IBM Software for SAP Solutions - IBM Redbooks

IBM Software for SAP Solutions - IBM Redbooks
Front cover
IBM Software for SAP
Solutions
Learn how IBM software adds value to
SAP solutions
Understand how IBM software
capabilities for SAP should be used
Discover IBM Reference
Architecture for SAP
Yaro Dunchych
Peter Bahrs
Khirallah Birkler
Bernd Eberhardt
Navneet Goyal
James Hunter
Derek Jennings
Joe Kaczmarek
Michel Laaroussi
ibm.com/redbooks
Michael Love
Stefan Momma
Nick Norris
Martin Oberhofer
Manfred Oevers
Paul Pacholski
Andrew Stalnecker
Jörg Stolzenberg
Pierre Valiquette
International Technical Support Organization
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
November 2014
SG24-8230-00
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on
page ix.
First Edition (November 2014)
This edition applies to Version 2, Release 0, Modification 0 of the IBM Reference Architecture for SAP.
В© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2014. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x
IBM Redbooks promotions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Chapter 1. Why IBM software matters in SAP solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Critical success factors for an SAP-centric transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2.1 Deploying a system of engagement for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.2 Balancing SAP with an application-independent, industry-leading integration platform
solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.3 Establishing governance for architectural decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.4 Avoiding custom coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Combined value of IBM and SAP software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.1 Reduced business and IT risk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.2 Accelerated SAP integration into a heterogeneous enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.3 Business agility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.4 Cost reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 Architecture goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.1 Use standard, non-customized SAP applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.2 Reuse pre-built SAP integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.3 Use best-in-class technologies when extending beyond the SAP domain . . . . . . 11
2.2.4 Use open, well-established standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.5 Use pre-built software capabilities provided by IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3 IBM Reference Architecture for SAP overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3.1 Systems of engagement, interaction, and record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3.2 Services view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.3 Application integration: Inner ring and outer ring architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.4 Enterprise integration services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3.5 Process optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3.6 User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.7 Master data management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.3.8 Enterprise content management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.3.9 Business analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.10 DevOps for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
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Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Introduction to enterprise integration services for SAP applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Architecture goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Align enterprise integration services with SAP implementation methodology. . . .
3.2.2 Use best-in-class technologies for custom integration development . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Minimize costs of integration for non-strategic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 Loosely-coupled applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 Use open, well-established standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Scenarios and patterns for ongoing integration with SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Identifying integration scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Common integration patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Architecture overview of ongoing integration with SAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Architecture components of ongoing integration with SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Enterprise Service Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Extract, transform, and load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Service governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.4 Reliable File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.5 Process services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.6 Logging and error handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.7 Integration workload placement guidelines: ESB versus ETL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Initial data load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.1 SAP solutions as a system of engagement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.2 Architecture overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.3 SAP active business performance optimization architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.4 IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.4.1 SAP Solution Manager integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.4.2 SAP Guided Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.4.3 Process orchestration, integration, and event management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.4.4 Process discovery and monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.4.5 Iterative business blueprinting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.4.6 Decision automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.4.7 Process automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.5 IBM Smarter Process for SAP products and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.6 How IBM Smarter Process for SAP creates sustained business value. . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.7 IBM Smarter Process for SAP usage scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.7.1 IBM Smarter Process for SAP in the phases of an SAP project . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
4.7.2 Post-implementation value augmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.8.1 Capability and value summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.8.2 IBM Smarter Process for SAP Affinity Analysis and Business Value Assessment
Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.9 Other IBM Software Group publications, assets, and tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.10 IBM Global Business Services SAP assets and tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Chapter 5. Mobile access for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5.1 IBM MobileFirst overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.2 Spectrum of mobile app development approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
5.3 IBM MobileFirst for SAP architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Architecture goals for SAP mobile enablement in a heterogeneous enterprise .
5.3.2 IBM MobileFirst for SAP architecture overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 Fast-track SAP mobile enablement with IBM Worklight and SAP NetWeaver
Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 IBM MobileFirst integration with SAP with no moving parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5 Accelerated mobile integration with SAP using IBM WebSphere Cast Iron . . . .
5.3.6 Full featured mobile integration with SAP using IBM Integration Bus . . . . . . . . .
5.3.7 Access to existing SAP Fiori Apps using IBM MaaS360. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Optional components driving enhanced features in mobile architectures . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Enhancing mobile architectures by adding IBM API Management capabilities .
5.4.2 Enhancing mobile architectures by adding IBM mobile analytics and quality
assurance capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Enhancing mobile architectures by adding secure offline capabilities . . . . . . . .
5.5 Lessons learned from actual projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 Direct connectivity from mobile applications to SAP is rarely used. . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Late decision on native versus hybrid apps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3 Adding mobile business analytics features dynamically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4 Separation of security domains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 6. Portal integration with SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 Overview of integrating IBM WebSphere Portal with SAP applications . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Architecture overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Types of use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Casual use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Detailed use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 WebSphere Portal integration with SAP app use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 Federated portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2 Integrating with the web application bridge feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.3 Integrating with IBM WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.4 Integrating with Web Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Service-level integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1 Direct integration with SAP applications using SAP Java connector . . . . . . . . .
6.5.2 Integrating with an enterprise service bus to connect to SAP applications. . . . .
6.5.3 Integrating with SAP NetWeaver Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Architecture guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 7. Master data management for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
7.1 Master data management introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
7.2 Why master data management is important for SAP applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
7.3 Overview of IBM Master Data Management capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
7.4 Architecture goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
7.5 Architecture overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
7.6 IBM InfoSphere MDM for SAP applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
7.7 Architecture patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
7.7.1 Master Data Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
7.7.2 Master data distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
7.7.3 MDM hub patterns and MDM implementation styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.7.4 Selecting MDM hub and MDM implementation styles for environments with SAP
applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
7.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
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Chapter 8. Enterprise Content Management for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
8.1 Enterprise content management business goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
8.1.1 Information lifecycle management: More than just archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
8.1.2 Information lifecycle governance applied to SAP systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
8.1.3 IBM proposes a base structure of an integrated ECM solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.2 ECM for SAP use cases and solution architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
8.2.1 SAP archiving standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
8.2.2 SAP archiving use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
8.2.3 Architecture of IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
8.2.4 IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
8.2.5 IBM Content Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
8.3 Business process enhancements through ECM for SAP solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
8.3.1 Objectives of a document-oriented workflow management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.3.2 SAP-centric versus ECM-centric process management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
8.3.3 Components of an ECM for SAP Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
8.3.4 Capturing solution components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.3.5 ECM SAP solution architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
8.4 Data governance: Managing growth and compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.4.1 Business drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
8.4.2 SAP infrastructure for data archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
8.4.3 Data archiving and the choice of IBM ECM content repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
8.4.4 SAP ArchiveLink-based data archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
8.4.5 Data archiving using SAP ILM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
8.4.6 Comparison of SAP ArchiveLink and ILM-based data archiving. . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
8.4.7 Adding the value of IBM middleware and storage solutions for SAP data archiving
purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
8.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Chapter 9. IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
9.1 IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP value proposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
9.1.1 Architecture overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
9.2 IBM Business Analytics integration architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
9.2.1 IBM Enterprise Data Warehouse products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
9.2.2 IBM InfoSphere DataStage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
9.2.3 IBM InfoSphere Data Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
9.3 Detailed review of IBM Business Analytics integration architectures for SAP. . . . . . . 237
9.3.1 Data export from SAP Business Suite into an IBM enterprise data warehouse . 237
9.3.2 Data export from SAP BW into an IBM EDW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
9.3.3 Operational analytics with Cognos Business Intelligence directly accessing SAP
solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
9.3.4 Managing business performance with SAP and IBM Cognos TM1 . . . . . . . . . . 242
9.3.5 Predictive analytics with SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
9.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
9.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Chapter 10. DevOps for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1 IBM DevOps for SAP overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 IBM DevOps for SAP key capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Application lifecycle management for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1 IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2 Requirements management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3 Blueprint push from SAP Solution Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.4 Project planning and execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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10.2.5 Change, defect, and incident management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.6 Quality management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.7 Impact analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Collaborative development for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.1 Improve SAP developer and team productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.2 Real-time visibility into SAP Agile delivery and maintenance projects . . . . . . .
10.3.3 Accelerate agile development adoption and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 Continuous testing for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4.1 Functional testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4.2 Integration testing and service virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4.3 Performance testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 Continuous release and deployment for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 Continuous business planning for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6.1 Enterprise architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1 SAP systems and IBM security management integration overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.1 Key capabilities: Logical components of security reference architecture . . . . .
11.1.2 Mapping logical security architecture components to IBM and SAP software .
11.2 SAP systems security and IBM security management integration scenarios . . . . . .
11.2.1 Key solution components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.2 Generic components and concepts of a security architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 Identity system scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 Identity management scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2 Identity feed scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.3 User provisioning scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4 Authentication system scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.1 Access management scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.2 Single sign-on scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4.3 Identity propagation scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5 Authorization system scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6 Audit system scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.1 Security monitoring and analytics scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6.2 Source code analysis scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7 Identity management products and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.1 IBM Security Identity Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.2 IBM Security Directory Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7.3 IBM Security Directory Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8 Access management products and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.1 IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.2 IBM Security Access Manager for Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8.3 IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9 Audit products and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.1 IBM InfoSphere Guardium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.2 IBM Security QRadar Log Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.3 IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.4 IBM Security QRadar SIEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9.5 IBM Security AppScan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1 Architectural goals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1.1 Enable optimal availability and usability of complex business systems . . . . . .
12.1.2 Provide visibility to unplanned business process outages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1.3 Enable historical view of business process availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Business process availability management overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.1 Complex IT solutions require multiple levels of systems management. . . . . . .
12.2.2 Multiple systems management tools exist for each layer of solution . . . . . . . .
12.2.3 Systems management considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Systems management reference architecture for SAP-centric solutions . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1 Application architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.2 Infrastructure architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.3 Systems management architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4 Business process availability management for SAP-centric solutions . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 Business process availability management architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2 Business Process DLA overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Preface
SAP is a market leader in enterprise business application software. SAP solutions provide a
rich set of composable application modules, and configurable functional capabilities that are
expected from a comprehensive enterprise business application software suite.
In most cases, companies that adopt SAP software remain heterogeneous enterprises
running both SAP and non-SAP systems to support their business processes. Regardless of
the specific scenario, in heterogeneous enterprises most SAP implementations must be
integrated with a variety of non-SAP enterprise systems:
Portals
Messaging infrastructure
Business process management (BPM) tools
Enterprise content management (ECM) methods and tools
Business analytics (BA) and business intelligence (BI) technologies
Security
Systems of record
Systems of engagement
The tooling included with SAP software addresses many needs for creating SAP-centric
environments. However, the classic approach to implementing SAP functionality generally
leaves the business with a rigid solution that is difficult and expensive to change and
enhance.
When SAP software is used in a large, heterogeneous enterprise environment, SAP clients
face the dilemma of selecting the correct set of tools and platforms to implement SAP
functionality, and to integrate the SAP solutions with non-SAP systems.
This IBMВ® RedbooksВ® publication explains the value of integrating IBM software with SAP
solutions. It describes how to enhance and extend pre-built capabilities in SAP software with
best-in-class IBM enterprise software, enabling clients to maximize return on investment
(ROI) in their SAP investment and achieve a balanced enterprise architecture approach. This
book describes IBM Reference Architecture for SAP, a prescriptive blueprint for using IBM
software in SAP solutions. The reference architecture is focused on defining the use of IBM
software with SAP, and is not intended to address the internal aspects of SAP components.
The chapters of this book provide a specific reference architecture for many of the
architectural domains that are each important for a large enterprise to establish common
strategy, efficiency, and balance. The majority of the most important architectural domain
topics, such as integration, process optimization, master data management, mobile access,
enterprise content management, business intelligence, DevOps, security, systems
monitoring, and so on, are covered in the book.
However, there are several other architectural domains which are not included in the book.
This is not to imply that these other architectural domains are not important or are less
important, or that IBM does not offer a solution to address them. It is only reflective of time
constraints, available resources, and the complexity of assembling a book on an extremely
broad topic.
Although more content could have been added, the authors feel confident that the scope of
architectural material that has been included should provide organizations with a fantastic
head start in defining their own enterprise reference architecture for many of the important
architectural domains, and it is hoped that this book provides great value to those reading it.
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
xiii
This IBM Redbooks publication is targeted to the following audiences:
Client decision makers and solution architects leading enterprise transformation projects
and wanting to gain further insight so that they can benefit from the integration of IBM
software in large-scale SAP projects.
IT architects and consultants integrating IBM technology with SAP solutions.
Authors
This book was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working with the IBM
International Technical Support Organization (ITSO).
Yaro Dunchych is an Executive Architect in IBM Software
Services. Yaro leads IBM software deployments at IBM clients,
including internal adoption of IBM software in the IBM company
in such areas as smarter process, mobile, integration, and
cloud technologies. Yaro leads delivery of IBM software
solutions for SAP based on the IBM Reference Architecture for
SAP, a large-scale asset that provides a comprehensive
blueprint of IBM software capabilities for SAP. During his 15
years with IBM, Yaro created multiple cross-brand solutions
from services engagements that led to several innovations.
Yaro holds a Ph.D. degree in Electronic Engineering from Air
Force Engineering Academy in Moscow, Russia.
Peter Bahrs is a Distinguished Engineer and Chief Technology
Officer (CTO) for IBM WebSphereВ® and Software Lab
Services. Peter is focused on mobile, connectivity and
integration, and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Peter
leads projects in banking, retail, defense, smarter
transportation, and insurance. Peter has been the technical
executive leader in IBM Software Group (SWG) focusing on
integrating SAP solutions with IBM software. Peter has B.S.,
M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from the Center
for Advanced Computer Studies at the University of Louisiana.
Khirallah Birkler is a Certified IT Specialist and IBM/SAP
Mobile Solution Architect in the IBM SWG division, IBM
Germany. Khirallah helps clients to identify requirements,
design, and architect mobile solutions based on the IBM
MobileFirst portfolio. A special focus of his work is the
integration of enterprise data into mobile scenarios, which is
always a key requirement for enterprise customers. Khirallah
holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Information Technology
Management from the University of Cooperative Education,
Stuttgart.
xiv
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Bernd Eberhardt is a product manager at the IBM SAP
International Competence Center (ISICC) in Walldorf,
Germany. Bernd is the product manager for the IBM RationalВ®
SAP Alliance. During his 14-year tenure with IBM, Bernd had
various assignments in sales and consulting services, with a
strong focus on IBM Rational quality management solutions.
Navneet Goyal is a Senior Developer in the IBM Software Lab
organization in IBM India. Navneet designs, develops, and
supports the IBM web application bridge feature for the IBM
WebSphere Portal and business portlets of the IBM
WebSphere Portal product. He holds a Bachelor of
Engineering degree in Computer Engineering from the Delhi
College of Engineering, Delhi, India.
James Hunter is a Consulting, System Integration, and SAP
Solution Offering Leader in IBM Rational organization, IBM
SWG in the UK. He spent a large part of his early career
architecting and implementing critical control, large-scale,
distributed systems in the finance, public, and defense sectors.
His university studies were on politics and economics with
computer science, and he is a Chartered Fellow of the British
Computer Society.
Derek Jennings is a Senior Certified Consulting IT Specialist
with the IBM Global Business ServicesВ® division in the US.
Derek is currently an offerings and solutions architect for IBM
Dev/Test Cloud Services. Derek has over twenty years of
experience in full lifecycle performance engineering for SAP
and large, complex enterprise systems. He has also designed
the monitoring and management strategy for many of the
largest and most mission-critical business systems in IBM.
Joe Kaczmarek is a Global Executive for IBM Smarter
Process for SAP. Joe leads IBM Smarter Process for SAP
business for IBM worldwide. Over the past nine years, he has
held numerous global sales and business unit executive roles
within IBM WebSphere Application Integration and Middleware
brand in IBM SWG. Before joining IBM SWG, Joe was a
consulting practice leader in IBM Global Business Services
and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Joe also spent 15 years as an
entrepreneur founding, leading, and harvesting IT and
marketing services companies.
Preface
xv
Michel Laaroussi is an SAP BA consultant with IBM Canada
Global Business Services. He helps clients by providing them
with agile SAP BA strategy roadmaps and implementing SAP
BA lifecycle projects based on the SAP Business Analytics
portfolio (SAP Business Warehouse, SAP High-Performance
Analytic Appliance (HANA), and SAP Business Objects).
Michel advises clients on enterprise architecture guidelines
aligned with their corporate and business strategies, and with
SAP’s product strategies. Michel holds a Bachelor of Science
degree from UniversitГ© Paris Diderot, Paris 7 and UniversitГ©
Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, and a Master’s degree in
Competitive Intelligence from Economic Warfare School of
Paris (EGE ESLSCA).
Michael Love is an industry leader with a mission to help
organizations worldwide to adopt a superior methodology of
integrating packaged applications across the enterprise,
therefore significantly reducing costs and enabling agility for
the business. In his current Executive Architect role, Michael is
responsible for working with IBM customers who also have a
significant investment in SAP applications. Michael’s focus is in
practical solutions to help customers lower existing integration
costs by incorporating an enterprise integration strategy using
SOA methodologies. Michael has the experience of directly
engaging with over 300 of the largest SAP customers
worldwide to guide them through integration, business process
management, and enterprise architecture leading practices
relative to balancing their SAP environment.
Stefan Momma is a Software Architect in the Enterprise
Content Management division of IBMSWG at the IBM
Research and Development Lab in Boeblingen, Germany. He is
responsible for the product architecture of IBM ECM for SAP
solutions. Before his current assignment, Stefan focused on
full-text search in IBM DB2В® and IBM Enterprise Content
Management portfolio products. He holds a Diploma degree in
Computer Science and Computational Linguistics from the
University of Stuttgart.
xvi
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Nick Norris is an IBM certified Executive IT Specialist currently
working as IBM Rational Worldwide lead architect for the
Financial Services Sector and SAP solutions. In this role, Nick
works with many organizations around the world to understand
their needs, determine which combination of IBM Rational
solutions are the best fit for them, and how they might be best
used to deliver both near-term and long-term value. Nick is a
frequent speaker at technology conferences. He authored a
series of articles on Governing and managing enterprise
models in IBM developerWorksВ®, and the article series
Software Development Compliance - Work Authorization and
Requirements Integrity in jazz.net. He is the co-author of the
IBM Redpapersв„ў publication Building Service-Oriented
Banking Solutions with IBM Banking Industry Models and
Rational SDP, REDP-4232.
Martin Oberhofer is an Executive Architect in Information
Management development, IBM SWG. Martin works on
Enterprise Information Architecture with large clients
worldwide. He helps customers define their enterprise
information strategy and architecture, solving
information-intense business problems. Martin co-authored the
books Enterprise Master Data Management: An SOA
Approach to Managing Core Information and The Art of
Enterprise Information Architecture: A Systems-Based
Approach for Unlocking Business Insight, in addition to
numerous IBM Research articles and IBM developerWorks
articles. As an inventor, he contributed to over 70 patent
applications for IBM, achieving the IBM Master Inventor title.
Martin is also a The Open Group Master Distinguished
Architect, and holds a Master’s degree in Mathematics from the
University of Constance, Germany.
Manfred Oevers is a Development Manager with the IBM ECM
division of IBM Software Group, in IBM Germany. Manfred has
14 years of experience in the IT industry. He has worked as a
high-performance computing specialist, emerging technology
services, life science development, WebSphere software
development, ECM Lab services, and release manager. He
holds a degree in Physics from the University of Bielefeld, and
a Ph.D. in Theoretical Particle Physics from the same
university.
Paul Pacholski After an 18-year career as a Senior Developer
in the IBM Development Lab in Toronto, Paul joined the
Worldwide WebSphere Technical Sales Team in 1999. As a
WebSphere Smarter Process Technical Sales Lead, Paul is
responsible for the technical enablement of the IBM Smarter
Process Technical Sales organization worldwide. Paul’s
responsibilities also include customer engagements,
consulting, presenting at technical conferences, and publishing
technical papers. In his most recent role as a Lead Architect,
Paul is leading a team that develops SAP capabilities in IBM
Smarter Process.
Preface
xvii
Andrew Stalnecker is a Technical Sales Consultant with the
IBM Sales & Distribution division in North America. For the past
14 years, he has helped clients identify requirements, design,
and architect solutions based on the IBM ECM portfolio. He is
known as the “go-to” person for SAP ECM integration.
Jörg Stolzenberg is the Product Manager for IBM Content
Collector and for ECM SAP integrations. After spending 12
years in the ECM industry, mostly in technical positions, Jörg
joined IBM FileNetВ® in 2003 as a Technical Alliance Manager
for SAP, based in Walldorf, Germany. From 2005 on, he was
also in charge of the Product Management of FileNet's SAP
connectors. Since the acquisition of FileNet by IBM, Jörg is the
Product Manager for IBM ECM for SAP product portfolio. From
2009 to 2012 he was also in charge of IBM Content
Classification. Since 2012, Jörg’s responsibilities also include
IBM Content Collector. Jörg holds a Doctoral degree in
Mechanical Engineering.
Pierre Valiquette is a Product Manager for IBM Business
Analytics, specializing in SAP Business Warehouse (BW) and
SAP HANA connectivity. He has held customer-facing roles
throughout his 17-year tenure at IBM, including customer
support, software engineer, and third-level support manager.
For the past seven years, Pierre has been leading the SAP BW
and SAP HANA investments from an IBM development and
product management perspective. Pierre continues to work
directly with customers, partnering with them to ensure that
IBM delivers the wanted functionality moving forward.
The project that produced this publication was managed by Marcela Adan, IBM Redbooks
Project Leader with ITSO, Global Content Services.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Stefan Liesche
Sascha Schefenacker
IBM Collaboration Solutions Development, IBM SWG
Jon Deng
Albert Maier
Dylan Murphy
Dan Wolfson
Information Management, IBM SWG
Scott Schumacher
IBM InfoSphereВ®, IBM SWG
Martha Miller
Business Analytics, IBM SWG
xviii
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Dave Tropeano
IBM SWG, Rational
Jane Hendricks
IBM Business Analytics and Predictive Analytics, IBM SWG
Aleksandr Nartovich
Worldwide sales, IBM SWG
Holger Martin
Dorothee Stork
IBM Enterprise Content Manager Technical Sales, IBM Germany
Carsten Steck
SAP Archiving Solutions, IBM Global Business Services
Gang Chen
Sean Sundberg
IBM Software Services for WebSphere
Ingo Dressler
IBM Systems & Technology Group
David Moore
IBM Security Systems, IBM SWG
Michael Campbell
Robert Kennedy
IBM Security Sales Enablement, IBM SWG
Greg Truty
IBM MobileFirst Platform, IBM SWG
Julianne Bielski
Mathew Davis
IBM SWG, Cloud & Smarter Infrastructure, IBM US
Volker Kohlstetter
Uta Beyer
xft GmbH, Walldorf, Germany
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Learn more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online:
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Preface
xix
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xx
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
1
Chapter 1.
Why IBM software matters in
SAP solutions
SAP is a well-established leader in the packaged applications market. The term packaged
application typically refers to upscale enterprise software suites, such as enterprise resource
planning (ERP) or customer relationship management (CRM).
SAP software provides a rich set of composable application modules and configurable
functional capabilities that are expected from a comprehensive enterprise application
software suite. However, in most cases, organizations that adopt SAP software still remain
heterogeneous enterprises. In heterogeneous enterprises, most SAP implementations must
be integrated with a variety of non-SAP enterprise systems, portals, messaging infrastructure,
security, systems of record, systems of engagement, and more.
The purpose of this chapter is to explain the value of using IBM software in SAP solutions. It
reviews a set of critical success factors in large-scale SAP-centric enterprise transformation
projects, and explains how IBM software increases the value of SAP-centric business
transformation programs.
This chapter includes the following topics:
1.1, “Overview” on page 2
1.2, “Critical success factors for an SAP-centric transformation” on page 2
1.3, “Combined value of IBM and SAP software” on page 6
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Overview
SAP is a market leader in enterprise business application software. SAP software, although
ready-made, rarely comes ready to run. SAP adoption typically becomes an enterprise
business transformation program. The SAP adoption typically takes six months to 10 years
and the average life span is five to 15 years.
Organizations that adopt SAP software keep using both SAP and non-SAP systems to
support their business processes. Even in a large-scale SAP adoption, a significant part of
the business might continue to use non-SAP enterprise applications for various reasons.
For example, the scope of SAP adoption might be targeted only at a specific subset of
business processes in the enterprise, while other parts of the business continue to function
with minimal changes. In other cases, enterprise transformation is based on adopting both
SAP and non-SAP packaged application solutions. For example, highly specialized,
industry-specific packaged application solutions are adopted to gain a competitive edge.
Regardless of the specific scenario, in heterogeneous enterprises most SAP implementations
must be integrated with a variety of non-SAP enterprise systems, portals, messaging
infrastructure, security, systems of record, systems of engagement, and more.
The tooling included with SAP software addresses many of the requirements for creating
SAP-specific environments. However, the classic approach to implementing even
homogeneous SAP functionality generally leaves the business with a rigid solution that is
difficult and expensive to change and enhance.
When SAP is used in a large, heterogeneous enterprise environment, SAP clients face a
dilemma of selecting the correct set of tools and platforms to implement SAP functionality,
and to integrate SAP with non-SAP systems.
The following questions are the most important to answer:
What level of control of my data and processes do I want to maintain during
implementation of SAP systems, and post-implementation?
Will my enterprise approaches to mobile, business processes, integration, portals,
security, management, monitoring, data, and business analytics work with SAP systems?
Organizations can enhance and extend pre-built capabilities in SAP software with
best-in-class IBM enterprise software, to maximize return on investment (ROI) in their SAP
investment, and to achieve a balanced enterprise architecture approach.
1.2 Critical success factors for an SAP-centric transformation
Large organizations around the world are pursuing enterprise transformations to streamline
their business and IT landscapes by using prepackaged enterprise application suites, such as
those provided by SAP. These transformations often replace a significant portion of the
existing IT landscape, and it would not be possible to accomplish them without a prepackaged
solution.
Packaged solutions often offer proven business functionality and processes. In addition, by
replacing a difficult-to-manage IT landscape resulting from many decades of in-house
systems development, acquisitions, and autonomous decisions, organizations are able to
consolidate and simplify their processes and skills across the organization for better
cost-efficiency.
2
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
The promise of replacing a complex IT environment with an enterprise-in-the-box solution
that provides a pre-integrated set of configurable application modules, is appealing to
business and IT leaders. However, as with anything that has the potential to provide great
benefit, there are also several significant pitfalls that accompany large transformations based
on packaged application solutions.
The following list includes some examples of such pitfalls:
At some point after the initial implementation, the packaged applications need to be
upgraded, either for new functionality or for continuity of support. If the packaged
application has been heavily modified to meet the specific functional requirements of the
organization, upgrade costs can be more than the initial implementation, making it a
challenge to ever achieve a return on the investment.
No packaged application provides a robust solution for every aspect of the business, and
for every industry. As with all comprehensive solutions, there are many gaps in
functionality, and many levels of maturity. One application module might rank a
10-out-of-10, but another module might only rank a 4-out-of-10.
Even after a large packaged application transformation, most organizations continue to
remain heterogeneous in nature. In addition, no business wants all of their processes to
be based on a generic packaged process flow. Organizations must differentiate
themselves to be competitive. Organizations need an additional platform to house their
differentiating business processes and customizations, outside of the packaged solution,
to avoid over-customization.
These projects are often so large that they can eclipse all other discretionary spending
within IT. When projects become that large, it is extremely difficult to balance architectural
decisions that are in the long-term best interest of the enterprise with architectural
decisions that specifically benefit only the transformation project.
Often, an organization’s data that is captured and stored by the packaged application is
then subject to the licensing terms of that solution. If an organization is not careful in how
it negotiates license terms, it can consequently lose control of its processes and data for
future use and innovation.
Successful IT transformation investments in SAP systems establish an effective mechanism
to ensure governance and balance throughout the lifecycle of the transformation, and beyond.
This includes balance between short-term benefits and long-term benefits, and balance
between what will benefit the project at the expense of the enterprise and what will benefit the
enterprise at the expense of the project.
A more practical approach to SAP-centric enterprise transformations includes the following
elements:
Deploying a system of engagement to complement SAP transactional functionality as the
system of record
Balancing SAP with an application-independent, industry-leading integration platform
Establishing governance for architecture decisions
Avoiding custom coding
Chapter 1. Why IBM software matters in SAP solutions
3
1.2.1 Deploying a system of engagement for SAP
Systems of engagement are systems built to connect users, mobile, the cloud, the web,
partners, social media, and the Internet of Things (IoT), which includes billions of devices, to
the systems of record that contain business data, business logic, business processes, and
transactions.
Because SAP applications provide user interfaces (UIs) and some concept of process, most
SAP implementations use the SAP transactional backbone (the SAP system of record) as
their default system of engagement for the vast majority of their business processes.
This suboptimal approach marries the business processes of an organization and the
associated business policies to a less-than-user-friendly platform that is bound by the
constraints of information technology (IT) application lifecycle management (ALM). In most
enterprises, this lifecycle typically spans three to six months, and in some cases a year or
more. However, a wide range of business changes should optimally be implemented in a
matter of days or weeks, not months.
Opportunities for continuous process improvement and business performance optimization
are limited through the use of a system of engagement that is intrinsically bound by the IT
application lifecycle.
Businesses today are increasingly demanding system of engagement agility, usability, and
differentiation, not only in their external-facing applications, but in their core execution
systems as well. Externalizing at least some degree of SAP process control accelerates
business-led change, enabled by a flexible process layer in the system of engagement. It can
deliver dramatically enhanced flexibility, agility, and control over the traditional SAP
implementation approach.
IBM Smarter Process helps to optimize both homogeneous and heterogeneous SAP
processes by providing a best-in-class process orchestration layer external to SAP. These
capabilities can be added to SAP at any time, both during the implementation and
post-implementation.
1.2.2 Balancing SAP with an application-independent, industry-leading
integration platform solution
Successful SAP-centric enterprise transformations adopt SAP systems as a set of business
services that are integrated into the heterogeneous enterprise on service-oriented
architecture (SOA) principles using best-in-class enterprise integration middleware. IBM calls
this perspective a system of record (SOR), differentiated from the systems of engagement
(SOE) that uses business services in the SOR.
Good selection of enterprise integration software is one of the most critical success factors for
SAP adoption in a heterogeneous enterprise. The integration software must be able to
support a diverse set of application environments, channels, and industry trends, not just SAP
systems. The selection of the foundational software infrastructure must be based on
middleware requirements for enterprise-class scalability, reliability, security, manageability,
open standards, and application-independence.
SAP has been extending its offerings beyond the traditional scope of packaged enterprise
application software into the area of integration middleware, including integration, business
process management, mobile, portal, development lifecycle, business intelligence, database,
and so on. These middleware offerings are typically well-integrated within the SAP business
application suite, but are often not adequate for integrating SAP and non-SAP systems.
4
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Organizations adopting SAP software should not assume that all of the middleware products
that SAP offers are equally proven in the industry and are equally robust. Instead, a
governance process for architecture decisions should be used to evaluate and choose
enterprise-class software infrastructure to support all of the application environments.
For example, one of the misconceptions that can have significant negative effect on an
enterprise’s balanced middleware strategy in SAP-centric enterprise transformations is the
belief that integrating external packages and components will “break” the SAP solution. This
leads to the conclusion that the only viable option to integrate SAP software with an
enterprise is to use SAP-provided integration middleware.
However, SAP has remained one of the most integration-enabled platforms for the last 20
years. It integrates well with robust third-party integration middleware software, such as the
software provided by IBM.
Failure to establish a solid enterprise middleware strategy, and limiting the thought process to
getting SAP into production, leaves optimization and enterprise alignment of the foundational
software infrastructure out of scope. It also greatly reduces the chances of achieving
long-term ROI from the SAP solution.
IBM proposes the following guidelines for implementation:
First, use SAP as a set of business services in conjunction with process management
technology, but with minimum customization.
Next, adopt enterprise-grade integration architectures and technologies.
1.2.3 Establishing governance for architectural decisions
SAP adoption is a complex endeavor that involves multiple stakeholders, partners, vendors,
technology alternatives, and so on. When a massive investment is directed toward a single
vendor, such as SAP, organizations must establish an effective mechanism to make key
architectural decisions in the best interest of their enterprise, and not just follow vendor bias.
Lack of visibility, and lack of well-documented architectural decisions with an enterprise
perspective in mind, together represent a risk of filling the vacuum with project-level technical
decisions that are often tactical in nature, and tend to represent an unbalanced opinion.
Establishing a governance mechanism for making balanced integration and process
management technology decisions in the organization’s own best-interest is important. It
should prevent architectural decisions regarding application infrastructure from being driven
by a vendor to push application-specific integration infrastructure into the enterprise domain.
Good governance processes must ensure that carefully selected enterprise-class integration
technology is used to integrate SAP with non-SAP systems.
Enterprise governance for architectural decisions must be established early in the SAP
transformation program, and continuously used for probing and reviewing delivery teams to
ensure correct technology usage.
1.2.4 Avoiding custom coding
The long-term ROI on SAP implementations is directly linked to the level of SAP
customization. The premise of SAP application investments is buy not build. Organizations
with significantly customized SAP deployments incur a much larger upgrade cost when
compared to a more standard SAP installation.
Chapter 1. Why IBM software matters in SAP solutions
5
Excessive levels of SAP customizations make the efforts required for version upgrades
expensive, at times comparable with the effort of the initial SAP implementation. SAP
customization that exceeds a certain level of ready-for-immediate-use business functionality
might result in an unsustainable increase in future upgrade costs.
Excessive customization is characterized as building a middleware within a middleware.
Excessive customization is the single biggest reason for not realizing long-term ROI on SAP
investments, losing control over cost of ownership of the SAP solution, and not being
upgradable in the future.
SAP implementation project leaders are often only measured on getting SAP into production
on time and within budget. Usually, they are not measured on the ability to upgrade the
resulting SAP implementation at a later date, which might not occur for five to seven years,
and can be of a higher cost than the original implementation if the SAP solution was
over-customized.
IBM Smarter Process technology provides application-independent technology to extend
packaged applications without “breaking” the applications. IBM Smarter Process enables a
balanced SAP adoption strategy: To consolidate and optimize non-differentiating,
commodity-type business processes in SAP, while using a business process management
(BPM) strategy to assemble and optimize differentiating business processes.
IBM Smarter Process technology also includes a robust business rules management system
(BRMS) to produce new business logic that is not present in SAP systems, and not generally
expressed as a business process. Complementing SAP solutions with BRMS enables
organizations to reduce over-configuration and customization of the SAP environment, and to
extend SAP and non-SAP functionality.
1.3 Combined value of IBM and SAP software
SAP is a market leader in packaged applications. IBM is a market leader in enterprise
software. IBM is also a market leader in the delivery of SAP projects.
IBM enterprise software extends SAP value in multiple ways. The following sections explain
the value of using IBM software in SAP solutions. They also explain how IBM software
increases the value of an SAP-centric business transformation programs.
1.3.1 Reduced business and IT risk
IBM offers a powerful set of products that provides a wide set of enterprise functionality, and
that is widely recognized as a best-in-class enterprise middleware platform. IBM middleware
products provide mature, highly scalable integration technologies that have been proven
globally across industries, customers, and geographies. IBM middleware has an extensive set
of pre-built integration capabilities for SAP that have been extensively and successfully used
in a large number of successful SAP projects.
The differentiating value of SAP enterprise middleware is pre-built, ready-for-use integration
within SAP: SAP functional modules and bolt-ons, pre-built content for a portal, and mobile
applications.
6
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Successful SAP adopters reduce business and IT risk by combining two aspects of your
enterprise infrastructure:
The value of pre-built SAP integration within the SAP domain based on SAP middleware
(integration you buy), also known as inner ring
Best-in-class IBM enterprise middleware for custom integration in the enterprise that
needs to be developed for an SAP-centric transformation program (integration you build),
also known as outer ring
IBM uses the concepts of inner and outer ring to mean what happens inside SAP stays inside
SAP, but what happens in the enterprise goes through IBM software.
1.3.2 Accelerated SAP integration into a heterogeneous enterprise
IBM software provides a powerful set of pre-built, enterprise-level capabilities that are
pre-integrated with SAP systems, but are also integrated with non-SAP systems in the
enterprise landscape. These include systems built on open standards, cloud-based offerings,
non-SAP packaged applications, internally developed existing systems, and so on.
These capabilities enable IBM software to become a solid foundation for an open and
heterogeneous enterprise architecture where SAP plays an important or, sometimes, the
primary role. The solid foundation helps organizations to meet enterprise-level goals and
imperatives, such as reuse of existing enterprise assets, use of standard SAP applications
with minimum customization, loose coupling of SAP and non-SAP applications, use of open
standards, and reuse of existing IBM infrastructure.
Examples of this extensive set of IBM software capabilities include areas such as mobile
technologies, smarter process, decision management, enterprise content management
(ECM), business analytics (BA), portal, master data management (MDM), ALM, security,
systems management, and more.
Paring these IBM software capabilities with SAP solutions in large-scale enterprise
transformations enables customers to accelerate SAP integration into the heterogeneous
enterprise environments, and build an enterprise approach that is not restricted to SAP alone.
1.3.3 Business agility
SAP is rarely implemented with business agility in mind. Often the opposite takes place: SAP
is used to harmonize, standardize, control, simplify, enforce conformance, and reduce costs.
Business transformation based on packaged application software such as SAP is usually a
huge project, disruptive to the enterprise, and does not differentiate from competitors running
the same packages.
Business agility enables customers to implement frequent changes in business processes or
business rules without changing the SAP solution. It also enables customers to implement
business processes underpinned by SAP data, but which are only partially met by the SAP
solution, or are not realizable in the SAP system without extensive customization coding.
Combining IBM Smarter Process, IBM MobileFirst, business analytics, and cloud (just as
examples) with SAP solutions enables organizations to maintain business agility in
SAP-centric transformations, and to maintain application innovations without “breaking” SAP.
Chapter 1. Why IBM software matters in SAP solutions
7
1.3.4 Cost reduction
IBM software reduces the cost of SAP-centric enterprise transformation by using the correct
best-in-class tools depending on the type of optimization needed.
For example, running a robust IBM application integration middleware platform with
market-leading performance characteristics, can lead to substantial cost savings. These
savings are realized from requiring less processor and random access memory (RAM)
resources to handle enterprise-scale workloads when compared to less optimized
middleware, which might require more hardware resources.
8
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
2
Chapter 2.
IBM Reference Architecture for
SAP
Many organizations are both IBM customers and SAP customers in the global information
technology (IT) industry. Because of this vendor overlap, organizations are repeatedly
architecting IBM and SAP software products to work together in the best possible manner.
The purpose of this book is to capture many of the architectural leading practices when
balancing a large SAP investment with IBM enterprise software technology. The book is
meant to serve as a starting reference point that organizations can use to take advantage of
IBM global presence, experience, and gathering of leading practices.
This chapter provides an overview of the IBM reference architecture for SAP, and describes
high-level architecture patterns. The subsequent chapters in this book provide more details
for several key technology domains that encompass the scope of this reference architecture.
This chapter includes the following topics:
2.1, “Overview” on page 10
2.2, “Architecture goals” on page 10
2.3, “IBM Reference Architecture for SAP overview” on page 12
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
9
2.1 Overview
A reference architecture is an asset that includes a collaborative set of architectural
guidelines for use by all of the teams in an organization. Reference architectures provide a
set of predefined architectures, also known as patterns, designed and proven for use in
particular business and technical contexts. Reference architectures also include supporting
artifacts to enable their use.
Having a documented reference architecture in place helps to drive alignment for the projects
implemented across the enterprise. Without a reference architecture, each project team might
decide to use the tools available to them in completely different ways, or they might implement
their project using different methodologies or tools.
The purpose of IBM reference architecture for SAP (also referred to as the reference
architecture in this book) is to inform and guide technical professionals, architects, and
decision makers who are responsible for designing solutions that include IBM software that
must coexist with SAP systems.
The scope of the reference architecture is the prescriptive use of IBM software in SAP
implementation projects. The reference architecture is generic in that it does not depend on
the specific type of SAP implementation. The reference architecture is focused on defining
the use of IBM software with SAP solutions, and is not intended to address the internal
aspects of the SAP components.
IBM Reference Architecture for SAP is based on the experience gained in IBM internal and
client projects, with a focus on existing system modernization, large-scale SAP
implementations, IBM internal transformation projects, and IBM strategies for IBM
MobileFirst, API Economy, systems of engagement (SOE), business analytics (BA), IBM
Smarter Process, big data, and cloud.
This reference architecture, although it is a prescriptive blueprint, can be implemented with
multiple points of variability based on architectural decisions, timelines, budgets, skills, and
other criteria. These points of variability do not change the prescriptive nature of the reference
architecture. It is designed to maximize the value realized from IBM software products used in
large-scale enterprise transformation programs based on an SAP solution. In particular, IBM
software and SAP projects where an organization has a heterogeneous IT environment.
2.2 Architecture goals
The overall goal of the IBM reference architecture for SAP is to establish a prescriptive
blueprint that can be used as a template when designing solutions that include IBM software
and SAP systems. Following the guidelines provided by this reference architecture helps
organizations to achieve critical success factors for SAP adoption in a heterogeneous
enterprise.
2.2.1 Use standard, non-customized SAP applications
One of the primary business drivers for adopting a packaged enterprise resource planning
(ERP) solution, such as SAP, is the business value achieved from using pre-built,
ready-for-immediate-use components. SAP enables the application components to be
tailored to fit a particular environment through configuration and customization.
10
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Configuration changes can be made with minimal effort and in a version-safe manner.
Custom development, however, can require more effort, and begins to take away from the
value provided from a packaged application. Even modest customizations can lead to a chain
of dependencies that inhibit taking advantage of new features and functions in SAP software,
or upgrading SAP software cost-effectively in the future.
2.2.2 Reuse pre-built SAP integration
The overall architecture goal is driven by a need to use packaged application functionality
(SAP) and packaged SAP integration (integration you buy) within the SAP domain while
providing integration into the existing enterprise landscape outside of the SAP domain.
Even organizations with significant alignment with SAP rarely use SAP for more than 60% of
their total business automation needs, according to IBM practitioners with extensive
experience in SAP projects. This fact makes the enterprise integration of large-scale SAP
implementations a key success factor of the overall SAP transformation program.
The goal of the reference architecture is to provide a blueprint for using market-leading IBM
technology for large-scale SAP integration into the enterprise.
2.2.3 Use best-in-class technologies when extending beyond the SAP domain
It is often best to use SAP packaged applications and application infrastructure where SAP
has a proven solution and it fits the needs of the business without significant customization.
However, in cases where data or processes need to extend outside of SAP, it is usually best
to use industry-leading, application-independent software technology.
The IBM software portfolio is unique in the industry when it comes to providing a
comprehensive selection of middleware platform technology to complement SAP systems in
heterogeneous environments. IBM software provides organizations with consistency,
scalability, reliability, flexibility, and asset reuse for the application software infrastructure
needs across all application domains throughout the enterprise.
2.2.4 Use open, well-established standards
Standards-based implementation of integration logic greatly reduces the chance of vendor
lock-in. It also increases the availability of tools that easily connect to the solution, and that
provide support for development, monitoring, and testing.
Various well-established standards exist across industries at the domain, message, and
protocols layers. Proprietary middleware platforms should be avoided to retain flexibility and
ownership of any custom-built logic or functionality.
2.2.5 Use pre-built software capabilities provided by IBM
The IBM Reference Architecture for SAP also provides a blueprint for using enterprise
capabilities of IBM software that complement the SAP platform to provide a complete
enterprise transformation solution.
In many cases, IBM software provides enterprise capabilities that are more robust than the
corresponding capabilities in SAP software, for example, business process management
(BPM), IBM MobileFirst, enterprise integration, IBM DevOps solution, IBM Enterprise Content
Management portfolio (IBM ECM), and so on.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
11
In other cases, IBM software enables organizations to enhance and extend existing SAP
capabilities into a heterogeneous enterprise environment, for example business analytics and
cognitive computing.
In yet other cases, IBM software capabilities do not exist in SAP systems. Introducing IBM
software in the solution enables organizations to differentiate the SAP solution from similar
SAP implementations in other organizations. An example of such a unique IBM software
capability is adding business agility to the SAP solution with IBM Smarter Process.
For each such capability of IBM software, the reference architecture provides a separate
architecture component that describes how the IBM software capability should be integrated
with the SAP system to provide a complete enterprise transformation solution. A key point is
that IBM software excels when adding SAP systems to a heterogeneous enterprise as
another service provider. IBM Smarter Process for SAP adds value equally to both
homogeneous and heterogeneous SAP processes.
2.3 IBM Reference Architecture for SAP overview
IBM Reference Architecture for SAP is defined through various levels of abstraction, or views,
thereby providing more flexibility in how it can be used.
2.3.1 Systems of engagement, interaction, and record
From an architecture perspective, the IBM strategy revolves around three types of systems, as
shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1 Systems of engagement, interaction, and record: Logical view
Systems of engagement (SOE) are systems built to connect to users, mobile apps, the cloud,
the web, partners, social media, and the Internet of Things (IoT), which has billions of
devices. SOE will continue to become more diverse, and drive new business value to agile
enterprises.
An example of new business value is application programming interface (API) management,
where organizations publish APIs, such as Uniform Resource Locator (URLs), that are
consumed by application developers building apps. These apps use the APIs in
non-traditional usage patterns, billing models, and application types.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
SAP, existing, database, and other third-party systems constitute transaction-oriented systems
of record. They are traditionally designed around discrete pieces of information or records.
The benefit of systems of record is that they provide business data, business logic, business
processes, and transactions to support day-to-day business operations.
Systems of interaction provide connectivity between SOEs and systems of record.
Figure 2-2 shows the architectural view of systems of engagement, interaction, and record.
Systems of Engagement
M2M Mobile
Messaging
Integration
Gateway
API management
Systems of Record
Integration
Bus
Enterprise
Messaging
SOA Gov
Figure 2-2 Systems of engagement, interaction and record: Architecture view
The architecture view shows the need for the heterogeneous enterprise to focus on systems
of engagement beyond a single technology approach tied to a system of record.
Integration gateways are a critical part of the architecture. They provide users registration,
security, message validation, API management, and routing. Additionally, an integration bus
bridges the integration gateway and the systems of record.
It is important to note that governance, reviews, and management need to be considered
across the project and technology lifecycles. This is another reason to carefully separate
adopting SAP as another system of record from an enterprise solution to support systems of
engagement.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
13
2.3.2 Services view
This section provides a services view of IBM Reference Architecture for SAP, and describes
key components in the SAP-centric heterogeneous enterprise architecture.
Figure 2-3 shows services of the reference architecture. Note that the logical view shown in
the figure represents a superset of the functional components that might be involved in any
given instantiation of this reference architecture in a given project.
Business Architecture
Business
Plan &
Objectives
Functional
Business
Model
Organizational
Business
Model
Enterprise
Processes
Framework
Business
Metrics and
KPIs
Business
Monitoring
SOA
ECC
SCM
PLM
Information Architecture
SAP Partner
Applications
IBM Industry
Solutions
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
B2B Partner
Applications
Core Application Template
Abstraction
Business
CRM Suite SRM
Business
Analytics
Master Data
Management
Enterprise Content
Management
Trusted Data Sources
Enterprise Information Model
Software as a Service
Abstraction
Software Infrastructure
Enterprise Integration
Services
Business Process Management
Data Integration
External Portal
Operational Decision
Management
B2B Gateway
Internal Portal
Mobile Access
Cloud Gateway
Enterprise Systems Monitoring & Management
Alignment & Governance
Abstraction
Application Architecture
Enterprise Security Management
Figure 2-3 IBM Reference Architecture for SAP: Services view
Business architecture
Business architecture is the primary link between business and IT. Business architecture
defines artifacts, standards, and principles that are used as a trusted source by executives,
architects, and developers to align enterprise initiatives and solution content with business
strategy.
This reference architecture does not completely define the business architecture. However, it
outlines a core set of business architecture services that are normally expected to be already
established in an enterprise that embarks on a large-scale SAP-centric transformation.
Most organizations have well-defined organizational and functional models. However, more
complex organizations are adopting more matrix business architecture models, and
establishing an enterprise process framework (EPF) that defines a trusted and clear
taxonomy and ownership for the overall management of the enterprise business.
The scope of the enterprise transformation program is often defined within the EPF, and
provides a foundation for governance in a complex transformation program. The governance
model provides clear direction, focus, and executive commitment. Because the program is
enterprise-wide and can be global in scope, the program structure based on an EPF enables
better engagement of senior executives and regional leadership.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Information architecture
The information architecture provides guidance, templates and reusable artifacts, and
information services from which to build information deliverables for a specific enterprise
solution.
The information architecture is composed of an enterprise information model, trusted data
sources, and enterprise information services, including master data management (MDM),
Enterprise Content Management (ECM), and business analytics (BA). It defines the business
objects, processes, and data, and establishes their inter-relationships at different abstraction
levels.
The enterprise information model is an enterprise-wide, platform-independent, and
conceptual data model for the data terminology of the business. This model defines a
consistent terminology, and depicts, using entity relationship diagrams (ERDs), the business
rules that govern the relationships between the business terms in the business process
areas. The enterprise information model should be used as a base for creating conceptual
data models for specific solutions.
An SAP data model does not supersede an established enterprise information model.
Trusted data sources define the optimal source of data for specific subject areas and business
areas of data. The identified strategic sources should be the first choice for initiative or
solution data repository use. There are typically five types of trusted data sources:
Master data stores
Transactional data stores
Operational data stores
Data warehouse
Data marts
Applications architecture
The heterogeneous enterprise includes SAP and different types of non-SAP applications. The
following list includes different dimensions of non-SAP applications. These dimensions are
complementary, and are described here because they drive different SAP integration
considerations:
SAP application modules. Packaged applications provided by SAP.
SAP partner applications. Non-SAP vendor applications, certified and recommended by
SAP, which fill functional gaps or implement functions in the SAP portfolio.
IBM Industry Solutions. Application solutions provided by IBM that are complementary to
SAP, for example, IBM Commerce.
Non-SAP enterprise applications. Enterprise portfolio of applications that are not included
in the scope of the SAP transformation program (they are not replaced by SAP software).
This category of application might require refactoring, because part of their original
functionality might have to be moved to SAP systems. Such refactoring is different from
mere SAP integration at the technical interface level, because functional changes inside
non-SAP applications can require a significant effort.
Software as a service (SaaS). Represents cloud-based business services.
Business-to-business (B2B) partner applications. External applications connected by B2B
gateway.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
15
Services scope in SAP adoption project
During an instantiation of this reference architecture, the services in scope are categorized
based on the expected effect on the SAP adoption project. This categorization enables
distinguishing the components under direct control of an SAP adoption project from those
under enterprise architecture control.
This categorization has important implications for the overall success of the SAP-centric
enterprise transformation. It includes all of the components of the solution. Therefore, it
enables your organization to provide the proper attention and planning to transform critical
non-SAP components in the heterogeneous enterprise that are essential to support a new
SAP solution.
The services are categorized in the following way:
The first category includes services that are directly implemented by an SAP adoption
project. For example, enterprise integration services and the corresponding SAP
integration patterns normally are developed within the scope of an SAP adoption project,
even though these are non-SAP components. IBM Smarter Process for SAP adoption
ideally starts at or before the SAP business blueprinting, and continues throughout the
SAP implementation project.
The second category of components already exists in the enterprise before an SAP
adoption project, and are not affected by the SAP adoption. The SAP implementation will
be integrated with such components, but it will not change them. For example, enterprise
single sign-on (SSO) or enterprise directory, which are part of enterprise security
infrastructure, are not normally in the scope of the SAP adoption project.
The third category of components is an intermediate category which is not directly in the
scope of the SAP adoption project, but might require a significant transformation as a
result of the effect that the SAP adoption has on the enterprise IT landscape.
For example, MDM might require enhancement or even partial redesign to incorporate
SAP data into the enterprise MDM solution. In some cases, an MDM refactoring project
might need to precede large-scale SAP adoption, or run in parallel, but in either case it
must receive adequate focus in the enterprise.
2.3.3 Application integration: Inner ring and outer ring architecture
This perspective of the reference architecture is focused on a federated approach to
integration implementation. It includes the same application, information, and software
Infrastructure services as in the logical view of the reference architecture.
IBM Reference Architecture for SAP is based on two federated technology domains (also
known as rings), as shown in Figure 2-4 on page 17.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Integration:
SAP Delivered
Enterprise Systems
Monitoring, Management
and Security
Solution Lifecycle
Management
IBM
Outer Ring
Inner Ring
Customer Facing UI
CRM
SAP Partner
SAP Partner
Applications
Applications
Portal Server
SCM
SRM
Intranet UI
Portal Server
PLM
Mobile Devices
DB2
NetWeaver
Mobile Devices
IBM
Commerce
Business
Suite
ECC
Commerce
Mobile
Access
IBM Delivered
Custom Built with IBM tools
Enterprise
Content
Management
Non-SAP
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Enterprise
Applications
Applications
Business
Analytics
Master Data
Management
Enterprise Integration Services
Cloud
Gateway
Business
Process
Management
B2B
Gateway
Operational
Decision
Management
B2B Partner
SaaS
B2B Partner
Applications
Applications
Figure 2-4 Inner ring/outer ring architecture
Inner ring
The inner ring is the SAP technology domain and includes applications, technology, and
integration purchased from SAP and SAP business partners. This reference architecture
assumes that it is not practical to force SAP consultants to use non-SAP technology for
packaged content or customization within the SAP inner ring, even if it is technically feasible.
Therefore, the reference architecture is designed to encourage the use of SAP middleware
tools and technology within the inner ring, but use robust application-independent technology
whenever data or processes move into the outer ring. In this way, SAP customers can achieve
optimal efficiency, maximum flexibility, high reliability, and the least amount of risk during
large-scale transformation projects.
Outer ring
The outer ring represents the entire technology domain outside the cluster of SAP
applications. The outer ring includes existing applications, packaged applications from
software vendors other than SAP, non-SAP applications hosted in the cloud, and all other
shared software infrastructure platform technology.
Previously implemented installations of SAP, or acquisitions that might still exist within the
enterprise, are a gray area. Normally, these older versions of SAP, such as SAP R/3
instances, are classified as existing systems, and categorized into the outer ring domain.
The key to the outer ring is the reuse of common, enterprise-class, application-independent,
software infrastructure across the heterogeneous IT landscape. IBM provides the best
channel to building this layer of consistency, resiliency, and flexibility of software
infrastructure, rather than acquiring the various software components from different vendors
and dealing with incompatibility issues.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
17
The following list includes other key characteristics of outer ring software infrastructure
components:
Functionally rich. The software infrastructure component must be shared across all of the
application environments for current and future products. For this reason, it must support a
wide array of features and functions so that it can handle at least 90% of all enterprise
requirements for the particular technology domain that it fulfills.
Compatible with SAP applications and infrastructure. This reference architecture assumes
that the organizations adopting it will be making a substantial investment in SAP
applications. For this reason, the software infrastructure component should be designed to
interoperate with SAP applications and software infrastructure within the inner ring
domain.
Reliable. The software infrastructure components must be highly reliable. For example,
they should be able to run in a redundant, active-active configuration for months at a time
without suffering crashes, needing to restart, or experiencing other types of outages.
High-performance. It must make cost-efficient use of the hardware it is deployed onto. For
example, if a platform requires 5x more hardware to perform similar tasks as on alternative
technology, it should not be considered as an option for an outer ring software
infrastructure component.
Manageable. It should have dashboard-style management capabilities, so that multiple
instances of the technology can be centrally managed from any location. In addition, it
should support third-party system management consoles.
Flexible. It should maximize the use of open standards where possible to enable
cross-component interoperability and vendor independence. For example,
process-oriented technology should support Business Process Modeling Notation
(BPMN), service interfaces should support Web Services Description Language (WSDL),
identity management should support Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and
so on.
Industry-leading. The software infrastructure components in the outer ring should be
ranked by mainstream industry analysts within the top providers of applicationindependent technology for its class. Rather than spending months doing a thorough
analysis of feature and function comparisons, validating that the software components
under evaluation are among the top industry leaders is a good sign that the technology
has enterprise-class characteristics.
Longevity. The vendor of the software infrastructure component should have a
long-standing history in the market as a leader in the particular domain of software
infrastructure, such as enterprise integration, BPM, portal, mobile, MDM, ECM, and so on.
Switching enterprise platform strategies is too expensive and disruptive to trust these
decisions to small, up-and-coming vendors.
If an organization enables each project to make their own vendor and product decisions
regarding the software infrastructure technology, pretty soon there will be hundreds of vendor
products and methodologies in place across the enterprise. Over time, this approach results
in extreme cost inefficiency and inflexibility. The inner ring/outer ring architecture ensures
consistency and reuse across all future projects in the enterprise, SAP and non-SAP. The
architecture balances simplicity with flexibility and control.
Each particular technology domain of the inner ring/outer ring architecture is addressed as a
separate reference architecture in each chapter of this book.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
2.3.4 Enterprise integration services
The scope of integration in this reference architecture includes the following domains:
Initial data load into SAP systems
Ongoing application and data integration of SAP and non-SAP systems
Initial data load into SAP systems
SAP implementations often require migrating large volumes and varieties of data from a
range of systems that span multiple business functions. Poor-quality data often hinders these
SAP initiatives, causing project delays, cost overruns, and ultimately poor adoption of SAP
systems across the organization.
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications provides a
complete, scalable, repeatable, and reusable SAP-specific data migration solution. Built on
IBM InfoSphere Information Server technology, it consists of a comprehensive, documented
data migration methodology that is specific to SAP migrations and consolidations, plus a set
of data migration accelerators.
The following list describes some of the benefits of IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready
to Launch for SAP Applications:
Provides a complete data migration solution for SAP applications that couples data
migration leading practices with software and services from a leading global SAP
implementer
Helps reduce the risk and time of SAP migrations and consolidations by taking data off the
critical path and establishing standardized, repeatable, and data-centric processes
Turns SAP data migration expense into a strategic investment by delivering a repeatable
and reusable infrastructure that can be used for multiple SAP rollouts
Improves SAP business process execution and customer experience by increasing
information accuracy
This solution is well-documented, and encapsulates a breadth of SAP experience with proven
methodology for data migrations and consolidations used in thousands of successful client
SAP implementations. These SAP implementations were led by IBM Services, the largest
worldwide systems integrator, business partner, and software integration partner for SAP.
Ongoing data integration with SAP
The ongoing data synchronization is the next major data integration activity in the SAP
enterprise transformation, after the one-time, initial data load. This activity involves all of the
interfaces between existing systems and the new system. It is run on a continuous basis after
the new system is live.
The ongoing interactions encompass a wide range of integration requirements and
approaches: Batch versus transactional, synchronous versus asynchronous, service-oriented
versus message-oriented, and so on.
In the SAP implementation methodology, ongoing data synchronization is captured as
interface definitions between SAP and non-SAP systems. Such interface definitions are
identified during the blueprint phase of the SAP methodology.
It does not differentiate based on the technical nature of the interactions, for example,
transactional versus batch. Alternatively, IBM software provides different technologies for
addressing the different integration requirements, and the available technologies provide
partially overlapping capabilities.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
19
To provide better alignment with the SAP implementation methodology, this reference
architecture treats both transactional and batch integration aspects of ongoing SAP
integration with non-SAP systems as a single architecture component. Enterprise integration
services provide a unified set of integration patterns, as described in Chapter 3, “Enterprise
integration services for SAP” on page 39.
The reference architecture for the enterprise integration services components is shown in
Figure 2-5.
SAP Business Suite
CRM
Enterprise
Integration
Services
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Files, batches of records
Transactions, Messages
Service
Governance
Process
Services
ESB
ETL
Reliable File
Transfer
Cloud
Applications
Partner
Applications
Logging and
Error Handling
Non-SAP
Legacy
Applications
Enterprise
Applications
Non-SAP Ecosystem
Non-SAP Inner Rings
Figure 2-5 Enterprise integration reference architecture
There are several components that make up the enterprise integration services architecture:
Enterprise service bus (ESB)
Extract, transform, and load (ETL)
Service governance
Reliable File Transfer (RFT)
Process services
Logging and error handling
These components work together to provide the capabilities required to connect SAP with
non-SAP applications within the enterprise, business partners, and cloud-based applications.
The ESB component is responsible for providing connectivity and integration logic for
transactional interfaces. The primary function of the ESB is to decouple and isolate the
application end points from one another, increasing the flexibility of the system and reducing
the overall cost of integration.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
ETL is a term used broadly to refer to the activities required to move large volumes of data
between systems in large batches. In the context of enterprise integration services, the ETL
component is responsible for providing connectivity and integration logic for batch-oriented
interfaces for ongoing integration (as opposed to initial data load or conversion activities). As
the name suggests, there are three major components to an ETL flow:
Extract the data from the source system.
Transform (and optionally cleanse) the data.
Load the resulting data into the destination system.
ETL technologies are built to efficiently process very large sets of data, with internal staging
of the data and parallel processing.
Service governance includes two major aspects:
Service lifecycle management
Service run time
In practical terms, the service governance component provides a service repository for
storing service artifacts and a customizable, ready-to-use process for managing those service
artifacts throughout the project lifecycle. In addition, service governance includes a runtime
service registry, where the defined service policies and configurations are enforced by the
service integration components, and the resulting runtime information is provided back to
report on the service use.
RFT technology provides central configuration and set up, centralized logging and
monitoring of all file transfers, and a standard solution with established quality of service
(QoS) characteristics for implementing file transfers within the enterprise.
Process services are technical integration processes that provide advanced integration logic
beyond the typical mediation that is provided by ESB components. Process services are
typically implemented on a BPM platform.
A clear delineation should be drawn between business processes that provide the logic for
business operations (including human interaction by business users) and process services
that satisfy technical integration requirements. Process services can involve human
interaction in some cases, but the users involved in those activities are typically in technical
support roles.
For more information, see Chapter 3, “Enterprise integration services for SAP” on page 39.
2.3.5 Process optimization
With the mainstream adoption of IBM Business Process Management and IBM Operational
Decision Management solutions, SAP-centric organizations now have a myriad of
approaches to deploy and optimize business processes.
Organizations can choose any of the following approaches:
Choose to deploy the rather loose concept of process imposed by the classic SAP
configure/customize/document approach.
Apply a light layer of workflow management using a tool such as SAP Business Workflow
to complement the classic SAP configure/customize approach.
Apply a comprehensive layer of BPM and ODM capabilities to provide deep business
optimization potential for SAP, non-SAP, and heterogeneous SAP processes.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
21
Migration to the SAP-packaged application platforms enables organizations to buy, configure,
and deploy pre-built functionality rather than modify, enhance, and maintain existing
applications. Adoption of the new business processes mandated by SAP fixed or configured
functionality enables an organization to withdraw from service large numbers of inflexible
existing application systems and replace them with a better alternative, albeit with trade-offs.
Due to the large single scope and complexity of most SAP implementations, however, SAP
adoption introduces a new set of operational and organizational challenges, risks, and pitfalls.
Historically, BPM and ODM have represented an entirely different approach to business
process optimization, an approach that is not disruptive and is designed to achieve business
differentiation across a relatively small number of business processes.
This approach enables organization to selectively optimize any business process, addressing
areas of concern across processes in priority sequence with small and incremental projects.
BPM and ODM are designed to deliver complete visibility to process performance across core
and fringe application systems.
With the advent of IBM Smarter Process for SAP, however, the historical positioning of BPM
and ODM as an optimization tool for only a relatively small number of mission-critical or highly
painful heterogeneous business processes has changed dramatically.
External BPM orchestration of a large number of homogeneous SAP processes is now
feasible, thanks to an innovative IBM technology that enables business process designers to
design, build, and deploy powerful external orchestrations of SAP processes without IT
development or coding.
Rapid, flexible, business-friendly integration with the SAP graphical user interface (GUI) and
technical integration engines now removes most of the historical barriers to large-scale BPM
adoption in SAP environments. This integration delivers enormous business optimization
potential, both within SAP and across the functional landscape.
The same IBM Business Process Manager technical capabilities that enable a broad-scale
process orchestration of SAP and heterogeneous processes also help to reduce the amount
of SAP customization and configuration. Avoiding customizing SAP solutions as much as
possible is one of the key success factors of SAP-centric enterprise transformations.
A significantly customized SAP deployment incurs a much bigger upgrade cost compared to a
more standard SAP installation. Excessive levels of SAP customizations can make the efforts
required for version upgrades prohibitively expensive, sometimes on par with or even
exceeding the effort for the initial SAP implementation.
Among the key reasons for customizing SAP are a business need to differentiate from
competitors who also implement SAP solutions, and to provide functionality unique to a
particular offering, market segment, or customer. IBM Business Process Manager and IBM
Operational Decision Manager can be used to run, complement, and extend packaged SAP
application processes to deliver a comprehensive business optimization platform.
At the same time, they can help realize important business requirements without
over-customizing SAP. Figure 2-6 on page 23 shows how IBM Business Process Manager
and IBM Operational Decision Manager optimize, complement, and extend SAP through a set
of prebuilt and pre-integrated functional components in the IBM Business Process Manager
and IBM Operational Decision Manager suite. These components enable a business
differentiation for SAP adopters while avoiding excessive SAP customization.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
SAP Solution
Manager
SAP Application
Server
Business
Process
Business
Transactions
SAP Integration connectors provided by IBM
Business
Blueprint
IBM Smarter Process
for SAP
Process
Blueprinting
SAP Guided
workflow
Process discovery and
monitoring
SAP process
extensions and
customizations
Enterprise
process automation
Decision
automation
Events
Figure 2-6 IBM BPM and IBM ODM extend and complement SAP for business differentiation
SAP business blueprinting in IBM Business Process Manager reduces SAP blueprinting
time, cost, and risk by using an iterative, experiential-based approach to accelerate traditional
SAP blueprinting.
Understanding packaged SAP processes and gaps can be difficult with only SAP tooling.
Process blueprinting in IBM Business Process Manager enables you to import business
blueprints from SAP Solution Manager. Then you can understand, edit, develop, configure,
and customize the SAP business process blueprint. It uses state-of-the-art graphical
modeling tools.
Then, you can export the blueprint back to the SAP environment. IBM provides pre-built
integration between SAP Solution Manager and IBM Business Process Manager modeling
tools to deliver this automated model exchange.
The process transaction flow documented in SAP Solution Manager does not necessarily
guarantee that it is how a process actually works inside SAP. SAP Solution Manager
documents the expected order of SAP transactions that users will start to support a business
process. However, it is usually possible that users might start transactions in a different and
unexpected order.
IBM Business Process Manager Guided Workflow for SAP has the capability to wrap a set of
SAP transactions (native SAP screens) that constitute part of an SAP process with an
automatically generated workflow. It guides SAP users through the correct sequence of SAP
transactions for each process instance, while gaining real-time insight into business
performance issues and opportunities.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
23
Process steps that complement SAP functionality, such as approvals, escalations,
exceptions, value management, and activities in non-SAP applications can be easily added to
the automatically generated IBM Business Process Manager Guided Workflow for SAP steps.
This capability enables an organization new to SAP to dramatically reduce deployment time
and improve the adoption curve.
Experienced SAP organizations will find that guided workflows can quickly and easily improve
the productivity, visibility, agility, and consistency of the SAP process execution. IBM Business
Process Manager also helps to ensure that the end-to-end business process complies with
service level agreements (SLAs), regardless of whether process steps are implemented
in SAP.
The IBM Business Process Manager approach is the most effective option to help
organizations avoid the number one pitfall when implementing packaged applications:
Over-customization of the packaged content. Excessive customization can suppress the
ability to perform functional application upgrades at a reasonable cost, or the ability to
efficiently add new SAP packaged application modules and components in the future.
Process discovery capabilities are used to mine SAP business events to help discover how
SAP processes are actually run, based on the sequence of business events that these
processes generate. Process monitoring capabilities provide continuous business activity
monitoring for any SAP process instance, and enable timely responses to business
challenges.
IBM provides pre-built integration capabilities that enable organizations to complement SAP
systems with business activity monitoring. These pre-built integration capabilities are
non-intrusive, and are reusable for both SAP and non-SAP components.
Decision automation implemented by IBM Operational Decision Manager complements, and
sometimes replaces, SAP business logic to improve business performance, deliver more
agile business processes, introduce dynamic business functionality, and enable businessled change.
IBM Operational Decision Manager treats business rules as an enterprise-level asset, not a
project level artifact, and therefore facilitates reuse across applications, organizational units,
and business processes. IBM Operational Decision Manager business rules are not tightly
coupled with any particular back-end application or technology, such as SAP systems.
Therefore, they are equally well-suited for SAP and non-SAP process steps.
An enterprise-wide implementation of IBM Operational Decision Manager creates a single
point of management for business rules used in both SAP and non-SAP enterprise
applications. IBM Operational Decision Manager is based on open standards, providing
flexibility and reuse of existing enterprise assets. IBM Operational Decision Manager
seamlessly integrates with the native SAP business rules framework.
For more information, see Chapter 4, “Process optimization for SAP” on page 75.
2.3.6 User interface
There are two domains of user interface (UI) needed in SAP transformation programs:
External facing UI (customers, partners)
Internal facing UI (employees)
The UI component in the IBM Reference Architecture wrap underlying SAP functionality with
open standards, and enable you to include non-SAP UI content.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Multiple user interfaces to SAP are exposed through different UI channels, depending on the
functionality required (see Figure 2-7).
SAP
SAP
GUI
Internal SAP Power User
Intranet UI
Internal User
Portal Server
SAP
Portal
Mobile Devices
Internal Mobile User
Customer Facing UI
Business Partner
Portal Server
WebSphere
Commerce
Customer
Enterprise
Integration Services
Mobile Devices
Mobile Customer
Figure 2-7 User interface channels in SAP-centric transformations
Internal SAP users can be divided into two classes:
SAP power users. They perform their primary work in the SAP environment. These users
have deep skills as SAP users, and typically are back-office workers. Power users use the
native SAP GUI or an intranet portal. SAP power users typically represent a minority of the
enterprise population.
SAP occasional users. They only require on-and-off interaction with the SAP system, for
example, a sales person who needs to check an order status. Occasional SAP users do
not have deep SAP skills. They access SAP functions through an intranet portal, which
wraps content from the SAP Portal (users do not access the SAP Portal directly).
Occasional SAP users typically are the majority in the enterprise, even for enterprises with
a high level of SAP adoption.
Customers and business partners use external portals that wrap SAP functions in open
standards, and provide a company-standard and branding (non-SAP UI) look and feel.
Online commerce is a sophisticated and dynamic discipline. It is no longer simply about
selling online, it is about delivering a consistent shopping experience across all customer
touch points, including mobile, social, and in-store.
Separating the online experience from the back-end SAP processing is key to enable the
overall solution architecture to take advantage of the specialized commerce software. IBM
Commerce is a market-leading online commerce software platform. It enables organizations
to evolve concurrently with ever-changing user experience expectations, emerging web
marketing capabilities, and other trends.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
25
IBM Commerce enables organizations to deliver a seamless, omni-channel shopping
experience through contextually relevant content, marketing, and promotions, while extending
their brand across digital and physical channels.
Mobile
Both internal and external users often require mobile access to SAP functions. Mobile access
to SAP systems typically has a different set of requirements for internal and external users.
The mobile UI for internal users typically provides a set of specific business functions, for
example, labor claims. Requirements for the mobile UI for external users are typically more
sophisticated, and typically require a differentiating user experience.
A key architectural decision in this reference architecture is to reuse an enterprise mobile
platform for SAP mobile development, based on the principle of separating the enterprise
mobile platform from vendor-specific server runtime environments. The IBM MobileFirst
Platform is a best-in-class enterprise mobility platform built on open standards and designed
for heterogeneous environments, both SAP and non-SAP back-ends.
The SAP mobile offering, SAP Mobile Platform (SMP), provides differentiating value through
a set of pre-built mobile applications for SAP. SMP should be considered in a heterogeneous
enterprise only when pre-built SAP applications can meet business requirements as is, with
changes only enabled through SAP-supported configuration options. The SMP run time
should not be used for custom development in a heterogeneous enterprise. Instead, it should
be considered as a black box to support purchased mobile content from SAP.
Figure 2-8 shows a reference mobile solution for SAP systems that consists of two
technology domains:
The standard enterprise mobile platform domain for all SAP and non-SAP enterprise
mobile applications based on IBM MobileFirst
The black-box SAP mobile domain used exclusively for deploying pre-built SAP mobile
applications that only meet business requirements as is or through supported
configuration
Custom mobile apps
enabling SAP and non-SAP
integration
SAP-delivered
pre-built apps
“as is”
IBM industry-specific
native iOS apps
can follow IBM and SAP
patterns
IBM
MobileFirst
IBM
MobileFirst
SAP
Mobile
Platform
API
API Management
Management
SAP NetWeaver
Gateway
IBM Integration Middleware
SAP Business Suite
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
Cloud
Applications
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 2-8 Reference mobile solution for SAP
IBM MobileFirst is a market-leading enterprise mobility platform built on open standards and
designed for heterogeneous environments, both SAP and non-SAP back ends.
26
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Using IBM MobileFirst does not merely enable access to SAP data through IBM-provided
SAP integration capabilities. The IBM MobileFirst portfolio provides a comprehensive set of
capabilities needed for enterprise mobile enablement, such as application development,
device and application management, mobile analytics, mobile security, IBM DevOps solution
integration, and many others.
IBM MobileFirst is designed to support any type of systems of record, rather than favoring one
system or technology in particular, such as SAP systems. When there are gaps between
SAP-provided mobile applications and business requirements that cannot be addressed
through mere SAP configuration, custom development on the SAP Mobile Platform (SMP)
should be avoided in a heterogeneous enterprise. Excessive SAP customizations result in
significant problems with future platform upgrades.
Custom development of mobile applications for SAP is fully enabled with the IBM MobileFirst
Platform, which should be the standard enterprise platform for any custom mobile
development. IBM MobileFirst provides pre-built integration with the SAP NetWeaver
Gateway, and a rich set of SAP integration options made available by re-using IBM integration
middleware.
Project experiences show that the cost of custom development for SAP on IBM MobileFirst is
significantly lower compared with other types of custom application development, for
example, full-featured web-based business applications. IBM MobileFirst not only provides a
best-in-class mobile development platform, but it includes a rich set of fully integrated
enterprise capabilities for security, lifecycle management, mobile analytics, user experience
feedback, and many others.
For more information, see Chapter 5, “Mobile access for SAP” on page 117.
Portal
IBM WebSphere Portal is the market-leading platform for delivering relevant, personal, and
engaging user experiences to customers, partners, and employees. By integrating
best-in-class business applications from SAP, with leading digital experiences from IBM,
organizations can compete more effectively and enhance the productivity of their employees.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
27
Figure 2-9 shows how IBM WebSphere Portal can effectively integrate with SAP applications,
SAP Enterprise Portal, and with non-SAP enterprise and cloud applications.
Partners
Customers
Employees
IBM WebSphere Portal
IBM Integration
Middleware
SAP Enterprise
Portal
NetWeaver
Gateway
SAP Business Suite
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
Cloud
Applications
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 2-9 Reference portal solution for SAP
However, one approach does not meet all requirements when it comes to IBM WebSphere
Portal and SAP integration. Different users and use cases are best served by different types
of integration. The types of integration can be separated into two categories:
Expose and reuse SAP user experience inside IBM WebSphere Portal.
Create a new user experience to access SAP services.
The use cases for the interactions of enterprise users with SAP can be categorized into
casual and detailed. The majority of employees and possibly customers will likely make
casual use of SAP systems. These users need occasional access to information that
originates in the SAP system. They need the information in the context of what they are
doing, and do not need to know that an SAP system is involved. Casual use cases might
involve a sales person looking up customer information or pricing.
Casual use cases are often best addressed by a new or simplified component that integrates
with SAP at a service level. This integration option is particularly well-suited for an externally
facing portal, because it can provide UI differentiation with a new user experience, one which
is different from other companies that also use SAP systems.
Detailed use cases typically involve more than just simple access to SAP content. An
example of a detailed use case is a sales person creating a new customer opportunity in the
SAP customer relationship management (CRM) system. SAP provides a ready-to-use user
experience that has been refined to meet the needs of such detailed scenarios.
This scenario is typical for intranet portals, where UI differentiation from the competition can
be less important, and “on the glass” integration of pre-built SAP UI experience with a
non-SAP UI can be used.
28
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
WebSphere Portal provides a pre-built integration framework that can include pre-built UI
content elements from SAP Portal inside WebSphere Portal UI. This integration not only
enables you to combine SAP and non-SAP UI content “on the glass”, but it also provides
navigation integration between WebSphere Portal and SAP Portals and built-in SSO
capabilities.
IBM Web Experience Factory is a model-driven rapid development tool capable of discovering
SAP-provided services. It generates a rich web experience for working with SAP data based
on an extensive catalog of predefined UI templates.
For more information, see Chapter 6, “Portal integration with SAP” on page 143.
2.3.7 Master data management
Master data is key business information, such as data about customers, products, employees,
and so on. Master data is usually non-transactional.
MDM solves the problem of multiple copies and sources of the same master data in the
enterprise, and provides trusted and timely master data to business processes. MDM also
solves the problem of multiple and inconsistent source systems for master data, by managing
these business-critical information assets consistently with the highest degree of data quality.
In addition, MDM has to provide the trusted master data in a timely manner, either
batch-oriented or in near real-time, to all relevant business processes. SAP applications in the
SAP inner ring, and the applications in the non-SAP outer ring, require access to master data.
Having an MDM solution in place to complement SAP systems adds value to SAP software
by reducing the need to customize packaged SAP functionality. Without MDM, clients are
often tempted to extend master data definitions within the SAP solution to suit various needs
of a particular business scenario. With an MDM solution in place, the MDM platform is
designed to incorporate constantly evolving master data definitions, therefore avoiding the
need to customize the SAP application beyond the intended scope of the solution.
For example, the master data definition for customer in SAP ERP Central Component (ECC)
should not contain any more attributes than those needed for the scope of the ERP package,
such as financials, order fulfillment, and so on.
The master data definition for customer in SAP CRM should not contain any more attributes
than those needed to support the sales and support processes. Even within the SAP domain,
SAP CRM and SAP ERP have different data models for customer and product, which further
illustrates the need for an application-independent, enterprise-wide master data model for
each master data entity.
MDM can also significantly reduce the burden on SAP systems by providing master data
services for master data for non-SAP systems. A robust MDM solution can be much more
efficient as a high-transaction, reliable system of reference for master data. As an example,
consider a web commerce application that needs to display the basic customer information.
Rather than having to retrieve the customer data from SAP ECC, web commerce can retrieve
the information from MDM instead, therefore reducing the burden on SAP ECC.
Data quality is one of the key value propositions for adding an MDM solution to an SAP
application environment. Without MDM, there is no assurance that duplicates will be properly
handled, or organizational data quality standards will be adhered to, when new master data is
entered.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
29
It is estimated that master data becomes dirty at the rate of 2% per month if there is no data
quality enforcement in place. This is particularly important for SAP applications, because it is
often difficult to completely remove master data records from SAP after they are entered. This
is especially true if operational data exists that references the master data, for example
orders, invoices, and so on.
IBM InfoSphere Master Data Management delivers enterprise-scale MDM functionality that
can serve both the SAP inner ring and the non-SAP outer ring, as shown in Figure 2-10. The
MDM system manages master data entities, such as customer, supplier, product, and
employee, providing master data with the highest degree of quality to all consumers.
In typical implementations, SAP applications only hold a copy of the master data entities (the
dotted lines around the master data entities in Figure 2-10), which is managed by the MDM
system. The same applies to the non-SAP applications in the non-SAP outer ring. As shown
in Figure 2-10, the MDM system requires efficient integration with all of the other enterprise
systems, supporting batch and real-time interfaces through the following components:
An ESB serving both the SAP inner ring and the non-SAP outer ring
An enterprise information integration serving both the SAP inner ring and the non-SAP
outer ring
CRM
ERP
SCM
Master repository
(Customer,
Contract, Account,
Supplier, Product,
Employee, etc.)
SRM
Master repository
(Customer,
Contract, Account,
Supplier, Product,
Employee, etc.)
BI
Non-SAPapplications
applications
Non-SAP
Non-SAP
applications
SAP
Enterprise Service Bus
Example:
Web Services
Publish /
Subscribe
IBM Master Data Management
MDM Authoring
Services &
Process
Event Manager
Notifications
Task Management
Master Repository
(Customer,
Contract, Account,
Supplier, Product,
Employee, etc.)
Access Tokens &
Rules of Visibility
Data Stewardship
UI
MDM Stewardship
Services
Matching Engine
Batch Processor
Enterprise Information Integration
Figure 2-10 Transactional-style MDM architecture pattern for SAP in a heterogeneous enterprise
30
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
MDM is a mission-critical, enterprise-level capability for SAP and non-SAP applications, and
therefore MDM is external to SAP. MDM collects and distributes master data information to
consuming applications (SAP and non-SAP). The MDM platform incorporates data
governance and stewardship. InfoSphere Master Data Management delivers enterprise-scale
master data management functionality that can serve both the SAP inner ring and the
non-SAP outer ring.
The MDM component of this reference architecture uses ESB and ETL components from
already-established enterprise integration services for SAP to move data in and out of SAP
systems. This covers both transactional and batch interactions.
MDM is an enterprise asset, which is typically not directly in scope for SAP adoption projects.
However, MDM implementations might require a significant transformation as a result of the
effect of the SAP adoption on the enterprise IT landscape. In some cases, an MDM
refactoring project might need to precede large-scale SAP adoption, or run in parallel to it, but
in either case it must receive adequate focus in the enterprise.
For more information, see Chapter 7, “Master data management for SAP” on page 159.
2.3.8 Enterprise content management
A large portion of the content relevant to the business in SAP systems is contained in textual
or graphical form in documents, such as reports, invoices, plans, and so on. This content,
which is typically referred to as unstructured content, is a permanent component in all
business workflows. It supports and documents them in an auditable manner. All of this
information is essential to support the decision processes of all SAP users.
This information must be maintained throughout its lifecycle to manage its growth and ensure
legal compliance. For example, from its inception captured in paper form, converted to
electronic form, throughout its way through the system with annotations, approvals, and so
on, up to its disposal.
Frequently, the SAP infrastructure is not the only one that creates, operates on, and manages
such information. Other systems often exist in the organization that originate documents of a
similar nature, and of similar importance to the business decision-making process.
Consequently, information integration between the SAP and non-SAP landscapes, to provide
a unified view on all business relevant information, is vital for the operation of the enterprise.
IBM ECM software implements, and is certified for, integration through the standard SAP
interfaces, such as SAP ArchiveLink, SAP Content Server, and SAP Information Lifecycle
Management (ILM), and the base functionalities that SAP offers for handling this information.
In addition, IBM ECM offers a spectrum of crucial extended and extendable capabilities to
perform content discovery, content analytics, and case management.
The IBM Reference Architecture for SAP includes IBM ECM as part of the information
architecture pattern. The ECM pattern includes the following products, each with their
individual set of extended operational capabilities:
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications
IBM Datacap as the capture component
The individual ECM repositories:
– IBM FileNet Content Manager
– IBM Content Manager Enterprise Edition
– FileNet Content Manager On Demand
– IBM Tivoli® Storage Manager
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
31
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications handles the SAP ArchiveLink and information
lifecycle management (ILM) protocols to and from SAP systems, and translates them into the
ECM repository-specific requests.
Non-SAP users and SAP users who choose to perform their content discovery, content
analytics, and case management activities outside of the SAP GUI, can use IBM Content
Navigator as the unified UI to access the federated SAP and non-SAP content, and to operate
on it.
For more information, see Chapter 8, “Enterprise Content Management for SAP” on
page 189.
2.3.9 Business analytics
ERP systems such as SAP provide a highly robust transactional environment that is typically
optimized for transactional speed and configurability of core business functionality. ERP
systems such as SAP excel at managing transactions and day-to-day business. Clients often
consider the cost of deploying ERP systems to be a part of the cost of doing business.
Alternatively, business analytics solutions excel at enabling better business decisions to
manage and drive business performance by providing complete visibility and fast insights into
the business. IBM Business Analytics portfolio products can increase the value of SAP
investments by gaining new business insights from SAP data, especially when combined with
non-SAP data in a heterogeneous enterprise.
Some organizations, where users need to perform swift analysis of data from SAP solutions,
require a faster-performing business intelligence solution. SAP has introduced their SAP
in-memory appliance, SAP High-Performance Analytic Appliance (HANA) as a solution to
help organizations analyze large volumes of detailed operational and transactional
information in real-time.
IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP provides near real-time in-memory analytic
capabilities for SAP and non-SAP applications that do not require investment in HANA.
However, if HANA is already a part of the enterprise landscape, IBM Business Analytics
infrastructure for SAP provides seamless integration with HANA, as described in Chapter 9,
“IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP” on page 229.
The next-generation business analytic solutions from IBM help organizations of all sizes make
sense of information in the context of their business. Organizations can uncover insights
more quickly and more easily from all types of data, even big data, and on multiple platforms
and devices.
In a heterogeneous IT landscape, SAP systems are an important source, but not the only
source, of information for contextual enterprise analytics. SAP data has to be combined with
business data from other enterprise systems to enable the contextual enterprise.
IBM CognosВ® helps organizations to realize a greater return on their investments in SAP
applications, with faster access to the data that the business needs to make better decisions.
When IBM Cognos software is integrated with SAP applications, the value of SAP data is
enhanced, and users gain the perspective and context needed to derive insight from SAP.
In addition, using IBM Cognos software and SAP applications together can help minimize the
number of tools and duplicate content that organizations must maintain, streamline training
requirements, and significantly reduce IT backlogs.
32
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Cognos TM1В® is a market-leading enterprise planning software that enables
organizations to collaborate on plans, budgets, and forecasts. TM1 enables users to analyze
data and create models, including profitability models, to reflect a constantly evolving
business environment. In addition, the integrated scorecards and strategy management
capabilities help organizations monitor performance metrics, and align resources and
initiatives with corporate objectives and market events.
TM1 features memory-based, multi-dimensional cube architecture. The online analytical
processing (OLAP) engine driving TM1 yields excellent response times. And with multiple
memory-based cubes, data is more rapidly searched, modified, and restructured than with a
single-cube, disk-based structure.
Predictive analytics helps organizations to use all available data and predict with confidence
what will happen next, so that you can make better decisions and improve business
outcomes. IBM offers easy-to-use predictive analytics products and solutions, such as IBM
SPSSВ®, that can use data from SAP and non-SAP sources. These solutions meet the
specific needs of different users and skill levels, from beginners to experienced analysts.
The reference architecture for IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP is built on the
common enterprise data warehouse (EDW) that is used for both SAP and non-SAP
enterprise data. This reference architecture uses SAP Business Warehouse (SAP BW) as a
packaged solution.
SAP BW is an analytical, reporting, and data warehousing solution produced by SAP. SAP
BW is a packaged solution that includes SAP delivered extractors, data models, and queries
(also known as Business Content). In this reference architecture, the scope of SAP BW is
limited to operational reporting on SAP Business Suite data. All deeper analytics and all
analytics at an enterprise level should be based on the EDW.
Figure 2-11 provides an overview of IBM Business Analytics integration capabilities for SAP.
IBM Business Analytics consumers
IBM EDW
IBM Cognos BI
IBM Cognos
TM1
Deeper
Analytics
IBM Business Analytics middleware for SAP
Fast analytic
access to SAP
Вѓ IBM Cognos BI
Dynamic Query
Вѓ Cognos TM1
Connector
ODBC/JDBC
Move and
transform Data
with ETL
Cleanse and
manage data
quality
Deep SAP
Integration
IBM InfoSphere
DataStage
IBM InfoSphere
QualityStage
IBM InfoSphere
Information
Server Pack for
SAP
SAP data providers
SAP Business
Suite
SAP BW
SAP HANA
Other
sources
Figure 2-11 Data warehousing and business analytics for SAP in a heterogeneous enterprise
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
33
Figure 2-11 on page 33 shows that IBM middleware has capabilities to perform the following
tasks:
Connect to any SAP source.
Deeply integrate with SOA data.
Provide near real-time SAP data replication into analytics solutions.
Provide more structured data extraction and cleansing capabilities.
The IBM InfoSphere Information Server is a key component that encapsulates best-in-class
integration tools to collect metadata, and to manipulate or assess data before integration with
consumer BA applications. SAP integration is based on using SAP-certified integration
interfaces:
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)
SAP Remote Function Call (RFC) through Advanced Business Application Programming
(ABAP) business functions
For more information, see Chapter 9, “IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP” on
page 229.
2.3.10 DevOps for SAP
To realize the full value of an investment in SAP solutions, teams need to enable continuous
delivery of change across their SAP landscape and the dependent non-SAP technology.
More than 80% of SAP implementations are heterogeneous in nature, and delivery teams
require a single integrated solution across both the SAP and non-SAP components to achieve
an end-to-end centric transformation program.
Traditional approaches to SAP development, integration, management, and delivery rely
largely on manual processes. This approach is error-prone and time-consuming, delaying the
response to business needs and IT change requests. Silos of processes, projects, people,
and tools can make it difficult to gain a clear view of systems and processes, and to align
business and IT requirements. For organizations looking to improve the value delivered by
SAP solutions, a more unified and flexible approach is needed.
IBM believes that the key to addressing these challenges lies in the IBM DevOps solution, a
contraction of development and operations, the two teams that deliver the core IT services in
an organization. By bringing these teams closer together, and applying agile principles across
the entire SAP delivery lifecycle, the IBM DevOps solution promotes continuous innovation,
feedback, and improvement. This approach enables you to accomplish the following goals:
Help development and operations teams boost productivity.
Improve the value delivered to users.
Accelerate delivery.
Reduce the cost and effort of IT change.
IBM has the tools and technology to achieve continuous delivery, and to reduce the cost and
risk of managing changes to the SAP landscape. IBM calls this set of tools and technologies
IBM DevOps for SAP.
Figure 2-12 on page 35 shows how the IBM DevOps solution complements and extends SAP,
using a set of pre-built and pre-integrated components to provide an effective lifecycle
management solution in a heterogeneous enterprise.
34
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
SAP Solution
Manager
Test results
Service desk
SAP Development
Tools
ABAP
NetWeaver
SAP Integration connectors provided by IBM
Business
Blueprint
IBM DevOps Solutions
for SAP
Application Lifecycle
Management for SAP
Testing for SAP
Requirements
Management
Project planning
and execution
Change & Defect
Management
Agile for SAP
Deployment
for SAP
Quality
Management
Enterprise Planning
for SAP
HANA
Figure 2-12 the IBM DevOps solution extends SAP application lifecycle tools in a heterogeneous
enterprise
Requirements management
SAP Business Blueprint is a form of business requirements definition that is typically used in
SAP projects. IBM requirements management solutions enable you to effectively manage any
form of business requirements definitions. IBM requirements solutions fully support the
SAP-mandated business requirements management process (blueprinting), based on SAP
Solution Manager, that is used to manage all SAP-related Blueprint items using a traditional
SAP approach.
IBM requirements management extends SAP, and should be used to manage all the
requirements related to non-SAP components of an overall SAP-centric solution.
Alternatively, SAP Solution Manager can be used to document the structure of SAP Blueprint
(business process hierarchy).
However, all of the SAP Blueprint content is managed in IBM requirements management as
structured data, which provides further structure and decomposition to SAP-controlled
Blueprint business process hierarchy. For example, it provides more detailed requirements
decomposition for additional technical components that must be included in SAP projects,
such as (WRICEFs).
This approach provides more structured, traceable, and integrated management of the actual
contents of SAP Blueprint when compared to the traditional all-SAP approach, whereby such
requirements are managed manually as basic document attachments.
Overall, the guideline from this reference architecture is to use SAP Solution Manager to
capture business process hierarchy for SAP Blueprint, mirror it in IBM requirements
management, and use the latter to manage actual requirements contents as structured data.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
35
Project planning and execution
In heterogeneous enterprise environments, SAP delivery projects often involve work affecting
multiple disparate applications and systems. With the IBM solution for project planning and
execution, SAP project teams can use a single tool for project and iterations plans, work item
tracking, deliverable activity management, and release planning.
IBM Rational Team Concertв„ў covers multiple areas of functionality common in all variations
of project planning and execution. IBM Rational Team Concert can be used to manage SAP
and non-SAP projects in a unified way. This approach enables teams to plan and run projects
based on end-to-end business processes, and to coordinate all changes and release
deliveries across the different applications and systems.
IBM Rational Team Concert is also used as the collaborative project hub to track all work,
control project governance, and identify gaps in work items.
Change and defect management
Change management is a key component in the solution lifecycle governance. Effective
change request management requires a common information repository that all team
members can access.
In this reference architecture, IBM Rational Team Concert is used to define and govern
changes throughout the project lifecycle. IBM Rational Team Concert provides a single
change management platform for both SAP and non-SAP change requests.
Change requests managed by IBM Rational Team Concert are not limited to source code
changes; they can manage other changes in the SAP solution, for example UI changes.
Complex changes can be delivered to all affected SAP and non-SAP applications and
middleware systems in a synchronized fashion.
Defect management is typically considered a variation of change request management. IBM
Rational Team Concert supports an integration with the SAP Service Desk so defects and
enhancements that need to be coordinated with the SAP help desk can be automatically
managed and tracked. For example, a specific defect can be forwarded to the SAP Service
desk. The defect submission form is populated with live data from SAP Service Desk.
Quality management
Quality management consists of three main functional areas:
Test planning
Test execution
Test reporting
In addition, defect management is typically viewed as an extension to quality management,
although within the context of application lifecycle management it is usually captured as a
specific variation of change request management.
IBM Rational Quality Manager is one of the testing and quality solutions endorsed by SAP. It
provides extended capabilities beyond the SAP solution built into SAP Solution Manager. IBM
Rational Quality Manager is used for SAP and non-SAP-centric quality management, and
specifically for test planning and reporting.
36
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM provides pre-built integration connectors with SAP that enable IBM Rational Quality
Manager to be integrated with SAP Solution manager. This approach enables you to
automatically map elements in the SAP business Blueprint to test plans and test cases. The
test results from IBM testing tools are automatically synchronized back into SAP Solution
Manager at the appropriate level within the Blueprint. The Blueprint becomes a general
business-focused container for the overall test architecture.
Test execution
IBM and IBM Business Partners provide an extensive set of testing tools for SAP functional,
integration, performance, and security testing. For more information, see Chapter 10,
“DevOps for SAP” on page 247.
Agile for SAP
Agile software development and delivery is mainstream for custom application development.
It is increasingly being used to successfully develop and deliver packaged applications,
including SAP applications and changes.
The IBM Rational Agile for SAP offering (part of the IBM DevOps solution) provides
ready-to-use, customizable agile and lean planning, change, work, and delivery management
and execution method support for SAP applications. The core of this solution is IBM Rational
Team Concert, a market-leading agile project planning, change, defect, and delivery
management solution.
IBM Rational Team Concert provides pre-built integration capabilities with the Eclipse-based
SAP integrated development environments (IDE) such as SAP NetWeaver IDE and SAP
HANA IDE.
The following list describes the key benefits of IBM Rational Agile for SAP offering for SAP
projects:
Improve SAP developer and team productivity by enhancing traditional SAP development
with proven advantages of agile methods.
Enable better decisions based on real-time, transparent visibility into SAP Agile delivery
and maintenance projects.
Accelerate agile adoption and results using pre-configured and customizable agile (or
others) method definition and automated enactment.
Continuous release and deployment for SAP
When businesses run on SAP, their success depends on how well they manage IT change.
An inability to continuously deploy can negate the investment that organizations make in
developing and implementing change into business processes and integrations.
Traditional approaches to SAP deployment rely largely on manual processes and
spreadsheet management. These approaches can be error-prone and time-consuming,
delaying the response to business needs and IT change requests. SAP application
landscapes are most often composed of many different applications that are interdependent
and can often involve both SAP and non-SAP applications and components.
The IBM Rational Continuous Deployment and Release for SAP solution can be used to
coordinate the deployment and release of SAP and non-SAP landscapes. Specifically, it
provides the following capabilities:
Plan, coordinate, orchestrate, and manage releases of integrated application
deployments.
Automate the deployment of required non-SAP configured middleware.
Chapter 2. IBM Reference Architecture for SAP
37
These capabilities lead to quicker releases, improved communications, and lower risk
associated with the software releases.
Enterprise planning for SAP
Successful IT transformation investments in SAP establish an enterprise architecture to
provide organizations with a big picture, and the framework to select the best overall route for
SAP adoption in a heterogeneous enterprise.
By effectively incorporating SAP software into the enterprise architecture, organizations gain
better insight into their overall technology plans. With an enterprise architecture in place,
organizations can ensure that the SAP business model as defined is the business model that
they implement, and can guide SAP investments to run outcomes that support their corporate
strategy.
IBM Rational System Architect is an enterprise architecture tool that enables organizations to
effectively analyze and plan their business and technology architecture. IBM Rational System
Architect and IntelliCorp LiveCapture for SAP Solution Manager helps organizations
understand how their SAP systems map to their overall architecture, what happens when
architectural changes are made, and how the SAP environment can be used across the
enterprise.
The following list describes key capabilities of Rational System Architect:
Automated synchronization of models from SAP Solution Manager into Rational System
Architect
Visualization and integrated view of SAP projects, blueprints, and landscapes in the
context of the enterprise architecture, and of business processes, data, organization, and
roles in a business-process context
Comparisons of as-is and proposed to-be solutions
For more information, see Chapter 10, “DevOps for SAP” on page 247.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
3
Chapter 3.
Enterprise integration services
for SAP
A key observation from Chapter 2, “IBM Reference Architecture for SAP” on page 9 is the fact
that any major enterprise has a heterogeneous application landscape composed of SAP and
non-SAP applications. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to enterprise
integration services, and explain how the various applications are efficiently integrated.
Enterprise integration services for SAP include both near real-time transactional and
batch-oriented integration techniques.
For most SAP solutions, integration activities can be divided into two major categories:
Initial data load (also referred to as conversion in many SAP projects)
Ongoing integration (also referred to as interfaces in SAP projects)
As the name suggests, initial data load involves the one-time activities required to move large
volumes of data from existing systems into the new system (in this case, SAP and related
application components) before going live. The ongoing integration involves all of the
interfaces between existing systems and the new system performed on a regular basis after
the new system is live.
The ongoing integration encompasses a wide range of integration requirements and
approaches: Batch versus transactional, synchronous versus asynchronous, service-oriented
versus message-oriented, and so on.
This chapter provides a coherent architectural blueprint for both ongoing integration with SAP
applications and initial data load into SAP applications.
This chapter includes the following topics:
3.1, “Introduction to enterprise integration services for SAP applications” on page 40
3.2, “Architecture goals” on page 41
3.3, “Scenarios and patterns for ongoing integration with SAP” on page 42
3.4, “Architecture overview of ongoing integration with SAP” on page 51
3.5, “Architecture components of ongoing integration with SAP” on page 51
3.6, “Initial data load” on page 66
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
39
3.1 Introduction to enterprise integration services for SAP
applications
Integration takes place between interfaces. Therefore, to integrate with SAP applications, you
must first understand which interfaces SAP applications offer for integration.
Figure 3-1 shows a conceptual architecture overview for operational SAP applications, such
as SAP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) or SAP Customer Relationship Management
(CRM). The figure shows that the Web Application Server run time is the common runtime
infrastructure for the SAP applications. The Web Application Server (Web AS) is implemented
in the SAP proprietary programming language, Advanced Business Application Programming
(ABAP).
Older versions of the Web Application Server, for example versions 6.20 and 6.40, were the
run time for the SAP R/3 systems. Newer versions, starting with version 7.00, became the
core of the SAP NetWeaver platform.
As shown in Figure 3-1, the key interfaces to integrate with SAP applications are Business
Application Programming Interface (BAPI), Intermediate Document (IDoc), ABAP (for extract)
and SAP enterprise services. All of these interface types are explained in detail in “End Point
connectivity” on page 45.
All of these interfaces operate on logical models at the application level, because a key
design decision by SAP has been to decouple the applications from the underlying
databases, such as IBM DB2, Oracle, and so on. Therefore, it is not possible to integrate with
SAP applications on common database interfaces, such as Java Database Connectivity
(JDBC).
The only exception to this rule is the recent addition of SAP High-Performance Analytic
Appliance (HANA) as persistency where access through Open Database Connectivity
(ODBC) is enabled.
SAP ERP
BAPI
SAP CRM
Web Application Server
IDoc
ABAP
SAP enterprise
services
Data Dictionary
(logical data models)
Database
DB Abstraction Layer
Physical
Model (IBM
DB2, etc.)
Figure 3-1 SAP integration interfaces overview
40
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Figure 3-1 on page 40 does not show additional interfaces for analytical SAP applications
such as SAP Business Information Warehouse (BW) and SAP Business Intelligence (BI),
which support interfaces such as Open Hub.
For many years, IBM has provided SAP certified connectivity using all of the integration
mechanisms with SAP applications described in this section, enabling both transactional and
batch integrations.
3.2 Architecture goals
This section introduces the architecture goals for enterprise integration services for
SAP applications.
3.2.1 Align enterprise integration services with SAP implementation
methodology
In the SAP implementation methodology, there are two major integration categories that are
captured as two separate types of work products:
Conversion Definition Document (CDD)
Interface Definition Document (IDD)
The details of these definition documents are outside the scope of this document. The focus
of this document is the integration between SAP and non-SAP systems.
The IDDs identified during the blueprint phase of the SAP methodology do not make a
distinction between the different types of interactions, such as transactional versus batch.
IBM software provides different technologies to address the different integration
requirements. The goal of the architecture blueprint described in this chapter is to provide a
coherent coverage for both transactional and batch integration aspects, and to provide
guidelines for selecting appropriate IBM integration middleware based on SAP integration
requirements.
3.2.2 Use best-in-class technologies for custom integration development
SAP has several available technologies that provide integration capabilities. In some cases,
the technologies include pre-built integration modules that can be configured for a particular
environment, and used without the need for any custom development.
However, customizations made within the SAP applications limit the extent to which the
pre-built integration capabilities can be used without modification. Additionally, many of the
SAP integration technologies require custom development to provide the integration logic and
do not provide any special capabilities with regard to SAP application components. Even
within the SAP inner ring (defined and described in Chapter 2, “IBM Reference Architecture
for SAP” on page 9) the effort and approach to develop new integration logic with IBM
software technologies is the same as when using SAP integration technologies.
In the cases where SAP integration components can meet 90% or more of the integration
requirements with pre-built functionality, the SAP components should be used in the SAP
inner ring. However, if more than 10% of the required functionality must be provided through
custom development, the integration should be implemented using best-in-class, IBM
technologies, even if the integration is performed within the SAP inner ring.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
41
3.2.3 Minimize costs of integration for non-strategic systems
For large SAP application deployments, there is usually a transition period during which the
new SAP system begins to assume functionality previously provided by existing applications.
During the transition, the new functionality is not yet fully rolled out. As a result, there are two
types of integration requirements for transition architecture:
Non-SAP applications that are non-strategic in the long term, but must be integrated with
SAP applications and remain operational until the new system can fully assume the
business functions
Non-SAP applications providing strategic functionality that will not be incorporated into the
SAP solution, and that need to be permanently integrated with the new system
Strategic non-SAP applications should be integrated with SAP applications according to
established standards and leading practices. Integration costs can be justified with
longer-term benefits in maintenance cost reduction, flexibility, adherence to strategic
objectives for the enterprise, and so on.
However, for those non-SAP applications that are expected to be decommissioned after the
new system is in place, there is often little justification for making further investments.
Depending upon the status of the application, making additional changes might not even
be possible.
As a result, the approach to integrate non-strategic existing applications can require changes
in either the application or the integration layer. In this case, the least expensive integration
approach overall should drive the changes. The integration of non-strategic applications is
usually short-lived after the transition is completed. Therefore, it is important to limit the
expense and effort put into it.
3.2.4 Loosely-coupled applications
To the greatest extent possible, the systems should be integrated so as to minimize hard
dependencies between the application components. Loose coupling enables one component
to be replaced with little to no effect on the other components. It enables components to be
reused by other consumers. It also isolates systems to improve resiliency and enable for
components to be defined and developed independently.
3.2.5 Use open, well-established standards
Standards-based implementation of integration logic greatly reduces the chance of vendor
lock-in. It also increases the availability of tools that easily connect to the solution and provide
support for development, monitoring, and testing. As a practical point, when attempting to
move two proprietary systems to a common format or approach, selecting an open, industry
standard can often provide a neutral option that prevents the mine versus yours arguments.
3.3 Scenarios and patterns for ongoing integration with SAP
To create an efficient integration layer that can be operated and maintained in a cost-effective
manner, it is important to identify a standard set of integration patterns that can be applied for
common integration scenarios. The following sections provide guidance on how to classify the
interfaces based on the integration requirements. The appropriate integration scenario and
preferred integration patterns for those scenarios are identified.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
3.3.1 Identifying integration scenarios
This section provides information to help you identify the appropriate integration pattern.
Interface characteristics
The first step in selecting an integration pattern is to identify the characteristics and
requirements of the integration itself. Many of the characteristics can be applied
independently of each of the systems involved in the overall interaction, which causes
variations within the patterns. For example, the originator uses a one-way message exchange
pattern, although the destination uses a request-response pattern.
Interaction style: Transactional or batch
The first major division among the various interfaces is the interaction style: Does the
interface represent a single business transaction and business object, or does it represent a
collection of multiple business objects? The answer to this question results in either a
transactional or a batch integration style.
Remember: The term transactional does not refer to requirements dealing with the
transactional integrity of the interface. Rather, it indicates that the interface represents a
single business transaction. This identification should be made solely on the contents of
the message, and not on other outside factors, such as the frequency of the interface or
the planned transport.
The following examples help to identify the interaction style:
A query object containing a set of attributes is submitted with a response that contains
multiple results: Transactional.
A collection of existing customer numbers are sent to a customer translation service to
return a collection of proper customer identifiers: Batch.
A message flow sends a business event containing the current message processing
context to the event infrastructure in a fire-and-forget operation: Transactional.
Every five minutes, a business application is triggered to collect all of the changed records
and send them to the destination system: Batch.
Message exchange pattern: Request-response or one-way
The message exchange pattern identifies the interface as either request-response or
one-way. If the sender of the message expects an answer back from the request that was
sent, regardless of the timing of the answer, it is a request-response exchange. If a message
is sent without a business response, it is one-way.
Message response timing: Synchronous or asynchronous
The response timing indicates whether the interaction is synchronous or asynchronous.
Generally, asynchronous interactions are preferred over synchronous interactions if an
immediate response is not required, because it gives greater flexibility for managing the load.
Interaction effect: Read-only or change
There are two options for the effect of the interaction: Read-only or change. Change applies to
interfaces that make changes to the back-end system. Read-only applies to interfaces that
are simply running a query to read information.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
43
Message handling: Independent, grouping, or sequential
Message handling refers to how to handle the messages as they arrive in the middleware
software. The messages are either independent of one another, part of a larger group, or
require sequential handling:
Message handling: Independent
The most common and simplest situation for the message sources is
independent processing: The messages are processed independently
of one another as they arrive.
Message handling: Grouping
Grouping means that the messages are part of a group, and
processing cannot begin until all of the messages arrive and they can
be processed together.
Message handling: Sequential
Sequential processing indicates that the order of the message
processing is dependent either on the order in which the messages
arrive or on some sequencing information found within the messages.
Destination cardinality: Single or multiple
Destination cardinality refers to the number of destination systems (service providers) that are
involved in the interaction: A single system or multiple systems.
If the cardinality is multiple, there are several subcategories:
Multiple destinations: Routing
Although there can be multiple possible destinations, any particular
message is sent to one and only one of the destinations, based on
some set of business rules. The business rules might evaluate the
business elements within the message in addition to the timing and
context of the operation.
Multiple destinations: Aggregation
In this case, all of the destinations are involved in the interface. Each of
the service providers is started independently, and the results are
compiled together into a single response message.
Multiple destinations: Broadcast
For broadcast, often called publish/subscribe, the received message is
sent to any number of the potential destinations, or none at all. Each of
the destination systems has independently established business rules
defining which messages they are interested in receiving. When the
message is received, each of the rules is evaluated and the message
is sent only to the matching destinations.
Multiple destinations: Sequential dependency
For sequential dependency, there are multiple destinations that are
dependent on one another in some way. For example, a message is
sent to System A and after a successful response has been received a
message is sent to System B, then System C, and so on. In some
cases the response from one system is used to create the request for
the next system.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
End Point connectivity
There are several options available for connecting application end points with the enterprise
integration service middleware components. Each of the connectivity options varies in terms
of availability and capabilities, and some options are preferred over others.
SAP connectivity
Table 3-1 is a summary of SAP end point connectivity options available for different interface
styles.
Table 3-1 SAP connectivity options
Interaction type
Transactional (individual)
Synchronous
SAP Enterprise Services
Remote Function Call (RFC)
Asynchronous
SAP Enterprise Services
IDoc
Batch
N/A
SAP Enterprise Services
IBM ABAP Stage
IDoc
File system
The following list provides a brief description of the SAP end point connectivity options, and
includes their main characteristics:
SAP Enterprise Services. SAP Enterprise Services are a set of web services definitions
provided ready-to-use by SAP with the following attributes:
– Based on Web Services Description Language (WSDL) and SOAP web services
standards
– Based on SAP global data types
– Modeled in SAP Enterprise Service Repository (ESR) using business objects, process
components, and the SAP enterprise model
– Published in the SAP Service Registry (SR)
– Availability and functional correctness ensured
– Support for Web Service Reliable Messaging (WSRM) for select services
SAP Enterprise Services support synchronous and asynchronous transmission styles,
and can be used for both transactional or batch interaction styles. SAP Enterprise
Services should be evaluated for use whenever one is available for a particular business
function.
The evaluation should be made based on how well the Enterprise Service matches the
defined interface characteristics, and how well the Enterprise Service addresses the
particular non-functional requirements. However, the catalog of available services is rather
limited, so the opportunity for using them might be small.
Tip: If an SAP Enterprise Service for a particular business function is not available, it is
not considered a good practice to create a custom web service directly within the SAP
environment. Instead, the services should be developed using best-in-class tools for
developing and managing services. This approach enables you to expose the SAP
function through the enterprise service bus (ESB) in a standard manner across the
enterprise.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
45
Remote Function Calls. RFCs provide real-time interactions with SAP systems in a
request-response message exchange pattern. The RFCs include ready-to-use function
modules called BAPIs, in addition to custom function modules. RFC operations block the
thread within the SAP systems while the operation is performed against other function
modules and the database. As a result, RFC should be used to perform transactional
(individual business operations) and synchronous interactions with SAP systems.
Business Application Programming Interface. BAPIs are well-defined external SAP
interfaces providing access to processes and data in SAP business application systems.
BAPIs are designed to be started by systems external to SAP using the RFC mechanism.
Advanced Business Application Programming. ABAP is a proprietary programming
language from SAP. This interface is used by IBM integration tools to discover data objects
in SAP systems, such as SAP tables. It automatically generates and deploys into the SAP
system RFC-enabled ABAP code modules that are subsequently used for extracting data
from SAP tables. This mechanism is only used for to extract SAP data and never to update
SAP data, because updates to SAP data must be done only trough SAP business logic.
IBM ABAP Stage is a component of IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP
Applications (SAP BW) where ABAP logic is generated by the tool to perform the data
extraction logic from SAP (typically from SAP tables). IBM ABAP Stage should be used in
batch interfaces where data must be extracted from SAP and sent to non-SAP systems,
and where ready-to-use operations are not already available in SAP to perform the data
extraction, that is, situations where custom development would otherwise be required.
Intermediate Document. Within SAP systems, IDocs provide a particular hierarchical
message format that can be posted to SAP asynchronously using standard RFC
transports, including mechanisms for transaction management and queuing.
IDocs typically represent data of an SAP business object or array of business objects, for
example, a purchase order. An IDoc should be used in any one-way interface with SAP
systems (batch or otherwise). Additionally, two IDocs (one inbound and one outbound)
can be used to implement asynchronous request-response message exchange patterns.
File system. In some rare cases, particularly when using custom existing SAP function
modules, it is necessary to provide information to the SAP system from the file system. A
typical setup includes a local file system or Network File System (NFS) mount on the SAP
application side. Some middleware component (ESB, extract, transform, and load (ETL),
or Reliable File Transfer (RFT) at a minimum) is between the file system and the non-SAP
system, so that the non-SAP systems do not put files directly on the SAP file system.
Non-SAP connectivity
Table 3-2 is a summary of non-SAP end point connectivity options available for the various
interface styles.
Table 3-2 Non-SAP connectivity options
Interaction type
46
Transactional (Individual)
Synchronous
Web services, such as Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and
HTTP Secure (HTTPS)
Representational State Transfer
(REST) or RESTful, services
Asynchronous
Web services, such as IBM MQ
and Java Message Service
(JMS)
Web services (HTTP / HTTPS)
Message-based IBM MQ
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Batch
N/A
Web services (IBM MQ / JMS)
Message-based IBM MQ
RFT
Secure File Transfer Protocol
(SFTP)
Database
The following list describes the key characteristics of each end point connectivity option:
Web Services (HTTP, HTTPS). HTTP-based web services are perhaps the simplest way
to perform integration. The interface specification is defined using WSDL, and SOAP
defines the structure of information exchanged.
Much of the work required to perform the integration using web services is provided by
available tools. By adopting additional web service standards, support can be added for
other capabilities, such as security (WS-Security), transactional integration
(WS-Transaction), and reliable messaging (WS-RM).
HTTP-based web services are traditionally used in synchronous request-response or
one-way interactions. They can also be used in an asynchronous fashion using either
Request with Callback or Request with Polling patterns.
In the Request with Callback pattern, the response is sent by making a separate call from
the service provider (or ESB) back to the service consumer. In the Request with Polling
approach, the response from the initial request is a ticket that identifies the request. The
consumer makes subsequent calls using the provided ticket to retrieve the response if it
is available.
RESTful Services. RESTful services use HTTP methods and Uniform Resource Identifiers
(URIs) to perform create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) operations. RESTful services
are commonly used with mobile and Web 2.0 applications.
Web services (IBM MQ / JMS). IBM MQ (IBM WebSphere MQ)-based web services have
WSDL definitions for the interface and use SOAP over IBM MQ transports. These services
are ideal for interfaces that operate in an asynchronous fashion, both batch and individual
interaction styles.
Message-based IBM MQ. Message-based IBM MQ (as opposed to service-based IBM
MQ) is the traditional approach to using IBM MQ where the messages placed on the
queue might be in any format and where the general context for the message is provided
by the queue upon which the message arrives.
Reliable File Transfer. RFT is the transport protocol for moving files around the
infrastructure in a centrally controlled manner. It is a replacement for traditional
approaches such as FTP and NFS. RFT can be deployed transparently to the source and
destination systems. The systems deal with files on the local file system, and RFT does
the work required to get the files where they need to go.
File Transfer Protocol. FTP (and related technologies such as SFTP and FTPS) enables
systems to send and receive files in a point-to-point manner. The connectivity information
and the security certificates must be managed by each end point application.
Database. Appropriate only in special situations, direct database interactions can be used
in batch interfaces to retrieve or store large volumes of information. The challenge with
using direct database interactions is that it almost always requires detailed application
logic within the middleware, particularly if the connection is made to the application's
operational database as opposed to an information warehouse or staging tables.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
47
3.3.2 Common integration patterns
There is a large number of possible combinations of integration interface and end point
connectivity characteristics that constitute various integration patterns. This section describes
the most commonly used integration patterns.
Simple batch
The simple batch integration pattern shown in Figure 3-2 uses the batch capabilities of the
ESB software, for example, IBM Integration Bus, to satisfy simple batch requirements.
<Batch connectivity>
<Batch connectivity>
Destination
Source
ESB
Destination
Source
<Batch connectivity>
<Batch connectivity>
Figure 3-2 Integration pattern: Simple batch
A simple batch integration scenario includes the following characteristics:
Independent message handling, which indicates that there are no grouping or sequencing
requirements.
Basic mediation requirements for the middleware, for example, transformation and basic
field translation.
Required connectivity does not include database interactions, nor does it require complex
extract logic from SAP using IBM ABAP Stage.
Modestly-sized batch messages, for example, less than 25 megabytes (MB).
Simple batch integration can have a single source or multiple sources, depending upon the
nature of the data and the interface (the dashed lines in Figure 3-2 indicate optional
components). For example, either a single system provides a particular set of business data,
or multiple systems do. Similarly, simple batch integration can have a single destination or
multiple destinations. However, for an interface to be considered simple batch, there should
be no dependency between the sources and destinations.
Complex batch
The complex batch integration pattern shown in Figure 3-3 applies to more complicated batch
integration scenarios that require a full-featured ETL batch integration platform, such as the
InfoSphere Information Server component IBM InfoSphere DataStageВ®.
<Batch connectivity>
<Batch connectivity>
Destination
Source
ETL
Destination
Source
<Batch connectivity>
Figure 3-3 Integration pattern: Complex batch
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
<Batch connectivity>
A complex batch integration scenario includes one or more of the following characteristics:
Grouping or sequential message handling.
Complex mediation requirements, for example, cleansing, staging, complex
transformation, complex field translation.
Connectivity with source or destination systems uses database interactions and complex
extract logic required from SAP using IBM ABAP Stage.
Large messages sizes (greater than 25 MB).
As with simple batch integration, the cardinality of the sources and destinations is
one-to-many for complex batch integration, meaning that either side can have multiple
systems. Unlike simple batch, complex batch can include dependencies between the various
systems or the messages of a single system.
One-way transactional
In this integration pattern, as shown in Figure 3-4, one or more service consumers send a
one-way message that represents a single business transaction to the service provider.
Optionally, multiple service providers can be accommodated, assuming the logic follows
either the routing or broadcast approach for multiple destinations.
<Transactional
connectivity>
<Transactional
SVS Consumer
connectivity>
SVC Provider
ESB
<Transactional
connectivity>
SVC Provider
Figure 3-4 Integration pattern: One-way transactional
Synchronous transactional request-response
In this integration pattern, as shown in Figure 3-5, messages are sent synchronously from the
service consumer through the ESB to the service provider.
Optionally, multiple service providers can be supported if the ESB selects one of the service
providers and routes the message to the appropriate end point.
<Transactional connectivity>
SVC Provider
<Transactional connectivity>
SVS Consumer
ESB
SVC Provider
<Transactional connectivity>
Figure 3-5 Integration pattern: Synchronous transactional request-response
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
49
Asynchronous transactional request-response
If the interaction can be performed asynchronously, the asynchronous transactional
request-response pattern shown in Figure 3-6 should be used. The asynchronous interaction
on the consumer side can support several different implementation approaches
simultaneously, for example IBM MQ web services, HTTP web services with callback or
polling, and so on. Optionally, multiple service providers can be supported if the ESB selects
one of the service providers and routes the message to the appropriate end point.
<Transactional connectivity>
<Transactional connectivity>
SVS Consumer
ESB
SVC Provider
ESB
SVC Provider
<Transactional connectivity>
Figure 3-6 Integration pattern: Asynchronous transactional request-response
Figure 3-6 represents the ESB as two different boxes to indicate that the interaction is
performed in a separate thread with a different connection. In this case, the response
message is assumed to be performed in a different context from the request. This approach
also assumes that the context is available in the response message or can be looked up
within the ESB, for example, reply-to address of the service consumer.
Simple orchestration
Figure 3-7 shows the simple orchestration pattern. This pattern describes an interface that
involves coordination and management of multiple destination services, particularly the
aggregation or sequential dependency interface characteristics.
<Transactional connectivity>
SVC Provider
<Transactional connectivity>
SVS Consumer
ESB
ESB
SVC Provider
<Transactional connectivity>
Process
Service
Figure 3-7 Integration pattern: Simple orchestration
Aggregation involves sending messages to multiple destination services, collecting the
responses (perhaps asynchronous responses over a period of time), and combining them into
a single response. Sequential dependency refers to scenarios where the overall business
service involves interactions with multiple destination services but with dependencies
between the calls.
In Figure 3-7, the ESB is used to provide mediation logic between the service consumer and
the business service exposed by the process services component. The same ESB
component provides mediation logic between the process services component and service
providers. The process services component provides the logic required to start the service
providers, handle the result messages and error situations, and formulate the response.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
3.4 Architecture overview of ongoing integration with SAP
The reference architecture for the enterprise integration services components that support
the integration patterns described earlier is shown in Figure 3-8.
SAP Business Suite
CRM
Enterprise
Integration
Services
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Files, batches of records
Transactions, Messages
Service
Governance
Process
Services
ESB
ETL
Reliable File
Transfer
Cloud
Applications
Partner
Applications
Logging and
Error Handling
Non-SAP
Legacy
Applications
Enterprise
Applications
Non-SAP Ecosystem
Non-SAP Inner Rings
Figure 3-8 Enterprise integration reference architecture
There are several components that make up the enterprise integration services architecture:
ESB
ETL
Service governance
RFT
Process services
Logging and error handling
These components work together to provide the capabilities required to connect SAP
systems with non-SAP applications within the enterprise, business partners, and cloud-based
applications. In addition to business applications, existing non-SAP applications can include
other ESB and ETL systems that already exist within the enterprise.
3.5 Architecture components of ongoing integration with SAP
This section introduces the key components of the architecture overview shown in Figure 3-8,
providing more detail and product mapping for the components.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
51
3.5.1 Enterprise Service Bus
The ESB component is responsible for providing connectivity and integration logic for
transactional interfaces. The primary function of the ESB is to decouple and isolate the
application end points from one another, increasing the flexibility of the system and reducing
the overall cost of integration.
There are several ways in which the ESB provides this decoupling:
Independent connectivity, with each application’s end points using technologies that are
appropriate for the functional and non-functional requirements of the interface, and using
the available capabilities of the applications.
Transformation and translation of messages from the source system to the destination
system.
Routing of messages. Routing includes simple routing across firewalls and other aspects
of the infrastructure, in addition to more sophisticated business scenarios where
rule-based selection is made between available end points.
Ensuring required security is enforced using technologies and standards that address the
interface requirements and the available capabilities of the application. This characteristic
implies independent management of all of the required security artifacts, such as
certificates.
The term ESB often implies the existence of reusable services, and represents a platform by
which service consumers and service providers are connected. In this context, the ESB fulfills
two core principles: Service virtualization and aspect-oriented connectivity.
Service virtualization
Service virtualization refers to the ability of the ESB to virtualize service interactions:
Protocol and pattern. Interacting participants need not use the same communication
protocol or interaction pattern. For example, a requester might require interaction through
some inherently synchronous protocol, but the service provider might require interaction
using an inherently one-way protocol with two correlated interactions. The ESB provides
the conversion needed to mask the protocol and pattern switch.
Interface. Service requesters and service providers need not agree on the interface for an
interaction. For example, the requester might use one form of message to retrieve
customer information, and the provider might use another form. The ESB provides the
transformation needed to reconcile the differences.
Identity. A participant in an interaction need not know the identity, for example, the network
address, of other participants in the interaction. For example, service requesters need not
be aware that a request can be serviced by any of several potential providers at different
physical locations. The actual provider is known only to the ESB, and in fact, can change
with no effect to the requester. The ESB provides the routing needed to hide identity.
Aspect-oriented connectivity
Aspect-oriented connectivity includes multiple cross-cutting aspects of integration, such as
security, management, logging, and auditing. The ESB can implement or enforce
cross-cutting aspects on behalf of service requesters and service providers, removing such
aspects from the concern of the requesters and providers themselves. Implementing these
cross-cutting aspects within the middleware layer makes it easier to ensure consistent
application of the logic, and reduces the amount of effort required to make changes.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Lines of code
In addition to the standard service-oriented definition of an ESB, the capabilities of the ESB
component in this reference architecture have been somewhat extended to include more
traditional message brokering (see Figure 3-9).
Direct Connectivity
Message Queuing
Traditional Message
Brokering
Message and Service
Brokering
Connectivity,
mediation and
additional logic
Connectivity logic
Connectivity and
mediation logic
Connectivity, mediation
additional logic
Mediation and
additional logic
Additional logic
Application
All connectivity,
mediation and
additional logic buried
in the application
Application
Application
Abstracts the
connectivity logic
from the application
Abstracts the
connectivity +
mediation logic from
the application
SERVICES
Reduces application
to its core business
functions (a service)
Degree of Flexibility and Reuse
Figure 3-9 ESB functionality: Message and service brokering
Traditional message brokering is generally independent of the service reuse aspect of an
ESB. In other words, the same or similar back-end service can be provided by different
messaging end points in the message broker, which does not necessarily provide a single
logical view of a service but still provides decoupling.
This decoupling occurs by removing connectivity and mediation logic from the individual
application components and moving it into a shared middleware layer, the ESB. Moving the
logic into the ESB layer creates opportunities for reusing the mediation logic between
applications and interfaces, and it adds a degree of flexibility because the logic is
centrally managed.
Identifying and implementing interactions between systems and services provides the
greatest degree of flexibility and reuse. However, depending upon the long-term business
value of a particular application or business function, it might not be cost-effective to
implement the integration logic as a service. As a result, in a typical SAP deployment, the
integration logic is created as a mix of traditional message brokering and service brokering.
Decoupling begins with the technologies used to send information across the network (the
transports). The ESB supports a variety of transports and does not require that all
participants in the interface communicate in the same way.
Typical transports used to interact with SAP systems include direct HTTP-to-enterprise
services, posting flat files to the file system, and proprietary SAP technologies, such as RFC
and IDocs. The IBM products providing ESB functionality support the proprietary SAP
transports using IBM WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software.
The ESB also provides decoupling through message transformation. The ESB includes
powerful tools for converting messages from one message format to another, both in terms of
message structure and field semantics and formats.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
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Message transformation prevents the end points of the interface from needing to understand
multiple message formats, or the details of remote systems with which it is interacting. This is
particularly true in SAP deployments where much of the interaction involves proprietary BAPI
and IDoc message structures, which are complex and difficult to understand.
IBM products for ESB
IBM has a range of products generally available for providing required ESB functionality. They
are able to scale and perform as required by large SAP deployments.
IBM Integration Bus
IBM Integration Bus provides the principal integration platform for connecting SAP systems to
other application components with real-time interactions. As shown in Figure 3-10, IBM
Integration Bus supports transactional and batch-oriented integration patterns.
Any Platform
IBM Integration Bus
Web service/REST
SAP
SAP
Adapter
RFC
Legacy
App
MQ/JMS
Legacy
App
File
File
File
SAP Enterprise
Service
Legacy
App
Legacy
App
IDoc
Managed
Transfer
DB
Figure 3-10 IBM Integration Bus: Overview
For batch-oriented integration, there are some limitations that are described in 3.5.7,
“Integration workload placement guidelines: ESB versus ETL” on page 64.
IBM Integration Bus supports both message and service brokering approaches, and provides
integration through several transports and protocols:
Integration with SAP BAPI, RFC, and IDoc through WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software
Integration with SAP Enterprise Services using web services
Integration with existing systems using web services, WebSphere MQ, the file system, and
the database
IBM Integration Bus is pre-integrated with the IBM Security product suite to enable for
authentication and authorization if needed, and identity mapping and identity propagation in a
heterogeneous application landscape, including between non-SAP and SAP systems.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Integration Bus is capable of handling thousands of messages per second, and
performing complex mediation logic. In addition to those listed earlier, IBM Integration Bus
supports a wide variety of other communication protocols, with several adapters available for
other packaged applications. Common middleware functions, such as common logging, can
be built as reusable sub-flows for use across all interfaces.
IBM WebSphere Transformation Extender
IBM WebSphere Transformation Extender provides advanced capabilities for mapping data
from one message format to another. WebSphere Transformation Extender supports
Extensible Markup Language (XML) and binary message formats with sophisticated tools to
develop the mappings.
WebSphere Transformation Extender is not an ESB, but it integrates with IBM ESB
technologies as an add-on.
Maps developed in the WebSphere Transformation Extender Design Studio can be used on
multiple ESB platforms. They provide modular design, enabling projects to build a library of
mapping logic that can be reused as-is, or composed into new transformation maps.
IBM WebSphere DataPower SOA Appliances
IBM WebSphere DataPowerВ® is an appliance-based ESB that provides advanced security
capabilities and XML processing at wire speeds. DataPower can be used as a gateway ESB
to connect across security zones and between technical domains. Unfortunately, DataPower
does not support the WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software, so it requires some other
integration component, such as IBM Integration Bus, to integrate with SAP proprietary
protocols using all of the integration patterns.
There are several integration patterns where DataPower can provide value, and it is
advantageous to include it in the SAP integration logic, using, for example, web services or
WebSphere MQ. If DataPower already exists within the environment, it can be added to the
integration flow.
IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Cloud integration
IBM WebSphere Cast IronВ® Cloud integration provides a cloud-based integration platform
that can be deployed on-premises or as software as a service (SaaS). It supports a broad
range of integration technologies, including proprietary SAP protocols, and a simple approach
to developing integration logic. In most applications, IBM Integration Bus can address all of
the integration requirements of an SAP project, but IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Cloud
integration might be appropriate in specific situations.
3.5.2 Extract, transform, and load
ETL is a term used broadly to refer to the activities required to move large volumes of data
between systems in large batches. In the context of enterprise integration services, the ETL
component is responsible for providing connectivity and integration logic for batch-oriented
interfaces in ongoing integration (as opposed to initial data load or conversion activities). As
the name suggests, there are three major components to an ETL flow:
Extract the data from the source system.
Transform (and optionally cleanse) the data.
Load the resulting data into the destination system.
ETL technologies are built to efficiently process very large sets of data, with internal staging
of the data and parallel processing.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
55
IBM products for ETL
This section introduces IBM products suitable for ETL.
IBM InfoSphere Information Server
Although the InfoSphere Information Server family includes several modules that support
data integration activities, InfoSphere DataStage is the primary component used as the
integration engine. It can transform and integrate any volume of information, and provides
hundreds of built-in transformation functions.
DataStage provides direct connectivity with SAP systems through the InfoSphere Information
Server Pack for SAP Applications. There are three separate SAP interfaces supported:
BAPI. Extract and load.
IDoc. Extract and load.
ABAP. Code generated by the IBM Information Server Pack for SAP Applications to
perform extract logic only.
The ABAP Extract Stage shown in Figure 3-11 is just one out of many SAP interfaces
supported by DataStage. The InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications
includes wizards that enable you to browse the SAP data dictionary and generate complete
ETL jobs for IDoc, ABAP, and other interfaces with just a few mouse clicks.
This automated generation during the design drastically minimizes the effort compared to
manual or template-based approaches, and it reduces errors while increasing quality and
performance of ETL.
SAP
Custom Function
Module
DataStage
Metadata
Metadata
Retrieval
ABAP Code
Generation
RFC
Generated
ABAP Code
SQL/Extraction object
Builder
Design time
Runtime
Extraction Job
Generated ABAP
Code
CPI-C, RFC, or FTP
ABAP Stage
Target
System
Figure 3-11 Solution architecture for ABAP integration with DataStage
The InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP BW provides connectivity for analytical SAP
systems. For this purpose, it supports SAP interfaces such as Open Hub.
Additional information integration patterns, such as data replication and federation, can be
implemented with InfoSphere Information Server. Data replication technology can be used to
migrate an Oracle database supporting an SAP application to IBM DB2.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Other important characteristics of InfoSphere Information Server are the broad information
governance capabilities that are required to manage critical aspects of information assets,
such as information quality, information lifecycle, information protection, and so on.
These capabilities of IBM InfoSphere Information Server can be used to manage, for
example, information quality for SAP applications, optimizing business processes with
high-quality data.
These functions are also used by the Master Data Management (MDM) component of the
IBM Reference Architecture for SAP described in Chapter 7, “Master data management for
SAP” on page 159.
IBM Integration Bus
Although IBM Integration Bus is typically used in transactional integration, it is also a good
platform for handling simple ETL interactions. IBM Integration Bus supports batch ETL
transports for both SAP and non-SAP systems (with the exception of the ABAP Stage
functionality available in InfoSphere Information Server).
IBM Integration Bus can handle moderately sized messages directly, and large messages by
splitting along record boundaries (assuming the message is made up of multiple records).
IBM Integration Bus can also be used in scenarios where internal staging is required, but in
these scenarios it requires more development effort than DataStage.
In general, IBM Integration Bus can be used extensively to handle simple ETL interfaces.
More detailed guidelines regarding workload placement in IBM middleware products is
provided in 3.5.7, “Integration workload placement guidelines: ESB versus ETL” on page 64.
3.5.3 Service governance
Service governance includes, among others, two important aspects:
Service lifecycle management
Service run time
The following sections provide more details about each.
Service lifecycle management
The service lifecycle management aspect of service governance provides a set of processes
implemented to ensure proper sharing and reuse of services throughout the service lifecycle.
It is often described in terms of the following activities:
Publish and find. Make services available by publishing them to a central repository.
Search for existing services for reuse.
Enrich. Integrate with runtime environments and govern service design and runtime
policies.
Manage. Monitor and report on service usage. Manage service contracts and multiple
service versions.
Govern. Maintain and govern service contracts, service consumers, and service providers.
Integrate with other products that support service-oriented architecture (SOA)
governance.
In practical terms, the service governance component provides a service repository for
storing service artifacts, and a customizable, ready-to-use process for managing those
service artifacts through the project lifecycle.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
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The following scenario provides an example:
1. New integration requirements are identified. Using the information provided, for example
business data and business operation, the integration architect or developer searches the
service repository for existing services:
a. If a matching service is found, the service is evaluated to determine if enhancements
are required to support the new requirements.
b. If a matching service is not found, define a new service and publish it to the repository.
2. In addition to business data and business operation requirements, there are also technical
requirements for the service. They are identified and implemented as part of the
middleware implementation of the service, including attaching appropriate policy entries.
3. When the service is ready, promote the service to the next state in the service governance
lifecycle. At appropriate times in the process, review and approve the defined services. As
services are promoted through the stages, the service governance component pushes the
changes out to the relevant runtime instances.
4. As new service consumers are added, define the appropriate entries in the repository for
consumers and their related service level agreements (SLAs) and policies.
5. Retrieve monitoring information from the runtime environment and validate the actual
service consumption.
Service run time
In addition to design-time processes, service governance includes a runtime service registry
where the defined service policies and configurations are enforced by the service integration
components. The resulting runtime information is provided to report on service use.
In practical terms, the ESB and ETL components connect to the service governance registry
to get information about the configured services, and ensure that the policies are applied to
the messages that pass through the system. These enforced policies include consumers that
are authorized to use a particular service, routing policies, end point references, and
transformation policies.
The ESB solution can be implemented in conjunction with the service registry to provide
configuration-driven integration. In this approach, the ESB is implemented with a common
flow for each integration pattern addressing common mediation functionality that is driven by
external configuration information.
A simple example message flow from IBM Integration Bus is provided in Figure 3-12.
WSDL
Service
Registry
WSPolicy
4
1
XSL Transform
SOAP Input
Registry Lookup
Validation?
2
Validate
Transform?
3
MQ Output
Route
WTX Transform
SOAP Request
Figure 3-12 ESB flow using WebSphere Service Registry and Repository (WSRR) policy configuration
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
The following steps are shown in Figure 3-12 on page 58:
1. At run time, when the ESB receives a service request, it uses information in the request to
look up the service definition in the service registry.
The result from the service registry contains the service definition and the associated
policy definitions. The policy definitions can include any of the following items:
– A requirement for validation and the schema that should be used
– The transformation logic required, such as a reference to the Extensible Stylesheet
Language Transformation (XSLT) file or WebSphere Transformation Extender (WTX)
map
– The routing logic that should be applied
– The end points for service providers
2. If validation is required, as defined by the service configuration, the ESB applies the
provided schema.
3. If transformation is required, the ESB retrieves the transformation logic from the service
definition and applies it to the incoming message.
4. The end point routing is determined by the end points defined in the service registry using
the defined transport protocol.
Because the mediation logic is defined in the external service registry, the ESB flow can
support multiple service implementations without the need to develop ESB-specific logic. If
changes are required, they can be applied easily in the service registry, without requiring
code deployment to the ESB, which is usually more complicated.
Finally, because usually each service also exposes data to the service consumers, in
mature SOA environments a consideration in the service design is to check whether it is
appropriate, through the service, to expose the data outside the service. The reason for this
check is simple.
Low quality data, or, generally speaking, data that is not fit for use outside the component
that holds it, can be easily exposed through a service, but behaves like a virus in the
enterprise. It “infects” other systems that have good data, and are now consuming poor data
through a service.
In mature SOA environments, service governance intersects with information governance.
Applying information governance includes the use of tools to measure and control all
dimensions of data, such as quality, lifecycle, security, and so on. Enforcing standards around
the data aspect of service design is supported through the information governance
infrastructure.
IBM products for service governance
IBM WebSphere Service Registry and Repository (WSRR) is the master metadata repository
for service definitions and related service metadata. It applies to both traditional web services
that implement WSDL interfaces with SOAP/HTTP bindings and to a broad range of SOA
services that can be described using WSDL, XML Schema Definition Language (XSD), and
policy decorations. WSSR can use a range of protocols, and be implemented according to a
variety of programming models.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
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As the integration point for service metadata, WSRR establishes a central point for finding
and managing service metadata. The service metadata is acquired from several sources:
Service application deployments
Other service metadata
End point registries
Repositories, such as Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI)
WSSR is where service metadata that is scattered across an enterprise is brought together to
provide a single, comprehensive description of a service. Through this approach, visibility is
controlled, versions are managed, proposed changes are analyzed and communicated,
usage is monitored, and other parts of the SOA foundation can access service metadata with
the confidence that they have found the copy of record.
Specifically for SAP deployments, WSRR can be integrated with the SAP Enterprise Service
Registry to extract Enterprise Service definitions and make them available across the
enterprise.
ESB technologies from IBM, such as IBM Integration Bus, provide tight integration with
WSRR. This integration enables the ESB component to use the service configuration defined
with WSRR and enforce defined policies, such as SLAs with service consumers and
applicable routing and transformation logic.
3.5.4 Reliable File Transfer
Solutions that use traditional file transfer technologies suffer from a common set of
challenges:
Management of the connectivity is performed in a distributed fashion, and handled
separately for each system.
Error handling must be managed by the end point applications, for example, restarting a
failed file transfer.
Monitoring of transactions is limited.
Security is inconsistent and complex.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Fileshare
Proprietary
Figure 3-13 shows a tightly-coupled and brittle environment that results from solutions that
use traditional file transfer technologies.
Figure 3-13 Example scenario with traditional file transfer technologies
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
61
Figure 3-14 shows an example of an environment that takes advantage of Reliable File
Transfer technologies.
Documented
Standardized
Solutions
Automation
and
Centralized
Setup
Reliable
Transport
Reliable
Transport
Reliable
Transport
Event based
Centralized
Logging
Reliable
Transport
Centralized
Monitoring
Reliable
Transport
Reliable
Transport
Reliable
Transport
Reliable
Transport
Figure 3-14 Example scenario that takes advantage of Reliable File Transfer technologies
An environment such as the one shown in Figure 3-14 provides central configuration and
setup, centralized logging and monitoring of file transfers, and a standard solution with
established quality of service characteristics for implementing file transfers within the
enterprise. Additionally, because the configuration for the Reliable File Transfer environment
is centrally managed, the resulting solution provides loose coupling and flexibility.
In a typical SAP implementation, there are several scenarios that require the movement of
files from one point to another. Most of these situations involve existing non-SAP application
components that have been in operation for a long time, where file-based interactions are the
most convenient, and in some cases only, way to move the data.
Typically, the middleware integration components (ESB/ETL) are the recipients of the files.
With Reliable File Transfer technologies, the underlying transport can often be changed with
little effect to the application end points.
IBM products for Reliable File Transfer
This section introduces IBM products suitable for solutions based on Reliable File Transfer
technologies.
IBM WebSphere MQ File Transfer Edition
IBM WebSphere MQ File Transfer Edition enables organizations to manage file transfers in
WebSphere MQ environments across a range of platforms and networks. WebSphere MQ
File Transfer Edition builds upon existing WebSphere MQ networks, which are ubiquitous in
many enterprises. Through WebSphere MQ File Transfer Edition, WebSphere MQ queues
are effectively extended into the file system, and can be managed in a central place.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
The following list includes some features and characteristics of WebSphere MQ File Transfer
Edition:
Provides a customized, scalable, and automated solution, enabling managed, trusted, and
secure file transfers while eliminating costly redundancies
Uses existing messaging infrastructure for universal service delivery, including messages,
files, and events
Provides end-to-end audit trail across file transfers
Facilitates a secure and reliable managed file transfer environment across IBM Sterling
Connect:DirectВ® and WebSphere MQ File Transfer Edition end points
Provides reliable transfer of file data between internal systems and B2B gateways
Enables applications (for example, office productivity tools and computer-aided design
(CAD) programs) to use web application programming interfaces (APIs) to move files
Modernizes batch-oriented architecture into micro-batches with simple messaging
conversion
IBM Sterling Connect:Direct
IBM Sterling Connect:Direct is the point-to-point file transfer software optimized for
high-volume, secure, assured delivery of files within and among enterprises. IBM Sterling
Connect:Direct can deliver files with the following characteristics:
Predictability. Assures delivery using automated scheduling, checkpoint restart, and
automatic recovery and retry.
Security. Ensures that the information of an organization stays private, and that the file
transfers are auditable for regulatory compliance using a proprietary protocol,
authorization, and encryption (Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2,
and Common Criteria certified).
Performance. Handles the most demanding loads of an organization, from high volumes of
small files to multi-gigabyte files.
IBM Sterling Connect:Direct is available as licensed on-premises software.
3.5.5 Process services
Process services are technical integration processes that provide advanced integration logic
beyond the typical mediation that is provided by ESB components.
Although process services are typically implemented on a business process management
(BPM) platform, a clear delineation should be drawn between business processes that
provide the logic for business operations (including human interaction by business users) and
process services that provide support for technical integration requirements. Even when
process services can involve human interaction in some cases, the users involved in those
activities are typically in technical support roles.
The following list includes some of the use cases in which process services are used:
Service aggregation
Correlating (asynchronous) requests and responses
Selecting responses from multiple service providers (1 to N)
Orchestrating sequential execution of multiple, dependent services
Transaction management
Complex error handling
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IBM Products for process services
This section introduces IBM products suitable to implement process services.
IBM Integration Bus
IBM Integration Bus can be used to implement simple process services.
IBM Business Process Manager Advanced
IBM Business Process Manager Advanced process server enables the deployment of
standards-based integration logic in an SOA, which provides and consumes services in a
defined executable business process. As a process service engine, the use of IBM Business
Process Manager Advanced process server is restricted to integration components that
provide automated technical services.
3.5.6 Logging and error handling
The logging and error handling component is responsible for recording and tracking
application-level errors, and for providing functions to address those errors. This component
work in conjunction with infrastructure-level monitoring to provide a comprehensive view of
system operations.
All of the components in the enterprise integration services subsystem send events that are
received by the error management component and recorded. After the events are received,
the logging and error handling component can perform the following tasks:
Display the event information.
Send notifications to the appropriate personnel.
Perform automated corrective actions.
In some cases, the corrective action can be to resubmit the original message back through
the middleware components. However, care must be taken when using this approach to
ensure that the resubmitted failed transactions do not overwrite subsequent successful
transactions. This situation can be addressed by designing the interface messages with
information required to detect stale data, or by limiting the scenarios for which the
resubmission is enabled (for example, batch processes that are run infrequently).
3.5.7 Integration workload placement guidelines: ESB versus ETL
For the most part, the individual components within the enterprise integration services have
distinct capabilities, and do not overlap in their functionality. One exception is those interfaces
that involve batch processing, because both the ESB and ETL components have capabilities
that are able to satisfy many batch integration scenarios.
For complex batch interfaces that require staging or cleansing, or that might require parallel
processing for very large amounts of data, the ETL component is best equipped to satisfy the
requirements.
The following questions help to determine which component is best to address a particular
scenario:
What is the nature of the integration? Is it ETL and data synchronization, or transactional?
In some cases, the line between ETL and transactional integrations is a thin one.
Generally, transactional integrations encompass single query, create, or update
transactions, and ETL integrations deal with loading large amounts of data.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Does an ETL job already exist from initial data load that can be reused?
In many cases, the initial data load is performed to move data from an existing system into
a new system, where the new system assumes the business function and the existing
system will be withdrawn from service. However, there are also scenarios where the
existing system remains in place, and the information must be synchronized both as an
initial data load and an ongoing interface. In those situations, the interface design and
related integration logic for the initial data load and ongoing efforts should be harmonized.
It is assumed that the ETL components are used to implement the initial data load logic
from existing applications into the SAP environment. This initial data load activity should
cover most, if not all, of the data elements that are required later for incremental data
synchronization. If this is the case, there is an opportunity to reuse the existing logic.
A key consideration is not just the existence of the data job, but also the level of reuse that
can be achieved. In many cases, a data job created for a one-time, initial data load might
not be robust or complete enough for the purpose of ongoing data synchronization without
additional development. The relationship between the initial data load and the ongoing
interface must be taken into consideration during the design phase.
Will the ETL job provide sufficient decoupling between the integration points?
One of the fundamental principles of SOA (and of integration architecture in general) is
decoupling the systems involved in the interaction from one another. Decoupling pertains
to several aspects of the integration between the source and destination systems,
including but not limited to the following aspects:
– Transport technologies between source and destination, and between multiple sources
– Message formats
– Scheduling and frequency of the interface
Does the data integration require complex transformation logic?
Often, ETL jobs require complex transformation logic on large volumes of data. InfoSphere
DataStage provides facilities for parallel processing of complex data transformations to
achieve high throughputs.
Is data cleansing required before the data is delivered to the destination?
Occasionally, the data provided for ETL requires cleansing and data matching. Traditional
ESB technology does not support this functionality easily, but this functionality is a core
capability of DataStage and IBM InfoSphere QualityStageВ®.
What are the non-functional requirements for the integration, for example, number of
records per message, size per record, frequency of integrations, and so on?
IBM Integration Bus has limits on the size of messages that can be reasonably processed.
A well-established design pattern is to break large messages into smaller batches for
processing. The contents of the large message are read into memory when the smaller
batch of records is loaded, limiting the memory usage for the message flow. In this case,
IBM Integration Bus defines a large message as a size between 5 MB and 100 MB.
Besides memory usage, processor usage must also be considered when handling large
messages in IBM Integration Bus. The performance characteristics of IBM Integration Bus
with regard to large message processing have been tested and documented in the IBM
Integration Bus Performance Report. The characteristics vary somewhat based upon
individual record size and the message format (XML versus delimited or fixed-length
format). However, as is to be expected, larger messages consume more resources, take
longer to process, and enable a lower throughput than smaller messages.
As an example, if the message flow deals with taking in a file and writing out a file, where
the incoming message format is XML, an 8 MB message can be processed at 0.46
messages per second consuming 4467 processor milliseconds (ms) per message.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
65
Performance improves with delimited message formats, processing 3.38 messages per
second and consuming 454 processor ms per message. Although performance figures
are not available for DataStage at this point, processing large messages is a common
scenario for the platform.
The DataStage architecture establishes a grid of sorts to process the large messages in
parallel, and deal with the results simultaneously. Additionally, using DataStage for large
message processing provides a partitioning of the workload that keeps the IBM Integration
Bus resources freed up to handle more transactional workloads.
What are the transactional and error handling requirements of the integration?
The drawback of handling large messages within IBM Integration Bus is the transactional
characteristics of the message flow. If a large message is received, it is processed record
by record, and failed records are handled individually as well. Depending upon the
requirements for the interface, this behavior might be wanted. However, in other cases, an
all-or-nothing approach to processing the message is more appropriate.
3.6 Initial data load
There are two common scenarios for initial data load in SAP solutions:
Deployment of a new SAP application instance. This use case primarily occurs when a
company (often times after a series of mergers and acquisitions) decides to consolidate a
heterogeneous application landscape by replacing existing applications with SAP
applications. This use case requires massive data harmonization from various sources
before it can be loaded to SAP systems.
Consolidation of SAP applications. Some enterprises implemented SAP R/3 by country or
line of business (LOB), and ended up with dozens or hundreds of SAP application
instances. In such scenarios, often as part of upgrading to the SAP Business Application
suite, the SAP application instances have been consolidated to fewer instances, or just
one instance, for a particular application, such as SAP ERP.
Given that no two SAP instances are configured in the same way, this consolidation
requires massive data harmonization toward the new application instance.
The SAP ASAP methodology for implementation is the SAP roadmap for implementing SAP
solutions in a cost-effective, speedy manner. In the SAP ASAP method, the process of data
harmonization to get the data load-ready is known as data conversions, and the specifications
are the CDD documents mentioned in 3.2.1, “Align enterprise integration services with SAP
implementation methodology” on page 41.
IBM offers a unique solution for data conversion, known as IBM InfoSphere Information
Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications, which provides an industrialized approach to
migrate existing data to SAP systems. This solution is composed of three major components:
A proven delivery methodology aligned with the SAP ASAP methodology, reducing the
SAP implementation risk.
IBM InfoSphere Conversion Workbench for SAP Applications. This product provides a
unique set of capabilities targeted toward data migration for SAP applications, drastically
reducing time and efforts while improving data quality with a superior degree of
automation. InfoSphere Conversion Workbench for SAP Applications is built on
InfoSphere Information Server.
InfoSphere Information Server. This product is the enterprise information integration
platform from IBM.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
The following list describes the major benefits of this solution:
Reduction of time and deployment efforts through a high degree of automation of
previously manual tasks, which also reduces errors
Risk mitigation through proven methodology
Improved business process execution through high-quality information
Delivery of a repeatable and reusable infrastructure that can be used for multiple SAP
system rollouts, and for ongoing enterprise integration, quality, and governance
A unique differentiator compared to template-based approaches available in the marketplace
is that, if the SAP target application changes, (for example new Z-tables, new Z-fields,
changes in the SAP check tables storing reference values such as country codes, and so on),
InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications is capable of detecting
such changes. Rather than manually adjusting the ETL logic, the ETL logic can be
re-generated to reflect the changes.
For large SAP implementations with 60 to 80 SAP business objects in scope, each composed
of several data tables with several dozen related check tables, such changes of the SAP
target application during SAP Blueprint and SAP Realization phase occur frequently. The
effort to adjust the templates is substantial, but with InfoSphere Information Server Ready to
Launch for SAP Applications approach it is easy.
Another unique differentiator of the InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP
Applications solution is that if brings data into focus early on in the SAP Blueprint phase, with
features like Business Data Roadmap (BDR). This is important because traditional
approaches to data migration start to look at data much later, as part of the SAP Realization
phase. When the SAP Realization phase starts, project timeline, budget, and so on, have
already been established.
If, after source system analysis, the data quality turns out to be worse than anticipated, it can
cause project delays and budget overruns, because the load-ready data is in the critical path
of the go-live. The InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications
solution takes data off the critical path by looking at data early on in the SAP Blueprint phase
using methodology and tools.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
67
Figure 3-15 shows a conceptual high-level overview of the InfoSphere Information Server
Ready to Launch for SAP Applications solution. A complete description of this solution is
beyond the scope of this book.
Validation and Post Go-Live (Savings 20%- 30%)
Auto-generated SAP extraction jobs to accelerate
data validation process
Complete data lineage
Data Quality framework reused for sustain phase
Conversion (Savings 5%-10%)
Rapid creation of middleware environment
Accelerated data requirements gathering
ETL jobs auto generated from mappings
Reusable jobs for multiple waves
PRELOAD
Standardization (Savings 20%-30%)
Advance standardization tools
Error handling and cleansing jobs
from business rules
SAP Loading (Savings 60%- 80%)
Reusable IDoc load jobs
File creation for LSMW loads
Reusable for multiple waves
ALIGNMENT
STAGING
LEGACY
SOURCES
Quality (Savings 20%-40%)
ERP
MASTER
DATA
Direct connection to source systems
Reusable business rules
Standard profile reports
Mature communication framework
REFERENCE
DATA
REFERENCE
DATA
SAP Readiness (Savings 30%- 40%)
Auto-generated SAP extraction jobs
Real-time configuration validation
Standard gap reports for load forecasting
Transaction data impact reports
Figure 3-15 IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications: Overview
For the SAP Blueprint phase, the IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for
SAP Applications solution provides:
Business Data Roadmap
This is a capability of the InfoSphere Conversion Workbench for SAP Applications. It
enables the functional data analyst to capture all of the functional data requirements of the
SAP target systems. The requirements can be captured early on by participating in the
process workshops during the SAP Blueprint phase.
The functional data analyst does not come empty-handed to the process workshops. With
the help of BDR, the functional data analyst can import the SAP business process
hierarchies, associated business objects, and the data table structures associated with the
business objects. The functional data analyst can then seamlessly capture the attributes
that are in or out of scope, using the BDR web-based user interface (UI).
Some business objects, for example, master data, appear in multiple process domains
such as opportunity-to-order (OTO), order-to-cash (OTC), and so on, which are dealt with
in separate process workshops. The functional data analyst can seamlessly see
conflicting data definitions across process domains with the help of the BDR.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Figure 3-16 shows a sample page of the BDR web-based UI.
Figure 3-16 IBM InfoSphere Conversion Workbench for SAP Applications: BDR web-based UI
Staging area
While the data is moved from source to target, there are staging areas where the data is
persisted while in transit. The staging area is modeled identically to the source system
data models.
The following list describes the key design points for the staging area:
– First, there is a need to have a place to store the source data to avoid having to extract
the data every time a test must be performed during the SAP Realization phase.
Extracting the data every time has a negative effect on the source systems, which are
still production systems at this point.
– Second, data profiling is an input/output (I/O)-intensive task that can have a negative
effect on the performance of the source systems. IBM InfoSphere Information Server
Ready to Launch for SAP Applications includes capabilities, such as Rapid Modeler
and Rapid Generator, that can be used to extract data from existing SAP systems with
just a couple of mouse clicks. The extracted data is moved into the corresponding
staging areas.
For non-SAP systems, the InfoSphere Information Server platform provides suitable
capabilities. InfoSphere Information Server provides data profiling capabilities that help
to analyze the data quality issues of the data sources in the staging area for the
source.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
69
Because the SAP target specification has been identified with the help of the BDR,
performing a fit-gap analysis at this point between source models and source data
quality, and the SAP target, results in the Data Quality Action Plan (DQAP). The DQAP
defines the needed data cleansing activities for the SAP Realization phase. The logical
source to target mappings are also defined during this phase.
For the SAP Realization phase, the IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for
SAP Applications solution provides several key features:
Architecture for alignment and preload areas (Figure 3-15 on page 68)
Both areas are modeled by extracting the SAP target data model for the required scope
from the SAP target system using IBM InfoSphere Rapid Modeler for SAP Applications.
The InfoSphere information architect might remove for the alignment area a couple of the
constraints from the SAP target model to enable all data that has not been cleansed from
the various sources to enter the alignment process in the alignment area.
The preload area is a one-to-one representation of the SAP target model. Therefore, only
records that are compliant with the SAP target model can pass from the alignment area to
the preload area.
The following list describes the key reasons for this architectural design:
– From the various staging areas (one per source) to the alignment area, structural
alignment to a single common model is done by implementing InfoSphere Information
Server-appropriate data model conversions.
In a second step, semantic alignment, called transcoding, is performed to replace the
various different reference data values from the various sources with the corresponding
reference data values from the SAP target system.
When the data is structurally and semantically aligned in the alignment area, a single
and common set of cleansing routines can be applied to all of the data records across
all of the sources.
– Cleansing tasks, such as name and address standardization, matching and
de-duplication, assignment of default values for mandatory fields in the SAP target
system where sources did not have values, and so on, are completed using IBM
InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications. After cleansing
tasks are complete, the data is transformed to a preload model. From the preload area,
all data can then be loaded into the SAP target system.
Reference data management for transcoding
IBM InfoSphere Conversion Workbench for SAP Applications (part of IBM InfoSphere
Information Server Ready to Launch for SAP Applications) provides the ability to
automatically download, from sources and the SAP target, the reference data tables into
the IBM InfoSphere MDM Reference Data Management Hub application, which enables
you to manage reference data efficiently.
The functional data analyst uses the IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready to Launch
for SAP Applications web UI to define transcoding tables by aligning the source reference
data values with their appropriate SAP target reference.
After the functional data analyst defines the transcoding tables using this capability, the
transcoding tables are pushed by the IBM InfoSphere Conversion Workbench for SAP
Applications into the ETL environment. ETL routines use the transcoding tables as part of
the semantic alignment to replace the source reference data values with their SAP target
reference data values.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Gap reports
The gap reports measure key data quality characteristics to determine load readiness of
the data for the SAP target system. The gap reports can run on the alignment and preload
area. The gap reports can measure various metrics:
– Completeness.
– Category completeness. For example, customer records in different account groups
can have different completeness requirements
– Validity. Compliance with reference data values in the check tables of the SAP target
system, cross-business object dependencies, for example, the order object depends
on customer and material, and so on.
The beauty of the gap reports is that they are driven by the SAP metadata and
configuration of the SAP target system. Therefore, the measurement logic is dynamically
generated based on the current state of the SAP target system just before execution.
Therefore, it truly measures load readiness from the SAP target system perspective.
The following list describe the benefits of the gap reports:
– Gap reports enable project management to see how much progress, in terms of
correcting data quality issues, has been made since the gap reports were previously
run. Gap reports can run daily, weekly, and so on, depending on project needs.
– Gap reports enable you to determine whether the data is load-ready, because they
measure the constraints enforced by the SAP interfaces.
– Gap reports measure actual data quality constraints, because the measurement logic
is generated just before running the gap reports. Manual errors are avoided due to
generation of the measurement logic.
– Gap reports, as shown in Figure 3-17 on page 72, enable you to view the data quality
issues by data quality exception type per field, record, table, and SAP business object
level, with appropriate drill-through capabilities.
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
71
Figure 3-17 shows sample gap reports in IBM InfoSphere Information Server Ready to
Launch for SAP Applications.
Figure 3-17 Sample gap reports
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3.7 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP BW
http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/infosphere-information-server-pack-s
ap-bw
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/infosphere-information-server-pack-sapapplications
IBM MQ
http://www.ibm.com/software/websphere/ibm-mq.html
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Family
http://www.ibm.com/software/data/integration/info_server/
IBM WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/websphere-adapter-mysap
WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software documentation
http://ibm.co/1lNkkxi
IBM WebSphere Transformation Extender
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/wdatastagetx
IBM WebSphere DataPower SOA Appliances
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/datapower
IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Cloud Integration
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/castiron-cloud-integration
IBM InfoSphere DataStage
http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/ibminfodata
Chapter 3. Enterprise integration services for SAP
73
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
4
Chapter 4.
Process optimization for SAP
IBM Smarter Process is a set of business process enhancement and optimization tools that
work together to improve the business outcomes of business processes. IBM software
products for Smarter Process include IBM Business Process Manager, IBM Operational
Decision Manager, IBM Business Monitor, and IBM WebSphere Business Events.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP is a set of integrated capabilities contained in the IBM Smarter
Process software product offerings listed previously that are designed to improve the delivery
of SAP implementations, and to amplify SAP business value after the implementation.
Many of these capabilities are available in every edition of IBM Business Process Manager
(Express, Standard, and Advanced), although comprehensive technical integration using
SAP technical services requires IBM Business Process Manager Advanced and the IBM
WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software.
This chapter explores how IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities can be used to
accomplish the following goals:
Decrease SAP implementation complexity, and lower cost and risk.
Improve strategic alignment of the SAP solution.
Improve the visibility, flexibility, agility, and control of SAP processes as they are running.
Provide an effective platform for continuous active business performance optimization.
This chapter includes the following topics:
4.1, “SAP solutions as a system of engagement” on page 76
4.2, “Architecture overview” on page 77
4.3, “SAP active business performance optimization architecture” on page 78
4.4, “IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities” on page 81
4.5, “IBM Smarter Process for SAP products and solutions” on page 104
4.6, “How IBM Smarter Process for SAP creates sustained business value” on page 105
4.7, “IBM Smarter Process for SAP usage scenarios” on page 106
4.8, “Conclusion” on page 114
4.9, “Other IBM Software Group publications, assets, and tools” on page 116
4.10, “IBM Global Business Services SAP assets and tools” on page 116
4.11, “References” on page 116
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
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4.1 SAP solutions as a system of engagement
Highly tailored web applications, dedicated mobile applications, and other systems of
engagement are essential to meeting modern business expectations for market differentiation,
business performance, and self-service. Conversely, enterprise resource planning (ERP)
systems, such as SAP and other back-office packaged applications, provide a highly robust
transactional environment.
This environment is typically optimized for transactional speed and configurability of core
business functionality. Businesses today are increasingly demanding system of engagement
usability and differentiation, not only in their external-facing applications, but in their core
execution systems as well.
Because SAP applications provide user interfaces and some concept of process, most SAP
implementations use the SAP transactional backbone (their systems of record) as their default
system of engagement for the vast majority of their business processes. This suboptimal
approach marries an organization’s business processes, and their associated business
policies, to a less-than-user-friendly platform that is bound by the constraints of information
technology (IT) application lifecycle management (ALM).
In most enterprises, this lifecycle typically spans three to six months, and in some cases a
year or more. Yet a wide range of business changes should optimally be implemented in a
matter of days or weeks, not months. Figure 4-1 shows how IBM Business Process Manager
can be used as the system of engagement for the SAP system of record.
Вѓ The premiere BPM platform, providing a formal
and complete process management paradigm
Вѓ Simpler SAP configuration and
transaction tailoring
Process Layer /
System of
Engagement
Вѓ Flexible, highly productive user interface
Вѓ The right amount of process differentiation,
driven by business need – not time and cost
Вѓ Configurable, robust and complete
transactional capabilities
Вѓ Most user interfaces
Transactional Layer /
System of Record
Вѓ Extensive integration capabilities
Figure 4-1 Layers of business functionality
The constraints of an IT-bound system of engagement also impose an array of technical and
implementation complexities that artificially inflate the cost and risk associated with both
building and changing business processes and business policy.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
These complexities, and inflated cost and risk, further complicate the mission-critical task of
establishing and maintaining the proper strategic alignment of business functionality provided
by SAP with an ever-evolving set of dynamic business needs. Visibility, flexibility, agility, and
control of SAP processes are also impaired by the sheer complexity of configuring,
customizing, and maintaining business processes in what is essentially an IT-managed
system of record.
Opportunities for continuous process improvement and business performance optimization
are limited through the use of a system of engagement that is intrinsically bound by the IT
application lifecycle. Conversely, business-led change, enabled by a flexible process layer in
the system of engagement, can deliver dramatically enhanced flexibility, agility, and control
over the traditional SAP implementation approach.
Externalizing at least some degree of SAP process control also has other core benefits. Many
types of SAP customizations, including user interface changes, business rule changes, the
addition of custom fields used primarily during the lifetime of a process instance, and
transaction decomposition, can be more easily accomplished in an external process layer
than in Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP) or Java changes in SAP. The
complexity of impact analysis and SAP version-related changes can be reduced as well.
Embedding business rules to control business logic and process routing in an external
process layer also reduces the amount and complexity of certain types of SAP configuration
and customization activities, such as approval authority, skill matching, pricing, and
automated credit approval. Not only does IBM Smarter Process for SAP reduce the need for
SAP customization and configuration, it also improves the speed with which many common
types of business process and policy changes can be made.
4.2 Architecture overview
IBM Smarter Process for SAP solutions provide a comprehensive set of integration
capabilities with the SAP environment, both at design time and at run time (see Figure 4-2).
Orchestrate SAP
processes and
services
SD
Sales &
Distribution
MM
Materials
Mgmt.
FI
Financial
Accounting
CO
Controlling
AA
Asset
Accounting
PP
Production
Planning
SM
Service
Mgmt.
QM
Quality
Mgmt.
SAP
Applications
PM
Plant
Maintenance
Monitor SAP
Business Events
Download processes from
SAP Solution Manager
Upload processes to
SAP Solution Manager
HR
Human
Resources
EC
Enterprise
Controlling
PS
Project
System
WF
Workflo
w
IS
Industry
Solutions
Retrieve Enterprise
Service Definitions
Figure 4-2 IBM Smarter Process for SAP integration capabilities
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
77
Design time integration begins with model exchange between the IBM Business Process
Manager Process Designer and SAP Solution Manager. Process models can originate in the
following ways:
As business process hierarchies (BPHs) in SAP Solution Manager or in the SAP Business
Process Repository (BPR)
As business process diagrams (BPDs) in IBM Process Designer
Changes can be made in either the IBM Business Process Manager or SAP repository, and
the model interchange capabilities of IBM Business Process Manager ensure highly reliable
bidirectional model exchange between the two repositories.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP also provides integration with the SAP Enterprise Service
Repository (ESR), which contains a library of the SAP Enterprise Services, Business Process
Execution Language (BPEL) processes, and other process-related metadata useful at design
time. IBM Business Process Manager can also import process models from several other
modeling tools as well, such as Microsoft Visio and Aris.
After a model has been imported into or constructed in IBM Process Designer, the IBM
Business Process Manager environment can orchestrate the following elements:
SAP process components, such as SAP transactions or Web Dynpro applications
SAP technical services, such as Business Application Program Interfaces (BAPIs), SAP
Enterprise Services, other SAP Representational State Transfer (REST) APIs, and so on
Orchestrating SAP processes in IBM Business Process Manager uses well-encapsulated
process execution steps that provide separation of responsibility between the process layer of
the business and the transactional layer of the application environment.
Additionally, IBM Smarter Process for SAP can ingest and monitor SAP business events and
metrics. This enables the process layer to be aware of and act upon important business
activity occurring in the SAP application environment, regardless of whether an SAP process
is being orchestrated by IBM Business Process Manager.
When an SAP business event is received by IBM Smarter Process for SAP, new process
instances can be initiated, suspended processes can be resumed, and complex event
combinations can be correlated, resolved, and acted upon.
The net effect of this comprehensive integration with SAP is to provide the complete set of
design time and runtime tools required to enable business and IT teams to quickly design,
manage, and deploy SAP processes without the high level of complexity typically associated
with the traditional SAP process paradigm. At the same time, it provides a distinct separation
of responsibilities between the transactional backbone and the process layer, to improve
business agility and process flexibility.
4.3 SAP active business performance optimization architecture
The goal of implementing IBM Smarter Process for SAP solutions is to improve business
outcomes. The science of analyzing, designing, and implementing these outcome
improvements is typically referred to as business optimization. Most of the business
optimization occurring in businesses today typically takes the form of passive business
optimization (the following activities are generally optional and performed offline):
Analyzing what needs to be improved
Analyzing how it could potentially be improved
Taking action to improve the business situation
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Additionally, the data used to perform passive business optimization analysis is normally
derived from business warehouses, such as the SAP Business Warehouse (BW) and other
historical data stores. As a result, the data used for passive optimization is generally
aggregate in nature, and trend-centric in scope. This leads to the discovery of scenarios that
tend to point to systemic issues and generalized patterns, as opposed to solutions for
specific, more granular business scenarios.
Although offline passive forms of business optimization certainly provide tremendous value to
the business, there is a large corpus of business optimization potential still untapped in
currently running business processes. By comparison, active business performance
optimization generally derives much of its data from currently running process instances, and
tends to identify patterns that can be addressed within the time frame of a running process.
The old adage that “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” certainly applies to
business practice. Active performance optimization treatments by their nature help to identify,
analyze, and resolve potentially catastrophic business scenarios before they can have
negative consequences. Active performance optimization can also address some of the more
mundane scenarios that, although not exciting individually, often contribute in aggregate to
solving some serious business problems and issues.
There are several components to an effective active business performance optimization
architecture:
The business needs to establish and maintain an appropriate level of actionable
operational visibility.
Business processes must be agile enough to accommodate change within the lifespan of
a running process instance.
The business must have a focus on value realization, without which the previous two
elements would be without context.
Active business performance optimization requires the use of business enablers that can
detect or even predict the occurrence of a negative business scenario. This capability is
known as operational visibility. IBM Smarter Process for SAP enables the businesses to
properly define, calculate, and act upon their important key performance indicators (KPIs) and
performance thresholds.
It also includes capabilities that enable the business user, or the process control layer, to
group instances of running processes into various subsets based on the static and dynamic
parameters of the running process instance. IBM Smarter Process for SAP also provides
guided optimization tools, to help with the application of both active and passive optimization
techniques in the operational realm. Detection, however, is only half of the equation.
The business processes supporting the business objective must be flexible and agile enough
to accommodate short-term, even one-off, solutions to a business optimization opportunity.
This rapid response mechanism is known as process agility. This agility can only be realized
if the business process, and the business rules supporting business policy, can be changed
within a time frame that can capitalize upon the business opportunity during the lifetime of a
running process instance.
In most traditional SAP implementations, rapid business-led change is virtually impossible.
Rapid change is difficult because business processes and business rules are typically
dictated by the configuration parameters of the SAP platform, and must proceed through the
lengthy and costly IT application lifecycle.
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
79
Conversely, IBM Smarter Process for SAP is designed to enable rapid, business-led change
that reduces the likelihood of a process, or policy changes, requiring IT lifecycle governance.
Therefore, IBM Smarter Process for SAP enables short turnaround of business process
changes in response to newly identified business optimization opportunities.
An important component of active business performance optimization is a focus on value
realization. SAP implementation projects have historically focused heavily on establishing
and maintaining the correct operational procedures to run the core transactional activity of the
system. Accordingly, most SAP implementation projects have not concurrently introduced
value realization practices as part of the implementation and, consequently, important value
management discipline is deferred, sometimes indefinitely.
As indicated in Figure 4-3, IBM Smarter Process for SAP design-time and runtime integration
capabilities can be included in a much broader active business optimization architecture for
SAP. Business metrics, business analytics, and real-time business event sources can be
combined, using the IBM Operational Decision Manager event engine as the master event
source sink and correlation for SAP-specific, heterogeneous, and non-SAP sources.
Real-Time Event
Sources
SAP Solution
Manager
SAP Application
Business Events
Other
Applications and
Operational Data
Stores
Event Management
and Active Analytics
Business
alerts
IBM Operational
Decision Manager
Event Engine
Real-time
granular
events
IBM Business
Monitor
Aggregate Analytics
Sources
Traditional
aggregate
KPIs
Traditional
aggregate
KPIs and
analytics
Traditional
aggregate
KPIs and
analytics
Traditional KPIs
and alerts;
granular events
Action triggers
IBM Business
Process
Manager
SAP Solution
Manager
SAP Business
Warehouse
Other Data
Warehouses and
Marts
Real-time
granular events
IBM Operational
Decision Manager
Rules Engine
Orchestration, response
and adaptive processes
Figure 4-3 IBM active business performance optimization architecture
Using a single event management engine for all significant granular and aggregate business
event sources is the only effective way to deliver an integrated view of the important events in
the business, enabling you to act upon critical scenarios. Business event sources can include
both SAP and non-SAP applications, data stores, and processes.
Business alerts from SAP Solution Manager, business events emitted by SAP business
applications, and alerts generated by the SAP BW can easily be ingested, correlated, and
acted upon. Business alerts, business events, and other relevant business information from
non-SAP applications and business intelligence stores can equally be ingested, correlated,
and acted upon.
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Proper correlation of business events, especially when they come from disparate
applications, is a complex undertaking. Most importantly, the occurrence of critical non-events
must be easily detected and communicated.
The powerful inference engine found in IBM Operational Decision Manager provides tools
that can be used by the business to rationalize and unify data definitions, properly define
correlation schemes, and run specific correlation scenarios. Although some data and
integration setup is required from IT, the bulk of the business scenario analysis, design, and
maintenance can be accomplished by the business. The business requires only occasional
assistance from IT to accommodate new or changing business event sources.
After an event or combination of events requiring action has occurred, the IBM Operational
Decision Manager event engine triggers action in IBM Business Process Manager. Activities
within the orchestrated action that has been triggered can themselves also generate events
that can, in turn, be monitored, analyzed, and acted upon. The generated events become part
of the original correlation scenario that triggered the initial action.
4.4 IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities
Whether organizations are embarking on a new SAP implementation, implementing a new
SAP application module, facing an SAP version migration, or some scenario in between, IBM
Smarter Process for SAP helps them to accomplish the following goals:
Quickly know the status of key processes.
Ensure that the process they designed is the process that is being run.
Get real-time visibility into where workload or other bottlenecks are causing business
issues.
Effectively reroute work to less experienced workers to reduce bottlenecks.
Know which process changes are most likely to help improve business performance.
Quickly roll out SAP process changes.
Quickly integrate new process workers into the business.
Documenting a business process in a modeling tool is only the first step in optimizing a
business process. By using IBM Smarter Process for SAP, that same process model, used
today for documentation purposes only, can be used to run, monitor, and manage a business
process at any level.
Applying this external execution-centric paradigm to SAP process management facilitates an
iterative solution delivery process and maintenance approach that reduces implementation
time, costs, and risks. It also enables processes to be changed and enhanced at the pace
demanded by the business.
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
81
Figure 4-4 shows the key interrelated process innovation capabilities for SAP application
environments.
Innovation
Reduce
blueprinting time,
cost, and risk
Transformation
Improve process
reliability, flexibility,
visibility, and control
Iterative
Business
Blueprinting
Process
Discovery and
Monitoring
Use an iterative,
experiential-based
approach to
accelerate
traditional SAP
blueprinting with
SAP Solution
Manager
Mine SAP
Business Events
to discover actual
processes and act
in real time to
business
challenges
Guided
Workflow
Interactively guide
end users through
SAP screens to
improve productivity,
visibility and
consistency
Improve process
efficiency and reduce
business complexity
Process
Integration and
Orchestration
Optimize process
steps to improve
cycle time,
manageability and
visibility of key
processes
Decision
Automation
Automate
complex
decision making
to reduce
bottlenecks and
improve
business
outcomes
Process
Automation
Dramatically
reduce the cycle
time of high volume
processes by
reducing/removing
human interaction
Business Optimization Potential
Figure 4-4 Optimizing SAP processes with IBM Business Process Manager: IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities
For any given process, IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities are normally used
according to the mix required for the process type and the business optimization wanted. IBM
currently provides a process affinity and value assessment workshop at no charge, to help
organizations determine which of their SAP, heterogeneous, and non-SAP processes will
likely benefit the most from IBM Smarter Process for SAP. The workshop also helps them
determine which IBM Smarter Process capabilities are likely to help the most for
each process.
To deliver these capabilities, IBM Business Process Manager provides best-in-class
integration with key SAP design repositories and the SAP runtime environment. Process
models can be exchanged bi-directionally and iteratively between IBM Business Process
Manager and the SAP Solution Manager BPH repository.
All of the process step properties, such as SAP logical components, SAP transaction codes,
documentation links, Implementation Management Guide (IMG) links and so on, can be
defined directly in IBM Business Process Manager and then uploaded to SAP Solution
Manager (and vice versa). Complete conflict detection and resolution capabilities are also
provided, to help ensure complete process model fidelity and synchronization between IBM
Business Process Manager and SAP Solution Manager.
IBM Business Process Manager enables easy orchestration of SAP transactions and Web
Dynpro applications, without the need for IT development or coding. For more sophisticated
process needs, IBM Business Process Manager can also enable process designers to
browse, select, and automatically encapsulate and bind SAP technical services.
These service types include the SAP BAPIs, SAP Enterprise Services (web services),
document flows, SAP High-Performance Analytic Appliance (HANA) APIs, and other forms of
SAP technical integration. Both SAP transactions and technical services can be easily
orchestrated from IBM Business Process Manager, and the resulting process flow can be
used to update the BPH in SAP Solution Manager.
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SAP business events, emitted whenever users or programs run SAP transactions (with or
without IBM Business Process Manager orchestration), can be easily consumed, correlated
and analyzed, providing a rich real-time business visibility, management, and value realization
platform. When used together, these capabilities enable any organization to quickly define,
change, deploy, and manage their key SAP and heterogeneous business processes.
4.4.1 SAP Solution Manager integration
A BPH stored in SAP Solution Manager, such as the one in Figure 4-5, can be easily
imported into IBM Business Process Manager.
Figure 4-5 SAP Solution Manager BPH
The reverse is also true. An SAP process originally defined in IBM Business Process
Manager can be exported to SAP Solution Manager as an SAP Solution Manager BPH.
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
83
Figure 4-6 shows the logon screen for an SAP Solution Manager import or export interaction.
Previous SAP Solution Manager connections and credentials can optionally be stored in the
IBM Business Process Manager Process Center repository.
Figure 4-6 SAP Solution Manager connection
Importing an SAP BPH into IBM Business Process Manager is straightforward. Figure 4-7
illustrates the way that SAP Solution Manager Business Scenarios and business processes
are selected for import. Users have the option of selecting from the following choices:
A single business process
Multiple business processes
An entire business scenario
Multiple complete business scenarios
The entire SAP Solution Manager project
Figure 4-7 Select items to import from SAP Solution Manager
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When imported, the hierarchical representation of the BPH in SAP Solution Manager is
converted into a linear process flow in IBM Business Process Manager, as shown in
Figure 4-8.
Figure 4-8 Default IBM Business Process Manager process after SAP Solution Manager import
In addition to importing BPH process steps, IBM Business Process Manager also imports the
complete set of SAP implementation content that is stored in SAP Solution Manager for a
given process or process step. This includes SAP transaction codes (TCODES), TCODE
scoping, documentation links, and links to one or more SAP IMGs that are used for many
SAP configuration activities.
In short, any BPH-related content that can be stored in SAP Solution Manager can be
created, edited, and deleted in IBM Business Process Manager. This functionality provides a
more convenient and complete approach for defining, refining, and communicating SAP
business processes. During the import process, SAP Logical Components are mapped
directly into IBM Business Process Manager swimlanes as a starting point for additional
process refinement and definition.
For human-centric process steps, the default swimlane assignment used by the import
function should be changed to reflect the actual workgroup, department, or individual process
step assignments. Additional refinement of the business process definition to include manual
steps, such as approval steps and escalation paths, is normally required to convert the BPH
into a more complete process definition that is ready to be run.
When a business process definition has been completed in IBM Business Process Manager,
or is ready for upload to SAP Solution Manager, the SAP Solution Manager export function is
started from within IBM Process Designer. Similar to the import function, the user can select
which processes or scenarios they want to update in SAP Solution Manager. Any conflicts or
errors are identified, and the update is suspended for those processes that have errors or
conflicts until these issues have been resolved.
The lifecycle management tools available in IBM Rational products can substantially enhance
the governance aspects of the innovative SAP process design and execution approach
available with IBM Business Process Manager. Rational tools extend IBM Business Process
Manager capabilities by enabling you to map processes to requirements, test assets (such as
test plans and test cases), and work items (such as plan items or user stories).
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
85
By linking process design artifacts with lifecycle management assets, the real-time planning
and in-context collaboration capabilities of the Rational Collaborative Lifecycle Management
(CLM) platform help project teams to apply lean and agile principles across the solution
delivery lifecycle.
4.4.2 SAP Guided Workflow
Some non-IBM process modeling tools (such as Aris from Software AG) also offer
bidirectional BPH exchange with SAP Solution Manager. These tools are primarily
modeling-only environments.
The key benefits of these tools are to help streamline the process definition phase, and to
improve the quality of the documentation delivered for downstream phases of the
implementation lifecycle. The end result is a small, incremental improvement to the
implementation project proper, but not the kinds of transformational changes that most SAP
clients would like to see in both the implementation and post-implementation phases.
IBM Business Process Manager, however, goes well beyond simply adding value to the
blueprinting phase with improved documentation. With IBM Business Process Manager,
every process model, regardless of its maturity level, can be run, either with what is called a
playback or by initiating the process from the user task portal.
At a minimum, the various pathways through the process flow can be easily visualized,
exercised, and analyzed. However, the most impactful benefits of IBM Smarter Process for
SAP transcend simply walking through the process steps from the picture of the process flow.
User interface placeholders, mock-ups, screen captures, real SAP transactions, and
prototypes can easily be added for improved clarity and realism of the playback exercises.
Additionally, the standard IBM Business Process Manager process metrics, including but not
limited to the following metrics, are automatically set up, calculated, and displayed by the IBM
Business Process Manager environment, with no additional development required beyond
defining the process:
Total process cycle time
Process step time
Process step average queue size
Process step queue size at time of execution
Arguably the most important SAP-related feature of IBM Business Process Manager is its
ability to automatically generate a complete orchestration of the transactional steps needed
for an SAP process.
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This simple to use, business-led style of process orchestration, shown in Figure 4-9, requires
no IT development, and is called SAP Guided Workflow.
Yes
Select
customer
VD03 - Display
customer
master
VA01 Create sales
order
VOK0 Maintain
Pricing
New pricing
Required?
No
SAP Process Flow
in IBM BPM V8
CK51N - Create
Order BOM
Cost Estimate
IW21 - Create
notification
Transactions
(Native SAP Screens)
Automatically Invoked in SAP
Invoke the correct SAP transaction sequence for each process instance, while gaining
real time insight into business performance issues and opportunities
Figure 4-9 How SAP guided workflow works
As depicted in Figure 4-10, each SAP transaction in an SAP Guided Workflow process flow is
exposed in the SAP Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) graphical user interface (GUI), in an
iFrame in the IBM Business Process Manager user interface (UI), or in a coach view.
Figure 4-10 An SAP process step started with SAP Guided Workflow
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87
IBM Business Process Manager automatically presents each SAP transaction as a standard
IBM Business Process Manager process step. These capabilities are available both during
blueprinting and at run time in the production environment. The full set of IBM Business
Process Manager SAP Guided Workflow capabilities currently supports both SAP standard
and custom transactions and SAP Web Dynpro applications.
Rather than simply providing screen mockups or static screen captures of the UI for a process
step, IBM Business Process Manager actually starts the real SAP screens and business
functionality provided by the SAP transaction or Web Dynpro application. Process designers
and business participants in the process design exercise can now directly experience what
the process flow will actually be, using the real SAP screens that will be used for training and
in production.
This capability facilitates a more thorough process analysis and design, and enables business
users who might not associate well with process pictures to fully participate in key process
design and validation activities. In addition to drawing the picture of the process, IBM
Business Process Manager must be able to connect to the SAP runtime system that will be
delivering the SAP transactions and related business functionality. The simple parameters
required to do so (System Name, Location, Client, and Port) are illustrated in Figure 4-11.
Figure 4-11 Setting the SAP runtime environment
Another key activity required to deliver a functionally complete SAP Guided Workflow process
is to map values to and from SAP screen fields. This activity is required, for example, to pass
an order number generated from an SAP order capture transaction into the downstream steps
of the process, such as validation, pricing, picking, shipping, and invoicing.
IBM Business Process Manager enables non-IT process designers to easily retrieve data
entered into any field of any SAP transaction or Web Dynpro application, and to store it in the
process instance as a variable. IBM Business Process Manager also enables non-IT process
designers to pass constants, process instance data, data entered into an SAP screen in a
previous process step, or any other value into any field of any SAP transaction or Web Dynpro
application being started as part of an SAP Guided Workflow process step.
Lastly, IBM Business Process Manager SAP Guided Workflow also enables the process
designer to capture which action buttons have been activated inside of an SAP transaction.
This approach helps to either confirm that the correct SAP steps have been completed, or to
identify and ultimately fix the possible occurrence of unnecessary or erroneous
sub-transactional activity. This bidirectional access to SAP screen data gives the process
designer powerful tools to accomplish the following goals:
Simplify work content.
Reduce data entry workload and errors.
Improve overall transactional accuracy.
Reduce the need for business users to remember complex combinations of reference data
to properly complete a transaction.
Capture and rectify sources of confusion and errors.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Smarter Process for SAP takes a process definition intended primarily for documentation
purposes and automatically converts that definition into a fully orchestrated business process
under IBM Business Process Manager control, without IT involvement. All of the important
orchestration capabilities are fully enabled by the IBM Business Process Manager automated
SAP Guided Workflow capability, without the need for any additional development:
Assessing process status
Routing work to the correct users
Escalating problem process instances
Starting exception or remediation processes
Figure 4-12 (with reference numbers) and Table 4-1 (providing a detailed explanation)
illustrate how SAP Guided Workflow can be easily enhanced into a more complete process
definition. That process definition can be used in all of the key process lifecycle areas:
Design, prototype, test, train, and deploy into production.
Figure 4-12 Enhancing the base SAP Guided Workflow
Table 4-1 Enhanced SAP Guided Workflow with process legend
Reference
number
Description
1
Swimlanes. Each swimlane defines a team of business users that can run tasks in the
given swimlane. Each team also has a manager who can supervise and manage the
tasks and users using the IBM Business Process Manager Process Portal.
2
Rework loop. A decision node was added to ensure that sales managers will inspect
the Sales Order (VA03) transaction. The manager can then decide if the Sales Order
must be altered (VA03) or is ready for further processing.
3
This is an automated service that accepts the Sales Order Number from VA02, and the
Delivery Number from VL01N, and processes them.
4
This is an automated step that accepts the Sales Order Number and returns the sales
order amount for use in the decision service.
5
This is a decision node that starts an IBM Operational Decision Manager rule (using
the embedded IBM Business Process Manager business rules engine). This rule
determines if a Sales Order review is required (VA03), or whether to go straight to
creating the delivery (VL01N).
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89
Processes based on SAP Guided Workflow require minimal investment to build, deploy, and
maintain, yet deliver the key active business performance optimization capabilities that an
organization needs to get the most value from their SAP investment. For example,
Figure 4-13 depicts the use of the IBM Business Process Manager happy path (best case
route) analysis tool to clearly show the business why and what percentage of the time that
suboptimal process instances occur.
Figure 4-13 SAP process happy path analysis in IBM Business Process Manager
In this example, only 83% of the orders created actually move to downstream steps in the
process. Perhaps most importantly, fully 25% of the orders that do proceed require additional
verification. By knowing these two facts, the process owner can investigate why these
deviations from the happy path are occurring, and take remedial action.
One of the most common ways to continue optimizing the process is to analyze average wait
times and trends to help understand the total effect of non-happy path process steps on cycle
time, as shown in Figure 4-14.
Figure 4-14 SAP process wait time analysis in IBM Business Process Manager
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Because the picture of the process is the process, IBM Smarter Process for SAP enables the
process designer to make a significant percentage of the changes identified by this type of
analysis directly in the process definition itself. This is significantly faster, less expensive, and
more reliable than the classic SAP process change approach.
The classic approach uses a fairly prolonged sequence of documentation, communication,
training, and IT-level configuration or coding changes to effect even seemingly simple
business-level changes. This is but one example of the powerful process analysis tools
available in IBM Business Process Manager to help organizations improve the visibility,
flexibility, agility, and control of their SAP processes.
4.4.3 Process orchestration, integration, and event management
Not every process step of an SAP or heterogeneous process can be orchestrated exclusively
with IBM Business Process Manager SAP Guided Workflow capabilities. For example, some
processes include simple approvals or escalation steps. These additional steps can be easily
added to a process flow based on SAP Guided Workflow using traditional IBM Business
Process Manager coach building and decisioning capabilities. This approach provides a fast
and easy way to enhance basic SAP Guided Workflow capabilities.
For more extensive process steps, deeper technical integration with SAP and non-SAP
applications is often required to consolidate and synchronize data across systems, deliver
customized user interfaces, and integrate SAP process steps into broader end-to-end flows.
As shown in Figure 4-15, IBM Smarter Process for SAP offers several process integration
alternatives to accommodate these more advanced SAP integration scenarios. Traditional
methods of SAP technical integration, such as SAP BAPIs, SAP Enterprise Services, SAP
REST APIs, and SAP Intermediate Documents (IDocs), among others, are fully supported.
BAPIs
SAP Guided Workflow
Process Orchestration
and/or Automation
with BAPIs and other
SAP APIs
Process Orchestration
and/or Automation
with SAP Enterprise
Services
Express, Standard or
Advanced (BPMN)
Advanced Only
(BPEL)
Advanced Only
(BPEL)
Figure 4-15 Styles of SAP technical integration
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91
These powerful, open standards-based interfaces facilitate SAP integration by enabling the
use of tools that support web services and SAP technical standards. However, this openness
has historically come at the cost of complexity, because SAP technical integration generally
requires coding and repetitive manual binding and encapsulation activities. IBM Business
Process Manager, however, delivers advanced functionality to reduce the investment, risk,
and complexity of using these powerful SAP technical integration services.
Figure 4-16 illustrates how IBM Smarter Process for SAP simplifies the invocation of SAP
technical services at design time.
Create Sales Order
Create Sales Order
IBM BPM SAP
Integration Module
IBM BPM SAP
Integration Module
Automatic generate SAP service interface,
encapsulation and binding for BAPI, REST,
Enterprise Services, IDOC, etc.
Figure 4-16 SAP technical integration in IBM Process Designer
IBM Smarter Process for SAP simplifies the technical invocation of SAP technical services so
that non-programmers can select, use, and reuse these powerful services as part of a
process orchestration flow, as though they were just another step in the business process.
This approach enables the process designer to easily begin to optimize SAP business
processes by using these services to perform the following activities:
Automate inter-transaction activities, such as queries and lookups.
Simplify work by reducing error-prone data entry.
Potentially eliminate downstream activities based on the current business state of
the process.
As shown in Figure 4-17, a business author or process designer defines the need for an SAP
technical service interface in the context of a business process design.
Start
StartSAP
SAP
transaction
transaction
Business interface
to run SAP
transaction
Figure 4-17 Inside the Advanced Integration Service (AIS) for SAP
The business author or process designer will typically describe the overall function needed
from the service, and usually point to one or more SAP transactions that provide similar
functionality. An SAP architect or technical resource then identifies which SAP technical
services are required to meet the needs of the service request from the business author.
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Using IBM Integration Designer and IBM Business Process Manager Advanced Edition, an IT
developer then discovers the correct SAP technical services using the automated SAP
service discovery tool. The developer then starts the Advanced Integration Service (AIS)
implementation pattern to generate the implementation, as shown in Figure 4-18.
Figure 4-18 AIS pattern generator in IBM Integration Designer
Figure 4-19 illustrates how an IT developer starts the IBM Integration Designer AIS pattern to
automatically bind, encapsulate, and generate the code required to run the SAP technical
service as a simple process step in IBM Process Designer.
Figure 4-19 Selecting parameters for automated AIS generation for SAP
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
93
The generated mediation pattern includes service invocation, fault handling (both business
and technical), and data mapping (input data, output data, and faults), as shown in
Figure 4-20.
Figure 4-20 Default error handling in the AIS for SAP
The final step is for the IT developer to use the standard IBM Integration Designer graphical
data mapping tools to complete the data mapping between the AIS and the SAP technical
service.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
As Figure 4-21 shows, the IT developer can also trim any unwanted output from the SAP
technical service to streamline usage of the AIS for typical business scenarios composed in
IBM Process Designer.
Figure 4-21 Reducing AIS for SAP interface complexity
This approach masks the complexity of SAP technical integration for the business process
designer. It also enables process designers to seamlessly integrate both human-centric and
technical interfaces, all in the same process model and in the same manner.
Compared with manual approaches to using SAP technical integration, IBM Smarter Process
for SAP saves substantial time and money, reduces project risk, and encourages the adoption
of active business performance optimization. IBM Business Process Manager SAP technical
integration pattern technology also automatically applies a consistent set of leading practices
for SAP technical integration, further reducing the investment required to build, use, and
maintain the use of powerful SAP technical integration capabilities.
4.4.4 Process discovery and monitoring
Due to the inherent limitations of the documentation-centric approach typically used to
implement SAP solutions, SAP business process documentation is quickly outdated and out
of sync with the actual processes being used inside the business. Fortunately, SAP provides
its customers with a set of business events that can be analyzed offline to better understand
the actual processes in use and their performance characteristics.
The data treatment techniques and discovery process required to gain this insight are quite
complex, so most organizations do not use SAP Business Events for this purpose.
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
95
Figure 4-22 shows how IBM Smarter Process for SAP offers a distinctive set of capabilities
that help business users understand their actual SAP processes by showing the SAP
transaction flows in a process view, without requiring orchestration of the SAP processes.
In the bottom part of the screen, users can see a picture of their SAP process, with key
process and business content data and analytics available for each process step, and for the
process at large. Standard process analytics include but are not limited to the following list:
Total cycle time
Activity time
Activity queue time
Activity queue size
Analytics on business content can include anything that is relevant to the process step, and is
available from either the corresponding SAP business object or from the amalgamation of
business data that has been modeled and stored in the monitor model.
The top half of the screen provides a tabular view of the SAP transaction instances that have
passed through the process step selected on the bottom half of the screen. This tabular view
can have multiple levels of detail, such as order header, order detail, shipment header, and
shipment detail. It can include both business data and process analytics. The business user
can then drill down and, across the dimensions of the table, filter results and take action
based on the data presented.
Figure 4-22 SAP process characterization in IBM Business Monitor
IT developers build SAP Business Event listeners (authored using the inbound capability of
WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software) that listen for a specific SAP Business Event. The
listener then retrieves relevant SAP Business Object information, and emits Common Event
Infrastructure (CEI) Common Base Events that then deliver a complete packet of business
event information to IBM Business Monitor for analysis and action.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
As shown in Figure 4-23, IBM Business Monitor then receives and correlates these events.
Figure 4-23 Configuring SAP Business Event listeners in IBM Business Monitor
IBM Business Monitor displays the events in web-based dashboards, such as the
automatically generated milestone diagram shown in Figure 4-24. This diagram can be
automatically generated by IBM Business Monitor based on a global view of the monitor
model, and can quickly depict SAP transaction flows without the amount of development
required to deliver the content and outputs listed in Figure 4-22 on page 96.
The milestone map approach is appropriate where a quick view of the process and its
process analytics is required without the need for the more advanced capabilities, such as the
tabular view, action management links, and so on.
Figure 4-24 Automated SAP milestone mapping in IBM Business Monitor
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97
Even before you consider orchestrating an SAP process in IBM Business Process Manager,
this powerful capability enables you to empirically characterize key aspects of your SAP and
heterogeneous processes:
Total cycle time
Process step activity time
Lag time between process steps
Queue metrics across the process
With this information, you can easily gain the empirical insight required to identify key areas
for process improvement. This functionality also facilitates a qualitative understanding of the
business flows, including sequencing, out of sequence occurrences, exception paths,
exception metrics, and so on.
These same capabilities in IBM Business Monitor that deliver passive process analytics and
characterization, also provide easily configurable real-time active monitoring for SAP. After the
process scenario has been properly defined in the tooling, IBM Business Monitor
automatically configures and manages the data stores, triggering mechanisms, and so on,
that are required to define, visualize, operationalize, and institutionalize the performance
management layer built on KPIs and service level agreements (SLAs).
Important business measures, and their performance thresholds, can then be used to
automatically trigger preventive and reactive remedial processes. Therefore, many of the
active optimization capabilities of IBM Smarter Process can be imparted to virtually any SAP
process, regardless of whether it is being orchestrated by IBM Business Process Manager.
All of these capabilities are fundamentally non-intrusive to, and decoupled from, the SAP
environment, enabling easy setup and low impact on the SAP platform itself.
IBM Business Monitor enables organizations to perform the following tasks:
Monitor metrics, business situations, and events in real-time.
Deploy customizable dashboards to ensure targeted, relevant information.
Feed and correlate alerts with business event processing for enhanced pattern visibility.
Interact directly with processes in real time.
Predict future values of KPIs based on historic and cyclic trends.
Trigger alerts when predicted values indicate a problem detection.
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Figure 4-25 shows an example of a monitoring dashboard and illustrates the key capabilities
provided.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 4-25 IBM Business Monitor dashboards for passive optimization
The reference numbers in Figure 4-25 highlight key capabilities of the monitoring dashboard
and Table 4-2 provides the corresponding description.
Table 4-2 Monitoring dashboard key capabilities shown in Figure 4-25
Reference
number
Description
1
Identify trends, forecast events, make smart choices.
2
Understand up-to-the-minute business performance by monitoring KPIs.
3
Detect and respond rapidly to change.
4
Continuously improve key business processes.
5
Rebalance human workload dynamically.
6
Customize dashboards easily.
7
Use mobile devices.
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4.4.5 Iterative business blueprinting
Most SAP customers and consultants continue to use the same traditional waterfall approach
for SAP business blueprinting that has been the hallmark of SAP implementations for at least
the past 20 years.
As depicted in Figure 4-26, general-purpose documentation tools, such as Microsoft
PowerPoint or Visio, or a modeling tool, such as Aris for SAP process blueprinting, are used
to define high-level SAP process flows (generally in conjunction with the SAP Solution
Manager BPH and SAP BPR).
Goal Setting and
Scope Management
SAP Process
Library
Process
Analysis
SAP Process Blueprinting
(PowerPoint, Visio, Excel, Aris)
SAP Solution Manager
Вѓ Microsoft Visio Professional
Вѓ Microsoft Office
Вѓ ARIS Platform
Configure
Customize
Figure 4-26 The traditional waterfall SAP business blueprinting approach
Business domain and process area experts are then engaged at various points throughout
the six or so months that span most SAP blueprinting cycles, primarily by analyzing the
process documents produced by teams using these tools.
With this approach, business stakeholders are forced to approach their SAP business
blueprinting role analytically, which limits the range of business experts and process design
techniques that can be used to help shape the new SAP business processes. Although
sequentially linking a cascading set of well-defined SAP business blueprinting activities is
logical, the deficiencies of the waterfall analyze first, then design, then build approach
become apparent when alternatives are considered.
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IBM Business Process Manager uses the iterative, playback-based process design illustrated
in Figure 4-27 to help make the definition and improvement of SAP and heterogeneous
processes transparent, while accelerating the blueprinting process.
SAP Solution
Manager
Model Processes
Design, build and refine processes for
execution in a single integrated tool set.
Optionally store process definitions in SAP
Solution Manager repository.
Invoke Screens
Iteratively invoke or design screens as part
of the process definition exercise
Complete Playback
Playback modeled processes at any time to
directly see, feel and touch the real process
Monitor Results
Empirically understand how the process can
meet KPIs and SLAs
Simulate and Refine
Test and Deploy
Simulate changes without changing the current
model. Incorporate new process changes
Promote the new or changed process
into production
Figure 4-27 The iterative SAP blueprinting approach using IBM Smarter Process
As opposed to the traditional waterfall documentation-centric approach, iterative
playback-based process blueprinting integrates live SAP user interfaces and process
execution, using SAP Guided Workflow, into the blueprinting process. This enables process
workers and other business experts to directly develop and test an SAP process hands-on.
The blueprinting process becomes experiential, rather than analytical. Feedback is
immediate, and most changes to the SAP process can be made directly in the workshop
itself. The process flow can be tested right then and there, reducing the time span of
blueprinting from months to days.
In turn, this approach dramatically reduces blueprinting costs and risks. Using IBM Business
Process Manager, the processes as defined in the SAP business blueprint can also be
directly run in the test, pre-production, and production environments. This ability to directly
run the process reduces SAP customization while delivering the improved visibility,
management, and control afforded by process orchestration.
Playbacks enable each stakeholder to participate directly in the blueprinting process. The
ability to see, feel, and touch the process as it is running provides the following benefits:
Delivers a richer, superior design experience
Enables a broader range of participants
Enables stakeholders to participate as their schedule permits
Encourages a progressive realization build approach
Decreases the time required to blueprint a process
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4.4.6 Decision automation
Many important business decisions, such as how to allocate constrained inventory or how
much additional credit to extend to a repeat customer, are often made inline, while the
process is in midstream. Today, many of these decisions are driven by policy documents,
email guidance from upstream management, offline tasks, or casual collaboration. This leads
not only to inconsistent application of business policy, but also to significant delays in
changing these important decision-making parameters as business needs require.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP provides a powerful set of integrated tools to help
organizations automate and enforce these important business policy parameters, either inline
with the process itself or offline. Business policy changes can be made at the speed required
by the business to optimize business performance, respond to dynamic business conditions,
and improve the consistency of routine decision making.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP decision management capabilities help to optimize business
processes inline:
Automatically routing process steps to the correct workgroup or individual
Automatically eliminating optional steps where business policy and business conditions
permit
Enabling a single process definition to fulfill multiple process variants by automatically
selecting the correct process steps that form the variant at run time
Making processes dynamically adaptable to changing business conditions by
automatically selecting and routing process steps at run time, depending upon any set of
process instance and business environment attributes
Automatically starting companion processes or remedial action based on the correlation of
complex business events
Process designers have the choice of using the integrated business rules capabilities that are
part of IBM Business Process Manager or can optionally deploy business rules as services
using the more advanced capabilities of IBM Operational Decision Manager.
The advanced capabilities in IBM Operational Decision Manager enable business rules to be
encapsulated and reused across multiple business processes. It also provides a more
comprehensive set of rule authoring paradigms such as decision tables, decision trees, and
Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Business rules developed in IBM Business Process Manager are compatible with IBM
Operational Decision Manager, enabling process designers to easily migrate business rules
from IBM Business Process Manager to IBM Operational Decision Manager whenever these
more advanced capabilities are required.
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Figure 4-28 shows an example of business rules encapsulated as decision services that are,
in turn, embedded as an integral part of the business process.
Externalize decisions from business process for better management
Insurance Application Process
IBM BPM
IBM ODM
Product Eligibility Service
Insurance Pricing Service
Figure 4-28 Encapsulation of decision logic using decision services
4.4.7 Process automation
IBM Smarter Process for SAP provides the full set of capabilities required to automate any
aspect of the business processes in whole or part. Powerful technical integration for SAP and
other business applications, data assets, and third-party services reduces the time and cost
required to create and maintain process integration and automation capabilities. The same
technical integration capabilities can be used to automate a single process step.
Chapter 4. Process optimization for SAP
103
These capabilities can also be used to create detailed and powerful end-to-end process flows
that span multiple applications, departments, and organizations, such as the example shown
in Figure 4-29.
i2
SIEBEL
ORACLE
FOXFIRE
End-to-End Process Orchestration
1. Order is
received from
the web site
2. Customer records 3. Credit check
are updated with
and approval
order request
are completed
information
4. Customer order
is written and
confirmed for
production
9. Customer order
is invoiced
6. Production order
is completed and
warehoused
8. Customer order
5. Required
is picked from
components are
warehouse and
determined,
scheduled for
ordered,
shipping
allocated and
received
7. Customer order
is approved for
shipment
Figure 4-29 IBM Smarter Process end-to-end process orchestration
Figure 4-29 shows how IBM Business Process Manager can integrate with the full set of
business applications and technology platforms that make up this example Order to Cash
scenario to deliver a cohesive, well-managed process for the business.
For some of the platforms in this example, such as Siebel, Oracle, and SAP, IBM provides
application integration adapters to deliver the technical integration necessary for end-to-end
process integration and orchestration.
For other platforms, such as Foxfire, an adapter development toolkit is available from IBM to
help you quickly develop the technical integration capabilities that you need. For virtually
every significant end-to-end process in the business, IBM Business Process Manager helps
to coordinate tasks across platforms, improve collaboration inside and outside the enterprise,
reduce cycle time, improve productivity, and enhance business outcomes.
4.5 IBM Smarter Process for SAP products and solutions
This section lists some of the key IBM products that can be used when implementing IBM
Smarter Process for SAP scenarios:
IBM Business Process Manager
– Orchestrates, manages and optimizes virtually any business process (SAP, non-SAP,
and heterogeneous).
– Enables bidirectional exchange of the SAP BPH and implementation content with SAP
Solution Manager.
– Provides SAP Guided Workflow, a powerful, business-led set of capabilities to
orchestrate SAP transactions and Web Dynpro applications without IT development.
Includes bidirectional integration with SAP screens.
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– Delivers easy to use SAP technical integration to help use SAP BAPIs, Enterprise
Services, IDoc flows, REST APIs, and so on, without the extensive coding required
with traditional approaches. This integration can reduce or eliminate manual steps
between and inside SAP transactions, and help to integrate and automate end-to-end
process flows.
– Provides a powerful set of process-level work and capacity management tools, along
with a rich set of process analytics and an innovative guided optimizer for active
business performance optimization.
IBM Operational Decision Manager
– Automates and assists critical business decisions inline by delivering industry-leading
business rules and event correlation technology.
– Packages business design logic as decision services for reusability and consistency
across the enterprise.
– Delivers automated task routing and prioritization.
– Provides automated process step selection in multi-variant and dynamic business
processes.
– Facilitates the selection of SAP runtime environments in multi-instance SAP
processes.
– Helps to quickly modify business policy for agile SAP processes, while reducing the
amount and complexity of SAP configuration.
IBM Business Monitor
– Provides real-time operational visibility of any SAP, non-SAP, or heterogeneous
process, even without Business Process Manager orchestration.
– Delivers SAP process characterization for passive and active business insight.
– Automatically calculates KPIs, SLAs, and other business measures.
– Automatically starts orchestrated or passive responses to business measure threshold
violations or negative trending, for active performance optimization.
4.6 How IBM Smarter Process for SAP creates sustained
business value
IBM Smarter Process for SAP creates business value throughout the SAP lifecycle. For net
new green field SAP or SAP module implementations to SAP version migrations and
everything in between, IBM Smarter Process for SAP can help deliver the following benefits:
Increased business velocity
Business optimization at the pace required by the business
Improved alignment of processes to business strategy
Improved managed value realization
Closed-loop continuous process improvement
Reduced SAP customization
A comprehensive platform for organizational transformation
Reduction in manual work, redundant tasks, and data errors
Faster, more consistent issue resolution
Improved control over business management parameters
Reduced blueprinting time, cost, and risk
Improved process reliability, flexibility, visibility, and control
Improved process efficiency and reduce business complexity
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4.7 IBM Smarter Process for SAP usage scenarios
IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities are typically combined in different ways, depending
on the usage scenario. These capabilities can be applied across the entire SAP project
lifecycle from concept, through blueprinting and realization, to post implementation business
optimization scenarios. This section shows how IBM Smarter Process for SAP can add value
in several different project and business scenarios, both inside an SAP implementation
project and after go-live.
Figure 4-30 shows the two outer boundaries of an SAP implementation timeline: the new SAP
implementation and an SAP version migration. Both of these major SAP lifetime events are
ideal places to consider the application of IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities, because
business processes, business policy, and technical and application infrastructure are explored
and changed extensively in these project types.
Often, IBM Smarter Process for SAP can be inserted into a new SAP implementation
(including instance consolidation, harmonization, global template rollout projects, and so on)
with no negative effect on either the cost or timeline of the project as compared to the same
project scope without IBM Smarter Process for SAP. SAP version migrations that include a
functional upgrade can likewise be excellent candidates for the introduction of IBM Smarter
Process for SAP capabilities.
In between these two points, IBM Smarter Process for SAP can be applied more selectively to
any number of end-to-end process scenarios, or used to innovate and optimize some of the
more granular levels of a business process. It is also an ideal platform to extend or modify
SAP business functionality, due to its loose coupling (but extensive integration) with the SAP
environment. Stable SAP implementations are also ripe for either the initiation or expansion of
an IBM Business Process Manager or SAP Center of Excellence (CoE).
These can serve as the mechanism to find, incubate, and deliver business optimization based
on IBM Smarter Process for SAP.
A New SAP
Implementation
Вѓ Green field
Вѓ Re-implementation
Stable SAP
Implementation
Вѓ Instance consolidation
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
End to end process orchestration
Process optimization and differentiation
Point solutions
Continuous business optimization
BPM and SAP CoEs
SAP Version
Migration
Вѓ Functional upgrade
Вѓ Major version upgrade
Any SAP Implementation can benefit from every Smarter Process capability
at every life cycle stage.
Figure 4-30 IBM Smarter Process for SAP project types
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4.7.1 IBM Smarter Process for SAP in the phases of an SAP project
There are three major phases in the life of an SAP implementation project:
Initial implementation
Stable implementation
Functional upgrade or re-implementation
IBM Smarter Process for SAP can add substantial value to each of these phases. Although
the manner in which organizations can use IBM Smarter Process for SAP varies somewhat
from phase to phase, the capabilities, design philosophy, and core value proposition are more
or less the same. This section explores how IBM Smarter Process for SAP can be used
throughout the SAP project lifecycle.
Iterative business blueprinting
The start of an SAP implementation is an ideal time to begin using IBM Smarter Process for
SAP capabilities. Business processes will be designed entirely differently knowing that the
process orchestration, business activity monitoring, and value realization capabilities
available in IBM Smarter Process for SAP will be available for the SAP deployment.
As described in 4.4.5, “Iterative business blueprinting” on page 100, SAP business
blueprinting has been performed fundamentally the same way for the last 20 years or more.
This classic implementation approach is analytical in nature, uses IT engineering methods,
and is deployed using a waterfall methodology. These kinds of activities are foreign for the
average business user who must cross the chasm between pictures of business activities and
those business activities themselves.
SAP Guided Workflow offers new possibilities for business blueprinting. Because of the
immediate playback capabilities of SAP Guided Workflow, business users participating in
blueprinting workshops can be guided not only through a description of the steps of a
process, but can actually see, feel, and touch the SAP screens that will be used.
Rather than just hearing about the kinds of information that need to be entered into an
SAP screen, blueprinting workshop participants can see firsthand the nature and content of
work required for a particular process step, in addition to the overall process flow and
composite workload.
This level of understanding has a profound effect on many aspects of detailed process
design, and helps provide better alignment between what the business needs and what SAP
can provide. This approach removes the historical barrier that has existed between
engineering-centric blueprinting artifacts and the business user. It enables the line of
business to participate meaningfully in the business blueprinting process, and the progressive
realization of their business solution.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP reduces the time, risk, and cost of SAP business blueprinting
by reducing the size and complexity of the artifacts required to properly design and implement
an SAP solution.
IBM Business Process Manager orchestration definitions are by their nature rich with process
metadata. They contain a high percentage of the metadata that is normally defined in SAP
blueprinting documentation, such as the Process Definition Document (PDD), the process
model, and the functional definition document.
Consolidating all of this metadata directly into the same process model that is being used for
iterative workshops results in a reduction of verbiage needed to describe key aspects of the
process and improved transparency of the process definition.
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Blueprinting productivity improvements ranging from 10% to 25% are achievable using SAP
Guided Workflow in conjunction with iterative, experiential process design techniques. Most
importantly, iterative blueprinting begins the journey of business-led change, and enables the
business to directly contribute to, and manage many of, the important aspects of properly
defining and optimizing a new or revamped SAP business process.
Progressive solution realization
The program benefits achieved by using IBM Smarter Process for SAP for business
blueprinting continue in the progressive realization phase. The iterative process used to
define an SAP solution during business blueprinting should ideally continue uninterrupted
throughout the realization phase of an SAP implementation.
Replacing the traditional waterfall approach with a progressive realization approach enables
the business and IT teams to work closely together at virtually every step of the solution
realization process. This approach reduces the risk of having the end solution misaligned with
the strategic and operational design decisions made during business blueprinting.
Progressive realization of the SAP solution starts with the Business Process Manager-based
playbacks that were used during business blueprinting, and gradually refines every aspect of
the process definition. It continues with the development of detailed decision logic to reduce
SAP transaction data entry at run time, reduce SAP configuration, dynamically guide the
process, and optimize various kinds of routine inline decision making.
Of course, traditional realization activities, such as SAP configuration, refinement of the user
interface, design and build of custom tables, and even some SAP customization, are
performed as well. Rather than waiting until user acceptance testing to show the business
what has been developed, the progressive realization approach uses regular interactions with
the business users to confirm that the implementation decisions made thus far align with what
the business needs.
The use of IBM Smarter Process for SAP not only encourages and facilitates the progressive
realization approach, but also provides the tools and capabilities necessary to reduce SAP
customization and configuration. Through the use of SAP Guided Workflow, easy-to-use SAP
technical integration and SAP transaction decomposition techniques, IBM Smarter Process
for SAP enables IT developers and SAP functional experts to work interactively with the
business as the solution is being developed.
Furthermore, extensions to SAP functionality are much easier to build in the IBM Smarter
Process platform, as opposed to SAP tools and traditional application development platforms,
such as Java or C#. Many types of customizations, such as the addition of new data fields,
integration with non-SAP applications, and extended business rule logic, can be developed in
IBM Smarter Process for SAP in a fraction of the time compared to traditional methods.
This combination of iterative solution realization and rapid development techniques presents
the entire SAP solution development and deployment team with a tremendous opportunity to
help ensure the strategic fit of the solution, while reducing implementation project time, risk,
and cost. Time and cost savings of using progressive realization techniques with IBM Smarter
Process for SAP can range from 10% to 15%.
Rollout simplification and acceleration
One of the most effective ways that IBM Smarter Process for SAP adds value during the
rollout phase is by enabling the process orchestration layer to accommodate slight variants of
the core global process, rather than using the traditional SAP global template approach.
Orchestrated processes reduce the number of SAP process variants required for large global
rollouts, or implementations that span multiple business units or geographical areas.
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This is accomplished through the use of decision tables, decision trees, and natural language
action statements, all of which can easily be changed by the business. By embedding process
variability into a single core definition of a process, the SAP implementation teams can
reduce the time, effort, and complexity of typical SAP rollouts while helping to ensure the
adoption of consistent business practices across the enterprise.
One of the benefits of orchestrating SAP processes is to simplify the work content of each of
the key process steps. Simpler work requires less training, and consequently less training
material and material development. SAP Guided Workflow enables process instance data,
constants, and data from previous SAP screens used earlier in the process, to be
automatically passed into downstream SAP screens.
This ability to intelligently put SAP transactions into the correct mode, reduce data entry, and
conditionally enter correct screen values, simplifies and reduces work at each process step. It
also reduces the number of data fields that a user needs to remember and enter for each
specific process scenario.
When used together, SAP Guided Workflow, IBM Business Process Manager SAP technical
interface pattern technology, and dynamic coach generation capabilities enable the rapid
creation and maintenance of custom SAP user interfaces. They do so without relying upon
the traditional costly ABAP and Java approaches.
Creating user interfaces that combine data entry from different SAP transactions or non-SAP
systems, reducing the number of fields required, and integrating related lookups directly in the
transaction, can dramatically improve both the user experience and business outcomes.
Technical integration inserted between SAP transactional steps can also substantially reduce
or even eliminate many of the manual steps, both inside of and between transactions, that
would ordinarily be required using a traditional SAP implementation approach.
Another key benefit of IBM Smarter Process for SAP during rollout preparation is to reduce
and simplify localization activities. Small variations and tweaks to global processes can easily
be made using the same rapid design and deployment approach that accelerates business
blueprinting and solution realization.
New combinations of business parameters that would ordinarily indicate the need for
modifications of the global template can now be incorporated inline in a single global process.
The new combinations can be incorporated without extensive changes to the core global
process, or a new localized variant of the global process.
Other classic SAP localization configuration activities, such as the setup of local tax tables,
new currencies, and unusual units of measure, can benefit from SAP Guided Workflow.
Because the SAP transactions used to set up most configuration parameters in SAP are no
different technically from most other SAP transactions, the same benefits of passing data into
business-focused SAP transactions using SAP Guided Workflow apply equally well to most
SAP configuration screens.
Accordingly, the SAP implementation team can quickly set up an SAP Guided Workflow (with
screen parameter passing) to semi-automate many of the SAP configuration steps. This
reduces implementation time and cost, and improves configuration process consistency.
Lastly, the set of rollout activities required for a successful implementation itself can be
modeled, played back, and orchestrated using IBM Business Process Manager. This
approach enables the successful coordination and completion of a highly complex set of
interrelated rollout activities across organizations that traditionally have suffered from lack of
visibility and control.
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Being able to see the status of any activity or activity set in real time provides project
managers and business stakeholders with the tools necessary to help ensure that key rollout
activities remain on track. When orchestrated, these now-proven deployment processes can
be used for subsequent rollout activities in other geographical areas or lines of business, with
equal or greater benefit.
Global business template value acceleration
A common business scenario for new SAP implementations, instance consolidations, and
SAP re-implementations is the use of an SAP global business template to help standardize
business processes, policies, and practices. Most often, the SAP global template has been
completed long before the SAP platforms to support the new template are ready.
Therefore, a time gap exists between the business definition and the implementation,
potentially causing the new global template design to be outdated even before it has ever
been implemented. More importantly, it delays the potential business value that the new
global process template can bring.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP can help to address both of these issues by providing a
dynamic SAP process execution platform that can enable a new global process template to
be implemented in whole or part on one or more existing SAP instances.
Because the process layer is decoupled from the application layer, IBM Business Process
Manager, often in conjunction with IBM Operational Decision Manager, can dynamically point
to different SAP runtime environments during process step execution. This enables a single
global process definition to be easily implemented across different SAP instances.
Along with this foundational dynamic execution capability, IBM Smarter Process for SAP
enables comprehensive value realization schemes to be implemented directly in the process
layer. KPIs, SLAs, and other business metrics can now be calculated and managed outside of
the SAP layer for comprehensive coverage across applications, consistency, adaptability, and
ease of change.
Remediation processes, or even a more complete operational playbook, are coordinated
directly inline with the core business process, helping to further accelerate the business value
that the new global template can bring to the business. Perhaps equally important, it enables
much of the global process template to be tested independently of a new technology
implementation of SAP, to accelerate business value and reduce project and organizational
risk.
Value-driven transformation
Most ERP implementations do not meet their business case. The Panorama Consulting 2014
ERP Implementation Success Rate report indicates that the average ERP implementation
duration is 16.3 months, 54% go over budget, 72% failed to meet their projected schedule,
and 66% realized half or less of hoped-for or promised business benefits. This is not a new
phenomenon, because the complexities of ERP system implementation have perplexed
businesses and consultancies alike for decades.
Unfortunately for most companies implementing SAP, value management is typically an
afterthought. Intensive focus throughout most of the SAP implementation is, almost
exclusively, on only those essential activities required for the successful operation of the SAP
solution. These essential activities include data cleansing, data migration, core process
definition, user training, and operational management.
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Although essential, most of these activities are not focused on the kinds of additional
optimization activity required to successfully deliver or exceed the SAP business case. The
lack of value management focus during the SAP implementation project is clearly one of
the key factors in the failure of most SAP implementations to even achieve their base
business case.
Value-Driven Transformation (VDT) is an approach for value realization that marries visibility
of important business objectives and measures with orchestrated value management
processes mapped to organizational capabilities and responsibilities. An SAP
implementation project, either for a net new implementation or a major version upgrade, is the
optimal time to introduce VDT techniques. VDT, however, can be introduced at virtually any
point in the SAP implementation lifecycle.
The VDT lifecycle starts by agreeing upon and carefully documenting important business
objectives. Teams then analyze how the various layers and elements of the business
organization contribute to or directly manage relevant aspects of processes related to these
objectives. This matrix of the business organization, business objectives, business measures,
and contributing processes are mapped into a design framework that IBM calls the
Operational Playbook.
The Operational Playbook is then reviewed by the organizational leaders responsible for the
processes that contribute to the performance of these key business measures. When
approved, the operational playbook is then translated into the various layers of the IBM
Smarter Process for SAP architecture responsible for gathering, analyzing, and acting upon
the business events that drive action.
Figure 4-31 shows examples of key components of the VDT approach described earlier with
playbook orchestration implemented as a business process in IBM Business Process
Manager, which actively orchestrates all of the activities in the organization required to
remediate negative deviations from observed operational metrics and KPIs.
Business Alignment & Ownership
IBM Value Realization Dashboard Asset
Executive
Stakeholders
Real-Time
Operational
and Value
Realization
Dashboards
Business Unit &
Functional
Leaders
Global
Process
Owners
Playbook Orchestration
KPI
Operational
Playbooks
ƒ What KPI’s should
be tracked
Вѓ Who is
accountable for
performance
Вѓ When and How
KPI governance
will take place
Figure 4-31 IBM Value-Driven Transformation approach
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VDT uses the active business performance optimization architecture introduced in 4.3, “SAP
active business performance optimization architecture” on page 78, to gather, correlate, and
analyze the various sources of business metrics and events necessary to determine the need
for value management action. These sources include SAP applications, non-SAP
applications, and various sources of KPIs, KPI trends, and business alerts.
When action is indicated, IBM Business Process Manager then orchestrates all of the
activities required to remediate the negative or potentially negative business situation
identified by the event processing layer. Should the business fail to run any aspect of the
orchestrated playbook, additional escalation and remedial action are then initiated
automatically by the orchestrated playbook processes.
This closed-loop system, consisting of event gathering, event correlation, action
management, and operational playbook orchestration, delivers a highly reliable solution for
improving the value that can be derived from virtually any SAP or heterogeneous business
application landscape.
Traditional business intelligence treatments, based on passive analytics, provide
much-needed business value around trend-centric optimization opportunities. However, they
do little to identify and manage business optimization opportunities in-line with the running
business processes.
Ideally, VDT should be integrated into the SAP implementation program from the start of
business blueprinting. The careful dissection and analysis of the business process that
occurs during blueprinting and detailed process design is the most efficient and effective time
to adopt VDT.
The business process walk-throughs, KPI definition exercises, and business process
re-engineering activities performed during business blueprinting are the same set of
foundational activities required to properly define and build a VDT-based business
optimization platform.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP contains all of the technical and business capabilities needed
to effectively design, test, and implement a VDT program based on relatively homogeneous
SAP, or a heterogeneous application, environment. Event capture, event management, event
correlation, KPI definition, business roles, orchestrated value management processes, and
performance tracking are all capabilities provided by IBM Smarter Process for SAP.
4.7.2 Post-implementation value augmentation
4.7.1, “IBM Smarter Process for SAP in the phases of an SAP project” on page 107 outlines
how IBM Smarter Process for SAP creates value during an SAP implementation project. This
section describes the value of IBM Smarter Process for SAP beyond the initial
implementation project proper.
Introduction to post-implementation project types
In between the two extremes of net new SAP implementations and major version upgrades of
SAP lies an additional spectrum of business value optimization potential. SAP
implementations typically struggle with operational visibility, solution flexibility, and business
agility for many years after the initial implementation. These business gaps can be easily
addressed with IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities.
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SAP process innovation
One of the easiest ways to get started with IBM Smarter Process for SAP in an existing SAP
implementation is to identify one or more business processes that suffer from the typical SAP
process optimization gaps described throughout this chapter.
After reasonable process candidates have been identified, a process discovery workshop can
be used to clarify the existing challenges with the business process, identify improvement
goals, and set about the business of creating a high-level solution and project plan. IBM can
assist organizations with every phase of this process, from identifying potential candidates, to
conducting the workshop, to developing an effective project plan and approach.
For a mature SAP implementation, starting the IBM Smarter Process for SAP journey with a
single process is currently the approach that IBM suggests. A project sufficiently small in
scope, typically 90 to 120 days, enables the development of enough functionality to clearly
demonstrate to the business the value that IBM Smarter Process for SAP can provide, while
keeping the scope small enough to prevent unnecessary risk to the business or to the IBM
Smarter Process for SAP journey.
This small pilot project should include as many of the key IBM Smarter Process for SAP
capabilities as make sense for the pilot project. Applying a diversity of IBM Smarter Process
for SAP capabilities enables the business to gain exposure to, and experience with, a fairly
complete set of IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities firsthand. The business and pilot
project team are now in a better position to determine how to apply these capabilities to
subsequent projects.
When the business and IT have practical experience implementing IBM Smarter Process for
SAP for one process, an assessment can be made as to which additional processes or
improvement opportunities should be addressed next.
Active business performance optimization programs
After experience has been gained with a successful IBM Smarter Process for SAP pilot
project, a program-level strategy for optimizing the business should be considered. Typically,
these programs include tools and techniques that help select good business optimization
candidates, enforce architecture and business practice discipline, and provide the standards
and governance necessary for success.
IBM Smarter Process for SAP Center of Excellence
Sometimes programs take the form of a CoE. Staffed by full-time or part-time members, these
centers can help deliver the organizational improvements and process improvements
required to capitalize on the full potential of IBM Smarter Process for SAP.
Application management services as a business optimization program
An established SAP implementation is generally a gold mine of business optimization
potential. The teams who support an SAP implementation after go-live are in a unique
position to help the business understand where potential opportunities for substantial value
realization might be found. Trouble tickets, repeated areas of confusion, and patterns of
request for help often indicate where a systematic approach to addressing a business
scenario using IBM Smarter Process for SAP might be beneficial.
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4.8 Conclusion
This section summarizes the capabilities and value that IBM Smarter Process for SAP
provides to SAP implementations.
4.8.1 Capability and value summary
The following list describes key values provided by IBM Smarter Process for SAP:
Value for the SAP implementation program
IBM Smarter Process for SAP provides substantial value for every phase of the SAP
implementation program. Gross savings of up to 25% are achievable for SAP
implementation projects that include substantial configuration or customization. Net
savings of up to 15%, after absorbing the costs of IBM Smarter Process software,
hardware, and related services, are possible.
Post-implementation value summary
The largest savings potential, however, is after the implementation program has been
completed. Several benefit illustrations demonstrate that the five-year value of applying
IBM Smarter Process for SAP to help manage the business can easily pay for the entire
SAP implementation and much more.
4.8.2 IBM Smarter Process for SAP Affinity Analysis and Business Value
Assessment Workshop
The IBM Smarter Process for SAP Affinity Analysis and Business Value Assessment tool is
an integrated framework that is designed to quickly assess the potential value of IBM Smarter
Process for SAP for a part of, or an entire, SAP implementation. The tool is based on a
progressive value discovery model that enables IBM teams and qualified IBM Business
Partners to assess the qualitative and quantitative benefits of IBM Smarter Process for SAP
at virtually any phase of engagement with an SAP client.
SAP, heterogeneous, and non-SAP processes are assessed against a set of weighted
process characteristics. Some of these characteristics are inherent to the nature of the
process. For example, Order To Cash was, is, and always will be an end-to-end business flow.
Business-to-business (B2B) transactions always involve collaboration outside the enterprise.
Sarbanes-Oxley related processes are always driven by regulatory requirements, and so on.
Other characteristics, however, are predominantly client-specific. Attributes such as average
number of daily instantiations, how mature the organization is in running the process, how
many approval paths are required, and so on, vary widely from organization to organization.
Other process characteristics are hybrids. This tool and its associated workshop helps
organizations to quickly identify the potential value of IBM Smarter Process for SAP for their
SAP implementations by providing the following capabilities:
Quickly identify, quantify, and prioritize IBM Smarter Process for SAP opportunities in the
organization.
Analyze hundreds of processes at a time.
Adaptable to the organization and approach:
– Process attributes
– Business outcomes
– Capability mapping
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Prioritize and sequence optimization opportunities.
Build the business case with confidence.
The IBM Smarter Process for SAP Affinity Analysis and Business Value Assessment tool
comes prepackaged with a few hundred of the most common SAP processes and their
inherent attributes. IBM and IBM Business Partner teams can use the tool to quickly assess
the high-level applicability of IBM Smarter Process for SAP to a large number of business
processes and scenarios, and then build on earlier assessments as the value discovery
progresses downstream. The following list describes the outputs of the tool:
Overall qualitative value assessment
Overall quantitative value assessment
Ranked and scored process affinity list
IBM Smarter Process for SAP capability matrix
IBM and IBM Business Partner teams typically augment the raw tool output with a sequenced
set of project plans and a suggested roadmap for success. The approach facilitated by this
tool enables businesses and technical teams to quickly transcend the theoretical value of
discussions based on architecture and solutioning to an operational analysis of the actual
processes in scope.
This approach helps to determine what IBM Smarter Process for SAP can specifically do to
help optimize each business process. It also improves the confidence that the business can
have in the value assessment.
Figure 4-32 illustrates how process attributes are mapped, scored, and ranked within the tool.
Figure 4-32 Affinity analysis and Value Assessment Tool
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4.9 Other IBM Software Group publications, assets, and tools
IBM Software Group has published several white papers and presentations to help you
succeed with IBM Smarter Process for SAP. These documents include guidance for preferred
practices, process design governance, and implementation approaches. IBM also offers a
comprehensive consulting engagement to help organizations build a Smarter Process Center
of Excellence to institutionalize the mind-set and practices necessary for their success.
4.10 IBM Global Business Services SAP assets and tools
IBM Global Business Services (GBS) SAP consulting practice is adopting IBM Smarter
Process for SAP for various aspects of an SAP implementation. IBM RapidPath for SAP
method, a comprehensive SAP implementation project method, has been developed to
outline precisely how to apply IBM Smarter Process for SAP capabilities across the entire
SAP program lifecycle, including support activities during the post-implementation period.
The IBM GBS SAP practice has also developed a set of SAP implementation deployment
tools, mapped closely to the IBM RapidPath for SAP method. These tools take advantage of
the implementation work simplification afforded by the reduction and elimination of
documentation tasks throughout the SAP implementation lifecycle.
The IBM GBS SAP practice has also modeled the SAP processes from their SAP Express
Solution in IBM Business Process Manager. This approach enables GBS SAP practice
consultants to accelerate the value of IBM Smarter Process for SAP for consulting
engagements, and to continuously enrich these process definitions with insights gained from
a vast array of SAP implementation programs.
4.11 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
Panorama Consulting 2014 ERP Report
http://panorama-consulting.com/resource-center/2014-erp-report/
Integrate SAP Processes with IBM Business Process Manager
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/integration/business-process-manager/sap-integra
tion/
IBM Business Process Manager V8.5.5 documentation
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSFPJS_8.5.5/com.ibm.wbpm.main.doc/k
c-homepage-bpm.html
Business Process Manager product documentation for V8.5.5 (downloadable information
center)
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/software/integration/business-process-manager/iehs/
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5
Chapter 5.
Mobile access for SAP
Digital technologies are driving major economic shifts and, with the spread of mobile
capabilities, new business challenges arise for each industry. These new technologies are
transforming consumer expectations, internal organizational models, and the external
competition. In general, organizations feel the pressure to become more consumer and
client-centric to stay successful.
Enabling mobile access to SAP business functions and data for enterprise clients,
employees, and business partners is a typical requirement for SAP projects.
This chapter describes the enterprise mobile access capabilities, available from IBM for SAP
solutions in a heterogeneous enterprise, that provide a foundation and a comprehensive set
of resources required to build a system of engagement around SAP. The key principle of this
architecture is using best-in-class software for the enterprise mobile platform provided by IBM
MobileFirst, and separating it from vendor-specific mobile environments.
This chapter includes the following topics:
5.1, “IBM MobileFirst overview” on page 118
5.2, “Spectrum of mobile app development approaches” on page 119
5.3, “IBM MobileFirst for SAP architectures” on page 121
5.4, “Optional components driving enhanced features in mobile architectures” on
page 136
5.5, “Lessons learned from actual projects” on page 140
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
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5.1 IBM MobileFirst overview
IBM MobileFirst is a comprehensive, market-leading enterprise mobile offering portfolio
enabling IBM customers to fully embrace mobile technologies. Figure 5-1 outlines the overall
architecture and key capabilities of IBM MobileFirst Platform.
Industry Solutions
Banking
Insurance
Retail
Transport
Telecom
Governmentt
Healthcare
e
Automotive
Strategy & Design Services
Application & Data Platform
Management
Security
Devices
Network
etwork
Analytics
Servers
Development & Integration Services
IBM & Partner Applications
Cloud & Managed Services
Figure 5-1 IBM MobileFirst architecture
The following list describes the main components of the IBM MobileFirst portfolio:
Application (app) and data platform. The key capabilities in the platform are oriented to
help companies build and deliver engaging mobile solutions more quickly, with higher
quality, and at lower cost. Key assets in this space include IBM WorklightВ® and IBM
Rational tools for building and testing mobile assets.
Management. The need for mobile device and application management, given the growing
trend in organizations to enable employee mobility based on the bring your own devices
(BYOD) principle, is unprecedented. The IBM MobileFirst management capabilities
provide a unique solution for all enterprise devices from a single pane of glass,
dramatically simplifying the management process.
Security. Mobile platform security capabilities are critical for mobile enablement, because
mobility represents both new opportunities and new threats from a security perspective.
The IBM MobileFirst security solutions address the opportunity to make better security
decisions based on the context and granularity of access to an application in the mobile
context. As an example, many retailers and branch banks want tablet solutions, but they
do not want them to work when they are outside the footprint of the store.
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IBM MobileFirst security solutions also address a wide set of security threats that are
emphasized with mobile enablement. For example, IBM believes that security vulnerability
scanning for mobile apps is critical. Therefore IBM added a rich capability of scanning iOS
and Android mobile components during the development cycle, to ensure a high code
quality level. This capability is especially useful when third parties are involved in building
mobile applications that represent a company’s brand.
Analytics. Mobile analytics capabilities are important to ensure a more engaging and
higher-quality mobile experience. To achieve this goal, companies need to be able to see
what their clients are doing with mobile apps, discover where they are struggling, and
where they must wait for too long before taking the next action. Ideally, this discovery
should take place before the mobile application is released to an app store, rather than
learning that it does not meet client requirements two weeks later.
The IBM MobileFirst portfolio contains an industry-leading customer experience analytics
component. This component enables you to walk through (similar to a flight data recorder)
all of the swipes, gestures, and screens that the users are going through, which rapidly
helps teams to build better mobile experiences.
Strategy and design services. Experienced mobile consultants in IBM consulting services
can help clients to explore, assess, and plan mobile solutions, and to prioritize the most
important actions to take. Having an efficient design is critical for a mobile solution and,
with the IBM Interactive team as part of the consulting organization, IBM is able to help
clients to build truly world-class mobility solutions.
Development and integration services. The IBM MobileFirst offering goes beyond the
strategy and design, to actually help teams build and integrate mobile solutions into the
fabric of their business, which is often one of the hardest challenges. IBM consultants
have the skills to help organizations build apps from the ground up, in addition to helping
them to size and rebuild the infrastructure that they need for successful deployment of the
new mobile solutions.
5.2 Spectrum of mobile app development approaches
There is a spectrum of implementation choices for mobile applications in the market. There is
no one perfect answer for the choice of implementation for a generic mobile application, and
all of the choices across the spectrum have their advantages and disadvantages. Therefore,
the challenge for mobile development teams is to understand the trade-offs between the
technologies, and make a choice based on the specific application requirements.
IBM MobileFirst supports all different variances of these development approaches with the
Worklight Platform. Especially in areas where business data is in SAP enterprise resource
planning (ERP) systems, it is essential to have a certain kind of flexibility, because the SAP
domains provide a diverse interface and technology mix. This mix can range from proprietary
up to open standards-driven integration approaches.
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Figure 5-2 shows various mobile development methods and their key characteristics.
Spectrum of mobile app development approaches
Pure web
Mobile
web site
(browser
access)
Hybrid
Native
shell
enclosing
external
m.site
Prepackaged
HTML5
resources
Pure native
HTML5 +
native UI
Mostly
native
some
HTML5
screens
Pure
native
Web-Native Continuum
Вѓ HTML5, JS,
and CSS3 (full
site or m.site)
Вѓ Quicker and
cheaper way to
mobile
Вѓ Sub-optimal
experience
Вѓ HTML5, JS,
and CSS
Вѓ Usually
leverages
Cordova
Вѓ Downloadable,
app store
presence,
push
capabilities
Вѓ Can use native
APIs
Вѓ As previous
Вѓ + more
responsive,
available
offline
Вѓ Web + native
code
Вѓ Optimized
user
experience
with native
screens,
controls, and
navigation
Вѓ App fully
adjusted to
OS
Вѓ Some
screens are
multi-platform
when makes
sense
Вѓ App fully
adjusted to OS
Вѓ Best attainable
user experience
Вѓ Unique
development
effort per OS,
costly to
maintain
Figure 5-2 Web to native application development continuum
Native application implementation has the advantage of offering the highest fidelity with the
mobile device. Because the application programming interfaces (APIs) used are at a low
level, and are specific to the device for which the application is dedicated, the application can
take full advantage of every feature and service exposed by that device.
Native implementations of mobile apps are completely non-portable to any other mobile
operating system. A native Apple iOS app must be totally rewritten if it is to run on an Android
device. That makes this choice a costly way of implementing a mobile business application.
It is feasible to implement a mobile business app that is a standard web application, using
responsive web design principles, such as special style sheets to accommodate the mobile
form factor and approximate the mobile device look and feel. Mobile apps implemented using
this approach support the widest variety of mobile devices, because web browser support for
JavaScript and Hypertext Markup Language revision 5 (HTML5) is fairly consistent.
There are several commercial and open source libraries of Web 2.0 widgets that help with this
approach. The web programming model for mobile application implementation also has an
advantage for enterprises that already have developers trained in the languages and
techniques for web application development. The disadvantage of pure web application
implementation is that such apps have no access to functions and features that run directly on
the mobile device, such as the camera, contact list, and so forth.
Hybrid mobile application implementation is a form of compromise between pure native
implementation and pure web implementation. In this approach, developers write the mobile
apps using industry-standard web programming languages and techniques, such as HTML5
and JavaScript. However, they package the app into a natively installable format that is
distributed through the app store mechanism.
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Hybrid apps are linked to additional native libraries that enable the app to have access to
native device features from the single application code base within the Worklight family. For
example, a hybrid Worklight app includes, ready-to-use, the actual Apache Cordova
capabilities that greatly enhance the access to the specific native mobile device functions.
5.3 IBM MobileFirst for SAP architectures
This section describes various common mobile architectures that can be used when
integrating SAP-based business modules in a mobile experience required for a system of
engagement. It is important to understand to which extent the organization is adopting the
SAP implementation roadmap. There are customers who run low-level SAP releases and are
hesitant to upgrade their systems regularly.
Alternatively, others are early adopters who upgrade quickly, move the latest SAP releases to
production environments, and participate in the SAP Ramp-Up programs. Based on the
customer approach to adopting the SAP implementation roadmap, and the existence of
system components, different mobile integration patterns can be chosen to accomplish the
wanted mobile solution.
This section highlights common (managed) mobile architectures that provide the capabilities
of a mobile enterprise application platform (MEAP). The introduction of a powerful MEAP
enables enterprises to handle diverse mobile scenarios efficiently.
It is not about getting one mobile application into production, but about meeting the following
requirements:
Driving various mobile solutions across multiple lines of business
Serving internal and external business users
Employing the solutions on multiple mobile operating systems
Functioning on different mobile devices
All of these requirements must be implemented in a secure manner, following corporate
security guidelines.
5.3.1 Architecture goals for SAP mobile enablement in a heterogeneous
enterprise
Enterprise mobility enablement requires a platform that provides a wide set of functions:
Rapidly enable access to enterprise applications (SAP and non-SAP), and provide
connectivity and data access approaches for mobile applications to interact with the
enterprise applications.
Provide remote device management and mobile device security in line with the corporate
security infrastructure.
Enable effective distribution mechanisms for private enterprise mobile applications.
Reuse existing or pre-built assets for mobile devices, for example, pre-built mobile
applications provided by SAP.
Exploit unique abilities of mobile devices to provide differentiating business capabilities for
companies.
No single facet within the mobile environment defines the system. In defining the mobile
platform architecture, the entire mobile landscape must be considered.
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Provide enterprise integration
The enterprise mobility platform should be designed as an enterprise-wide asset that
provides a common mobile enablement framework for both SAP and non-SAP enterprise
applications. Non-SAP enterprise applications can include an organization’s internally
developed applications (IBM CICSВ®, IBM IMSв„ў, Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, and
Microsoft .Net systems), cloud services, and other third-party commercial products.
Enterprise mobile access to SAP for a heterogeneous enterprise reuses and extends existing
enterprise integration assets, and integrates with existing enterprise security and end point
management infrastructure.
Enable multiple mobile device platforms and mobile application types
Enterprise mobile access to SAP must support multiple mobile device platforms in an
economical way, and a spectrum of implementation choices for mobile applications. Based on
business requirements, mobile applications for SAP can be any of the following types:
High fidelity native mobile applications to provide differentiating mobile experience to
clients.
Hybrid mobile applications with varying degrees of combined native and embedded web
components. The hybrid model enables you to use a common code base to target different
mobile platforms, while enabling access to native capabilities of mobile devices, such as
camera, location, and so on.
Pure web-based mobile applications based on responsive web design for entry level
mobile access to SAP and non-SAP data.
All of the choices across the spectrum have their advantages and disadvantages.
Support prepackaged SAP mobile applications and domain decoupling
SAP and its partners provide a set of prepackaged mobile applications. Deployment of such
mobile applications enables acceleration for mobile access enablement when a business
function differentiation is not a core requirement. This can be the case when providing mobile
access for company employees to internal business support systems.
The key consideration in planning adoption of prepackaged SAP mobile applications is the
existence of requirements to change ready-to-use application functions to reflect
enterprise-specific needs. Such changes to ready-to-use applications can be further
classified as configuration changes (no application code change required) and customization
(application code changes are required).
Prepackaged mobile applications can provide a substantial business value, when such
applications meet business requirements as is, without customizations, or only through
well-defined configuration changes supported by SAP. With prepackaged applications, the
issues of trust, login, user management, upgrades, and system access are solved with
minimal effort.
The long-term return on investment (ROI) on SAP implementations is, in large part, directly
linked to the level of SAP enhancements and modifications. Extensive SAP customizations
lead to a dramatic increase in SAP upgrade costs at a future date. The problem is retrofitting
the customizations made to the prepackaged application when the underlying platform is
upgraded to a new major functional release that includes significant changes.
A migration to a new release of SAP business suite will, invariably, be faced with a problem of
refactoring earlier enhancements and modifications onto a new platform version, which can
become even more costly due to the unpredictable nature of changes in future versions.
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If prepackaged applications are a good fit, the enterprise mobile access solution must enable
the use of pre-built SAP mobile applications. From an architectural perspective, doing so
requires you to maintain two categories of mobile apps in an overall mobile solution for the
heterogeneous enterprise:
Standard mobile platform domain
An enterprise standard for all custom mobile development, including
both SAP and non-SAP enterprise assets.
SAP mobile platform domain
Needed to deploy prepackaged SAP mobile applications. This domain
should not be used for any custom development, and is treated as a
black box (only its external behavior is considered). If an SAP
prepackaged application requires extensive enhancements and
modifications to meet requirements, the application function should be
developed on a standard mobile platform.
A key architecture goal is to keep these two categories separated, and ensure that changes in
one sub-area do not affect the other one. This goal can be achieved by applying traditional
middleware leading practices, which are still valid for mobile solutions.
Provide business differentiation based on the mobile experience
For any user-facing application, a key requirement is that it should be easy and efficient for
the target user audience to use it. Usability is even more critical for mobile apps, especially in
the business-to-consumer (B2C) environment, where consumers decide intuitively within the
first interactions with the mobile app if they like it.
As companies aggressively extend their business presence to the mobile devices of their
customers, the ability to differentiate their business services by using mobile moments with
unique capabilities of mobile devices becomes one of the key requirements for the enterprise
mobility platform. Such differentiation requires an ability to provide custom mobile access
enablement for enterprise applications.
The enterprise mobility platform, therefore, must effectively support development of custom
mobile content for both SAP and non-SAP enterprise applications. The platform must also
provide enterprise connectivity and a data access framework for mobile device applications to
interact with back-end enterprise applications.
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5.3.2 IBM MobileFirst for SAP architecture overview
The enterprise mobile platform architecture shown on Figure 5-3 supports all of the
architectural goals outlined earlier in this chapter.
Custom mobile apps
enabling SAP and non-SAP
integration
SAP-delivered
pre-built apps
“as is”
IBM industry-specific
native iOS apps
can follow IBM and SAP
patterns
IBM
MobileFirst
IBM
MobileFirst
SAP
Mobile
Platform
API
APIManagement
Management
SAP NetWeaver
Gateway
IBM Integration Middleware
SAP Business Suite
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
Cloud
Applications
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-3 Heterogeneous mobile enablement for SAP
The architecture shown in Figure 5-4 on page 126 consists of two technology domains:
The MEAP domain for all SAP and non-SAP enterprise mobile applications based on
IBM MobileFirst.
The SAP mobile domain treated as a black box and used exclusively for deploying
pre-built SAP mobile applications that meet business requirements as is, or only through
well-defined and SAP-supported configurations.
IBM MobileFirst is a best-of-breed enterprise mobility platform built on open standards and
designed for heterogeneous environments, both SAP and non-SAP back-ends.
IBM MobileFirst does not merely enable access to SAP data through IBM-provided SAP
integration capabilities, but provides additional value. An essential differentiator is the
horizontal concept of the IBM MobileFirst portfolio, which provides generic mobile enablement
frameworks, and is fully capable of supporting any type of system of record rather than
favoring a particular system or technology.
The Worklight Platform addresses this need by introducing an architecture that is divided into
components. A typical mobile solution consists of a client component, the application the user
runs on the mobile device. This client component interacts with the central Worklight server
component. The Worklight server provides enhanced enterprise capabilities, such as a
generic security framework, efficient session handling, and enhanced analytics capabilities.
The Worklight server additionally provides components that connect various enterprise data
sources to the mobile solution. The Worklight adapter can access mobile-ready interfaces
directly from SAP software, or use IBM integration middleware components that provide
middleware features to the overall mobile solution.
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IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Cloud Integration, IBM Integration Bus, IBM WebSphere
DataPower, IBM Business Process Manager, and IBM Operational Decision Manager are
typical products that enable such integration capabilities. However, non-IBM offerings can
also be considered, such as SAP NetWeaver Gateway or SAP Process Integration.
IBM API Management provides companies with the tools for creating, proxying, assembling,
securing, scaling, and socializing web APIs. Web API is a server-side programmatic interface
to a defined request-response message system, typically expressed in JavaScript Object
Notation (JSON) or Extensible Markup Language (XML). This interface is exposed across the
web, and is most commonly used for developing mobile applications.
Equipped with a customizable developer portal, IBM API Management enables organizations
to attract and engage with mobile application developers to foster an increased usage of the
published APIs. The robust administration portal in IBM API Management enables companies
to easily establish policies for critical API attributes, such as self-registration, quotas, key
management, and security policies. The robust analytics engine provides valuable role-based
insight for API owners, solution administrators, and application developers.
Sections 5.3.3, “Fast-track SAP mobile enablement with IBM Worklight and SAP NetWeaver
Gateway”, 5.3.4, “IBM MobileFirst integration with SAP with no moving parts” on page 129,
5.3.5, “Accelerated mobile integration with SAP using IBM WebSphere Cast Iron” on
page 130, and 5.3.6, “Full featured mobile integration with SAP using IBM Integration Bus” on
page 132, further describe patterns used for integration of SAP business data in an IBM
MobileFirst architecture.
The decision to select components is heavily driven by the specific customer environment
and the planned mobile solution.
The first step is to conduct an assessment of the existing interfaces, APIs, integration
capabilities, and predefined governance rules for the customer. This assessment delivers
specific fixed points, which are set on the mobile enablement architecture and which are
not negotiable.
The second step is to collect critical requirements of the wanted mobile solution. Such
requirements can be a need for offline capabilities, specific security and performance
aspects, back-end integration requirements, or which mobile devices must be supported.
The third step is to identify gaps in the existing enterprise architecture and missing
infrastructure components.
The consolidated outcome of these three steps gives a good indication of which mobile
pattern is most suitable for the specific mobile enablement scenario.
5.3.3 Fast-track SAP mobile enablement with IBM Worklight and SAP
NetWeaver Gateway
This integration architecture is based on a relatively new type of SAP interface exposed by
SAP NetWeaver Gateway, a recent addition to the SAP integration stack. SAP NetWeaver
Gateway enables access to SAP data and functional services through a set of
Representational State Transfer (REST) services using the OData and Atom protocols. This
interface simplifies access to SAP business system from non-SAP systems of engagement,
such as mobile applications, social media, and IBM Collaboration Solutions.
To implement this pattern, the mobile application developer does not need to have deep SAP
skills because, from the mobile application perspective, the SAP environment can be seen as
just another service provider, a REST API.
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However, additional and potentially complex SAP configuration might be required in SAP
NetWeaver Gateway to service-enable access to SAP business data. The fact that SAP
NetWeaver Gateway is based on Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP)
implies that it is also operated by the SAP operations team within an organization, because
the administration of this component requires deep SAP-specific skills.
Worklight fully supports this SAP interface, and provides pre-integrated capabilities to
automatically discover SAP services exposed by SAP NetWeaver Gateway, and generate
integration code adapters and mobile application templates. This pattern is completely
contained within Worklight. It can be used best for fast-track development projects that can
produce fully functional application code quickly, and be deployed for quick-win mobile
initiatives.
The biggest advantage of this pattern is seen when the specific integration scenario can be
served by SAP NetWeaver Gateway services that are included by SAP with the standard
delivery. In this case, there is almost no effort to implement the integration, because the
interfaces can be used as is.
Whenever a customer has the SAP NetWeaver Gateway technology in place, it is worthwhile
to verify if this component can provide the required interfaces into the SAP domain in a
consumable manner. This is also a good starting point from the governance perspective,
because the control of these interfaces is still within the SAP domain.
Figure 5-4 describes how Worklight-based mobile solutions can communicate with the REST
and OData interfaces provided by SAP NetWeaver Gateway.
IBM
Worklight Server
REST/OData
SAP NetWeaver Gateway
SAP Business Suite
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-4 Integration using SAP NetWeaver Gateway
Worklight provides a ready-to-use adapter for SAP NetWeaver Gateway. This capability
includes a wizard-driven code generation feature to perform dynamic introspection on an SAP
NetWeaver Gateway instance, and to create the required artifacts automatically. The
generated objects are packaged and deployed automatically within the Worklight
environment.
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During run time, the Worklight adapter runs the call to SAP NetWeaver Gateway accordingly,
and the details of such calls are encapsulated behind a common Worklight adapter
programming model that is not SAP-specific. The manual coding effort for the mobile app
developer is small in this scenario.
Figure 5-5 illustrates the interactions of underlying components during the design,
development, and runtime phases of this scenario.
OData Modeler
IBM
Worklight Server
WorkLight
SAP NW GW
Adapter
Import (optional)
OData
SAP Service Invocation
Security
Offline data support
Service Builder: OData Г… Г† ABAP
SAP NetWeaver Gateway
SAP Business Suite
IBM Worklight Studio
SAP NW GW
Service
Discovery
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-5 Worklight and SAP NetWeaver Gateway
In mobile development scenarios, it is essential for the development platform to include
efficient code generation capabilities to enable the developers to produce high-quality code
that encapsulates complex interactions with back-end systems. New mobile apps or upgrades
to existing mobile apps must be developed easily and quickly.
Such code generation capabilities are provided by the Worklight adapter for SAP NetWeaver
Gateway. The developer can browse the existing OData objects catalog dynamically, and
generate the required runtime objects automatically.
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127
Figure 5-6 shows an example of the embedded wizard, which reads the metadata from
SAP NetWeaver Gateway and displays a list of available REST and OData services to the
mobile developer.
Figure 5-6 Worklight Adapter for SAP NetWeaver Gateway wizard
This capability prevents manual errors by the developer, improves code quality, and increases
implementation speed.
Although this integration approach masks the SAP software details from the Worklight
developer, it relies on SAP NetWeaver Gateway, and therefore requires the skills of the SAP
support team in the organization to configure it. SAP positions SAP NetWeaver Gateway as
the strategic integration point for scenarios where users interact with the SAP system through
various components, such as fat clients, web browsers, and mobile devices.
These components are the consumers of the SAP business data. For all of these
components, the preferred data formats and interaction style with the SAP domain are
through OData streams, REST style, and JSON formats. Therefore, the Worklight SAP
service discovery wizard will be of tremendous value to SAP customers in the years to come.
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5.3.4 IBM MobileFirst integration with SAP with no moving parts
This integration architecture does not require any additional IBM or SAP middleware
software. As shown in Figure 5-7, this architecture is based on a direct integration between
Worklight server and SAP Business Suite, using the well-established traditional SAP
Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)/Remote Function Call (RFC) interface
enabled by SAP Java connector (SAP JCo).
IBM
Worklight Server
SAP JCo
BAPI/RFC
SAP Business Suite
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-7 IBM MobileFirst integration with SAP with no moving parts
In this case, integration with SAP is implemented using Java integration code, developed
based on the SAP JCo interface specification. Subsequently, such Java code is wrapped in
an Worklight adapter and is deployed on the Worklight server.
This integration approach enables a direct communication path between Worklight and SAP
Business Suite, for example, SAP ERP or SAP customer relationship management (CRM)
applications. This integration approach does not require SAP NetWeaver Gateway or any
additional IBM middleware software.
The Worklight integration with SAP uses a set of pre-built SAP integration points (BAPIs),
which are well-established and documented. Therefore, it can be used with SAP solutions
without modification.
From the mobile application developer perspective, this integration option is no different from
other options, because the SAP system is exposed to the mobile app using standard
Worklight adapter APIs. No additional mobile developer skills are required in this approach.
However, on the server side, this approach requires developing custom Java code at the SAP
JCo level, and it needs more experienced Java developer skills.
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5.3.5 Accelerated mobile integration with SAP using IBM WebSphere Cast Iron
This integration architecture is appropriate when there are no consumable REST APIs
provided by the SAP domain itself, for example by SAP NetWeaver Gateway. In such cases,
IBM MobileFirst enables you to easily include additional IBM middleware components for SAP
integration. Cast Iron is a lightweight, efficient and flexible integration component that can
integrate SAP and non-SAP business data.
The main advantage of Cast Iron is simplicity. The complexity of application integration is
effectively eliminated due to a wizard-based configuration, rather than a coding approach.
Cast Iron is designed to dramatically accelerate the integration effort required for SAP
integration. Cast Iron integration is based on using a rich set of pre-built integration templates,
which quickens the integration effort tremendously compared to custom coding.
Integration based on Cast Iron is greatly accelerated, because it includes a rich set of
connectors to integrate with nearly any source system. One of these connectors is the IBM
WebSphere Cast Iron SAP connector, which enables a two-way communication between
Cast Iron and the SAP instance. The connector supports BAPI, RFC, and Intermediate
Document (IDoc) interfaces.
These proprietary SAP protocols are the most commonly used SAP integration interfaces,
and they enable access to nearly any kind of business data, which is in an SAP (ERP)
system. The Cast Iron SAP connector supports any SAP R/3 system, which is based on the
ABAP application server (3.1H or later versions) and uses as low-level API the SAP Java
Connector (SAP JCo 3.0.x or later). This component uses traditional SAP integration
interfaces based on RFC.
A typical SAP implementation exposes a large number of RFC-based interfaces, which are
well documented as BAPIs. These interfaces are standard in SAP, and typically do not require
any special or additional SAP configuration. This approach is different from the one described
in 5.3.3, “Fast-track SAP mobile enablement with IBM Worklight and SAP NetWeaver
Gateway” on page 125, where the SAP NetWeaver Gateway configuration is required to
expose the interface.
The Cast Iron SAP connector also supports the most popular interaction patterns with the
SAP system from a security perspective using a technical user identity, a named user identity,
or SAP LoginTickets.
The Worklight Platform contains a pre-built adapter for Cast Iron. This adapter enables the
mobile application developer to easily incorporate any available Cast Iron orchestration.
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Figure 5-8 highlights how the Cast Iron technology can be used to enable the mobile
application to access SAP back-end components.
IBM
Worklight Server
IBM WebSphere
Cast Iron
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
Cloud
Applications
SAP JCo
RFC/BAPI
IDoc/ALE
SAP Business Suite
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-8 Integration using IBM WebSphere CastIron
Cast Iron provides flexible deployment options, because it is available in several different form
factors:
IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Hypervisor Edition. A virtual appliance that can be installed on
existing servers through virtualization technology.
IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Live. A multi-tenant, cloud-based platform for integrating cloud
and on-premises applications and enterprise systems in a hybrid environment.
IBM WebSphere DataPower Cast Iron Appliance XH40. A self-contained, physical
appliance that provides what is needed to connect cloud and on-premises applications.
Cast Iron offers the developer a client component called IBM WebSphere Cast Iron Studio.
This client component enables the generation of integration content regardless of the target
form factor. The mobile integration content is built once, and can be deployed on any of the
different Cast Iron form factors available.
A unique characteristic of this pattern is the different form factors that Cast Iron provides. It
can be run as a traditional on-premises component, or as a cloud-based offering. Besides the
choice of form factors, Cast Iron includes more than 75 different connectors to a wide range of
popular back-end systems. Therefore, it serves as a complete integration layer.
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Figure 5-9 depicts the various components in the integration architecture.
IBM
Worklight Server
WebSphere Cast Iron
WorkLight
CastIron
Adapter
Simply provide the
Cast Iron orchestration
name
Orchestration
BAPI/RFC
SAP Business Suite
IBM Worklight Studio
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-9 IBM WebSphere Cast Iron orchestration
A special feature is the enhanced support for the mobile application integration developers to
generate all of the required business objects automatically from the target SAP system. The
developer only needs to know the name of the function module or IDoc object; the generation
wizard performs the object creation dynamically by reading the metadata from the SAP
instance. This enables the mobile application integration developer to produce high-quality
code in a short time.
5.3.6 Full featured mobile integration with SAP using IBM Integration Bus
IBM Integration Bus (formerly known as IBM WebSphere Message Broker) is a
market-leading middleware component used to integrate heterogeneous enterprise
systems. The following list describes some of the features of IBM Integration Bus:
Handling structured, unstructured and binary data
Synchronous and asynchronous interactions
Running stateless and stateful integrations
Routing open standards based and proprietary protocols
IBM Integration Bus provides a variety of options for implementing a universal integration
foundation based on an enterprise service bus (ESB). Implementations help to enable
connectivity and transformation in heterogeneous information technology (IT) environments
for businesses. This integration is critical for organizations deploying service-oriented
architecture (SOA), IBM Business Process Manager, existing application modernization,
mobile solutions, and third-party products.
For SAP integration, IBM Integration Bus uses the IBM WebSphere Adapter for SAP
Software, which uses the most commonly used SAP interfaces, such as BAPI, RFC,
Application Link Enabling (ALE), and IDocs. These interfaces can be used in both directions,
inbound and outbound, to send business data into SAP environments or to receive business
data from SAP environments.
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Figure 5-10 highlights how IBM Integration Bus can be used to integrate a mobile solution
based on Worklight with SAP.
IBM
Worklight
Server
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
Cloud
Applications
IBM
Integration Bus
SAP JCo
RFC/BAPI
IDoc/ALE
SAP Business Suite
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 5-10 Worklight mobile application Integration with IBM Integration Bus
It is important to understand that the selection of this architecture pattern is driven by either of
these benefits, rather than simply introducing IBM Integration Bus as part of the mobile
solution:
Reusing an existing IBM Integration Bus implemented in the organization
Introducing an enterprise integration platform in addition to SAP
Enterprises of a certain size typically have a middleware architecture defined at the corporate
level, and the reuse of this middleware is advisable if it is able to provide the interfaces in a
suitable format and protocol.
IBM Integration Bus has been used for a long time as a system-to-system integration bus for
SAP enterprise applications, and it also has rich capabilities for providing efficient,
REST-based integration services. A typical usage scenario is to encapsulate existing and
robust IBM Integration Bus message flows and make them available to mobile solutions.
Reusing a common integration governance model across all planned mobile projects is
beneficial for the overall mobile experience. Aspects such as an efficient identity mapping
across the mobile and the back-end domains, in addition to specific response time
requirements for the mobile solution, can be successfully addressed by an IBM Integration
Bus middleware layer.
The power of IBM Integration Bus for integration of SAP systems into mobile apps lies in the
acceleration of the integration development using patterns. IBM Integration Bus patterns
encapsulate the leading practices for mobilizing integration flows and code generation for the
Worklight adapter. Using patterns, organizations can achieve a faster time-to-market and
better ROI.
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Figure 5-11 represents the architectural overview of the IBM Integration Bus Mobile Service
pattern.
Mobile Applications
(JavaScript/HTML/CSS)
IBM Worklight
IBM Integration Broker
Mobile Application
REST
(JSON/HTTP)
Javascript
Procedures
REST
(JSON/HTTP)
Message
Broker
Adapter
Message Broker
Service
Message
Flows
WSDL
Figure 5-11 Built-in patterns to integrate Worklight and IBM Integration Bus
5.3.7 Access to existing SAP Fiori Apps using IBM MaaS360
SAP introduced the SAP Fiori initiative in 2013, which applies modern user interface (UI)
design principles to the existing SAP business modules delivered with the SAP Business
Suite. SAP Fiori follows current UI design paradigms to be responsive, personalized, and
simple to use.
Additionally, it is consumable by various devices, providing a modernized user experience
across the diverse SAP business module landscape.
The applications provided by SAP Fiori can be categorized into several core types:
Transactional apps. These applications enable business users to perform transactional
tasks with the SAP business system.
Analytical apps. These applications provide the business user role-based insight into key
performance indicators of the SAP business system.
Fact sheets app. These applications are simplified, read-only components displaying
contextual information and key facts about core SAP business objects.
SAP Fiori uses core SAP NetWeaver components, such as the SAP NetWeaver Gateway and
the SAPUI5 user interface technology. SAPUI5 was an SAP proprietary enhancement of the
jQuery framework, and has recently been made open source by SAP with a new synonymous
name OpenUI5 (using the Apache License 2.0).
OpenUI5 is based on JavaScript, and supports client-side application rendering using
standard browsers on various devices using the HTML5 and Cascading Style Sheets Level 3
(CSS3) standards. From the data binding perspective, OpenUI5 supports different models,
such as XML, JSON, and OData.
At the beginning of 2014, SAP claimed to provide a large number of Fiori-based applications,
which are split into the core types listed previously. SAP plans to make more Fiori-based
applications available in the future, especially in the business-to-employee (B2E) domain.
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Therefore, it is essential that the IBM MobileFirst initiative is able to provide options that
enable developers to use this asset in an easy, seamless, and nondisruptive way.
From a technical perspective, the SAP Fiori applications can be treated like any other
web-based intranet application, because the deployment of SAP Fiori applications follows
intranet web application design principles.
The IBM MobileFirst portfolio includes IBM MaaS360В®, a powerful product set supporting
different areas, such as cloud-based mobile device management, mobile application
management (MAM), and secure containerization. This support gives organizations the
building blocks to separate personal apps data and content from enterprise apps data and
content on mobile devices.
Figure 5-12 shows the different MaaS360 usage domains.
Secure
Mobile
Containers
Seamless
Enterprise
Access
Secure Content
Collaboration
Comprehensive
Mobile Management
One Platform for All Your Mobile Assets
Figure 5-12 MaaS360 overview
For the architecture pattern designed to integrate SAP Fiori mobile apps through MaaS360,
the left half of the circle (Secure Productivity Suiteв„ў and Mobile Enterprise Gateway) shown
in Figure 5-12 is of most relevance.
The IBM MaaS360 Secure Productivity Suite provides a component called MaaS360 Secure
Browser that enables secure access to intranet sites and web applications such as the SAP
Fiori apps. MaaS360 Secure Browser enables a fine granular Uniform Resource Locator
(URL) filtering mechanism with enhanced features such as restricting cookies, downloads,
copy and paste, and printing.
The network component on the provider side is the IBM MaaS360 Mobile Enterprise
Gateway, which controls the access of the MaaS360 Secure Browser to internal resources.
This approach does not require enabling virtual private network (VPN) on the device.
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Figure 5-13 shows the high-level architecture of MaaS360 with SAP Fiori Apps.
Integrate with existing
enterprise systems
MS SharePoint
File Shares
SAP Fiori Apps
Docs
Mobilize apps and content
on corporate networks
Mobile
Enterprise
Gatewayв„ў
App tunnel
security
proxy
Data
Figure 5-13 Enabling corporate apps for external use
Using MaaS360 Secure Productivity Suite and MaaS360 Mobile Enterprise Gateway with
ready-to-use SAP Fiori apps can save a huge amount of development time, if the SAP Fiori
apps fit the specific business requirements. With this integration approach, existing assets
can be re-used rather than reproduced on new platforms.
5.4 Optional components driving enhanced features in mobile
architectures
Based on the mobile scenario and the customer requirements, it makes sense to add optional
components into the mobile architecture to use specific features of those components. This
section describes optional IBM products and offerings that can be added to a mobile
architecture for SAP solutions.
5.4.1 Enhancing mobile architectures by adding IBM API Management
capabilities
IBM API Management provides companies with the tools for creating, proxying, assembling,
securing, scaling, and socializing web APIs. APIs can be defined as programmatic interfaces
that expose corporate data assets, such as products, prices, and availability, and that are
used by mobile components to interact with the business domain.
Equipped with a customizable developer portal, IBM API Management enables companies to
attract and engage with application developers to foster an increased usage of the published
APIs. IBM API Management’s robust administration portal enables companies to easily
establish policies for critical API attributes, such as self-registration, quotas, key
management, and security policies. The robust analytics engine provides valuable role-based
insight for API owners, solution administrators, and application developers.
IBM API Management is a unified solution, with an intuitive user experience, for managing the
complete API lifecycle, from creation, publishing, and adoption to support and monitoring,
enabling companies to realize the maximum value from their APIs.
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IBM API Management provides the following key features and benefits:
Secures, scales, and controls access to APIs to provide a resilient and flexible API runtime
infrastructure. IBM API Management is powered by the DataPower Gateway appliances,
which are some of the industry-leading security and integration gateway appliances.
Empowers companies with the insight to change and grow their business in the new web
API economy with robust business analytics.
Rapidly addresses business demands with the creation of new APIs from existing
business assets, or with simple configuration-based cloud services integration.
Nurtures innovation by building a community that attracts developers, entrepreneurs,
and partners who will rapidly build new applications and extend the value of the core
enterprise assets.
Mobile development scenarios have a strong dependency on the quality and consumability of
the incorporated APIs, and can be negatively affected when these APIs are not well-designed
and consumable. Figure 5-14 depicts, at a high level, the usage of a well-defined API strategy
to make the business data that is in an enterprise accessible and consumable by various
consumers, such as customers, partners, vendors, and so on.
IBM API Management
API owner
or creator
API owner
or creator
Create
Manage
API owner
or creator
Enterprise
application
or service
Socialize
Consume
API
Mobile
app
App
customer
Internal
developers
Partner
developers
Website
Web
customer
API
developers
Figure 5-14 IBM API Management overview
IBM API Management provides detailed analytics and operational metrics to the business
owner, and a customized developer portal for socializing the APIs and managing applications
that can be used by developers. Mobile enablement of SAP business modules can use these
enhanced IBM API Management capabilities, because SAP does not provide a comparable
product within their portfolio.
Custom development of such a web API capability as part of a mobile project is not practical,
and can easily consume the time and budget of a typically lean mobile project.
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A better approach is to use the ready-to-use capabilities of an existing product, rather than
developing such features for each mobile solution separately. The need for API management
capabilities for a specific mobile customer scenario should be evaluated early in the project
(for example, during a discovery workshop).
5.4.2 Enhancing mobile architectures by adding IBM mobile analytics and
quality assurance capabilities
Scenarios for mobile technology integration implementation focus on the quality and usability
of the application. Especially in the mobility domain, a negative user perception can become
an exclusion criteria for the mobile application, resulting in negative community feedback and
ultimately the loss of revenue.
IBM TealeafВ® is part of the IBM MobileFirst portfolio of offerings. It is an extension to the
Worklight Platform, and provides ready-to-use insight into the customer’s usage patterns of
the mobile application. It is able to automatically detect obstacles and issues that a customer
is facing when using the app. It covers the complete user interaction portfolio, from simple
clicks to complex gestures.
IBM Tealeaf offers extended visibility for smartphones and tablets by capturing device-level
and in-screen behaviors, such as scroll, swipe, and other actions. IBM Tealeaf can help
organizations discover how users interact with their mobile features, so that they can make
more informed mobile investment decisions.
IBM Tealeaf enables any mobile project running on the Worklight Platform to translate
customer feedback into actionable improvements.
When implementing mobile enablement for business processes that have a large SAP
footprint in the ERP landscape, it is likely that enhanced analytics requirements are placed on
the mobile solution.
The SAP business audience is used to having business warehouse-like analytics for the
activities within the SAP business modules. Alternatively, using traditional warehousing or
analytics technics is not efficient in mobility projects, because of their complexity, and
because of the different nature of systems of engagement provided by IBM MobileFirst
compared to the systems of record provided by SAP.
Having ready-to-use mobile business analytics embedded in the mobile platform can be a key
differentiator to enable delivery of successful mobile solutions.
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Figure 5-15 shows one example of a business analytics heat map. It gives insight into which
areas are used most often by consumers, and where critical situations arise.
Figure 5-15 Analyze user behaviors with visual heat maps
The heat map clearly shows the specific customer behavior. In the same way, it can
analyze the usage of links and forms to better understand how the user interacts with the
mobile application.
Another important tool in mobile analytics is user sentiment analysis: How consumers
evaluate or rank the mobile apps. By analyzing consumer reviews, comments, and ratings,
developers can get an early alert if one or more apps have problems. The Worklight Quality
Assurance feature provides a powerful analytical tool to tap into the app store ranking system.
Worklight Quality Assurance enables teams to capture tester and live user experience, to
continuously build and deliver high-quality mobile apps.
In a fragmented and complex mobile environment, this product provides quality assurance for
mobile applications, with user feedback and quality metrics available at every stage of the app
development. This product also includes capabilities for validating apps and tracking
production usage.
5.4.3 Enhancing mobile architectures by adding secure offline capabilities
Mobile implementation scenarios that incorporate business data are likely to have a
requirement to store such business data on the mobile device itself. There are mobile
scenarios where a certain grade of offline capability is wanted. This might be to overcome
unstable network situations, or to completely enable a business procedure to be run offline
and then be consistently replicated and synchronized with the back-end system.
For such advanced requirements, Worklight provides a ready-to-use technology called
Worklight JSON store. This component is available for the mobile applications developed on
the Worklight Platform, and offers a rich set of client-side APIs to define and interact with a
data store on the mobile device.
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This interaction is platform-independent, and enables the use of the same code across
different underlying mobile devices, which is especially beneficial when developing hybrid
mobile applications.
The Worklight JSON store component also provides enhanced features, such as encryption
of the stored data, and is used by multiple components of the Worklight Platform:
The Worklight security framework uses the Worklight JSON store encryption capabilities
to provide an offline authentication mechanism to the mobile application developers.
The Worklight adapter framework uses the Worklight JSON store to replicate business
data that has been called by the Worklight adapter. This approach provides a certain level
of offline capability for calls into systems of record when needed in the mobile scenario.
Figure 5-16 shows how the Worklight JSON store technology on the mobile device interacts
using the Worklight adapters with the ERP system in the back office.
DEVICE
IBM Worklight app
IBM
Worklight server
WLJSONStore API
Encryption/Security
Layer
HTTP/S
Information
Service
Layer
Worklight
adapter
System of
Record
(RDBMS/
ERP/
Backend)
JSONStore
Figure 5-16 Built-in offline capability using Worklight JSON store
The Worklight offline capabilities provided by the Worklight JSON store are beneficial in SAP
scenarios, because they provide a ready-to-use capability to synchronize SAP business data
to the mobile device in a secure and reliable manner. The mobile developer can focus on the
mobile scenario, and use the built-in framework rather than building a custom business data
replication logic.
Having a product catalog or client data on hand on the mobile device while not connected to
the corporate network are common requirements for mobile solutions.
5.5 Lessons learned from actual projects
This section describes some tangible findings and benefits gained from applying the IBM
MobileFirst for SAP architecture to mobile development projects.
5.5.1 Direct connectivity from mobile applications to SAP is rarely used
Scenarios where the mobile application calls the SAP components directly are rare in
heterogeneous enterprise architectures. Although technically feasible, such direct
(unmanaged) scenarios are likely to be difficult from the operations and maintenance
perspective. In addition, they provide only a limited insight into their usage patterns and
customer acceptance.
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5.5.2 Late decision on native versus hybrid apps
Worklight provides various development approaches, as described in the previous sections.
When performing mobile application development for an SAP-driven business process, it is
likely that the business data is provided by various technology stacks. In this context,
Worklight adds major advantages:
The SAP business modules offer a broad range of technologies to interact with the SAP
business data, which results in different integration options on the consumer side, ranging
from open standards-based integrations to SAP-proprietary approaches.
The Worklight platform provides the mobile developer the freedom of choice to do native
or hybrid development with various nuances, as was shown in 5.2, “Spectrum of mobile
app development approaches” on page 119.
This flexibility is important for mobile projects where diverse SAP interface technologies are in
use, and where shifts in these technologies can arise during the project phases. A change in
the decision on the SAP integration interface, and changes in the mobile application design
approach (for example, native versus hybrid development), can be accommodated at later
stages of the mobile enablement project.
5.5.3 Adding mobile business analytics features dynamically
When delivering mobile projects for line-of-business units that are used to having SAP
applications in the back-end, it is likely that business requirements arise that go into the area
of mobile business analytics. These groups are used to receiving reports and evaluations, for
example, who used the business processes and how the customers are interacting with the
mobile app.
Adding these capabilities manually into each mobile app is a cumbersome procedure, and
can increase the overall sizing for a mobile solution significantly. With the availability of the
IBM Tealeaf CX Mobile capability in the IBM MobileFirst portfolio, it is fairly easy to provide
such functionalities with a limited amount of custom coding.
5.5.4 Separation of security domains
SAP business modules include a highly sophisticated security model that enables business
users to have various roles and permissions assigned to them. Replicating the SAP security
model externally is not recommended, because the challenge to keep these models in sync
can become a huge burden for any integration project.
In various projects, two major security integration patterns have been identified when
interacting between mobile apps and SAP business modules.
A common security integration pattern for system-to-system integration uses a single
common security context (technical ID) for all interactions between systems. If this pattern is
applied to SAP integration and a technical ID is used to call an SAP business module, it is not
obvious who in the front end is the initiator of the specific interactions. Although this approach
is suitable and efficient for general system-to-system communication, it can be problematic for
certain integration scenarios where a business function in SAP must be run by a user.
This problem leads to the second alternative that is called named user approach where the
SAP transaction has to be aware of the user’s SAP ID. Many enterprises do not directly
expose SAP IDs to their employees, and instead expect them to use a common
enterprise-wide identity to log in to all enterprise systems, including SAP.
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In this setup, the Worklight security framework, together with the mobile integration layer,
determines which SAP user ID should be used to represent the mobile user and trigger the
interaction in the SAP ERP system, in the specific SAP names user context. Using this
approach gives the mobile solution the ability to use the full SAP security methodology. The
challenge is to define, case by case, the mapping rules regarding how the mobile identity is
related to the SAP back-end identity.
Establishing trust relationships between Worklight, the IBM mobile integration layer, and the
SAP ERP components is the suitable solution for this common security requirement.
5.6 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM MobileFirst
http://www.ibm.com/mobilefirst/us/en/offerings/
IBM Worklight Foundation
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/worklight-foundation
Tealeaf CX Mobile
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/cx-mobile
Cast Iron Cloud integration
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/castiron-cloud-integration
Cast Iron: Overview of the SAP connector
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/wci/v6r3m0/topic/com.ibm.websphere.cast_iron.
doc/SAP_Overview.html
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6
Chapter 6.
Portal integration with SAP
IBM WebSphere Portal is the leading product from IBM for delivering relevant, personal, and
engaging experiences. By integrating best-in-class business applications (apps) from SAP
with leading digital experiences from IBM, an organization can compete more effectively and
enhance the productivity of its workers.
This chapter describes the use cases, integration architectures, and guidelines for integrating
SAP applications into WebSphere Portal.
This chapter includes the following topics:
6.1, “Overview of integrating IBM WebSphere Portal with SAP applications” on page 144
6.2, “Architecture overview” on page 144
6.3, “Types of use cases” on page 146
6.4, “WebSphere Portal integration with SAP app use cases” on page 147
6.5, “Service-level integration” on page 153
6.6, “Architecture guidelines” on page 156
6.7, “Summary” on page 157
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
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6.1 Overview of integrating IBM WebSphere Portal with SAP
applications
WebSphere Portal provides an enterprise web portal that helps companies deliver a
highly-personalized, social experience for their customers. Integrating business applications
from SAP with WebSphere Portal, an organization can compete more effectively by providing
a highly personalized, single point of access to the applications, services, information, and
social connections that customers and employees need.
There are several goals and constraints when introducing an SAP application into an
environment with an existing set of well-established user environments, applications, and
processes. In some cases, these items can be in conflict with one another, which requires you
to strike a balance to ensure that the business objectives are met without compromising the
integrity and efficiency of the architecture.
Different types of SAP application users require different levels of integration. Internal SAP
application power users use the native SAP application graphical user interface (GUI) or
intranet portal. Casual internal SAP application users access functions through the intranet
portal, which wraps content from the SAP NetWeaver Portal component (users do not access
the SAP NetWeaver Portal component directly).
Customers and business partners use an external portal that wraps the SAP application
functions but provides company-standard branding, with a non-SAP application UI look and
feel. Mobile applications are focused on a specific business function, for example, labor
claiming.
6.2 Architecture overview
Figure 6-1 on page 145 provides an overview of how WebSphere Portal can effectively
integrate SAP applications, such as SAP customer relationship management (CRM), supplier
relationship management (SRM), supply chain management (SCM), Product Lifecycle
Management (PLM), and enterprise resource planning (ERP), with SAP NetWeaver. It also
integrates with non-SAP enterprise and cloud applications.
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Partners
Customers
Employees
IBM WebSphere Portal
IBM Integration
Middleware
SAP Enterprise
Portal
NetWeaver
Gateway
SAP Business Suite
Non-SAP
Enterprise
Applications
Cloud
Applications
CRM
SRM
SCM
PLM
ERP
Figure 6-1 Architecture Overview diagram
WebSphere Portal helps organizations create highly engaging, personalized, and
differentiated digital experiences that meet the evolving needs of customers and employees.
It can help organizations deliver exceptional digital experiences:
Interact with the appropriate back-end applications, such as SAP applications, to extend
core business processes to all users and customers.
Provide relevant, highly personalized experience according to the user’s preferences,
behaviors, location, and device.
Deliver consistent experiences across multiple online channels.
Engage through online communities, social interaction, and collaboration.
Empower business owners to manage the creation and delivery of rich content.
Deliver engaging experiences without sacrificing flexibility, scalability, or security.
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6.3 Types of use cases
SAP application use cases can be categorized into casual and detailed, as shown in
Figure 6-2.
Detailed Use Cases
SAP
WebSphere
Portal
Should I selectively expose the
SAP applications user experience
in WebSphere Portal?
Casual Use Cases
SAP
WebSphere
Portal
Should I craft a new user experience
that accesses SAP services?
Figure 6-2 Types of SAP applications use cases
6.3.1 Casual use cases
The majority of employees and possibly customers will encounter casual use cases. These
users need occasional access to services and information that originates from SAP
applications. They need the information in the context of what they are doing, and do not need
to know or care that an SAP application is involved. An example of a casual use case is a
salesperson looking up customer information or pricing. Another example can be a customer
who has been provided with visibility into their invoices and billing.
In both cases, the requirement is to provide simplified access to SAP application content in
the context of their role and task at hand. Casual use cases are often best addressed by a
new or simplified component that integrates with the SAP application at a service level,
providing the specific information needed in the context and manner that is most appropriate
for the user.
It also bypasses any complex SAP application screens that might detract from the usability of
the experience. The casual use case is common in enterprises that have many user
interfaces across heterogeneous environments.
6.3.2 Detailed use cases
Detailed use cases typically involve more than simple access to content:
A sales person creating a new customer opportunity in the CRM system
A pricing analyst managing product and pricing data
A manager performing salary planning for his team
The SAP application provides a ready-to-use user experience that has been refined to meet
the needs of each of these scenarios. The experience ties directly into logic on the back end,
and involves some level of interaction with the user.
These experiences are delivered by SAP software as business packages for each of the
various SAP business applications. Business packages are sets of the SAP NetWeaver Portal
component iViews (visualized in a web browser), combined with back-end enhancements that
snap into the SAP NetWeaver Portal component.
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For detailed use cases, it makes most sense to reuse, and use the experience that the SAP
NetWeaver Portal component provides by exposing it in WebSphere Portal (in addition to user
experiences from other systems). The SAP NetWeaver Portal component experience should
be exposed in a way that makes it feel like a natural part of WebSphere Portal.
The experience must be integrated in the context and user’s role, and not require a separate
SAP NetWeaver Portal component sign-on. Ideally, the SAP NetWeaver Portal component
experience is exposed in WebSphere Portal in a way that it is transparent to the users which
systems they are working on.
6.4 WebSphere Portal integration with SAP app use cases
One size does not fit all when it comes to SAP application integration. Different users and use
cases are best served by different types of integration. The types of integration can be broken
out into the following categories:
Expose and reuse SAP user experience inside of WebSphere Portal.
Create a new user experience, or a new use of a non-SAP experience, that accesses
SAP Services.
The following sections describe common integration use cases.
6.4.1 Federated portal
This type of integration is ideal for detailed use cases. The SAP NetWeaver Portal component
user experience is reused by exposing it in WebSphere Portal. There are various features
available in WebSphere Portal to achieve this goal, and the decision to choose the most
appropriate feature depends upon whether you want to selectively expose specific content
pieces from the SAP NetWeaver Portal component, or you want to expose the complete SAP
NetWeaver Portal component content.
Tip: For branding alignment between SAP and IBM Portal products, organizations should
build equivalent themes in the SAP NetWeaver Portal component using the Theme Editor
tool, and in WebSphere Portal using the Theme Builder tool. Aligning the themes between
the portals is essential to provide users a seamless and harmonized integration.
6.4.2 Integrating with the web application bridge feature
The web application bridge (WAB) is a feature of WebSphere Portal that uses reverse proxy
technology to integrate different web applications natively inside WebSphere Portal pages so
that WebSphere Portal becomes the single window of access to users. Organizations can use
WAB to quickly integrate the SAP NetWeaver Portal component into WebSphere Portal to
enhance their user experience.
WAB provides at the glass integration, and can be used to integrate web applications based
on multiple technologies and multiple vendors. It comes installed and ready-to-use in
WebSphere Portal version 8.0.0.0 and later. It is also available for WebSphere Portal version
7.0.0.2 in the form of a Portal Application Archive (PAA) file, which can be downloaded free of
charge from the IBM Collaboration Solutions Catalog at the following website:
http://ibm.co/1mL0Mcc
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Organizations can use this solution today, without having to purchase any additional software.
WAB is based on HTML iFrames and reverse proxy technology, and consists of the following
components:
Virtual Web Application Manager portlet. An administration portlet that provides a
centralized management console for all of the applications that are being integrated
through WAB.
Web Dock portlet. An advanced iFrame-based portlet that can dynamically resize content
(no scroll bars). It enables client-side or server-side inter-portlet communication, session
alignment, and navigation state saving.
Engine. A back-end component to manage persistence of the WAB configuration.
Reverse proxy servlet (RPS). The servlet that proxies every Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) request that is served through the Web Dock portlet’s iFrame, and processes
single sign-on (SSO).
Figure 6-3 depicts the general flow of an HTTP request that is served when a web application
is integrated using WAB.
Reverse Proxy
Servlet (RPS)
Web Browser
Back-end web
application
Portal
Server
WebSphere Portal
(SAP
NetWeaver
Portal
component)
Web Dock Portlet
Web Dock
IFrame
1
2
4
3
1
The web browser sends an HTTP request to the
Reverse Proxy Servlet (RPS) installed on the IBM
WebSphere Portal Server.
2
The RPS forwards the request to the backend web application on behalf of the web
browser. Selected HTTP headers, cookies,
POST data, etc. may be forwarded from (1).
4
The RPS forwards the response generated
by the back-end web application in (3) to the
web browser. Selected HTTP headers,
cookies, etc. may be forwarded from (3).
3
The back-end web application generates a
response to (2) and sends it back to the RPS.
Figure 6-3 Request/response flow in web application bridge
WAB provides the SSO capability to enable the users to access the integrated SAP
NetWeaver Portal component content by logging in just once into WebSphere Portal. Basic
and Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)-based authentication are the two common
authentication mechanisms used by the SAP NetWeaver Portal component, and both of them
are supported SSO mechanisms in WAB.
Note that for SAML support in WAB, the SAML token should be inside a cookie, and the portal
server and the target server should be in the same domain.
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More information: For details regarding using WAB to integrate web applications into
WebSphere Portal, see Integrating with the web applications at the following website:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSHRKX_8.5.0/mp/admin-system/wab.
dita
The SAP interoperability framework page, as shown in Figure 6-4, enables you to render the
SAP NetWeaver Portal component content without the navigational elements, so that it is
cleanly exposed in WebSphere Portal.
More information: For information about how to construct a Uniform Resource Locator
(URL) for an iView or page when using the interoperability framework, and then configure
that constructed URL using the interoperability framework into the Web Dock portlet, see
the section The SAP Interop Framework Page in the web document Defining Consumption
Mode and Creating the Content Component on the following website:
http://help.sap.com/saphelp_nw73/helpdata/en/f5/9edaa160584fb59081fef067b7a415/
content.htm
SAP NetWeaver Portal component
page without using SAP Interop
Framework
SAP Interop Framework Page
Detailed Navigation
Top-level Navigation
Content
Content
Figure 6-4 SAP Interop Framework Page
A key challenge in integrating the SAP NetWeaver Portal component is that when a user logs
out of WebSphere Portal, a log out of the SAP NetWeaver Portal component needs to be
performed as well. Otherwise, the user session on the SAP NetWeaver Portal component
remains open until it times out. WAB includes a JavaScript-based plug-in to handle this
situation, so that there is no need to write any custom code or perform any configuration.
The SAP NetWeaver Portal component sessions that are started in the SAP NetWeaver
Portal component and related SAP back-end applications are aligned with WebSphere Portal.
This way, the required session control and management are possible.
In most cases, session state is maintained if users go to another section of the portal.
Therefore, when they come back to the SAP NetWeaver Portal component content, they can
resume access to the SAP NetWeaver Portal component. When a user logs out of
WebSphere Portal, the related SAP NetWeaver Portal component session will be closed. In
all cases, the session is closed when the user closes the browser.
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Using WAB to integrate the SAP NetWeaver Portal component, SAP application content can
be placed alongside the information from other systems, including web content and social
capabilities from IBM. The WAB also provides support for JavaScript-based, client-side,
inter-portlet communication, in addition to the standard Java Specification Request (JSR)
286-based server-side eventing.
More information: For details about WAB inter-portlet communication, see Web
application bridge inter-portlet communication on the following website:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSHRKX_8.5.0/help/panel_help/h_wa
b_ipc.dita?lang=en
6.4.3 Integrating with IBM WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP
IBM and SAP collaborated to provide integration capabilities that enable the SAP NetWeaver
Portal component to interoperate with WebSphere Portal. This integration capability is
well-suited for the use cases in which an organization wants to expose an entire set of the
SAP NetWeaver Portal component content, such as all of the pages and their associated
navigation.
The IBM WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP is a feature of WebSphere Portal available,
starting from version 7.0.0.1 Cumulative Fix 6 (CF6) onwards, that provides interoperability
with the SAP NetWeaver Portal component. It is based on new public SAP application
programming interfaces (APIs) and new features introduced in SAP NetWeaver Portal 7.3,
and is jointly supported by IBM and SAP.
This new feature is free of charge to all WebSphere Portal customers, and is available in the
IBM Business Solutions Catalog. SAP NetWeaver Portal 7.3 (Enterprise Portal Core
minimum) customers and WebSphere Portal (version 7.0.0.1 CF6 and later) customers can
implement this solution today without having to purchase any additional software.
The portal interoperability solution addresses several main technical requirements for
seamless portal interoperability:
SSO
Navigation federation
Session management
SSO between WebSphere Portal and the SAP NetWeaver Portal component are handled by
WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP through either basic authentication (using the credential
vault) or with SAML 2.0. Using the credential vault approach is quick and easy, but also has a
downside, because it requires the user to provide the user ID and password redundantly to
WebSphere Portal and the SAP NetWeaver Portal component. The credential vault is
typically used in proofs of concepts (PoCs) and technical evaluation scenarios.
Production-level security integration with automatic SSO, without any additional need for the
user to provide data, can be provided by SAML or similar SSO infrastructures solutions, such
as IBM Security Access Manager. These solutions typically include some form of user ID
mapping as required by the two systems’ infrastructure.
Consumption of the SAP NetWeaver Portal component navigation structure is achieved with a
new public SAP NetWeaver Portal component navigation web service, which exposes the
user navigation structure through a web service.
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As shown in Figure 6-5, the new WebSphere Portal Integrator consumes the navigation
structure from the logged-in user of the SAP NetWeaver Portal component, and seamlessly
integrates into that user’s session in WebSphere Portal. The result is a federated navigation
structure for the user that takes into account the SAP NetWeaver Portal component content
that has been integrated.
WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP achieves seamless integration with the SAP NetWeaver
Portal component users’ experiences in WebSphere Portal by performing the following tasks
(Figure 6-5):
Providing SSO from WebSphere Portal to the SAP NetWeaver Portal component. The
SSO flow is performed in the background, and users are not aware that they are logged in
to the SAP NetWeaver Portal component.
Consuming the SAP NetWeaver Portal component navigation structure for the user and
role into WebSphere Portal, and displaying the associated content.
Client
(Browser)
3
1
Login or
Token
IBM WebSphere
Portal
SAP
NetWeaver
Portal component
2
SSO Domain. For example, .ibm.com
Figure 6-5 Integration with WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP
The user logs in to WebSphere Portal and appears to be working in a single integrated
application. In reality, the user is actually logged in to two different systems, interacting
directly with the SAP NetWeaver Portal component and working in the SAP NetWeaver Portal
component content. With this approach, everything behaves exactly as it should in the SAP
NetWeaver Portal component.
All the servers must be part of the same SSO domain; otherwise, the cookies will not be
handled correctly by browsers. It is important that the users specify the full SSO domain when
accessing the systems. Users must have direct access to all of the involved servers. Of
course, a proxy can be used.
The SAP NetWeaver Portal component sessions that are started in the SAP NetWeaver
Portal component and related SAP back-end applications can be aligned with WebSphere
Portal. In this way, the required session control and management are possible.
In most cases, session state is maintained if users go to another section of the portal.
Therefore, when they come back to the SAP NetWeaver Portal component content, they can
resume access to the SAP NetWeaver Portal component.
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When a user logs out of WebSphere Portal, the related SAP NetWeaver Portal component
session is closed. In all cases, the SAP NetWeaver Portal component will end the session
when the user closes the browser.
WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP can integrate the SAP NetWeaver Portal component
content in a way that makes it feel like a natural part of the WebSphere Portal user
experience. Content can be placed alongside information from other systems, including web
content and social capabilities from IBM. This capability enables reuse of the SAP NetWeaver
Portal component investment by exposing it in the social business context of WebSphere
Portal, thereby providing maximum value and return on investment (ROI).
6.4.4 Integrating with Web Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP)
WebSphere Portal supports the Web Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP) standard. By
using this standard, a portal, such as the SAP NetWeaver Portal component, can provide
portlets, applications, and content as WSRP services. Other portals, such as WebSphere
Portal, can then integrate the WSRP services as remote portlets for its users.
The WSRP standard and specification is provided by the Organization for the Advancement
of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). It defines a web service communication
interface for interactive presentation-oriented web services. This standard simplifies the
integration of remote portlets, applications, and content into portals. Producers and
consumers use this interface for providing and consuming portlets. WSRP can be used in the
following ways:
Producers can provide portlets as presentation-oriented WSRP services, and make them
available to consumers that want to use these services.
Consumers can select from a rich choice of available remote portlets, and integrate them
into their portal.
Portal site visitors can then access the integrated remote portlets. They can work and
interact with them in the same way as they do with local portlets. The integrated remote
portlets appear and operate to portal site visitors the same as local portlets.
More information: For more information about the OASIS WSRP specification, see
OASIS Web Services for Remote Portlets (WSRP) TC on the following website:
https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=wsrp#overview
It should be noted that the SAP NetWeaver Portal component provides only limited support
for the case where it is being used as a WSRP producer. Specifically, the SAP NetWeaver
Portal component WSRP production does not support the following aspects of WSRP:
SAP NetWeaver Portal component role, workset, and page concept
SAP NetWeaver Portal component business packages
Web Dynpro
iViews started by the SAP Application Integrator, which computes a URL to the application
and uses browser redirect to start it
Application-oriented services:
– Client eventing
– Object-Based Navigation (OBN)
– Work Protect mode to secure the user data
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Effectively, WSRP-based integration of pre-built contents of the SAP NetWeaver Portal
component is not supported, but one can develop custom Java-based iViews and make them
available for WSRP consumption.
The WSRP implementation of WebSphere Portal version 8.5 is built on the Java API for
Extensible Markup Language (XML) Web Services (JAX-WS)-based web service stack of
IBM WebSphere Application Server. The WSRP implementation in earlier versions of
WebSphere Portal was based on the web service stack that is based on the JAX-based
Remote Procedure Calls (JAX-RPC) standard. WSRP in WebSphere Portal V 8.5 can
interoperate with WSRP counterparts that are built on other web service stacks, such as
JAX-RPC.
6.5 Service-level integration
This type of integration is ideal for casual use cases. User experiences can be easily crafted
to access SAP services, and provide the information in the context and level that are most
helpful. IBM provides options for creating user experience components that access SAP
services. The primary tool for this purpose is IBM Web Experience Factory, which accelerates
the delivery of enterprise-ready, standards-based, Web 2.0 applications with rich, interactive
interfaces that deliver exceptional digital experiences.
Developers of all skill levels can use IBM Web Experience Factory to rapidly create complex,
rich, and interactive applications by using the latest Web 2.0 technologies, including Ajax and
advanced Dojo toolkit widgets and controls. IBM Web Experience Factory provides flexible
deployment options with support for the most popular smartphone devices, including Apple
iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry, all from a single code base.
At the core of IBM WebSphere Experience Factory Designer is a set of software automation
components called builders. These builders capture design intelligence through easy-to-use,
wizard-like user interfaces, and then automate the creation of code. The use of builders
greatly speeds up the development process, thereby masking the complexities of the
underlying APIs, and producing portlets that are truly service-oriented architecture
(SOA)-compliant.
Included in the IBM Web Experience Factory are several builders that enable developers to
rapidly and easily integrate with SAP applications to create applications based on any
remote-enabled SAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI), Remote Function
Call (RFC), web service, or Representational State Transfer (REST) call. By using these
builders, companies can speed up time-to-market for new SAP application user experiences
to address casual use case requirements.
The following list describes key features of IBM Web Experience Factory:
Fully automated SAP applications integration. Easily created, enterprise-quality, custom
portlets and applications that enable users to search, view, sort, create, update, and
delete SAP data.
Robust personalization and customization capabilities. Enable business users and
end-users to personalize and customize any aspect of their SAP applications, including
the look and feel, data, and application flow.
Dynamic profiling. Enable adaptive applications that display different data, enable different
tasks, and enable different administrative rights depending on the role or group of the user
(for example, administrator, employee, partner, and so on).
Automatic translation of help values. Effortlessly translate SAP application codes (for
example, country, currency, and so on) into user-friendly text, select lists, or radio buttons.
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Comprehensive Object Browser. Quickly explore all BAPIs within the SAP Business
Object Repository. Drill down to view the object details, such as methods, parameters,
structure, and field attributes.
Globalization. Easily build globalized portlets by using IBM Web Experience Factory’s
ready-to-use support for resource bundles, multi-byte characters, and runtime selection of
locale-specific content.
Simplified portlet-to-portlet communication. Create a richly integrated portal experience by
enabling portlets to interact, even if they are accessing data from disparate databases and
systems.
Batch input support. Rapidly import data into SAP applications using recorded
transactions.
6.5.1 Direct integration with SAP applications using SAP Java connector
This section describes the direct integration with SAP applications using SAP Java connector
(SAP JCo) to access SAP RFC-enabled BAPIs. This is a quick and easy approach to create
portlets that work with SAP applications. Anyone with access to an SAP server can browse
and directly access the SAP RFC-enabled BAPIs. New user experiences can be rapidly
created and deployed to meet changing business requirements.
Web Experience Factory builders work with =SAP JCo to access RFC-enabled BAPIs. SAP
JCo is a component provided by SAP for Java-based development of SAP-compatible
applications. The Web Experience Factory builders provide full support to create, read,
update, and delete (CRUD) SAP information. The SAP RFC-enable integration model acts as
a service provider to one or more user experience models.
This approach offers flexibility, because you can reuse the data as you refine the user
experience and build new ones. By separating SAP application integration from the user
experience, it also buffers the user experience from any changes on the back-end SAP
system (see Figure 6-6).
Web Experience Factory
SAP
JCo
Custom
SAP
BAPI/RFC
Integration
Model
SAP ERP/CRM
Public
Web
Experience
Models
SAP Services
ABAP
BAPI, RFC
Figure 6-6 Integration using SAP JCo through RFC-enabled BAPIs in SAP
The SAP view and form builder work with the BAPI builders to provide ready-made input and
output experiences that can serve as a basis for further customization.
User credentials can be passed to SAP applications through the IBM Web Experience
Factory builders, thereby enabling you to create a custom experience that accesses SAP
without the user even knowing it. This token-passing infrastructure can use SSO
infrastructure solutions as provided by SAML, or other token-passing SSO solutions, such as
IBM Security Access Manager. For simple PoC scenarios, it can be used with the credential
vault SSO solution provided by WebSphere Portal.
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6.5.2 Integrating with an enterprise service bus to connect to SAP
applications
A second approach to service-level integration is to use an enterprise service bus (ESB) to
connect to SAP applications. This approach is common where an SOA architecture is being
pursued. The service bus acts as a middleware buffer, which provides access to SAP and
non-SAP systems through web services.
It simplifies the integration of SAP applications by providing a single connection that is shared
and managed through the ESB. This approach requires more infrastructure work to set up,
but it can provide significant SOA benefits in the long term.
The IBM Web Experience Factory architecture includes a web service model in place of a
direct connection through RFC-enabled BAPIs. The user experience model remains the
same. Changes to the back-end are buffered through this web services layer, providing
flexibility to release level changes and updates to SAP applications. The user ID mapping and
SSO is typically provided by the ESB in this approach, as shown in Figure 6-7.
Any enterprise with many heterogeneous systems driving toward existing modernization,
SOA, business process management (BPM), and mobile technologies should seriously
consider this architecture.
Web
Service
Other Clients
SAP
JCo
Custom
Web Service
Integration
Model
SAP Services
SAP ERP/CRM
Public
Web
Experience
Models
Enterprise Service Bus
BAPI, RFC
Web Experience Factory
ABAP
Non SAP Apps
Figure 6-7 Integration using an ESB
6.5.3 Integrating with SAP NetWeaver Gateway
A third approach to service-level integration is through IBM Web Experience Factory
integration with SAP NetWeaver Gateway (that is, REST and OData services from SAP). This
approach offers connectivity to SAP applications, without the need for specific SAP
knowledge, by using REST services.
IBM Web Experience Factory developers can build REST SAP application integration models
without having detailed knowledge of BAPIs and RFCs. Although this pattern does not require
SAP skills to accomplish portal integration, additional and potentially complex SAP
application configuration might be required in SAP NetWeaver Gateway to service-enable
access to SAP application functions and data.
REST is an inherently lightweight and intuitive environment that enables developers to create,
update, query, and manage information of any REST-enabled applications (such as SAP)
from their own custom applications. The simplicity in the API comes from the fact that the
REST API is HTTP-based, enabling you to easily make requests to SAP through a simple and
straightforward URL using POST, PUT, and DELETE methods.
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Web Experience Factory
Web
Experience
Models
REST
Integration
Model
REST
NetWeaver Gateway
This new approach provides a simple and fast way to create user experiences to address
casual use cases. It uses the current REST builders in IBM Web Experience Factory with
SAP’s strategic focus, enabling easier access to SAP from third-party products and devices,
as shown in Figure 6-8.
SAP Services
SAP ERP/CRM
Figure 6-8 Integration using SAP NetWeaver Gateway
6.6 Architecture guidelines
The ROI on SAP applications implementations is directly linked to the level of SAP
applications customization. The cost of maintaining SAP applications has a significant
negative effect on the ROI.
Use of the pre-built, ready-to-use SAP application user experience is a good approach when
the level of customization required to meet actual business requirements is, roughly, less than
10%. In this case, selective exposure of such pre-built SAP NetWeaver Portal component
user experience inside WebSphere Portal (integration on the glass) should be done with IBM
web application bridge, as described in 6.4.2, “Integrating with the web application bridge
feature” on page 147.
Complete exposure of the SAP NetWeaver Portal component user experience should be
done with WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP, as described in 6.4.3, “Integrating with IBM
WebSphere Portal Integrator for SAP” on page 150.
It is important to note that the SAP NetWeaver Portal component should only be used as a
black box (only its externally visible behavior is considered) runtime environment. This black
box runtime environment should only host prepackaged SAP NetWeaver Portal component
user experience content when it matches business needs with no or bare minimum
customization.
The SAP NetWeaver Portal component should not be used when significant levels of
customization are required, because it results in significant negative effect on the ROI of SAP
application implementation.
Service-level integration providing new user experience, as described in 6.5, “Service-level
integration” on page 153, should be used when a specific function is not available in the
prepackaged SAP application user experience contents, or when such a function requires a
significant level of customization (for example, extra simplicity required for the casual
business user).
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Service-level integration is also the preferred option when an SAP application is only one of
several back-end sources providing a similar type of information. For example, the parts
search application might use the SAP application as one of the ways to locate the needed
part, along with other systems that cover different areas or partners. In this case, the SAP
application and other source systems should be represented as a set of services, and the
application UI should be built with the service-level integration.
Selection of the specific sub-options for service-level integration described in sections 6.5.1,
“Direct integration with SAP applications using SAP Java connector” on page 154 through
6.5.3, “Integrating with SAP NetWeaver Gateway” on page 155, depends on the project
context as described in the following considerations:
Direct integration with SAP applications is best suited for small projects with isolated
development of a portal web UI front end for the SAP application. This option enables
developers to directly explore, select, and combine in the UI module (a portlet) a set of
remote function services directly exposed by the SAP back-end application.
This approach enables a degree of agility for fast UI implementations, because both UI
and integration development falls into a single team. However, it effectively bypasses
services reuse and governance. It also lacks an effective solution for user identity mapping
(Portal ID to SAP ID).
Integration through an ESB is a preferred approach for all medium-to-large SAP
application integration projects.
Integration using SAP NetWeaver Gateway uses the flexibility and interoperability of the
IBM platform. It should only be considered as an alternative for ESB.
6.7 Summary
This chapter demonstrated how an organization can use existing investments in WebSphere
Portal and SAP applications by integrating SAP applications into WebSphere Portal. This
integration can be accomplished by surfacing the UI of the SAP application directly into the
portal using UI-level integration tools and techniques.
Another option for integration is to consume various services exposed by the SAP application,
and create a custom portlet-based UI in WebSphere Portal using deeper, service-level
integration tools and techniques. This chapter also described how to decide which type of
integration and which tools and techniques to use for various scenarios.
6.8 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM WebSphere Portal family
http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/websphere-portal-family
SAP Enterprise Portal (formerly known as SAP NetWeaver Portal)
http://scn.sap.com/community/enterprise-portal
Interoperability of SAP NetWeaver Portal 7.3 and IBM WebSphere Portal
http://scn.sap.com/docs/DOC-26539
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7
Chapter 7.
Master data management for
SAP
This chapter introduces the concept of master data management (MDM) and provides an
overview of the IBM Master Data Management solutions. This chapter shows why SAP
applications need MDM, and why IBM MDM is a particularly well-suited MDM solution for a
heterogeneous application landscape with SAP and non-SAP applications. This chapter
describes the solution architecture and architecture patterns that can be applied to enable
better business outcomes by extending SAP applications with IBM MDM.
This chapter includes the following topics:
7.1, “Master data management introduction” on page 160
7.2, “Why master data management is important for SAP applications” on page 161
7.3, “Overview of IBM Master Data Management capabilities” on page 163
7.4, “Architecture goals” on page 166
7.5, “Architecture overview” on page 166
7.6, “IBM InfoSphere MDM for SAP applications” on page 168
7.7, “Architecture patterns” on page 170
7.8, “References” on page 187
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
159
7.1 Master data management introduction
Master data, such as customer, supplier, employee, material, product, asset, contract, or
agreement, encompasses the key entities for an organization. Master data appears in almost
all relevant business processes. Master data has, therefore, high value information for an
enterprise. In some enterprises, master data is not properly managed today.
Often, it exists with poor data quality, without proper management functions in application and
system islands. This leads to inconsistent, duplicated master data information across the IT
landscape.
MDM solves the problem of multiple and inconsistent source systems for master data by
centrally managing these business-critical information assets, consistently and with the
highest degree of data quality. Also, MDM has to provide the trusted master data to all
relevant business processes in a timely way, either with batch-oriented or (near-) real-time
business services.
Figure 7-1 shows an example of ready-to-use IBM InfoSphere Master Data Management user
interface (UI) for managing customer master data.
Figure 7-1 IBM InfoSphere Master Data Management: User interface example
At a high level, there are several major benefits that derive from the adoption of an MDM
solution:
Lower operational costs. Streamlining master data processes with an enterprise-wide
MDM solution, removing redundant master data silos, and providing simplified, less-error
prone master data quality management through automation reduces operational costs.
Improved agility. Getting products to markets faster, onboarding customers faster, and
being able to identify new sales opportunities more quickly make an organization much
more nimble and agile to materialize better business outcomes through MDM.
Improved risk and compliance management. By providing 360В° consistent customer
profiles, MDM can help to reduce fraud and improve compliance. Process-driven MDM
master data is more accurate, because the processes consistently consume the same
MDM services and rules governing master data.
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In addition, critical steps in the maintenance of master data cannot be skipped, due to
process repeatability. This approach enables much more consistent adherence to
regulations or industry standards and simplifies audit reporting.
With centralized master data and well-defined distribution to consuming applications,
organizations also have a deeper understanding of where each piece of master data
resides, which is a prerequisite for controlling access to it. Consistent assignment of
customer preferences avoids incidentally sharing customer data with others, against the
customer intent, or inappropriately contacting a customer. Centrally managed status on
credit scores, black list status, and so on, mitigates business and compliance risks.
Increased sales. With a 360В° customer profile, companies can shift from an accountcentric organization to a customer-centric organization by gaining an understanding of
sales opportunities across line of business (LOB) boundaries. Also, for individual
customers, shifting from an account-centric view per LOB to a customer-centric view
across LOBs enables a superior customer experience across all channels by treating
customers individually, in a personalized manner, and improving customer relationships.
Social MDM. At the intersection of big data, mobile technologies, and master data, social
MDM is on the rise. A complete customer profile not only covers the enterprise-internal
knowledge about the customer, it also includes insight into all interactions with the
customer across all channels. For example, was the customer happy last time a call center
interaction occurred?
In addition, such a complete profile includes insight into the particular features a customer
liked or disliked, who is influential on key social media platforms, and so on. For example,
a prospect interacts through the Facebook presence of a company to get information
about a certain product. On the next day, the customer stops by the local branch office to
take a look at the product. The potential customer expects that the sales clerk is aware
that the Facebook conversation occurred, and has information about its content.
Consequently, unstructured information needs to be processed on Apache Hadoop
platforms, and derived social personas must be matched against the customer records in
MDM. If matches are found, the customer profile in MDM must be enriched accordingly,
enabling a complete social experience for the customer.
7.2 Why master data management is important for SAP
applications
The SAP application suite provides functionality to manage the master data that SAP needs
for the particular business scope, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) or customer
relationship management (CRM). However, a true MDM solution accomplishes much more
than just managing a local repository of master data.
A true MDM solution is configured to be aware of all applications across the enterprise
that contain master data, and to provide a layer of data integrity, referential integrity,
governance, and management across all master data repositories in a cohesive manner. In
addition, an MDM solution usually maintains its own local repository of master data, which
has been consolidated and cleansed from all of the other master data repositories from
across the enterprise.
The MDM consolidated repository does not contain every attribute from every application, but
rather just the most important attributes that are common across all applications. If the MDM
solution needs access to an attribute that is specific to the functional scope of one of the
applications, it maintains reference links to the source application to retrieve that data as
needed.
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Having an MDM solution in place to complement SAP adds value to SAP by reducing the
need to customize packaged SAP functionality. Without MDM, clients are often tempted to
extend master data definitions within SAP applications to suit various needs of a particular
business scenario. With an MDM solution in place, the MDM platform is designed to
incorporate constantly evolving master data definitions, therefore avoiding the need to
customize the SAP application beyond the intended scope of the solution.
For example, the master data definition for customer in SAP ERP Central Component (SAP
ECC, an ERP solution) should not contain any more attributes than those needed for the
scope of ERP (financials, order fulfillment, and so on). The master data definition for customer
in SAP CRM should not contain any more attributes than those needed to support the sales
and support processes.
On a side note, SAP CRM and SAP ERP have different data models for customer and
product. SAP CRM, for example, has the business partner entity for managing customer data
with a nice distinction between individual, or business-to-consumer (B2C), and organization,
or business-to-business (B2B), customer types, based on the BUTXXX1 table family.
However, the customer data model in SAP ERP based on the KNXX2 table family lacks this
clear distinction.
Similarly, the data model for product is quite different across these two applications. These
facts illustrate the need for an application-independent, enterprise-wide master data model for
each master data entity.
In addition to the data model differences, SAP applications are often customized during
deployment, and many enterprises have more than one SAP CRM or more than one SAP
ERP, or both, deployed in regional or LOB roll-outs. Customization in SAP applications
enables, for example, different reference values in code tables (also known as check tables),
and they contain, for example, country codes, product codes, and so on.
Therefore, there is no consistent definition of master data, even within the same application
across multiple instances of the same SAP application. As a net result, downstream
applications, such as data warehouses, face challenges that could occur in report quality, for
example, report by country, by account group, and so on.
Another angle of customization frequently applied is the addition of tables, or custom
attributes on existing tables, also modifying the data model. Therefore, an MDM system
external to the SAP applications that is able to support all SAP and non-SAP applications
makes much sense.
MDM can also significantly reduce the burden on SAP systems by providing master data
services for master data for non-SAP systems. A robust MDM solution can be much more
efficient as a high-transaction, reliable, system of reference for master data.
As an example, consider an e-commerce application that needs to authenticate a customer,
and then display the customer's basic information. Rather than have the e-commerce
application retrieve the customer data from SAP ECC, e-commerce can retrieve the
information from MDM instead, therefore reducing the burden on SAP ECC.
Data quality is one of the key value propositions of adding an MDM solution to an SAP
application environment. Without MDM, there is no assurance that standards regarding
duplicates or organizational data quality will be adhered to when new master data is entered.
1
2
162
Example of the tables for business partners in SAP CRM include BUT000, BUT001, BUT020, BUT021, BUT050,
BUT051, and so on.
Example of the tables for customer in SAP ERP include KNA1, KNVP, KNVV, KNBK, KNEX, and so on.
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
It is estimated that master data becomes dirty at the rate of 2% per month if there is no data
quality enforcement in place. This is particularly important for SAP applications, because it is
often difficult to completely remove master data records from SAP after they are entered,
especially if operational data exists that references the master data (such as orders, invoices,
and so on).
The key is to ensure that all master data has been validated and cleansed before being
entered into the SAP application system. A fully capable MDM solution, such as IBM
InfoSphere Master Data Management, has data profiling, cleansing, and onboarding
processes built into the solution.
For all of the reasons previously mentioned, an MDM solution external to SAP applications,
such as SAP CRM or SAP ERP, provides the following benefits to the enterprise as a whole,
including SAP applications:
A trusted and complete view of master data across SAP and non-SAP applications
Easy extensibility
Central place for business process management (BPM)-based information governance
supporting all data stewardship activities, including optimization
Central place to create and maintain all rules on master data, including but not limited to
the following rules:
–
–
–
–
Integrity rules, such as name and address standardization and address verification
Matching and survivorship rules
Data access rules, such as service and data authorizations
Business rules
Central place for history and audit
Central place for setting up rules for master data distribution
7.3 Overview of IBM Master Data Management capabilities
IBM MDM has a rich set of functions that cannot all be described in this section. The
complete set of functions can be found in 7.2, “Why master data management is important for
SAP applications” on page 161. At a high level, IBM MDM provides a ready-to-use, proven,
and rich multi-domain data model for domains, such as customer, supplier, product, location,
and so on, with support for hierarchy management, relationships, cross-domain relationships,
and more.
The following list describes some of the key capabilities of IBM MDM products:
Rich set of MDM business services built on service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles.
Model-driven, rapidly customizable model and services with MDM workbench.
Optimized for real-time interaction.
Industry-leading performance and scalability.
Ready-to-use support for operational, collaborative, and analytical MDM.
Support for virtual, hybrid, and physical configurations.
Industry-leading probabilistic matching engine (PME) with a full set of operators to identify
duplicates and provide powerful search functions.
Designed for big data. For example, PME is ported to Apache Hadoop for seamless
integration of social personas, enabling social MDM.
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Actionable master data through an event manager supporting life events, time events, and
so on.
Rich security feature set for service and data authorizations, access tokens, and audits.
History feature capturing data changes on an attribute level. All MDM services are
point-in-time enabled.
BPM-based MDM application for governance and data stewardship enabling seamless
collaboration among stewards, extension to mobile channels, and reports for individual
steward and stewardship team performance.
BPM-based MDM authoring processes and MDM Application Toolkit for BPM for quick
customization. MDM Application Toolkit for BPM provides business process
management-based components that you can use to build MDM business applications.
These applications are configured through IBM Business Process Manager.
Ready-to-use integration with IBM Operational Decision Manager for business rules
support.
Global reach through internalization.
Accessibility.
A full-featured reference data management application, IBM InfoSphere MDM Reference
Data Management Hub.
An unstructured text analytics component to enrich customer and product information by
analyzing blogs, posts, and more, with customer sentiment, and so on.
Batch interface for bulk load.
Integrated across IBM InfoSphere family, with many adapters to third-party solutions.
Support for multiple deployment options, such as bring your own hardware (BYOH),
private cloud, public cloud, and appliances (for example, the IBM PureApplicationВ®
System Patterns for InfoSphere MDM).
This rich MDM functionality can be seamlessly integrated with SAP applications, as described
in sections 7.3, “Overview of IBM Master Data Management capabilities” on page 163 and
7.4, “Architecture goals” on page 166.
InfoSphere MDM (see 7.1, “Master data management introduction” on page 160 for more
details) is a market-leading MDM platform that not only supports all major areas for the
adoption of an MDM solution, but can also, as shown in Table 7-1, seamlessly enable many
detailed business use cases across many industries.
Table 7-1 IBM InfoSphere MDM is the single solution addressing all use cases
164
MDM business use case
InfoSphere
MDM
Enterprise
Edition
Advanced catalog
management
Y
Y
Asset management
Y
Y
Centrally manage customer
preferences
Y
Y
Customer Information File
(CIF) augmentation and
replacement
Y
Y
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
InfoSphere
MDM
Advanced
Edition
InfoSphere
MDM
Standard
Edition
InfoSphere
MDM
Collaborative
Edition
MDM business use case
InfoSphere
MDM
Enterprise
Edition
InfoSphere
MDM
Advanced
Edition
InfoSphere
MDM
Standard
Edition
InfoSphere
MDM
Collaborative
Edition
Complex product definition
Y
Customer loyalty
Y
Y
Enterprise master catalog
Y
Y
Federal, State, and Local
Citizen Hub
Y
Y
Global data synchronization
Y
Healthcare payer: Claims,
Eligibility, and Member 360В°
Y
Y
Y
Hierarchy management
Y
Y
Y
Improve call center
customer service
Y
Y
Y
Improve campaign
marketing effectiveness
Y
Y
Y
Infrastructure rationalization
and modernization
Y
Y
Insurance underwriting
Y
Y
Y
Law enforcement
information exchange
Y
Y
Y
Mergers and acquisitions
Y
Y
Y
Y
Multichannel commerce
Y
Y
Y
Y
New product introduction
Y
Operational efficiency
Y
Y
Y
Pharmacy exchange
Y
Y
Y
Parts management
Y
Product factory
Y
Product information
management (PIM)
Y
Y
Product bundling
Y
Y
Reference data
management
Y
Y
Risk and compliance
Y
Y
SOA alignment
Y
Y
Y
Supplier collaboration
Y
Y
Y
Supplier onboarding
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Chapter 7. Master data management for SAP
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7.4 Architecture goals
SAP applications in the SAP inner ring and the applications in the non-SAP outer ring
require access to master data. From an architectural perspective, the following goals need to
be achieved by MDM:
Establish the single version of the “truth” for master data for an enterprise.
Decouple master data from the consuming applications into a central enterprise-level
system.
Decouple master data from SAP inner ring, because it is required both in the SAP inner
ring and in the non-SAP outer ring. Master data is an enterprise resource beyond the SAP
environment.
Provide appropriate interfaces for seamless consumption of master data in a SOA, that is,
make MDM a first class SOA citizen.
Provide appropriate data quality functions to manage master data as a trusted information
asset.
Provide appropriate stewardship functions to govern master data as a trusted information
asset.
Provide appropriate high availability (HA) and disaster recovery (DR) functions. If the
MDM capability is unavailable, key business processes might have limited availability, or
no availability at all.
Design MDM with evolution in mind. As relevant business processes change over time, the
requirements for master data also change over time, and therefore adaptability is crucial.
MDM must be flexible to support multiple architectural patterns concurrently, and from an
evolutionary phased implementation perspective.
7.5 Architecture overview
InfoSphere Master Data Management delivers enterprise-scale MDM functionality that can
serve both the SAP inner ring and the non-SAP outer ring, as shown in Figure 7-2 on
page 167. The MDM system manages master data entities, such as customer, supplier,
product, and employee, providing master data with the highest degree of quality to all
consumers. InfoSphere MDM provides market-leading capabilities to organizations:
Business services are delivered through intelligent, prepackaged services that can be
used to seamlessly integrate MDM into existing business processes and technical
architectures.
Pre-built and extensible data models for master data domains, such as customer, supplier,
vendor, employee, location, product, and contract, are optimized for master data
management. You can import existing data models or build data models from scratch.
Ready-to-use MDM application for IBM Business Process Manager for authoring and
stewardship of master data.
Ready-to-use BPM integration with IBM Business Process Manager provides the
capabilities necessary to implement policies and coordinate multistep and multirole
workflows for data stewardship and data governance.
Collaborative tasks enable organizations to set up workflows that reflect existing and new
business processes, thereby having a system that closely aligns with their business
practices.
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InfoSphere MDM Application Toolkit delivers business value rapidly, with governance
applications through pre-built blueprints, and widgets for embedding within existing
applications.
Governance and stewardship UIs enable you to inspect and resolve data quality issues in
real time, including relationships and hierarchies, and to edit the “golden record.”
Common PME employs advanced statistical techniques to automatically resolve and
manage data quality issues.
CRM
ERP
SCM
SRM
Master repository
(Customer,
Contract, Account,
Supplier, Product,
Employee, etc.)
BI
Non-SAPapplications
applications
Non-SAP
Non-SAP
applications
SAP
Master repository
(Customer,
Contract, Account,
Supplier, Product,
Employee, etc.)
Enterprise Service Bus
Example:
Web Services
Publish /
Subscribe
IBM Master Data Management
MDM Authoring
Services & Process
Event Manager
Notifications
Task Management
Master Repository
(Customer,
Contract, Account,
Supplier, Product,
Employee, etc.)
Access Tokens &
Rules of Visibility
Data Stewardship
UI
MDM Stewardship
Services
Matching Engine
Batch Processor
Enterprise Information Integration
Figure 7-2 IBM Master Data Management for SAP
Figure 7-3 on page 168 shows the components used by the MDM system for efficient
integration with all other systems supporting batch and real-time interfaces:
An enterprise service bus (ESB) component serving both the SAP inner ring and the
non-SAP outer ring
An enterprise information integration component serving both the SAP inner ring and the
non-SAP outer ring
In typical implementations, SAP applications only hold a copy of the master data entities
(therefore the dotted lines around the master data entities in Figure 7-2), which are centrally
managed by the MDM system. The same concept applies to the non-SAP applications in the
SAP outer ring.
From both, the ESB and the enterprise information integration components, data exchange
must use SAP interfaces such as Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI),
Intermediate Document (IDoc), Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP), or
web services. These interfaces were introduced in Chapter 3, “Enterprise integration services
for SAP” on page 39.
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SAP adapters for IBM Integration Bus (which provides the ESB functionality) and IBM
InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications, provide certified connectivity for
these SAP interfaces. See Chapter 3, “Enterprise integration services for SAP” on page 39
for more information about IBM Integration Bus and IBM InfoSphere Information Server.
7.6 IBM InfoSphere MDM for SAP applications
InfoSphere Master Data Management is an excellent platform for supporting SAP
applications. This section takes a closer look at InfoSphere MDM.
As mentioned before, various SAP applications use different data models for the same master
data entity. InfoSphere MDM provides a data model that supports the various data models in
SAP applications for the same master data entity, such as customer, as shown in Figure 7-3
and in Figure 7-4 on page 169. Therefore, InfoSphere MDM provides an excellent foundation
for an information technology (IT) environment with SAP and non-SAP applications.
For example, similar to SAP CRM, InfoSphere MDM has separate entities for persons and
organizations. InfoSphere MDM supports ready-to-use, multiple-address usage types. This
capability provides seamless support to manage the sold-to, ship-to, bill-to, payee,
installed-at, and so on, business functions for addresses known from SAP ERP.
IBM MDM Model
Example Customer
SAP CRM
SAP ERP
Customer 1
IBM HQ
PARTY
Location 5
IBM France
Paris, FR
Location 1
IBM Netherlands
Amsterdam, NL
PERSON
ORGANIZATION
ADDRESS
ADDRESS GROUP
Account 4
Sold- to
Account 1
Sold- to
Account 4
Ship- to
Account 1
Ship- to
Account 5
Sold- to
Account 2
Sold- to
Location 6
Branch 1
Location 2
Rotterdam
Location 7
DC
Location 3
Utrecht
HIERARCHY
NODE
Account 6
Ship- to
Location 4
Amsterdam
BUT000 /
BUT001
KNA1
Person
Organization
BUT020 /
BUT021
ADRC
KNVP / ADRC
BUT050 /
BUT051 /
BUT052 /
BUT053
KNVH
Account 3
Sold- to
HIERARCHY
RELATIONSHIP
Figure 7-3 Entity-level correlation of InfoSphere MDM data model and SAP application data models
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IBM MDM Model
Customer 1
IBM HQ
PARTY
RELATIONSHIP
SAP CRM
Example Customer
SAP ERP
Contact 1
Global
Location 1
IBM Netherlands
Amsterdam, NL
PARTY
IDENTIFIER
Contact 2
Speciality
Account 1
Sold- to
Contact 3
Sales
Account 1
Ship- to
Contact 4
Sales
Account 2
Sold- to
Contact 5
Sales
BUT050 /
BUT051 /
BUT052 /
BUT053
BUT0ID
Location 2
Rotterdam
PARTY
EQUIVALENCY
Location 3
Utrecht
Location 4
Amsterdam
CONTACT
METHOD
PHONE
NUMBER
Account 3
Sold- to
Contact 1
Global
Contact 1
Global
Contact 6
Executive
ADR2 /
ADR3 /
ADR6 /
ADR13
KNA1 or
ADR2 /
ADR3 /
ADR6 /
ADR13
Contact 1
Global
Figure 7-4 High-level entity example between IBM MDM and SAP applications for customer
IBM MDM has many ready-to-use MDM business services that can be consumed through
several different protocols, such as web services, Java Message Service (JMS), and so on,
making the integration with SAP applications easy. In addition, IBM Integration Bus and
InfoSphere Information Server have SAP connectivity on interfaces such as IDoc, BAPI, and
so on, for batch, near real-time, and real-time integrations with SAP applications, as
described in Chapter 3, “Enterprise integration services for SAP” on page 39.
IBM MDM tools includes IBM Business Process Manager. The MDM application for master
data authoring and master data governance supporting stewardship processes is built on IBM
Business Process Manager.
IBM Business Process Manager provides ready-to-use integration with the SAP NetWeaver
platform. Therefore, if for a specific MDM process, a process integration with SAP solutions is
required, this integration can be accomplished seamlessly.
The following list describes examples where this capability might be needed:
Propagation of master data deletes3
If a master data entity should be deactivated in InfoSphere MDM, there might still be
consuming applications, such as SAP applications, using the record. Therefore, the
deactivation process must inform the application consuming the record that the record is
intended to be deleted. The consuming application must respond back indicating if it is OK
to delete the record, and when. In SAP, a master data record cannot be deactivated if
pending transactional objects, such as orders, are not finished processing.
3
“Delete” in InfoSphere MDM is a logical deactivation by setting an end date. It is not a physical delete operation.
Chapter 7. Master data management for SAP
169
In this case, the following steps must be taken:
– Set the block flag in SAP, preventing new transactional objects to be created for that
master data record but enabling the open transactional objects to complete.
– Set the deactivation flag in SAP after the last transactional object has completed.
– Respond back that deactivation is now OK.
For this reason, a master data deletion is usually a process that must be orchestrated
across multiple systems, including SAP applications. IBM Business Process Manager,
part of the IBM MDM portfolio, is an ideal platform for the orchestration.
Propagation of merge and split operations
The merge of multiple duplicate master data records, or the split of one master data record
into multiple records, has implications in the consuming applications for dependent
transactional objects, such as orders. For this reason, these operations require process
integration with the consuming applications. IBM Business Process Manager provides an
ideal platform.
7.7 Architecture patterns
From a solution architecture perspective, it is not possible to describe all of the details in the
architecture overview provided in this chapter. The book Enterprise Master Data
Management: An SOA Approach to Managing Core Information describes the IBM MDM
Reference Architecture.
This section only shows a few of the key architecture patterns at a high level, to demonstrate
some of the options and leading practices. This section is structured as follows:
7.7.1, “Master Data Integration” on page 172 introduces how an MDM system is initially
built using master data integration.
7.7.2, “Master data distribution” on page 175 provides a high-level overview of how master
data can be synchronized across the enterprise.
7.7.3, “MDM hub patterns and MDM implementation styles” on page 178 provides
additional architectural details about various MDM system configuration and
implementation patterns.
Before examining the patterns in detail, it is important to understand the basic concepts of
system of record, system of reference, core, common, and local, as shown in Figure 7-5 on
page 171.
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MDM System of Reference
MDM System of Record
Owner
CORE
COMMON
LOCAL
CORE
COMMON
LOCAL
Centrally vs. locally managed
Figure 7-5 MDM concepts: System of record, system of reference, core, common, and local
Owner. The first dimension is the ownership dimension for an attribute (whether the
attribute is created and maintained through the MDM system or outside of MDM).
System of record. The MDM system is the system of record for an attribute if it is created
and maintained through the MDM system. Examples could include names, contact details,
and so on.
System of reference. The MDM system is the system of reference for an attribute if the
attribute is created and maintained outside the MDM system. This could be the case in
some implementation styles or for attributes coming from third-party data sources, such as
Dun & Bradstreet for the DUNS number, Global Product Code (GPC), and so on.
In addition, the set of master data attributes can be divided into the following categories:
Core. Attributes in this category are used to uniquely identify a master data entity. These
attributes are frequently used in the matching algorithm, and examples include social
security number, date of birth, and so on.
Common. Attributes in this category are used by at least two consuming applications.
Local. Attributes in this category are only relevant for a single application.
With this definition, only core and common attributes should be managed by the MDM
system, because only these attributes have relevance for the enterprise, where application
local attributes lack this relevance. Duplicating application local attributes in MDM does not
make sense, because there is no other consumer for them anyway. Following this practice
provides the following benefits:
Greater flexibility in managing master data in the MDM system, because it does not
become a central monolithic system burdened with application local concerns.
Centralizing only where there is a business case. For example, the customer master data
entity in SAP ERP has over 500 attributes. However, in many implementations, only
150-200 are relevant beyond SAP ERP, making it a candidate for being managed in the
MDM system.
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Reduced cost for central management, because the investment is only on master data
attributes that provide value on an enterprise scale.
Reduced cost using pre-built integration with a flexible system of record and system of
reference approach.
Enabling companies to start small and grow as their needs grow. This approach gives
companies the time to mature their information governance capabilities and organization
in parallel.
Phased centralization, which is sometimes politically easier because it shows results on
every phase, gaining growing trust for the overall MDM strategy.
7.7.1 Master Data Integration
The master data integration (MDI) component of the MDM solution architecture addresses
the need to extract and harmonize master data from heterogeneous source systems before
loading the data into the MDM system and distributing it using batch processes to other target
systems, as shown in Figure 7-6.
IBM MDM Platform
Source
Systems
MDM Business
Services
5
4
Inner Ring
MDM
Database
Inner Ring
Batch Processor
Business
CRM
SRM
Suite
CRM
ECC
SCM
Target
Systems
3
ECC
6
PLM
SCM
NetWeaver
PLM
NetWeaver
7
1
Staging DB
Non-SAP
Applications
Outer Ring
Business
SRM
Suite
Non-SAP
Applications
2
Understand
Profile
Cleanse
Match & Survive
Transform
Mapping Specs
Connect
Deploy
Deliver
Outer Ring
Enterprise Information
Integration
Figure 7-6 Master Data Integration
In some projects, organizations implement new SAP systems in environments that already
have existing SAP systems that were consolidated into the new SAP systems. In some cases,
several to dozens (and even more than 100 in very large installations) SAP R/3 systems are
consolidated into a new SAP ERP system.
In other cases, several SAP ERP systems, originally deployed by geographical area or
business unit, are consolidated for process consistency and efficiency into a single SAP ERP
system. Therefore, source systems can be SAP and non-SAP applications. From an
architecture perspective, all SAP systems are grouped into the SAP inner ring. The non-SAP
applications are all other systems that have master data that needs migration to the new
SAP systems.
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Note that non-SAP applications include third-party data sources, such as Dun & Bradstreet
and others, that might be used during the master data harmonization process for enrichment
purposes. Target systems include all SAP systems in the SAP inner ring, but can also include
non-SAP applications.
The IBM MDM platform has the MDM Authoring Services and Process layer as the entry
point, and the MDM database as persistency, as shown in Figure 7-2 on page 167. The Batch
Processor is a wrapper around the MDM Authoring Services & Process, orchestrating
services and processes in a highly parallel manner for batch loads. A typical situation is the
initial load in the first implementation phase, and bulk loads in subsequent implementation
phases. The Batch Processor uses as input XML files.
The enterprise information integration component used to perform the data cleansing and
harmonization is based on the InfoSphere Information Server product and its components,
which work together to achieve business objectives within the information integration domain:
Understand: IBM InfoSphere Data Architect, IBM InfoSphere Business Glossary, IBM
InfoSphere Metadata Workbench, IBM InfoSphere Blueprint Director.
Profile: IBM InfoSphere Information Analyzer, IBM InfoSphere Discovery.
Cleanse: IBM InfoSphere QualityStage, IBM InfoSphere DataStage.
Match and survive: IBM InfoSphere QualityStage.
Transform: IBM InfoSphere DataStage.
Mapping specifications: IBM InfoSphere FastTrack.
Connect: IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications (SAP connectors,
referred to as SAP Packs in this chapter), and so on.
Deploy: IBM InfoSphere Information Services Director.
Deliver: IBM InfoSphere Change Data Capture, IBM InfoSphere Federation Server.
IBM InfoSphere Information Server is also the software platform for the conversion
architecture. For more information about enterprise integration service, see 3.6, “Initial data
load” on page 66.
If the MDM system is deployed parallel to the SAP system, it is common that the InfoSphere
Information Server infrastructure is used to support both the conversion architecture and the
MDI tasks.
Figure 7-6 on page 172 shows the following key steps in the MDI architecture:
1. In a first step, master data from a heterogeneous set of source systems is extracted and
stored in a staging database (Staging DB in Figure 7-6 on page 172).
For SAP source systems, typical extract interfaces include IDoc, BAPI, and ABAP. For
SAP sources with the InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications V7.0 (SAP
Packs v7.0) or newer, two new tools based on IBM InfoSphere Data Architect improve the
efficiency of this step:
•
•
IBM InfoSphere Rapid Modeler for SAP Applications (Rapid Modeler)
IBM InfoSphere Rapid Generator for SAP Applications (Rapid Generator)
Rapid Modeler discovers the SAP data models in SAP systems and extracts the SAP data
model representing the business objects. Rapid Generator generates the complete
extraction logic to read the data from SAP systems and write it into the staging database.
The extraction logic is composed of ready-to-run jobs for InfoSphere DataStage.
Chapter 7. Master data management for SAP
173
2. After the master data is extracted into the Staging DB, the following tasks are performed:
– InfoSphere Information Analyzer is used to profile the master data in the Staging DB to
understand the data cleansing and harmonization needs.
– InfoSphere FastTrack is used to define the mapping specifications to logically map the
various different source models to the MDM target model.
In addition, physical mapping specifications are defined, which in a first step map the
various different source models to a common alignment model where the data
cleansing is done. Another specification maps the common alignment model to the
MDM target model.
– InfoSphere DataStage is used to transform the master data records from the various
different source systems into a common alignment model in which the data cleansing is
done.
– InfoSphere QualityStage and InfoSphere DataStage are used to implement data
cleansing, such as address standardization (InfoSphere QualityStage) or reference
data harmonization (InfoSphere DataStage).
– Optionally, InfoSphere QualityStage can be used to perform matching and survivorship
to remove duplicate master data records. This task is optional, because ideally the
matching and survivorship logic used for initial load is the same as the one used by the
MDM business services when the MDM system is live.
Therefore, it is usually considered a good practice to use the built-in PME of IBM MDM
to detect duplicates and apply appropriate survivorship to them. Step 5 provides some
more details about this topic.
– After the data cleansing and harmonization of the master data is complete, transform
capabilities of IBM InfoSphere DataStage are used to write the Extensible Markup
Language (XML) files for the Batch Processor to process.
3. The Batch Processor reads the XML files containing the clean master data records and
starts the MDM business services, once per master data record in the XML files, in a
highly parallel manner. The degree of parallelism is configurable to best use the available
hardware resources while not overloading the system.
4. The MDM business services started by the Batch Processor process the master data
records, and apply all business and data integrity logic to the master data records.
5. If the MDM business services successfully complete their task, they persist the master
data record in the MDM database. The MDM business services contain a flag to perform
duplicate detection. For large to very large volumes of master data records, it is advisable
to disable the duplicate detection during the initial load process, and then schedule an
evergreening task to perform duplicate detection immediately after load completion but
before the MDM system is used.
The reason for this approach is that duplicate detection is an resource-intensive operation
within a single MDM Business Service operation, with measurable effect on throughput of
records that can be loaded in a certain time window. A batch duplicate process performed
immediately after the load provides for optimal load performance and optimal duplicate
detection performance on large volumes of new master data records.
However, performing duplicate detection and survivorship with the MDM system during
step 2 instead has the business benefit that the complete record history is auditable and
stored in the MDM system.
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6. After the master data is loaded to the MDM system and, if necessary, the evergreening
process for duplicate resolution is completed, the enterprise information integration
component can be used to extract and transform the master data for the consuming target
systems.
7. After the master data is transformed to the format expected by the target system, a bulk
load can be performed. For SAP targets, the SAP Packs can be reused to generate the
load jobs (similar to the extract jobs).
An implementation leading practice of this architecture is to configure the SAP system for
external key assigned, and the MDM system creates the primary keys for the SAP system in
the correct format. The InfoSphere MDM product includes ready-to-use the necessary data
model and services to manage any number of cross-referencing keys, which can be used to
maintain these primary keys.
7.7.2 Master data distribution
Harmonizing master data and loading it into an MDM system is only the first step. In a second
step, the MDM system must be embedded into the IT environment, which can be done in a
variety of ways. The option described in this section is one of several architecture patterns
that has been successfully used in many projects.
Figure 7-7 on page 177 shows a conceptual view of embedding the MDM system into the IT
environment using the transactional style architecture pattern. See 7.4, “Architecture goals”
on page 166 for more details about this architecture pattern. The transactional style pattern
establishes the MDM system as the system of record for master data in the enterprise.
Master data creation or change happens through the MDM business services provided by the
MDM system. The MDM business services operate on a request-response model. They are
transaction-enabled on the service level, which means that they can be used in 2-phase
commit protocols, such as WS-Atomic Transaction. An MDM UI is required where master data
can be created and maintained. Depending on the business requirements, an MDM UI can
mean several different things. The following list is for illustration purposes only:
In banking, the MDM UI, in the context of a specific use case, can be the screen of an ATM
UI where customers can specify their language preference and other personal settings.
When the settings are captured, every time the customer comes back to any ATM machine
and swipes the debit or credit card, the ATM UI displays with the customer preferences
previously selected, avoiding the need to select them each time that the customer uses
the ATM.
For practical purposes, however, the ready-to-use MDM UI is never displayed on the ATM.
The ATM always has its own UI, but with the need to consume MDM services. Therefore, it
is important that the MDM solution provides services that have the following attributes:
–
–
–
–
Are easy to consume
Seamlessly scale and perform
Include high levels of built-in security
Have the correct level of functionality regarding data model, data quality, and so on
built-in
Therefore, these “hidden” attributes of the MDM software are critical aspects to consider
when going through an MDM software selection process, rather than placing priority on
the UI aspects. Scalability, performance, and the correct functionality are capabilities that
require much effort if you have to build them.
Chapter 7. Master data management for SAP
175
Each time MDM business services are started to create or maintain a master data record,
embedded data quality functions are started. Data quality functions can include matching
to detect duplicates. Depending on the match result and the business requirements
around survivorship rules, it is possible that, in some cases, detected duplicates are
merged automatically based on configured survivorship rules.
In other cases, the detected duplicates are marked as suspects for review by data
stewards, because the involved master data records might show some similarity but not
enough to warrant an automatic merge. In such a case, data stewards require an MDM UI
where they can review the duplicate records that are marked as suspects, and then decide
whether they are indeed duplicates.
Depending on the decision, they might need to manually merge the duplicates, trigger the
automatic merge of the records, or mark the records as not being duplicates at all. In any
case, the data stewards require an MDM UI enabling them to open master data records,
possibly edit them, and enable them for split and merge operations of master data records.
All of these activities, enabled through the MDM UI, start MDM business services in a
real-time fashion. In some cases, the UI used by the data stewards can be a ready-to-use
MDM UI. in other cases, it might be a custom-built UI, depending on requirements.
Also note that the task management and stewardship processes might use workflow
capabilities provided by an enterprise BPM platform. In this case, the MDM UI drives the
workflow, and individual workflow steps then start the MDM business services in a
real-time fashion.
A customer call center employee might have an intranet portal application where different
widgets show various aspects of the customer:
– The MDM widget provides the ability to quickly retrieve the customer master data
record from the MDM system when the customer calls and provides the customer
number. This widget starts the MDM business services to pull the customer
master data.
– Other widgets can pull, for example, the contract from a contract management system,
such as IBM FileNet. These widgets can also pull, for example, the last five orders from
the order management system, and maybe the last 10 interactions that the customer
had across all customer touch points of the enterprise from various other systems.
An enterprise might have an e-commerce channel where customers can register
themselves and place orders for various product offerings. In such a scenario, the
e-commerce platform starts MDM business services to create new customer master data
records during registration, or to update them if a customer is updating address
information, contact details, preferences, and so on.
The examples described previously have the following characteristics in common:
An MDM UI for an enterprise is usually not a single UI. The MDM UI might be a dedicated
MDM UI in addition to widgets, portlets, and other UI components embedded in other UIs
interacting with the MDM system.
In any case, through the UI, the MDM business services are started, performing real-time
transactions on the master data.
Optionally, the UI might be the entry point to more complex business processes,
implemented as workflows on an enterprise BPM component where individual workflow
steps start the MDM business services in a real-time fashion.
Any consumer of master data is only receiving the new master data records, or updates to
existing master data records, after the MDM system processed it through the MDM
business services. An integration interface makes the new or updated master data
information available to the consumer.
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Figure 7-7 shows an MDM system using the transactional style architecture.
MDM UI
Portfolio
Mgmt.
External
Web
Claims
Assessor
Customer
Call Center
Enterprise
BPM
Data
Steward
3
Inner Ring
1
2
IBM MDM Platform
4
5
6
MDM Business
Services
7a
CRM
E
S
B
MDM
Database
Business
SRM
Suite
ECC
7b
SCM
PLM
NetWeaver
Outer Ring
7c
Batch Processor
Non-SAP
Applications
8a
8b
Understand
Profile
Cleanse
Match & Survive
Transform
Mapping Specs
Connect
Deploy
Deliver
8c
Enterprise Information
Integration
Figure 7-7 MDM system using transactional style architecture
Figure 7-7 shows the following key steps in the architecture:
1. A user uses an MDM UI component to perform search, create, or maintenance functions
on master data.
2. Through the ESB, the MDM business services are started for real-time, transactional
operations on service level.
3. Optionally, if the MDM UI is driving business processes implemented as a workflow on an
enterprise BPM component, workflow steps request the MDM business services.
4. The ESB routes the MDM business service request to the MDM system.
5. When the MDM system receives the MDM business services request, it starts processing.
6. If the MDM system completes the processing successfully, it writes the appropriate master
data updates to the MDM database, and returns a success status to the service requester
through the ESB. Otherwise it returns an error.
7. Upon successful completion of the MDM business services, a notification to the consumer
is triggered:
a. The MDM system has a notification framework that can be used to publish changes on
master data to subscribed consumers, using publish/subscribe patterns on the ESB.
b. Because many large enterprises implement the ESB using IBM Integration Bus, which
is the industry-leading ESB platform for consuming SAP applications, (near) real-time
integration can be implemented by using IBM Integration Bus with IBM WebSphere
Adapter for SAP Software. WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software provides seamless
integration with standard SAP interfaces, such as IDoc, BAPI, and so on.
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c. For master-data-consuming, non-SAP applications, depending on the application type,
other connectors of IBM Integration Bus (previously known as IBM WebSphere
Message Broker) can be used for (near) real-time integration.
8. Some consumers of master data, such as analytical applications, might not require
real-time or near real-time updates on master data. For these consumers, periodic batch
updates might be sufficient.
These batch updates can be implemented using the enterprise information integration
component:
a. A periodic batch is extracted from the MDM system based on the scheduled frequency
(hourly, daily, and so on).
b. For SAP systems with only periodic update needs, the enterprise information
integration component transforms the periodic batch to the SAP data model, and uses
the SAP Packs to load it to the consuming SAP application.
c. For non-SAP applications with only periodic update needs, the enterprise information
integration component transforms the periodic batch to the appropriate target model,
and uses other provided connectors to load it into the target system.
From an MDM perspective, the ESB is used to achieve at a minimum the following objectives:
Loose coupling of the MDM system and consuming applications (SAP applications and
Non-SAP Applications).
The primary purpose for this objective is to avoid point-to-point integration between the
MDM system and consuming applications. Because the MDM system evolves over time
(for example, a change in business process can drive changes in the data model and
services interface of MDM), a single change can break all point-to-point integrations
between MDM and the consuming applications.
It is therefore advisable to use the publish/subscribe capabilities offered by the ESB, so
that MDM can notify subscribed consumers of changes in master data as needed. The
publish/subscribe approach for loose coupling is further enhanced if you use the ability to
create a canonical data model with appropriate governance in the ESB.
For example, three different versions exist concurrently. If a new one is added, the oldest is
withdrawn from service. This approach enables consumers to stay on a certain version for
a longer period of time. This avoids interface rework each time a new consumer, or new
requirements for an existing consumer, create a change to the canonical data model.
Also, if an update to the interface becomes necessary because the current version used
by a consuming application is the oldest of the concurrently supported versions, an
upgrade to the newest canonical data model is possible. Skipping version changes in
between, therefore reducing the number of interface changes, reduces operational
integration cost.
For seamless connectivity to consuming applications, the application connectors offered
by an ESB are used. InfoSphere MDM can, for example, seamlessly synchronize master
information to subscribed SAP applications using an IBM Integration Bus-based ESB
system and the WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software, on interfaces such as BAPI and
IDoc.
7.7.3 MDM hub patterns and MDM implementation styles
For implementing an MDM system, there is no “one size fits all” model. For example, in
healthcare, the requirement can be to implement an MDM solution for patient master data.
The constituents in healthcare are the patients, health service providers, such as doctors and
hospitals, and health insurers.
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A healthcare insurer gets patient information from the patient when the patient signs the
health insurance contract. The healthcare insurer also receives patient records as part of the
bills from doctors and hospitals, where the information for the same patient might have been
captured differently.
However, the healthcare insurer has no control over how the patient information has been
captured at a doctor’s office or in a hospital. Consequently, for the same patient, multiple
patient records exist, some of them sourced outside of the healthcare insurer’s IT
environment.
An MDM system managing patient information in such a scenario must be able to link the
patient records from the various sources correctly. This is a typical scenario for virtual hub
configurations for MDM.
The banking industry provides a different example, where customer master data is centrally
created and maintained through the MDM services of a central MDM system. Master data
authoring in such a scenario always operates on the same master data record using MDM
services. The master data record is accessed from online and mobile banking channels, core
banking applications, ATMs, and so on. The physical hub configuration for the MDM system is
usually the best fit for this type of solution scenario.
The examples described previously show that there are different configuration requirements
for MDM systems to address specific needs. The following sections describe some of the
options.
Virtual hub, hybrid hub, and physical hub patterns
As illustrated by the previous industry examples, there are different MDM system
configurations required:
Virtual hub
Hybrid hub
Physical hub
At a high level, the key characteristics of each configuration type are described in the
following list:
Virtual hub
Master data authoring is done through LOB applications, portals, and so on. As part of this
process, a thin slice of the master data attributes for a record is sent to the virtual hub and
persisted there as-is. Because it is done from multiple systems, it is likely that, for the
same entity, multiple records exist in the MDM system coming from different sources. The
source records are known as silver records.
A virtual hub computes the golden record in real-time from the various source silver
records whenever an access to the golden record is needed. However, the golden record
is not physically persisted.
Physical hub
All relevant core and common master data attributes are stored in the MDM system. Core
attributes are those required for unique identification. Common attributes are those with at
least two consumers.
Master data authoring is frequently done in the MDM system.
All changes are done against golden records only.
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Hybrid hub
Conceptually, the MDM system has a virtual (silver record) and a physical (golden record)
storage area.
In this configuration, a new record is created through the virtual side of the hybrid hub and,
as soon as the golden record is computed, it is asynchronously moved to the physical side
of the hybrid hub and continuously updated from the virtual side as needed.
In addition, on the physical side of the hybrid hub, MDM services can be used to extend
the thin golden records coming in from the virtual side as necessary.
In practice, sometimes it is advisable to start first with a virtual hub configuration and
gradually move to a physical hub configuration as business needs, in-house skills, and
maturity grow for the MDM system.
MDM implementation styles
In addition to deciding on the configuration option for the MDM system (virtual hub, physical
hub, or hybrid hub), there are also many different architecture patterns available that can be
followed to embed the MDM system in the IT landscape.
Examples include consolidation, registry, co-existence, and transactional style patterns that
are described in sections 7.2, “Why master data management is important for SAP
applications” on page 161 and 7.4, “Architecture goals” on page 166.
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A high-level summary of the MDM implementation styles is described in the following list:
Consolidation style (see Figure 7-8)
In this implementation style the MDM system is a system of reference because the
authoring and maintenance of master data happens outside of the MDM system. The
master data is physically materialized in the MDM system, which is a consolidation point
for some consuming applications. Consuming applications are typically analytical
systems, such as data warehouses or systems for external consumption, such as product
master data in manufacturing, which needs to be consumed by many external retailers.
The following list describes the benefits and disadvantages of the consolidation style:
– Benefits. The consolidation style has no effect on source applications, because
business users can create and maintain master data as they were used to doing
before. It therefore enables a low-risk start on the MDM journey, and full MDM benefits
for downstream consumers by consuming high-quality, consistent master data from the
MDM system. For the consumers, they can now get all master data from a single place,
rather than having to integrate with multiple sourcing systems.
– Disadvantages. The source applications do not benefit from the MDM system, which
means that the master data quality in sources remains low, with possibly negative
effect on operational processes.
Authoring in Sources
Source 1
Consumer 1
MDM UI
(Stewardship only)
Consumer 2
Source 2
Source 3
MDM Hub
Consumer 3
Source ...
Consumer ...
Source n
Consumer n
Figure 7-8 Consolidation style
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Registry style (see Figure 7-9)
The MDM hub for this implementation style is a hybrid of system of reference and system
of record.
The MDM hub is a system of record for a small subset of physically materialized master
data attributes primarily used to enforce uniqueness.
The MDM hub is a system of reference for the majority of the master data attributes by
cross-linking to the sourcing applications that are the system of record for them.
Due to its characteristics, a complete master data record is dynamically created at run
time, often read-only, and the authoring remains distributed.
The primary use case for this implementation style is the centralized assignment of
enterprise IDs for master data entities, and central de-duplication.
The following list describes the benefits and disadvantages of the registry style:
– Benefits. This implementation style has a low effect on source applications, because
sourcing is still mostly done through them. However, it establishes a corporate-wide
numbering system using enterprise IDs that is, for example, useful for downstream
consumers, such as data warehouses and other analytical systems.
– Disadvantages. The major disadvantage of this implementation style is that data
quality cannot be centrally managed, because different sourcing locations remain, and
therefore inconsistencies across sources and consumers remain. Also, complete
golden records are sometimes only available through a federated query approach.
Authoring in Sources
Consumer 1
Source 1
MDM UI
(Stewardship only)
Consumer 2
Source 2
Source 3
MDM Hub
Consumer 3
Source ...
Federatred Query from
consumer perspective
Consumer ...
Source n
Consumer n
Register new record
Figure 7-9 Registry style
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Co-existence style (see Figure 7-10)
With this implementation style, the MDM Hub is a hybrid of a system of reference and
system of record, because authoring is done through the MDM Hub and in other
applications. The fact that authoring is “co-exists” across the MDM system and other
sourcing applications is part of what gave this implementation style its name.
In this implementation style, master data is fully physically materialized in MDM, which
distinguishes it from the Registry Style, for example, which has only a thin slice in the
MDM system. The primary use of this implementation style is for data harmonization
across systems and central reference for downstream consumers.
The following list describes the benefits and disadvantages of the co-existence style:
– Benefits. Full MDM benefits are available for downstream consumers by consuming
high-quality, consistent master data from the MDM hub. An additional benefit of this
style is that the source applications get a write-back from the MDM system, improving
their data quality.
– Disadvantages. It is difficult to implement bidirectional data synchronization to keep
in sync the applications that retain create and maintain functionality with the MDM
system. What makes bidirectional data synchronization difficult to implement is the fact
that a master data record can be changed in the MDM system and in the applications
outside of the MDM system.
For such updates, conflict resolution is needed, which is complex and therefore
error-prone in practice to implement. If the bidirectional data synchronization is not
done in real-time, master data in the MDM hub can be stale, causing master data
inconsistencies.
Authoring in Sources and MDM
MDM UI
Source 1
Consumer 1
(Authoring &
Stewardship)
Consumer 2
Source 2
Source 3
MDM Hub
Source ...
Consumer 3
Consumer ...
Source n
Consumer n
Bi-directional
synchronization
Figure 7-10 Co-existence style
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Transactional style (see Figure 7-11)
In this implementation style, the MDM system is the system of record, and all master data
authoring takes place only through services provided by the MDM system. All master data
attributes relevant to the enterprise are materialized in the MDM system. The primary use
cases for the transactional style are scenarios requiring real-time transactional access to
master data, and central reference for downstream users, such as analytical systems.
The following list describes the benefits and disadvantages of the transactional style:
– Benefits. This implementation style provides real-time, consistent access to master
data. The single authoring place simplifies information governance and stewardship
due to its centralized structure for maintenance of master data. It provides full MDM
benefits to all consumers and is the one-stop shop for all master data needs from the
consumers’ perspective.
– Disadvantages. The one disadvantage of the transactional style is that it might be more
intrusive for some source systems, because it can require changes of master data
processes and UIs to consume the MDM services from the MDM system.
MDM UI
Consumer 1
(Authoring &
Stewardship)
Consumer 2
MDM Hub
Consumer 3
Consumer ...
Consumer n
11
Figure 7-11 Transactional style
In practice, there are two aspects to consider:
First, MDM environments mature over time, starting with a consolidation style architecture,
which is relatively simple from an integration perspective (often a nightly batch). Then the
MDM system matures incrementally toward a transactional style architecture.
Transactional style is more sophisticated from an integration perspective, because existing
master data processes must be standardized, and the MDM services must be consumed.
Second, considering business requirements, technical, and cost reasons often leads to
MDM systems that are hybrid architectures. For each application, a decision is made on
which implementation style to use to integrate the application with the MDM system.
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7.7.4 Selecting MDM hub and MDM implementation styles for environments
with SAP applications
Sections“Virtual hub, hybrid hub, and physical hub patterns” on page 179 and “MDM
implementation styles” on page 180 introduce MDM hub configurations and MDM
Implementations styles.
Based on the authors’ experience, the following options are the most common in support of
SAP applications:
Physical hub and consolidation style pattern
Physical hub and transactional style pattern
Virtual hub and registry style pattern
Although other options have been successfully deployed under certain constraints, the
previously listed combinations are the most commonly found in practice for the integration of
MDM systems and SAP applications, due to their ease of use.
From an enterprise architecture perspective, the following architecture principles for the MDM
solution have been established:
The MDM system should be installed with the physical hub configuration.
The MDM implementation style should be transactional style wherever possible, so that
authoring and stewardship take place through the consumption of MDM services.
Consequently, most of the attributes are system of record attributes in MDM.
Exceptions using the system of record and system of reference classification for attributes
are permitted on a per-attribute basis through an architecture governance process, if a
sound justification can be provided.
Applications having a need for master data can complete the following actions:
– Receive master data updates through a publish/subscribe pattern used on the ESB.
– Receive periodic batch updates through the enterprise information integration platform.
– Retrieve or update master data by starting the MDM services.
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Figure 7-12 provides a final example to complement the information about MDM architecture
options and implementation styles described in this chapter.
Business User
Business User
1
360В° Customer
Portal
SAP GUI
Authoritative
Source
IBM InfoSphere
MDM
ESB
2
Notification
6
SAP ERP
IDoc
Canonical Model
Vertex
5
Publish / Subscribe
IDoc
Web service
Reference Value
Mapping
(DE – 81)
3
4 Master Data
(local copy)
Figure 7-12 Hybrid MDM architecture
The example in Figure 7-12 describes the following flow:
1. A business user creates a new customer record through an intranet customer portal,
starting MDM services from IBM Master Data Management.
2. When the customer record is created, the MDM notification feature publishes a message
to the ESB in the Canonical Model.
3. An SAP ERP application subscribes to the ESB, which is implemented using the IBM
Integration Bus with WebSphere Adapter for SAP Software. Due to this subscription, the
new record is sent to the SAP application using an instance of the DEBMAS IDoc
structure for customer from the ESB. Before sending the update to the SAP application,
the ESB also transcodes the reference values from MDM to the reference values of the
SAP application as needed. For example, MDM might store the country for Germany as 81
while SAP ERP has DE as the corresponding value.
4. When the SAP ERP application receives the new master data record through an instance
of the DEBMAS IDoc, the SAP ERP system persists the master data record locally.
5. VERTEX is an SAP ERP extension that can enrich customer master data with tax-related
information. Because there is a ready-to-use integration between SAP ERP and VERTEX,
it is not cost-effective to custom-build an integration between MDM and VERTEX.
After VERTEX enriches the customer record with tax information, it should be distributed
through MDM to other consumers as well. The objective is to replicate the subset of tax
information that is relevant back to the MDM system. For this reason, SAP ERP has
prepackaged capabilities to automatically send notifications to other systems, for example,
change pointers producing IDOc instances.
6. The ESB “listens” for the SAP notifications and, after relevant tax information updates are
received, it routes them back to the MDM system, applying the reverse transcoding
operations on reference values by starting the appropriate MDM services.
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This example shows that the architecture has the following benefits:
Where available, it uses ready-to-use integration to reduce costs, for example VERTEX
and SAP ERP.
It provides architectural flexibility. All attributes are system of record attributes except the
tax information attributes, which are system of reference in MDM (created and maintained
in SAP, but distributed through MDM to all applications that need it as part of the master
data synchronization).
More information: For more details, see sections 7.5, “Architecture overview” on
page 166 and 7.6, “IBM InfoSphere MDM for SAP applications” on page 168.
7.8 References
A comprehensive and in-depth description of the MDM Reference Architecture, MDM-related
architecture patterns, and deployment leading practices can be found in the following
resources:
IBM InfoSphere Master Data Management
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/master-data-management/
IBM InfoSphere MDM version 11.0 Information Center
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/mdm/v11r0/index.jsp
Dreibelbis, A., Hechler, E., Milman, I., Oberhofer, M., van Run, P., Wolfson, D.: Enterprise
Master Data Management: An SOA Approach to Managing Core Information, IBM Press
http://www.amazon.com/Enterprise-Master-Data-Management-Information/dp/01323662
58
Hechler, E., Oberhofer, M., van Run, P.: Implementing a Transaction Hub MDM pattern
using IBM InfoSphere Master Data Management Server
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/library/techarticle/dm-0803oberhofer/
Grasselt, M., Nelke, S., Schoen, H.: Integrating MDM Server with Enterprise Information
Systems using SAP as an example, Part 1: Delivering customer records to SAP
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/tutorials/dm-1108integratingmdmserver1/
Grasselt, M., Nelke, S., Schoen, H.: Integrating MDM Server with Enterprise Information
Systems using SAP as an example, Part 2: Enriching customer records with SAP-specific
information
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/library/techarticle/dm-1307integratingmd
mserver2/index.html?ca=dat-
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8
Chapter 8.
Enterprise Content Management
for SAP
IBM Enterprise Content Management portfolio (ECM) software enables the largest
organizations in the world to make better decisions, faster. By gaining control of structured
and unstructured information, organizations can access, collaborate, and influence business
decisions in new ways, making content a first-class source of insight.
With industry-specific IBM ECM solutions, organizations can capture, manage, and share
content throughout the information lifecycle, helping to ensure compliance, reduce costs, and
maximize productivity.
The IBM ECM portfolio includes a wide array of capabilities that integrate with existing
systems to help organizations maximize the value of information, including IBM DataCap
document imaging and capture, social content management, advanced case management,
IBM Information Lifecycle Governance solutions, and IBM Content Analytics with Enterprise
Search.
This chapter describes the business goals that can be achieved by extending the SAP
archiving infrastructure with IBM Enterprise Content Management portfolio solutions. It
explains how the IBM ECM solutions support and extend the existing SAP data and
document archive functions. It provides examples for enhancing the implementation of core
end-to-end business process solutions by seamlessly integrating SAP and IBM ECM
components.
This chapter includes the following topics:
8.1, “Enterprise content management business goals” on page 190
8.2, “ECM for SAP use cases and solution architecture” on page 196
8.3, “Business process enhancements through ECM for SAP solutions” on page 205
8.4, “Data governance: Managing growth and compliance” on page 219
8.5, “References” on page 228
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
189
8.1 Enterprise content management business goals
This section explains the drivers that motivate an organization-wide approach to content
management. This approach enables a unified view and management of all business content.
This section first describes the importance of a single source of truth for all of the information
spread across an organization. There are challenges associated with such a requirement,
such as managing the volume of information and fulfilling legal requirements for retention and
disposal of information.
This section describes the different types of information in an organization:
Information in databases, typically referred to as structured information
The vast variety of all kinds of documents that exist throughout a company, both in paper
and electronic form, known as unstructured information
This section shows how such a holistic approach naturally extends into the information
contained in an SAP system, in the form of the raw SAP database content, and in the
collection of documents associated with this content as attachments, reports, and other
documents in textual or image form.
This section outlines how an integrated and federated solution based on IBM Enterprise
Content Management portfolio software supports the goals of different stakeholders in an
organization, such as line-of-business decision makers, service-providing information
technology (IT) departments, and legal counsels. The solution, based on IBM Enterprise
Content Management portfolio software, provides a common approach, a common collection
of governing rules, and, as a result, a common view on all relevant business content.
8.1.1 Information lifecycle management: More than just archiving1
Any decision-making process in a modern organization has to rely on the availability,
timeliness, and accuracy of current business information.
This requirement is associated to several challenges:
The amount of information that has to be collected, maintained, surveyed, evaluated, and
managed grows at a massive rate.
The vast variety of information resources, information duplication, and uncontrolled
versioning makes an efficient discovery process extremely complex.
An increasing number of rules and regulations influence how information has to be
retained or disposed.
Managing the overall growth of data
People who are not directly involved in supporting an IT infrastructure are often surprised to
hear that during the last five years, in a typical organization, there has been an average 50
percent year-over-year growth in the volume of data. However, that statistic is not surprising
to IT managers, who struggle to find a way to support rapidly growing volumes of data with an
often flat or only slightly increasing budget.
1
Note that, unless stated otherwise, whenever the term archiving is used in the context of this chapter, it refers to the operation that
stores content in a repository outside of the SAP system, where it is still active, and immediately accessible. Only in the case of data
archiving, which is described later in this chapter, does archiving refer to taking inactive content out of the database for performance
maintenance reasons.
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It is also no surprise to IT managers that much of the data under management is debris that is
outdated and duplicated many times across multiple systems, with no real value to the
business. Such over-retention results in direct and indirect costs on several levels:
Overspending on a more complex IT environment:
– More IT resources required to support larger systems
– More storage and higher demands to maintain predefined system performance levels
Higher costs for e-discovery processing. With larger amounts of information, much of it not
valuable, processing any requests for information takes longer and results in higher review
fees.
More legal risk inherent with a larger information set.
The proliferation of collaboration products and social media platforms has added both to the
diversity and to the volume of data that needs to be growth-managed, and emphasizes the
need for an organization-wide solution to manage enterprise content.
System performance
Constantly growing amounts of data not only increase the cost of storage required to keep the
data, it also has a detrimental effect on system performance of business-critical applications
(apps). High volume accumulation of transactional data in a high-performance business
application usually results in a deterioration of application performance, jeopardizing service
level agreements (SLAs) for guaranteed response times.
Storage costs use up the IT budget of an organization
If storage of data is not actively maintained, and permanent growth of data without controlled
disposal of obsolete data is permitted, an increasing percentage (not just amount) of the IT
budget is spent on storage alone. The perception prevails that storage is getting cheaper, but
the percentage of a typical IT budget spent on storage grows. Identifying and actively
managing information debris can result in storage savings of up to 30 to 50 percent.
The IBM ECM product portfolio offers a family of content collection and archiving products
designed to help curtail over-retention by attacking the problem at the source, and minimizing
the amount of unnecessary information (the debris) that IT and other stakeholders must
manage.
Data governance and discovery
Compliance and corporate information oversight demands require proper governance and
defensible disposition of practically all types of content, including archived structured data.
Information discovery is essential
Access to all business-relevant information within the organization needs to be seamless and
easy. The search, classification, and categorizing capabilities of IBM ECM portfolio products
provide targeted results from the information sets managed by the content repositories.
A common client infrastructure based on IBM Content Navigator as the integration platform
acts as a state-of-the-art front end to all discovery services. It is built on open standards using
Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) and Dojo components. This approach
enables delivery of information to the correct client at the correct time.
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An enterprise-wide approach is needed
The implementation of an organization-wide content management strategy with federated,
deduplicated content requires that all players in the company’s decision process network are
involved. They must work together on defining a common strategy and a common
understanding of the rules that govern the management and organization of all of the
company’s information throughout its entire lifecycle.
Information “islands” or silos must be abandoned. The uncontrolled evolution of diverging,
and often contradictory, rules for governing content must become an integrated lifecycle
model agreed upon by all stakeholders.
The information lifecycle and its governance
This section reflects on the lifecycle of information as it occurs in a typical organization, and
provides observations on the constraints and challenges that come with it.
Inception of information
For most organizations, the delivery of a product or service depends on the exchange of
documents that are part of the record for all transactions. How efficiently organizations
manage documents can have a huge effect on the quality of the experience for their
customers, patients, students, or constituents.
For all documents that have not been created electronically from the beginning, moving away
from the handling of paper as soon as possible in the lifecycle is the first step in this direction.
The need for a sophisticated capture solution to digitize the document content is a key
requirement.
Smarter document capture uses technologies that convert documents to searchable images,
automate data entry, identify documents, check data quality, and format data for adequate
use by business systems. By automating labor-intensive, error-prone manual processes, IBM
Datacap Taskmaster Capture can accelerate document processing capacity, improve the
quality of the processing results with significantly less manual intervention, and reduce cost.
More importantly, IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture can remove many of the obstacles that
degrade service quality, to help organizations create deeper engagements with their
customers.
Content creation, revision, and approval workflows
In addition to digitized paper documents, electronically created documents encompass an
increasingly large portion of the unstructured content that has to be managed. The creation
process, and the revision with proper version control and collaboration between different
actors that play a role in the creation of the document, can be modeled in the information
lifecycle under the control of IBM ECM software.
In addition to their state-of-the-art storage organization, search, and retrieval capabilities, IBM
content repositories provide powerful workflow engines that can be used to model business
workflows, such as approval processes, based on an electronic document flow through the
organization. Security and audit functionalities ensure that all business decisions follow a
well-defined protocol in an auditable way, compliant with the governing rules.
These workflow capabilities can, and in many cases have to, be extended and intertwined
with the business workflows modeled in the SAP infrastructure of the organization.
Experience shows that organizations have business requirements for all of these processes
inside and outside of their SAP systems. It is critical to provide the correct information to the
correct client at the correct time. Implementing fully integrated workflows is crucial to satisfy
this requirement.
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IBM Defensible Disposal
The IBM Defensible Disposal solution applies to the entire organization, which must include
content that is also related to SAP systems. As mentioned before, treating SAP structured
and unstructured content in a siloed solution counteracts the proposed integrated information
lifecycle model, compromises the completeness and accuracy of discovery operations, and
raises the cost of disposal under a common retention rule governance.
As indicated earlier, not all of the information that is created and stored in a content repository
retains its business value indefinitely. Business transactions have a natural lifecycle. The
information associated with the business transactions should be retained according to the
retention rules, and subjected to disposal processes to keep data growth under strict control.
It is mandatory, under the legal rules defining compliance and auditability of the business
processes, that the disposal process follows a common strategy across all divisions and
departments that are involved in the handling of business records. Simply speaking, the
decision about when certain content can be disposed of cannot default to the IT department,
which might make such a decision indiscriminately, based on the age of documents.
The IT department may be unaware of the fact that certain types of content fall under different
and often complex rules for their retention and disposal. An example of such complexity is
the rules governing human resources (HR) documents about applicants that were not hired.
In certain legislative regions, these documents have to be disposed of within short time
frames, for example, within a month after the final decision. Failing to do so can result in
substantial fines.
Construction plans, design documents, and quality records for complex infrastructures,
alternatively, have retention periods that are counted in decades rather than months.
Retention periods of 30 or more years are not unusual in such contexts. Note that such
complex rules are not only specific to document types or business applications, but can also
be different across states and even countries with different laws, which can make the required
setup in a multinational organization even more complex.
Legal holds overlay the general rules for retention of different types of information based on
type, owning organization, and so on. The legal holds apply whenever business operations
documents are subject to litigation, and are put under a hold order issued by a court of law to
prevent their disposal before the end of the investigation.
IBM Information Lifecycle Governance (ILG) solutions help change the keep everything
approach by delivering capabilities that the various information stakeholders, including legal
departments, IT, records management, privacy officers, and business users, can use to
address information governance issues in their domain. These IBM solutions help to drive
down the costs and risks associated with over-retention by using tools that enable the
following outcomes:
IT staff are enabled to understand and manage, by system and employee, the content
collection, archiving, and retention criteria, and the procedures established by the
organization. Furthermore, they can implement an archiving program that reduces cost by
reliably retaining what is important and required, and deleting what is not.
Attorneys and paralegals are enabled to automate legal hold processes, and coordinate
evidence collections across the organization to respond to requests for information more
quickly and cost effectively.
Records managers are enabled to develop and manage global retention policies, and to
coordinate compliance and disposition across multiple systems and jurisdictions.
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Privacy officers are enabled to assess and communicate privacy duty by data subject and
data location, including overlapping obligations.
IT staff is enabled to determine which systems appear to have the highest cost and risk
profiles, and to enable them to address management of systems by information value.
These capabilities generate a more complete picture of the information inside an
organization, and enable information management decisions based on fact and certainty.
With this confidence comes the ability to implement a defensible disposal program that can
have a real effect on the amount of data under management and the associated cost and risk.
The IBM Value-Based Archiving solution, and in particular the IBM Content Collector family of
products, support defensible disposal efforts with a larger set of capabilities that attack the
data growth problem at the source system. This approach immediately reduces the amount of
information debris under management inside an organization, and the cost and risk
associated with over-retention.
8.1.2 Information lifecycle governance applied to SAP systems
The previous sections of this chapter explained the business requirements that justify the
need for an organization-wide content management strategy that helps to meet the
challenges imposed by data growth, discovery needs, and rules for legal compliance when
handling business structured and unstructured information.
As mentioned previously, the information contained in an SAP system, which in the majority
of cases is not just one source but a key source of business operations information, must not
be treated as an isolated silo. It has to be integrated into the overall strategy.
Structured information in SAP systems
Managing and controlling the size of SAP applications provides sustainability of system
performance while monitoring infrastructure cost.
Application size management is primarily performed by moving infrequently used or obsolete
business transaction data, which is no longer involved in active business transactions, to less
costly storage while maintaining transparent access to such data. Examples include data only
needed for summary reporting or infrequent auditing purposes.
The SAP system provides the tools to archive data that is declared business complete, and
store these in a proprietary aggregation format in archive files in a secure ECM repository.
The SAP system also provides transparent access to the archived data directly from the ECM
repository. The effects of this maintenance operation are two-fold:
System performance is kept under control by limiting table sizes within manageable
boundaries.
Storage cost on high-performance storage that it is needed for immediate transactional
processing of table data can be reduced, because infrequently used data is moved to
less-costly storage.
The management of SAP data too often exists as an IT island, disconnected from the rest of
the information management of the organization, retention, and information governance
standards. However, as SAP implementations grow, and as new SAP enterprise resource
planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), and other component modules
interact with more of the overall organization, an SAP archiving solution needs to be more
comprehensive and interconnected.
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This approach helps ensure proper information governance for SAP system data and content,
both within and outside of the SAP system. In fact, the need for scheduled, defensible
disposition of SAP data and content often drives the need for archiving itself. This motivation
is on a par these days with infrastructure cost reduction and overall business efficiency
drivers. See 8.4, “Data governance: Managing growth and compliance” on page 219 for more
information.
Unstructured information in SAP systems
Unstructured information is associated with most SAP business processes:
Invoices in an accounts payable process
Purchase orders and billing documents in a supply chain or financial application
Generated reports summarizing business transactions in just about any application
This information frequently needs to be accessed from outside the SAP application:
Customer service department employees need to see all of the information about the
previous transactions of a customer. They want to provide the customer with a digital copy
of their bill to reduce mailing cost.
As part of a litigation, the legal department, which has no direct access to the SAP
system, has to provide all of the contract documents from a given time period, matching
certain textual search criteria, to fulfill a court order.
The critical business value in these examples is the ability to provide all business information,
both structured and unstructured content, to the correct person at the correct time. Providing
access to unstructured content directly within the business process enables the person to
make the correct decision quickly. 8.2, “ECM for SAP use cases and solution architecture” on
page 196, provides details for some solution use cases.
In summary, both the structured and the unstructured information in an SAP system are an
integral part of the overall information landscape of an organization, and therefore must be
managed in the same infrastructure of ECM, following the same strategies, and the same
governance rules as non-SAP related content.
8.1.3 IBM proposes a base structure of an integrated ECM solution
The previous sections of this chapter describe how an organization-wide content
management strategy, including archiving and defensible disposal of information, extends the
value of an organization’s SAP landscape. Several examples demonstrate how to enhance
the implementation of core end-to-end business process solutions by seamlessly integrating
SAP system components with IBM ECM components.
The following list summarizes these value points:
The IBM ECM/ILG solution extends the SAP business solution by providing the correct
information at the correct time within all business processes across an organization.
A strictly value-based archival and disposal model enables an organization to maintain
system performance and reduce infrastructure cost.
An organization-wide retention and hold model agreed upon by all stakeholders provides a
framework for maintaining full compliance with complex governing rules under a common
defensible disposal strategy.
Cross-system, end-to-end solutions that implement complete business processes can be
achieved with the seamless integration of SAP business modules and IBM ECM products,
such as IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture for capture and IBM Content Navigator as a
common ECM front end.
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The IBM solution is integrated and certified by SAP. Moreover, IBM is rated as a market
leader in this space by the leading industry analysts. 8.2, “ECM for SAP use cases and
solution architecture” on page 196, focuses on the SAP archiving process and its integration
with IBM ECM portfolio components. It describes in more detail the core use cases,
and shows how organizations can use IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications to
implement them.
The core use case can be extended with state-of-the-art document capture functionality
implemented through IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture. Finally, IBM Content Navigator is
introduced as the document-centric integration platform of ECM.
8.2 ECM for SAP use cases and solution architecture
This section shows how IBM ECM portfolio software can enhance the value of an SAP
business infrastructure with document and data archiving support. IBM Content Collector for
SAP Applications plays a central role as the gateway product that operates between the SAP
system and the ECM environment.
8.3, “Business process enhancements through ECM for SAP solutions” on page 205
describes the integration with business applications, such as an accounts payable solution.
Before describing the use cases for SAP archiving in detail in 8.2.2, “SAP archiving use
cases” on page 197, the following high-level use cases need to be introduced:
Archiving data and documents originating from SAP systems.
Making documents already stored in an ECM system available to SAP users by linking
them to SAP Business Objects.
Enabling SAP users to access documents stored in the ECM repository outside the SAP
graphical user interface (GUI). Such documents can be anything, from scanned images,
faxes, forms, and email to documents originating in electronic form. The documents stored
in the ECM repository by an SAP system can also be made available to other non-SAP
applications and capabilities of the ECM platform, such as classification, records
management, and e-discovery.
8.2.1 SAP archiving standards
Starting with SAP Release 2.2, SAP clearly recognized the need to enhance the SAP
software through a robust archiving facility, both for offloading the operational SAP database
and processing business documents that are in an external archiving system. With SAP
Release 3.0, all key applications and modules offered archiving functionality that was
included as part of the standard SAP package. The SAP Business Framework provides the
interfaces necessary to integrate these external functions with SAP systems.
SAP ArchiveLink
The primary interface for integrating storage and content management systems into an SAP
system is called SAP ArchiveLink. It was introduced with Release 2.2 and enhanced in
subsequent releases.
Additionally, the SAP Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Content Server interface was
defined in SAP Release 4.5 as a subset of SAP ArchiveLink that focuses on content rather
than storage management. HTTP Content Server Interface is a general, cross-application
interface that connects the enabled SAP business applications to a content server, and
enables them to process documents in logical content repositories.
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This content server can be a database, a file server, an SAP system, or an external archive.
The following list describes the supported SAP ArchiveLink 4.5 functions:
HTTP Content Server interface
Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI) for bar code-based archiving
scenarios and creation of SAP work items
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) functionality for storing inbound documents or PC
files, and starting external viewing applications on Microsoft Windows front ends
SAP ArchiveLink has not been changed since SAP Release 4.6. Note, however, that the
current SAP ArchiveLink specification has made the requirement to support OLE optional, so
vendors might drop support for OLE in future versions of their SAP ArchiveLink software.
Although SAP ArchiveLink is focused on the management of content and storage, it is not
suited by itself to address compliance use cases, such as decommissioning existing systems,
managing data retention rules, and collecting and preserving data for legal cases through
legal holds.
SAP Information Lifecycle Management
SAP introduced SAP Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) to manage the lifecycle of
productive or archived data and documents. With ILM, data and documents are stored in an
ILM Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Server, and the following retention
management capabilities are provided:
Placing retention policies on documents and data to determine how long they need to be
kept in the archive to comply with governmental rules and regulations
Placing legal holds on data and documents that are needed in the context of a legal case
Enabling controlled disposal of documents that have reached the end of their retention
period and are no longer needed as part of legal holds
For more details about ILM, see 8.4, “Data governance: Managing growth and compliance”
on page 219.
8.2.2 SAP archiving use cases
This section considers the different use cases for SAP archiving along several important
dimensions:
Data versus document archiving
Early versus late and simultaneous archiving
Use of bar code technology
Access to documents from outside of an SAP system
Data archiving
Business records that are no longer needed on a day-to-day basis can be packaged in an
SAP-defined format called Application Development Kit (ADK) file, and archived using the
SAP ArchiveLink or HTTP Content Server protocols. Doing so, organizations can keep the
SAP database at a manageable size.
This archived data is still accessible by an SAP system in a transparent manner, while at the
same time reducing storage costs, increasing productivity, and improving system
performance. See 8.4, “Data governance: Managing growth and compliance” on page 219 for
more details.
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Document archiving
For legal and internal policy reasons, companies must keep documents pertaining to their
business operations for a certain period of time. Filing the documents in paper form has
several disadvantages due to their physical nature. For example, they must be duplicated
when more than one user needs them. Tracking their physical location reliably can be
cumbersome and error-prone.
Processing documents electronically has the following benefits:
Organizations can use cost-efficient storage media.
All authorized users can access the documents without being delayed by conventional
archive inquiries.
Several users can access the same documents at the same time.
Disaster recovery (DR) procedures can be fully automated. Workflow processes, such as
an approval procedure, can be defined consistently organization-wide, and can be fully
automated.
The following types of documents can be identified:
Incoming documents. These documents include, for example, supplier invoices that reach
the company by way of mail or telefax, and are typically stored as digitized images.
Outgoing documents. Documents created electronically, printed, and sent to their
respective recipients. Archiving the electronic form of these documents enables for fast
retrievals for customer inquiries or audits.
Reports and print lists. A specific type of outgoing documents, generated by an SAP
application, that are usually printed. The use of an archive makes a physical printout
obsolete. The electronic journal, as opposed to its paper equivalent, is easily searchable,
and can even contain hyperlinks to other documents to enable convenient
cross-reference.
For example, a specific entry in a document journal might refer to a scanned original
document. Furthermore, the archived lists can be used as input to other applications, such
as data mining systems, for advanced analytics purposes.
Desktop files. Documents that are created by applications, such as office applications or
common agent services (CAS) applications. They can be archived and later accessed by
an SAP system using Desktop Office Integration (DOI), based on SAP Business
Connector to SAP Central Instance (BC-CI) integration, or using the document
management system (DMS).
Early archiving
In early archiving, an incoming document is first captured into a repository, for example, IBM
FileNet Content Manager. It is then made available for processing by SAP applications before
the associated SAP business object, for example, a sales order, is created. The incoming
document drives the creation of the SAP business object. This approach eliminates paper
processing from the beginning of the process, and separates the scanning process from the
creation of the business object.
When the document is captured and assigned to an SAP document type, an SAP user is
notified that a new document is ready to be processed. The user then creates the business
object associated with the document type. The notification process uses SAP Business
Workflow (SAP BW), and a link between the business object and the document in the
repository is established.
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Simultaneous archiving
In simultaneous archiving, all document entry and SAP object processing steps are carried
out by the same SAP user. Overall, the process is the same as in early archiving except that
the SAP work item, which is created at link time, is assigned to the current user.
Late archiving
In late archiving, the creation of the SAP business object comes first, and linking to the
corresponding incoming document happens later in the process. In practical terms, this
process is like a traditional paper-based process. The SAP business object already exists
when the incoming document is captured into a repository, and a link between the business
object and the incoming document is established.
Use of bar code technology
Document archiving can include bar code linking, whereby a bar code that is applied to the
scanned document is captured by an SAP ArchiveLink-compliant repository and uploaded to
the open bar code table of the SAP system for linking. Bar code scenarios are particularly
suited when existing paper-based processes should not be disturbed by the introduction of
scanning and archiving technology. Documents are still distributed in paper form to the point
where the business object is created and the linking occurs.
Similar scenarios where the electronic processing and the physical handling of paper remain
uncoupled for some time include the handling of receipts in expense processing, and the
processing of contracts that require physical signatures at completion time. In both cases, the
use of bar codes helps to bring paper and electronic records together.
Access to documents from outside an SAP system
The archiving use cases described so far are within the context of the SAP ArchiveLink
protocol and specification. There is one use case, however, that goes beyond what is offered
by SAP ArchiveLink.
All SAP ArchiveLink operations are based on the concept that the SAP database represents a
master index catalog of all documents, including those whose content resides in the external
archive. SAP ArchiveLink therefore passes no business information to the external archiving
system except a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID), which the SAP software uses to identify
a document throughout its lifecycle.
For many SAP users however, it is a requirement to access archived documents, including
those from non-SAP contexts, independently of the SAP system (without using the SAP GUI).
To support federated searching of the external archive by business information, such as
customer number or fiscal year, the corresponding document attributes must be transferred
from the SAP system to the external archive to be searchable there. This process is
commonly referred to as index transfer.
This transfer of business information from SAP Business Objects referring to the
corresponding documents in the external archive, to the external archive as document
attributes, is usually achieved by proprietary function modules. These modules must be
installed on the SAP system and configured to collect and transfer the required document
attributes from the SAP system to the archive.
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Implementing use cases with IBM ECM products
The previous sections describe the use cases relevant for SAP archiving, some of which even
go beyond what is defined by the SAP ArchiveLink standard. The following IBM ECM portfolio
products can be used to implement these use cases:
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications
IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture
IBM Content Navigator
8.2.3 Architecture of IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications
The architecture of IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications enhances the SAP business
infrastructure with data and document archiving. SAP systems tend to produce significant
volumes of data, and IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications archives these assets
efficiently.
It includes components to archive and view data, documents, and print lists, and to link to
archived documents. Multiple SAP systems can use the archiving services provided by IBM
Content Collector for SAP Applications, and different back-end repositories are supported for
content archived by SAP systems.
There are business scenarios where one wants to access documents related to SAP
Business Objects outside of the SAP system, but within the business context. To support
such a scenario, IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications provides a function to transfer
business data from SAP to the ECM repository as document properties. This capability is
called index transfer.
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications enables retention periods and holds on archived
SAP transactions, automating compliance with regulatory and legal requirements by using
SAP ILM technology.
Architecture
Figure 8-1 on page 201 shows the high-level architecture of the IBM Content Collector for
SAP Applications product. The architecture is that of a gateway that interfaces between the
SAP system and the ECM repositories. The center piece of the architecture is the engine of
the IBM Content Collector server, which distributes the incoming requests from an SAP
system to the back-end systems and returns the responses back to the requesting SAP
system through the use of dispatchers and agents.
Several different archiving protocols using SAP Business Connector are supported:
SAP ArchiveLink (BC-AL).
SAP HTTP Content Server (BC-HCS), which is in fact a subset of the full SAP ArchiveLink
specification.
SAP Information Lifecycle Management (BC-ILM), which is an SAP extension of the
WebDAV protocol. BC-ILM is the protocol for the Extensible Markup Language (XML)Data Archiving Service, called SAP DAS in Figure 8-1 on page 201.
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications supports archiving of data and documents using
both versions of SAP ArchiveLink into four different back-end systems, namely IBM FileNet
Content Manager, IBM Content Manager Enterprise Edition, IBM Content Manager
OnDemand, and IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. For each back-end, a separate agent exists.
IBM FileNet Image Services can be used as a back-end for IBM Content Collector for SAP
Applications accessed transparently through the agent for FileNet Content Manager.
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As shown in Figure 8-1, IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications provides four different
clients:
Utility Client
Viewing Client
Archiving Client
IBM FileNet P8 Platform Client
These clients together provide the ability to access, share, link, and archive content, and to
add index information to it.
Clients
Utility Client
Archiving
Client
Viewing Client
Browse Portlet
Queue Portlet
P8 Client SAP Connector
Client API
ArchiveLinkВ®
RFC
SAP
R/3
ArchiveLinkВ®
HTTP
SAP
DAS
IBM FileNet P8 Application Engine
P8 Agent
IBM FileNet
P8 Content
Engine
CM Agent
IBM Content
Manager
OnDemand
Agent
IBM Content
Manager OnDemand
TSM Agent
TSM/SSAM
IBM FileNet
Image Services
Engine
SAP BC-ILM
2.0
ICCSAP Server
TSM/SSAM: IBM Tivoli Storage Manager / IBM System Storage Archive Manager
SAP DAS: SAP Data Archiving Service
Figure 8-1 IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications product components
Utility Client
The Utility Client provides three main functions:
Transferring SAP Business Object metadata to the external content repository
Use the Utility Client for transferring business object metadata (called index information),
such as a customer number, from the SAP system to the metadata of the archived
documents (known as index transfer).
Documents created in an SAP system, and archived in IBM Content Manager Enterprise
Edition, IBM Content Manager OnDemand, or FileNet Content Manager by using IBM
Content Collector for SAP Applications, do not contain any searchable attributes. If you
use the Utility Client to add the index information of the SAP business objects to the
metadata of the archived documents, you can also search for the documents in the ECM
back-end repository without using the SAP GUI.
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Creating SAP workflow work items
The Utility Client can create SAP work items based on content that is placed onto a work
queue in FileNet Content Manager or into a work-basket in IBM Content Manager
repositories. SAP provides standard work tasks that can be configured to start the
appropriate SAP transaction for each SAP document type.
You can also extend the standard work task by copying and adding container fields.
Metadata from the ECM repositories can be stored in the container fields. This approach
leads to better searching for work items, and reduced entry time, by populating the SAP
transaction with the passed-in values.
Creating SAP external bar code entries
The Utility Client can also create SAP external bar code entries. These entries can be
processed in different ways:
– Matching to an SAP internal entry
– Used to create a business object link directly
This function is an IBM extension. It is an SAP Advanced Business Application
Programming (ABAP) program that you can run to process an external bar code value. If
that value is the complete business object key, the link can easily be made. If lookups are
needed to find the complete key, there is a user exit that provides this function.
Viewing Client
The Viewing Client is available on Windows only. As its name implies, it is used for viewing
documents. It opens an external viewer for the requests that it receives from the SAP system
using OLE. Users can add notes and save and share them with the document. Documents
can also be emailed, including any attached notes. Note that the OLE functionality is optional
as of the current version of the BC-AL specification.
Archiving Client
The Archiving Client is available on Windows only. It is typically used to archive scanned
documents. It can archive documents from file systems, scanning application description files,
and IBM Content Manager work baskets. It supports early, simultaneous (OLE-based), and
late (with bar code) archiving scenarios into the supported back-end repositories.
FileNet P8 Client: Browse and Queue portlets
The FileNet P8 Client is used for linking documents, folders, stored searches, and search
templates that are stored in FileNet Content Manager, to a business object in an SAP system.
It uses OLE for the linking process.
The FileNet P8 Client consists of the Browse portlet and the Queue portlet in FileNet
Workplace or FileNet Workplace XT. If you want to use the FileNet P8 Client to link
documents and other objects that are stored in IBM FileNet P8 to SAP, the FileNet P8 Client
SAP Connector needs to be installed. It is used for receiving OLE requests from the SAP GUI
and sending them to FileNet P8 Client.
By using the Browse portlet, you can link documents, stored searches, and search templates
that are organized in folders, link entire folders, link a specific version of a document to SAP.
For each selected document and folder, a work item is created in the user’s SAP inbox. You
can then decide which SAP inbound linking process you want to use.
By using the Queue portlet, you can link documents to SAP that are available in a FileNet
Content Manager queue, similarly to the Utility Client. Each selected work item is moved from
the queue to the SAP inbox. You can then decide which SAP inbound linking process you
want to use. The queue portlet can be installed and used without the FileNet P8 Client SAP
Connector.
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Client API
Archiving and Viewing Clients communicate with Collector Server using a public Client API.
External applications can integrate with IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications through
the use of this Client API. The Client API supports creating SAP Work Items and sending bar
codes to link documents to SAP Business Objects.
This approach enables, for example, the close integration of capture software. IBM Datacap
Taskmaster Capture is integrated in this way, and integrations with IBM Business Partner
applications have also been implemented. For more details, see 8.2.4, “IBM Datacap
Taskmaster Capture” on page 203.
Scalability and high availability
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications architecture has been designed for scalability and
high availability (HA).
The IBM white paper IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications — Sizing, Configuration,
and High Availability explains how to size an IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications
solution, and how to scale it and configure it for HA. It is available on the following website:
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27036773
The SAP-driven scenarios for outgoing documents can be made highly available using
standard techniques, such as a load-balancer for the HTTP traffic.
8.2.4 IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture
The ability to efficiently turn paper records into digital form by scanning and making them
available to SAP systems as an incoming document is a key ingredient in any initiative for
reducing manual paper processing.
IBM Datacap quickly and easily captures, manages, and integrates enterprise content while
extracting critical information. IBM Datacap offerings include easy-to-use customization with
high-volume document capture. The IBM Datacap product family consists of many different
components, of which the following ones are of interest in the context of this chapter:
IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture is a service-oriented architecture (SOA)-based capture
and automation solution that includes both web and thick clients. It is a document
ingestion product.
IBM Datacap Studio is used to configure the IBM DataCap Taskmaster Capture solution
by defining and assembling the document hierarchies, recognition zones and fields, rules,
and actions.
For more information about IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture, see the IBM Redbooks
publication Implementing Imaging Solutions with IBM Production Imaging Edition and IBM
Datacap Taskmaster Capture, SG24-7969.
IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture can store scanned documents, including captured data,
directly into an IBM archive. However, such archived documents cannot immediately be
accessed from the SAP GUI. By integrating IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture and IBM
Content Collector for SAP Applications, the scanned documents are archived with IBM
Content Collector for SAP Applications like incoming documents, establishing the proper
linkage on the SAP side so that they can be retrieved from within the SAP system.
This integration is achieved using the Client API of IBM Content Collector for SAP
Applications, and a custom action that must be deployed into IBM Datacap Taskmaster
Capture.
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Figure 8-2 shows this integration schematically. A document is first scanned and processed
by IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture, which extracts certain information, for example, an
invoice number, from the scanned document. This information is written to a properties file,
and the custom IBM Datacap action calls the Client API and passes the relevant information
to it.
Metadata, such as the invoice number, can be stored in the archive or the SAP system along
with the scanned document. An SAP Business Workflow can be started, or a bar code can be
sent to the SAP system to link the document to an SAP Business Object, either in an early or
late archiving scenario.
Scan
SAP
R/3
Link document or
start SAP workflow
IBM Datacap Taskmaster
Capture process
+properties call to archive and link
Client API
IBM Content
Collector
for SAP
Applications
IBM FileNet
P8 Content
Engine
IBM Content
Manager
IBM Content
Manager
OnDemand
(*) TSM/SSAM
(*) TSM/SSAM: IBM Tivoli Storage Manager / IBM System Storage Archive Manager
Figure 8-2 Capture and archive process integrating IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture and IBM Content Collector for SAP
Applications
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8.2.5 IBM Content Navigator
IBM Content Navigator is a ready-to-use, modern, standards-based user interface (UI) that
supports all content management use cases, including collaborative document management,
production imaging, and report management. IBM Content Navigator is also a flexible and
powerful user platform for building custom ECM applications by using open, web-based
standards.
The goal for building IBM Content Navigator was to provide a consistent and modern user
experience for working with all forms of content, regardless of the repository in which that
content is located, be it an IBM repository or a third-party repository that conforms to the
Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) standard. The objective, then, was to
create a readily available user experience that is configurable to the needs of an organization
without requiring development effort for basic customization.
In addition, the designers considered that customers, at times, need to build custom user
interfaces. Therefore, a comprehensive toolkit for building ECM applications is provided that is
built on open standards, enabling content access from any platform and any devices.
IBM Content Navigator also serves as the technology to build new, or rebuild existing, UIs and
content applications, for example, IBM Case Manager. Using the index transfer capability of
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications to transfer SAP business object metadata to the
repository, documents originating from an SAP system can be accessed and viewed in the
SAP business context, but also outside of the SAP infrastructure, with IBM Content Navigator.
Because IBM Content Navigator presents the same UI regardless of the underlying
repository, the user has a unified view of federated content stored by an SAP system in
possibly different back-end repositories. As more and more other ECM products are based on
IBM Content Navigator, their capabilities can be used for the content stored in SAP systems,
such as case management, records management, classification, and e-discovery.
Business metadata that has been transferred from an SAP system to the repository by an
index transfer operation can be used to search for documents in their original business
context, for example, using an invoice number or a contract number.
Through the use of folders, a structured document hierarchy that, as an example, exists in a
contract management solution in SAP, can be mirrored in the content repository, providing
seamless access to documents from within and from outside of the SAP system.
For more information about IBM Content Navigator, its integration and customization
capabilities, and its extensibility, see the IBM Redbooks publication Customizing and
Extending IBM Content Navigator, SG24-8055.
8.3 Business process enhancements through ECM for SAP
solutions
Even in a “paperless world”, the majority of today’s business processes are document-centric.
A tight and smart combination of the strength of SAP in ERP systems with the sophisticated
capabilities of the IBM ECM infrastructure enables business users to benefit from an
integrated cross-system workflow management. It is important to understand that those
solutions and enhanced features go significantly beyond the SAP ArchiveLink specification,
which only requires a simple imaging and archiving system.
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8.3.1 Objectives of a document-oriented workflow management
The operation of a document-oriented workflow management system usually pursues one or
many of the following objectives:
Enable end-to-end processing
Increase the degree of automation
Decrease error rates
Reduce handling expenses
Relieve users from routine tasks
Adhere to compliance rules
Examples include HR file management, invoice processing, contract management,
processing of order sheets, and delivery receipts.
8.3.2 SAP-centric versus ECM-centric process management
There are basically two fundamental approaches for an integrated workflow management:
ECM-centric. A separate business application that communicates through interfaces with
the SAP system. This application is typically an integral part of the ECM system, either a
workflow component or a case management application.
SAP-centric. The business application is deployed directly on the SAP system.
The ECM-centric process management configuration is usually covered by functions of the
ECM systems. Their archiving and imaging capabilities are needed to satisfy the SAP
ArchiveLink use case, but they are typically full-featured ECM systems. Configuration and
maintenance are in general easier than they are for the complex SAP ERP system. However,
the main disadvantage is that SAP is still the leading system from a business perspective,
because all of the business data is kept in the ERP system.
More than that, all related data is stored there. For instance, the processing of invoices
requires access to purchase order or even vendor contract data. An accounts payable
solution running inside the ECM system has to synchronize all the basic and related data with
the ERP system, which process can be error-prone and difficult to manage.
Business applications directly deployed on the SAP system ensure an integrated workflow
management by default. Typically, they are installed as an ABAP module within its own name
space. Therefore, they behave like any other standard SAP module. The following list
describes the benefits of this approach:
The entire workflow management happens within a single system. The user does not
need to learn different UIs.
There is direct access to data of the underlying SAP system. Therefore, no configuration
or maintenance of external interfaces is necessary.
Any relevant business data from any other SAP module required for processing an
incident is directly accessible.
Even non-SAP GUI users can easily be included through web UIs.
Not a standard capability, but SAP Online Service System (OSS) integration can be highly
advantageous.
The SAP integrated business application should be integrated into the SAP OSS. By doing
so, the support process for the business application is the same as for the SAP system
itself. Ideally, a support case is directly routed from SAP level 2 support to the application
provider.
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Further considerations in this section are based on the SAP-centric process management
approach because, based on practical experience, this is the preferred approach for
SAP-centric organizations.
However, a fundamental requirement for both approaches is that the ECM system is well
integrated with the SAP system. This consideration goes far beyond support for the SAP
ArchiveLink interface. It includes synchronization of documents, their metadata, and
embedding them into the business context between both systems.
8.3.3 Components of an ECM for SAP Solution
Solutions for an integrated workflow management typically comprise the following
components (see Figure 8-3):
1. Capturing the documents
2. Processing document content and integrating it into the SAP business process
3. Filing documents and archiving them into the repository
Processing
Capturing
MFD (*)
SAP System
Scan to Mail /
Scan to Folder
Scanner
Business Application with
ECM Integration
Repository
External delivery via
Scan Service Provider
(index + files)
HTTP Content Server or
ArchiveLink Interface
Archive System
ArchiveLink
Module
Storage
Driver
(*) MFD: Multifunctional device
Figure 8-3 Generic components of an integrated process management
These components could either be delivered from multiple vendors or from one source. A
single vendor is no guarantee of a high-quality integration, because solutions from a single
vendor are often compiled through acquisitions. The quality of the integration, which is an
important criteria for a seamless end-to-end process, is sometimes revealed during its usage
in the field. The same concept applies to solutions where multiple vendors work together and
one of them appears as the main contractor.
Fortunately, ECM systems adhering to the established SAP ArchiveLink standard enable a
flexible and independent combination of capturing and repository system.
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8.3.4 Capturing solution components
This section covers in more detail the individual components of the capturing solution.
Capturing
The capturing process extracts the business-relevant data from documents coming from
various sources and converts them into an electronic format (see the example in Figure 8-4).
Vendor data
Invoice date
and #
PO #
Position data
Total
Figure 8-4 Examples of invoice data to be recognized and captured
In the example shown in Figure 8-4, the areas enclosed in red frames represent the data that
has to be extracted:
The vendor name and their postal address
The date and serial number of the invoice
Identification of the purchase order corresponding to the invoice
Position data and the total sum of the invoice
The documents can either be submitted in hardcopy form, for example, invoices, delivery
notes, applications, and so on, or in an electronic format, for example, through electronic data
interchange (EDI). For EDI, the format conversion can be limited to a pre-processing to make
it workable for further processing in the SAP system. This conversion can even be omitted if
both business partners have already aligned their exchange formats. The format is
standardized, for example, in the automotive industry.
Even in times of electronic documents, the capturing of business data from paper documents
remains an indispensable function for the foreseeable future. For invoices and delivery notes
in particular, the flawless capturing of the header and position data is a basic requirement to
achieve a high throughput without manual interaction.
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The recognition of the semantic content (in which position on the various forms can that
specific invoice information be found) is a special requirement in a mass capture scenario. For
instance, which content represents the order number, the invoice number, address data,
invoice date, and so on. Of course, the position data of multi-page invoices and delivery notes
has to be recognized accurately as well.
In contrast, OCR recognition (capturing data and transforming it into electronic character
sequences) is the easier task.
The following technologies are the basic approaches to the challenging task of recognizing
semantic content:
Free-form recognition
Form-based recognition
Sometimes the technologies are applied in combination. such as in IBM Datacap Taskmaster
Capture. These technologies have a demanding theoretical background, for which a detailed
description goes beyond the scope of this book.
Free-form recognition identifies the semantic meaning from the content itself. Form-based
recognition concludes the semantic meaning from the position information, for example, a
previously performed training mode tells the software at which location on the page to find the
invoice number. The assumption here is that the vendor uses a certain standard layout for
their invoices, which is typically a safe assumption.
The need for a training phase is not a challenge unique to form-based recognition. Free-form
recognition requires a certain training as well. The payoff for the effort spent for a precise
adjusting of the recognition to a particular form is a high automation rate without any manual
interaction in production. In the retail industry in particular, with its numerous vendors and a
huge number of bills and receipts, a high automation rate can cause a significant increase
in efficiency.
The details of mass and batch processing, such as holding or re-sorting of batches,
monitoring, and so on, are not described in this chapter.
An important aspect of an integrated process management, however, is the connection with
the SAP system. The transfer of the scanned documents occurs together with the extracted
data in XML format, as a batch or as single documents. It can be achieved either through a
shared directory in a universal and flexible way, or through a direct network connection, for
example, using web services.
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Depending on how the invoice approval is organized, a first comparison of an invoice with the
corresponding SAP purchase order data can be a reasonable approach, as shown in
Figure 8-5. This approach does not substitute the final invoice processing in SAP Financials
(FI). However, it can help sort out obviously incorrect documents at an early stage, in addition
to correcting minor deviations, such as splitting a single order item into two invoice items.
Figure 8-5 Comparison of invoice items (left side) with order items (right side) during the recognition
process
Processing
The question can arise: Why introduce an additional module from a third-party vendor for
accounts payable, for instance, when SAP already provides predefined workflows for invoice
processing in it as standard in the SAP Financials (FI) module? Furthermore, there are
already predefined tasks as part of the SAP ArchiveLink customization for the late archiving
and early archiving scenarios, for example, TS3001128 and TS3001117 (see 8.2.2, “SAP
archiving use cases” on page 197).
The simple answer is: The main benefit is adding the ability to extend functionality and to
simplify configuration and operation. These benefits are illustrated by the examples in the
following list:
Better support for mass processing
At first glance, the standard SAP ArchiveLink scenarios provide the capability for mass
processing of inbound documents, for example, late archiving with bar code. However, by
default, the SAP system is not prepared for the flexible processing of extracted data
coming from a capture system.
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Posting FI records with externally captured invoice data is feasible through the SAP
transaction MIRO (Enter Incoming Invoice). However, a flexibly configurable job control
and queue management to buffer, control, and monitor large amounts of input data as
shown in Figure 8-6, is only available through the added third-party module.
The upper section of Figure 8-6 shows all elements of the input queue (there are only two
in this example) and the lower section can display the corresponding purchase order items
for the selected invoice. Other options, such as displaying the invoice line items, contract
data, and so on, are configurable as well.
This centralized queuing and monitoring is a key capability in larger deployments. As an
example, the capability to serve the invoice processing for 53 SAP systems
simultaneously was the main criteria for vendor selection at a large German
automotive supplier.
Figure 8-6 Centralized queue management and monitoring for all incoming input: Capture application example
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Simpler process configuration when compared to native SAP Workflow
The processing of invoices requires a simple configuration of workflows in conjunction with
the option to modify them easily and on short notice. For example, you can reroute the
invoice processing from one operator to another, or include an additional approver, as
shown in Figure 8-7.
Figure 8-7 Simple and flexible configuration by adding another operator to an approval process
Seamless integration with office systems
Examples of this integration include dragging an email with an attachment into a
personnel file to file it, as shown in Figure 8-8, or compiling response letters directly from
the accounts payable solution automatically.
Figure 8-8 Filing an email into digital personnel file by dragging it
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Easy access to data and functions of other SAP modules directly from within the workflow
application
The resolution of any discrepancies during invoice processing often requires queries from
other modules. For example, access to the vendor contract is needed to validate discount
conditions on the invoice. Figure 8-9 and Figure 8-10 on page 214 illustrate this example
where a vendor contract can be verified directly from within the workflow.
Figure 8-9 Direct access to the vendor contract from the invoice receipt list: Part 1 of 2
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Figure 8-10 shows the accessed contract details.
Figure 8-10 Direct access to the vendor contract from the invoice receipt list - Part 2 of 2
Bidirectional coupling between the capture system and the repository
A holistic and integrated process also requires a tight coupling between the capture and
the archive system. Making the purchase order and vendor data available during the
capture phase provides an easy way to rule out any misrouted documents in an early
phase of the process, before they get into the invoice receipt book.
Repository and filing system requirements
The back-end repository and filing system has to be able to fulfill a set of requirements that
extend beyond the bare ability to safely store digitized content in an efficient manner. This
section outlines these requirements.
Basic requirements
The main function of the repository system is to safely store the digitized documents, and to
provide fast retrieval later when accessed from an SAP transaction. The technical connection
occurs mainly through the SAP ArchiveLink interface. To some extent, the simplicity of this
interface in its pure form limits the ECM vendors, because only low-level archiving
functionality is provided.
In a pure SAP ArchiveLink solution, the only connection between the SAP system and the
archiving system is the document identifier. The SAP ArchiveLink interface does not provide a
way to transport any additional, potentially valuable, information, such as user information,
business context, and so on. The need for extra features that add value to the solution
available in today’s ECM systems becomes apparent as soon as the documents filed from the
SAP system are used outside of the standard use cases.
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Beyond the initial low functional requirements for an SAP ArchiveLink content repository, it is
advisable to take a closer look at the additional capabilities that such a repository must
provide to be suited for the purpose:
Scalability to process large volumes of documents.
Stability of the vendor, because the purchase and operation of an archiving system are
inherently designed for long-term usage.
Flexibility connecting storage subsystems, or the capability to directly connect to a
hierarchical storage management (HSM) system. IBM Content Collector for SAP
Applications offers these capabilities.
Pre-processors and user exits to enable additional operations, such as customized
document format conversion. For example, you may want to convert a document from
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) to Portable Document Format (PDF).
Requirements for integrated processing
As mentioned previously, an integrated ECM SAP solution requires a direct link between the
SAP system and the ECM system, which goes far beyond the capabilities defined in the SAP
ArchiveLink specification. This sophisticated link basically means that the SAP business
context to which the SAP-linked documents in the ECM system belong is at least partially
synchronized between SAP and the ECM system.
The following examples show what this criteria means in practical terms. Consider an invoice
with an attached document as a starting point (see Figure 8-11).
Figure 8-11 FI invoice with an attached document
In the heterogeneous SAP/non-SAP enterprise environment that is the basis of our examples
throughout this book, business users work on the ECM system, where they operate on
documents from the SAP system and on documents of non-SAP origin. These workers want
to see not only the bare image linked to the FI invoice, but at least some of the SAP business
metadata assigned as properties to the particular document.
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If the workers cannot see this information, there is no chance to properly identify and retrieve
the document on the ECM side, because the only default attribute is the document title (see
the lower right side of Figure 8-13 on page 217).
An example of such a business context as it can be presented in an ECM environment is
shown on the left of Figure 8-12. The UI is based on IBM Content Navigator. For a certain
vendor, the associated invoices with their SAP document name are shown. The folder name
at the lowest level reflects the SAP invoice number, and the folder contains the attached
documents. The invoice folder plus a folder containing the vendor’s contracts represent an
excerpt of the associated business context.
Both folders are structured as sub-folders of a certain vendor. This example can easily be
extended with further business information, depending on the information requirements in
this context.
It is important to recognize that the business information in the SAP system (the source of the
information in the ECM system), and the representation of that information in the ECM
system, have to be kept in sync. From a business perspective, SAP is the leading system.
Therefore, all of the information accessible in the ECM system is derived from the SAP
system. As information changes (some of it never, some of it quite frequently), it needs to be
reflected on the ECM side in near real-time.
Attached invoice Access to SAP
business doc.
image
View invoice,
vendor, and
contract data
SAP metadata
assigned to
archived invoice
image
Figure 8-12 Access to SAP business data and context from within the ECM system (example)
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In some cases, it might be necessary for the ECM users to directly access the original SAP FI
business object. For this purpose, the invoice folder in our example contains a link to the FI
document (see center section of Figure 8-13). When clicked, the SAP web GUI opens and the
user is taken directly to the invoice record transaction without having to navigate the SAP
system manually (see Figure 8-13).
Double-click to
directly access
SAP FI transaction
Figure 8-13 Access to the original SAP FI record from within the ECM system
Figure 8-14 shows the same information in Microsoft Office.
Figure 8-14 Same representation of the SAP business context in Microsoft Office
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8.3.5 ECM SAP solution architecture
This section describes, as an example, the high-level architecture of the invoice processing
frequently used when working with IBM and SAP Business Partners who specialize in
providing SAP integrated solutions.
Figure 8-15 shows the architecture and the process flow through the components. The
general use case of the integrations enabled by this architecture is to automate the capturing,
processing, linking, and archiving of incoming documents to SAP processes. The example
described in this section and depicted in Figure 8-15 is based on an invoice processing.
Invoice
1
Scan
2
Order data
Business appl. with
ECM integration
Datacap
4
Extraction of header
and line item data
3 Verify against order
- Create inv. record with
verified data
- Import image file
5
Link and archive invoice
Invoice
6
Retrieve of
archived invoice
ICCSAP
P8 / CM8 / ...
Figure 8-15 Basic architecture and example process flow
The following list describes the architecture components shown in Figure 8-15:
IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture
SAP ERP system (SAP ERP Central Component (ECC) 6 or later)
ECM-centric business application, deployed on the SAP system
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications
IBM repository:
–
–
–
–
IBM FileNet Content Manager
IBM Content Manager Enterprise Edition
IBM Content Manager OnDemand
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
The following activities are included in the flow shown in Figure 8-15:
Processing in IBM Datacap Taskmaster Capture
1. Scan the invoice.
2. Capture header and invoice line item data.
3. Access corresponding order data from the SAP business application and verify that the
invoice line items match the order data.
4. Send the scanned invoice image and the verified invoice data to the business application
in the SAP system. Create a work item in the SAP system for further processing.
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Processing inside the SAP business application
5. Start and run the approval process. Archive the invoice image using SAP ArchiveLink and
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications, and link it to the work item. Post the invoice,
create the invoice record, and finalize the processing.
6. The invoice document can now be retrieved as an attachment to the invoice record.
Figure 8-16 outlines the protocols and technical interfaces between the components.
Invoice
On-line query via SAP JCO
or
Periodic download from SAP
Business appl. with
ECM integration
File system share
Datacap
File system share
SAP ArchiveLink (http)
Invoice
SAP ArchiveLink (http)
ICCSAP
P8 / CM8 / ...
Figure 8-16 Protocols and interfaces
8.4 Data governance: Managing growth and compliance
The previous sections in this chapter extensively described the document-centric approach to
ECM in an SAP context. This section focuses on the use of IBM Content Collector for SAP
Applications in combination with IBM ECM repositories for SAP data archiving, following the
standard SAP ArchiveLink and the SAP ILM data archiving models.
8.4.1 Business drivers
8.1, “Enterprise content management business goals” on page 190 provides information
about how structured data (the content of the database underlying the SAP system)
contributes to a large extent to the data growth that any SAP system has to maintain and
control. At the same time, this type of data also falls under the regulatory set of rules
regarding its retention and disposal.
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According to their usage patterns and their lifecycle characteristics, the following variations of
structure data must be distinguished:
Data that occurs in high volume, typically from short-lived transactions, with corresponding
short-term business relevance.
Data that falls under regulatory control due to compliance legislation, such as the Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), Sarbanes-Oxley, or other laws,
typically with long-term retention requirements.
Data that falls under the previous category of long-term retention requirements, but that
resides in SAP systems that have reached, as a whole, the end of their system lifecycle.
The following sections provide more detail on each case.
High volume, short-lived transactional data
A large portion of the data stored in an SAP system originates from transactions of diverse
time duration. Consider how long this data must be available instantly, as opposed to only
occasionally, only in summary form, or whether it is no longer needed at all. These
considerations all determine the archiving strategy.
Purchase data provides an example with a typical lifecycle, starting with the initiation of the
purchase, followed by the process of an order, the execution of the order, delivery of the
goods or services ordered, the billing process, and finally the payment.
After the final payment, individual order data typically only has to be available for auditing or
summary reporting purposes. The usefulness of the data and the need for immediate access
to it diminishes rapidly. As an element of a closed business process, the data is no longer of
immediate importance. This type of data is ubiquitous, but in particular, and with increasing
frequency, this is the case for low-cost purchases of goods and services through the Internet.
For example, the purchases of music, ebooks, and video downloads, which happen
instantaneously, with delays only in the order of magnitude of minutes between the order, the
delivery, the billing, and the closing of the payment process. After this point, the individual
transaction is considered completely closed, it is no longer of value in the live system, and
there are no further actions necessary on it other than for purposes that are mostly statistical
in nature.
It is also part of the nature of such transactions that they are extremely high in frequency.
Therefore, they contribute massively to the data growth in the corresponding database tables
that represent the transactions.
At the same time, the performance of the database in such a business scenario is of utmost
importance. It is therefore mandatory that preventive maintenance of the database is
performed on a regular basis to preserve excellent performance for access to the database
tables, and to keep transaction execution time to a minimum.
These high-frequency transactions contribute significantly to database growth, with all the
associated consequences of additional cost for storage, administration, and other
volume-related cost factors. Their usefulness in the database is clearly time-bound.
An operational method to address this issue is required. Obsoleted transaction data must be
moved to sections of the environment that do not need to deliver high performance, and can,
therefore, be provided at a lower cost. This approach does not jeopardize the still-required,
albeit limited, access to the data.
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Business data with regulation for long-term retention
On the other side of the lifecycle spectrum are the situations where data has long rather than
short lifecycles in an organization. Industries, such as pharmaceutical companies or
healthcare providers, have to comply with regulations that require their data and documents
to be accessible in their original form for 20 years or longer.
Even though the active part of the lifecycle of such business data can be rather short, legal
regulations increasingly require that such data remains accessible for auditing, litigation, and
other documentation purposes.
Figure Figure 8-17 shows an example of the lifecycle for business data records (and the
associated attachments), with the relative importance of the data displayed as a function over
the life term.
Final disposal
Release legal hold
Archiving
Immutability
Creation time
Business complete
Impose legal hold
Audit
Archive (tier 1, .. tier n)
Database
Infrequent access
Data
location
Business
relevance
Figure 8-17 Data location and business relevance of data during the data lifecycle
Figure 8-17 shows the following data:
Starting with creation time, and during the period where changes to the business data are
still happening, importance is high, and remains so during the phase where immutability is
reached, and finally the transaction can be marked as business complete.
After the business complete point, the importance of the data drops significantly, until the
decision is made to archive and offload the data by moving it out of the live database.
The individual business data is still accessible, and might encounter short periods of
increased relevance.
During business audits, larger collections of archived business data are retrieved. During
these periods, the data is of higher importance to support passing the audit objectives.
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The highest revival of importance that archived business data experiences is during the
imposition of legal holds, typically as part of a litigation. The legal hold prevents
unconditionally the disposal of data for the duration of the hold.
After the hold has been released, the rules of retention become reactivated, and the
business data eventually reaches the end of life, at which point it can (and in many cases
must) be finally disposed of.
To fulfill these requirements without clogging the live SAP system, while at the same time
maintaining accessibility of the data, SAP protocols for archiving and retention can be
enhanced significantly through the addition of IBM middleware and secure storage solutions
that ensure the immutability of the archived data.
SAP system consolidation and decommissioning
Another important core scenario for the archiving of inactive data can be found in the context
of system decommissioning.
Typically, SAP systems are not monolithic, long-term systems in an organization-wide SAP
landscape. It is instead frequently the case that production systems are regrouped, reused,
consolidated, or reorganized on a regular basis. With each of these operations, the question
of data preservation as laid out in “Business data with regulation for long-term retention” on
page 221, needs to be addressed. It is not always necessary, as described previously, to
preserve all data from existing live SAP systems in its live state.
Regulations for retention and controlled destruction of business data apply to
decommissioned systems just as they do for data from live systems, and therefore the triage
of data described in “Leading practices for establishing data archiving” on page 225 applies
equally to the decommissioning case.
All stakeholders in the business units of an organization must be closely involved in the
process of deciding which business data must be preserved, over what periods of time, at
what level of granularity, and when the data can or has to be securely disposed of.
Different models can be applied, depending on the amount of data that must be preserved
from the system to be decommissioned, the business relevance of the data over time, and the
need for immediate or delayed accessibility. The following list describes some of the options:
Complete preservation of a system in virtualized form (made possible by current
virtualization techniques).
Transfer of the data into a consolidated new system.
Export of data subsets into formats that can be accessed and interpreted without the need
to restore into a live SAP system. The Data Retention Tool (DART) format is an example
that auditors often accept as evidence, because there are viewers for the format available.
The viewers provide all of the audit-relevant information, without the need to keep the data
in a live SAP system.
8.4.2 SAP infrastructure for data archiving
SAP provides an infrastructure with data archiving capabilities that supports the business
needs outlined in 8.4.1, “Business drivers” on page 219. It fulfills the business needs by
providing archiving capabilities without system interruption, and it ensures continued read
access to the archived data in a transparent manner. Additionally, compression technology
built into the archiving process provides additional business value by significantly reducing
the cost that is directly caused by the volume of storage.
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SAP data archiving comes in the following base varieties:
Standard data archiving using the SAP ArchiveLink protocol that is also used for
document archiving. This archiving method treats the data archive as a constantly growing
data store, with no explicit means to control or enforce disposal. Read access to the
archived data is also achieved in a transparent manner using SAP ArchiveLink.
Archiving in the realm of SAP ILM, with the added benefit of an explicit method to control
retention periods for defined collections of data. It also provides the ability to set legal
holds that override standard retention and disposal schedules for those cases where data
has been put under the control of a legal dispute, and must be preserved until the dispute
is closed and the hold can be released.
ILM is based on a WebDAV model, relying on established standards for XML-based
archiving, rather than on the proprietary ADK archiving format. From a business
perspective, the decision to use ILM-based data archiving has to take into consideration
that SAP licenses ILM separately, at additional cost, and that it requires the presence of
SAP Business Warehouse.
SAP promotes this type of archiving also in the context of system decommissioning,
where data from existing systems that are no longer actively used still has to be
read-accessible for compliance reasons. It should be noted that external vendors offer
comparable functionality with respect to retention and legal holds capabilities, without the
need to implement a full SAP ILM solution.
The following sections provide more information to help you choose between the two models
based on operational and cost considerations and how they fit into the overall concept of
enterprise content management using IBM ECM repositories.
8.4.3 Data archiving and the choice of IBM ECM content repositories
Structured data (pure database content) has limited value outside of the SAP system context.
Its business value and its contribution to business decisions is often significant, but it is linked
strictly to direct SAP operations that are executed and evaluated from within the SAP system.
Operations such as content search or other types of non-SAP analytics typically do not apply
to this data, unless it is extracted and transformed through other methods outside the scope
of this book.
This state of affairs directly influences the choice of repository that is best suited to act as the
ECM back-end for this type of archiving. The repositories can be selected on the basis of their
performance characteristics and their cost effectiveness. The selection does not have to be
based on advanced content use capabilities, such as content search, metadata analysis, or
content aggregation.
Data archiving based on SAP ArchiveLink can be implemented with all four IBM ECM content
repositories. The decision about which one to choose can be made based on the following
conditions:
Availability of existing repositories in the organization
Archiving needs for unstructured data
Cost considerations
Availability of administration skills for a particular repository type
All four repository types support a tiered approach to data storage based on access
performance needs, and ensure a high level of data protection.
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In the most basic of possible setups, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is often the repository of
choice due to its high performance and low cost characteristics, combined with its ability to
interact transparently with secure storage. For the data archiving model that is based on SAP
ILM, there is only one IBM content repository that is supported when archiving through IBM
Content Collector for SAP Applications: IBM Tivoli Storage Manager.
8.4.4 SAP ArchiveLink-based data archiving
Data archiving based on SAP ArchiveLink makes use of the existing infrastructure for
document archiving, and employs a customized proprietary file format for compressed
storage of bundles of archived data. Data that is archived from the live SAP system is
combined, bundled, and compressed into a proprietary file format: ADK or Reconciliation
Object (REO). The two terms are uses in a synonymous manner. The customization of the
data archiving operation must take into account the following conditions:
The availability of SAP ArchiveLink support in the business module for which the data
needs to be archived. Most SAP business modules support ArchiveLink or the Content
Server interface in one form or another, and are therefore suited for this operation.
The combination of database content into archivable objects using detailed table analysis.
It is important to take into account the interdependencies of SAP business objects, and
how they can be combined into archivable objects that constitute a closed business
transaction that can be removed from the live system.
The applicability of retention regulations for the identified data. Even though SAP
ArchiveLink has no explicit retention handling capabilities, the rules governing retention
and disposal can also be applied to the stored archive files. Organizing and aggregating
the data into individual files that have common properties regarding their retention policies
simplifies this process.
The scheduling of archive operations, either in manual or in automatic mode. As part of
this decision point, disposal rules on an archive file basis can also be taken into account.
Depending on the business module, and its particular implementation of the archiving of its
business objects, several modes of access to archived data are available.
Depending on the SAP application, archived data can either be viewed transparently from
within the business transaction, or it can be interacted with separately, for example, in a
document relationship browser. Note that typically this access to archived data does not imply
that the data is restored from the archive back into the live system (even though this option
also exists, but is only used in exceptional cases). The archive data is retrieved into the
application interface for viewing purposes only.
Archiving objects: Logical units of business process elements
Data archiving enables you to move data (in compressed and standardized format) to either
the local file system directly connected to the SAP system, or, through SAP ArchiveLink, to all
connected content repositories.
Storing the archived data outside of the active SAP system has several advantages:
Keep the active system lean.
Provide advanced protection against data tampering, if, for example, certified storage
systems are used.
Improved compliance capabilities.
Choosing an archive location physically separated from the location of the active system
adds physical security and a higher level of protection for the archived data.
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Associated with the archiving objects are archiving rules that determine when, and at which
intervals, archiving objects will be moved from the live system to the archive. These rules can
be based on temporal constraints, such as the posting date for a booking, and can be
augmented with additional metadata, such as customer names or product group.
Leading practices for establishing data archiving
The need for data archiving is often ignored in the initial setup of SAP systems, and only
becomes apparent when the database encounters the first wave of performance effects
caused by database size. It should be a standard practice to establish a data archiving
process early on, rather than introducing the archiving process as a last resort before a total
system performance breakdown.
This is an important point, because the setup of a well-structured data archiving system
requires careful planning across multiple tiers of the organization. There must be an active
interaction between the organization responsible for the operation of the SAP system (and
therefore for its performance) and the SAP system business users and user groups. Also,
stakeholders who are not directly related to the SAP system, but are responsible for setting
governance rules and other compliance standards, must be included in the design process.
During this interaction between the interested parties, important system facts must be
established:
Expected data growth
Detailed structure of authorizations
Legal rules for data protection and retention times, and standard procedures to establish
the scope of legal holds
Business process interdependencies
Figure 8-18 on page 226 displays a simplified decision tree that should be applied to the data
in the live system, where a triage-like sequence of decisions needs to be made based on data
properties such as continued usage, the ability to summarize, and ability to remove without
disruption of the live system.
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A simplified decision tree that should be applied to the data in the live system (Figure 8-18).
Is the data still active?
Yes
Keep data
in live database
No
Is a summary of the data sufficient?
Yes
Summarize data
No
Can the data be removed?
Yes
Initialize disposal
No
Can the data be archived?
Yes
Configure and
execute archiving
No
Keep data
in live database
Figure 8-18 Simplified decision tree for triaging SAP data before archiving
8.4.5 Data archiving using SAP ILM
Compared to SAP ArchiveLink-based data archiving, the adoption of SAP ILM has
significantly less traction in the market. This fact is mostly attributed to the complexity of the
setup, and to the extra cost for the required infrastructure of such a solution.
The following list includes the main use cases for data archiving using SAP ILM:
Decommissioning of existing systems, where data from these systems still needs to be
available for compliance reasons
Business scenarios with strict retention rules or high potential of legal holds on structured
data, where the retention rules can be tied to organizational structures
Highly structured rules for identifiable subunits of the organization that map naturally into
the hierarchical organization of the WebDAV-based data archive
Preparation
The implementation of ILM-based data archiving requires detailed preparation steps on the
SAP side regarding the modeling of the affected data. In broader terms, this pertains to
establishing a data model and retention plan alongside the business structure of the
organization, reflecting the structure of rules that govern the following business aspects:
The data that has to be retained
The retention periods in all their variations
Prescribed destruction times, for example, for certain types of HR data
Definition of structural models that describe the extent of potential legal holds on
structured data, based on organizational and business process modelling
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The hierarchical model derived from all of these considerations defines collections of data
with common properties (a property index). These properties can be used to identify groups
of resources that are then assigned common retention properties.
The model provides a hierarchical, unambiguous representation of archived data, with
standardized access methods using unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).
SAP ILM-enabled archive back-end
As with SAP ArchiveLink, in the ILM scenario the SAP system is also independent of the
service provider for the archiving protocol. IBM provides an ILM-enabled repository that is
accessed through IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications.
The intrinsic hierarchical organization of the archived data is mapped transparently into a
hierarchical WebDAV archive implemented with IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. As an
intermediate, IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications is used to translate the ILM
WebDAV model into the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager storage model.
After this modelling has been established on the SAP side, the model has to be made known
to the ILM-enabled archive (in this case the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager archive through the
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications server). It can then be used to carry out all
necessary operations of archiving data, setting retention schedules at the required level of
detail, applying legal holds for active litigations, and eventually disposing of the data in an
auditable manner.
8.4.6 Comparison of SAP ArchiveLink and ILM-based data archiving
The decision about which archiving model to choose in a given situation depends on the
business needs:
ADK-based archiving. The main benefit is its support of database maintenance in a
simple and transparent manner. It is the method of choice where none of the other
requirements exist.
ILM-based archiving. This method is the choice if complex retention and legal hold rules
must be implemented that are not available, at least not internal to the protocol, for
ADK-based archiving. The standardized XML-based storage format enables for more
transparent access to the archived data, if such access is required from outside of the
SAP system. This capability is further supported through the use of the property indexes
that make the archived data transparently searchable using metadata queries.
8.4.7 Adding the value of IBM middleware and storage solutions for SAP data
archiving purposes
In summary, both data archiving protocols of SAP support the implementation of external
archive providers using standardized interfaces. IBM ECM products provide the necessary
flexibility regarding the choice of repository. IBM storage solutions ensure the required
security conditions to achieve full compliance with the imposed regulations.
All IBM ECM repositories provide storage hierarchy solutions that will store the data in the
most cost-effective way based on usage patterns and accessibility requirements. Full
integration into the IBM ECM product portfolio enables the archiving solution to extend
beyond the base requirements of the SAP archiving standards into complete end-to-end
solutions.
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8.5 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM Enterprise Content Management portfolio
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/category/enterprise-content-management
IBM Information Lifecycle Governance solutions
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/category/information-lifecycle-governan
ce
IBM Value-Based Archiving solutions
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/value-based-archiving
IBM Datacap
http://www.ibm.com/software/info/datacap/
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/content-collector-sap
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications IBM Knowledge Center
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSRW2R_3.0.0/
IBM Content Collector for SAP Applications: Sizing, Configuration, and High Availability
http://www.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27036773
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9
Chapter 9.
IBM Business Analytics
infrastructure for SAP
This chapter provides architecture guidelines to efficiently integrate IBM Business Analytics
(BA) software with SAP solutions to gain an end-to-end analytical perspective on
heterogeneous enterprise data, and build a sustainable IBM-SAP business analytics solution
landscape.
With the rise of big data, data assets have become larger, appear in many more variations,
and arrive at higher speeds in an enterprise. Business analytics for making informed
decisions yielding better business outcomes must be able to process all of the data in all its
forms (from structured to unstructured), either at rest or in motion. Not surprisingly, there are
many specialized solutions for different analytics needs.
Comprehensive coverage of all analytic solutions is beyond the scope of this book. To narrow
the scope, the following topics are not included in this chapter, and they are extensively
described in other IBM publications listed in 9.5, “References” on page 246:
Hadoop-based analytics. Data at rest, including the full spectrum from well-structured
(relational) to least-structured (video, text, audio, and so on) data.
Streaming analytics. Data in motion, including the full spectrum from well-structured
(relational) to least-structured (video, text, audio, and so on) data.
Decision support systems. Data in motion for operational decision making in real time, for
next best offer, next best action, and so on.
IBM Content Analytics with Enterprise Search, such as click-stream analytics.
Cognitive computing with IBM Watsonв„ў.
This chapter includes the following topics:
9.1, “IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP value proposition” on page 230
9.2, “IBM Business Analytics integration architectures” on page 235
9.3, “Detailed review of IBM Business Analytics integration architectures for SAP” on
page 237
9.4, “Conclusion” on page 245
9.5, “References” on page 246
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
229
9.1 IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP value
proposition
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, such as the SAP system, provide a highly
robust transactional environment that is typically optimized for transactional speed and
configurability of core business functionality. ERP systems, such as SAP, excel at managing
transactions and day-to-day business. Clients often consider the cost of deploying ERP
systems to be a part of the cost of doing business.
Alternatively, business analytics solutions excel at enabling better business decisions to
manage and drive business performance by providing complete visibility and fast insights into
the business. IBM Business Analytics software can increase the value of SAP investments by
driving new business insights from SAP data, especially when combined with non-SAP data
in a heterogeneous enterprise.
Some organizations, in which users need to perform swift analysis of data from SAP
solutions, require a faster-performing business intelligence (BI) solution. SAP has introduced
their SAP in-memory appliance, SAP High-Performance Analytic Appliance (HANA) as a
solution to help organizations analyze large volumes of detailed operational and transactional
information in real time.
IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP provides near real-time in-memory analytic
capabilities for SAP and non-SAP applications that do not require investment in HANA.
However, if HANA is already a part of the enterprise landscape, IBM Business Analytics
infrastructure for SAP provides seamless integration with HANA, as described later in
this chapter.
IBM Global Technology Outlook 20131 highlights how recent advances in technology are
changing the relationship between an organization and the people it interacts with, whether
they are customers, business partners, or employees. It describes the emergence of the
contextual enterprise.
A contextual enterprise is an organization that dynamically adapts to the changing needs of
its individual customers by using information from a wide range of sources. It uses information
from multiple sources to provide meaningful context to communications with customers,
business partners, and analysts. Contextual enterprise requires an architectural perspective
to eliminate a siloed approach to enterprise analytics, and to augment existing systems with
new information to support requirements that are needed by the contextual enterprise.
This information architectural approach has several goals:
Combine the best information from across the organization, for use both by operational
and analytical systems.
Augment this consolidated information with relevant facts and event triggers, by analyzing
previously untapped sources of information.
Help to more easily locate information and deliver it to where the business most needs it.
In a heterogeneous IT landscape, SAP systems are an important (but not the only) source of
information for contextual enterprise analytics. SAP data must be combined with business
data from other enterprise systems to enable contextual enterprise.
1
230
IBM Global Business Outlook 2013:
http://www.zurich.ibm.com/pdf/isl/infoportal/Global_Technology_Outlook_2013.pdf
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
The next generation business analytic solutions from IBM help organizations of all sizes make
sense of information in the context of their business. Organizations can uncover insights
more quickly and more easily from all types of data, even big data, and on multiple platforms
and devices.
In addition, with self-service and built-in expertise and intelligence, organizations have the
capabilities and confidence to make smarter decisions that better address their business
imperatives. IBM offers flexible deployment options for business analytics solutions, including
software as a service (SaaS) options, to mitigate concerns regarding costs and the
complexity of deployment.
IBM Cognos software helps organizations realize a greater return on their investments in SAP
applications with faster access to the data that the business needs to make smarter
decisions. When IBM Cognos software is integrated with SAP applications, the value of SAP
data is enhanced, and users gain the perspective and context needed to derive insight from
SAP data.
In addition, using IBM Cognos software and SAP applications together can help minimize the
number of tools and duplicate content that organizations must maintain, streamline training
requirements, and significantly reduce IT backlogs. Cognos is a data source-independent,
best-in-class business analytics platform well suited for a heterogeneous enterprise, while
providing an extensive set of SAP-certified integration services.
IBM Cognos Business Intelligence brings together reporting, analysis, scorecarding, and
dashboards. It expands these BI capabilities with planning, scenario modeling, real-time
monitoring, and predictive analytics.
Cognos Business Intelligence enables organizations to access information within the
organization and beyond, to connect to key stakeholders, and to share insight, align, and
make decisions. In so doing, IBM Cognos Business Intelligence unleashes the collective
intelligence in the organization, so you can “see around corners”, predict outcomes, make
informed decisions, and act smarter and faster than the competition.
Cognos Business Intelligence enables organizations to accomplish the following tasks:
Equip users with the tools that they need to explore information freely, analyze key facts,
collaborate to gain alignment with key stakeholders, and make decisions with confidence
for better business outcomes.
Provide quick access to facts with reports, analysis, dashboards, scorecards, planning,
budgets, real-time information, statistics, and the flexibility to manage information for more
informed decisions.
Integrate the results of what-if analysis modeling and predictive analytics into a unified
workspace to view possible future outcomes alongside current and historical data.
Support wherever users need to work with BI capabilities for the office and desktop, on
mobile devices, online, and offline.
Meet different analytics needs throughout the business with solutions that are integrated
and right-sized for individuals, workgroups, or midsize businesses and large organizations
or enterprises.
Implement a highly scalable and extensible solution that can adapt to the changing needs
of IT and the business, with flexible deployment options that include the cloud,
mainframes, and data warehousing appliances.
Start to address the most pressing needs of the organization with the confidence that the
solution can grow over time to meet future requirements with the integrated IBM Cognos
family of products.
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IBM Cognos Mobile extends interactive Cognos Business Intelligence to a broad range of
mobile devices, including the Apple iPhone and iPad, Android, and tablets. With a rich client,
users can view and fully interact with Cognos reports, dashboards, metrics, analysis, and
other information in a security-rich environment. Users receive timely, informative and
interactive BI to support their decision making, regardless of location.
Beyond BI capabilities, business managers today need greater analytical ability to manage
their business performance. They require a view to analyze data from SAP applications, but
they also need to forecast variations in revenues and expenses, follow customer trends,
uncover drivers of hidden costs, and respond to economic or competitive changes whenever
the need arises.
IBM Cognos TM1 is a market-leading enterprise planning software that enables organizations
to collaborate on plans, budgets, and forecasts. Cognos TM1 enables users to analyze data
and create models, including profitability models, to reflect a constantly evolving business
environment. In addition, integrated scorecards and strategy management capabilities help
organizations monitor performance metrics and align resources and initiatives with corporate
objectives and market events.
TM1 capabilities for ad hoc analysis, scenario modeling, and collaborative forecasting extend
and complement transactional operations performed by ERP systems. TM1 software easily
accesses data from SAP Business Warehouse (BW) or SAP ERP Central Component (ECC),
and organizes complex business information so that organizations can evaluate current and
past performance, perform what-if analysis, and forecast resources in real time to consider
future scenarios.
TM1 features memory-based, multi-dimensional cube architecture. The online analytical
processing (OLAP) engine driving TM1 yields excellent response times. In addition, with
multiple memory-based cubes, data is more rapidly searched, modified, and restructured
than with a single-cube, disk-based structure.
Predictive analytics helps organizations to use all available data, and predict with confidence
what will happen next, so that you can make smarter decisions and improve business
outcomes. IBM offers easy-to-use predictive analytics products and solutions, such as IBM
SPSS, that can use data from SAP and non-SAP sources and meet the specific needs of
different users and skill levels, from beginners to experienced analysts.
With predictive analytics software from IBM, organizations can achieve the following goals:
Transform data into predictive insights to guide front-line decisions and interactions.
Predict what customers want and will do next to increase profitability and retention.
Maximize the productivity of their people, processes, and assets.
Detect and prevent threats and fraud before they affect the organization.
Measure the social media effect of their products, services, and marketing campaigns.
Perform statistical analysis, including regression analysis, cluster analysis, and correlation
analysis.
Integration between IBM SPSS Modeler and SAP is addressed in 9.3.5, “Predictive analytics
with SAP” on page 243.
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9.1.1 Architecture overview
The reference architecture for IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP is built on the
common enterprise data warehouse (EDW) that is used for both SAP and non-SAP
enterprise data (see Figure 9-1).
IBM Business
Analytics
CRM
Business
SRM
Suite
SAP BW
ECC
SCM
PLM
Business
Intelligence
Performance
Management
Analytical
Decision Management
Predictive
Analytics
Legacy
Legacy
Non-SAP
Applications
Applications
Applications
IBM
Integration
Middleware
Enterprise
Data
Warehouse
Risk
Analytics
Regulatory
Compliance
SAP BW: SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse
Figure 9-1 Reference architecture for IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP
This reference architecture uses SAP BW as a packaged solution. SAP BW is an analytical,
reporting, and data warehousing solution produced by SAP. SAP BW is a packaged solution
that includes SAP delivered extractors, data models, and queries (also known as Business
Content). In this reference architecture, the scope of SAP BW is limited to operational
reporting on SAP Business Suite data. All deeper analytics and all analytics at an enterprise
level should be based on the EDW.
A key architectural decision in this approach is to use SAP Business Suite directly as the
source of data for analysis, as opposed to extracting SAP data from SAP BW. The reference
architecture described in this chapter takes into account the following considerations:
SAP BW typically does not have all of the detailed data needed for analytics required to
support the contextual enterprise.
IBM data extraction from SAP BW might require additional SAP licensing (for SAP Open
Hub).
IBM has built integration capabilities that make it easier to extract data from SAP Business
Suite applications into EDWs.
IBM Business Analytics offerings and capabilities shown on Figure 9-1 provide seamless
integration with SAP BW.
The integration of IBM Business Analytics solutions with SAP solutions can be fundamentally
of the following kinds:
Based on analysis of SAP data exported into a persistent data store outside of SAP
Direct access to SAP data
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In an IBM Business Analytics solution for SAP, it is critical to ensure that the middleware
perspective is aligned with the core BA architecture principles in the following ways:
Open. Robust and standardized extract, transform, and load (ETL) capability to source,
transform, and load all types of data, including flat file, relational databases, dimensional
databases, unstructured, and structured data.
Integrated. End-to-end business processes with minimum bridges and interfaces to
mitigate risks of data inconsistency.
Optimized for information quality and lifecycle management. Data cleansing policies, data
retention policies, archiving, and near-line storage.
Technology alignment. Promote pre-delivered packages aligned with innovative product
roadmaps from SAP and IBM.
Minimize total cost of ownership (TCO). Reduce complexity, for example, on interfaces,
maintenance, stability, and skill set.
Figure 9-2 provides an overview of IBM Business Analytics integration capabilities for SAP.
IBM Business Analytics consumers
IBM EDW
IBM Cognos BI
Deeper
Analytics
IBM Cognos
TM1
IBM Business Analytics middleware for SAP
Fast analytic
access to SAP
ВѓIBM Cognos BI
Dynamic Query
ВѓCognos TM1
connector
Deep SAP
Integration
Near real time
data replication
Move and
transform Data
with ETL
Cleanse and
manage data
quality
IBM InfoSphere
Information
Server Pack for
SAP BW
IBM InfoSphere
Change Data
Capture
IBM InfoSphere
DataStage
IBM InfoSphere
QualityStage
SAP data providers
SAP Business
Suite
SAP BW
SAP HANA
Other
sources
Figure 9-2 Overview of IBM Business Analytics integration capabilities for SAP
Figure 9-2 shows that IBM middleware has capabilities accomplish the following tasks:
Connect to any SAP source.
Deeply integrate with service-oriented architecture (SOA) data.
Provide near real-time SAP data replication into analytics solutions.
Provide structured data extraction and cleansing capabilities.
The IBM InfoSphere Information Server is a key component that encapsulates best-in-class
integration tools to collect metadata, and to manipulate or assess data before integration with
consumer BA applications. SAP integration is based on using SAP-certified integration
interfaces:
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
OLAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)
Remote Function Call (RFC) through Advanced Business Application Programming
(ABAP) business functions
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The following sections describe a set of integration patterns for IBM Business Analytics
infrastructure for SAP, and provide selection guidelines for, and the corresponding benefits of,
each option.
9.2 IBM Business Analytics integration architectures
This section describes different integration architectures for integrating SAP source systems
with IBM Business Analytics consumers.
Figure 9-3 shows several different integration architectures for key SAP data providers and
IBM consumers. These architectures are based either on retrieving SAP data in a streaming
mode (direct access), or requiring SAP data to be extracted into non-SAP persistent data
storage (data export).
SAP Data
Providers
SAP Business
Suite
Data Export
Access Type
1
Data Export
2
IBM
InfoSphere:
Connectivity
Type
Near real time
data replication
OR
Data extraction
IBM BA
Consumer
IBM EDW
SAP HANA
SAP BW
SAP ECC
3
Direct
Access
Data Export
4
5
Direct
Access
IBM Cognos
TM1 Package
Connector
SAP BW
Open Hub
IBM Cognos
BI
IBM Cognos
TM1
IBM SPSS
Non-SAP
Data
Figure 9-3 Integration architectures for IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP
The following list describes the integration architectures shown in Figure 9-3:
Integration architecture #1 is based on exporting data from SAP ECC and other
applications from SAP Business Suite into an IBM EDW. A data warehouse is a system
that enables you to separate online transaction processing (OLTP) data used by business
applications to record business transactions from data needed for decision-support
systems (OLAP).
Data export from SAP into EDW is implemented by IBM middleware, in this case, IBM
InfoSphere. In the EDW, SAP data is combined with non-SAP enterprise data from other
data sources. Subsequently, EDW is used by Cognos Business Intelligence, TM1, and
SPSS tools for analytical purposes.
Integration architecture #2 supports data extraction from SAP BW into an IBM EDW using
the same IBM InfoSphere middleware. This architecture requires the SAP middleware
component, SAP BW Open Hub.
Integration architecture #3 is based on the direct connectivity of Cognos Business
Intelligence tools to various SAP source systems. In this case, no data extraction takes
place.
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Integration architecture #4 enables you to extract SAP data into TM1 in-memory cube
database, and subsequently conduct various kinds of planning, scenario modeling, and
many other types of analytics.
Integration architecture #5 is based on direct connectivity of IBM predictive analytics tools
to SAP source systems.
9.3, “Detailed review of IBM Business Analytics integration architectures for SAP” on
page 237 provides more details about the integration architectures shown in Figure 9-3 on
page 235.
9.2.1 IBM Enterprise Data Warehouse products
This section describes several IBM products which can be used to implement EDW.
IBM DB2 with BLU Acceleration
IBM DB2 with BLU Acceleration speeds analytics and reporting using dynamic in-memory
columnar technologies. In-memory columnar technologies provide an efficient way to scan
and find relevant data. Coupled with other innovations, such as parallel vector processing and
actionable compression, it makes the analytics queries far faster and less complex. BLU
Acceleration is a collection of technologies developed by IBM and integrated directly into the
DB2 engine.
BLU Acceleration is a new storage engine, along with integrated run time, that supports the
storage and analysis of column-organized tables. The BLU Acceleration processing is parallel
to the regular, row-based table processing found in the DB2 engine. BLU Acceleration is not a
bolt-on technology or a separate analytics engine that sits outside of DB2. Row-based table
storage and column-based table storage both coexist in the same database and Structured
Query Language (SQL) can access them both at the same time.
DB2 with BLU Acceleration does not require all data to be in random access memory (RAM).
Due to a combination of software technology, such as active compression, columnar
compression, scan-friendly caching, and data skipping, only a fraction of the data needs to be
buffered in RAM. DB2 BLU is memory optimized, designed to deliver massive performance
improvements even when only a small fraction of data can fit into the memory resources.
IBM PureData System for Analytics
IBM PureDataв„ў System for Analytics is the next generation of the IBM NetezzaВ® Data
Warehouse Appliance product. It has the same key design tenets of simplicity, speed,
scalability, and analytics power that was fundamental to Netezza appliances. It combines the
large data processing efficiency based on massively parallel processing (MPP) architecture
with hardware-level SQL acceleration.
With simple deployment, ready-to-use optimization, no tuning requirements, and minimal
ongoing maintenance, PureData System for Analytics leads the industry with fast
time-to-value and low TCO.
IBM PureData System for Operational Analytics
IBM PureData System for Operational Analytics is an expert, integrated data system
designed for operational analytics workloads across the enterprise. The system offers both
the simplicity of an appliance and the flexibility of a custom solution. Designed for high
performance, it can handle up to 1000 concurrent operational queries.
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IBM PureData System for Operational Analytics provides the following capabilities:
Fast performance using parallel processing technology and other advanced capabilities
Built-in expertise and analytics to help you expertly manage database workloads at lower
cost
Simpler administration for easier management and lower cost of ownership
IBM DB2 Analytics Accelerator for z/OS
IBM DB2 Analytics Accelerator for z/OSВ® is a high-performance appliance that integrates
IBM Netezza and IBM zEnterpriseВ® technologies. The solution delivers extremely fast results
for complex and data-intensive DB2 queries on data warehousing, BI, and analytic workloads.
9.2.2 IBM InfoSphere DataStage
IBM InfoSphere DataStage is the premium tool to extract, transform, and load data from any
source system into an EDW. It offers parallel processing for loading large volumes of data in
the shortest time possible. It also features an intuitive visual interface to design complex
business rules, known as business flows, and includes key capabilities for error handling and
monitoring.
9.2.3 IBM InfoSphere Data Replication
For real-time business requirements, the IBM InfoSphere Information Server Family provides
the IBM InfoSphere Data Replication tool that supports low-impact change data capture at the
database level. In addition to real-time replication, this technology enables delta or
incremental loads, which significantly reduces the data replication time windows, and
mitigates data replication performance issues.
9.3 Detailed review of IBM Business Analytics integration
architectures for SAP
This section provides details of the BA integration architectures shown in Figure 9-3 on
page 235, including components and technical prerequisites. Sections 9.3.1, “Data export
from SAP Business Suite into an IBM enterprise data warehouse” on page 237 through 9.3.5,
“Predictive analytics with SAP” on page 243 describe the different integration architecture
options that are labeled 1 through 5 in Figure 9-3 on page 235.
9.3.1 Data export from SAP Business Suite into an IBM enterprise data
warehouse
This integration architecture enables centralized enterprise decision-making processes, and
drives business performance by providing complete visibility and fast insights into the
business. IBM EDW uses integrated data from any SAP Business Suite system and data from
non-SAP enterprise systems, and provides an information asset to support analytics and the
decision-making processes.
The architecture shown in Figure 9-4 on page 238 uses DataStage. SAP business data is
extracted from SAP Business Suite into an IBM EDW using SAP integration provided by IBM
InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications.
Chapter 9. IBM Business Analytics infrastructure for SAP
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When the target EDW implementation is PureData for Analytics (formerly known as IBM
Netezza Data Warehouse Appliance), the data export can be a simple DataStage job that
copies data from a set of SAP tables to the target. In this case, because of extreme
performance of SQL queries in PureData for Analytics, it is possible to bypass the data
transformation into a traditional format used by data warehouses (star schema).
For other EDW implementations, data transformation into a star schema can be
advantageous, and is fully supported by standard ETL techniques, which can include staging
tables and data cleansing, as shown in the lower part of Figure 9-4.
IBM InfoSphere DataStage Server
IBM InfoSphere
Information Server Pack
for SAP Applications
SAP Business Suite
SAP ECC
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
DataStage
Job
IDocs
BAPIs
ABAP
Tables
DataStage
Job
DataStage
Job
Netezza
DataStage
Job
EDW
Staging
tables
Figure 9-4 Data export from SAP Business Suite into an IBM EDW
This integration supports the following SAP interfaces:
SAP tables (cluster or pooled tables). This integration uses IBM integration tools to
discover SAP tables by accessing SAP data dictionaries, and automatically generate and
deploy RFC-enabled ABAP code modules into the SAP system. These modules are
subsequently used for extracting data from SAP tables.
Intermediate Documents (IDocs) in SAP proprietary format as part of SAP Application
Link Enabling (ALE) interface. ALE is an integration technology that can integrate business
processes between SAP systems and non-SAP systems, and between SAP systems.
BAPIs. BAPI is a precisely defined interface providing access to processes and data in
SAP business application systems.
ABAP business functions that can be called remotely using the RFC mechanism. This is
the same mechanism that is used to call BAPIs, but this category of remotely accessible
SAP programs includes any RFC-enabled function modules, not just well-known and
documented BAPI functions.
This architecture offers the following benefits:
Provides a cost-effective option to accelerate time-to-market, because most of the
procedures are automated, and minimum setup and configuration is required
Mitigates data inconsistency risks with DataStage error handling and monitoring
Provides continuous data changes through ETL staging tables, which improves the overall
data visibility for lines of business (LOBs)
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9.3.2 Data export from SAP BW into an IBM EDW
In a heterogeneous enterprise landscape, multiple local, departmental, and regional data
warehouses or data marts might need to coexist and be used to feed an EDW with
aggregated data. One or more of such local, departmental, and regional data warehouses
can be an SAP BW system. For instance, consider an example of a country-specific
SAP HR analytics system feeding a data warehouse for consolidated HR reporting at the
corporate level.
This integration architecture, shown in Figure 9-5, enables you to pull data from SAP BW into
an EDW. Subsequently, IBM BA tools, such as Cognos Business Intelligence or SPSS, can
be used to conduct BA tasks from the EDW.
IBM InfoSphere DataStage Server
IBM InfoSphere
Information Server Pack
for SAP BW
SAP BW
Вѓ BEx Queries
Вѓ Infoproviders
Вѓ Master data
Open Hub
DataStage
Job
Exported
Data
DataStage
Job
DataStage
Job
Netezza
DataStage
Job
EDW
Staging
tables
Figure 9-5 Data export from SAP BW into an IBM EDW
SAP provides only one supported mechanism to extract data from SAP BW to non-SAP
repositories, which is an SAP BW Open Hub extract capability. The Open Hub service
enables you to model, schedule, run, and monitor the data export of various data entities in
SAP BW, such as Business Explorer (BEx) queries, InfoCubes, master data, and so on, into,
for example, a set of destination database tables inside SAP BW.
The database tables in SAP BW can then be used by external consumers to get data out of
SAP. Open Hub is integrated into SAP BW, but typically requires additional licensing from
SAP. Subsequent data flow in this scenario might require complex data validations or lookup
rules. DataStage provides developers with an intuitive development platform to build complex
data flows.
A staging table, as shown in Figure 9-5, temporarily hosts the data extracted from SAP BW
through an Open Hub. To implement the extraction from the DataStage server, create a
process chain in SAP BW and include a process step Open hub destination execution. The
IBM InfoSphere DataStage Open Hub Extract job then triggers the execution of the process
chain, and initiates the inbound data flow through the DataStage server into the IBM target
consumer, which can be an IBM data warehouse or an IBM database.
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP BW reduces the project time and cost of
distributing and integrating data from SAP BW. It supports extracting information from SAP
BW for use in other data marts, data warehouses, reporting applications, and other targets.
Using SAP BW Open Hub services, the extract capability enables users to graphically browse
and select Open Hub targets. InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP BW provides
SAP-certified integration for both loading and extracting data, including Unicode.
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InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP BW also provides direct access to, and creation
of, SAP BW metadata within the DataStage user interface (UI). Users can browse, select,
create, and change SAP BW metadata objects (Source Systems, InfoSources, InfoObjects,
InfoCatalogs, and InfoPackages) using complete metadata integration capabilities.
Similar to the integration architecture described in 9.3.1, “Data export from SAP Business
Suite into an IBM enterprise data warehouse” on page 237, when EDW implementation is in
PureData for Analytics, the data export can be a simple DataStage job that copies data from
a set of SAP tables to the target. The extreme performance of SQL queries in PureData for
Analytics makes it possible, which enables you to bypass the data transformation into formats
optimized for data warehouses.
9.3.3 Operational analytics with Cognos Business Intelligence directly
accessing SAP solutions
This integration architecture uses Cognos Business Intelligence, an enterprise-standard BI
reporting tool set, as a self-service platform for business users to perform operational
analytics for SAP. Figure 9-6 shows this integration architecture. SAP data is consumed on
demand directly from SAP ECC, SAP BW, and SAP HANA. Reports are generated based on
Cognos Business Intelligence tools from the SAP source system.
SAP Business Suite
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Cognos BI Clients
Tables
BAPIs
Infosets
ABAP
Queries
RFC
IBM Cognos BI Server
IBM Cognos Dynamic
Query Mode Server
SAP JCo
libraries
SAP BW
Вѓ BEx Queries
Вѓ Infoproviders
Вѓ Master data
OLAP BAPI
SAP Classic
RFC SDK
libraries
SAP JDBC
driver
SAP HANA
Вѓ Row tables
Вѓ Columnar
tables
Вѓ HANA views
Packages
(Metadata only)
IBM Cognos Framework
Manager
(mapping SAP metadata to
Cognos metadata)
JDBC
Figure 9-6 Operational analytics with IBM Cognos Business Intelligence directly accessing SAP
SAP ECC data can be accessed using SAP tables, BAPIs, SAP Infosets, and ABAP queries.
An Infoset is a special view of a data source (list of fields). It is the basis of an ABAP query,
which represents a selection of data from an Infoset. This approach enables you, for example,
to generate operational reports and calculate key performance indicators (KPIs) based on
granular data, and on a daily basis.
SAP BW data providers can be BEx queries, InfoProviders, or master data (text, attributes, or
hierarchies). The term InfoProvider encompasses objects that physically contain data, for
example, InfoCubes and DataStore objects. InfoProviders can also be objects that do not
physically store data, but that display logical views of data, such as VirtualProviders, InfoSets,
and MultiProviders. BEx queries are a preferred choice as data providers, because you can
define data restrictions based on key analysis dimensions to streamline the data bandwidth.
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SAP HANA provides standard interfaces to existing applications, operational software,
and other business applications. It enables organizations to use investments in existing BI
clients (including Cognos Business Intelligence) for access to the information available in
SAP HANA systems.
By applying this integration scenario, you can stream SAP data from any SAP HANA
database (row or columnar tables and HANA views), and consume it through any Cognos
Business Intelligence Clients. The technical prerequisite is to have the SAP JDBC driver
installed on the IBM Dynamic Query Mode Cognos Business Intelligence server. Note that
the Change Data Capture (CDC) feature is not supported in this case (SAP HANA as the
source system).
Except for the import of metadata managed through IBM Cognos Framework Manager, there
is no SAP data storage persistency at the IBM middleware level (IBM Cognos Dynamic Query
Mode server or IBM Cognos Business Intelligence server). Dynamic Query Mode provides
fast analysis capabilities by using in-memory technology to cache data result sets from SAP
in the Cognos Business Intelligence server.
This in-memory technology provides an enhanced Java-based query mode that offers several
key capabilities:
Query optimizations to simplify and speed up queries, and reduce data volumes with
improved query execution techniques
Significant improvement of complex OLAP queries through intelligent combinations of
local and remote processing, and better Multidimensional Expression Language (MDX)
generation
Security-aware caching with 64-bit processing
The connection between the SAP source system and Cognos Business Intelligence server is
based on RFC calls. The SAP Java connector (SAP JCo) library is installed on the Cognos
Business Intelligence server. The preferred approach in this scenario is to choose an ABAP
query as the data provider, to reduce the data result set to be streamed from an end-to-end
perspective. ABAP query is essentially an SAP report object generated using SAP tools,
which avoids the need for ABAP coding.
The following list describes the benefits of this architecture:
Quick setup and configuration with the Cognos Dynamic Query Mode server acting as a
gateway between the SAP Business Suite source system and the Cognos Business
Intelligence server
Use of SAP BAPIs or InfoSets pre-built content for data sourcing (ready-to-use solution,
including complex business logic)
Connectivity options to have BAPIs, InfoSets, or ABAP queries as data providers to
reduce data bandwidth, with a filter option (similar to a WHERE clause in an SQL statement)
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9.3.4 Managing business performance with SAP and IBM Cognos TM1
The architecture shown in Figure 9-7 enables business analysts or planning controllers to
perform planning scenarios on SAP Business Suite data with the market-leading IBM
enterprise planning software, the TM1 toolset.
IBM Cognos TM1 Server
SAP BW
IBM Cognos BI
Clients
Вѓ BEx Queries
Вѓ Infoproviders
Вѓ Master data
OLAP BAPI
Import Master and
Transactional data
SAP ECC
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Вѓ
Tables
BAPIs
Infosets
ABAP
Queries
TM1 Package
Connector
IBM Cognos TM1
Clients
Import SAP metadata.
IBM Cognos BI Server
IBM Cognos Dynamic
Query Mode Server
Packages
(Metadata only)
SAP Classic
RFC SDK
libraries
RFC Calls
SAP JCO
libraries
Cognos Framework Manager
(mapping SAP metadata to
Cognos metadata)
Figure 9-7 Managing business performance with SAP and TM1
TM1 uses the same SAP-certified interface used by the Cognos Business Intelligence
platform to pull data into TM1 from SAP BW and SAP ECC quickly and efficiently. Using
Cognos Business Intelligence packages with the IBM Cognos TM1 Package Connector, data
is packaged and sent to TM1 using certified connections from SAP BW (OLAP BAPI) and
SAP ECC (RFC).
Because the same OLAP BAPI interface is used to access data in SAP BW, there are no
separate modules or programs to install on the SAP BW server. As a result, organizations
gain the ability to use common structures in SAP BW, such as BEx Queries, InfoCubes,
MultiProviders, Data Store Objects (DSOs), InfoSets, and Master Data objects.
For example, this integration architecture can be used as the premium approach if there is a
business requirement to explore what-if scenarios with the TM1 planning toolset based on
SAP BW aggregated budget or actual data with no major data manipulation upwards. Cognos
Dynamic Query server is not an ETL system, and therefore no complex rules can be applied
between SAP BW and the Cognos server.
Compared to the streaming scenario for IBM Cognos reporting described in 9.3.3,
“Operational analytics with Cognos Business Intelligence directly accessing SAP solutions”
on page 240, this integration architecture pulls data from SAP BW in a batch mode, which is a
better fit for high data volume extractions.
This architecture uses the TM1 Package Connector ability to connect to an SAP ECC and
SAP BW source systems through a published Cognos Business Intelligence package. The
data is pulled from the SAP source system and persisted in TM1. The data is then consumed
either through the TM1 toolset or through Cognos Business Intelligence reporting capabilities.
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9.3.5 Predictive analytics with SAP
Predictive analytics is an advanced area of BA technology that produces a predictive score
for each customer or other organizational element. Assigning these predictive scores is the
job of a predictive model that, in turn, has been trained over the data. With predictive
analytics, the enterprise learns from its cumulative experience (data), and takes action to
apply what has been learned.
IBM SPSS Modeler is an extensive predictive analytics platform that is designed to bring
predictive intelligence to decisions made by individuals, groups, systems, and the enterprise.
By providing a range of advanced algorithms and techniques that include text analytics, entity
analytics, decision management, and optimization, SPSS Modeler can help organizations to
consistently make the correct decisions.
SPSS Modeler provides a visual, intuitive interface for predictive analytics, and it supports
automated modeling and data preparation. It provides over 20 packaged predictive analytics
techniques spanning classification, clustering, association, forecasting, and simulation. It
uses natural language processing (NLP) to extract concepts and sentiments contained in text.
Entity analytics helps identify entities, for example customers, orders, employees, and so on,
based on context, which provides richer insight into the entity itself while helping create more
accurate models with cleaner data. SPSS Modeler provides the ability to extend analytical
techniques using open source languages, such as R and Python.
R is an open source statistical language that is used by data scientists and expert analysts to
create custom analysis routines and new algorithms. Python is a widely used, generalpurpose programming language that is often used for scientific and numeric computing.
SPSS Modeler delivers true enterprise reach, which enables you to access all enterprise
data, structured and unstructured, from disparate sources. It provides a centralized, secure
environment for managing and running models through IBM SPSS Collaboration and
Deployment Services, and provides deployment features for integrating predictive analytics
into business processes.
SPSS Modeler supports the SAP BW environment by providing a visual, data-independent
data mining environment that can take advantage of both structured and unstructured data
that is captured within SAP, or within other operational systems. SPSS Modeler connects to
the SAP environment through an ODBC connection. Data is directly accessible, and can be
analyzed, manipulated, and edited, assuming that the user has the appropriate credentials.
SPSS Modeler supports the ability to use SQL pushback to improve performance for large
data sets. SQL pushback enables a user to push back key procedures. which could be data
transformation or calculation of a predictive value through a model developed in SPSS
Modeler. SQL pushback enables the system to run the commands directly on the data
warehouse, rather than in-memory. This approach minimizes, and sometimes eliminates,
data movement performed within SPSS Modeler, and improves performance significantly.
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There are models in SPSS Modeler Server that enable the SQL statements to be generated,
pushing back the model scoring stage to the database itself. For modeling streams that use
these models, the full SQL of the stored procedure is pushed back to the database as SQL.
The following list includes the models with these functions:
C5.0
Classification and regression tree (CART)
Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm (CHAID)
Quest
Decision List
Logistic Regression
Neural Net
Principal components analysis (PCA)
Linear Regression
Testing has shown that most models improve performance up to 10 times.
For SAP HANA, SPSS Modeler is also able to push back models that include R code. With
SPSS Modeler, users can run R syntax from R nodes in the user interface of SPSS Modeler.
R model building can be run natively in the SPSS Modeler Server. The R syntax is parsed by
SPSS Modeler and sent to the R program to process. R model scoring can either run natively
in the SPSS Modeler Server (with the same technique used for model building) or with the R
in-database scoring functionality.
For the R in-database scoring, R is present in the database to take advantage of the fact that
processing can be done in the same database system that is storing the data. This capability
is enabled for SAP HANA, and performance is greatly improved by reducing data movement.
Figure 9-8 shows the integration architecture for SPSS Modeler with SAP.
IBM SPSS Modeler
Predictive models
SAP BW
IBM SPSS Modeler
IBM SPSS Modeler Server
Predictive models
ODBC
SAP HANA
IBM SPSS Modeler
Predictive models
Purple nodes indicate that SQL pushback is occurring in the database
Figure 9-8 Integration architecture for IBM SPSS Modeler with SAP
This architecture uses ODBC connectivity with SAP, and illustrates how the SPSS ability to
use the option of SQL pushback to the database greatly reduces network traffic.
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9.4 Conclusion
IBM Business Analytics software provides established and mature solutions to enhance the
value of large data volumes that are in SAP systems and applications, in addition to other
heterogeneous data sources.
IBM Business Analytics solutions provide organizations the flexibility and agility to meet their
many different business needs and requirements. This adaptability to the ever-changing
needs of the business minimizes interruption to the SAP landscape, while accelerating time to
deployment, and ultimately provides customers a faster return on investment (ROI).
IBM Business Analytics software delivers the actionable insights that decision-makers need
to achieve better business performance. IBM offers a comprehensive, unified portfolio of BI,
predictive and advanced analytics, financial performance and strategy management,
governance, risk and compliance, and analytics applications.
With IBM software, companies can spot trends, patterns, and anomalies; compare what if
scenarios; predict potential threats and opportunities; identify and manage key business
risks; and plan, budget, and forecast resources. With these deep analytics capabilities, IBM
customers around the world can better understand, anticipate, and shape business
outcomes.
This chapter reviewed a set of integration scenarios that can help organizations choose the
correct IBM integration framework certified by SAP. For direct-access options, the preferred
approach is to select ABAP or BEx queries as SAP data providers, to efficiently reduce data
bandwidth across the solution and avoid performance issues. In addition, it is also critical to
perform a sizing exercise of IBM middleware architecture components based on the expected
volume of data.
Note that the technical setup of SAP source systems for use with IBM Business Analytics
software is nondisruptive, and does not require downtime. There is no need to shut down the
SAP server to implement the technical prerequisites, which is important when the production
system is mission-critical and requires high availability (HA).
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9.5 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM Cognos Proven Practices: IBM Cookbook for IBM Cognos 10 for use with SAP
NetWeaver Business Warehouse
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/library/cognos/infrastructure/cognos_spe
cific/page551.html
IBM InfoSphere Information Server
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/integration/info_server/
Predictive analytics on SAP with SPSS and InfoSphere Warehouse
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/data/library/techarticle/dm-1007predictiveana
lyticssapspss/index.html?ca=dat
IBM Cognos Mobile
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/cognos-mobile
IBM DB2 with BLU Acceleration speeds analytics
http://www.ibm.com/software/data/db2/linux-unix-windows/db2-blu-acceleration/
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP Applications
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/infosphere-information-server-pack-sapapplications
InfoSphere Information Server Pack for SAP BW
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/infosphere-information-server-pack-sapbw
V9.1 IBM InfoSphere Information Server Integration Guide for Information Server Pack for
SAP Applications (SC19-3876-00)
http://www.ibm.com/e-business/linkweb/publications/servlet/pbi.wss?CTY=US&FNC=S
RX&PBL=SC19-3876
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10
Chapter 10.
DevOps for SAP
To realize the full value of an investment in SAP solutions, teams need to enable continuous
delivery of change across their SAP landscape. The reason for this is simple: If an
organization runs on SAP software, business success depends on how well delivery teams
can manage change across the SAP landscape and the dependent non-SAP technology.
IBM Rational tools and technology enable you to achieve continuous delivery and reduce the
cost and risk of managing change to the SAP landscape. IBM calls this set of tools and
technologies IBM DevOps for SAP.
“Our collaboration with IBM Rational brings together the best of our combined application
lifecycle management market leadership and can help customers reduce costs, manage
change, and improve quality across the enterprise applications lifecycle.” Dr. Uwe Hommel,
SAP, Executive Vice President, Executive Board Member, Head of Active Global Support.1
This chapter describes how to achieve continuous delivery of new implementation and
changes across the SAP landscape.
This chapter includes the following topics:
10.1, “IBM DevOps for SAP overview” on page 248
10.2, “Application lifecycle management for SAP” on page 251
10.3, “Collaborative development for SAP ” on page 260
10.4, “Continuous testing for SAP” on page 264
10.5, “Continuous release and deployment for SAP” on page 266
10.6, “Continuous business planning for SAP” on page 267
10.7, “Summary ” on page 270
1
Source: How do you address application lifecycle complexity?
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/rational/solutions/packagedapps/sap/
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
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10.1 IBM DevOps for SAP overview
Most SAP projects involve some change to user and information technology (IT) processes,
which can increase both cost and risk to the expected delivery of the business. The following
list includes some of the top challenges that were reported by SAP customers about
managing delivery of projects:
Time and money spent on upgrades and updates. SAP applications typically require a
steady stream of upgrades, updates, and bug fixes. Long change freeze periods and
lengthy testing cycles can typically cause disruption to the business. Companies that fail to
adequately test new releases risk exposing their business to potential application conflicts.
Managing requirements and testing change. When companies introduce new technology,
such as mobile apps, or upgrade their existing solutions, they must determine the potential
effect on surrounding environments. Even minor alterations can require significant
engagement with business stakeholders and partners, and involve considerable testing.
Integrating with non-SAP technology. As non-SAP products, applications, and vendors are
added to the IT landscape, companies must undertake extensive integration work and
testing to ensure that all of the components function correctly. As the IT landscape grows
in complexity, managing such cross-system integrations can be a difficult task.
Collaborating with non-SAP teams. Where dependencies exist between SAP and
non-SAP projects, SAP delivery teams must keep synchronized with the release cycles of
other teams, enabling them to manage projects holistically. Without close collaboration
and a shared toolset for change control, ad hoc IT change or application releases can
cause business disruption.
By uniting the people, practices, technologies, and information that support the SAP
implementation and change projects, the IBM DevOps solution helps project delivery teams
promote a culture of continuous innovation and improvement, and can offer significant
competitive advantage to their business:
Cut costs. An IBM DevOps approach promotes a leaner approach to SAP development
and delivery that reduces waste and rework, and enables project delivery teams to use
existing resources more efficiently. By advocating extensive use of automation and
virtualization capabilities, IBM DevOps for SAP makes it easy to set up new SAP
development, test, and production environments for teams and partners, saving time
and money.
For example, $207 million of savings and $667 million in risk mitigation were made by an
HR organization that used Rational software to optimize SAP delivery across their teams.
Reduce risk. As the enterprise application environment becomes more complex, IBM
DevOps can help to reduce the risk of business disruption. With a better view of the IT
landscape, and of dependencies between processes and systems, teams can better
manage the effect of IT change on the business. Comprehensive analysis and frequent
integration testing helps to adopt a more proactive approach to change management,
ensuring that new releases do not cause unexpected conflicts.
For example, serious project overruns were addressed at a retail company that
implemented Rational tools to address slipped deadlines and a perceived lack of quality in
their implementation of SAP solutions. Both business and technical stakeholders improved
confidence that their business can now operate as expected after SAP software upgrades
or updates.
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Accelerate delivery. SAP teams are constantly being asked to shorten delivery cycles.
With IBM DevOps, teams can apply a fast, iterative approach to upgrades, updates,
integration, development, testing, and deployment that helps you keep up with changes to
the business and the company’s SAP environment.
A faster time-to-value for process changes and releases helps ensure that businesses can
readily take advantage of new SAP features and optimizations, providing businesses a
fast-mover advantage to rapidly seize market opportunities and gain an edge on the
competition. For example, the ability to determine the effect of change has improved from
months to minutes for a large government agency that implemented Rational to identify
and communicate how to deploy their SAP transformation.
By bringing development and operations teams closer together, and applying agile principles
across the entire SAP software delivery lifecycle, IBM DevOps for SAP enables continuous
innovation, feedback, and improvement for both business and IT stakeholders.
10.1.1 IBM DevOps for SAP key capabilities
As part of its approach to the DevOps concept, IBM has outlined four key capabilities (steer,
develop/test, deploy, and operate) that are required to support continuous delivery of SAP
software. These capabilities are closely linked, with a continuous feedback loop, as depicted
in Figure 10-1. This linkage and continuous feedback enable the business, development, and
operations teams to learn and respond to user needs.
Steer
Operate
DevOps
Continuous
Feedback
Develop/
Test
Deploy
Figure 10-1 The IBM DevOps solution key capabilities
The following list describes these key capabilities:
Steer
Effective steering requires early and continuous feedback from users and the market. As
the marketplace works today, and with the business climate we face, organizations need to
ensure that they “do the correct things” and focus on activities where they will gain most
value. Organizations capture business process changes, often in SAP Solution Manager,
and define the business case or goals for IT delivery projects within the scope of the
overall business strategy.
When projects are run, changes and scope need to be managed in the context of the IT
environment, and aligned with broader business goals. To achieve this, you need a
big-picture view of your existing SAP and enterprise resource planning (ERP) applications.
This will enable you to visualize and analyze your business requirements, and to plan and
communicate any IT changes, upgrades, or deployments.
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Develop/Test
Maintaining a competitive advantage requires the continuous innovation of ideas, and the
ability to translate them into changes in the SAP landscape and dependent non-SAP
technology. Collaborative development and continuous testing supports the evolution of a
business idea into a high-quality SAP solution by applying lean principles, facilitating
collaboration among all stakeholders, and striking the optimal balance between quality
and time to market.
Deploy
Frequent delivery of SAP and dependent non-SAP systems requires automated,
repeatable deployment processes. This improves SAP solution delivery and shortens
time-to-value, which in turn drives down operating costs and reduces business risk.
Automated deployments and middleware configurations can, if required, mature to a selfservice model providing individual developers, teams, testers, and deployment managers
with the ability to continuously build, provision, deploy, test, and promote SAP updates.
Operate
Operational, maintenance, and support teams need to understand the performance and
availability of SAP applications and systems at all times. If a failure occurs or a bottleneck
emerges, they need to be able to identify the source of the problem, and take remedial
action fast to avoid business disruption.
The key capabilities of DevOps for SAP are realized by the solutions shown in Figure 10-2 on
page 251:
Application lifecycle management for SAP. For more information, see 10.2, “Application
lifecycle management for SAP” on page 251.
Collaborative development for SAP. For more information, see 10.3, “Collaborative
development for SAP ” on page 260.
Continuous testing for SAP. For more information, see 10.4, “Continuous testing for SAP”
on page 264.
Continuous release and deployment for SAP. For more information, see 10.5, “Continuous
release and deployment for SAP” on page 266.
Continuous monitoring for SAP. For more information, see Chapter 12, “Systems
management for SAP” on page 305.
Continuous business planning for SAP. For more information, see 10.6, “Continuous
business planning for SAP” on page 267.
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Visualize, analyze, plan
and communicate
business objectives and
IT dependencies.
Lifecycle
management
for SAP
Continuous
business
planning for
SAP
Steer
Enable traceability between
business and IT requirements,
changes and quality management.
Collaborative
development
for SAP
Provide a collaborative
environment for all
teams with agile
planning and reporting.
DevOps
Operate
Manage traditional IT,
virtualized, cloud and
hybrid environments.
Develop/
Continuous
Test
Feedback
Continuous
monitoring
for SAP
Manage deployment of SAP
and/or non-SAP updates
and applications.
Deploy
Continuous
testing for
SAP
Continuous
release and
deployment
for SAP
Achieve end to end test
execution - manual, automated,
integration and performance.
Figure 10-2 The solutions that achieve DevOps for SAP
10.2 Application lifecycle management for SAP
The goal of application lifecycle management (ALM) in the context of an SAP project is to
provide consistent processes, methods, and tools for making communication friction free.
More than 80% of SAP implementations are heterogeneous in nature, and delivery teams
require a single integrated solution across both the SAP and non-SAP components to achieve
an end-to-end-centric transformation program.
Historically, ALM refers to an integrated process and tooling approach covering requirements
management, change and configuration management, and test management. The approach
of IBM to ALM is called Collaborative Lifecycle Management (CLM), because it emphasizes
the need to have disparate teams interact and share artifacts and information throughout the
delivery lifecycle.
CLM is also focused on the concept of linked lifecycle data. With linked lifecycle data, SAP
artifacts have a unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL), and links are used to relate items to
one another. This avoids traditional problems with data copying and mastership, and creates
an open environment where data is separated from the tools and can be accessed using
industry standard approaches, such as Representational State Transfer (REST).
CLM is defined by the following imperatives:
Maximize product value with in-context collaboration.
Accelerate time to delivery with real-time planning.
Improve quality with lifecycle traceability.
Achieve predictability with development intelligence (for example, rich and accurate
reporting on development progress).
Reduce cost with continuous improvement.
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CLM is relevant in SAP business scenarios because, in IBM experience, enterprises have
complex, heterogeneous middleware environments. Customers have multiple packages,
multiple middleware, and multiple platforms that they are trying to integrate to fulfill various
end-to-end business processes. The IBM CLM solution gives customers a single approach to
managing SAP and non-SAP projects across their heterogeneous enterprise. Figure 10-3
shows the key components of IBM CLM.
SAP
Solution Manager
DOORS Next Generation
Quality Manager
Team Concert
Model Business
Processes
Configure
ure System
S
Realize Spec
Specification
The Rational connector
for SAP Solution
Manager provides flexible
mapping to match
customers process or
outsourced agreements.
Transfer
er Blueprint
Bl
Create Test Cases &
Test Plans
Create Requirements
Display Test Results
Handle SAP Incidents
Display SAP
Incidents
Create Test Scripts
Execute
ute T
Tests
(with back linking)
(create directly from within Solution Manager)
Create Work Items
“defects”
Link Work
k Items
Item to SAP
Link SAP Incidents to
Work Items
Figure 10-3 Extending SAP Solution Manager with IBM Collaborative Lifecycle Management
The following sections describe in more detail the IBM CLM for SAP software key solution
capabilities, components, and products.
10.2.1 IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager
IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager provides the ability to integrate key areas
of Rational software with the SAP ALM solution. Rational Connector for SAP Solution
Manager enables the project delivery team to share data between Rational software tools and
SAP Solution Manager.
Requirements managers and testers can export SAP Solution Manager blueprints to create
test plans and test cases and requirements. Later, test results can be imported into SAP
Solution Manager from IBM Rational Quality Manager for reporting and analysis. In addition,
Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager enables users to create links between IBM
Rational Team Concert work items and SAP Service Desk incidents.
10.2.2 Requirements management
A comprehensive approach to defining and managing stakeholder needs, business
requirements, gaps, and implementation solutions is needed for SAP and non-SAP systems.
All of these forms of requirements should be formally documented, communicated, and
tracked throughout the multiple phases of a typical delivery project.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
The dynamic process definition and iterative blueprinting tools available in IBM Business
Process Manager can substantially enhance the SAP process design approach, and
complement the process design and SAP Solution Manager integration capabilities available
in Rational tools.
IBM Business Process Manager enables you to easily run SAP processes without IT
development, both at design-time and run time. This approach reduces SAP blueprinting time
and risk, while positioning the SAP processes for the flexibility, agility, and control available
with IBM Business Process Manager external process orchestration.
Traceability is paramount to ensure that business needs are matched by IT implementations.
Being able to trace from business needs to business requirements, and all the way to test
execution, ensures that the wanted changes are actually implemented in production systems.
In addition, many enterprises have regulatory and compliance mandates that require audit
trails documenting lifecycle traceability, and any changes made to a production system.
Within the context of SAP projects, requirements management addresses the following areas:
Scope and business goals of the SAP development project
Business requirements and business rules
SAP requirement gaps
Collectively, these activities enable the project to capture an enterprise-level business
blueprint that is traceable through project planning, execution, and all forms of test.
Figure 10-4 shows an example of how team leaders can gain visibility into coverage and
completeness of a project plan.
Figure 10-4 Requirements traceability example
This integrated solution proactively responds to gaps (highlighted in different colors) as they
surface throughout the project. Such issues can be quickly identified and resolved.
The SAP business blueprint contains business requirements and IBM Rational DOORSВ®
Next Generation can effectively manage any form of SAP business requirements definition.
IBM fully supports the SAP-mandated business requirements management process
(blueprinting) based on SAP Solution Manager.
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When SAP Solution Manager is integrated with Rational CLM tools, there are the following
main scenarios:
SAP Solution Manager is used to manage all SAP-related blueprint items. DOORS Next
Generation is used to manage requirements for all requirements related to non-SAP
components of the overall solution.
SAP Solution Manager is used to document the structure of an SAP business process
hierarchy. However, all content in the business process is managed in DOORS Next
Generation as structured data. DOORS Next Generation provides further structure and
decomposition to the business process hierarchy managed in SAP Solution Manager, for
example, more detailed requirements decomposition.
This approach adds value by providing more structure, traceability, and integrated
management of actual contents of the business process requirements when compared to
using SAP Solution Manager alone, where requirement details are managed manually as
basic document attachments.
The preferred approach is to use SAP Solution Manager to capture business process
hierarchy for SAP blueprint, and to use DOORS Next Generation to elicit, communicate, and
manage actual requirements as structured data.
DOORS Next Generation enables teams to define, manage, and report on requirements
throughout the project lifecycle. The defined requirements can be traced through the various
levels of the requirements matrix and across the involved components. DOORS Next
Generation integrates with SAP Solution Manager to link artifacts between the SAP Solution
Manager and IBM tools.
For SAP projects, the requirements hierarchy maps to the elements of the SAP Blueprint
phase: process requirements, Workflow, Report, Interface, Conversion, Enhancement, and
Form (WRICEF) requirements, component requirements, and so on. Process requirements
are defined at a high level and detailed through business process models. WRICEF
requirements identify gaps in the existing process. Each WRICEF is further detailed in
component requirements and other functional and non-functional requirements.
10.2.3 Blueprint push from SAP Solution Manager
Through IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager (jointly developed with SAP
engineering), project teams can link elements in the SAP Solution Manager business
blueprint to elements managed by DOORS Next Generation and Rational Quality Manager.
SAP guidelines are to have the business blueprint defined and accessible from within SAP
Solution Manager. The use of DOORS Next Generation does not contradict these guidelines.
The business process hierarchy can be defined in SAP Solution Manager and mirrored (using
IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager) in DOORS Next Generation. Doing so
enables a consistent approach for putting the SAP business blueprint within the overall
context of enterprise business goals, requirements, tests, and processes.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
In Figure 10-5, SAP blueprint is mirrored in DOORS Next Generation using IBM Rational
Connector for SAP Solution Manager. This process is often referred to as a Blueprint push:
IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager automatically creates requirements,
test plans, and test cases in the CLM project.
All data is linked for traceability using the Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration
(OSLC) standard.
Requirement collections are used to structure the requirements (business scenarios,
processes, and steps).
Figure 10-5 Results of “Blueprint push” from SAP Solution Manager to DOORS Next Generation
10.2.4 Project planning and execution
Because customer environments are inherently heterogeneous, SAP delivery projects often
involve work affecting multiple disparate applications and systems in addition to the core
business processes of the enterprise. With the IBM CLM solution for project planning and
execution, teams can use a single tool for project and iterations plans, work item tracking,
deliverable activity management, and release planning.
Rational Team Concert covers multiple areas of functionality common in all variations of ALM:
Work item and deliverable activity management
Project planning
Source control management
Continuous build and integration
Dashboards and reporting
Method and process enforcement
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Figure 10-6 shows how Rational Team Concert can be used as the collaborative project hub
to track all work, control project governance, and identify gaps.
Figure 10-6 Rational Team Concert:Single tool, many capabilities
Rational Team Concert can be used to manage SAP and non-SAP projects in a unified way.
This approach enables teams to plan and run projects based on end-to-end business
processes, and to coordinate all changes and release deliveries across the different
applications and systems. Rational Team Concert is also used as the collaborative project
hub to track all work, control project governance, and identify gaps in needed work items for
completion. Figure 10-7 shows how Rational Team Concert can highlight planning gaps.
Figure 10-7 Tailoring traceability view in Rational Team Concert
256
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
10.2.5 Change, defect, and incident management
Enterprise integration projects go through several phases, such as definition, development,
testing, delivery, and so on. Team members collaborate to ensure that all changes and
implementation dependencies are handled correctly. Change management is a key
component in governance. Effective change request management requires a common
information repository that all team members can access.
Change requests have a governance lifecycle that is specified by the approval process for
that type of request. Associated with the change request are all of the artifacts related to that
request, such as requirements, code, models, documents, and so on. Trace matrixes show
the effect that a change has on other project artifacts.
Rational Team Concert is used to define and govern changes throughout the lifecycle.
Rational Team Concert provides a single change management platform for both SAP and
non-SAP change requests. Change requests managed by Rational Team Concert are not
limited to source code changes, but enable you to manage any changes in SAP software, for
example, user interface (UI) changes. To facilitate change governance process, lifecycle
management workflows can be attached to change requests.
Figure 10-8 shows how Rational Team Concert can be used to identify and select appropriate
delivery processes. Rational Team Concert provides multiple process templates ready-to-use
that can be used as a starting point. Process templates provide a blueprint for the initial
process of a project area and iteration structure.
Figure 10-8 Lifecycle process in IBM Rational Team Concert
In addition to change governance, changes need to be delivered to their representative
applications and systems. Rational Team Concert is used to deliver changes and manage the
version control of related artifact changes, such as source code. For example, consider a
particular lifecycle iteration (or even phase) focused on the update of a critical business
process, such as order-to-cash (O2C).
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In this example, O2C touches multiple systems, applications, and packages. Rational Team
Concert project plans contain the work items, stories, use cases, and tasks associated with
that iteration of the O2C update. Each work item can contain links to the associated other
artifacts that it is related to, such as test plans, test execution results, requirements, business
goals, and so on. Software changes (change sets) can also be associated to specific work as
can all collaboration and discussions among team members.
Using Rational Team Concert’s build capability (along with other associated deployment
tools), work can be delivered in a synchronized fashion to all of the SAP and non-SAP
applications and middleware systems affected by the O2C upgrades.
Finally, defect management is typically considered a variation of change request
management. Rational Team Concert supports an integration with the SAP Service Desk, so
defects and enhancements that need to be coordinated with the SAP help desk can be
automatically managed and tracked. For example, Figure 10-9 shows a specific defect that is
forwarded to the SAP Service Desk. The defect submission form is populated with live data
from SAP Service Desk.
Figure 10-9 IBM Rational Team Concert and SAP Solution Manager Service Desk
10.2.6 Quality management
Quality management consists of the following main functional activities:
Test planning
Test execution
Test reporting
In addition, defect management is typically viewed as an extension to quality management
although within the context of ALM it is usually captured as a specific variation of change
request management.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
With test planning, you create your test plans and test cases. Test cases are turned into
configured test cases when they are attached to a test script. This test script can be a manual
test procedure, or an automated functional or performance test. Testers can then group
configured test cases into test suites for execution. Alternatively, test cases can be run
individually.
Remember: Rational Quality Manager is one of the testing and quality solutions
referenced by SAP that provide extended capabilities beyond SAP’s own solution built into
SAP Solution Manager.
“By standardizing your testing program and encouraging collaboration between business
stakeholders and the IT team, SAP Solution Manager and IBM Rational software help to
minimize errors and other risks while maximizing business results. By identifying and
managing risk more effectively, you can make better decisions about your testing priorities.
Providing end-to-end traceability of test results back to the business requirements lets you
confirm that the requirements have been addressed and implemented properly without
adversely affecting other areas of the software.” 2
Important: Rational Quality Manager is used for SAP and non-SAP-centric quality
management, and specifically, for test planning and reporting.
Rational Quality Manager is fully integrated with the IBM concept of open linked data, and has
a transparent integration to both Rational Team Concert and DOORS Next Generation. The
implication is that data managed in any of these tools can transparently link to, and be
reported on across, all other repositories.
IBM Rational Connector for SAP Solution Manager provides an integration between SAP
Solution Manager and Rational Quality Manager. Objects in the SAP business blueprint are
mapped to test plans and test cases, and test results are automatically synchronized back
into SAP Solution Manager at the appropriate level within the blueprint. This approach
enables the Blueprint to be a general business-focused container for the overall test
architecture, which is often referred to as a Blueprint push.
10.2.7 Impact analysis
Rational Quality Manager supports an integration into both SAP Business Process Change
Analyzer (SAP BPCA) and IBM InfoSphere Optimв„ў System Analyzer for SAP Applications.
SAP BPCA enables customers to compare multiple versions of an SAP application and
system, and generate a change set related to specific business processes defined in the SAP
business blueprint. This set can be automatically related to test plans and test cases defined
in Rational Quality Manager.
2
Source: Teaming SAP Solution Manager and IBM Rational Software for Top Test Management at
http://www.sap.com/bin/sapcom/en_us/downloadasset.2011-05-may-17-06.teaming-sap-solution-manager-and
-ibm-rational-software-for-top-test-management-pdf.html
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Figure 10-10 shows how SAP BPCA and Rational Quality Manager can be used to identify
the minimum amount of testing required after a change to the business process hierarchy.
Figure 10-10 Testing recommendations based on changes to the business blueprint
10.3 Collaborative development for SAP
Agile software development and delivery is mainstream for custom applications, and is
increasingly being used to successfully develop and deliver SAP customizations, integrations,
and custom development. The collaborative development for SAP solution from IBM Rational
brings agile development to both SAP and non-SAP development and delivery.
The essence of agile software development is to accommodate change by more quickly
developing and delivering SAP customization, integrations, and custom development in short
time scales. Because agile development is not prescriptive (do this, and then do that) a
variety of methodologies and supporting techniques have emerged, including agile variants of
SAP AcceleratedSAP (ASAP) methodology to guide and enable SAP teams.
Agile methods, such as Scrum, use user stories to specify what needs to be delivered. These
user stories accumulate in a non-ordered list called a backlog. Backlog activities, such as
ranking user stories with respect to each other and complexity estimation (story points), are
continually done to plan and deliver a release. Releases have timelines, and are delivered by
projects involving teams of generalized specialists in individual roles.
In the Scrum method of agile software development, work is confined to a regular, repeatable
work cycle, known as a sprint or iteration. A sprint is a short period of time (typically two - six
weeks) where planning, development, testing, and delivery of running software takes place. A
release typically consists of many successive sprints. The objectives for a sprint can vary,
often depending upon its position in the release lifecycle or timeline. Agile project progress is
measured by delivery of running and tested software and related work.
Agile development has proven benefits, successes, and a focus on accommodating change
throughout the lifecycle, and on quick delivery of working, valuable software. Therefore, it is
easy to understand why organizations, teams, and individuals are drawn to the agile
approach, and eager to apply it to the development and delivery of SAP software.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Figure 10-11 shows how agile processes are managed and supported in Rational Team
Concert.
Figure 10-11 Agility at scale for SAP projects
The collaborative development for SAP solution provides immediate value for organizations
that require development projects to extend the use of their SAP applications. The
collaborative development for SAP solutions from IBM includes ready-to-use, customizable
agile and lean planning, change, work, delivery management, and execution methodology
support, with content and capabilities that provide the following benefits:
Improve SAP developer and team productivity using integrations with SAP eclipse-based
High-Performance Analytic Appliance (HANA), Advanced Business Application
Programming (ABAP), and NetWeaver integrated development environments (IDEs) for
improved developer productivity.
Enable better decisions based on real-time, transparent visibility into SAP Agile delivery
and maintenance projects.
Accelerate agile adoption and results using pre-configured and customizable agile (or
other) method definition and automated enactment.
The core product of collaborative development for SAP solutions is Rational Team Concert, a
market-leading agile project planning, change, defect, and delivery management solution.
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Figure 10-12 shows that Rational Team Concert provides a single, consistent project
planning, execution, and change management solution that integrates (shell-sharing) with the
SAP Eclipse-based IDE.
HANA Studio
ABAP Workbench
Netweaver
IBM Rational Team Concert
Figure 10-12 In-context agile planning and change management with Rational Team Concert
integrated with SAP Eclipse IDE
The following sections describe in more detail the key solution capabilities, components, and
products of the IBM Rational Collaborative development for SAP solution.
10.3.1 Improve SAP developer and team productivity
By integrating agile project work assignments (for example, user stories and related tasks,
defects, and so on) and methods directly into the SAP Eclipse-based IDEs, the IBM
collaborative development for SAP solution enables SAP developers to collaborate with
others, and to manage their work assignments and deliverables in a single environment that
improves developer productivity and results. Agile project and team queries, dashboards, and
reusable assets are also available from this same environment.
Figure 10-13 on page 263 shows an example of Rational Team Concert being used within
SAP NetWeaver Developer Studio.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Figure 10-13 Rational Team Concert and SAP NetWeaver Developer Studio
SAP (and non-SAP) developers, testers, other team members, and stakeholders can use
their web browser to use the IBM Collaborative development for SAP solution.
As SAP developers and teams go about doing their work using the IBM Collaborative
development for SAP solution, it automatically captures and persists information about work
assignment status, project plan progress, and other related measures and metrics in
common, shared operational and analytical repositories.
10.3.2 Real-time visibility into SAP Agile delivery and maintenance projects
Business and technical stakeholders can benefit from real-time visibility on the status of the
project. Without slowing down development teams with requests for information and reports,
Rational Team Concert can be used to perform the following tasks:
Get answers to project-relevant questions:
– What SAP configuration and custom development work is in scope for this release or
for this sprint?
– What work has been approved? Completed? Tested?
– What is the project status with respect to the planned and approved timeline and
scope?
This information is accessible from web-based dashboards with predefined and
customizable reports (graphs, lists, and pie charts) that can be drilled down into for further
detailed information.
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Have better collaboration, visibility, and control over SAP and related resources and work
done across internal or external organizational (business unit, system integrator (SI),
independent software vendor (ISV), and so on), geopolitical, and other types of
boundaries. For example, determine what a specific SI is responsible for, and what the SI’s
status is.
More effectively run and scale SAP Agile delivery and maintenance projects by using
ready-to-use support for Kanban (a scheduling system for lean and just-in-time (JIT)
production), other lean practices, and other proven agile scaling techniques (such as the
ability to define multiple backlogs, customized SAP delivery roles, and so on).
10.3.3 Accelerate agile development adoption and results
Agile delivery of SAP development and testing is emerging as a way to address the need for
accelerated and continuous feedback with the business. Updates, fixes, process changes,
extensions, integrations, and customizations can be provided on a continuous basis for both
SAP and non-SAP systems.
This approach increases the need for earlier feedback on delivery progress. Continuous
delivery requires greater maturity in the testing process, which requires the introduction of
continuous automated and manual performance, integration, and mobile device testing.
Uniting information from across the whole SAP development, test, and deployment lifecycle
begins to support improved collaboration.
10.4 Continuous testing for SAP
Test execution refers to running manual, functional, integration, mobile, or performance test
scripts. The basic hierarchy of SAP test information is that a test plan contains multiple test
cases, which contain multiple test scripts. Test execution documents the running (manual or
automated) of a test script. The test execution record results are linked to the test case, along
with any associated defects created as a result of a test failing.
“Combining the SAP Solution Manager application management solution with IBM Rational
software results in comprehensive, automated, and integrated support for your test
management program. This approach can help to minimize errors, reduce costs, and align
your business and IT goals more effectively.”3
The following sections describe in more detail the continuous testing for SAP software key
solution capabilities, components, and products.
10.4.1 Functional testing
Functional testing refers to user-focused testing. Within an SAP context, this is usually driven
by the business processes defined in the SAP Business Blueprint. Rational Quality Manager
has built-in manual testing that, combined with Worksoft Certify, enables testing of end-to-end
SAP business processes, objects, transactions, and screens, including UI5. It uses a
ready-to-use testing framework for many SAP applications, eliminating the need, in most
cases, for complex programming and test script capture.
This approach enables the creation of regression test suites that span multiple SAP release
deliveries of the same business processes.
3
264
Source: SAP Solution Brief: Teaming SAP Solution Manager and IBM Rational Software for Top Test Management
at http://bit.ly/1u44EO1
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
10.4.2 Integration testing and service virtualization
Integration testing refers to the ability to virtualize and simulate the interaction between
systems and applications. IBM Rational Integration Tester, part of IBM Rational Test
Workbench, includes comprehensive support for the following protocols:
SAP Process Integration (PI)
SAP Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)
SAP Intermediate Document (IDoc)
SAP Remote Function Call (RFC)
More than 100 other non-SAP messaging protocols
This enables for the virtualization of complex system connections when specific applications
might not be available or stable yet in the release cycle.
IBM Rational Test Virtualization Server enables the deployment of virtualized services,
software, and applications for simplified, efficient testing. It accelerates the delivery of
complex test environments, and enables complete integration testing earlier and more
frequently in the development cycle.
Figure 10-14 shows three common scenarios for integration and virtualization testing of
SAP landscapes.
SAP
Protocols
SAP
Protocols
Finance
Non-SAP
Protocols
Test SAP
Use RIT to send SAP proprietary messages into
SAP and validate the responses
Virtualize SAP
Use RTVS to stand in for SAP in testing
scenarios
Virtualize components that SAP talks to
Use RTVS to stand in for non-SAP
components in SUT
Figure 10-14 Integration and virtualization scenarios for SAP landscapes
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10.4.3 Performance testing
Performance testing refers to being able to measure application and system response to load
and stress. Rational Performance Tester has comprehensive support for SAP and non-SAP
systems, and can provide insight into database, communication protocol, and server
response time delays.
“Rational Performance Tester is one of the best performance testing tools I have ever come
across. The dedication and expertise of the IBM Rational support team was outstanding.”Dr.
Peter Jäger, Senior Technology Consultant, Value Prototyping Performance & Benchmark
Labs, SAP4.
10.5 Continuous release and deployment for SAP
Often the most problematic stage of any SAP project is the deployment and release process.
The phrase “it works for me” is the worst possible excuse for the failure of both development
and operations teams to deliver on adding important improvements to the business. When
businesses run on SAP, their success depends on how well they manage IT change. An
inability to continuously deploy can negate the investment they make in developing and
implementing change into business processes and integrations.
Costly, error-prone manual and duplicative processes delay innovation and affect
competitiveness. Slow deployment to development and test environments leaves teams
waiting, lowering productivity and affecting the entire business. Implementation teams need to
deploy updates, changes, integrations, and fixes continuously to both SAP and non-SAP
environments, and to do it all with limited resources and within ever-shrinking time frames.
Traditional approaches to SAP deployment rely largely on manual processes and
spreadsheet management. These approaches can be error-prone and time-consuming,
delaying the response to business needs and IT change requests.
Silos of processes, projects, people, and tools can make it difficult to gain a clear view of what
needs to be deployed, and to be confident that the wanted objective will be achieved.
Organizations looking to improve the value delivered by SAP solutions need to improve
release management, reduce deployment times, streamline the deployment process, and
reduce production outages.
SAP application landscapes are most often composed of many different applications that are
interdependent, and can often involve both SAP and non-SAP applications and components.
The components might be separate in that the IT organization can have different development
teams working on each of them, but they are also interrelated in that no single application
component by itself is a fully functioning solution. In addition, each SAP or non-SAP
component can be released at a different time, and can be on different versions.
A flexible deployment and release strategy is to define for each component in the overall IT
(and SAP) landscape its own deployment process. This approach enables the application
component deployment processes to be orchestrated in different, reusable combinations that
define an integrated release, so that an entire solution can be deployed and released
together. This flexibility enables IT organizations to create deployment processes that they
can reuse every time they deploy.
4
266
Source: Load testing SAP ABAP Web Dynpro applications with IBM Rational Performance Tester at
http://ibm.co/1oi3dZZ
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Therefore, IT organizations can rehearse the deployment processes and develop a high
degree of confidence in them. They can take a similar approach to defining and reusing target
deployment environments. The result is a managed inventory of highly flexible, reusable
combinations of component and application deployment processes and target environments.
The IBM Rational Continuous Deployment and Release for SAP solution can be used to
coordinate the deployment and release of SAP and non-SAP landscapes. Specifically, it
provides capabilities to perform the following tasks:
Plan, coordinate, orchestrate, and manage releases of integrated application
deployments.
Automate the deployment of required non-SAP configured middleware.
For example, consider that a project team might be deploying an SAP enhancement package
for SAP customer relationship management (CRM) for SAP HANA, where SAP HANA
consists of the required hardware and the SAP HANA appliance software. In this example,
you expect to replace the underlying relational database of the SAP CRM system with SAP
HANA. When you deploy, you do not need to redeploy the web server component, only the
database component.
IBM UrbanCodeв„ў Deploy has the ability to inventory environments and identify if a supported
web server component is at the correct version. Later, you might deploy the application to a
pristine quality assurance (QA) environment. Again, IBM UrbanCode Deploy has the ability to
inventory the environment, and to realize that changes to both the database and the web
server components need to be deployed. IBM UrbanCode Deploy will therefore deploy them
to both components in the QA environment.
The results are quicker releases, improved communications, and less risk associated with
your releases.
10.6 Continuous business planning for SAP
Large investments by SAP customers are often made to enable a vital business
transformation, which simply has to work. The challenge is that there are often many different
ways of deploying IT to successfully enable such a transformation.
A properly executed business planning initiative can provide the “big picture” and framework
to select the best overall route. With continuous business planning, organizations can ensure
that the SAP business model as defined is the business model that they implement, and can
guide SAP investments to execute outcomes that support their corporate strategy.
This solution enables organizations to accomplish the following objectives:
Assemble and organize business functional modules into an enterprise system where
dependencies are captured between SAP processes and supporting data, which is also
directly imported from SAP ERP systems.
Get the design correct, and validate the business blueprints before implementation.
Visualize, analyze, plan, and communicate SAP deployment on an ongoing basis, to
ensure that the solution maintains its wanted outcomes over time.
The following sections describe in more detail the key solution capabilities, components, and
products of the continuous business planning for SAP solution.
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10.6.1 Enterprise architecture
IBM Rational System Architect is an enterprise architecture tool that enables organizations to
analyze and plan their business and SAP technology architecture. Figure 10-15 shows the
typical data points used to visualize the enterprise architecture.
SAP Solutions
Enterprise Planning for SAP
Business
Blueprint
Business
Process Change
Analyser
Service
Desk
IBM Rational
System
Architect
SAP
Meta Data
Figure 10-15 Continuous business planning for SAP
Rational System Architect helps organizations understand how their SAP systems map to
their overall architecture (see Figure 10-16), what happens when architectural changes are
made, and how the SAP environment can be used across the enterprise.
SAP Solution Manager
IBM Rational System Architect
Project
SAP Project
Business Scenario
BPMN Process (Stereotype: Scenario)
Business Process
BPMN Process (Stereotype: Process)
Process Step
BPMN Process (Stereotype: Process)
Logical Component
SAP Component
Transaction
SAP Transaction
Figure 10-16 Mapping the SAP Solution Manager architecture in Rational System Architect
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Figure 10-17 shows how key components of the SAP Solution Manager architecture are
connected.
Figure 10-17 Sample model of the SAP Solution Manager component architecture
With continuous business planning, organizations can generate a single, holistic view of the
high-level processes that, within SAP Solution Manager, are defined in detailed logic flows
that incorporate manual process and processes supported by other systems. In addition, the
comprehensive integrated environment and analysis tools of the solution help to quickly
identify and analyze any problems that might occur.
By effectively incorporating the SAP landscape into an enterprise architecture, organizations
gain better insight into their overall technology plan. Continuous business planning for SAP
enables SAP customers to plan, manage, and control change to their SAP environment.
Businesses become ready to respond to change.
Visualizing an integrated view of SAP projects, blueprints, and landscapes within the context
of the enterprise architecture, business processes, data, organization, and roles within a
business-process context enables companies to achieve the following capabilities:
Compare as-is and proposed to-be solutions.
Automate synchronization of models between SAP Solution Manager and Rational
System Architect. This approach minimizes manual entry of business architecture
information from SAP Solution Manager.
Access individual SAP process objects as required when building the business process
models managed by Rational System Architect. This approach delivers the benefits of
comprehensive business enterprise architecture to SAP environments.
Chapter 10. DevOps for SAP
269
Identify interdependencies and execute impact analysis.
Record a history of business process models and their changes. Validate that required
changes were made correctly, and that no unauthorized changes were applied, by tracking
changes made to business process models.
Compare new and old models to help identify and validate revisions. This approach
eliminates manual copying errors when replicating models.
Uniquely identify objects so that the applications can continue to recognize objects even if
their names are changed. This approach ensures that the designed architecture is the
architecture implemented.
10.7 Summary
To help SAP customers reduce cost and risk, IBM and SAP have come together to help
customers overcome the challenge of managing risk and change to SAP landscapes. The
solutions that make up the IBM DevOps for SAP approach have been designed to achieve the
following objectives:
Application lifecycle management for SAP
Collaborative development for SAP
Continuous testing for SAP
Continuous release and deployment for SAP
Continuous monitoring for SAP
Continuous business planning for SAP
Figure 10-18 shows the IBM Rational tools that implement the five core Rational solutions for
continuous SAP delivery.
Continuous
testing
for SAP
Lifecycle
management
for SAP
Business
Blueprint
IBM Rational
Connector for
SAP Solution
Manager
Business
Process Change
Analyzer
Service
Desk
Continuous
business
planning for
SAP
IBM Rational
System
Architect
Doors Next
Generation
Test
Workbench
Quality
Manager
Virtualization
Server
Team
Concert
Performance
Tester
Certify
Collaborative
development
for SAP
Non-SAP
applications
dependencies
B
Business
Objects
Continuous
release and
deployment
for SAP
UrbanCode
Release
UrbanCode
Deploy
Figure 10-18 IBM DevOps for SAP: Tools architecture
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Netweaver
ABAP HANA
IBM DevOps for SAP enables all participants (business teams; architects, developers and
testers; outsourced partners; and IT operations and production) to engage throughout the
SAP implementation and change lifecycle, and to align themselves with a common goal
fueled by continuous delivery and shaped by continuous feedback.
Thanks to the close collaboration between IBM and SAP, SAP customers benefit from
extensive integration and a powerful blend of IBM and SAP leading practices and technology
that help to optimize and connect the following aspect of development for both SAP and
non-SAP applications:
Enterprise planning
Application lifecycle management
Quality management
Development
Testing
Change management
DeploymentS
10.8 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM Rational solutions for SAP
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/rational/solutions/sap/
Managing change in SAP: reducing cost and risk with IBM DevOps
http://www-01.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi-bin/ssialias?subtype=FY&infotype=PM&appnam
e=SWGE_RA_VF_WWEN&htmlfid=RAF14154WWEN
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11
Chapter 11.
Systems security for SAP
With respect to information technology (IT) security, it is essential that enterprises carefully
plan and manage SAP environments in the context of their end-to-end architecture. SAP
systems offer many security capabilities. However, some enterprises find that they need
enhanced security in the SAP system, and many have requirements to integrate SAP security
with other, non-SAP systems in the enterprise. IBM can help clients meet these needs.
IBM provides proven, integrated, scalable, and end-to-end enterprise security products. The
offerings span the full spectrum of the IBM Security Framework, composed of governance,
risk management, and compliance (GRC), security intelligence, people, data, applications
(apps), and infrastructure.
This chapter provides information about the objectives and components of the architecture
defined to support security management technology integration as part of a larger reference
architecture for SAP implementations. This chapter describes technologies and products
available from IBM to integrate with SAP systems and applications to provide the inclusive,
end-to-end security that enterprises require.
This chapter includes the following topics:
11.1, “SAP systems and IBM security management integration overview” on page 274
11.2, “SAP systems security and IBM security management integration scenarios” on
page 277
11.3, “Identity system scenarios” on page 279
11.4, “Authentication system scenarios” on page 283
11.5, “Authorization system scenario” on page 289
11.6, “Audit system scenarios” on page 291
11.7, “Identity management products and solutions” on page 295
11.8, “Access management products and solutions” on page 297
11.9, “Audit products and solutions” on page 300
11.10, “References” on page 303
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
273
11.1 SAP systems and IBM security management integration
overview
When SAP solutions constitute the backbone of the enterprise, application security, risk, and
threat management must encompass SAP systems and applications. The consequences of
a breach are extremely negative given the business-critical nature of SAP applications, such
as financial operations, human resources, supply chain, or customer relationship
management (CRM).
SAP applications run at the core of an enterprise and need particular protection. SAP
solutions are also an integrated system and part of the IT infrastructure. Therefore, any errors
might have a widespread effect. Security of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems
must provide protection at several layers:
User layer
Communications layer
Application layer
Database and data storage layer
The main goal is to integrate SAP solutions into an enterprise security architecture to
accomplish a comprehensive view and control mechanism for the entire heterogeneous IT
landscape.
A security management solution that integrates with SAP systems and applications must
address the following non-functional requirements:
Access to critical and sensitive activities in SAP applications is controlled.
User access is based on user role and responsibilities.
Authorization within roles is based on the role definition.
User provisioning and role management policies and procedures are implemented.
Logon procedures are reduced.
Effective controls and monitoring are in place.
Figure 11-1 on page 275 illustrates the reference architecture and generic components for
integration of SAP systems and applications into an enterprise environment. Common
security components can be provided by corporate infrastructure or by integration
deployment.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Security Management Domain
Non-SAP
Legacy
Applications
Enterprise
Applications
IBM
Outer Ring
Inner Ring
Consumer
Authentication
Proxy
CRM
Portal
Business
SRM
Suite
ESB
ECC
SCM
Identity System
Authentication
System
Authentication
System
PLM
Audit System
Security Applications
Middleware
Figure 11-1 Generic security reference architecture
11.1.1 Key capabilities: Logical components of security reference architecture
Table 11-1 on page 276 lists the security components depicted in Figure 11-1 and their
associated functionalities. The positioning of the fundamental components follows the general
IBM Reference Architecture for SAP software principles with an inner ring (core SAP systems
and applications), and an outer ring that consists of best-in-class IBM security solutions.
Specific SAP software integration capabilities ensure that SAP-specific requirements are
addressed.
Security management is an enterprise-wide task and should be organized accordingly. For
example, organizations should establish company-wide responsibilities, such as a Chief
Security Officer, and introduce and maintain general security policies and procedures.
Supporting technology should meet the enterprise approach, with security management
systems that share functionality across enterprise applications (outer ring and inner ring), and
that are used to enforce rules and regulations, constantly control conditions, and intervene in
case of deviations or incidents.
The following list identifies the major security management components shown in
Figure 11-1:
Identity system
Authentication system
Authorization system
Audit system
Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP
275
Table 11-1 shows the general functionalities provided by those systems, sample scenarios,
and use cases.
Table 11-1 Security management components and general functionalities and use cases
Security
management system
General functionality
Sample scenarios and use
cases
Identity system
Manage identities centrally in an
efficient manner.
Provision identities consistently to
the respective components.
Identity feed
User provisioning
User account recertification
Password management
User self-service
Authentication system
Prove the identity of clients that
issue requests to back-end
components.
Map identities across different
components.
Provide multiple enforcement points
to use unified decision points.
Access management
Single sign-on
Authorization system
Apply business policies consistently
across multiple policy enforcement
points to provide fine granular
access to business functions.
Enable standard-based unified
policy management across different
vendor components.
Policy-based identity and
access governance.
Systems can be used only
by appropriate users.
Usage of appropriate
functions or system
resources is enabled only
for authenticated users.
Audit system
Establish a heterogeneous auditing
capability to control all relevant
enterprise components to ensure
consistency and compliance.
Security monitoring (user
login logging, illegal act
monitoring)
Data protection and
redaction
Source code analysis and
application security testing
11.1.2 Mapping logical security architecture components to IBM and SAP
software
In Table 11-2, the security logical architecture components introduced in Figure 11-1 on
page 275 are listed and mapped to the related IBM and SAP software tools that provide the
required capabilities.
Table 11-2 Generic components and product mapping
Generic components
276
Software
Consumer
Service requester
Rich client
Fat client, such as the SAP graphical user interface (GUI)
Internet browser
Proxy
IBM Security Access Manager for Web
IBM WebSphere proxy
IBM WebSphere DataPower Family
Portal
IBM WebSphere Portal Family
SAP Enterprise Portal
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Generic components
Software
Middleware
Enterprise service bus (ESB)
IBM WebSphere Message Broker
IBM WebSphere DataPower
Back-end (SAP)
SAP Business Suite
SAP ERP (ERP Central Component, ECC)
SAP CRM
Identity system
IBM Security Identity Manager
SAP Identity Management (Central User Administration (CUA),
and so on)
IBM Security Directory Server
Authentication system
IBM Security Access Manager for Web
IBM Security Access Manager for Mobile
IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager
Authorization system
IBM Tivoli Security Policy Manager
Audit system
IBM QRadarВ® Security Intelligence Platform
IBM InfoSphere GuardiumВ®
SAP BusinessObjects Access Control (SAP GRC)
Virtual Forge CodeProfiler for IBM Security AppScanВ®
11.2 SAP systems security and IBM security management
integration scenarios
This section provides additional detail about security management components and common
scenarios.
11.2.1 Key solution components
To better understand the sample scenarios, it is important first to describe the key solution
components.
An integrated SAP system landscape is a complex service-oriented architecture (SOA)-based
environment, which consists of various components that interact with each other and with
external components. A generic security framework helps to achieve a unified security view of
packaged business applications, middleware, and user interface (UI) components.
Solution components must satisfy a variety of security requirements:
Manage identities across various components.
Define access and authorization policies in a heterogeneous environment.
Provide common functions, such as single sign-on (SSO), within the system landscape.
Provide auditing capabilities.
Ensure compliance with corporate policies.
11.2.2 Generic components and concepts of a security architecture
A security architecture must include decision points (DP) and enforcement points (EP) to
evaluate and control access to resources across the entire IT infrastructure (both SAP-based
and non-SAP-based infrastructures).
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As defined in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 10181-3, the following list
describes generic components participating in an access request process (although using
different terminology):
1. The initiator requests access to a target resource.
2. The request is intercepted by the policy enforcement point (PEP).
3. The PEP submits the request, with information about the user, to the policy decision point
(PDP).
4. The PDP returns a decision (Boolean response) to the PEP.
5. The PEP enforces the decision.
Figure 11-2 shows the access request flow as defined in ISO 10181-3.
Initiator credentials
Requested operation
Requested resource
PEP
Target resource
(Calls the PDP for an access control decision)
(based upon decision)
Access Decision Information (ADI)
(Initiator, requested operation, resource,
application context)
Decision
aznAPI
(Open Group’s Authorization (AZN) API)
Policy Rules
PDP
(Uses input data, Policies & additional ADI)
Environment ADI
Figure 11-2 Components participating in an access request as defined in ISO 10181-3
The following list describes other concepts and components that must be considered when
designing a security architecture:
Introduce several security-relevant areas:
–
–
–
–
Entry zone, enforcement, and DMZ
Intermediate zone, middleware, and integration
Back-end zone and business applications
Security management zone
Focus on using existing products rather than building custom code into integration
artifacts: Avoid custom mapping and transformation.
Use existing corporate security components: Security-as-a-service.
Consistency across various components:
– Same identity, authentication, policy, and audit systems.
– One management layer that serves various components.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Achieve interoperability by supporting open standards:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)
X.509, Web Services Security (WS-Security)
Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML)
WS-Trust
WS-Policy
WS-SecurityPolicy
WS-MetaDataExchange
WS-Transfer
In addition, there are SAP-specific security integration challenges:
Embed packaged application (SAP) into an SOA environment:
– SAP business application offers integrated authentication, authorization, and policy
schema.
– SAP business application supports only limited externalization of these core features.
SAP-based business services can be exposed across the enterprise:
– Achieve a generic enforcement strategy across domains.
– Accountability and audit to track users activities.
11.3 Identity system scenarios
The following list describes the main functionalities provided by the identity system:
Manage identities centrally in an efficient manner.
Provision identities consistently to the respective components.
The following sections describe identity system sample scenarios. For information about
Identity management products available from IBM, see 11.7, “Identity management products
and solutions” on page 295.
11.3.1 Identity management scenario
IT security requires processes, methods, and tools to manage the identities that are used to
control access to resources.
Identity management encompasses all of the data and processes related to the
representation of an individual involved in electronic transactions.1 It is the process that
enables business initiatives by efficiently managing the user lifecycle. including identity and
resource provisioning for people (users), and by integrating it into the required business
processes.
For user administration and enterprise identity lifecycle management, IBM provides IBM
Security Identity Manager (formerly known as Tivoli Identity Manager). It enables corporate
identity management, and integrates SAP systems and applications for user provisioning.
This product enables you to separate identity groups, such as intranet users, or external
identities (business partners, suppliers, and so on).
1
IBM Redbooks publication:Identity Management Design Guide with IBM Tivoli Identity Manager, SG24-6996.
Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP
279
Figure 11-3 shows the interactions of identity management components.
Non-SAP
Legacy
Applications
Enterprise
Applications
Inner Ring
IBM WebSphere
DataPower
CRM
Portal
Consumer
ESB
IBM Security
Access Manager
for Web
SRM
ECC
SCM
(WebSEAL Reverse Proxy)
Business
Suite
PLM
SAP Identity
Management
Authentication Proxy
IBM Security
Directory Server
IBM Security
Identity Manager
Identity System
IBM Security
Directory Integrator
Identity Feed
Figure 11-3 Identity management components interaction
The key identity management components are shown in the box labeled Identity System in
Figure 11-3. These components are the foundation layer upon which runtime authentication
and authorization is provided by the IBM Security Access Manager for Web reverse proxy.
The following list describes the Identity System:
IBM Security Directory Server. Forms the identity data store. Organization identities,
accounts, and associated entitlements, such as roles and groups, are stored here. This
component is referenced by the authentication proxy at run time.
IBM Security Identity Manager. Provides the central location from which users and
administrators can request and provision access to business applications, such as SAP
applications. Supports request and role-based access workflows for account provision. It
also provides account auditing and recertification functions to help ensure that minimal
rights are maintained for each user. It uses a directory, such as IBM Security Directory
Server, to persist account and identity data.
IBM Security Directory Integrator. This component provides the business application (for
example, SAP applications) connectivity capability to IBM Security Identity Manager. IBM
Security Directory Integrator is used to ensure that accounts and account data in SAP
software are synchronized and up-to-date with data managed in IBM Security Identity
Manager. This process is known as account reconciliation.
IBM Security Directory Integrator is used to push or provision accounts from IBM Security
Identity Manager as a result of the provisioning workflow. IBM Security Directory Integrator
is also used to pull human resources (HR) data from SAP applications into IBM Security
Identity Manager. This process is known as an identity feed.
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With the introduction of SAP NetWeaver Identity Management, SAP closed a gap in their
product portfolio by providing a tool that enables maintaining user information that spans SAP
systems, including both Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP) and Java
platforms. SAP NetWeaver Identity Management is offered as an additional installation to
ABAP and User Management Engine (UME) local user administration and CUA. It also
provides functionality to integrate third-party identity management tools and non-SAP apps.
SAP offers SAP NetWeaver Identity Management services and interfaces for partners to
implement solutions, enabling the integration of heterogeneous environments.SAP
NetWeaver Identity Management includes a core set of integration adapters for Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and relational database stores. However, it relies on
third-party partners for integration adapters to other data stores. For more information, see
11.7, “Identity management products and solutions” on page 295.
11.3.2 Identity feed scenario
An identity is the subset of profile data that uniquely represents a person in one or more
repositories, and additional information related to that person. For example, an identity might
be represented by a unique combination of a person's first, last, and full name, and employee
number. Additional information might include phone numbers, manager’s name, and email
address. A data source can be different, depending on the business scenario:
For internet scenarios, the data source can be a self-service user interface.
For federated scenarios, user data is often provided by the business partner.
For corporate usage, the data source can be a user repository or a file, directory, or
custom source.
User data in a corporate environment is often provided by the HR system. In the case of SAP,
this is the SAP ERP Human Capital Management application (SAP HCM, formerly known as
SAP HR).
Reconciliation for an identity feed is the process of synchronizing the data between the data
source and the identity management system. The initial reconciliation populates the identity
management system with new users, including their profile data. A subsequent reconciliation
creates new users and also updates the user profile of any duplicate users that are found.
The decision about what option to use for the identity feed depends on available systems for
authoritative identity sources, and the level of trust associated with them. Table 11-3 shows
the identity feed architectural decision options and selection criteria.
Table 11-3 Identity feed architectural decision
Subject
Identity feed
Architecture decision
Authoritative identity sources and identity master, and process to
synchronize identity data
Alternatives
HR-driven identity feed, such as SAP HCM
User self-service registration, such as web identity
Enterprise directory, such as LDAP
Application master, such as SAP ERP
Combination of previously listed alternatives
Decision criteria
Business scenario requirements, such as business-to-business (B2B),
business-to-consumer (B2C), and so on
Availability and trustability of data sources
Accessibility and format of the data
Initial feed or periodic synchronization
Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP
281
Subject
Identity feed
Decision examples
When employee information is maintained in HR, availability and level
of trust are high. As an illustrative example, it is possible to assemble
solutions where SAP HCM data can be extracted and updated
automatically using the SAP Business Object Repository interface.
Specialized systems can be used as authoritative sources of specific
data, for example, use IBM Notes for email addresses, telephone
directory for phone numbers, and so on.
Architecture
Use a synchronization component for the periodic identity feed into the
identity management system, for example, access to SAP HR (person data)
with IBM Security Directory Integrator, and merge with additional
information from other systems (for instance, email and phone number).
11.3.3 User provisioning scenario
SAP-specific user administration tasks can be performed by local systems using specific
applications, such as SAP UME, which is primarily the user store for the SAP Enterprise
Portal. SAP CUA can be set up as the user administration hub for SAP NetWeaver
ABAP-based applications.
SAP software provides integration connectivity tools and application programming interfaces
(APIs) to enable third-party tools to access user repositories and management functions. The
IBM security products make use of these interfaces, and partly extend their functionality to
integrate SAP systems and applications into a corporate-wide identity management system.
Figure 11-4 shows SAP user provisioning options for the different SAP platforms.
IDoc
SAP
ERP HCM
IBM Security
Directory Integrator
IBM Security Identity Manager
Push users & role
assignments
SAP NetWeaver
Application Server
Workflow
Populate
ABAP
SAP
Backend
BAPI/RFC
Web services
CUA
SAP BusinessObjects
GRC Access Control
BAPI/RFC
SAP
Application
SAP
Application
SAP
Application
Figure 11-4 SAP user provisioning options
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
SAP
Application
SAP
Application
IBM Security
Directory Server
LDAP
UME
SAP NetWeaver
Application Server JAVA
The decision about which option to use, and how it fits into the overall identity management
system, depends on several factors, such as the SAP applications and platforms that are
used. Also consider if there are separation, pooling, or additional compliance management
requirements. Table 11-4 shows the user provisioning architectural decision options and
selection criteria.
Table 11-4 User provisioning architectural decision
Subject
User provisioning
Architecture decision
Integrate and pool SAP systems as provisioning targets for IBM Security
Identity Manager.
Alternatives
Direct user provisioning through SAP ABAP clients
User provisioning to SAP clients using SAP CUA
User provisioning to SAP clients using SAP GRC solutions
User provisioning to SAP Java systems using LDAP
Decision criteria
SAP system separation requirements, for example development, quality
assurance (QA), production, training, and so on
Enterprise directory usage
Usage of SAP CUA required
Use of SAP GRC solutions for separation of duties (SOD) verification
Decision example
When the corporate LDAP system is used for the SAP Enterprise Portal
persistence store, the user provisioning should go to that system for the
SAP application users.
When detailed SOD verification is required for SAP systems, it should
be integrated into the provisioning workflow.
Architecture
Use IBM Security Identity Manager as the hub for provisioning users to SAP
environment targets.
11.4 Authentication system scenarios
The following list describes the main functionalities provided by the authentication system:
Prove the identity of clients that issue requests toward back-end components.
Map identities across different components.
Enable multiple EPs to use unified DPs.
The following sections describe authentication system sample scenarios. For information
about access management products available from IBM, see 11.8, “Access management
products and solutions” on page 297.
11.4.1 Access management scenario
IBM provides IBM Security Access Manager for Web (formerly known as IBM Tivoli Access
Manager) and other products in the IBM Security Access Manager Family to secure
enterprise environments. They might be deployed to secure internal IT infrastructures and
extranet resources. The IBM Security Access Manager products provide user authentication
and authorization. For federated SSO solutions, advanced identity mapping capabilities are
supported. For example, intranet ID and Internet ID mapping.
IBM Security Access Manager for Web acts in conjunction with WebSphere DataPower as the
web point of contact and EP.
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283
One of the benefits of using a central access management component to secure back-ends
and heterogeneous environments is that it externalizes authentication and, therefore, the
application components are not required to perform authentication processes and
mechanisms. By supporting several authentication protocols and login ticket technologies, the
IBM access management products support a variety of systems and applications:
WebSphere-based applications using the Lightweight Third Party Authentication (LTPA)
generator
Middleware components using the Security Token Service (STS)
Identification ID transformation of intranet or extranet IDs into SAP ID
The following list describes the key functionalities of the authentication system:
Secure user interaction (browser) and business application interaction (web services)
across components
End-to-end lifecycle management enabled by establishing service provider (SP) and
Identity Provider (IdP) patterns
Figure 11-5 shows the interaction of the access management components.
Non-SAP
Legacy
Applications
Enterprise
Applications
IBM WebSphere
DataPower
Inner Ring
Plug-in
Portal
Consumer
IBM Security
Access Manager
for Web
Plug-in
ESB
CRM
Plug-in
Business
SRM
Suite
ECC
SCM
PLM
(WebSEAL Reverse Proxy)
Authentication Proxy
IBM Security
Access Manager for Web
IBM Security
Directory Server
IBM Tivoli Federated
Identity Manager
Authentication System
IBM Security
Identity Manager
IBM Security
Directory Integrator
Identity System
Figure 11-5 Access Management components
The following enforcement point components are used for the security architecture for SAP:
WebSphere DataPower is the security and PEP for all web services-based traffic into the
SAP system.
The IBM Security Access Manager for Web reverse proxy is the security and PEP for all
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)-based traffic (UI consumption) into SAP and non-SAP
systems and applications.
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Establishing these two control points enables the usage of common security services from
identity management, access management, policy management, and common audit
mechanisms:
IBM Security Access Manager for Web is the centralized authorization DP that provides a
consistent authorization policy across the corporation.
WebSphere DataPower is a PEP.
A data-centric authorization scheme, using IBM Security Access Manager for Web object
space and authorization policies, provides interface-independent solutions (they function
whether the interface is based on web services SOAP, REST interface, and so on).
Object space based on the Enterprise Subject Area Model (ESAM) definition, which is a
high-level cross-process information model representing all of the categories of
information within the enterprise. It is the foundation of the interface-independent
authorization solution.
WebSphere DataPower authentication, resource mapping, authorization, and audit
architecture provide security at the boundary of the infrastructure, and at the front end
of applications.
The web service interface with Organization for the Advancement of Structured
Information Standards (OASIS) XACML standard-based protocol between IBM
WebSphere DataPower and IBM Security Access Manager provides the full IBM Security
Access Manager for Web PDP capabilities to WebSphere DataPower (PEP).
IBM Security Access Manager for Web authorization rules and server plug-ins implement
complex authorization requirements.
For more information, see 11.8, “Access management products and solutions” on page 297.
11.4.2 Single sign-on scenario
Single sign-on is part of enterprise security, and it is an asset outside the scope of the SAP
transformation program. However, the SAP transformation program needs to consider
enterprise SSO and integrate with it.
Generally, an SSO architecture reduces the number of logins, ideally to just one, by either
authenticating a verified user from one application to another, or by authenticating on
behalf of the application by an authentication proxy. In addition, IBM distinguishes between
desktop applications, web environments, and federated systems to approach access
management and SSO. Table 11-5 shows the SSO architectural decisions alternatives and
selection criteria.
Table 11-5 Single sign-on architectural decision
Subject
Single sign-on
Architectural decision
Implement an authentication system that meets certain computing model
and technology criteria.
Alternatives
Desktop or enterprise SSO. A mechanism to store and manage a
user’s account IDs and their associated password or other credentials.
Web SOS. A mechanism by which HTTP services are aggregated
behind the security proxy. The security proxy is responsible for
establishing authenticated sessions in a centralized point in the
infrastructure.
Federated SSO. A mechanism by which users can be asserted from
one administrative domain to another.
Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP
285
Subject
Decision criteria
Single sign-on
Authenticate user against an application-specific repository. The user
population is contained within the enterprise. Use of desktop
applications, proprietary communication and protocols, corporate
(private) networks (for example, use of SAP GUI, SAP Supply
Network Collaboration (SNC), or SAP Login Ticket).
Authenticate a user against an application-specific or enterprise
repository. User population expands to the Internet. Use of
standards-based web protocols (HTTP Secure), private or public
networks, B2B, and B2C (for example, SAP Enterprise Portal).
Authenticate a user against an enterprise repository. Also
authenticate users and other network entities (for example, web
services) originating from foreign companies. The user population
expands to the Internet and other enterprises.
Use of public networks, standards-based protocols (web services,
SAML), B2B (for example SAP Enterprise Portal), SAP Enterprise
Services (SOA) (for example, with SAP Process Integration, SAP
Application Server is the WS Provider, and so on).
Decision example
Architecture
When the SAP environment is accessed mainly with the SAP GUI,
use IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise SSO.
When the SAP environment is accessed through DMZ and a browser
(user authentication), use IBM Security Access Manager for Web.
When the SAP environment is accessed by Internet and different
channels that require token mediations, use IBM Tivoli Federated
Identity Manager.
Hub and spoke architecture with a central authentication component
configured to be trusted by SAP back-ends. SSO technologies can be
combined in a mixed environment, such as deployment of an
authentication proxy with identity federation.
Figure 11-6 on page 287 shows an illustrative example of how SSO based on IBM Security
Access Manager for Web reverse proxy can be integrated with SAP in a web environment.
The integration is based on user authentication using reverse proxy, and obtaining a security
identity token in a format that is consumable by SAP or SAP partner applications. Because
SAML is the mechanism preferred by SAP for third-party logon, this scenario is designed
using a federated identity management approach that enables the use of SAML for
authentication and the use of the Security Token Service (STS) provided by Tivoli Federated
Identity Manager.
If different user IDs are used, the primary authentication is to the reverse proxy as the point of
contact. As part of the authentication process, Tivoli Federated Identity Manager is able to
perform the mapping of the authenticated user name to the SAP user name for the
authenticated user. This mapped user name is then forwarded to the SAP environment. Tivoli
Federated Identity Manager mapping methods are flexible. A common method includes a
lookup of the required attributes from the LDAP directory.
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Restriction: Tivoli Federated Identity Manager supports SAML, however, IBM does not
provide a formally supported integration based on SAML for SAP environments. The
integration is technically feasible, but IBM is not committed to accept support authorized
program analysis reports (APARs) if problems occur.
For more information, se the article Integrating IBM Federated Identity Manager 6.2.2 with
SAP Login Tickets, which shows an example of an unsupported integration. The article
describes how the Token Security Service in Tivoli Federated Identity Manager V6.2.2 can
be integrated with the SAP Login Ticket to validate user identity. The article is available on
the following website:
http://ibm.co/1l2xlpV
Figure 11-6 shows SSO integration with SAP. See 11.4.3, “Identity propagation scenario” for
details.
CRM
SAML (*)
SAP
Portal
Business
SRM
Suite
ECC
SCM
IBM Security Access
Manager for Web
SAP
SAP
Partner
Partner
Applications
Applications
(WebSEAL Reverse Proxy)
Single Sign On
SSO Authintication
LTPA
Security Token
LTPA
LDAP
IBM Security
Directory Server
PLM
WebSphere
Application
Server
WebSphere
Portal
IBM Tivoli
Federated Identity Manager
Security Token Service
Identity Mapping
(*) IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager supports SAML, however, IBM does not provide a formally supported integration based on SAML
for SAP software. The integration is technically feasible, but IBM is not committed to accept support APARs (Authorized Program Analysis
Report ) if problems occur.
Figure 11-6 Web-based SSO to SAP applications
11.4.3 Identity propagation scenario
Besides policy-based user provisioning at the enterprise level, with a flexible workflow and a
broad range of supported systems to manage, the existence of a variety of user identities
requires mapping and propagation at run time. Where possible, 1:1 mapping of user name to
SAP user name is the simplest approach. Alternatively, another approach is to use the IBM
Tivoli Federated Identity Manager alias service to store the mapping from the local user name
to the SAP user name.
A Tivoli Federated Identity Manager mapping rule can be used to query the pre-provisioned
SAP user name from the IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager alias service. The SAP user
name is typically provisioned separately by an identity management product, such as IBM
Security Identity Manager.
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The Tivoli Federated Identity Manager alias service has helper APIs that can be called from a
mapping rule. The Tivoli Federated Identity Manager alias service can be configured to be
either in LDAP, or directly in a relational database using Java Database Connectivity (JDBC).
Both models are supported with Tivoli Federated Identity Manager.
The following scenarios require identity mapping and propagation:
Different user identities passing between components.
Identity has to be mediated (Tivoli Federated Identity Manager provides STS).
Back-end applications, for example SAP applications, need user identity.
In these scenarios, the identity master provides user ID information to be mapped or
propagated to the target systems and applications, such as identity synchronization (see
Table 11-6).
Table 11-6 Identity propagation architectural decision
Subject
Identity mapping and propagation
Architecture decision
Use of components and flow of identities for specific use cases.
Alternatives
The ESB performs identity mediation.
Authentication proxy calls STS.
Decision criteria
Message flow is web services only
User-based authentication
Options of available trust configurations, for example, when WS provider
can handle one trust relationship only
Complexity of user ID mapping, for example, 1:1 mapping, mapping
table, or composition formula
Use of authentication formats and general token variants for different
components in the message flow, for example, user certificates, user
name token, LTPA, SAML, and so on
Use of SAML token variants, such as Holder of Key (requires token
mediator) or sender-vouches
Decision example
Web Services scenario using WebSphere Message Broker and
WebSphere DataPower between WS consumer and WS provider (SAP
application server) and Tivoli Federated Identity Manager (as the
Token Mediator.) Trust relationship between Security Token Service
(STS) (IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager) and WS provider (SAP).
WebSphere DataPower is both, ESB and token mediator to issue and
send SAML tokens to SAP back-ends. Trust relationship between
WebSphere DataPower and SAP software.
Note: These examples are for illustrative purposes only. These integrations
are not formally supported by IBM.
Architecture
Use specialized components to handle multiple variants of authentication
mechanisms (authentication proxy), message flows (ESB), token formats,
and trust relationships (STS).
WebSphere DataPower can prove identity using a corporate user directory (corporate LDAP as
provided by IBM Security Directory Server), and request an identity mediation from Tivoli
Federated Identity Manager STS when necessary to call the intermediate ESB service.
WebSphere Message Broker can trust the calling identity or request again an identity
mediation from Tivoli Federated Identity Manager STS to call the SAP back end using the
application and UserID.
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Figure 11-7 shows the identity propagation components and flow.
IBM WebSphere
DataPower
<LDAP ID>
<SAP ID>
<SAP ID>
CRM
Business
SRM
Suite
ESB
ECC
WebSphere
Message Broker
Plug-in
SCM
Validate
identity
SAP ID
1
LDAP ID
Service
Consumers
PLM
2
STS
LDAP
IBM Security
Directory Server
IBM Tivoli
Federated Identity Manager
Secure Token Service Identity Mapping
Figure 11-7 Sample identity propagation components and flow
11.5 Authorization system scenario
Tivoli Security Policy Manager can be used as a central policy management component.
Tivoli Security Policy Manager enables applications to externalize their security functions, to
centralize a runtime engine driven by a standards-based policy framework.
This policy can be centrally managed, is external to the application, and can be updated
independent of application development cycles. With this setup, management of the security
policy and associated security infrastructure can be removed from the application logic.
Other security components, such as IBM Security Access Manager for Web, WebSphere
DataPower, or WebSphere Message Broker components, enable the usage of external
security policy management frameworks, such as Tivoli Security Policy Manager (see
Figure 11-8 on page 290).
The authorization policy for access and entitlements should include the following
requirements:
Make early access decision based on common policy.
Centralize DP for access and entitlements.
Avoid inconsistency in managing policies across different enforcement points.
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Figure 11-8 shows the interactions between authorization system components.
Non-SAP
Legacy
Applications
Enterprise
Applications
IBM WebSphere
DataPower
Inner Ring
Plug-in
Portal
Consumer
IBM Security
Access Manager
for Web
ESB
Plug-in
CRM
Plug-in
Business
SRM
Suite
ECC
SCM
PLM
(WebSEAL Reverse Proxy)
Authentication Proxy
IBM Security
Access Manager
for Web
IBM Tivoli
Federated
Identity Manager
IBM Tivoli Security
Policy Manager
Policies
Policy authoring, publishing
and service discovery
Authorization System
Authentication System
Figure 11-8 Authorization system components interaction
Tivoli Security Policy Manager centralizes security policy management and fine-grained data
access control for applications, databases, portals, and services.
Tivoli Security Policy Manager uses the XACML standard and provides an implementation of
the processing model that the standard defines. Specifically, it implements the policy
administration point (PAP), PEP, and PDP components for a variety of systems (such as,
WebSphere DataPower Appliances), databases, and application servers. Although the SAP
software does not support XACML or similar standards to externalize security policy
management, an alternative solution is required for SAP authorization management.
If the scope of security authorization policy management is defined as an SAP domain, SAP
software provides capabilities for authorization management integrated with the SAP tools
and run time. However, if the enterprise requires a centralized security authorization policy
management solution that spans across SAP and non-SAP enterprise applications, a
different approach is required.
Tivoli Security Policy Manager can use existing identity stores, such as IBM Security Identity
Manager and IBM Security Access Manager for Web data stores, to form the basis of policy
groupings. There is a policy-authoring component that can take non-technical documentation
and translate it into implementable rules. There is also a policy lifecycle capability, so that
policy rules can be approved, implemented, and periodically reviewed.
SAP software has its own proprietary mechanism to define and enforce security policies, and
does not support XACML as of July 2014. However, there are benefits of Tivoli Security Policy
Manager in a scenario with an SAP environment.
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The following list describes some of the benefits of integrating SAP environments with
centralized enterprise policy management:
Define and create a central policy for managing message protection for applications and
middleware surrounding SAP environments, such as authentication proxy, token services
or ESB.
Integrate SAP systems into an enterprise SOA environment.
Manage authorization policies for access to SAP environments.
Figure 11-9 shows a generalized use case scenario with Tivoli Security Policy Manager in an
SOA environment with an SAP web services client.
IBM Tivoli Federated
Identity Manager
Security Trust Service
SAP Web
Services Client
Web
services
request
with SAP
cookie
Security
Token
Validation
and
Mapping
Security
Policy Manager
Web
services
request
Web Service
Figure 11-9 Security policy management in an SOA environment
11.6 Audit system scenarios
The objective of an SAP ERP audit system is to provide management with an independent
assessment that relates to the effectiveness of the configuration and security of the
enterprise’s SAP ERP architecture.2
One of the responsibilities of an enterprise audit system is to ensure that all aspects of the
security implementation comply with legal and corporate instructions, standards, and
guidelines.
2
Also see Security, Audit and Control Features - SAP ERP, Audit/Assurance Programs and ICQs, Technical and
Risk Management Reference Series, 3rd Edition, ISACA, ISBN 978-1-60420-115-4.
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The focus is on the primary corporate requirements, such as those shown in Table 11-7.
Table 11-7 Corporate audit requirements and examples
Audit requirement
Example
IT security standards
User IDs
Required system and client parameter settings
Security and system administrative authority
(prohibited and enabled)
Security audit log settings
Regular health checking requirements
Access authorizations, including approval requirements
Activity logging and application audit trails
Separation of duties standard
Aggregate SOD
Mitigations
Role documentation requirements
Use of GRC SOD tools
Application systems control and
auditability, and responsibility for
application owners and business
process owners, addressing
requirements for certification and
compliance reviews and
self-certifications
Architectural overview
SOD evaluation
Application system management controls. including
change management, problem management, access
management, User ID creation and Access
Assignment, User ID verification, and revalidation and
compliance with corporate instructions and standards
Data protection and privacy
Test documentation requirements
Business process owner acceptance
Audit trails
Risk evaluations
Classification and control of corporate
information
Classification of data
Requirements for treatment of confidential data
Guidance on treatment of personal
information and sensitive personal
information
SAP application audit requirements
N/A
Custom executable code protection
Testing documentation requirements
Critical objects
Role documentation components
For information about audit products available from IBM, see 11.9, “Audit products and
solutions” on page 300.
11.6.1 Security monitoring and analytics scenario
SAP environments consist of many layers that require monitoring to accomplish the following
goals:
Gain visibility into network, user, and application activity to provide organizations with
intelligence into potential and existing threats across their entire network.
Fulfill regulatory and compliance mandates that require log management and tracking
user activity.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
SAP security monitoring should provide visibility, compliance, and risk management across
the many layers required to support the integrated enterprise SAP environments (see
Table 11-8).
Table 11-8 Layers of SAP security monitoring
Security monitoring layer
Presentation layer
SAP coverage
Systems hosting GUI services to ensure that servers are secure
Identity and access services to make sure that users accessing
the GUI have proper authority
Network layer
Network traffic through the systems supporting SAP services to look
for potential and existing threats
Application layer
SAP application audit logs to monitor SAP user activity
Host layer
Servers hosting SAP services to monitor privileged user activity
Database layer
Databases used by SAP applications to monitor data access and
database configuration changes
The selection of an SAP security monitoring architecture depends on the required depth and
information detail (for example, transaction information details), and the scope of the
integration (such as SAP environment-specific or enterprise-wide scope). Table 9 shows an
example of security monitoring alternatives and architectural decisions.
Table 11-9 Security monitoring architectural decision
Subject
SAP security monitoring
Architecture decision
Define components and deployment architecture for SAP security
monitoring that is detailed enough to be SAP environment-specific, and
generic enough for enterprise compliance reports.
Alternatives
Real-time transaction analysis and reporting
User authentication logging and analysis (user login logging and illegal
act monitoring)
User authorization report (roles, groups, and SOD)
SAP system security configuration analysis and reporting
Decision criteria
If general and company-wide user authorization and activity reporting
is in focus, use reports from IBM Security Identity Manager and IBM
Security Access Manager that include activities on the SAP system.
For real-time analysis, use sensor technology to configure alerts in
case of misuse, intrusion, and so on (such as IBM QRadar Security
Intelligence Platform).
For activity analysis and reporting on the SAP database, use a
database audit and protection tool that is specific to SAP environments,
such as IBM InfoSphere Guardium.
To gather information from different systems and several SAP
applications, and to correlate with other systems’ information for
enterprise compliance reports and auditing, use security information
and event management (SIEM) software, such as IBM Security
QRadar SIEM.
Decision example
Correlate and analyze available information about user behavior. For
SAP environments, this includes analyzing the SAP security audit log
and system log files, or monitoring privileged SAP users.
Collect and accumulate additional information to analyze how SAP
systems are accessed, or to detect potential misuse, such as network
traffic, database activity, and so on.
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Subject
SAP security monitoring
Architecture
Use existing system information and logging, and place additional sensors
and hooks where detailed security information is required (after weighing
risks and performance effect), and use a correlation engine to interpret SAP
security-related activities across the enterprise.
11.6.2 Source code analysis scenario
SAP application customers run custom-developed ABAP programs in their IT infrastructure,
and the presence of vulnerabilities in these systems introduces several risks. Every custom
development adds specific functionality to applications, often without any testing for risks
or vulnerabilities.
The traditional time for a security audit is just before an application goes into production. A
more prudent and cost-effective approach is to find the defect in development, at build time, or
in QA.
Many application security teams are moving beyond annual audits and preproduction testing
to adopt the leading practices of application risk management. The IBM Security AppScan
portfolio includes capabilities to measure, monitor, and reduce the enterprise risk introduced
by application vulnerabilities.
With the addition of Virtual Forge CodeProfiler for IBM Security AppScan source software,
ABAP applications can be included in the enterprise-wide view of application risk. Security
executives and auditors can benefit from more than 40 compliance reports that are built into
the software, and trending analysis that is useful for measuring and driving the reduction of
application risk.
Virtual Forge CodeProfiler for IBM Security AppScan source software is a static analysis
security testing solution that helps to identify vulnerabilities in ABAP source code, review data
flows, and identify threat exposures in SAP applications (see Figure 11-10).
White
Box
Black
Box
IBM Security
AppScan Standard
Virtual Forge
CodeProfiler
ABAP results
White
Box
IBM Security
AppScan Source
Black
Box
IBM Security
AppScan Enterprise
Dynamic Analysis
Scanner
AppScan
Enterprise Server
Figure 11-10 IBM Security AppScan and Virtual Forge CodeProfiler
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11.7 Identity management products and solutions
This section describes the main products and solutions in the IBM identity management
portfolio that can be used when implementing SAP system security scenarios.
11.7.1 IBM Security Identity Manager
IBM Security Identity Manager (formerly known as Tivoli Identity Manager) is a policy-based
identity and access governance solution that helps automate lifecycle management of user
roles, identities, and access rights. Through the use of roles, accounts, and access
permissions, IBM Security Identity Manager helps automate the creation, modification, and
termination of user privileges throughout the entire user lifecycle.
IBM Security Identity Manager enables centralized management and administration of users
within the IT environment of an enterprise. The following list describes management and
administration functions that are provided by IBM Security Identity Manager:
User account provisioning
User account password management
Account request approval workflows
Account recertification
User access role and group membership management
A large inventory of adapter components enables IBM Security Identity Manager to manage
separate, distinct IT applications and resources within heterogeneous environments.
Adapters are deployed as separate installable units within the infrastructure.
IBM Security Identity Manager supports the IBM Security Identity Manager Adapter for SAP
NetWeaver, which enables account management for the SAP NetWeaver Application Server
ABAP server stack. This adapter enables administration and provisioning of user accounts
between IBM Security Identity Manager and SAP NetWeaver ABAP server. It also includes
optional integration components, enabling integration between IBM Security Identity Manager
and SAP GRC Access Control.
11.7.2 IBM Security Directory Integrator
IBM Security Directory Integrator integrates and synchronizes generic and identity data in a
variety of system stores, such as files, message queues, web services, directories,
databases, collaborative systems, and applications used for HR, CRM, ERP, and other
corporate applications. It can help organizations build an authoritative data infrastructure,
enabling consistent data across multiple identity or generic data resources.
IBM Security Directory Integrator performs the following tasks:
Transforms, moves, and synchronizes generic and identity data in heterogeneous
directories, databases, files, collaborative systems, and applications, with real-time
automated updates to the authoritative data source.
Helps enhance the security, accuracy, and integrity of generic and user identity data, while
facilitating data migration, transformation to other file formats, and synchronization
between two or more systems.
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The preferred framework for new IBM Security Identity Manager adapter development is
based on IBM Security Directory Integrator. Adapter implementations are embodied by IBM
Security Directory Integrator AssemblyLines. AssemblyLines ideally use one or more IBM
Security Directory Integrator connectors or function components to facilitate target resource
interfacing with additional Java or JavaScript processing components.
IBM Security Directory Integrator includes a set of connectors for integration with SAP
systems. These connectors are combined within the IBM Security Directory Integrator
Component Suite for SAP NetWeaver Application Server ABAP.
Installing IBM Security Directory Integrator also installs the Component Suite for SAP ABAP
Application Server. However, to complete the install of the Component Suite, an additional
component must be added on the target machine if it does not already exist, which is the SAP
Java connector2 (SAP JCo2).
The IBM Security Directory Integrator Component Suite for SAP ABAP Application Server
includes the following components:
Function Component for SAP NetWeaver Application Server ABAP
User Registry Connector for SAP NetWeaver Application Server ABAP
Human Resources/Business Object Repository Connector for SAP NetWeaver Application
Server ABAP
11.7.3 IBM Security Directory Server
IBM Security Directory Server software provides a reliable platform for enterprise security
initiatives. This enterprise identity management software from IBM uses LDAP to provide a
trusted identity data infrastructure for authentication.
IBM Security Directory Server includes the following capabilities:
Provides identity management for companies that want to deploy a robust and scalable
identity infrastructure
Uses LDAP identity infrastructure software, and meets LDAP v3 industry compliance
standards
Enhances proxy server capabilities with flow control for managing requests, paging search
results for single and multiple partitions, and a smart fail-back mechanism to restore
servers safely
Maintains high availability with master and subordinate, and peer-to-peer, replication
capabilities, and scheduled online or offline backup and remote restore
Supports virtual list views so that you can scroll forward or backward through entries in a
large sorted data set, and can record deleted entries
IBM Security Directory Server is an SAP-certified product for integration with SAP using the
SAP standard interface BC-LDAP-USR. This integration includes interoperability with SAP
NetWeaver Application Server ABAP and Java. As a result, IBM Security Directory Server
can be used as the identity store for synchronization with the AS ABAP (application server for
ABAP) user repository, and the persistence user store (user data source) for the AS Java
User Management Engine.
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11.8 Access management products and solutions
Managing access across IT resources, in most cases, means providing technologies that
enable you to establish an instance to handle central authentication and SSO to enterprise
systems and applications. IBM takes a divide-and-conquer approach to this challenge, and
addresses different domains with different technologies. There are three domains of
authentication and SSO:
Web environments
Desktop environments
Federated environments
Each of the three computing models has SSO requirements, and IBM applies different
technologies to meet each of the SSO requirements. These technologies are implemented in
the following products:
IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On
IBM Security Access Manager for Web
Tivoli Federated Identity Manager
11.8.1 IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On
This product addresses the enterprise SSO problem by deploying an agent on the desktop
that intercepts authentication requests by applications, and automatically completes the login
data with credentials stored on the local machine.
IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On AccessProfiles is composed of
structured XML files that enable SSO automation for applications. These profiles are created
using the AccessStudio component, and they are essentially used to automatically capture
and inject application credentials in a user’s “wallet”.
IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On integration with SAP solutions
includes support for IBM Security Access Manager for Enterprise Single Sign-On
AccessProfile for SAP GUI for Windows.
11.8.2 IBM Security Access Manager for Web
This product addresses the web SSO problem by placing a reverse web proxy in front of the
enterprise web applications. IBM Security Access Manager user accounts are stored in an
enterprise directory, and users only need to authenticate to the IBM Security Access Manager
server to access all of the existing web applications configured behind the reverse proxy.
IBM provides the following integrations between IBM Security Access Manager for Web and
SAP solutions:
IBM Security Access Manager for Web integration with SAP NetWeaver Application
Server ABAP
IBM Security Access Manager for Web integration with SAP NetWeaver Application
Server Java
IBM Security Access Manager for Web integration with SAP NetWeaver Application
Server Java Enterprise Portal Core
SSO for SAP NetWeaver Application Server ABAP with IBM Security Access Manager for
Web in conjunction with SAP NetWeaver Application Server Java
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11.8.3 IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager
This product addresses the federated SSO problem by implementing industry-standard
federated SSO protocols, including SAML, Liberty ID FF, WS-Federation, Information Card,
Open ID, and OAuth. It supports arbitrary identity transformations based on Extensible
Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT), IBM Security Directory Integrator
AssemblyLines, or custom Java programming, so that credentials can be converted to a
format compatible with the local environment.
Tivoli Federated Identity Manager provides access management and SSO to federated SAP
environments and SAML-enabled SAP applications.
Restriction: Tivoli Federated Identity Manager supports SAML; however, IBM does not
provide a formally supported integration based on SAML for SAP software. The integration
is technically feasible, but IBM is not committed to accept support APARs if problems
occur.
The article Integrating IBM Federated Identity Manager 6.2.2 with SAP Login Tickets
shows an example of an unsupported integration. Customers or their service provider are
responsible for implementing and maintaining Login Ticket-based integration. The article
can be found on the following website:
http://ibm.co/1l2xlpV
Tivoli Federated Identity Manager integration with SAP NetWeaver Application Server can be
enabled based on the following unsupported integrations:
SSO using SAML Browser Artifact (SAML integration)
STS for the SAP Login Ticket (SAP Token Trust Module)
Tivoli Federated Identity Manager STS is a WS-Trust compliant service that enables users
to validate, exchange, and issue tokens. Within the service is a set of module chains called
trust chains. It is possible to have many trust chains within the service. To determine which
chain to start, it looks at the AppliesTo and Issuer elements (among others) in the request.
Each trust chain consists of one or more modules that can either validate, map, issue, or
exchange tokens.
By developing a custom STS mapping module, the IBM Tivoli Federated Identity Manager
STS can validate identity tokens containing SAP login tickets. It is a trust module that can be
used in a trust chain to validate an SAP user identity issued in an SAP Login Ticket by an
SAP system.
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Figure 11-11 provides an overview of the validation process when used in an STS trust chain.
validate
evaluate
SAP Login
Ticket
SAP token
STS module
SAPSSOEXT
result
result
STS
universal
user
Some other
STS module
Figure 11-11 STS trust chain validation process
The technique can be used in conjunction with WebSphere DataPower XML firewall with the
WebSphere DataPower appliance placed inline and to act as a proxy. During processing, it
performs a WS-Trust call to the Tivoli Federated Identity Manager STS to exchange the SAP
identity token, which was sent as a cookie, for a new token. This new token is placed in the
web service request as a WS-Security header, and forwarded to the service. Figure 11-12
illustrates a high-level view of the solution.
This solution architecture delivers the following benefits:
It integrates SAP systems into an SOA environment by converting requests into open
standards-compatible messages.
It provides extensible design that reacts to future requirements.
It requires minimal changes to existing infrastructure.
It propagates identity from end-to-end, enabling authorization and auditing at every node.
IBM Tivoli
Federated Identity
Manager
WS-Trust call to
exchange token
SAP web
service client
Web service request
with SAP cookie
IBM WebSphere
DataPower
Web service request
with WS-security token
Web service
Figure 11-12 Federating the SAP login ticket with Tivoli Federated Identity Manager and WebSphere
DataPower
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11.9 Audit products and solutions
This section describes the main IBM products and solutions that can be used to add
extensive audit and logging capabilities to SAP systems security.
11.9.1 IBM InfoSphere Guardium
Guardium integrates with SAP solutions to identify an individual user from a pooled database
connection. It provides predefined policies and reports for SAP systems to comply with
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), and
ISO27001. In addition, IBM InfoSphere Guardium Encryption Expert can encrypt all SAP
database files and provide compliance without making any changes to the applications or
databases.
With Guardium, detailed information is available about the SAP solution users and their
activity. This information reaches beyond SAP transaction logs, and makes it easier to detect
fraud and unauthorized activity. Guardium integrates with SAP solutions and SAP databases
with no application changes required.
11.9.2 IBM Security QRadar Log Manager
IBM Security QRadar Log Manager provides enterprise log management for compliance, and
forensics for SAP environments. It provides comprehensive, high-performance, and
tamper-proof log management for organizations looking to collect, archive, secure, and
analyze large volumes of network and security event logs for security, auditing, and reporting
requirements in the environment running SAP. The SAP integration features include the
following capabilities:
Management of network and security events in the network that the SAP environment is
running on
Management of host logs on operating systems underlying each SAP server
Management of the SAP ERP application logs
Management of the database activity on databases used by SAP services
Tamper-proof data archive of security event data from the systems and networks used in
the SAP environment
Threshold-based correlation and alerts based on data from the SAP environment
Reporting templates support compliance mandates:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
300
Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT)
SOX
Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act (GLBA)
North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)
Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)
PCI
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
UK Good Practice Guide/Group Control System (GPG/GCS) 13
ISO 27001
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
11.9.3 IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager
IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager provides Enterprise Risk Management across SAP
environments. On systems and networks running SAP services, it provides advanced
intelligence risk management capabilities in the areas of policy monitoring, device
configuration and topology, network and security event modeling and simulation, and
advanced network visualization. The SAP integration features include the following
capabilities:
Monitoring of network security configuration and sending of alerts when risky or out of
compliance configuration is found in systems or the network where SAP is running.
Out-of-box policy templates help assess risk across multiple regulatory mandates.
Enables network activity to monitor and support forensic search, visualization tools, and
out-of-policy flagging using the data collected from the SAP environment.
Analysis of network and security events to assess policy effectiveness and determine
most up-to-date configuration changes on systems and the network used to provide SAP
services.
Integration of network topology with vulnerability scan results to better assess which SAP
systems are most vulnerable.
Vulnerability modeling, simulation, and visualization.
11.9.4 IBM Security QRadar SIEM
IBM Security QRadar SIEM provides enterprise visibility and threat intelligence for SAP
environments. It provides capabilities for real-time analysis, threat detection, and incident
management with sophisticated correlation using data from the SAP environment. The
following list describes the SAP integration features:
Complete QRadar Log Manager functionality.
Real-time analysis, threat detection, and incident management based on data from the
SAP environment.
Sophisticated correlation, incorporating diverse data sets collected from the SAP
environment (event, flow, asset, vulnerability, and external intelligence).
Managing flows for full network behavior analysis.
Asset profile creation and management for all assets in the SAP environment.
Incident management for problems found in the SAP environment.
Integration of IBM Security QRadar SIEM with IT-Cube agileSI provides SAP security
monitoring with the combined capabilities of IBM Security QRadar SIEM and IT-Cube agileSI.
IBM Security QRadar provides capabilities for real-time analysis, threat detection, and
incident management using sophisticated correlation with data from the SAP environment.
Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP
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The solution analyzes several SAP parameters, system information, and data stored in log
files, tables, change documents, and so on. Table 11-10 lists potential events and data, and
sample scenarios.
Table 11-10 SAP security events and use cases
Events and data
Example of use cases
SAP Security Audit Log
Subset of security events in SAP systems, such
as (failed) logins, transaction starts, and so on.
Brute force login:
User created, deleted, locked, or unlocked
Password changes
Execution of reports
SAP basis log for availability, error tracking,
security, and so on
Debugging
Execution of operating system (OS)
commands
SAP system configuration
Password policy checks:
SAP Gateway check
Encryption of communication (SNC status)
Data stored in tables
System and client change settings:
SSO, logon tickets
RFC configuration
Any data stored in any table
Monitor availability
Check availability of SAP systems
Communication with external programs
Monitor denied external calls
Authorization data
SOD checks
Changes to data stored in tables
Monitor critical tables (master data and
conditions of purchase)
11.9.5 IBM Security AppScan
IBM Security AppScan with Virtual Forge CodeProfiler provides vulnerability scanning for
SAP ABAP and enterprise applications (Static Analysis). The following list describes the
benefits of integrating SAP ABAP Source Code scanning with enterprise application source
code scanning:
Helps ensure the security and compliance of web, mobile, and SAP ABAP applications by
scanning the source code for application vulnerabilities
Identifies emerging application vulnerabilities
Helps prevent exploitation by hackers
Early detection and resolution of web application vulnerabilities decrease the risk of attack
Saves valuable development rework, time, and resources
Lowers the total cost-of-ownership because vulnerabilities can be corrected early in the
product development cycle, before becoming security risks
Static (white box) analysis of client-side issues, such as Document Object Model
(DOM)-based cross-site scripting (XSS) and code injection, to secure SAP and non-SAP
web portals, applications, and SOA middleware
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IBM Security AppScan static analysis provides the following capabilities:
A Static Application Security Testing (SAST) solution (source code scanning) for various
languages, including Java, for both web and mobile applications
Integrated security testing as part of the application development process, including at
build time
Automated aggregation of results with other analysis to provide a single integrated
repository for reporting and analysis
CodeProfiler for SAP ABAP applications adds the following capabilities:
Source scanning of SAP ABAP applications
Integrates with IBM Security AppScan
Partnership with Virtual Forge GmbH
Enforce automates code analysis for security defects, standards, and service level
agreements (SLAs)
Regains control of ABAP code
SAP integration features
IBM Security AppScan dynamic analysis provides vulnerability scanning for enterprise
applications (dynamic analysis). The following list describes some benefits of integrating
dynamic analysis scanning with SAP ABAP and enterprise application source code scanning:
Automated dynamic (black box) testing of web vulnerabilities and web services, Web 2.0,
and rich internet applications (JavaScript, Ajax, and Adobe Flash).
Secures SAP and non-SAP web portals and applications and SOA middleware.
Completes the customer solution provided by IBM Security AppScan static analysis and
Virtual Forge CodeProfiler.
Helps ensure the security and compliance of web applications, mobile applications, and
SAP ABAP applications throughout the software development lifecycle.
Combines results of static and dynamic scanning.
Desktop deployment provides on-demand Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST).
Collaborative deployment provides server-based, parallel dynamic scanning.
Simulates attacks to expose vulnerabilities.
Provides application security scanning and centralized reporting.
11.10 References
More detailed information about the topics described in this chapter can be found in the
following IBM Redbooks publications:
Using the IBM Security Framework and IBM Security Blueprint to Realize Business-Driven
Security, SG24-8100
Integrating IBM Security and SAP Solutions, SG24-8015
Chapter 11. Systems security for SAP
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12
Chapter 12.
Systems management for SAP
Availability, supportability, and maintainability of systems of record should always be a
primary concern for organizations. The criticality of the types of business processes typically
enabled by an enterprise SAP transformation, however, makes these concerns paramount,
forcing a key architectural decision point (DP) early in project planning. Typical questions
organizations have to ask themselves include the following queries:
How will systems management be addressed?
Will SAP be considered as its own category and managed using its own toolset, while
using other tools to manage the rest of the technical solutions spanning the enterprise?
Will heterogeneous applications and infrastructure be managed by integrating them into
SAP’s system management tools? Or will SAP’s system management tools be integrated
into the broader, enterprise-wide systems management solution?
This chapter describes the goals of enabling business process availability management in
SAP deployments through the integration of systems management tools across a
heterogeneous environment. This chapter provides an overview of the IBM systems
management architecture for SAP, which supports a business services management
model, describes its constituent components, and explores the rationale for the choice of a
particular component.
This chapter includes the following topics:
12.1, “Architectural goals” on page 306
12.2, “Business process availability management overview” on page 307
12.3, “Systems management reference architecture for SAP-centric solutions” on
page 310
12.4, “Business process availability management for SAP-centric solutions” on page 313
12.5, “Summary” on page 318
12.6, “References” on page 319
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
305
12.1 Architectural goals
Large SAP deployments require an automated solution for managing business process
availability, to deliver highly available processes to the business. A business process
availability management solution takes into account the effect on business processes of an
integrated dependency model between infrastructure, applications, and business processes.
This approach enables the actual management of business services, rather than the
management of the individual underlying systems and applications as a proxy for the
business processes that they support.
This section describes the main architectural goals to consider when designing systems
management into SAP solutions.
12.1.1 Enable optimal availability and usability of complex business systems
The architectural goal for system management of an enterprise application built on SAP
software is to consistently enable optimal availability and performance. Accounting for every
component, every piece of infrastructure, and every application running in the data center is a
daunting enough task.
However, if an organization merely ensures that they have a tool to provide a view of the
availability of every bit of infrastructure, and every application, with no regard to how those
subsets of the overall solution affect the business processes that are important to their users,
they are left with a whole that is substantially less than the sum of its parts.
Enabling optimal availability and usability of the critical business processes of an enterprise,
and all of its supporting technical bits and pieces, is best accomplished by implementing a
business service management (BSM) model that integrates the myriad systems management
tools with the support processes and teams needed to operate them. The implementation of
such a BSM model is a non-trivial accomplishment, especially with the level of technical
complexity that an SAP transformation can engender.
A business manager does not care that the system that supports accounts payables for all of
Asia Pacific is up and running. That manager only cares whether the accounts payables users
are able to access that system and complete their tasks in a timely fashion.
Traditional information technology (IT) systems management has used system availability as a
proxy for business process availability, but the onward push toward consolidation of business
systems, and the complexity of the relationships of the processes to the systems, make this
approach increasingly infeasible.
12.1.2 Provide visibility to unplanned business process outages
If a subcomponent fails or becomes unresponsive, an effective systems management solution
enables both the IT and business support teams and management to see, in real time, the
effect of the problem on the business processes of the company. Is a subcomponent failure
rendered moot by built-in architectural redundancy? Is it less consequential because it is
affecting a process at an off-peak time?
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For a subset of critical business processes, a real-time view of availability can be obtained
through direct instrumentation or synthetic transaction monitoring (probing). However, those
approaches are difficult to scale up to be able to cover the entirety of the business processes
of an enterprise. Also, not combining business process-specific monitoring with the vast
amount of monitoring available at the application and infrastructure levels of large systems is
a wasted opportunity.
The ability to dynamically link a business process hierarchy with its dependent application
and infrastructure relationships is crucial for minimizing problem determination time and
aiding decision making. This approach, in turn, enables for more holistic and less siloed
support practices, and more efficient use of support resources.
12.1.3 Enable historical view of business process availability
Another key milestone toward bridging the gap between what business managers want and
what their IT service providers deliver is the ability to report service level agreements (SLAs)
for individual business processes. After an enterprise has the ability to track the true
availability of their core business processes, in real time, it is a small step from there to retain
and mine that data to enable historical views of business process availability.
A historical view of business process outages enables for correlation of business process
availability with capacity and non-critical fault trends. This information is of great help to an
organization in understanding weaknesses in their architecture, or for prioritizing investments
at the application and infrastructure level to maximize value to the business.
12.2 Business process availability management overview
This section provides an overview of common challenges and requirements encountered by
many enterprise customers, and it describes the proposed solutions at a high level.
12.2.1 Complex IT solutions require multiple levels of systems management
Multiple levels of monitoring and management are required by enterprise customers to
ensure availability of their critical business systems. An IT organization must be able to
support and manage the servers (physical and virtual), operating systems, connections, and
storage that compose the infrastructure.
It must be able to similarly look after the applications, including, but not limited to, multiple
SAP products, middleware, third-party software, and custom-developed business systems
that run on the infrastructure and enable the execution of critical business processes. Finally,
the successful IT organization must be able to support and manage the availability,
performance, and usability of the business processes that are run by its users, partners,
or customers.
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
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Absent a comprehensive business services management model, these different IT
management layers are viewed, managed, and operated independently. No linkage exists
within the technical management and monitoring of Infrastructure, applications, or business
processes, as shown in Figure 12-1.
Executive
Process View
Executive
Business Process
Application
Owner View
Application
Applications
Infrastructure
Owner View
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Figure 12-1 Independently managed, multi-layer IT services environment
12.2.2 Multiple systems management tools exist for each layer of solution
Management of the multiple levels of complex business solutions, including large SAP
implementations, can be a daunting project in its own right, because there are many systems
management and monitoring options for each of the layers of the technical environment.
Often, there are also multiple choices to manage technologies and applications that are,
themselves, only subcomponents of a particular management layer.
Some tools are specific in their scope, while others claim to “do it all”. Often there are
overlaps in coverage, with more than one product covering part of the functional solution
architecture. At other times there are gaps in coverage, meaning no tool exists to specifically
manage or monitor part of the enterprise solution. The skills required for operating,
managing, and maintaining these subsets of large systems can vary wildly, resulting in
different teams using different management tools.
A key challenge for a successful IT services organization is in the selection of these tools and
products, and the optimal integration of them to enable seamless business operations. This
integration enables the required levels of service to be predictably delivered to the business.
These systems management tools and solutions, along with the underlying relationships
between the various technologies connected throughout the enterprise, can be crucial in
determining the organizational support structure. They have a great bearing on the
fundamental ability of a company to manage change, respond to problems, and, ultimately,
deliver the return on investment (ROI) underlying the entire project.
Ideally, supporting a large, complex, and mission-critical business system requires a
comprehensive BSM model that, in turn, needs integrated operations. This integrated BSM
model accounts for internal dependencies between individual assets, so each layer and
service delivery tower must be integrated.
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Figure 12-2 shows the wanted horizontal and vertical integration of system management
capabilities that enables integrated operational support.
Executive
Process View
Business
Service
Management
Executive
Integrated Operations View
Integrated
Operations
Business Process
Application
Application
Owner View
Applications
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Owner View
Infrastructure
Figure 12-2 Integrated systems management within multi-layer IT services environment
As Figure 12-2 suggests, business processes, applications, and infrastructure are all
interrelated. The execution of a specific business process can affect several applications,
each of which in turn might depend upon multiple infrastructure components, such as servers,
storage devices, and network switches.
12.2.3 Systems management considerations
Supportability, of course, is a key concern in the functional architecture of mission-critical
systems, such as the SAP implementations described in this book. However, even as the SAP
implementation project makes architectural and design decisions based upon functionality
and cost, it should also strongly consider the effects of these decisions on supportability,
availability, performance, and sustainability.
For example, a particular third-party business application might be the cheapest option for a
specific business function, and might integrate with SAP well enough, but is it easily
monitored and administered? Designing for supportability considers those types of factors
alongside performance and functionality.
Another business application might have stellar native monitoring and management
capabilities, but are those capabilities implemented in a way that enables for easy integration
into the project’s broader systems management solution? If not, does the application impose
a significant cost upon the business, or introduce a major stability risk in the event that the
integration difficulties cannot be mitigated?
If the project has to invest in heavy customization to achieve the wanted level of integration
with its management and monitoring architecture, and then the monitored application
changes, does all of the customization work need to be redone at a later time, for example,
during a major version upgrade? Will the project experience a blackout in capability if a great
monitoring tool is sourced from a company that goes out of business, or is bought by a
competitor insistent upon bundling it with incompatible or redundant products?
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
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12.3 Systems management reference architecture for
SAP-centric solutions
This section reviews an example of a realistic, representative, SAP-centric deployment
application architecture. Subsequently, it defines the corresponding monitoring architectures
from a traditional systems management and a business process availability perspective.
12.3.1 Application architecture
Figure 12-3 depicts a drilled-down view of an SAP solution deployment architecture with
multiple SAP applications, SAP partner applications, and IBM software components. The
figure includes simplified relationships between the core SAP components (enterprise
resource planning (ERP) Central Component (ECC), customer relationship management
(CRM), business intelligence (BI), and so on), third-party applications, custom applications,
portals, and middleware.
Yellow Zone
Red Zone
Blue Zone
Green Zone
https
WAS
Hardware proxy
appliance
ITIM
https https
https
https
https
https https
SOAP
https
Hardware
proxy
https appliance
https
SAP WD
EDGE
LB
EDGE
LB
SAP ECC
Java
https
https
https
SAP
Portal
https
WebSphere
Portal
SSO
TFIM
WebSeal
https
https
https
https
EDGE
LB
EDGE
LB
SAP WD
https
https
https
WAS
WAS
SAP
Bolt-on
Cognos
JCO
SAP
Web UI
SAP WD
EDGE
LB
httpshttps
https
https
https https
Filenet
ECM
SAP
IDM
EDGE
LB
EDGE
LB
https
https
https
MQFTE
SAP
Bolt-on
RFC
SAP
Bolt-on
JCO
RFC RFC
https
RFC
JCO
JDBC
RFC
RFC
SAP ECC
ABAP
SAP BW
ABAP
RFC
RFC
RFC
JDBC
MQ
https
Http
Web
Commerce
InfoSphere
MQ
MDM
SAP PI
RFC
RFC
LDAP
XML
RFC
IBM
Worklight
https
IBM BPM
Process
Server
SAP CRM
ABAP
Http
MQ,ftp,
Http(s)
Message
Broker
BAPI, IDOC, RFC
Http
MQ
https
DB2
RFC
RFC
RFC
RFC
RFC
NFS
MQ
NFS
RFC
NFS JDBC
MQ
ECC
DB2
RFC
RFC
RFC
BW
DB2
RFC
Portfolio
Applications
BAPI, IDOC
RFC
RFC
WebSeal
Proxy
BAPI, IDOC
BAPI, IDOC
ALERFC
BAPI, IDOC
BAPI, IDOC
DB2
DB2
RFC
RFC
https
Datastage
MQ,ftp
RFC
RFC
https
MQ
CRM
DB2
RFC
SAP CE
JDBC
Logging
SAP BW
Java
RFC
https
WebSphere
DataPower
Network
Load
Balancer https
WebSeal Proxy
Document
Data capture
SOAP
https
https
https
https
https
SAP
WD
https
Network Load
Balancer
https
SSO
TFIM/
Webseal
SAP GRC
Java
SAP Solution
Manager
RFC
RFC
https
WAS
RFC
Internet
Security
RFC
SAP SLD
JDBC
RFC
RFC
Tivoli
Workload
Scheduler
WAS
Infoprint
Manager
Portfolio
Print
infrastructure
LPD
Document
Management
LPD
FAX
LPD
fax
Communication
infrastructure
Figure 12-3 Partial detail of an SAP application architectural diagram
The network zones shown (red, yellow, green, and blue) represent differing levels of security
and locations of components with regard to firewalls.
Each of the core applications depicted by the blue rectangles in Figure 12-3 have several
application subcomponents, and multiple physical and virtualized infrastructure components.
All of these are combined in a multitude of interdependency relationships to enable hundreds
of business processes. For example, the SAP ECC labeled SAP ECC ABAP, slightly to the left
of the middle of Figure 12-3, has dozens of connections to other SAP business applications,
customer business systems, messaging hubs, portals, and so on.
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Viewed from an infrastructure point of view, that single blue SAP ECC rectangle is supported
by multiple application servers, which span both virtual and physical machines. It connects to
the database servers, which also have physical and virtual components, and which can be on
a different technical platform from the application servers. The database and application
servers are also connected to a storage infrastructure.
A given business process might have a hard dependency upon a web-facing portal, network
authentication, and security infrastructure, a combination of SAP business applications, a
third-party tax calculation system, and an internal messaging hub. In addition, all of those
applications and components expand out to physical dependencies upon a lengthy list of
virtual and physical system resources and their respective interconnections.
12.3.2 Infrastructure architecture
In parallel with the previous description of application architecture, the systems infrastructure
has hard dependencies on physical and virtual machines and their constituent devices, from
cards to cables. In an enterprise SAP-centric system, the infrastructure components are
interconnected to enable for both steady state and failover operations.
The infrastructure components support multiple, overlapping applications. The machines, out
of necessity, run on multiple operating systems. How is anyone supposed to understand,
intricately, the interrelationships with these various technologies, and their interdependencies
with the application architecture, let alone the combined relationships that exist between
application, infrastructure, and a multitude of business processes?
12.3.3 Systems management architecture
The following systems management architecture (Figure 12-4) depicts IBM and SAP systems
monitoring products, working together, combined to cover the application, infrastructure, and
business process monitoring requirements of a large, SAP-centric business solution.
IBM Tivoli
NetCool/OMNIbus
IBM Tivoli Common
Reporting (BIRT)
Performance/Capacity Reporting
Events Console
IBM Tivoli
NetCool/Impact
IBM Tivoli Monitoring
IBM Tivoli
Omegamon XE z/OS
OS, DB2 on zOS
IBM Tivoli
Data
Warehouse
IBM
SmartCloud
APM
IBM Tivoli NetView
Hardware/Network
Monitoring
IBM SmartCloud
APM
Applications Monitoring
IBM Systems
Director
Hardware Monitoring
SAP
Solution
Manager
Base Monitoring:
OS: Filesystem, CPU%, Processes,
Memory, etc.
Infrastructure Architecture
Solution deployment landscape
Вѓ System x, Power Systems, System z,
Linux on System z
Вѓ SAP and non-SAP solution
components
Вѓ 1000s of monitoring points
– ITM agents
– ITCAM data collectors
– SAP Solution manager
– IBM Director agents
– SNMP queries
Application Architecture
Figure 12-4 Systems management architecture
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
311
It is necessary to ensure that the monitoring and management tools that compose the
systems management architecture provide coverage over the totality of the technical solution.
This extensive coverage, however, just provides the potential of visibility to problems and the
ability to quickly diagnose and resolve them across the enterprise. Integrating these tools is
crucial to maximizing ROI in the monitoring and management infrastructure and, by
extension, the overall business systems.
Systems management integration decisions
Figure 12-4 on page 311 shows SAP Solution Manager as a part of this overall systems
management architecture, but not as the central hub. It is technically possible to integrate
infrastructure and non-SAP applications monitoring into SAP through SAP Solution Manager,
but that approach requires extensive SAP Solution Manager customization.
For a smaller SAP implementation, this configuration effort might not be a significant factor in
the decision. However, the greater the complexity of the physical infrastructure and non-SAP
IT landscape, the greater the integration effort to funnel that technical information into SAP
Solution Manager.
If there is a significant non-SAP systems and applications footprint and, especially, if those
resources are already managed by other technical solutions (including the many IBM
software products described in this book), consolidation of application and systems
monitoring into SAP Solution Manager is a less practical approach.
For complex, heterogeneous IT environments, especially when there is considerable
application and infrastructure monitoring in place, it makes more sense to view SAP Solution
Manager as a source of monitoring and management information, as opposed to the hub.
Information from within SAP Solution Manager that provides significant insight into
performance, health, and availability of the enterprise applications can be viewed in concert
with other applications and infrastructure to make determinations about the overall business
systems status.
This approach does not preclude the role of SAP Solution Manager as the monitoring and
management hub for those support resources primarily concerned with SAP (for example,
SAP Basis administrators, or Business Process support analysts). The ideal, however, is for
the application and business process-specific information from SAP Solution Manager to be
integrated into the broader enterprise systems management context.
Systems Management Products
This section lists the systems management products shown in Figure 12-4 on page 311, and
includes a brief description of their role in the systems management architecture:
IBM Tivoli OMEGAMONВ® XE for z/OS. The enterprise infrastructure architecture shown in
Figure 12-4 on page 311 is a three-tier SAP architecture, with the application servers
running on IBM POWER7В® processor-based servers and the database servers on IBM
System z10В® mainframe servers, running IBM z/OS. OMEGAMON XE for z/OS provides
monitoring and management of IBM System zВ® and IBM zEnterprise solutions.
IBM SmartCloudВ® Application Performance Management. IBM SmartCloud Application
Performance Management (APM) is a solution that includes application discovery, user
experience monitoring, transaction tracing, in-depth diagnostics, and data analytics and
reporting in a single package. IBM SmartCloud APM includes IBM Tivoli Composite
Application Manager for Applications, IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for
Microsoft Applications, and IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for Transactions.
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IBM SmartCloud Monitoring. This is the core of the architecture described in 12.3.3,
“Systems management architecture” on page 311. It includes IBM Tivoli Monitoring and
IBM Tivoli Monitoring for Virtual Environments. IBM SmartCloud Monitoring provides
visibility into systems infrastructure, including both virtual and physical environments. It
also provides for monitoring of heterogeneous environments.
IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager Family. Multiple Tivoli Composite Application
Manager products that collectively provide for detailed monitoring of applications spanning
multiple components, in addition to the ability to delve deep into infrastructure subsystems
to identify bottlenecks, flag inefficiencies, and determine root cause for application
problems.
IBM Tivoli NetViewВ® for z/OS. Provides management, automation, and monitoring of z/OS
networks.
IBM Tivoli Network Manager IP Edition. Provides real-time management, monitoring,
discovery, topology visualization, and root cause analysis for layer 2 and 3 networks
including Internet Protocol (IP), Ethernet, and Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).
SAP Solution Manager. SAP Solution Manager is an SAP product for managing all
aspects of SAP operations, including monitoring, SLA measurements, business process
performance, technical and functional monitoring, and key performance indicator (KPI)
reporting.
IBM Tivoli Business Service Manager. Integrated dashboard capable of providing
operational and business audiences with the service visibility to effectively manage
real-time service health and business activity, including automated service modeling,
service impact analysis, root cause analysis, and tracking of KPIs and SLAs.
IBM Tivoli Netcool/OMNIbus. Provides consolidated event management, correlation, and
forwarding for multiple monitoring sources.
IBM Systems Director. Provides tools for discovery, inventory, status, configuration,
system health, resource monitoring, system updates, and event management for
IBM hardware.
IBM Tivoli Data Warehouse. It is an embedded technology that provides a repository for
data from IBM Tivoli Monitoring, IBM SmartCloud Application Performance Management,
and other products, enabling for analysis of health, performance, and availability data
within the managed infrastructure. Tivoli Data Warehouse is included in Tivoli Monitoring
and IBM SmartCloud APM.
12.4 Business process availability management for
SAP-centric solutions
Multiple IBM products used in supporting a large SAP-centric enterprise business application
can be combined in a particular systems management architecture to provide business
process availability management (BPAM).
This combination of products and capabilities, as shown in Figure 12-5 on page 314, enables
contextual integration of business process, application, infrastructure, and systems
management architectures. In that way, this BPAM architecture enables an enterprise to
transition from an IT systems management (ITSM) to a BSM model of operations.
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
313
12.4.1 Business process availability management architecture
The BPAM architecture combines the systems management architecture from Figure 12-4 on
page 311 with additional products to provide an integrated, business process-centric view of
enterprise system health and availability, for both real time and historical (reporting)
purposes. These additional products include, principally, IBM Tivoli Application Dependency
Discovery Manager and Tivoli Business Service Manager, in combination with the Business
Process discovery library adapter (DLA) and, optionally, the Tivoli Monitoring DLA.
Process Availability Dashboard
Process Availability Reporting
IBM Tivoli Business
Service Manager
Business process outage
Operational alert and
process owner notification
Consolidated Business Process
and Technical Monitoring
and Alerting
Create process to application,
systems and infrastructure
component relationships
TDW
Outages,
Alerts
Events
Alert outage DB
and KPIs /
Metrics
IBM Tivoli
NetCool/OMNIbus
Monitoring Events
& Consoles
TADDM
BP DLA
Input business
Events
Business Process,
Application, Infrastructure
Relationships
process to high
level application
ITM DLA
Associate monitoring events
with applications, systems
and Infrastructure relationships
IBM SmartCloud Monitoring
ITM, ITCAM, etc
Monitors
SAP Monitoring
SAP SolMan, etc
Monitors
and infrastructure
relationships
IBM SmartCloud
APM for SAP
Discover Configuration
Items (CIs) and their
relationships
Enhanced Business Process
Hierarchy
Infrastructure Architecture
(optional)
Application Architecture
Business process hierarchies,
Relationship to Systems and Applications
Figure 12-5 Business process availability management architecture
This solution consumes a customer-created representation of their business process
relationships, called the enhanced business process hierarchy (BPH). The roles of these
components in the BPAM architecture are explained in this section.
The following list describes the BPAM architecture functional flow and component
descriptions (starting from the lower left corner of Figure 12-5):
Enhanced Business Process Hierarchy. The enhanced BPH consists of a set of five
comma-separated value (.csv) files that provide business process data in a format
specified by the Business Process Discovery Library Adapter (BP DLA). Using the
structured format of these .csv files, the customer declares the detailed interrelationships
between business processes and their peer, parent, and child processes, in addition to
documenting, for each process, their high-level application and system interdependencies.
Business Process Discovery Library Adapter. The BP DLA consumes the enhanced BPH
and translates these customer-declared relationships between business processes,
applications, and systems into configuration items (CIs).
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This is done in a database format recognizable by Tivoli Application Dependency
Discovery Manager. To receive information about the source code and detailed
instructions for the Business Process DLA, contact Derek Jennings at
[email protected] or Mathew Davis at [email protected]
Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager. Tivoli Application Dependency
Discovery Manager is the strategic data center discovery solution from IBM. It
automatically creates and maintains application infrastructure maps based on sensors
that discover application and system relationships, including configuration attributes and
dependencies. These relationships are then used to create application and system
topologies.
In the BPAM architecture, the relationship and dependency data obtained by sensors from
the application architecture and infrastructure architecture is augmented by the business
process relationship data, sourced from the customer’s enhanced BPH and loaded into
Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager using the Business Process DLA.
The result is a Business Processпѓџпѓ Applicationпѓџпѓ Infrastructure integrated relationship
model. Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager takes the high-level
dependencies declared by the customer between process and application, and application
and system, and combines them with deep, low-level, detailed dependency information
gained by interrogation of applications, systems, and subcomponents using sensors.
For example, the BP DLA can declare that the sales order creation process has a
dependency on SAP system YPE, which has a dependency on Application Server Group
001 and Database Server Group 002. Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager,
however, knows the precise hardware specifications of the constituent servers of
Application Server Group 001.
This information includes their physical and virtual machine names, their operating
systems and other software release and patch numbers, and the connections those
various servers have to storage. Because of the BP DLA, a direct line can be drawn
between a business process and all of those lower-level dependencies.
Monitoring. For the purposes of understanding the business process availability
management architecture, remember that the lower right corner of Figure 12-5 is a
simplified view of the systems management architecture shown in Figure 12-4 on
page 311.
IBM SmartCloud Monitoring, which consists of Tivoli Monitoring and Tivoli Composite
Application Monitoring, is shown in Figure 12-5 along with SAP Application Monitoring
(whether through SAP Solution Manager or IBM SmartCloud Application Performance
Monitoring for SAP).
However, there are many other monitoring products, themselves covering different
aspects of the application, infrastructure, and even business process architecture, and the
exact components of this systems management architecture vary based on the types of
applications and infrastructure, and the monitoring choices, for a given customer’s
SAP-centric enterprise system.
For BPAM, the consolidated output of the monitoring infrastructure takes two paths. The
first is toward Tivoli Netcool/OMNIbus, and the second one is through the Tivoli Monitoring
DLA and into Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager.
IBM Tivoli Netcool/OMNIbus. Multiple sources of monitoring data feed into the
Netcool/OMNIbus Event Manager, which enables for event correlation, consolidation, and
forwarding. Although various monitoring events within an enterprise can go to different
portals or dashboards visible to specialized support teams, Netcool/OMNIbus enables for
monitoring event data to also be interrogated, filtered, and passed along based upon
configurable criteria. For BPAM, relevant monitoring event data is forwarded to Tivoli
Business Service Manager.
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
315
Tivoli Monitoring DLA. The Tivoli Monitoring DLA can be used to enhance the Tivoli
Application Dependency Discovery Manager database of business process, application,
and infrastructure interdependencies, with information about which monitoring exists for
the various solution components.
This is useful for reporting on monitoring coverage across the enterprise solution, enabling
for identification of application and infrastructure components in need of monitoring. The
Tivoli Monitoring DLA is available with the Tivoli Application Discovery Dependency
product.
Tivoli Business Service Manager. Tivoli Business Service Manager, in the context of
BPAM, is a meta-portal. It is the place where the declared and discovered
interdependencies can be displayed. The process/application/infrastructure dependencies
are loaded from Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager into Tivoli Business
Service Manager, where they are used to build service trees.
From these service trees in Tivoli Business Service Manager, an operator, manager, or
technical specialist can drill down from a high-level process to a low-level one, and, from
any level, identify the associated high and low-level application and system details,
including real-time red/yellow/green status.
Likewise, the physical or application infrastructure can be traversed, up or down. This
enables outages or alerts to be viewed at the highest or lowest levels necessary to
understand the potential scope of a problem. The health status of the items shown in Tivoli
Business Service Manager is triggered by receipt of the events forwarded from
Netcool/OMNIbus.
Rather than configure every eventuality, rules can be set up so that inbound events will
light up the appropriate node of the service tree when the ID of the affected components
corresponds to the pre-configured contents of the process/application/infrastructure model
imported from Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager. This approach enables
a comprehensive, yet flexible, solution.
12.4.2 Business Process DLA overview
The Business Process DLA is the key to enabling the business process availability
management solution described in this chapter. Even when an organization realizes that a
comprehensive mapping of their business process пѓџпѓ applicationпѓџпѓ infrastructure
dependencies is of vital import, how can this be accomplished? The following list include
typical questions organizations ask themselves in this context:
Does our business process architect need to be an expert in monitoring tool
configuration?
Does our monitoring architect need to become an expert in multiple aspects of the
company’s business?
Each approach involves valuable resources spending time attempting to understand
significantly different areas of expertise. The creation of the BP DLA resolves this dilemma,
and it enables savings in enablement, administration, and maintenance of a comprehensive
enterprise system monitoring and management solution.
The BP DLA enables a business process subject matter expert to work with an application
architect to create a high-level model of business process relationships with other business
processes, business process relationships with applications, and applications relationships
with infrastructure. In the structured source (.csv) files that feed the BP DLA, the business
processes (BPs) are associated with system identifiers (SIDs), which can either correspond
to actual SAP SIDs, or be created for the sake of reference to solution components.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
These BPs and SIDs are correlated by the Business Process DLA with Tivoli Application
Dependency Discovery Manager-discovered CIs, which contain detailed information about
the items, including their relationships and dependencies. Tivoli Application Dependency
Discovery Manager sensors discover (collect detailed configuration information from) the IT
infrastructure, including identification of deployed software components, physical servers,
network devices, virtual LAN, and host data used in a runtime environment.
04.05.05.05 Validate and Approve Contract
04.05.05.10 Reject Contract
04.05.05.15 Register Contract
04.05.10 Manage Sales Contract
04.05.10.05 Activate Legal Contract
04.05.10.10 Manage System Quantity Contract
11.10 FIN - Process Accounts Payable
04.05.10.15 Manage System Value Contract
11.10.05 Receive and Scan Paper Invoice
04.05.10.20 Manage System Sales Agreement
11.10.10 Process Invoice
04.05.10.25 Manage Recurring Charge Contract
11.10.10.05 Process Paper Invoice
11.10.10.10 Evaluated Receipt Settlement
11.10.10.15 Manage Supplier Down Payment
11.10.15 Process AP Invoice Exceptions
11.10.15.05 Manage Invoice Cancel and RTV
11.10.15.10 Manage Invoice Block
Business Process
Hierarchy
L2 Business
Process
Associates
BPs with CIs
L3 BP
L3 BP
L3 BP
L4 BP
L4 BP
L4 BP
System ID*
System ID*
System ID*
Configuration Item
Configuration Item
Configuration Item
From TADDM Sensors
03.10 O2O - Manage Leads and Opportunities
03.10.10 Process Opportunities
03.10.10.05 Create Opportunity
03.10.10.10 Manage Sales team n distrib Oppy
03.10.10.15 Assign Prods or Prod categ
03.10.10.20 Plan Activities per phase
03.10.10.25
QualifyCustomer
Opportunity
04.05
O2C - Manage
Contracts
03.10.10.30
Use elements
of Sales
methodology
04.05.05
Register and
Activate
Contract
From Business Process Extract
This data includes CIs and relationships discovered using sensors, in addition to those
alternately loaded through DLAs. This process is demonstrated in Figure 12-6.
*BPs can be
at any level
Application Architecture
Infrastructure Architecture
Figure 12-6 How the Business Process DLA works
In Figure 12-6, the enhanced BPH has been provided to the Business Process DLA.
Figure 12-6 shows that a given Level 2 BP is composed of three Level 3 BPs. One of those
Level 3 BPs, itself, consists of three Level 4 BPs. One of those Level 4 BPs has a dependency
upon three different systems, as represented by their SIDs. All of that information was
provided by the Enhanced BPH.
Meanwhile, Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager already knows about the
various SIDs and, in fact, is aware that one of the SIDs has two child CIs. One of these CIs
has its own child CI, or technical subcomponent. The business process subject matter expert
(SME) or application architect has no idea of the technical complexity of the system under the
SID level.
However, by virtue of the BP DLA and an active Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery
Manager implementation (in which all systems and applications in the enterprise are
scanned), the business process SME has now effectively associated a Level 4 BP with an IT
system and two levels of components underneath of it.
Depending upon the configuration of process criticality, and technical inheritance, which can
be declared along with the enhanced BPH, a technical failure of that lower-level infrastructure
component will not only flag its parent CI and SID, it will also signal the unavailability of that
Level 4 BP. Again, depending upon configuration, that Level 4 process availability might
propagate all the way up to a Level 2 BP.
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
317
A Level 4 BP corresponds to an individual SAP transaction, or perhaps an interface. If a
critical required system is down (for example, a messaging channel in the case of an
interface), and that interface is defined as critical, the low-level unavailability of the messaging
channel will cause that Level 4 and its parent BPs to be lit up in the service management tree
visible in Tivoli Business Service Manager for the BPAM solution.
More information: The Business Process DLA is categorized as a utility, and is made
available upon request to Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager customers. To
receive information about the source code and detailed instructions for the Business
Process DLA, contact Derek Jennings at [email protected] or Mathew Davis at
[email protected]
The process of populating a Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager database with
a correlated set of BPs and SIDs described earlier is a useful technique. It is possible to
model the BP and SID relationships directly in Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery
Manager, through its user interface (UI). However, in the event that there are hundreds, or
thousands of business processes, this will be a difficult task.
Also, it would require that a Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager SME have
extensive business process knowledge, or a business process SME be adept at navigating
and configuring Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager.
12.5 Summary
IBM software portfolio includes several products with deep capability for providing systems
management of large, complex business systems, as typified by SAP solutions. Any
organization attempting to manage a large, SAP-centric enterprise system must take several
factors into account when choosing their tools. In addition to examining how a product or
product suite fits for a particular requirement, support organizations must also consider the
comprehensiveness of coverage of the tools, ease of integration, and extensibility.
Heterogeneous systems require multiple levels of support and tools. However, to maximize
availability, health, and stability, those tools should be able to be combined to provide an
end-to-end, contextual view to support teams. This integrated worldview is increasingly
important to business users and executives, who have little patience for arcane systems
metrics that do not have correlation to their user experiences.
A business services management model is necessary to effectively marry a business
process-centric and IT-centric view of system health, availability and performance. IBM
enables a BSM model through BPAM, a solution that combines multiple IBM products. BPAM
integrates these products in such a way as to minimize the need for manual configuration,
while reducing the need for key personnel to take on new roles (business process SME to
monitoring architect, or vice versa) just to enable a state-of-the-art solution.
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
12.6 References
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM Tivoli Monitoring
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivomoni/
IBM Tivoli NetView for z/OS
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivoli-netview-zos
IBM Tivoli Netcool/Impact
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivonetc
IBM Tivoli Netcool/OMNIbus
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/ibmtivolinetcoolomnibus
IBM SmartCloud Application Performance Management
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/category/application-performance-manage
ment
IBM Tivoli OMEGAMON XE for z/OS
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/omegamon-xe-zos
IBM SmartCloud Monitoring
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/ibmsmarmoni
Tivoli Network Manager IP Edition
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/ibmtivolinetworkmanageripedition
IBM Tivoli Business Service Manager
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivoli-business-service-manager
IBM Systems Director
http://www.ibm.com/systems/director/
IBM Tivoli Data Warehouse
http://www.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/data-warehouse/
IBM Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/tivoliapplicationdependencydiscoveryman
ager
Chapter 12. Systems management for SAP
319
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IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
description of the topics covered in this book.
IBM Redbooks
The following IBM Redbooks publications provide additional information about the topic in this
document. Note that some publications referenced in this list might be available in softcopy
only.
Smarter Business: Dynamic Information with IBM InfoSphere Data Replication CDC,
SG24-7941
Implementing Imaging Solutions with IBM Production Imaging Edition and IBM Datacap
Taskmaster Capture, SG24-7969
Customizing and Extending IBM Content Navigator, SG24-8055
Introducing the IBM Security Framework and IBM Security Blueprint to Realize
Business-Driven Security, REDP-4528
Integrating IBM Security and SAP Solutions, SG24-8015
Smarter Business: Dynamic Information with IBM InfoSphere Data Replication CDC,
SG24-7941
You can search for, view, download or order these documents and other Redbooks,
Redpapers, Web Docs, draft and additional materials, at the following website:
ibm.com/redbooks
Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
Enterprise Master Data Management: An SOA Approach to Managing Core Information,
IBM Press, ISBN10: 0132366258; ISBN13: 9780132366250
В© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014. All rights reserved.
321
Online resources
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
IBM API Management
http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/en/api-management
IBM Integration Bus
http://www.ibm.com/software/products/en/ibm-integration-bus
IBM Integration Bus Information Version 9.0
http://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/SSMKHH_9.0.0/mapfiles/help_home_msgb
roker.html?lang=en
IBM InfoSphere Information Server Family
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/integration/info_server/
Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
322
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
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250 <-> 459 pages
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
IBM Software for SAP Solutions
Back cover
В®
IBM Software for SAP
Solutions
В®
Learn how IBM
software adds value
to SAP solutions
SAP is a market leader in enterprise business application software.
SAP solutions provide a rich set of composable application modules
and configurable functional capabilities which are expected from a
comprehensive enterprise business application software suite.
Understand how IBM
software capabilities
for SAP should be
used
In most cases, companies that adopt SAP software remain
heterogeneous enterprises running both SAP and non-SAP systems to
support their business processes. Regardless of the specific scenario,
in heterogeneous enterprises most SAP implementations must be
integrated with a variety of non-SAP enterprise systems, portals,
messaging infrastructure, business process management (BPM) tools,
enterprise content management (ECM) methods and tools, business
analytics (BA) and business intelligence (BI) technologies, security,
systems of record, systems of engagement, and so on.
Discover IBM
Reference
Architecture for SAP
When SAP software is used in a large, heterogeneous enterprise
environment, SAP clients face the dilemma of selecting the correct set
of tools and platforms to implement SAP functionality and to integrate
the SAP solutions with non-SAP systems.
This IBM Redbooks publication explains the value of integrating IBM
software with SAP solutions. It describes how to enhance and extend
pre-built capabilities in SAP software with best-in-class IBM enterprise
software, enabling clients to maximize ROI in their SAP investment and
achieve a balanced enterprise architecture approach.
This book describes IBM Reference Architecture for SAP, a prescriptive
blueprint for using IBM software in SAP solutions.
This IBM Redbooks publication is targeted to client decision makers,
solution architects, IT architects, and consultants who want to learn
about the benefits of integrating IBM technology with SAP solutions.
SG24-8230-00
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