AXI EMC v3.0 LogiCORE IP Product Guide (PG100) - Xilinx

AXI EMC v3.0 LogiCORE IP Product Guide (PG100) - Xilinx
AXI EMC v3.0
LogiCORE IP Product Guide
Vivado Design Suite
PG100 November 19, 2014
Table of Contents
IP Facts
Chapter 1: Overview
Module Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Licensing and Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Chapter 2: Product Specification
Standards Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resource Utilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
10
11
13
15
Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
General Design Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Connecting to Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Timing Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Customizing and Generating the Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constraining the Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synthesis and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
46
47
47
Chapter 5: Example Design
Implementing the Example Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Chapter 6: Test Bench
Simulating the Example Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Appendix A: Verification, Compliance, and Interoperability
Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
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Hardware Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Appendix B: Migrating and Upgrading
Migrating to the Vivado Design Suite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Upgrading in the Vivado Design Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Appendix C: Debugging
Finding Help on Xilinx.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Debug Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Interface Debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Appendix D: Additional Resources and Legal Notices
Xilinx Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Please Read: Important Legal Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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60
61
62
3
IP Facts
Introduction
LogiCORE IP Facts Table
The LogiCOREв„ў IP AXI External Memory
Controller (EMC) is a soft XilinxВ® IP core for use
with external memory devices. The adaptable
block provides memory controller functionality
for SRAM, NOR Flash and PSRAM/CellularRAM
memory devices. The core provides an AXI4
Slave Interface that can be connected to AXI4
Master or Interconnect devices in the AXI4
Systems.
Features
•
Supports AXI4 Slave Memory Map interface
data width of 32 and 64 bits
•
Supports optional AXI4-Lite Slave data
width of 32 bits for Write/Read registers
•
Supports AXI4 increment and wrap
transactions
Core Specifics
Supported
Device
Family (1)
UltraScaleв„ў Architecture, ZynqВ®-7000 All
Programmable SoC, 7 Series
Supported
User Interfaces
AXI4-Lite, AXI4
Resources
See Table 2-2 to Table 2-4.
Provided with Core
Design Files
VHDL
Example
Design
VHDL
Test Bench
VHDL
Constraints
File
XDC
Simulation
Model
N/A
Supported S/
W Driver(2)
Standalone
Tested Design Flows(3)
•
Supports AXI4 narrow and unaligned
transfers
Design Entry
VivadoВ® Design Suite
•
Supports up to four external memory banks
Simulation(3)
For a list of supported simulators, see the
Xilinx Design Tools: Release Notes Guide
•
Supports Synchronous SRAMs with
configurable byte parity check and pipeline
stages
Synthesis
•
Supported memory types
В°
Synchronous SRAM
В°
Asynchronous SRAM
В°
Linear Flash (or Parallel NOR Flash)
В°
PSRAM (or Cellular RAM)
В°
Page Mode NOR Flash
В°
Numonyx Flash
Support
Provided by Xilinx @ www.xilinx.com/support
1. For a complete list of supported devices, see the Vivado IP
catalog.
2. Standalone driver information can be found in the SDK
installation directory. See xilinx_drivers.htm
<install_directory>/doc/usenglish. Linux OS and driver
support information is available from
wiki.xilinx.com.
3. For the supported versions of the tools, see the
Xilinx Design Tools: Release Notes Guide.
•
Provides configuration registers to
dynamically change access mechanism for
PSRAM and Numonyx Flash memories
•
Provides Parity error status register for
Synchronous SRAM memories
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Product Specification
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Chapter 1
Overview
The architectural block diagram of the AXI External Memory Controller (EMC) core is shown
in Figure 1-1.
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Top Level Block Diagram of the AXI EMC Core
The AXI EMC core provides the memory controller functionalities for PSRAM, flash, and
SRAM technologies. The controller supports memory devices from multiple vendors and
also allows interfacing to multiple of these memory technologies (or types) by supporting
up to four memory banks. The core provides an AXI4 Slave interface for addressing and
accessing data from the connected memory devices.
The core also provides optional AXI4-Lite interface for configuring access mechanisms as
defined by the connected memory types. In addition, the controller provides a set of core
generation parameters which defines the memory interface timing for the connected
memories.
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Chapter 1: Overview
Module Descriptions
The AXI EMC operations can be categorized into five modules:
•
AXI4 Slave Interface
•
AXI4-Lite Interface
•
Memory Controller Unit
•
Byte Parity Logic
•
EMC Register
•
I/O Registers
AXI4 Slave Interface
AXI EMC core provides AXI4 slave interface to map to AXI4 master or AXI4 interconnect
devices in the FPGA logic. The AXI4 slave interface of the core complies with AMBAВ® AXI4
protocol specifications for 32-bit and 64 bit data widths. The core supports single beat or
burst AXI4 transactions. The burst transactions for incremental bursts [INCR] can be from 1
beat to 256 beats and the burst transactions for wrapping burst [WRAP] can be 2, 4, 8, or 16
beats. The core also supports AXI4 Narrow and AXI4 Unaligned transfers.
The AXI4 interface of the core also performs the channel arbitration and address decoding
functionalities. The channel arbitration implements a round robin algorithm and is
applicable only when both AXI4 write channels and AXI4 read channels are active
simultaneously. The address decoding logic utilizes the AXI4 address to determine the bank
address and read/write address in the selected memory bank. For more details on Memory
Address Generation, see Address Map Description in Chapter 3.
The performance of AXI EMC core gets determined by Memory Width, Memory access
latencies and AXI burst size. In general larger AXI4 burst sizes can increase the overall
performance of the core. For more details on EMC core performance, see Performance in
Chapter 2.
Note: The AXI4 FIXED transactions are not supported by the core and when issued can result in
nondeterministic core behavior.
AXI4-Lite Interface
AXI EMC core provides AXI4-Lite slave interface to allow access to Internal Control and
Status registers of the core. The AXI4 slave interface of the core complies with AMBA
AXI4-Lite protocol specifications for 32-bit data width. The AXI4-Lite interface of the core is
optional and is enabled only when the Enable Internal registers option is set. For more
details on Core registers accessible through the AXI-Lite interface, see EMC Register.
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Chapter 1: Overview
Memory Controller Unit
The Memory Controller Unit performs Reads/Writes to the external memories in compliance
with access mechanism defined for the selected memory. It generates the memory chip
select (or bank select) and the control signals associated with the memory in the selected
bank. The Read/Write Address, Write Data and the Bank Address generated for the memory
is as provided by the AXI4 interface module to the Memory Controller Unit.
The Memory Controller Unit in addition aligns the address and data received from the AXI4
interface module to match the address and data width configured for the bank. Different
data widths for various banks are now only supported when selected memory is
Synchronous/Asynchronous SRAM. For other memory types, data widths have to be same
across banks. The width conversion in this case is performed dynamically as per the width
defined for each memory bank.
The Memory interface timing for the asynchronous memory interfaces are parameterized
and can be set independently for each bank. The Memory Controller Unit maintains internal
counters and registers to match the interface timing as defined by these parameters. For
more details on memory timing parameters, see Customizing and Generating the Core in
Chapter 4. In addition for configuration registers associated with PSRAM/Flash memories,
see Register Description in Chapter 2. For example memory interfaces and associated
memory settings, see Connecting to Memory in Chapter 3.
Byte Parity Logic
The Byte Parity Logic is applicable only for the SRAM type and is used to calculate the parity
bit for each data byte written to or read from the memory. This parity bit is attached to the
data byte and is then written to or read from the memory. The parity calculation logic is
valid only when Parity option is set to either Odd Parity or Even Parity. The Parity type has
to be the same across banks. The Parity configuration option allows No Parity, Even Parity
and Odd Parity options. For a memory read, the parity bit is calculated on a read byte and
then compared with the parity bit read from memory. When the parity error occurs, the AXI4
logic responds with an AXI SLVERR response. The error address is updated in the Parity Error
Address register. For more than one SRAM bank, the number of Parity Error Address
registers is defined by the Number of Memory Banks configuration option.
EMC Register
There are two register sets in the EMC Register Module: the Parity Error Address register
(PERR_ADDR_REG_x) and the PSRAM/Numonyx Flash Configuration register
(PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_x). The PERR_ADDR_REG_x registers contain the address for
the parity error that occurred. The PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_x register is provided to
configure the PSRAM or flash memory access mechanisms such as operation mode for the
memory. For more details on Configuration and Status registers, see Register Description in
Chapter 2.
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Chapter 1: Overview
I/O Registers
The I/O register module provides additional timing control for synchronous SRAM
memories. All input/output signal on the memory interface is driven on the rising edge of
the EMC clock.
Application
Figure 1-2 shows an example of the AXI EMC core use case.
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AXI EMC Core Application Diagram
In this use case, AXI EMC core is connected to external NOR Flash and Cellular RAM memory
devices. Both of these memory devices have compatible pin interfaces which allow
maximum pin sharing for reduced off device connectivity. The NOR Flash memory shown in
the use case can be used as a primary nonvolatile storage device containing device boot
code or application code.
The CellularRAM shown in the use case is a volatile Pseudo SRAM and can be used for
cached or buffered memory applications. The AXI EMC core here allows the flash memory
or Cellular RAM to be dynamically configured for asynchronously read operations or
synchronously page read operations. The low latency and high performance AXI EMC core
in this use case is ideally suited for eXecute In Place (XIP) system memory solutions.
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Chapter 1: Overview
Licensing and Ordering Information
This XilinxВ® LogiCOREв„ў IP module is provided at no additional cost with the Xilinx
VivadoВ® Design Suite under the terms of the Xilinx End User License.
Information about this and other Xilinx LogiCORE IP modules is available at the Xilinx
Intellectual Property page. For information on pricing and availability of other Xilinx
LogiCORE IP modules and tools, contact your local Xilinx sales representative.
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Chapter 2
Product Specification
This chapter contains details about the performance and ports of the core.
Standards Compliance
This core has bus interfaces that comply with the ARMВ® AMBAВ® AXI4 Protocol
Specification Version 1.0 [Ref 1].
Performance
The performance and resource utilization numbers for the AXI EMC core are generated from
a common benchmarking setup implementing a multi-masters/multi-slave AXI4 system.
The AXI EMC core is characterized as per the benchmarking methodology described in
“Vivado IP Optimization (FMax Characterization) appendix,” in the Vivado Design Suite User
Guide: Designing with IP (UG896) [Ref 2].
Maximum Frequencies
The maximum frequencies for AXI EMC are provided in Table 2-1.
Note: Performance numbers for UltraScaleв„ў architecture and Zynq В®-7000 devices are expected to
be similar to 7 series device numbers.
Table 2-1:
Maximum Frequencies
Family
Speed Grade
FMax (MHz)
AXI4
AXI4-Lite
200
180
200
180
Artix-7
150
120
Virtex-7
240
200
240
200
180
140
Virtex-7
Kintex-7
Kintex-7
Artix-7
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
Table 2-1:
Maximum Frequencies (Cont’d)
Family
FMax (MHz)
Speed Grade
Virtex-7
–3
Kintex-7
Artix-7
AXI4
AXI4-Lite
280
220
280
220
200
160
Resource Utilization
Note: UltraScale architecture results are expected to be similar to 7 series device results.
The AXI EMC resource utilization for various parameter value combinations measured with
a VirtexВ® -7 device are detailed in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2:
Device Utilization – Virtex-7 FPGAs
Parameter Values
Pipe
Delay
Device Resources
Enable Memory AXI
Enable
No. of
Data
Memory
Data
Data
Internal
Memory
Width
Type
Width Width
Registers Banks
Matching
LUTs
FFs
Slices
FMax
(MHz)
2
0
32
32
1
0
1
628
495
293
288
2
1
16
32
1
0
1
664
469
296
266
2
1
8
32
1
0
1
659
452
267
266
2
0
32
32
0
0
1
564
555
252
296
2
0
32
32
0
1
1
636
656
304
312
2
1
16
32
0
0
1
625
509
264
281
2
1
8
32
0
0
1
589
485
267
258
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
The AXI EMC resource utilization for various parameter value combinations measured with
a Kintex В®-7 and Zynq-7000 device are detailed in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3:
Device Utilization – Kintex-7 and Zynq-7000 (Kintex-7 Based) FPGAs
Parameter Values
Pipe Parity
Delay
Device Resources
Enable
Memory AXI
Enable No. of
Data
Data
Data Memory Internal Memory LUTs
Width
Type
Registers Banks
Matching Width Width
FFs
Slices
FMax
(MHz)
2
0
1
8
32
1
0
1
669
452
271
281
2
1
0
32
32
0
0
1
559
555
277
320
2
0
1
16
32
1
0
1
676
469
334
274
2
1
1
8
32
0
0
1
612
482
266
274
2
0
0
32
32
1
0
1
634
495
361
304
2
1
0
32
32
0
1
1
631
656
336
312
2
1
1
16
32
0
0
1
616
506
273
274
The AXI EMC resource utilization for various parameter combinations measured with an
ArtixВ®-7 device are detailed in Table 2-4.
Table 2-4:
Device Utilization – Artix-7 and Zynq-7000 FPGAs
Parameter Values
Pipe
Delay
Device Resources
Enable
Memory AXI Memory Enable No. of
Data
Parity
Data
Data
Internal Memory LUTs
Width
Width Width Type Registers Banks
Matching
FFs
Slices
FMax
(MHz)
2
1
0
32
32
0
0
1
559
555
261
204
2
0
1
16
32
1
0
1
681
469
290
180
2
0
0
32
32
1
0
1
633
495
301
188
2
0
1
8
32
1
0
1
676
452
269
172
2
1
0
32
32
0
1
1
630
656
299
204
2
1
1
16
32
0
0
1
615
506
274
172
2
1
1
8
32
0
0
1
608
482
267
180
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
Port Descriptions
The I/O signals are listed and described in Table 2-5.
Table 2-5:
I/O Signal Descriptions
Signal Name
Interface I/O Initial
State
Description
AXI Global System Signals
s_axi_aclk (1)
AXI
I
–
AXI clock
s_axi_aresetn
AXI
I
–
AXI reset; active-Low
rdclk (2)
System
I
–
Read clock to capture the data from memory
AXI4-Lite Interface Signals(3)
s_axi_reg*
AXI-Lite
I
–
See Appendix A of the Vivado AXI Reference Guide
(UG1037) [Ref 3] for a description of AXI4 signals.
AXI4 Channel Signals
s_axi_mem*
AXI
I
–
See Appendix A of the Vivado AXI Reference Guide
(UG1037) [Ref 3] for a description of AXI4 signals.
External Memory Interface Signal
mem_dq_i
[Max Data Width of Memories – 1:0]
External
memory
mem_dq_o
[Max Data Width of Memories – 1:0]
External
memory
mem_dq_t
[Max Data Width of Memories – 1:0]
External
memory
mem_dq_parity_i
[Max Data Width of Memories/8 –
1:0](4)
External
memory
mem_dq_parity_o
[Max Data Width of Memories/8 –
1:0](4)
External
memory
mem_dq_parity_t
[Max Data Width of Memories/8 –
1:0](4)
External
memory
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I
O
O
I
O
O
–
Memory input data bus.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
0
Memory output data bus.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
0
Memory output 3-state signal.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
–
Memory parity input data bits.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
0
Memory parity output data bits.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
0
Memory parity 3-state signals.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
Table 2-5:
I/O Signal Descriptions (Cont’d)
Signal Name
Interface I/O Initial
State
Description
mem_a[31:0]
External
memory
O
0
Memory address bus.
mem_rpn
External
memory
O
1
Memory reset/power down.
mem_cen
[No. of Memory Banks – 1:0]
External
memory
O
1
Memory chip enables (5); active-Low.
The valid range for Memory Banks is from 1 to 4.
mem_oen
[No. of Memory Banks – 1:0]
External
memory
O
1
Memory output enable.
The valid range for Memory Banks is from 1 to 4.
mem_wen
External
memory
O
1
Memory write enable.
mem_qwen
[(Max Data Width of Memories/8) –
1:0]
External
memory
1
Memory qualified write enables.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
mem_ben
[(Max Data Width of Memories/8) –
1:0]
External
memory
O
0
Memory byte enables.
Max Memory Data Width is the maximum memory
data width configured across all memory banks
and can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
mem_ce
[No. of Memory Banks – 1:0]
External
memory
O
0
Memory chip enables (5); active-High.
The valid range for Memory Banks is from 1 to 4.
mem_adv_ldn
External
memory
O
1
Memory advance burst address/load new address.
mem_lbon
External
memory
O
1
Memory linear/interleaved burst order.
mem_cken
External
memory
O
0
Memory clock enable.
mem_rnw
External
memory
O
1
Memory read not write.
mem_cre
External
memory
O
0
Command sequence configuration of PSRAM.
mem_wait
External
memory
I
–
Input signal from Numonyx Flash device; This
signal is used only when Memory Type is set to
Numonyx Flash.
O
Notes:
1. The same clock and reset signals should be used for both the register and memory interfaces.
2. This clock is used to capture the data from memory. Xilinx recommends that this clock is tied with AXI Clock source.
3. The AXI4-Lite interface is optional and is provided only when the Enable Internal Registers option is set.
4. This pin is only enabled when parity type selected is either odd parity or even parity in the Vivado IDE.
5. Most asynchronous memory devices only use mem_cen. Most synchronous memory devices use both mem_cen and
mem_ce.
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
Register Description
There are four internal registers in the AXI EMC design (Table 2-6). The memory map of the
AXI EMC registers is determined by setting the Base Address in the Address Editor tab of the
Vivado IP integrator. The internal registers of the AXI EMC are at a fixed offset from the base
address and are byte accessible. The AXI EMC internal registers and their offset are listed in
Table 2-6.
Table 2-6:
Internal Registers and Offsets
AXI Lite Base Address + Offset
(hex)
Register Name
Access
Type
Default
Value
(hex)
Description
Base Address + 0x00
PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG_0
Read
0x0
Bank-0 parity error
address register
Base Address + 0x04
PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG_1
Read
0x0
Bank-1 parity error
address register
Base Address + 0x08
PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG_2
Read
0x0
Bank-2 parity error
address register
Base Address + 0x0C
PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG_3
Read
0x0
Bank-3 parity error
address register
Base Address + 0x10
PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_0
Write/
Read
0x24
Bank-0 PSRAM/Flash
configuration register
Base Address + 0x14
PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_1
Write/
Read
0x24
Bank-1 PSRAM/Flash
configuration register
Base Address + 0x18
PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_2
Write/
Read
0x24
Bank-2PSRAM/Flash
configuration register
Base Address + 0x1C
PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_3
Write/
Read
0x24
Bank-3PSRAM/Flash
configuration register
Notes:
1. Based upon the no. of banks chosen, only those no. registers are available and accessible for read and write-if allowed.
2. Other registers are considered as nonexistent and AXI transaction returns gracefully if accessed.
PARITY ERROR ADDRESS Register (PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG_x)
The AXI EMC Parity Error Address registers are read-only registers that provide the AXI
address on which the parity error occurred. These registers are valid only when AXI4-Lite
interface is enabled and Memory Type selected for the bank is Sync/Async SRAM. The
number of such registers depends on the Number of Memory Banks set for the core.
There can be four PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG registers. Whenever a parity error occurs for a
AXI read operation, the AXI EMC core updates this register with the address at which the
error occurred. The Parity Error Address register is shown in Figure 2-1 and described in
Table 2-7.
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
X-Ref Target - Figure 2-1
0
31
DS762_04
Figure 2-1:
Table 2-7:
Parity Error Address Register Description
Bits
31:0
AXI EMC Parity Error Address Register
Name
PARITY_ERR_ADDR_REG_x
Core Access
Reset Value
Read
0x0
Description
Parity error register width
PSRAM/Flash Configuration Register (PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_X)
The PSRAM/Flash configuration registers are write and read registers that are used for
configuration of the controller for the PSRAM or flash memories. These registers are used
to configure:
•
PSRAM memory when AXI4-Lite interface is enabled and Memory Type selected for the
bank is PSRAM.
•
Flash memories in burst mode when AXI4-Lite interface is enabled, Memory Type
selected for the bank is Numonyx Flash, and Burst mode for Numonyx Flash memory is
enabled.
The number of such registers depends on the Number of Memory Banks set for the core
and the Memory Type selected in the associated Memory Bank.
IMPORTANT: For Memory Types selected across memory banks, see Allowable Memory Combination in
Chapter 3.
There can be four PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG registers. The PSRAM/Numonyx Flash Burst
mode configuration register is shown in Figure 2-2 and described in Table 2-8.
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
X-Ref Target - Figure 2-2
CRE RM
Reserved
Operational Mode
Reserved for Burst Mode
CRE Drive Signal
7
31 30
6
5-2 1-0
DS762_05
Figure 2-2:
Table 2-8:
Bits
PSRAM/Numonyx Flash Configuration Register
PSRAM/Numonyx Flash Configuration Register (PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_X)
Name
Core
Access
Reset
Value
Description
31
Control register
enable (CRE)
Write/
Read
0x0
• 0x1 = Enables Numonyx flash RCR register configuration
• 0x0 = Normal read/writes to Numonyx Flash
Note: Valid only if connected memory is Numonyx Flash.
30
Read Mode (RM)
Write/
Read
0x0
• 0 = Asynchronous Page Mode
• 1 = Synchronous Burst Mode (Applicable when Numonyx
Flash is switched to Sync Read Burst Mode)
29:7
Reserved
N/A
0
Reserved. If read, might return undefined value. If written to
these bits, is not updated.
6
CRE drive
Write/
Read
0
• 0x0 = Remove Drive Command for CRE
• 0x1 = Drive Command for CRE
Note: Valid only for PSRAM memories.
5:2
Reserved
Write/
Read
0x9
Reserved. If read, might return undefined value. If written to
these bits, is not updated.
0x0
This bits describe the mode in which PSRAM is configured
(Applicable only when target memory is PSRAM)
• 0x00 = Asynchronous Mode
• 0x01 = Page Mode
• 0x10 = Reserved for future use (Burst Mode)
1:0
Operational Mode
Write/
Read
1. For Latency configurations and access details, see the respective PSRAM data sheet.
Configuring the Numonyx Flash in Sync Burst Read Mode
Table 2-9 provides the required bit settings for Sync Burst Numonyx Flash Memories Read
Configuration register. When Numonyx Flash is configured with sync burst read operations,
the register configuration setting must be as provided in this table.
The Read Configuration register is in the flash memory. The address for accessing this
register is set as Memory Bank Base address+ 32’h0000_509F.
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Chapter 2: Product Specification
Table 2-9:
Numonyx Flash Sync Mode – Read Configuration Register (RCR)
Read Configuration Register (RCR)
Read
Mode
WAIT RES WAIT Burst CLK RES
Polarity
Delay Seq Edge
Latency Count
RM
LC[3:0]
RES Burst Burst Length
Wrap
WP
R
WD
BS
CE
R
R
BW
BL[2:0]
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
The guideline for configuring the Sync Read Mode for Numonyx Flash are as follows. This
process is applicable to the memory bank with Memory Type configured for Numonyx
Flash.
•
By default the Numonyx Flash operates in Asynchronous mode. These settings are
required while switching the read operation of memory from Asynchronous Read to
Synchronous Read.
•
Set Bits[31:30] of PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_X register for selected memory bank to
1.
•
Drive the value of Memory Bank Base address+ 0x0000_509F on AXI write address bus
with 0x0300_0060 on AXI write data bus. This should be of single beat transaction.
•
Drive the value of Memory Bank Base address+ 0x0000_509F on AXI write address bus
with 0x6000_0003 on AXI write data bus. This should be of single beat transaction.
•
Reset Bit[31] of the PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_X register for selected memory bank
to continue with normal memory read/writes.
•
The AXI EMC core behavior is designed on the basis of the above register bit settings,
for any other bit settings the core behavior is not guaranteed.
•
While switching from Sync to Async mode, the Sync mode settings of memory should
be disabled by resetting the Read Configuration register (Bit[15]) to 1. After this bit is
reset, set the AXI EMC cores internal registers Bit[30] to 0.
•
After both the core and memory are reset with the bit settings mentioned above, the
memory and the core operates in Asynchronous Read mode.
IMPORTANT: When CRE bit in PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_X (Bit[31]) is set to “1,” then the core would
ignore value driven in wstrb bus and would always transfer the LSB bytes of wdata bus to the Memory
Interface.
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Chapter 3
Designing with the Core
This chapter includes guidelines and additional information to facilitate designing with the
AXI External Memory Controller (EMC) core.
General Design Guidelines
Address Map Description
The AXI EMC core supports up to four banks of external memory. The number of banks used
is determined by the Number of Memory Banks configuration option and can take values
between 1 and 4. The banks that are used are banks 0 to bank 3. Each bank of memory has
its own independent base address and High address range. The address range of a bank of
memory is restricted to have a size (in bytes) that is a power of 2 and is address-aligned. For
an address-range of size is 2 n, the n least significant bits of the base address is 0 and n least
significant bits of the High address are 1. For example, a memory bank with an addressable
range of 16 MB (2 24) could have a base address of 0xFF000000 and a High address of
0xFFFFFFFF. A memory bank with an addressable range of 64 kB (2 16) could have a base
address of 0xABCD0000 and a High address of 0xABCDFFFF. The AXI EMC core
transactions must fall between the bank x base address and High address. The addresses for
the memory banks can be configured through per bank Base Address and High Address
configuration options provided in the Customize IP dialog box of the VivadoВ® IP catalog or
through the Address Editor tab of IP integrator.
AXI EMC core also supports internal registers for Memory configurations. These registers
are enabled by setting the Enable Internal register option. The memory map for these
internal registers get determined by the Base Address settings for the AXI EMC core in the
Address Editor tab of Vivado IP integrator. For more detail on AXI EMC core internal register
configurations, see Register Description in Chapter 2.
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Allowable Memory Combination
Table 3-1 lists the allowed memory combinations across multiple banks of the AXI EMC
core. Memories can be arranged in any order with a maximum up to four.
Each row is a group of acceptable memory combinations. Memories between different rows
cannot be mixed within the same Memory Controller.
Table 3-1:
Allowable Memory Combination
PSRAM (Async Mode)
Numonyx Flash (Async Mode)
Linear Flash
Async SRAM
PSRAM (Page Mode)
Page Mode Flash
–
–
Sync SRAM
Async SRAM
–
–
Note: By default PSRAM/Numonyx operate in asynchronous mode. Select the Enable Internal
Registers option while customizing the AXI EMC core if PSRAM/Numonyx needs to operate in other
modes.
Memory Data Types and Organization
Memory can be accessed through the AXI EMC core as one of four types:
•
Byte (8-bit)
•
Halfword (16-bit)
•
Word (32-bit)
•
Doubleword (64-bit)
Data to and from the AXI interface is organized as little-endian. The bit and byte labeling for
the big-endian data types is shown in Figure 3-1.
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-1
Byte address
n+7
7
Byte label
Byte significance
n+6
n+5
n+4
n+3
n+2
n+1
n
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LS Byte
MS Byte
Bit label
0
63
Bit significance MS Bit
Byte address
Byte label
Byte significance
LS Bit
n+3
n+2
n+1
n
3
2
1
0
LS Byte
31
0
Bit significance MS Bit
Byte address
LS Byte
n+1
n
1
0
MS Byte
LS Byte
Byte label
Byte significance
Bit label
15
LS Bit
Byte address
n
Byte label
0
Bit label
Halfword
0
Bit significance MS Bit
Byte significance
Word
MS Byte
Bit label
Double
Word
Byte
MS Byte
7
0
Bit significance MS Bit LS Bit
DS762_06
Figure 3-1:
Memory Data Types
Connecting to Memory
Clocking Synchronous Memory
The AXI EMC core does not provide a clock output to any synchronous memory. The AXI
clock should be routed through an output buffer to provide the clock to synchronous
memory. To synchronize the synchronous memory clock to the internal FPGA clock, the
FPGA system design should include a Mixed Mode Clock Manager (MMCM), external to the
AXI EMC core, that uses the synchronous memory clock input as the feedback clock as
shown in Figure 3-2. The synchronous clock output from the FPGA must be routed back to
the FPGA on a clock pin.
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-2
FPGA
S_AXI_ACLK
CLK0
CLKIN
BUF G
Syncmem_Clk_fb
External Clk
OBUF
CLKFB
AXI
EMC
Mixed Mode Clock
Manager (MMCM)
Syncmem_Clk
Synchronous Memory Bank
DS762_07
Figure 3-2:
Synchronous Memory Bank Clocked by FPGA Output With Feedback
If the synchronous memory is clocked by the same external clock as the FPGA, or if the clock
feedback is not available, the DCM shown in Figure 3-3 should be included in the FPGA
external to the AXI EMC core.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-3
FPGA
CLKIN
S_AXI_ACLK
CLK0
BUF G
External Clk
AXI
EMC
CLKFB
Mixed Mode Clock
Manager (MMCM)
Clk
Synchronous Memory Bank
DS762_08
Figure 3-3:
Synchronous Memory Bank Clocked by External Clock
1. When using Numonyx Flash in synchronous mode, ensure that memory clock interface
is connected to 50 MHz and AXI Clock interface is connected to 100 MHz. Both of these
clocks must originate from same source.
IMPORTANT: By default, Numonyx Flash memories operate in asynchronous read mode. To operate
Numonyx Flash in synchronous mode:
(a) Select Enable Internal Registers option while customizing the AXI EMC core.
(b) See the Core register Configuration and Memory Configuration section.
2. In all IP operating modes, Xilinx recommends that the same clock is connected to both
rdclk and s_axi_aclk ports.
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Address Bus, Data Bus and Control Signal Connections
The three primary considerations for connecting the controller to memory devices are the
width of the AXI data bus, the width of the memory subsystem and the number of memory
devices used. The data and address signals at the memory controller are labeled with
little-endian bit labeling (for example, D(31:0) where D(31) is the MSB), and memory
devices are also little-endian.
Note: Most asynchronous memory devices only use MEM_CEN, while most synchronous memory
devices use both MEM_CEN and MEM_CE. MEM_CEN is a function of the address decode while
MEM_CE is a function of the state machine logic.
For Address and Data connections to the external memory devices, see Tables 3-3, 3-5, 3-7,
3-9, 3-11, 3-13 and 3-15. In addition, Table 3-2 shows variables used in defining memory
subsystem.
Table 3-2:
Variables Used in Defining Memory Subsystem
Variable
Allowed
Range
BN
3 down to 0
Memory bank number
DN
3 down to 0
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0 to 3.
MW
8 to 64
DW
63 down to 1
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
32 down to 1
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
63 down to 1
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
AS
X
HAW
Definition
Width in bits of memory subsystem (8, 16, 32, and 64 are allowed values)
(1)
Address shift for address bus = log2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
32 down to 1
Width in bits of AXI address bus
1. The value of X depends on variables MW, AU and DW.
Connecting to SRAM
Table 3-3:
Core To Memory Interconnect
Description
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Memory Device Signals (MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(((DN + 1) × DW) – 1:DN × DW)
D(DW – 1:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(MAW – AS – 1:AS)
A(MAW – 1:0)
Chip enable
(active-Low)
MEM_CEN(BN)
CEN
Output enable
(active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OEN
Write enable
(active-Low)
MEM_WEN
WEN (for devices that have byte enables)
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-3:
Core To Memory Interconnect (Cont’d)
Description
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Memory Device Signals (MSB:LSB)
Qualified write enable
(active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(DN Г— DW/8)
WEN (for devices that do not have byte
enables)
Byte enable
(active-Low)
MEM_BEN((((DN + 1) × DW/8) – 1):(DN ×
DW/8))
BEN(DW/8 – 1:0)
Example 1: Connection to 32-bit memory using two IDT71V416S SRAM parts
Table 3-4 shows variables for a simple SRAM example.
Table 3-4:
Variables For Simple SRAM Example
Variable
Value
Definition
BN
0
DN
1 down
to 0
MW
32
Width in bits of memory subsystem
DW
16
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
18
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
16
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
AS
2
Address shift for address bus = log 2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
HAW
32
Width in bits of host address bus (for example, AXI)
Memory bank number
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0; device numbers increase toward the least
significant bit.
Table 3-5 shows connection to 32-bit memory using two IDT71V416S (256K Г— 16-bit) parts.
Table 3-5:
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Two IDT71V416S Parts
DN
0
Description
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Memory Device Signals
(MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(15:0)
I/O(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(19:2)
A(17:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
MEM_CEN(0)
CS
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_WEN
WE
Byte enable (active-Low)
MEM_BEN(1:0)
BHE:BLE
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-5:
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Two IDT71V416S Parts (Cont’d)
DN
Description
1
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Memory Device Signals
(MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(31:16)
I/O(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(19:2)
A(17:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
MEM_CEN(0)
CS
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_WEN
WE
Byte enable (active-Low)
MEM_BEN(3:2)
BHE:BLE
Connecting to Byte Parity Memory
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Two IS61LVPS25636A Asynchronous
SRAM Parts
Table 3-6 shows the variables for a simple SRAM example.
Table 3-6:
Variables for Simple SRAM Example
Variable
Value
Definition
BN
0
Memory bank number
DN
0
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0; device numbers increase toward the least
significant bit.
MW
32
Width in bits of memory subsystem
DW
32
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
18
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
32
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
AS
2
Address shift for address bus = log 2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
HAW
32
Width in bits of host address bus (for example, AXI)
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-7 shows the connection to 32-bit memory using two IDT71V416S (256K Г— 16-bit)
parts.
Table 3-7:
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Two IDT71V416S Parts
DN
Description
0
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Memory Device Signals
(MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(31:0)
I/O(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(19:2)
A(0:17)
Chip enable (active-Low)
MEM_CEN(0)
CS
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_WEN
WE
Byte enable (active-Low)
MEM_BEN(3:0)
BWAb, BWBb, BWCb, BWDb
Parity Bits
MEM_DQ_PARITY(3:0)
I/O(35:32)
Connecting to Intel StrataFlash
StrataFlash parts contain an identifier register, a status register, and a command interface.
Therefore, the bit label ordering for these parts is critical to enable correct operation.
Table 3-8 shows an example of how to connect the big-endian AXI EMC bus to the
little-endian StrataFlash parts. The correct connection ordering is also indicated in a more
general form in Table 3-3. StrataFlash parts have an x8 mode and an x16 mode, selectable
with the BYTE# input pin. To calculate the proper address shift, the minimum addressable
word is 8 bits for both x8 and x16 modes, because A0 always selects a byte.
Example 2: Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Two StrataFlash Parts in x16
Mode
This configuration supports byte read, but not byte write. The smallest data type that can
be written is 16-bit data. Table 3-8 shows the variables for StrataFlash (x16 mode) example.
Table 3-8:
Variables For StrataFlash (x16 mode) Example
Variable
Value
Definition
BN
0
DN
0 to 1
MW
32
Width in bits of memory subsystem
DW
16
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
24
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
8
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
AS
1
Address shift for address bus = log 2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
HAW
32
Width in bits of host address bus (for example, AXI)
Memory bank number
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0; the device numbers increase toward the
least significant bit.
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-9 shows the connection to 32-bit memory using two StrataFlash parts.
Table 3-9:
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Two StrataFlash Parts
DN
Description
0
1
StrataFlash Signals
(MSB:LSB)
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(15:0)
DQ(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(24:1)
A(23:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
GND, GND, MEM_CEN(0)
CE(2:0)
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(0)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A – tie to GND
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A – tie to VCC
V PEN
Data bus
MEM_DQ(31:16)
DQ(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(24:1)
A(23:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
GND, GND, MEM_CEN(0)
CE(2:0)
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(2)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A – tie to GND
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A – tie to VCC
V PEN
Example 3: Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Four StrataFlash Parts in x8
Mode
This configuration supports byte reads and writes. Table 3-10 shows the variables for the
StrataFlash (x8 mode) example.
Table 3-10:
Variables for StrataFlash (x8 mode) Example
Variable
Value
Definition
BN
0
DN
0 to 3
MW
32
Width in bits of memory subsystem
DW
8
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
24
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
8
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
Memory bank number
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0; the device numbers increase toward the
least significant bit.
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-10:
Variables for StrataFlash (x8 mode) Example (Cont’d)
Variable
Value
Definition
AS
2
Address shift for address bus = log 2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
HAW
32
Width in bits of host address bus (for example, AXI)
Table 3-11 shows the connection to 32-bit memory using four StrataFlash parts.
Table 3-11:
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Four StrataFlash Parts
DN
0
1
2
Description
StrataFlash Signals
(MSB:LSB)
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(7:0)
DQ(7:0) (1)
Address bus
MEM_A(23:2)
A(21:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
GND, GND, MEM_CEN(0)
CE(2:0)
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(0)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A – tie to GND
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A – tie to VCC
V PEN
Data bus
MEM_DQ(15:8)
DQ(7:0) ()
Address bus
MEM_A(23:2)
A(21:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
GND,GND, MEM_CEN(0)
CE(2:0)
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(1)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A – tie to GND
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A – tie to VCC
V PEN
Data bus
MEM_DQ(23:16)
DQ(7:0) (1)
Address bus
MEM_A(23:2)
A(21:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
GND, GND, MEM_CEN(0)
CE(2:0)
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(2)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A – tie to GND
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A – tie to VCC
V PEN
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-11:
Connection to 32-bit Memory Using Four StrataFlash Parts (Cont’d)
DN
Description
3
StrataFlash Signals
(MSB:LSB)
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(31:24)
DQ(7:0) (1)
Address bus
MEM_A(23:2)
A(21:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
GND, GND, MEM_CEN(0)
CE(2:0)
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(3)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A – tie to GND
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A – tie to VCC
V PEN
1. In an x8 configuration, DQ(15:8) are not used and should be treated according to the data sheet of the manufacturer.
Connecting to Spansion Page Mode Flash S29GL032N
Table 3-12 shows the variables for the Spansion Page Mode Flash (x16 mode) example.
Table 3-12:
Variables for Page Mode Flash (x16 mode) Example
Variable
Value
Definition
BN
0
Memory bank number
DN
0
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0.
MW
32
Width in bits of memory subsystem
DW
16
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
21
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
16
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
AS
1
Address shift for address bus = log 2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
HAW
32
Width in bits of host address bus (for example, AXI)
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Table 3-13:
Connection to 16-bit Memory Using Page Mode Flash Parts
DN
Description
0
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
PagemModeFlash Signals
(MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(15:0)
DQ(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(22:1)
A(21:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
MEM_CEN(0)
CE
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(0)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte mode select (active-Low)
N/A - tie to VCC
BYTE#
Program enable (active-High)
N/A - tie to VCC
WP#
Connecting to PSRAM
Table 3-14:
Variables PSRAM (x16 mode) Example
Variable
Value
BN
0
Memory bank number
DN
0
Memory device number within a bank. The memory device attached to the most
significant bit in the memory subsystem is 0.
MW
32
Width in bits of memory subsystem
DW
16
Width in bits of data bus for memory device
MAW
23
Width in bits of address bus for memory device
AU
16
Width in bits of smallest addressable data word on the memory device
AS
1
Address shift for address bus = log 2((MW Г— AU/DW)/8)
HAW
32
Width in bits of host address bus (for example, AXI)
Table 3-15:
Connection to 16-bit Memory Using PSRAM Parts
DN
0
Definition
Description
AXI EMC Signals (MSB:LSB)
PageModeFlash Signals
(MSB:LSB)
Data bus
MEM_DQ(15:0)
DQ(15:0)
Address bus
MEM_A(22:1)
A(21:0)
Chip enable (active-Low)
MEM_CEN(0)
CE
Output enable (active-Low)
MEM_OEN
OE#
Write enable (active-Low)
MEM_QWEN(0)
WE#
Reset/Power down (active-Low)
MEM_RPN
RP#
Byte Enable (active-Low)
Mem_BEN(1:0)
UB#, LB#
Control Register Enable
(active-High)
Mem_CRE
CRE
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Software Considerations
Absolute memory addresses are frequently required for specifying command sequences to
flash memory devices.
IMPORTANT: Due to the memory address shift (AS), any absolute addresses that must appear on the
memory device address bus must also have the source AXI address left-shifted to compensate for the
AS.
Timing Diagrams
Figure 3-4 is the read timing representation for Sync SRAM memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-4
Figure 3-4:
Read Timing Representation of 32-bit Sync SRAM with Pipeline Delay 2
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Figure 3-5 is the write timing representation for Sync SRAM memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-5
Figure 3-5:
Write Timing Representation of 32-bit Sync SRAM with Pipeline Delay 2
Figure 3-6 is the read timing representation for Async SRAM memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-6
Figure 3-6:
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Read Timing Representation of 32-bit Async SRAM
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Figure 3-7 is the write timing representation for Async SRAM memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-7
Figure 3-7:
Write Timing Representation of 32-bit Async SRAM
Figure 3-8 is the read timing representation for Linear Flash memories
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-8
Figure 3-8:
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Read Timing Representation of Linear Flash Memories
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Figure 3-9 is the write timing representation for Linear Flash memories
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-9
Figure 3-9:
Write Timing Representation of Linear Flash Memories
Figure 3-10 is the read timing representation for Page Mode Flash memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-10
Figure 3-10:
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Read Timing Representation for Page Mode Flash Memories
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Figure 3-11 is the read timing representation for Numonyx Flash memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-11
Figure 3-11:
Read Timing Representation for Numonyx Flash Memories
Figure 3-12 is the write timing representation for Numonyx Flash memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-12
Figure 3-12:
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Write Timing Representation for Numonyx Flash Memories
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Chapter 3: Designing with the Core
Figure 3-13 is the Sync Read timing representation for Numonyx Flash memories.
X-Ref Target - Figure 3-13
Figure 3-13:
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Sync Read Timing Representation for Numonyx Flash Memories
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Chapter 4
Design Flow Steps
This chapter describes customizing and generating the core, constraining the core, and the
simulation, synthesis and implementation steps that are specific to this IP core. More
detailed information about the standard VivadoВ® design flows in the Vivado IP integrator
can be found in the following Vivado Design Suite user guides:
•
Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing IP Subsystems using IP Integrator (UG994)
[Ref 4]
•
Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing with IP (UG896) [Ref 2]
•
Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Getting Started (UG910) [Ref 5]
•
Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Logic Simulation (UG900) [Ref 6]
Customizing and Generating the Core
This section includes information about using XilinxВ® tools to customize and generate the
core in the Vivado Design Suite.
If you are customizing and generating the core in the IP integrator, see the Vivado Design
Suite User Guide: Designing IP Subsystems using IP Integrator (UG994) [Ref 4] for detailed
information. IP integrator might auto-compute certain configuration values when
validating or generating the design. To check whether the values do change, see the
description of the parameter in this chapter. To view the parameter value you can run the
validate_bd_design command in the Tcl Console.
You can customize the IP for use in your design by specifying values for the various
parameters associated with the IP core using the following steps:
1. Select the IP from the IP catalog.
2. Double-click the selected IP, or select the Customize IP command from the toolbar or
right-click menu.
For details, see the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing with IP (UG896) [Ref 2] and
the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Getting Started (UG910) [Ref 5].
Note: Figures in this chapter are illustrations of the Vivado IDE. This layout might vary from the
current version.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Figure 4-1 shows the Customize IP dialog box for AXI EMC.
X-Ref Target - Figure 4-1
Figure 4-1:
AXI EMC Customize IP Dialog Box
The AXI EMC options are as follows:
AXI Data Width
If the targeted memory is set to Numonyx Flash memory and Sync burst is enabled, the
AXI4 Data Bus Width must be set to 32-bit. For any other memory, the AXI4 Data Bus Width
can be set to either 32 or 64 bits.
AXI ID Width
ID width of AXI interface, allowed values are 0 to 16.
Note: For IP integrator, ID Width is auto-computed which means that you are not allowed to
override it.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Maximum Data Width
This option should be set to the maximum memory data width configured across all
memory banks. Maximum Data Width option can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
No. of Memory Banks
Number of memory banks: The valid range for Memory Banks is from 1 to 4. For each
memory bank a tab is provided for bank specific memory configurations. The tab needs to
set for the memory type and for the timing parameters associated with the selected
memory type.
Base Address
Per Bank Base Address for the Memory, the base address for each enabled bank must be set
as per the System Address Map requirement. For more details on Memory Address
Generation, see Address Map Description, page 19.
High Address
Per Bank High Address for the Memory, the High address for each enabled bank must be set
as per the System Address Map requirement. For more details on Memory Address
Generation, see Address Map Description, page 19.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Figure 4-2 shows the Customize IP dialog box for each memory bank of AXI EMC core.
X-Ref Target - Figure 4-2
Figure 4-2:
Memory Bank of AXI EMC
Memory Type
Memory Type for the selected bank can conf igured as Sync SRAM, Async SRAM, Linear
Flash, Page Mode Flash, PSRAM, or Numonyx Flash. For the supported memory
combinations across memory banks, see Allowable Memory Combination, page 20.
Data Width
Memory data width for the selected bank, Data Width of the Memory connected to the
bank can be set as 8, 16, 32, or 64 bits wide.
Parity
Parity is applicable only when Memory Type selected for the bank is Sync SRAM. Parity for
the memory can be set as No parity, Odd Parity, or Even Parity.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Delay Model
This configuration option is applicable only when Memory Type selected for the bank is
Sync SRAM. The Delay Model for the Sync SRAM can be set as a Flow-Through model or
Pipeline Model. See Timing Diagrams, page 31.
Read CE Low to Data Valid Period
Read Chip Enable to Data Valid Period specification for the memory in the selected bank.
This configuration option is applicable only when memory type in the bank is
asynchronous. This option is equivalent to tACE for asynchronous SRAM and tELQV for flash
memory in the respective memory device data sheets.
Read Address Valid to Data Valid Period
Read Address Valid to Data Valid Period specification for the memory in the selected bank.
This configuration option is applicable only when memory type in the bank is
asynchronous. This option is equivalent to tAA for asynchronous SRAM and tAVQV for flash
memory in the respective memory device data sheets.
IMPORTANT: Read cycle time for AXI EMC core is determined by Read CE Low to Data Valid Period and
Read Address Valid to Data Valid Period configuration settings and is the Maximum[Read CE Low to
Data Valid Period, Read Address Valid to Data Valid Period].
Page Access Period
Page Access Period specification for the asynchronous flash memory in the selected bank.
This configuration option is applicable only when memory type in the bank is Page Mode
Flash Memory. This option is equivalent to tPACC in the Page Mode Flash device data sheet
and must be assigned only when Memory Type selected for the bank is Page Mode Flash.
Read CE High to Data Bus HZ Period
Read CE High to data bus High impedance period specification for the memory in the
selected bank. This configuration option is applicable only when memory type in the bank
is asynchronous. This option is equivalent to tHZCE for asynchronous SRAM and tEHQZ for
flash memory in the respective memory device data sheets.
Read OE High to Data Bus HZ Period
Read OE High to data bus High impedance period specification for the memory in the
selected bank. This configuration option is applicable only when memory type in the bank
is asynchronous. This option is equivalent to tHZOE for asynchronous SRAM and tGHQZ for
flash memory in the respective memory device data sheets.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
IMPORTANT: Read cycle recovery to write period for AXI EMC core is determined by Read CE High to
Data Bus HZ Period and Read OE High to Data Bus HZ Period configuration settings and is the
MAXIMUM[Read CE High to Data Bus HZ Period, Read OE High to Data Bus HZ Period].
Write Cycle Period
Write cycle time of the memory bank. This configuration option is applicable only when
memory type in the bank is asynchronous. This option is equivalent to tWC for
asynchronous SRAM and tCW for flash memory in the respective memory device data
sheets.
The AXI EMC core uses this parameter to hold CEN Low for each write at the memory
interface.
Write Enable Minimum Pulse Width
Write enable minimum pulse width duration of the memory bank. This configuration option
is applicable only when memory type in the bank is asynchronous. This option is equivalent
to tWP for Asynchronous SRAM and tPWE for flash memory in the respective memory
device data sheets.
The AXI EMC core uses this parameter to hold WEN Low for each write at the memory
interface.
IMPORTANT: CEN Low and WEN Low time generated by the AXI EMC core is determined by Write Cycle
Period and Write Enable Minimum Pulse Width configuration settings. It is the MAXIMUM[Write Cycle
Period, Write Enable Minimum Pulse Width].
Write Phase Period
Write cycle phase time period of the memory bank. This configuration option is applicable
only when memory type in the bank is asynchronous.
The AXI EMC core uses this parameter to determine the number of NOP cycles between two
consecutive writes at the memory side. When this parameter is set to zero, CEN goes High
for one clock cycle between writes.
Write WE High to Data Bus LZ Period
Write cycle write enable High to data bus Low impedance duration of memory bank. This
configuration option is applicable only when memory type in the bank is asynchronous.
This option is equivalent to tLZWE for asynchronous SRAM and tWHGL for flash memory in
the respective memory device data sheets. This option is also used to meet write recovery
to read time requirements of the memory.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Write Recovery Period for Flash Memory
Write recovery period for flash memories of the memory bank. This configuration option is
applicable only when memory type in the bank is any flash memory or PSRAM. This option
is equivalent to tWR for flash memory in the respective memory device data sheets.
The AXI EMC core uses this parameter to determine the number of NOP cycles at memory
interface after each AXI WLAST.
RECOMMENDED: You should provide the value for C_AXI_CLK_PERIOD_PS which is equivalent to AXI
clock used. This value is used for internal calibration of counters when Asynchronous memories are
used. By default this is set to 10,000 which is a value corresponding to 100 MHz AXI clock.
If the AXI clock connected is not 100 MHz, the parameter has to be set using command
"set_property CONFIG.C_AXI_CLK_PERIOD_PS {time period in picoseconds of AXI
clock} [get_ips <component name of emc IP created>]" in the Tcl Console.
Figure 4-3 shows the Customize IP dialog box with the Advanced Configuration tab of AXI
EMC core.
X-Ref Target - Figure 4-3
Figure 4-3:
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Advanced Configuration of AXI EMC
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Enable Burst Mode for Numonyx Flash
When set, enables Burst mode for Numonyx Flash memory. By default Burst mode is
disabled for Numonyx Flash memory. This option is not applicable when Numonyx Flash is
selected with other possible Asynchronous memories.
Enable Internal Registers
When set, includes AXI4-LITE interface for accessing internal core registers. This option is
applicable when Sync SRAM, PSRAM, or Numonyx Flash memory in Sync mode is set for any
of the memory bank.
Figure 4-4 shows the Customize IP dialog box with the Summary tab of AXI EMC core.
X-Ref Target - Figure 4-4
Figure 4-4:
Summary of AXI EMC
User Parameters
Table 4-1 shows the relationship between the GUI fields in the Vivado IDE and the User
Parameters (which can be viewed in the Tcl Console).
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Table 4-1:
GUI Parameter to User Parameter Relationship
GUI Parameter(1)
User Parameter(1)
Default Value(1)
AXI Data Width
C_S_AXI_MEM_DATA_WIDTH
32
AXI ID Width
C_S_AXI_MEM_ID_WIDTH
4
Number of Memory Banks
C_NUM_BANKS_MEM
1
C_S_AXI_MEM*_BASEADDR (3)
0x*0000000
“*” depends on bank dealing with
starts from A to D.
A for first bank, B for second, etc.
Memory Bank High Address
Valid HEX values for number of banks
selected with no overlaps.
C_S_AXI_MEM*_HIGHADDR (3)
0x*FFFFFFF
“*” depends on bank dealing with
starts from A to D.
A for first bank, B for second, etc.
Memory Type
Value 0 to Sync SRAM
1 to Async SRAM
2 to Linear Flash
3 to Page Mode Flash
4 to PSRAM
5 to Numonyx Flash
C_MEM*_TYPE (3)
0
This value corresponds to Sync
SRAM.
Data Width
8, 16, 32, and 64 for Sync and Async SRAMs
and fixed value of 16 for other memory
types.
64 is allowed only if
C_S_AXI_MEM_DATA_WIDTH selected is 64.
C_MEM*_WIDTH (3)
16
Parity
Applicable only for Sync SRAM memories
and should be same for all the banks
enabled.
Value 0 to No Parity
1 to Odd Parity
2 to Even Parity
C_PARITY_TYPE_MEM_* (3)
0
Delay Model
Applicable only for Sync SRAM memories.
Value 1 to flow through 2 to Pipeline Delay.
C_SYNCH_PIPEDELAY_* (3)
1
Read CE Low to Data Valid Period (2)
C_TCEDV_PS_MEM_* (3)
15000
(3)
15000
Memory Bank Base Address
Valid HEX values for number of banks
selected with no overlaps.
Read Address Valid to Data Valid
Period (2)
Page Access Period (2)
C_TPACC_PS_FLASH_* (3)
25000
(2)
C_THZCE_PS_MEM_* (3)
7000
Period (2)
(3)
7000
Read CE High to Data Bus HZ Period
Read OE High to Data Bus HZ
Write Cycle Period (2)
Write Enable Min. Pulse Width
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C_TAVDV_PS_MEM_*
(2)
C_THZOE_PS_MEM_*
C_TWC_PS_MEM_* (3)
15000
C_TWP_PS_MEM_* (3)
12000
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Table 4-1:
GUI Parameter to User Parameter Relationship (Cont’d)
GUI Parameter(1)
User Parameter(1)
Write Phase Period (2)
Default Value(1)
C_TWPH_PS_MEM_* (3)
12000
C_TLZWE_PS_MEM_* (3)
0
C_WR_REC_TIME_MEM_* (3)
27000
Enable Sync Burst Mode for Numonyx
Flash
Applicable only for Numonyx Flash.
Allowable values are 0 and 1.
C_LINEAR_FLASH_SYNC_BURST
0
Enable Internal Registers
Applicable only when memory selected is
Sync SRAM, Async SRAM, PSRAM, or
Numonyx Flash.
Allowable values are 0 and 1.
C_S_AXI_EN_REG
0
Write WE High to Data Bus LZ Period
Write Recovery Period for Flash
(2)
Memory (2)
Notes:
1. Parameter values are listed in the table where the GUI parameter value differs from the user parameter value. Such values are
shown in this table as indented below the associated parameter.
2. Applicable only for Async Memories and flashes should be bases on memory data sheet.
3. “*” depends on number of banks selected, ranges from 0 to “C_NUM_BANKS_MEM – 1.”
Output Generation
For details, see the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing with IP (UG896) [Ref 2].
Constraining the Core
This section contains information about constraining the core in the Vivado Design Suite.
Required Constraints
If external pull-ups/pull-downs are not available on the MEM_DQ signals, these constraints
should be specified to use pull-up or pull-down resistors, as in this example:
set_property
set_property
set_property
...
set_property
PULLDOWN true [get_ports MEM_DQ[0]]
PULLDOWN true [get_ports MEM_DQ[1]]
PULLDOWN true [get_ports MEM_DQ[2]]
PULLDOWN true [get_ports MEM_DQ[31]]
Device, Package, and Speed Grade Selections
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
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Chapter 4: Design Flow Steps
Clock Frequencies
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
Clock Management
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
Clock Placement
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
Banking
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
Transceiver Placement
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
I/O Standard and Placement
This section is not applicable for this IP core.
Simulation
This section contains information about simulating IP in the Vivado Design Suite. For
comprehensive information about Vivado simulation components, as well as information
about using supported third-party tools, see the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Logic
Simulation (UG900) [Ref 6].
Synthesis and Implementation
This section contains information about synthesis and implementation in the Vivado Design
Suite. For details about synthesis and implementation, see the Vivado Design Suite User
Guide: Designing with IP (UG896) [Ref 2].
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Chapter 5
Example Design
This chapter contains information about the example design provided in the VivadoВ®
Design Suite.
The top-level example design for the AXI EMC core is <component_name>_exdes.vhd.
The complete example design works as a mini-system to show the AXI EMC functionality by
performing read and write transactions to memory model (Figure 5-1).
X-Ref Target - Figure 5-1
FRPSRQHQWBQDPH!BH[GHVYKGWRS
0HPRU\%ORFN
'87
(0&3RUWV
FONBQ
FONBS
&ORFN
*HQHUDWRU
UHVHW
'DWD5HDG:ULWH
/RJLF
;
Figure 5-1:
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AXI EMC Example Design Block Diagram
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Chapter 5: Example Design
The following is the brief description of individual blocks:
•
Clock Generator – EMC example design makes use of the clocking wizard to supply
clocks and resets to all other blocks in the design. The clocking wizard is configured to
provide 100 MHz clock to all the blocks, and the locked signal from the wizard is
appropriately used as Resets.
•
Memory – Block Memory Generator (BMG) core is used to serve for memory storage in
the example design. It is configured for 32 Г— 1,024 memory whose first 256 locations
are initialized using a coefficient file. The example design uses the first half of the BMG
as the source of data to write data to the memory model through EMC, and it uses the
second half to store data read from model through EMC.
•
Data Read/Write Path – Example design uses the Central Direct Memory Access
(CDMA) core to generate the required AXI instructions for data flow between BMG and
EMC in both directions. The design uses two instances of CDMA:
В°
В°
•
One instance that reads the channel connected to BMG, and writes the channel
connected to EMC. This is called as Write CDMA in design and is used to write data
from BMG to EMC.
Another CDMA instance that reads the channel connected to EMC and writes the
channel connected to BMG. This is called Read CDMA to read data from EMC and
write to BMG.
AXI Traffic Generator – Example design makes use of the AXI Traffic Generator (ATG)
core in system test mode to control the transaction sequence. ATG is connected to both
CDMAs to program them for the source address, destination address, and bytes to
transfer registers based on which AXI instructions are generated by the CDMA. The ATG
takes four COE files as input, and gives done and status pins as outputs which
determines the result of the tests. It instantiates IOBUF to take in I, O, and T pins of the
EMC, and gives out a single I/O pin that communicates with the memory model.
Implementing the Example Design
After following the steps described in Customizing and Generating the Core, page 37 to
generate the core, implement the example design as follows:
1. Right-click the core in the Hierarchy window, and select Open IP Example Design.
2. A new window pops up, asking you to specify a directory for the example design. Select
a new directory or keep the default directory.
3. A new project is automatically created in the selected directory and it is opened in a new
Vivado window.
4. In the Flow Navigator (left-side pane), click Run Implementation and follow the
directions.
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Chapter 5: Example Design
Example Design Directory Structure
This directory and its subdirectories contain all the source files that are required to create
the AXI EMC example design.
Table 5-1 shows the files delivered in the example design directory. It contains the
generated example design top files.
Table 5-1:
Example Design Directory
Name
Description
topdirectory
Top-level project directory; the name is
user-defined.
<component_name>/example design
The VHDL example design, test bench and
COE files.
Table 5-2 shows the files delivered in the <project_name>/<project_name>.srcs/
sources_1/ip/ directory.
Table 5-2:
Project Files
Name
Description
Synth/<component_name>.v|vhd
Synthesis wrapper generated by the Vivado tool.
Sim/<component_name>.v|vhd
Simulation wrapper generated by the Vivado tool.
<component_name>.xci
Vivado tools project-specific option file; can be used as an
input to the Vivado tools.
<component_name>.vho|veo
VHDL or Verilog instantiation template.
<component_name>_ooc.xdc
Out of Context constraints for IP.
COE Files
These files are intended for the usage of example design, and
after open example design is performed all these are copied
to new project created.
Table 5-3 shows the files delivered in the <component_name>/example design
provided with the core.
Table 5-3:
Example Design Files
Name
Description
<component_name>_exdes.vhd
Example design top file for synthesis.
<component_name>_exdes_tb.vhd
Example design top file for simulation.
<memory_model>.vhd
Memory model to mimic the behavior in simulation.
Exdes.xdc
Constraints for the example design
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Chapter 6
Test Bench
This chapter contains information about the test bench provided in the VivadoВ® Design
Suite.
Figure 6-1 shows a top-level view of the example design test bench.
X-Ref Target - Figure 6-1
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Chapter 6: Test Bench
The demonstration test bench performs the following tasks:
•
Generates the clock and reset inputs for the clocking wizard.
•
Instantiates the memory model which communicates with EMC. The memory model
used depends on your selection in the Vivado Integrated Design Environment (IDE).
•
Instantiates IOBUF to take in I, O, and T pins of the memory model, and give a single
I/O port to connect with EMC.
•
Considers the done and status pins from ATG and determines the simulation status.
Simulating the Example Design
Using the AXI EMC example design (delivered as part of the AXI EMC), you can quickly
simulate and observe the behavior of the AXI EMC.
Setting Up the Simulation
The XilinxВ® simulation libraries must be mapped into the simulator. If the libraries are not
set for your environment, see the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Logic Simulation (UG900)
[Ref 6] for assistance compiling Xilinx simulation models and setting up the simulator
environment. To switch simulators, click Simulation Settings in the Flow Navigator (left
pane). In the Simulation options list, change Target Simulator.
Simulation Results
The simulation script compiles the AXI EMC example design and supporting simulation
files. It then runs the simulation and checks to ensure that it completed successfully.
If the test passes, then the following message is displayed:
Test Completed Successfully
If the test fails or does not complete, then the following message is displayed:
Test Hanged
This is the message displayed when example design simulation fails.
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Appendix A
Verification, Compliance, and
Interoperability
This appendix provides details about how this IP core was tested for compliance.
Simulation
The AXI External Memory Controller (EMC) core has been tested with XilinxВ® VivadoВ®
Design Suite and the Mentor Graphics QuestaВ® SIM simulator. For the supported versions
of these tools, see the Xilinx Design Tools: Release Notes Guide (UG631) (3).
The IP is tested using Xilinx proprietary standard AXI Memory Mapped OVM Verification
Components (OVCs).
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Appendix A: Verification, Compliance, and Interoperability
Hardware Testing
Figure A-1 shows the hardware testing setup for the AXI EMC core.
X-Ref Target - Figure A-1
Figure A-1:
AXI EMC Core Hardware Testing
The AXI EMC core has been hardware validated on a KC705 board using a KintexВ®-7 FPGA
with –1 speed grade (325T). The setup uses a AXI4 system implementing a MicroBlaze™
processor, AXI4 interconnects, AXI Interrupt Controller, AXI block RAM and UART peripheral,
in addition to the AXI EMC core. The AXI EMC core in this setup is connected to Linear Flash
Memory and is used to load the device boot code from the flash memory to an internal AXI
block RAM memory. AXI EMC core operation in this setup is set to 100 MHz and Flash
Memory is operated at a frequency of 50 MHz.
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Appendix B
Migrating and Upgrading
This appendix contains information about migrating a design from ISEВ® Design Suite to the
VivadoВ® Design Suite, and for upgrading to a more recent version of the IP core. For
customers upgrading in the Vivado Design Suite, important details (where applicable)
about any port changes and other impact to user logic are included.
Migrating to the Vivado Design Suite
For information on migrating to the Vivado Design Suite, see the Vivado Design Suite
Migration Methodology Guide (UG911) [Ref 7].
Upgrading in the Vivado Design Suite
There are no port or parameter changes.
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Appendix C
Debugging
This appendix includes details about resources available on the XilinxВ® Support website,
and about debugging tools.
Finding Help on Xilinx.com
To help in the design and debug process when using the AXI EMC core, the Xilinx Support
web page (www.xilinx.com/support) contains key resources such as product documentation,
release notes, answer records, information about known issues, and links for obtaining
further product support.
Documentation
This product guide is the main document associated with the AXI EMC. This guide, along
with documentation related to all products that aid in the design process, can be found on
the Xilinx Support web page (www.xilinx.com/support) or by using the Xilinx
Documentation Navigator.
Download the Xilinx Documentation Navigator from the Design Tools tab on the Downloads
page (www.xilinx.com/download). For more information about this tool and the features
available, open the online help after installation.
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Appendix C: Debugging
Answer Records
Answer Records include information about commonly encountered problems, helpful
information on how to resolve these problems, and any known issues with a Xilinx product.
Answer Records are created and maintained daily ensuring that you have access to the most
accurate information available.
Answer Records for this core can be located by using the Search Support box on the main
Xilinx support web page. To maximize your search results, use proper keywords such as
•
Product name
•
Tool messages
•
Summary of the issue encountered
A filter search is available after results are returned to further target the results.
Master Answer Record for the AXI EMC
AR: 54429
Contacting Technical Support
Xilinx provides technical support at www.xilinx.com/support for this LogiCOREв„ў IP product
when used as described in the product documentation. Xilinx cannot guarantee timing,
functionality, or support of product if implemented in devices that are not defined in the
documentation, if customized beyond that allowed in the product documentation, or if
changes are made to any section of the design labeled DO NOT MODIFY.
To contact Xilinx Technical Support:
1. Navigate to www.xilinx.com/support.
2. Open a WebCase by selecting the WebCase link located under Support Quick Links.
When opening a WebCase, include:
•
Target FPGA including package and speed grade.
•
All applicable Xilinx Design Tools and simulator software versions.
•
Additional files based on the specific issue might also be required. See the relevant
sections in this debug guide for guidelines about which files to include with the
WebCase.
Note: Access to WebCase is not available in all cases. Log in to the WebCase tool to see your specific
support options.
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Appendix C: Debugging
Debug Tools
Vivado Lab Tools
VivadoВ® lab tools inserts logic analyzer (ILA) and virtual I/O (VIO) cores directly into your
design. Vivado lab tools also allow you to set trigger conditions to capture application and
integrated block port signals in hardware. Captured signals can then be analyzed. This
feature in the Vivado IDE is used for logic debugging and validation of a design running in
Xilinx devices.
The Vivado logic analyzer is used with the logic debug IP cores, including:
•
ILA 2.0 (and later versions)
•
VIO 2.0 (and later versions)
See the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Programming and Debugging (UG908) [Ref 8].
Interface Debug
AXI4-Lite Interfaces
Read from a register that does not have all 0s as a default to verify that the interface is
functional. Output s_axi_reg_arready asserts when the read address is valid, and
output s_axi_reg_rvalid asserts when the read data/response is valid. If the interface is
unresponsive, ensure that the following conditions are met:
•
The s_axi_aclk and aclk inputs are connected and toggling.
•
The interface is not being held in reset, and s_axi_areset is an active-Low reset.
•
The interface is enabled, and s_axi_aclk is active-High (if used).
•
The main core clocks are toggling and that the enables are also asserted.
•
If the simulation has been run, verify in simulation and/or a Vivado Lab tool capture
that the waveform is correct for accessing the AXI4-Lite interface.
•
Program the necessary registers for PSRAM and Sync Mode Linear Flash memory as per
guidelines given in Register Description in Chapter 2.
•
If any non-existent register is accessed either through read or write AXI transaction, the
core sends ACK and completes the transaction.
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Appendix C: Debugging
AXI4-Memory Mapped Interfaces
•
The core supports all AXI transactions, except FIXED transactions.
•
The core responds to read and write transactions in round robin fashion. This ensures
that none of the AXI channels are kept in wait mode.
•
The core supports single memory access at a given time.
•
The AXI read transactions are completed by the core with data and read response.
•
In case of any read data error, the particular data response from the core is slave error.
•
The AXI write transactions are completed by the core with proper response at the
acceptance of the last AXI transaction (after the actual write transactions to the memory
is over).
•
To access the Async Mode memories (and flash memories), add timing parameters after
referring to the data sheets.
•
In case of Sync Mode Linear Flash memory access, core support fixed relation is
between the AXI clock (100 MHz) and the Sync Mode Linear Flash memory clock
(50 MHz).
•
Observe the memory interface signals activity when the AXI transactions are accepted
by the core.
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Appendix D
Additional Resources and Legal Notices
Xilinx Resources
For support resources such as Answers, Documentation, Downloads, and Forums, see Xilinx
Support.
References
These documents provide supplemental material useful with this product guide:
1. ARMВ® AMBAВ® AXI and ACE Specification (ARM IHI 0022D)
2. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing with IP (UG896)
3. Vivado AXI Reference Guide (UG1037)
4. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Designing IP Subsystems using IP Integrator (UG994)
5. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Getting Started (UG910)
6. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Logic Simulation (UG900)
7. ISEВ® to Vivado Design Suite Migration Methodology Guide (UG911)
8. Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Programming and Debugging (UG908)
9. AXI Interconnect IP Product Guide (PG059)
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Appendix D: Additional Resources and Legal Notices
Revision History
The following table shows the revision history for this document.
Date
Version
Revision
11/19/2014
3.0
• Document updates only for revision change.
• Updated Bits[31, 6] description in Table 2-8: PSRAM/Numonyx Flash
Configuration Register (PSRAM_FLASH_CONFIG_REG_X).
• Updated description in Configuring the Numonyx Flash in Sync Burst Read
Mode section.
06/04/2014
3.0
•
•
•
•
•
04/02/2014
3.0
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated Note in I/O Signal Descriptions table.
Updated Note in Allowable Memory Combination section.
Updated Fig. 4-4: Summary of AXI EMC in Enable Internal Registers section.
Updated description in Enable Burst Mode for Numonyx Flash.
Added Recommended Note in Write Recovery Period for Flash Memory
section.
• Added User Parameters in Design Flow Steps chapter.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Updated IP Facts table.
Added UltraScale support in Maximum Frequencies section.
Updated Table 2-1: Maximum Frequencies.
Added data width description in Memory Controller Unit section.
Disabled parity feature in Byte Parity Logic section.
Updated ports, ID width description, and memory parity notes in Table 2-5
I/O Signal Descriptions.
Added Numonyx Flash description to Clocking Synchronous Memory
section.
Updated description in Configuring the Numonyx Flash in Sync Burst Read
Mode section.
Updated description in Allowable Memory Combination section.
Updated figures and descriptions in Customizing and Generating the Core
chapter.
Updated Constraining the Core chapter.
Updated to Test Hanged in Simulation Results section.
Added Important note in Example Design chapter.
Updated description in Test Bench chapter.
12/18/2013
2.0
Added UltraScale support.
10/02/2013
2.0
Re-release of document for core v2.0, with the following changes made:
• Added information related to the core design example, and test bench.
• Added Vivado IP integrator support.
• Added the Simulation, and Synthesis and Implementation chapters.
• Added AXI4-memory mapped interface debug information.
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Appendix D: Additional Resources and Legal Notices
Date
Version
Revision
03/20/2013
2.0
•
•
•
•
12/18/2012
1.0
Initial Xilinx release as a product guide. Replaces LogiCORE IP AXI EMC Data
Sheet, DS762.
Updated to core v2.0 and Vivado Design Suite-only support.
Updates to modules, and timing diagrams.
Added Appendix A, Verification, Compliance, and Interoperability.
Major revisions to Appendix C, Debugging.
Please Read: Important Legal Notices
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maximum extent permitted by applicable law: (1) Materials are made available "AS IS" and with all faults, Xilinx hereby DISCLAIMS
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without prior written consent. Certain products are subject to the terms and conditions of Xilinx's limited warranty, please refer to
Xilinx's Terms of Sale which can be viewed at http://www.xilinx.com/legal.htm#tos; IP cores may be subject to warranty and support
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© Copyright 2012–2014 Xilinx, Inc. Xilinx, the Xilinx logo, Artix, ISE, Kintex, Spartan, Virtex, Vivado, Zynq, and other designated
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