C060220-1_Installation - Climate Center Online

C060220-1_Installation - Climate Center Online
Scroll Compressors for Refrigeration
ZB15K* to ZB220K*, ZS21K* to ZS11M*, ZF06K* to ZF48K*, ZF13KVE to ZF48KVE
1
Safety instructions ............................................................................................ 1
1.1 Icon explanation ................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Safety statements .............................................................................................................. 1
1.3 General instructions ........................................................................................................... 2
2
Product description .......................................................................................... 3
2.1 Common information about Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors............................................ 3
2.2 About this guideline ............................................................................................................ 3
2.3 Nomenclature ..................................................................................................................... 4
2.4 Application range ............................................................................................................... 4
3
2.4.1
Qualified refrigerants and oils ................................................................................ 4
2.4.2
Application limits ..................................................................................................... 4
Installation ......................................................................................................... 6
3.1 Compressor handling ......................................................................................................... 6
3.1.1
Transport and storage ............................................................................................ 6
3.1.2
Positioning and securing ........................................................................................ 6
3.1.3
Installation location ................................................................................................. 6
3.1.4
Mounting parts ........................................................................................................ 6
3.2 Brazing procedure .............................................................................................................. 7
3.3 Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors with liquid injection ......................................................... 8
3.3.1
Liquid injection details for ZF06K4E to ZF18K4E compressors............................. 8
3.3.2
Liquid injection details for ZF24K4E to ZF48K4E compressors............................. 8
3.4 Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors with vapour injection ...................................................... 9
3.5 Shut-off valves and adaptors ........................................................................................... 10
3.6 Suction accumulators ....................................................................................................... 10
3.7 Screens ............................................................................................................................ 11
3.8 Mufflers ............................................................................................................................ 11
3.9 Suction line noise and vibration ....................................................................................... 11
4
Electrical connection ...................................................................................... 13
4.1 General recommendations............................................................................................... 13
4.2 Electrical installation ........................................................................................................ 13
4.2.1
Terminal box ......................................................................................................... 15
4.2.2
Motor windings ..................................................................................................... 15
4.2.3
Protection devices ................................................................................................ 15
4.2.4
Current sensing relay for use with compressors with liquid or vapour injection .. 16
4.2.5
Crankcase heaters ............................................................................................... 16
4.3 Pressure safety controls .................................................................................................. 17
4.3.1
High-pressure control ........................................................................................... 17
4.3.2
Low-pressure control ............................................................................................ 17
4.3.3
Internal pressure relief valve ................................................................................ 17
4.4 Discharge temperature protection ................................................................................... 17
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
4.5 Motor protection ............................................................................................................... 18
4.6 Phase protection .............................................................................................................. 18
4.7 Protector functional check and failure detection .............................................................. 19
4.7.1
Checking the connection ...................................................................................... 19
4.7.2
Checking the compressor thermistor chain .......................................................... 19
4.7.3
Checking the protection module ........................................................................... 19
4.8 High-potential testing ....................................................................................................... 19
5
Starting up & operation................................................................................... 21
5.1 Strength pressure test ...................................................................................................... 21
5.2 Tightness/pressure test .................................................................................................... 21
5.3 System evacuation ........................................................................................................... 21
5.4 Preliminary checks – Pre-starting .................................................................................... 22
5.5 Charging procedure ......................................................................................................... 22
5.6 Initial start-up ................................................................................................................... 22
5.7 Rotation direction ............................................................................................................. 22
5.8 Starting sound .................................................................................................................. 23
5.9 Deep vacuum operation ................................................................................................... 23
5.10 Shell temperature ............................................................................................................. 23
5.11 Pump down cycle ............................................................................................................. 23
5.12 Minimum run time ............................................................................................................ 24
5.13 Shut-off sound .................................................................................................................. 24
5.14 Frequency ........................................................................................................................ 24
5.15 Oil level ............................................................................................................................ 24
6
Maintenance & repair ...................................................................................... 25
6.1 Exchanging the refrigerant ............................................................................................... 25
6.2 Rotalock valves ................................................................................................................ 25
6.3 Replacing a compressor .................................................................................................. 25
6.3.1
Compressor replacement ..................................................................................... 25
6.3.2
Start-up of a new or replacement compressor ..................................................... 25
6.4 Lubrication and oil removal .............................................................................................. 26
6.5 Oil additives ..................................................................................................................... 26
6.6 Unbrazing system components ....................................................................................... 27
7
Dismantling & disposal ................................................................................... 27
DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................................... 27
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Safety instructions
Safety
instructions
1
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors are manufactered according to the latest European and US
Safety Standards. Particular emphasis has been placed on the user’s safety.
These compressors are intended for installation in systems according to the EC Machines
directive. They may be put to service only if they have been installed in these systems according
to instructions and conform to the corresponding provisions of legislation. For relevant standards
please refer to Manufacturers Declaration, available on request.
Product
description
These instructions should be retained throughout the lifetime of the compressor.
You are strongly advised to follow these safety instructions.
Icon explanation
1.2




NOTE
Installation
CAUTION
This icon indicates instructions to
avoid property damage and possible
personal injury.
IMPORTANT
This icon indicates instructions to
avoid malfunction of the compressor.
This
word
indicates
a
recommendation for easier operation.
Electrical
connection
WARNING
This icon indicates instructions to
avoid personal injury and material
damage.
High voltage
This icon indicates operations with a
danger of electric shock.
Danger of burning or frostbite
This icon indicates operations with a
danger of burning or frostbite.
Explosion hazard
This icon indicates operations with a
danger of explosion.
Safety statements
Refrigerant compressors must be employed only for their intended use.
Only qualified and authorized HVAC or refrigeration personnel are permitted to install,
commission and maintain this equipment.
Electrical connections must be made by qualified electrical personnel.
All valid standards for connecting electrical and refrigeration equipment must be
observed.
Starting up &
operation
1.1
Dismantling &
disposal
Maintenance &
repair
Use personal safety equipment.
Safety goggles, gloves,
protective clothing, safety boots and hard hats should be worn
where necessary.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
1
1.3
General instructions
WARNING
System breakdown! Personal injuries! Never install a system in the field
and leave it unattended when it has no charge, a holding charge, or with the
service valves closed without electrically locking out the system.
System breakdown! Personal injuries! Only approved refrigerants and
refrigeration oils must be used.
WARNING
High shell temperature! Burning! Do not touch the compressor until it has
cooled down. Ensure that other materials in the area of the compressor do
not get in touch with it. Lock and mark accessible sections.
CAUTION
Overheating! Bearing damage! Do not operate compressors without
refrigerant charge or without being connected to the system.
CAUTION
Contact with POE! Material damage! POE lubricant must be handled
carefully and the proper protective equipment (gloves, eye protection, etc.)
must be used at all times. POE must not come into contact with any surface
or material that it might damage, including without limitation, certain
polymers, eg, PVC/CPVC and polycarbonate.
IMPORTANT
Transit damage! Compressor malfunction! Use original packaging. Avoid
collisions and tilting.
2
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Product description
2.1
Common information about Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors
Safety
instructions
2
The Scroll compressor has been under development at Emerson Climate Technologies since
1979. It is the most efficient and durable compressor Emerson Climate Technologies has ever
developed for air-conditioning and refrigeration.
Compressor
R404A* R407F*
Motor
Compressor
R404A** R407F*
Cooling
capacity
kW
Motor
R404A**
ZB15KCE
3.32
PFJ/TFD
ZF06K4E
1.43
TFD
ZB19KCE
4.16
PFJ/TFD
ZF08K4E
1.76
TFD
ZB21KCE
5.05
PFJ/TFD
ZF09K4E
1.94
TFD
ZB26KCE
5.85
PFJ/TFD
ZF11K4E
2.46
TFD
ZB29KCE
6.97
6.08
PFJ/TFD
ZB30KCE
6.87
6.61
PFJ/TFD
ZF13K4E
2.78
7.03
TFD
ZB38KCE
8.53
8.21
PFJ/TFD
ZF15K4E
3.42
8.46
TFD
ZB45KCE
10.05
9.66
TFD
ZF18K4E
4.18
10.30
ZB48KCE
11.63
10.79
TFD
ZB56KCE
11.75
TWD
ZF24K4E
ZB75KCE
17.15
TWD
ZF33K4E
ZB92KCE
21.20
TWD
ZB11MCE
25.80
TWD
ZF13KVE
3.96
TFD
TFD
ZF18KVE
5.91
TFD
5.16
TWD
ZF24KVE
7.20
TWD
7.09
TWD
ZF33KVE
9.80
TWD
ZF40K4E
8.78
TWD
ZF40KVE
11.92
TWD
ZF48K4E
10.6
TWD
ZF48KVE
14.92
TWD
Installation
Motor
Cooling
capacity
kW
Electrical
connection
Compressor
Cooling
capacity
kW
Product
description
This application guideline deals with all vertical single Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors for
refrigeration applications from ZB15K* to ZB220K*, ZS21K* to ZS11M* and ZF06K* to
ZF48K*, including vapour injection compressors.
Table 1: Compressor capacity
* EN 12900 Conditions for medium temperature: R404A & R407F
Evaporating temperature .....-10В°C
Suction gas return temperature ..... 20В°C
Condensing temperature ..... 45В°C
Liquid sub-cooling ......................... 0K
Starting up &
operation
** EN 12900 Conditions for low temperature: R404A
Evaporating temperature .....-35В°C
Suction gas return temperature ..... 20В°C
Condensing temperature ..... 40В°C
Liquid sub-cooling ......................... 0K
These compressors have one Scroll compression set driven by a single or three-phase induction
motor. The Scroll set is mounted at the upper end of the rotor shaft of the motor. The rotor shaft
axis is in the vertical plane.
About this guideline
Maintenance &
repair
2.2
Dismantling &
disposal
This guideline is intended to enable users to ensure the safe installation, starting, operation and
maintenance of Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors. It is not intended to replace the system
expertise available from system manufacturers.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
3
2.3
Nomenclature
The model designation contains the following technical information about the standard and
vapour injection compressors:
Z B 56K C E - TWD - 551
Bill of material number
Motor version
Oil type:
E = POE oil
None = mineral oil
Model variation
Nominal capacity [BTU/h] @ 60 Hz and *, ** ARI conditions
Application range temperature:
B = high/medium *
S = high/medium *
F = low **
Compressor family: Z = Scroll
C_T_ZS_008
2.4
Application range
2.4.1 Qualified refrigerants and oils
IMPORTANT
It is essential that the glide of refrigerant blends (primarily R407C and
R407F) is carefully considered when adjusting pressure and superheat
controls.
Oil recharge values can be taken from Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors brochures or CopelandВ®
brand products Selection Software.
Compressor
ZB
ZS, ZF
1)
Qualified refrigerants
R404A, R407C, R407F ,
R134a, R22
CopelandВ® brand
products standard oil
Servicing oils
1)
ZFKVE
1)
R404A, R407F ,
R134a, R22
R404A
Emkarate RL 32 3MAF
Emkarate RL 32 3MAF, Mobil EAL Arctic 22 CC
Only for models ZB30K* to ZB48K* and ZF13K4E to ZF18K4E
Table 2: Qualified refrigerants and oils
2.4.2 Application limits
CAUTION
Inadequate lubrication! Compressor breakdown! The superheat at the
compressor suction inlet must always be sufficient to ensure that no
refrigerant droplets enter the compressor. For a typical evaporator-expansion
valve configuration a minimum stable superheat of at least 5K is required.
4
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
The application envelopes shown below are for R404A and R407F. For other refrigerant
application envelopes please refer to CopelandВ® brand products Selection Software on
www.emersonclimate.eu.
ZB220K*
60
60
60
50
45
40
R404A
35
30
25
20
55
50
45
40
R404A
35
30
25
20
55
50
45
40
30
25
20
15
15
15
10
10
10
5
5
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
Evaporating Temperature
10
15
R404A
35
Product
description
55
Condensing Temperature (oC)
65
Safety
instructions
ZB56K* to ZB11M*
65
Condensing Temperature (oC)
Condensing Temperature (oC)
ZB15K* to ZB48K*
65
5
-30
(oC)
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
Evaporating Temperature
10
-30
15
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
5
10
Evaporating Temperature (oC)
(oC)
10K Suction Superheat
25oC Suction Gas Return
ZF24KVE to ZF48KVE
60
60
60
50
45
40
R404A
30
25
20
50
45
40
30
25
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
-45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10
-5
Evaporating Temperature
0
5
10
R404A
35
55
50
45
40
R404A
35
30
25
20
15
-45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10
(oC)
-5
Evaporating Temperature
25oC Suction Gas Return
+ Liquid Injection
0
5
-45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10
10
-5
0
Evaporating Temperature (oC)
(oC)
0 oC Suction Gas Return
25oC Suction Gas Return
Starting up &
operation
35
55
Electrical
connection
55
Condensing Temperature (oC)
65
Installation
ZF13KVE to ZF18KVE
65
Condensing Temperature (oC)
Condensing Temperature (oC)
ZF06K* to ZF48K*
65
Figure 1: Application envelopes with R404A
ZF13K* to ZF18K*
60
55
55
50
45
40
35
R407F
30
25
20
15
10
50
45
Maintenance &
repair
Condensing Temperature tc (oC)
40
35
R407F
30
25
20
15
10
5
5
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Evaporating Temperature
5
10
15
(oC)
10K Suction Superheat
25oC Suction Gas Return
-45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10
-5
0
5
10
Evaporating Temperature to (oC)
Dismantling &
disposal
Condensing Temperature (oC)
ZB30K* to ZB48K*
60
20oC Suction Gas Return + Liquid injection
Figure 2: Application envelopes with R407F
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
5
3
Installation
WARNING
High pressure! Injury to skin and eyes possible! Be careful when
opening connections on a pressurized item.
3.1
Compressor handling
3.1.1 Transport and storage
WARNING
Risk of collapse! Personal injuries! Move compressors only with
appropriate mechanical or handling equipment according to weight. Keep in
the upright position. Stack pallets on top of each other when not exceeding
300 kg. Do not stack single boxes on top of each other. Keep the packaging
dry at all times.
Figure 3
3.1.2 Positioning and securing
IMPORTANT
Handling damage! Compressor malfunction! Only use the lifting eyes
whenever the compressor requires positioning. Using discharge or suction
connections for lifting may cause damage or leaks.
If possible, the compressor should be kept vertical during handling. The discharge connection
plug should be removed first before pulling the suction connection plug to allow the dry air
pressure inside the compressor to escape. Pulling the plugs in this sequence prevents oil mist
from coating the suction tube making brazing difficult. The copper-coated steel suction tube
should be cleaned before brazing. No object, eg, a swaging tool should be inserted deeper than
51 mm into the suction tube or it might damage the suction screen and motor.
3.1.3 Installation location
Ensure the compressors are installed on a solid level base.
3.1.4 Mounting parts
Four vibration absorber grommets are supplied with each compressor. They dampen the start-up
surge of the compressor and minimise sound and vibration transmission to the compressor base
during operation. The metal sleeve inside is a guide designed to hold the grommet in place. It is
not designed as a load-bearing member, and application of excessive torque to the bolts can
crush the sleeve. Its inner diameter is approximately 8.5 mm to fit, eg, an M8 screw. The
mounting torque should be 13 В± 1 Nm. It is critically important that the grommet is not
compressed.
If the compressors are mounted in tandem or used in parallel, then the hard mountings (bolt M9
5/16”) are recommended. The mounting torque should be 27 ± 1 Nm. It is possible to deliver
these hard mounting parts as a kit, or on request to deliver the compressor with these parts
instead of the rubber grommets.
6
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Safety
instructions
Mounting parts: ZB15K* to ZB48K*, ZS21K* to ZS45K*, ZF06K* to ZF18K* Soft mountings
Product
description
Mounting parts: ZB56K* to ZB11M*, ZS56K* to ZS11M*, ZF24K* to ZF48K* Soft mountings
Installation
Mounting parts: ZB220K* - Soft mountings
Figure 4
Brazing procedure
Electrical
connection
3.2
Starting up &
operation
IMPORTANT
Blockage! Compressor breakdown! Maintain a flow of oxygen-free
nitrogen through the system at very low pressure during brazing. Nitrogen
displaces the air and prevents the formation of copper oxides in the system.
If allowed to form, the copper oxide material can later be swept through the
system and block screens such as those protecting capillary tubes, thermal
expansion valves, and accumulator oil return holes.
Contamination or moisture! Bearing failure! Do not remove the plugs until
the compressor is set into the unit. This minimises any entry of contaminants
and moisture.
Figure 5: Suction tube brazing







Figure 5 shows the proper procedure for brazing the
suction and discharge lines to a Scroll compressor.
The copper-coated steel tubes on Scroll compressors can be brazed in approximately the
same manner as any copper tube.
Recommended brazing materials: any silfos material is recommended, preferably with a
minimum of 5% silver. However, 0% silver is acceptable.
Be sure tube fitting inner diameter and tube outer diameter are clean prior to assembly.
Using a double-tipped torch, apply heat in area 1.
As the tube approaches brazing temperature, move the torch flame to area 2.
Heat area 2 until braze temperature is attained, moving the torch up and down and rotating
around the tube as necessary to heat the tube evenly. Add braze material to the joint while
moving the torch around the joint to flow braze material around the circumference.
After the braze material flows around the joint, move the torch to heat area 3. This will draw
the braze material down into the joint. The time spent heating area 3 should be minimal.
As with any brazed joint, overheating may be detrimental to the final result.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Dismantling &
disposal

Maintenance &
repair
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors have copper-plated
steel suction and discharge tubes. These tubes are far
more robust and less prone to leaks than copper tubes.
Due to the different thermal properties of steel and
copper, brazing procedures may have to be changed
from those commonly used.
7
To disconnect:
 Heat joint areas 2 and 3 slowly and uniformly until the braze material softens and the tube
can be pulled out of the fitting.
To reconnect:
 Recommended brazing materials: Silfos with minimum 5% silver or silver braze used on
other compressors. Due to the different thermal properties of steel and copper, brazing
procedures may have to be changed from those commonly used.
NOTE: Since the discharge stub contains a check valve, care must be taken not to
overheat it to prevent brazing material to flow into it.
3.3
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors with liquid injection
For low temperature applications of ZF models liquid injection is required to keep discharge gas
temperatures within safe limits.
3.3.1 Liquid injection details for ZF06K4E to ZF18K4E compressors
Liquid injection is achieved by utilisation of a Discharge Temperature Control (DTC) valve. The
same DTC valve can be used for all compressors and approved refrigerants.
The ZF compressors (BOM 556) include a well in the top cap combined with a valve cap. The
Copeland DTC valve is equipped with a custom bulb profile, which must be installed in the top
well of the compressor sensing the temperature closest to the discharge port. The bulb/bellows
combination injects only when cooling is needed and in the required amounts. The connection to
the liquid line is a 3/8" braze.
To prevent a partial or full blockage at the injection port caused through shavings, foreign bodies
etc a filter should be installed in the liquid line prior to the DTC valve inlet.
Figure 6: DTC valve assembly
3.3.2 Liquid injection details for ZF24K4E to ZF48K4E compressors
The compressor is supplied with a 1/4" diameter injection stub to accept a capillary tube. Liquid
injection takes place directly with the capillary tube as shown in Figure 7. Injection takes place
into two distinct pockets of the spirals which has no impact on the suction process. Injection
increases the mass flow through the condenser.
The capillary tube is needed to meter the correct amount of liquid refrigerant into the
compressor. For liquid injection it consists of a wrapped capillary tube inside a shell. It is
supplied with a clamp to support the assembly at the injection port. In case this assembly is not
desired but an own device has to be built, please take the specifications out of Table 3.
A standard on/off solenoid valve such as ALCO 110 RB 2T2 should be used. The valve should
have a port diameter of at least 1.4 mm and should be wired to open when the compressor is
running and to close:



8
when the compressor shuts off;
during a hot gas defrost;
during a pump down cycle.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
R22
I.D.
Length
(inch)
(inch)
0.050"
5"
0.050"
5"
0.070"
30"
0.07"
10"
Product
description
R404A/R507
I.D.
Length
Model
(inch)
(inch)
ZF24K4E 0.050"
30"
ZF33K4E 0.050"
17.5"
ZF40K4E 0.070"
30"
ZF48K4E
0.07"
30"
Safety
instructions
A filter drier such as ALCO ADKPlus 036MMS or ADKPlus 032S should be installed before the
solenoid valve to avoid blocking the valve and the injection device. If the internal motor protector
trips power to the injection solenoid must be shut-off.
Electrical
connection
Installation
Table 3: Capillary tube details
Figure 7: Liquid injection
3.4
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors with vapour injection
Starting up &
operation
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors with vapour injection are equipped with a vapour injection
connection for Economizer Operation. Economizing can be accomplished by using a subcooling
circuit similar to the circuit shown in Figure 8. This increases the refrigeration capacity and the
system efficiency.
The line diagram shows a system configuration for the economizer cycle. A heat exchanger is
used to provide additional subcooling to the refrigerant before it enters the evaporator. This
subcooling process provides the increased capacity gain measured in the system.
Dismantling &
disposal
Maintenance &
repair
The refrigerant evaporated through the heat exchanger is injected into the compressors and
provides additional cooling at higher compression ratios.
Figure 8: Vapour injection line diagram
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
9
NOTE: For further information on vapour injection see the Technical Information C7.19.1
"Vapour Injection Scroll Compressors for Refrigeration".
Shut-off valves and adaptors
3.5
CAUTION
Leaking system! System breakdown! It is strongly recommended to
periodically re-torque all pipe and fixing connections to the original setting
after the system has been put into operation.
Figure 9
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors are delivered with a discharge check valve fitted inside the
discharge port and rubber plugs fitted to the suction and discharge ports as standard. There are
options to fit either Rotalock valves, or Rotalock adaptors or just make brazing connections.
Brazing connections can be converted to Rotalock by means of adaptors. Rotalock shut-off
valves are available for the suction as well as discharge sides. Using either straight or angled
adaptors provides a way to convert a Rotalock into a brazing connection.
Refer to the following table for proper tightening torques:
Rotalock 3/4"16UNF
Rotalock 1”-14UNS
Rotalock 1"1/4-12UNF
Rotalock 1"3/4-12UNF
Rotalock 2"1/4-12UNF
NOTE: More information concerning adaptors and
shut-off valves can be found in the "Spare parts
list".
C_T_SCA_002
Table 4
3.6
Torque [Nm]
40-50
70-80
110-135
135-160
165-190
Suction accumulators
CAUTION
Inadequate lubrication! Bearing destruction! Minimise liquid refrigerant
returning to the compressor. Too much refrigerant dilutes the oil. Liquid
refrigerant can wash the oil off the bearings leading to overheating and
bearing failure.
Irrespective of system charge, oil dilution may occur if large amounts of liquid refrigerant
repeatedly flood back to the compressor during:



normal off cycles;
defrost;
varying loads.
In such a case an accumulator must be used to reduce flood-back to a safe level that the
compressor can handle. The use of accumulators is dependent on the application. If an
accumulator must be used, the oil-return orifice should be from 1 to 1.4 mm in diameter for
10
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Safety
instructions
models ZB15K* to ZB48K*, ZS19K* to ZS45K*, ZF06K* to ZF18K* and 2.0 mm for models
ZB56K* to ZB11M*, ZS56K* to ZS11M*, ZF24K* to ZF48K* depending on compressor size and
compressor flood-back results.
The size of the accumulator depends upon the operating range of the system and the amount of
subcooling and subsequent head pressure allowed by the refrigerant control.
3.7
Screens
Product
description
CAUTION
Screen blocking! Compressor breakdown! Use screens with at least
0.6 mm openings.
3.8
Installation
The use of screens finer than 30 x 30 mesh (0.6 mm openings) anywhere in the system should
be avoided with these compressors. Field experience has shown that finer mesh screens used
to protect thermal expansion valves, capillary tubes, or accumulators can become temporarily or
permanently plugged with normal system debris and block the flow of either oil or refrigerant to
the compressor. Such blockage can result in compressor failure.
Mufflers
External mufflers, normally applied to piston compressors in the past, may not be required for
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors.
Individual system tests should be performed to verify acceptability of sound performance. If
adequate attenuation is not achieved, use a muffler with a larger cross-sectional area to inlet
area ratio. A ratio of 20:1 to 30:1 is recommended.
3.9
Electrical
connection
A hollow shell muffler will work quite well. Locate the muffler at minimum 15 to maximum 45 cm
from the compressor for the most effective operation. The further the muffler is placed from the
compressor within these ranges, the more effective. Choose a muffler with a length of 10 to
15 cm.
Suction line noise and vibration
Dismantling &
disposal
Maintenance &
repair
Starting up &
operation
Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors inherently have low
sound and vibration characteristics. However in
some respects the sound and vibration
characteristics
differ
from
reciprocating
compressors and in rare instances could result in
unexpected sound generation. One difference is
that the vibration characteristic of the scroll
compressor, although low, includes two very close
frequencies, one of which is normally isolated from
the shell by the suspension of an internallysuspended compressor. These frequencies, which
are present in all compressors, may result in a lowlevel "beat" frequency that can be detected as noise
Figure 10: Suction tube design
coming along the suction line into the building
under some conditions. Elimination of the beat can
be achieved by attenuating either of the contributing frequencies. This is easily done by using
one of the common combinations of recommended design configurations. The scroll compressor
makes both a rocking and twisting motion and enough flexibility must be provided in the line to
prevent vibration transmission into any lines attached to the unit. In a split system, the most
important goal is to ensure minimal vibration in all directions at the service valve to avoid
transmitting vibrations to the structure to which the lines are fastened.
A second difference of the Copeland Scroll is that under some conditions the normal rotational
starting motion of the compressor can transmit an "impact" noise along the suction line. This
may be particularly pronounced in three-phase models due to their inherently higher starting
torque. This phenomenon, like the one described previously, also results from the lack of internal
suspension and can be easily avoided by using standard suction line isolation techniques as
described below.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
11
Recommended configuration
 Tubing configuration: ...........small shock loop
 Service valve: ....................."angled” valve fastened to unit / wall
 Suction muffler: ....................not required
Alternative configuration
 Tubing configuration: ...........small shock loop
 Service valve: ......................."straight through" valve fastened to unit / wall
 Suction muffler: ....................may be required (acts as dampening mass)
12
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Electrical connection
4.1
General recommendations
Safety
instructions
4
The compressor terminal box has a wiring diagram on the inside of its cover. Before connecting
the compressor, ensure the supply voltage, the phases and the frequency match the nameplate
data.
Electrical installation
Product
description
4.2
Single-phase (PF*) compressors:
Control circuit
Starting up &
operation
Electrical
connection
Installation
Power circuit
Motor terminal connections
K1 ........ Contactor
K35 ...... Current relay (ZF06-ZF18)
R2 ........ Crankcase heater
S1 ........ Auxiliary switch
Y5 ........ Solenoid valve for refrigeration injection
Dismantling &
disposal
Legend
B1 ....... Room thermostat
B3 ....... Discharge gas thermostat
C2 ....... Run capacitor
F1 ....... Fuse
F3 ....... HP switch
F4 ....... LP switch
Maintenance &
repair
Single-phase compressors are connected to the
Common (C), Start (S) and Run (R) connections
Figure 11
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
13
Three-phase compressors (TF*) with internal motor protection:
For the ZB15K* to ZB48K*, ZS19K* to ZS45K*, ZF06K* to ZF18K* TF* range of compressors the
following circuit diagrams can be used:
Power circuit
Control circuit
Motor terminal connections
Three-phase compressors are connected to the T1,
T2 and T3 connections
Legend
B1 ....... Room thermostat
B3 ....... Discharge gas thermostat
F1 ....... Fuse
F3 ....... HP switch
F4 ....... LP switch
K1 ........ Contactor
K35 ...... Current relay (ZF06-ZF18)
R2 ........ Crankcase heater
S1 ........ Auxiliary switch
Y5 ........ Solenoid valve for refrigeration injection
Figure 12
14
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Three-phase compressors (TW*) with external motor protection INT69SCY2:
Control circuit
Electrical
connection
Installation
Product
description
Power circuit
Safety
instructions
For the ZB56K* to ZB220K*, ZS56K* to ZS11M*, ZF24K* to ZF48K* TW* range of compressors
the following circuit diagrams can be used:
Motor terminal connections
Three-phase compressors are connected to the T1, T2
and T3 connections
K1 ........ Contactor
R2 ........ Crankcase heater
S1 ........ Auxiliary switch
Y5 ........ Solenoid valve for refrigeration injection
Starting up &
operation
Legend
A ......... Motor protection module INT69SCY2
B1 ....... Room thermostat
B3 ....... Discharge gas thermostat
F1 ....... Fuse
F3 ....... HP switch
F4 ....... LP switch
Figure 13
Maintenance &
repair
4.2.1 Terminal box
The terminal box is IP21 for all models without electronic motor protection (eg, TF*/PF*) and
IP54 for all models with electronic motor protection (eg, TW*).
4.2.2 Motor windings
Dismantling &
disposal
These Scroll compressors are offered with either a single-phase or a three-phase induction
motor, depending on the size. All three-phase motors are connected in star; single-phase motors
need a run capacitor.
The motor insulation material is class "B" (TF*) or "H" (TW*) for compressor models covered in
this guideline.
4.2.3 Protection devices
Independently from the internal motor protection, fuses must be installed before the compressor.
The selection of fuses has to be carried out according to VDE 0635, DIN 57635, IEC 269-1or
EN 60-269-1.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
15
4.2.4 Current sensing relay for use with compressors with liquid or vapour injection
The current sensing relay is only concerning the ZF compressors from ZF06K* to ZF18K* with
vapour injection or with liquid injection using capillary tube.
Power to the injection solenoid must be cut if the internal motor protector trips and the danger of
flooding the compressor arises. For models above a current sensing relay, eg, the KRIWAN
INT215, Type K35 can be supplied.
The relay must be installed in a way that it senses the same phase as the control circuit is
hooked up to. “L1” in Figures 11, 12, 13 and 14 serves only as an example. It has to be wired in
such a way that marking “L” faces the compressor and “K” the contactor.
Figure 14: Current sensing relay
4.2.5 Crankcase heaters
IMPORTANT
Oil dilution! Bearing malfunction! Turn the crankcase heater on 12 hours
before starting the compressor.
A crankcase heater is used to prevent refrigerant migrating into the shell during standstill
periods. Due to the Copeland scroll’s inherent ability to handle liquid refrigerant in flooded
conditions a crankcase heater is not required when the system charge does not exceed the
charge limits shown in Table 5.
Model
Medium temperature
ZB15K* to ZB29K* / ZS21K* to ZS26K*
ZB30K* to ZB48K* / ZS30K* to ZS45K*
ZB56K* to ZB11M* / ZS56K* to ZS11M*
ZB220K*
Low temperature
ZF06K* to ZF11K*
ZF13K* & ZF18K*
ZF24K* to ZF48K*
Refrigerant charge
limit
3.6 kg
4.5 kg
7.5 kg
11.3 kg
Table 5
If a crankcase heater is fitted it is recommended that
the heater be turned on for a minimum of 12 hours
prior to starting the compressor. This will prevent oil
dilution and bearing stress on initial start up. The
crankcase heater must remain energised during
compressor off cycles.
The crankcase heater must be mounted below the oil
schraeder valve located on the bottom shell (see
Figure 15).
Figure 15: Crankcase heater location
16
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Pressure safety controls
Safety
instructions
4.3
4.3.1 High-pressure control
A high-pressure control with a maximum cut-out setting of 28 bar(g) is required.
The high-pressure cut-out should have a manual reset feature for the highest level of system
protection.
4.3.2 Low-pressure control
Product
description
A minimum cut-out setting of 0.3 bar(g) is required for the ZF compressor using R404A, and of
0.0 bar(g) for the same compressor using R22. For ZB and ZS compressors, the low-pressure
cut-out should be set as high as possible. The normal minimum is 2.6 bar(g).
The low-pressure cut-out should have a manual reset feature for the highest level of system
protection.
4.3.3 Internal pressure relief valve
Installation
There is an internal pressure relief valve on all ZB15K* to ZB48K*, ZF06K* to ZF18K* and
ZS21K* to ZS45K* refrigeration scroll compressors, which opens at a differential pressure of
28 bar В± 3 bar between high- and low-pressure sides. A high-pressure cut-out may be required
according to national regulations and is strongly recommended due to the capabilities of
pumping to high pressures once the discharge is obstructed. The IPR valve is a safety device,
not an HP switch. It is not designed for repeated operation and there is no guarantee that it will
reset correctly if it does have repeated operation.
Electrical
connection
4.4 Discharge temperature protection
Internal discharge temperatures reached under some
extreme operating conditions (such as loss of
refrigerant injection charge or extremely high
compression ratio) could cause compressor damage.
Figure
16:
Discharge
temperature
protection recommended position
In order to avoid improper functioning due to false
readings this thermostat needs to be insulated (see
“X” in Figure 16).
Maintenance &
repair
X
Starting up &
operation
For compressors ZF06K* to ZF18K* and ZS21K* to
ZS45K* Emerson Climate Technologies recommends
THERMODISC thermostat 37TJ31 X 1976E. This
thermostat has a cut-out setting of 99В°C В± 4K with
28 В± 5K closing differential and should be installed
approximately 120 mm from the discharge valve
outlet (see Figure 16).
A discharge line thermostat is not required for
compressors ZB15K* to ZB48K*. For these models, an internal thermodisc is positioned
adjacent to the discharge port. When the thermodisc opens a small gas by-pass occurs which
trips the motor protector.
The internal thermodisc opens at 146В°C В± 4K and closes at 91В°C В± 7K.
Dismantling &
disposal
For compressors ZB56K* to ZB11M*; ZS56K* to ZS11M*; ZF24K* to ZF48K* and ZB220K*, a
thermistor is located in the discharge port of the fixed scroll. Excessive discharge temperature
will cause the electronic protector module to trip. The discharge gas thermistor is wired in series
with the motor thermistor chain.
NAT = 140В°C
Figure 17: Internal discharge temperature sensor position
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
17
4.5
Motor protection
For the ZB15K* to ZB48K*, ZS21K* to ZS45K*, ZF06K* to ZF18K* range of compressors,
conventional inherent internal line break motor protection is provided.
The electronic motor protection system used in all ZB56K* to ZB220K*, ZS56K* to ZS11M*,
ZF24K* to ZF48K* models is identified by a "W" as the centre letter in the motor code. This
system utilizes the temperature-dependent resistance of the thermistors (also called PTCresistance) to read the winding temperature. A chain of four thermistors connected in series is
embedded in the motor windings so that the temperature of the thermistors can follow the
winding temperature with little inertia. An electronic module INT69SCY2 is required to process
the resistance values and trip a control depending on the thermistor resistance.
Protection module specifications
Type: .............................................. Kriwan INT69SCY2
Dual voltage:.................................. 115 – 230V/120 – 240V AC 50/60 Hz , -15%...+10%, 3VA
Normal PTC resistance: ................ <1.8 kО©
Trip resistance: ............................. 4.50 kО© В± 20%
Reset resistance: ........................... 2.75 kО© В± 20%
Reset time delay: ........................... 30 minutes В± 5 minutes
Reset of running time………………Power interruption / mains failure approx. 5s
Phase monitor: .............................. Yes
Ambient temperature range……….-30°C…+70°C
Module
The INT69SCY2 hermetic motor protection
module complies with IEC/EN 60335.
The module features mean that the
refrigeration system would still be in a safe
condition even if two faults were to occur.
Backup is provided if the first fault protection
should fail. An additional control contactor
should be fitted to the system.
For protection in case of blocked rotor one
thermistor for each phase is embedded in
the winding heads on the upper (suction gas)
side of the compressor motor. A fourth
thermistor is located in a winding head at the
T1/T2
Power supply
lower end of the motor. A fifth sensor is
L1/L2/L3
Phase control
located in the discharge port of the fixed
S1/S2
Thermistor chain
scroll to control discharge-gas superheat.
M1/M2
Relay control circuit
The entire chain is internally led to the fusite
Figure 18: Wiring of the motor protection module
from where it is connected to the module
connections S1 and S2. When any
resistance of the thermistor chain reaches the tripping value, the module interrupts the control
line and causes the compressor to switch off. After the thermistor has cooled sufficiently, its
resistance drops to the reset value but the module itself resets after a time delay of 30 minutes
and restarts the compressor.
4.6
Phase protection
The phase protection capabilities of the INT69SCY2 module will sense the correct phase
sequence of L1, L2, and L3 incoming power. Three-phase power must be wired in the correct
phase sequence that will ensure the compressor will start and operate in the correct rotation.
When the INT69SCY2 trips on phase loss a delay of 5 minutes is activated. If all three phases
are present then the compressor will continue to run, if not the module will lock out.
After 10 attempts to restart the compressor, the module will lock out, which could be reset by reestablishing incoming power to the module.
18
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Prior to start-up of the fully connected compressor a functional check shall be carried out:


Disconnect one terminal either S1 or S2 of the protection module. If the compressor is now
switched on, the motor should not start (simulation of an open thermistor chain).
Reconnect the disconnected thermistor line. If the compressor is now switched on, the
motor must start.
If the motor does not start up during the functional check, this indicates a disturbance in
operation. The following steps should be followed:
4.7.1 Checking the connection

Product
description
WARNING
Conductor cables! Electrical shock! Shut off power supply before and
between each test.
Safety
instructions
Protector functional check and failure detection
Check the connection of the thermistor leads in the terminal box and at the protection
module for possible loose connections or cable breakage.
If there is neither loose connection nor cable breakage the resistance of the thermistor chain
must be checked.
4.7.2 Checking the compressor thermistor chain
Caution: Use maximum measuring voltage of 3V!
Installation
4.7



If the thermistor chain has a higher resistance (2750 О© or higher), the motor temperature is
still too high and it must be allowed to cool. Then measure again.
If the resistance is below 30 О©, the compressor has to be exchanged due to shorted sensor
circuit.
An infinite value indicates an open sensor circuit and the compressor has to be replaced.
Electrical
connection
The thermistor leads at terminals S1 and S2 of the module shall be disconnected and the
resistance measured between the leads. The resistance must be between 150 О© and 1250 О©.


Simulation of a short circuit in the thermistor chain (0 О©): Bridge the already disconnected
thermistor terminals S1 and S2 and switch on the voltage supply; the relay must switch on
then off again after a short period; connection established then interrupted between
terminals M1 and M2.
Simulation of an open thermistor chain (в€ћ О©): Remove the jumper used for the short-circuit
simulation and switch on the voltage supply; the relay remains switched off; no connection
between terminals M1 and M2.
If one of the above conditions is not met, the module is defective and has to be exchanged.
NOTE: The function of the module should be tested each time the fuse in the control
circuit breaks the power supply. This ensures the contacts did not stick.
4.8
High-potential testing
WARNING
Conductor cables! Electrical shock! Shut off power supply before highpotential testing.
CAUTION
Internal arcing! Motor destruction! Do not carry out high-voltage or
insulation tests if the compressor housing is under vacuum.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Maintenance &
repair
The control connections at M1 and M2 have to be removed and the switching conditions must be
checked by an ohmmeter or signal buzzer:
Dismantling &
disposal
4.7.3 Checking the protection module
Starting up &
operation
If no defect is detected in the thermistor chain the module must be checked.
19
Emerson Climate Technologies subjects all Scroll compressors to a high-voltage test after final
assembly. Each motor phase winding is tested, according to EN 0530 or VDE 0530 part 1, at a
differential voltage of 1000V plus twice the nominal voltage. Since high-voltage tests lead to
premature ageing of the winding insulation further additional tests of that nature are not
recommended.
If it has to be done for any reason, a lower voltage must be used. Disconnect all electronic
devices, eg, motor protection module, fan speed control, etc prior to testing.
20
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Starting up & operation
Safety
instructions
5
WARNING
Diesel effect! Compressor destruction! The mixture of air and oil at high
temperature can lead to an explosion. Avoid operating with air.
5.1
Product
description
IMPORTANT
Oil dilution! Bearing malfunction! Turn the crankcase heater on 12 hours
before starting the compressor.
Strength pressure test
The compressor has been strength-tested in the factory. It is not necessary for the customer to
strength- or leak-test the compressor again although the compressor will normally be exposed to
the testing made as part of system testing.
5.2
Tightness/pressure test
Installation
WARNING
High pressure! Personal injuries! Consider personal safety requirements
and refer to test pressures prior to test.
WARNING
System explosion! Personal injuries! DO NOT USE other industrial
gases.
Electrical
connection
CAUTION
System contamination! Bearing malfunction! Use only dry nitrogen or
dried air for pressure testing.
If using dry air do not include the compressor in the pressure test – isolate it first. Never add
refrigerant to the test gas (as leak indicator).
System evacuation
Starting up &
operation
5.3
Maintenance &
repair
Before the installation is put into commission, it has to be evacuated with a vacuum pump.
Proper evacuation reduces residual moisture to 50 ppm. During the initial procedure, suction and
discharge shutoff valves on the compressor remain closed. The installation of adequately sized
access valves at the furthest point from the compressor in the suction and liquid lines is
advisable. Pressure must be measured using a vacuum pressure (Torr) gauge on the access
valves and not on the vacuum pump; this serves to avoid incorrect measurements resulting from
the pressure gradient along the connecting lines to the pump.
Evacuating the system only on the suction side of a Scroll compressor can occasionally result in
a temporary no start condition for the compressor. The reason for this is that the floating seal
could axially seal with the scroll set, with the higher pressure on the floating seal. Consequently,
until the pressures equalise, the floating seal and scroll set can be held tightly together. The
installation should be evacuated down to 0.3 mbar / 0.22 Torr.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Dismantling &
disposal
Subsequently, the factory holding charge of dry air in the compressor is released to the ambient.
The shut-off valves are opened and the installation, including the compressor, are once more
evacuated as described after the system has been recharged with dry nitrogen. Highest
demands are placed on the leak proof design of the installation and on leak testing methods
(please refer to EN 378).
21
5.4
Preliminary checks – Pre-starting
Discuss details of the installation with the installer. If possible, obtain drawings, wiring diagrams,
etc.
It is ideal to use a check-list but always check the following:









5.5
Visual check of the electrics, wiring, fuses etc
Visual check of the plant for leaks, loose fittings such as TXV bulbs etc
Compressor oil level
Calibration of HP & LP switches and any pressure actuated valves
Check setting and operation of all safety features and protection devices
All valves in the correct running position
Pressure and compound gauges fitted
Correctly charged with refrigerant
Compressor electrical isolator location & position
Charging procedure
CAUTION
Low suction pressure operation! Compressor Damage! Do not operate
with a restricted suction. Do not operate with the low-pressure cut-out
bridged. Do not operate compressor without enough system charge to
maintain at least 0.3 bar suction pressure. Allowing pressure to drop below
0.3 bar for more than a few seconds may overheat scrolls and cause early
drive bearing damage.
The system should be liquid-charged through the liquid-receiver shut-off valve or through a valve
in the liquid line. The use of a filter drier in the charging line is highly recommended. Because
scrolls have discharge check valves, systems should be liquid-charged on both the high and low
sides simultaneously to ensure a positive refrigerant pressure is present in the compressor
before it runs. The majority of the charge should be placed in the high side of the system to
prevent bearing washout during first-time start on the assembly line.
5.6
Initial start-up
CAUTION
Oil dilution! Bearing malfunction! It is important to ensure that new
compressors are not subjected to liquid abuse. Turn the crankcase heater on
12 hours before starting the compressor.
CAUTION
High discharge pressure operation! Compressor damage! Do not use
compressor to test opening set point of high-pressure cut-out. Bearings are
susceptible to damage before they have had several hours of normal
running in.
Liquid and high pressure loads could be detrimental to new bearings. It is therefore important to
ensure that new compressors are not subjected to liquid abuse and high-pressure run tests. It is
not good practice to use the compressor to test the high-pressure switch function on the
production line. Switch function can be tested with nitrogen prior to installation and wiring can be
checked by disconnecting the high-pressure switch during the run test.
5.7
Rotation direction
Scroll compressors, like several other types of compressors, will only compress in one rotational
direction. Direction of rotation is not an issue with single-phase compressors since they will
always start and run in the proper direction. Three-phase compressors will rotate in either
direction depending upon phasing of the power to L1, L2 and L3. Since there is a 50/50 chance
of connecting power in such a way as to cause rotation in the reverse direction, it is important
to include notices and instructions in appropriate locations on the equipment to ensure
proper rotation direction is achieved when the system is installed and operated.
22
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Safety
instructions
Observing that suction pressure drops and discharge pressure rises when the compressor is
energized allows verification of proper rotation direction. There is no negative impact on
durability caused by operating three-phase Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors in the reversed
direction for a short period of time (under one hour) but oil may be lost. Oil loss can be prevented
during reverse rotation if the tubing is routed at least 15 cm above the compressor. After several
minutes of operation in reverse, the compressor protection system will trip due to high motor
temperature. The operator will notice a lack of cooling. However, if allowed to repeatedly restart
and run in reverse without correcting the situation, the compressor will be permanently
damaged.
Product
description
All three-phase Scroll compressors are identically wired internally. Therefore, once the correct
phasing is determined for a specific system or installation, connecting properly phased power
leads to the identified compressor terminals will ensure proper rotation direction.
Compressors ZB56K* to ZB220K*, ZS56K* to ZS11M* and ZF24K* to ZF48K* have an
electronic protection unit (INT69SCY2) that will not let the compressor operate if the phasing of
the wires is incorrect.
Starting sound
Installation
5.8
5.9
Electrical
connection
During the very brief start-up, a clicking sound is audible, resulting from initial contacting of the
spirals and is normal. No start assist devices are required for single-phase compressors, even if
a system uses non-bleed expansion valves. Due to the design of the Copeland Scroll, the
internal compression components always start unloaded even if system pressures are not
balanced. In addition, since internal compressor pressures are always balanced at start-up, lowvoltage starting characteristics are excellent for Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors. Moreover, if low
voltage conditions exist at start up, protector trips could result.
Deep vacuum operation
CAUTION
Vacuum operation! Compressor damage! Scroll compressors should
never be used to evacuate a refrigeration or air-conditioning system.
Starting up &
operation
The Scroll compressor can be used to pump down refrigerant in a unit as long as the pressures
remain within the operating envelope. Low suction pressures will result in overheating of the
scrolls and permanent damage to the compressor drive bearing. Scroll compressors incorporate
internal low vacuum protection; the floating seal unloads when the pressure ratio exceeds
approximately 20:1 for ZS and ZF and 10:1 for ZB.
5.10 Shell temperature
Maintenance &
repair
The top shell and discharge line can briefly but repeatedly reach temperatures above 177В°C if
the compressor cycles on its internal protection devices. This only happens under rare
circumstances and can be caused by the failure of system components such as the condenser
or evaporator fan or loss of charge and depends upon the type of expansion control. Care must
be taken to ensure that wiring or other materials that could be damaged by these temperatures
do not come in contact with the shell.
5.11 Pump down cycle
Dismantling &
disposal
To control refrigerant migration a pump down system should be used. The discharge check
valve with a refrigeration scroll compressor is designed for low leak back and will allow the use
of a pumpdown without the addition of an external check valve.
If the compressor is stationary for prolonged periods, refrigerant could migrate into the
compressor and therefore a crankcase heater must be installed.
If cold air is constantly drawn over the compressor this could make the crankcase heater
ineffective and therefore a pump down system is recommended.
For ZB models care should be taken because the scroll sets will unload at a pressure ratio of
approximately 10:1. If the unit fails to pump down the pumpdown pressure should be reset to a
higher value. The low-pressure control differential for all models needs to be reviewed since a
relatively lower volume of gas will reexpand from the discharge plenum of the compressor into
the low side on shutdown.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
23
5.12 Minimum run time
Emerson Climate Technologies recommends a maximum of 10 starts per hour. There is no
minimum off time because Scroll compressors start unloaded even if the system has unbalanced
pressures. The most critical consideration is the minimum run time required to return oil to the
compressor after start-up. To establish the minimum run time obtain a sample compressor
equipped with a sight tube (available from Emerson Climate Technologies) and install it in a
system with the longest connecting lines that are approved for the system. The minimum on time
becomes the time required for oil lost during compressor start-up to return to the compressor
sump and restore a minimal oil level that will ensure oil pick-up through the crankshaft. Cycling
the compressor for a shorter period than this, for instance to maintain very tight temperature
control, will result in progressive loss of oil and damage to the compressor.
5.13 Shut-off sound
Scroll compressors incorporate a device that minimizes reverse rotation. The residual
momentary reversal of the scrolls at shut off will cause a clicking sound, but it is entirely normal
and has no effect on compressor durability.
5.14 Frequency
There is no general release of standard Copeland Scrollв„ў compressors for use with variable
speed AC drives. There are numerous issues that must be considered when applying Scroll
compressors with variable speed, including system design, inverter selection, and operating
envelopes at various conditions. Only frequencies from 50 Hz to 60 Hz are acceptable.
Operation outside this frequency range is possible but should not be done without specific
Application Engineering review. The voltage must vary proportionally to the frequency.
If the inverter can only deliver a maximum voltage of 400V, the amps will increase when the
speed is above 50 Hz, and this may give rise to nuisance tripping if operation is near the
maximum power limit and/or compressor discharge temperature limit.
5.15 Oil level
The oil level should be maintained at mid-point of the sight glass. If an oil regulator is being used
the level should be set within the top half of the sight glass.
24
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Maintenance & repair
6.1
Exchanging the refrigerant
Safety
nstructions
6
Qualified refrigerants and oils are given in section 2.4.1.
Product
description
It is not necessary to replace the refrigerant with new unless contamination due to an error such
as topping up the system with an incorrect refrigerant is suspected. To verify correct refrigerant
composition, a sample can be taken for chemical analysis. A check can be made during shut
down by comparing the refrigerant temperature and pressure using precision measurements at a
location in the system where liquid and vapour phases are present and when the temperatures
have stabilised.
In the event that the refrigerant needs replacing, the charge should be recovered using a
suitable recovery unit.
6.2
Rotalock valves
6.3
Installation
Rotalock valves should be periodically re-torqued to ensure that leak tightness is maintained.
Replacing a compressor
Electrical
connection
CAUTION
Inadequate lubrication! Bearing destruction! Exchange the accumulator
after replacing a compressor with a burned out motor. The accumulator oil
return orifice or screen may be plugged with debris or may become plugged.
This will result in starvation of oil to the new compressor and a second
failure.
6.3.1 Compressor replacement
Starting up &
operation
In the case of a motor burnout, the majority of contaminated oil will be removed with the
compressor. The rest of the oil is cleaned through the use of suction and liquid line filter driers. A
100% activated alumna suction line filter drier is recommended but must be removed after
72 hours. It is highly recommended that the suction accumulator be replaced if the system
contains one. This is because the accumulator oil return orifice or screen may be plugged with
debris or may become plugged shortly after a compressor failure. This will result in starvation of
oil to the replacement compressor and a second failure. When a single compressor or tandem is
exchanged in the field, it is possible that a major portion of the oil may still be in the system.
While this may not affect the reliability of the replacement compressor, the extra oil will add to
rotor drag and increase power usage.
6.3.2 Start-up of a new or replacement compressor
Maintenance &
repair
Rapid charging only on the suction side of a scroll-equipped system or condensing unit can
occasionally result in a temporary no start condition for the compressor. The reason for this is
that, if the flanks of the compressor happen to be in a sealed position, rapid pressurisation of the
low side without opposing high-side pressure can cause the scrolls to seal axially. As a result,
until the pressures eventually equalise, the scrolls can be held tightly together preventing
rotation. The best way to avoid this situation is to charge on both the high and low sides
simultaneously at a rate which does not result in axial loading of the scrolls.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
Dismantling &
disposal
A minimum suction pressure of 1.75 bar must be maintained during charging. Allowing pressure
to drop below 0.3 bar for more than a few seconds may overheat scrolls and cause early drive
bearing damage. Never install a system in the field and leave it unattended when it has no
charge, a holding charge, or with the service valves closed without securely electrically locking
out the system. This will prevent unauthorised personnel from accidentally operating the system
and potentially ruining the compressor by operating with no refrigerant flow. Do not start the
compressor while the system is in a deep vacuum. Internal arcing may occur when a Scroll
compressor is started in a vacuum causing burnout of the internal lead connections.
25
6.4
Lubrication and oil removal
CAUTION
Chemical reaction! Compressor destruction! Do not mix up ester oils with
mineral oil and/or alkyl benzene when used with chlorine-free (HFC)
refrigerants.
The compressor is supplied with an initial oil charge. The standard oil charge for use with
refrigerants R404A / R407C / R407F / R134a / R22 is a polyolester (POE) lubricant Emkarate
RL 32 3MAF. In the field the oil level could be topped up with Mobil EAL Arctic 22 CC if 3MAF is
not available. See nameplate for original oil charge shown in litres. A field recharge is from 0.05
to 0.1 litre less.
One disadvantage of POE is that it is far more hygroscopic than mineral oil (see Figure 19).
Only brief exposure to ambient air is needed for POE to absorb sufficient moisture to make it
unacceptable for use in a refrigeration system. Since POE holds moisture more readily than
mineral oil it is more difficult to remove it through the use of vacuum. Compressors supplied by
Emerson Climate Technologies contain oil with low moisture content, and it may rise during the
system assembling process. Therefore it is recommended that a properly sized filter-drier is
installed in all POE systems. This will maintain the moisture level in the oil to less than 50 ppm. If
oil is charged into a system, it is recommended to use POE with a moisture content no higher
than 50 ppm.
Figure 19: Absorption of moisture in ester oil in comparison to mineral oil in ppm by weight at 25В°C and 50%
relative humidity (h=hours)
If the moisture content of the oil in a refrigeration system reaches unacceptably high levels,
corrosion and copper plating may occur. The system should be evacuated down to 0.3 mbar or
lower. If there is uncertainty as to the moisture content in the system, an oil sample should be
taken and tested for moisture. Sight glass/moisture indicators currently available can be used
with the HFC refrigerants and lubricants; however, the moisture indicator will just show the
moisture content of the refrigerant. The actual moisture level of POE would be higher than the
sight glass indicates. This is due to the high hygroscopicity of the POE oil. To determine the
actual moisture content of the lubricant, samples have to be taken from the system and
analysed.
6.5
Oil additives
Although Emerson Climate Technologies cannot comment on any specific product, from our own
testing and past experience, we do not recommend the use of any additives to reduce
compressor bearing losses or for any other purpose. Furthermore, the long term chemical
stability of any additive in the presence of refrigerant, low and high temperatures, and materials
commonly found in refrigeration systems is complex and difficult to evaluate without rigorously
controlled chemical laboratory testing. The use of additives without adequate testing may result
in malfunction or premature failure of components in the system and, in specific cases, in voiding
the warranty on the component.
26
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
6.6
Unbrazing system components
Safety
nstructions
WARNING
Explosive flame! Burning! Oil-refrigerant mixtures are highly flammable.
Remove all refrigerant before opening the system. Avoid working with an
unshielded flame in a refrigerant charged system.
Dismantling & disposal
Installation
7
Product
description
Before opening up a system it is important to remove all refrigerant from both the high and low
sides of the system. If the refrigerant charge is removed from a scroll equipped unit from the high
side only, it is possible for the scrolls to seal, preventing pressure equalization through the
compressor. This may leave the low side shell and suction line tubing pressurized. If a brazing
torch is then applied to the low side while the low side shell and suction line contain pressure,
the pressurized refrigerant and oil mixture could ignite when it escapes and contacts the brazing
flame. To prevent this occurrence, it is important to check both the high and low sides with
manifold gauges before unbrazing. Instructions should be provided in appropriate product
literature and assembly (line repair) areas. If compressor removal is required, the compressor
should be cut out of system rather than unbrazed.
Removing oil and refrigerant:
Do not disperse in the environment.
Use the correct equipment and method of removal.
Dispose of oil and refrigerant properly.
Dispose of compressor properly.
Electrical
connection
DISCLAIMER
Dismantling &
disposal
Maintenance &
repair
Starting up &
operation
1. The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only and are not to
be construed as warranties or guarantees, express or implied, regarding the products or
services described herein or their use or applicability.
2. Emerson Climate Technologies GmbH and/or its affiliates (collectively "Emerson"), as
applicable, reserve the right to modify the design or specifications of such products at any
time without notice.
3. Emerson does not assume responsibility for the selection, use or maintenance of any
product. Responsibility for proper selection, use and maintenance of any Emerson product
remains solely with the purchaser or end user.
4. Emerson does not assume responsibility for possible typographic errors contained in this
publication.
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
27
C6.2.20/1111-0113/E
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For more details, see www.emersonclimate.eu
Emerson Climate Technologies - European Headquarters
- Pascalstrasse 65 - 52076 Aachen, Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 2408 929 0 - Fax: +49 (0) 2408 929 570 - Internet: www.emersonclimate.eu
The Emerson Climate Technologies logo is a trademark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co. Emerson Climate Technologies Inc. is a subsidiary of Emerson Electric Co.
Copeland is a registered trademark and Copeland Scroll is a tr ademark of Emerson Climate Technologies Inc.. All other trademark s are property of their respective owners.
Information contained in this brochure is subject to change without notifi cation.
В© 2011 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.
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+40 - 364 - 73 11 72
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[email protected]
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