, How long stays a function assigned to a mouse
button?.
• The colors will be obvious. The color of ‘desired contour points’ is for that of the ’green dots’. The ‘just
generated space color’ and the ‘cut space color’ are only used at a compartment color schedule ‘uniform’
(see for that section 11.3.3.2 on page 172, View). The "draw"points color is as used with the draw function
in the GUI, see paragraph 11.3.3.3.2 on page 173, Draw.
11.5.6
Names and color per part category
Figure 11.13: Names, colors and other part properties.
Herewith one can choose the colors of the various ships’ items. In section 11.5.5 on the previous page, General
configurations and function colors one could also configurate colors, but that was meant for program items, here
we are talking about ships’ items, of which seven features can be defined:
• The first column contains the identification name of a category. This is mentioned here for the purpose of
recognition, and cannot be changed anymore.
• In the next two columns one can set the color as it is used in the 3D views, in the second column for a light
background, and in the third column for a dark one.
• Subsequently two columns in which one can set the color as it is used in the 2D cross-sections (the orthogonal
cross-sections), also for light and dark backgrounds.
• In the sixth column one can define whether this category must be included in the output of the 3D render model, the production of which is described in section 11.6 on the following page, Threedimensional
presentation.
• In the seventh column one defines whether this category must be included in the DXF output of the general
arrangement plan, the production of which is described in section 11.7.6 on page 194, 3D-plan to DXF file.
• In the eighth column one can define the layer name that is allocated to this category in such a DXF output.
When defining the layer name one has to observe the conventions of Autocad, or another recipient CA←
D system. Thus a layer name can have, for example, a specific maximum length, or some signs may be
forbidden. For the exact nature of these restrictions, you will have to consult the documentation of the
recipient system.
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11.5.7
190
Define weight groups
With this option one enters a menu where features of weight groups can be defined. A weight group is a specific
category of weight, of, for example, a ship or cargo. At the definition of compartments can be defined at the
compartment what the weight group is of the volume for which this compartment is intended, for example potable
water or palm oil. Color combination or output of loading conditions can take place per weight group. This menu
is discussed in more detail in section 25.1 on page 279, Weight groups.
11.5.8
Notes and remarks
With this option an input screen appears with which one can make separate notes. These notes are saved at the
subdivision plan, and can always be altered later on.
11.6
Threedimensional presentation
Figure 11.14: Rendered view, with surface model of hull.
Figure 11.15: Rendered view, with sectional model of hull, including container slots.
With this option one can produce a three-dimensional rendered view, like in the above figure. In general, this
is identical to the 3D view in the GUI, and naturally these functions are applcable, which are discussed in section 11.3.2.4 on page 170, Operation in the 3D subwindows. It differs insofar as that in the GUI the functions must
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191
be called upon through a popup box, which is activated with the right mouse button, while the functions are in
the upper bar here, so they are more accessible. When drawing such a rendered view, one has to be aware of two
issues:
• When the drawing of hull frame lines is switched off, such objects can sometimes actually be drawn. But
those are the compartment frame lines, to be recognized by the color of the compartment.
• Drawing hull lines and/or planes is only possible when such a model is actually present and when it has
been activated in module Config, option 1.5 (Preferred format hullform file).
11.7
Subdivision plan
The layout of a two-dimensional subdivision plan can be recorded at this option, two examples of which are
displayed above. Such a subdivision plan contains the geometric information of the internal geometry, and can
be used as schematic general arrangement plan, tank plan or safety plan. The most obvious application is to have
this subdivision plan serve as ‘underlayer’ for such other drawing, and to draw all additions (like deckhouses,
masts, lights, valves) in other layers. When the subdivision changes later on, then only that underlayer needs to be
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192
replaced, and all other layers can be re-used. By the way, the modus operandi on this subdivision plan is somewhat
similar to that of the lines plan in Fairway, please refer to section 7.9 on page 109, Define and generate lines plan
for those details. This subdivision plan section is subdivided into six sub options:
5. Subdivision plan
1. Configuration subdivision plan and DXF export
2. Names and color per part category
3. Subdivision plan layout
4. Subdivision plan preview
5. Subdivision plan to paper or file
6. 3D-plan to DXF file
11.7.1
Configuration subdivision plan and DXF export
• Color of the compartments, where can be defined whether any compartment gets an individual color, which
is allocated per weight group, or that all compartments are drawn with the same color.
• Desired container slot size, where can be defined which of the predefined container slots must be drawn in
the subdivision plan. The slot size is defined in entire feet, for example 20 or 40.
• Subdivision plan with color. Here is defined whether the subdivision plan is drawn with color or not.
• Draw all, or only the selected compartments. If compartments are specified to be drawn in a section or a
view, at this row it can be defined whether all compartments should be drawn, or only the selected ones.
• Coloring compartments in subdivision plan. Here is indicated whether the compartments that are drawn in
the subdivision plan are also colored. The alternative is that only its circumference is drawn.
• Additional margin framework (mm). When drawing the subdivision plan on paper, the available paper space
is used as much as possible. At this option one can, however, define an additional free space along the paper
edge, in millimeters.
• Unit of measure of the 3D DXF file. Here one can define whether the unit of measure of the 3D DXF file is
meter or millimeter.
• 3D DXF file name, here one can type either the desired file name, or (with <Enter>) call upon the Windowsfilebrowser to indicate the file name.
• Texts drawing head. A subdivision plan that is printed on paper can contain a drawing head in the right-under
corner. Here one can define how many rows this must contain, and which texts must be included.
11.7.2
Names and color per part category
This is exactly the same menu as discussed in section 11.5.6 on page 189, Names and color per part category,
which for the sake of convenience also has been incorporated in this menu, in order to be able to quickly adjust a
configuration.
11.7.3
Subdivision plan layout
The layout of a subdivision plan can be specified here. It is possible to define multiple layouts (maximally four), so
that, for example, a subdivision plan with several pages can be defined. When one has chosen this submenu then
there firstly appears a window with those various layouts. There is little to say about this, any layout has a name,
one can define which one is selected to be drawn later on, and, finally, with the Copy/Paste mechanism one layout
can be copied to the other. With <Enter> one enters a window where the details ot that layout in question can be
defined. One can define in that screen which views are included at which position in the drawing of the subdivision
plan. The desired position of a cross-section is defined in meters shift in horizontal and vertical direction. One
must imagine here that a 2D 1:1 drawing is made, where certain views are shifted horizontally or vertically over a
certain distance (in real-size measures). The scale on which is finally drawn depends on the paper sizes, which are
not yet known here, and does therefore play no role yet. Per view one can define the following:
• The shift in breadth, in m, of this cross-section on the 2D 1:1 subdivision plan. This shift has no absolute
meaning, but records the relative position of the view relative to other views. It is common practice that one
view has no shift.
• Analogous to the previous row: the shift in height, in m, of this cross-section.
• The view, which may be a top view, side view or front view as desired.
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• The number of cross-sections that is drawn in this view. When one wants to change this number, one enters
a deeper menu.
• Whether an X-axis must be drawn with grade mark. The alternatives are: no X-axis, plain X-axis, X-axis
with grade mark without legend, X-axis with grade mark and legend in millimeters, X-axis with grade mark
and legend in meters, X-axis with grade mark and legend in frame number. This last option is only available
at the top and side views.
• Analogous to the previous row: whether a Y-axis must be drawn with grade mark.
• The description, that is the name of this view, which is printed below the view.
As mentioned above, after choosing the fourth menu option, one enters a deeper menu, where details of the
wished cross-sections of the view in question can be defined. Per view one can define here:
• The position. At front views in m from All, at top views in m from base and at side views in m from CL,
positive for a cross-section at SB side and negative for a cross-section at PS.
• The side. At top views and front views one can define here whether the cross-section is located at one side
(PS or SB), or extends over both sides.
• Cross-section/Contour. Here one defines whether it is a real cross-section, thus a cutting, or a total view, or
contour. The following details are applicable here:
– A contour can only be defined for the hull, sounding pipes and special points. It makes no sense for
other objects.
– At a contour of the hull many points of it are projected in the view plane, and its envelope is determined.
Substantial steps in the contour view can be possibly cut as a result. When this occurs, so be it.
– Sounding pipes and special points can probably best be drawn in ‘contour’, because they are all shown
then. Mostly there is little to see at ‘cross-section’, because the chance that such a pipe or point is
exactly in that cross-section is small (although the program uses a certain tolerance around the crosssection).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hull. In this column one defines whether the hull must be drawn in the view in question.
Transverse. Indicates whether transverse bulkheads must be drawn.
Longitudinal. Indicates whether longitudinal bulkheads must be drawn.
Deck. Indicates whether horizontal bulkheads (decks) must be drawn.
Angled. Indicates whether angled bulkheads must be drawn.
Compart. Indicates whether compartments must be drawn.
Sounding pipes. Indicates whether sounding pipes of the compartments (see paragraph 11.4.1.2.7 on
page 180, Sounding pipe) must be drawn.
• Sp.point. Indicates whether the special points of the compartiments (such as openings, see paragraph 11.4.1.2.8 on page 180, Special points / openings) must be drawn.
• Contain. Indicates whether the container slots must be drawn. Note: The container slots must be defined in
order to be drawn. That can be done with PIAS module Cntslot.
Attention
All physical planes (bulkheads and decks) are being drawn as far as they constitue a separation between
compartments, because this gives th emost realistic impression. So, this is according to the separating planes
on switch which can be defined in the GUI, please refer to section 11.3.3.2 on page 172, View for the
discussion. However, this GUI switch has no effect on the plot of the subdivision plan here.
11.7.4
Subdivision plan preview
With this option the subdivision plan is drawn on the screen. It is intended that this preview option is integrated in
due time in the definition options of the subdivision plan, so that definition changes are directly and interactively
made visible.
11.7.5
Subdivision plan to paper or file
The subdivision plan, that was drawn on the screen at the previous menu option, can be printed by the printer or
plotter with this option. When one wants to make a file that contains the subdivision plan, then one can use the
mechanism where output of PIAS is caught and sent to a file. One can define that at option 1.15 of PIAS’ general
setup module (see section 6.1 on page 36, General setup for stability calculations), and one may choose here from
three formats:
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194
• Rich Text Format, RTF, to generate a bitmap that, for example, can be read in MS Word.
• Encapsulated PostScript, EPS, to generate a file with vector data. Vectors can be displayed much more
sharply than a bitmap.
• Drawing eXchange Format, DXF, to import the general arrangement plan in a CAD or drawing system. With
this format one can choose whether the unit of measure is meters or millimeters. The thus generated DXF
file consist of line types of the DXF type ‘polyline’.
11.7.6
3D-plan to DXF file
Also with this option a DXF file is made, but one that contains the complete 3D model. This file has the following
features :
• Lines are of the type ‘DXF polyline’.
• Bulkheads and decks are displayed by means of a closed, but further non-filled contour.
• Possible angled planes, for example of the hull, are first divided in triangles, and subsequently saved as
wireframe model.
• Any category, such as hull, decks and 20’ containers, comes in its own layer, of which one can define the
name at and colors per item category [Names and colors per item category], see section 11.7.2 on page 192,
Names and color per part category.
• Only those elements are included of which at [Names and colors per item category] the column DXF has
been placed on ‘yes’.
11.8
Print compartment input data
Print compartment input data
1. Print input data of selected compartments
2. Three-dimensional views of selected compartments
3. Difference between internal and external geometry
4. Define views/sections of compartment plan
5. Draw compartment plan
11.8.1
Print input data of selected compartments
The input data of all selected compartments will be printed with this option. The aim of this table of inpuit dat
is to inform an outsider on the shape and core preperties of the definee compartments. For thi sreason only raw
measurmenets are being printed, and not auxiliary definition aids such as distances to reference planes, neither do
bulkhead or deck definitions belong to the output.
11.8.2
Three-dimensional views of selected compartments
With this option all selected compartments are printed subsequently, where for eacht compartment the same viewing angle is applied as used in section 11.4.1 on page 177, Compartment definition window.
11.8.3
Difference between internal and external geometry
With this option a graph is drawn, where on many cross sections the difference between sectional area (derived
from hullform) and the sum of the compartment areas (derived from compartment definition) is displayed. This
difference, which should be zero theoretically, may indicate the presence of lacking or double compartment definition. For probabilistic damage stability calculations this check is recommended. Besides, small differences may
occur due to properties of the numerical methods used. The configuration ‘difference internal/external geometry
with external hullforms’, as discussed in section 6.3 on page 40, Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables,
is applicable to this area comparison.
11.8.4
Define views/sections of compartment plan
With this option views and sections of the compartment plan can be specified, please refer to section 25.2 on
page 280, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases for further discussion and an example.
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November 22, 2014
11.9 Conversion, and import and export of subdivision data
11.8.5
195
Draw compartment plan
With this option the compartment plan, as specified with the previous option, is drawn. A compartment plan
contains a number of views or sections which are printed one by one. This gives a fairly well insight in the
compartment definition, and is fit to be included in stability booklets for that purpose. However, for a more
versatile output method reference is made the the subdivision plan, as discussed in section 11.7 on page 191,
Subdivision plan. Such a plan can also contain other items, such as bulkheads, decks and openings.
11.9
Conversion, and import and export of subdivision data
6. Conversion and import and export
1.
Generate physical planes from the totality of convertible subcompartments
2.
Apply advices on converting to physical planes
3.
Import PIAS compartments from pre-2012 format
4.
Clean pre-2012 PIAS compartments
5.
Export compartments to PIAS’ pre-2012 format
6.
Export decks and bulkheads to Rapid Prototyping format (STL)
7.
Export bulkheads and decks to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd)
8.
Export bulkheads and decks to NUPAS
9.
Write XML file
10. Read XML file
11.9.1
Generate physical planes from the totality of convertible subcompartments
This option does four things. First, an overlapping check is carried out, which is entirely identical to the second
option in this menu (see section 11.9.2 on the current page, Apply advices on converting to physical planes),
where subcompartments of the type ‘generated between planes’ can be converted to the type ‘with coordinates’.
At this test is also checked whether subcompartments overlap, and if so, the convertibility of one of the two,
namely the smallest one, is switched off, so it is omitted at the conversion. Subsequently, all physical planes are
removed, after which a new collection of physical planes is generated on the basis of the subcompartments of the
type ‘with coordinates’ that mututally tighten exactly those subcompartments. Finally, all those subcompartments
are converted to the type ‘generated between planes’. It is not compulsory to use all available compartments at
this action; through the setting ‘convertible’, which can be defined in the compartment list (see section 11.4 on
page 176, Compartment list, calculation of tank tables etc.), at the compartment definition (see paragraph 11.4.1.2.4
on page 179, Convertible) and the subcompartment definition (see paragraph 11.4.1.3.5 on page 182, Convertible)
one can exactly indicate which (sub)compartments are included in this conversion and which ones are not included.
Attention
It is advised to use this conversion option tactfully. It may be tempting to convert a complete ship, with
all its compartments and tanks, to the combination of physical planes and the subcompartment type ‘space
generated between planes’, which is possible and allowed, but one may end up with a large amount of
physical planes, without any overview, as a result of which it is useless in the end. It is probably wiser to
confine oneself at the conversion to compartments that belong to the main division of the ship. Please consult
what has been written at section 11.1.2 on page 166, Use of different types of subcompartments.
11.9.2
Apply advices on converting to physical planes
This option is meant to support the generation of physical planes from subcompartments of the type ‘with coordinates’ (see section 11.9.1 on this page, Generate physical planes from the totality of convertible subcompartments),
since that is only possible with non-overlapping subcompartments. First of all is considered here whether there already are subcompartments of the type ‘space generated between planes’, and if so, then the user is asked whether
these have to be converted to the type ‘with coordinates’, because the generation of physical planes is only possible
on the basis of this type of subcompartments. Subsequently is tested which subcompartments overlap. A report
is given of this (when this is very long, it can be cut and pasted to word processor for further printing or further
study). At all compartments of which has been defined that their convertibility is ‘automatic at conversion’, is filled
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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11.9 Conversion, and import and export of subdivision data
196
in at the smallest subcompartment of the two overlapping ones that this may not be included in the conversion of
option 6.1 above.
11.9.3
Clean pre-2012 PIAS compartments
In the old PIAS compartment module Compart subcompartments could only be limited by eight vertices. Apart
from that, there was the requirement that they would be ‘convex’, and in the test on convexity vertices were not
allowed to converse precisely. That resulted in defining vertices for, for example, three-sides or tapered compartments with differences of millimeters. Here, in Newlay, this is no longer necessary, and being more serious, those
differences of millimeters are counterproductive, because when Newlay is constructing physical planes, then there
is actually made a plane of one millimeter, and that does not make for overview. The present option detects those
differences and almost converging vertices are actually contracted. One must realise, however, that this option does
not repair all anomalies, so that manual adjustments might be necessary, for example in the event of:
• Larger differences than two millimeters. The algorithm would be capable of that of course, but it remains to
be seen to what extent a program must change the data imported by the user autonomously.
• A limiting plane of a subcompartment that is warped (not purely plane). Within a subcompartment of the
type ‘with coordinates’ cannot be objected against it, but this cannot be used to generate physical planes (for
they have to be entirely straight).
11.9.4
Import PIAS compartments from pre-2012 format
With this option compartments in the format of the former PIAS compartment module Compart are read in, and
converted to Newlay compartments of the type ‘with coordinates’. The user is supposed to indicate such an old
file, its file extension is .cmp. Only ‘recent’ Compart files are recognized, files from before about 2003-2006 are
of an elder format and should be converted with Compart (which is done automatically by Compart upon reading
the files).
11.9.5
Export compartments to PIAS’ pre-2012 format
With this option all Newlay compartments are converted to a format that is useful for Compart, and PIAS modules
that (still) use that format. See for further explanation section 11.11 on page 198, Compatibilitity with the former
compartment module of PIAS, where it is also emphasized that openings connected to compartments are exclusively managed in Newlay, which implies that such openings in the list of Hulldef are being deleted and overwritten
at this conversion to pre-2012 format. The conversion is not just on file level, also some internal representations
are converted, such as:
• If a subcompartment in Newlay is bounded by more than four points, then that is automatically subdivided
in the Compart format in multiple subcompartments of four points, because Compart was designed for that
amount.
• In section 38.1.1.2 on page 371, Define/edit sub-compartments the warning is included that a ‘double’ subcompartment is not allowed in conjunction with an asymmetrical hullform. From Newlay this warning can
be neglected, because ‘double’ subcompartments are at conversion automatically split in SB and PS parts.
Obviously, that only happens with an asymmetrical hull, so if you change a symmetrical hull into an asymmetrical one, you should re-export the compartments to pre-2012 format.
• If in Newlay tank tables have been calculated, at export to Compart the results will also be stored in that
format, so it is not neccessary to re-calculate tank sounding tables in Compart.
In order to avoid mistakes, it is recommended always to save the compartments in pre2012 format, as can be
set with the option “Always create conventional PIAS compartment file at save” as discussed in section 11.5.5 on
page 188, General configurations and function colors.
11.9.6
Export decks and bulkheads to Rapid Prototyping format (STL)
With this option bulkheads and deckas are converted to STL
(see ❡♥✳✇✐❦✐♣❡❞✐❛✳♦r❣✴✇✐❦✐✴❙❚▲❴✭❢✐❧❡❴❢♦r♠❛t✮ format, which is suitable for Rapid prototyping (or
3D printing). This option is still experimental, and only available to SARC. On ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴
♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴❛♣♣❡♥❞✐①❴s✇③✷✵✶✷✳♣❞❢ is an example of how to use such STL file in order to print a ships’
subdivision three-dimensionally.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
11.9 Conversion, and import and export of subdivision data
11.9.7
197
Export bulkheads and decks to Poseidon (Germanischer Lloyd)
With this (yet experimental) option data from PIAS are converted to and written to a file in the format of Poseidon
(the rules program of Germanischer Lloyd, ✇✇✇✳❣❧✲❣r♦✉♣✳❝♦♠✴❡♥✴♠❛r✐t✐♠❡❴s♦❢t✇❛r❡✴♣♦s❡✐❞♦♥✳♣❤♣).
The Poseidon file contains the following data:
•
•
•
•
•
Main dimensions and other general numerical data.
Table of frame spacings.
The hull form, represented by all frames of the PIAS model.
The shape of longitudinal bulkheads and decks.
The shape of transverse bulkheads, modelled as ‘transverse web plate’ for Poseidon.
Figure 11.16: Ship with compartments in PIAS, converted to and visuallized in Poseidon.
The figure above contains an example. The procedure for this conversion is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Use this Newlay option, which creates an ASCII file with .txt extension (as required for import in Poseidon).
Start Poseidon, and do File/New and File/Import.
Choose import type ‘profiltable’.
Choose the just by Newlay created .txt file. Subsequently the question is asked whether the existing data
should be kept. Answer negative.
5. A popup window appears with the first and last frame. Is those are correctly set in PIAS the proposed values
can be accepted.
6. Subsequently a merge options pops up, which apparently has to be accepted.
7. Finally, you have the opportunity to save the Poseidon file, which you can do if desired, but anyway the
import process is ready at this stage.
On this conversion the following requirements, limitations and conditions apply:
• This conversion is tested with and valid for Poseidon version 13.0.9, from november 2013.
• Poseidon is fully dedicated to construction frames, so it is of utmost importance to define the frame spacings
properly in PIAS (see section 9.1.1.3 on page 142, Definition of frame spaces), including the position of the
aftmost and foremost frames.
• Angled transverse bulkheads are excluded from the conversion.
• For Poseidon it is a prerequisite that frame 0 coincides with the APP (see chapter 2.2 of the Fundamentals
manual of Poseidon).
• Although the conversion has been tested on several instances, Poseidon has quite strict input requirements.
At the conversion from PIAS all kinds of post-processing is applied with the aim to comply with these
requirements as much as possible. Although that goal has in general been achieved, by exception it may
well occur that a bulkhead is not properly converted to Poseidon, in which case this should be adapted in
Poseidon manually. This specifically applies to the aspect of subdividing longitudinal bulkheads and decks,
a subject which is dicussed into more depth below:
In Poseidon a so-called longitudinal element is bounded by either another element, or the shell. However, in
reality these boundaries may changed, for example the lower boundary of a longitudinal bulkhead, which may at
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11.10 File and backup management
198
the aft side be the tanktop and at the fore side the shell. For Poseidon this bulkhead should be split into two parts;
an aft part which is bounded by the tanktop, and a forward part bounded by the shell. PIAS will detect such a
phenomenon, and split automatically. However, there is a pitfall which is related to the split location which should
be positioned exactly on the intersection between two internal planes and the shell. In our example the intersection
of longitudinal bulkhead, tanktop and shell. This point can easily be obtained by interpolation, however, because
PIAS and Poseidon apply their own independant interpolation methods it may very well occur that on the split
position as determined by PIAS, Poseidon does just not find an intersection between bulkhead and tanktop. In such
a case the split position will have to be modified slightly, manually in Poseidon. This phenomenon is intrinsic to
Poseidons modus operandi, in particular to the requirement that a longitudinal element must be split, and can in
principle not be avoided. However, in practice its occurrence is proportional to the interpolation neccessity, so, it is
advised to include in PIAS as many frames as possible, preferably all construction frames (which can be generated
conveniently with Fairway).
11.9.8
Export bulkheads and decks to NUPAS
Still under investigation.
11.9.9
Write XML file
In view of communication with other software one may export the ships’ subdivision data in an XML file with this
option. This option is still experimental, non-documented, and subject to extension or modification.
11.9.10
Read XML file
See section 11.9.9 on the current page, Write XML file.
11.10
File and backup management
Backups of the ships’ subdivision can be made and restored here. Here is also the option ‘Stop without saving’.
See for the details section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
11.11
Compatibilitity with the former compartment module of PIAS
Around 1985, the PIAS module Compart has been developed, with which compartments could be defined and tank
tables etc. could be calculated. More details can be found in chapter 210 of the former PIAS manual. The module
Newlay, which has been developed in the years 2010-2012, has the same purposes, but is much more extensive,
and disposes of a GUI. This transition from Compart to Newlay has two consequences, which are set out below:
11.11.1
Compartment files
At this moment, PIAS is in a transitional phase as far as the compartments are concerned; the compartments can
be designed and/or imported with Newlay, but many follow-up calculations (such as tank volume, intact stability,
grain and tonnage calculations) still have to be carried out with PIAS modules that have not yet been adapted to the
file format of Newlay. That’s why for the benefit of these calculations a file format has to be made from the Newlay
data that is compatible with Compart. That is possible in two manners, see section 11.9.5 on page 196, Export
compartments to PIAS’ pre-2012 format and section 11.5.5 on page 188, General configurations and function
colors, option [generate PIAS compartments when saving]. One should be aware, however, that the follow-up
calculations are carried out with the most recent internal geometry model, which can be done, of course, with
module Compart. This involves the risk that one, in the heat of the moment, makes a change in Compart, which
is not implemented in Newlay, and which gets lost when one regenerates Compart files from Newlay later on.
Therefore, with compartment files which originate from Newlay, Compart only can act as a viewer, which implies
that the compartments can be inspected, but can no longer be modified.
An similar mechanism applies to openings. Openings that are connected to a compartment are exclusively
managed by Newlay. For compatibility and overview reasons, they are visible (colored gray) in the opening list
and overview plots of Hulldef, albeit unmodifyable. In order to avoid confusion, if one or more of such Newlay
managed openings exist, Hulldef will not allow that any unconnected opening will be connected to a compartment.
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November 22, 2014
11.11 Compatibilitity with the former compartment module of PIAS
11.11.2
199
Functional enhancements of Newlay
Compared to Compart, Newlay has many enhancements. In due course Newlay will be made available as update,
free of charge, of the Compart user license(s). However, some of the specific Newlay enhancements require an
additional user license. These enhancements are:
• The use of physical planes, and anything related to it.
• The use of subcompartments of other than four vertices (in Compart, namely, a subcompartment could only
have four vertices in the cross-section).
• The second sounding pipe at the compartment, as well as the use of more than one pressure gauge.
• More than one computation script or output script.
• Drawing of (sub)compartments in the ‘visual composing’ mode, as discussed in paragraph 11.4.1.1.4 on
page 179, View functions.
• Three-dimensional rendering, see section 11.6 on page 190, Threedimensional presentation.
• Saving or printing of three-dimensional, rendered pictures.
• The subdivision plan, see section 11.7 on page 191, Subdivision plan (which is a separate extension, not
linked to the others as listed above). Apart from that, a number of functions of Newlay are available as
additional option:
• Export to Poseidon, see section 11.9.7 on page 197, Export bulkheads and decks to Poseidon (Germanischer
Lloyd).
• Export to NUPAS, see section 11.9.8 on the previous page, Export bulkheads and decks to NUPAS.
• XML communication, see section 11.9.9 on the preceding page, Write XML file and section 11.9.10 on the
previous page, Read XML file.
• Generation of 3D printing files, see section 11.9.6 on page 196, Export decks and bulkheads to Rapid Prototyping format (STL).
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 12
Sounding: calculate tank particulars including
effects of heel and trim
This module computes, for compartments defined with Newlay, tank capacities and corresponding COG for an
arbitrary list/trim combination, if required also with temperature correction to account for expansion of cargo or tank
structure. These results can be utilized in a cargo/ullage report or sent to a loading condition.
Tankcontents taking into account heel and trim
1 Specify list and trim
2 Calculate tank particulars
3 Print all tank particulars on paper
4 Cargo/ullage report, and historical cargo summary
5 Export tank data to a loading condition
6 Import tank data from tank measurement systeem
7 Current overview of filling and flow per tank
12.1
Specify list and trim
In the appearing input window the following data can be given:
• Trim in meters (where trim by the bow positive), which is the difference in draft on the FPP and the APP
(Tfpp - Tapp).
• Angle of inclination in degrees only positive angles can be filled in here. The heeling to PS or SB can be
selected at the next item.
• Heeling to PS or SB.
• Mean draft. This draft is read out by the draft sensor, which is an opton in the context of LocoPIAS. For
calculating the tank capacities only, it is not required to give a draft.
12.2
Calculate tank particulars
An input screen appears for defining all tank particulars, such as sounding or ullage, volume, density and weight.
If one of these items is changed, the other items will be adjusted automatically. The ullage can only be used if a
sounding pipe has been defined for the specific compartment (for which reference is made to paragraph 11.4.1.2.7
on page 180, Sounding pipe). In the alternative window the LCG, VCG, TCG and FSM can be read. By pressing
<Enter>, with the cursor on the line of a compartment, a number of particulars can be defined for the specific
compartment:
Tank name
Include this tank in ullage report
If this compartment must be printed in the Cargo/Ullage report ( section 12.5 on page 202, Print Cargo/←
Ullage report on screen and section 12.6 on page 202, Print Cargo/Ullage report on paper ), then select
‘yes’.
12.3 Print all tank particulars on paper
201
Product (substance)
The name of the product is required for the Cargo/Ullage report.
Conversion table
For the calculation of the cargo weight of heated hydrocarbons, one of the following conversion tables must
be selected.
• No temperature correction.
• Correction factor per degree. The ‘Volume Correction Factor’ is calculated according to the defined
temperature and the correction factor per degree (coefficient of expansion).
• Volume Correction Factor. The ‘Volume Correction Factor’ can be defined directly.
• Table 54B. The ‘Volume Correction Factor’ is determined according to Table 54B.
• Table 55. The ‘Volume Correction Factor’ is determined according to Table 55.
Data link
This is the value that is sent by the tank measurement system ( section 12.10 on the following page, Import
tank data from tank measurement systeem ). The data link value is for checking purposes only.
Temperature
The standard temperature is 15 degrees Celsius. The volume is determined at this temperature. The actual
temperature of the substance can be defined here.
Volume (not corrected for expansion)
This is the volume that is calculated according to the sounding or ullage for this compartment. This volume
comes from the previous window with the list of all the compartments.
Density at 15 degrees Celsius (in air)/(in vacuum)
The density of the substance at 15 degrees Celsius can be defined here. If the density in air is defined, the
density in vacuum is calculated automatically. These two densities are connected to each other and cannot
be defined separately.
Correction factor per degree Celsius
This factor is used if the conversion table ‘Correction factor per degree’ has been selected, and calculates the
volume correction factor.
Volume Correction Factor
This factor can be determined in four different ways:
• This factor is defined manually, using conversion table ‘Volume Correction Factor’.
• This factor is calculated with the correction factor per degree and the difference between the standard
and actual temperature. The conversion table ‘Correction factor per degree’ must be selected.
• This factor is read out from the conversion table ‘Table 54B’.
• This factor is read out from the conversion table ‘Table 55’. This factor corrects the density at 15
degrees Celsius of the substance for the actual temperature.
Temperature Expansion Factor
This factor corrects for the expansion of the tank at a higher temperature than 15 degrees Celsius. This factor
is calculated automatically and cannot be defined manually.
Density at {defined temperature} degrees
Density at 15 degrees Celsius x Volume Correction Factor.
Density x Temperature Expansion Factor
Density at 15 degrees Celsius x Volume Correction Factor x Temperature Expansion Factor.
Weight
The weight is calculated according to: Volume (not corrected for expansion) x Density at 15 degrees Celsius
x Volume Correction Factor x Temperature Expansion Factor.
12.3
Print all tank particulars on paper
With this option the input screen of section 12.2 on the previous page, Calculate tank particulars is printed on
paper. See appendix 1 for an example of the output.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
12.4 Cargo/ullage report, and historical cargo summary
12.4
202
Cargo/ullage report, and historical cargo summary
Cargo/ullage report, and historical cargo summary
1 Print Cargo/Ullage report on screen
2 Print Cargo/Ullage report on paper
3 Print historical database
4 Database of saved cargo data
12.5
Print Cargo/Ullage report on screen
A list of all products, which must be printed in the Cargo/Ullage report, appears (At section 12.2 on page 200,
Calculate tank particulars, for every compartment the name of the product can be entered). The weight of every
product on board is indicated. The weight of every product that according to the Bill of Lading should be on board,
can be entered. In the report the relative difference is calculated. Further the name of the port, berth and voyage
number can be entered and the density in air or vacuum must be selected. All this data is printed in the report. See
appendix 2 for an example.
12.6
Print Cargo/Ullage report on paper
See section 12.5 on the current page, Print Cargo/Ullage report on screen, output on paper.
12.7
Print historical database
Here the historical data from, see section 12.8 on this page, Database of saved cargo data, can printed on to the
screen or on paper.
12.8
Database of saved cargo data
In this menu a history of the stored cargo data can be viewed.
12.9
Export tank data to a loading condition
A list of all defined loading conditions appears. One of these loading conditions can be selected. The selected
loading condition will be copied and the tank data of the sounding module will be sent to this copy. The name of
this new loading condition will be: name of selected loading condition + ‘tank reading’ + date + time.
12.10
Import tank data from tank measurement systeem
With this option the soundings or ullages of the tank measurement system can be read out and processed in the list
of all tanks ( section 12.2 on page 200, Calculate tank particulars ).
12.10.1
Current overview of filling and flow per tank
This option only makes sense when it is linked with a tank measurement system that can permanently ask for the
current volumes.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
12.10 Import tank data from tank measurement systeem
203
Figure 12.1: Appendix 1
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
12.10 Import tank data from tank measurement systeem
204
Figure 12.2: Appendix 2
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 13
Hydrotables: hydrostatics and stability tables
The Hydrotables module aimes at the computation and output of tables or diagrams of hydrostatical and stability
properties which are related to hull form and/or compartments. In particular:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hydrostatic tables.
Tables and diagrams of cross curves (NKsin(ϕ ) tables).
Bonjean tables.
Deadweight tables and deadweight scale.
Tables of wind heeling moments.
Tables and diagrams of maximum allowable Vertical center of Gravity (VCG’), for intact as well as damaged
ship.
• Floodable length curves.
• Tables of maximum allowable grain heeling moments according the SOLAS Grain Code.
• Trim diagram according to van der Ham’s method.
13.1
Main menu
Having started up Hydrotables, one enters the main menu, the various options of which are explained in more detail
in the following sections.
Hydrostatics and stability tables
1. Parameters per table or diagram
2. Specify output sequence
3. Output according to the specified output sequence
4. Export to XML according to the specified output sequence
5. Configure the Local cloud monitors
6. Activate the Local cloud monitors
7. File management of configurations
13.2
Parameters per table or diagram
At this option, for each table or diagram the desired parameters can be specified, such as the trimming range, table
increment or table type. The parameters can either be given for each individual table or diagram, or the mechanism
can be used which links a parameter to the same parameter in a different table or diagram.
In this menu the selection list as printed below appears, where for each table or diagram the different parameters
can be set. The linked parameters mechanism is only discussed at the second option, section 13.2.2 on the following
page, Cross curve tables, for the application in the other tables is analogue. Also other options which are present
at multiple types of tables are only discussed at their first occurrence, it will not be re-iterated.
13.2 Parameters per table or diagram
206
Parameters per table or diagram
1.
Hydrostatics
2.
Cross curve tables
3.
Cross curve diagram
4.
Bonjean tables
5.
Deadweight tables
6.
Deadweight scale
7.
Wind heeling moment tables
8.
Maximum VCG’ intact tables
9.
Maximum VCG’ intact diagrams
10. Maximum VCG’ damaged tables
11. Floodable lengths curve
12. Maximum grain heeling moment tables
13. van der Ham’s trim diagram
13.2.1
Hydrostatics
At this option the parameters of the (to be computed and printed) hydrostatic tables can be specified, of which the
most is the combination base unit, start value, increment and end value, here numbers can be entered, or <I> or
<-I>, for ∞ and -∞ respectively, which makes the table to run from the largest or smallest possible value for this
particular vessel. The base unit is the unit whose tabular values are fixed in this menu, and on basis of which all
hydrostatic properties are computed and printed. For the hydrostatics, the possible table values are displacement
(in ton), (mean) draft from base line and (mean) draft from Bottom of Keel. Apart from the base unit, the table
range is fixed by the start value, the end value and the increment (the step size), which are obviously expressed
in the base unit (so, in meter or in ton). One could also wish to have some additional table values, apart from the
regular ones, for example exactly on summer draft (which, in general, will to coincide with a regular value). Such
additional entries can be specified at the option [Number of extra values]. If the option [rounded increment] is set
to yes, then the specified increment will not be applied exactly, but rounded-off to the nearest ‘nice’ value. This
rounding-off alsway works (with an exception for Extra value)(if specified so), but is justified in combination with
a linked parameter.
Finally, the trims for the tables can be specified, as well as the output format, which come in three:
• A short table, which contains per draft (or displacement) a single line with the most important hydrostatic
results.
• A long table, which contains per draft (or displacement) a column containing all primary hydrostatic results.
• An extended table, which contains per draft (or displacement) a column which also contains a number
of derived results, such as hull form coefficients. This table also contains the waterplane area coefficient
forward of L/2, a coefficient which is required in reg. 39 (on minimum bow height) of the Load Lines
Convention.
This manual is not the place to discuss all hydrostatic parameters extensively, however, a few remarks are
applicable:
• The volume of a possibly given mean shell plate thickness will be included into the moulded volume, please
also refer to section 9.1.1.1 on page 141, Main dimensions and allowance for shell and appendages.
• All hull form coefficients are determined by dividing by the nominal main dimensions (such as LPP and the
moulded breadth), so not by the true waterline length and breadth at a certain draft.
Printing the tables is initiated with option section 13.4 on page 213, Output according to the specified output
sequence, where all tables specified in section 13.3 on page 213, Specify output sequence will be computed and
printed in one run. For an occasional print of only the hydrostatic tables the option [Print] can be used.
13.2.2
Cross curve tables
The setup for cross curves tables is similar to that of hydrostatics: base unit, start value, increment and end value.
For cross curve tables there is a choice from three formats:
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• An extended table, which contains for each angle the drafts, displacements, centers of buoyancy as well as
the KN sin(ϕ), for which, by the way, the definition is given in section 3.7 on page 14, Definitions and units.
• A short table, which only contains the KN.sin(ϕ).
• An optional additional table, which lists the angle/displacement combination of downflooding (by an open
opening).
For defining the various numerical parameters the optional link mechanism can be applied, where a parameter
kan be linked to the corresponding parameter from another table. In this fashion one can conveniently link the
range and steps of the cross curve table to those from the hydrostatic table. This is achieved by selecting in the
top-right column ‘linked to parameters of hydrostatics’, after which those hydrostatic parameters show up in the
right column. For each parameter one can activate the link in the middle column, which make the hydrostatics
parameter value to be used for the cross curves. This mechanism also covers a difference in base units; assume that
the hydrostatic table is defined in terms of draft, and the cross curves in terms of displacement, then the hydrostatic
drafts are converted to displacements. In general this will not result in ‘nice’ displacement values, however, with
the [rounded increment] option (as discussed in the previous paragraph) these values will be rounded-off. Please
consider that this link mechanism is optional; it has been included for your convenience, in order to assist you to
produce and reproduce the various tables in the same range, but application is not mandatory. After al you can
alway use naked parameters for each table, without any link at all.
13.2.3
Cross curve diagram
The parameter menu for the cross curve diagram is similar to that of the cross curve tables.
13.2.4
Bonjean tables
In this menu the properties are specified of the Bonjean tables, which are tables of areas and vertical centers of
gravity of all frames as defined in PIAS. The parameters in this menu are similar to those in the hydrostatic table
menu.
13.2.5
Deadweight tables
In this menu the deadweight table properties are specified. In order to produce such tables in any case the summer
draft op the ship should be given correctly, this can be done in the main dimensions menu of Hulldef. If other
freeboard-related drafts, such as WNA or FW, are also given (at section 9.1.1.5 on page 143, Maximum drafts /
minimum freeboards) then they will be incorporated in the table. In this particular menu only the draft or displacement increment and the light ship weight must be given, which will be evident. An example of a deadweight tables
is depicted below.
Figure 13.1: Deadweight tabel
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13.2 Parameters per table or diagram
13.2.6
208
Deadweight scale
In this menu the deadweight scale parameters must be given, these come in two: In the first place the light ship
weight — which is actually the same as for the deadweight tables — and secondly the question whether a Plimsoll
mark should be included in the output. Obviously, for the latter the freeboard drafts should have been given at
section 9.1.1.5 on page 143, Maximum drafts / minimum freeboards. In a deadweight scale with a small draft
range, by the way, combined with a plot of the Plimsoll mark, the latter may be drawn rather large. The reason is
that the load line marks must coincide with the drafts in the deadweight scale, which leads inevitably to such an
effect.
Figure 13.2: Example deadweight scale
13.2.7
Wind heeling moment tables
Here tables of wind heeling moments &/ wind levers can be configured and computed. The relationship between
the various wind moment related input data is discussed in chapter 18 on page 230, Wind heeling moments, it is
recommended to visit that chapter. After choosing this option a window opens where the wind data (as introduced
in Hulldef) are listed, accompanied in the first column whether it is selected. With <Enter> (or <doubleclick left
mouse button>) opens a deeper level, where the following options are available:
• Input/edit table particulars. These are the step sizes and the like of the tables, completely analogous to the
other tables here in Hydrotables.
• Calculate wind heeling levere for the selected wind contours. As explained in chapter 18 on page 230, Wind
heeling moments, PIAS still works with precalculated tables of wind levers. With this option, these tables
will be computed.
• View calculated wind levers will speak for themselves. The levers can be viewed here only, not changed. It
is indeed possible to enter wind levers, however, the place for that is in the input module, see section 9.1.7
on page 154, Wind data sets.
Tables of wind arms are eventually printed for all combinations of selected wind data and selected wind
contours. Please consider that they are only printed if they are explicitly calculated using the second option above.
The printed wind moment table contains the following parameters:
• Draft.
• Displacement.
• Wind heeling moment.
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• Wind heeling lever.
• On request of a single classification society: the windage area, as well as its lever (which is the distance
between the center of effort of the wind, and the lateral point of the submerged hull). The latter, however,
only in case of a constant wind pressure, so not for wind pressures that vary with the height, because in that
case the windage lever is no useful information.
However, there is one exception on this output, which occurs the wind heeling levers have been entered by the
user (as is accommodated by Hulldef, see section 9.1.7 on page 154, Wind data sets). In that case only draft and
wind heeling lever will be printed, as the other parameters are not available.
13.2.8
Maximum VCG’ intact tables
For these tables of maximum allowable VCG’ in intact condition also drafts and trims have to be specified, similar
to those for the cross curves tables, as discussed in section 13.2.2 on page 206, Cross curve tables. Additional
parameters for the maximum allowable VCG’ are:
• Calculate maximum VCG’ on basis of, with the choice between specified angles and automatic angles, as
discussed in section 6.4.3 on page 41, Compute probabilistic damage stability on basis of.
• Number of wind contours for which the max. VCG’ tables will be computed. In the parameter window only
the number of wind contours is given, however, on modification a selectable list of existing wind contours
(as defined in section 9.1.6 on page 153, Wind contour) appears. Each selected wind contour implies an
independant an independant stability criterion and consequently results in its own maximum allowable V←
CG’ value.
13.2.9
Maximum VCG’ intact diagrams
The parameter menu for the this diagram is equal to that of the maximum VCG’ tables.
13.2.10
Maximum VCG’ damaged tables
At this option the parameters can be specified which are relevant for the computation of tables and diagrams of
maximum allowable VCG’ in intact condition, required to fullfill damage stabilitycriteria in case of flooding. This
is a complex set of computations, so the required input data are somewhat more extensive than for the other tables
in Hydrotables. So, first the following submenu appears:
Maximum VCG’ damaged tables
1. Specify calculation parameters
2. Damage cases menu
3. Define intermediate stages of flooding
13.2.10.1
Specify calculation parameters
In the first place, here the start value, end value and increment etc. can be given, which will now be familiar from
the other types of tables here in Hydrotables. Specific parameters are:
• Calculate maximum VCG’ on basis of ‘specified angles’ or ‘automatic angles’, a choice equal to the one at
intact maximum VCG’, see section 13.2.8 on this page, Maximum VCG’ intact tables.
• Print maximum allowable VCG’ in damaged condition per ‘damage case’ or per ‘displacement’. With ‘per
damage case’, for each damage case and each trim one table is printed with all displacements, as well as a
plot of the maximum allowable VCG’ as a function of the displacement. With ‘per displacement’ for each
displacement/trim combination one table of all damage cases is printed.
• Whether graphs of maximum allowable damaged VCG’ should be added to the tabular output.
• Number of wind contours for which the tables of maximum allowable VCG’ should be produced, as also
already discussed at section 13.2.8 on the current page, Maximum VCG’ intact tables.
• The lightest service draft as well as the subdivision draft, both as defined in the SOLAS2009 damage stability
regulations. These values are relevant to determine the draft-dependant permeability, as applied at the calculations according to IMO A.265 and SOLAS 2009. Compartments with such a varying permeability should
be declared to belong to a specific type of ‘space prob.damage stab. SOLAS 2009’, see paragraph 11.4.1.3.2
on page 181, Permeabilities for more details.
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• Whether intermediate results should be stored in a text file. On the regular output of the computations of
maximum allowable VCG’ the most important results are summarized, however, the paper offers absolutely
too litte room to print all kind of intermediate results. To obtain the intermediates it can be specified here that
they should be exported to a standard text file (see section 4.4 on page 25, ASCII text file for that concept),
which carries the name ✐♥t❡r♠❡❞✐❛t❡❴r❡s✉❧ts❴✈❝❣♠❛①❴❞❛♠❛❣❡✳❧♦❣, and which is created in the folder
where all project data files reside. One should realize that this file with intermediate results is only intended
for human consumption, it is not used by PIAS in any way.
• If such a intermediate results file is created, it can additionally be specified whether it should be rewritten, in
which case possible existing content is deleted each time, or added, which makes the file to grow each time
with new intermediate data.
13.2.10.2
Damage cases menu
Damage cases menu
1. Select and edit standard damage cases
2. Generate damage case contents
3. Definition of views and sections for drawing damage cases
4. Plot all selected damage cases
5. Print input data of damage cases
13.2.10.2.1
Select and edit standard damage cases
This menu is being discussed at section 25.3 on page 281, Input and edit damage cases. Please do not forget for
each damage case to verify whether a compartment contains liquid in intact condition, because that will flow out
in case of damage. For those cases their weight and specific weight should be given in the last two columns of the
damage case.
13.2.10.2.2
Generate damage case contents
In the previous menu option it has been discussed how damage cases can be defined. For a limited number
of damage cases this is not particularly laborious, however, in some occassions repeating combinations of root
damage cases and tank fillings need to be defined (here the word ‘root damage case’ indicates only a combination
of damaged compartments, without tank fillings). With N root damage cases and M tank fillings, manually Nx←
M damage cases should be defined. At large N or M it is more convenient to define the root damage cases and
the tank fillings separately, and to generate all combinations. This facility is available in this menu, through four
sub-options:
• Select loading conditions. In order to prevent that for the tank fillings separate data structures should have
been developped, the existing loading conditions as defined in Loading, are applied. The tank fillings of all
selected loading conditions in this menu will be applied in the subsequent generation of damage cases.
• Select and edit root damage cases. here the root damage cases can be selected. From a practical point of
view those cases are the same as defined in Loading. For further discussion on this option, reference is made
to section 25.3 on page 281, Input and edit damage cases.
• Generate damage cases. With this option the damage cases are actually generated, where their names are
composed from the names of the root damage case and the loading condition. In this respect it should be
considered that the aft and forward boundaries of the damage cases, as intended in the applicable regulation,
do not neccessarily have to coincide with the extreme compartment boundaries. If those boundaries are
relevant, then they have to be defined manually. The same reasoning applies to the ‘morecomp’ column
in the damage case menu, its value should be verified and possibly adapted after the generation of damage
cases. This ‘generate damage cases’ option comes in two flavors, one where the existing damage cases are
replaced by the newly generated, and one where the generated cases are added to the existing list.
13.2.10.2.3
Definition of views and sections for drawing damage cases
As discussed in section 25.2 on page 280, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases.
13.2.10.2.4
Plot all selected damage cases
According to the specification as defined in the previous menu option.
13.2.10.2.5
Print input data of damage cases
Which prints a list of the damage cases, as defined for maximum allowable VCG.
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13.2 Parameters per table or diagram
13.2.10.3
211
Define intermediate stages of flooding
Here the regular intermediate stages of flooding can be given, as percentage of the final stage of flooding. These
are the same as the stages as defined for the deterministic damage stability calculations in Loading. By the way,
per damage case also non-regular stages can be defined, for which we refer to section 25.5 on page 283, Complex
intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations.
13.2.11
Floodable lengths curve
With this option the calculation parameters of the floodable length curve are specified. This curve indicates the
maximum length of any compartment at any longitudinal position, so that the vessel just submerges to the margin
line in case this compartment is damaged. For this purpose a minimum of three points have to be defined as ‘margin
line points’ in the PIAS module Hulldef. The parameters to be specified are:
• The parameters first and last ‘longitudinal position’, as well as its increment, which determine the locations
where the floodable lengths are being computed. As a rule for the ‘first longitudinal location’ the APP is
taken, for the ‘last’ the FPP and for the ’increment’ a nice value, such as Lpp / 100.
• The displacement, in ton, and the Longitudinal Center of Gravity, in meters from APP, of the intact ship.
• The permeability, which is constant for the entire vessel. For varying permeabilities multiple computations
of the floodable lengths are required.
• The multiplication factor, as defined in the SOLAS part where the floodable lengths requirements are addressed.
13.2.12
Maximum grain heeling moment tables
With this option the parameters for a maximum allowable grain heeling moment table — from which an example
is depicted below - can be specified. These moments are computed according the requirements of the International
Grain Code (IMO MSC.23(59)), for a range of drafts or displacements and VCGs. Besides the usual trims, as well
as the draft/displacement range these parameters comprise:
• Lowest, highest and increment of the Vertical Centres of Gravity (VCGs) to be taken into account..
• Whether the deck edge is allowed to immerse. This criterion is applicable for vessels constructed after
January 1, 1994, for which the inclination due to the shift of grain is limited to 12 degrees, or the angle of
deck edge immersion. For vessel constructed before that date only the 12 degrees limitation applies. For this
criterion the deck edge should be defined, this can be done in module Hulldef.
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Figure 13.3: Example of a table of maximum allowable grain heeling moments
13.2.13
van der Ham’s trim diagram
With the option the parameters for a trim diagram according to van der Ham (as published in Schip en Werf,
25e Jaargang, 1958, No. 23) can be specified. In PIAS the Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (in combination with
displacement) is plotted, instead of the Longitudinal Moment as in the original definition. The reason for this is
that in PIAS the origin for all longidinal distances is the APP, instead of Lpp/2 as used by van der Ham. With a
van der Ham diagram the relations between displacement/LCG and drafts fore and aft can be read instantaneously,
see the example below. The parameters for this diagram are:
• Draft range or displacement range. Please note that the diagram is always drawn with drafts on both axes,
and displacements along iso-displacement curves within the diagram, regardless whether in this menu drafts
or displacements are specified. If drafts are specified, they will internally be converted to displacements, so
for ‘nice’ displacement increments is is better to work on a displacement basis (or, alternatively, apply the
[rounded increment] option.
• The maximum trim by bow or stern. This figure should be positive, and is used to determine the LCG range.
• The number of LCG steps, which determines by approximation the amount of LCG curves in the diagram.
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213
Figure 13.4: Van der Ham’s trim diagram
13.3
Specify output sequence
In this menu the tables to be printed can be specified, as well as the print sequence. For each table also a page
number and chapter name can be given, which will be printed at the bottom of each page. The left column, selected
specifies whether the output of that line is actually included in the output to be produced.
13.4
Output according to the specified output sequence
This option prints all tables according to their setup and print selection as specified in the previous two options.
Obviously, their correctness will be dependant on the correctness of main particulars and settings, as can be given
in Hulldef and Config, notably at:
• Wind heeling moment tables, where no additional parameters are required in this module because all required
data are already given elsewhere, please also refer to chapter 18 on page 230, Wind heeling moments.
• Deadweight tables and deadweight scale, which depend on the various freeboard drafts as given in section 9.1.1.5 on page 143, Maximum drafts / minimum freeboards.
• Tables of maximum allowable VCG’, both intact and damaged, which are governed by the stability criteria
as specified in section 6.6 on page 41, Stability criteria.
13.5
Export to XML according to the specified output sequence
With this option an XML file is generated which contains all, or at least all relevant, computation results of Hydrotables. This file is destinated to be consumbed by other software, for it is much more robust to import an XML
file than to extract figures from text files. Please contact SARC for the applied file format or an example of such a
file.
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13.6 Configure the Local cloud monitors
13.6
214
Configure the Local cloud monitors
The local cloud concept is introduced in general terms in section 3.11 on page 20, Local cloud: simultaneous multimodule operation on the same project. Hydrotables is able to ‘eavesdrop’ the cloud, and to compute and show a
number of hydrostatics-related parameters of the hull form, we call that the ‘local cloud’ monitor of Hydrotables,
its visual representation is shown in the next paragraph. In this menu multiple monitors can be defined, with per
monitor:
• The parameter to monitor, where the choice is between volume, displacement, longitudinal center of buoyancy, KM, metacentric heigh (GM) and the maximum allowable VCG’, intact or damaged.
• The draft and trim for with this parameter should be computed.
• The VCG’, the vertical center of gravity, which obviously only plays a role when monitoring GM.
• Possible limits of the parameter, which are its required minimum and maximum values. If these limits are
given, then the monitor shows a bar within the boundaries of these limits, so it is easily visible when the
limits are exceeded. It is not required to specify these limits, in which case no bar is drawn, because that
would be useless, however, the actual numerical parameter value is always shown.
• In the first column an on/off switch of the monitor.
13.7
Activate the Local cloud monitors
With the previous option the local cloud monitors can be configured, with this options they can be activated.
The effect will be that the main menu of Hydrotables is replaced by one or more bars, indicating the configured
parameters and limits. The figure below shows an example, where the volume is monitored at three draft/trim
combinations, the maximum allowable VCG’ at one draft and the GM with two differenct VCG’s. It might be a bit
exaggerated example, however, it clearly shows the possibilities. Now all hull form modifications are monitored,
so if with for example Fairway the hull form is changed, in this monitor directly the corresponding volume etc. will
be shown.
Figure 13.5: Local cloud monitor, monitoring and showing five parameters
13.8
File management of configurations
Backups of the configurations for the tables and diagrams can be made and restored here. Here is also the option
‘Stop without saving the configurations’. For details we refer to section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 14
Grainmom: calculation of grain heeling moments
according to the IMO Grain Code
This module enables you to calculate the actual grain heeling moments according to the requirements of IMO Grain
Code, or according to the requirements of the Dutch Shipping Inspectorate.
14.1
Main menu
Grainmom main menu
Defined compartments
Name of compartments
XX
YY
.
.
ZZ
XX, YY and ZZ are the names of the compartments, as defined in module Newlay. The definition method
has to comply to a number or requirements, which are listed in paragraph section 14.2 on page 218, Definition of
compartments
Graincompartment: XXXXX
1 Define void space and longitudinal girder of this grain compartment:
2 Define volume interval for calculations
3 Calculate volume & COGs of graincompartment
4 Calculate volume & grain moments grain compartment
5 Configuration for drawing of cross-sections of grain compartment
6 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void space on screen
7 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including grainlevel on screen
8 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void space on paper
9 Drawing of cross section graincompartment including grainlevel on paper
14.1.1
Define void space and longitudinal girder of this grain compartment:
Void space
Half breadth
Height
Subcompartment
0.100
-4.500
9.000
PS part
0.500
4.500
9.000
mid part
1.000
SB part
The function of this input screen is to define one or more longitudinal girders per subcompartment. Only the
girders at the topside of the subcompartment have to be defined. If no girders are present, this is marked by a dash
(-).
14.1 Main menu
216
• Void space: height of the void space above the grain (acc. to Chapter VI, Section I A.a of the IMO Grain
Code).
• Half breadth: half breadth of the girder from centreline (SB positive, PS negative).
• Height: height of the underside of the girder from baseline.
• Subcompartment: name of the subcompartment as defined at the module from Newlay .
When defining a longitudinal girder the [Girder] option can be used to toggle the presence of a longitudinal
girder.
14.1.2
Define volume interval for calculations
The tables are calculated at the volume interval defined here.
14.1.3
Calculate volume & COGs of graincompartment
This option calculates the table of volumes and centres of gravity, without heeling angles (see figure underneath).
Figure 14.1: Table of hold volume and COG’s according to IMO Grain code
If the compartment for the grain calculation has been defined including a curved sounding pipe (see Newlay
), then the output table will also contain a column with the ullage. The ullage is calculated from the top of the
defined curved sounding pipe. The top of the sounding pipe will normally be the top of the coaming in case of a
grain compartment.
14.1.4
Calculate volume & grain moments grain compartment
This option calculates the table of grain heeling moments at the prescribed heeling angle (see figure underneath).
There is a special option if the calculations are submitted to the Dutch Shipping Inspectorate.
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November 22, 2014
14.1 Main menu
217
Figure 14.2: Table of heeling grain moments according to IMO Grain code
14.1.5
Configuration for drawing of cross-sections of grain compartment
At the next 4 options a cross-section is drawn on screen or on paper. The position of the cross-section to be drawn
is defined at this option.
14.1.6
Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void space on screen
Draw the grain level including void spaces, at zero angle, see the figure below.
Figure 14.3: Graincompartment 1
14.1.7
Drawing of cross section graincompartment including grainlevel on screen
Draws the grain level with the heeling angle as prescribed by the regulations, see the example below.
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14.2 Definition of compartments
218
Figure 14.4: Graincompartment 2
14.1.8
Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void space on paper
See the figure at section 14.1.6 on the preceding page, Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void
space on screen .
14.1.9
Drawing of cross section graincompartment including grainlevel on paper
See the figure at section 14.1.6 on the previous page, Drawing of cross section graincompartment including void
space on screen .
14.2
Definition of compartments
A compartment which is going to be used to cmopute grain heeling moments will be defined by one or more
subcompartments, which have to comply to the following definition requirements:
• The subcompartments have to be defined from portside to startboard.
• No negavtive ubcompartments are allowed.
• The vertical line through a longitudinal girder has to be a boundary of a subcompartment.
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14.2 Definition of compartments
219
Figure 14.5: Appendix 1
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November 22, 2014
14.2 Definition of compartments
220
Figure 14.6: Appendix 1
Figure 14.7: Appendix 1
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 15
Tonnage: calculation of gross and net tonnage
This module calculates the netto and bruto tonnage according to ‘The 1969 International Conference on Tonnage
Measurement of Ships’.
Attention
When using this module it is of paramount importance that compartments for cargo are selected. See description of section 15.4 on the following page, Calculate and print tonnage calculation (GT and NT) for more
information.
Tonnage calculations
1 Definition of superstructures not included in the hullform
2 Definition general data for net tonnage
3 Plot plan view hull plus superstructures on screen
4 Calculate and print tonnage calculation (GT and NT)
15.1
Definition of superstructures not included in the hullform
At this stage superstructures are defined (primarily deckhouse layers) which are not included in the hull form. For
example, a poop already included in the hullform (with a hull shape definition module Hulldef of Fairway) is not
defined in this module, while a bridge which is not already included in the hull form is defined in this module. For
each superstructure, which is assumed to be rectangular, the location of the limiting bulkheads has to be specified
by the user. Is the superstructure not of a rectangular shape, the mean values have to be specified. For each
superstructure is specified :
• Location of aft and forward bulkhead.
• Location of low and high deck.
• Half the breadth.
15.2
Definition general data for net tonnage
For the calculation of the Net Tonnage several items, as defined in reg. 4 of the Convention, have to be specified
here.
15.3
Plot plan view hull plus superstructures on screen
For checking purposes with this option the hull and the superstructure are drawn schematically in plan view on
screen.
15.4 Calculate and print tonnage calculation (GT and NT)
15.4
222
Calculate and print tonnage calculation (GT and NT)
This option calculates and prints the tonnage calculation. For the calculation of Net Tonnage, the volume of the
cargo spaces has to be determined (reg. 4 of IMO 1969). To determine those volumes, the compartments as defined
in Newlay are used here, so there is no double definition of cargo spaces. To enable this module to recognize
the appropriate compartments as cargo spaces, those compartments have to be selected in the compartment list
(as discussed in section 11.4 on page 176, Compartment list, calculation of tank tables etc.) of Newlay before
tonnage calculations are performed. All compartments not being part of the cargo space are not allowed to be
selected. According to the regulations, the volumes of the cargo spaces are being calculated without deduction for
construction (permeability = 1).
See underneath for an example of the output of tonnage calculations.
Figure 15.1: Example of the output first page
Figure 15.2: Example of the output second page
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 16
Maxchain: calculation of maximum allowable
anchor-handling chain forces
This module calculates the maximum allowable anchor chain forces during anchor-handling, according to on eof the
following rules:
• Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) from 2007: Guidelines for immediate measures on supply ships and
tugs that are used for anchor handling.
• Bureau Veritas (BV) amendments January 2014, Pt D Ch 14 Sec 2 Reg 5: Additional requirements for anchor
handling vessels.
16.1
Input specific ship data
The maximum allowable anchor chain forces are amongst others determined by a number of specific ship data,
which are specified at the module for the definition of the hull shape and main dimensions, Hulldef. This module
contains a menu option called Main dimensions and miscellaneous, which contains a sub menu Anchor-handler
characteristics. With this option an input window appears which contains the folowing parameters:
• Center of propeller above base, the vertical distance between the propeller center and the base line.
• Maximum chain force (wire tension), for which the winch capacity can be applied, or the holding capacity
of the wire stopper if greater. If this figure cannot be determined, an ordinary ‘lareg’ value can be taken, for
it is not used in the calculation as such. Its only purpose is to assist in determining the scaling factor in the
polar plot.
• Wire is restricted at the extremity of the stern roller (BV-2014 only). This ‘extremity’ applies to the roller
breadth. If this parameter is set to ‘yes’, two lines below the transverse distance between this extremity and
CL should be given.
• Longitudinal location aft side stern roller. Will speak for itself. Please consider that this terminology is
aimed at a stern roller, however, a bow roller can be defined as well, in which case the longitudinal location
of the forward side of the bow roller should be given here.
• ‘Restricting breadth from CL of the stern roller extremity’ (BV-2014) or ‘breadth of the stern roller extremity
from CL’ (NMD-2007), which means in both cases the transverse distance between a ‘physical restiction of
transverse wire movement’ at the roller, and CL.
• Upper edge of stern roller from base line.
• Length from APP of guide pin or winch. In this line, as well as the line below, primarily the guide pin is
intended, however, if this is lacking than the particulars of the winch can be taken. Largest breadth from CL
of guide pin or winch. End value of angle β (0-90). β is the angle between wire and the vertical line, see the
figure below. This parameter is intended for the production of diagrams and tables, which always contains
at an angle of zero, but for which the user can specify the end value. As well as the increment, in the line
below. Increment of angle β
16.2 Main menu of this module
224
Figure 16.1: Definitions of angles, BV-2014
16.2
Main menu of this module
Main menu
1 Input data maximum anchor-handling chain forces
2 Edit trims
3 Calculate and print maximum anchor-handling chain forces
16.2.1
Input data maximum anchor-handling chain forces
In this menu the following parameters can be defined:
• The initial trim [m]. The calculation can be performed for one or more trims. Multiple trims can be defined
at the second option in the main menu of this module. If no trims have been specified there, at this menu
option a single trim can be specified. This trim is called initial trim, because with the free-to-trim effect
switched on, the actual trim at larger angles of inclination may vary.
• Start, end and increment for the displacement, in tons, for the tables or diagrams to be produced.
• Similarly the start, end and increment for the KG’, the (virtual) center of gravity, in meter.
• Including graphs. This module can produce output in tables, whichare always printed, and in diagrams. With
this option it can be specified whether the latter also have to be produced.
• Whether tables for all individual stability criteria have to be included as well. The NMD-requirements
contain three independent stability criteria, which all have to be complied with. As such, it is not required
to determine the maximum anchor forces for each individual criterion, however, for the ship designer such a
table might be handy, because it may give an indication on the most critical stability aspect, and action may
be taken to improve that particular stability property. By the way, it is advised not to include such tables per
individual stability criterion with ship delivery documents. Not that there is something wrong with them as
such, but there is always the risk that somebody does not recognize the background of such a table, so that it
may raise confusion or misunderstanding.
Furthermore, a number of regulation-specific parameters can be entered. For NMD-2007 these comprise start,
end and increment of the chain angle (in degrees), which is the angle between chain or wire and the longitudinal
plane. And for BV-2014 the end value and increment - the start value is always zero - of teh angles α and β ,
respectively the angle between the wire and the longitudinal, and between the wire and the horizontal plane, as
depicted in the first figure of this chapter.
16.2.2
Calculate and print maximum anchor-handling chain forces
Several output options can be choosen, from which two examples are pasted bewlo. A complete output contains:
• A table and a diagram with the minimum chain force for all (calculated) chain angles. This one may be
considered as ‘worst case’ situation, for if the chain angle is not known on forehand, here the minimum of
the allowable chain forces for all chain angles can be found.
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• For each defined chain angle a table and a diagram with on the horizontal axis the KG’, on the vertical axis
the maximum allowable anchor chain force, while for each desired displacement a curve is plotted which
indicates the relation between KG’ and anchor chain force.
• For each chain angle a table with the maximum allowable chain force for each indibidual stability criterion.
A short description of the applicable crition is printed in the heading of each table.
Figure 16.2: Table of maximum allowable anchor chain forces
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Figure 16.3: Diagram of maximum allowable anchor chain forces
16.2.3
Polar diagram with maximum allowable anchor chain forces for a particular loading condition
Figure 16.4: Request in Loading an anchor chain diagram
In this module, Maxchain, staticakltables and diagrams of maximum anchor chain forces are computed. However,
it is also possible to have each intact loading condition - as computed with the Loading module - accompanied by
a specific polar plot of maximum chain forces If desired, the following approach is adopted:
• The anhor-handling input data from Hulldef (see the first section of this chapter) are used.
• Chain angles and VCG’s as specified for this Maxchain module play no role. The polar diagram is always
calculated from 0°to 90°, based on the loading condition where that polar plot belongs to.
• Anchor chain forces should not be included in weight items of the loading condition, for it is the intention
of this PIAS module to determine the maximum anchor chain force automatically.
For each loading condition such a diagram can be produced, where radial the maximum allowable anchor chain
forces (in ton) can be read for different anchor chain angles. At an angle of 0°the chain hangs downwards, while
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227
at 90°it is straight horizontal. So, in the red area the chain force exceeds the limit. The second polar plot shows an
example in the BV-2014 fashion, with the angles α and β as discussed in the beginning of this chapter.
Figure 16.5: Polar plot of maximum allowable anchor chain forces, NMD-2007 regulation
Figure 16.6: Polar plot of maximum allowable anchor chain forces, BV-2014 regulation
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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Chapter 17
Rhine: maximum allowable VCG’ for container
vessels on the river Rhine
Since June 1986 stability requirements for container vessels on the river Rhine have come into force. This module
calculates the maximum allowable VCG’. These tables enable you to check each loading condition for compliance
with the requirements.
Below the main menu of this module is depicted. However, prior to discuss that menu, it is noted that for the
determination of the hydrostatic particulars two options exist:
• If the hullform vessel has been defined in PIAS, with Fairway or Hulldef, then the hydrostatic properties can
be computed on basis of that hullform.
• If the hull form is not available the hydrostatic data should be entered into this module, as well as a number
of parameters which are applied in approximation formulae.
Stability of container vessels navigating the river Rhine
1 Specific data for the Rhine stability calculation
2 Enter drafts/displacements
3 Enter tank data
4 Calculate and print maximum VCG’
17.1
Specific data for the Rhine stability calculation
If a PIAS hullform is available for the vessel, and it should indeed be used, then the option ‘derive data from
hullform defined in PIAS’ should be set to ‘yes’. The rows in this table marked with a (-) do not need to be filled
in, in that case. The meaning of the other rows, as far as not obvious, is:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Length ship (-): the length of the ship on maximum draft.
Breadth ship (-): the breadth of the ship on maximum draft.
Depth ship: the least depth at the side of the ship.
Maximum draft (for lateral area): the maximum draft of the vessel. This parameter is only used to indicate
from what level the lateral area (as given a few lines lower) is given.
Speed ship: the maximum speed at maximum draft (in meters per second).
Volume superstructures (-): the volume of deckhouses, hatch coaming etc. but only up to 1 m above the
depth and not inside 0.05L from the ship’s ends.
Moment of inertia superstructures (-): the aggregated moments of inertia of the above mentioned superstructures
Lateral Area: the lateral area of the ship, including the container cargo on board, above the maximum draft
(as given a few lines higher).
Height/breadth first opening: the location of the first non-watertight opening. If no openings exist give zeros.
Pontoon or ship (-): specifies whether the vessel has primarily a pontoon-like or a ship-like shape. This
parameter detrmines which approximation formulae to apply.
Displacement begin/step/end: these parameters determine the range and increment of the maximum allowable VCG’ table.
17.2 Enter drafts/displacements
17.2
229
Enter drafts/displacements
• The drafts with the associated deplacements in metres from the base and in tons. Take care that the step size
between the draughts is regular, the ratio between two successive step sizes must lie between 1/4 and 4. Start
at the light draught and end at the maximum draught. If a PIAS hullform is used these values are not used at
all.
17.3
Enter tank data
here the tank dimensions should be given. In the ‘description’ column a name can be given. All tanks should
be given, and please do not forget to include the container hold as tank (which is obligatory according to the
regulations).
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Chapter 18
Wind heeling moments
The effect of the wind on the stability is manifest in several places, and also the input has been spread over several
modules. This is no peculiarity of PIAS, but is simply the nature of wind heeling moments. To give you still a proper
idea of the coherence, this is discussed in this chapter.
Attention
Right now PIAS is still working with tables of precomputed wind heeling levers. However, soon we will say
goodbye to those precomputed tables. Then the wind heeling levers will be computed directly if necessary.
This is called direct wind heeling computation and expectations are that this will be implemented by the end
of 2014.
18.1
Input data for the wind heeling moments computations
Part of the variety at wind heeling computations is caused by the fact that there can be multiple input data, for
example several windage areas — like with various loadings — and several wind pressures, for example because
another pressure is used at the stability criteria for intact stability than at the damage stability criteria. You can find
the exact nature of the input data, and their location, in the table below:
Wind contoru
The wind contour belongs in principle to the ships’ input data, and is therefore entered in Hulldef, see
section 9.1.6 on page 153, Wind contour. It is also possible to enter several wind contours, for example for
multiple types of loading on deck.
Wind contour with containers
For standard cases, like for a stability book, several wind contours can be defined for various complete
layers of containers. The trouble with this is that when a layer has not been entirely filled with containers,
the windage of that entire layer is still taken into account, whereas the actual windage is obviously smaller.
When a special loading module of Loading is used, like the container module (see chapter 22 on page 264,
Graphical interfaces for tank filling and crane loading), for any loading condition exactly the actual wind
contour is constructed by laying the ship’s contour (without cargo, as entered in Hulldef, see above) and the
loaded container on top of each other and taking the common windage of them. However, this function will
only work in combination with the direct wind heeling moments computation.
Wind data
These are also given in Hulldef, see section 9.1.7 on page 154, Wind data sets, and regard in particular the
wind pressures. Several collections of these data can be recorded, so that all kinds of combinations are
possible between wind contour and wind pressures at the various stability calculations
Specific wind pressure at a stability requirement
Although the wind contour and the wind data in principle provide sufficient data to be able to carry out
further computations, some special input can take place at the stability requirements. One of them is the
specific wind pressure, as discussed in section 19.5.4.1 on page 247, Wind lever. That seems a bit redundant,
because one can give any wind pressure on the wind data from Hulldef, so why then even here? The reason is
that stability requirements may, for example at a damage stability criterion, use another wind pressure than
the ‘standard’ wind pressure which applies to intact stability. One should be very well aware of this aspect
— a mistake is easily made — and even more so when creating standard criteria, because with this specific
18.2 Where do wind moments exert their effects?
231
wind pressure it can directly be defined correctly. In short, this alternative, specific wind pressure is indeed
redundant, but has been introduced to reduce the risk of errors and to enhance the user experience.
By the way, when one is working with a specific wind pressure, there also has to be a precomputed wind
heeling moments table available. It is not relevant for which wind pressure that has been computed (this will
be taken into account anyway), but it must be for one wind pressure (therefore not for wind pressures that
vary with the height). This condition is cancelled when the direct wind heeling moments calculation has
been included in PIAS.
Multiplier on the wind heeling lever
In addition, a multiplier for the set wind heeling lever can be specified. That also seems a bit redundant,
because why not in first instance already enter, in the wind data section, a wind pressure which has already
been multiplied by this factor? This would indeed be an option — it would make the program internally
even less complex — but occasional standard stability criteria exist where such multiplication factors are
applied, and it is most clear to show and enter this factor in its most basic form. And by being clear the risk
of mistakes is reduced.
Computed wind heeling levers
As announced at the beginning of this chapter PIAS still works with a table of precomputed wind heeling
levers. That table must therefore always be computed before further stability calculations are carried out,
which is done with Hydrotables, see section 13.2.7 on page 208, Wind heeling moment tables, where also
the draught range and the draught step can be entered. When the direct wind heeling moments computations
have been carried out, that precomputed table is no longer necessary, but till that moment you still need to
give the command yourself to have the wind heeling levers table calculated. Remember then also that the
table is calculated for the given draught range, thus in order to prevent that in the event of a specific cargo or
damage case the draught will be slightly larger than the table maximum it is recommended to take this range
pretty large.
Wind heeling levers entered by the user
It is by far the most practical to have the wind heeling levers calculated by PIAS. But only once in a while
there are, however, wind heeling levers available from another source, for example from CFD calculations
or model tests. In that case you can give these wind heeling levers yourself in Hulldef, at the last option of
the wind data, see section 9.1.7 on page 154, Wind data sets.
18.2
Where do wind moments exert their effects?
• Tables of wind heeling levers can be printed with Hydrotables, see section 13.2.7 on page 208, Wind heeling
moment tables.
• At the calculation of intact stability of a loading condition. The wind contour that is used there (as well for
the calculation as possibly for the pictures) intrinsically belongs to that loading condition, and can (therefore)
be entered in the upper bar of the weight items window of the loading condition, at the option [Settings], see
section 20.2.1 on page 252, Define/edit weight items. The wind pressure that is used there intrinsically belongs to the stability requirement, and can(therefore) be entered at the Stability criteria, see section 19.5.4.1
on page 247, Wind lever.
• Tables and diagrams of maximum allowable KG in intact condition can be calculated for several wind contours, see section 13.2.8 on page 209, Maximum VCG’ intact tables. When you select N wind contours then
there will be made N tables or diagrams, so you can take that table or diagram that applies to the future
situation.
• Tables and diagrams of maximum allowable KG in damage condition function as for the wind similarly as
the intact condition.
18.3
Recommended working sequence
There is no obligatory working or definition sequence with regard to the wind related issues. All input or options
can be modified later on. But in the event of a project where nothing has been laid down yet, the clearest definition
sequence is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Make one or more wind contours in Hulldef.
Define the wind pressure(s) in Hulldef.
Lay down the limits and steps of the wind heeling moments table in Hydrotables. For a large draught range.
Let Hydrotables compute the wind heeling moments table.
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5. Define stability criteria.
6. Carry out the various computations.
Steps 3 and 4 apply as long as PIAS still uses the precomputed wind heeling levers table. Afterwards they are
cancelled.
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Chapter 19
Stability criteria for intact stability and damage
stability
In this chapter the foundations and tools for the configuration of stability criteria for intact stability and damage
stability are discussed. The particular menu option for this task can be found in the Config module, which is also
accessible through the [Setup][Project setup] function, top-left in (almost) every PIAS window.
• The core is a set of stability criteria. Such a set can be valid for intact stability or damage stability.
• Multiples of such sets are supported, in the first place to support different criteria sets for intact stability and
damage stability, but also to be able to toggle quickly between multiple types of criteria (for example in case
of multiple navigation areas, where different stability criteria may apply).
• A set of criteria contains multiple individual criteria. Such an individual criterion has a simple structure (e.←
g. ‘minimum metacentric height’ or ‘area under the GZ curve within a range of 20 degrees’) and can be
dependant on certain parameters (such as ‘a minimum metacentric height of 30 cm’). Such a parameter can
either be a number, or a variable from which the numerical value is determined dynamically by the program
(such as the concept ‘top of the GZ curve’). - From the set of stability criteria quite some standard sets of
stability requirements have been preprogrammed (such as the ‘Intact Stability Code’), however, this is merely
a kind of service, because in the end the definition is captured within the individuals criteria, just as each user
is able to do manually.
Finally, three remarks are worth to be given before going into detail:
• It is recommended to generate and check intermediate results in case of unclear or unexpected results. This
can be set in the fourth column of the main menu of sets of stability criteria, see section 19.1 on this page,
Manipulating and selecting sets of stability criteria.
• The major part of this chapter deals with the setup of stability criteria, however, it is recommended also to visit
the last two paragraphs. One contains a number of FAQs on specific stability questions, this can be found in
section 19.6 on page 248, Answers to frequently asked questions on stability assessments. The other deals
with the availability of criteria, and also contains a number of disclaimer remarks, please see section 19.7 on
page 250, On the various criteria and parameters for those subjects.
• The words ‘requirement’ and ‘criterion’ are used in a mixed fashion, they have the same meaning (here).
19.1
Manipulating and selecting sets of stability criteria
Choosing the stability criteria definition menu opens a window with the already defined sets of criteria, which will
look like this:
19.1 Manipulating and selecting sets of stability criteria
234
Figure 19.1: Set of stability requirements
The columns have the following meaning:
Name
The names of the different sets of criteria can be defined and altered by the user. In the example, one name
appears twice; these are sets of criteria that are applicable to different calculations, but originate from the
same regulations. The user could also define different names here. By the <Enter> key (or mouse double
click) one goes one level deeper into the stability crietrion, where all specific parameters can be given. This
menu is discussed in section 19.3 on page 238, Manipulating individual criteria.
Selected
The different sets of criteria can be selected individually. This enables fast switching between different
sets of criteria for the output of calculations. Upon selecting the cell in this column a popup menu will
open up (from which an example is depicted below) which enables selecting a criterion set, for the types of
calculations as defined in the column ‘Applicable for’.
Valid for
This column shows the type of calculations to which a set of criteria applies. Changing the applicability of
a set of calculations can be done through a popup menu, from which an example is depicted in the second
figure below.
Intermediate results
In this column it can be specified whether and how intermediate results should be written to text file (with
extension .str). As such a file may becomes rather bulky, it is possible to rewrite the file each time again, in
which case the previous intermediate results will be lost. This file will only be created in conjunction with
the modules Loading, Hopstab and Damstab.
Comment
In this column the user can define additional comments.
Figure 19.2: Selecting sets of criteria
Figure 19.3: Choose applicability of criteria
Furthermore, this menu contains a number of menu bar functions:
• With [Merge] two sets of criteria can be merged. This can sometimes prove to be handy when manipulating
criteria sets, or in combination with import or export actions.
• The [General] option provides more information on the set of criteria on the selected row, in a popup window
as depicted in the example below.
• With [Standard], standard stability criteria can be created, this is further discussed in section 19.2 on the
following page, Select standard stability criteria.
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19.2 Select standard stability criteria
235
• [File] has two sub options: import and export, which can be applied to read or write a set of criteria from or
to another PIAS criteria file. This option can, for example, be used to exchange a non-standard set of criteria
with another ship or project.
Figure 19.4: General information of a criteria set
19.2
Select standard stability criteria
This function - activated by [Standard] in the window of criteria sets - will add a set of criteria to the already
existing sets. Through popup menus a choice is made from the predefined sets of standard criteria for intact or
damaged stability. First the choice for intact or damage stability criteria is made, as illustated in the figure below.
Subsequenlty, depending on the choice, a popup menu with the available predefined sets of intact or damaged
stability opens up, this will be discussed in the next sections.
Figure 19.5: Chocse for intact or damage stability criteria
19.2.1
Standard stability criteria intact stability
A number of standard stability requirements have been preprogrammed, an overview is presented in the figure
below, followed by a short reference to the sources of the requirements.
Figure 19.6: Standard criteria for intact stability
IMO Intact Stability Code 2008
Intact Stability Code 2008, virtually identical to its predecessors IMO A.749 and IMO A.562. Comes in two
flavours: for ships with a ‘normal’ breadth/height ratio and for vessels with a large B/H ratio. These rules
contain a subcriterion, stating that the statical angle due to wind may not be larger than 80% of the angle
of deck immersion. Traditionally, and also today, PIAS determines this angle at Lpp/2. However, in 2006
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19.2 Select standard stability criteria
236
it appeared that a regulatory body may require that the effect of trim is included. In that case the user will
have to apply the variable ‘Angle of deck edge immersion’ instead of ‘Angle of deck immersion at L/2’ in
this criterion.
NSI beam trawlers
According to BadS 124/1977: 20% added to the standard criteria.
High-Speed Craft Code for multihulls
International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft. MSC.36(63), 20 May 1994.
Criteria for vessels with timber deck cargo
Code of Safe Practice for Ships Carrying Timber Deck Cargoes, IMO res. A.715(17), November 1991.
Grain stability
International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk, MSC.23(59), 1 January 1994.
Unmanned Pontoons acc. to IMO MSC/Circ.503
IMO A.749(18), 4 nov 1993: Code on intact stability for all types of ships covered by IMO instruments.
Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units, IMO res. A.649 (16), 16
october 1989.
Offshore criteria according to HSE
Criteria for offshore vessels according to HSE (DoE) and NMD.
NMD 2007 anchor handling criteria
These criteria evaluate a complete loading case (which is ship & anchor chain force) for compliance with
NMD’s Guidelines for immediate measures on supply ships and tugs that are used for anchor handling
(2007). The anchor chain force should be defined acting at CL, because the NMD criteria require a certain
ratio between the lever at the top of the GZ curve and the lever at the intersection between righting and
heeling levers. In order for this ratio to appear, one should not include the heeling moment by placing the
anchor chain force off-centerline. So the chain force should be assumed to exert on the real chain position
longitudinally and vertically, but always at center line. By the way, with only the application of these criteria
the maximum allowable anchor chain force is not determined, for that purpose module Maxchain, can be
used.
ISO sailing yachts
ISO/DIS 12217, stability and buoyancy assessment and categorization, Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length
greater than or equal to 6 m, 2000-10-05.
ISO motor yachts
ISO/DIS 12217, stability and buoyancy assessment and categorization, Part 1: Non-sailing boats of 6 m
length of hull and over, 2000-10-05.
Inland waterway passenger vessels (Rhine)
According to Binnenschepenbesluit, Stbl. 466, or, alternatively, according to Bundesamt für Verkehr,
Switzerland
Novel Inland waterway passenger vessels (Rhine)
These requirements are being developed and will be implemented if the final version is available (2003).
US Navy Criteria (DDS 079-1)
Specific criteria for American naval vessels.
Dutch Navy LCF criteria
Specific criteria for some vessels of the Royal Dutch Navy.
Van Harpen navy criteria
Stability criteria for the Royal Dutch Navy marine according to Report Nr. 21183/21021/SB of the Ministry
of Defence.
NES 109 navy criteria (either issue 3 or issue 4)
NES 109
19.2.2
Variants for standard sets of stability requirements
For some standard sets of stability criteria, additional choices must be made. If so, a popup menu appears after
selecting the standard set of criteria. Most of the options in these popup menus determine whether or not additional
criteria are applicable and sometimes a value must be entered for a variable. For a description of the variables
reference is made to section 19.3 on page 238, Manipulating individual criteria and to section 19.5.4 on page 247,
Defining heeling moments to be accounted for. For other sets of standard criteria, an additional choice can be
made, as shown in the example below:
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19.2 Select standard stability criteria
237
Figure 19.7: Parameters ISO motor yachts
Figure 19.8: Supplementary parameters intact stability
19.2.3
Standard stability criteria damaged stability
These are, similar to the intact stability criteria, also presented in a popup window, see the picture below. Followed
by a table with a short reference to the source of the regulations.
Figure 19.9: Sets of predefined criteria for damage stability
Marpol 73/78
Marpol consolidated edition 2006
IBC Code (chemical tankers after July 1 1986)
International Bulk Code 1998.
BCH Code
Code for the Construction and Euipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk, 1993.
IGC Code (Liquid Gas Code)
International Gas Code.
SOLAS 1974 (passenger vessels)
SOLAS 1974
SOLAS 1990 (passenger vessels)
SOLAS 1990
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19.3 Manipulating individual criteria
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Special Purpose Ships (IMO res. A.534)
Special Purpose Ships Code IMO A.534.
IMO A 265 (equivalent method passenger vessels)
Regulation 5 of IMO A.265.
High Speed Craft Code monohulls
Criteria according to HSC Code monohull passenger vessels
High Speed Craft Code multihull passenger vessels
Criteria according to HSC code multihull passenger vessels.
Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
Criteria according to MODU code.
Offshore criteria according to HSE
Criteria for offshore vessels according to HSE (DoE) and NMD.
ADNR 1987 (chemical/gas tankers inland waterway)
Criteria according to ADNR 1987 chemical tankers and gas tankers.
Inland waterway passenger vessels (Rhine)
According to Dutch Binnenschepenbesluit, Stbl. 466, or, alternatively according to Bundesamt für Verkehr,
Switserland.
US Navy Criteria (DDS 079-1)
Specific criteria for American naval vessels.
Dutch Navy LCF criteria
Specific criteria for Dutch naval vessels.
Van Harpen navy criteria
Stability criteria for the Royal Dutch Navy according to Report Nr. 21183/21021/SB of Dutch Ministry of
Defence.
NES 109 navy criteria
NES 109
ADNR 1987 Inland Waterway Vessels
ADNR
19.3
Manipulating individual criteria
A set of criteria can be manipulated by selecting the set from the menu, Defined sets of stability criteria. This will
open a menu with the individual criteria for this set:
Figure 19.10: Defining stability criteria
Columns of the stability criteria definition menu
1 Plot
2 Description
3 Types of basic criteria
5 Valid up to statical angle
6 Critical (toolbar function)
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19.3 Manipulating individual criteria
19.3.1
239
Plot
For every individual criterion the user may choose to draw a GZ curve in the output. This is only useful for some
types of criteria, such as a certain area under the curve or a static angle of inclination due to a (wind or other)
heeling moment. In the tables of maximum allowable KG’ values, no curves are drawn at all. If this option is
not selected for any criterion, a GZ curve is still drawn in the output for the stability calculations for a loading
condition, only without any hatching of areas etc.
19.3.2
Description
For each criterion a name can be defined and altered. This name is used in different places in the output.
19.3.3
Types of basic criteria
The available types of basic stability criteria can be selected from a popup menu. This menu appears if the user
selects the appropriate cell:
Figure 19.11: Basic types of criteria
For each criterion a number of parameters can be set. Where in the outline below phrases like ‘a certain value’
are used, this means that the user can freely define the parameter in question.
No criterion
No criterion is automatically selected for a newly added criterion, so that if a requirement is not explicitly
defined, (including type), it will not influence the calculation.
Upright G’M
The G’M value at 0° must have a certain value.
G’M at a specific angle
The G’M at a certain angle of inclination must have a certain value.
Longitudinal G’M
The longitudinal G’M in upright position must have a certain value.
GZ somewhere a certain value
Within a certain range, the GZ value must be larger than a certain value somewhere.
GZ everywhere a certain value
Within a certain range, the GZ value must be larger than a certain value everywhere.
GZ > X x sin(ϕ)
Within a certain range, the GZ value must be larger than a certain value times the sinus of the angle of
inclination somewhere.
GZ a specific value at a specific angle
The GZ must be larger than a certain value at a certain angle.
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19.3 Manipulating individual criteria
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Top of the GZ curve at a specific angle
The top of the GZ curve must lie beyond a certain angle.
Area (Dynamical stability)
The area under the GZ curve must have a certain value in a certain range [mrad].
Area ratio GZ curve / wind lever
The ratio of the areas A / B under the GZ curve and the wind lever respectively must have a certain value
within in a certain range.
Figure 19.12: Area ratio GZ curve/ wind lever
Area ratio windward leeward
The ratio of the areas A / B enclosed by the GZ curve and the wind lever, calculated from a certain rollback
angle windward, to a certain angle to lee must have a certain value.
Figure 19.13: Area ratio windward leeward
Static angle of inclination
The static angle of inclination must be less than a certain value.
Angle of vanishing stability
The angle of vanishing stability must have a certain value.
Range of the GZ curve
The range of the positive part of the GZ curve must have a certain value, within a certain range.
Dynamical leeward angle with beam wind
The roll angle to lee due to wind may have a certain maximum value, calculated from a certain rollback
angle windward, with a certain factor for wind gust.
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19.3 Manipulating individual criteria
241
Figure 19.14: Dynamic angle leeward with beam wind
The allowable angle leeward due to rolling under the influence of wind is assessed via the hatched surfaces.
The area on the right side of the graph equals the area on the left side of the curve.
Note: The wind heeling lever is multiplied by a ‘wind gust factor’, see the differences in the wind heeling
levers at section 19.5.4.1 on page 247, Wind lever. Both levers are multiplied by the cosine of the heeling angle in
the example.
Residual freeboard at midship
The remaining freeboard at half length (as determined from the depth and breadth in Hulldef) must have a
certain value at the static angle of inclination.
Distance to deck
The distance from the waterline to the deckline (as determined from the depth and breadth in Hulldef) must
have a certain value at the static angle of inclination.
Distance to special points
The distance from the waterline to openings or margin line points (as defined in Hulldef) must have a certain
value at the static angle of inclination.
Distance to V-line points
The distance from the waterline to V-line points (as defined in Hulldef, see section 9.1.8 on page 155, Openings) must have a certain value at the static angle of inclination, with a certain roll margin.
STIX (stability coefficient sailing yachts)
The coefficient according to the STIX formula must have a certain value.
Roll period
The roll period as calculated from selected formulae must
√ have a certain value. Available are estimations
according to the Irish Maritime Authority (T = 0.7 x B / G’M), and those according to the Intact Stability
Code.
Stability ratio with/without waves
The ratio of areas under the GZ curves for calm water and in waves may not exceed a certain value.
Table of externally defined maximum allowable KG’ values
The KG’ value must be larger than according to user-defined tables. See also under section 19.5.4.6 on
page 248, Whether or not to apply heeling moments.
Divide further in subcriteria
A criterion of this type can be defined as a set of criteria of all listed types. Such a set or subset of criteria
can be treated, manipulated and defined as an independent set of criteria. It is even possible to create subsets
within subsets.
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19.4 Defining the parameters of the stability criteria
19.3.4
242
Valid up to statical angle
This column is only valid for the criterion ‘table of externally defined maximum allowable KG values’, because
here it can be given up to which statical angle of inclination this table is valid.
19.3.5
Critical (toolbar function)
The toolbar function [Critical] determines whether the most or least critical criterion is normative. In most cases all
criteria should be complied with, in which case the bottom line in the window reads ‘The GZ curve must comply
with all criteria’. However, it may occur that only one of the requirements needs to be complied with, which makes
the bottom line to display ‘The GZ curve only needs to comply with one of the criteria’.
19.4
Defining the parameters of the stability criteria
For each individual criterion, all parameters can be defined. The type of criterion determines which value is
checked, how this is done, etc. The general structure of the menu for defining the parameters per criterion is
explained by the example of the wind criterion of the Intact Stability Code:
Figure 19.15: Example of definition per criterion
19.4.1
Description
The first rule contains the user-defined description, see also section 19.3 on page 238, Manipulating individual
criteria . The description can be changed through this menu.
19.4.2
Type
The second line contains the type of basic criterion as defined in the menu of section 19.2.3 on page 237, Standard
stability criteria damaged stability . The type of criterion cannot be changed in this menu.
19.4.3
Parameters
Depending on the type of criterion, a number of rows containing the parameters for the concerning criterion
follows. In this example there are three user-defined parameters; maximum angle to lee, roll angle windward and
wind gust factor. Setting these parameters is discussed extensively in section 19.5 on page 244, The nature of the
stability criterion parameters . An overview of possible parameters and their meaning is given in section 19.5.1 on
page 244, Types of parameters.
19.4.4
Moments
For each criterion different types of heeling moments can be accounted for (wind heeling moment, turning circle
moment, etcetera). Depending on the type of moment, other settings may apply. Defining these moments and their
settings is described in section 19.5.4 on page 247, Defining heeling moments to be accounted for.
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19.4 Defining the parameters of the stability criteria
19.4.5
243
Bollard pull
At this option the trend of the heeling moment of the bollard pull, over the angles of inclination, can be specified.
Possible choices are:
•
•
•
•
No bollard pull
Linear moment, so constant for all angles of inclination.
Moment decreasing with the cosine of the angle of inclination.
Moment decreases according to the formula from the ‘Commonwealth of Australian Gazette no. P3 (May
11, 1981) sect 8, C10’: moment = vertical lever ∗ cos(ϕ+30) + breadth towing hook from CL ∗ sin(ϕ +30).
Furhermore, it can also be specified which vertical lever should be used to be multiplied with the bollard force,
in order to obtain the heeling moment. Options are:
• The distance between towing hook and the point halfway between draft and the (virtual) keel point, which
can be specified with one of the hull definition modules (see Hulldef ).
• The distance between towing hook and half the draft
• The distance between towing hook and the COG of the lateral area, which will be computed from the
underwater contour shape of the first defined wind contour.
19.4.6
Applicability of the criterion
For each criterion the GZ curve it can be specified whether the criterion should be applied on the GZ curve only,
or the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling moments.
19.4.7
Applicable for a minimum number of damaged compartments
Some criteria for damage stability are only applicable if more than a certain number of compartments are damaged.
This number can be set in this row.
19.4.8
Applicable to a maximum number of damaged compartments
Some criteria for damage stability are only applicable if less than a certain number of compartments are damaged.
This number can be set in this row.
19.4.9
Wave influence
Some criteria may be applicable to the vessel in a wave. The way to account for a wave can be defined through a
popup menu;
Figure 19.16: Wave properties
If a wave crest or wave trough is selected, the amplitude must also be specified (on the same row). The GZ
curve is then calculated for this criterion with the vessel in a wave with the defined amplitude and a wave length of
twice the vessel length, with the crest, respectively the through at half the vessel’s length.
If the mean of wave crest and trough is selected, the GZ curve is calculated twice (for a wave crest and a wave
trough) and for each angle of inclination, the average GZ value is calculated. The criterion is then evaluated for
the GZ curve constructed in the described way.
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19.5 The nature of the stability criterion parameters
19.5
244
The nature of the stability criterion parameters
Attention
It is advised to study this section thoroughly to avoid misunderstandings. Especially due to the way parameters can be defined, as described in this section, checking stability criteria has become extremely flexible
in PIAS. Unfortunately, the increased freedom involves increased complexity. Therefore, read the manual
carefully in general and this section in particular
19.5.1
Types of parameters
This section describes the possible parameters that can be defined depending on the type of basic requirement.
Parameter here means: the quantity appearing in the left column, in the rows directly under the ‘type of criterion’.
Metacentric height
Inclination of the tangent of the GZ curve. [m/rad].
At angle
The angle at which a parameter must reach a certain value [degrees].
Longitudinal metacentric height
Metacentric height in longitudinal sense [m].
Righting lever
Righting moment divided by displacement[m].
Between start angle
Start angle of the range in which a parameter must reach a certain value [degrees].
And end angle
Final angle of the range in which a parameter must reach a certain value [degrees].
The value for X
Factor x for a basic requirement in which the key parameter varies, for example with the angle of inclination,
in the type of basic criterion: GZ > X ∗ sin(ϕ). In this example: [m].
Angle of maximum GZ
The angle belonging to the maximum GZ value [degrees].
Area
Area under the GZ curve [mrad].
Area ratio
Ratio of areas under GZ curves or GZ curve and a wind heeling lever curve [-].
Static angle of inclination
Static angle of inclination at equilibrium (For damage stability at belonging stage of flooding) [degrees].
Angle of vanishing stability
The angle beyond which the GZ becomes negative or the angle at which the open openings submerse if that
is smaller [degrees].
Range of the GZ curve
Range for the positive part of the GZ curve [degrees].
Maximum leeward angle
Allowable angle to lee for assessment of the dynamic wind heeling [degrees].
Windward rollback angle
Angle windward for assessment of the dynamic wind heeling [degrees].
Wind gust factor
Multiplier for wind heeling lever due to constant wind pressure, to account for a wind gust for assessment
of the dynamic wind heeling [-].
Residual freeboard at midship
Freeboard at 1/2 Lpp at the static angle of inclination [m].
Distance to deck
Required distance from the waterline to the defined deck line points (see section 9.1.9 on page 155, Deck
line) [m].
Only outside damaged region
The deck line or other points within the length of the damaged part (to be defined in the appropriate module
for damage stability) will be taken into consideration, depending on the choice made here [-].
Only applicable to deck at centerline
Defined points are considered at the defined breadth or at breadth=0, depending on the choice made here [-].
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19.5 The nature of the stability criterion parameters
245
Distance to special points
Required distance from the waterline to the defined special points (as defined at ‘openings’ in Hulldef) [m].
Type of special point
The type of special point for which this requirement is applicable can be selected here [-].
Distance to V-line points
Required distance from the waterline to the defined special points (as defined at ‘openings’ in Hulldef) [m].
Roll margin
Increase of static heeling angle, for which the V-line points must have the defined distance to the waterline
[degrees].
Stability index STIX
Required value for the stability index [-].
Roll period
Required roll period [s].
Estimation method
Option for choosing the estimation method for the roll period [-].
Stability Ratio
Ratio of the areas under the curves for still water and in waves. [-].
19.5.2
Variables
This section describes how to define the appropriate values for each parameter. Each row contains four user-defined
variables. The first one is always a user-defined number. The remaining three parameters can be either user-defined
figures or calculation results, see below. Some parameters can be evaluated either for the GZ curve, corrected for
heeling moments (including heeling moments) or for the uncorrected GZ curve (excluding heeling moments). This
setting has no effect if no heeling moments are defined for the concerning criterion. Defining the remaining three
parameters is done by means of a popup menu:
Figure 19.17: Parameters for stability criteria
If one of the parameters is selected, the corresponding value is used during evaluation of the concerning criterion. These variables are:
Static angle
Statical angle at equilibrium.
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19.5 The nature of the stability criterion parameters
246
GZ at static angle
GZ value at angle of equilibrium (in case of defined moments).
Top of the GZ curve
Angle for which the largest value for GZ occurs.
GZ at top curve
Largest GZ value.
Angle of vanishing stability
Angle for which the GZ becomes negative.
End of the GZ curve
Largest of the calculated (defined) angles that the GZ is calculated for.
Area
Total area under the positive part of the GZ curve.
Displacement
Displacement (in intact condition).
Remaining lever according Van Harpen
The remaining GZ according to formulae as defined by Van Harpen.
Location remaining lever Van Harpen
Angle for which the remaining lever according Van Harpen occurs.
C-factor container vessels
C factor for container vessels according to the Intact Stability Code. For this factor the vessel should be
defined including hatch coaming (if present).
Rolling angle windward Intact Stability Code
The rolling angle windward as defined in the Intact Stability Code. For application of this parameter, please
verify that in the Hulldef module the correct properties are defined at the applied wind contour (such as bilge
shape and bilge keel area).
Rolling angle windward Russian Register 2014
According to part IV, regulation 2.1.5 of the Rules for the Classification and Construction of Sea-Going Ships
from the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, 2014. This rollback angle is virtually identical to that of
the Intact Stability Code, there is a small difference in the X1 factor, which is given for a somewhat larger
range of B/d. Furthermore, there is an exception for dredgers in regulation 3.8.4.3, which is the correction
factor X3 for the windward rollback angle in case of a restricted area of navigation. If at the definition of a
stability requirement a specific wind pressure is set (see section 19.5.4.1 on the following page, Wind lever
for that) of less than 51.4 kg/m2 , then the navigation area is assumed to be restricted, and hence the X3
applies. It is possible to verify whether X3 has been applied by inspection of the .str file with intermediate
results, because there it will be printed if applicable.
Area supply criteria
The required area under the curve for vessels with a large B/H ratio (alternative requirements according to
the Intact Stability Code) = 0.055 + 0.001 x (30-angle at which the maximum GZ occurs).
Area HSC requirements
The required area under the curve according to the High-Speed Craft Code (res. MSC.36(63) of May 20
1994).
Area MCA small multihull
The required area under the curve according to the MCA small multihull rule (MCA brown code, §11.1.2.←
6.1) = 0.055 + 0.002 x (30-angle at which the maximum GZ occurs).
Area B semi-submersibles
The required area B for semisubs. However, this function has not yet been implemented.
Width2 / (100 X freeboard 2)
Width 2 / (100 X freeboard 2 ). Obviously, the depth should have been correctly defined in Hulldef.
Angle of deck immersion at L/2
The angle where the deck at Lpp/2 is immersed. This function does neither apply to the geometry of the
vessel, nor to the defined deck line. It is simply based on the depth, as specified with the main dimensions.
Angle of deck edge immersion
The angle at which one of the deck line points, as defined in Hulldef, is immersed.
Freeboard
Depth - draft. This value is calculated with the depth as defined in Hulldef .
VCG over VCB
VCG - VCB for zero inclination.
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19.5 The nature of the stability criterion parameters
19.5.3
247
Operators
For each parameter the operator (the calculation to be performed) can be chosen. Choosing the operator is done
via the toolbar option ‘operator’, if the concerning parameter is selected. A popup menu will then appear:
Figure 19.18: Selecting arithmetic operators
Attention
The conventional order of arithmetic does not apply to the use of these operators. The order in which the
operators are evaluated is simply from left to right.
19.5.4
Defining heeling moments to be accounted for
The heeling moments to be included in the calculations can be evaluated separately or combined. If multiple
heeling moments are defined for a criterion, the GZ curve can be corrected (if necessary) for the total of heeling
moments.
19.5.4.1
Wind lever
Selecting the way in which the wind levers are evaluated is done in a popup menu:
Figure 19.19: Selecting type of wind lever
As depicted in the figure above, six types of wind lever functions are predefined:
• None.
• Linear, a straight line. Here also the gradient can be given, which is the inclination of the straight line.
With a gradinet of zero there is no inclination, which makes the wind lever to be constant for all angles
of inclination. If a gradient is given, the wind lever is multiplicated by the factor (1 + angle x gradient).
Assume that for an angle of 40° the wind lever should amount 80% of the lever at 0° , then a gradinet of
-0.005 should be given.
• Cosinus shaped, where the wind lever decreases with the cosinus of the angle of inclination.
• Cosinus square, where the wind lever decreases with the square of the cosinus of the angle of inclination.
• Cosinus cube, where the wind lever decreases with the cube of the cosinus of the angle of inclination.
• Van Harpen, where the wind lever follows van Harpens formulae (0.25 + 0.75 x cos(angle)3 ).
If a wind lever is present the user also should also either select one of the predefined wind pressures (as defined
in the Hulldef module, at the wind data section), or give a specific wind pressure, in in kg/m2 . Alternatively, a
specific wind pressure in kg/m2 can be directly specified. The background if this parameters is discussed under
lemma ‘specific wind pressure’ in section 18.1 on page 230, Input data for the wind heeling moments computations.
In addition, a multiplier for the set windlever can be specified. Als this parameter is discussed in the just
mentioned section, unde the lemma ‘multiplier on the wind lever’.
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19.6 Answers to frequently asked questions on stability assessments
19.5.4.2
248
Grain heeling lever
When for the concerning criterion a grain-heeling lever is defined, this option includes or excludes it in the calculation results for this criterion.
19.5.4.3
Turning circle
If this option is selected, a heeling lever is included for sailing a turning circle. The lever is defined as a constant
to be multiplied with (GK - T/2) for the condition concerned. The lever is multiplied with the cosine of the heeling
angle.
19.5.4.4
Shift of weight
A shift of a weight can be included for evaluation of a criterion. Both weight and dislocation can be defined. The
GZ curve will be calculated including the effect of the dislocated weight.
19.5.4.5
External heeling moment
An external heeling moment can be included. The magnitude of this moment can be defined, and the behavior of
this moment can be selected, similar to the wind lever, see section 19.5.4.1 on the preceding page, Wind lever.
19.5.4.6
Whether or not to apply heeling moments
It has already been discussed that in two occasions it can be specified whether or not to apply the heeling moments:
• For each individual variable, as used to compute the value of a parameter. This is specified with the cell
‘incl. heeling moments’ or ‘excl. heeling moments’.
• For the entire criterion, at the field ‘Applicability’, where ‘the GZ curve only’ or ‘the GZ minus heeling
moments’ can be entered.
These two configurations have a distinct application. The first is valid for the line on which it occurs only,
and determines whether the actual value of the variable should be determined including or excluding the heeling
moment effect. If, for example, in a line the variable ‘statical angle of inclination’ is used, this configuration
determines whether this is the statical angle determined with or without heeling moments.
The second configuration applies to the entire criterion, and determines whether it should be applied on the GZ
curve only, or on the GZ curve corrected for heeling moments. Suppose a criterion requires a minimum value for
the maximum GZ, than this criterion s such is not related to any heeling moment (regardless whether the criterion
value should be derived taking heeling moments into account), so it is applied on the GZ curve only. However,
should the criterion require a minimum lever between GZ curve nd heeling moment instead, then it is applied on
the GZ curve minus the heeling moment.
19.5.5
Input of externally defined tables of maximum allowable VCG’
One particular type of basic criterion, as discussed in section 19.3.3 on page 239, Types of basic criteria, is the
external table of maximum allowable VCG. This criterion can, for example, be used to process maximum allowable
VCGs as determined for the probabilistic damage stability, with the Probdam module, in tables or diagrams - or
in the LocoPIAS on-board loading software. These tables can be defined for multiple trims, while multiple sets of
tables can be defined. Only the selected set is used for the determination of maximum allowable VCG. Maximum
VCG’s for intermediate values are determined by linear interpolation. When draft or trim are outside the defined
area, the nearest values are used, so there is no extrapolation. Please keep in mind that for probabilistic damage
stability according to SOLAS-2009 the VCG’ between the three standard drafts - light, partial and deepest - must
be determined by linear interpolation on G’M. So, in this case these values must be defined at this option as G’M
values.
19.6
Answers to frequently asked questions on stability assessments
19.6.1
The effect of openings
All basic requirements take implicitly and irrevocably into account the non-watertight openings: weathertight
openings may not be submersed at the static angle of inclination. Beyond the angle of submersion of open openings
the curve is terminated, so the GZ in that range is not taken into account when evaluating a requirement.
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November 22, 2014
19.6 Answers to frequently asked questions on stability assessments
19.6.2
249
Virtual inconsistency weather criterion Intact Stability Code
If the criterion ‘Maximum angle in weather criterion Intact Stability Code’ is the determining one, it is possible
that although in the summary of a loading condition the maximum allowable VCG is less than the actual VCG’,
the program reports that the loading condition complies. This effect is caused by the formula for determining the
‘Roll angle windward’ in which the uncorrected VCG (that means, uncorrected for free surface effects) must be
applied, and this value might in a real loading condition differ from the assumption for determining the maximum
allowable VCG (where there is obviously no separation between real and virtually rised VCG).
19.6.3
Extent for determining the minimum lever of the area under the stability curve.
Some damage stability requirements have been nicely conceptualized, but may turn out a bit unexpected in practice.
For example the requirement that ‘within a range of 20° from the statical angle of inclination’ a minimum area or
lever should be present. Take for example the case depicted in the figure below, which shows two GZ curves. The
red one is evidently better than the green one, because of its larger area and smaller statical angle of inclination.
However, the ‘within a range of 20°’ plays foul, because the statical angle is A, which makes ‘plus 20°’ to be
situated at C. And because of the flat character of the GZ in that region the area is small, too small to fulfill the
minimum requirement. With the green curve the statical angle is B, which ‘plus 20°’ leads to D, resulting in a
much larger area. The result is that the better GZ curve does not comply, while the worse does.
Figure 19.20: Two curves of righting levers in damaged condition
As such, this finding is not new, at SARC this phenomenon appeared in 1989 for the first time. And the
solution is simple, by not taking this 20° from the statical angle of inclination, but from any angle between the
statical inclination and the maximum allowable inclination instead. In PIAS this is achieved by subdividing this
kind of criteria in many (more than ten) sub-criteria which each cover a piece of the search area, and taking the
best. For the legislator this is also charted waters, as illustrated by the text of MSC/Circular.406/Rev.1 - Guidelines
on Interpretation of the IBC Code and the IGC Code - (adopted on 29 June 1990), which reads: ‘....The 20° range
may be measured from any angle commencing between the position of equilibrium and the angle of 25°....’. Also
classification societies might be aware of this effect, given the figure below with an interpretation by Germanischer
Lloyd. However, it is never guaranteed that this position is recognized in all cases, so it is advised to inquire in
advance.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
19.7 On the various criteria and parameters
250
Figure 19.21: Interpretation of GL for the calculation of the area under the GZ curve with the IGC code
19.7
On the various criteria and parameters
This manual describes all functionality regarding the (damage) stability criteria. However, in the PIAS implementation a segregation into three ‘packages’ is applied:
• Standard (item 50.200.10 of the price list).
• Naval criteria (50.200.30), everything related to ‘navy’, such as DDS-079, van Harpen and NES-109.
• Extensions 2009 (50.200.40):
– Incorporation of the bollard pull moment into the stability analysis.
– Stability criteria for tugs, according to Bureau Veritas (2006).
– Stability criteria for tugs, according to the Commonwealth of Australian Gazette no. P3 (11 mei 1981)
sect 8, C10.
– The parameter trim angle, to accomodate the combined heel and trim, as required by chapter 17.07 of
the ROSR (vessels on the river Rhine).
– The parameter Area MCA small multihull. This is similar to the required area for supply vessels, but
with a small difference: 0.055 + 0.002 x (30-angle at which maximum GZ occurs) instead of 0.055 +
0.001 x (angle at which maximum GZ occurs). Is applied in the MCA small boat code (brown code)
for multihull vessels (§ 11.1.2.6.1).
– Stability criteria set SOLAS passenger vessels s=1. The underlying criteria can also be set without this
extension package 2.h.3, but with it goes with one command.
Finally, on the completeness of the stability criteria the following disclaimer statements are made:
• The sets of predefined standard criteria do not offer a complete and up-to-date survey of all stability criteria.
The user should always check the applicable stability criteria with the authorities concerned.
• Because criteria are often prone to interpretation, users must check for themselves that the requirements
are defined according to the prevailing interpretation. Users are able to change selected predefined sets of
criteria to meet their own interpretation.
• A consequence of the flexibility of the system is that it is not possible to check whether input data are realistic
or even possible. It is, for instance, possible to define contradictory criteria. PIAS users are expected to be
capable to investigate whether a certain criterion yields the correct results.
• It is recommended to generate and check intermediate results in case of unclear or unexpected results.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 20
Loading: loading conditions, intact stability,
damage stability and longitudinal strength (elder
module version)
With this module loading conditions can be defined. Stability, longitudinal strength and torsional moment particulars can be calculated for these loading conditions, if the appropriate options are purchased. The results can be
displayed on the screen or printed on paper. Several tools are available to define the loading conditions, such as
automatic tank reading, a graphical interface for tank filling and a common list of weight items. Some of these tools
have to be purchased separately. If an option was not purchased, a message of similar wording will be displayed
when the option is invoked. This program uses a number of general settings (angles of inclination, standard specific gravity of the outside water, etc). It is therefore important to define these values correctly, using the module
described in Config.
This manual chapter still reflects the module version from before the the renewal of PIAS, as it is discussed in
chapter 2 on page 3, PIAS renewals (2012-2014). At this moment these modernizations are being incorporated
into Loading too, while also all functions of Damstab will be integrated into Loading. AT the same time, for the
renewed module a new manual chapter is written, which is chapter 21 on page 261, Loading: loading conditions,
intact stability, damage stability and longitudinal strength.
Intact stability, damage stability & longitudinal strength
1. Graphical User Interface
2. Loading conditions
3. Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
4. Inputdata for hopper stability calculations
5. Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations
6. Input damage stability data
7. Combined output to paper
20.1
Graphical User Interface
Please refer to section 21.1 on page 261, Graphical User Interface.
20.2
Loading conditions
After selecting this option an input screen appears with the names of the defined loading conditions. If no loading
conditions have been defined yet a message will appear. New loading condition can be added, they will be assigned
an automatically generated name, which can be modified. Every loading condition must have a unique name, for
instance ‘Vessel with 10% consumables’.
The menu exists of three columns:
Selected intact
Shows if the loading condition has to be calculated with the intacte stability calculations.
20.2 Loading conditions
252
Selected damage
Shows if the loading condition has to be calculated with the damage stability calculations.
Name of the condition
Has to be a unique name.
The first two columns define whether the loading condition is selected (for the output options in the main
menu) and the third column is the name of the loading condition. A loading condition can be selected by selecting
the appropriate cell in the menu. Only selected loading conditions will be calculated. For further definition,
manipulation or calculations, select the loading condition.
20.2.1
Define/edit weight items
An input window appears with all weight items for this loading condition. If no weight items are defined, a message
is displayed. If weight items in the common list are defined as part of light ship, the first row will be the total of
these light ship weights. Changing this light ship weight can only be done via the common list of weight items.
Weight items can be modified, added and removed via options in the toolbar. The input screen has 13 columns: A
description of the columns follows below:
• No,
– A number indicates a weight item from the common list. Changing such a weight item may affect
other loading conditions. Typing a number in this column will insert the weight from the common list
on this row; see earlier in this manual.
– A T indicates that a weight item is read from the tank tables. Typing a T in this column will open a
menu to select a defined tank. Filling percentage, weight, volume and specific gravity can be changed
for each tank; the remaining values are adjusted to the most recent input. The following message may
occur: The tank has been calculated with few steps at the ends, the maximum local free surface
moment has been taken. This message indicates that the tank was calculated with a large increment
of the sounding, see also Newlay and Config .
– A K indicates that a weight item was defined using the specific crane module.
– Other (combinations of) characters indicate that a weight item was defined using other specific modules.
• Name : Define the name of the weight item here, as in this example : ‘crew and complement’
• Weight, VCG, LCG and TCG : Enter the weight in tons, and the centers of gravity (Height, Length and
Breadth respectively) in meters from baseline, aft perpendicular and centerline (SB = positive, PS=negative).
• FSM : The Free Surface Moment in tonm. This value can be defined for weight items not included in the
light ship weight. For a tank this value is automatically determined from a pre-calculated tank table.
• Aft,Fore : For longitudinal strength calculations the aft and forward boundary of the weight item have to be
defined, in meters from the aft perpendicular. When a weight item is read from a tank table, the fore and aft
boundary are taken from the tank definition. For stability calculations these variables are of no importance,
see further in this section where the weight distribution is explained.
• Grp : In this column the number of the weight group is defined, please refer to section 25.1 on page 279,
Weight groups for a discussion of this subject.
• LS : If this column is set to ‘yes’, the weight item in that row is part of the light ship weight. The total light
ship weight is the summation of all weight items in the common list that are part of light ship.
• Tnk : This column indicates if a weight item is a fluid in a defined tank. If so, the columns Perc., S.G., Li.←
Lev. and Volume can be defined: Filling percentage, Specific Gravity (ton/m3), Liquid Level from base and
volume in m3 respectively. This data is automatically calculated from the last input in one of the columns.
Toolbar options :
• aDvice : This option gives a fast check on draught, trim and initial stability for a loading condition. The
following screen appears (if the option has been purchased) :
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20.2 Loading conditions
253
Figure 20.1: Totals, Differences and advices
The column ‘actual condition’ displays the actual particulars of this loading condition. In the last column you
can define desired values for draught, trim, VCG’ and heeling angle. If the draftmarks have been defined in Config
, the drafts on these marks are calculated and can be edited. The column ‘differences’ displays the differences
between the desired and actual values. The column ‘advise’ indicates a correction weight for the loading condition,
to correct for the differences in the ‘actual’ values compared to the ‘desired’ ones. If this menu is closed, this hint
is displayed while editing the list of weight items. The heeling angle is calculated using the actual G’M. ‘>6’
or ‘<-6’ means the value is too large to give an accurate estimation based on the G’M. NB: The listed angle of
inclination can differ from the one calculated in the normal output , as there the angle of inclination is calculated
from the GZ curve, accounting for ‘free trim’, actual center of gravity of fluids in tanks, etc.
With button ‘Re-calculate’ the values of the desired condition will be re-calculated, without leaving this menu.
• Subtotal: This option gives an overview of all weight groups with accompanying weights, centers of gravity
and free surface moments.
• cArgo has the following submenus:
– [Tanks]: selecting this option opens a Grphical User Interface (GUI) for manipulating tank contents. In
section 22.1 on page 264, Graphical interface for tank filling this option is discussed into details.
– [crAnes], to define crane particulars and to derive weight items for cranes and crane loads. Details of
thi sfunction are addressed in section 22.2 on page 267, Crane loading. The weight items with a K in
the first column will be removed and replaced with weight items as determined when using this option.
– [Containers], which contains an aid to easily load containers in the ship graphically. This option is
somewhat specific, please inquire at SARC for details.
– [General cargo], which is another specific graphical tool, aimed to assist loading general cargo.
– [Roro], a toolto easily load cars and trucks in the ship graphically. Also rather specific.
– [Grain], which is an aid to easily read data from pre-defined tables of grain heeling moments.
– Others: in specific cases, more options are available that have been developped on request of the user.
These options are not dealt with in this general manual.
• cOmmon list has the following submenus:
– Edit common list: This option opens a menu with the weight items of the ‘common list’ and these
items can be edited.
– Read common list: When a weight item is selected, it will be included in the loading condition. NOTE
: This item is still part of the common list. This means that when the item is changed in the loading
condition, the item will also be changed in the common list and in other loading conditions.
• Misc has the following submenus:
– Fill tanks: With this option the filling degree and specific gravity can be changed for all tanks per
weight group. To apply the changes, set in the column after the active cell ‘Apply’ from ‘No’ to ‘Yes’.
You can also change the complete column at once by using ‘Select-all’/‘Deselect-all’.
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20.3 Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
254
– fsm tYpe: Fsm tYpe opens a menu with several options to read the fsm. Default the free surface
moment is read from the pre-calculated tank. With this option it is possible to override this standard
free surface moment using one of the following options:
* Free surface moment = 0.
* Free surface moment = maximum value from tank volume table.
* Free surface moment = 0 when the filling percentage is larger than or equal to 98%. These options
facilitate dealing with the requirements as listed in section 3.3 of the Amendments to the Code
on Intact Stability for All Types of Ships Covered by IMO Instruments Resolution MSC.75(69)
amending resolution A.749(18). Note that the ‘actual centres of gravity of fluids in tanks’ (if
applicable) overrides the free surface moment as established using these options.
– Tank list: This option opens a menu with tanks with calculated tank sounding tables. Selecting a tank
in this menu will include it in the loading condition.
– Connect: Adds the selected weight item to the (bottom of the) common list of weight items.
– Disconnect: Make a ‘free’ weight item of a weight item that has been defined as tank, ‘common list’
item or using other specific modules.
– Switch: This option gives an alternative following order of the columns in the menu. This can be handy
when defining the required data for the longitudinal strength calculations.
• displaY : If there is a surface model (TRI.-file), a 3D view of the ship is drawn, including the waterline
surface. The data from the bottomline with hydrostatics is used. This line can be put on using the ‘←
Configurations’ module. The surface model can be generated by FAIRWAY.
Finally:
An additional bottom line can be shown in the menu. The following information can be displayed: The
corrected GM, the statical angle of inclination (up to 6 degrees), draughts at aft and fore perpendicular, mean
draught and trim. These values are calculated in the same fashion as the ones presented using the ‘Total’ option.
These values are updated with every modification to the loading condition. For complex vessels, this can cause
some delay.
With the general configurations in Config this additional line can be switched on or off.
20.2.2
Weight items of the common list
An input screen appears with all weight items for this loading condition. If no weight items are defined, a message
is displayed. If weight items in the common list are defined as part of light ship, the first row will be the total of
these light ship weights. Changing this light ship weight can only be done via the common list of weight items.
Weight items can be modified, added and removed via options in the toolbar. The input screen has 13 columns: A
description of the columns follows below: these columns largely correspond to those in section 20.2.1 on page 252,
Define/edit weight items. A description of the remaining and different columns follows below:
Toolbar options :
• Light : Using this option, light ship weight items can be read from file, that can be created using a spreadsheet
program. The items defined in the file will then be added to the list of common weight items, as part of the
light ship weight. The name of the ASCII file is PIASfilenaam.KLM. Be sure to save the file as ASCII text
and that the last line contains zeros and a final ‘stop’.
• pRint: Print common list on paper.
• spEcial: This option can be used to correct free surface moment and set transverse center of gravity to zero,
even when the item is defined as fluid in a tank. Note: This option should be used with great care and only
in exceptional cases. The user should verify that this option yields.
20.3
Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
After selecting this option an input screen appears with the names of the defined loading conditions. If no loading
conditions have been defined yet a message will appear. New loading condition can be added, they will be assigned
an automatically generated name, which can be modified. Every loading condition must have a unique name, for
instance ‘Vessel with 10 % consumables’.
The menu exists of 2 columns. The first column defines whether the loading condition is selected (for the
output options in the main menu). A loading condition can be selected by selecting the appropriate cell in the
menu. Options 3 to 6 in the main menu are applicable for all selected loading conditions. For further definition,
manipulation or calculations, select the loading condition.
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20.3 Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
255
Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
1. Settings intact stability
2. Settings longitudinal strength
3. Settings damage stability
4. Definition of weight groups
5. Definition maximum allowable shearforces and bending moments
6. Define sections for sketches of tank contents
7. Define external forces such as anchor chains
8. Re-read ALL tank capacity tables for existing tank weight items
20.3.1
Settings intact stability
Figure 20.2: Setup for loading conditions
• User-specified scale of GZ-plot: The GZ-plot of all loading conditions will by defaulted by the program to
fit the paper, but if this option is answered with ‘yes’ you can specify a fixed scale.
• Print moments in the list of weight items: Answer ‘yes’ to have the moments printed of all weight items in
the loading conditions.
• Print % of filling and S.W. in weight list: If this option is set to ‘Yes’ each loading condition will be printed
including the percentage of filling and the specific weight of the tank contents.
• Connect points of GZ-curve with straight line segments: By default points of the GZ-curve are connected
by a smooth curve. If this option is set, straight line segments will be drawn at the GZ plots for intact and
damage stability,
• Print distances to margin line: With this option set to ‘Yes’ the distances from the waterline to the margin
line, as defined in Hulldef , will be printed.
• With column ‘ullage’ (to be used with grain holds): With this switch set to ‘yes’, the input list of weight
items of the PIAS module for intact stability includes an additional column, which can be used to enter the
ullage of a grain hold.
• Show hydrostatics below list of weight items: ‘Intact stability and longitudinal strength’ can be equipped
with an additional line, which shows the most relevant hydrostatic data: G’M, heeling angle (maximum of 6
degrees), draft and trim. With this option set to ‘yes’ this line is shown, which, by the way, may slow down
the interaction speed in menu 2.1 (because at each modification of a weight item the hydrostatics have to be
re-calculated).
• Default percentage reading tank tables:
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20.3 Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
20.3.2
256
Settings longitudinal strength
Figure 20.3: Setup for longitudinal strength
• Including plots of shear forces, bending moments etc.: If you answer with ‘yes’ besides tables of results,
also plots of shear forces, moments etc. will be produced.
• Output increment: Enter the longitudinal interval in meter, used to print the results of the strength calculations. For example 5.50 will print the results at 0, 5.50, 11 m etc. from App.
• Including calculation of sagging: Answer ‘yes’ for calculation of the deflection and the sagging at the defined
interval. This option has to be purchased additionally to the longitudinal strength calculation module.
• Print parts of light ship summarized: By default all items, which form the total light ship, are printed. Here
it can be selected to print only the total light ship data.
• Weight item boundaries change with LCG: All particulars of each single weight item can be specified,
including LCG and aft and forward boundaries of the weight item. By default the LCG and boundaries are
not linked, but by specifying ‘yes’ at this option, the boundaries are shifted the same amount as the LCG,
when the latter is modified.
• Maximum allowable torsion area (Tonm.m): Classification may impose a maximum on the maximal area
under the torsion moment curve. Such a maximum, which e.g. is called AST by Germanischer Lloyd, can
be defined at this option.
20.3.3
Settings damage stability
Figure 20.4: Setup for damage stability
• User-defined scale of GZ-curve in damaged condition: By default, the GZ-plot of all damaged conditions
will be determined by the program so that it fits nicely on the paper, but if this option is answered with ‘yes’
a fixed scale can be specified by the user.
• Openings and marginlines sorted in output: If openings or points of the margin line are defined in Hulldef
, these points will be printed in every damage stability calculation. If you answer ‘yes’ at this option these
points will be sorted in way by decreasing danger.
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20.4 Inputdata for hopper stability calculations
20.3.4
257
Definition of weight groups
Use of ‘weight groups’ is discussed in section 25.1 on page 279, Weight groups.
20.3.5
Definition maximum allowable shearforces and bending moments
In this menu the maximum allowable shear force, maximum allowable hogging- and sagging moment and maximum allowable torsional moments. are defined as a function of the length, both for sea and harbour condition
if applicable. The defined values are used in the conclusion of the longitudinal strength calculation and torsional
moments calculation. If a criterium is defined zero this point is not included in the calculation.
For example:
Long.pos
Torsional moment
0
0
10
1200
50
0
100
800
This serie defines a straight line through (10,1200) and (100,800). This is for example usefull if the position
of maximum allowable values of torsional moments differ from the positions of read-out points for maximum
allowable bending moments. Between two values, intermediate points can be linearly interpolated by means
toolbar option [Lininterpol]. Used abbreviations used in this menu are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
20.3.6
Long.pos - Longitudinal distance from App [m]’;
Sea SF+ - Max. allowable shearforce seagoing conditions (pos) [ton]
Sea SF- - Max. allowable shearforce seagoing conditions (neg) [ton]
Sea M.Hog - Max. allowable hogging moment seagoing condition [tonm]
Sea M.Sag - Max. allowable sagging moment seagoing condition [tonm]
Hbr SF+ - Max. allowable shearforce harbour condition (pos) [ton]
Hbr SF- - Max. allowable shearforce harbour condition (neg) [ton]
Hbr M.Hog - Max. allowable hogging moment harbour condition [tonm]
Hbr M.Sag - Max. allowable sagging moment harbour condition [tonm]
Torsion M.- Max. allowable torsional moment [tonm]
Define sections for sketches of tank contents
If this option has been purchased, it enables you to define horizontal and vertical cross sections, which are used
to plot tank sketches with each loading condition for filled tanks. The type of hatching is defined per group at
section 25.1 on page 279, Weight groups. Each tank with any amount of liquid will be fully hatched, so there is no
distinction between partly and fully filled tanks.
20.3.7
Define external forces such as anchor chains
Particulars to be used at the calculation of maximum anchor-handling forces. For the details we refer to the chapter
on the module for the calculation of tables of maximum anchor forces, Maxchain .
20.3.8
Re-read ALL tank capacity tables for existing tank weight items
Existing weight items which have ALREADY been read from tank tables will be read from the tank tables again
after selecting this option. This option is very powerful in case existing ‘read tanktables’ are changed due to
changes in the tank dimensions.
20.4
Inputdata for hopper stability calculations
In due time the module for calculation of the stability of hopper vessels will be included integraly (see Hopstab ).
20.5
Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations
In due time the module for generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations will be included
integraly (see Loadgen ).
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20.6 Input damage stability data
20.6
258
Input damage stability data
Input damage stability data
1. Select and edit damage cases
2. Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
3. Define stages of flooding
4. Print input data of selected damage cases on paper
5. Define sections for sketches of damage cases
6. Drawing of all selected damage cases
20.6.1
Select and edit damage cases
A maximum of 250 damage cases can be defined. One damage case is a collection of compartments which will be
damaged simultaneously. These compartments are defined with the appropriate module from Hulldef. The name
of a damage case can be chosen freely. This way every damage case can be identified on the output. If the column
‘Selected’ is switched to ‘yes’, then the floodability and damage stability calculation will be performed for this
damage case. The input screen can be something like this :
Figure 20.5: Damage cases
Damaged compartments can be selected by clicking the right mouse button or double click the left mouse
button.
By selecting a damage case, the damage case can be specified from the following input screen. This input
screen displays all defined compartments from which a selection can be made for this damage case :
In this example the damage case ‘Sidedamage fr. 81’ consists of the simultaneously flooding of the compartments ‘Cargotank 1 SB’, ‘Hold around cargotank 1’, ‘DB tank 4’ and ‘DB tank 5’.
The following menu options are available :
• Floodingstages : Definition of non-standard intermediate stages of flooding.
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20.6 Input damage stability data
259
• iMport : Import damage cases from :
– Dvcgmax : Calculation of maximum allowable KG’ damage stability criteria.
– Probdam : Probabilistic damage stability for cargo ships.
– Imoa265 : Probabilistic damage stability for passenger ships.
20.6.2
Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
In general, damage cases are not chosen at will, they are derived from the extent of damage as laid down in rules
and regulations instead. Fro example it can be stipulated that a ship has to survive a damage with a length of
10% of the ships length, 1/5 of the vessels breadt and unlimited height. Subsequently it is up to the designer
to identify and define all resulting damage cases. this task can also be preformed with this PIAS function. For
this purpose damage dimensions can be entered. Even multiple sets of damage dimensions, because for different
regions different extents of damage can be applicable (e.g. for the forward 30% of vessel a bottom damage with
a breadth of 5 meter, while for the other 70% a breadth of 3 metere suffices). For each damage dimension can be
entered:
• Description: This name is to recognize this set, and is also assigned to the damage cases generated under
this set.
• Damage type: Three kinds of damage types exist: side damage SB, side damage PS and bottom damage.
• Length: The damage length, the longitudinal extent of damage.
• Penetration: With side damage this is the transverse extent of damage (measured from CWL), with bottom
damage this is the vertical extent of damage (measured from the bottom).
• Dimension: With side damage this is the vertical extent of damage (which, by the way, is unlimited in most
rules). With bottom damage this is the transverse extent of damage, the damage breadth.
• Aft boundary and forward boundary: These are the boundaries of applicability of this dimension set. With
the mentioned example where for the forward 30% antother regime applies that for the other 70%, two
dimension sets have to be defined, one with boundaries aft and 70Lpp, and the other one with boundaries
70Lpp and forward.
Furthermore, two additional functions are available:
• Standard: A utility function, which can be used to calculate a standard dimension quickly. For example, a
rule exists where the damage length is prescribed at 1/3L2/3 . With this function Standard this equation can
be chosen evaluated.
• Generate: With this function the damage cases will be generated.. It is very well possible that more damage
cases than relevant will be generated, for example a damage case ‘engine room’ may exist, containing many
compartments such as minor consumables and slump tanks, as well as a second damage case, which is nearly
identical, although with one missing day tank. This second, slightly smaller, damage case is not so relevant
to calculate, because it may be expected that it will be less critical than the larger damage case. A second
example is that rules may stipulate that damage to the ER, or involving ER-bulkheads, do not have te be
evaluated, but nevertheless they will be generated with PIAS’ Generate function. Such superfluous damage
cases will have to be removed by the program user afterwards.
20.6.3
Define stages of flooding
A maximum of 10 stages of flooding can be defined. A stage of flooding is a percentage of the weight of the
contents of the damaged compartments in the final, this is 100%, stage of flooding. 0% stage of flooding means the
compartments are not damaged at all, so this is exactly as the intact loading condition. The 100% stage of flooding
is calculated automatically and need not be defined at this option. If you do so anyway, the 100% stage of flooding
will be calculated twice. Remember there are two ways of calculating the intermediate stages of flooding when
more than one compartment is damaged. See the configuring module from Config . It is of major importance to
make the correct configurations.
20.6.4
Print input data of selected damage cases on paper
All selected damage cases are printed on paper. Each damage case is printed with the damaged compartments.
20.6.5
Define sections for sketches of damage cases
In this menu the schematic tank plans for output for each damage case can be defined.
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20.7 Combined output to paper
20.6.6
260
Drawing of all selected damage cases
This option will only be available when the module from Hulldef has been purchased including the drawing of a
tank capacity plan.
20.7
Combined output to paper
Not implemented yet.
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 21
Loading: loading conditions, intact stability,
damage stability and longitudinal strength
This module for loading conditions, stability and longitudinal strength is presently beingadapted to th erenewal as
discussed in chapter 2 on page 3, PIAS renewals (2012-2014). This particular manual chapter is currently being
co-developped with the software module. For the factual discussion of the module, for the time being, reference is
made to teh elder chapter, just prior to this one, see chapter 20 on page 251, Loading: loading conditions, intact
stability, damage stability and longitudinal strength (elder.
Intact stability, damage stability & longitudinal strength
1. Graphical User Interface
2. Loading conditions
3. Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
4. Inputdata for hopper stability calculations
5. Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations
6. Input damage stability data
7. Combined output to paper
21.1
Graphical User Interface
Here appears the Graphical User Interface (GUI), which can be considered as the central command window of
Loading, and from which in the figure below an example is shown. This GUI is not strictly indispensible, without it
is very well possible to navigate through Loading with all functions and menu options, however, it has proven to be
rather well-arranged and user friendly. The GUI is basically identical to the LocoPIAS on-board loading software,
which is derived from PIAS. So, for sake of brevity we refer to the LocoPIAS manual, to either the PDF version on
✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴♠❛♥✉❛❧s✴❧♦❝♦♣✐❛s✴❧♦❝♦♣✐❛s❴♠❛♥✉❛❧❴❡♥✳♣❞❢ or the interactive, with video clips, on
✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴♠❛♥✉❛❧s✴❧♦❝♦♣✐❛s✴❤t♠❧❊◆✴✐♥❞❡①✳❤t♠❧. For more general information on Locopias
reference is made to ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴❧♦❝♦♣✐❛s.
21.2 Loading conditions
262
Figure 21.1: Example of the GUI
21.2
Loading conditions
21.2.1
Define/edit weight items
21.3
Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
Input and settings intact stability and longitudinal strength
1. Settings intact stability
2. Settings longitudinal strength
3. Settings damage stability
4. Definition of weight groups
5. Definition maximum allowable shearforces and bending moments
6. Define sections for sketches of tank contents
7. Define external forces such as anchor chains
8. Re-read ALL tank capacity tables for existing tank weight items
21.3.1
Settings intact stability
21.3.2
Settings longitudinal strength
21.3.3
Settings damage stability
21.3.4
Definition of weight groups
Use of ‘weight groups’ is discussed in section 25.1 on page 279, Weight groups.
21.3.5
Definition maximum allowable shearforces and bending moments
21.3.6
Define sections for sketches of tank contents
21.3.7
Define external forces such as anchor chains
21.3.8
Re-read ALL tank capacity tables for existing tank weight items
21.4
Inputdata for hopper stability calculations
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21.5 Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations
21.5
Generation of loading conditions for simulation RoRo operations
21.6
Input damage stability data
263
Input damage stability data
1. Select and edit damage cases
2. Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
3. Define stages of flooding
4. Print input data of selected damage cases on paper
5. Define sections for sketches of damage cases
6. Drawing of all selected damage cases
21.6.1
Select and edit damage cases
21.6.2
Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
21.6.3
Define stages of flooding
21.6.4
Print input data of selected damage cases on paper
21.6.5
Define sections for sketches of damage cases
21.6.6
Drawing of all selected damage cases
21.7
Combined output to paper
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 22
Graphical interfaces for tank filling and crane
loading
Loading contains a number of tools for particular types of loading. Because the explanation on these tools would get
lost within the already extensive Loading chapter, in this chapter their modus operandi will be discussed separately.
The addressed topics are the Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for tank filling, and for crane loads and loading by
crane. In due time, also the container loading tool will be discussed in this chapter.
22.1
Graphical interface for tank filling
The weight item list of Loading, as discussed in section 20.2.1 on page 252, Define/edit weight items, contains a
function [Tanks], which opens a GUI for filling of tanks. This aid is invoked by the [Cargo][Tanks] function from the
top menu bar. A typical window layout is depicted below.
Figure 22.1: Graphical tank filling
Attention
• Not all possible types of windows (as shown above) are included by default.
• If a tank group is selected, only tanks in that group are displayed.
22.1 Graphical interface for tank filling
22.1.1
265
Screen layout
The screen is filled with several smaller windows. A selection of the following window types is included by default.
The screen layout can be modified with option [Window] / [Input window layout]. The window types described in
the following sections can be selected (and their position and size can be defined).
22.1.1.1
List of tanks
The list of tanks, belonging to the selected weight group that are included in the loading condition is presented
here. A tank can be selected by clicking on the name in this list.
22.1.1.2
Hydrostatic particulars
These data are automatically updated from the defined weights and can therefore not be defined directly.
22.1.1.3
Tank information
This window lists the name, weight, volume, center of gravity, etc. of the selected tank. The center of gravity is
calculated from the other input, which can be changed by clicking the appropriate line. An ‘input box’ will appear
to define the desired value.
22.1.1.4
Active horizontal section, Active vertical section, Active cross-section
Active sections show a section over the vessel at the center of gravity of the selected tank. Tanks can be selected
by clicking near their center of gravity. A selected tank will be hatched white in the views. In the cross-section,
the actual fluid level in a tank is indicated.
22.1.1.5
Other sections
These window types show sections at predefined locations. Tanks can be selected by clicking near their center of
gravity.
22.1.1.6
Default window layout
With this option it is possible to enter the number, size and position of the windows when starting the graphical
mode. The maximum number of windows that can be defined is nine. In the first four columns the four sides of
every window can be defined as a percentage of the height and breadth of the main window:
•
•
•
•
Left %: Left side of the window
Bottom %: Lower side of the window
Right %:Right side of the window
Top %: Upper side of the window The column ‘Window’ defines the window type as described above.
Selecting this option will open a selection menu. If the window type is a ‘fixed’ section, the section location
can be defined in the last column.
In figure 2 the settings for the layout of figure 1 are listed. Please note that due to different screen resolutions
and default text size, the appearance on a particular system may differ from figure 1.
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22.1 Graphical interface for tank filling
266
Figure 22.2: Define window layout tanks
22.1.2
Toolbar options
The toolbar options that are generally applicable are described in the final chapter.
22.1.2.1
Select
With this option you can select a tank graphically. This is the default option for the tank list and the graphical
displays of the vessel. However, after a zooming command, zooming becomes default and ‘select 1’ must be
selected again. The data of the selected tank will be shown in the window with tank information.
22.1.2.2
Help screen
A window pops up with menu options and function keys.
22.1.2.3
Zoom in/out
With this option you can zoom in and out of a window with the selection window.
22.1.2.4
Pump
With this option the contents of a tank can be pumped from one tank to another of the same tankgroup. First select
2 tanks of the same tankgroup (with a selection-window or with <Ctrl>), then select the option [Pump] from the
toolbar. Now it is possible to pump the fluid with the trackbar. In the window with tankdata the data of one of
these tanks will be displayed. During pumping the total volume of the contents will remain the same.
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267
Totals
With this option an overview of the selected tankgroup will be displayed.
22.2
Crane loading
This module allows definition of weights of cranes and loads, with their respective centres of gravity and fore and aft
boundaries: For each crane, the crane geometry and position can be defined.
22.2.1
General
On startup of the crane module an input menu, as shown below, is displayed in which crane data can be entered.
On exit of the crane module only the selected cranes are added to the list of weight items. During input of crane
data a line with hydrostatic information can be displayed at the bottom of the screen. This hydrostatic data is valid
for the loadingcondition including all selected cranes. It is possible to define a maximum of 10 different cranes.
22.2.1.1
‘Accidental loss/drop of crane load’
If this extension has been purchased, the stability criteria which are applicable after the crane load accidentally
drops out off the crane can be calculated. For this calculation you should pay attention for the following items:
•
•
•
•
The criteria as normally applicable for this vessel during crane operations should be selected.
A set of stability criteria as applicable after the drop of crane load must be defined and NOT selected.
The column ‘loss of crane’ must be set to yes for this set of stability criteria (module vcgmax).
Then, if a crane load item defined with the crane module with a weight > 0 is found, calculations for loss of
crane load will be executed.
• The calculation can only be done for a single loading condition (not for a set of selected conditions). The
loading condition will be calculated twice: first the situation with the load in the crane, secondly the situation
without crane load.
• If a requirement is defined including a ‘rollback angle’, the static angle of heel from the first calculation is
used for the value of the rollback angle in the second calculation.
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Figure 22.3: Crane load definition
In the example above, 2 boom cranes are defined. ‘∗∗∗’ means a value can not be calculated that moment
22.2.2
Toolbar functions
22.2.2.1
Config
A given set of crane definitions, positions and loads can be stored readily to include it in other loading conditions
using this option. Multiple definitions can be stored, copied and selected. If a crane configuration is selected, the
corresponding data will be used. Beware to give the crane configurations unique and unambiguous names, to avoid
confusion later on.
22.2.2.2
Graphical
Show and manipulate defined cranes and if applicable ballasttanks in a graphical interface (see example below).
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22.2.2.3
269
Seagoing
Directly set cranes to position as defined (see section 22.2.3 on the current page, Inputdata).
22.2.3
Inputdata
The following data can be entered The following particulars define the crane and its position:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Selected: Selected cranes will be included in the list of weight items when you leave the crane module.
Name of this crane: The identification name for this crane.
Crane load: The weight of the crane load in tonnes can be entered here.
Slewing angle: Angle of the boom relative to the centreline of the ship. Angles to SB are positive.
Topping angle: Angle of the boom relative to the base plane of the vessel. Angles upwards are positive.
Jib angle related to boom.
Longitudinal position crane load: Length of the point of application of the crane load from APP.
Transverse position crane load: Breadth of the point of application of the crane load from CL.
Longitudinal position of vertical rotation axis: The longitudinal distance from App of the vertical rotation
axis of the crane.
Transverse position of vertical rotation axis: The transverse distance from the centreline of the vertical
rotation axis of the crane.
Weight of part rotating round vertical axis: The weight in tonnes of the part that exclusively rotates around
the vertical axis. The boom, for example, which also rotates around the horizontal axis is defined separately.
LCG of rotating weight at slewing angle 0 related to vertical axis: The longitudinal distance from the
vertical axis of rotation to the cog of weight of part rotating round vertical axis. Forward of the vertical axis
is positive.
TCG of rotating weight at slewing angle 0 related to vertical axis: The transverse distance from the vertical
rotation axis of rotation to the cog of weight of part rotating round vertical axis. SB of the vertical axis is
positive.
VCG of rotating weight: The vertical distance from base to the cog of the weight of the part rotating round
vertical axis.
Distance between horizontal and vertical rotation axis (fore=+): The longitudinal distance between the
vertical and the horizontal axis of rotation. The distance is positive if the horizontal axis is forward of the
vertical axis.
Vertical position of horizontal rotation axis: Vertical distance from baseline to the horizontal axis.
Length of boom: Length of the boom of the crane.
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18. Weight of boom: The total weight of the boom.
19. LCG boom related to horizontal rotation axis (fore=+): Position of the lcg of the boom measured along the
boom from horizontal rotation axis.
20. VCG boom releated to horizontal rotation axis (up=+): Position of the vcg of the boom measured perpendicular to the boom from horizontal rotation axis.
21. Jib length.
22. Jib weight.
23. LCG jib related to jib rotation axis.
24. VCG jib related to jib rotation axis.
25. Outreach in line with bulwark: The distance perpendicular to CL, measured from 1/2 B to the transverse
position of the crane load.
26. Outreach horizontally: The horizontal distance measured from the upper side of the bulwark to the transverse
position of the load
27. Height bulwark: The height of the bulwark, measured from baseline to top of the bulwark.
28. Display crane load and weight separately: If set to ‘No’, the selected crane and its load will be included in
the list of weight items as a single weight item. If set to ‘Yes’, the weight is divided in two separate items:
the weight of the crane itself and the load.
29. Aft. boundary from vert. rotation axis (forward=+): Aft boundary for the purpose of the longitudinal
strength calculation.
30. Fore. boundary from vert. rotation axis (forward=+): Forward boundary for the purpose of the longitudinal
strength calculation.
31. Weight group number crane + load: Crane and crane load can be given the same or separate weight group
numbers, depending on the wishes of the user.
32. Weight group number crane: see item 31.
33. Weight group number load: see item 31.
34. Seagoing slewing angle: With the function ‘Seagoing’ from the toolbar or in the graphical interface the crane
is positioned in position with a slewing angle as defined here.
35. Seagoing topping angle: With the function ‘Seagoing’ from the toolbar or in the graphical interface the
crane is positioned in position with a slewing angle as defined here
Note : If slewing and topping angle values are altered, longitudinal-, and transverse position of cargo is calculated automatically. Vice versa if longitudinal-, or transverse position of cargo is altered.
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Figure 22.4: Crane definition aft and top view
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Chapter 23
Hopstab: stability for hopper vessels
With this module for open-top hopper dredges loading conditions can be composed and stability can be computed,
including the effects of pouring out of cargo and pouring in of seawater. Including the free-to-trim effect, if required.
The calculations can be executed according to the following stability regulations:
•
•
•
•
•
Guideline 28, Dutch Shipping Inspectorate.
Bureau Veritas.
Lloyd’s & DOT (Department Of Transport).
Agreement for the construction and operation of dredgers assigned reduced freeboards (dr-67 and dr-68).
Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (Rules for the classification and construction of sea-going ships, 2014,
Part IV, § 3.8 ‘Vessels of dredging fleet’).
For this module the same reservation applies as mentioned in the introductions of Loading and Damstab: as
part ofthe PIAS renewal this module will be integrated with Loading. After completion this chapter will be adapted
on the new structure.
Stability for hopper vessels
1 Define file name hopper, calculation method, maximum draft etc.
2 Define overflow locations
3 Define points of pouring out
4 Define weights and specific weights of cargo
5 Define basic loading conditions (lightship and consumables)
6 Calculate stability on screen/paper
23.1
Define file name hopper, calculation method, maximum draft etc.
• File name, this option offers two possibilities:
– The hopper may be defined as if it were a vessel. Then the file name of the hopper (including the
possible path specification) must be entered. In this case the hopper has to be defined in relation to the
same origin as the vessel. The main dimensions of the hopper do not necessarily have to be the same
as those of the vessel.
– Alternatively, with function [Compartment], a compartment can be chosen to be the hopper. With
function [File name] the first mode is re-activated.
• Maximum allowable draught: This draught can be used to calculate the amount of cargo in the hopper. The
weight of the cargo and possible water on top of the cargo is then calculated in such a way that the maximum
draught is reached.
• Calculation method: One of the five calculation methods may be selected. For the distinct methods the
following remarks can be made:
– Calculations with the ‘Bureau Veritas’ method result in a righting levers differ from those as calculated
by BV’s Argos software. the reason is that in Argos the righting moments are divided by an incorrect displacement, leading to incorrect righting levers, that is to say, that was the fact at the time of
discovery, around 2000.
23.2 Define overflow locations
273
* According to the Russian Maritime Register rules, the stability should also be determined for a
hopper in direct communication with sea water. This can be specified by a combination of a cargo
weight of zero and a density of 1.025 ton/m3 , see section 23.4 on this page, Define weights and
specific weights of cargo.
• Output including frontpage with input data: Here it can be specified whether the calculation output should
be accompanied by a front page with input data.
• Including sketch of cross section of vessel and hopper: If you select this option for every loading condition
and every heeling angle, a cross section is printed on screen and on paper including the level of the cargo.
• Location of cross section of hopper: Enter here the longitudinal distance from APP for which the cross
section has to be drawn. If no cross section has been defined at this location, the nearest cross section is
taken from the vessel or the hopper.
• Number of hoppers: Here you specify the number of hoppers (if this function was purchased). At a calculation with multiple hoppers the concept of ‘active hoppers’ does appear. The active hopper (which can be
selected in ‘ section 23.4 on the current page, Define weights and specific weights of cargo ’) is the hopper
for which input and output are valid at that moment. If all relevant hopper-specific data of a calculation
must be printed, then multiple calculations must be made, for different ‘specific hoppers’. Of course the
vessel-specific results (such as draft or righting lever) with those calculations are equal.
23.2
Define overflow locations
Multiple overflows can be defined. If you have an overflow with variable height then define the lowest and highest
level of the overflow. If it is not variable, then enter the same value for the lowest and highest level. If you have
defined an overflow, the height of the cargo depends of this overflow. If no overflow has been defined the height
of the cargo depends on the edge of the hopper. If the applicable regulations allow the discharge of cargo through
the overflows during the loading process, then in this menu another column is visible, labelled ‘Closeable’, where
it can be specified whether the overflow is capable of being closed entirely.potentially
By the way, under some regulations an overflow may be only assumed to be present if the cross sectional area
is sufficient.
23.3
Define points of pouring out
Enter the coordinates of the locations where the spoil may spill or the seawater may enter the hopper. As a rule,
upper edges of the coaming are specified here. If no such coordinates are given, then pouring in or out will not
be taken into account. Please bear in mind that (especially when calculating with the free-to-trim effect) multiple
potential points of pouring in or out may exist. They all should be specified.
23.4
Define weights and specific weights of cargo
In this menu an array - with a maximu of 20 rows - of cargo specific weights appears, in combination with
a ‘selected’ indication (which specifies whether the S.W. is included in the stability coputation). One paculiar
predefined specific weight is activated with the [DesignSW] function, which is the ‘design S.Q.’, as defined in the
‘Agreement for the construction and operation of dredgers assigned reduced freeboards (dr-67/68)’. The function
[FreeSW] enables the S.W. to be entered numerically again. By pressing <Enter> on a particular row a sumneu
opens, where for the specific weight of that row the amount of cargo and water on top of the cargo can be given.
That submenu may look like this:
Name loading condition
Ship 98% consumables
Ship 10% consumables
Volume cargo
1124.24
1175.45
Volume water
748.125
728.012
In this menu two functions are present:
• [Overflow], where the overflow locations (for this particular loading condition) can be specified.
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274
• [Automatic], which automatically determines the hopper filling (cargo and water on cargo) for the vessel
to immerse to its maximum allowable (dredger) draft. If for the ship it has been specified (in Config) that
stability should be calculated including the free-to-trim effect, this automatic function has two sub variants;
one for untrimmed, and one for trimmed vessel. The determination of the filling for a trimmed vessel is,
as a matter of fact, ambiguous, because the solution is dependant on the shift of the cargo under trim. For
certain densities two stability calculations have to be made, one for the cargo assumed liquid, and one for the
cargo assumed solid. However, those are two different shifting regimes, leading to two different trims, and
consequently, two different hopper fillings. And for damage stability calculations in some cases even a third
shifting regime is applied, leading to a third filling. So a single hopper filling, resulting in the vessel exactly
on its maximum draft in all cases does not exist. In this respect the program is equipped with a practical
choice, in the form of a shifting regime acvcording to the ‘international agreement’ (dr-68) for damage
stability. The advantage of this choice is that the cargo shift is dependant on the cargo density, so there is a
tendency to the ‘true’ cargo behaviour (liquid at low densities, solid at high densities). And, obviously, this
choice results with the damage stability calculations in the intended boundary conditions.
On the latter function, the automatic determination of hopper filling, it can be noted that with a ship with more
than one hopper it is not evident how to distribute the deadweight over the different hoppers. For that reason, this
function only fills the hopper from the (program) cursor column. Should the other hopper be filled, than, with
the cursor on the other column, the function should be applied again. An exception is the determination of the
‘design density’, which can be determined unambiguously, because the boundary condition (all hoppers filled to
their upper edges) is unambiguous. With automatic filling with design density, all hopper are filled with a single
function call.
With a calculation accoding to Russian Maritime Register a special situation can be created with the cargo
weight parameter in this menu: each cargo weight is treated in th eregular way, except a cargo weight of zero in
combination with a density of less than or equal to 1.025 ton/m3 . With this combination the hopper is directly
connected to the sea - as for a damaged vessel - which enables a computation according to the regulation 3.8.5.3
of the rules.
23.5
Define basic loading conditions (lightship and consumables)
Here the weight and centres of gravity are defined for the basic loading conditions, these are the conditions without
cargo in the hopper, but including consumables and possible permanent ballast. Additionally, it can be specified
whteher a basic loading condition is ‘selected’, which means it will be included in the stability calculation. The
cargo contents of the hopper is defined in the fifth option of the Hopstab main menu, see section 23.4 on the
preceding page, Define weights and specific weights of cargo. The VCG must be given without virtual rise of CG
due to Free Surface Effects. The Free Surface Moments (in tonm) must be given explicitly, in the column marked
‘FSM’.
23.6
Calculate stability on screen/paper
With this option the stability is calculated for all selected loading conditions with all selected specific weights.
The appendices contain examples of the output. If stability criteria are specified (for stability criteria definition
reference is made to section 6.6 on page 41, Stability criteria), the stability results are tested against these criteria.
If these criteria contain a weather criterion, the first wind contour, as defined in Hulldef, is applied for this criterion,
also if multiple contours are defined. At calculations including the free-to-trim effects one or more longitudinal
views, representing levels of liquids and cargo at zero inclination, will be plotted. The contours used are also taken
from the first wind contour. When no wind contour at all is specified, a simple rectangle of main dimensions will
be drawn for the vessel’s hull.
23.7
Elucidation on and an example of the output
Below an example of the output is presented. If the hopper is completely filled and the angle of inclination is zero
degrees, then at the item ‘Level of cargo’ a ‘-’ is printed. The bluely hatched part is cargo, the redly hatched is
water on top of the cargo.
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23.7 Elucidation on and an example of the output
275
Figure 23.1: Hopper content at differente heeling angles
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276
Figure 23.2: Detailed output of loading condition
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23.7 Elucidation on and an example of the output
277
Figure 23.3: Table and plot of the GZ curve
Figure 23.4: Stability summary
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 24
Loadgen: generation of loading conditions for
simulation of Ro-Ro operations
With this module loading conditions are generated which represent the roll-on and roll-off of cargo to and from a
vessel. If the vessel has been equipped with a ramp this can be taken into account. This module is fully operational
in Dutch and is available in English on request.
24.1
Guidelines for this module
This module is fully operational in Dutch and is available in English on request.
Chapter 25
Tools for data overview, intact stability and damage
stability
instead of being related to a specific PIAS module, this chapter describes a number of tools which can be applied
at multiple tasks, and which are consequently included in a number of modules, which are:
•
•
•
•
•
25.1
Weight groups.
Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases.
Input and edit damage cases.
Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage.
Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations.
Weight groups
A weight group is a category of cargo or other loading, for example ‘ballast water’ or ‘heavy fuel oil’, and is introduced
to provide some order is lists of compartments and weight items. If weight groups are being used then, where
relevant, Loading will also generate subtotals (of weights and sometimes also COGs) per weight group. Please
realize that the concept ‘weight group’ is an auxiliary tool, its use is not obligatory.
Weight groups can, up to a maximum of forty, be defined from Loading and Newlay, an example of the input
window is shown below, For each weight group can be given:
• Its number, which is an identification number between 0 and 40. Each compartment or weight item can be
assigned to a particulat weight group by entering this number, however, it might be more convenient to press
<Enter> there, which pops up a selection window with all full weight group names.
• The hatching type which is used when hatching or filling in the compartments in tank sketch plots, as
discussed in section 25.2 on the following page, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases.
• The group color, which is the color representing this weight group, and which is used in plots, and also as
background color in text windows if the last column of this weight group is set to ‘yes’.
• The text color, which, if the last column is set to ‘yes’, specifies the foreground color in textual overview
windows of the texts which belong to this weight group.
• In table, which indicates whether the weight group color should also be used in overview tables of compartments and weight items.
25.2 Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases
280
Figure 25.1: Specify weight group properties
25.2
Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases
If this option has been purchased, it enables you to define views and section which will be used when printing
compartment definition data, with damage stability calculations and with loading condition to generate large-scale
(= small-size) drawings of compartments and hullform etc. The color and hatching type of these graphics can be
specified per weight group, for which we refer to section 25.1 on the previous page, Weight groups. If multiple
sketches are defined they will be ‘pasted on paper’ beneath each other, an example of the output is present at the
end of this chapter.
This menu, where the sketch parameters can be given, can be called from many loactions, such as from Loading
or Newlay, but also from the general configurations with Config or equivalent. In each of these cases an input
window appears where on each line the properties of one sketch can be given, with per column:
• The first three columns, compart, intact en damage, determine whether this sketch is added to the output of
compartment definition output from Newlay, intact stability calculations and damage stability calculations
respectively. In the output of intact stability calculations each compartment which is filled to some extent
will be fully hatched, so no distinction will be made between partially and fully filled tanks.
• The fourth column defined the type of sketch, where the choices are:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Vertical section.
Horizontal section.
Cross section.
Side view.
Top view.
List of compartments. This is an alphanumerical list of compartments which are relevant in this sketch.
Wind contour, which is only used in the output of intact stability.
Probability triangle, which is only used in the output of probabilistisc damage stability.
• Location of the section. With function [Center] it can be specified that in case of damage stability calculations
the section will go through the center of the damage case. And in case of compartment sketches from Newlay
or intact stability calculations the center of all applied compartments.
• A reduction factor on the plot size. A factor of X will reduce the size of the sketch by X.
• Axis & scale, which is used to specify whether a horizontal axis and a scale must be co-plotted.
• With reference, which specifies whether a reference name and a reference number must be drawn into the
compartment tank shapes. If this parameter is set to ‘yes’, then the following reference will be used:
– If the setting of ‘compartment sketches with automatic tank numbers’ is set to ‘yes’, then for each
compartment a sequence number is generated, which is drawn into the sketch, and which also appearsd
in the compartment list. With this seting to ‘no’ the first four characters of the second compartment
name, as given in the menu which is discussed at paragraph 11.4.1.2.3 on page 179, Second name and
abbreviation, are drawn into the compartment. The intention is to replace this ‘second name’ by the
‘abbreviation’, which is also given in Newlay, however, before this can be materialized the old Compart
module should be outfaded.
• Waterline, a setting that indicated whether the damaged waterline should be drawn as well into the sketches
of the deterministic damage stability.
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25.3 Input and edit damage cases
281
Figure 25.2: A page with tank sketches containing 4 sections and a compartiment list
25.3
Input and edit damage cases
This tools, designed to define and edit damage cases, can be called upon from all modules which perform a damage
stability task, both deterministic and probabilistic. Basically, this tool is rather simple, after all compartments have
already been defined (with Newlay), and here they can be clicked to toggle them between ‘flooded’ and ‘not flooded’.
This tool contains a text window at the left and three graphical windows with three sections, see the example below.
Figure 25.3: Damage cases
In the graphical windows the damaged compartments are indicated with a blueish color, non-damaged compartments in geen-yellow. With the mouse the cursor can be placed or moved in such a window, which will make
that the other sections will be adapted to the mouse position. The columns in the text window have the following
meaning:
• Slct, selected, yes or no.
• Name, the name of the damage case.
• Morecomp. Here ‘yes’ is given in case of a multi-compartment damage, and ‘no’ for a single-compartment
damage. These data are only relevant for the damage stability criterion ‘Maximum statical angle according
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25.4 Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
282
to IMO A.265’, so if this crietrionis notin your criteria set, this parameters need not to be given.
• Aft> and fore, being the aft and forward boundary of the damage. These parameters are only relevant for
the damage stabilitycriterion ‘deckline not submerged outside flooded area’, so also these parameters can be
left out if this criterion is not applicable.
Additionally, a number of specific functions apply:
• With [Flooding stages] non-standard intermediate stages of flooding can be defined, this is futher discussed
at section 25.5 on the next page, Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations.
• With [damage Box], interactively a rectangle can be dragged, which makes the contained compartments
flooded. This is a quick and consistent tool for declaring a large number of compartments flooded simultaneously. When this function is activated, in the three graphical windows three white rectangles pop up,
which are the projections of a three-dimensional rectangular damage. The vertices of the rectangles can be
dragged, which adjusts the damage size and location. If the mouse butoon is released the flooded compartments are colored blueish, see the example below, and by clicking [damage Box] again this new damage case
is stored.
• [iMport] imports the selected damage cases as defined in other modules, such as the deterministic cases from
Loading or the probabilistic from Probdam. The actual source of the imported cases can differ per module,
this function might also be absent if importint is not relevant for the particular module from which this
damage case definition window is called.
• With [Unit longitudinl axis] the unit of the longitudinal axis can be chosen, where the choice is between meters
adn frames.
Figure 25.4: Interactive damage box
Finally, with the <Enter> key a subwindow opens up, as depicted in the figure below, where form each compartment is stated whether it is flooded. The last two columns, containing the intact weight and the intact specific
weight, only appear when defining damages for maximum allowable VCG in damaged condition, as discussed in
section 13.2.10.2 on page 210, Damage cases menu, for at those computation these intact content plays a role because it will flow out in case of damage ( at the deterministic damage stability of a particular loading condition, as can be computed
with Loading, the intact content obviously also flows out, but need not to be defined separately, becaause it is already known from the loading
condition ).
Figure 25.5: Flooded compartments per damage case, with their intact content
25.4
Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
In general, damage cases are not chosen at will, they are derived from the extent of damage as laid down in rules
and regulations instead. For example it can be stipulated that a ship has to survive a damage with a length of 10%
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25.5 Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations
283
of the ship’s length, 1/5 of the vessel’s breadth and unlimited height. Subsequently it is up to the designer to identify
and define all resulting damage cases. this task can also be preformed with this PIAS function.
For this purpose, the currently discussed functionality is developped, where damage dimensions can be entered. Even multiple sets of damage dimensions, because for different regions different extents of damage can be
applicable (e.g. for the forward 30% of vessel a bottom damage with a breadth of 5 meter, while for the other 70%
a breadth of 3 metere suffices). For each damage dimension can be entered:
• Description. This name is to recognize this set, and is also assigned to the damage cases generated under
this set.
• Damage type. Three kinds of damage types exist: side damage SB, side damage PS and bottom damage.
• Length. The damage length, the longitudinal extent of damage.
• Penetration. With side damage this is the transverse extent of damage (measured from CWL), with bottom
damage this is the vertical extent of damage (measured from the bottom).
• Dimension. With side damage this is the vertical extent of damage (which, by the way, is unlimited in most
rules). With bottom damage this is the transverse extent of damage, the damage breadth.
• Aft boundary and forward boundary. These are the boundaries of applicability of this dimension set. With
the mentioned example where for the forward 30% antother regime applies that for the other 70%, two
dimension sets have to be defined, one with boundaries aft and 70Lpp, and the other one with boundaries
70Lpp and forward.
Furthermore, two additional functions are available:
• [Standard]. A utility function, which can be used to calculate a standard dimension quickly. For example, a
rule exists where the damage length is prescribed at 1/3L2/3 . With this function [Standard] this equation can
be evaluated.
• [Generate]. With this function the damage cases will be generated.. It is very well possible that more damage
cases than relevant will be generated, for example a damage case ‘engine room’ may exist, containing many
compartments such as minor consumables and slump tanks, as well as a second damage case, which is nearly
identical, although with one missing day tank. This second, slightly smaller, damage case is not so relevant
to calculate, because it may be expected that it will be less critical than the larger damage case. A second
example is that rules may stipulate that damage to the ER, or involving ER-bulkheads, do not have te be
evaluated, but nevertheless they will be generated with this [Generate] function. Such superfluous damage
cases will have to be removed by the program user afterwards.
25.5
Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations
This section a number of distinct facilities will be discussed:
• When necessary PIAS takes into account intermediate stages of flooding. Normally these stages are equal
within a damage case for all damaged compartments. With this option a mechanism is available to define
the intermediate stages of flooding more specifically, especially according to IMO regulations for seagoing
passenger vessels.
• Special kinds of openings can be defined for which it will not be assumed that the vessel will immediately
sinks when flooded, but for which the procedure described at the previous bullet will be adopted. Two types of
such openings are available: internal openings, which connect the compartment with another compartment,
and external openings, which connect a compartment with the sea.
• To define whether damaged compartments have the same level of liquid or not in intermediate stages of
flooding.
• Calculation of cross-flooding times.
• The use of this function for the calculation of Ro-Ro ferries with water on deck (abbr. to STAB90 + 50).
In each module for damage stability of PIAS, with the exception of the computation of floodable lengths,
damage cases are defined at least by defining which compartments will be flooded for that case. This is discussed
at section 25.3 on page 281, Input and edit damage cases, where in the menu bar the [Flooding stages] function is
included. When this fuction is used the following option menu appears:
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25.5 Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations
284
Name damage case
1 Specify calculation type, number of intermediate stages and other parameters
2 Specify intermediate stages and critical points, with calculation type ‘Non-uniform intermediate stages of flooding’
3 Specify intermediate stages and critical points, with calculation type ‘Time calculation for cross-flooding arrangements’
4 Output
25.5.1
Specify calculation type, number of intermediate stages and other parameters
The first option in this menu concerns the calculation type. There are four types of calculation:
• Non-uniform intermediate stages of flooding. This type must be used if intermediate stages of flooding
(expressed as percentage of the final stage) are not equal for all compartments. For this calculation type, at
the second line the number of intermediate stages can be defined, with a maximum of 12. The final stage of
flooding should not be defined because it is included automatically.
• Intermediate stages with equal levels of liquid, or intermediate stages with unequal levels of liquid. The
background of the equal level of liquid is discussed in section 6.4.1 on page 40, Intermediate stages with
global equal liquid level, however, that setting there is global. In this option you can set this property for
each damage case individually.
• Time calculation for cross-flooding arrangements. With this option for each time step it is determined how
much water enters a compartment, and what time a complete flooding of a compartment requires. For this
calculation type also the time step and maximum number of time steps must be specified. The time step is
used as an integration step in the calculation and this step must not be too large.
Finaly, this menu also contains the parameters ‘aft boundary damage’ and ‘forward boundary damage’, which
are only relevant a calculation according to STAB90+50, in order to calculate the residual freeboard. Please bear in
mind that the freeboard is derived from the deck line, from which the definition method is discussed in section 9.1.9
on page 155, Deck line.
25.5.2
Specify intermediate stages and critical points, with calculation type ‘Non-uniform intermediate
stages of flooding’
After selecting this option the following input screen appears which contains all damaged compartments:
Damage
Connected Via critical
case Com- with
point
partment
Length
Breadth
Height
SB&PS
DEF
PQR
Seawater
10.123
8.123
6.123
Yes
STU
PQR
23.123
8.123
6.123
No
XYZ
STU
43.123
8.123
6.123
No
A critical point defines an internal opening between two damaged compartments. The compartment will only
then be flooded (with the percentage of flooding in a certain intermediate stage) when the level of liquid of the
compartment in ‘Connected with’ is higher than the critical point. When for a critical point the column ‘SB&PS’
reads ‘Yes’, than that point exists on SB and on PS (with an equal breadth from CL). The same mechanism is
applicable to critical points if ‘Connected with’ is set to ‘Seawater’.
The mechanism contains three limitations:
• Weathertight openings cannot be taken into account, but of course weathertight openings may be specified
as usual in Hulldef .
• A compartment which can be flooded through a critical point may not contain any liquid in intact condition.
• With the combination of critical points and intermediate stages of flooding the following mechanism
applies:
– If the calculation is made without ‘global equal liquid level’ the procedure is as might be expected, that
is, that every compartment has its own percentage, and its own level of filling. The compartment which
can only be flooded through a critical point will only be flooded if the liquid level of the corresponding
compartment exceeds the height of the critical point.
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285
– A calculation with ‘global equal liquid level’ is ligically inconsistent with the concept of ‘critical
point’. Therefore, for the question whether a compartiment is flooded through a critical point is solely
determined at the final stage of flooding, and this condition (flooded yes/no) is also used at intermediate
stages, regardless the actual liquid level at the critical point.
With the text cursor on a specific compartment, and prssing <Enter>, the next input screen appears in which
the percentage of filling for a certain intermediate stage of flooding for that compartment can be defined, for
example:
Compartment XYZ
Percentage of filling
Water on deck
Stage Number
25
No
1
50
No
2
75
No
3
100
No
4
100
No
5
100
No
6
A calculation with all compartments filled with 100% does not have to be defined, because this is the final stage
of flooding which is calculated automatically.
25.5.2.1
Water on deck
According to the rules of the‘Agreement concerning specific stability requirements for ro-ro passenger ships undertaking regular scheduled international voyages between or to or from designated ports in North West Europe
and the Baltic Sea’ (Circular letter 1891), as adopted on 27-28 February 1996. The core of the regulations is an
additional amount of water on deck, depending on the residual freeboard. To include the effects of water on deck:
• If necessary, specify the significant wave height, as discussed in section 6.4.2 on page 41, Significant wave
height for SOLAS STAB90+50 (RoRo).
• Define all spaces above deck as compartments.
• Define the deckline ( section 9.1.9 on page 155, Deck line).
• Specify the correct permeability for damage stability for the compartments above deck.
• Include the relevant deck compartments in all damage cases.
• For each damage case define a complex stage of flooding, where all compartments below deck are flooded
by 100%, and all above deck compartments are marked with ‘Yes’ in the column ‘Water on deck’.
• At each damage case two calculations are made: One with the upperdeck compartments damaged, without
extra water on deck, and one with the upperdeck compartments intact, with a fixed amount of water (which
moves with heel and trim). At the last calculation in the last column marked ‘’ the height of the extra amount
of water can be read.
25.5.3
Specify intermediate stages and critical points, with calculation type ‘Time calculation for crossflooding arrangements’
With this calculation type a list of compartments is presented, where for each compartment can be specified :
• Whether the compartment is flooded through a cross-flooding arrangement. If that is not the case the compartment is always filled for 100% (or, in other words, the water level inside is always equal to the sea water
level).
• If the compartment is flooded through a cross-flooding arrangement, also the product of cross-section area
S (in m2 ) and a dimensionless speed reduction factor F must be specified. These parameters, as well as the
calculation method for F, are further explained in IMO resolution A.266 (Recommendations on a standard
method for establishing compliance with the requirements for cross-flooding arrangements in passenger
ships).
25.5.4
Side effects
• If for a damage case a way of flooding is defined as described above, then this way of flooding will be
adopted in equal damage cases in all damage stability modules of PIAS, even if the name of the damage case
is different.
• Each way of flooding is an inextricable part of a damage case. If this damage case is changed for example
by adding a compartment, it is not possible to keep the same definition of flooding.
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• A way of flooding that is defined/generated with the probabilistic damage stability module is not only connected to the damaged compartments of the damage case, but also to which compartments are active for pi
and vi . If such a damage case is imported to a deterministic damage stability module the latter information
is lost which can give a problem with the way of flooding. In that particular case it is best to make a copy of
the project, remove the .tss-file and create the way of flooding in the deterministic damage stability module.
• If the flooding steps have been defined by facility of this option, the switch ’Equal liquid leve’, as dissussed
in section 6.4.1 on page 40, Intermediate stages with global equal liquid level will be neglected.
25.5.5
Output
In the output of the deterministic damage stability (with Loading) with complex intermediate stages, the percentage
of flooding is not printed in the heading but in the table with weights per compartment. For the intermediate
stages of flooding of the computations of maximum allowable VCG’ (as discussed in section 13.2.10 on page 209,
Maximum VCG’ damaged tables) only the number of the intermediate stage is printed.
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Chapter 26
Damstab: floodability and deterministic damage
stability
This module enables you to calculate the stability and floodability in damaged condition from any loading condition
defined in the module from Loading and the compartments defined in the module from Newlay. This module still
exists as an independant module, however, in the scope of the renewal of PIAS (please referto chapter 2 on page 3,
PIAS renewals (2012-2014) for that subject) it sfunctions will be nitegrated with Loading. So you might already
encounter functions of Damstab in Loading.
26.1
Main menu
Damage stability
1
Select and edit loading conditions
2
Select and edit damage cases
3
Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
4
Select stages of flooding
5
Select stages of flooding
6
Summary damage stability
7
Calculate cross-flooding times
8
Print input data of selected damage cases on paper
9
Define sections for sketches of damage cases
10 Draw all selected damagecases in top/side view on paper
11 Three-dimensional view of the ship in equilibrium
26.1.1
Select and edit loading conditions
At this option you have to select the loading condition(s) for performing the damage stability calculations. Additionally the link between damaged compartments and the weight items from the loading conditions can be defined.
After selecting this option, a menu appears with all defined loading conditions from Loading , for example:
Select the loading conditions to calculate
Selected
Name of the loading condition
No
Condition no.1
No
Condition no.2
Yes
Condition no.3
This list of loading conditions has two functions:
• Make a selection from all available loading conditions by defining ‘yes’ in the first column ‘Selected’.
• Select a loading condition and link compartments with weight items.
26.1 Main menu
26.1.2
288
Select and edit damage cases
A maximum of 250 damage cases can be defined. A damage case is a collection of compartments - as defined
with Newlay - which will be damaged simultaneously. After choosing this option a window appears where damage
cases can be defined, and which is fullydiscussed in section 25.3 on page 281, Input and edit damage cases.
Damaged compartments can be selected by clicking the right mouse button or double click the left mouse
button. By selecting a damage case, the damage case can be specified from the following input screen. This input
screen displays all defined compartments from which a selection can be made for this damage case:
Selected
Compartiment name
Yes
Cargotank 1 SB
<==========
No
Cargotank 1 PS
No
Cargotank 2 CL
Yes
Hold around cargotank 1
<==========
No
Hold around cargotank 2
No
Forepeak WB 1
No
Forepeak WB 2
No
DB tank 1 SB
No
DB tank 1 PS
No
DB tank 2
No
DB tank 3
Yes
DB tank 4
<==========
Yes
DB tank 5
<==========
No
DB tank 6
No
DB tank 7
No
DB tank 8
In this example this damage case consists of the simultaneously flooding of the compartments ‘Cargotank 1
SB’, ‘Hold around cargotank 1’, ‘DB tank 4’ and ‘DB tank 5’.
26.1.3
Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage
In general, damage cases are not chosen at will, they are derived from the extent of damage as laid down in rules and
regulations instead. For that purpose PIAS contains a specialized functionality, which is discussed at section 25.4
on page 282, Generate damage cases on basis of the extent of damage.
26.1.4
Select stages of flooding
A maximum of 10 stages of flooding can be defined. A stage of flooding is a percentage of the weight of the
contents of the damaged compartments in the final, this is 100%, stage of flooding. 0% stage of flooding means
the compartments are not damaged at all, so this is exactly as the intact loading condition. The 100% stage of
flooding is calculated automatically and need not be defined at this option. If you do so anyway, the 100% stage
of flooding will be calculated twice. Please be informed that there are two ways of calculating the intermediate
stages of flooding when more than one compartment is damaged, this is discussed in section 6.4.1 on page 40,
Intermediate stages with global equal liquid level. It is of major importance to make the correct setting in this
respect.
26.1.5
Select stages of flooding
All selected damage cases are calculated for all selected loading conditions and the defined stages of flooding. See
appendix, on section 26.3 on page 291, Appendix: example of the output for an example. The following particulars
can be found on the output:
26.1.5.1
First block
Time, date and weight data of the intact loading condition are printed.
26.1.5.2
Second block
If any margin line points have been defined (see Hulldef ), here the distance from the waterline to the margin line
will be printed. If a non-watertight openings have been defined, the angle where this opening will be flooded is
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26.1 Main menu
289
printed, as well as the distance from the waterline to this opening. Distances are not given in PIAS’ standard system
of axes; instead the distance is measured between point and waterline, measured perpendicular to the waterline.
26.1.5.3
Third block
For every damaged compartment at angle of equilibrium the following particulars are printed:
•
•
•
•
The weight of the contents of the intact compartment (Wintact).
The specific weight of the contents of the intact compartment (SWintact).
The weight of the contents of the damaged compartment (Wdamag).
The specific weight of the contents of the damaged compartment for this stage of flooding (SWdamag).
26.1.5.4
Fourth block
The first line tells us to which side the vessel is heeling, SB or PS. The module automatically calculates the side
with the worst stability, however, this can also be configured differently, please refer to section 6.1.14 on page 39,
Calculate damage stability with a heeling to (SB/PS/Automatic) for this setting. Subsequently, for every defined
heeling angle the following particulars are printed:
•
•
•
•
•
Heeling angle (in degrees).
Displacement excluding the possibly spilled cargo and including the weight of the flooded compartments.
Draught at Lpp/2.
Total trim.
Righting lever (meter), defined as the ratio of the righting moment and the intact displacement. So the
righting lever is corrected to constant displacement.
• The dynamic stability up to this heeling angle (area under the righting lever curve) in meterradian.
When instead of, or next to, these columns the text ‘THE VESSEL SINKS’ is printed, this indicates that a nonwatertight or weathertight opening (Hulldef ) is flooded at an angle smaller than the static angle, or that the total
weight exceeds the total buoyancy.
26.1.5.5
Fifth block
The following particulars of stability are printed here:
• Static angle.
• Maximum righting lever.
26.1.5.6
Sixth block
A summary of the damage stability criteria is printed. The criteria themselves can be defined in Config, see
section 6.6 on page 41, Stability criteria
26.1.5.7
Seventh block
A graph of the righting lever curve is printed.
26.1.6
Summary damage stability
With these options a summary of the damage stability criteria is printed (sixth block of a full output).
26.1.7
Calculate cross-flooding times
With this option the time can be calculated which is needed to let a compartment be flooded through a crossflooding arrangement. The purpose of this option is similar to the method of IMO res.A.266, with the difference
that the IMO resolution gives an approximation method, while this PIAS-option is a stepwise calculation based on
Bernoulli’s law. The parameters which are necessary for this option must be specified at ‘complex intermediate
stages of flooding’, please refer to section 25.5 on page 283, Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage
stability calculations.
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26.2 Deterministic damage stability including effect of spilling out of cargo and inflow of seawater
26.1.8
290
Print input data of selected damage cases on paper
All selected damage cases are printed on paper. Each damage case is printed with the damaged compartments.
26.1.9
Define sections for sketches of damage cases
In this menu the format of the sketches to be produced with the damage case output can be chosen, see section 25.2
on page 280, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases for a discussion on this function.
26.1.10
Draw all selected damagecases in top/side view on paper
With this option sketches of the selected damage cases will be printed accoring to the specification as givven in the
previous option.
26.1.11
Three-dimensional view of the ship in equilibrium
If a surface model (TRI.-file) is available, a 3D view of the ship is drawn, including the waterline surface. It is not
allowed to select more than 1 loading condition and 1 damage case. The final stage of flooding is calculated and
after that the view including the damaged waterline is drawn. The surface model can be generated by Fairway.
26.2
Deterministic damage stability including effect of spilling out of cargo and inflow of
seawater
When calculating probabilistic stability for open-top hopper vessels sufficient, although limited, information is
stored in a text file with extension .pd0. However, it can be desirable to sort out a particular damage case, for
which much more intermediate data are required. That is feasible with this option, however, which is a real
‘backdoor’. Its operation is somewhat cryptical and this option is not actively supported by SARC, nevertheless it
may prove to be helpfull. For the computation of deterministic damage stability including the pouring in and out
effects, Damstab is executed outside the regular PIAS menu (for example with the cammand line of the old PIAS
menu, or from a DOS box) with:
• DAMSTAB HOPSTAB SHIFT for calculating damage cases with the cargo shifting according to the shifting
law from the agreement.
• DAMSTAB HOPSTAB SOLID for calculating damage cases with the cargo as solid cargo.
• DAMSTAB HOPSTAB LIQUID for calculating damage cases with the cargo as liquid cargo.
If the word ‘HOPPER_OPEN’ is added to these codes, the calculation is performed for an open hoppe (which
is connected with the seawater). The calculation is performed for the selected loading condition (Loading) and
with the hopper cargo from Hopstab. Please note that with the Damstab module the intact contents of all damaged
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291
compartments will flow out before the outside water will flow in the damaged compartments. In the probabilistic
damage stability all compartments, except the hopper, are assumed empty. These options for calculating single
damage cases with the effect of spilling cargo and inflow of seawater are experimental and are not supported by
SARC as the regular stability programs.
26.3
Appendix: example of the output
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Chapter 27
Probdam: probabilistic damage stability
With this module the damage stability can be computed on a probabilistic basis. Summarized briefly, the probabilistic
method encompasses that, assuming the vessel is damaged, the probability that this damage is located in a certain
area is determined, as well as the probability that damage in that area is survived. The product of these two
represents the probability of survival in the event of damage in that area. By calculating these probabilities for many
areas and adding them up, the total probability of survival is determined (at multiple drafts). This probability of
survival must be greater than the minimum as imposed by the regulations.
27.1
The background of the probabilistic damage stability method
This PIAS manual is not the proper place for an in-depth explanation of the probabilistic damage stability and all
its merits, for that purpose the space is lacking and the subject is simply too extensive. Furthermore, a program
manual is not a tutorial. For the background we therefore refer to the reference list, which is included at the
end of this chapter. Recommended is the beautiful book of Pawlowski [1], which gives a complete and thorough
overview. The backgrounds of specific configurations and calculation methods are discussed in the papers [2], [3],
[4] and [5], which themselves also refer to elder literature. And last but not least, the relevant regulations and their
explanatory notes will have to be kept at hand.
You will neither find design advices here, nor recommended practices or configurations. This module must be
regarded as a toolbox, from which the user can select his preferred tool. However, we do pursue that the properties
of all choices and options are clearly explained, and that the calculation process itself is clear.
27.2
Introduction to the module
27.2.1
General
To calculate the probabilistic damage stability only a few characteristics of the intact vessel, some configuration
parameters and the damage cases have to be defined (which can be generated automatically). A damage case
consists essentially of a number of selected compartments which are damaged. These compartments have to be
defined using module Newlay. This module is capable of automatic determination of damage cases and damage
boundaries, but the price that must be paid for this comfort is that the vessel has to be defined in compartments
totally and uniquely. This means that every point in the vessel must be part of one compartment and may not be
part of more than one compartment. Newlay contains tools to assist in this process, for example the one discussed
in section 11.8.3 on page 194, Difference between internal and external geometry.
27.2.2
External compartments
PIAS sub-compartments are available in two flavors, of the type ‘bulkheads’, which are bounded by plane bulkheads or the side shell or bottom shell, and of the type ‘external’, which can have any arbitrary shape and for which
we refer to the discussion in paragraph 11.4.1.3.7 on page 182, Shape definition external subcompartments on the
definition method. For probabilistic damage stability sub-compartments of both types can be used, however, for
external sub-compartments the following remarks apply:
• With sub-compartments of the type ‘bulkhead’ the damage boundaries will always be determined by one
of the four bulkhead locations. With ‘external sub-compartments’ such single points can not be assumed
27.3 Main menu of the module
293
a priori, so the whole shape of the external sub-compartment has to be taken into account. As such, this
will obviously not be a problem, but the effect is that much more points have to be considered, and that the
processing time of the automatic determination of damage boundaries might increase considerably.
• A similar effect does occur with the generation of damage cases: with sub-compartments based on bulkheads
the program can assume that any of those bulkheads might possibly be a damage case boundary. with external
sub-compartments such assumptions do not apply, so internally the sub-compartment is subdivided into may
smaller portions, and it is investigated whether each of those portion boundaries is a damage case boundary.
On the one hand this leads to increased processing times, while, on the other hand, it will never be certain
that the amount of portions is sufficient to find each and every damage case boundary.
Which leads to the conclusions:
• External sub-compartiments can be used, but as sparsely as possible.
• When using external sub-compartments, please verify the generated damage case thoroughly.
27.2.3
PIAS software history
Around 1990 the first PIAS module for the calculation of probabilistic damage stability was released, a module
named Pr♦❜❞❛♠. Shortly afterwards the ■♠♦❆✷✻✺ module was released, for the equivalent method for passenger
vessels, according to IMO resolution A.265 from 1973. When the regulations for hopper dredgers with reduced
freeboard (dr-67) came into force, a dedicated PIAS module was released, ❤♦♣♣r♦❜. In 2005 at IMO new, harmonized, probabilistic damage stability rules have been adopted — applicable for cargo vessels as well as passenger
vessels — which entered into force in 2009 and are known as SOLAS 2009. Besides, around 2004-2005 it became
clear that the final word with regard to the calculation methodology has not yet been spoken, see e.g. [3]. These
developments have resulted in one new, integrated PIAS module for probabilistic damage stability. From the spring
of 2006 this module, Probdam, replaces all other modules in this field. If this module is started for the first time
for a particular vessel, while data have already been defined in an elder module, those can be imported. However,
damage cases are not imported, there is hardly a necessity for it, after all they can be generated easily. For the
purpose of existing projects the elder modules have still been included in PIAS installations, up to 2014, when they
have finally been disposed.
27.3
Main menu of the module
Probabilistic damage stability
1. Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters
2. Generation of damage cases
3. Select and edit damage cases
4. Output of input data of damage cases
5. Remove (parts of) saved information
6. Execute and/or print calculations
This menu contains the main options, which will be discussed just below. Additionally, this menu contains
details of the damage cases. Not only the number of cases claims is presented, but also whether there are useful
results from previous calculations present, either the probabilities of damage (the prv values) or the probabilities of
survival (the s values). These results may be reused later, so that any subsequent calculations could be performed
significantly faster.
27.3.1
Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters
This is the central configuration part of this module, and contains the following sub options:
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294
Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters
1. Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters
2. Drafts, trims and VCG’s
3. Define hopper stability particulars (incl. pouring in or out)
4. View scheme of standard permeabilities
5. Edit scheme of user-defined permeabilities
6. Define compartment connections
7. Define zonal boundaries
8. Notes (free text)
9. Determine the VCG’ for which A=R
27.3.1.1
Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters
Attention
In this section many choices and options for probabilistic damage stability are being discussed. The number
of options is large, options even exist which are not backed by one of the regulations. Nevertheless these
options are kept, they might have a historic origin and, as such, required for elder projects of vessels. At
some options question marks can even be put, but each one has its own background — there might have been
a wiseacre requiring a specific variant, with the power to exert his influence — and if this field would be
pruned not each variant would be available anymore. That would be user-unfriendly.
When this option is selected an setup window will appear. This screen has a variable layout, its content is dependent
on the selected calculation method and applied regulations. In this window all kinds of choices and configurations
can be made, with the aim to offer the user as many options as possible and (consequently) to pre-program as few
as possible. Fortunately, this menu offers the function button <Default>. With this function the configuration is
chosen according to the selected regulations, at least, in the opinion of SARC, in January 2012. Of course other
institutions or persons may prefer or prescribe other choices, so the is advised to verify that you agree with the
programs ‘default’ choices, which are:
Option
SOLAS 1992 & IMO
SOLAS 2009
A.265
TCG in intact condition
Upon no heel
Upon no heel
Reference point for
Waterline
Waterline
penetration depth
Application penetration
Apply rule, except at
Apply rule, except at
limitation (b1,b2)
damage to center line
damage to center line
Type of penetration
b1,b2 < 2.min(b1,b2)
bmean < 2.min(b1,b2)
limitation
‘Mean’ or ‘Minimum’
Mean
Mean
penetration
Penetration rule
Local
Local
multicomparttment
damages
Damage penetration over No
Yes, except with
CL
calculation method
‘numerical integration’
r outside brackets in
No
No
product r x
(p123-p12-p23+p2)
Probability of damage
No
No
never negative
With intermediate stages
Yes
Passenger vessels: yes,
of flooding
cargo vessels: no
Generate including
SOLAS 1992: yes, IMO
Yes
horizontal subdivision
A.265: no
The exact background and intention of each options will be discussed in the paragraphs below.
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27.3 Main menu of the module
27.3.1.1.1
295
Ship type
Exclusively for the SOLAS 2009 regulations here the choice can be made between ‘cargo vessel’ and ‘passenger
vessel’.
27.3.1.1.2
Applied regulations
Here the user can select one of the following regulations:
SOLAS 1992
For cargo vessels with a length over 80 m. Has been replaced by SOLAS 2009
IMO res. A.265
The equivalent rules for passenger vessels, according to IMCO res. A.265 of 1973. Also replaced by SOLAS
2009
SOLAS 2009
The so-called harmonized regulations, for cargo vessels over 80 m as well as passenger vessels, into froce
from January 1, 2009.
SPS 2008
The probabilistic ruleas according to the Special Purpose Ship Code from 2008.
Reconstructed SOLAS 1992
This ‘regulation’ is not relevant in regular ship design, partly because it is only applicable to the calculation
method ‘numerical integration’, The background of this pseudo-regulation is discussed in [3] and [5], and its
existence originates from the inconsistent processing at combinations of transverse and longitudinal subdivision in SOLAS 1992. As a consequence of this anomaly the results from numerical integration may differ
from those as obtained by direct application of the SOLAS rules. Because numerical compatibility has its
practical side, we have derived a new probability function by means of reverse engineering, and this is the
reconstructed SOLAS 1992. Summarized, ‘SOLAS 1992’ is theoretically in agreement with the regulations,
but gives numerically deviant results, while the ‘reconstructed SOLAS 1992’ is theoretically nonsense, but
provides answers in line with a conventional calculation. By the way, this whole aspect does not come
into play with SOLAS 2009, because the whole foundation of this method is much more solid, thanks to a
common treatment of p and r.
Attention
This modules only takes the probabilistic damage stability aspect of these regulations into account. Other
matters, such as possible additional deterministisc damage stability requirements, are not considered. Thus,
it is necessary to verify whether there are any other than probabilistic demands, and to treat them separately.
27.3.1.1.3
Calculation method probability of flooding
Here a choice can be made between four methods for the calculation of the probability of damage p.r.v: ‘numerical integration’, ‘1 damage per compartment’, ‘1 damage per sub-compartment’ and ‘1 damage per zone’. The
backgrounds of these methods are discussed in [3], [4] and [5], summarized briefly it touches a corner stone of the
probabilistic method, which is the assignment of a probability of damage to each portion of the vessel. In principle
it is indifferent which atomic (i.e. undividable) portion is taken, as long as the sum of all portions covers the whole
vessel. In practice a number of choices for these portions has surfaced, enumerated from coarse to fine:
• A zone, whereas a zone is a portion of the vessel between two longitudinal boundaries (e.g. transverse
bulkheads). The use of the zonal concept forces the subdivision model into regularity, thus avoiding certain
pitfalls of a more refined subdivision. However, the zone-model is artificial; it is an abstraction of the actual
subdivision, and as such will produce a less accurate result. It is funny to see that the zonal concept is rather
popular, although it is not even mentioned in SOLAS 1992 (however, it is mentioned in the explanatory
notes). In SOLAS 2009 the terms zone and compartment are entangled, but the zone is not even defined at
all.
• A compartment. This is the most obvious choice, for it corresponds to the actual subdivision, and it matches
the terminology of the regulations. This was the calculation method of former PIAS modules.
• A sub-compartment. A compartment as an atomic entity may not even be small enough. It might occur
that there exists no single damage (with flat aft, forward and inner boundaries) which affects a compartment
completely, but that a finer subdivision is needed to cover the entire compartment. An example is shown
in the figure underneath, where the assumption that each compartment is affected by a single damage does
not hold for compartment 1. A further division of this compartment, for instance along the dotted line,
will make it affected by two damages: B-C and D-E. More complex compartment shapes are by nature in
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PIAS composed of sub-compartments, so they can readily be used as an atomic entity. Of course for the
determination of the probability of survival the compartment is always taken as a whole.
• None (The combination of this numerical integration method in combination with the IMO res. A.265 regulations is not implemented). If the PDF’s are not a priori integrated, the whole usage of crisp boundaries
disappears. Consequently, there is no need for any atomic portion concept. If, as proposed in [3], the probability functions are integrated numerically in combination with the actual geometry of the compartment
(or a group of compartments), then any compartment shape can be processed, including possible niches,
irregularities and warped or even curved boundaries. The application of numerical integration on the subject
of probabilistic damage stability can be compared with the developments in the area of structural strength;
initially analytically determined standard solutions for the deflection of beams were utilized, but for more
complex structures the division into very small, but Finite Elements proved to be more flexible.
Figure 27.1: A space where ‘zone’ and ‘compartment’ are too coarse
27.3.1.1.4
Damage at
Here SB or PS can be given. According to the explanatory notes of (at least) SOLAS 1992, if asymmetry is
present in hullform or compartmentation, the calculation must be made to SB as well as to PS, where as attained
subdivision index A both the lowest value and the average value of the two may be used. Apart from that, with
Config it can be specified for damage stability calculations whether the inclination is to SB, to PS or is determined
automatically, but this setting is not applicable for the probabilistic damage stability calculations.
27.3.1.1.5
Light ship draft or light service draft
Here the light ship draft (for SOLAS 1992 and IMO A.265) or the light service draft (for SOLAS 2009) must be
given.
27.3.1.1.6
Subdivision draft
Here the subdivision draft must be given.
27.3.1.1.7
TCG in intact condition
Here one can choose between Coincides with centerplane and Is determined upon no heel. This switch is only
relevant with vessels with an asymmetrical hull shape, With the first choice, TCG at centerplane, an initial list will
occur, while with the second option the Transverse Center of Gravity is determined so that no list will occur.
27.3.1.1.8
Reference point for penetration depth
The penetration depth b is the penetration (in meters) up to the inner damage boundary. However, if this distance
is measured from the waterline, and the inner boundary is located beyond the local waterline breadth, a logical
inconsistency pops up, see the cross section figure below. With damage to compartment C only, the matter is that
Bc > Bwl, so the penetration = Bwl - Bc < 0, and consequently the probability of damage p will be zero. And
that is the problem, because we have a real damage case at hand, with a real penetration through real steel, which
is not included arithmetically as a damage case in the context of probabilistic damage stability. For this reason this
option offers the choice between two alternatives:
• Waterline, where the penetration is determined from the waterline at deepest subdivision draft.
• Upper boundary of damage case, where the penetration is determined at the level of the upper boundary of
the damage case under consideration, in our figure height Hc in our figure. In that case a realistic probability
will be assigned to the damage case of compartment C. According to the table above, the default for this
options is ‘waterline’, however, between the end of 2009 and the first week of January 2011 it was configured
as ‘upper boundary of damage case’.
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Figure 27.2: Penetration depth in cross section
27.3.1.1.9
Application penetration constraint (b1,b2)
According to the explanatory notes of SOLAS 1992 the penetration at side compartments is limited by the rule
that the maximum penetration shall not exceed twice the minimum penetration. This constraint can limit the
penetration depth very severely, see e.g. the figure below, where only compartment 1 is damaged. The evident
penetration is according to the angled line, with the penetration depth indicated by b. However, in this case the
minimum penetration, b1, is zero, so the maximum penetration b2 is always greater than twice the minimum
penetration, violating the penetration constraint rule. The only solution to comply with this rule is to set b2 also
to zero, which results in (an unrealistic small) penetration depth b as depicted in the second figure. With a hollow
waterline b would even become negative, which leads to a probability of damage of zero for this rather realistic
damage case.
Figure 27.3: Penetration limitation rule with b1=0
At this option ‘Application penetration constraint (b1,b2)’ it can be specified whether, and how, this rule is
applied. The options are:
•
•
•
•
Without this penetration constraint rule.
With this rule, except for damages which extend to CL.
With this rule, except for damages with an inner boundary // CL (where ‘//’ denotes ‘parallel to’).
With this rule, also for damages to CL (so the rule is always applied).
27.3.1.1.10
Type of penetration constraint
As mentioned, the penetration constraint rule of SOLAS 1992 reads that the maximum penetration may not be
larger than twice the minimum. For SOLAS 2009 the rule is slightly different, it reads that the mean penetration
may not be larger than twice the minimum. Therefore the program offers a choice of two alternatives, where the
SOLAS 1992 version is formulated as ‘b1,b2 < 2.min(b1,b2)’, and the 2009 one ‘bmean < 2.min(b1,b2)’.
27.3.1.1.11
At exceeding of the (b1,b2) constraint
Here it can be specified (onl;y with the zonal method) what the program should do when the (b1,b2) penetration
constraint is exceeded:
• Warning only, which implies that the dimensions of the specified zonal boundaries are still used, and that
the program specifies on the output in which damage cases the (b1,b2) rule is violated. It is up to the user to
adapte the zonal boundaries for these cases.
• Let the program adapt the penetration automatically to the (b1,b2) constraint rule.
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298
‘Mean’ or ‘Minimum’ penetration
This choice is related to the determination of penetration breadth b (see e.g. SOLAS 1992 reg. 25-5.2.2). Three
choices are possible here:
• According to (at least) the Dutch Authorities it can be interpreted as ‘b = the minimum transverse distance...’.
See also the report SLF 34/WP.11, item 5.3.10, and the paper ’IMO Circular letter 1338: Interpretations by
the Netherlands Administration’ ( section 27.3.9 on page 310, Appendix 1 , in Dutch).
• Literally ‘b = the mean transverse distance...’, an interpretation which is likely to be used by many authorities.
• In 1991 we have propounded the question how to handle in case b1=0 or b2=0 to the Dutch authorities (see
appendices 2 and 3, in Dutch). The answer was that in such a case always minimum penetration depth may
be used. That leads to the (for the ship designer) most favorable situation, because in cases where b1 as well
as b2 are greater than zero the mean depth can be used (which is in general the largest), while in case of
b1=0 or b2=0 one can switch to minimum, so there is no penalty of a small penetration depth. This choice is
incorporated in PIAS, and is called ‘Largest of mean and minimum’ (This ’Largest of mean and minimum’
rule has not been implemented. The same effect can be obtained with a is not applied on damages with an
inner boundary which is parallel to centerline.).
The choice between the three alternatives is left to the user, we can only mention to have observed that the
minimum interpretation requires the least computation time.
27.3.1.1.13
Determine r at multi-compartment damages
This option determines the way how with a multi-compartment damage with longitudinal subdivision the reduction
factor r is determined. The first possibility is local dimensionless penetration b/B, where the r of each to-besubtracted damage case is determined with the individual b/B as measured halfway the waterline of that case.
The other choice has the effect that the r of each damage case (so the main damage as well as the damages to be
subtracted) is determined on basis of a common dimensionless penetration b/B. The exact implementation depends
on the selected calculation method:
• With the (sub-)compartment methods cases the global dimensionless penetration b/B is applied, which is
determined halfway the main damage (In paragraph 3.5 of [2] it is explained why this is the only viable
option for the general case).
• With the zonal method the minimum dimensionless penetration b/B is applied, where each reduction factor
r is determined with the b/B which is the minimum of all involved b/B’s (so the b/B from the main damage
as well as from the damages to be subtracted) (The explanatory notes suggest this approach in fig. a-3 (I←
MO res. A.684 for SOLAS 1992) respectively paragraph 1.2 (SLF 49/17 for SOLAS 2009). Because with
the zonal method the subdivison is regular, this method is in this particular case feasible). SARC has no
preference for one method over another. By the way, until November 2001 PIAS had no external mechanism
to select this calculation option. Before that date always local b/B was used. From the viewpoint of logic
and consistency the use of local penetration can be favored above global or minimum, because with local
penetration the probabilities of the damages to be subtracted are always equal to the probability with which
they have been added. With global or minimum this is not the case, which might be confusing. Another
aspect is illustrated in the figure alongside. With local penetration is p12 = p12.r12 - p1.r1 - p2.r2, with r12
determined on the basis of b12, r1 on the basis of b1 and r2 on the basis of b2. In the example b1<0, so
r1=0, b12<0, so r12=0 and b2>0, so r2>0. Consequently p12 becomes negative, regardless the nature of
the formula of r as a function of b. With global or minimum penetration r1, r2 and r12 are all determined on
a common basis (With global dimensionless penetration on basis of b12, and with minimum dimensionless
penetration on basis of the minimum of b1, b2 and b12), so a negative probability cannot occur (at least not
due to an anomaly in to the processing of to-be-subtracted damage cases).
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Attention
This whole subject with mean, minimum, penetration rule multi-compartment damages and b1/b2 penetration
rule does not play a role, cannot even play a role, with the numerical integration method.
27.3.1.1.14
Damage penetration over CL
In 1992 SOLAS and IMO A.265 the penetration of side damage was limited to centerline. In SOLAS 2009 th
epenetration is B/2, without further addition. That implies that with SOLAS 2009 in the regions of the narrowing
waterline, in foreship and aftship, the damage will extend beyond centerline. With this option one can chose
between these two variants.
27.3.1.1.15
r outside brackets in product r x (p123-p12-p23+p2)
Here is can be specified how to process a combined longitudinal and transverse subdivision. If r is taken outside
brackets than the equation for a three-compartment damage reads pr = r123.(p123 - p12 - p23 + p2), if r is not
taken outside brackets pr = r123.p123 - r12.p12 - r23.p23 + r2.p2 is used.
27.3.1.1.16
Probability of damage never negative
If ‘no’ is answered to this question then for the probability of damage the true outcome of the calculation is used.
With ‘yes’ it will be maximized to zero (in other words, if the probability is less than zero, zero will be taken).
27.3.1.1.17
Including intermediate stages of flooding
With ‘no’ the damage stability calculations are only performed for the final stage of flooding, with ‘yes’ also the
intermediate stages 25%, 50% and 75% are computed.
27.3.1.1.18
Combine damage case generation with the calculation
Besides for the computation of probabilities of damage, the numerical integration method can rather well be used
for the generation of damage, so a distinct generation step can be considered a bit redundant. With ‘yes’ at this
option it is specified that the generation of damage cases and the execution of the calculation must be combined,
with ‘no’ they are separated.
27.3.1.1.19
Maximum damage length for damage case generation
No damage cases will be generated with a damage length of more than the value (in meter) specified here.
27.3.1.1.20
Maximum number of damaged (sub-)compartments per damage case
If Z is given here, no damage cases will be generated with more than Z simuldamaged compartments (or subcompartments, in case of the sub-compartment method). By the way, the absolute maximum number of damage
cases for this module is 3000.
27.3.1.1.21
Maximum number of damaged zones per damage case
When using the zonal method the program will generate all combinations of adjacent zones. This could lead
to large amounts of damages, from which the majority of multi-compartment damages could preponderantly not
contribute to A. In order to limit the number of damage cases, with this option the maximum number of zones per
damage can be specified.
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27.3.1.1.22
300
Accuracy index numerical integration (0-100)
With the numerical integration method the integration step size plays a role; it may be clear that the accuracy
increases with a decreasing step size. The real step size is determined by means of an algorithm, on the basis of
the number of compartments etc., and it is not considered relevant to confront the user with it. For that reason
the accuracy is defined by means of an index, where 0 indicates the least accuracy and 100 the greatest. One
might be inclined towards the greatest possible accuracy, but that of course also induces a longer processing time.
The exactly required accuracy cannot be indicated in general. Apart from your patience it does also depend on
the vessel’s layout. In order to give an impression one can imagine two extremes, one extreme is a barge with
completely rectangular subdivision. Because the program applies an integration step at each (sub-)compartment
boundary, all spaces are already taken into account completely, so the result will (approximately) be independent
from the accuracy index. On the other hand, in case of a vessel with angled bulkheads the number of integration
steps does play a role, for illustration purposes we have created a barge with only one longitudinal bulkhead, which
is extremely twisted. The required subdivision index A as a function of the accuracy index is plotted in the figure.
It will be obvious that in reality the quantitative effect of this index will be located between these extremes.
Figure 27.4: Accuracy index
27.3.1.1.23
Generate including horizontal subdivision
With ‘yes’ the damage cases will be generated including horizontal subdivisions (decks) between the compartments. With ‘no’ the horizontal subdivisions will be ignored, so the damages will extend from baseline to the
uppermost deck, leading to less damage cases.
27.3.1.1.24
Co-generate complex stages of flooding at flooding through pipes
If compartpemt connections hav ebeen defined (see ?? on page ??, Define compartment connections for more
details) defined, then with the present option it can be specified that at the generation of damage cases the program
will model the flooding of compartments through pipes by means of complex intermediate stages of flooding. For
details of the complex stages mechanism we refer to section 25.5 on page 283, Complex intermediate stages of
flooding for damage stability calculations.
27.3.1.1.25
Store intermediate results in text file
At the execution of the computations many intermediate results are generated. In order to provide the possibility
to analyse or verify a certain computation, these intermediate results are saved in a text file. This file, the name
of which name is composed of the filename of the vessel and the extension .PD0 (last character is zero!), can be
read with a text editor, after the program is quitted. The concept of text file is discussed in section 4.4 on page 25,
ASCII text file.
27.3.1.1.26
Saving method of intermediate results in text file
If intermediate results are stored in a text file, then at this option can be specified how to do this. The choice is
between ‘rewrite’, where the text file is rewritten at each new calculation, and ‘add’, where the intermediate results
are added at the end of the existing text file.
27.3.1.1.27
Intermediate results in text file incl. all integration steps
For verification purposes the contributions of all numerical integration steps are also included in the text file
with intermediate results (When PIAS’ multithreading function is active, multiple integration cycles are executed
concurrently. A side effect is that these intermediate results are not included in the textfile in a synchronized
fashion. If synchronicity is required, multithreading should be switched off, which can be done with the external
variable no_multithreading, as discussed in Fairway ). With a large accuracy index the number of integration steps
can be quite large, and the text file might consequently rise to enormous proportions. To avoid that, it can be
specified at this option to exclude the integration steps from the text file.
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27.3.1.1.28
301
Store intermediate results in spreadsheet file
The text file, as discussed in the previous options, is intended for human interpretation. For an analysis of the
computational results it might be handy to have the figures available in a spreadsheet. If that is specified at this
option, the results will be written in a .CSV (Comma Separated Values) file, such a file can be read with most
spreadsheet programs. However, such a spreadsheet file can only be generated if the configuration options listed
below (Re-use unmodified results of former calculations) is set ‘off’. The reason is that all results actually must
have been calculated before they can be included in the spreadsheet file.
27.3.1.1.29
Re-use unmodified results of former calculations
In order to increase the computation speed this module keeps quite some results of former calculations in memory.
These can be re-used in subsequent calculations. For example, for each damage case the KNsin(Φ) are stored, so
that in case of future modifications of VCG’ the GZ in damaged condition can be rapidly determined. In general it
is recommended to use this facility, but if it is not desired for whatever reason it can be switched off at this option.
NB 1. The results of former calculations can also be removed explicitly, see section 27.3.5.1 on page 307, Remove
all results of former calculations . NB 2. The re-usage of existing results is a completely module-internal matter.
It has nothing to do with the .PD0 text file with intermediate results, as discussed at previous options, that file is
intended solely for human interpretation.
27.3.1.1.30
Orientation damage case plots
With section 27.3.4.3 on page 306, Create plots of damage cases (and possibly section 27.3.4.4 on page 306, Create
plot of zonal boundaries ) damage cases can be plotted. With the option under consideration it can be specified if
these plots are requested in portrait or in landscape format.
27.3.1.1.31
Wind pressure for calculation of heeling moment (kg/m2), passenger moment, life boat moment & selected wind
contour
Here the data for the various components of the heeling moment can be given, which are required for the calculation
of passenger vessels.
27.3.1.2
Drafts, trims and VCG’s
In section 27.3.1.1 on page 294, Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters the subdivision draft and
light draft have already been specified, with which the calculation drafts are fixed. In the present menu for each of
those calculation drafts the following particulars can be entered:
• The trim.
• The VCG’ / MG’ combination. Enter the VCG’, and the MG’ is automatically adapted, and the other way
round.
• Whether this is the draft on which the VCG’ must automatically be determined, in order for the attained subdivision index to become equal to the required subdivision index: A = R (see section 27.3.1.9 on page 304,
Determine the VCG’ for which A=R ).
27.3.1.3
Define hopper stability particulars (incl. pouring in or out)
This module is also capable to calculate the probabilistic damage stability according to the regulations ‘Agreement
for the construction and operation of dredgers assigned reduced freeboards’, a.k.a. dr-68. This calculation will use
the data as defined at the module for the calculation of the intact stability of hopper vessels (module Hopstab). The
data items are:
•
•
•
•
•
Design draft.
Weight and centers of gravity of light ship.
Shape of the hopper.
Specific weights of the cargo.
Points of spilling out and pouring in as well as characteristic points of the hopper edges.
In this respect, the following aspects must be considered :
• The calculations are performed for one selected basic loading condition (as selected in Hopstab). If multiple
loading conditions are selected only the last of those is used.
• The hopper shape, as defined in Hopstab , has to be a compartment (so an external hullform is not allowed).
• The hopper compartment must consist of SB and PS sub-compartments only (so ‘double’ sub-compartments
are not allowed).
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• The design draft has to be available and correct (in order to enable the program to calculate the design
specific weight of the cargo).
With the present option the particulars of the probabilistic hopper damage stability calculation can be specified.,
in an input window as shown alongside:
• The shifting regime of the cargo. The alternatives are ‘Solid’, ‘Liquid’ or ‘According to the shifting law of
dr-68’.
• Whether the light ship condition must be calculated too, and, if so, whether the hopper is assumed to be
connected to the sea.
• Which cargo specific weights, as defined in Hopstab , actually must be calculated. It is advised to include
also the ‘design specific weight’ (not as a value, but as a category) in Hopstab , the program will then automatically determine the corresponding cargo specific weight. Remark: the cargo in the hopper compartment
is assumed not to flow out when the hopper compartment is damaged.
Figure 27.5: Input window
27.3.1.4
View scheme of standard permeabilities
According to SOLAS 2009 the several kinds of space types must be computed with different permeabilities (µ).
The µ’s which belong to each type of space can be inspected with this menu option. With module Newlay the
correct space type will have to be assigned to each compartment, where one should verify that all sub-compartments
of such a compartment have their ‘Autopermeability’ set to ‘yes’, otherwise the static µ will still be used.
Figure 27.6: Permeabilities for different types of spaces
27.3.1.5
Edit scheme of user-defined permeabilities
The permeability list of section 27.3.1.4 on this page, View scheme of standard permeabilities covers those types
of spaces which are explicitly defined in SOLAS 2009. Possible additional categories can be defined with this
option.
27.3.1.6
Define compartment connections
In this menu for each compartment can be specified which compartments are flooded in the case of damage to the
compartment under consideration. In particular one should consider the flooding via damaged pipes. A connection
can be of two types: [Open] and [Pipe].
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• A connection of type [Open] means a connection with a large cross-section, through which the seawater can
pass freely, also in intermediate stages of flooding.
• A connection of type [Pipe] means a connection with a small cross-section through which the seawater cannot
pass freely in intermediate stages. When a connection is of the [Pipe] type, a complex intermediate stage of
flooding will be generated (if this option is purchased), in which the compartment connected by means of
a pipe will not be flooded. Additionally, it can be specified whether the connection always exists, or only
after the water level at a certain point is exceeded. The latter can e.g. occur with a bulkhead which does not
extend over the full height. In this case the column ‘Cr.pnt’ should be marked ‘yes’, while at Lcrit, Bcrit
and Hcrit the longitudinal, transverse and vertical coordinates of that critical point must be specified. The
values specified here are solely used at the GENERATION of the damage cases, in other words, these data
are not used independently, but are processed in each individual damage case. So modified data will only be
processed after re-generation of damage cases. Two more remarks can be made on this option:
– The generated data can be inspected at the damage cases ( section 27.3.3 on page 305, Select and edit
damage cases) after choosing the function ‘Floodingstages’. With the second menu option a list appears
which shows which compartments are connected with a damaged compartment from that particular
damage case, and what is the position of a possible critical point. This specification can also be edited,
see for more details the section on complex stages of flooding, section 25.5 on page 283, Complex
intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations.
• If one compartment, say compartment A, is connected with another compartment, say compartment B, it
does not imply that B is automatically connected with A. In reality that does also not necessarily has to be
the case, e.g. when a pipe is fitted in compartment A which will flood B if damaged. That mechanism does
not apply reversely, so at damage of compartment A, B will also be flooded, but at damage of compartment
B, A remains unaffected. If there exists a permanent opening between A and B, one should explicitly specify
that A is flooded in case of damage to B.
27.3.1.7
Define zonal boundaries
The compartments defined in PIAS are the real enclosed spaces of the ship. However, in a vessel on a less detailed
level often ‘primary spaces’ or ‘zones’ can be identified, where multiple compartments can be situated in such a
zone. An example of a zone is the engine room, regardless the exact layout of the many consumable compartments.
So a zone boundary is an abstract notion, it does not always have to coincide with a physical bulkhead. Zonal
boundaries can be specified for two purposes:
• For a calculation with the zonal method. For this purpose the user will have to define transverse zonal
boundaries, and possibly also longitudinal and horizontal boundaries.
• With the (sub-)compartment method the damage cases can be collected into zones with section 27.3.2.4 on
page 305, Collect damage cases into damage zones . Other software for the calculation of probabilistic damage stability (e.g. that of classification societies) may work on a zonal basis, and for comparison purposes it
might prove handy if the output of PIAS is also sorted in zones. (see also section 27.3.6.3 on page 308, Print
calculation results, subtotalized by zone).
27.3.1.8
Notes (free text)
With this option a window appears where free notes about the calculation or the configuration can be written.
These notes are saved with the calculation. It can also be specified whether these notes must be printed on the
output, or in the text file with intermediate results.
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Figure 27.7: Notes
27.3.1.9
Determine the VCG’ for which A=R
Except from the subdivision, the attained subdivision index A is also dependant on the vertical center of gravity
VCG’. In general the index will rise with decreasing VCG’, so there will be a single VCG’ for which A is exactly
R. With this option this critical VCG’ is determined. One aspect is that multiple drafts with belonging VCG’s
are in play, and that no general rule can be postulated for the distribution of the VCG’ variation over the drafts.
Therefore, at section 27.3.1.2 on page 301, Drafts, trims and VCG’s the user has to assign the single draft for which
the critical VCG’ is determined.
27.3.2
Generation of damage cases
27.3.2.1
Generate ALL possible NEW damage cases
With this option all existing damage cases will be deleted and all possible (up to a maximum of 3000) damage
cases will be generated. The name by which each generated damage case is identified depends on the setting of
‘automatic tank numbering’ as discussed at section 6.3 on page 40, Setup for compartments and tank sounding
tables :
• Automatic: The name will be ‘N.M’ where N is the number of simultaneously flooded compartments and M
is the sequence number in the series of damage cases with the same number of flooded compartments.
• Non-automatic: The name consists of the first four characters of the second compartment name of all flooded
compartments. Within section 27.3.1.1 on page 294, Calculation method, configurations and ship parameters
the maximum damage length and maximum number of damaged compartments can be given, in order to keep
the amount of damage cases within reasonable limits. It is recommended to start the calculations with a short
damage length and a modest number of simultaneously flooded compartments. Only in cases when the vessel
does not comply with the required subdivision index R the damage length and a number of compartments
can be increased.
With the (sub-)compartment method the damage cases as generated with this option are only based on the
(sub-)compartment geometry. So the initial damage cases are determined by the extreme compartment boundaries.
During the computation of the damage stability calculation the true damage boundaries will be determined, taking
into account all boundary conditions. For this reason it might occur that a generated damage case after all is
not able to exist, within all statutory limitations. Especially the penetration constraint rule b1/b2 plays a role to
this effect. If a damage case does not exist, the warning ‘Damage impossible’ is included in the .PD0 file with
intermediate results, see chapter ‘Warnings’.
27.3.2.2
Generate additional damage cases
With the previous option all existing damage cases will be removed and new damage cases are generated. The
present option also generates damages cases, but these will be added to the existing damage cases. Four selection
criteria must be specified here:
• Aft boundary of the area within which the damage cases have to be generated.
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• Fore boundary of the area within which the damage cases have to be generated.
• Minimum number of compartments per damage case.
• Maximum number of damaged compartments per damage case. The criteria ‘maximum damage length’ and
‘maximum number of flooded compartments’ are not applicable here.
27.3.2.3
Generate high sub damages as complex stages of flooding
With this option complex intermediate stages of flooding - a concept for which reference is made to section 25.5
on page 283, Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations - are generated, where
compartments below a certain, user-specified, height get a zero percentage of flooding. This option can be used to
simulate minor damages. In this menu, the [Create] function will automatically create a list of candidates for the
relevant heights.
27.3.2.4
Collect damage cases into damage zones
With this option, which sorts and collects damage cases, is only relevant for the (sub-)compartment method, it is
not related to the zonal method as distinct calculation method for the probability of damage. This sorting is based
on the zonal boundaries as specified in section 27.3.1.7 on page 303, Define zonal boundaries . After sorting, those
damage cases which fall into the same zone are collected, while subtotals for all zones and combinations of zones
are printed. One must recognize the fact that the calculation process of PIAS does not change when using zones, it
only affects the presentation of the output. While sorting, the damage cases can be renamed if you have chosen to
do so. In that case the name of a damage case is composed in the form of K.L.M.N, where:
• K: A number which indicates the number of zones in which the damage case extends.
• L: The zone number (at a single-zone damage), or the first-last zone number combination (at a multi-zone
damage). The first zone number is always zero.
• M: A number to indicate the number of PIAS-compartments which are flooded in the damage case.
• N: The sequence number of this damage case.
27.3.3
Select and edit damage cases
With the (sub-)compartment method the user has to specify all damage cases (where a damage case is a collection
of one or more damaged compartments) which can occur within the vessel. That can be done with the present
option, which is discussed in general at section 25.3 on page 281, Input and edit damage cases. In addition, here at
the probabilistic damage stability a number of additional columns are present in the text window:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aft: Aft boundary of the damage.
Fore: Forward boundary of the damage.
Upper: Upper boundary of the damage.
Ainside: Inside boundary of the damage, at the aft boundary.
Finside: Inside boundary of the damage, at the forward boundary.
Fixed: If this column is set to ‘yes’, then the damage dimensions are not calculated automatically but the
boundaries defined in the previous columns are taken. Fixing the boundaries is discouraged for normal use.
The columns ‘Aft’ up to ‘Finside’ can only be edited by the user if the column ‘Fixed’ is answered with ‘yes’.
The values presented in the columns ‘Aft’ up to ‘Finside’ can only be precise for each damage case which
has been fully calculated, otherwise approximate values are displayed. If a new calculation is performed, the
former exact determined values can sometimes change a bit. The listed values are used as the initial values
for the new calculation of damage boundaries, and if the initial values for two calculations differ to some
extent, the final boundaries may also slightly differ.
Because the probability of survival is composed of the sum of the probabilities for all damage cases, all cases
normally have to be included, so all ‘Slct’ values should be set to ‘yes’. In certain (investigation-)cases it could be
handy to leave cases temporarily out of the calculation, in which case those cases can be set to ‘no’.
If the text cursor is placed over a damage case and <Enter> is pressed, a window appears where can be
specified which compartments (as defined in Newlay) are simultaneously flooded in the damage case under consideration. this is also described at section 25.3 on page 281, Input and edit damage cases. In the context of the
probabilistic damage stability an additional column is present, ‘valid for pi,vi and ri’, which is normally to be set
at ‘yes’, which means the flooded compartment is taken into account for the determination of the probability of
damage, pi , vi en ri . If this column is set to ‘no’, this compartment is not included in the probability of damage,
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however, it will obviously still be included as a flooded compartment. This might be the case when a compartment is not located in the damaged region but yet flooded anyway, for instance if it is connected to a damaged
compartment by means of a pipe.
27.3.4
Output of input data of damage cases
This option also contains a number of sub-options:
27.3.4.1
Print permeabilities and selected damage cases
With this option lists of damage cases and of permeabilities assigned to the distinct types of spaces are being
printed.
27.3.4.2
Define sections for plots of zonal boundaries and damage cases
As preparation for the plots of damage cases, in this menu theirparticulars can be given, which is discussed into
detail at section 25.2 on page 280, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases.
27.3.4.3
Create plots of damage cases
With this option a plot will be created for each damage case, according to the layout as specified with the previous
menu option. The sections contain the damaged compartments (in blue) as well as the damage (hatched in red).
If, in case of the zonal method, it is specified that a probability triangle should be plotted, than it will contain the
location and length of the damage (as red bar on the horizontal axis) and the corresponding probability triangle or
trapezoid colored sand-yellow, see the example at the below.
Figure 27.8: Preview damage cases
27.3.4.4
Create plot of zonal boundaries
This menu only appears in case of the zonal method. It will generate a single plot, which contains the compartments
and the zonal boundaries, at the sections as specified with section 27.3.4.2 on the current page, Define sections for
plots of zonal boundaries and damage cases . See the example below.
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Figure 27.9: Preview zonal boundaries
27.3.5
Remove (parts of) saved information
27.3.5.1
Remove all results of former calculations
As mentioned, in this module a mechanism is incorporated with which the results of unmodified formerly calculated damage cases are maintained. With this mechanism the processing time at repeating calculations with slight
variations can strongly be reduced, because only those damage cases which have actually been modified need to be
re-calculated fully. This module automatically keeps books of compartments, damage cases and intact particulars.
A prerequisite for a correct bookkeeping is that the computer clock functions well. With the present option the
user can remove all these accumulated results.
27.3.5.2
Remove all complex intermediate stages of flooding
With this option all complex intermediate stages of flooding will be removed (see section 25.5 on page 283,
Complex intermediate stages of flooding for damage stability calculations for the ‘complex stages’ mechanism).
27.3.5.3
Remove all damage cases with a non-positive probability of damage
Damage cases with a negative probability of damage will decrease the attained subdivision index A. With this
option they can be removed. Please realize that as a consequence of this action the whole damage case constellation
will change, and, with the (sub-)compartment method, consequently the whole damage case subtraction scheme,
which might on its turn cause other damage cases to get negative probabilities.
27.3.5.4
Remove all damage cases which do not contribute to ‘A’
Damage cases with a non-positive ai are removed. It is better not to use this option when in a later stage the VCG’
could be decreased. Damage cases with zero probability of survival will be deleted with this option, and it might
very well be that with a lower VCG’ some of those damage cases would have a positive survival probability.
27.3.5.5
Remove all damage cases
With this option all existing damage cases are simply removed.
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27.3.6
Execute and/or print calculations
27.3.6.1
Execute and print the calculation
308
With this option the computation is executed, and printed, see section 27.3.12 on page 313, Appendix 4 for an
example for a dry cargo vessel, and section 27.3.13 on page 314, Appendix 5 for that of a hopper vessel according
to regulation dr-68. As mentioned, the program keeps track of results of former calculations. Under the condition
that the underlying ship data are not changed, these results can be re-used, entirely or partially, at subsequent
computations. This mechanism can be the reason that where an initial calculation can take hours to complete,
repetitive and identical calculations can be finished within minutes.
Furthermore, please observe that on the first two pages of section 27.3.12 on page 313, Appendix 4 on the
last line the sum of all probabilities of damage p is listed. This sum may be interpreted as the ‘total probability
of damage when damaged’ and gives an indication whether the selected damage cases are correct and complete .
There are three possibilities:
• The sum of all p-values is nearly or exactly 1. In this case all possible damage cases are well covered by the
selected damage cases, because the ‘total probability of damage when damaged’ should theoretically exactly
be 1.
• The sum of all p-values is (much) smaller than 1. In this case the set of selected damage cases is incomplete,
it does not represent all possible damage cases. This is not incorrect, but more damage cases could be
defined, which could contribute to the attained subdivision index A.
• The sum of all p-values is (much) larger than 1. In this case overlapping or identical damage cases have been
defined. This is incorrect.
Finally, it must be mentioned that besides probabilistic criteria the regulations could also contain deterministic
damage stability criteria,. The computation of deterministic damage stability is not a task of this module, that
can be performed with the separate dedicated PIAS modules (Damstab ). For instance reg. 25-6.2 of SOLAS
1992 requires essentially that every fore peak damage must be survived with s=1 (that is, GZmax ≥0.10 m, range
≥20°and θ statical ≤25°). That this rule is not verified is reported by the program by the message “Compliance with
SOLAS reg. 25-6.2 has not been verified”.
27.3.6.2
“Only execute” and “Print the complete calculation”
These options will speak for themselves. With the first computations are only executed, nothing is printed. With
the second the available results of the last computation are printed (again).
27.3.6.3
Print calculation results, subtotalized by zone
Complete calculation results can, because of their extent, be rather indigestible. It could be convenient to structure
the results within zones. If with section 27.3.1.7 on page 303, Define zonal boundaries zonal boundaries have
been defined, then with the present option the output can be arranged and printed in zones, see section 27.3.14 on
page 315, Appendix 6 for an example. This restructuring within zones can be applied with the zonal method and
the (sub-)compartment method. In principle the numerical integration method does not use the ‘damage boundary’
concept, and consequently it cannot be determined in which zone a damage case is located.
27.3.7
Warnings
During the calculation Windows might occassionaly report that the program is not responsive anymore. This
message is incorrect and can be ignored, for its background please see section 3.12 on page 20, Frequently asked
questions. Sensible warnings may be included in the text file with intermediate results (.PD0 file), and have the
following meanings:
• Warning: This damage case is redundant. Means that this damage case is multiply defined. The multiple
definition of damage cases always gives incorrect results, due to incorrect subtraction of subdamages. Please
be informed that the sequence of definition of damage cases, as well as their being ‘selected’, is irrelevant
for the mechanism of subtraction of subdamages, so it is also irrelevant for this warning.
• Warning: This case contains incomplete subtracted subdamages. Means that subdamages are being subtracted which combined do not cover the entire damage. This might be correct, but special attention must be
given to this case, because it may indicate that damage cases are missing.
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• Warning: Damage impossible, pi, ri and vi are zero. Means that for this damage case no boundaries can be
found (also see the remark at the ‘Generation of damage cases’ chapter). This damage case is left out in the
calculation.
• Warning: The damage boundaries enclose also negative sub-compartments. In combination with the current
calculation method (1 damage per sub-compartment) such damage boundaries can be expected to be correct,
but it is not guaranteed. Please check. This message, which can only be given with the sub-compartment
method, indicates that negative sub-compartments are damaged within the boundaries of the damage cases.
Essentially that should not be problematic, but one should realize that negative sub-compartments cannot be
damaged on their own, their damage is only realistic where they overlap a positive sub-compartment. So it
is advised to verify the damage boundaries as found by the program.
27.3.8
References
• [1] M. Pawlowski. Subdivision and damage stability of ships. Politechnika Gda´nska, Gdansk, Poland.
• [2] H.J. Koelman & J. Pinkster. ‘Rationalizing the practice of probabilistic damage stability calculations’.
✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴♣r♦❜✐❧✐st✐❝❴✐s♣❴✈✺✵❴✷✵✵✸✳♣❞❢
• [3] H.J. Koelman. ‘On the procedure for the determination of the probability of collision damage’. ✇✇✇✳
s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴❛❜str❛❝t❴✐s♣❴✈✺✷❴✷✵✵✺✳♣❞❢
• [4] H.J. Koelman. ‘Re-evaluation of the method to determine the probability of damage’. ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴
✐♠❛❣❡s✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴❛❜str❛❝t❴✐♠❞❝✷✵✵✻✳♣❞❢
• [5] H.J. Koelman. ‘A new method and Program for Probabilistic Damage Stability’. ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴
✐♠❛❣❡s✴♣✉❜❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✴♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐st✐❝❴❝♦♠♣✐t✷✵✵✻✳♣❞❢
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27.3.9
310
Appendix 1
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27.3.10
311
Appendix 2
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27.3.11
312
Appendix 3
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27.3.12
313
Appendix 4
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27.3.13
314
Appendix 5
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27.3.14
315
Appendix 6
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 28
Outflow: probabilistic oil outflow with the simplified
method
The MARPOL regulations set a limit on the amount of oil outflow in case of damage. With this PIAS module this
outflow can be calculated, with the simplified method.
28.1
Background of the probabilistic oil outflow calculations
There are two types of probabilistic outflow regulations in MARPOL:
• Probabilistic oil outflow for oil tankers >5000 ton dwt. This is applicable from construction date January 1,
2007.
• Probabilistic oil outflow of fuel oil, for vessels with a total fuel capacity >600 m3 . This applies to vessels
with contract date on or after August 1, 2007, keel laying February 1, 2008 or delivery August 1, 2010. Also
applies to ’major conversions’.
This PIAS module OUTFLOW performs a simplified calculation, as prescribed in the regulation in detail. The
alternative could be an exact calculation (that is to say, a calculation by numerical integration - for a discussion of
this method see for instance ‘On the procedure for the determination of the probability of collision damage’ by H.J.
Koelman, as appeared in International Shipbuilding Progress 52;2, pp. 129-148 - ), the new (in 2006) PIAS-module
for probabilistic damage stability is in principle very suitable for such an approach.. Such a calculation is explicitly
accepted according to reg. 23.10 for oil tankers. For fuel oil tanks this method is not referred to, however, because
the calculations for cargo oil and fuel oil are identical, besides for some detail, it could very well be applied to
fuel oil tanks too. By the way, the explanatory notes - explanatory notes on matters related to the accidental oil
outflow performance under regulation 23 of the revised MARPOL Annex I, 15 October 2004, MEPC.122(52) make mention of the fact that in non-rectangular cases the simplified method gives a higher outflow than a more
exact approach.
If desired, SARC will implement a calculation on the basis of the numerical integration method, if:
• Such a method is considered to be necessary. Suppose that with the simplified approach the outflow criterion
can easily be matched, then there will be no raison d’etre for a more accurate approach.
• With a certifying organisation is agreed that a numerical integration calculation will indeed be accepted.
28.2
Introduction to this module
The requirements contain rules for determining the probability of an average outflow on the basis of many tank
parameters (like distances to shell and bottom, volume, tank boundaries). The ship complies with the rule when
that average outflow is smaller than a certain maximum.
This module automatically determines all these tank parameters, but, as usual, not all rules are equally objective. Take, for example, the determination of the distance y, which is the ‘minimum horizontal distance between
compartment and side shell’. Such a definition raises the question what the ‘side shell’ exactly is. Does it run on
into the bottom, or into the bilge? And what in case of a rounded gunwhale? In order to have some certainty about
this definition, one has added, at the rules for fuel oil tanks anyway: In way of the turn of the bilge, y need not
28.3 Main menu of this module
317
be considered..... This does not solve the problem, however; because where exactly is that way of the turn of the
bilge, and what about the fore and aft parts, where there is not a real bilge, but where everything is just curved?
Because the determination of certain dimensions is therefore sometimes subjective, these can also be given
manually as the occasion rises. In any case, it is strongly recommended to check the penetration and tank dimensions thoroughly.
Finally, two more remarks:
• In the program and at the output the same symbols are used as in the regulations (although without the
typografic refinement of subscripts, since Windows has problems with that). In general we are not in favour
of including cryptic codes in the input or output, but in this case their meaning has been laid down correctly
in the text of the regulations.
• This module calculates the average oil outflow. The position of the tanks in relation to the outer shell of
the ship (like, for example, described for fuel oil tanks in paragraphs 6,7,8 and 11.8 of reg. 13A) is not
determined, and the consequences of that location (for example, the question whether there have to be made
outflow calculations at all) have to be verified by the user himself.
28.3
Main menu of this module
This module is activated from PIAS’ main menu with option ‘Hydrostatic calculations’, sub-option ‘Probabilistic
outflow calculations, using a simplified approach’. (Alternatively, the module can be started by typing ‘OUTFL←
OW’ in the text box under the main menu). Then the following module main menu appears.
Probabilistic outflow calculations with the simplified method
1 Setup calculation parameters
2 Specify damage boundaries and outflow parameters manually
3 Execute the oil outflow calculations
28.3.1
Setup calculation parameters
1 Probabilistic outflow calculations with the simplified method
1
Type of outflow calculation
2
Calculation method
3
Ship and compartments are symmetrical
4
Light ship draft
5
Load line draft
6
Which oil density to apply
7
Generic oil density
8
Which tank permeability to apply
9
Generic permeability of all tanks
10 With fixed minimum height for determination of y
11 Fixed minimum height for determination of y
12 There are 2 continuous longitudinal bulkheads in the cargo tanks
28.3.1.1
Type of outflow calculation
At this option one can choose between calculations for fuel oil or cargo oil. Each tank must be assigned the correct
content destination type in Compart (with the ninth option of sub-menu 1.1 of that module).
28.3.1.2
Calculation method
In the future this option will be the place to toggle between a simplified calculation and a calculation on the basis
of numerical integration.
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28.3.1.3
318
Ship and compartments are symmetrical
If hullform and compartment are completely symmetrical, then it is sufficient to perform the calculation for one
side only (we chose SB). In case of asymmetry the calculation is performed to both SB and PS, and the result is
averaged.
28.3.1.4
Light ship draft
For the determination of the calculation draft. The drafts as entered here are not integrated with the same data as
may have been entered in a probabilistic damage stability module.
28.3.1.5
Load line draft
See section 28.3.1.4 on the current page, Light ship draft.
28.3.1.6
Which oil density to apply
Here two choices can be made:
• Apply the density as specified per tank in module paragraph 11.4.1.2.5 on page 180, Design S.W. . This
method can only be applied if none of the tanks is designated a ‘variable specific weight’.
• With a generic density, as specified in the next line, for all tanks.
28.3.1.7
Generic oil density
If the second option is selected at the previous line, then at this line the uniform density for all tanks can be given.
28.3.1.8
Which tank permeability to apply
Here two choices can be made:
• Apply the permeability as specified per sub-compartment in module Newlay.
• With a generic permeability, as specified in the next line, for all tanks.
28.3.1.9
Generic permeability of all tanks
If the second option is selected at the previous line, then at this line the uniform permeability for all tanks can be
given.
28.3.1.10
With fixed minimum height for determination of y
As indicated in the introduction, the penetration of side damage, y, needs only to be determined from the side shell
(and, with fuel oil tanks, not below h=min(B/10,3)). As an aid for the question where the side shell ends, at this
option a certain minimum height for the determination of y can be specified (by the way, the h=min(B/10,3) will
always be applied in case of fuel oil tanks).
28.3.1.11
Fixed minimum height for determination of y
If the previous line is set to ‘Yes’, then at this line the minimum height (in meters from baseline) can be given.
28.3.1.12
There are 2 continuous longitudinal bulkheads in the cargo tanks
The answer to this question is relevant for the determination of factor C3, see reg. 23.6 of the cargo oil rules.
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28.4 Specify damage boundaries and outflow parameters manually
28.4
319
Specify damage boundaries and outflow parameters manually
Figure 28.1: Outflow parameters for damage to SB
As motivated in the introduction, it can be desirable to give certain dimensions or distances manually. That can be
done in this menu, where the different columns have the following meaning:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
28.5
Auto: With ‘Yes’ the several values are determined automatically, with ‘No’ they can be entered manually.
Xa: Aft damage boundary.
Xf: Forward damage boundary.
Zl: Lower boundary of side damage.
Zu: Upper boundary of side damage.
y: Penetration of side damage.
Yp: PS boundary of bottom damage.
Ys: SB boundary of bottom damage.
z: Penetration of bottom damage.
Yb, Hw and A: Only with fuel oil tanks: for determining the minimum outflow, see reg. 13A.11.3.
Execute the oil outflow calculations
With this option the calculation is executed, and printed on paper. An output example is included underneath.
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28.5 Execute the oil outflow calculations
320
Figure 28.2: Output example
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Chapter 29
Resist: resistance prediction with empirical
methods
With this module resistance predictions can be made for different ship types, with nine published empirical methods,
viz:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hollenbach, for displacement vessels.
Holtrop & Mennen, for displacement vessels.
Van Oortmerssen, for smaller displacement vessels.
Britisch Columbia, for smaller displacement vessels with a low L/B ratio.
MARIN for barges.
Mercier & Savitsky vessels in the preplaning range.
Savitsky, for planing chine vessels.
Robinson, for planing chine and round bilge vessels.
Keuning, Gerritsma & van Terwisga, for planing chine vessels with large deadrise..
29.1
Overview and applicability of the calculation methods.
Note
In this section for each method the applicability and ranges of validity are given. It will be evident that if
parameters fall outside these ranges, the results will be unreliable. But even apart from that one should realize
that all applied resistance prediction methods used are based on statistics, so it is recommended to always
take a critical look at the results.
29.1.1
Hollenbach
With this method a resistance approximation is made for the displacement condition. The approximation is based
on Dr.Ing. Uwe Hollenbach, SDC Ship Design & Consult GmbH, Germany, ‘Estimating resistance and propulsion for single-screw and twin-screw ships in the preliminary design’ 10th International conference on computer
applications in shipbuilding, 7-11 June 1999. The variables should be within the following limits:
29.1 Overview and applicability of the calculation methods.
322
Figure 29.1: Hollenbach limits
29.1.2
Holtrop and Mennen
This method approximates the open water resistance according to the following publications:
• J. Holtrop & G.G.J. Mennen ‘An approximate power prediction method’, International Shipbuilding
Progress, 1982.
• J. Holtrop, ‘A Statistical re-analysis of resistance and propulsion data’, International Shipbuilding Progress,
1984, pp. 272-276.
The parameters should be within the following limits:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The approximation is valid for seawater (1.025 ton/m3 ) of 15 degrees celsius, for calm water.
Cross-sectional area of the bulb must be less than 20% of the miship sectional area.
Midship coefficient between 0.5 and 1.0.
Lwl/B ratio between 3.5 and 9.5.
LCB between -5% and +5% of half Lwl.
Prismatic coefficient between 0.40 and 0.93.
Resistance coefficient of bow propeller between 0.003 and 0.012.
Figure 29.2: Holtrop and Mennen
29.1.3
Oortmersen
This methode makes an estimation of the resistance of a vessel according to G. van Oortmerssen, ‘A Power Prediction method and its application to small ships’, International Shipbuilding Progress Vol.18, no 207. The parameters
should be within the following limits:
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29.1 Overview and applicability of the calculation methods.
323
√
• Froudenumber (= V / (g . Lwl) where V = speed in m/s, g = 9.81 m/s2 , Lwl = length waterline in m)
between 0 and 0.5.
• Length between perpendicular between 9 and 80 m.
• Wetted area between 0 and 1500 m2 .
• Volume between 0 en 3000 m3 .
• Long. centre of buoyancy between -8% and 4% of Lpp before half Lpp.
• Prismatic coefficient between 0.5 and 0.73.
• Half entrance angle waterline between 10 and 46 degrees.
• Breadth / draft ratio between 1.9 and 4.0.
• Midship coefficient between 0.72 and 0.97.
• Length / breadth ratio between 3.0 and 6.5.
• Specific weight of outside water between 1.0 and 1.03 ton/m3 .
• Appendage coefficient (= multiplicationfactor for the volume to get to volume & appendages) between 1.0
and 1.10.
29.1.4
British Columbia
This method can be used for the somewhat smaller vessels with a small length / breadth ratio. The method is based
on: Dr. Sander M. Çali¸sal & Dan McGreer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. ‘Model
resistance tests of a systematic series of low L / B vessels’ A paper presented to the spring meeting of the Pacific
Northwest section of the society of naval architects and marine engineers. The parameters should be within the
following limits:
√
• Froudenumber (= V / (g . Lwl) where V = speed in m/s, g = 9.81 m/s2 , Lwl = length waterline in m)
between 0 and 0.5.
• Wetted area between 0 and 1500 m2 .
• Volume between 0 en 3000 m3 .
• Blockcoefficient between 0.531 en 0.614.
• Breadth / draft ratio between 1.5 and 3.5.
• Length / breadth ratio between 2.0 and 4.5.
• Specific weight of outside water between 1.0 and 1.03 ton/m3 .
• Appendage coefficient (= multiplicationfactor for the volume to get to volume & appendages) between 1.0
and 1.10.
29.1.5
Barge
This method can be used to approximate the resistance of a barge. The calculations are according to the method
described in MARIN report no.49791-1-RD, ‘Een empirisch model voor de weerstandspredictie van bakken’. The
prediction is valid for deep and calm water, and has the following applicability:
•
•
•
•
•
29.1.6
Froudenumber (= V / (g . breadth)1/2 , where V = speed in m/sec and g = 9.81 m/sec2 ) smaller than 0.60.
Length / breadth ratio between 2.25 and 8.0.
Breadth / draft ratio smaller than 10.
Prismatic coefficient between 0.7 and 1.
Length of fore body, with a minimum of 0.01 m on model scale (note: at SARC this is considered to be a
bit curious criterion, for what would be the ‘model scale’ of a scale 1:1 barge? But anyway, this is how it is
listed in MARIN’s publication).
Preplan
With this method you can calculate the resistance of a vessel in the area between displacement and planing condition. The calculations are according to the method as published in J.A. Mercier & D. Savitsky, ‘Resistance of
transom shear craft in the pre-planing range’ Davidson Labatory Report 1667, Stevens Institute of Technology,
June 1973. The method has the following area of applicability:
√
• Froude number based on the volume (= V / (g . (volume1/3 )) where V = velocity in m/sec, g = 9.81 m/sec2 ,
volume = volume in m3 ) between 1 and 2.
• Half angle of entrance of the waterline between 10 and 55 degrees.
• Ratio length / volume1/3 between 2 and 12.
• Ratio transomarea / maximum cross-sectional area between 0 and 1.
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29.1 Overview and applicability of the calculation methods.
324
• Ratio length / breadth between 2 and 14.
• Specific weight of the water between 1.00 and 1.03 ton/m3 .
• Appendage coefficient (= multiplicationfactor for the volume to get to volume & appendages) between 1.0
and 1.10.
29.1.7
Savitsky
With this method you can calculate the resistance of a planing hull. The method is based on the following two
publications:
• D. Savitsky ‘Hydrodynamic design of planing hulls’, Marine Technology, Vol.1, No.1, Okt. 1964, pp. 71-75.
• Donald L. Blount & David L. Fox ‘Small craft power prediction’, Marine Technology Vol.13, No.1, Jan.
1976, pp. 14-45.
For the resistance calculations all forces are assumed to go through the centre of gravity of the vessel. For
calculations in the preliminary design stage this is assumed to be sufficiently accurate. The output shows two
values for the resistance:
• Resistance according to Savitsky which is valid for test conditions.
• Corrected resistance for true operational conditions according to the method of Blount and Fox. This method
calculates two correction factors:
– Correction for test resistance to true operational resistance for the naked hullform.
– Correction for the influence of appendages.
The method has the following area of applicability:
• Rise of floor between 0 and 35 degrees.
• Specific weight of water between 1.00 and 1.03 ton/m3 .
• Appendage coefficient (= multiplicationfactor for the volume to get to volume & appendages) between 1.0
and 1.10.
√
• Speed ratio Cv (= V / (g . Bpx), with V = speed in m/sec, g = 9.81 m/sec2 and Bpx = maximum knuckle
breadth in m) between 0.6 and 13.
• Length of wetted keel / maximum knuckle breadth larger than 4, this implies that the length on the waterline
/ maximum knuckle breadth larger is than 4.
29.1.8
Robinson
With this method the resistance of a planing vessel can be calculated. The method is based on John Robinson,
Wolfson Unit MTIA, University of Southampton, ‘Performance prediction of chine and round bilge hull forms’,
Hydrodynamics of High Speed Craft, 24 and 25 November 1999, London SW1. The following limits for the
parameters have to be taken into account:
• Volumetric Froude number between 0.5 and 2.75.
• See following figures:
Figure 29.3: Hard chine regression data boundary
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29.2 Main menu
325
Figure 29.4: Hard bilge regression data boundary
29.1.9
Delft
With this method the resistance of a planing vessel can be calculated. The method is based on J.A. Keuning,
J. Gerritsma and P.F. van Terwisga, ‘Resistance tests of a series planing hull forms with 30 degrees deadrise
angle, and a calculation model based on this and similar systematic series’, International Shipbuilding Progress
40, No.424, (1993) pp. 333-385. The following parameter limits have to be taken into account:
• Volumetric Froude number between 0.75 and 3.00.
• Volume between 2.5 and 5000 m3 .
• Rise of floor between 12.5 and 30 degrees.
29.2
Main menu
Resistance prediction
1. Input data resistance prediction
2. Calculate and print
3. Diagram of resistance components
4. Calculate and send to Prop
5. Calculate and send to Manoeuv
6. Local cloud monitor
7. File and backup management
29.2.1
Input data resistance prediction
In this window all ship’s parameters which are applicable for a certain method should be given. In the list below
all existing parameters are included, however, in reality only those relevant for a particular method are shown.
The definition of all parameters is strictly according to the convention of the applied resistance prediction method,
which does not have to agree with the PIAS convention. Below, some guidance on these conventions is given,
nevertheless it is recommended to keep the source publications at hand for the details.
• PIAS-hullForm: If the hullform has been defined with PIAS, all abovementioned particulars can be calculated from that hullform by the menu option [PIAS hullForm]. Please bear in mind that, if the hullform was
not generated with one of the PIAS modules ‘Hullformgeneration’ or ‘Fairway’, the exact waterline can only
be obtained by means of extrapolation. So the values of at least ‘angle of entrance’ and ‘waterline length’
must be checked, and corrected if necessary.
• Method: the chosen resistance prediction method.
• Name of the vessel: is free to choose.
• Identification name: a further description intended for a more precise identification, for example a version
numer or name of the project variant.
• Specific weight: of the cruising water, in ton/m3 .
• Ship type: choice between single / double screw vessel, or chine / round-bilge vessel (dependant on the
selected prediction method).
• Length of underwater ship: see figure below.
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29.2 Main menu
326
Figure 29.5: Definition of lengths for the Hollenbach method
• Length waterline and length between perpendiculars: The aft perpendicular is the center of the rudderstock,
the forward perpendicular is the intersection of the waterline and the stem. Length between perpendiculars
is the distance between those perpendiculars, length waterline is the distance between the forward perpendicular and the intersection between waterline and the stern, as depecited in the figure below.
Figure 29.6: Definition length for the Oortmersen method
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Length of forebody: length LKOP , see figure below.
Length of non-prismatic aftbody: length LST , see figure below.
Draft for calculation: choice between design and ballast-draft.
Mean draft: the vertical distance between the baseline and the waterline at half the waterline length.
Wetted surface: the wetted surface area of the hull form that is under the waterline.
Midship coefficient: to be determined on the largest cross-sectional area.
Waterline coefficient: If yet unkown, it can be roughly approximated by 1/3 + 2/3 . block coefficient.
Prismatic coefficient of aftbody: should be given for the non-prismatic part of the aftbody.
Angle of aftbody buttocks to the baseline: angle α ST , see figure below.
Radius flat bottom-aftbody: radius RST , see figure below.
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29.2 Main menu
327
Figure 29.7: Definitions for the Barge method
• Half entrance angle of the waterline: the half entrance angle of the faired waterline, without the local stem
correction.
• Longitudinal centre of buoyancy: defined as an percentage of the waterline length, relative to half waterline
length, positive = fore half waterrline length and negative = before half waterline length.
• C-stern: the stern shape coefficient value from the tables below:
Figure 29.8: C-stern
• Appendage coefficient: the appendage area (in m2 ) as well as the coefficient (labelled ‘1+K2’) according to
the table below. For a composition of multiple appendages, the weighted average of the coefficients 1+K2
should be taken.
Figure 29.9: 1+K2, dependant on the type of appendage
• Submerged transom area: the submerged transom area (in m2 ).
• Mean immersion depth of the transom: Mean immersion depth of the transom HTR . See figure of "Definitions
for the Barge method".
• Number of bow thrusters: the number of bow thrusters, in combination with the diameter (in m) and resistance coefficient (between 0.003 and 0.012) for every bow thruster opening.
• Bulb: choice between bulb or no bulb. With the cross-sectional area at FPP (in m2 ) of the bulbous bow and
the VCG (in m) of this cross-sectional area from baseline.
• Planing length: length of the projected planing bottom area.
• Planing breadth: breadth over the chines.
• Planing area: projected planing bottom area.
• Twisted bottom: choice between twisted bottom or no twisted bottom.
• Twist angle: difference in rise of floor between fore- and aftship.
• Centre line angle: average angle between centreline and baseline, over the aft half of the ship. Positive if
draft aft is greater than draft at half length.
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29.2 Main menu
328
• Breadth: for method Robinson, Breadth over all. For other methods, moulded breadth of the ship.
• Breadth at chine: the breadth of the ship at chine.
• Volume including shell & appendages: the volume of the ship including the volume of the shell and appendages.
• Moulded volume: the moulded volume of the ship.
• Model ship correlation coefficient: is a coefficient which is used to get from specific method scale model
values to real life scale.
• Submerged cross section area: the submerged cross section area.
• Longitudinal centre of gravity: is the location of the centre of gravity in longitudinal position, measured
from the transom along the keelline of the ship.
• Rise of floor: in a cross section, the angle between the baseline and the hull.
• Speed interval: at which interval, between start- and end speed, the resistance is calculated.
• Input air resistance: choice between with or without air resistance.
• Projected area air resistance: the projected area which is subjected to air resistance.
• Stabilisation vins: choice between with or without stabilisation vins.
• Wetted surface area stabilisation vins: the wetted surface area of the stabilisation vins.
• Bilge keels: choice between with or without bilge keels.
• Wetted surface area bilge keels: the wetted surface area of the bilge keels.
• Dome: choice between with or without dome.
• Wetted surface area dome: the wetted surface area of the dome.
• LCG relative to half length of planing area: in percentages of the longitudinal centre of gravity length
relative to half longitudinal centre of gravity length (positive = fore half longitudinal centre of gravity length,
negative = before half longitudinal centre of gravity length) (comparable to Longitudinal centre of buoyancy
location).
Except the columns for specifiying the parameter velues, this menu contains at the right side a column labelled
‘source’. Here the source of the parameter on each line can be specified, which can be:
• User-defined: which means, very commonly, a value typed in by the user.
• From hullform: which means that the parameter value of this line is extracted from the PIAS hullform (as
defined by Fairway of Hulldef). This facility can be rather handy, however, one should realize that some
parameters, specifically waterline-oreinted parameters ‘Half entrance angle of the waterline’ and ‘Length
waterline’, may require extrapolation, which may hamper their reliability. So, these parameters should be
checked thoroughly and corrected if neccessary.
• Estimation: which means that this parameter is to be derived from empirical estimation equations, which are
available in some resistance methods.
Obviously, the sources From hullform and Estimation are only applicable for rows where the parameters are
supported by such functions.
29.2.2
Calculate and print
For the parameters as given at the first menu option, here the resistance approximation is made, and the results are
printed in a table.
29.2.3
Diagram of resistance components
Similar to the previous option, with the resistance and its components plotted in a graph.
29.2.4
Calculate and send to Prop
The input data as well as the calculated resistance is sent to the propeller calculation module Prop.
calculations.
29.2.5
Calculate and send to Manoeuv
Similar to the previous option, however, here the results are send to the PIAS manoeuvring prediction module.
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29.2 Main menu
29.2.6
329
Local cloud monitor
See section 3.11 on page 20, Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module operation on the same project.
29.2.7
File and backup management
With this option design version can be managed, with a mechanism as described in section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 30
Prop: propeller calculations with standard propeller
series
With this module properties can be computed from propellers of the following, published, empirical propeller series:
•
•
•
•
Open water propellers of the systematic B-series of MARIN, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Ducted propellers of the systematic Ka-series, and one from the Kd-series of MARIN.
Propeller series by Gawn.
The Japanese Au series for threebladed, fourbladed and sixbladed propellers.
30.1
Overview and applicability of the calculation methods
Note
Please take the warning in the note of section 29.1 on page 321, Overview and applicability of the calculation
methods. — on the attitude with respect to empirical/statistical prediction methods — heartily.
30.1.1
B-serie
The calculation is based on the methode of M. Oosterveld & & P. van Oossanen, NSP 1974, and is valid for
pitch/diameter ratios between 0.6 and 1.4. The applicable blade numbers and blade area ratios are listed in the
table below:
Number of blades 2 3
4
5
6
7
Expanded area ratio 0.3 0.35-0.8 0.4-1.0 0.45-1.05 0.5-0.8 0.55-0.85
30.1.2
Ka/Kd-series
The calculation is based on the method of M. Oosterveld, ‘Ducted propeller characteristics’, RINA 1973, and is
valid for pitch/diameter ratios between 0.5 and 1.6, and for the following propeller/nozzle combinations:
Propeller
Ka 3-65
Ka 4-55
Ka 4-70
Ka 4-70
Ka 4-70
Ka 4-70
Ka 5-75
Ka 5-100
Nozzel
19A
19A
19A
22
24
37
19A
33
Number of blades
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
Blade area ratio
0.65
0.65
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.75
1.00
The different nozzles have the following particulars, where L is the length of the nozzle and D the propeller
diameter.
30.2 Main menu
•
•
•
•
•
331
nozzle 19A - L/D = 0.5, accelerating flow type
nozzle 22 - L/D = 0.8, accelerating flow type
nozzle 24 - L/D = 1.0, accelerating flow type
nozzle 33 - L/D = 0.6, decelerating flow type
nozzle 37 - L/D = 0.5, accelerating flow type
Nozzle 22 and 24 are like 19A, except for the L/D ratio which is higher, which is favourable for tugs. Nozzle 37
has a thick trailing edge which results in better performance with power astern. Nozzle 33 has a higher cavitation
limit which is favourable to decrease the level of vibrations and noise.
30.1.3
Gawn-series
The calculation is based on the method of R. Gawn, ‘Effect of pitch and blade width on propeller performance’,
RINA 1952, and has the following application area:
• Only 3 bladed propellers.
• Expanded area ratio should be between 0.2 and 1.1.
• Pitch/diameter ratio should be between 0.8 and 1.4.
30.1.4
AU-series
The calculation is based on the method of A. Yazaki, ‘Design diagrams of modern four, five, six and seven-bladed
propellers developed in Japan’, 4th Naval Hydronamics Symposium, National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
1962. The parameters should be within the following limits per propeller:
Propeller name
Number of blades
Expanded area ratio
Pitch/diameter ratio
30.2
N-AU 3-35
3
0.35
0.4-1.2
N-AU 3-50
3
0.5
0.4-1.2
AU 4-55
4
0.55
1.0-1.6
AU 4-70
4
0.7
1.0-1.6
AUw 6-55
6
0.55
0.9-1.5
AUw 6-70
6
0.7
0.9-1.5
AUw 6-85
6
0.85
0.9-1.5
Main menu
Propeller calculations
1.
Input of ship hull parameters
2.
Input of propeller data
3.
Input of speed and resistance range
4.
Calculate propeller with maximum efficiency in a range of diameters
5.
Calculate propeller with revolutions variation
6.
Calculate resistance with fixed propeller dimensions
7.
Calculate speed-power curve with fixed propeller dimensions
8.
Calculate thrust force for a fixed pitch propeller
9.
Calculate thrust force for a controlable pitch propeller
10. Local cloud monitor
11. File and backup management
30.3
Input of ship hull parameters
Here an input window with ship hull parameter appears. Excepts for the drafts, they will only be utilized for
the estimation of wake and thrust deduction coefficients (by Holtrop & Mennens method), not for the propeller
calculations as such. If the resistance values have been transferred from Resist to Prop, those parameters are
already filled in, because they have already been defined in Resist and have been cotransferred. So, for their
description reference is made to section 29.2.1 on page 325, Input data resistance prediction.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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30.4 Input of propeller data
30.4
332
Input of propeller data
• Pitch/diameter ratio: The pitch/diameter ratio has to be filled in by calculations 6 and 7. By calculation 4
and 5 this value is calculated.
• Determination center shaft - base: If this option is set ‘0.53 x diameter’ then the distance between the
center of the propeller shaft and baseline is recalculated for each diameter (with this = 53% of the propeller
diameter). If the option is set to ‘User defined’ than the user-specified value is used.
• Expanded area ratio: The expanded area ratio (AE /A0 ) of the B-series and Gawn propellers can be estimated
by the program (according to the cavitation criterion of Keller) by setting the field ‘Determination method
blade-area ratio’ to ‘Calculate’.
• Wake and thrust deduction: There are three options:
– Calculate according Holtrop & Mennen: With the estimation methode of J. Holtrop and G. Mennen (see
Resist for the references) on basis of the ship hull parameters, like defined in the first menu option(see
section 30.3 on the previous page, Input of ship hull parameters), the wake and thrust deduction is
calculated. Unfortunately, experience has shown that for full single-propeller vessels the Holtrop &
Mennen formulae tend towards unrealistic high values. In such as case - higher than the tentatively
selected wake factor of 0.45 - an alternative formula is used, namely that of Schneekluth (1988). This
is a bit of a ramshackle, but that is not uncommon with empirical estimation methods.
– Fixed, user-specified values: Here you defined one wake and thrust deduction which will be used for
every speed and diameter.
– User defined per speed-diameter: In this menu the wake and thrust deduction can be defined per speeddiameter. If changes are made to the number of speeds-diameters than you have to check if these user
defined wake and thrust deduction values are still valid for there respective speed-diameter.
• Propeller series: The to be used propeller series. With the Ka- and AU-series the following input parameters
are automaticlly filled in and cannot be changed:
– The number of blades.
– The expanded area ratio.
– The type of propeller.
30.5
Input of speed and resistance range
In this input screen you can enter up to 20 speeds with the resistance. Enter the speed in knots and resistance in
kN.
30.6
Calculate propeller with maximum efficiency in a range of diameters
This option is for calculating a propeller at a given speed and resistance when the number of revolutions and the
pitch of the propeller is unknown. The determined propeller has a maximum possible open water efficiency.
30.7
Calculate propeller with revolutions variation
This option calculates a propeller at a given speed, resistance and (range of) number of revolutions. The pitch is
determined so that the delivered shaft horse power equals the required shaft horse power.
30.8
Calculate resistance with fixed propeller dimensions
This option is to determine the resistance at the trail trip. All propeller characteristics have to be defined by the
user. Using the defined propeller dimensions the resistance is calculated.
30.9
Calculate speed-power curve with fixed propeller dimensions
The following menu will be displayed on the screen, where with the first two options the speed-power curve is
actually computed and plotted. The first option is for a fixed pitch propeller (and consequently varying revolutions),
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30.9 Calculate speed-power curve with fixed propeller dimensions
333
and the second for a controlable pitch propeller, with fixed revolutions. The other options can be used to configure
the nature and content of the graph.
Snelheid-vermogens kromme met vaste schroefafmetingen
1. Speed-power curve for a fixed pitch propeller
2. Speed-power curve for a controlable pitch propeller
2. Legends at the graph
3. Allowances
4. Efficiency reduction at constant revolutions
5. Intersections in the graph
6. Layout
For a propeller with fixed dimensions a graph can be plotted, which gives the relationship between the speed
and the required shaft horse power. With the standard version the calculation can be performed for a fixed pitch
propeller. The graphical extensions also allow calculations with a controllable pitch propeller. If there are any
losses due to pitch variation, these can be defined by an allowance on the required power. The lay-out can be
adapted in various ways, see the figure below. Be sure to define enough speeds with a small interval in order to get
an accurate graph of the speed- power relation.
Figure 30.1: Power curve
Figure 30.2: Power curve
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
30.10 Calculate thrust force for a fixed pitch propeller
30.10
334
Calculate thrust force for a fixed pitch propeller
For a propeller with fixed dimensions, the thrust force can be calculated at a range of speeds, by varying the
revolutions. The available shaft horse power is defined at option 3, by replacing the resistance by the available
power in kW. The available power is the power delivered to the shaft (SKW). If the speed is zero, the wake factor
and the thrust deduction fraction are default set to 0.05. This value can be changed by entering the wake and thrust
factors by hand. The thrust force at speed zero is the bollard pull. The calculated thrust force reduced with the
resistance, at speeds larger than zero, results in the available thrust force, for example for towing a net.
30.11
Calculate thrust force for a controlable pitch propeller
For a propeller with fixed dimensions, the thrust force can be calculated at a range of speeds, by varying the pitchdiameter ratio. The available shaft horse power is defined at option 3, by replacing the resistance by the available
power in kW. The available power is the power delivered to the shaft (SKW). If the speed is zero, the wake factor
and the thrust deduction fraction are default set to 0.05. This value can be changed by entering the wake and thrust
factors by hand. The thrust force at speed zero is the bollard pull. The calculated thrust force reduced with the
resistance, at speeds larger than zero, results in the available thrust force, for example for towing a net.
30.12
Local cloud monitor
This option pops up a window with a power curve, as discussed in section 30.9 on page 332, Calculate speed-power
curve with fixed propeller dimensions. However, here, in cloud context, this diagram is dynamic, which means it
is recomputed and redrawn every time when data in the cloud which affects the power results changes. For more
information on the cloud reference is made to section 3.11 on page 20, Local cloud: simultaneous multi-module
operation on the same project.
30.13
File and backup management
With this option design version can be managed, with a mechanism as described in section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 31
Frboard: freeboard calculation according to the
load line convention
This module calculates the minimum freeboard according to the International Loadline Convention for type A or type
B vessels.
31.1
Introduction
The following regulations from the Load Line Convention are included:
Chapter I (General):
•
•
•
•
regulation 3, par. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10.
regulation 4.
regulation 5.
regulation 6, par.1, 2a up to 2f.
Chapter III (Freeboards):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
regulations 27 up to 31.
regulation 33.
regulation 34, par.1.
regulation 35, par.1 up to 3.
regulation 36, par.1g, 1h, 2 and 3.
regulation 37.
regulation 38, par.8 up to 12 and 14 up to 16.
regulation 39, par. 1 and 5.
regulation 40, par.1, 3, 5 up to 7.
Prior remarks and disclaimer:
• The regulations which are not included in this module must be applied in the calculation by the user.
• For the correct application of this module we strongly advise to consult the regulations from the International
Conference on Load Lines, 1966 and the supplements from 1988 and 2005.
• This module does not pretend to make the use of the International Convention on Load Lines redundant.
• Because definitions according to the Load Lines Convention prevail, for this module the units may differ
from the PIAS-standard units or definitions.
• All units are in meters, except for the bowheight and sheer, which must be given in millimeters.
31.2 Main menu
31.2
336
Main menu
Freeboard calculation
1. Enter main dimensions and other input parameters
2. Superstructures
3. Sheer
4. Calculate freeboard with output to paper
5. File and backup management
In the main menu with [Old<>new] it can be selected whether the calculation must be carried out according the
old (before 2005) regulations or the newer (post-2005) regulations. However, for the latter an additional PIASoption should be purchased. The menu for the main dimensions depends on this setting. Below first the old menu
is discussed, followed by the new incarnation.
31.2.1
Main dimensions (before 2005)
Figure 31.1: Main dimensions (before 2005)
Enter all particulars in this menu according to the regulations. There are two ways to define the depth:
• Define the depth according to regulation 3(6)and define the depth at 85% of the minimum moulded depth.
• Define the moulded depth, the thickness of the deck stringer plate and the thickness of the exposed deck
sheating (T) according to regulation 3(6a). The depth at 85% of the moulded depth is then calculated from
the value of the moulded depth.
If method 1 is used for the thickness of the deck stringer plate and the thickness of the deck sheating and the
moulded depth, a dash is displayed. If method 2 is used and the thickness of the deck sheating does not equal zero
then a questionmark is displayed at the depth, if the total length of the superstructures is not yet known.
The bowheight is the height on the forward perpendicular above the waterline and has to be entered in milimeters. As the draught is unknown, this height has to be determined after calculation of the minimum freeboard.
If you enter zero, the program will calculate the required minimum bowheight. The options for reduction on the
base freeboard (the so-called B-60 freeboard according to reg.27(8) and reg.27(9)) and the allowance on the base
freeboard are mutually exclusive.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
31.2 Main menu
31.2.2
337
Main dimensions (after 2005)
Figure 31.2: Main dimensions (after 2005)
Enter all particulars in this menu according to the regulations.
Define the moulded depth and the thickness of the freeboard deck at side. The depth at 85% of the moulded
depth is then calculated from the value of the moulded depth.
The waterplane area coefficient foreship is printed with Hydrotables in the very extensive table of hydrostatics.
The bowheight is the height on the forward perpendicular above the waterline corresponding to the assigned
summer freeboard.
The options for reduction on the base freeboard (the so-called B-60 freeboard according to reg.27(8) and reg.←
27(9)) and the allowance on the base freeboard are mutually exclusive.
31.2.3
Superstructures
The following input screen appears:
Figure 31.3: Superstructures
All superstructures should comply with the requirements of regulation 3 par 10. To determine the effective
length (E), the breadth of each superstructure is tested to be at least 92% of the local breadth of the ship (Bship)
or 60% in the case of a trunk. The height of a forecastle or poop is measured at the perpendicular when the sheer
correction should be applied. For determination of the effective length of a superstructure the height must be the
minimum height of the superstructure, acc. to chaper 1, reg.3(10). If a poop or forecastle must be taken into
account for determination of the sheer correction, the column ‘Corr.sheer’ must be set to ‘Yes’.
If a superstructure must be taken into account for determination of the effective length of superstructure, which
generally is the case, the column ‘Suplngth’ must be set to ‘Yes’. If the breadth of a superstructure is equal to
the local breadth of the ship, you should choose menuoption [Breadth] after entering the breadth of the ship, so
the quotient breadthsuperstrcutue /breadtship will become 1. The column ‘Type’ defines whether the superstructure
is a forecastle, poop, trunk, raised quarterdeck or other deckhouse. This distinction is necessary in relation to
the regulations 31 and 38 (depth correction and sheer correction) and regulations 35 and 36 (effective length of
superstructure). If only one superstructure has been defined of the type ‘Trunk’, the length of the trunk should be
at least 0.60L to be taken into account.
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31.3 File and backup management
338
If another regulation is applicable this is asked before calculating the freeboard. The length of a superstructure
is the length within the length between perpendiculars according to reg.3(2).
31.2.4
Sheer
The sheer is defined in the following input window. The sheerline is defined as the height at six ordinates. APP
is the aft perpendicular, FPP is the forward perpendicular. The factors define the distance of the ordinate from the
perpendicular indicated. The standard sheer profile acc. to regulation 38(8) can be defined by choosing ‘Standard
sheer’ from the menu. All heights are in millimeters.
Figure 31.4: Sheerline
31.2.5
Calculate freeboard with output to paper
Will speak for itself. The appendices contain an output example.
31.3
File and backup management
Backups of the input data can be made and restored here. Here is also the option ‘Stop without saving’. See for
the details section 3.9 on page 18, Backups.
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31.3 File and backup management
339
Figure 31.5: Appendix 1 - Calculation result (before 2005)
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31.3 File and backup management
340
Figure 31.6: Appendix 2 - Calculation result (after 2005)
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 32
Incltest: inclining test or draft survey report
This module generates an inclining test report or a light weight check report. After entering the measured data of the
inclining experiment or the lightweight check the lightship weight is calculated including the position of the centre(s)
of gravity.
Inclining testreport or light weight check
1 General data inclining test report
2 Set calculation method
3 Measured Freeboards / drafts
4 Inclining test weights, data and strokes of pendula
5 Weights to add or to subtract
6 Calculate and output on screen
7 Calculate and output to printer
8 File management
32.1
General data inclining test report
Here the general data of the inclination test can be given. In general they will speak for themselves. Two remarks
can be made:
• At water depth the figure of the real depth van be given, but also a S, which will produce ‘sufficient’.
• The specific weight of the outside water (in ton/m3 is very specific during the inclining test, it is not related
to the design specific weight as given in Config.
32.2
Set calculation method
32.2.1
Calculation with correction for sagging
This option enables you to define the method of calculation of the volume and LCB. The method can be with
or without correction for sagging. Of course at least three draughts have to be defined to be able to calculate the
volume with correction for sagging. With the calculation without correction for sagging the waterline is determined
by calculating a straight line through the defined draughts. With the calculation with correction for sagging a
parabolic waterline is calculated through the defined draughts. Both these methods are based on the least square
method.
32.2.2
Weight on board during measuring of draught/freeboard
This option enables you to define whether the test weights were on board during the measuring of the draughts or
freeboards. See also the column ITW (Inclining Test Weight) at section 32.5 on page 343, Weights to add or to
subtract.
32.3 Measured Freeboards / drafts
32.2.3
342
Correction LCG due to trim (acc. to Bureau Veritas)
Bureau Veritas may require correction of Longitudinal Centre of Gravity for trim. For more information please
contact a Bureau Veritas office.
32.2.4
VCG for trim correction at light weight check
If the above mentioned correction is selected, the VCG has to be available. If an inclining test is calculated, the
VCG used, comes from this calculation. If a light weight check is calculated, the VCG has to be entered here.
32.2.5
Calculation with transverse centre of gravity
This option enables you to define whether the inclining test has to be calculated including the TCG. Check the
input of the freeboards/draughts and the weights to add or to subtract (incl.TCG).
32.2.6
Calculation of inclining test / light weight check
Select if an inclining test or light weight check report should be generated.
32.3
Measured Freeboards / drafts
An input screen appears which can be used in two ways: by defining the draught or by defining the freeboard.
• Dist(ance) App: Enter the longitudinal distance where the draught or freeboard has been measured from
App. If the calculation is including TCG, every longitudinal distance has to be defined twice, with two
different breadth distances.
• Defining draughts: Enter only the draughts at the position of the measurement. Depth and freeboard are
then filled with a narrow line. See the bottom of this chapter. If the depth is also defined, the freeboards are
calculated automatically.
• Defining freeboard: Enter only the depths and freeboards at the position of the measurements. The program
will automatically calculate the draughts.
The mean draught and the draughts at the perpendiculars are calculated using a least square method. Which
method is used depends on the defined method, see section 32.2 on the previous page, Set calculation method The
calculated data, volume and centres of gravity are calculated on the actual position of the vessel.
32.4
Inclining test weights, data and strokes of pendula
This options opens a window with the following sub-options:
32.4.1
Number of pendula and length of pendula
After choosing this option an input screen appears at which you can define the length of the pendula. A maximum
of three pendula can be defined. If angles of inclination are measured with an inclination indicator instead of a
pendulum, this can be specified in the rightmost column.
32.4.2
Data inclining test weights
An input screen appears at which you can enter some text for a description of the test weights. These descriptions
will only be used in the printouts and are not used in the calculation.
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32.5 Weights to add or to subtract
32.4.3
343
Movement of test weights and stroke of pendula
An inputs creen appears at which you can enter the weight of the moved weights, the distance and the stroke of the
pendula. When angles of inclination are measured with an inclination indicator instead of the pendulum stroke, the
angles in degrees should be specified. The side from and to which the weight is moved should also be specified.
Choices are PS (portside), SB (Starboard) and CL (Centreline).
Figure 32.1: Strokes and weight movement
32.5
Weights to add or to subtract
When this option is chosen an input window with weights to be added or to be subtracted appears, an example is
depicted below. The data which can be given in the different columns is:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Description: Enter the name of the weight item.
Weight: Enter the weight of the weight item. If it is not a part of the light ship it should be entered negative.
VCG: Enter the vertical centre of gravity from base.
LCG: Enter the longitudinal centre of gravity.
TCG: Enter the transverse centre of gravity.
FSM Enter the free surface moment in tonm of the contents of a tank to subtract from the light ship.
ITW: This column (Inclining TestWeight) defines whether this weight item is an inclining test weight or
not. This is important for determining the displacement during the inclining test. If the weights were not on
board (as can be defined in the secon dmenu option, see section 32.2.2 on page 341, Weight on board during
measuring of draught/freeboard) they are added to the weight of the ship during the test. Only negative
weights can be inclining test weights.
Figure 32.2: Weights to add or to subtract
32.6
Calculate and output on screen
The inclining test report appears in a preview window. Directly after the report a list of interpolated drafts (which
are determined with the least square method) appear on the screen next to the defined drafts. This list gives an
indication of the deviations in measured and calculated drafts. This list cannot be printed on paper with PIAS,
because one might expect an occasional confusion when it would be issued with authorities.
32.7
Calculate and output to printer
The inclining test report is printed on paper, the appendix contains an example.
32.8
File management
Backups of inclining test data can be be made and restored here, please refer to section 3.9 on page 18, Backups
for more details.
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32.8 File management
344
Figure 32.3: Inclining test report previes window 1
Figure 32.4: Inclining test report previes window 2
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32.8 File management
345
Figure 32.5: Inclining test report previes window 3
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32.8 File management
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346
November 22, 2014
32.8 File management
347
Figure 32.7: Inclining test report previes window 5
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 33
Inclmeas: registration and processing of digital
inclination measurement
This module measures the inclination during the inclining test. For every measurement you can specify the translation and size of the test weight. The measurements can be exported to the inclining test report module. Furthermore
it is possible to present a graphical representation on the screen or send it to a printer.
33.1
Guidelines for installation
The inclination sensor is equipped with a USB cable, which is used to connect the sensor to the computer. It is
required to install the driver which belongs to the sensor. The sensor can be placed in an arbitrary place in the ship,
however, the underground should be firm. During measurement the sensor should not wiggle or be relocated.
Figure 33.1: Digital inclining measurement
33.2
Main menu
Digital inclining measurement
1. Test measurements
2. Inclination measurement
3. Last measurement again
4. Remove all saved measurements
5. Output of measurements to screen
6. Output of measurements to printer
7. Output of measurements to ASCII file
8. Settings of digital inclinometer
33.2 Main menu
33.2.1
349
Test measurements
The module reads out the serial port and the results are printed on screen. The presented angles are the angles of
both axes of the measurement gauge box. The range of the gauge is -5 to + 5 degrees. Thus the gauge must be
positioned such that the measurement values lie within the limits. Besides checking whether the gauge is positioned
correctly, the gauge can be used to check the weight displacement that is necessary to realize a certain inclination
(for example 1 degree).
Figure 33.2: Real time graphic
33.2.2
Inclination measurement
After you have selected this option, the measurement starts immediately. The following is displayed on the screen:
• Number of measured values. The number of readings until that moment. The measurement frequency is 5
Hz.
• Measured X-axis rotation. These angles have been determined at the zero measurement relative to a horizontal plane. At subsequent measurements the measured rotations are measured relative to the angles of
these axes that have been determined during the zero position or previous inclination measurement.
• Measured Y-axis rotation. These angles have been determined at the zero measurement relative to a horizontal plane. At subsequent measurements the measured rotations are measured relative to the angles of these
axes that have been determined during the zero position or previous inclination measurement.
• Measured inclination. This inclination is the change in angle relative to the zero position or previous inclination measurements. During the zero measurement (first measurement) this value is not displayed, only the
position of the separate X- and Y-axis of the inclination sensor relative to a horizontal plane is determined.
• Graphic presentation measured X-Y rotation and inclination.
The first image below is a zero measurement, the second one a later measurement (after displacement of
inclination weight), where also an inclination is measured and displayed.
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33.2 Main menu
350
Figure 33.3: Zero position
Figure 33.4: Measurement after relocation
During the measurement one has the following possibilities:
• One has the measurement finished automatically when the module has determined the correct inclination or
the maximum number of measurements has been reached.
• [Quit] . The measurement is stopped, measured values are not saved.
• [Interrupt] . After you have selected this option, the following question is asked. The inclination or zero
position determined so far is saved. This may result in an incorrectly determined inclination or zero position,
because the measurement had not yet been stopped automatically.
• [Pause] .
33.2.3
Last measurement again
After choosing this option the last measurement will be repeated. Earlier determined angles and measurements
will be erased.
33.2.4
Remove all saved measurements
All measurement data will be ereased. If a new measurement is started a zero measurement will be done fisrt.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
33.2 Main menu
33.2.5
351
Output of measurements to screen
When you choose this option, a menu appears to choose which set of data should be displaced. The data sets are
called by the descriptions given in Inclination measurement . After selecting the desired set, the data as given
in option Inclination measurement , the determined inclinations and the number of measured inclinations will be
presented on screen. With <Enter> you continue to the graphical representation. This is a graph of the data as
measured and the function used to determine the correct inclination. The correct inclination is the value of the
function completely at the right in the graph. Also the description of the set as given in Inclination measurement is
presented.
33.2.6
Output of measurements to printer
All graphical information as presented in the previous option is sent to the printer.
33.2.7
Output of measurements to ASCII file
With this option the measurement data (of all measurements) can be exported to a ASCII file.
33.2.8
Settings of digital inclinometer
There are four settings:
• Type of sensor
• Serialport
• Minimum/maximum number of readings
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 34
Launch: launching calculation
This module enables you to calculate pressures, forces, speeds etc. during the process of a longitudinal launching.
34.1
Define and edit the situation of the vessel and the slipway
Output on A4-papersize (press <P> for A3-papersize). (See also section 34.7 on page 357, Appendix 2: parameter
definition for longitudinal launching)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
34.2
Longitudinal centre of gravity of the vessel is measured in the plane of the vessel in relation to APP.
Vertical centre of gravity of the vessel is measured in the plane of the vessel in relation to the baseline.
Length and breadth of the cradle are measured in the plane of the cradle.
Length of forepoppet in relation with length of cradle [%], is that part of the cradle that is supposed to give
buoyancy after floating of the aftship.
Cradle height aft and for is measured perpendicularly to the cradle.
Distance of aftside of the cradle to APP, and to the end of the slipway are measured alongside the slipway.
Water level above the end of the way is measured perpendicularly to the water level.
Specific weight of outside water, specified here will only be used in this module instead of the value entered
at the configuration module from Config .
Camber of the slipway is measured at half-length of the way, perpendicularly to the slipway.
Time interval for calculation, should be set to appr. 0.5 to 2 seconds in order to get an accurate calculation.
Margin speed at which the calculation ends, has to be set because the calculation will otherwise continue
endlessly when no dragging forces have been specified. The reason for this is that the water resistance will
approximate to zero but will never become zero.
Define and edit the friction coefficient of the cradle
One or more dimensionless friction coefficients as a function of the travelled distance are defined in this input
screen. The friction coefficient is defined as: ship weight / friction force, both in the same dimension. A maximum
of 40 friction coefficients can be defined. Intermediate coefficients are calculated by linear interpolation, taking
into account the following:
• Between zero and the first coefficient (at X meter) the intermediate coefficients will be taken zero.
• At travelled distances larger than the last defined friction coefficient the last value will be taken.
See the next figure:
34.3 Define and edit the resistance coefficient of the wetted hull
353
Figure 34.1: Travelled distance
34.3
Define and edit the resistance coefficient of the wetted hull
One or more resistance coefficients of the wetted hull can be defined here as a function of the speed. This coefficient is defined in its simplest form as follows: coefficient = resistance / displacement / speed2 [sec2 /m2 ]. For
interpolation of intermediate values the same procedure is adopted as described above.
34.4
Define and edit the dragging forces
One or more dragging forces can be defined here as a function of the speed. Intermediate values are calculated as
described above.
34.5
Executxe launching calculation
For every step in time the speed, pressure, forces, and travelled distance is printed, like in section 34.6 on the next
page, Appendix 1: calculation results.
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34.6 Appendix 1: calculation results
34.6
354
Appendix 1: calculation results
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34.6 Appendix 1: calculation results
355
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34.6 Appendix 1: calculation results
356
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November 22, 2014
34.7 Appendix 2: parameter definition for longitudinal launching
34.7
357
Appendix 2: parameter definition for longitudinal launching
Figure 34.2: Parameterdefinition. Numbers refer to the table below.
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Longitudinal center of gravity
Vertical center of gravity
Length of the cradle
Crade height aft
Crade height forward
Distance from aftside of the cradle to APP
Distance from the aftside of the cradle to aftside of the slipway
Waterlevel above the aftside of the slipway
Length of the slipway
Height at the forward side of the slipway
Camber at half length of the slipway
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November 22, 2014
Chapter 35
Cntslot: container slot definition
With this module the container slots of a ship can be defined. The defined slots can be used by the container loading
module and by the layout/compartment module of PIAS.
35.1
General method of working
With the fourth option, section 35.5 on page 363, Process container slots, all slots can be entered or modified by
the part. As an aid for quickly defining all slots, this module offers the opportunity to enter a so-called basic configuration (second option). With the basic configuration a simple standard container arrangement can be defined.
Only the 20’ slots are entered here. The 30’ and 40’ slots are generated then on the basis of the entered 20’ slots
(third option). If the container arrangement does not fit in the basic configuration (e.g. asymmetric arrangement,
transverse containers, deviating slot measures, etc.), then it is often practical to start with a basic configuration,
which is a simplified model of the real configuration. After generating all slots (third option), it is possible to
supplement manually (fourth option).
A basic configuration consists of:
• a specification of the 20’ slots per bay
• a specification of the constituent 20’ bays up to 40’ bays
• a specification of the obsolete bays for the purpose of the 30’ slots.
Define container slots
1. Input general data
2. Define basic configuration
3. Generate container slots according to basic configuration
4. Process container slots
35.2
Input general data
1 Define general data
1. General slot data
2. Define types of containerslots
3. Define kinds of containerslots
4. Selection of silhouette side-views
35.2 Input general data
35.2.1
359
General slot data
Figure 35.1: Define general slot information
The following can be entered here:
• Standard container height in metres.
• Sstandard centre of gravity height: the standard centre of gravity position in height of the containers as % of
the total height
• Weight group number: This configuration is typical for the container module of (Loco)PIAS. After leaving
the container module the bays are added to the list of weight items of the loading condition. These bays then
get the weight group number which has been assigned here.
• Display markers: This configuration is typical for the container module of (Loco)PIAS. Herewith you can
specify whether the numbering of bay rows and tiers in the views in the graphic container module must be
displayed.
• May 20ft/30ft be placed on ... : The choices made here affect the conversion of the basic configuration into
container slots and are evident.
35.2.2
Define types of containerslots
Figure 35.2: Definition of types of containerslots
In this menu the types of containers, which are used for the slot definition, are entered. Of each type a minimum
and a maximum weight can be entered. In the graphic container module in (Loco)PIAS the weight is tested against
these values. While defining slots (see section 35.5 on page 363, Process container slots) the type must be entered
per slot. Here you can choose from the types given here.
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November 22, 2014
35.3 Define basic configuration
35.2.3
360
Define kinds of containerslots
Figure 35.3: Defenition of possible kind of containers
Here the kinds of containers can be entered. In the first column an abbreviation of a single character can be entered.
In the second column a describing name. When defining slots, a choice can be made from the kinds given here
when entering the kind of slot.
35.2.4
Selection of silhouette side-views
Figure 35.4: Selection of windsilhouet
For the purpose of the side-view in the graphic container module, a silhouette can be chosen here. A choice can be
made from the windcontours defined by section 9.1.6 on page 153, Wind contour.
35.3
Define basic configuration
In order to explain the input of a basic configuration, the input of a simple and imaginary container arrangement is
discussed hereafter. This consists of four 20ft bays according to the measured sketch below.
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35.3 Define basic configuration
361
In the first input screen the 20ft bays are entered. In this case these are bays 1,3,5 and 7.
Figure 35.5: Define 20ft bays
35.3.1
Define 40ft
After having chosen option [define 40ft] you can state which 20ft bays together form a 40ft bay. In the first and
second column the numbers of the two constituent 20ft bays are entered. In the third column the number of the
composed 40’ bays must be entered. In this example these are bays 1 & 3 (40ft bay 2) and 5 & 7 (40ft bay 4).
Figure 35.6: Define 40ft bays
The 20ft bays are defined as follows. Double-click in the sreen with the survey of 20ft bays (Fig. 5) on a bay
number to define this more specifically. A bay may consist of several subbays. For example, containers above and
under the hatches, different stackloads are for different rows/tiers, when the containers stagger in height or breadth,
etc.
Figure 35.7: Define bay
Per bay the following can be entered:
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35.3 Define basic configuration
362
• Subbay: The name of the subbay concerned. While making a new line, the subbay default to be added gets
the name ‘subbay x’, in which x equals the number of already present subbays + 1.
• US from base: the vertical distance in metres measured from base ship to the bottom of the undermost
container of the subbay concerned.
• AS from App: the horizontal distance in metres measured from the aft perpendicular to the back of the
containers in the subbay concerned.
• Length: the container length in metres.
• Breadth: the container breadth in metres.
• St.load 20ft: the maximum allowable stackload in tonnes for 20ft containers.
• St.load 30ft: the maximum allowable stackload in tonnes for 30ft containers.
• St.load 40ft: the maximum allowable stackload in tonnes for 40ft containers.
• 30ft length: the length of a 30ft slot in metres.
• Obsolete bay: Enter the number of the obsolete bay when a 30ft slot is positioned. In the example, for
instance, bay 1 and bay 3 are put together to 30ft slot 3, where 20ft slot 1 is the obsolete bay.
• Row: Enter the number of rows of the subbay.
• Tiers: Enter the number of tiers of the subbay.
After this (Fig. 8) the four completed menu screens of bays 1,3,5 and 7 of the example. Double-click on a
subbay to define the slots. Options are <X>, <F> and <->. By double-clicking on a cell of the bay, these options
are gone through. A ‘-’ means that no 20ft container can be positioned in the cell concerned. An ‘F’ means that a
20ft reefer can be positioned. An ‘X’ means that a 20ft container can be positioned. With the function keys [Deck]
and [Tank top] the row numbers and tier numbers are automatically assigned for resp. container above main deck
or in the holds. Row numbers and tier numbers can also be entered or adapted manually.
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November 22, 2014
35.4 Generate container slots according to basic configuration
363
Figure 35.8: Define subbays per 20ft bay
35.4
Generate container slots according to basic configuration
By choosing this option all separate container slots are generated on the basis of the imported basic configuration.
20, 30 and 40’ slots are generated. Per slot is determined in which slot containers must be positioned in order to
make the positioning of the slot concerned possible. This provides that containers cannot be loaded ‘floating’. It
is also determined which slots may not be loaded to, to allow positioning of the container, so containers cannot
overlap.
35.5
Process container slots
In this menu all container slots can be processed, added or removed separately.
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November 22, 2014
35.5 Process container slots
364
Figure 35.9: Define/modify container slots
You can successively enter per slot:
• ID-Nr. This ID number is assigned automatically. If new slots are added, the new slot gets the highest
occurring ID number+1. The ID numbers are also used for references to other slots in connection with the
allowability of positioning of the slots concerned (the columns ‘allo’ and ‘forbid’ respectively) . The ID
numbers need not be increasing.
• Bay, row an dtier numbers.
• L pos, which is the distance from the back of the slot to the App.
• B pos, the breadth from HS to the mirrorwise centre of the slot.
• H pos, the height from base to the bottom of the slot.
• L slot and B slot, which are the length and breadth of the slot.
• Type, the type of slot (20, 30, 40, 45 etc.). You can choose from the defined types (see section 35.2.2 on
page 359, Define types of containerslots).
• Kind, the kind of slot (F, N, C , etc.). You can only choose from the defined kinds ( section 35.2.3 on
page 360, Define kinds of containerslots).
• Stackl, which is the maximum stackload near this slot H Max, the maximum heigth for the loaded container
in this slot. Allow, the number of slots that indicate whether a container can be positioned. This number
cannot be changed here. Double-click on the number to process the references. The references are to the
ID numbers of other slots. You can also give a combination (of maximally 3) slots. E.g. a combination of
two 20’ containers on which a 40’ slot can be positioned. - Forbid, the number of slots that indicate whether
a container cannot be positioned. The number cannot be changed in this menu. Double-click the cell to
process the references. The references are to the ID numbers of other slots. In this case no combinations can
be given.
The [eRror] function tests the defined slots. Any inconsistency found in the slot definitions is shown. The
following messages can be given:
• There are no error messages.
• Slot xxx, height ‘allow’ is not right. The absolute difference in height between the top of the slot which is
referred to and the bottom of the slot concerned is greater than 0.1 m.
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35.5 Process container slots
365
• Slot xxx, number ‘allow’ is not right.
• Slot xxx, reference ‘forbid’ is not right. From the slot which is referred to from the slot concerned and which
does not allow positioning, is not referred back to the slot concerned.
• Slot xxx, breadth ‘forbid’ is not right.
• Slot xxx, length ‘forbid’ is not right.
• Slot xxx, number ‘forbid’ is not right.
The [Find and Replace] function searches for a number in the columns length, breadth and heigth position slot,
length and breadth slot, stackload and maximum heigth. The number searched for is then replaced by a given
value. If ‘with confirmation’ has been enabled you will be asked for confirmation of replacement of each value
found.
With the container module of Loading, or the layout module Newlay the defined slots can be checked visually.
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
November 22, 2014
Chapter 36
Photoship: measuring a ship hull by
photogrammetry
This module is designed to reconstruct existing hull shapes by calculating the 3D coordinates of measuring points
by means of photography and reference points. Photoship finds itself somewhat on the edge of the natural PIAS
functionality because it seldom occurs that a vessel exists, while drawing or other data are lacking. Furthermore,
the photogrammetric process requires some insight and experience, so that it only will pay off when applied on a
regular basis. In order to provide a notion of the operation a short introduction is presented here. A much more
detailed separate manual is available on request.
36.1
The role of Photoship in the reverse engineering process
The goal of reverse engineering is to obtain an unambiguous model of the hull shape. The role Photoship plays in
this process consists of the construction of a wireframe model, consisting of measuring points, and user-defined
line segments. A solid model based upon this wireframe is generated by To_fair (see chapter 8 on page 128, To←
_fair: import hull shape from DXF or IGES and convert to Fairway. This solid model is being loaded in Fairway,
where final adjustment takes place and from where it can be exported.
36.2
The principal of photogrammetric measurement
The principle of photogrammetry is based on stereovision. The 3D coordinates of measuring points are calculated
on basis of the depictions of these measuring points on multiple photos. A comparison with human vision can be
made here. In order to see depth, two eyes are necessary. The principle of stereovision is illustrated in the picture
below:
Figure 36.1: Lines of sight intersect in space
What we see here are the depictions a1 and a2 of point A on two different photos. From a1 and a2 two lines
of sight are drawn through the foci O1 and O2. The point of intersection of these two lines of sight defines the 3D
coordinates of A. This principle is named ‘intersection’. For this principle to work, the orientation of each photo
has to be known. These are calculated with the aid of reference points. Reference points are measuring points
with known coordinates. They are also being used to give the model the right scale and orientation. Because we
36.3 Measuring a ship hull by Photoship
367
are working with measured values, the lines of sight will not intersect exactly. This is why it is impossible to find
an exact solution. For this reason, the whole system of measuring points and external orientations is optimized
numerically (by iteration) by means of the method of least squares. To be able to do this, initial values for the
measuring points need to be known. The result is the most accurate set of values for the 3D coordinates of the
measuring points. This way the hull shape is mapped completely by use of multiple photos and measuring points.
36.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Measuring a ship hull by Photoship
The following steps are to be taken:
Place the landmarks on the hull.
Measure the coordinates of the reference points by conventional methods.
Make photos, while making sure that every landmark appears on minimal three, but preferably more shots.
Open the pictures in PhotoShip, give the coordinates of the reference points and de camera parameters.
Point out and connect the photo points.
Give the relations between the measuring points by defining line segments.
Calculate the external orientation of each photo.
Calculate the 3D coordinates of the measuring points
Save the 3D coordinates in an .SXF file, so it can further be processed with To_fair and Fairway. Now the file
is ready to be applied in PIAS, or e.g. to be exported to a general-purpose CAD system.
This process is elaborated step by step in ✇✇✇✳s❛r❝✳♥❧✴✐♠❛❣❡s✴st♦r✐❡s✴♣❤♦t♦s❤✐♣✴❛rt✐❝❧❡❴
♣❤♦t♦s❤✐♣❴❡♥✳♣❞❢
Figure 36.2: Photo’s, points and connections in the GUI of Photoship
Figure 36.3: The resulting 3D model in Fairway
© SARC, Bussum, The Netherlands
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Chapter 37
Sikopias: conversion from SIKOB to PIAS
This module converts a hullform and compartments, which are defined in SIKOB, to a hullform and compartments
in PIAS format. We strongly recommend to check the resulting hullform. Our experience is that it always needs
some adaptations.
37.1
Guidelines for this module
This module is fully operational in Dutch and is available in English on request.
Chapter 38
Compart: obsolete module for tank capacities and
definition of compartments
In chapter 2 on page 3, PIAS renewals (2012-2014) the renewal of PIAS is discussed. One aspect of that process
is that the Compart module is being replaced by the much more powerful Newlay module. Because the Newlay
technology can only be incorporated in the rest of PIAS gradually, a number of subsequent module which uutilize
compartment information, such as grain heeling moments and damage stability, will for the time being maintain to
use the Compart data format. For this reason one might be using Compart occassionaly, and therefore its manually
is still included in this manual. Please be advised that:
• This manual is simply the old, existing Word version, copied here, without further editing or modernization.
So this chapter is not exemplarity for the current PIAS manual.
• The use of Compart for modelling or computations is disencouraged. Newlay is recommended instead.
• Compartments which are converted from Newlay can be viewed in Compart, however, they can not be editted.
In order to avoid possible inconsistencies, see section 11.11.1 on page 198, Compartment files for further
discussion.
38.1
Main menu
Main menu
1 Define/edit compartments
2 Print or plot inputdata compartments on screen or paper
3 Calculate and print tank sounding tables
4 Define reference planes
38.1.1
Define/edit compartments
This option enables you to define the compartments. After selecting this option choose ‘New’ from the menu to
add a new compartment. First you have to enter a name of the new compartment. Every name has to be unique,
whith a maximum length of 28 characters. Actions, such as the calculation of capacity tables are performed on
selected compartments. Compartments can be (de-)selected by selecting the first column. All compartments can
be de/selected simultaneously with ‘Deselect’ / ‘Select’. You can combine compartments with [mErge]. This
option can be very useful when calculating, for example, the damaged stability of the engine room. Then you
need not define a new engine room without tanks by hand, but take the whole engine room compartment and
subtract the tanks. First select all tanks in the engine room, make a new compartment and choose ‘mErge’. Set this
compartment on ‘negative’ (in the sub-compartment definition). Select the new compartment and engine room,
make a new compartment and choose ‘mErge’ again. With option ‘Graphical’ you will get an overview of all
defined compartments. The compartment which is selected in the list of compartments will be printed in white,
all other compartments have a random colour. If you move the cursor in the selected window, the name of the
compartment on the position of the cursor is printed in the lower left corner. If the option ‘Overlap on/off’ of the
toolbar is selected, all compartments will be printed in green and a possibly singular overlap of two compartment
in red.
38.1 Main menu
370
1 Compartment: Name
1 Define/edit general particulars of this compartment
2 Define/edit sub-compartments
3 Define/edit curved sounding pipe
4 Define location alarm sensors
5 Three-dimensional plot of this compartment
38.1.1.1
Define/edit general particulars of this compartment
The following input menu appears:
General particulars compartment: XXXXX
Weight group
Specific weight [Variable,ton/m∧ 3]
Distance soundingpipe from APP
Distance underside soundingpipe-base
Longitudinal position of pressure gauge
Transverse position of pressure gauge
Vertical position of pressure gauge
Space type (prob. damage stability)
Tank type (for outflow calculations)
Tank is bounded from below
Overpressure of inert gas system (kPa)
Identical permeability tank volumes for all sub-compartments
Identical permeability damage stability for all sub-compartments
All sub-compartments to side [Double/SB/PS]
Figure 38.1: Soundingpipe-related definitions
• Weight group: Here a weight group number can be entered. Weight groups can be defined in module Loading,
and are used to keep compartments with the same content (such as fuel oil, of potable water) together at the
output of loading conditions.
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371
• Specific weight: This is the specific weight of the contents of the tank (ton/m3). With ‘V’ the specific weight
is defined to be variable, which means that for any tank reading or calculation of tank capacity the program
asks the user for the specific weight. This mechnism can be used if the specific weight is not fixed for a
particular tank.
• Sounding pipe data: The parameters for a sounding pipe are only displayed if no curved sounding pipe has
been defined. The sounding pipe defined here will be a straight vertical pipe at a longitudinal distance from
the App and a vertical distance from the baseline. See the figure on the next page. A curved sounding pipe
is defined at option 1.3.
• Define position pressure gauge Here the location of the pressure gauge is defined in length, breadth and
height. These particulars are used for the output of tank capacity tables including pressure (see the configuration of the output-script at option 3.9).
• Space type (for prob. damage stab.): WIthj the calculation of probabilistic damage stability according to S←
OLAS 2009, the permeability can be dependant on the destination of a particular compartment. This ‘space
type’ can be defined here. There is a distinction between predefined and user-defined space types, see the
Probdam module for more details.
• Tank type (for outflow calculations): For probabilistic oil outflow calculations (see module Outflow) it is
a prerequisite that the type of compartment is explicitly defined. In this context ‘fuel oil’, ‘cargo oil’ and
‘non-oil’ are distinguished.
• Overpressure of inert gas system: Cargo oil tanks can be equipped with inert gas systems. Inthat case it is
relevant for the oil outflow calculations to specify its overpressure, in kiloPascal.
• Tank is bounded from below: For the same outflow calculations it can be relevant whether a tank is bounded
from below by the bottom, or by a non-oil compartment. This can be entered here.
• Identical permeability tank volumes / damage stability for all sub-compartments: With this option all subcompart-ments which belong to this compartment will receive the specified permeability. For the permeabilities also see option 1.2.1.
• All subcompartiments to side: This option will only be displayed if all sub-compartments of this compartment are defined at one side or both sides of the vessel. If you change the side here all sub-compartments
of this compartment will be defined at that side. This can be useful if two identical compartments have to
be defined with one on SB and one on PS. One menu back you can copy one compartment to another by
choosing ‘Copy’/‘Paste’. The copied compartment can then be transferred to the other side of the vessel
with this option.
38.1.1.2
Define/edit sub-compartments
Every compartment is defined by at least one sub-compartment. Complex compartments can be defined by a lot of
sub-compartments. If appropriate the compartment will automatically be limited by the hullform. The name of a
sub-compartment must be unique, its maximum length is 28 characters. By the ‘enter’ key, or by double-clicking
the mouse, the sub-comparment definition menu appears:
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38.1 Main menu
372
Sub-compartment: name
Side [Double/SB/PS]
Starboard
Sign [(+)Positive/(-)Negative]
Positive
Permeability for tanksounding tables
0.980
Permeability for damage stability
0.950
Auto permeability IMO A.265
No
Type of sub-compartment[Bulkhead/Extern] Bulkheads
Aft bulkhead from APP [m]
40.000
Front bulkhead from APP [m]
60.000
Aft Inside Under [m]
0.000
-∞
Aft Inside Upper [m]
0.000
Aft Outside Under [m]
Aft Outside Upper [m]
∞
∞
Fore Inside Under [m]
0.000
Fore Inside Upper [m]
0.000
Fore Outside Under [m]
∞
∞
-∞
∞
∞
-∞
-∞
∞
∞
Fore Outside Upper [m]
BREADTH HEIGHT
• Side: Transverse coordinates are always positive. If a compartment extends from PS to SB, define only the
SB side (the gray area in the figure below) and choose ‘Double (PS&SB)’ for ‘Side’.
Warning
Asymmetrical hullforms cannot contain double compartments. The port side and starboard side have
to be defined separately in case of an asymmetrical vessel.
• Sign: For further explanation see the next figure. The actual compartment (3-D view) consists of two subcompartments (top view) where part 1 is negative and part 2 is positive.
• Permeability: Two values can be specified: the first permeability is for determining tank capacities, the
second for damage stability calculations. The calculation of actual grain moments (Grainmom) is performed
using the ‘permeabil-ity for tank sounding tables’. The permeability is defined as the total volume excluding
the volume of the con-struction parts divided by the total volume including the volume of the construction
parts and has a value between 0 and 1.
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38.1 Main menu
373
• Autopermeability probabilistic damage stability: If this option is set to ‘yes’, the permeability will automatically be determined according to the appropriate regulations of probabilistic (and deterministic, in case of
IMO A.265) stability calculations, these days that is only Probdam.
The sub-compartment can either be defined by bulkheads or externally.
• Bulkheads: This sub-compartment is defined by a vertical fore and aft bulkhead. The sides of the subcompartment can be slanting. The hullform can also be the limitation of the sub-compartment.
• External (only available if separately purchased). Complex compartments or, for example, cylinders can be
defined externally as if they were a ship. The module PIAS for hullform definition, Hulldef, can be used for
this purpose.
This external compartment is defined as follows: with the module from chapter 70the aft bulkhead is placed at
distance 0 m. the forward bulkhead at 40. This "ship" is saved as CYL. In the menu for definition of an external
compartment we enter:
•
•
•
•
Filename external compartment: cyl.
Longit. distance origin ship-extern = 20 m.
Transverse distance origin ship-extern = 0 m.
Vertical distance origin ship-extern = 1 m.
Constraints for external sub-compartments:
•
•
•
•
An external compartment can only be declared ‘double’ if the transverse distance is 0.
Always check the compartment with a three-dimensional view of the compartment at option 1.6.
An external sub-compartment will not be limited by the hullform (so it can extend beyond the vessel’s side).
Longitudinal distances of bulkheads from App: The bulkheads are always perpendicular to the centreplane
and the horizontal plane. If a compartment is limited by the hullform the aft or/and fore bulkhead can be
placed at a longitudinal distance which is larger than the length of the vessel. This way f.e. the forepeak will
be defined exactly by the hullform.
• Boundaries: The side boundaries of a compartment are defined by the four vertices of the aft and fore
bulkhead. This means the boundaries of a sub-compartment are always straight lines. The four vertices are
(see also the sketch below):
–
–
–
–
Inside under
Inside upper
Outside under
Outside upper
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38.1 Main menu
374
Some values are already defined with a ‘>>’ or ∞ symbol. This means the co-ordinate is far outside the
hullform, therefore the boundary will be the hullform (deck or side). Values greater than 100 are displayed with
a these symbols. A limitation in the definition of the sub-compartments is that the cross section must be convex,
which means that none of the internal angles may be greater than 180°. Always make a visual check of each
sub-compartments. It is also possible to specify boundaries of sub-compartments relative from a reference plane.
To choose a reference plane choose r❊❢❡r❡♥❝❡, after which a menu of defined reference planes appears. When
reference to a plane is made, all co-ordinates are relative with respect to that plane. Finally, in this definition menu
a number of functions are active (‘Plot’, ‘3D screen’ en ‘3D paper’) which can be employed to draw section in
front view or threedimensional on screen or on paper.
38.1.1.3
Define/edit curved sounding pipe
An input screen appears to define the co-ordinates of the sounding pipe. The number of co-ordinates of the
sounding pipe should be between 2 and 15. The sounding pipe is defined by straight lines through the co-ordinates.
The pipe must be defined upwards. The sounding pipe can be checked in a three-dimensional view with options
1.5 and 1.6. If a curved sounding pipe has been defined, option 1.1. will not display any sounding pipe data.
• Longitudinal location, the longitudinal distance from App.
• Transverse location, transverse distance from centreline where SB is positive.
• Vertical location, vertical distance from baseline.
38.1.1.4
Define location alarm sensors
In this menu a maximum of three alarm sensors may be specified, by giving their name and location. When a sensor
is defined, a printed tank sounding table is preceded by the relevant values at a liquid level which just touches the
sensor.
38.1.1.5
Three-dimensional plot of this compartment
All sub-compartments and the curved sounding pipe, if defined, are plotted on the screen or paper. The angles to
give are the viewing angles, as depicted in the figure below.
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38.1 Main menu
375
External sub-compartment will be plotted as well. An example is depicted below (with the dashed line being
the curved sounding pipe).
38.1.1.6
Print or plot inputdata compartments on screen or paper
The following menu appears on the screen:
2. Print or plot inputdata compartments on screen or paper
1 Print input data of selected compartments on paper
2 Three-dimensional plot of selected compartments on paper
3 Plot cross sections of selected compartment on paper
4 Compare internal and external geometry
5 Plot tank plan on screen or on paper
38.1.2
Print input data of selected compartments on paper
The input data of all selected compartments (selected in option 1) are printed on paper.
38.1.3
Three-dimensional plot of selected compartments on paper
A three-dimensional plot of all selected compartments will be printed on paper.
38.1.4
Plot cross sections of selected compartment on paper
All cross sections of the selected compartments are printed on paper.
38.1.5
Compare internal and external geometry
With this option a graph is drawn, where on many cross sections the difference between sectional area (derived
from hullform) and sum of the compartment areas (derived from compartment definition) is displayed.
This difference, which should be zero theoretically, may indicate the presence of lacking or double compartment definition. For probabilistic damage stability calculations this check is recommended. Besides, small
differences may occur due to properties of the numerical methods used.
38.1.6
Plot tank plan on screen or on paper
2.5 Plot compartment plan
1 Define views/sections
2 Selected views/sections on screen/paper
38.1.6.1
Define views/sections
Please refer to section 25.2 on page 280, Sketches of tanks, compartments and damage cases.
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38.1 Main menu
38.1.6.2
376
Selected views/sections on screen/paper
This will print the view or sections as defined at the previous menu option. At each drawn compartment an
identification is printed. Depending on the setting of the switch ‘Tank sketches with automatic tank numbers’
(see section 6.3 on page 40, Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables) as identification either anumber,
determined automatically by the program, is used, or the first four letters of the second name.
38.1.6.3
Calculate and print tank sounding tables
3 Calculate and print tanksounding tables
1
Define/edit trim and vertical increment
2
Calculate tank sounding tables of selected compartments
3
View/edit calculated compartments
4
Print selected sounding tables according to output script on paper
5
Print tables of litres of selected compartments on paper
6
Print trim tables of selected compartments on paper
7
View date of tables or remove calculated tables
8
Print summary of maximum tank volumes on paper
9
Change output script
10 Calculate and print tank sounding/ullage correction tables
In order to calculate tank sounding tables, you first have to define trim and vertical increment at option 3.1.
Computing time depends on the number of trims, vertical increment and the complexity of the hullform. With
option 3.3 the tank sounding tables can be displayed on the screen and edited, if desired. After calculating the
output script can be defined in option 3.9. This means you can specify what must be printed in the tank sounding
table, such as height, volume, pressure etc. All features are explained below:
38.1.7
Define/edit trim and vertical increment
3.1 Define/edit trim and vertical increment
1 Edit trim for the tank sounding calculations
2 Edit vertical increment for the tan ksounding calculations
3 Define 1 trim for the tank sounding table to print
38.1.7.1
Edit trim for the tank sounding calculations
An input screen appears at which you can enter one or more trims to calculate the tank sounding tables.
38.1.7.2
Edit vertical increment for the tan ksounding calculations
The current vertical increment is displayed. You can enter a new value or press ‘Enter’ to keep the current value.
This vertical increment is also used to print the tank sounding table on paper. For accurate values the vertical increment should not be too large. You can toggle a switch to calculate extra lines at the end of each tank sounding table,
at option ‘Setup for compartments and tank sounding tables’ (see section 6.3 on page 40, Setup for compartments
and tank sounding tables).
38.1.7.3
Define 1 trim for the tank sounding table to print
If the tank soundings are calculated for more than one trim, whereas you want only one trim to be printed, this trim
can be defined here. This trim will not be saved, so every time you print a tank sounding table you have to define
the trim if you want to use this option.
38.1.8
Calculate tank sounding tables of selected compartments
All selected compartments are calculated for the defined trims and using the defined vertical increment. The results
are stored as tables in a file. The result can be displayed and edited with option 3.3.
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38.1 Main menu
38.1.9
377
View/edit calculated compartments
All calculated tank sounding tables can be displayed and edited if you wish. After selecting this option, all compartments appear on the screen. Select the desired compartment for displaying the sounding table. An input screen
appears with the calcu