iMOD User Manual - Deltares

iMOD User Manual - Deltares
DR
AF
T
iMOD
User Manual
DR
AF
T
T
DR
AF
iMOD
User Manual
P. T. M. Vermeulen,
W. van der Linden,
B. Minnema
Version: 3.0
Revision: 37649
25 December 2014
DR
AF
T
iMOD, User Manual
Published and printed by:
Deltares
Boussinesqweg 1
2629 HV Delft
P.O. 177
2600 MH Delft
The Netherlands
For sales contact:
telephone: +31 88 335 81 88
fax:
+31 88 335 81 11
e-mail:
[email protected]
www:
❤tt♣✿✴✴♦ss✳❞❡❧t❛r❡s✳♥❧
telephone:
fax:
e-mail:
www:
+31 88 335 82 73
+31 88 335 85 82
[email protected]
http://www.deltares.nl
For support contact:
telephone: +31 88 335 81 00
fax:
+31 88 335 81 11
e-mail:
[email protected]
www:
❤tt♣✿✴✴♦ss✳❞❡❧t❛r❡s✳♥❧
Copyright В© 2014 Deltares
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form by print, photo
print, photo copy, microfilm or any other means, without written permission from the publisher:
Deltares.
Contents
Contents
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DR
AF
2 Getting Started
2.1 Starting iMOD . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Main Window . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Menu Bar . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Icon Bar . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Popup Menu . . . . . .
2.2.4 Window Status Bar . . .
2.2.5 Title Panel . . . . . . .
2.3 Preferences . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Colour Picking . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 Keyboard shortcuts . . .
2.5.2 Exporting Figures . . .
2.5.3 Saving iMOD Projects .
2.5.4 Copying part of a Table .
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T
1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 The iMOD approach . . . . .
1.3 Main functionalities . . . . . .
1.4 Minimal System Requirements
1.5 Getting Help . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Deltares . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 File Menu options
17
4 Edit Menu options
4.1 Create an IDF-file
4.2 Create a GEN-file
4.3 Create an IPF-file
4.4 Create an ISG-file
4.5 Drawing Polygons
4.6 iMOD Batch . . .
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5 View Menu options
5.1 General options . . . . . . . .
5.2 Goto XY . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Add Topography . . . . . . . .
5.4 iMOD Manager . . . . . . . .
5.5 iMOD Manager Properties . .
5.6 iMOD Project Manager . . . .
5.6.1 Define Characteristics
5.6.2 Define Periods . . . .
5.6.3 Define Simulation . .
5.7 Subsurface Explorer . . . . .
5.8 Lines and Symbols . . . . . .
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6 Map Menu options
6.1 Add Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Quick Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
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Deltares
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iii
iMOD, User Manual
6.12
6.13
6.14
7 Toolbox Menu Options
7.1 Cross-Section Tool . . . . . . .
7.1.1 Properties . . . . . . .
7.1.2 Profile Legend . . . . .
7.1.3 Movie . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.4 Cross-Section Inspector
7.1.5 Export . . . . . . . . .
7.1.6 Background Bitmaps . .
7.2 Timeseries Tool . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Draw Timeseries . . . .
7.2.2 Legends . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 TimeSeries Export . . .
7.3 3D Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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T
6.11
Map Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Sort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grouping IDF Files . . . . . . . . . .
Adjust Legends . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generation of Legends . . . . . . . .
Synchronize Legends . . . . . . . . .
Plot Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IDF Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10.1 IDF Value . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10.2 IDF Export . . . . . . . . . .
6.10.3 IDF Calculator . . . . . . . .
6.10.4 IDF Edit . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10.4.1 IDF Edit Select . .
6.10.4.2 IDF Edit Draw . . .
6.10.4.3 IDF Edit Calculate .
IPF Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.11.1 IPF Configure . . . . . . . .
6.11.2 IPF Labels . . . . . . . . . .
6.11.3 IPF Analyse . . . . . . . . .
6.11.3.1 Drop down menu .
6.11.3.2 IPF Analyse Figure
6.11.4 IPF Extract . . . . . . . . . .
6.11.5 IPF Find . . . . . . . . . . .
IFF Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.12.1 IFF Configure . . . . . . . . .
ISG Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.13.1 ISG Configure . . . . . . . .
6.13.2 ISG Show . . . . . . . . . . .
6.13.3 ISG Edit . . . . . . . . . . .
6.13.3.1 Dropdown menu . .
6.13.3.2 ISG Attributes . . .
6.13.3.3 ISG Search . . . .
6.13.3.4 ISG Profile . . . . .
6.13.3.5 ISG Rasterize . . .
GEN Options . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.14.1 GEN Info . . . . . . . . . . .
6.14.2 GEN Configure . . . . . . . .
DR
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6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
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Contents
7.5
7.6
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7.9
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7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
8 iMOD-Batch
8.1 PLOT-Function . . . . . . . .
8.2 IDFCALC-Function . . . . . .
8.3 IDFSCALE-Function . . . . .
8.4 IDFMEAN-Function . . . . . .
8.5 IDFCONSISTENCY-Function .
8.6 SOLID-Function . . . . . . . .
8.7 IDFMERGE-Function . . . . .
8.8 GXG-Function . . . . . . . . .
8.9 WBALANCE-Function . . . .
8.10 IMPORTSOBEK-Function . .
8.11 AHNFILTER-Function . . . . .
8.12 CREATEIDF-Function . . . . .
8.13 IMPORTMODFLOW-Function
8.14 IDFSTAT-Function . . . . . . .
8.15 IPFSTAT-Function . . . . . . .
8.16 MODELCOPY-Function . . . .
8.17 IMODPATH-Function . . . . .
8.18 IPFSAMPLE-Function . . . .
8.19 MKWELLIPF-Function . . . .
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7.4
7.3.1 3D Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 3D Plot Settings . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3 3D Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solid Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 Create a Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.2 Solid Editing using Cross-Sections . .
7.4.3 Solid Analysing using the 3D Tool . . .
7.4.4 Compute Interfaces . . . . . . . . . .
Import Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 Import SOBEK Models . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 Import Modflow Models . . . . . . . .
Model Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick Scan Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.1 Initial Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.2 Start Quick Scan Tool . . . . . . . . .
Pumping Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.1 Initial Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.2 Start Pumping Tool . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.3 Well Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.4 Observation Wells . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Startpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Pathline Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.1 Input Properties . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compute Waterbalance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compute Mean Groundwaterfluctuations (GxG)
Compute Mean Values . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compute Timeseries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compute Time-variant Statistics . . . . . . . .
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v
iMOD, User Manual
XYZTOIDF-Function . . . . . . . .
ISGGRID-Function . . . . . . . . .
ISGADDCROSSSECTION-Function
ISGSIMPLIFY-Function . . . . . . .
DINO2IPF-Function . . . . . . . . .
IDFTIMESERIE-Function . . . . . .
BMPTILING-Function . . . . . . . .
CREATESUBMODEL-Function . . .
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DR
AF
9 iMOD Files
9.1 PRF-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 IMF-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 IDF-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4 MDF-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5 IPF-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6 IFF-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7 ISG-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.1 ISP fileformat . . . . . .
9.7.2 ISD1 and ISD2 fileformat
9.7.3 ISC1 and ISC2 fileformat
9.7.4 IST1 and IST2 fileformat
9.8 GEN-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.9 DAT-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.10 CSV-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.11 ASC-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.12 LEG-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.13 CLR-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.14 DLF-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.15 CRD-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.16 ISD-files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.17 SCN-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.18 SDF-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.19 SOL-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.20 SPF-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.21 SES-files . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8.20
8.21
8.22
8.23
8.24
8.25
8.26
8.27
10 Tutorial 1: Map Display
387
11 Tutorial 2: Map Operations
403
12 Tutorial 3: Map Analyse
411
13 Tutorial 4: Create your First Groundwater Flow Model
417
14 Tutorial 5: Solid Tool
441
15 Tutorial 6: Model Simulation
461
16 Tutorial 7: Pumping Tool
473
17 Runfile
477
17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
17.2 Runfile Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
vi
Deltares
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17.3 Data Set 1: Output Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4 Data Set 2: Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5 Data Set 3: Timeseries (optional) . . . . . . . . . .
17.6 Data Set 4: Simulation mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.7 Data Set 4a: Export configuration . . . . . . . . . .
17.8 Data Set 5: Solver configuration . . . . . . . . . . .
17.9 Data Set 6: Simulation window (optional) . . . . . .
17.10 Data Set 7: Scenario file (optional) . . . . . . . . . .
17.11 Data Set 8: Active packages . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.12 Data Set 9: Boundary file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.13 Data Set 10: Number of files . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.14 Data Set 11: Input file assignment . . . . . . . . . .
17.15 Data Set 12: Time discretisation . . . . . . . . . . .
17.16 Data Set 14: Parameter Estimation – Main settings .
17.17 Data Set 15: Parameter Estimation – Period Settings
17.18 Data Set 16: Parameter Estimation – Batch Settings
17.19 Data Set 17: Parameter Estimation - Parameters . .
17.20 Data Set 18: Parameter Estimation – Zones . . . . .
17.21 Data Set 19: Parameter Estimation – Zone Definition
17.22 Start simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.23 Example Output file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.24 Example Output Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 Theoretical background
18.1 CAP Unsaturated zone module . . . .
18.2 BND Boundary conditions . . . . . .
18.3 SHD Starting Heads . . . . . . . . .
18.4 KDW Transmissivity . . . . . . . . . .
18.5 VCW Vertical resistances . . . . . .
18.6 KHV Horizontal permeabilities . . . .
18.7 KVA Vertical anisotropy for aquifers .
18.8 KVV Vertical permeabilities . . . . . .
18.9 STO Storage coefficients . . . . . . .
18.10 SSC Specific storage coefficients . .
18.11 TOP Top of aquifers . . . . . . . . . .
18.12 BOT Bottom of aquifers . . . . . . .
18.13 PWT Perched water table package .
18.14 ANI Horizontal anisotropy module . .
18.14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . .
18.14.2 Parameterisation . . . . . . .
18.15 HFB Horizontal flow barrier module .
18.16 IBS Interbed Storage package . . . .
18.17 SCR Subsidence-creep package . . .
18.18 SFT Streamflow thickness package .
18.19 CPP Common pointer package . . . .
18.20 WEL Well package . . . . . . . . . .
18.21 DRN Drainage package . . . . . . .
18.22 RIV River package . . . . . . . . . .
18.23 EVT Evapotranspiration package . .
18.24 GHB General-head-boundary package
18.25 RCH Recharge package . . . . . . .
Deltares
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vii
iMOD, User Manual
References
Release Notes iMOD
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529
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Release Notes iMODFLOW
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18.26 OLF Overland flow package . . . . . .
18.27 CHD Constant-head package . . . . . .
18.28 ISG iMOD Segment package . . . . . .
18.29 PST Parameter estimation . . . . . . .
18.29.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .
18.29.2 Methodology . . . . . . . . . .
18.29.3 Eigenvalue Decomposition . . .
18.29.4 Pilot Points and Regularisation
18.29.5 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.29.6 Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.29.7 Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . .
18.30 Runtimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
Deltares
List of Figures
List of Figures
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T
18.1 Unsaturated zone with Pn = nett precipitation, Ps = irrigation, E = evapotranspiration, V = soil moisture, Veq = soil moistureat equilibrium and Qc = rising
flux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
18.2 Example of the boundary conditions for a single layer (source McDonald and
Harbaugh, 1988) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
18.3 Hydraulic layer parameters used in iMODFLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
18.4 Conceptual schematization of a perched water table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
18.5 Conceptual schematization of a perched water table in a groundwater model. 508
18.6 Example of groundwater flow [q] for (a) isotropic and (b) anisotropic flow conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
18.7 Anisotropy expressed by angle П• and anisotropic factor f . . . . . . . . . . . 512
18.8 Example of (a) anisotropy aligned to the model network and (b) anisotropy
non-aligned to the model network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
18.9 Example of (a) flow terms in isotropic flow conditions and (b) flow terms in
anisotropic flow conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
18.10 Principle of the RIV package (adapted from Harbaugh, 2005) . . . . . . . . . 516
18.11 Principle of the General Head Boundary package (Harbaugh, 2005) . . . . . 517
18.12 Example of the different behaviours in a common О¦m (p) surface for different
trust hyper spheres, purple=1000, green=100, red=10 and blue=2. Solid lines
are Levenberg and dashed lines are Marquardt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
18.13 Sensitivity ratio of different parameters during the parameter estimation process.522
18.14 Parameter adjustments in relation to the reduction of the objective function value.523
18.15 Computed run times for a single time step, for several different amount of
nodes. The results are based on the simulation of the IBRAHYM model for
5843 time steps, and cell sizes varying in between 25m2 and 1000m2 . . . . . 524
Deltares
ix
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iMOD, User Manual
x
Deltares
1 Introduction
1.1
Motivation
Stakeholders (e.g. water companies, water boards, industrial users) and decision makers
(e.g. municipalities, provincial governments) are increasingly participating in jointly developing
numerical groundwater flow models that cover land areas of common interest. The reason for
this is twofold:
T
1 minimize the undesired high costs of repeatedly developing individual - partly overlapping - models, and
2 facilitate stakeholder engagement participation in the model building process.
In an effort to facilitate this the concepts of MODFLOW were used by Deltares to develop
iMOD (interactive MODeling) to;
DR
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1 provide the necessary functionalities to manage very large groundwater flow models,
including interactive generation of sub-models with a user-defined (higher or lower) resolution embedded in- and consistent with the underlying set of model data, and
2 facilitate stakeholder participation during the process of model building.
A major difference, compared to other conventional modeling packages, is the generic georeferenced data structure that for spatial data may contain files with unequal resolutions
and can be used to generate sub-models at different scales and resolutions applying upand down-scaling concepts. This is done internally without creating sub-sets of the original model data. For modelers and stakeholders, this offers high performance, flexibility and
transparency.
1.2
The iMOD approach
High resolution groundwater flow modeling, necessary to evaluate effects on a local scale, has
traditionally been restricted to small regions given the computational limitations of the CPU
memory to handle large numerical MODFLOW-grids. Although CPU-memory size doubles
every two years (�Moore’s law’) the restriction still holds from a hardware point of view. This
restriction has traditionally forced a model builder to always choose between (1) building a
model for a large area with a coarse grid resolution or (2) building a model for a small area with
a fine grid resolution. For some time it appeared that finite element models could fill the gap by
refining the grid only where hydrological gradients were anticipated. However, unanticipated
stress may also occur in parts of the model area where the grid is not yet refined resulting in a
possible undesired underestimation of these effects. Theoretically the modeler could choose
to design a finite element network with a high resolution everywhere, but then it becomes more
economic to use finite differences. This is why Deltares has based its innovative modeling
techniques on MODFLOW considering it is largely seen world-wide as the standard finite
difference source code. Still, modelers ideally need an approach that allows: (1) flexibility to
generate high resolution model grids everywhere when needed, (2) flexibility to use or start
with a coarser model grid, (3) reasonable runtimes / high performance computing and (4)
conceptual consistency over time for any part of the area within their administrative boundary.
Deltares has invested in understanding all of these requirements and has developed the iMOD
software package to advance the methods and approach used by modelers and regulators.
Deltares
1
iMOD, User Manual
The development of the iMOD approach took off in The Netherlands in 2005 when Deltares
and a group of 17 stakeholders decided to jointly build a numerical groundwater model for
their common area of interest (Berendrecht et al., 2007, Vermeulen, 2013). The groundwater
model encompasses the entire north of the Netherlands at a resolution of 25 x 25 m2 and was
constructed together via an internet accessible user-interface. This makes it possible for the
modelers to easily access the model data, intermediate results and participate in the model
construction. The iMOD approach allows gathering the available input data to be stored at
its finest available resolution; these data don’t have to be clipped to any pre-defined area of
interest or pre-processed to any model grid resolution.
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The iMOD approach: one input data set:
Resolutions of parameters can differ and the distribution of the resolution of one parameter
can also be heterogeneous. In addition, the spatial extents of the input parameters don’t have
to be the same. iMOD will perform up- and down scaling (Vermeulen, 2006) whenever the
resolution of the simulation is lower or higher than that of the available data. This approach
allows the modeler to interactively generate models of any sub-domain within the area covered
by the data set. When priorities change in time (e.g. due to changing political agenda’s) the
modeler can simply move to that new area of interest and apply any desired grid resolution.
In addition the modeler can edit the existing data set and / or add new data types to the data
set. Utilizing the internal up- and down-scaling techniques ensures that sub-domain models
remain consistent with the bigger regional model or that the regional model can locally be
updated with the details added in the sub-domain model.
Suppose the modeler needs to simulate groundwater flow for the total area covered by the
data set, but the theoretical size of the model is far too big to fit in any CPU-memory. iMOD
facilitates generating sub models for parts of the whole area of interest with a user-defined
resolution depending on how large the available CPU-memory is and how long the modeler
2
Deltares
Introduction
1.3
Main functionalities
T
permits her/himself to wait for the model calculations to last. To generate a high resolution
result for the whole model domain a number of partly overlapping but adjacent sub models are
invoked and the result of the non-overlapping parts of the models are assembled to generate
the whole picture. The modeler should of course be cautious that the overlap is large enough
to avoid edge effects, but this overlap is easily adjustable in iMOD. A big advantage of this
approach is that running a number of small models instead of running one large model (if it
would fit in memory, which it often will not) takes much less computation time; computation
time (T) depends on the number of model cells (n) exponentially: T = f(n1,5в€’2,0 ). The approach
also allows the utilization of parallel computing, but this is not obligatory. Using this approach
means that the modeling workflow is very flexible and not limited anymore by hardware when
utilizing iMOD.
1.4
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The capability of iMOD to rapidly view and edit model inputs is essential to build effective
models in reasonable timeframes. The rapid and integrated views of the geologic / hydrostratigraphic models as well as dynamic model output is critical for the public, stakeholders
and regulators to understand and trust the model as a valid decision support tool. iMOD is
fast even when working from very large data files because it uses a random accessible data
format for 2D grids which facilitates instant visualization or editing subsets of such a large
grid file. Also iMOD contains very economic zoom-extent-dependent visualization techniques
that allow subsets of grids being visualized instantaneously both in 2D and 3D. Another feature is that iMOD generates MODFLOW input direct in memory, skipping the time-consuming
production of standard MODFLOW input files (generating standard MODFLOW input files in
ASCII format for large transient models may take hours to a full working day); this efficiency
is especially useful during the model building phase when checking newly processed or imported data.
Minimal System Requirements
iMOD works on IBM-compatible personal computers equipped with at least:
a Pentium or compatible processor;
512 MB internal memory (2,045MB recommended);
100 MB available on the hard disk (10GB is recommended in case large model simulations need to be carried out);
A graphics adapter with 32 MB video memory and screen resolution of 800-600 (256MB
video memory and a screen resolution of 1024x768 is recommended). Moreover, a
graphical card that supports OpenGL (OpenGL is a trademark of Silicon Graphics Inc.),
such as an ATI Radeon HD or NVIDIA graphical card is necessary to use the 3D rendering.
Please note: it is permitted to install the Model System on a different Hardware Platform as
long as it is a computer similar to the above-mentioned computer. The transfer of the Model
System to a dissimilar computer may endanger the working of the Model System and require
adjustments in the Configuration.
Deltares
3
iMOD, User Manual
iMOD can run on 64-bits systems, but iMOD itself is 32-bits. iMOD supports 32- and 64-bit
machines working under the following platforms: Windows XP / Server 2003 / Vista Business
/ Vista Ultimate / Server 2008 / 7
1.5
Getting Help
Take a look at ♦ss✳❞❡❧t❛r❡s✳♥❧✴✇❡❜✴✐♠♦❞. Any questions? Contact the help-desk ✐♠♦❞✳
s✉♣♣♦rt❅❞❡❧t❛r❡s✳♥❧.
Deltares
T
Since January 1st 2008, GeoDelft together with parts of Rijkswaterstaat /DWW, RIKZ and
RIZA, WL | Delft Hydraulics and a part of TNO Built Environment and Geosciences are forming
the Deltares Institute, a new and independent institute for applied research and specialist
advice. For more information on Deltares, visit the Deltares website: ✇✇✇✳❞❡❧t❛r❡s✳♥❧.
DR
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1.6
4
Deltares
2 Getting Started
This Getting Started chapter aims to familiarize the user with the basic structure and user
interface of iMOD. The Tutorials in chapter 10 provide a selection of iMOD case studies to
introduce the program’s functions. New iMOD users are advised to use the Tutorials to familiarize themselves with iMOD.
Starting iMOD
Start iMOD window:
T
To start iMOD, click Start on the Windows menu bar and fill in the location and name of
the executable, e.g. c:\program files\IMOD.EXE or double-click on the executable from the
Windows Explorer. The Start iMOD window will appear
DR
AF
2.1
Create a New
iMOD Project
Open an existing
iMOD Project
Preferences . . .
Start
Stop
Help. . .
Select this option to refresh the iMOD session and release all memory and
maps from previous sessions and start iMOD with an empty drawing list.
Select this option to start iMOD with an iMOD configuration saved by a previous iMOD session. Those configurations are stored in *.IMF files and those
listed are found in the folder {USER}\IMFILES.
Open an IMF-file
Select and search an *.IMF-file from a different location than those presented
in the menu.
Information of an IMF-file
Click this button to open the selected *.IMF-file in a regular text-editor
(Notepad) for inspection or adjustments.
Delete an IMF-file
Click this button to delete the selected *.IMF file from disk. After that, no
recovery is possible.
Click this button to open the Preferences Window.
Click this button to start iMOD with the selected *.IMF file or with an empty
drawing list.
Click this button to stop iMOD
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Note: iMOD can be started in different ways, alternatively:
Deltares
5
iMOD, User Manual
2.2
Main Window
T
{path}:\iMOD.EXE
will start a regular iMOD session
{path}:\iMOD.EXE *.IMF
will start an iMOD session and read the supplied *.IMF directly;
{path}:\iMOD.EXE *.IDF
will start an iMOD session and read the supplied *.IDF-file directly. This works for *.MDF,
*.ASC, *.GEN, *.IFF, *.IPF, and *.ISG-files;
{path}:\iMOD.EXE *.INI
will read the supplied *.INI file. These *.INI files contain specific functionalities of iMOD
that can be executed without starting the graphical interface, see chapter 8 for a list and
description of all these available functionalities.
When iMOD is started, theiMOD Main window is displayed.
DR
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iMOD Main window:
This window contains a menu bar, an icon bar and information displayed on the window status
bar.
2.2.1
Menu Bar
To access the iMOD menus, click the menu names on the menu bar, or alternatively use
Alt+<first letter of the menu name>.
6
Deltares
Getting Started
Menu bar:
Edit
View
Map
Toolbox
Help . . .
Standard Windows options for saving and opening iMOD MetaFile (*.IMF), export the
content of the graphical area.
This contains a limited set of features to create iMOD Files, such as IDFs out of IPF’s,
IFF’s and GEN-files.
This contains functionalities to copy the content of the graphical area onto the Clipboard of Windows and a variety of manners to display data.
This menu option offers the ability to open iMOD maps and configure their appearance.
A variety of tools are available, e.g. Cross-Section Tool, WaterbalancingTool, ModelingTool, and more, but also an ImportTool for MODFLOW and SOBEK model configurations.
Starts the Help-file (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
T
File
2.2.2
DR
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Detailed descriptions of these menu options can be found in the Reference section.
Icon Bar
Use the buttons on the iMOD Icon bar to quickly access frequently used functions.
Icon Bar:
New:
Start a new iMOD Project (*.IMF-file)
Open
Open an existing iMOD Project (*.IMF-file)
Save
Save the current configurations (maps) in the last saved *.IMF file
SaveAs
Save the current configurations (maps) in a new *.IMF file
Copy
Click this icon to copy the entire content of the graphical area onto the Clipboard of
Windows.
iMOD-Manager
Click this icon (checkbox) to start or hide (if shown) the iMOD-Manager window.
OpenMap
Click this icon to open an existing iMOD Map, such as *.IDF, *.IPF, *.ISG, *.IFF, *.GEN,
*.NC
ZoomIn
Click this icon to zoom IN on the centre of the current graphical dimensions.
ZoomOut
Click this icon to zoom OUT on the centre of the current graphical dimensions.
Go Back to Previous Extent
Click this icon and the map will return to the previous map extent and view. This view
becomes the last view automatically whenever any other zoom button will be used.
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Go to Next Extent
Click this icon and the map will go to the next extent viewed after the current view.
This option becomes available whenever the Zoom to Previous Extent button has
been selected priorly.
ZoomRectangle
Click this icon to zoom in for a rectangle to be drawn. Use you the left-mouse button
to determine the lower-left corner of the rectangle, click again for the upper-right
corner (or vice-versa).
ZoomFull
Click this icon to zoom in on the entire extent of the selected maps on the tab Maps
on the iMOD Manager or on the selected overlay Maps in the tab Overlay on the
iMOD Manager.
Move
Click this icon to move the current display. Click the left-mouse button on that location where you want to move from, repeat this after the display has been refreshed
(automatically). Use the right mouse button to stop the moving process.
Cross-Section Tool
Click this icon to start the Cross-Section Tool for all the maps selected on the tab
Maps from the iMOD Manager Window.
3DTool
Click this icon to start the 3DTool for all the maps selected on the tab Maps from
the iMOD Manager Window and those selected on the tab Overlays from the iMOD
Manager.
TimeSerie Tool
Click this icon to start the TimeSerie Tool for all the IDFs (timevariant) and IPFs (with
associated files assigned to them) selected on the tab Maps from the iMOD Manager
Window.
Topographical Overlay
Click this icon to display the default topographical overlay as defined by the KeyWord
TOP25 in the selected *.PRF-file or display the overlays (*.BMP, *.PNG) as defined
by the menu option Add Topography.
MapInfo
Click this icon to start the MapInfo window to analyse the dimensions of IDFs, IPFs,
IFFs, and GENs. For IDFs additional statistics and meta-information can be viewed
too.
DistanceTool
Click this icon to start the distance tool where you can specify the location where to
measure from, by clicking your left-mouse button. Intermediate points can be added
by clicking your left-mouse button repeatedly. To stop the process, click your rightmouse button.
Detailed descriptions of these menu options can be found in the Reference section.
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Popup Menu
Right-click anywhere in the canvas of the graphical window to open the popup menu. This
menu presents several options. The options might be unavailable because no correct file(s)
are selected in the iMOD Manager.
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Popup menu:
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IDF-options
IDF Analyse, Click this option to start Map Value (see section 6.10.1).
IDF Calculate,Click this option to start the Map Calculator (see section 6.10.3).
IDF Edit, Click this option to start Map Edit (see section 6.10.4).
IDF Group, Click this option to group selected IDF-files (see section 6.5).
IDF Ungroup, Click this option to ungroup selected MDF-file (see section 6.5).
IDF Export, Click this option to export the selected IDF-files (see section 6.10.2)
to:
в—¦ ESRII ASCII Format
в—¦ NetCDF Format
IPF-options
IPF Analyse, Click this option to startIPF Analyse (see section 6.11.3).
IPF Extract, Click this option to start IPF Extract (see section 6.11.4).
IPF Configure, Click this option to start IPF Configure (see section 6.11.1).
IFF-options
IFF Configure, Click this option to start IFF Configure (see section 6.12.1).
ISG-options
ISG Configure, Click this option to start ISG Configure (see section 6.13.1).
ISG Edit, Click this option to startISG Edit (see section 6.13.3).
ISG Show, Click this option to define the shown attributes (see section 6.13.2):
в—¦ Nodes, Click this option to display nodes of ISG-segments;
в—¦ Segments Nodes, Click this option to display begin- and end-nodes of the
ISG-segments;
в—¦ Cross-sections, Click this option to display the position of cross-sections on
ISG-segments;
в—¦ Calculation nodes, Click this option to display the location of calculation nodes
of ISG-segments;
в—¦ Structures, Click this option to display the location of structures of ISG-segments;
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в—¦ QH-relationships, Click this option to display the location of QH-relations on
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ISG-segments.
GEN-options
GEN Configure, Click this option to start GEN Configure (see section 6.14.2).
GEN Extract, Click this option to start GEN Extract (function not implemented).
Legend
Plot Legend on Map, Click this option to display the legend on the graphical window (see section 6.9)
Legend Columns
1 Click this option to display the legend in a single column;
2 Click this option to display the legend in two columns;
3 Click this option to display the legend in three columns;
4 Click this option to display the legend in four columns;
5 Click this option to display the legend in five columns;
Adjust Legend, Click this option to open a window to adjust the legend (see section 6.6)
Synchronize Legend, Click this option to synchronize legends, see section 6.8.
Current Zoom Level
Click this option to create a legend based upon the values for the current zoom level
(see section 6.7):
Percentiles, Click this option to create a legend with non-linear values,
Linear, Click this option to create a legend with linear values,
Unique Values, Click this option to create a legend with unique values,
Entire Zoom Extent
Click this option to create a legend based upon the values for the current zoom level
(see section 6.7):
Percentiles, Click this option to create a legend with non-linear values,
Linear, Click this option to create a legend with linear values,
Unique Values, Click this option to create a legend with unique values,
Tag Zoom
Click this option to zoom to the selected Tags (Comments)
Mask Zoom
Click this option to zoom onto the last *.MSK file loaded.
2.2.4
Window Status Bar
The status bar of the iMOD main window contains several elements to be considered.
Window Status bar:
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X:6/Y:6
2.2.5
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Current Mouse Coordinates
The coordinates of cursor in the map are displayed in the lower left of the window. The units for the values on the X and Y axis are given in the coordinates
of the system in which one is currently working. In the case of Dutch data, this
is the National Triangulation System. In principle it is possible to read files in
another system (if the system is projected, such as the National Triangulation
System, for flat surfaces).
RasterDisplayResolution
This element on the status bar shows the accuracy of the displayed IDF-file.
Since these IDF-files can be enormous in size, iMOD will decline the number of data read as the zoom level is increased. In such a manner, iMOD
can display these enormous IDFs raster files quickly. For IDF-files that have
non-equidistant cellsizes, iMOD need to read all data, that causes that these
type of IDFs will be slower in presentation that the equidistant ones. The accuracy can be altered by selecting the menu option View and then the option
Accuracy.
Current IDF
This element on the status bar shows the current IDF at the current mouse
position.
WindowExtent
Click on your left-mouse button whenever it is positioned on this lowerright corner of the iMOD main window. By dragging your mouse (while the
left-mouse button is pressed), the size of the iMOD main window can increase/decrease.
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X: . . . . m
Y: . . . .. m
Title Panel
This panel situated at the top of the main window displays the iMOD version and the type of
iMOD license. The top of the graphical window displays the name of the *.IMF used last to
save the iMOD Project.
2.3
Preferences
Several settings can be initiated to configure the current iMOD session. These can be defined
in a *.PRF file (see section 9.1 for more information). On the menu bar, click the option File
and then choose Prefences to open the corresponding Preferences Window.
Preferences window, Files/Paths tab:
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Available
files
Keywords
*.PRF
Display of all available *.PRF files in the folder in which iMOD was executed.
Select one of them to load an iMOD configuration. Different *.PRF file can be
stored to switch between different iMOD configurations quickly.
Select one of the keywords to inspect the value assigned to it underneath the tab. In this example above the keyword {user} has the value
c:\users\peter\work\imodproject\user. To change any keyword, you should
open the *.PRF in any third-party software, e.g. Notepad.
Open *.PRF-file
Click this button to search for a *.PRF-file on disk.
Use the selected *.PRF-file
Click this button to read the selected *.PRF-file and use its settings.
Close
Help...
Click this button to close the Preferences Window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Preferences window, Colours tab:
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Getting Started
Predefined
Colours
Red
Green
Blue
The dropdown menu presents the current colour number. iMOD supports 50
predefined colours to be used as default in a variety of iMOD functionalities,
e.g. plotting of Cross-Sections, TimeSeries.
Value of the red-component of the current default colour (0-255)
Value of the green-component of the current default colour (0-255)
Value of the blue-component of the current default colour (0-255)
Open *.CLR-file
Click this button to search for a *.CLR-file on disk. This type of file defines the
default colours used by iMOD.
Save a *.CLR-file
Click this option to save the current default colours in a given *.CLR file.
Colour Selection
Click this button to open a default Colour window from Windows
Preferences window, Dimensions tab:
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Maximal Files in
the iMOD Manager
Maximal Coordinates in Shapes
Maximum number of coordinates within each polygon within a *.SHP and/or
*.GEN file.
Colour Picking
On various dialogs in iMOD, you can specify a colour. In all these case the default Colour
window is Windows will be used.
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Colour window:
OK
Cancel
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2.4
Maximum number of maps to be loaded in the iMOD Manager. This value can
not be altered!
Select this button to accept the selected/created colour. The Colour window
will close.
Select this button to cancel any change in colour. The Colour window will
close.
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2.5
2.5.1
Tips and Tricks
Keyboard shortcuts
Use the keyboard shortcuts to directly open a window without selecting the option from the
menu bar.
2.5.2
Move Map (Pan).
Zoom Out.
Zoom In.
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Open iMOD Manager Window.
New iMOD Project.
Open iMOD Project.
Save iMOD Project.
Open iMOD Project Manager Window.
Copy current presentation to Windows Clipboard.
Open iMOD Help-file (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
Add Map to the iMOD Manager.
Set map information (point, polygon, rectangle).
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Centre mouse button
Shift-right mouse button
Shift-left mouse button
iMOD Manager
Ctrl-M
Ctrl-N
Ctrl-O
Ctrl-S
Ctrl-P
Ctrl-C
F1
F2
F3
Exporting Figures
The content of the graphical window can be exported in PostScript (*.PS), Bitmap (*.BMP),
ZSoft PC Paintbrush (*.PCX) , Portable Network Graphic Image (*.PNG) and WMF (Windows
Meta Files) format. In the File menu, select the option Export and select the appropriate
export type finally. These files can be later imported in a Word document, for example or
added as annex in a report. The option Copy to Clipboard from the View menu can also be
used to copy directly the display in a Word document.
2.5.3
Saving iMOD Projects
The content of the iMOD Manager can be save into a *.IMF file. Select the option Save or
Save As from the File menu. On default, iMOD will save the content of the iMOD Manager
each minute whenever the option Autosave On (1 minute) from the File menu is checked. This
file will be called AUTOSAVE-IMOD.IMF and will be located in the map {USER}\imffiles, where
USER will be the map assigned to the keyword USER in the used *.PRF file.
2.5.4
Copying part of a Table
It is possible to copy part of a table in another document, an Excel sheet for example.
If the cursor is placed on a cell of the table, select a specific area by using the dragging the
mouse while the left-mouse button is pressed. Then, using the shortcut Ctrl+C, this area can
be copied and pasted into any other (commercial) Windows oriented software.
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3 File Menu options
The following chapters contain a detailed description of the menu options for iMOD for general
use. The examples in the tutorial section provide a convenient starting point for familiarization
with the program.
Besides the familiar Windows options for opening and saving files, the File menu contains a
number of options specific to iMOD:
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Autosave On (1 minute)
On default, iMOD saves the current content of the iMOD Manager each minute. It yields
an AUTOSAVE-IMOD.IMF that will be overwritten each time. The file is located in the
map {USER}\IMFILES, where the variable {USER} directs to the value of the keyword
USER in the selected *.PRF file.
Print . . .
Prints the current content of the graphical window to an installed external printer. iMOD
uses the default Windows Print Manager.
Export
The content of the graphical window can be exported in
PostScript (*.PS);
Bitmap (*.BMP);
ZSoft PC Paintbrush (*.PCX);
Portable Network Graphic Image (*.PNG);
JPEG/JFIF image (*.JPG; *.JPEG).
In the File menu, select the option Export and select the appropriate export type finally.
These files can be later imported in a Word document, for example or added as annex
in a report.
Preferences . . .
Click this option to open the Preferences Window.
Quit . . .
Click this option to quit iMOD. Before leaving iMOD you will be asked whether you are
sure to leave iMOD, in that case you’ll be offered to opportunity to save your work first
before leaving iMOD.
Question window:
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4 Edit Menu options
The Edit menu contains the following options for the creation of IDF, IPF, GEN and ISG-files.
Create an IDF-file
IDF-files can be created from scratch or by conversion from different formats. The available
options are:
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Scratch
Click this item to create a new IDF.
Points (*.ipf)
Click this item to create an IDF from point data stored in an IPF-file.
Polygons/Lines (*.gen; *.shp)
Click this item to create an IDF out of a set/single set of polygons.
Flowlines (*.iff)
Click this item to create an IDF from line data stored in an IFF-file.
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To create a new IDF select the main option Edit, choose Create Feature, then IDFs from and
then one of the options shown above.
When creating a new IDF from scratch then the IDF is created with NoData values. When
creating an IDF from the other formats then the IDF cells are assigned values derived from
these files.
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Option Scratch, Create IDF window:
Zoom Level
XLLC / XURC (km) :
YLLC / YURC (km) :
CellSize (m) :
Nrows/Ncols:
NoDataValue:
Apply
Close
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Click this button to adjust the IDF extent to the current zoom level in
the graphical display.
Enter the X coordinate for the lower-left-corner (XLLC) and upper-rightcorner (XURC) of the IDF extent.
Enter the Y coordinate for the lower-left-corner (YLLC) and upper-rightcorner (YURC) of the IDF extent.
Enter the cellsize of the IDF in meters.
NOTE: The values for XLLC, YLLC, XURC and YURC will be
trimmed automatically to the CellSize value.
Displays the number of rows and the number of columns for the current
IDF extent. These values are computed automatically and can not be
changed directly.
Enter the NoDataValue for the IDF
Click this button to start the creation of the IDF
Close the Create IDF window. The new IDF is added to the iMOD
Manager window.
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Create IDF window, IPFs tab:
Open Map
Click this button to open an IPF-file.
IPF-name:
X-coordinate:
Y-coordinate:
Attribute to be gridded:
Zoom Level
IPF Extent
XLLC / XURC (km) :
YLLC / YURC (km) :
CellSize (m) :
Displays the name of the IPF-file.
Specify a column in the IPF-file that represents the X coordinate
Specify a column in the IPF-file that represents the Y coordinate
Specify a column in the IPF-file that represents the values to be gridded. Only numeric values can be gridded.
Zoom Level
Click this button to adjust the IDF extent to the current zoom level in
the graphical display.
IPF Extent
Click this button to adjust the IDF extent to the entire extent of the
selected IPF-file.
Enter the X coordinate for the lower-left-corner (XLLC) and upper-rightcorner (XURC) of the IDF extent.
Enter the Y coordinate for the lower-left-corner (YLLC) and upper-rightcorner (YURC) of the IDF extent.
Enter the cellsize of the IDF in meters.
NOTE: The values for XLLC, YLLC, XURC and YURC will be
trimmed automatically to the CellSize value.
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Nrows/Ncols:
NoDataValue:
Duplicate Points
Method:
Displays the number of rows and the number of columns for the current
IDF extent. These values are computed automatically and can not be
changed directly.
Enter the NoDataValue for the IDF.
Select one of the options for points with identical coordinates:
Sum: use the sum of the values to be gridded
Mean: use the mean of the values to be gridded.
Select one of the interpolation methods (see for batch creation of IDF’s
section 8.20):
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(SPP) Simple Point Sampling:
Click this option to determine grid values on those points that are
inside the current grid cell only. As a result, it might be that many grid
cells getNoDataValues.
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(BI) Bivariate Interpolation:
Click this option to determine grid values from a smooth interpolation
function Z(x,y), which agrees with the given data (Hiroshi Akima,
A Method of Bivariate Interpolation and Smooth Surface Fitting for
Values Given at Irregularly Distributed Points, ACM Transactions on
Mathematical Software, Volume 4, Number 2, June 1978).
PCG (Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient):
Click this option to apply the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient
method (this is the same as the solver used in MODFLOW)
VG (Variogram):
Click this option to create a semivariogram; this yields no interpolation
of the data, it generates a table filled in with a variogram. The results
will be written in the VARIOGRAM.TXT file.
(SKI) Simple Kriging Interpolation:
Click this option to apply a Kriging interpolation assuming a constant
mean over the entire domain.
(OKI) Ordinary Kriging Interpolation:
Click this option to apply a Kriging interpolation assuming a constant
mean in the neighborhood of each estimation point.
Open settings window
This function is active for the interpolation methods PCG, SKI and OKI.
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Edit Menu options
Specify the maximum number of outer iterations used by
the PCG solver;
Specify the maximum number of inner iterations used by
the PCG solver. The more inner iterations used for a linear problem, the faster a PCG solution will be achieved;
Specify the closure criterion (e.g. Heads) for the problem to be solved. This value related to the units of the
problem to be solved, choose a value at least two order
of magnitude less than the desired accuracy;
Specify the closure criterion for the water balance for the
problem to be solved, e.g. the lumped error of accuracy
in the head. This value related to the units of the problem
to be solved, choose a high value whenever the usage
of the Head Closure Criterion is sufficient;
Specify an acceptable value, e.g. 25, whenever the problem to be solved shows high non-linearities that avoid
any convergence of the solver. Solving a Solid might introduce these non-linearities that can be tackled in this
manner;
This factor damps the subsequent solutions of the solver.
Use a high value (1.0) for linear problems and a lower
value for non-linear problems. Use the Use Adaptive
Damping option for non-linear problems instead;
Apply this for non-linear problems as it will adapt the
Relaxation Factor during the iteration process to yield
a more robust solution;
Select the Tight option to fixate the known location during the solution, use Loose instead to use a different
approach in which the known areas are simulated by
a boundary condition that allows more change on the
known areas;
Select this button to agree with the entered values.
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Iterations
Inner
Iterations
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Solver Settings window for PCG interpolation:
Head Closure
Criterion
Waterbalance
Closure
Criterion
No. Inner
Solutions
Relaxation
Factor
Adaptive
Damping
Boundary
Conditions
OK
The PCG solver is available in an iMOD Batch functionality as well, see
for more information section 8.20. NOTE: Consult scientific literature
regarding PCG solver settings as described above.
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Kriging Settings window for SKI and OKI interpolation:
Search for
Points
Minimum
Number of
Points
Maximum
Number of
Points
Maximum
Search
Distance
SILL
RANGE
NUGGET
Semivariogram
Select this to allow the Kriging algortihm to search for
point based upon their distances.
Specify the minimum number of points per quadrant.
Specify the maximum number of points per quadrant.
Specify the maximum search distance for which points
are added to the Kriging algorithm.
Specify the SILL value.
Specify the RANGE value.
Specify the NUGGET value.
Specify the type of Semivariogram, select from:
Linear Model:
X i = DIST i в€—
(SILLв€’N U GGET )
RAN GE
Spherical Model:
if (DIST i <= RAN GE)X i = SILL в€— (1.5 в€—
DIST i
DIST 3
( RAN
GE )) в€’ (0.5 в€— ( RAN GE 3 ))
if (DIST i > RAN GE)X i = SILL
Exponential Model: X i = SILL в€— (1.0 в€’
3
i
EXP ( в€’DIST
RAN GE ))
Apply Kriging
with offset in
x- and y direction
Force Line Interpolation
Apply
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Kriging can take a seriously amount of computation time.
In order to reduce this, it is possible to select this option
and specify an offset in x- and y-direction so that the
Kriging algorithm is applied on less grid points and in
between a linear solder will be used to fill in the gaps.
Kriging is also available in an iMOD Batch functionality, see for more
information section 8.20. NOTE: Consult scientific literature regarding
Kriging Settings as described above.
Not active for IPFs.
Click this button to start the creation of the IDF.
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Example of a Simple Point Sampling interpolation:
Example of a Bivariate interpolation:
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Create IDF window, GENs tab:
Click these buttons to draw, open, save, delete or rename a shape. More
detailed information can be found in section 4.2.
IDF Extent
Force Line
Interpolation
Apply
Specify the extent and dimensions of the IDF and the interpolation method.
See the description for the IPFs tab for an explanation.
Create interpolated raster cells only along the lines as specified in the GEN
Click this button to start the creation of the IDF
Note: The value for a raster cell will be determined by the polygon number. The value
of raster cells that are part of overlapping polygons will be equal to the mean value of the
polygon numbers. NoDataValues are assigned to raster cells outside any polygon.
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Example of a line GEN translated into an IDF-file:
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Example of a polygon GEN translated into an IDF-file:
The above example shows the rasterizing of lines into an IDF-file. The result is an IDF-file
with the number of the different lines and another IDF showing the length of the line in each
rastercell crossed by it.
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Create IDF window, IFFs tab:
Open Map
Click this button to open an IFF-file.
Attribute
while
IDF Extent
Force Line
Interpolation
Apply
Select one of the options to grid:
PARTICLE_NUMBER – number of the particle
ILAY – modellayer number
XCRD – x coordinate
YCRD – y coordinate
ZCRD – z coordinate
TIME(YEARS) – elapsed time in years
VELOCITY – velocity (m/day)
Click this checkbox to use an extra logical expression. Choose one
of the options (see under Attribute) and specify a logical operator
(“=”;”<>”;”<”;”<=”,”>”;”>=”) and numeric value.
Specify the extent and dimensions of the IDF and the interpolation method.
See the description for the IPFs tab for an explanation.
Not active for IFFs
Click this button to start the creation of the IDF
Note: The value for a raster cell will be determined by the particle that passes through.
Whenever more particles pass through the same rastercell, a mean value for the chosen
attribute will be computed.
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Example of a result of a particle simulation (left) gridded into a single IDF-file (right) for those
parts that are within modellayer 3 only:
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Create a GEN-file
Select the main option Edit and then choose the option Create Feature and then the option
GENs to display the Create GENs window.
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Create GENs window:
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4.2
Draw Polygon
Click this button to start drawing a polygon on the canvas, see section 4.4 for more
details on drawing polygons.
Open File
Click this button to open a *.GEN or *.SHP file. iMOD will create a name for each
shape (polygon, line, point) inside the *.GEN and/or *.SHP file. If no name is
specified for a shape (next to the ID identification), iMOD will create a name as
follows: {name_of_the_gen}_{shapenumber}_{shapetype}, e.g. AREA_1_POLYGON
or AERA_9_POINT.
Save File
Click this button to save the polygons to a *.GEN-file (see section 9.7). iMOD will save
the names for the individual features in the *.GEN too. Those will be read whenever
those files are read in iMOD again (Open File).
Delete Polygon
Click this button to delete the selected polygons from the list. This action can not be
undone, however, you will be asked first whether you are sure to delete the polygons.
Rename
Click this button to rename the polygon, the Input window will appear:
You can enter a different name for the current selected polygon. Click the button OK to accept your entry, or click Cancel to leave the name unchanged. In both
cases you will return to the window that called this window.
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ZoomSelect
Click this button to adjust the zoomlevel to the selected shapes.
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Information
Click this button to open theContent of file window:
This window shows the properties of the shapes which are used to create the
GEN-file.
Insert attribute: add an attribute to the shapes
Remove attribute: remove the selected attribute
Rename: change the name of the selected attribute
Use following column for gridding/interpolation: check the box and select the
attribute name from the pull down list in case interpolation is to be done for an
attribute different from the SHAPEID.
Apply : make the changes in the shapes.
Help ...
Close ...
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected
*.PRF file).
Close the Create GENs window, you will be asked to save your polygons first.
The functionalities mentioned above appear throughout iMOD in different windows. The behavior for each of those is similar as explained above.
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Create an IPF-file
Select the main option Edit and then choose the option Create and then the option IPFs to
display the Create IPFs window.
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Create IPFs window:
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The options in this window are similar to the options described in the previous section on
Create GENs window.
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Create an ISG-file
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Select the main option Edit and then choose the option Create Feature and then the option
ISGs to enter a name for the ISG to be created. Once a valid file name has been entered,
iMOD will create the necessary files that relate to an ISG file, see section 9.7. After that, the
ISG Edit window will start in which it is possible to add and/or modify the outline of the content
of the ISG file, see section section 6.13.3.
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Drawing Polygons
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For several functionalities in iMOD you need to specify or draw polygons. For each of those,
the methodology is similar and will be described here. After you click the Draw Polygon button
you can add points of the polygon on the graphical window by clicking your left-mouse button
sequentially.
Click the left mouse button to place another point of the polygon. Click your right
mouse button to stop
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4.5
After the polygon has been drawn, the following options are available whenever you move the
mouse in or near the polygon.
This icon appears whenever you move the mouse inside a polygon. Then click
the left mouse button to select the polygon. Once a polygon is selected the
other options become available.
Click the left mouse whenever this icon appears and drag the mouse over the
graphical window to move the selected polygon.
This icon appears whenever the mouse position is on one of the nodes of the
polygon.
Click the LEFT mouse button to move the selected node.
Click the RIGHT mouse button to display the following menu options:
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Delete Current
click this option to delete the current node. You can not undo
Node?
this action.
Change Line
click this option to change the colour of the polygon with the
Color . . .
Colour window.
Change Line
click this option to change the thickness of the line into Thin (1),
Thickness
Normal (2) or Thick (3).
This icon appears whenever the mouse position is on a segment of the polygon.
Click the left mouse and you can ADD a new node.
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iMOD Batch
The iMOD Batch functions include a variety of tools that can be used to execute iMOD data
processes fast and repetitively. The Batch functions are described in detail in chapter 8. The
Batch functions can be executed in command mode without starting iMOD. But these functions
can be used also interactively from the iMOD main menu.
Select the main option Edit and then choose the option iMOD Batch to display the iMOD
Batch window.
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iMOD Batch window:
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4.6
Create a New
iMOD Batch
Script
Create
Execute an Existing iMOD Batch
Script
Help ...
Execute
Hide execution
Block Execution till
Complete
No processes active
Kill
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Select a Batch function from the dropdown menu.
Click this button to create and save a batch file in the .\USER\IMODBATCH
directory. The file automatically gets an extension .bat. The file will open in a
text editor after it is saved. See below for an explanation of the file contents.
Select a Batch file from the dropdown menu.
Open a text editor with the Batch file contents.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
Click this button to start the execution of the Batch function selected in the
dropdown menu.
Check this option whenever it is needed to start an iMOD Batch file in a hidden
command window.
Check this option to block the execution of iMOD until the executed iMOD
Batch file has terminated.
This drop down menu lists the processes that are currently running.
Refresh
Select this button to refresh the drop down list of active processes.
Select this button to terminate the selected process from the drop down menu
left.
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Help ...
Close ...
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
Close the iMOD Batch window.
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Example of an iMOD Batch file in a text editor window:
The file contains all keywords used for the specific batch function. The keyword contents can
be added to complete the batch function. The command line to execute the batch file is at the
bottom of the file.
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5 View Menu options
General options
The View menu contains the following general options:
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Copy to Clipboard
Click this item to copy the content of the current graphical window to the Windows
Clipboard. You can use the shortcut Ctrl-C instead.
Show Transparent IDFs
Check this item to draw IDF-files in a transparent mode. The used transparency is 50%
and can not be altered.
Show Opaque IDF’s
Check this item to draw all selected IDFs in opaque mode onto each other. This is
helpful to plot IDFs with different dimensions onto each other, e.g. a smaller IDF on top
of a larger one.
Apply NODATA Transparency
Check this item to draw those parts of IDF-files transparently that contain “missing” data
(cell value is equal to the NoDataValue of the particular IDF).
Show IDF Features
IDF Raster Lines
Check this item to draw the line around each of the cells within an IDF.
IDF Extent
Check this item to draw a single line around the boundaries of the IDF.
iMOD Manager . . .
Check this item to show the iMOD Manager window (section 5.4), this window will hold
all active/loaded maps.
Project Manager
Check this item to display the iMOD Project Manager window; this window is able to
read in a runfile and display its content in a tree view. From here the content can be
ported to the iMOD Manager to quickly display model information.
Zoom Map
In
Click this item to zoom IN on the centre of the current graphical dimensions.
Out
Click this item to zoom OUT on the centre of the current graphical dimensions.
Rectangle
Click this item to zoom in for a rectangle to be drawn. Use the left-mouse button
to determine the lower-left corner of the rectangle, click again for the upper-right
corner (or vice-versa).
Full Map
Click this item to zoom in on the entire extent of the selected maps on the tab
Maps on the iMOD Manager or on the selected overlay Maps in the tab Overlay
on the iMOD Manager.
Mask Zoom: *.msk
Click this item to zoom to the zoom level in the last used or saved mask file.
Tag Zoom
This option is not available in the most recent iMOD version
Mask
Save Mask . . .
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Click this item to save the current zoom level to a *.MSK-file
Load Mask . . .
Click this item to load a *.MSK-file and zoom to the zoom level in that file.
Goto XY . . .
Click this item to display the Goto XY window (see section 5.2) in which you can specify
a location in coordinates or cell indices to zoom on to.
Graph
This is used internally by iMOD and can not be manipulated.
Show Topography
Click this icon to display the default topographical overlay as defined by the KeyWord
TOP25 in the selected *.PRF-file or display the overlays (*.BMP; *.PNG) as defined by
the menu option Add Topography.
Add Topography . . .
Click this item to specify bitmaps (*.BMP; *.PNG) to be used as background whenever
the Show Topography is selected, see section 5.3.
Transparent Topography
Click this item to display bitmaps that are used for background plotting in a transparent
way.
Show Location in Google Earth
Click this item to show the current zoom window within Google Earth. iMOD assumes
that UTM-coordinates are used.
Accuracy
This item computes the number of cells out of an IDF-file that are used to display a
coloured image of the values within the IDF. The more cells are read, the more accurate
the image will be displayed, however, the more time this will cost. iMOD computes
the number of screen pixels necessary to display the image with the highest detail (i.e.
the optimal detail). Thereafter, it depends on the choice of the user, how much of the
optimal detail will remain:
Low
Check this item to display IDF at a 10th of the optimal detail.
Medium
Check this item to display IDF at a 5th of the optimal detail.
High
Check this item to display IDF at a 3rd of the optimal detail (default).
Excellent
Check this item to display IDF at full detail.
Layout
Show Scalebar
Click this item to show a scalebar in the lower-right corner of the graphical window.
The size and parts of the scalebar are determined automatically and will update
whenever the zoomlevel changes.
Show Axes
Check this option to show axes around the graphical window. The coordinates are
trimmed to most logic values. The textsize, font and ticsizes can not be changed.
Show NorthArrow
Check this option to show a north arrow (or other image) that has been assigned
to the keyword NORTHARROW in the selected *.PRF-file.
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Example of usage of the options Show Axes and Show ScaleBar and pasted into this manual
by the option Copy to Clipboard:
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Goto XY
This functionality will offer the possibility to zoom on a centre point of interest. On the menubar
click View and then choose the option Goto XY to open the corresponding window.
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Goto XY window:
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5.2
X- and Y coordinate (m)
iCOL (max. 5,800)
iROW (max. 6,680)
for:
Zoom (m)
OK
Help
Close
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Check this option to enter coordinates (X and Y) to zoom on.
Check this option to enter column and row indices to zoom for. In this
case the limits for the column and row indices are 5,800 and 6,680,
respectively. Those are based upon the dimensions of the selected
IDF.
Select an IDF in the dropdown menu. You can select out of those listed
in the iMOD Manager.
Select a range for the zoom level out of the dropdown menu. The final
zoom level will be
Adjust the zoom level, closes the Goto XY Window and redraws the
canvas
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the
selected *.PRF file).
Leave the current zoom level unchanged and close the Goto XY Window.
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View Menu options
Add Topography
This functionality will offer the possibility to use your own background images instead of the
one defined by the keyword TOP25 in the selected *.PRF-file. On the menubar click View and
then choose the option Add Topography to open the corresponding window.
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Add Topography window:
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5.3
Add ...
Delete Selected
Files from List ...
Columns
Rows
XLLC (km)
YLLC (km)
XURC (km)
YURC (km)
Size dX (m)
Size dY (m)
Apply
Close
Help . . .
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Click this button to add a *.BMP or *.PNG file to the menu list of Existing BMPs.
Whatever is loaded is irrelevant, e.g. aerial photograph, satellite images (obtained by Google Earth). The PNG format is preferable to BMPs since it is
significant smaller in size.
Click this button to delete the selected file from the menu list of Existing BMPs.
Number of columns in the image
Number of row in the image
Enter the x-coordinate of the lower-left-corner (south-west) of the image.
Enter the y-coordinate of the lower-left-corner (south-west) of the image.
Displays the x-coordinate of the upper-right-corner (north-east) of the image
that will be computed from the XLLC and the bitmap width.
Displays the y-coordinate of the upper-right-corner (north-east) of the image
that will be computed from the YLLC and the bitmap height.
Bitmap width.
Bitmap height which will be equal to Size dX, automatically.
Click this button to show the background map. It also closes the Add Topography window. The images (can be more than one) in the list of Existing BMPs
will be shown when the menu option Show Topography from the View menu
is checked or when the corresponding icon from the tool bar is checked.
Click this button to close the Add Topography window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
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Note: To reference the image topographically you can either enter the position of the image
or add a so called worldfile in the same directory as the loaded image. iMOD will search for
{ext}W files, e.g. BMPW or PNGW to read the information. The following information is listed
in a worldfile.
Dx
RotX
RotY
Dy
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XULC
YULC
Rastersize (m) x-direction (west-east).
Value of rotation along the y-axis, RotX=0 for correct usage in iMOD.
Value of rotation along the x-axis, RotY=0 for correct usage in iMOD.
Rastersize (m) in the y-direction, it should be a negative number, since it is measured
from north to south. For correct usage in iMOD Dx=-Dy.
X-coordinate (m) for the center of the upper-left-corner (north-west).
Y-coordinate (m) for the center of the upper-left-corner (north-west).
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iMOD Manager
All active maps and overlays are managed by the iMOD Manager. On the menubar click View
and then choose the option iMOD Manager to open the corresponding window.
The window has four tabs:
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1 Maps:
This tab lists all maps loaded in iMOD. A large variety of maps can be loaded in the
iMOD Manager, up to 500 files;
2 Overlays:
This tab lists all maps used as background only, these can be *.GEN and *.IPF files.
Any *.SHP that will be read in this tab will be converted to a *.GEN file format;
3 Comments:
This tab lists comments that are attached to the selected map on the Maps tab;
4 Legend:
This tab displays the legend of the selected map which was drawn lastly from the selected list of maps on the Maps tab.
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iMOD Manager window, Maps Tab:
Open Map
Click this button to open a map. iMOD can read a variety of maps with known file
types: *.IDF, *.IPF, *.IFF, *.ISG, *.NC, and *.GEN. Alternatively the shortcut F2 can
be used, or select the menu option Map and then choose Add Map.
(re)Draw a Map
Click this button to redraw all selected maps.
MapInfo
Click this button to open the MapInfo window.
Map Value inspection
Click this button to open the Map Value window.
Legend
Click this button to open the Legend window.
Up
Click this button to move the selected files one position up in the list.
Down
Click this button to move the selected files one position down in the list.
Delete
Click this button to remove the selected files from the iMOD Manager.
Calculate
Click this button to open the IDF Calculator window.
Properties
Click this button to open theProperties window.
Help
Close
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Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Hides the iMOD Manager. The iMOD Manager can be displayed again by choosing
the menu option View and then choose the option iMOD Manager.
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Note: To select more than one of the files in the tab Maps of the iMOD Manager, use the
mouse-keyboard combination Ctrl- or Shift- combination. For many functionalities in iMOD it
is necessary to select the desired files in the iMOD Manager, first. Bear in mind that several
options become not available if these files are not selected.
iMOD Manager window, Overlays Tab:
Open Overlay
Click this button to open an overlay map. iMOD can read a variety of overlays with
known file types: *.GEN, *.SHP, and *.IPF.
(re)Draw an Overlay
Click this button to redraw all selected maps.
Legend
Click this button to open the Lines and Symbols window, see section 5.8.
Up
Click this button to move the selected files one position up in the list.
Down
Click this button to move the selected files one position down in the list.
Delete
Click this button to remove the selected files from the iMOD Manager.
Note: Whenever the tab Overlays is selected in combination with the menu option ZoomMap
and then ZoomFull (or the ZoomFull icon from the icon bar), iMOD will use the selected
overlays to adjust the zoom level such that those files will be displayed fully.
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iMOD Manager window, Comments Tab:
Create tag
Click this button to create a tag. The tags are connected to the selected map (only
one map may be selected). The tags may be defined as rectangle, polygon, circle or
line. Select the shape type, click the OK button on the Select window and draw the
shape on the graphical window (see section 4.4 for instructions).
A text file editor will open in which the coordinates of the drawn shape are
shown and in which a comment can be added which will be tagged to the map. The
comment is to be added at the location of the text: <enter comment>
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View Menu options
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Save the comment and close the text editor window to proceed.
Info
Click this button to open a text editor window to view the comment.
(re)Draw a Map
Click this button to draw the tag and the comment id.
Help
Close
Delete
Click this button to remove the selected tag from the iMOD Manager. The button is
active when the user button is activated
User
Click this button to allow the user to delete tags. Each user can delete his/her own
tags only.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Hides the iMOD Manager. The iMOD Manager can be displayed again by choosing
the menu option View and then choose the option iMOD Manager.
Note: The Comments tab on the iMOD Manager window is active when the TAGS variable is
defined in the iMOD_INIT.PRF file, see section 9.1.
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iMOD Manager window, Legend Tab:
Legend
Click this button to open the Legend window.
Note: The legend will be shown for the file (map) that has been drawn last, i.e. the lowest
selected file in the Map list on the Maps tab. There are different ways to plot the legend on
the canvas.
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iMOD Manager Properties
In the Maps tab of the iMOD Manager window, click the Properties button (
) to open the
Properties window. iMOD will use the selected file name properties to display the names of
the files in all the tabs of the iMOD Manager.
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Properties Window:
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5.5
[name].[ext]
[name].[ext] ([path)]
[path][name].[ext]
..\[path][name].[ext]
Apply
Help . . .
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Click this option to display the names and their extent only, e.g. SURFACE.IDF.
Click this option to display the names and their extent together with the
entire path, e.g. SURFACE.IDF (C:\IMOD).
Click
this
option
to
display
full
pathnames,
e.g.
C:\IMOD\SURFACE.IDF.
Click this option to display the relative pathnames, such that all files in
the iMOD Manager can be still distinguished, e.g. ..\SURFACE.IDF.
Click this button to close the Properties window and apply the selected
syntax.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
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iMOD Project Manager
The files needed in a model simulation are defined in the iMOD Project Manager. On the
menubar click View and then choose the option iMOD Project Manager to open the corresponding window.
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The iMOD Project Manager window shows a list of all possible model input topics. iMOD
saves the characteristics in a project file, a so called *.PRJ file. From a project file a runfile
(*.RUN) can be generated that will be used in the model simulation, see section section 7.7.
During the creation of a runfile, it is possible to change the number of modellayers and/or
the time characteristics of the simulation, e.g. the begin and end time and/or sizes in stressperiods.
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iMOD Project Manager window:
After reading a project (*.PRJ) file:
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Initially:
Project
Definition
All acronyms bracketed are described in more detail section chapter 17. Once a
project file *.PRJ (or a runfile *.RUN) has been read, the topics that contain model
information (recognized by the small “plus” signs) can be expanded to access the
underlying files/information.
Open Project file
Click this button to select a project file (*.PRJ). iMOD will read the project file and fills
the treeview in the Project Definition table.
Save Project file
Click this button to save the project file (*.PRJ) on disk.
Open Runfile
Click this button to select a runfile (*.RUN). iMOD will read the entire runfile and fills
the treeview accordingly in the Project Definition table.
Save Runfile
Click this button to save the runfile (*.RUN) on disk.
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Draw
Click this button to port the files within the selected topic to the iMOD Manager and
to display the files. The action of the Draw button depends on the selection in the
tree view. It will port all files underneath the selected branch. Whenever a branch
is expanded individual files can be selected that need to be ported to the iMOD
Manager.
Draw the selected file only:
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Draw all files in the expanded branch.
Constant files (e.g. lay=3;fct=1.0;imp=0.0;constant=15.0) will not be ported to
the iMOD Manager.
Define Characteristics:
Click this button to open the Define Characteristics window.
Refresh
Click this button to refresh the Project Definition table. All definitions will be removed.
Help ...
Close
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the iMOD Project Manager.
Note: For transient (timevariant) topics all stressperiods will be available in the iMOD Project
Manager. Other topics may contain more than one levels (subtopics), such as ANISOTROPY
that consists of FACTORS and ANGLES.
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Rivers/wells with timevariant information:
5.6.1
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Anisotropy with more topics:
Define Characteristics
The Define Characteristics (
) option of the iMOD Project Manager window opens a
window which enables to define the characteristics of the model input topics.
Define Characteristics window:
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Transient, start from
Transient period:
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Assign parameter to
modellayer . . .
Parameter:
Assign Parameter
Multiplication Factor:
Assign Parameter
Addition Value:
Add constant value
Add file:
Help ...
Add New Parameter
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Check this button to exclude this model topic when saving a runfile
(*.RUN).
Check this button to define a steady state model input for the selected
topic.
Check this button to define input for use in a transient model. Enter
the start date for the input in the input fields to the right. E.g. entering
10th of June 2014 means that the input files as specified under Define
Specific Characteristics: are valid from the 10th of June 2014 forward,
without a termination date. If it is necessary to end a particular input, it is needed to specify a specific input for that date that defines a
deactivation. Alternatively, it is possible to specify and /textitTransient
Period.
Select an defined period to indicate the start and end period for the
specific characteristics for the current topic.
Properties
Click this button to open the window in which it is possible to add and/or
alter period definitions.
Enter the modellayer number to assign the specific characteristics to.
It is also possible to enter a zero or a negative value:
A zero-value will assign the characteristics automatically to the modellayers intersected by the depth of the model topic (e.g. the depth of the
screen for wells or the depth of stage to bottom level for rivers)
A negative value will assign the characteristics to the upper most active
modellayer as defined in the Boundary Condition.
Choose the parameter for which the specific characteristics will be defined. Depending on the model input topic the number of parameters
is 1 (e.g. for WEL), 2 (e.g. for ANI), 3 (e.g. for EVT) or 4 (e.g. for RIV).
See section chapter 17 for detailed information about these different
input per topic.
Change the multiplication factor from the default value 1.0 in case the
model input needs to be multiplied.
Change the addition factor from the default value 0.0 in case the model
input needs to be increased (added) with a constant value.
Check this button and enter a constant value for the parameter for the
whole model area.
Check this option and enter a file name to be used for the parameter.
Open File
Click this button to open the a Windows Explorer to locate the file name
for the parameter, this can be an IDF, IPF, ISG or GEN file that depends
on the topic considered.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Check this button to save the entered input for the selected topic and
return to the Project Manager window. The treeview in this window will
collapse all topics and expand the selected and modified topic.
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Deactivate package
temporarily
Steady-state
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Define Periods
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Define Periods window:
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5.6.2
New
Click this button to define a new period. In the following window it is possible to enter
a name for the period.
Help ...
Close
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Use the OK button to agree with the entered period name, click the Cancel
button to cancel the creation of a new period.
Rename
Click this button to rename an existing period name. Usage of the window as described by New will be used.
Delete
Click this button to delete the selected period. Whenever the last period is delete,
iMOD will ask to enter a period name as described by New and if this canceled, the
Define Period window will be closed.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close this window, any modification will be saved.
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Define Simulation
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Define Simulation window:
SteadyState
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5.6.3
Transient
Start Date
End Date
Timescale:
Include
Steady
State
period
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Check this option to generate a runfile (*.RUN) for a steady-simulation, the option
becomes available only whenever at least one package is defined for a steady-state
period. iMOD will collect all packages that are connected to a steady-state definition
as specified in the Define Characteristics window.
Check this option to generate a transient runfile (*.RUN). iMOD will collect all packages that are within the specified Start Date and End Date.
Enter a start date for the transient simulation, this date will be start of the first stressperiod. iMOD will fill in this Start Date initially with the earliest defined date in the
packages.
Enter an end date for the transient simulation, this date will be the end of last stressperiod. iMOD will fill in this End Date initially with the latest defined date in the
packages.
Select one of the option from the drop down menu:
Daily
Select this option to generate daily stress-periods;
Weekly
Select this option to generate weekly stress-periods;
Monthly
Select this option to generate monthly stress-periods;
Yearly
Select this option to generate yearly stress-periods;
Packages
Select this option to generate stress-periods that are determined by the input
data as specified by the available packages in the Define Characteristics window. It can yield a non-constant time sequence for stress periods, but will be
most optimally to the amount of stress-periods;
Select this option to include an initial steady-state period, prior to the start of the
transient simulation. This option becomes available whenever at least one package
is defined for a steady-state period.
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Number of
Modellayers
Unconfinedness
OK
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Help ...
Cancel
Enter a number of modellayers for which the runfile need be set up. iMOD will fill
in the maximum number of modellayers based upon the modellayers that have been
filled in for the most important packages, BND, SHD (TOP and BOT), KDW or KHV
and VCW or KVV.
Select this checkbox whenever a runfile need to be prepared to simulate unconfined
conditions. This option becomes available whenever the packages TOP, BOT, KHV
and KVV are available.
Click this button to select an existing or non-existing runfile, by default iMOD will save
the runfile in the {USER}\RUNFILES folder. It is convenient to do that as well, however not obliged, but it will allows iMOD to start the runfile form the Model Simulation
tool, see section 7.7.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close this window, no runfile (*.RUN) will be generated.
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Subsurface Explorer
The Subsurface Explorer tool can be used to import prepared subsurface data of the Netherlands into iMOD. The data that can be loaded are stored in a database, of which the path has
to be specified in the IMOD_INIT.PRF file using the keyword DATABASE. Furthermore, the
path to the 7-zip executable on the users computer also has to be specified in this file using
the keyword 7ZIP, see section 9.1 for more information.
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Subsurface Explorer window:
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5.7
Current Position
Create a new
project
Use an existing
project
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Shows the current mouse position on the map in RD coordinates.
Navigation buttons for the map
Use these buttons to adjust the view of the map. The buttons can be used to
zoom in, to zoom out, to move the map by dragging and to reset the map to
the original view, respectively.
Delete a project
Select an existing project in the Select project listbox and click this button to
delete the project.
To create a new project enter a new name in the Select project listbox.
To continue using an existing project select it by clicking the name once in the
Select project listbox.
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Clear project first
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Merge with project
data
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Select data
Draw a polygon
Click this button to be able to draw one or more polygons on the map. To draw
a polygon, click the left mouse button to place points and click the right mouse
button to stop drawing. When the polygon is finished the tool will select the
cells corresponding to the polygon.
Import a polygon from file
Click this button to open a *.GEN file containing one or more polygons. The
polygons will be drawn on the map and the corresponding cells will be selected.
This list shows the available data. Select one or more data types from this list
you would like to load.
Select this option to first clear the data in an existing project before loading
the selected data.
Select this option to merge the selected data with the data already present in
an existing project folder.
Load the data
Click this button to load the current selection. The tool will check whether all
required information is present.
Note: The window can be resized by dragging the edges in order to adjust the size of the
map. When using polygons to select cells, the data will not be clipped to the polygon, it is
only used to select the cells. A *.SHP file can easily be converted to a *.GEN file in order
to be able to use it in the Subsurface Explorer. Simply open the file in iMOD as an overlay
(iMOD Manager ) and the *.SHP file will automatically be converted to a *.GEN file, which will
be placed in the same directory.
The database that contains the data which are imported using the Subsurface Explorer tool
should be structured as the above figure shows. The data type folders, SETTINGS.TXT and
PROVINCES.7Z are stored in the folder to which the IMOD_INIT.PRF file should refer (see
section 9.1). The SETTINGS.TXT file contains the minimal X, minimal Y, maximum X, maxDeltares
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imum Y and the grid size of the map that is visible on the tool. In this case the map of the
Netherlands is divided into cells using a grid with a cell size of 10 km2 , resulting in a total of
891 cells. The map of the Netherlands is drawn using a GEN file stored in PROVINCES.7Z.
The data type folders contain a zip file for each cell, containing only the data of that data
type for that cell. Furthermore, when applicable, the data type folder can contain a legend in
LEGEND.7Z archive, containing an iMOD format legend which will then be used when plotting the data (see section 9.12). For data types that consist of many raster files, e.g. REGIS,
an MDF file stored in the database in MDF.7Z, is used to be able to handle these files more
conveniently (see section 6.5). Finally each data type folder also contains a SETTINGS.TXT
file, in which the extension (e.g. IPF), whether a legend is present (1 for yes, 0 for no) and
(only when the data type has the IPF extension) a header which should be used for the IPFs
of that data type are given. By using the SETTINGS.TXT files the tool can also be used for
other datasets in other geographical regions and new data types can be added easily without
editing the source code. The names of the files in the archives containing the data of cells
are only the cell number followed by the extension of the file. For example the DINO borehole
data of cell 55 are stored in 55.IPF (and corresponding text files). Only raster files have an
extended name which also contains one string with information about the layer the file describes, this information can for example be which geological formation the layer describes or
at which depth the layer is situated. For example the geotop layer at a depth of 50 centimeters
below the surface in cell 55 is named -50_55.IDF. The string on the left of the underscore can
contain any character supported by the operating system, except for an underscore, because
this character is used to be able to separate the additional information about the layer from
the cell number. The data that are loaded are downloaded from the database to the userВґs
computer and are stored in a folder with the name of the project specified using the tool in
the IMOD_USER\SUBSURFACE_EXPLORER\directory. The data that are loaded into iMOD
using the Subsurface Explorer are plotted and shown in the iMOD manager, after which all
iMOD functionalities can be used to analyse and edit the data.
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View Menu options
Lines and Symbols
In the Overlays tab of the iMOD Manager window, click the Legend button to open the Lines
and Symbols window, left for lines (GENs, IFFs, ISGs), right for points (IPFs).
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Lines and Symbols window:
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Symbol No.:
Select one of the symbol numbers out of the dropdown menu. For lines
(GENs and SHPs) these types vary from solids, to dashed and stippled
pattern (1-7). For point data (IPFs) these types vary from between circles,
triangles, rectangles and other shape forms (1-40).
Available markerset:
Symbol
Color
Thickness
Markersize
Fill Polygons
Close
Apply
Help
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This field will display the symbol chosen from the dropdown menu Symbol
No.:.
Click this button to open the default Colour Selection window.
Enter the value of the thickness of the line (GENs and SHPs).
Enter the value of the size for the symbol (IPFs).
Select this checkbox to fill in the polygons (GENs and SHPs).
Click this button to close the Lines and Symbols window without applying any
changes.
Click this button to apply the configuration and close the Lines and Symbols
window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
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6 Map Menu options
Add Map
Click the option Add Map from the Map menu to open an IDF-, MDF-, IPF-, IFF-, ISG-, GENor ASC-file. Alternatively click on the Add Map button on the iMOD Manager, click on the icon
Open Map on the toolbar, or use the shortcut F2 on the keyboard to open the Load iMOD
Map window.
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Load iMOD Map window:
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6.1
Note: To select multiple files, use the combination Shift-left mouse to select adjacent files or
use the Ctrl-left mouse button to select files in any order.
Note: Whenever an ASC-file is opened (see section 9.11 for the syntax of an ASC-file), iMOD
will convert these file into IDF format and write them in the same folder. Whenever such a file
exists, you will be asked to overwrite it.
Note: Whenever NC-file (NetCDF) is opened, iMOD will convert these file into IDF format and
write them in the same folder. Since, a NetCDF file is general file format iMOD can not convert
this type of a file without the interference of the user. Herefor, iMOD will display the following
window in which the user can specify the correct attributes for the x- and y-coordinate and the
actual data block to be converted.
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NetCDF Content window:
Configure NetCDF
Import
Import Variable
X-Coord.:
Y-Coord.:
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This treeview lists the content of the selected NetCDF file. iMOD needs an
attribute for the x- and y-coordinates and an actual data block. In the example
presented above, these are the attributes x, y and Band1. The x- and ycoordinates (actual the mids of the gridcells) need to be stored in an one
dimensional array (ndim=1) and the data block in a two dimensional array
(ndim=2). iMOD will compute the cell size that is needed for the formulation
of an IDF file, which can be equidistant en non-equidistant.
Select an available variable that is stored by a two dimensional array in the
NetCDF, e.g. Band1.
Select an available variable that is stored by an one dimensional array in the
NetCDF for the representation of the x-coordinate, e.g. x.
Select an available variable that is stored by an one dimensional array in the
NetCDF for the representation of the y-coordinate, e.g. y.
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Map Menu options
Import As:
Select one of the following options to store the converted NetCDF file:
IDF
Select this option to generate an IDF file;
IPF
Select this option to generate an IPF file, each point in the IPF file
represents the location as described by the selected x- and y-variable;
NoData Value
Select an available variable to represent the NodataValue of the data block.
iMOD will fill in the corresponding value in the input field to the right.
Click this button to close the NetCDF Content window without converting the
NetCDF file into an IDF.
Click this button to convert the NetCDF into an IDF file and close the NetCDF
Content window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help functionality.
Close
OK
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Quick Open
This functionality offers the ability to search specific iMOD folders for particular IDF-files more
quickly than by means of the default windows Explorer. Select the menu option Map and then
choose Quick Open to open the Quick Open window.
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Quick Open window:
Folder
Variant
Topic
Time
Layer
Display
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6.2
Zoom to Full
Extent
Open
Help . . .
Close
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Select one of the existing foldernames from the dropdown menu. The foldernames MODELS, SCENARIOS and SCENTOOL refer to the corresponding
folders below {USER}.
Displays the existing subfolders below Folder. In the situation that the option
SCENTOOL is chosen from the Folder dropdown menu, it will display the
scenario variants of the active scenario opened by the Pumping Tool.
Displays the existing subfolder below Variant. These will be the particular
result folders.
Displays all unique IDF-files in the Folder \Variant\Topic folder. iMOD will
search in this folder for IDF-files that agree with Topic_*_L*.IDF.
Displays all existing layers in the Folder \Variant\Topic folder. iMOD will search
in this folder for IDF-files that agree with Topic_Time_L*.IDF.
Select this option to display the IDF-file(s). Unselect this option to add the
IDF-file(s) to the drawing list in the iMOD Manager only.
Select this option to adjust the zoom level to the maximum extent of the last
selected IDF-file.
Click this button to add the selected IDF-file(s) to the iMOD Manager.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Quick Open window.
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Map Menu options
Map Info
The functionality Map Info will display information about the selected map. Select the menu
option Map and then choose Info Map to open the corresponding window.
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Map Info window:
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6.3
Current visible
extent
File:
Fullname:
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This group displays the current extent of the graphical window. It shows the minimum and maximum x- and y coordinates and the delta-x and delta-y values (all
in meters).
This dropdown menu shows all the files that are opened in the iMOD Manager.
Click this menu to select the file for which the information should be displayed.
This string field shows the full pathname of the selected map.
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Map Additional Info
The functionality of this button is twofold:
MDF
Select this option to open the MDF Files Sorter window, see section section 6.5;
GEN
Select this option to open the Content of Associated Datafile window, see
section section 6.14.1;
IDF
Select this option to open the IDF Edit Table window, see section section 6.10.4.3;
This string field shows the alias of the selected map. This name will be used in
the iMOD Manager as well and offers the possibility to clarify identical file names.
Any modification will be saved only whenever the Rename button will be clicked.
Rename
Click this button to rename the entered Alias.
Additional Information
This field shows any additional information that is attached to the selected IDF.
For other file types, this field will be showing the string: “No additional information
found”.
Edit
Click this button to edit the additional information in a regular text editor, e.g.
Notepad. Whenever any modifications are saved from Notepad, iMOD will write
the renewed additional information in the IDF file, automatically.
This string will show the number of rows and columns in an IDF or IPF-file.
Click this button to allow editing of the lower left corner of the IDF file. Click this
button (rename to Save Adjustments) again to save the modification in the IDF
file, iMOD will adjust the upper right corner accordingly.
This field shows for the whole map the minimum and maximum values for the xand y coordinates and their delta-x and delta-y values (all in meters).
For equidistant IDF-files, it shows the width and height of the rows and columns.
For non-equidistant IDF-files, it shows the minimum and maximum dimensions
(all in meters).
These will show the internal Top and Bottom values for IDF-files.
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Map Size
Adjust Lower
Left Corner
X:
Y:
DX:
DY:
TOP:
BOT:
Adjust
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Alias:
Click this button to edit the TOP and BOT values. Once those values differ
(TOP>BOT), the IDF-file will be treated as a voxel in the 3D Tool and the Profile
Tool.
Adjusting TOP and BOT values:
Value:
Shown Value:
NoData Value:
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Store
Click this button to save the adjustments for TOP and BOT.
Display the minimum and maximum data values of the IDF or IPF-file.
The minimum, maximum and difference between maximum and minimum data
values currently drawn and processed.
This field shows the NoDataValue of the IDF-file.
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Map Menu options
Transformation
Select a type of transformation for the values in the IDF. The data will be transformed internally. The available options are:
m в†’ cm: transforms meters into centimeters
cm в†’ m: transforms centimeters into meter
m в†’ mm: transforms meters into millimeters
mm в†’ m: transforms millimeters into meters
m3/day в†’ mm/day: transforms cubic meter per day into millimeters per day
mm/day в†’ m3/day: transforms millimeters per day into cubic meters per day
Statistics
Click this button to get the statistics of the selected IDF-file.
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Statistics window:
Compute
Click this button to (re)compute the statistics of the IDF-file.
Graph
Click this button to get a graph of the percentiles of the IDF-file.
Increase of
Percentiles
Help ...
Close
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Enter a value for the increment of the computed percentiles.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Statistics window.
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Adjust
Click this button the adjust the NoDataValue (here it becomes zero) and/or
choose a type of transformation (here we choose to transform the IDF data
internally from m3/day into mm/day). In this case iMOD will divide the data by
their cell size (m3/day to m/day) and multiply them with 1000 (m/day to mm/day).
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More . . .
Click the Apply button to store the adjustments into the IDF, or click the
Cancel button to cancel any adjustments.
Click this button to display the metadata (.MET) file that might be associated to the selected map. For the example, iMOD will try to open the file
HEAD_20050501_L1.MET. If the file does not exist, iMOD will create the file. This
function is strongly discouraged for IDF files, use the Edit button to add additional
info to an IDF file instead.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Hides the iMOD Manager. The iMOD Manager can be displayed again by choosing the menu option View and then choose the option iMOD Manager.
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Map Menu options
Map Sort
The functionality Sort Selected Maps will offer the possibility to sort/re-arrange selected (IDF)
files in the iMOD Manager accordingly to a selected type of order. Select the menu option
Map and then choose Sort Selected Maps to expand the following options:
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Sort from High to Low Internal value
Select this option to sort the selected IDF file in a order that is defined by their individual
internal values. E.g., use this option to re-arrange IDF files that describe top- and
bottom elevations of interfaces;
Sort Alphabetic Ascending Order (A-Z)
Select this option to sort any the selected files upon their filename in an alphabetic
ascending order, that is from A up to Z;
Sort Alphabetic Descending Order (Z-A)
Select this option to sort any the selected files upon their filename in an alphabetic
descending order, that is from Z up to A;
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Grouping IDF Files
Different files in the iMOD Manager may be identified, analysed and/or displayed at the same
time. For example, you want to analyse the differences between two model simulations and/or
combine these with geohydrological cross-sections. To control the number of files in the iMOD
Manager, it can be helpful to minimize (grouping) the number of files in the iMOD Manager.
Select the IDF-files that you want to Group in the menu list of the iMOD Manager and then
select the menu option IDF Options from the Map menu and choose the option IDF Group.
After you entered a filename, iMOD will create an MDF-file. An MDF-file lists all the selected
IDF-files in one single file. The content of that file can be displayed by the option Info on the
Map Info window. The following window will be displayed.
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MDF Files (sorter) window:
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6.5
Open IDF
Click this button to open an IDF-file, it will be added to the MDF-file whenever you
click the Ok button.
Delete
Click this button to remove the selected files from the MDF-file.
Up
Click this button to move the selected files one position up in the list.
Down
Click this button to move the selected files one position down in the list.
Information
Click this button to display the description of the MDF-file.
Legend
Click this button to adjust the legend of the selected IDF-file
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Map Menu options
Display
Fullnames
OK
Help . . .
Cancel
Click this option to display the entire pathnames for the IDF-files.
Click this button to save the adjustments to the MDF-file. After that it will close the
MDF Files (sorter) window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the MDF Files (sorter) window without any changes.
To ungroup a MDF-file, select the menu option Map and choose the option IDF Options and
then the optionIDF Ungroup MDF.
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Note: The IDF-file that is selected in the MDF-file will be used to plot on the graphical canvas.
If multiple files are selected, only the first will be plotted though. The properties of the IDFs are
known as all attributes (legend, cross-section types, colours, aliases) of the IDFs are copied
into the MDF-file too.
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Note: The order in which the IDF-files are listed is the same order as which they appear
in the Map Value, Cross-Section Tool and 3DTool. Moreover, MDF-files will be displayed in
graphs separate from the files that are not in the MDF-file(s), see section 6.11.3.2.
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Adjust Legends
A legend is assigned to a map (*.IDF, *.IPF, *.IFF, *.GEN). Make sure you select one of them
in the iMOD Manager to activate the Legend button on the Maps tab of the iMOD Manager.
Alternatively you can click the right mouse button anywhere on the canvas and select the
option Legend from the popup menu and then choose the option Adjust Legend. In both
cases, the Legend window will appear, two examples of the Stretched tab on the Legend
window, left using all color gradients (7 gradients), right using the first and last only (one
gradient).
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Legend window, Stretched Tab using all color gradients:
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Legend window, Stretched Tab using two color gradients:
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Map Menu options
Flip Colours
Click this option to “flip” the colour sequence, e.g. red becomes blue and blue
becomes red.
Histogram
Click this button to display a frequency distribution of the current legend classes.
Move your mouse in the graph to show the value (X-crd) and the frequency in %
(Y-crd).
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Graph Window (with a Frequency Distribution for 250 stretched legend classes):
Zoom In
Click this button to zoom in at the position of the mouse cursor, repeatedly. Right click the mouse to stop.
Zoom Out
Click this button to zoom out at the position of the mouse cursor, repeatedly. Right click the mouse to stop.
Zoom Window
Click this button to zoom into a drawn rectangle. Left click the mouse to
define the first corner of the rectangle. Left click again for the second
corner. Right click to cancel the zoom operation.
Zoom Full
Click this button to adjust the zoom level to the full extent of the graph.
Xcrd=
Ycrd=
Help...
Close
Header
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Move
Click this button to move the graph. Keep the left mouse button pressed
and drag the mouse cursor to move the graph.
Copy to Clipboard
Click this button to copy the graph onto the clipboard of Windows.
Paste the image into e.g. Word by the Ctrl-V key combination
Display of the coordinates of the current mouse position.
Select this button to start the Help functionality.
Select this button to close the Graph window.
Enter a descriptive text for the corresponding legend. The text will be plotted on
top of the legend whenever the legend is plotted on the graphical canvas. Leave
the input field empty to ignore any legend header.
Open Legend File
Click this option to open an existing *.LEG-file for the syntax.
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Save Legend File
Click this option to save the current legend in a *.LEG-file.
Predefined Legends
Click this option to select a predefined legend. Select one of the available legends and click the OK button to read the selected legend into the Legend window.
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Predefined Legends:
GridCells
Click this option to display the IDF-file with filled gridcells.
ContourLines
Click this option to display the IDF as contourlines.
Flow direction
Click this option to display arrows indicating the direction of flow.
Give Min-Max
values
Default Colours
Apply
Cancel
Help
Data Numbers
Click this option to display the actual data on the mids of the selected IDF file.
The size of the text is given by the entered Line thickness.
Line thickness
Click this option to set the line thickness of the contours and the direction of flow
arrows
ColorMark
Select the checkbox (2-6) to turn on/off the corresponding colour in the legend
colour ramp. Clicking on the coloured field (red in this case) will show the default
Colour window wherein you can specify another colour.
Class
Enter a class that corresponds to the colour, in this case the value 8.2890 corresponds to the red colour in checkbox 2.
Select this checkbox to enter a minimum and maximum value. As a result only
the top and bottom input fields will be available to enter values.
Click this option to reset the current colours for the default colours.
Click this button to apply the legend setting to the current selected map file (IDF,
IPF, IFF or GEN).
Click this button to close the Legend window without applying any changes to the
current legend settings.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Note: A stretched legend contains always 255 colours and classes. Whenever a legend
contains 50 classes or less, the Classes tab will appear instead.
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Map Menu options
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Legend window, Classes tab:
Upper
Lower
Color
Label
Freq. (%)
The first column shows the Upper limit for each class, enter different values if desired.
The second column shows the Lower limit for each class. It will be filled in automatically based upon the filled in values for the Upper limit. The Lower limit should be
filled in for the last record only.
The third column displays the colour for the class. You can click on the colour to
display the Colour window. The colour will be used to colour the values less than the
Upper class and greater or equal to the Lower class.
The fourth column shows the label that can be displayed in the Legend tab on the
iMOD Manager window and/or plotted on the canvas. The label can be entered with
a maximum of 50 characters.
The fifth column shows the frequency of occurrence of values within each class. It is
only applicable to IDF-files.
Insert a Row
Click this button to insert a row in the table. It will be inserted one row above the row
you select.
Delete a Row
Click this button to delete the selected row.
Flip Colours
Click this option to “flip” the colour sequence.
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Histogram
Click this button to compute the frequencies of IDF values within each class of the
current legend, a histogram is plotted, see above for an explanation). The computed
values are temporary written in the fifth column. Once the Legend window has been
closed, the values are removed.
Update
Labels
Header
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Graph window:
Click this button to update the labels in the Label column. These values will be used
whenever the legend is plotted on the graphical canvas.
Enter a descriptive text for the corresponding legend. The text will be plotted on top
of the legend whenever the legend is plotted on the graphical canvas. Leave the input
field empty to ignore any legend header.
Note: The maximum number of classes in a Classed Legend is 50. However, less is often
desired. You are requested to specify beforehand the number of classes you want. When
switching from the Stretched tab to the Classes tab, the following window will appear.
Class Definitions window:
Number of classes
(1-50)
Force exact
number of classes
OK
Close
Help
80
Enter the number of classes for which the stretched legend will be transformed.
Select this option to force the exact amount of classes as specified in Number
of classes. If deselected, iMOD will try to round the class-interval to nice
numbers that might yield is less classes.
Click this button to continue to the Classes tab of the Legend window.
Click this button to close this Class Definition window and return to the
Stretched tab of the Legend window..
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
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Map Menu options
Generation of Legends
All active maps are accompanied by a legend. IDF-files are drawn standard by a legend,
as well as IPFs, IFFs, ISGs and GENs. How to specify a legend is explained in sections
3.4.5, 4.2.1, 4.3.1, 4.4.1 and 4.5.2, respectively. However you can let iMOD assign classes
and colours also. In that case you should select the respective *-options under Map, or alternatively you can press the right mouse button anywhere on the canvas to see the following
options:
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Current Zoom Level
Percentiles
Click this option to build a non-linear legend based upon the distribution of values
in the selected IDF’s for the current zoom level of these files (max. 2000 points).
Linear
Click this option to build a linear legend based upon the minimum and maximum
values in the selected IDF’s for the current zoom level of these files.
Unique Values
Click this option to build a legend with unique values that appear in the selected
IDF’s for the current zoom level of these files (should be less or equal to 50).
Entire Zoom Extent
Percentiles
Click this option to build a non-linear legend based upon the distribution of values
in the selected IDF’s for the entire zoom extent of these files (max. 2000 points).
Linear
Click this option to build a linear legend based upon the minimum and maximum
values in the selected IDF’s for the entire zoom extent of these files.
Unique Values
Click this option to build a legend with unique values that appear in the selected
IDF’s for the entire zoom extent of these files (should be less or equal to 50).
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Note: Whenever the number of unique classes exceeds the maximum of 50, iMOD will
distribute the original number of classes to fit the maximum of 50. It will take the frequency of
the original classes into account, such that the frequencies of the renewed classes are evenly
distributed.
Information window:
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Synchronize Legends
Whenever more than one map is selected in the iMOD Manager then the option Synchronize
Legends becomes available to display the Synchronize Legends window. You can open this
window by selecting the menu option Map and the option Legend or alternatively the same
menu options from the popup menu whenever you click your right mouse button anywhere on
the canvas.
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Synchronize Legend by window:
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List menu
Apply
Close
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The menu list displays all the selected IDF-files from the iMOD Manager. The legend
from the one that is selected (in this case the PWTHEAD_19890114_L1.IDF) will be
used to be copied to the others.
Click this button to synchronize the listed IDF-files to the selected IDF and close the
Synchronize Legend window.
Click this button to close this Synchronize Legend window without changing any
legend.
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Map Menu options
Plot Legends
Right-click your mouse button anywhere on the canvas to select the menu option Legend and
then choose the option Plot Legend on Map to plot the legend of the last drawn Map on the
canvas.
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How to move the legend:
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The first picture shows that you can move the legend whenever the mouse symbol changes
in a cross. The 2nd , 3rd and 4th show that you can increase and decrease the size of the
legend whenever the arrows appear (near the legend boundaries).
Whenever you right click the mouse button, you can specify the number of columns (1-5)
that are used to display the legend, by selecting those in the popup menu Legend Columns.
Whenever the legend contains less or equal 50 classes, the legend will be plotted such, that
you can distinguish all the classes.
The left two pictures show a legend for two and four columns (both 255 classes) and the right
picture shows a legend with 10 classes.
To remove the legend from the map, deselect the Plot Legend on Map option again.
Note: The size of the text will increase and decrease whenever the size of the legend area
is changed. So, to increase the textsize, you should increase the area for the legend.
The following sections contains detailed descriptions of the Map options for different files that
iMOD supports.
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6.10
IDF Options
iMOD supports several basic functionalities that manipulate IDF-files:
IDF Value,
IDF Export,
IDF Calculator, use this tool to apply simple algebra, rescale the IDF and/or merge
several IDF-file into a single one.
IDF Edit, use this tool to select areas for which computations are carried out. These
can be simple algebraic computations and/or smoothing and/or interpolation.
IDF Value
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WHY?
IDF-files are raster files with (non)-equidistant rastersizes. Interactive inspection of the raster
with the IDF Value option is a quick and easy way to check the raster values.
WHAT?
IDF Value allows you to view particular rastercell values for a single IDF-file, or multiple IDFfiles. iMOD will read the IDF values underneath the current mouse position.
HOW?
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6.10.1
In the Map tab of the iMOD Manager window, click the Map Value (
) button to open the
Map Value window. Otherwise, use the shortcut F3 or right-click anywhere on the canvas to
open the popup menu. Select the option IDF Options and then choose IDF Analyse. Or alternatively, select the menu option Map, choose the option IDF Options and then IDF Analyse.
Map Value Window:
Current Location
IDF
Values
Transf.
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This field shows the current location of the mouse on the canvas. Press the LEFT
mouse button to freeze the current location. Restart inspection over the canvas by
pressing the LEFT mouse button again.
This column in the table shows the IDF selected in the iMOD Manager and part of
the inspection with MapValue.
This column shows the value of the IDF (column 1) for the current location. Values
that are greater than zero will be coloured red, less than zero become blue.
This column shows the transformation that could take place, see for more information
about this the syntax of the IDF-file and how to apply a transformation.
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Map Menu options
Cell
Indices
Skip
NoData
Close
This column shows the column and row number of the selected IDF-files, e.g. Cell
Indices=C32;R12 to represent column 32 and row 12 respectively. There is no need
that the inspected IDF-files have identical dimension and/or raster discretization.
Whenever the mouse is positioned outside the limits of the IDF, Cell Indices=Outside.
In case the inspector works with a rectangle/polygon, the Cell Indices will show the
minimum and maximum values for the column and row numbers that are within the
rectangle/polygon, e.g. Cell Indices=C40-32;R32-54.
Click this option to exclude those IDF-files for which NoDataValues are read.
Click this button to close the MapValue window. Alternatively the MapValue window
can be closed by clicking the RIGHT mouse button anywhere on the canvas.
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Map Value window filled with items from a MDF-file:
T
Note: All selected files in the iMOD Manager will be listed in the Map Value window, however,
IPFs, IFFs, GENs and ISGs will be left out automatically. There is no need to deselect them
before clicking the Map Value button. Whenever a MDF-file is selected, all IDF-files within the
MDF-file will be displayed and also the MDF-filename.
Note: The menu options Move, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Zoom Full and Zoom Rectangle are
available during the Map Value exercise.
Note: Click the left mouse button to stop hovering over the graphical display. It will freeze the
values in the Map Value window. Start hovering again by clicking the left mouse button again,
terminate the entire functionality by clicking the right mouse button.
On default, the Map Value window will operate as a point inspector, in other words, the value
will be read for the current position of the mouse. Click the menu option Map, the option IDF
Options and then the option IDF Analyse to display the following options to alter this:
Plot No Location
Check this item whenever no rastercells of the selected IDF-file need to be displayed.
Plot All Locations
Check this item whenever the rastercells of all selected IDF-files need to be displayed.
Bear in mind that the performance will slow down whenever many IDF-files are included, and if IDF-files with non-equidistant rasters are included. Whenever this option
is checked, all values in Map Value will be coloured differently.
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Map Value window in Plot All Locations mode:
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Plot First Location Only
Check this item whenever the rastercells of the first IDF-file listed in the Map Value
table, need to be displayed. This is the default.
Points
Check this item whenever the values for the current location of the mouse need to be
listed. This is the default.
Rectangle
Check this item whenever the values need to be summed within a rectangle that you
can draw. Use the left mouse button to locate the first position of the rectangle and the
left/right mouse button to stop and close the Map Value window.
Polygon
Check this item whenever the values need to be summed within a polygon that you can
draw. Use the left mouse button to locate the first position of the polygon and continue
to add more points (as desired) to complete the polygon. Use the right mouse button to
stop and close the Map Value window.
Circle
Check this item whenever the values need to be summed within a circle that you can
draw. Use the left mouse button to locate the first position of the circle and expand the
size of the circle while moving the mouse pointer away from the first position (centre
of the circle). Click again on your left mouse button to stop and close the Map Value
window.
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Map Menu options
IDF Export
WHY?
IDF-files have a specific format. The export to a format readable in other software applications
makes it possible to use the IDF-files outside iMOD.
WHAT?
The IDF-files can be exported in several formats.
HOW?
Choose the option Map from the main menu, choose IDF Options and then IDF Export to
display the following menu options:
T
ESRI ASC Format
Check this option to export the IDF into an ESRI ASCII format. Bear in mind that this
ESRI ASCII format does not support non-equidistant cell sizes. Therefore, the export
will result always in an equidistant ASCII file, see section section 9.11 for the exact
syntax of an ESRI-ASCII file. Any ASCII file can be read in again in iMOD to convert is
back to an IDF file, see section section 6.1.
NetCDF Format
Check this option to export the IDF into the NetCDF3 format. Any NetCDF file can be
read in again in iMOD to convert is back to an IDF file, see section section 6.1.
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6.10.2
For both export formats the following options are available:
Export Total Extent
Click this option to export the current IDF for its total extent.
Export Current Extent
Click this option to export the current IDF for the current extent of the graphical window.
Export Given Extent
Click this option to export the current IDF for an extent to be entered.
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IDF Calculator
WHY?
Arithmetic operations enable the creation of new IDF-files.
WHAT?
The IDF Calculator works with IDF-files as input and enables to:
calculate a new IDF-file using an arithmetic expression on one or two IDF-files (the
Algebra tab)
change the rastersize of an IDF-file by upscaling or downscaling (the Scale/Size tab)
merge a selected number of IDF-files into one IDF-files (the Special tab).
T
HOW?
The IDF Calculator can be displayed at any time from the iMOD Manager, click the Calculator
button and/or use the Map option from the main menu (or the popup menu that displays
whenever you click your right mouse button on the graphical window), choose IDF Options
and then the option IDF Calculate. The following Map Operations window will be displayed.
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6.10.3
Map Operation window, Algebra tab:
Map A
Map B
Map C
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Displays the first IDF. On default it will display the first selected IDF from the
iMOD Manager, click the button Open IDF to open a different one.
Displays the second IDF. On default it will display the second selected IDF
from the iMOD Manager, click the button Open IDF to open a different one.
Enter the name of the resulting IDF. On default it will use the name DIFF.IDF
that will be saved in the TMP-folder of the USER-folder.
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Map Menu options
Open IDF
Click this button to select an IDF-file from a folder
Enter the formulae to be used. The syntax of the formulae is that the IDFnames entered as Map A, Map B and Map C are represented by the characters A, B and C, respectively. The example C=A-B means that the values of
Map A will be subtracted by the values in Map B.
The following operators are available in the formulae:
“+” : adds values
“-“ : subtract values
“/” : divides values
“*” : multiplies values
“?” : takes the first NoDataValue found in Map A then Map B
“<”: takes the smallest from both values between Map A and Map B
“>”: takes the largest from both values between Map A and Map B
The following functions are available in the formulae:
ABS() : takes the absolute value of the expression between brackets;
LOG() : takes the logarithmic value of the expression between brackets;
EXP() : takes the exponent of the expression between brackets;
GTP() : computes the groundwaterclass (�grondwatertrap’). Enter a
mean highest groundwaterlevel for Map A and the mean lowest groundwater level for Map B.
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Formulae
Expression
The Formulae entered is translated into an Expression which will be used,
eventually. The expression can be used to check whether the formulae has
been filled in correctly.
Note: It is possible to include constant values in the Formulae, e.g.
[C=1.5*A] which means that all values in Map A will be multiplied with a
factor of 1.5. Be aware that the number should come before Map A as in the
formulae [C=A*1.5] the constant value is ignored. This can be extended to
another factor to be used for Map B, e.g. [C=1.5*A-0.5/B].
It should be noticed that these constant value are rounded to a single
precision real (8 digit number), so the entered value 0.1234567890 becomes
0.12345678 in the Expression.
Example of the Formulae:
Ignore
NoData_ Value
Use
NoData_ Value as
value
Transform into . . .
Use *.gen
*.gen
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Check this option to ignore the NoDataValues in the IDF-files.
On default cells equal to the NoDataValue of the IDF will be excluded in the
computation.
Check this option to use the NoDataValues in the computation.
Specify the value to replace the NoDataValue of the IDFs.
On default the value 0.0 is used.
Check this option to force that the resulting IDF (Map C) will have equidistant
cellsizes. Whenever any of the selected IDF-files (Map A and/or Map B) is an
IDF-file with non-equidistant cellsizes, the smallest cellsize in one of these will
be used to determine the cellsize of Map C.
Check this option to force that the results of Map C will be computed inside
the polygons that are defined in the entered *.GEN-file (*.gen).
Enter the *.GEN-file with polygons
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Open File
Click this button to select a *.GEN file
Click one of the following options:
Window, to force that the results of Map C will be computed for the
current ZoomLevel only;
Map A, to force that the results of Map C will be computed for the extent
of Map A.
x1,y1,x2,y2, to enter the coordinates of a specific window
Compute. . .
Click this button to start the computation, it closes the Map Operations window
afterwards.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Map Operations window.
Help ...
Close
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Map Operation window, Scale/Size tab:
T
Select the extent
for which the
computation
apllies:
Map A
Displays the IDF to be scaled. On default it will display the selected IDF in the
iMOD Manager, click the Open IDF button to open a different one.
Open IDF
Click this button to select an IDF-file from a folder.
Map C
Enter the name of the resulting IDF. On default it will use the IDF-file from Map
A and add the postfix SCALED to it, so the IDF-name will change from *.IDF
into *_SCALED.IDF.
Enter the new cell size of the IDF. The resulting IDF will be an equidistant IDF
with this cellsize.
Scale
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Map Menu options
Select a Formulae to be used in the
Upscale Formulae
Upscaling (increased cell size):
Boundary : minus values above positive values above zero values;
Arithmetic Mean :sum cell values, excluding the NoDataValues, and
divide them by the number of cells;
Geometric Mean : take log()-function for cell values, excluding the NoDataValues and zero values, sum cell log-values, divide them by the
number of cells and take the exp()-function;
Sum : sum cell values, excluding the NoDataValues;
Sum Conductance : sum cell values, multiplied with the ratio of . . . .,
excluding the NoDataValues;
Inverse : take the inverse (1/x) of cellvalues, excluding the NoDataValues and zero values, and divide them by the number of cells;
Most.Freq.Occur. : take the cell value that occurs most frequently
within a coarse cell, excluding the NoDataValues;
Sum Inverse: take the sum of the inverse (xв€’1 ) of the cell values, excluding NoDataValues and zero values;
Percentile : take the cell value that occurs for a given percentile (0-1)
within a coarse cell, excluding the NoDataValues;
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Formulae
Block value : the value of the centre cell.
Downscale
Formulae
Downscaling (decreased cell size):
Arithm. Average: produces a good guess for all finer gridcells as a
linear interpolation based upon the coarse gridcells.
BlockValue: assign the value of the coarse gridcell to all finer gridcells.
Select the extent
for which the
computation
apllies:
Click one of the following options:
Window, to force that the results of Map C will be computed for the
current ZoomLevel only;
Map A, to force that the results of Map C will be computed for the extent
of Map A.
x1,y1,x2,y2, to enter the coordinates of a specific window
Compute. . .
Click this button to start the computation, it closes the Map Operations window
afterwards.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Map Operations window.
Help . . .
Close
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Map Operation window, Special tab:
Function
Select one of the following functions:
MERGE
use this option to merge the selected IDF-files into a single one;
SUM
use this option to sum all values for the selected IDF-files into a single one.
MEAN
use this option to compute the mean for all values for the selected IDF-files;
MIN
use this option to compute the minimum value for all values for the selected
IDF-files;
MAX
use this option to compute the maximum value for all values for the selected
IDF-files.
IDF-files:
Select more than one IDF-file to be merged. iMOD will calculate values for the overlapping areas based upon the inverse distance to the extent border of the IDF-files.
The weigh-factor for an IDF-file, increases whenever the point considered, lies further away from the extent border of the IDF-file. Exact in the middle between two
IDF-files, the weigh-factors for both will become 0.5.
Select this option to include a mask that determines the area to be merged, e.g.
a boundary of catchment area. This option is only available whenever Function=MERGE.
Enter the IDF-file of the mask. All data in the IDF, not equal to the NoDataValue will
be used to identify the size of the mask.
Open IDF-file
Click this button to open an IDF-file as MaskFile.
Mask
Mask File:
Result:
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Enter the name of the IDF-file to be created.
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Map Menu options
Compute. . .
Help ...
Close
Click this button to start the computation, it closes the Map Operations window afterwards.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Map Operations window.
Note: It is allowed only to merge equidistant IDF-files (IEQ=0, see section 9.3).
IDF Edit
T
WHY?
IDF-files are raster files with (non)-equidistant rastersizes. Normal GIS systems can not manipulate raster files in an easy way, moreover, it is difficult to edit individual rastercells.
WHAT?
The values of individual rastercells can be easily altered by selecting the rastercells and assigning a new value using the Calculate option. Also cellsizes of existing IDFs can be altered
easily by grid refinement using upscaling and downscaling techniques.
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6.10.4
IDF Edit allows you to select particular rastercells inside an IDF-file based upon a maximum of
two logical expressions that optionally operate inside a polygon. Logical expressions can be
carried out sequentially. Once a selection has been made, different values can be assigned
to them directly, or an interpolation and/or smoothing algorithm can be applied. A selection is
carried out for mid points of rastercells for a particular IDF (Selection IDF). Those midpoints
will be used also to perturb corresponding rastercells for IDF-files with different rastersizes
and/or position. For these cases, it should be known that not all of the rastercells are affected
by the alteration due to intermediate cells that are in-between midpoints of the Selection IDF.
Methodology of selecting and calculating with IDF Edit:
HOW?
To start IDF Edit select Map from the main menu, choose IDF Options and then IDF Edit.
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Alternatively, you can select the menu item from the popup menu that appears when you
right-click your mouse in the graphical window. In both cases, you should select at least one
IDF from the iMOD Manager, the IDF Edit window will appear.
Shapes
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IDF Edit window, Selection tab, (left) initial window, (right) after selection:
Use selected IDF
to store selected
cells
Select . . .
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This groupbox contains several functionalities that are needed to draw and
open polygons. The functionalities are explained in detail.
Select one of the IDF-files listed in the dropdown menu. The content of the
list is based upon the list of IDF-files in the iMOD Manager. The dimensions
of the file that you select will be used to display the selection. This file will be
the Selection IDF. If you select a Selection IDF with CellSizes of 25x25 meter,
the selection will be displayed on that dimension. It is only possible to change
the Selection IDF if the current selection is cleared and/or is empty.
Click this button to start the IDF Edit Select window.
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Map Menu options
Trace . . .
Click this button to start the IDF Edit Pipet window.
IDF Edit Pipet window:
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The trace selection will select cells in the IDF on the basis of their value and
their connection to the identified cell.
Values should be: choose the selection condition from the pull down list.
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Search criterium: check one of the buttons:
5 point: iMOD will search directly connecting cells on a five-point
pattern
9 point: iMOD will search connecting cells on a nine-point pattern
Draw . . .
Clear
Select value: click this button to start the selection. The cursor will change in
a pipette. Left click your mouse to select the cell from where you want to find
the connecting cells which fulfill the selection condition. The IDF Edit Pipet
window will close and the number of selected cells is indicated in the IDF Edit
window.
Click this button to start the IDF Edit Draw window (see section 6.10.4.2).
Click this button to clear the entire selection for the Selection IDF. This button
is only available whenever cells are selected. You will be asked whether you
are sure to continue.
Question window:
Calculate . . .
Click this button to start the IDF Edit Calculation window (see section 6.10.4.3).
Show Selection
Click this checkbox to display the selection.
Zoom Selection
Click this button to adjust the zoomlevel to the selected cells.
Help ...
Close
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Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the IDF Edit window.
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IDF Edit window, GridRefinement tab:
Reshape selected
IDF file
Select the IDF file from the dropdown menu.
Click this button to assign a new grid size. The Enter Value window will open.
Get current
GridSize
Enter the new gridsize. This gridsize will be used within the selected
polygon. It will be used for the entire extent of the IDF in case no polygon is
selected. The new values of the gridcells are calculated by applying the upor downscaling methodology selected in the dropdown menus.
Click this button to identify the gridsize of the selected IDF.
Save IDF-File
Click this option to save the IDF-file.
Save As
Click this option to save the IDF-file as a new IDF-file.
Upscale algorithm
Downscale
algorithm
Help ...
Close
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Select the upscaling methodology from the dropdown menu; more detail about
the available methodologies is given in section 6.10.3
Select the downscaling methodology from the dropdown menu; more detail
about the available methodologies is given in section 6.10.3
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the IDF Edit window.
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Map Menu options
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Before refinement: grid with 100 m cell size
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Example of grid refinement:
After refinement: grid with 100 m cell size and refined 25 m cell size; note that the cells on the
right side are shifted.
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IDF Edit Select
Click the option Select on the IDF Edit window, to display the IDF Edit Select window.
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IDF Edit Select window:
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6.10.4.1
IDF-file:
Skip NoDataValue
value (. . . .)
Logic
Value
98
Select one of the IDF-files listed in the dropdown menu.
Select this checkbox to “skip” the NoDataValues in the selection. On default
this will be turned on, so cells with NoDataValues will not be selected, discarding their values. For the selected IDF-file, the current NoDataValue will
be displayed between brackets.
Select one of the logic variables out of the dropdown menu:
“=” : equal to Value
“<>” : not equal to Value
“<” : less than Value
“<=” : less than or equal to Value
“>” : greater than Value
“>=” : greater than or equal to Value
“BND“ : selects the cells at the boundary of an area with cells equal to Value
“SPIKE(4)“: selects spikes with difference byValue relative to surrounding
cells in four directions
“SPIKE(3)“: selects spikes with difference byValue relative to surrounding
cells in at least three directions
“SPIKE(2)“: selects spikes with difference byValue relative to surrounding
cells in at least two directions
“ALL“: selects all cells
Note: The selection of spikes may be used to smooth outliers in the
IDF-file using the smooth option in the IDF Edit Calculation window.
Enter the value to be evaluated, e.g. 11.230 or -5.400
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Map Menu options
New
Add to
Delete from
Subset
Select for Polygon
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AF
271 cells selected
out of 422500
Clear . . .
Select this checkbox to add an extra IDF to be evaluated for the selection. You
can choose the keywords:
AND, click this option to make the selection set fulfill both the settings in Evaluate IDF A and Evaluate IDF B;
OR, click this to make the selection set fulfill at least one of the settings in
Evaluate IDF A or Evaluate IDF B.
Select this option to start a new selection.
Select this option to add the results of the evaluation to the current selection
set.
Select this option to delete the results of the evaluation from the current selection set.
Select this option to take the result of the evaluation from the selection that is
already in the selection set.
Select this checkbox to apply the evaluation inside the current polygon(s) only.
This option is active whenever a shape is selected in the IDF Edit window.
This shows the current number of selected cells (271) in the Selection IDF
that consists of 422500 cells.
Click this button to clear the entire selection for the Selection IDF. This button
is only available whenever cells are selected. You will be asked whether you
are sure to continue.
Select this button to get the selection. Each selection will be saved in the file:
{USER}\tmp\{username}tmpselected{i}.dat.
Undo
Click this button to restore the previous selection.
T
Include extra
statement
Get Selection
Question window:
Zoom to Selection
Click this button to adjust the zoomlevel to the selected cells.
Show Selection
Click this checkbox to display the selection (see below).
Help ...
Close
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the IDF Edit window.
Example showing (left) and deshowing (right) the selected cells:
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IDF Edit Draw
Click the option Draw on the IDF Edit window, to display the IDF Edit Draw window. Cells
from the selected IDF can be selected or deselected interactively in the graphical window.
Add Cells
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IDF Edit Draw window:
Click this button to add cells to the selection. Use the left mouse button and
drag the cells you want to select on the graphical window. Release the left
mouse button to stop drawing and click the left mouse again to add more
cells to the selection.
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6.10.4.2
Draw a selection in the Selection IDF:
Remove Cells
Click this button to remove current cells from the selection. Use the left
mouse button to deselect cells from the current selection. Release the left
mouse button to stop deselecting cells and click the right mouse button again
to deselect more.
Deselect cells for the Selection IDF:
Clear . . .
101428 cells
selected out of
422500
Help . . .
100
Click this button to clear the entire selection for the Selection IDF. You will be
asked whether you are sure to continue.
This shows the current number of selected cells (101428) in the SelectionIDF
that consists of 422500 cells.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
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Map Menu options
Close
IDF Edit Calculate
Click the option Calculate on the IDF Edit window, to display the IDF Edit Calculate window.
This option is not active whenever nothing is selected.
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IDF Edit Calculation window:
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6.10.4.3
Click this button to close the IDF Edit Draw window.
The calculation method is defined in the upper part of the window: Define Value BY:.
The IDF on which the calculation is applied is selected in the lower part of the window: Assign
Value TO:.
NoDataValue
New Value
Copy Values
From:
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Select this option to apply NoDataValues
Select this option to enter a new value. Choose one of the following options from
the dropdown menu:
“=” : equal
“+” : add a value
“-“ : subtract
“*” : multiply
“/” : divide
Select this option to copy the values from the selected IDF-file in the dropdown
menu. The IDF-files are those that are available in the menu on theiMOD Manager.
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Smooth
Select this option to smooth the values within the selection only.
Smooth options:
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Interpolate
Buffersize
Enter the number of rows/columns that need to be taken into
around
account in the smoothing. The value 1 means that around a cell
(row/column): that needs to be smoothed, one row/column will be used.
Apply
Enter the number of smooth operations. The more times
smoothing
smoothing is done the more smoother the result will be.
for following
times:
Select one of the following options to interpolate:
BIVARIATE
apply a bivariate method;
PCG
apply a preconditioned conjugate gradient method;
KRIGING
apply a normal Kriging procedure.
Table from:
Properties
Click this button to display a properties window for the selected interpolation option. Whenever the PCG is selected the PCG Settings window will be displayed
(section Figure 4.1), in case a Kriging method is selected, the Kriging Settings
window is displayed (section Figure 4.1.
Click this option to open a table that shows the cell values in the selected cells for
the IDF-file selected in the dropdown menu (right).
Click this button to display an overview of the cell values in a table. The IDF Edit
Table window opens.
Example of IDF Edit Table:
The values shown in the table can be edited.
Colour
columns
...
102
Select this checkbox to colour the table cells by their corresponding values. Deselect this checkbox to display the table
uniformly white. Each time a table value is changed, the colouring will be adjusted accordingly.
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Map Menu options
Column
Width
Apply . . .
Calculate
Select this option to enter a different IDF file (not yet loaded in the iMOD Manager .
and/or to be created
Save As
Click on the button and enter a name for the new IDF. The name of the new IDF
is displayed.
Select this button to execute the calculation and to adjust the values in the selected IDF-file.
UndoClick this button to undo the last calculation. Each calculation will be saved
in the file: {USER}\TMP\{USERNAME}TMPCOMPUTED{i}.DAT.
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Available
IDF-file:
Create a New
IDF-file
Click this button to uniformly change the table column width by
the entered column width
Click this button to confirm to copy the values. Be aware that
you need to click the Calculate button to actually copy those
values into the IDF-file selected in Assign Value TO.
Close . . .
Select this button to discard any entered values and to close the
IDF Edit Table window
Select the IDF-file that need to be adjusted from the dropdown list.
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Show Selection
Click this checkbox to display the selection of the graphical window.
Help . . .
Close . . .
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the IDF Edit Calculation window. If you have adjusted
one/more files, you will be asked whether you are sure to leave the IDF Edit
Calculation window. Changes can not be restored once you have agreed upon
closing the IDF Edit Calculation window.
Question window to leave the IDF Edit Calculation window:
Note: Whenever you click the Calculation button, the IDF-file will be adjusted and the new
results will be saved directly in the IDF-file. You can use the Map Value option, to inspect the
adjusted results, without leaving the IDF Edit Calculation window.
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6.11
IPF Options
iMOD supports several basic functionalities that manipulate IPF-files:
IPF Configure,
IPF Analyse, use this tool to analyse the content of the IPF-files (including the associated files, if available).
IPF Extract, use this tool to extract points out of an IPF-file to be saved independently.
IPF Configure
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WHY?
IPF-files in iMOD represent point data that can be displayed in different ways.
WHAT?
IPF Configure is used to define the settings for display and assigns a symbol, colour or label
to the point data.
HOW?
Select the menu option IPF Configure from the IPF-options menu in the Map menu to display
the IPF Configure window. Or, use right-click anywhere on the canvas to open the popup
menu. Select the option IPF-options and then choose IPF Configure.
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6.11.1
IPF Configure window:
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Map Menu options
X-Crd.:
Y-Crd.:
Z-Crd.:
Sec. Z-Crd.:
Select the column in the IPF that represents the X coordinate.
Select the column in the IPF that represents the Y coordinate.
Select the column in the IPF that represents the Z coordinate. This data column will be used in the Cross-Section Tool and/or 3D Tool.
Select the column in the IPF that represents the secondary Z coordinate. This
data column will be used in the Cross-Section Tool and/or 3D Tool in combination with the Z-Crd. In these cases, iMOD will draw a line between the
Z-Crd. and Sec.Z-Crd. You can use this for the top and the bottom of the
screen-depth of a well.
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Example of the option SecZ-Crd.: in the 3D Tool:
Highlight
Select this option to highlight points that have larger values than others, those
will be displayed as an increased marker symbol. iMOD will scale the values
linearly from large up to small and displays them accordingly, such that small
values will be plotted upon large values.
Example of using the option Highlight:
Sight Depth
Single Colour
Colour . . .
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Select and specify an interval in meters, over which points need to be displayed.
Select this option to display all points with the same colour.
Select this button to display the default Colour window in which a colour can
be specified. The current colour is displayed to the right of this button.
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Apply Legend to
Select this option to colour the points according to the selected attribute that
is chosen in the dropdown menu at the right.
Help. . .
Close
Select this option to display the Lines and Symbols window, section 5.8.
Select this button to display the Select Label to be Printed window.
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Define Colouring
and Styles. . .
Define Labels to
be Plotted
Y-axes for
associated files
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Example of using the option Apply Legend to:
Insert an indication which vertical axis to use for maximal 10 attributes that are
available in associated files. The value 1, means that the attribute is plotted
against the first y-axis, 2 means that the attribute is plotted against the second
y- axis (on the right of the final graph).
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
Select this button to apply the settings and close the IPF Configure window.
Note: On default, the classes for a legend will be computed linearly between the minimum
and maximum values for the selected attribute. Use the options described to adjust this legend
in order to plot proper colours.
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Map Menu options
IPF Labels
WHY?
The attributes of point data are displayed as labels.
WHAT?
At the location of each point one or more labels can be displayed.
HOW?
Choose the option Define Labels to be Plotted from the IPF Configure window to display the
following window.
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Define Labels to be Plotted window:
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6.11.2
Select one or
more labels
TextSize
Use different
colouring for each
field
Trim beyond last
“\”character
Use Labelname
OK
Help. . .
Cancel
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Select one of more labels from the menu to display near the point of the IPF
file.
Select one of the available textsizes from the dropdown menu.
Select this option to use different colour for each attribute value. Uncheck this
option to use a white fill for each label.
Select this option to trim the attribute value beyond the last “\”character, so
the attribute value boreholes\east\NH45 will be displayed as NH45.
Select this option to display the label name and the label value.
Click this button to close the Define Labels to be Plotted window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to cancel the chosen definition and to close the Define Labels
to be Plotted window.
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Example of the usage of different colouring for attribute fields:
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The following options are available from the 3D Tool only:
Cylinder Class
Column
Disc Class
Columns
Fancy
Size Symbol
Number of subdivisions
Enter the number of the column in the associated files that need to be used
for the size of the cylinders plotted for the boreholes.
Enter the number of the column in the associated files that need to be used
for the vertical location of a disc around a borehole
Check this item to improve the display of a borehole.
Enter a value to increase the size of the borehole
Enter a number of subdivisions to be used to display a borehole. A large
number of
subdivisions will improve the appearance.
Examples of a fancy (first three on the left) display with different number of subdivisions and a non-fancy appearance (utmost right):
Shade
Display points as:
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Check this item to apply a shade on the boreholes.
Choose one of the options: Points, lines, silhouette, fill
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Map Menu options
IPF Analyse
WHY?
The attribute and time series data of selected point data are displayed interactively.
WHAT?
The IPF Analyse function is used primarily to display the timeserie data of selected point
locations in a graph on the map or separately.
IPF Analyse window, Attributes tab:
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HOW?
To display the IPF Analyse window, click the Map option from the main menu, then the option
IPF-options and then the option IPF Analyse (this is similar from the popup menu that displays
whenever you click your right mouse button on the graphical window). The selected IPF-file(s)
from the iMOD Manager will be used in the IPF Analyse window.
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6.11.3
Geologicalboreholes.ipf,
Gef.ipf,
Domestic.ipf
Table
Selected 6 records
out of 95
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These buttons show the IPF-files that are currently available in IPF Analyse.
It is possible to select maximal 5 IPF-files before entering the IPF Analyse
window. iMOD will switch to the correct tab if points are selected from other
IPF-file(s).
The table shows all attributes for the IPF-file, in this case 5 attributes are available (X, Y, Symbol, Location, FinalDepth). To add a point to the selection,
left-click the mouse button at the location of the desired point in the graphical
window. The cursor of the mouse will show a “plus”- or “minus”-sign to indicate whether you add or delete the current location to/from the selection. All
selected points will appear on the graphical window as a small red cross. The
first column in the table shows the record number, i.e. the row number in the
data field of the IPF-file.
This shows the current number of selected point in the table.
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IPF Figure
Click this button to display the content of the associated files for the selected
point in the IPF Analyse Plot window.
Properties
Click this button to display theIPF Configure window.
Help. . .
Close
Delete
Click this button to remove the selected row from the selection displayed in
the table.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the IPF Analyse window.
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Example of selected points in IPF Analyse:
Note: Only 50 records can be displayed in each table. However, more records can be
selected, but they will not appear in the table.
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Map Menu options
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IPF Analyse window, Colours tab:
The Colours tab is only used when IPF-file(s) are selected that contain associated files that
describe borehole information. The settings from the Colours tab will be used to colour the
individual zones in the boreholes.
Label
Color
Description
Enter the label that matches the second field (column) in the associated file that
contain borehole information.
Displays the colour of the field. You can specify a different colour by selecting the
Color column for the appropriate row. The default Colour window will appear.
Enter a descriptive string that will be used in the display of the legend.
Open
Click this button to open a *.DLF file that describes the colouring info.
SaveAs
Click this button to save the current colouring information to a *.DLF-file.
Note: On default the file {USER}\SETTINGS\DRILL.DLF will be used.
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IPF Analyse window, Settings tab:
The Settings tab is only used when IPF-file(s) are selected that contain associated files that
describe timeseries information. The settings from the Settings tab will be used to plot the
individual timeseries that are associated with the selected points.
Fix Horizontal Axis
From:
Interval:
To:
Fix Vertical Axes
Min.:
Max.:
Interval (m):
Graph:
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Select this checkbox to specify the dimensions of the X-axis. Whenever unselected, iMOD will determine the dimensions of the X-axis automatically.
Enter the start date for the X-axis.
Enter the interval of the X-axis in days.
Enter the end date for the X-axis.
Select this checkbox to specify the dimensions of the Y-axis. Whenever unselected, iMOD will determine the dimensions of the Y-axis automatically.
Enter the minimum value for the Y-axis.
Enter the maximum value for the Y-axis.
Enter the interval of the Y-axis in meters.
Select one of the following options:
None:
No timeserie will be plotted at the selected points;
Simple:
A simple timeserie-graph will be plotted at the selected points, without
any axes;
Extended:
A timeserie-graph will be plotted at the selected points with x- and yaxes.
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Example of the plotstyle Simple (top) and Extended (bottom)
Style:
Select one of the following options:
Continuous:
The individual data points in the timeseries will be connected directly
from one point to the other. This assumes that the intermediate unknown data points will be on a straight line between the two known data
points. e.g. use this option to display timeseries of groundwaterhead;
Blocked:
The individual data points in the timeseries will be connected as horizontal line. This assumes that the intermediate unknown data points
will have the same value as the previous known data point. e.g. use
this option to display timeseries of extraction rates.
Mark Points
Apply
Select this checkbox to place markers (cross) at the location of data points.
Select this button to apply the settings to the data points selected in the table
on the Attributes tab.
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Example of Continuous (left) and Blocked (right) lines:
6.11.3.1
Drop down menu
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Drop down menu IPF Analyse:
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Click the right mouse button on the graphical display to show the following option.
Quick View . . .
Select For . . .
Select within
Polygon
Select for current
Zoom Extent
Select the entire
Domain
Deselect All . . .
6.11.3.2
Select this option to display the IPF Analyse Figure window. The content of
the IPF Analyse Figure window will change whenever you select a different
data point with the mouse. Whenever you click the left-mouse button, the
current location remains unchanged and you can use the IPF Analyse Figure
window. If you click the left-mouse button again on the graphical display, the
current location changes again according your mouse position. Use the right
mouse button to stop Quick View.
Select this option to display the Select For window to select data points that
meet a specific criteria.
Select this option to draw a polygon on the graphical display, to select all data
points that are inside that polygon.
Select this option to select all data points present in the current zoom extent.
Select this option to select all data points from the current IPF.
Select this option to delete all selected data points from the table in the Attributes tab on the IPF Analyse window. You will be asked to confirm this
operation beforehand.
IPF Analyse Figure
Click the option IPF Figure
window.
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from the IPF Analyse window to start the IPF Analyse Figure
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Map Menu options
Table of Associated File Content
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IPF Analyse Figure window:
File – Print
File – Quit
Settings –
Continuous Lines
Settings –
Block Lines
Help . . .
Print the selected figure to the default Windows external Printer.
Click this option to close the IPF Analyse Figure window.
Click this option to display timeseries as continuous lines. The individual data
points in the timeseries will be connected directly from one point to the other.
This assumes that the intermediate unknown data points will be on a straight
line between the two known data points. e.g. use this option to display timeseries of groundwaterhead.
Click this option to display timeseries as block lines. The individual data points
in the timeseries will be connected as horizontal line. This assumes that the
intermediate unknown data points will have the same value as the previous
known data point. e.g. use this option to display timeseries of extraction rates.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Print
Click this icon to print the current Graph(s) to a printer.
Export
Click this icon to export the current Graph(s) to an ASCII-file (*.csv).
Copy to Clipboard
Click this icon to copy the current Graph(s) to the windows Clipboard. Use the
shortcut Ctrl-C , alternatively
Redraw
Click this button to redraw to the graphical content.
Zoom Full
Click this button to zoom to the entire extent of the Graph(s).
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Zoom Rectangle
Click this button to zoom in for a rectangle. Use the left-mouse button to
determine the lower-left corner of the rectangle, click again for the upper-right
corner (or vice-versa). All graphs will be adjusted accordingly.
Zoom In
Click this button to zoom IN on the centre of the current Graph(s).
Zoom Out
Click this button to zoom OUT on the centre of the current Graph(s).
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All data for above
selected file
Move
Click this button to move the current Graph(s). Click the left-mouse button
on that location where you want to move from, repeat this after the display
has been refreshed (automatically). Use the right mouse button to stop the
moving process.
The maximal number of records that can be displayed in the table is 500.
Whenever, more data is found in the associated file, iMOD will display this
warning (e.g. displayed only
500 out of total
812 record) and will not present data that exceeds the number of 500 records.
However, they will be presented in the graph.
Select one or more of the listed files to plot. For each file that is selected, a
new graph will be displayed.
Select one/more
to plot
Example of two timeseries displayed:
Plot all figures in
one frame
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This option is available whenever more than one file is active in the IPF Analyse Figure window. It allows you to combine the selected files in a single
graph.
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Example combining different files together in a single frame:
X-axis
Y-axis
Visible
Red colour
box
Thin
Thick
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Select this option to specify the minimum and maximum values for the x-axis.
These values remain active for graphs that are plotted on the graphical canvas
as well as specified on the Settings tab on the IPF Analyse window.
Select this option to specify the minimum and maximum values for the yaxis.These values remain active for graphs that are plotted on the graphical
canvas as well as specified on the Settings tab on the IPF Analyse window.
Select a attribute from the dropdown menu to adjust the plotting setting associated with it.
Click in this field to open a Window Colour Window in which a colour can be
depicted to be used for the selected field from the dropdown menu.
Select this option to apply a thin linethickness.
Select this option to apply a thick linethickness.
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It depends on the type of the selected associated files what kind of figure will be displayed.
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Example of (left) timeseries, (middle) boreholes and (right) borelogs in an IPF Analyse Figure
window:
Note: Whenever you move the mouse in the graphical area, the coordinates of the current
graph will be displayed underneath. If more than one file is selected, the current selected
graph will be displayed too.
Example of display of the current position in the graph that shows the timeseries of B15E0259001:
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Map Menu options
IPF Extract
WHY?
An IPF-file containing a subset of point data is extracted from an IPF-file.
WHAT?
A new IPF-file is created by selecting point locations from an existing IPF-file.
IPF Extract window:
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HOW?
Select a single IPF file in the iMOD Manager for which points need to be extracted and saved
in a new file. Select the option Map from the main menu, choose the option IPF-options and
then the option IPF Extract to display the IPF Extract window.
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6.11.4
Click these buttons to draw, open, save, delete or rename a shape. More
detailed information can be found in section 4.2
IPF:
Get Selection ...
Clear Selection ...
14 points selected
Apply . . .
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Displays the IPF filename selected in the iMOD Manager.
Click this button to start the IPF Find window (section 6.11.5). Whenever you
have specified a polygon, bear in mind that only those points will remain that
are inside the selected polygons. All selected points will be marked by a red
cross.
Click this button to remove the current selection. You will be asked to confirm
this action.
Shows the number of selected points.
Click this button to select a new IPF file to save the selected IPF points. If this
action is successfully, the IPF Extract window will close and the new created
IPF will be added to the iMOD Manager.
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Help . . .
Close
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the IPF Extract window.
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Example of selected IPF Points:
Note: Associated files will be copied too. If the original IPF relates to a relative folder, e.g. “asfiles\”,
the new IPF will copy those associated files to a relative folder “asfiles\” below the folder of the new
IPF file.
6.11.5
IPF Find
WHY?
To create a new IPF-file by extracting points from an existing IPF-file.
WHAT?
The selection of point data is made inside an interactively defined rectangle or polygon using a logical
expression for numerical data or using a character expression for alphanumeric data.
HOW?
Select the option IPF Find from the Extract IPF window to start the IPF Find window.
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IPF Find window, (left) using a logical expression and (right) using a character expression:
IPF:
Attrib.:
Evaluate within
current zoom
window only
Use following logical expression
Use following
character
expressions
Case sensitive
Search
Help . . .
Close
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Displays the active IPF file.
Select one of the attributes within the IPF file to be used for the selection of
points.
Select this checkbox to force a search of points within the current zoom level
only.
Select this option to specify a logical operator and enter a numeric value to be
evaluated. Select one of the following expression (only for numeric values!):
<: Less than
<=: Less or equal to
=: Equal to
>: Greater than
>=: Greater or equal to
\=: Not equal to
Select this option to specify a search string, e.g. TNO7*. Use the character “*”
to identify that any character is valid and the “?” to denote that any character
is valid but for that number of positions equal to the number of “?”-marks.
Select this item to apply a case sensitive search on characters.
Click this button to start the search process.
Click this button to start the Help functionality
Click this button to close the IPF Find window.
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IFF Configure
WHY?
IFF-files (iMOD Flowpath Files) in iMOD represent line data generated by the Pathline Simulation
function (see section 7.11). This function uses IMODPATH to compute flowlines based on the budget
terms that result from an iMODFLOW computation.
WHAT?
IFF Configure is used to define the settings for display and assigns a symbol, colour or label to the
flowlines. The options are similar to the IPF Configure function (see section 6.11.1).
HOW?
Select the menu option IFF Configure from the IFF-options menu in the Map menu to display the IFF
Configure window. Or, use right-click anywhere on the canvas to open the popup menu. Select the
option IFF-options and then choose IFF Configure.
IFF Configure window:
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6.12.1
IFF Options
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6.12
The IFF-configure window is comparable to the IPF-configure window (see section 6.11.1) except that
some functions are not active.
X-Crd.:
Y-Crd.:
Z-Crd.:
Sec. Z-Crd.:
Highlight
Sight Depth
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Not active
Not active
Not active
Not active
Not active
Select and specify an interval in meters, over which points need to be displayed.
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Map Menu options
Single Colour
Select this option to display all points with the same colour.
Colour . . .
Select this button to display the default Colour window in which a colour can
be specified. The current colour is displayed to the right of this button.
Select this option to colour the lines according to the selected attribute that is
chosen in the dropdown menu at the right.
Select this option to display the Lines and Symbols window, section 5.8.
Define Colouring
and Styles. . .
Define Labels to
be Plotted
Y-axes for
associated files
Help. . .
Not active
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
Select this button to apply the settings and close the IPF Configure window.
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Close
Not active
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Apply Legend to
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6.13
ISG Options
ISG-files contain all necessary information to simulate a river segment, such as: location, time dependent waterlevels, cross-sections, structures. iMOD supports functionalities that manipulate these
ISG-files:
ISG Configure,
ISG Edit, use this tool to analyse and/or adjust the content of the ISG-file.
ISG Show, specify what attribute need to be plotted.
ISG Configure
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WHY?
ISG-files are used in iMOD to simulate the location of the surface water system.
WHAT?
ISG-files in iMOD represent line and point data that can be displayed in different ways.
HOW?
Select the menu option ISG Configure from the ISG-options menu in the Map menu to display the ISG
Configure window. Or, use right-click anywhere on the canvas to open the popup menu. Select the
option ISG-options and then choose ISG Configure.
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6.13.1
ISG Configure window:
Settings
Apply colouring to:
Single colour
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Not yet implemented
The lines can be presented in a single colour or in different colours according
a defined legend
Select this option to display all lines with the same colour. The colour can be
changed by clicking the Colour . . . button.
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Map Menu options
Apply legend to
Define Colouring
and Styles. . .
Define Labels to
be plotted
Help. . .
Close
Select this button to display the Select Label to be Printed window.
Not yet implemented.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality (if available in the selected *.PRF file).
Select this button to apply the settings and close the IPF Configure window.
WHY?
To show the location of point data of ISG-files.
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ISG Show
WHAT?
ISG-files contain six types of point data which are connected to the river segments: nodes, segment
nodes, cross-sections, calculation nodes, structures and QH-relationships.
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6.13.2
Not yet implemented
Select this option to display the Define Colouring and Styles window
HOW?
Select at least one ISG-file in the iMOD Manager and use the option Map from the main menu (or right
click your mouse on the graphical canvas), choose the option ISG-options, and then ISG Show to list
the following categories (see also next page)
Nodes
Check this item to display the FromNode (FN) and ToNode (TN) of the river segment (symbol =
rectangle) and their labels;
Segment Nodes
Check this item to display the nodes (symbol = solid circle) that define the river segment;
Calculation Nodes
Check this item to display the calculation nodes (symbol = square with a crossline) that contain
information on waterlevels, bottom levels, infiltration resistance and infiltration factors, all time
dependent.
Cross-Sections
Check this item to display the cross-sections (symbol = polygon shape of cross-section) that are
available on the river segment containing information on the shape of the river bed;
Structures
Check this item to display the locations (symbol = triangle) that contain information on waterlevels before and after weirs/structures, both time dependent.
QH-relationships
Check this item to display the nodes (symbol = square with two colours) with a discharge-head
relationship
Note: Colouring of all above mentioned attributes can be defined in the ISG Edit window.
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Examples of the symbols used for all categories available in ISG-files:
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Map Menu options
ISG Edit
WHY?
To add, delete or adjust interactively the line and point (attribute) data stored in an ISG-file.
WHAT?
The ISG Edit window has seven tabs:
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Segments: to select one or more segments from the list; actions on the segments can be
executed, such as viewing in a profile or conversion to a raster;
Polygons: to define or load a polygon to use in the selection;
Attributes: to remove or adjust one or more of the attributes;
Calc. Points: to define the value to be adjusted of the attribute Calculation points; calculation
points are the points on a segment where a water level is calculated;
Structures: to define the value to be adjusted of the attribute Structures; Structures are the
weirs on a segment where a (fixed) water level is maintained;
Cross-sections: to define the value to be adjusted of the attribute Cross-sections; Cross-sections
are the points on a segment where a cross-section is defined;
Qh-relationships: to define the value to be adjusted of the attribute Qh-relationships; Qhrelationships are the points on a segment where the relation between the discharge and the
water level is defined.
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6.13.3
The bottom part of the ISG Edit window shows the display settings of the segment attributes.
HOW?
Select at least one ISG-file in the iMOD Manager and use the option Map from the main menu (or
right click your mouse on the graphical canvas), choose the option ISG-options, and then ISG Edit to
display the ISG Edit window.
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ISG Edit window, Segments tab:
Segment
List
This list shows all the available river segments in the current opened ISG-file, e.g.
17.ISG. Select at least one river segment from the list to activate the Delete, Profile
and ZoomSelect options. Moreover, a segment can be selected on the graphical
canvas whenever the mouse is left-clicked near a Segment Node. A segment that is
selected will be presented as a green line and can be edited moving your mouse on
the line. Several options are available using the right-mouse button.
Example of a selected segment,
(left) moving an existing node, (right) adding a new node:
ZoomSelect
Click this button to adjust the zoom level to fit the selected segments.
Attributes
Click this button to start the ISG Attributes window.
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Map Menu options
DrawSegment
Click this button to start drawing a new segment. On default, the name of the segment
will be Segment{number}, it has two calculation nodes (one at the beginning and one
at the end, that are both compulsory) and a single cross-section in the middle (one
cross-section is compulsory for each segment).
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Drawing a new segment:
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ISG Search
Click this button to start the ISG Search window.
ISG-Rasterize
Click this button to start the ISG Rasterize window.
Profile
Click this button to start the ISG Profile window.
Delete
Click this button to remove the selected river segment(s) from the current list of segments. You need to confirm this action. Unless the Save option is applied, the
segment is removed from memory only.
Save
Click this button to save the loaded ISG to disc, using the original ISG-filename.
SaveAs
Click this button to save the loaded ISG by another filename.
Show
Show
Selected
Update
Help ...
Close ...
Click the checkboxes for the attributes to be plotted.
Click on the input field (Nodes, Seg.Nodes, C.Sections, Clc.Pnts, Struct. orQH) to
start the default Colour window in which the colour can be changed.
Check this checkbox to display the attributes as defined by Show for the selected
river segment(s) only.
Click this button to redraw the ISG.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Edit window. Whether you�ve changed the ISG or
not, you’ll be asked to confirm this.
Note: In case, more ISG-files are selected in the iMOD Manager, prior to starting the ISG Edit option,
iMOD will offer the possibility to merge all selected ISG-files into a single ISG-file.
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Question window:
Example of an ISG:
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The example below shows how two different ISG-files would be merged into a single one.
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secondary surface water system / primary surface water system
Example of an ISG capturing the combined primary and secondary surface water system
Note: Optionally adjustments to an ISG-file can be made by a variety of iMOD Batch functions, e.g.
adding cross-section can be carried out by the ISGADDCROSSSECTION function (see section 8.22).
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ISG Edit window, Polygons tab:
Click one of these buttons to draw, open, save, delete, rename a shape and/or
zoom into the selected shape(s). More detailed information can be found in
section 4.2.
Show
Show Selected
Update
Help ...
Close ...
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Click the checkboxes for the attributes to be plotted.
Click on the input field (Nodes, Seg.Nodes, C.Sections, Clc.Pnts, Struct.
orQH) to start the default Colour window in which the colour can be changed.
Check this checkbox to display the attributes as defined by Show for the selected river segment(s) only.
Click this button to redraw the ISG.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Edit window. Whether you�ve changed the
ISG or not, you’ll be asked to confirm this.
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Action
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ISG Edit window, Attributes tab:
Apply to
Wildcard
Usage of wildcard
is case-sensitive
Apply inside
selected polygon
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Select the following options:
Remove: Click this button to remove all selected attributes that match the
given search string.
Adjust: Click this button to adjust all selected attributes to match the given
search string.
Select the following options
Enter a search string; e.g. Test* selects all labels that start with Test and end
with anything; ??Test selects all labels that start with two characters followed
by Test only.
Select this checkbox to evaluate the search string case sensitive.
Select this button to apply the removal or adjustment to the loaded ISG-file.
Whenever at least one polygon is selected on the Polygons tab, the operation will affect attributes inside those selected polygons. If no polygons are
selected, the operation will affect the selected segment on the Segments tab
only. Bear in mind that all these adjustments are stored in the loaded
ISG. A log file (log_ses.txt) will be created and stored in the {user}\tmp folder.
This file shows all adjustments to the ISG-file.
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An example of the log_ses.txt file:
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Open Ses-file
Click this button to open a Segment Edit Settings *.ses file for a more detailed
description of this type of file.
Save Ses-file
Click this button to save the current settings on the Attributes tab to a Segment
Edit Settings *.ses file.
Click the checkboxes for the attributes to be plotted.
Show
Show Selected
Update
Help ...
Close ...
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Click on the input field (Nodes, Seg.Nodes, C.Sections, Clc.Pnts, Struct.
orQH) to start the default Colour window in which the colour can be changed.
Check this checkbox to display the attributes as defined by Show for the selected river segment(s) only.
Click this button to redraw the ISG.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Edit window. Whether you�ve changed the
ISG or not, you’ll be asked to confirm this.
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ISG Edit window, Calc. Points tab:
Extract from File
(*.csv)
Assign
Waterlevel,
Bottomlevel,
Resistance,
Inf.Factor
Select this option to read adjustments for all variables (waterlevel, bottom
level, resistance and infiltration factor) from a CSV File.
Select this option to specify adjustments for all variables separately.
Select this checkbox to specify the kind of adjustment that manipulates the
selected variable. Choose an operator from the dropdown menu:
=: Select this to use the entered value
+: Select this to add the entered value
-: Select this to subtract the entered value
/: Select this to divide by the entered value
*: Select this to multiply by the entered value
IDF: Select this to sample a value out of the entered IDF-file.
Open IDF
Click this button to open an IDF-file.
Show
See description on previous page.
Note: Adjustments to the number of calculation points can be made by the iMOD Batch function
ISGSIMPLIFY (see section 8.23).
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ISG Edit window, Structures tab:
Extract from file
(*.csv)
Assign
Waterlevel UP,
Waterlevel DOWN
Select this option to read adjustments for waterlevels at a structure from a
CSV File (see section 9.10 for more detailed description).
Select this option to specify adjustments for all variables separately.
Select this checkbox to specify the kind of adjustment that manipulates the
selected variable. Choose an operator from the dropdown menu:
=: Select this to use the entered value
+: Select this to add the entered value
-: Select this to subtract the entered value
/: Select this to divide by the entered value
*: Select this to multiply by the entered value
IDF: Select this to sample a value out of the entered IDF-file.
Open IDF
Click this button to open an IDF-file.
Show
See description on previous page.
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ISG Edit window, Cross-Sections tab:
Extract from file
(*.ccf)
Assign
Y,Z,KM
Select this option to read adjustments for cross sections from an iMOD CrossSection File (see .... for more detailed description).
Select this option to specify adjustments for all variables separately.
Select this checkbox to specify the kind of adjustment that manipulates the
selected variable. Choose an operator from the dropdown menu:
=: Select this to use the entered value
+: Select this to add the entered value
-: Select this to subtract the entered value
/: Select this to divide by the entered value
*: Select this to multiply by the entered value
IDF: Select this to sample a value out of the entered IDF-file.
Open IDF
Click this button to open an IDF-file.
Show
See description on previous page.
Note: Cross-sections can be added also by the iMOD Batch function ISGADDCROSSSECTION (see
section 8.22).
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ISG Edit window, QH-Rel.Ships tab:
Extract from file
(*.qh)
Assign
Q-summer,
H-summer,
Q-winter,
H-winter
Select this option to read adjustments from an iMOD Q-H File (see .... for
more detailed description).
Select this option to specify adjustments for all variables separately.
Select this checkbox to specify the kind of adjustment that manipulates the
selected variable. Choose an operator from the dropdown menu:
=: Select this to use the entered value
+: Select this to add the entered value
-: Select this to subtract the entered value
/: Select this to divide by the entered value
*: Select this to multiply by the entered value
IDF: Select this to sample a value out of the entered IDF-file.
Open IDF
Click this button to open an IDF-file.
Show
See description on previous page.
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Dropdown menu
Once you have selected a segment by either picking it in the menulist in the Segments tab on the ISG
Edit window, or alternatively by clicking your left mouse button at any segment node on the graphical
canvas, the following options will be available whenever you press the right mouse button anywhere on
the graphical canvas.
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Dropdown menu:
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Open Attributes . . .
Click this button to start the ISG Attributes window.
Click this button to add a Cross-section, Calculation point, Structure
Add Cross-Section
and/or Qh-relationship to the selected segment. Click your left mouse
Add Calculation Point
button to add the attribute, click your right mouse button to cancel the
Add Structure
operation.
Add Qh-Relationship
Example of adding different attributes to a segment, (i) cross-section, (ii) calculation nodes, (iii)
structure and (iv) qh-relationship:
Delete Cross-Section
Delete Calculation Point
Delete Structure
Delete Qh-Relationship
Click this button to delete a Cross-section, Calculation point, Structure
and/or Qh-relationship from the selected segment. Select the feature
by moving your mouse in the neighbourhood of the feature and press
the left mouse button. iMOD will select the feature that is nearest to
the current location of the mouse. You need to confirm any delete
action.
Question window:
Bear in mind that the begin- and end calculation node may not be
deleted and one cross-section is obligatory for each segment.
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Move Cross-Section
Move Calculation Point
Move Structure
Move Qh-Relationship
Click this button to move a Cross-section, Calculation point, Structure
and/or Qh-relationship from the selected segment. Select the feature
by moving your mouse in the neighbourhood of the feature and press
the left mouse button. iMOD will select the feature that is nearest
to the current location of the mouse. You need to confirm any move
action.
Delete Segment . . .
Click this item to delete the selected segment. You will be asked to
confirm this delete operation.
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Question window:
Reset Segment Editing
Store Segment Editing
Unselect current
segment
6.13.3.2
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Question window:
Click this item to restore the layout of the segment to that one prior to
the moment the segment was selected.
Click this item to store the current layout of the segment. Bear in mind
that as long as the ISG has not been saved on disk using the option
Save and/or SaveAs on the ISG Edit window, all changes are stored in
memory only.
Click this item to unselect the current selected segment. It is not possible to select other segments while you have selected one segment
already.
ISG Attributes
All attributes that appear on segments, can be analysed and adjusted in the ISG Attributes window.
Click the ISG Attributes button on the Segments tab on the ISG Edit window to open the ISG Attributes
window.
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ISG Attributes window, Waterlevels tab:
Calculation Point:
Select one of the listed calculation points from the dropdown menu.
Rename
Click this button the rename the selected calculation point. The Give New
Name: window will appear.
Give New Name window:
Distance from
origin
Definition of
current
Calculation Point
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This field displays the distance of the selected calculation point from the origin
of the segment (FromNode) in meters.
This table shows the current values for the current selected calculation point.
Use the slidebars to maneuver through the table and enter new values for any
gridcell if desired. A new record can be entered by filling in all columns!
Open CSV-file
Click this button to open a CSV-file, see section 9.10 for more detailed information about CSV-files.
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Map Menu options
SaveAs CSV-file
Click this button to save to a CSV-file, see section 9.10 for more detailed
information about CSV-files.
Copy
Click this button to open the Copy Data from window.
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Copy data from window:
Redraw
Click this button to redraw the graphical display.
Calculator
Click this button to start the attribute calculator.
Segment Name:
Current value:
Current {}-value:
Help ...
Close
This field shows the name of the current selected segment.
Select one of the attributes (WLevel, Bottom, Resistance, Inf.Factor) from the
dropdown menu to be shown in the graph.
This field shows the current value in the graph at the position of the mouse
cursor.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Attribute window. You will be asked to
confirm to take any adjustments made.
Question window:
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ISG Attributes window, Crosssections tab:
Crosssection:
Distance from
origin
Definition of
current
Crosssection
Select one of the listed cross-sections from the dropdown menu.
Rename
Click this button the rename the selected cross-section. The Give New Name:
window will appear (see previous page).
This field displays the distance of the selected cross-section from the origin of the
segment (FromNode) in meters.
This table shows the current values for the current selected cross-section point.
Use the slidebars to maneuver through the table and enter new values for any
gridcell if desired. A new record can be entered by filling in all columns!
Open CSV -file
Click this button to open a CSV -file, see section 9.10.
SaveAs CSV -file
Click this button to save to a CSV -file, see section 9.10.
Copy
Click this button to open the CopyAttribute window.
Redraw
Click this button to redraw the graphical display.
Calculator
Click this button to start the attribute calculator.
Sym.
Crosssection,
Area (m2)
Double
Trapezium,
Area (m2)
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Click this checkbox to determine a symmetric cross-section and compute the area
that belongs to it.
Click this checkbox to determine a double trapezium that represents the area
computed by the symmetric cross-section.
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Map Menu options
Example of double trapezia (filled bodies) that represent a symmetric crosssection (red), green is the original
cross-section:
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Example of a symmetric cross-section,
green is the original cross-section, red
the symmetric one:
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Note: Cross-sections can be applicable for different sections on a segment. It depends whether it is
a one-dimensional cross-section or a two-dimensional one. See below for a clarification.
The other tabs on Structures and Qh-relations of the ISG attributes window have similar functionalities
as the Crosssections tab.
The Coordinates tab contains the coordinates of the current segment. The coordinates can be edited,
read from a GEN-file or saved to a GEN-file.
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ISG Search
Each segment and their attributes (cross-sections, calculation nodes, structures and QH-relationships)
have labels. WithISG Search it is possible to search segments for specific labels in their segment and
attributes. Click the ISG Search option from the ISG Edit window to start the ISG Search window.
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ISG Search window:
Name:
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6.13.3.3
Case Sensitive
Search within:
Get Them
Results
Segments:
Take Them
Help . . .
Close
144
Enter a search string. Use the asterix (�*’) as wildcard and the questionmark
(�?’) to define the number of positions. e.g. Ex_* means, select all that match
the Ex_ at the start and a search string of ??Ex_* means that all are selected
that start with two characters prior to Ex_.
Click this checkbox to make the search string case sensitive.
Select those variables for which the search string will be applied to in order to
find those segments that yield a match.
Click this button to apply the search string for the selected variables.
The menulist displays all segments that meet the entered search string.
Click this button to take the selection to the mainISG Edit window.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Search window.
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ISG Profile
Click the menu option Profile from the ISG Edit window to display the ISG Profile window. A lengthcross section is presented for the selected ISG segment.
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ISG Profile window:
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Profile along
Segment:
Existing Dates:
Select a segment from the dropdown menu to visualize its profile. Use your
mouse wheel to switch quickly between segments.
Select an available date from the dropdown menu to visualize the waterlevels
for the selected date.
Zoom functions: see section 2.2.2 for an explanation
Graphical
display
In the graphical display the profile along the selected segment is presented. In
cyan, the waterlevels are presented, in grey the bottomheights. On top of the
profile, several rectangles are representing the existence of calculations points
(cyan), cross-section (green), weirs/structures (purple) and QH-relationships
(yellow). A vertical line will be drawn whenever one of the corresponding
checkbox at the bottom of the profile are selected.
Display of the current distance of the mouse position.
Displays the vertical position of the mouse cursor.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Profile window.
Distance (m)
Z (m)
Help . . .
Close
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ISG Rasterize
For reasons of visual inspection (are all waterlevels correct?) as well as usage in a runfile (see runfile
description), iMOD can perform a rasterization of the ISG-file in total or for individual river segments
within the ISG-file. It yields several IDF-files (STAGE.IDF, BOTTOM.IDF, INFFCT.IDF and COND.IDF)
that can be used and analysed using the standard iMOD functionalities. Click the
button in the ISG Edit window to start the ISG Rasterize window.
ISG Rasterize
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ISG Rasterize window, (top) for a Steady State configuration for the Current Selection and (bottom) for
a Transient configuration for the Entire ISG:
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6.13.3.5
Dimension
Give CellSize
(meter)
Period
Minimal
waterdepth . . .
Give postfix . . .
Compute
influenced
waterlevels
by structures
146
Select one of the following options:
Current window:
Click this option to rasterize all river segments within the current graphical
zoom level.
Entire ISG:
Click this option to rasterize all river segments in the entire ISG.
Current Selection:
Click this option to rasterize the selected river segment(s) only.
Enter the cellsize of the resulting IDF after the rasterization.
Select one of the following options:
Steady:
Click this option to rasterize all timevariant input variables (e.g. waterlevels,
bottom levels, infiltration factors, riverbed resistances, weirlevels) as mean
values over all input.
Transient:
Click this option to rasterize all timevariant input variables as mean values
over the selected period that can be entered in the input fields at the right.
Enter a minimal waterdepth to be used when computing conductances, which
in principal depend on waterdepth. By entering a minimal waterdepth > 0.0,
the conductance will not become zero.
Enter the postfix to be added to the default names after the rasterization, e.g.
iMOD_ yields the IDF-filename iMOD_STAGE.IDF
Check this item to compute the waterlevel as it is influenced by a weir structure. Upstream from each weir the waterlevel is horizontal until it reaches
the level of the river plus waterdepth. From there the waterlevel follows the
gradient of the river segment.
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OK . . .
Help . . .
Cancel
Click this button to open the ISG Rasterize Info window.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Rasterize window.
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ISG Rasterize Info window:
X-min/X-max
Y-min/Y-max
Columns/Rows
Estimated
FileSize
Following IDF
Files will be
created
OK
Help ...
Cancel
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Enter the minimum and maximum X coordinates. On default these are filled
in depending on the chosen Dimension on the ISG Rasterize window.
Enter the minimum and maximum Y coordinates. On default these are filled
in depending on the chosen Dimension on the ISG Rasterize window.
Computed number of columns and rows that the yielding IDF-files receive.
Calculator
Click this button to recompute the number of columns and rows.
Display of the filesize in Gbytes.
This shows a list of all IDF-files that will be created by the rasterization, together with a brief description. The list depends on the choices made on the
ISG Rasterize window.
Click this button to start the rasterization. After successful rasterization, both
theISG Rasterize and ISG Rasterize Info window will be closed. All resulting
IDF-files will be added to the iMOD Manager.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the ISG Rasterize Info window and to return to the
ISG Rasterize window.
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6.14
GEN Options
iMOD supports several basic functionalities to display GEN-files. These GEN-files should be loaded in
the Map tab on the iMOD Manager (see section 5.4) instead of the Overlays tab. Whenever a GEN-file
is selected the following options can be used:
GEN Info, use this tool to analyse the content of the associated DAT file, if available.
GEN Configure,
GEN Extract, not supported yet!
GEN Info
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WHY?
To display the information from a datafile associated to the GEN-file.
WHAT?
The attribute data is stored in a DAT-file which has the same name as the GEN-file. The attribute data
is linked by the ID of the features (see section 9.9).
HOW?
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6.14.1
button from the Map Info window (see section 6.3) to display the
Click the Map Additional Info
Content of associated datafile window.
Content of associated datafile window:
Table
OK
Help ...
Cancel
148
Displays the content of the {name}.dat associated to {name}.gen. The first column is
compulsory to enter values to relate to the ID of the lines or polygons.
Click this button to close the Content of Associated Datafile window.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Content of Associated Datafile window.
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GEN Configure
WHY?
To display the GEN-file.
WHAT?
GEN Configure is used to define the settings for display and assigns a symbol, colour or label. The
options are similar to the IPF Configure function (see section 6.11.1).
HOW?
GEN-files in iMOD represent polygon or line data that can be displayed in different ways. Select
the menu option GEN Configure from the GEN Options menu in the Map menu to display the GEN
Configure window.
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GEN Configure window:
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6.14.2
Single Colour
Colour . . .
Apply Legend to
Define Colouring
and Styles. . .
Define Labels
to be plotted
Help. . .
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Select this option to display all polygon(s) or lines with the same colour.
Depending whether you’ve selected the Fill Polygons option on the Define
Colouring and Styles window, see section 5.8, the polygon will be filled in or
the polygon will be outlined.
Select this button to display the default Colour window in which a colour can
be specified. The current colour is displayed to the right of this button, green
is used in the example above.
Select this option to colour the polygons according to the selected attribute
that is chosen in the dropdown menu at the right. A legend can be assigned
identical to other iMOD files, e.g. IDF, IPF.
Select this option to display the Lines and Symbols window
Select this button to display the Define Labels to be Plotted window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
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Close
Select this button to apply the settings and close the GEN Configure window.
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Example of uniform colouring of a GEN-file, using the Fill Polygons option (left) or outline option
(right):
Example of legend colouring of a GEN-file, using the filled in option (left) or outline option (right):
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Example of labeling polygons of a GEN-file:
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7 Toolbox Menu Options
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This chapter contains a detailed description of a variety of Tools that are available in IMOD.
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Cross-Section Tool
WHY?
The Cross-Section Tool can be used to display cross-sections over a variety of data types, such as
IDF’s, IPF’s with associated files (e.g. boreholes, timeseries) and IFF’s (flowlines).
WHAT?
The Cross-Section Tool allows you to draw any line (Cross-Sectional Line) that will intersect the rastercells of any of the selected IDF-files. The IDF cellvalue in-between two rastercell intersections will
be assigned to the cross-section points (the midpoints). Consequently, the distances between different points of a cross-section can vary, especially in case the Cross-Sectional Line is chosen to be
diagonally.
Methodology used by the Cross-Section Tool:
T
IPF points and/or IFF lines, can be projected perpendicular on the Cross-Sectional Line within a chosen
viewing depth. Bear in mind that breakpoints will cause points and/or lines to be projected twice (in the
inside . . . .) or not at all (in the outside . . . ).
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7.1
HOW?
To start the Cross-Section Tool select Toolbox from the main menu, choose Cross-Section Tool. Alfrom the main toolbar. In both cases, all
ternatively you can select the Cross-Section Tool icon
the selected files in the iMOD Manager will be activated in the Cross-Section Tool. The order in which
these files are arranged, might affect the way they are displayed. The Cross-Section Tool consists of
two windows: Draw Cross-Section window and the iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window.
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Draw Cross-Section window:
Zoom In
Click this button to zoom IN on the centre of the current graphical dimensions.
Zoom Out
Click this button to zoom OUT on the centre of the current graphical dimensions.
Go Back to Previous Extent
Click this icon and the map will return to the previous map extent and view. This
view becomes the last view automatically whenever any other zoom button will be
used.
Go to Next Extent
Click this icon and the map will go to the next extent viewed after the current view.
This option becomes available whenever the Zoom to Previous Extent button has
been selected priorly.
Zoom Rectangle
Click this button to zoom in for a rectangle to be drawn. Use you the left-mouse
button to determine the lower-left corner of the rectangle, click again for the upperright corner (or vice-versa).
Zoom Full
Click this button to zoom in on the entire extent of the selected maps on the tab
Maps on the iMOD Manager or on the selected overlay Maps in the tab Overlay
on the iMOD Manager.
Move
Click this button to move the current display. Click the left-mouse button on that
location where you want to move from, repeat this after the display has been
refreshed (automatically). Use the right mouse button to stop the moving process.
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Draw Line of the Cross-Section
Click this button to draw the line of the cross-section on the Graphical Area on the
Draw Cross-Section window. Click the left-mouse button to define the first point
of the line and click this left-mouse button to insert intermediate points, if desired.
Click the right-mouse button to stop the line drawing. If you’ve defined one point
only, the last location will be added to the line, in other cases this last point will
not be used! The used coordinates can be displayed on the cross-sectional view
and/or within the Cross-Section Properties window. The line of the cross-section
may consist out of 250 points, maximally.
Cross-Section Properties
Click this button to open the Properties window (see section 7.1.1).
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Cross-Section Legend
Click this button to open the Adjust Legend window (see section 6.6).
Flip Cross-Section
Click this button to “flip” the current Cross-Section
Cross-Section Movie
Click this button to open the Movies window.
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Snap Coordinates
Click this button to “snap” the coordinates of the Cross-Section to the coordinates
in the selected IPF-file. This functionality is therefore only available whenever an
IPF is selected.
IPF-info
Click this button to open the IPF-Info window.
Graphical
Display
This presents the display from the Main iMOD window. Anything that has been
drawn before entering the Cross-Section Tool will display here. In this area
you can specify the location of the Cross-Section. The location will appear as
a black line. When you move the mouse in this Graphical Area your current
coordinates will be displayed in the lower-left corner of the Cross-Section window.
Moreover, the following symbols might occur whenever you move the mouse
near the Cross-Section line:
Click your left mouse button and hold it, to move the entire CrossSection line. Stop this by releasing the mouse button.
Click your left mouse button and hold it, to move an individual node of
the Cross-Section line. Stop this by releasing the mouse button.
Click your right-mouse button anywhere on the Graphical Display to popup the
following dropdown menu.
Popup menu:
Help ...
Close
The functionalities are described in section 2.2.3. The popup menu becomes
available only when IDF-files are selected in the iMOD Manager.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Cross-Section Tool; the Draw Cross-Section and
iMOD Cross-Section windows will also close.
Note: All adjustments in the zoomlevel on the Graphical Area will be used whenever you leave the
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Cross-Section Tool again.
Note: iMOD will intersect the cross-section line with the raster cellvalues of the IDF-files. Since different IDF-files may be used (constant- and variable rastersizes), each cross-section can have different
results at the intersections. After the intersection, iMOD determines the IDF values for the midpoints
that are in the centre between two intersection points. Due to this, diagonal lines may display crosssections with jagged lines.
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Example of cross-sections that are jagged:
iMOD Cross-Section window:
Print
Click this icon to print the current Cross-Section on a printer.
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Export
Click this icon to export the current Cross-Section to an ASCII-file (*.csv).
Copy to Clipboard
Click this icon to copy the current Cross-Section to the windows Clipboard. Use the
shortcut Ctrl-C , alternatively
Zoom Full
Click this button to zoom in on the entire extent of the Cross-Section.
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Zoom Rectangle
Click this button to zoom in for a rectangle. Use the left-mouse button to determine
the lower-left corner of the rectangle, click again for the upper-right corner (or viceversa).
Zoom In
Click this button to zoom IN on the centre of the current Cross-Section.
Zoom Out
Click this button to zoom OUT on the centre of the current Cross-Section.
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Move
Click this button to move the current Cross-Section. Click the left-mouse button on
that location where you want to move from, repeat this after the display has been
refreshed (automatically). Use the right mouse button to stop the moving process.
Cross-Section Inspector
Click this icon to use the Cross-Section Inspector.
Add a bitmap as background
Click this icon to select a BMP-file to be shown as background map. Whenever the
Profile Tool is started via the Solid Tool (see section section 7.4, the position and
background bitmap will be saved in the SPF file, see section section 9.20.
Legend
Click this icon to display the legend, see section section 7.1.2.
Note: Whenever you move the cursor over the Draw Cross-Section window, the coordinates are
displayed in the lower-left corner of the iMOD Cross-Section window. Moreover, your position in the
cross-section will be displayed in the Draw Cross-Section window as a small circle on the line for the
cross-section.
Example of cursor location in the Cross-Section:
Note: Each point that determines the line for the cross-section is displayed as a red, vertical dashed
line in the graph.
7.1.1
Properties
Click the option Cross-Section Properties
on the Draw Cross-Section window to open the CrossSection Properties window. The properties are grouped for each filetype in the Cross-Section (IDF’s,
IPF’s and/or IFF’s) and their corresponding tabs become available when the filetype is present in the
Cross-Section.
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Cross-Section Properties window, IDF’s tab:
The display mode of the IDFs is defined in the table. Several quick display configurations are available
for layer models.
Act
Screen
Label
Col. . .
(Colour)
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Select the checkbox in this column to include the IDF in the cross-section.
Number of Graphical Windows (screens 1-50) for display; e.g. you can specify a
separate Graphical Window (screen) for each IDF.
All screens are synchronized, which means that all zoom and/or pan actions will be
carried out for all screens simultaneously.
Insert a text for a label.
Displays the colour used to display the Cross-Section for each IDF. Select the column
to open the Colour window to change the colour.
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Cross-Section Properties window, IDFs tab for multiple Graphical Windows:
Example of usage of multi-screens to display the cross-section:
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Line
Select the checkbox in this column to present the cross-section as solid lines.
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Example of cross-section using the Line option:
Point
Select the checkbox in this column to present the cross-section as individual points.
Example of a cross-section using the Point option:
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Fill
Select the checkbox in this column to present the cross-section as a filled area. The
cross-section is bounded by the surfacelevel at the top, and the minimum z-value
of the cross-section at the bottom. It is important to know that IDFs with lower
z-values will be “painted” over by IDFs with higher z-values, whenever the IDFs
with higher z-values appear below the IDFs with lower z-values in the iMOD Manager.
Clr
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Example of a cross-section using the Fill option:
Select the checkbox in this column to present the cross-section as filled surfaces
coloured by the values of the IDF-file. It uses the previous- and next IDF to determine
the top- and bottom boundaries of the filled area. Whenever you choose this option,
the Act option is selected for the previous and next IDF, automatically. E.g., use
this option to display different information such as heads, transmissivities between
boundaries of aquifers/aquitards.
Example of the usage of the Clr-option:
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Example of a cross-section using the Clr option:
Select the checkbox in this column in combination with the option Clr, to divide the
value of the IDF by the thickness.
Map
Displays the IDF-filename. You can not adjust this field.
Configuration Select an option from the drop down list to display the layers in a predefined display
mode.
Interfaces
Select this option to display each IDF separately as a line interface.
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Quasi 3D model
Select this option to display the aquifers in yellow and the aquitards in a contrasting
colour.
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Coloured Quasi 3D Model
Select this option to display the aquifers coloured by the values of the IDF-file as
defined in the legend.
Coloured 3D Model
Select this option to display the aquitards coloured by the values of the IDF-file as
defined in the legend.
Block lines
Block Fills
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Check the box to display the cross-section with lines that connect the individual data
points with horizontal lines.
Check the box to display the cross-section with lines that connect the individual data
points directly.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Linethickness Choose the linethickness to display the layer interfaces
Max. no
Maximum number of sampling points used to construct the cross-section.
of Samp.
Pnts.
OK
Click this button to accept any changes; the Cross-Section Properties window is
closed.
Help. . .
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Close
Click this button to close the Cross-Section Properties window, without any changes
to the properties of the cross-section.
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Note: The checkbox in the first row of the table is used to adjust all rows simultaneously. So, whenever
you select the option Fill on the first row, all rows will inherit this setting. It also applies to the Colour
option.
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Note: Alternative to the Clr option, IDF-files can have top- and bottom information stored internally
(see IDF syntax). If those IDF-files (voxels) are plotted in the Cross-Section Tool the actual IDF value
(e.g. permeability) will be coloured (using the associated legend as with the Clr option) between the
stored top and bottom elevation inside the IDF.
Example of a coloured plot of IDF with internal top and bottom elevations:
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Select the checkbox in this column to include the IFF in the cross-section.
Select this checkbox to colour the lines according to the selected Attribute item.
Select an item from the dropdown menu to be used to colour the lines.
Displays the IFF filename. You can not adjust this field.
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Act
Colour
Attribute
Map
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Cross-Section Properties window, IFF’s tab:
The example below shows a cross-section presenting an IFF-file (flowpath) in combination with IDFfiles that represent the top and bottom of aquitards.
Example of a Cross-Section showing flowlines from an IFF file:
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Select the checkbox in this column to include the IPF in the cross-section.
This is the attribute in the IPF-file that will be used to position any label. In
case timeseries are presented, this attribute value is used too. For others
(boreholes, borelogs) this value is irrelevant.
Select this checkbox to use the associated file of the IPF. These can be timeseries, boreholes and/or borelogs.
Displays the IPF-filename. You can not adjust this field.
Select this button to set the configuration for the IPF-file (see 129).
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Z-Attribute
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Cross-Section Properties window, IPF’s tab:
Ass-Files
Map
Configure:
Below an example is given of IPF-files displayed in combination with the Fill option.
Example of a cross-section with boreholes associated to an IPF-file:
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Cross-Section Properties window, Coordinates tab:
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Open
Click this button to use the coordinates from an existing GEN-file.
Save As
Click this button to save the current coordinates into a GEN-file format
Plot Coordinates
Cross-Section
Select this option to display the coordinate of the line of the cross-section
within the graph of the cross-section.
Cross-Section Properties window, Misc. tab:
Fix X-axis
Minimal/maximal
X:
Interval:
Fix Y-axis
Minimal/maximal
Y:
Interval:
Fade
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Select this checkbox to specify the dimensions of the X-axis.
Enter the minimal and maximal values for the X-axis.
Enter the interval of the X-axis.
Select this checkbox to specify the dimensions of the Y-axis.
Enter the minimal and maximal values for the Y-axis.
Enter the interval of the Y-axis.
Select this option to fade-out the colouring for IPF (points) and/or IFF (lines)
whenever they appear at more distant from the line of the cross-section.
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Toolbox Menu Options
, view depth
Enter the distance perpendicular on the line for the cross-section for which
points (IPF) and/or lines (IFF) are projected perpendicular on the line of the
cross-section. This “area” is displayed as a red rectangle around the drawn
line for the cross-section.
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Example of the Viewing Depth:
Legend
Survey
Cross-section
Select this option to display a legend on the graph
Select this option to display a 2D map of the location of the cross-section.
Cross-Section Properties window, Colouring tab:
The table on this tab is used to display the boreholes that might be associated with the selected IPFfiles. On default the file: {user}\settings\DRILL.DLF will be read.
Open
Click this button to open a *.DLF-file
Save As
Click this button to save the current legend into a DLF file format
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7.1.2
Profile Legend
Click the option Cross-Section Legend
Legend window.
on the Draw Cross-Section window to open the Profile
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Cross-Section Legend window:
The Cross-Section Legend window displays the filenames of the IDF’s, however, these can be adjusted
in the Cross-Section Properties window. Moreover, a legend for each of the items in the Cross-Section
are displayed on the iMOD Cross-Section window too.
7.1.3
Movie
Click the option Cross-Section Movie
Section Movie window.
on the Draw Cross-Section window to open the Cross-
Cross-Section Movie window:
Complete Backward
Click this button to move the Cross-Section line to the utmost left (X direction) or
utmost top (Y-direction) coordinate of the current extent of the graphical window.
Fast Backward
Click this button to move the Cross-Section line against the X- or Y-direction, repeatedly with the chosen Step.
Single Backward
Click this button to move the Cross-Section a single step against the X- or Y-direction.
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Stop
Click this button to stop the actions Fast Backwards or Fast Forwards.
Single Forward
Click this button to move the Cross-Section a single step along the X- or Y-direction.
Cross-Section Inspector
Click the Cross-Section Inspector
on the iMOD Cross-Section window to identify the values for
each IDF at the selected position in the cross-section. You can move the mouse-cursor over the crosssection and the IDF values for each selected IDF will be displayed in the Map Value window.
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7.1.4
Insert the interval for which the line of the cross-section moves repeatedly.
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X-direction
Y-direction
Step (m)
Fast Forward
Click this button to move the Cross-Section line along the X- or Y-direction, repeatedly
with the chosen Step
Complete Forward
Click this button to move the Cross-Section line to the utmost right (X direction) or
utmost bottom (Y-direction) of the current extent of the graphical window.
Choose one of the directions in which the line of the cross-section moves.
Example of the Cross-Section Inspector option:
The position of the mouse will be displayed on top of the Map Value window (e.g. Current Loc. X=89823
m Y=458408 m Z=-7.97 ). iMOD will colour the name of the IDF in the Map Value window nearest
to the mouse cursor. If there is any inconsistency in the IDF values (that is, whenever the IDF are
not arranged such that they represent values that increase from the first IDF to the last IDF), iMOD
will not colour any field, but will present the message “Inconsistency in top/bottom at current location”
on the bottom of the Map Value window. The Cross-Section Inspector can be closed by clicking the
left-mouse button or select the Close button on the Map Value window.
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7.1.5
Export
There are two ways to export a cross-section: (1) as an image (BMP): use the Copy to Clipboard
option
from the iMOD Cross-Section window and paste it into a third party software application,
(2) as data (*.csv): use the Export option
from the iMOD Cross-Section window. For the latter, an
example is given of the file format. A new data-block starts for each IDF, since, the points of intersection
might differ.
7.1.6
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Example of an export of a cross-section:
Background Bitmaps
A graphical *.JPG, *.BMP- or *.PNG-file can be added to the iMOD Cross-Section window to be displayed as background. This could be a profile prepared outside iMOD with other graphical tools.
Click the Add a bitmap as background button
on the iMOD Cross-Section window to open the file
manager to select a bitmap. The bitmap will be added to the cross-section. Next the position and size
will have to be set in the cross-section using the mouse.
Move your cursor on to the bitmap and you will see it change in: . Click your left mouse button and
move the bitmap. Move your mouse to the edge of the bitmap, you will see it change and move the
edge. Repeat this until your bitmap fits the iMOD cross-section. The position of those bitmaps will be
save in a SPF file (section 9.20) that is used by the Solid Tool (section 7.4).
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Examples of an iMOD Cross-Section with borehole information showing sub-surface layers added as
background:
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Timeseries Tool
WHY?
The Timeseries Tool can be used to view timeseries directly for data stored in different IDF-files. These
can be combined with timeseries that are associated to IPF-files.
WHAT?
The Timeseries Tool allows you to point at a particular location inside the full extent of an IDF-file
with time-dependent data. iMOD will construct a timeseries for that particular location by collecting all
data from the other related time-dependent IDF-files. Related time-dependent IDF-files have identical
names but have a different date string. A date string is an eight digit continuous number, e.g. 20091231
meaning the 31th of December 2009. It is not necessary to load all related time-dependent IDF-files
in the iMOD Manager. At least one is sufficient to view the entire timeseries.
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Example of IDF-files (A,B and/or C) available in the iMOD Manager prior to the start of the Timeseries
Tool:
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7.2
HOW?
To start the Timeseries Tool select Toolbox from the main menu, choose Timeseries Tool. Alternatively,
you can click the Timeseries button (
) at the main toolbar. In both cases, you should select at least
one IDF-file in the iMOD Manager that has a date notation in its name. This is a continuous number
with eight-digits (yyyymmdd), e.g. 20110115. In this case, it represents the 15th of January, 2011. If
iMOD can not find such a date notation somewhere in the filename (in at least one of the selected
IDF-files), the following window will appear and the Timeseries Tool will not start.
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Warning window:
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Available Dates window:
Use ALL available
dates (297-files)
Select PART of all
available dates
From:
To:
OK
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If a proper IDF-file(s) has been selected in theiMOD Manager, the following window will appear.
Help . . .
Cancel
Select this option whenever you want to display timeseries for the entire time
window that iMOD found.
Select this option to specify a different time window. This may gain processing
time as less files need to be opened.
Enter the start date of the time window. On default it displays the earliest date
of the data.
Enter the end data of the time window. On default it displays the latest date of
the data.
Click this button to start the Timeseries Tool for the selected time window. The
Available Dates window will close.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Available Dates window; the Timeseries Tool will
not start.
Note: You should select at least one IDF with date information in its filename, other IDF-files that
are selected without a date information, will be displayed as time-constant. In this way you can easily make a combination with time-variant information (e.g. heads) and time-invariant information (e.g.
surfacelevel).
Note: When you select an IPF with associated timeseries, these timeseries will be displayed simultaneously with those obtained from the IDF-file(s). In case you specify one IDF and one IPF, the option
to compute differences between them becomes available.
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Draw Timeseries
The Draw Timeseries window consists of three tabs. The IPF Options tab is only available when
IPF-files are loaded.
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Draw Timeseries window, Graph tab:
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7.2.1
Timeserie Hovering
Click this button to start the hovering of timeseries. Move your mouse over the main
graphical window to compute the timeseries. The current location will be highlighted
on the map and the corresponding timeserie(s) will be displayed immediately. iMOD
will try to read and process the entire timeseries (could be more than one) within
one second. If this fails, the progress bar shows the amount of data that could be
processed within this time limit.
Progress bar in Graph tab:
To complete the timeseries, you need to press the left mouse button in the
main graphical window. If the progress bar is absent, the timeseries are displayed
completely. To stop the Timeserie Hovering you need to press the right mouse
button.
Save As
Click this button to save the current graph to a comma-separated-values file (*.CSV).
More detailed information.
Copy
Click this button to copy the graph to windows Clipboard.
Legend
Click this button to open theIndividual Colouring window.
Statistics
Click this button to open the Time-statistics window (. . . ).
Zoom In
Click this button to zoom in at the location of the mouse. Stop by clicking the right
mouse button.
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Zoom Out
Click this button to zoom out at the location of the mouse. Stop by clicking the right
mouse button.
Zoom Box
Click this button to draw a zoom window in the graph to adjust the zoom level to.
Click your left mouse button for the first point and click your left mouse button for the
second point.
Zoom Full
Click this button to adjust the zoom level to the initial value.
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Move
Click this button to move the graph. Use your left mouse button to start moving and
click your right mouse button to stop moving. The displayed differences, (Compute
Residuals from the Preferences tab), are not affected by any vertical moving.
Add Point
Click this button to store the current location internally.
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Open IPF-file
Click this button to open an IPF-file for which all locations are stored internally, as if
you were clicking the Add Point button for each location.
Save IPF
Click this button to compute and save the timeseries for all locations that are stored
internally (Add Point and/or Open IPF File). This yields an IPF-file that you can name,
with associated timeseries.
Displays the number of points that are added by clicking the Add Point button.
Added 2
points
Help . . .
Close
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Timeseries Tool window.
Note: Whenever you move the mouse over the Timeseries graphical window, the current coordinates
are displayed below the graph. It shows the current date (x-axis) and the corresponding value on the
y-axis. It shows Current Value: x-axis 14/2/1997; y-axis: -1.154.
Note: Whenever you include an IPF-file with associated timeseries, iMOD will display the timeserie(s)
of the point of the IPF that nearest to the current location of the mouse. You can fixate a particular
point on the IPF-options tab.
Note: During the usage of theTimeseries Tool, you will be able to use the functions ZoomIn, ZoomOut,
ZoomBox, ZoomFull, Move and DistanceTool the main graphical window.
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Draw timeseries window, Preferences tab:
Fix Horizontal Axis
(date)
From:
To:
Interval (days)
Text:
Fix Vertical Axes
(variable)
Fix Secondary
Vertical Axes
Minimal
Maximal
Interval
Text:
Plot as duration
curve
Click this option to specify the horizontal axis manually.
Enter the start date of the horizontal axis, you can specify start time as
hh:mm:ss.
Enter the end date of the horizontal axis, you can specify end time as
hh:mm:ss.
Enter the interval of the horizontal axis in days.
Enter the text to be displayed at the horizontal axis
Click this option to specify the vertical axes manually.
Click this option to specify the second vertical axes manually (appears on
the right of the graph). This option becomes available whenever the option
Compute Residuals is selected.
Enter the minimum value for the vertical axes.
Enter the maximum value for the vertical axes.
Enter the interval for the vertical axes.
Enter the text to be displayed at the vertical axis
Click this option to plot all figures as duration curve (Cumulative Distribution
Function). The entry for the option Fix Horizontal Axis changes whenever this
checkbox is selected.
Fix Horizontal Axis for Duration curves:
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Click this option to compute and display differences between the first and
second file. That could be the difference between two IDFs or the difference
between an IDF and the associated timeserie of a point in an IPF.
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Compute Residuals
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Example of duration curves:
Draw timeseries window, IPF Options tab:
Fixate Current
Location
Adjust Labeling
Current Attribute
Values
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Check this option to fix the current location of the point in the IPF that is used
to display the timeserie.
Select this button to display labels for the points in the IPF on the main graphical window.
Select the attributes from the list that will be displayed in the legend section
on the graph.
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7.2.2
Legends
Click the option Legend
on the Graph tab to open the Individual Colouring window.
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Individual Colouring window:
Label
Colour
Width
Type
LineStyle
Axes
Apply
Help . . .
Close
7.2.3
The label of the loaded file (IDFs and/or IPFs)
The current colour of the line in the graph. Click this field to open the Colour window.
Click this field to open a dropdown menu with the width of the lines (1-5)
Click this field to open a dropdown menu with the different linetypes.
Click this field to open a dropdown menu to choose between Continuous or Blocklines
Click this field to open a dropdown menu to choose the axis
Click this button to accept the adjustments and close the Individual Colouring window.
Click this button to start the iMOD Help Functionality.
Click this button to close the Individual Colouring window without any adjustments.
TimeSeries Export
There are two ways to export the timeseries data from the Timeseries Tool to ASCII-files, as commaseparated-file-values (*.CSV) to be read by Excel, or/and an IPF-file with associated timeseries for
usage direct in iMOD. When the option Compute Residuals on the Preferences tab is selected, an
extra column will be added with the computed differences. Moreover, whenever the option Plot as
duration curve on the Preferences tab is selected, the export will describe the duration curves instead.
Time-invariant IDF–file(s) will be exported with their time constant values.
Comma-Separated-Values File
To export the current timeserie(s), click the Save As option from the Graph tab to select a file. The
export file will be a comma-separated-values file (*.CSV) and can be read directly into Excel. The first
column of the export file prints the data (yyyymmdd), the second, third and so on (as many columns
as files active in the Timeserie Tool) print the timeserie(s).
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Example of a comma-separated-values file by the Timeserie Tool:
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Note: The number of records in the export file depends on the dates that contain data for each
column. In case column2 has no data (NoDataValue=-999.99) than the computed difference is nodata
too. Since, column three has data, the 14th of April, 1989 is exported whatsoever.
IPF-file
To export the current timeserie(s), click the Save IPF option from the Graph tab to select a file. The
export file will be an *.IPF file with an associated timeserie TXT-file. The latter can be read into Excel
directly.
Example of an IPF-file (left) and the associated text file (right) exported by the Timeserie Tool:
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7.3
3D Tool
WHY?
The 3D Tool can be used to visualize raster data (IDF), point data (IPF), polygon data (GEN) in a 3D
viewing environment.
WHAT?
iMOD is equipped with an OpenGL library (Open Graphics Library) that is a standard specification for
writing applications that produce 2D and 3D computer graphics. OpenGL was developed by Silicon
Graphics Inc. (SGI) in 1992 and is widely used in CAD, virtual reality, scientific visualization, information
visualization, flight simulation, and video games.
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HOW?
To use the OpenGL functionalities in iMOD, simply select the map(s)(IDF, IPF, IFF, GEN, MDF) from
the iMOD Manager and select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option 3D
Tool to start the 3D Tool.
The 3D Tool graphics window and the 3D IDF settings window will appear. The 3D IDF settings window
is explained in section 7.3.2. For now choose Apply to continue.
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Example of the 3D tool:
7.3.1
3D Menu bar
The 3D Tool graphics window has the following pull down menus:
File
Print . . .
Save As . . .
Quit 3D Tool
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Select this item to print the current view via the Windows Print Manager
onto the external printer.
Select this item to save a bitmap (*.BMP; *.PNG; *.JPG) of the 3D
image
Select this item to close the 3D Tool.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Edit Select . . .
Copy to Clipboard
Show Settings
Control Walk Mode
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Mouse Left Button
Mouse Wheel
(Obsolete)
Mouse Right Button
Keyboard Cursor Keys
Click this item to select boreholes, interactively. This option is available
whenever an IPF with boreholes is loaded, see section 7.3.3.
Click this item to copy the current image to the Windows Clipboard.
Click this item to start the 3D Plot Settings window, see section 7.3.2.
Select these to configure the behavior of mouse buttons, mouse wheel
and keyboard cursor keys. In Walk mode the image can be moved with
the left mouse button.
For all other choices the following operations can be assigned:
Rotate:
Assign this item to rotate the image
Pan:
Assign this item to pan/move the image
Zoom:
Assign this item to zoom in/out the image
Scale X:
Assign this item to scale the horizontal x axes
Scale Z:
Assign this item to scale the vertical z axes
Scale Y:
Assign this item to scale the horizontal y axes
Scale XY:
Assign this item to scale both horizontal axes simultaneously
Select this item to transform all IDF-files to solids
Select this item to transform all IDF-files to wireframes
Select this item to transform all IDF-files to solids and wireframes
Select this item to switch a shade on/off for all IDF-files (only for option
All Solids)
Select this item to apply a single colour to the IDF-files
Select this item to apply colours with the associated legend
Select this item to display axes
Select this item to display an orientation box
Switch to an anaglyphs representation of the 3D image. Use this option
to gain a 3D experience using a cyan-red coloured glasses
Switch to an orthographic projection without perspective.
Select this item to reset the viewing angle to the initial view
View All Solids
All Wireframes
All Solids+Wireframes
All Shades
All Single Colour
All Legend Colour
Show Axes
Show Orientation
Anaglyphs
Orthographic
Projection
Reset View Angle
Click one of these buttons to minimize, maximize and/or close the 3D
Tool.
7.3.2
3D Plot Settings
Click the item Show Settings from the Edit menu on the main menu of the 3D Tool display to start the
3D Plot Settings window.
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3D Plot Settings window, IDFs tab:
Loaded IDFs, etc
...
Display
Apply Shading
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Select one or more IDF-files from the list to activate them in the 3D visualization. The 3D display will update each time an IDF is (de)selected. Click
the option Recompute vertical axes instantaneously in the tab Miscellaneous
to recompute the vertical axes instantaneously each time a different (set of)
IDF-files is selected.
Filled, Wireframes, Filled+Wireframes
Choose to display the selected IDF-files as filled, wireframed or filled and
wireframed surfaces.
Click this checkbox to apply shades directly to the selected IDF-files.
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Example of (top) usage of shading and (bottom) of non-usage of shading:
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Example of (top) solids and (bottom) wireframes:
Use the current
colour
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Click this option to display the selected IDF-file(s) by a single colour as displayed to the right of the option.
Legend
Click this button to start the default Colour window to select a colour for the
first of the selected IDF-file(s).
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Use colouring de- Select this option to colour all selected IDF-files by their associated legend
fined in legend for: definitions, i.e. the colour legend they have.
Example of (top) single colouring and (bottom) legend colouring:
Place Legend
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Check the box to show the legend.
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Example of a legend next to the 3D image:
Properties
Click this button to change the appearance of IDF-files. The 3D IDF Settings
window will appear. This is the same window which appears when starting
the 3D tool.
Set all Types to
IDF (top)
(Table)
Type (Table)
Selects the type with which the IDF is represented for all IDFs. See next page
for explanation of the different types.
Displays the current name of the IDF-file, combined with another IDF this
would be the top.
Select one of the types from the dropdown menu:
Planes:
Select this option to compute the 3D image as quadrilateral between the cell
mids of four adjacent cell.
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Example of a planes representation:
Cubes:
Select this option to represent the IDF as a representation of the true gridcells.
Example of a cubes representation:
Voxels:
This option is selected automatically whenever the IDF-file represents a voxel.
In this case you can not change this into another type. See section 9.3 for
more information about voxels. Bear in mind that iMOD will blank out all voxels
that have a white colour. In this way it is easy to blank out a specific area, such
as high permeable areas by giving them a white colour.
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Example of a voxels representation:
Vectors:
This option is selected automatically whenever the IDF represents a vector
field. See section 9.3 for more information about vectors. Use the iMODBatch function CREATEIVF to create vector IDF’s.
Example of a vector representation:
Off:
Select this option to turn the IDF off, temporarily.
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Combine With
(bottom):
(Table)
Legend By:
(Table)
Configuration
Select the IDF-file from the dropdown menu that needs to be combined with
the IDF-file mentioned in the first column (IDF (TOP)). In this way the first IDF
will be used to identify the top of the solid, the second IDF will be the bottom.
It gives a solid representation of the combination of IDFs.
Select the IDF-file from the dropdown menu that needs to be used to colour
the IDF. Several possibilities arise, you might colour an IDF by another IDF
and/or whenever two IDF-files are combined as a solid, it could be coloured
by an IDF that represent the permeability of the solid, see an example on the
next page.
Select an option from the drop down list to display a layer model in a
predefined display mode.
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Interfaces
Use this option to represent each IDF separately as an interface.
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Quasi 3D model
Select this option to arrange the Table such that the first IDF will be the
top surfacelevel and presented as a white fishnet. Further downwards, IDF
number 2 will be combined with number 3, number 4 with number 5 and so
on. The last IDF will be presented as a normal plane. This option is especially
handy whenever a quasi-3D model needs to be presented whereby aquitards
need to be shown as solids:
Example of a quasi 3D visualisation.
3D Model
Use this option to combine each IDF with the following IDF, so IDF number
1 will be combined with IDF number 2 and that will be combined with IDF
number 3.
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Example of a 3D Model visualisation
Coloured Quasi 3D Model
Use this button to colour the sequence with IDF-files as legend.The first IDF
will be draped as a white fishnet. Then it will combine the second with the
fourth IDF to form a solid and colour it by the third IDF given. Then it will
combine the fifth with the seventh and colour is by the sixth and so on.
Example of a coloured quasi 3D visualisation.
Coloured 3D Model
Use this button to colour a complete 3D model whereby the first IDF is combined with the third to create a solid and then colour it by the second IDF. Then
it will create a solid with the third and fifth IDF and colour it by the fourth IDF
and so on.
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Example of a coloured 3D Model visualisation.
Accuracy
Sampling
Apply
Help . . .
Cancel
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Select the accuracy of the representation of the loaded IDF-files. To increase
the performance select a lower resolution, to increase the accuracy of the
representation select a higher resolution. Bear in mind that a high resolution
will need more resources from the graphical card. If this fails, then iMOD will
crash. Choose from:
Minimal (100x100):
IDF-file will be represented by a maximum 100x100 cells.
Low (max 250x250):
IDF-file will be represented by maximum 250x250 cells.
Normal (max 500x500):
IDF-file will be represented by maximum 500x500 cells.
High (max 750x750):
IDF-file will be represented by maximum 750x750 cells.
Very High (max 1000x1000):
IDF-file will be represented by max 1000x1000 cells.
Maximal (max ncol x nrow):
IDF-file will be represented by maximal the size of the IDF, e.g ncol x nrow
cells.
Select the method of upscaling whenever the chosen Accuracy is lower than
the dimensions of the original IDF-file. Select from the listed items below,
more detail about these types is given in section 6.10.3.
Click this button to apply the chosen display configuration
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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3D Plot Settings window, IPFs tab:
Loaded IPFs, etc
...
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Select one or more IPF files from the list to activate them in the 3D visualization. The 3D display will update each time an IPF is (de)selected. It depends
on the configuration of the IPF(s), how the points (and associated files) will be
displayed.
Properties
Click this button to define labels to be plotted. The presentation of boreholes
can be changed in this dialog, below boreholes are displayed with the default
configuration.
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Example of boreholes presentation:
Select
Click this button to change the selection of boreholes by their length, it will
open the 3D IPF Settings window:
3D IPF Settings window:
Use
files
associated
Plot labels . . .
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Hide boreholes with LESS penetration depth (meters) than:
Enter the maximum depth for which boreholes will be hidden.
Hide boreholes with MORE penetration depth (meters) then:
Enter the minimum depth for which boreholes will be hidden.
Hide boreholes along CROSS-SECTIONS above distance of more than:
Enter the distance perpendicular to cross-sections for which boreholes need
to be hidden.
Click this checkbox to use the associated files that are attached to the selected
IPF file. This checkbox will be greyed out whenever no associated files are
available and/or automatically deselected for associated files that represent
timeseries as they can not be displayed in 3D environment. For boreholes
this checkbox will selected.
Check this option to display labels as defined by the options Properties. See
examples on the coming pages.
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Example of usage of labeling by boreholes:
Legend
Click this button to start the default Colour window to select a colour for the
first of the selected IPF file(s).
Legend for boreholes
Table of the legend used for colouring the boreholes associated to the
selected IPF file(s).
Label:
The first column will be used to match with a particular column in the
associated files (Cylinder Class column,).
Clr:
The second column will be used to colour the interval that matches the label.
Description:
The third column is for descriptive purposes only.
Width:
The fourth column can be used to specify a particular width the
parts of the borehole.
Example of a borehole representation with different width values for a
particular class:
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Open DLF-file
Select this button to open a DLF file that will be used to colour the boreholes
associated to the IPF.
Save As DLF-file
Select this button to save the current legend to a DLF file.
Place legend
Help . . .
Close
Redraw
Select this button to redraw the IPF file with the adjusted legend specified in
the table. Any adjustment in legend colour and/or width will be applied.
Check the box to show the legend on the graphical canvas.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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Examples of IPF display with boreholes (upper-left), well screens coloured by
their well strengths (upper-right), top elevation of the well screen coloured by
their well strength (lower-left) and a combination of all together (lower-right):
Example of plotting labels:
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3D Plot Settings window, IFFs tab:
Loaded IFFs,
etc . . .
Select one or more IFF files from the list to activate them in the 3D visualization. The 3D display will update each time an IFF is (de)selected.
Use the current
colour
Click this option to display the selected IFF file by a single colour as displayed
to the right of the option.
Legend
Click this button to start the default Colour window to select a colour for the
first of the selected IFF file(s).
Select this option to present the all selected IFF files by their associated legend definition.
Use colour as
defined by current
legend
Thickness
Place legend
Help . . .
Close
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Enter the thickness of the lines used to display the flowlines.
Check the box to show the legend.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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Example of flowlines from IFF files coloured by age (top) and usage of single colouring (bottom):
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Example of a line thickness of 3:
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3D Plot Settings window, GENs tab:
Loaded GENs, etc
...
Thickness
Transparency
Help . . .
Close
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Select one or more GEN-files from the list to activate them in the 3D visualization. The 3D display will update each time a GEN is (de)selected. GEN-files
can be loaded in the Map tab or the Overlay tab on the iMOD Manager.
Enter the thickness of the lines used to display the GEN-files.
Legend
Click this button to start the default Colour window to select a colour for the
selected GEN-file(s).
Move the slider to choose between full transparency (Opaque) and no transparency (Invisible)
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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Example of a RED line with thickness of 1 (above) and a CYAN
line with thickness of 5 (below):
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3D Plot Settings window, Solid tab:
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The solid tab is active when using the 3D visualization from the solid tool. See section 7.4.3.
Loaded
Cross-Sections
Transparency
Display Attached
Bitmaps
Help . . .
Close
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Select one or more cross-section files from the list to activate them in the
3D visualization. The 3D display will update each time a cross-section is
(de)selected.
Check this box to change the cross-section to transparent.
Check this box to display the attached bitmap on the cross-section. Those
bitmaps need to be added to the cross-section by the Profile Tool (section 7.1)
that has been started by the Solid Tool (section 7.4) and need to be available
in the SPF file (section 9.20)
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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Examples of different type of bitmaps attached to cross-sections.
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3D Plot Settings window, Clipplanes tab:
Available
clipplanes
Thickness
Help . . .
Close
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Select one or more clipplanes to axtivate. iMOD will create clipping planes along
the boundaries of the visible extent described by the axes. IDF, IPF, IFF files will
be trimmed automatically on the extent, however, boreholes (see section 9.5) ignore
these in the vertical direction and cross-sections from the Solid Tool (section 7.4)
ignores those in all directions. To avoid this, the clipping planes can be used for all
directions.
Enter the thickness of the lines used to display the clipplanes.
Legend
Click this button to start the default Colour window to select a colour for the first of
the selected GEN-file(s).
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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3D Plot Settings window, Miscellaneous tab:
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The miscellaneous tab provides several lay-out functions.
Boundary Box
Axes
Orientation Box
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Click this checkbox to turn the boundary box on or off. The colour of the
Boundary Box can be changed by clicking the Legend option.
Check this checkbox to turn on axes around the 3D image.
Click this option to plot a simple orientation box with directions to North, East
and West.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Example of usage of the Boundary Box and Axes (left) or the Orientation Box (right):
Legend
Click this button to select a colour from the standard Colour window, section 2.4.
Click this option to compute the vertical axes instantaneously whenever a
change has been made in the selection of IDF
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Recompute
vertical axes
instantaneously
Plot original
window
Change the background colour by clicking the Legend option.
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Background
colour
Plot the image shown on the graphical canvas before entering the 3D Tool:
Absent: do no plot the original window.
Plot on: plot on the selected IDF:
Example of plotting the original window on an IDF:
Horizontally: plot on a horizontal plane; use the slider to position the current
display vertically between the top and bottom of the 3D image.
Example of a horizontal plot of the original window :
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Transparency
Check the checkbox to use a transparent colour for the plot.
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Example of the usage of transparency:
Ambient
Diffuse
Specular
Light direction
Lower Left Corner
Upper Right
Corner
Apply XY
Maximal Z-value:
Maximal Z-value
Minimal Z-value
Help . . .
Close
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Use the slider to increase the ambient light component (directional light component, generated shades)
Use the slider to increase the diffuse light component (background light)
Use the slider to increase the diffuse light component (shininess).
Use the slider to change the light direction and shading
Define the lower left corner of the visible extent. This becomes activated
whenever the button Apply XY is selected.
Define the upper right corner of the visible extent. This becomes activated
whenever the button Apply XY is selected.
Click this button to recompute the horizontal extent of the image as specified
by the Lower Left Corner and Upper Right Corner.
Check this option to change the maximum and minimum values on the Zscale. Use the Apply Z button to recompute the image.
Maximum z-value
Minimum z-value
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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Toolbox Menu Options
3D Select
Use the 3D functionality to identify individual boreholes for inspection purposes. Select the option Edit
from the 3D main menu and select then the option Select. This option will be active in case IPFs
are selected for display. Use the mouse to navigate over the 3D image to select a borehole. Once a
borehole has been selected it will migrate into a different representation.
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Selected borehole:
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7.3.3
Left click the mouse button once the appropriate borehole has been selected.
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3D Select window, Drill info tab:
Select
Click this button to (re)start selecting a borehole from the graphical canvas.
Table
Help ...
Cancel
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This table shows the content of the associated file for the selected borehole.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Select window.
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3D Select window, Point info tab:
Select
Click this button to (re)start selecting a borehole from the graphical canvas.
Properties
Click this button to change the . . .
Overview ..
Table
Help ...
Cancel
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This window shows the content of the IPF file for the current borehole.
This table shows the IDF values at the location of the borehole.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Select window.
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Solid Tool
WHY?
The Solid Tool is an instrument that can be used to create a 3D representation of the subsurface in
which modellayers with different composition can be distinguished.
WHAT?
A solid is a collection of IDF-files that describes the different geohydrological modellayers of the subsurface. Each modellayer is represented by a top and bottom elevation and these are stored as IDF-files
(TOP_L{i}.IDF and BOT_L{i}.IDF) in the folder {USER}\SOLIDS\{SOLIDTOOL} (as defined in the *.PRF
file by the keyword SOLIDTOOL, see section section 9.1). The IDF-files are created or updated with the
Solid Tool by interpolation of interface depths derived from cross-sections that describe the elevation
of all modellayer interfaces.
Solid Tool window, Solids tab:
List
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HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Solid Tool to start the Solid
Tool window.
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7.4
The Solid Tool window shows the solids saved in the folder {USER}\{SOLIDTOOL}.
Select a solid from the list by clicking on the name.
New
Click this button to create a new solid (see section 7.4.1).
Info
Click this button to open the SOL file for the selected solid. Borehole logs can be
included in the cross-section by a definition added to the solid file (*.SOL), see section
section 9.19 for more detailed information about a SOL file.
Cross-Section Tool
Click this button to start the Cross-Section Tool (see section 7.1) in combination with
the selected Solid to create and/or edit Solid Cross-Section Files (SPF) for more
detailed information about SPF files.
3D Tool
Click this button to start the 3D Tool (see section 7.3) in combination with the selected
Solid.
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Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Solid Tool window.
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Solid Tool window, Polygons tab:
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Feed Selected
SOL-file to
the iMOD
Manager
Help ...
Close
Compute
Click this button to compute the elevation of all modellayers in the selected solid
based upon the cross-sections described in the SPF files (see section section 9.20)
and mentioned in the SOL file. See section section 7.4.4 for more information.
Delete
Click this button to delete the selected solid, iMOD will remove the folder
{USER}\{SOLIDTOOL}\{SOLIDNAME} and its content.
Click this item to let iMOD read automatically the solid properties and to add the solid
IDF-files to the iMOD Manager when clicking the name of the solid in the list.
The interpolation of the interfaces of the solid may be executed within the limits of one or more defined
polygons solely. In this manner it is possible to adjust any geological model locally. Each polygon
will act similar for to modellayers. If different areas need to be applied for different modellayers, the
usage of Masks (see , AquitardsMasks tab on the Solid Tool window is more appropriate to use. The
polygons are defined in the Solid Tool window, Polygons tab and the functions of those buttons are
described in detail in section section 4.2.
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Example of a polygon (SHAPE1) that defines the area for which interfaces of the solid will be adjusted
by the two drawn cross-sections.
The defined polygon is saved to the solid when tabbing towards to the Solids tab of the Solid Tool
window. The defined polygon is not saved to the solid when clicking the Close button on the Solid Tool
window.
Solid Tool window, AquitardsMasks tab:
The extent of the aquitards located between the bottom and top interfaces of subsequent layers can
be defined using masks. In this manner the extent can be formed by values in the mask files. Those
mask files are IDF files that can be created using the New button (see below) and/or created differently
as long as the dimensions of the Mask-IDF is identical to the IDF files listed in the SOL-file. Eventually,
any Mask IDF file will be saved in the selected SOL file whenever the tab Solids on the Solid Tool
window is selected. The values in the Mask IDF behave as follows:
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<= в€’2
в€’1
0
1
>= 2
iMOD applies a value of в€’2 internally to fixate locations that are effected by crosssections. Values that are <= в€’2 will be trimmed internally to в€’1.
Use this value to specify areas that do not need to be computed. iMOD will use the
original values instead.
Use this value to specify areas that are excluded.
Use this value to specify areas that need to be compute.
Use this value to specify areas that need to be equal to the values of the upper layer.
It will act as if its value is в€’1 but uses the results from the upper layer as fixated
value. Usage of this value is recommended to extent aquitards, specify a value of
+2 outside the extent of an existing aquitard or equivalent in order to define the
boundaries of these aquitard.
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New
Click this button to create new masks for all aquitards. iMOD will compute a Mask
Value of 1 for the bottom elevation of modellayer i where there is a positive difference
with the underlying top of modellayer i + 1. Outside those area, the Mask Value is
1 and for the top of the underlying modellayer 2. An information window appears
specifying the created masks.
Open Map
Click this button to open an IDF-file to be used as mask file.
Properties
Click this button to open the properties of the mask.
Delete
Click this button to remove the mask file from the list.
Help ...
Close
7.4.1
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Solid Tool window.
Create a Solid
A solid is a collection of IDF-files that describe the top and bottom elevations of geohydrological interfaces in the subsurface. The solid is created by selecting the relevant IDF-files in the iMOD Manager
and by clicking the New button on the Solid Tool window to start the Create New Solid window.
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Create New Solid window:
Select *.IDF files
to be used in the
SOLID
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Select this option to specify IDF files from the list that need to be used as
individual interfaces in the SOLID. iMOD will copy or clip the selected IDF
files and save them in the specified folder in which all SOLIDS are saved (i.e.
{USER}\{SOLIDTOOL}\*.IDF.
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Enter single TOP
and BOTTOM of
SOLID
Select this option to specify a constant value and/or IDF file for the definition
of a TOP- and BOTTOM level of the SOLID. iMOD will copy or create these
files (in case of constant values) to the SOLID folder and rename them to
INT_L{i}.IDF and INT_L{n}.IDF, identical to the order of the selected files. The
actual number of interfaces can be entered in the following appearing menu
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Define the number of interfaceswindow:
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Number of interfaces
Select the number of interfaces a separate IDF file is generated.
Give the name for
the Solid
CellSize:
Clip SOLID for the
current window (all
in meters)
OK
iMOD will divide the distance between the entered TOP and BOTTOM
values into equally distances. All these files are located in the SOLIDS
subdirectory.
Enter the name of the solid, e.g. ISLAND. iMOD will create a folder called
{user}\solids\ISLAND and saves the SOL file: ISLAND.SOL for more detailed
information about SOL files.
Enter the cell size of the IDF files for the interfaces. Bear in mind that those
cell sizes can be modified easily in the Compute Interfaces window. This item
is compulsory whenever no IDF files are entered whenever the option Enter
single TOP and BOTTOM of SOLID is selected, otherwise the IDF dimensions
are use of the specified IDF files.
Check the checkbox in case you want to enter an extent different from the area
of the selected IDFs. Enter the coordinates for the lower left and upper right
corner of the solid. Make sure that these coordinates are within the extent of
the selected IDFs.
Click this button to create:
A solid folder in {USER}\{SOLIDTOOL}\{SOLIDNAME};
A solid file (*.SOL) inside the SOLID folder;
A collection of INT_L{i}.IDF and INT_L{n}.IDF-files inside the SOLID
folder where n represents the number of interfaces.
Information window after a successful completion of the creation process.
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Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Create New Solid window and return to the Solid
Tool window.
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Solid Editing using Cross-Sections
Click the Cross-Section Tool
button on the Solid Tool window to start the Draw Cross-Section
window and the Cross-Sections window. The Draw Cross-Section window has the same functions as
described for the Cross-Section Tool in section 7.1. The cross-section will be displayed in the iMOD
Cross-Section CHILD window. The interfaces of the model layers in the solid can be edited manually
using the Cross-Sections window.
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Cross-Sections window:
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7.4.2
List of
Available
Cross-sections
The cross-sections defined for the selected solid are shown here.
New
Click this button to create a new cross-section. Make sure that you draw a new
cross-section first using the Draw button on the Draw Cross-Section window.
If not, a copy will be made of the selected cross-section in the list. The Fit
Interfaces window will be started to define the name of the cross-section and
enter initial settings to fit the interfaces.
Delete
Click this button to delete the selected cross-section. The cross-section will
be deleted from the list in the Cross-Section window. The cross-section will be
deleted from the solid once you close the Cross-Section window and confirms
the Question to save the (adjusted/added) cross-sections. However the crosssection SPF-file is not removed and remains available for later use.
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Fit Interfaces
Click this button to open the Fit Interfaces window. This window offers the
possibility to start an initial guess for the interfaces in the cross-section by
fitting the interfaces along the cross-section on the values read from the
corresponding IDFs as mentioned and assigned to in the selected SOL-file.
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Example of the Fit Interfaces window:
Name of
the CrossSection:
Define
Fit
Reset
Specify the name of the selected cross-section; the name can
not be modified once cross-sections have been defined.
Check the box to define an interface line that can be modified.
Check the box to allow fitting of the interface of the IDF.
Check the box to initialize an interface line; the result will be a
horizontal interface.
IDF
Select the IDF for each interface from the dropdown list.
Tolerance
Enter the accuracy in meters for which an interface is fitted.
Exclude
Enter the value of the IDF not used in the fitting; this is usually
(by default) the NoDataValue of the IDF files.
Apply
Click this button to start to fit each interface line to the corresponding IDF-files.
Help ...
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Close
Click this button to close the Fit Cross-Section window and return to the Solid Tool window.
Create interfaces from borehole logs
Click this button to create interfaces based on the interfaces defined in the
borehole logs which are part of the solid definition.
Lock
Click this button to lock the behaviour of each interfaces in between upperand lower interfaces. Whenever they might cross due to a movement, they
will be locked in order to avoid that they cross. Whenever two nodes are
exactly on each other (which is allowed), this can prevent a movement of the
node. Uncheck this button in that case to allow full editing of the interfaces.
View Editable Area
Click this button to view the editable area based upon the extent of the entered polygons as specified on the Solid Tool window, Polygons tab. Though,
interfaces can be changed outside the editable areas (grey areas), they will
not be used in the interpolation of new interfaces.
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Example of a cross-section showing the editable area and non-editable areas (grey)
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Snap
Select this option to snap the selected node on the interface i to the nearest
interface i в€’ 1 and i + 1. Whenever the snap does not work, it is probably
caused by the fact that the interface to be snapped at, is not directly above- of
beneath the interface considered.
View
Click this button to show the name of the cross-section and the name of the interfaces that crosses the current cross-section as shown on the Cross-Section
CHILD window.
Example of a cross-section showing the interfaces of a crossing cross-section.
Help . . .
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Click this button to start the Help functionality.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Click this button to close the Solid Tool window (and therefore the CrossSection Tool window) and to return to the Solid Tool window. The crosssection(s) will be saved into separate SPF-files to the solid folder when
confirming the Question to save the (adjusted/added) cross-sections.
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Close
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The iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window provides the opportunity to edit the interfaces manually.
When you move the cursor in the neighborhood of a (red, blue or green) line it changes in a red
arrow and you can click the left mouse button and drag the line to another position. When the cursor
becomes a black arrow you can modify the existing node of the line. This editing mode is similar to
modifying polygons, see section 4.4. Be aware that there is no possibility to undo move actions.
Example of iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window:
The iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window shows the interfaces of the model layers in three colors: red,
blue and green. The red colour is used for the top interface of a modellayer, the blue colour is used
for the bottom interface of a modellayer. The green colour is used when bottom and top interfaces of
subsequent model layers overlap.
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Solid Analysing using the 3D Tool
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Click the 3D Tool
button on the Solid Tool window to start the3D Tool graphical window. The 3D
IDF Settings window will appear first whenever IDFs are selected in the iMOD Manager window. This
window has the same functions as described for the 3D Tool in section 7.3.2.
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Toolbox Menu Options
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Example of the 3D IDF Settings window:
Check whether the correct bottom- and top-interfaces are combined and make changes if required.
Use the quick-fix buttons to change the appearance of the IDF-files. Click the Apply-button when
finished. The 3D Plot Settings window appears and the 3D image is displayed in the 3D Tool graphical
window.
The solid tab of the 3D Plot Settings window is active when using the 3D visualization from the solid
tool. The loaded cross-sections are shown in the list and will be displayed in the 3D image when
selected.
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Example of the 3D Plot Settings window:
Loaded CrossSections
Transparency
Help . . .
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Select one or more cross-section files from the list to activate them in the
3D visualization. The 3D display will update each time a cross-section is
(de)selected.
Check the box to change the cross-section to transparent (Invisible)
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the 3D Plot Settings window.
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Toolbox Menu Options
7.4.4
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Example of a 3D image of the possible outline of cross-sections of a solid:
Compute Interfaces
iMOD facilitates two methodologies to convert the cross-section into a 3D representation of the subsoil,
named a SOLID. Basically, iMOD uses (a) a linear interpolation of the entire interface in each crosssection yielding an accurate representation of the interfaces or (b) performs a Kriging interpolation
using only the knick points in the interfaces, yielding a more smooth interpolation. Select the option
Compute
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from the Solid Tool window top start the Compute Interfaces window.
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Calc:
Check :
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Compute Interfaces window
Resolution:
IDF :
Compute SOLID for Extent (x1,y1,x2,y2):
Uses system of
linear equations
to solve problem:
Force Hypothetical
Interface to be
oriented equally in
the vertical direction:
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Check this option to select the interfaces to be recomputed, if not selected, those will remain unchanged, unless the option Check is activated.
Check this option to perform a consistency check upon the interfaces,
this applied whether it will be computed or not. iMOD uses the rule that
interface i must be <= interface i в€’ 1, if not interface i becomes equal
to the value of interface i в€’ 1.
Enter a resolution of the IDF to be interpolated for the individual interfaces. It has the advantage to start at a coarse scale (e.g. 100m) to
have a quick results of the interpolation and whenever the SOLID improves, the final interpolation can be carried out on a finer scale. Bear
in mind, that the resolution should be at least as fine as the detail of
the cross-sections. At the end, the specified cell size in the runfile will
smoothen the interpolated interfaces furthermore if desired.
List of the used and written IDF file names for the interfaces. The
SOLID tool always uses those IDF files at the root of the SOLID folder,
results can be written in different version folder, see Output settings.
Enter the extent or which the SOLID need to be computed. In this
manner the existing SOLID files can be enlarged or reduced.
Check the button to use a linear interpolation. iMOD uses the PCG
solver from the USGS and its corresponding solver settings might be
adjusted in the PCG Settings window.
PCG Settings
Click this button to show the PCG settings of the linear interpolation,
see section Figure 4.1 for a more detailed information.
Check the box to position the hypothetical interface (where the thickness between subsequent interfaces equals zero) in between the interface above and below.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Kriging (Simple
or Ordinary ...):
Kriging Settings
Click this button to show the settings of the Kriging interpolation, see
section Figure 4.1 for more detailed information.
Calculate the semivariogram for the selected layers. For each of the
interfaces the semivariogram will be displayed in a graph. By clicking
the Cancel button the next interface will be computed. Before the
semivariogram will be computed, it is necessary to confirm this action
since, it might can take some while to compute. Only the values
from the cross-sections of the selected interfaces will be computed.
Moreover, only one settings for the Kriging can be applied to all
selected interfaces. If different settings need to be used, it is advised
to compute the interfaces separately after modifying the Kriging
settings. Bear in mind, that the most important parameter for Kriging
is the range over which the semivariogram extends. Changing that parameter does have the largest impact on the results of the interpolation.
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Semivariogram:
Check this option to use Kriging interpolation
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Example of a computed Semivariogram
Export Values on
Knickpoints on Cross
Sections to Points to
Overwrite Start
Elevations:
Save as a different
Realisation, version:
Compute:
Help:
Close:
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PCG Settings
Click this button to show the PCG settings of the linear interpolation,
see section Figure 4.1 for a more detailed information.
Check this option to export the knick points and corresponding interface values into an *.IPF, *.IDF or *.GEO file. For each interface a separate IPF, IDF or GEO file will be created and stored in
{USER}\SOLIDS\{SOLIDNAME}\EXPORT.
Do not keep the original elevations.
Save the result of the interpolation as a new version with the specified
version number.
Start the interpolation
Click this button to start the Help functionality
Click this button to close the Compute Elevations for current Solid window and return to the Solid Tool window.
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Import SOBEK Models
WHY?
SOBEK models are surface water models made with the SOBEK suite software available from Deltares.
SOBEK models may be imported in iMOD to be used with iMODFLOW.
WHAT?
The available SOBEK files are converted to iMOD format and saved as ISG-file. All SOBEK Network,
Profile and His-files are converted
This functionality is supported also by iMOD Batch.
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Import Sobek Model to start
the Configure the SOBEK Import window.
Example of Configure the SOBEK Import window:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Import
Cancel
Help. . .
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7.5.1
Import Tools
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Give the *.ISG to be created
Enter the name of the ISG-file to be created. All information from the SOBEK files
will be saved in one ISG-file. The location of the ISG-file can be chosen with the save
button.
Locate the Sobek Network files
iMOD searches for network.tp, network.cr, network.cp, network.gr, network.st, profile.dat, profile.def and friction.dat. Select the name of the network file and iMOD will
search all other files in the same folder.
Give the CALCPNT.his or equivalent
Select the HIS file that contains the computed waterlevels at the SOBEK calculation
points.
Give the STRUCT.his / equivalent or leave blank
Select the HIS file that contains the computed waterlevels at the SOBEK structures
points. Leave this blank when not required or available.
Open
Click this button to select the required file.
Click this button to import the SOBEK configuration into the ISG-file.
Click this button to close the window
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Import Modflow Models
WHY?
MODFLOW models made outside iMOD may be imported in iMOD to be used with iMODFLOW.
WHAT?
An existing standard MODFLOW configuration is converted into iMOD files (e.g. IDFs, IPFs and GENs).
The conversion works for three MODFLOW versions: 1988, 2000 and 2005. iMOD will convert the
MODFLOW packages once the location of one of the packages is defined. The conversion will stop in
case no BAS-file (1988 version) or NAM-file (2000 and 2005 version) is found.
This functionality is supported also by iMOD Batch.
Configure the Modflow Import window:
(1)
T
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Import Modflow Model to
start the Configure the Modflow Import window.
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7.5.2
(2)
(3)
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Modflow configuration to be imported
Select the year of the Modflow version (1988, 2000, 2005)
Check the box at Include 4th column with river infiltration factors in case the RIVpackage has a 4th column defining the ratio in conductance between infiltration and
drainage
Locate one of the Modflow files (e.g. modflow.bas, modflow.drn)
Select the name of one of the Modflow input files and iMOD will search all other files
in the same folder. iMOD will look for a BAS-file for the 1988 version and will look for
a NAM-file for the 2000 and 2005 versions.
A remark is shown in case the BAS-package or NAM-package input file is not found.
Open
Click this button to select the required file as defined in option (1).
Lower-left coordinate of the Model (xmin, ymin) in meters:
Enter the X- and Y-coordinate of the lower left corner of the model.
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(5)
(6)
Import
Import the MODFLOW configuration into iMOD
The iMOD model files will be stored in the iMOD_USER\MODELS folder.
Click this button to close the window.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
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Help. . .
Start date of the simulation (only used by transient simulation configurations)
Enter the date of the first time step by selecting the appropriate day, month and year.
This is required for transient models only.
Name of the runfile to be created (will be placed in . . . \runfiles)
Enter a name for the runfile to be created in the RUNFILES folder of the iMOD_USER
folder). For more information on the runfile see section 7.7.
Methodology to handle multiple package data within single modelcells:
Select the appropriate option:
Sum: all existing package information is summed into a single modelcell. This
is the default. Whenever more elements occur in a single modelcell, they will
be lumped together to form one value.
Retain: all existing package information in a single modelcell is extracted and
stored in individual iMOD files.
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(4)
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Toolbox Menu Options
Model Scenarios
WHY?
An important purpose of modeling is the possibility of scenario computations to search for answers to
“what if” questions.
WHAT?
To avoid endless copying of model input files to modify them for usage for scenarios, the Scenario Tool
offers a way to define polygons for which parameters are perturbed without copying and/or adjusting
the original model input files.
Open/Create a Model Scenario window:
T
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Define Model Scenarios to
display the Open/Create a Model Scenario window.
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Select a Scenario,
or Enter a new
name
Open and
Continue
Help . . .
Close
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The list displays all sub-folders in the {user }\scenarios folder. Select one of
these or enter a new name to create a new folder
Select this button to open/create the selected/entered scenario. iMOD will try
to open/create the file {user }\scenarios\{scenname}\{scenname}.scn. After
that the Scenario window will start. In this window, the actual scenario can be
constructed.
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Open/Create a Model Scenario window, as a
result of this, the Scenario Tool will not start.
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Scenario window, Scenario Shapes tab:
Display-list
Select one/more of the listed shapes
Click these buttons to draw, open, save, delete or rename a shape. More
detailed information can be found in section 4.2
Help ...
Close ...
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Scenario window. In case the scenario file
(*.SCN) already exists in the scenario folder, a question follows whether this
file needs to be updated.
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Scenario window, Scenario Definitions tab:
New
Click this button to add a new *.SDF file to the Scenario definitions. The new
*.SDF file will open in a text-editor. Some explanation how to edit the *.SDF
file is given in the tutorial.
Add
Click this button to add an existing *.SDF file from the file system.
Information
Click this button to open the selected *.SDF file in a text-editor for purposes of
inspection and/or adjustments.
Remove
Click this button to remove the selected *.SDF files from the scenario definition
list.
Note: See section 9.18 for a more detailed description of the usage of *.SDF files during a scenario
simulation.
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Model Simulation
WHY?
A runfile is required for a groundwater flow model that is configured with the iMOD concept. Such a
runfile consists of a header with general information about the location, horizontal resolution, number
of modellayers and solver settings. This type of information can be easily modified in the Start Model
Simulation Tool described in this section.
WHAT?
It takes two requirements to start a model simulation within iMOD:
T
Include the keyword MODFLOW and/or MODFLOW_CAPSIM in the preference file and add the
appropriate iMODFLOW executable;
Include at least one runfile in the {user}\runfiles folder.
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Start Model Simulation to
display the Start Model Simulation window.
Start Model Simulation window, Main Configuration tab:
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7.7
Runfiles (*.run)
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This list displays the existing runfiles (*.run) in the folder {user}\runfiles (see
for more detailed information about runfiles Vermeulen, 2011). Whenever a
runfile is selected, iMOD will try to read the header information and if no errors
are found, the extent of the model (as described by the BNDFILE in the runfile)
will be displayed on the graphical display (hatched area).
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Toolbox Menu Options
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Example of the graphical display:
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CheckRun
Click this button to check the existence of all files in the selected runfile.
iMOD will check files with the extensions *.IDF, *.IPF, *.ISG and *.GEN as
these are valid to be used in a runfile. A list of all missing files are recorded
in a file: {user}\tmp\runfile.log.
Example of a runfile.log:
Info
Click this button to display the content of the selected file (*.RUN, *.SCN or *.
SDF) in a texteditor.
RunfileCopy
Click this button to make a complete copy of the content of the selected runfile
for the current window. All IDF and IPF files that can be found in the runfile
will be clipped to this window.
Project Manager
Click this button to display the iMOD Project Manager (section 5.6) and read
in the selected runfile.
ZoomFull
Click this icon to zoom to the entire extent of the model
Include Scenario
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Check this checkbox to include a scenario that is defined by the Define Model
Scenario option. A scenario describes the coordinates of polygon(s) for which
adjustments to the original selected runfile need to be carried out, as described by the *.sdf files (see for more information about *.SCN and *.SDF
files section 9.17 and section 9.18).
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Existing Scenario
Folders
Select one of the scenarios listed to be included during a regular model simulation. The list represents all folders in {user}\scenarios. Click the Info button
to open the corresponding {user}\scenarios\{folder}\{folder}.SCN file. Once a
scenario folder is selected, the content of the *.scn will be plotted (green and
red polygons) that can be used to orient the spatial dimension of the local
model that can be specified on the Model Dimensions tab.
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Example of a scenario layout:
Scenario Definition Files (*.sdf)
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Select one of the scenario definition files (*.SDF) to inspect/adjust by clicking
the Info button.
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Start Model Simulation window.
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Toolbox Menu Options
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Start Model Simulation window, Model Dimensions tab:
Number of Modellayers
Define Spatial Dimensions Interactively
Draw Simulation
Area of Interest
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Select the number of modellayers to be used in the current model simulation.
Whenever the Number of Modellayers is less than the MXNLAY variable in the
run-file, iMOD will display a message at the right of the dropdown menu, indicating that the boundary condition of the lowest modellayer will be a Constant
Head boundary condition.
Select this option to determine the dimension and size of the rastercells (computational nodes) interactively.
Click this button to start drawing a rectangle on the graphical display to indicate the location of the simulation area (hatched area). Use your left-mouse
button to position the first points of the rectangle, use the left/right-mouse
button to identify the opposite border. Whenever you move the mouse cursor inside the hatched area, a cross-arrow appears indicating that the entire
hatched area can be moved while clicking the left-mouse button. Similar the
borders can be moved whenever the horizontal/vertical arrows appear.
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Enter the X-coordinate for the lower-left-corner (XULC) and the upper-rightcorner (XURC). The difference between them will be computed automatically
(DeltaX). All variables need to be entered in meters, moreover, they will be
filled in automatically whenever the simulation area is adjusted interactively
on the graphical display.
Enter the Y-coordinate for the lower-left-corner (YULC) and the upper-rightcorner (YURC). The difference between them will be computed automatically
(DeltaY). All variables need to be entered in meters, moreover, they will be
filled in automatically whenever the simulation area is adjusted interactively
on the graphical display.
Select one of the cellsize from the dropdown menu or enter a value in the
input field next to it.
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XULC,XURC,
DeltaX
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Example of a model extent after drawn interactively on the graphical display:
YULC,YURC,
DeltaY
Simulate model
with cellsizes
equal to
Include a Bufferzone of:
Increase Cellsize
in buffer upto:
Use Spatial
Dimensions
Defined in IDF:
238
Select one of the buffersizes from the dropdown menu or enter a value in the
input field next to it. The Buffer-zone is an extra “ring” of modelcells around
the chosen simulation area and indicated by a green rectangle.
Select this option to increase the cellsizes in the Buffer-zone upto a cellsize
that can be selected from the dropdown menu or entered in the input field next
to it.
Select this option whenever an (ir)regular network needs to be used that is
described in the header information of an IDF that can be entered in the corresponding input field.
Open IDF
Select this button to select an IDF-file from the system.
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Toolbox Menu Options
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Start Model Simulation window, Solver Settings tab:
Number of outer
iterations:
Number of inner
iterations:
Head closure
criterion:
Budget closure
criterion:
Relax parameter:
Acceptable
Overall
Waterbalance
Error
Acceptable
Number of Inner
Convergences
Enter the maximum number of outer iterations.
Enter the maximum number of inner iterations.
Enter the maximum head residual in meters.
Enter the maximum budget residual in cubic meters.
Enter the relaxation parameter (0.0 < relax < 1.0)
Enter the overall acceptable waterbalance error in percentage of the waterbalance error (Qin -Qout ) divided by the mean of the absolute total of both:
0.5*(Qin +Qout ). Whenever the simulation can not find a solution within the
number of outer * inner iterations, it can still continue whenever it meets the
Acceptable Overall Waterbalance Error.
Enter the number of sequential inner convergences that forces the solver to
stop further iteration. The simulation will continue whenever the result passes
the Acceptable Overall Waterbalance Error too.
Note: Consult scientific literature regarding the Solver Settings as described above in order to avoid
any unwise input.
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Start Model Simulation window, Output Variables tab:
Result Variable
File (*.idf)
bdgbnd
head
bdgfff/bdgfrf
bdgflf
bdgsto
bdgwel
bdgdrn
bdgriv
bdgevt
bdgghb
bdgrch
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This list will display the available output variables that are within the selected
runfile from the Main Configuration tab. Select one of the following:
Variable
Description
SIMGRO
Flux in/out Simgro elements
BOUNDARY
Flux in/out constant head boundaries
GROUNDWATERHEAD
Groundwater head
FLUX FRONT/RIGHT FACE Flux in/out front/right cell faces
FLUX LOWER FACE
Flux in/out bottom cell face
STORAGE
Flux in/out storage
PURGED WATER TABLE
Absent
ANISOTROPY
Absent
HORIZ.FLOW BARRIER
Absent
TOP
Absent
BOT
Absent
CONCENTRATION
Absent
HORIZ.K VALUE
Absent
VERT.K VALUE
Absent
WELLS
Flux in/out well systems
DRAINAGE
Flux out drainage systems
RIVERS
Flux in/out river systems
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Flux out evapotranspiration
GENERAL HEAD BOUND- Flux in/out general head boundaries
ARY
RECHARGE
Flux in recharge
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Toolbox Menu Options
bdgisg
bdgibs
Selected
Layers
Flux out overland flow
Flux in/out constant head boundaries (identical to
BOUNDARY)
SEGMENT RIVERS
Flux in/out river systems
INTERBED STORAGE
Flux in/out interbeds
Select the modellayers for which the current selected variable need to be saved.
The number of modellayers to choose from is determined by the Number of
Modellayers selected in the Model Dimensions tab.
Select this item to save budget terms for each of the defined sub-systems
in the selected runfile. Each subsystem will be added to the filename, e.g.
bdgriv_steady-state_l1_sys1.idf.
Select this item to save the results within the specified buffer size entered in the
Include a Buffer-zone of field on the Model Dimensions tab.
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SaveBudget
Terms for each
Boundary
System
Saved Result
Variable inclusive the given
Buffer Size
OVERLAND FLOW
CONSTANT HEAD
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bdgolf
bdgbnd
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Start Model Simulation window, Result Folder tab:
Enter or Select
Output Folder
Start Model
Simulation . . .
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The selected variables, as specified in the Output Variables tab, will be saved
in the folder entered/selected here. Each variable will be saved within a separate folder, e.g. {outputfolder}\bdgrch\bdgrch_steady-state_l1.idf. Whenever
NO scenario is included on the Main Configuration tab, the results will be
saved in the {user}\models folder. Otherwise, in case a scenario is included,
the results will be saved in {user}\scenarios\{scenarioname}. In this latter
case, the output folder is determined by the selected scenario and can not
be changed.
Click this button to start a model simulation. iMOD will ask you to confirm,
before the actual simulation starts. Whenever the model dimensions (number
of rows * columns * modellayers) is more than 30.000.000 nodes, this button
will be inactivated, since a normal 32-bits operating system can not carry out
simulations with higher dimensions.
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Toolbox Menu Options
7.8
Quick Scan Tool
WHY?
The effects of changes in hydrogeological conditions in an area can be visualized once a groundwater
model has been created. This can be done by changing the model input (as described in section 7.7)
or by using scenarios (as described in section 7.6). However much run time may be needed in case of
complicated large groundwater models while many variations of the model input are required to select
the desired changes in the model input. The Quick Scan Tool is designed to reduce significantly this
run time. The Quick Scan Tool will provide an approximated result indicating the effect of the model
variation and enabling to choose the desired model input. After selecting the model input a single final
model run is needed to obtain the detailed model output.
Initial Settings
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7.8.1
T
WHAT?
The Quick Scan Tool works with a database (the Quick Scan database or QS-database, in previous
iMOD versions called the Impulse-Response database or IR-database) which contains the model output of many model runs made by varying combinations of model input. The result of a change in model
input can be presented very quickly just by querying this QS-database.
The Quick Scan Tool needs an input file (*.INI) with initial settings. The input file is defined in the *.PRF
file using the keyword QSTOOL (not yet implemented) or IRDBASE.
The Quick Scan Tool input file (*.INI) needs to contain the following parameters:
NIDF
IDFNAME#
IDFFILE#
RESDIR
NIR
DIRIR#
NAMEIR#
IMPIR#
MINIR#
MAXIR#
IDFIR#
REFIR#
7.8.2
Number of IDF-files used as reference file.
Name used in the QS Tool for IDF number #
Name of the IDF file used as IDF number #
Name of the folder with the results of the QS Tool
Number of QS databases used in the QS Tool
Name of the folder with QS database number #
Name used in the QS Tool for QS database number #
Name of the Impulse used in the QS database
Minimal impulse value
Maximal impulse value
IDF with the link to the REFIR#
Name of the file linking the IDFIR# value with the Response data
Start Quick Scan Tool
HOW?
Select the Toolbox option from the main menu and then choose Quick Scan Tool to start the Quick
Scan Tool window.
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Define Name of Current Target window:
Enter a name for the target and click the Continue button. The Quick Scan Tool window will appear
with the name of the target in the Project Overview list.
The Project Overview list contains all defined Targets (T), Measures (M) and Results (R).
The Active Polygons list contains all defined polygons. The targets and measures are defined in the
tabs in the bottom half of the window by defining the area and the target or measure values.
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Toolbox Menu Options
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Quick Scan Tool window:
A target (Target tab) and a measure (Measure tab) is defined by:
Click on the Add Areas button:
Draw
Draw a polygon to define the area where the target/measure is valid.
Select
Select a surface water level area from the map with surface water level areas. This map is
shown in the background.
Click on the Add Target orAdd Measure button: a target/measure is linked to the area defined. Information on the targets/measures linked to a polygon is shown in the bottom half of the Quick Scan Tool
window when selecting the polygon on the map.
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Quick Scan Tool window, bottom half for selected polygon:
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for Targets tab:
Assign Definition
Copy Definition
Create New
Measure
Click on the Assign Definition button to add the target definition. The Assign
Target Definition window appears.
Click on the Copy Definition button to copy target definitions from one polygon
to other polygons.
Click on the Create New Measure button to make a new measure definition
linked to the target.
Assign Target Definition window:
Topic
List of variables for which a target may be defined:
Purged water table: level of the purged groundwater above the confining layer;
Groundwater table: level of the groundwater under the confining layer;
Seepage fluxes: seepage-/infiltration flux from modellayer 1 to modellayer 2;
River fluxes: recharge/discharge of surface water;
Drainage fluxes: discharge by drainage tubes and ditches.
Period
Period or condition for which the target is valid: GHG (average highest groundwater level) or GLG (average lowest groundwater level)
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Toolbox Menu Options
Lower
Upper
Add Definition
Remove Selected
Definition(s)
Lower limit of the target
Upper limit of the target
Add target definition to the list of targets
Remove the selected target definitions from the list of targets
Quick Scan Tool window, bottom half for selected polygon:
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for Measures tab, Add Measures button:
Assign Definition
Copy Definition
Plot selected cells,
using following IR
Create New
Result
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Click on the Assign Definition button to add the measure definition. The Assign Measure Definition window appears.
Click on the Copy Definition button to copy measure definitions from one polygon to other polygons.
Check the box to show the QS(=IR) units (model cell clusters) for which the
effects of measures are calculated. The measure should be selected in the
listbox because each measure may be linked to different units.
Click on the Create New Result button to save the set of measures to a result.
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Name of the measure
Strength of the measure
Add measure definition to the list of measures
Remove the selected measure definitions from the list of measure
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Strength
Add Measure
Remove Selected
Measure(s)
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Assign Measure Definition window:
Quick Scan Tool window, bottom half for selected polygon:
for Measures tab, Optimize button:
The Optimize function gives the opportunity to search in the QS-database for the optimal set of measures. These are the measures which give the desired result with the minimum number of measures.
Assign
Constraints
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Click on the Assign Constraints button to open the Assign Constraints window.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Click on the Calculate button to search for the optimal set of measures using
the assigned constraints. A report (see below) is generated in case the QSdatabase finds a solution. A warning is shown in case the QS-database is not
able to find a solution.
Report
Plot selected cells,
using following IR
Show the report generated by the Calculate function
Check the box to show the QS(=IR) units (model cell clusters) for which the
effects of measures are calculated. The measure should be selected in the
listbox because each measure may be linked to different units.
Click on theCreate New Result buttonto save the set of measures to a result.
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Result
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Calculate
Assign Constraints window:
Fixed
Topic
Lower
Upper
Fixed
Add Constraint
Remove
Selected
Constraint(s)
OK
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Click on the button to set a fixed constraint. The value of the measure is fixed
and can not be changed.
Name of the measure
Lower limit of the constraint
Upper limit of the constraint
Fixed value of the constraint (usable when button on first column is clicked)
Click on the Add Constraint button to add a constraint to the list of measures.
Remove the selected constraints from the list of constraints
The constraint values are checked to be within the limits of the QS-database
and the window closes.
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Quick Scan Tool window, bottom half for selected polygon:
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for Measures tab, Preview button:
Select one of the
results below:
Plot selected cells,
using following IR
Create New
Result
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Select the result from the list box. The effect of the measure is shown for the
area selected under Add Areas.
Show the result
Click on the button to show the result on the map.
The legend is shown below the list box.
Check the box to show the QS(=IR) units (model cell clusters) for which the
effects of measures are calculated. The measure should be selected in the
listbox because each measure may be linked to different units.
Click on theCreate New Result buttonto save the set of measures to a result.
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Example of report generated by Calculate on the Measures tab, Optimize button:
Measures
Targets
Exit
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The proposed measures are listed by polygon. The constraints are shown
between brackets.
The desired targets are listed by polygon. The upper and lower limits of the
target are shown between brackets.
The report can be closed with the Window Close button or by [File / Exit].
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7.9
Pumping Tool
WHY?
iMOD offers the possibility to manipulate existing model features, such as well strength, waterlevels,
etc., by means of the functionalities offered by the scenario definitions. However, the scenario definitions are limited to existing features and new elements can not be added easily without changing the
runfile manually. The Pumping Tool can be applied to configure new elements to an existing model
configuration (runfile) and simulate and analyse the results easily. The Pumping Tool is developed
specifically to simulate the effect of pumping, Aquifer-Storage-Recovery systems and/or Thermal-HeatStorage systems.
Initial Settings
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7.9.1
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WHAT?
Any pumping system can be outlined by defining its location, vertical screen depths and corresponding
well abstraction rates. The Pumping Tool includes these properties to any existing model configuration
(runfile) prior to the simulation. The Pumping Tool allocates the well strength to the appropriate modellayer(s) and extends the model simulation time to include the given well regime. After the simulation
the Pumping Tool offers a quick tool to analyse the results.
The Pumping Tool needs an input file (*.INI) with initial settings. These settings are needed by the
Pumping Tool to incorporate and allocate the well systems to the runfile(s). In the preference file the
keyword SCENTOOL needs to be included that directs to that file, e.g. SCENTOOL {path}\SCENTOOL.INI.
The file SCENTOOL.INI needs to contain the following parameters:
NSCNCONF
RUNFNAME{i}
RUNNAME{i}
NLAY
TOP{i}
BOT{i}
KD{i}
MAXNWEL*
MAXNCUT*
MAXNOBS*
MAXNMON*
MAXNRES*
Number of Scenario Configurations. This will indicate the number of runfiles
that will be used to incorporate the well systems, e.g. NSCNCONF=2
For each of the NSCNCONF runfiles specify the full filename of the runfile,
e.g. RUNFNAME1=c:\scentool\scen_summer.run
For each of the NSCNCONF runfiles specify an alias for the runfile as described by RUNFNAME{i}, e.g. RUNNAME1=’Mean Summer Situation’. This
alias will be displayed in the Pumping Tool.
Specify the number of modellayers of the model configurations specified by
RUNFNAME{i}, e.g. NLAY=8.
Specify an IDF-file that represents the top elevation of the ith modellayer, e.g.
TOP1=c:\scentool\idf\top1.idf.
Specify an IDF-file that represents the bottom elevation of the ith modellayer,
e.g. BOT1=c:\scentool\idf\bot1.idf.
Specify an IDF-file that represents the transmissivity (kD) of the ith modellayer,
e.g. KD1=c:\scentool\idf\kd1.idf.
Specify the maximum number of Well Systems in one configuration, e.g.
MAXNWEL=20 (default value=10).
Specify the maximum number of Cut-Out Areas in one configuration, e.g.
MAXNCUT=20 (default value=10).
Specify the maximum number of Observation Wells in one configuration, e.g.
MAXNOBS=20 (default value=10).
Specify the maximum number of Monitoring Wells in one configuration, e.g.
MAXNMON=20 (default value=10).
Specify the maximum number of results in one configuration, e.g. MAXNRES=20 (default value=10).
* optional
Example of Pumping Tool SCENTOOL.INI file:
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7.9.2
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Toolbox Menu Options
Start Pumping Tool
HOW?
Select the Toolbox option from the main menu and then choose Pumping Tool to start the Pumping
Tool window.
The Pumping Tool window manages the scenario configuration which is saved in the iMOD Scenario
File (*.ISF).
The Pumping Tool window has five tabs:
Well Systems: to define the locations of the wells and the extraction rates
Cut-Out Areas: to define the location of the cut-out or excavation areas
Observation Wells: to define the locations of observation screens and the observed groundwater
heads
Monitoring Wells: to define the location of existing monitoring wells with groundwater head
timeseries
Results: to define the model simulation configuration and to start the model calculation
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Pumping Tool window, Well Systems (..) tab:
Scenario Project
This displays the iMOD Scenario File (*.ISF) under which the current configuration is saved.
New
Click this button to start a new/empty scenario configuration.
Open
Click this button to open an existing iMOD Scenario File (*.ISF).
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Save As
Click this button to save the current scenario configuration to a new iMOD
Scenario File (*.ISF).
Save
Click this button to save the current scenario configuration to the current iMOD
Scenario File (*.ISF).
Click one of the well systems in the list to activate the Delete and Properties buttons. The Plot Information setting will be applied to the selected well
system too.
Add
Click this button to add a new well system.
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Delete
Click this button to remove the selected well system from the scenario
configuration.
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Question window:
Properties
Click this button to adjust the parameters for the selected well system.
Select one of the following options to specify the method to display information
for the individual pumping locations for the selected well system (see below).
None only the specified symbol will be drawn. The symbol can be
changed in the Display tab of the Well Systems window, see section 7.9.3.
Identification: displays the identifications;
Screendepth: displays all screen depths;
All Information: displays all information available.
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Plot Information
Apply to All
Plot Label
Help ...
Close ...
Select this option to apply the display settings to all available well systems at
once.
Select this option to add the labels to the different parameters.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to stop the Pumping Tool. You will be asked to save your work
before the Pumping Tool need to be closed.
Example of the Plot Information: (1) None, (2) Identification, (3) ScreenDepth, (4) All Information
without and (5) with labels
(1)
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(3)
(4)
(5)
Note: All other iMOD functionalities remain active whenever the Pumping Tool is loaded. This means
that map operations can be carried out, legends can be changed, but the Profile Tool (see section 7.1)
and/or 3D Tool can not be used without leaving the Pumping Tool.
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Pumping Tool window, Observation Wells (..) tab:
The observation wells are used to define screens where the calculated groundwater head can be
compared with the observed groundwater head.
All functionalities of the Observation Wells tab behave similar to those described for the Wells Systems
tab and for the Wells Systems window.
Add/Adjust
Click these buttons to add/adjust a new/existing observation well, see section 7.9.4.
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Pumping Tool window, Results (..) tab:
Available
Results
Display
of
all
available
result
folders
in
the
scenario
project
folder,
e.g.
folder
C:\..\USER\SCENTOOL\WERKHOVEN\*
for
the
C:\..\USER\SCENTOOL\WERKHOVEN.ISF file. The list will be refreshed whenever
the tab is toggled with other tabs on the Pumping Tool window.
Add
Click this button to start a new simulation.
Delete
Click this button to delete the selected result in the Available Results list. You will be
asked to confirm this action, since all files for the selected result will be deleted from
disk.
Contour
Click this button to start the Quick Open window and specify the results that need to
be displayed.
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Graph
Click this button to display the selected result in combination with observation wells.
Therefore, this button is only available whenever Observation Wells are defined.
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Graph window:
See section 6.6 for more information about the usage of the available functions on this window. In this graph window a dropdown menu is added. The graph is
updated whenever another item (Observation Well) is selected from the dropdown
menu.
7.9.3
Well Systems
Select the Add or Properties button on the Well Systems tab on the Pumping Tool window, to display
the Well Systems window.
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Wells Systems window, Extraction Rates tab:
Well System
name
Date
Duration,
start from
(dd/mm/yyyy)
Table
Enter the name of the well system, maximum 24 characters.
Select this option to enter the extraction rates by their (start)date, the Start Date
column in the table will become enabled to enter values. The values within the
Duration column will be computed, automatically.
Select this option to enter the extraction rates by specifying an initial date, e.g.
20/5/2011. The column Duration becomes enabled to enter the duration for each
extraction rate, e.g. 7.0, 7.0, 14.0 and 7.0 days. The date within the Start Date
column will be computed automatically whenever the Calculate button is clicked or
when closing the window.
Each row in the table expresses an extraction rate for the entire well system. The
red coloured column can not be edited and is computed whenever the Calculate
button is clicked. Enter the extraction rates (strength) in the third column in m3 /hr
(during the actual modeling, those values will be translated on the background into
m3 /day). The last column (Julian) is not editable and is use by iMOD internally.
Open
Click this button to open a plain text file that contains date and extraction rates.
Example of a text file with extraction data
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Save As
Click this button to save a plain text file that contains date and extraction rates.
Calculate
Click this button to compute the Start Date or Duration column in the table.
Graph
Click this button to display a bar diagram of the extraction rates (see section 6.6 for
more information about the usage of the available functions on this window).
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Graph window:
Help . . .
Close . . .
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the Well Systems window. You will be asked to save any
adjustments or you can cancel closure.
Well Systems window, Position of Filters tab:
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Unit of
WellScreen
Rate Distribution
Select one the following options to determine the treatment of well screens:
Meter+MSL: enter the screen depths in meter+Mean-Sea-Level (MSL)
Meter+SLevel: enter the screen depths in meter+Surface Level (SLevel). The surface
level will be extracted from the {TOP1}.idf as defined in the initialization file (SCENTOOL.INI).
Select one of the following options to determine the distribution of extraction rates
among all individual well screens.
Mean Values: distribute the extraction rate evenly among all filter screens using the
thickness of each screen in penetrating aquifers, e.g. q1 =T1 /(T1 +T2 +T3 )*Q
Tran. Weighed values: distribute the extraction rate weighed by their thicknesses of
each screen penetrating aquifers and their corresponding transmissivity values, e.g.
q1 =T1 *Tran1 /(T1 *Tran1 +T2 *Tran2 +T3 *Tran3 )*Q
Table
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Extraction well (Q) and rate allocation to the different screens (q1 +q2 +q3 ):
Each row in the tables represents a well location and corresponding well screen
depths. It is allowed to edit the table directly (screen depths). It is recommended to
change lateral positions (the coordinates) by means of the Move option, however.
Open
Click this button to open a plain text file that contains date and extraction rates.
Example of a text file with well location and screen depth
Save As
Click this button to save a text file that contains date and extraction rates.
Add
Click this button to add a new extraction well by clicking your left mouse button at
the location of the well. Each time you click the left mouse button a new well will be
added. Click your right mouse button to stop.
Move
Click this button to move an existing well. Move your mouse cursor in the neighbourhood of a well and observe that the mouse cursor changes to
and the corresponding row in the table changes to red. Hold your left mouse button down and
move the well by moving the mouse cursor. Release the left mouse button to start
moving another well. Click your right mouse button to stop.
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Delete
Click this button to delete an existing well. Move your mouse cursor in the neighand the corbourhood of a well and observe that the mouse cursor changes to
responding row in the table changes to red. Click your left mouse button to delete the
well. Click another well to delete it, or click your right mouse button to stop.
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Well Systems window, Display tab:
Symbol
Colour
7.9.4
Select a symbol number (see section 5.8 for available symbols). The current
symbol is displayed on the right.
Displays the current symbol colour (dark green in this example).
Colour
Click this button to change the colour by means of the default Windows Colour
window.
Observation Wells
Select the Add or Properties button on the Observation Wells tab on the Pumping Tool window, to
display the Observation Wells window.
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Observation Well window, Observation tab:
All functionalities of the Observation tab behave similar to those described for the Extraction Rates tab
on the Wells Systemswindow, however, a few remarks are needed.
Graph
Click these buttons to display a graph for the observations. The graph will represent the
observations by plotting straight lines between the given dates, ignoring the last (final) date
without any given observation (26/8/2011).
Graph window:
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Observation Wells window, Position of Filters tab:
All functionalities of the Position of Filters tab behave similar to those described for the same tab on
the Wells Systems window, however, a few remarks are needed.
Table
Each row in the table represents a single observation and corresponding well screen
depth. Only one location is sustained for each observation. It is allowed to edit
the table directly (screen depths). It is recommended to change lateral positions by
means of the Move option, however. Observed heads will be used to compare with
model results and the modellayer that will correspond to each observation depends
on the screen depths. iMOD will assign a modellayer that is occupied by the largest
part of the entire screen.
Allocation of screens of observation wells to modellayers:
Observation window, Display tab:
This window behaves and is identical to the window described before for the Wells Systems tab.
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Results
on the Results tab on the Pumping Tool window, to display the Compute
T
Select the Add button
Result(s) window.
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7.9.5
Version Number
Select (multiple)
type of Simulation
Configurations
Local GridSize (m)
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Enter a version number. The version number will be added to the result folder that is formed by the name of the model configuration, e.g.
V1_{modelconfiguration}.
Select one or more model configurations from the list. The list is reflecting the
content of the parameter RUNNAME{i} in the initialization file for the Pumping
Tool. It is an alias for the runfile described by the keyword RUNFNAME{i].
Info
Click this button to edit the ith selected runfile (RUNFNAME{i}) that is associated to the alias (RUNNAME{i}) from the list.
CheckRun
Click this button to check the content of the ith selected runfile (RUNFNAME{i}) that is associated to the alias (RUNNAME{i}) from the list. More
information about this kind of runfile check.
Enter the gridsize inside the area of interest, e.g. 25.0 meter. The area of
interest will be computed automatically based upon the layout of the scenario,
i.e. the lateral position of the extraction wells, cut-out areas and observation
wells.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Enter the gridsize to be used inside the buffer defined by the Buffersize (m),
e.g. 100.0 meter.
Enter the size of the buffer in meters, e.g. 1500 meter.
Select one or more of the supplied result options.
Phreatic Heads – choose this option to compute Phreatic Heads (and
piezometric heads as well).
Drawdown
Flowlines Well Systems
Not yet implemented
Flowlines All Wells
Not yet implemented
Time
Display of the Start and End dates (not editable). These are determined automatically by the entered extraction rates. The simulation duration is primarily
determined by the sequence of extraction.
Choose out of the following:
Daily base – choose this option to simulate between the Start and End
date on a daily base. A summary is given below:
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Time
Discretisation
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Buffer GridSize
(m)
Buffersize (m)
Select (multiple)
type of Simulation
Results
Defined by wells – choose this option to simulate between the Start
and End with stressperiod lengths that depend on the entered moment
of extraction. A summary is given below:
Use Time of
Observation wells
Add Final Steadystate solution
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Select this option to include (extra) intermediate stressperiods to take the moment of observations into account. This ensures that any comparison between observations and computed heads are measured/computed at identical moments. Bear in mind that computational times are linearly related to the
number of stressperiods.
Select this option to add a final stress-period that simulates a steady-state of
the last entered model input (i.e. extraction rates). A summary is given below:
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Start . . .
Click this button to start the simulation(s). You will be asked to confirm
this. iMOD will add the appropriate information regarding extraction wells
to the selected runfile(s) and start iMODFLOW as defined by the keyword
MODFLOW in the active preference file. iMODFLOW will start in a separate
commandtool window.
Help . . .
Cancel
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Scenario Simulation Command window:
After a successful simulation, both the Scenario Simulation Command
window and the Compute Results window will be closed.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to cancel and close the Compute Results window.
Note: A simulation will block any usage of iMOD. Any simulation can be terminated by pressing the
(red in Windows Vista) closing window button on the upper-right corner of the Scenario Simulation
Command window.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Define Startpoints
WHY?
iMOD offers the possibility to trace particles throughout the model extent. For these simulations it is
necessary to define the starting locations (startpoints) for these particles (pathlines).
WHAT?
The starting location for particles is defined inside polygons, along lines and/or on the edge of circles
around specified points. All these are specified in normal 3D-coordinates (x,y,z) and will be translated
to the model at trace time. In this manner, a startpoint definition, can be easily (re) used to other model
resolutions and/or model extinctions.
Open/Create a Startpoint Definition window:
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HOW?
Select the Toolbox option from the main menu and then choose Define Startpoints to start the Open/Create
a Startpoint Definition window.
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7.10
Select a StartPoint
Definition, etc . . .
Open and
continue
Help . . .
Close
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Enter or select an existing *.ISD file from the list. Those *.ISD files are found in
the {user}\startpoints folder, see Srefsec:2.5.16 for more detailed information
on *.ISD files.
Click this button to open the selected *.ISD file and start the StartPoint Definition window.
Click this button to start the Help functionality
Click this button to close the Open
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Start Point Definition window, Shapes tab:
Startpoint
Definition
Displays the name of the current opened *.ISD file from the folder
{user}\startpoints.
Draw
Click this button to start the Select window in which you select the shape that
defines the lateral position of the startpoints (see next page).
Click these buttons to draw, open, save, delete or rename a shape. More
detailed information can be found in ??
Draw
Click this button to draw the spatial location of the startpoints of the selected
shapes.
Click this button to start the Help functionality.
Click this button to close the StartPoint Definition window. You will be asked
to save the adjustments to the opened *.ISD file.
Help ...
Close ...
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The Select window in which you select the shape that defines the lateral position of the
startpoints.
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Select window:
Point
Click this option to define startpoints for a single point
Rectangle
Click this option to define startpoints within a rectangle
(NOT YET IMPLEMENTED)
Polygon
Click this option to define startpoints within a polygon
Circle
Click this option to define startpoints on a circle
Line
Click this option to define startpoints on a line
Example of startpoint created by (left) polygons, (middle) circles
and (right) lines:
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StartPoint Definition window, Definition tab, (1) for polygons (2) on circles and (3) along lines:
Distance X,
Distance Y
Snap to model
coordinates
Radius
Sampling
Top-Level (enter
IDF/numeric value)
Bottom-Level (enter
IDF/numeric value)
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Enter the lateral distances in X and Y direction for those startpoints
inside the selected Polygon shape.
Click this item to snap the startpoints location to the nearest model
centroid (NOT YET IMPLEMENTED)
Enter the radius of the circle.
Enter the distance between the startpoint on the radius of the circle
(Circle shape) or on the line (Line shape).
Enter a IDF that represents the top and/or bottom elevation of the startpoints, e.g. D:\TOP_L8.IDF and D:\BOT_L8.IDF. For each lateral position of a startpoint, the values will be read from the entered IDF-files.
Moreover, you can enter a constant value (e.g., -1) to indicate that all
values are constant.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Check this item to enter an IDF-file as reference level. The values from
this IDF will be used to add or subtract the values from the Top-level
and Bottom-level. In the example in Figure 5-9d-i, the final values for
the Top elevation will be those values in the D:\SURFACE.IDF minus 1
(the entered numeric value).
Open IDF
Select this button to select an IDF-file from the file selector.
Vertical Interval (number)
Enter the number of vertical intervals between the values from the top
and bottom elevation. By entering the number:
1: iMOD will position one startpoint in-between the values for the top
and bottom elevation;
2: will yield a startpoint equal to the top and a startpoint equal to the
bottom elevation;
>2: yields startpoints equally distributed between the top and bottom
elevation.
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Reference Top and Bottom by (IDF)
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Note: iMOD will not check, at this time, for the non-existence of any entered IDF-file. These files will
be checked at runtime for the particle tracking.
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Start Pathline Simulation
WHY?
Particle tracking analyses are particularly useful for delineating capture zones or areas of influence for
wells.
WHAT?
iMOD is equipped with iMODPATH that is a modified version of MODPATH version 3 (Pollock, 1994).
iMODPATH is a particle tracking code that is used in conjunction with iMODFLOW. After running a
iMODFLOW simulation, the user can designate the location of a set of particles. The particles are
then tracked through time assuming they are transported by advection using the flow field computed
by iMODFLOW. Particles can be tracked either forward in time or backward in time.
T
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Start Pathline Simulation to
open the Pathlines Simulation window.
Pathlines Simulation window, Model tab (i) for a steady-state model (ii) for a transient model:
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User Folder:
Existing results
under Models
Browse for a different folder
Folder:
Availability
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Select this radio button to select one of the following options:
Models:
Click this radio button to list all existing models in the folder {user}\models
Scenarios:
Click this radio button to list all existing models in the folder {user}\scenarios
Select one of the folders that appear in this listbox.
Select this radio button to specify a result folder from a different location, other
that the {user}\models and/or {user}\scenarios folder.
Open File
Click this button to search for a folder on disk
Enter the name of the folder, otherwise the name of the folder will be displayed
after accepting the folder from the Open File button. The Availability status will
update each time an alteration is noticed in the folder name.
iMOD will check those results that are available and includes the number of
modellayers.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Alias
Budget Flow Lower Face [z] (.)
Budget Flow Right Face [x] (.)
Budget Flow Front Face [y] (.)
Subfolder
BDGFLF\bdgflf*_l.idf
BDGFRF\bdgfrf*_l.idf
BDGFFF\bdgfff*_l.idf
Displays the status of the selected model. Whenever data is missing the other
tabs are greyed out.
Help. . .
Close
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Pathlines Simulation window.
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Pathlines Simulation window, Input tab:
Open
Click this button to open an *.IPS (iMOD Pathlines Settings) file.
SaveAs
Click this button to save the current input settings to an *.IPS file.
Properties
Click this button to open the Input Properties window (see Srefsec:5.11.1).
Boundary Settings
Top- and bottom
Porosity
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Click the dropdown menu to view the current files and/or values to be used
as boundary settings. Any value greater than zero determines the active flow
extent in which particle tracking is allowed. As a default the boundary of the
flow simulation can be used (see section 7.7), however, it is not obligatory to
use that particular file.
Click the dropdown menu to view the current files and/or values to be used as
top- and bottom elevations of the modellayers.
Click the dropdown menu to view the current files and/or values to be used as
porosity.
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Startpoint
Definition File
Help. . .
Close
Select one of the existing *.ISD files from the dropdown menu to use as startingpoints for the particle simulation. Those *.ISD can be created by the Startpoint Tool (page 297) and are located in the {user}\startpoints folder.
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Pathlines Simulation window.
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Pathlines Simulation window, Time tab:
Transient
Simulation
From, to
Stop criteria
Stop tracing after
Help. . .
Close
This checkbox is selected automatically for transient solutions and deselected
for steady-state solutions.
Specify the start- and end period whenever a transient solution is used. The
input fields are filled in automatically and defined by the content of the selected
result folder on the Model tab.
Select one out of three options to specify how particles are to be treated whenever they are not captured before the end of the existing solution files (only for
transient simulations).
Stop Particle after end date:
Stop the particle simulation whenever the elapsed time of the particle exceeds
the given To date.
Repeat period until particle stops:
Repeat the period selection (From-To) until the elapsed time of the particle
exceeds the increased To date.
Continue with last period until particle stops:
Use the last solution within the From-To period, to simulate all particles until
they are captured.
Enter the number of years for which particles need to be traced.
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Pathlines Simulation window.
Pathlines Simulation window, Weak Sinks tab:
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Toolbox Menu Options
Particles pass . . .
Particles are
stopped . . .
Particles are
stopped when
they enter . . .
Help. . .
Close
Select this option to let particles pass any cell with a weak sink, no matter how
“weak” they are. Be aware of the consequences of this option, since particles
tend to trace over long distances until they are captured by a strong sink. This
option could be wise to use whenever Forward Tracing option is selected on
the Result tab.
Select this option to stop particles at any cell with a weak sink, no matter how
“weak” they are. Use this option whenever Backward Tracing is selected on
the Result tab.
Select this option to let particles stop whenever they enter a cell where the
discharge is larger than a fraction of the total inflow. A fraction value of 0.0,
act similar to the first option, a fraction of 1.0, act similar to the second option.
Click this button to start the HELP functionality.
Click this button to close the Pathlines Simulation window.
The final representation of flowpaths and/or endpoints of particles is influenced significantly by the
treatment of weak sinks. A strong sink is defined as a modelcell in which all flowterms are directed into
the modelcell. Weak sinks are those that have at least one flow component that directs outside the
modelcell.
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Example of Strong sink (left) and a Weak sink (right):
There is no way that the particle tracking algorithm itself can decide correctly whether a particle should
stop or not. Moreover, it is an essential scale issue, since strong or weak sinks do not exist in reality.
As the scale size (rastersize) increases, the occurrences of weak sinks in the model, will increase.
This is simply caused by the phenomenon that a single coarse modelcell should represent more than
one internal boundary condition and represents a larger area than the area taken by the boundary
condition. So, the flowterms of these coarse cells represent an average flowfield that represent on
average particles that should stop and particles that should continue. Unfortunately, that particular
particles can not be simulated with the coarse model, so one should decide whether the particles
should stop, continue of stop/continue depending on the ratio between the total inflow and the outflow
component. These three options can be chosen in iMOD
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Pathlines Simulation window, Result tab:
Trace Direction
Result Save as:
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Select one of the following options:
Forward:
This option will compute pathlines in the direction of flow
Backward:
This option will compute pathlines against the direction of flow
Select on the following options:
Save Entire Flowpath (*.iff):
Select this option to save the entire flowpath in an *.IFF file (see section ?.?
for more details). The IFF has the following attributes:
PARTICLE_NUMBER – number of the released particle;
ILAY – modellayer of the current particle position;
XCRD. – X coordinate of the current particle position;
YCRD. – Y coordinate of the current particle position;
ZCRD. – Z coordinate of the current particle position;
TIME(YEARS) – elapsed time on the current particle since moment of release;
VELOCITY(M/DAY) – current velocity of the particle.
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Example of flowpaths (IFF) plotted by the 3D Tool.
Save End- and Startpoints (*ipf):
Select this option to save the entire flowpath in an *.IPF file (page 37). The
IPF has the following attributes:
SP_XCRD – X coordinate of starting location of particle;
SP_YCRD – Y coordinate of starting location of particle;
SP_ZCRD – Z coordinate of starting location of particle;
START_ILAY – modellayer of starting location of particle;
EP_XCRD – X coordinate of end location of particle;
EP_YCRD – Y coordinate of end location of particle;
EP_ZCRD – Z coordinate of end location of particle;
END_ILAY – modellayer of end location of particle;
IDENT.NO. – number of particle;
TIME(YEARS) – elapsed time of particle at end location;
DISTANCE – traveled distance of particle from begin to end location;
CAPTURED_BY – code identification of capture:
-1 – error occurred
0 – initial value
1 – inactive cell
2 – velocity is zero
3 – strong sink (no outflow)
4 – weak sink (regardless of flow)
5 – weak sink outflow greater than fraction
6 – modelboundary reached
7 – elapsed time greater that maximum time allowed.
MINLAYER – maximum (deepest) modellayer that particle passed.
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Example of startpoints plotted by their age (top) and their captured_by code (bottom):
Start . . .
7.11.1
Click this button to start the pathline simulation. iMOD will start directly, or
asks for confirmation in the situation that the output file exists already.
Input Properties
A pathline simulation needs particular files that can be easily defined (and stored in an *.IPS file) with
the Input Properties function. Select the Input Properties button on the Input tab of the Pathlines
Simulation window to start the Input Properties window.
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Input Properties:
Collect files from
Folder:
Enter the folder name to be used to construct filenames, e.g. d:\imodmodel\boundary
Open
Click this button to select a folder from the file selector.
Using the
keyword:
Fill List Below:
Enter the keyword that need to be added to the foldername, e.g. boundary_l
List of files . . .
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Click this button to construct filenames for all modellayers. The above mentioned example yield the filenames d:\imod-model\boundary\boundary_l1.idf
upto modellayer 8.
Display the filenames and/or constant values to be used in the pathline simulation.
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Toolbox Menu Options
Compute Waterbalance
WHY?
The Waterbalance Tool can be used to calculate the sum of budget quantities for different components
for specified regions within the model extent and/or the entire model extent.
T
WHAT?
The Waterbalance Tool uses specific results from iMODFLOW that start with bdg*.idf which are stored
in folders with identical names, such as bdgflf\bdgflf*.idf. All these files store the flow quantity in m3 /day
(cubic-a-day). As a rule of thumb the flow quantity is negative whenever it leaves the cell and positive
whenever it enters the cell. Flow that leaves the cell from the Right Face (BDGFRF), the Front Face
(BDGFFF) and/or the Lower Face (BDGFLF) is negative. However, for flowterms that enter the cell
from the Left Face, Back Face and/or Top Face, the appropriate flowterms from the adjacent cells need
to be multiplied with minus 1, to be consequent. For Internal Boundary Conditions (e.g. rivers, drainage
systems, recharge, wells) a similar approach is valid: water that enters the cell is positive, withdrawal
of water is negative.
Note: The waterbalance assumes that the dimensions for data that is included are in m3 /day. Bear
in mind that fluxes that are produced by MetaSWAP are in mm and represent cumulative values as
specified in the TIME_SIM.INP.
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Example of budget terms inside and outside a computational cell for (left) cell-by-cell flowterms and
(right) internal boundary conditions:
The Waterbalance Tool will just add all flow terms within (defined) areas and list them within a summary
text file to be opened with e.g. NotePad, TextPad and/or MED.
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose Compute Waterbalance to open the
Waterbalance window.
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Compute Waterbalance window, Result Folder tab; left for results from the Models folders and right
from a different folder:
User Folder:
Existing results
under Models
Browse for a
different folder
Folder:
Select one/more
of the following
subfolders
Select this radio button to select one of the following options:
Models:
Click this option to list all models in the folder {user}\models
Scenarios:
Click this option to list all models in the folder {user}\scenarios
Select one of the folders that appear in this listbox.
Select this radio button to specify a result folder from a different location, other
than the {user}\models and/or {user}\scenarios folder.
Open File
Click this button to search for a folder on disk.
Enter the name of the folder; otherwise the name of the folder will be displayed
after accepting the folder from the Open File button.
iMOD will list all folders under the current selected folder (User Folder or Browse
for a different folder ). If none are selected the other tabs in this window are
unavailable and/or incorrect folders are selected. The name convention is that
the folder should start with BDG:
Subfolder
BDGBND\bdgbnd*
BDGFLF\bdgflf*
BDGFRF\bdgfrf*
BDGFFF\bdgfff*
BDGSTO\bdgsto*
BDGWEL\bdgwel*
BDGDRN\bdgdrn*
BDGRIV\bdgriv*
BDGEVT\bdgevt*
BDGGHB\bdgghb*
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Alias
CONSTANT HEAD
FLUX LOWER FACE
FLUX RIGHT FACE
FLUX FRONT FACE
STORAGE
WELLS
DRAINAGE
RIVERS
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
GENERAL HEAD BOUNDARY
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Toolbox Menu Options
Apply. . .
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Help. . .
Close
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Found 28 correct
files
BDGOLF\bdgolf*
OVERLAND FLOW
BDGRCH\bdgrch*
RECHARGE
BDGISG\bdgisg*
SEGMENT RIVERS
BDGIBS\bdgibs*
INTERBED STORAGE
BDGCAP\bdgcap*
CAPSIM
BDGDS\bdgds*
DECREASE WATER ST. ROOTZONE
BDGPM\bdgpm*
MEASURED PRECIPITATION
BDGPS\bdgps*
SPRINKLING PRECIPITATION
BDGEVA\bdgeva*
NET EVAPORATION WATER
BDGQRU\bdgqru*
RUNOFF
Displays the number of files (28) that are correct (i.e. they fulfill the naming convention as described above and contain model layer information (_L*) and a date
string (YYYYMMDD) or STEADY-STATE keyword, e.g. bdgflf_steady-state_l1.idf
or bdgflf_20111231_l8.idf.
Click this button to start the waterbalance computation. All default settings from
the other tabs (Period and layers and Apply to) will be used. Check these before
clicking this button!
Click this button to start the HELP functionality
Click this button to close the Compute Waterbalance window
Compute Waterbalance window, Period and Layers tab (left) for a steady-state configuration and (right)
for a transient configuration:
Steady-State
Transient
From Date:
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Click this radio button to use files only that contain the keyword steady-state,
e.g. bdgflf_steady-state_l1.idf. This option is only available whenever these
files can be found in the result folder selected on the Result Folder tab.
Click this radio button to use files only that contain date information (YYYYMMDD), e.g. bdgflf_20111231_l1.idf. This option is only available whenever
these files can be found in the result folder selected on the Result Folder tab.
Specify the start date (day, month and year) from which the waterbalance
needs to be computed. It has been on default filled in with the earliest result
file that could be found in the result folder selected in the Result Folder tab.
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Define Period
here:
Select one or
more of the layers
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Year selection
Specify the end date (day, month and year) to which the waterbalance need
to be computed. It has been on default filled in with the earliest result file that
could be found in the result folder selected in the Result Folder tab.
Enter the periods for which the waterbalance need to be computed solely.
Each period consist out of two dates delimited by a slash, e.g. dd-mm/dd-mm.
In-between periods, use the “;” as a delimited. The convention is as follows:
01-01/31-4:
Periods starts on the first of January and ends after the 31th of April
01-8/31-12:
Periods starts on the first of August and ends after the 31th of December
Select one or more of the listed modellayers. This content of the listbox is
based upon the bdg*-files that are found in the selected result folder on the
Result folder tab. Use the Ctrl-left mouse button to exclude or add individual
layers, otherwise drag the mouse cursor to select layers.
Select one or more of the listed years. The content of the listbox is based
upon the bdg*-files that are found in the selected result folder on the Result
folder tab.
T
To Date:
Compute Waterbalance window, Apply To tab for (left) applied to selected shapes only or (right) for all
non-NoDataValues within a selected IDF-file:
Apply to entire
model domain
Apply within
shapes (*.gen)
Select this option to compute all budget terms for the entire model extent. In
fact this will be that area and dimension as described by the first bdg*.idf to
be read.
Select this option specify regions of interests by polygons.
Click these buttons to draw, open, save, delete or rename a shape. More
detailed information can be found in section 4.2 ( Create a GEN-file).
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Apply for nonNODATA values
within IDF
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Apply...
Select this option to use an IDF-file that describes the area of interest by its
non-NoDataValues. For those locations of the first bdg*.idf read, the value
within this IDF-file will be read and evaluated.
Open IDF-file
Click this button to open an IDF-file. The selected file will be displayed, however, an IDF-file can be entered in the string field alternatively. If the IDF-file
does not exists, the Apply button will grey out.
Click this button to start the waterbalance computation. You should enter a
name for the resulting textfile and by entering {name}.txtor {name}.csv you
specify the type of output you desire. There are two extensions (layouts) to
choose from:
TXT :
Use the extent *.txt to define a “table” layout of the waterbalance in which all
components are listed together.
CSV :
Use the extension *.csv to define a “timeserie” layout of the waterbalance in
which all component are listed as timeseries. The file can be read directly into
a commercial spreadsheet program e.g. Excel.
Note: After a computation for a waterbalance, iMOD will save an IDF-file ({USER}\TMP
\WATERBALANCE_POINTER.IDF) with the location of the rastercells for each zone. Inspection of this
file that is added to the iMOD Manager automatically, can lead to adjustment of the polygons used,
and/or reuse for different model scenarios.
Example of “table” layout of the waterbalance:
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Example of a “timeserie” layout of the waterbalance:
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Compute Mean Groundwaterfluctuations (GxG)
WHY?
Groundwaterfluctuations are indicative for the seasonal dry or wet status of an area. The so-called
GXG’s are indicative of the high and low phreatic groundwater levels occurring in a period of at least 8
years. The GXG’s are used frequently in the Netherlands when defining the geohydrological conditions
of an area.
WHAT?
The GXG’s consist of:
T
1 GHG (�gemiddeld hoogste grondwaterstand’ / average highest groundwater level) is calculated
as the average of the three highest groundwater levels (measured or simulated around every
two weeks) per hydrological year (1 April – 31 March) averaged over at least eight consecutive
years.
2 GLG (�gemiddeld laagste grondwaterstand’ / average lowest groundwater level) is calculated
as the average of the three lowest groundwater levels (measured or simulated around every
two weeks) per hydrological year (1 April – 31 March) averaged over at least eight consecutive
years.
3 GVG (�gemiddelde voorjaars grondwaterstand’ / average spring groundwater level) is calculated
as the average groundwater level of the 14th of March, the 28th of March and the 14th of April
and again averaged over at least eight consecutive years.
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In general GXG’s are expressed as groundwater depths below the land surface.
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose Compute GxG to open the Compute
GxG’s window.
This function is not described separately. The functionalities of the Compute GXG’s window are very
similar to the Compute Waterbalance window (see section 7.12). The GXG’s are calculated based on
the output of a transient groundwater model.
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Compute GxG’s window, Result Folder tab:
The computation of the GxG’s will be executed using model results from the 14th and 28th of each
month. The system will generate an error when there are no files found for these dates. The filenames
will have to be head_yyyymm14.IDF or head_yyyymm28.IDF.
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Compute Mean Values
WHY?
The Mean Values of budgets or heads are calculated based on the output of a transient groundwater
model.
WHAT?
A new IDF is created containing the mean values.
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose Compute Mean Values to open the
Compute Mean Values window.
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This function is not described separately. The functionalities of the Compute Mean Values window are
very similar to the Compute Waterbalance window (see section 7.12).
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Compute Timeseries
WHY?
The time-dependent results of a transient model are converted to timeseries for specified locations,
e.g. at boreholes. The variation in time of the head (and of the budget-terms if desired) can be viewed
in a graph and is available for processing outside iMOD.
WHAT?
The Compute Timeseries option checks the available model output of the selected model and reads
the IDF-files at locations read from an IPF-file or defined interactively on the map. The result is stored
in an IPF-file which can be viewed in iMOD.
T
The functionalities of the Compute Timeseries window are very similar to the Compute Waterbalance
window (see section 7.12). Only the specific functions in the Input tab of theCompute Timeseries
window are described here.
HOW?
Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose Compute Timeseries to open the
Compute Timeseries window.
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Compute Timeseries window, Input tab:
Apply
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Open
Click this button to open an IPF-file, see section 9.5 for more details. The IPF-file
contains the locations where the time-series are generated.
Draw
Click this button to start drawing the point locations on the map by clicking the left
mouse button. Stop using the right mouse button and save the points in an IPF-file..
Click this button to start the computation of the time series. You should enter a name
for the resulting IPF-file.
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Compute Time-variant Statistics
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Not described because this function will be revised soon.
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8 iMOD-Batch
This chapter contains a detailed description of a variety of tools that are available in iMOD-Batch mode.
Each of the tools are described by parameters that are set within an *.INI file. To start an iMOD Batch
procedure, simply enter, e.g. iMOD.EXE PLOT.INI, where PLOT.INI represents an initialization file to
make a plot. The program will stop after the function, described by the *.INI file, is executed.
An iMOD batch function can also be started from the maim menu. See section 4.6 for an explanation.
ECHO IDFFILE=D:\DATA\AHN.IDF > PLOT.INI
ECHO GENFILE=D:\DATA\PROV.GEN >> PLOT.INI
ECHO OUTFILE=D:\DATA\PLOT.PNG >> PLOT.INI
IMOD.EXE PLOT.INI
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Each of these functions can be organized in a batch file (*.BAT), for example:
Use a simple batch language to perform loops inside the batch, thus:
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FOR %%A IN (1994,1995,1996) DO (
FOR %%B IN (01,02,03,04) DO (
ECHO IDFFILE=D:\MODEL\HEAD\HEAD_%%A%%B_L1.IDF > PLOT.INI
ECHO OUTFILE=D:\MODEL\HEAD\HEAD_%%A%%B_L1.PNG >> PLOT.INI
IMOD.EXE PLOT.INI
))
For more advanced looping definitions the following can be used.
FOR /L %%A IN (1,2,18) DO (
ECHO %%A
)
This gives you the variable %%A between 1 upto 18 with steps of 2.
Using specific files from a folder, you can use:
SETDIR=D:\IMOD-MODEL\DBASE
FOR %%A IN (%DIR%\*.IDF) DO (
ECHO %DIR%\%%ЛњnA.IDF
ECHO %%A
)
That gives you the variable %%A for all IDF-files found in the folder D:\IMOD-MODEL\DBASE. Usage
of Лњn gives you only the filenames without extension.
Adding a looping parameter %%b might be interesting whenever computing the thickness of aquitards
since each time you need to subtract the bottom of modellayer 1 minus the top of modellayer 2.
SETLOCAL ENABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION
SET /A B=1
FOR /L %%A IN (1,1,18) DO (
SET /A B=B+1
ECHO FUNCTION=IDFCALC > IDFCALC.INI
ECHO FUNC=C=A-B >> IDFCALC.INI
ECHO NREPEAT=1 >> IDFCALC.INI
ECHO ABC1=BOT%%A.IDF TOP!B!.IDF TAQT%%A.IDF >> IDFCALC.INI
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IMOD.EXE IDFCALC.INI
@ENDLOCAL
Notice that the variable B is used by bracketing it by “!” and the variable A is used by adding “%%” in
front. The statement SETLOCAL ENABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION is necessary to delay the interpretation of the variable B.
It is often handy to include and if-then-else statement inside the batch structure, for example whenever
you might want the generate a runfile for iMODPATH (see section 8.17).
T
FOR /L %%A IN (1,1,5) DO (
FOR %%B IN (FFF,FRF,FLF) DO (
IF %%B==FLF AND %%A==5 (
) ELSE (
ECHO %DIR%\BDG%%B\BDG%%B_STEADY-STATE_L%%A.IDF >> IMODPATH.INI
)
))
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In the above example we only write a budget term whenever it is not equal to the BDGFLF (flow-lowerface) and the layer number is not equal to the lowest one (5). Use the following compare operators:
EQU - equal
NEQ - not equal
LSS - less than
LEQ - less than or equal
GTR - greater than
GEQ - greater than or equal
The following syntaxt is than valid:
IF %%A LSS 100 (
) ELSE IF %%A GTR 100 (
) ELSE (
)
Finally the iMOD executable can be started in different ways with different behavior. Any *.INI can be
started with:
FOR %%A IN (1,2) DO (
iMOD.EXE {}.INI
)
however this will block the batch (*.BAT) structure that starts it. Below an example is given that starts
iMOD and continues the batch and starts another iMOD session in another command-window.
FOR %%A IN (1,2) DO (
START IMOD.EXE {}.INI
)
In the following sections the different functions will be described. The minimal required keywords are
indicated in the blue part of the function description.
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PLOT-Function
The Plot function can be used to construct figures that are normally displayed on the graphical display
of iMOD.
FUNCTION=
OUTFILE=
T
IDFFILE=
PLOT
Enter the name of the output filename. The format of the image depends on the
extension of the filename:
*.BMP : Windows Bitmap;
*.PCX : ZSoft PC Paintbrush;
*.PNG : Portable Network Graphic image.
Enter the name of an *.IDF-file that needs to be plotted, for example IDFFILE=D:\AHN.IDF.
IDFLEGFILE=
Enter the name of a *.LEG file that needs to be used for
colouring the *.IDF-file. If no IDFLEGFILE is given, iMOD
will apply a default iMOD Legend based upon a linear distribution of IDF values.
IDFLEGTXT
Enter the text to be added to the legend, e.g. IDFLEGTXT=”Transmissivity (m2/day)”. By default no legend
text will be displayed.
IDFSTYLE={. . . }
Specify whether the IDF need to be displayed as gridvalues, contourlines, vectors or all three combined. For example IDFSTYLE=111 will plot the IDF-file by all styles, default IDFSTYLE=100. Use the following syntax to specify the
style to be used:
{1..}=1
IDF will be displayed as filled rectangles
{.2.}=1
IDF will be contoured
{..3}=1
IDF will be displayed as vectors
Enter the name of an IPF file to be plotted, for example IPFFILE=D:\DATA.IPF.
iMOD will use the first and second column in the IPF for the x- and y coordinate
and displays the point in red circles. Use the other keywords to change these
settings.
IPFXCOL=
Specify the column to be used for the x-coordinate, by default IPFXCOL=1
IPFYCOL=
Specify the column to be used for the y-coordinate, by default IPFYCOL=1
IPFHCOL=
Specify the column to be used for highlighting the location,
by default IPFHCOL=0 (i.e. no highlighting).
NLABELS=
Specify the total number of labels to be plotted, e.g. NLABELS=3.
ILABELS=
Specify the number of individual labels to
be plotted, e.g. ILABELS=3,5,7.
IPFSTYLE=
Specify the style to be used to plot the points. Use the following options:
0 Use this style to display the points as solid circles
1 Use this style to colour the points by the labels in the column IPFILCOL in combination with the specified legend in
LEGFILE.
IPFILCOL=
Specify the column for the colouring of
points, by default IPFLCOL=3
IPFLEGFILE= Enter
the
appropriate
legend
file to be used,
e.g. IPFLEGFILE=D:\RESIDUAL.LEG
IPFLEGTEXT= Enter the text to be added to the legend,
e.g. IPFLEGTXT=”Residual (m)”. By default no legend text will be displayed.
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IPFFILE=
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NGEN=
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LEGSIZE=
Enter the name of an IFF file to be plotted, for example IFFFILE=D:\MODEL\FLOW.IFF. iMOD will plot the lines in coloured by the attribute
CUMTT by default.
IFFLEGFILE=
Enter the appropriate legend file to be used, e.g. IFFLEGFILE=D:\CUMTT.LEG
IFFLEGTEXT=
Enter the text to be added to the legend, e.g. IDFLEGTXT=”Cumulative Time (years)”. By default no legend
text will be displayed.
Enter the number of genfiles to be included, e.g. NGEN=3.
GENFILE{i}=
Enter the name of a *.GEN-file that needs to be plotted on
the background. On default the line, points and/or polygons
in the GENFILE, will be drawn as black features, e.g. GENFILE1=D:\GENS\TOPOGRAPHY.GEN.
GENCOLOUR{i}= Enter a colour number to be used colouring the ith genfile specified by GENFILE{i}. By default a black line will
be plotted. Specify a colour by red, green and blue
component, e.g. GENCOLOUR1=255,0,0 to express full
red. Use GENCOLOUR1=0,0,0 to specify black and GENCOLOUR1=255,255,255 to set white.
Enter the size for the legend text, enter the size in fraction of the plotting box, e.g.
LEGSIZE=0.05.
Enter the coordinates of the window that needs to be displayed. Enter coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates of the upper-right corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0, 425000.0. When WINDOW=
is absent, the figure will be displayed at the maximum extent of the selected IDFFILE.
Enter a name for the main title of the figure, e.g. TITLE=”Drawdown Well”.
Enter a string for a subtitle, e.g. SUBTITLE=”Financed by European Union”.
Enter a figure identification, e.g. FIGTXT=1a.
Enter a description of the project, e.g. PRJTXT=”Niers Model”.
Enter the percentage (0-100%) of the legend occupation in the legend area, e.g.
YFRACLEGEND=50.0 means that the legend will be placed in 50% of the total
legend area. On default YFRACLEGEND=100.0, so the entire legend area will
be used.
Enter the resolution of the bitmap, i.e. the number of pixels. On default RESOLUTION=1600. Higher resolutions will yield a more accurate image.
T
IFFFILE=
WINDOW=
TITLE=
SUBTITLE=
FIGTXT=
PRJTXT=
YFRACLEGEND=
RESOLUTION=
Note: Whenever TITLE=, SUBTITLE=, FIGTXT= and PRJTXT= are all included in the *.INI, the layout
of the figure changes.
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Example 1
FUNCTION=PLOT
IDFFILE=D:\TUTORIAL\iMODBATCH\AHN.IDF
IDFSTYLE=100
NGEN=1
GENFILE1=D:\TUTORIAL\iMODBATCH\PROVINCES.GEN
OUTFILE=D:\TUTORIAL\iMODBATCH\AHN.PNG
As a result of the above described content the following figure will be created.
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Simple example of a resulting bitmap:
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Example 2
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FUNCTION=PLOT
IDFFILE=D:\TUTORIAL\iMODBATCH\AHN.IDF
IDFSTYLE=100
IDFLEGFILE=TUTORIAL\AHN.LEG
GENFILE1=D:\TUTORIAL\iMODBATCH\PROVINCES.GEN
OUTFILE=D:\TUTORIAL\iMODBATCH\AHN.PNG
RESOLUTION=3200
WINDOW=100000.0,400000.0,200000.0,425000.0
TITLE=”Surface Level”
SUBTITLE=”Dutch Altimeter Level obtained by Laser-Altimetry 2002/2011”
FIGTXT=”1A DELTARES2011-Conf. ”
PRJTXT=”Netherlands Hydrological Instrument, Deltares”
As a result of the above described content the following figure will be created.
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Advanced example of a resulting bitmap:
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FUNCTION=PLOT
IDFFILE=D:\IMOD-TEST\PLOT\BATHEMETRY.IDF
IDFLEGFILE=D:\iMOD-TEST\PLOT\LEGEND.LEG
IDFSTYLE=010
IPFFILE=D:\iMOD-TEST\PLOT\BATHYMETRY.IPF
IPFXCOL=2
IPFYCOL=1
IPFLCOL=3
IPFSTYLE=1
IPFLEGFILE=D:\iMOD-TEST\PLOT\LEGEND.LEG
NLABELS=1
ILABELS=3
NGEN=2
GENFILE1=D:\PROVINCES.GEN
GENFILE2=D:\FAULTS.GEN
OUTFILE=D:\IMOD-TEST\PLOT\BATHEMETRY.PNG
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Example 3
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IDFCALC-Function
The IDFCALC function can be used to carry out simple arithmetical operations on maximal two different
IDF-files to create a new IDF-file. See for more information section 6.10.3.
ABC{i}=
AC{i}=
BC{i}=
NREPEAT=
SOURCEDIRA=
SOURCEDIRB=
SOURCEDIRC=
USENODATA=
NODATAVALUE
GENFILE=
IEQUI=
IDFCALC
Enter the function, e.g. C=A-B or C=ABS(A-3.0*B), or C=A, see section 6.10.3
for more information.
Enter the ith out of NREPEAT IDF-filenames that corresponds with “A”, “B”
and “C” in the function FUNC.
Enter the ith out of NREPEAT IDF-filename that corresponds with “A” and “C”
in the function FUNC.
Enter the ith out of NREPEAT IDF-filename that corresponds with “B” and “C”
in the function FUNC.
Specify the number of times the function FUNC need to be carried out.
Enter a folder that contains all the IDF-files associated to the “A” in FUNC.
Apply this keyword whenever NREPEAT is absent.
Enter a folder that contains all the IDF-files associated to the “B” in FUNC.
Apply this keyword whenever NREPEAT is absent.
Enter a folder that contains all the IDF-files associated to the “C” in FUNC.
Apply this keyword whenever NREPEAT is absent.
Enter USENODATA=1 to use cells that have NoDataValues. By default,
USENODATA=0, so those cells that have NoDataValue will be ignored.
Enter the value for the NoDataValue to be used in the computation, e.g. NODATAVALUE=0.0. This keyword is compulsory whenever USENODATA=1.
Enter the name of a GEN-file, e.g. GENFILE=D:\DATA\AREA.GEN. Any computation will be carried out inside the polygons of the GENFILE. On default,
GENFILE=’ ’, which means that no genfile will be used.
Enter IEQUI=0 to construct (if needed) a non-equidistant IDF-file that counts
for all raster dimensions of the entered IDF-files, this is the default. Enter
IEQUI=1 to force that the resulting IDF-files are produced with equidistant
cellspaces, based upon the smallest cell size occurring in the IDF-files “A”
and/or “B”.
Enter the coordinates of the window that need to be computed, solely. Enter
coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates of the upperright corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0, 425000.0. When
WINDOW= is absent, the entire dimensions of the first mentioned IDF-file will
be used.
T
FUNCTION=
FUNC=
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8.2
WINDOW=
Example 1
FUNCTION=IDFCALC
FUNC= C=A/B
NREPEAT=2
ABC1=D:\KD_L1.IDF D:\THICKNESS_L1.IDF D:\K_L1.IDF
ABC2=D:\KD_L4.IDF D:\THICKNESS_L4.IDF D:\K_L4.IDF
The above mentioned example will compute the permeability (k) by dividing the transmissivity (KD) by
the thickness (THICKNESS) for modellayer 1 and modellayer 4, subsequently.
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Example 2
FUNCTION=IDFCALC
FUNC= C=A-B
USENODATA=1
NODATAVALUE=0.0
IEQUI=1
GENFILE=D:\AREA.GEN
WINDOW=100000.0,350000.0,150000.0,450000.0
SOURCEDIRA=D:\MODEL\HEAD_*_L1.IDF
SOURCEDIRB=D:\SCENARIO\HEAD_*_L1.IDF
SOURCEDIRC=D:\EFFECT\DIFF_*_L1.IDF
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The above mentioned example will compute the differences within the polygon(s) described by the
AREA.GEN and within the given WINDOW. If any NoDataValues are found in the IDF-files, they will be
treated as if they were NODATAVALUE=0.0. Any file that agrees with the filename HEAD_*_L1.IDF in
two different folders, D:\MODEL and D:\SCENARIO will be subtracted and the results will be saved, as
an equidistant IDF, in the folder D:\EFFECT. Suppose HEAD_20101231_L1.IDF is found in D:\MODEL
(SOURCEDIRA), an identical filename is searched for in D:\SCENARIO (SOURCEDIRB). The yielding
IDF will be DIFF_20101231_L1.IDF and will be written in D:\EFFECT.
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IDFSCALE-Function
With this function it is possible to (re)scale IDF-files according to different methodologies, see section 6.10.3.
IDFSCALE
Enter the cell size of the upscaled or downscaled IDF-file(s), e.g. SCALESIZE=100.0 meaning that the cellsize of the resulting IDF-file(s) will be
100 square meter uniformly.
The keyword SCLTYPE_UP and SCLTYPE_DOWN may be specified both because it is possible to execute upscaling and downscaling in one action on IDF’s containing different scales. In
case SCLTYPE _UP and/or SCLTYPE_DOWN are not specified than default values are used, for
SCLTYPE _UP: 2 and for SCLTYPE_DOWN: 1.
SCLTYPE_UP
Enter the scale type. Choose from the following:
1: boundary scaling (rule: minus values above positive values x above
zero values);
2: arithmetic scaling (rule: sum n-values x within coarse cell, excluding
the NoDataValues, and divide them by n);
3: geometric scaling (rule: take log()-function for n-values x within a
coarse cell, excluding NoDataValues and zero values, sum them, divide
them by n and take the exp() function);
4: sum (rule: sum n-values x, excluding NoDataValues);
5: sum conductance (rule: . . . . . . )
6: inverse (rule: take the inverse (xв€’1 ) of n-values x within a coarse cell,
excluding NoDataValues and zero values and divide them by n.
7: most frequent occurrence (rule: take that value x that occurs mostly
within a coarse cell, excluding NoDataValues);
8: sum inverse (rule: take the inverse (xв€’1 ) of n-values x within a coarse
cell, excluding NoDataValues and zero values);
9: percentile (rule: take the value x that occurs for a given percentage
within a coarse cell, excluding NoDataValues);
10: block value (rule: . . . . . . )
11: Darcian method (rule: take the value x that occurs after a Darcian simulation of fine mesh with extent of the coarse cell, excluding NoDataValues);
12: homogenization (rule: take the value x that occurs after a Darcian
simulation with periodic boundaries of fine mesh with extent of the coarse
cell, excluding NoDataValues);
13: global-local method (rule: take the value x that occurs after a Darcian
simulation with realistic boundary conditions of fine mesh with extent of
the coarse cell, excluding NoDataValues);
14: 3d simulations (rule: ?????)
SCLTYPE_DOWN=
Enter the scale type. Choose from the following:
1: interpolation (rule: produces a good guess for al finer gridcells by a
linear interpolation based upon the coarse gridcells, excluding the NoDataValues);
2: gridvalues (rule: assign the value of the coarse gridcell to all finer gridcells).
SOURCEIDF
Enter the name of the IDF-file to be upscaled or downscaled, e.g. SOURCEIDF=D:\DATA\TRANSMISSIVITY.IDF.
SOURCEDIR
Enter the name of the folder that contains IDF-files that need to be used
for a 3D simulation (SCLTYPE=12), e.g. SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\K*.IDF.
OUTFILE
Enter the name of the upscaled or downscaled IDF-files, e.g. OUTFILE=D:\DATA\SCALED_TRANSMISSIVITY.IDF.
PERCENTILE=
Enter a percentile, e.g. PERCENTILE=0.5 (0.0<PERCENTILE<1.0). This
keyword is obliged whenever SCLTYPE=9.
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FUNCTION=
SCALESIZE=
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Enter a weighfactor, e.g. WEIGHFACTOR=0.5. This keyword is optional in
case SCLTYPE in {1,3,4,5,6,9}, the default value is WEIGHFACTOR=1.0.
BLOCK=
Enter the size of the interpolation block, e.g. BLOCK=16. This keyword is
optional whenever SCLTYPE=-1, meaning that a matrix of 4x4 will be used
for the interpolation of each point. The default value is BLOCK=4 and other
possible values are BLOCK in {4,16,36,64,100). In most situation good
results are obtained with BLOCK=4.
WINDOW=
Enter the coordinates of the window that need to be computed, solely.
Enter coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates
of the upper-right corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0,
425000.0. When WINDOW= is absent, the entire dimensions of the first
mentioned IDF-file will be used.
BUFFER=
Enter the size of the buffer to be used for the Darcian simulation,
BUFFER=5 (SCLTYPE in {9,10,11,12}). The default value is BUFFER=0.
The following are keywords that are optional in case SCLTYPE=12, solely.
ANI_X=
Enter the horizontal (ANI_X) or vertical (ANI_Z) anisotropy, e.g.
ANI_Z=
ANI_Z=0.3. This means that the permeability will be 3 time less permeable in vertical direction than in horizontal direction. Default value is
ANI_X=ANI_Z=1.0.
Enter the pressure for the x, y and z direction to be imposed on the system,
DH_X=
e.g. DH_X=1.0. This means that the hydraulic pressure difference along
DH_Y=
the x direction is equal to meter. By default DH_X=DH_Y=DH_Z=0.0.
DH_Z=
QRATE=
Enter the strength of a extraction well positioned in the lower most modellayer, e.g. QRATE=-100 m3 /day. By default QRATE=0.0, however, in those
case where QRATE<>0.0, DH_X, DH_Y and DH_Z will be ignored.
Enter the permeability to be substituted for those cells that contain NoDataValues.
AQFR_KD=
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WEIGHFACTOR=
Example 1
FUNCTION=IDFSCALE
SCALETYPE_UP=1
SCALESIZE=250.0
SOURCEIDF=D:\DATA\BOUNDARY_L1.IDF
OUTFILE=D:\DATA\BOUNDARY_L1_250.IDF
This example shows how to upscale an IDF-file with boundary conditions.
Example 2
FUNCTION=IDFSCALE
SCALETYPE_DOWN=1
SCALESIZE=5.0
SOURCEIDF=D:\DATA\HEAD_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF
OUTFILE=D:\DATA\HEAD_STEADY-STATE_L1_5X5.IDF
This example shows how to downscale an IDF-file with computed heads.
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Example 3
FUNCTION=IDFSCALE
SCALETYPE_UP=3
SCALESIZE=500.0
WINDOW=100000.0,425000.0,150000.0,500000.0
SOURCEIDF=D:\DATA\HEAD_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF
OUTFILE=D:\DATA\HEAD_STEADY-STATE_L1_500.IDF
This example shows how to upscale transmissivity for a specific window.
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FUNCTION=IDFSCALE
SCALETYPE_UP=12
SCALESIZE=100.0
SOURCEDIR=D:\GEOTOP\SEL*.IDF
OUTFILE=D:\GEOTOP\VERTICAL_C.IDF
BUFFER=5
ANI_X=3.0
DHZ=1.0
DHX=0.0
DHY=0.0
T
Example 4
This examples show an example how to upscale permeability with a 3D Darcian simulation. The result
will be vertical resistances.
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IDFMEAN-Function
The IDFMEAN function can be used to compute a new IDF-file with the mean value (or minimum,
maximum value) of different IDF-files. It is not necessary to have exactly similar IDF-files (see section 6.10.3).
EDATE=
NDIR=
SOURCEDIR{i}=
CFUNC=
IDFMEAN
Enter the layer numbers for the IDF-files to be averaged, e.g. ILAYER=1,3.
Enter the starting date (yyyymmdd) for which IDF-files are used, e.g.
SDATE=19980201.
Enter the ending date (yyyymmdd) for which IDF-files are used, e.g.
SDATE=20111231.
Enter the number of folders to be processed repeatedly, e.g. NDIR=10.
Enter the folder and wildcard for all files that need to be used, e.g.
SOURCEDIR1=C:\DATA\HEAD\HEAD*.IDF. Repeat SOURCEDIR{i} for
NDIR times. Do not include year, month or day before or after the wildcard *.
Specify the name of the function to be applied. Choose out of:
MEAN, to compute mean values (equal weighed);
MIN to compute the minimum values;
MAX to compute the maximum values.
The default is CFUNC=MEAN.
Specify particular year (within SDATE and EDATE) to be used exclusively,
e.g. 2001,2003,2005. IYEAR is filled in for all years in-between SYEAR
and EYEAR.
Enter a number of periods to be defined to use IDF-file within these periods
solely, e.g. NPERIOD=2. NPERIOD=0 by default.
Enter a period i (ddmm-ddmm), e.g. PERIOD1=1503-3110 to express the
period 15th of March until the 31th of October.
Enter a code for the area to be processed:
ISEL=1 will compute the entire region
ISEL=2 will compute within given polygons;
ISEL=3 will compute for those cells in the given IDF-file that are not equal
to the NoDataValue of that IDF-file.
Enter a GEN-filename for polygon(s) for which mean values need to be
computed. This keyword is obliged whenever ISEL=2.
Enter an IDF-file for which mean values will be computed for those cell in
the IDF-file that are not equal to the NoDataValue of that IDF-file. This
keyword is compulsory whenever ISEL=3
T
FUNCTION=
ILAYER=
SDATE=
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8.4
IYEAR=
NPERIOD=
PERIOD{i}=
ISEL=
GENFNAME=
IDFNAME=
Example 1
FUNCTION=IDFMEAN
ILAYER=6
SDATE=19980714
EDATE=20110728
NDIR=1
SOURCEDIR1=D:\DATA\BDGFLF*.IDF
This example shows the mimimum configuration of this function and yield the mean values for all
BDGFLF*.IDF-files in the folder D:\DATA that are assigned to layer 6 (function searches for L6.IDF),
and are within the periode 14th of July 1998 and 28th of July 2011.
The output file will be:
1 D:\DATA\BDGFLF_MEAN_1998-07-14_to_2011-07-28_L6.IDF;
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2 D:\DATA\BDGFLF_COUNT_1998-07-14_to_2011-07-28_L6.IDF.
The latter shows the number of occurrences for each raster cell.
FUNCTION=IDFMEAN
ILAYER=1,3
SDATE=19980101
EDATE=20000101
IYEAR=1999
NPERIOD=1
PERIOD1=1503-3110
ISEL=2
CFUNC=MAX
GENFILE=D:\DATA\AREA.GEN
NDIR=1
SOURCEDIR1=D:\DATA\HEAD*.IDF
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Example 2
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This example shows a more extended configuration and will yield maximum values for all IDF-files
inside the folder D:\DATA that meet the requirement HEAD*.IDF. Furthermore, they contain the key
combination L1.IDF where “1” is defined by ILAY=1. The date expression should be within the time
domain of the 1th of Januari 1998 (SDATE) and 31th of December 2000 (EDATE), within the year 1999
(IYEAR) and within the period between the 15th of March and the 31th of October (PERIOD1). Finally
the mean values is computed within the polygon(s) described by the polygon AREA.GEN, solely. The
output file will be:
1 D:\DATA\HEAD_MAX_19980101-20000101_L1.IDF;
2 D:\DATA\HEAD_DATEMAX_19980101-20000101_L1.IDF.
The latter shows the date (yyyymmdd) on which raster cell maximal values appeared.
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IDFCONSISTENCY-Function
Use this function to make top and bottom IDF-files consistent, meaning that the top of modellayer is
always higher or equal to the bottom of that same modellayer, which is higher or equal to the top of the
modellayer underneath, and so on.
FUNCTION=
NLAY=
OUTPUTFOLDER=
TOP_L{i}=
BOT_L{i}=
T
WINDOW=
IDFCONSISTENCY
Enter the number of modellayers, e.g. NLAY=6.
Enter the foldername in which the adjusted IDF-files will be saved, e.g.
OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\RESULT.
Enter the IDF for the ith modellayer that represents the top of modellayer
i, e.g. TOP_L1=D:\INPUT\TOP_L1.IDF.
Enter the IDF for the ith modellayer that represents the bottom of modellayer i, e.g. BOT_L1=D:\INPUT\BOT_L1.IDF.
Enter the coordinates of the window that needs to be computed. Enter coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates of
the upper-right corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0,
425000.0. When WINDOW= is absent, the entered IDF-files by TOP_L{i}
and BOT_L{i} need to be equally in their dimensions. Otherwise they
will be upscaled (mean) or downscaled (interpolation) to the entered
CELL_SIZE.
Enter the cell size (meter) for the IDF-files that will be created, e.g.
CELL_SIZE=25.0.
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8.5
CELL_SIZE=
Example
FUNCTION= IDFCONSISTENCY
NLAY=2
WINDOW=120000.0,298000.0,240000.0,430000.0
CELL_SIZE=100.0
TOP_L1=D:\MODEL\TOP_L1.IDF
TOP_L2=D:\MODEL\TOP_L2.IDF
BOT_L1=D:\MODEL\BOT_L1.IDF
BOT_L2=D:\MODEL\BOT_L2.IDF
OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\OUTPUT
This example corrects the top and bottom IDF-files specified by the TOP_L{i} and BOT_L{i} keywords
in a top-bottom consistent manner and scales the IDF-files to the specified WINDOW and CELL_SIZE.
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SOLID-Function
Use this function to generate hypothetical interfaces (i.e. line in between model layers that represent an
artificial interface since any resistance layer (e.g. clay). This function computes the transmissivities and
vertical resistance between model layers as well. It uses the PCG solver algorithm for the interpolation
of the hypothetical interfaces and uses the existence of permeability field and the top- and bottom
elevation to compute the nett transmissivity for each a modellayer and vertical resistance between
those model layers. By means of masks it is possible to define those areas for which hypothethical
interfaces need to be computed.
SOLID
Enter the number of modellayers, e.g. NLAY=6.
Enter the foldername in which the results IDF-files will be saved, e.g. OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\RESULT. The following results will be saved:
\MASK
If IMASK=1, for each interface a mask IDF will be created and
saved in this folder. Those may be adjusted afterwards, but set
IMASK=0 to avoid that those modified mask files will be overwritten
\FFRAC
If ICKDC=1, here for each model layer, the fraction of each
geological formation will be saved. It represents the fraction
(0.0 в€’ 1.0) of the geological that is present in the model layer.
\CFRAC
If ICKDC=1, here for each in between model layer (aquitard),
the fraction of each geological formation will be saved. It represents the fraction (0.0 в€’ 1.0) of the geological that is present in
the aquitard.
MDL_TOP_{i} If ICKDC=1, this is the TOP elevation for each model layer;
MDL_BOT_{i} If ICKDC=1, this is the BOT elevation for each model layer;
MDL_KD_{i}
If ICKDC=1, this is the total transmissivity for each model layer,
it becomes zero when the thickness of the aquifer (model layer)
is zero;
MDL_VC_{i}
If ICKDC=1, this is the vertical resistance over aquitards in between each model layer, excluding the resistance due to the
vertical resistance in the above- and beneath lying aquifers. Its
value becomes zero is the aquitard is absent;
MDL_KHV_{i} If ICKDC=1, this is the horizontal permeability for each model
layer, it can be zero for layer thicknesses of zero;
MDL_KVA_{i} If ICKDC=1, this is the vertical anisotropy for each model layer,
it will always have a value larger than 0 and smaller equal to 1.
For non existing model layers (aquifers) this parameter will be
one;
MDL_KVV_{i} If ICKDC=1, this is the vertical permeability for each aquitard in
between each model layer, it becomes zero when the aquitard
does not exists;
MDL_KDFRAC_{i}
If ICKDC=1, this is the total fraction of the model layers that
has been parameterised by the permeabilities found by the
REGISKHV and/or REGISKVV files, whenever the fractio is 1.0
is means that the entire model layer has been filled in correctly,
lower values indicate that areas in the model layers have not
been filled in properly.
MDL_CFRAC_{i}If ICKDC=1, this is the total fraction of the aquitards in between
the model layers that has been parameterised by the permeabilities found by the REGISKHV and/or REGISKVV files. So
more comment above;
Enter the IDF for the ith modellayer that represents the top of modellayer i, e.g.
TOP_L1=D:\INPUT\TOP_L1.IDF.
Enter the option 0 or 1 to define whether this TOP modellayer needs to be interpolated, e.g. ICLC_TL1=1. This is optional, the default is 1.
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FUNCTION=
NLAY=
OUTPUTFOLDER=
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8.6
TOP_L{i}=
ICLC_TL{i}=
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BOT_L{i}=
ICLC_BL{i}=
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IMASK=
Enter the IDF for the ith modellayer that represents the bottom of modellayer i,
e.g. BOT_L1=D:\INPUT\BOT_L1.IDF.
Enter the option 0 or 1 to define whether this BOTTOM modellayer needs to be
interpolated, e.g. ICLC_BL1=1. This is optional, the default is 1.
Specify IMASK=1 to (re)compute masks. Those are IDF files that contain a
pointer value that indicates how the interfaces need to be computed. A mask
value can have the following values:
0
means that this particular location will be excluded, those locations are initially formed by non-existence of the upper- and
lowermost interface;
-1
means that for that particular area no interface will be computed,
the original value will be used;
+1
means that the interface will be computed for this locations.
Each mask IDF file will be saved in the MASK folder under the given OUTPUTFOLDER. Whenever IMASK=0, iMOD will look in this particular folder to read the
mask IDF files, make sure that those files are in that folder.
ZOFFSET=
Specify a vertical offset (meters) for which mask values need to
be set af -1. In other words, whenever the difference between
the TOP_L{i} and BOT_L{i+1} is larger than ZOFFSET the mask
will be put on -1. Small aquitards can be removed in this manner. By default ZOFFSET=0.0 meter.
Specify IHYPO=1 to compute the hypothetical interfaces, for mask values of 1.
As the values for TOP_L|[i} and BOT_L{i+1} need to be identical for mask values
of +1, only the interface for TOP_L|[i} will be computed and BOT_L{i+1} will be
set equal to that value.
DZ(.)=
Specify for each model layer the minimal thickness (meter), e.g.
DZ(1)=1.0 means that the minimal thickness will be 1.0 meter. In this way it is possible to have continuous thicknesses for
model layers. This minimal thickness requirement can not be
met whenever the distance between two aquitards is less than
this DZ. In that case a smaller thickness is forced. By default
DZ=0.0 for each model layer.
IMIDELEV=
Specify IMIDELEV=1 to force te PCG solver to position the hypothetical interface more-or-less such that model layers have
uniform thicknesses. By default IMIDELEV=1.
HCLOSE=
Specify the closure criterion of the PCG solver, e.g.
HCLOSE=0.1 m. By default HCLOSE=0.001 meter.
MICNVG=
Specify the number of subsequent inner convergences of the
PCG solver, e.g. MICNVG=25. Use this whenever the PCG
solver does not find a unique solution. By default MICVNG=5.
Specify ICKDC=1 to compute transmissivities for model layers and vertical resistances for in between model layers.
REGISTOP=
Specify the folder that stores the TOP elevation of geological
formations, e.g. REGISTOP=D:\REGIS \*-T-CK.IDF. All files will
be used that fit this wildcard definition.
REGISBOT=
Specify the folder that stores the BOT elevation of geological
formations, e.g. REGISBOT=D:\REGIS \*-B-CK.IDF. All files will
be used that fit this wildcard definition.
REGISKHV=
Specify the folder that stores the horizontal permeability of geological formations, e.g. REGISKHV=D:\REGIS \*-KH-SK.IDF.
All files will be used that fit this wildcard definition. If no file is
found for the horizontal permeability for a particular geological
formation, this permeability will be assumed to be 3.0 the vertical permeability.
IHYPO=
ICKDC=
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WINDOW=
CELLSIZE=
Specify the folder that stores the vertical permeability of geological formations, e.g. REGISKVV=D:\REGIS \*-KV-SK.IDF. All
files will be used that fit this wildcard definition. If no file is found
for the vertical permeability for a particular geological formation,
this permeability will be assumed to be 0.3 the horizontal permeability.
Enter the coordinates of the window that needs to be computed. Enter coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates of the upper-right corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0, 425000.0. When WINDOW=
is absent, the entered IDF-files by TOP_L{i} and BOT_L{i} need to be equally in
their dimensions. Otherwise they will be upscaled (mean) or downscaled (interpolation) to the entered CELLSIZE.
Enter the cell size (meter) for the IDF-files that will be created, e.g. CELLSIZE=25.0.
Example
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FUNCTION=SOLID
NLAY=4
TOP_L1=D:\MODEL\TOP_L1.IDF
TOP_L2=D:\MODEL\TOP_L2.IDF
TOP_L3=D:\MODEL\TOP_L3.IDF
TOP_L4=D:\MODEL\TOP_L4.IDF
BOT_L1=D:\MODEL\BOT_L1.IDF
BOT_L2=D:\MODEL\BOT_L2.IDF
BOT_L3=D:\MODEL\BOT_L3.IDF
BOT_L4=D:\MODEL\BOT_L4.IDF
IMASK=1
IHYPO=1
ICKDC=1
REGISTOP=D:\REGIS \*-T-CK.IDF.
REGISBOT=D:\REGIS \*-B-CK.IDF.
REGISKHV=D:\REGIS \*-KH-SK.IDF.
REGISKVV=D:\REGIS \*-KV-SK.IDF.
OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\OUTPUT
T
REGISKVV=
This example creates a mask files based on the specified top and bottom IDF-files specified by the
TOP_L{i} and BOT_L{i} keywords. For those areas that does not contain an aquitard, the hypothetical
interfaces will be computed. After that the transmissivities and vertical resistances will be computed
and the other output as specified at the ketword OUTPUTFOLDER.
Example of (left) the computed thickness of an aquitard; (right) the corresponding values for the mask
IDF (green is +1 and red = -1). The green area will be filled in by hypothetical interfaces.
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iMOD-Batch
Example of computed hypothetical interfaces as TOP and BOTTOM elevation for the model layers.
Example of computed fractions of a geological formation in three different model layers. The formation
has been part of three model layers and the total transmissivity of each model layers depends on the
given fraction of the geological formation. Red represents a higher fraction than yellow.
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IDFMERGE-Function
The MERGE function can be used to merge different IDF-files into a new IDF-file. If these IDF-files
might overlap, an interpolation between the overlapping IDF-files will be carried out.
SOURCEDIR=
TARGETIDF=
WINDOW=
IDFMERGE
Enter the number of IDF-files that need to be merged, e.g. NMERGE=6.
Enter the ith IDF-file, e.g. SOURCEIDF1=D:\SUBMODEL1\HEAD_L1.IDF,
SOURCEIDF2= D:\SUBMODEL2\HEAD_L1.IDF. Repeat this keyword
NMERGE-times.
Whenever NMERGE is absent, the keyword
SOURCEDIR will be used.
Enter the source folder and part of the filename that need to be merged,
e.g. D:\DATA\HEAD*L1.IDF to merge all files that corresponds to this wildcard. This keyword SOURCEDIR is used whenever the keyword NMERGE
is absent.
Specify a filename for the resulting IDF-file, e.g.
{path}\TOTAL\HEAD_L1.IDF.
Specify a window in which the entered IDF-files (SOURCEIDF{i},
SOURCEDIR) will be merged only. Enter coordinates of the lower-left
corner first and then the coordinates of the upper-right corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0, 425000.0. When WINDOW= is absent, the total dimension of all selected IDF-files in the SOURCEDIR will
be used.
Enter an IDF-file that needs to be mask areas (those with values
equal to the NoDataValue in the MASKIDF) in the merged results, e.g.
D:\MASK\AREA.IDF.
T
FUNCTION=
NMERGE=
SOURCEIDF{i}=
DR
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8.7
MSKNAME=
Example 1
FUNCTION=IDFMERGE
NMERGE=2
SOURCEIDF1=D:\MODEL1\HEAD_L1.IDF
SOURCEIDF2=D:\MODEL2\HEAD_L1.IDF
TARGETIDF=D:\RESULT\HEAD_L1.IDF
This example merges two IDF-files, HEAD_L1.IDF and HEAD_L1.IDF from two different folders, into a
single one D:\RESULTS\HEAD_L1.IDF.
Example 2
FUNCTION=IDFMERGE
MASKIDF=D:\MASK\AREA.IDF
WINDOW=120000.0,425000.0,165000.0,465000.0
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\HEAD*_L1.IDF
TARGETIDF=D:\DATA\HEAD_MERGED_L1.IDF
This example merges all IDF-files in the folder D:\DATA that agree with the filename HEAD*_L1.IDF,
such as HEAD_A1_L1.IDF, HEAD_A2_L1.IDF. The merged results will be “clipped” for the given extent
by WINDOW and will be “masked” out by the given NoDataValues in the MASKIDF. Finally the results
will be saved in HEAD_MERGED_L1.IDF.
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GXG-Function
The GXG function calculates the maximum and minimum groundwaterhead during the hydrological
year (from 1st April) based on the mean of the three highest, c.q. lowest observed groundwaterheads.
The GXG is an indicator used in the Netherlands to indicate the seasonal variation of the groundwaterhead.
NDIR=
SOURCEDIR{i}=
SURFACEIDF=
SYEAR=
EYEAR=
IYEAR=
STARTMONTH=
IPERIOD=
ISEL=
GXG
Enter the layer numbers to be used in the GxG computation,
subsequently; e.g. ILAYER=1,3,6.
Enter the number of folders to be processed repeatedly, e.g. NDIR=10.
Enter the folder and first part of the filename for all files that need to be
used, e.g. SOURCEDIR1=C:\DATA\HEAD. This mean that the GXG function will search for IDF-files that meet the name syntax requirement of
C:\DATA\HEAD_{yyyymmdd}_L{ILAY}.IDF.
Enter a name for the surface, e.g. SURFACEIDF=C:\DATA\AHN.IDF. By
default a surface elevation of 0.0m+MSL will be considered.
Enter the start year (yyyy) for which IDF-files are used, e.g. SYEAR=1998.
Enter the end year (yyyy) for which IDF-files are used, e.g. EYEAR=2011.
This keyword will be read whenever SYEAR is included.
Specify particular years to be used, e.g. IYEAR=2001,2003,2004. This
keyword will be read whenever the keyword SYEAR is absent.
Enter the start month from the which the hydrological year starts. Default
STARTMONTH=4.
Enter two integers (0 or 1) for each month to express the inclusion of the 14th and 28th of that particular month, e.g.
IPERIOD=010101010101010101010101, which mean to use the 14th of
each month solely. On default IPERIOD=111111111111111111111111.
Enter a code for the area to be processed:
ISEL=1 will compute the entire region
ISEL=2 will compute within given polygons;
ISEL=3 will compute for those cells in the given IDF-file that are not equal
to the NoDataValue of that IDF-file.
Enter a GEN-filename for polygon(s) for which mean values need to be
computed. This keyword is obliged whenever ISEL=2.
Enter an IDF-file for which mean values will be computed for those cell in
the IDF-file that are not equal to the NoDataValue of that IDF-file. This
keyword is compulsory whenever ISEL=3
T
FUNCTION=
ILAYER=
DR
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8.8
GENFNAME=
IDFNAME=
Example 1
FUNCTION=GXG
ILAYER=1
NDIR=1
SOURCEDIR1=D:\MODEL\HEAD
SYEAR=1991
EYEAR=2000
This illustrates a simple example of a GxG computation over the years 1991 (actually starts at 14th of
April 1991) until 2000 (actually 28th of March 2000), for all the HEAD* files that are within the folder
D:\MODEL. Since the keyword SURFACEIDF is absent, the GxG will be expressed according to 0.0
instead of a true surface level, moreover, ILAY is absent too, but ILAY=1 will be used as default.
Example 2
FUNCTION=GXG
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ILAYER=1,2
SURFACEIDF=D:\DATA\AHN.IDF
IYEAR=1994,1995,2000,2001
IPERIOD=000000001111111100000000
ISEL=3
IDFNAME=D:\DATA\ZONE.IDF
NDIR=1
SOURCEDIR1=D:\MODEL\HEAD
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T
This example computes the GxG for the years 1994, 1995, 2000 and 2001 only. This means two
hydrological years, namely 14-4-1994-upto 28-3-1995 and 14-4-2000 upto 28-3-2001. In this period
the summer months May, June, July, August are included as expressed by the IPERIOD keyword.
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WBALANCE-Function
The WBALANCE function calculates the water balance based on the model output for the steady state
condition or for a specific period and area.
WBALANCE
Enter the number of waterbalance topics, e.g. NBAL=2.
Enter for each of NBAL topics one of the following acronyms:
BDGBND = CONSTANT HEAD;
BDGFLF = FLUX LOWER FACE;
BDGFRF = FLUX RIGHT FACE;
BDGFFF = FLUX FRONT FACE;
BDGSTO = STORAGE;
BDGWEL = WELLS;
BDGDRN = DRAINAGE;
BDGRIV = RIVERS;
BDGEVT = EVAPOTRANSPIRATION;
BDGGHB = GENERAL HEAD BOUNDARY;
BDGOLF = OVERLAND FLOW;
BDGRCH = RECHARGE;
BDGISG = SEGMENTS;
BDGCAP = CAPSIM;
BDGETACT = TOTAL ACTUAL TRANSPIRATION;
BDGDS = DECREASE WATER ST.ROOTZ.;
BDGPM = MEASURED PRECIPITATION;
BDGPS = SPRINKLING PRECIPITATION;
BDGEVA = NET EVAPORATION WATER;
BDGQRU = RUNOFF;
BDGPSGW = SPRINKLING PRECIPITATION, FROM GROUNDWATER;
MSW_EBSPOT = POTENTIAL EVAPORATION BARE SOIL;
MSW_EIC = EVAPORATION INTERCEPTION WATER;
MSW_EPD = EVAPORATION PONDING WATER;
MSW_ESP = EVAPORATION SPRINKLING WATER;
MSW_TPOT = POTENTIAL TRANSPIRATION VEGETATION;
BDGQSPGW = GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION FOR SPRINKLING;
MSW_EBS = EVAPORATION BARE SOIL;
MSW_QMODFBOT = UPWARD SEEPAGE OF MODFLOW CELL;
MSW_QMR = FLOW THROUGH BOTTOM OF BOX1, ROOT ZONE;
BDGDECSTOT = DECREASE STORAGE.
For example BAL3=BDGFLF. Repeat BAL{i} for NBAL times.
Enter the layer numbers to be included in the waterbalance,
e.g. ILAYER=1,3,6.
Enter the number of folders to be processed repeatedly, e.g. NDIR=10.
Enter the folder and wildcard for all files that need to be used,
e.g. SOURCEDIR1=C:\DATA\MODEL. The WBALANCE function will read
the following files in the folder
steady-state (SDATE=absent), for example:
- {SOURCEDIR1}\{BAL3}\{BAL3}_STEADY-STATE_L{ILAYER{1}}.IDF
transient (SDATE,EDATE given), for example
- {SOURCEDIR1}\{BAL2}\{BAL2}_{yyyymmdd}_L{ILAYER{2}}.IDF
Enter the output filename, e.g. OUTPUTNAME1=C:\DATA\HEAD\
Enter the number of systems to be included in the waterbalance, e.g.
BAL1ISYS=1,2,3. This mean to add the systems 1,2 and 3 for the first
entered waterbalance item, specified by BAL1.
Enter the starting date (yyyymmdd) for which IDF-files are used, e.g.
SDATE=19980201.
T
FUNCTION=
NBAL=
BAL{i}=
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8.9
ILAYER=
NDIR=
SOURCEDIR{i}=
OUTPUTNAME{i}=
BAL{i}_ISYS=
SDATE=
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IYEAR=
NPERIOD=
PERIOD{i}=
ISEL=
GENFILE=
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IDFNAME=
Enter the ending date (yyyymmdd) for which IDF-files are used, e.g.
SDATE=20111231. In case SDATE is specified, EDATE is compulsory.
Specify a particular year (within SDATE and EDATE) to be used exclusively, e.g. IYEAR=2001,2003,2005. IYEAR is filled in for all years inbetween SYEAR and EYEAR.
Enter a number of periods to be defined to use IDF-file within these periods
solely, e.g. NPERIOD=2. NPERIOD=0 by default.
Enter a period i (ddmm-ddmm), e.g. PERIOD1=1503-3110 to express the
period 15th of March until the 31th of October.
Enter a code for the area to be processed:
ISEL=1 will compute the entire region
ISEL=2 will compute within given polygons;
ISEL=3 will compute for those cells in the given IDF-file that are not equal
to the NoDataValue of that IDF-file.
Enter a GEN-filename for polygon(s) for which mean values need to be
computed. This keyword is obliged whenever ISEL=2.
Enter an IDF-file for which mean values will be computed for those cell in
the IDF-file that are not equal to the NoDataValue of that IDF-file. This
keyword is compulsory whenever ISEL=3
T
EDATE=
Example 1
FUNCTION=WBALANCE
NBAL=3
BAL1=BDGFRF
BAL2=BDGFFF
BAL3=BDGFLF
ILAYER=3
NDIR=1
ISEL=2
GENFILE=D:\MODEL\zone.gen
SOURCEDIR1=D:\MODEL
OUTPUTNAME1=D:\MODEL\WBAL.TXT
The above mentioned simple example will give a waterbalance for the BDGFRF, BDGFFF and BDGFLF,
respectively, for modellayer 3.
The IDF-files will be D:\MODEL\BDGFRF\BDGFRF_STEADY-STATE_L3.IDF;
D:\MODEL\BDGFFF\BDGFFF_STEADY-STATE_L3.IDF; and
D:\MODEL\BDGFLF\BDGFLF_STEADY-STATE_L3.IDF.
The result is written in D:\MODEL\WBAL.TXT.
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FUNCTION=WBALANCE
NBAL=2
BAL1=BDGRIV
BAL1SYS=1,2
BAL2=BDGDRN
ILAYER=1,2
SDATE=19900101
EDATE=20001231
IYEAR=1990,1995,1997,2000
NPERIOD=1
PERIOD1=0104-3107
ISEL=2
GENFNAME=D:\DATA\ZONES.GEN
NDIR=2
SOURCEDIR1=D:\MODEL
SOURCEDIR2=D:\SCENARIO
OUTPUTNAME1=D:\OUTPUT\WBAL_MODEL.CSV
OUTPUTNAME2=D:\OUTPUT\WBAL_SCENARIO.CSV
T
Example 2
The example above will compute a waterbalance for two modellayers (1,2) for the budgetfiles BDGRIV*SYS1 and BDGRIV*SYS2 and BDGDRN in the period from 1th of April until the 31th of July for
the years 1990,1995,1997,2000. The waterbalance will be summed for the zones that are described
by the polygon(s) inside the file ZONES.GEN. Finally, the computation will be executed twice, for those
results in D:\MODEL and those in D:\SCENARIO. Results are stored in the folder D:\OUTPUT.
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IMPORTSOBEK-Function
Use this function to import a SOBEK configuration into ISG-files for iMOD for more information.
NETWORKTP=
CALCHIS=
STRUCHIS=
IMPORTSOBEK
Enter the name of the ISG-file to be created, e.g. ISGNAME=D:\IMPORT\SOBEK.ISG.
Enter the name (location) of the NETWORK.TP file, e.g. NETWORKTP=D:\DATA\NETWORK.TP. iMOD will search for all other files that
it might need in the folder D:\DATA.
Enter the name of the HIS file that contains the computed waterlevels at
the calculation points, e.g. CALCHIS=D:\SOBEK\CALC.HIS.
Enter the name of the HIS file that contains the computed waterlevels at
the structures, e.g. STRUCHIS =D:\SOBEK\STRUCT.HIS.
Example 1
FUNCTION=IMPORTSOBEK
ISGNAME=D:\IMPORT\HCMC0611.ISG
NETWORKTP=D:\SOBEK\HCMC0611\NETWORK.TP
CALCHIS=D:\SOBEK\HCMC0611\CALCPNT.HIS
STRUCHIS=D:\SOBEK\HCMC0611\STRUC.HIS
T
FUNCTION=
ISGNAME=
DR
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8.10
The above mentioned examples imports the SOBEK model (files) in the folder D:\SOBEK\HCM0611
\* and combines this with the computed results from the two entered HIS files (CALCPNT.HIS and
STRUC.HIS) and saves it in HCMC0611.ISG.
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AHNFILTER-Function
This function filters artificial elements out of a digital terrain model (or equivalent). The method
searches for areas that are connected by small vertical thresholds and denote them as true surface
whenever the extent is significant. The remaining areas with less extent are marked as potential surface and will become true surface whenever they differ minorly with the interpolated surface at those
locations. Moreover, the algorithm searches for local upconing (trees, buildings) and depressions
(streams) and removes them from the surface. The function yields two output files: the filtered original
file and a pointer file. The pointer file indicates the type of change by the filtering to the original file.
The values in the pointer file indicate: 2: no change; <2: filtered cell.
FUNCTION=
NAHN=
T
IDFFILE{i}=
XCRIT=
NSCRIT=
DPW=
LOCCRIT=
DP1=
DP2=
INTXCRIT=
CORXCRIT=
NCORXCRIT=
IGNORENODATA=
NWINDOW=
WINDOW{i}=
322
AHNFILTER
Enter the number of the IDF-files to be used during the AHN filtering, e.g.
NAHN=2.
Enter the name of the ith IDF-file.
The IDF-files should contain
data points that represent some kind of elevation data, e.g. IDFFILE2=D:\DATA\AHN_REGION2.IDF.
Enter the vertical offset between adjacent cells that are allowed to group
together, e.g. XCRIT=0.5 (default value). In this case all adjacent cells
that have an offset of less or equal 0.25 (unit of IDFFILE{i}). Increasing
XCRIT will group more cells together, decreasing XCRIT will group them
more difficult. The size of the group will determine whether the group is
assigned a surfacelevel directly, or not. The default value is XCRIT=0.5.
Enter the number of cells that behave like a threshold whether the current
group of cells can be denoted as surface level, e.g. NSCRIT=1500 (default
value).
Enter the size of the window that will be used to determine local upconing
and depressions in the area, e.g. DPW=5 (default value). In this case a
squared 5x5 window will be applied .
Enter the max difference of those values (not equal to the NoDataValue)
in the DPW window, e.g. LOCCRIT=2.0 (default value). Whenever this
difference exceeds LOCCRIT, no local upconing and depression will be
computed.
Enter the percentile for which all data points in the DPW window that are
less or equal to DP1 will be assigned to local depression, e.g. DP1=30.0
(default value).
Enter the percentile for which all data points in the DPW window that are
greater or equal to DP2 will be assigned to local upconing, e.g. DP2=30.0
(default value).
Enter the maximum residual change in the interpolation of the intermediate
surface level, INTXCRIT=0.05 (default value).
Enter the difference between the original surface level, as read by the
IDFFILE{i}-files, and the intermediate surface level, e.g. CORXCRIT=0.10
(default value).
Enter the minimum number of changes by CORXCRIT, e.g. NCORXCRIT=50 (default value).
Enter IGNORENODATA=1 (default value) to ignore all data points equal
to the NoDataValue of the IDFFILES{i}. Enter IGNORENODATA =0 to
interpolate all data points equal to the NoDataValue.
Enter the number of windows to filter, e.g. NWINDOW=5. By default the
entire dimensions of the IDFFILES{i} will be processed. The default value
is NWINDOW=0.
Enter the coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates
of the upper-right corner, e.g. WINDOW5=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0,
425000.0. This keyword is compulsory whenever NWINDOW>0.
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OUTFILE=
OUTFILE{i}=
BUFFER=
IAGGREGATEY=
Enter the name of the IDF-file that contains the filtered surface level, e.g.
OUTFILE=D:\DATA\AHN.IDF. In case NWINDOW>0, it is obliged to specify the OUTFILE for all windows, e.g. OUTFILE5=D:\DATA\AHN5.IDF. In
the latter case, you can use the FUNCTION=IDFMERGE (see section 8.5)
to merge all outcomes.
Enter a buffersize to overlap the different WINDOW{i}’s, e.g.
BUFFER=1500.0 (default value).
Enter IAGGREGATEY=1 to join adjacent intermediate surface levels to
form larger ones, with a change that they become greater than NSCRIT
and become surfacelevel. Default value is IAGGREGATEY=0.
DR
AF
FUNCTION=AHNFILTER
NAHN =1
IDFFILE1=D:\DATA\AHN_ORG.IDF
OUTFILE=D:\DATA\AHN_FILTERED.IDF
T
Example 1
The above mentioned example is the most simple one, it filters the AHN_ORG.IDF with all default
setting values and saves the result in AHN_FILTERED.IDF.
Example 2
FUNCTION=AHNFILTER
NAHN =2
IDFFILE1=D:\DATA\AHN_ORG1.IDF
IDFFILE2=D:\DATA\AHN_ORG2.IDF
NWINDOW=2
WINDOW1=125000.0 426000.0 130000.0 430000.0
WINDOW2=130000.0 426000.0 135000.0 430000.0
OUTFILE1=D:\DATA\AHN_FILTERED1.IDF
OUTFILE2=D:\DATA\AHN_FILTERED2.IDF
BUFFER=2500
IGNORENODATA=0
NSCRIT=1250
LOCCRIT=200.0
XCRIT=100.0
DPW=5
DP1=30.0
DP2=90.0
CORXCRIT=10
CORCRIT =75
INTXCRIT=5
The above mentioned example filters two windows and uses two different IDF-files (AHN_ORG1.IDF
and AHN_ORG2.IDF). The main reason for using most of the setting variables is that the dimension of
the original IDF-files (IDFFILE1 and IDFFILE2) is centimeter instead of meter.
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CREATEIDF-Function
The CREATEIDF function can be used to create IDF-files out of ESRI ASC File Formats, see section 9.11. Be aware of the fact that you can open more of these ASC files in the iMOD Manager,
alternatively (see section 5.4).
TOPWC=
BOTEL=
CREATEIDF
Enter the name of a folder that contains a specific set of ASC file(s), e.g.
{path}:\DATA\RESULTS\HEAD*_L*.ASC. All ASC files that agree will be
converted to IDF-files.
Enter the wildcard that specifies the part of the filename that represents
the top elevation of the data, e.g. SEL_*.ASC. In this case, iMOD will
search for the absolute top elevation to be defined at the location of the
asterix, e.g. SEL_0.45.ASC will yield the value 0.45.
Enter the relative bottom of the elevation to be added to the top elevation,
e.g. BOTEL=-0.5 will yield an absolute bottom elevation of 0.45-0.5=-0.10.
Example 1
FUNCTION=CREATEIDF
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\TOP*.ASC
T
FUNCTION=
SOURCEDIR=
DR
AF
8.12
The above mentioned example transforms all ESRI ASCII gridfiles that agree with the wildcard TOP*.ASC
into the IDF format. The yielding files will have identical names with the extension .IDF, and will be
placed in the same folder as their ASCII files, so TOP1.ASC becomes TOP1.IDF.
Files will be overwritten without questioning!
Example 2
FUNCTION=CREATEIDF
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\SEL*.ASC
TOPWC=SEL_*.ASC
BOTEL=-0.5
The following example translates all ESRI ASCII gridfiles that agree with the wildcard SEL*.ASC. into
SEL*.IDF-files. Moreover, a top elevation (TOPWC) will be extracted from the filename at the position
of the wildcard, so the function tries to read a real value at the position of the asterix, suppose the
filename is SEL_0.25.ASC, the value finally read is 0.25. It will be used to enter the TOP elevation
inside the IDF (see section 9.3 for the syntax of IDF-files). The bottom elevation will be equal to the top
elevation (0.25 in this example) plus the given value BOTEL, in this case -0.5, thus bottom elevation is
0.25+-0.5=-0.25.
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IMPORTMODFLOW-Function
Use this function to import an existing MODFLOW configuration into iMOD files (e.g. IDFs, IPFs and
GENs), see for more information section 7.5.2.
BASFILE=
NAMFILE=
OUTDIR=
LLCORNER=
IMPORTMODFLOW
Enter the version number of the MODFLOW configuration files, e.g.
MVERSION=1988. There are three available versions supported: 1988,
2000 and 2005.
Enter the location of the, so called, BAS file (use this keyword whenever
MVERSION=1988), e.g. BASFILE=D:\MODEL\MODEL.BAS.
Enter the location of the, so called, NAM file (use this keyword whenever
MVERSION=2000 or 2005), e.g. NAMFILE=D:\MODEL\MODEL.NAM.
Enter the folder in which all iMOD files will be saved, e.g. OUTDIR
=D:\IMPORT. Subfolders will be created automatically to save the individual files, e.g. D:\IMPORT\BND\VERSION_1\BND_L1.IDF . By default
OUTDIR =’.’ which means that the files will be saved directly at the current
location of the iMOD executable.
Enter the coordinates of the lower-left corner of your model,
e.g. XMIN=200000.0,YMIN=400000.0 (all in meters).
By default
XMIN=YMIN=0.0.
Enter the starting date of your simulation, e.g. SDATE=20111027 which
means 27th of October 2011. By default SDATE=20110101.
Enter PACKAGESUM=1 to sum all existing package information into a single modelcell, this is the default. Whenever more elements occur in a
single modelcell, they will be lumped together to form one value. Enter
PACKAGESUM=0 to extract all elements in a single modelcell to store
them, if necessary, in individual iMOD files.
Enter RIV5TH=1 to include a 5th column in the river files that expresses
the infiltration resistance. On default RIV5TH=0.
T
FUNCTION=
MVERSION=
DR
AF
8.13
SDATE=
PACKAGESUM=
RIV5TH=
Example 1
FUNCTION=IMPORTMODFLOW
MVERSION=1988
BASFILE=D:\IMOD-MODEL\VELUWE\MS1L5.BAS
This is the shortest version to import the MODFLOW model MS1L5.
Example 2
FUNCTION=IMPORTMODFLOW
MVERSION=2005
NAMFILE=D:\MODEL\GWR54\MODFLOW.NAM
LLCORNER=125000.0,432000.0
SDATE=20050101
PACKAGESUM=0
RIV5TH=1
This example shows how to import a (transient) MODFLOW2005 configuration.
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IDFSTAT-Function
The IDFSTAT function can be used to perform some elementary statistical analyses on the content of
IDF-files. You can use the IDF Info functionality in iMOD, alternatively (see section 6.3).
FUNCTION=
SOURCEDIR=
OUTFILE=
IDFSTAT
Enter the name of a folder that contains a specific set of IDF-file(s),
e.g. {path}:\DATA\RESULTS\HEAD*.IDF. All IDF-files that agree, will be included in the analysis.
Specify a filename for the resulting statistical analysis, e.g.
{path}\DATA\RESULTS\RESULT.CSV. A result of this can look as:
T
1,AHN.IDF
2,AHN_FILTERED.IDF
3,AHN_SCALED.IDF
File, Population, Mean, Variance, P( 0), . . . , P(100)
1, 585917, 9.2359428, 0.0248852, -6.8000002, . . . , 4.0799999
2, 40000, 1.9279687, 0.0015057, -0.1490000, . . . , 2.9757273
3, 147912, 9.2729473, 0.0498930, -6.7449999, . . . , 335.730011
All percentiles will be computed between 0 and 100 by steps of
5.
DR
AF
8.14
Example 1
FUNCTION=IDFSTAT
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\AHN*.IDF
OUTFILE=D:\DATA\STAT.CSV
This examples illustrated how to get the statistics of all IDF-files inside the folder D:\DATA that agree
with the wildcard AHN*.IDF; results will be written in the file D:\DATA\STAT.CSV.
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IPFSTAT-Function
The IPFSTAT function can be used to perform statistical analyses on timeseries that are defined in IPF
files as associated files.
FUNCTION=
IPF1=
OUTFILE=
T
VARIABLES=
IPFSTAT
Enter the name of an *.IPF file for which the associated timeseries need
to be analysed, e.g. {path}\MEASURE.IPF.
Specify a filename for the resulting IPF (or GEN whenever a GENFILE is
specified), e.g. {path}\RESULT.IPF.
Specify the number of variables to be computed.
Only IPF1 specified:
1. Auto-Correlation
- Correlation
- MeanLag
- NumberPoints
2. P50 over entire data period
3. (n)GxG starts at DMY1 and end at DMY2
- GHG
- GLG
- n(GxG)
Both IPF1 and IPF2 specified:
1. Cross-Correlation
- Correlation
- MeanLag
- NumberPoints
2. P50 IPF1 over overlapping data period IPF1 and IPF2
3. P50 IPF2 over overlapping data period IPF1 and IPF2
4. (n)GxG IPF1 starts at DMY1 and end at DMY2
- GHG
- GLG
- n(GxG)
5. (n)GxG IPF2 starts at DMY1 and end at DMY2
- GHG
- GLG
- n(GxG)
Enter the variables by their subsequent numbers, e.g. VARIABLES=0, 1,
0 in case IPF1 is specified solely, it will compute the P50 only. Or VARIABLES=0, 0, 0, 1, 1 in case IPF1 and IPF2 are both specified, in this case
for both the (n)GxG will be computed.
Enter the column number that contains the date expression in the txt files
associated to the first IPF file, on default ICOLDATE1=1.
Enter the column number that contains the data, e.g. the measurement/computed head in the txt files associated to the first IPF file, on default ICOLDATE2=2.
Enter the name of a second *.IPF file for which the associated timeseries need to be analysed and compared to those in IPF1, e.g.
{path}:\COMPUTED.IPF. Be aware that the number of VARIABLES change
whenever IPF2 is absent.
Enter the column number that contains the date expression in the txt files
associated to the second IPF file, on default ICOLDATE2=1.
Enter the column number that contains the data, e.g. the measurement/computed head in the txt files associated to the second IPF file, on
default ICOLDATE2=2.
Enter
the
name
of
a
*.GEN-file
that
needs
to
be
used
to
aggregate
value
upon
its
individual
polygons.
This option is valid in combination with IPF2 only.
DR
AF
8.15
ICOLDATE1
ICOLVARS1
IPF2=
ICOLDATE2
ICOLVARS2
GENFILE=
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PERCENTILES=
IINVERSE=
RELATECOLIPF1=
RELATECOLIPF2=
XLAG=
T
DLAG=
Enter the percentiles to be computed for each individual polygon in the
given GENFILE, e.g. 0.10, 0.90. If absent, PERCENTILES=0.10, 0.25,
0.50, 0.75, 0.90. This option is valid in combination with GENFILE only.
Enter IINVERSE=0 to use PERCENTILES as defined, however, enter IINVERSE=1 to find the percentiles that belong to the values entered by
PERCENTILES. This option is valid in combination with GENFILE only.
Enter the column number in IPF1 and IPF2 that need to
be used to relate between the data in IPF1 and IPF2.
This option is valid in combination with IPF2 only.
Specify the lagwidth to be used to compute the auto/cross correlation, e.g.
XLAG=30 means that the auto/cross correlation will be computed over 30
(days). If absent XLAG=0.0 an auto/cross correlation will be computed
between measurements on similar dates.
Specify the lag distance to be used to extent the search area, e.g. DLAG=7
means that 7 (days) before and 7 (days) after the given date+XLAG will be
used to search for data. If absent DLAG=7.0 (days).
Specify a starting and end date, both notated by yyyymmdd, e.g.
20110131 to express 31th January 2011. If absent these values are
DMY1=19000101 and DMY2=21001231, respectively. Both will be used
for VARIABLES that compute (n)GxG values.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that represent the surfacelevel, e.g. SURFACELEVEL=D:\DATA\AHN.IDF. This will be used to express the GxG
value according to this surfacelevel.
DR
AF
DMY1=
DMY2=
SURFACELEVEL=
Example 1
FUNCTION=IPFSTAT
IPF1=D:\TESTS\TEST.IPF
OUTFILE=D:\TESTS\OUT.IPF
VARIABLES=0,1,0
The example above computes the median groundwaterlevels (or equivalent) that are associated with
the IPF file TEST.IPF. The result is stored in OUT.IPF.
Example 2
FUNCTION=IPFSTAT
IPF1=D:\TESTS\MEASURE.IPF
IPF2=D:\TESTS\MODEL.IPF
OUTFILE=D:\TESTS\RESIDUAL.IPF
VARIABLES=1,0,0,0,0
RELATECOLIPF1=4
RELATECOLIPF2=3
ICOLDATE2=1
ICOLVARS2=2
The example above, computes the cross-correlation between the measurements associated with the
MEASURE.IPF and the computed values associates with the MODEL.IPF. The relation-columns are 4
and 3 for the MEASURE.IPF and MODEL.IPF, respectively.
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iMOD-Batch
MODELCOPY-Function
The function MODELCOPY can be used to extract a submodel from a large model. In this process,
all IDF and IPF files that can be identified in a given runfile, will be clipped to the given window. Other
files will be copied. As a result a complete copy of a part of the original model will be saved and can
be simulated separately.
FUNCTION=
RUNFILE=
TARGETDIR=
WINDOW=
T
CLIPDIR=
MODELCOPY
Enter the name of a runfile that contains a specific set of IDF-file(s), e.g.
RUNFILE=D:\RUNFILES\MODEL.RUN
Enter the name of a folder in which the resulting files will be copied, e.g.
TARGETDIR=D:\SUBMODEL
Specify a window (X1,Y1,X2,Y2) for which the entered RUNFILE will be
clipped, WINDOW=125100.0,345000.0,135000.0,355000.0.
Enter
a
foldername
for
which
all
filenames
will
be
trimmed,
e.g.
CLIPDIR=D:\MODEL.
If
the
original
filenames
are
D:\MODEL\DRN\SYS1\DRN_EL_L1.IDF
and
D:\MODEL\DRN\SYS2\DRN_EL_L1.IDF,
they
will
be
saved
in
{TARGETDIR}\DRN\SYS1\DRN_EL_L1.IDF
and
{TARGETDIR}\DRN\SYS2\DRN_EL_L1.IDF, respectively. By omitting CLIPDIR,
both files will be stored in {TARGETDIR}\DRN\DRN_EL_L1.IDF instead.
DR
AF
8.16
Example 1
FUNCTION=MODELCOPY
RUNFILE=D:\RUNFILES\MODEL.RUN
TARGETDIR=D:\MODEL\SUBMODEL
The above mentioned example copies all IDF and IPF files from the runfile D:\RUNFILES\MODEL.RUN
and the result is saved in D:\MODEL\SUBMODEL.
A new runfile is created that will be saved in D:\MODEL\SUBMODEL\MODEL.RUN. Use this configuration to create a cleaned up folder structure of the model.
Example 2
FUNCTION=MODELCOPY
RUNFILE=D:\RUNFILES\MODEL.RUN
TARGETDIR=D:\MODEL\SUBMODEL
WINDOW=147000.0 448000.0 155000.0 452000.0
CLIPDIR=D:\MODEL
The above mentioned example is equal to example 1 except that it clips all IDF and IPF files from
the runfile D:\RUNFILES\MODEL.RUN to the window 147000.0 448000.0 155000.0 452000.0 and the
files remain their original filename under D:\MODEL. In this way complex structured in filename will be
preserved.
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IMODPATH-Function
The function IMODPATH computes flowlines based on the budget terms that result from the iMODFLOW computation. The IMODPATH function uses a very simple runfile. For more information see
section 7.11.
IMODPATH
Enter the name of the runfile that describes the files needed for the iMODPATH
simulation, e.g. RUNFILE=D:\MODEL\SIM.RUN. The content of such a runfile is
as follows:
NLAY
Enter the number of modellayers, e.g. NLAY=8
NPER
Enter the number of stressperiods, .e.g. NPER=1.
NSDF
Enter the number of SDF files to be computed, sequentially.
Enter this only whenever NSDF>1.
ISDFILE
Enter the name of the startpoint file, see section 7.10 for more
information about this type of file (page 56 for the actual syntax).
Repeat this for NSDF-times whenever NSDF is specified.
OUTFILE
Enter the name of the result file. The extent will be added or
replaced to the appropriate output format (IFF and/or IPF), e.g.
D:\d:\RESULT. Repeat this for NSDF-times whenever NSDF is
specified.
IMODE(.)
Enter the mode of the results to be achieved, use IMODE(1)=1
for flowlines and IMODE(2)=1 for endpoints. For example
IMODE=1,1 will save both particles in the IFF and IPF format,
as IMODE=0,1 will save them in IPF only.
IFWBW
Enter the direction of the tracing, use IFWBW=0 for a forward
tracing and IFWBW=1 for a backward tracing.
ISNK
Specification on how to handle “weak”-sinks. Particles will continue at weak sinks for ISNK=1 as they stop at weak sinks for
ISNK=2. The latter can be specified as a fraction for ISNK=3,
see keyword FRACTION.
FRACTION
Specify the fraction of the total outflow to be a measure to determine whether particles should stop or continue in a model with
a “weak”-sink.
STOPCRIT
Enter the stop criteria. Specify STOPCRIT=1 to stop the particle as its age becomes equal to MAXT; specify STOPCRIT=2
to repeat the transient period in the time window as specified
by the keywords SWINDOW and EWINDOW until the particles
meets the MAXT criterion or stops in a weak/strong sink. Or,
alternatively set STOPCRIT=3 to continue with the last results
at the end of the time window until the particle terminates. This
keyword STOPCRIT is only applicable whenever NPER> 1.
MAXT
Enter the maximum tracing time (days).
STARTDATE
Enter the startdate for the particle tracing, e.g. 19960414 to express the 14th of April 1994. Only necessary whenever NPER
> 1.
SWINDOW
Enter the start date for the time window in which the particle
tracing will operate, e.g. 19960414 to express the 1st of April
1994. Only necessary whenever NPER > 1.
EWINDOW
Enter the end date for the time window in which the particle
tracing will operate, e.g. 20040328 to express the 28th of March
2004. Only necessary whenever NPER > 1.
Repeat the following NLAY-times
IBOUND
Enter the boundary condition (IDF). Particle tracing will pass
through boundary values > 0 only.
TOP
Enter the top elevation (IDF or constant value) of a modellayer
(m+MSL).
T
FUNCTION=
RUNFILE=
DR
AF
8.17
330
Deltares
iMOD-Batch
BOT
Enter the bottom elevation (IDF or constant value) of a modellayer (m+MSL).
PORAQF
Enter the porosity (IDF or constant value) of the aquifer (-).
PORAQT
Enter the porosity (IDF or constant value) of the
aquitard (-).
Repeat the following NLAY times and NPER times
BDGFRF
Enter the budget (m3 /day) along the x axes (columns).
BDGFFF
Enter the budget (m3 /day) along the y axes (rows).
BDGFLF
Enter the budget (m3 /day) along the z axes (layers). Do not
enter this value for the lowest modellayer.
FUNCTION=IMODPATH
RUNFILE=D:\iMOD\IMODPATH.RUN
and the content of the IMODPATH.RUN file:
T
Example 1
DR
AF
2, !## NLAY
1, !## NPER
2
D:\STARTPOINTS\LAYER2.ISD
D:\MODEL\CAPTURE_LAYER2.IFF
D:\STARTPOINTS\LAYER3.ISD
D:\MODEL\CAPTURE_LAYER3.IFF
1,1 !## IMODE
0, !## IFWBW
2, !## ISNK
0.50, !## FRACTION
1, !## ISTOP
0.1000E+31, !## MAXT
19960414, !## SDATE
19960401, !## SWINDOW
20040328, !## EWINDOW
D:\IMOD-MODEL\IBOUND1.IDF, !## IBOUND
D:\IMOD-MODEL\TOP1.IDF, !## TOP
D:\IMOD-MODEL\BOT1.IDF, !## BOT
0.3, !## PORAQF
0.1, !## PORAQT
D:\IMOD-MODEL\IBOUND2.IDF, !##
D:\IMOD-MODEL\TOP2.IDF, !##
D:\IMOD-MODEL\BOT2.IDF, !##
0.3, !## PORAQF
0.1, !## PORAQT
D:\MODEL\BDGFRF\BDGFRF_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF, !## BDGFRF
D:\MODEL\BDGFFF\BDGFFF_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF, !## BDGFFF
D:\MODEL\BDGFLF\BDGFLF_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF, !## BDGFLF
D:\MODEL\BDGFRF\BDGFRF_STEADY-STATE_L2.IDF, !## BDGFRF
D:\MODEL\BDGFFF\BDGFFF_STEADY-STATE_L2.IDF, !## BDGFFF
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IPFSAMPLE-Function
The function IPFSAMPLE samples IDF-files to add values to the points defined in an IPF file.
IPFFILE_OUT=
SOURCEDIR=
IXCOL
IYCOL
IPFSAMPLE
Enter the name of an IPF file with minimal 2 columns that represents xand y coordinates, e.g. D:\DATA\MEASURE.IPF.
Enter the name of an IPF file that need to be written with the results of the
IDF values from the specified IDFFILE, e.g. D:\DATA\CHECK.IPF. Results
read from the IDF-files in SOURCEDIR, will be stored as an extra column
in IPFFILE_IN, the label will be identical to the name of the IDF-files.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that needs to be read by the points specified
in the IPF file IPFFILE_IN, e.g. D:\DATA\RESULTS\HEAD.IDF.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPFFILE_IN that represents the
X-coordinate, e.g. IXCOL=4. By default IXCOL=1.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPFFILE_IN that represents the
Y-coordinate, e.g. IYCOL=6. By default IYCOL=2.
Example 1
T
FUNCTION=
IPFFILE_IN=
DR
AF
8.18
FUNCTION=IPFSAMPLE
IPFFILE_IN=D:\WELLS.IPF
IPFFILE_OUT=D:\WELLS_KD.IPF
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\KD*.IDF
This example, adds values (columns) to all points in the IPF file WELLS.IPF, with the corresponding
values from the KD*.IDF-files in the folder D:\DATA.
Example 2
FUNCTION=IPFSAMPLE
IPFFILE_IN=D:\WELLS.IPF
IPFFILE_OUT=D:\WELLS.IPF
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\KD*.IDF
IXCOL=4
IYCOL=3
This example, adds values (columns) to all points in the IPF file WELLS.IPF, with the corresponding
values from the KD*.IDF-files in the folder D:\DATA. The x- and y coordinates in the IPF file WELLS.IPF,
will be read from the fourth and third column, respectively.
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iMOD-Batch
MKWELLIPF-Function
The MKWELLIPF function computes the extraction strength for each well based upon a weighed value
according to their length and permeability of the penetrated modellayer.
TOPIDF{i}=
BOTIDF{i}=
KDIDF{i}=
CIDF{i}=
NIPF
IPF{i}=
MKWELLIPF
Enter the number of layers from which well may be organized, e.g.
NLAY=7.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that represents the top elevation of the ith
modellayer, e.g. TOPIDF1=D:\MODEL\TOP1.IDF.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that represents the bottom elevation of the
ith modellayer, e.g. BOTIDF3=D:\MODEL\BOT_LAYER3.IDF.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that represents the transmissivity of a particular ith modellayer, e.g. KDIDF2=D:\MODEL\TRAN_L2.IDF.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that represents the vertical resistance between two adjacent modellayers i and i+1, e.g.
CIDF1=D:\MODEL\C_L1.IDF.
Enter the number of IPF files to be organized, e.g. NIPF=3.
Enter the name for the ith IPF file, e.g. D:\DATA\WELL.IPF.
The
resulting
IPF
files
will
be
save
in
the
folder
D:\DATA\WELL\IMOD_MKIPF_WELLS_L*.IPF for each modellayer
that has extraction rate <> 0.0.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPF{i} that represents the x coordinate, e.g. IXCOL=4. By default IXCOL=1.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPF{i} that represents the y coordinate, e.g. IYCOL=6. By default IYCOL=2.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPF{i} that represents the extraction
rate of the well, e.g. IQCOL=12. By default IQCOL=3.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPF{i} that represents the top of
the well screen, e.g. ITCOL=4. By default ITCOL=4.
Enter the column number in the IPF file IPF{i} that represents the bottom
of the well screen, e.g. IBCOL=6. By default IBCOL=5.
T
FUNCTION=
NLAY=
DR
AF
8.19
IXCOL=
IYCOL=
IQCOL=
ITCOL=
IBCOL=
ISS=
SDATE=
EDATE=
MAXC=
MINKH=
ICLAY=
HNODATA=
FNODATA=
IFRAC=
Specify a starting date (YYYYMMDD) from which the determination of a
well strength/head will be computed. This keyword is compulsory whenever ISS=1.
Specify an end date (YYYYMMDD) from which the determination of a well
strength/head will be computed. This keyword is compulsory whenever
ISS=1.
Specify the maximum resistance between modellayers that would cause
the well screen to be subdivided. By default MAXC=50 days.
Specify the minimum horizontal k-value (permeability) that will receive a
well. By default MINKH=0 m/day.
Whenever wells might fall completely in-between two modellayers, specify
ICLAY=1 to shift the well vertically to that modellayer that is most nearby.
By default ICLAY=0.
Specify the NoDataValue for the . . . . By default NODATA=0.
Specify the NoDataValue for the top and bottom of the well screen, denoted by ITCOL and IBCOL. By default NODATA=-99999.
Specify IFRAC=1 to compute extraction rates as an averages over the
selected modellayer. By default IFRAC=1.
As a result this function will yield several IPF files (IMOD_MKIPF_WELLS_L{ilay}.IPF) that contain the
following extra attributes:
Q_ASSIGNED
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Discharge of the well for a particular modellayer
333
iMOD, User Manual
Q_ORG
fraction
ILAY
TOP
BOT
KD
Original discharge of the well
FRACTION f computed for the modellayer that receives the extraction rate
modellayer
Note: The IPF file IMOD_MKIPF_WELLS_L0.IPF contains all rows from the original IPF. This file is
easier to analyse whether the well screen assigned have been computer properly.
Methodology
T
The following steps are carried out for each individual record in the IPF file (IPF{i}):
DR
AF
1 Compute the indivual length of the well screen between the ITCOL and IBCOL into well screen
segments, that penetrate any modellayer. Well screen segments that are above the surface
elevation (TOPIDF1) or below the lowest bottom elevation (BOTIDF{NLAY}) will be clipped off;
2 Group those well screen segments that are inbetween aquitards with more than MAXC days of
vertical resistance. Select those well screen segments that belong to the longest group and clip
the others off;
3 Compute the horizontal permeability (k-value) for all modellayers that are penetrated by the
remaining well screen segments. Assign a ratio to all well screen segments based upon their
individual length multiplied by the k-values of the corresponding model layer devided by their
total summed value;
4 Correct any ratio for a dismatch between the centre of the penetrating modellayer zc and the
vertical midpoint of the well screen segment fc , by:
f = 1.0 в€’
|zc в€’ fc |
,
0.5∆z
where ∆z is the thickness of the corresponding aquifer.
5 Remove ratio that are smaller than 5%.
The following figure shows the methodology:
334
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iMOD-Batch
FUNCTION=MKWELLIPF
NLAY=3
TOPIDF1=D:\DATA\TOP1.IDF
TOPIDF2= D:\DATA\TOP2.IDF
TOPIDF3= D:\DATA\TOP3.IDF
BOTIDF1= D:\DATA\BOT1.IDF
BOTIDF2= D:\DATA\BOT2.IDF
BOTIDF3= D:\DATA\BOT3.IDF
KDIDF1= D:\DATA\KD1.IDF
KDIDF2= D:\DATA\KD2.IDF
KDIDF3= D:\DATA\KD3.IDF
CIDF1=D:\DATA\C1.IDF
CIDF2=D:\DATA\C2.IDF
NIPF=1
IPF1=D:\DATA\WELL.IPF
T
Example 1
DR
AF
The example above, will classify each location in the IPF file D:\DATA\WELL.IPF according their length
and associated transmissivity, within any penetrating modellayer.
Example 2
FUNCTION=MKWELLIPF
NLAY=3
TOPIDF1=D:\DATA\TOP1.IDF
TOPIDF2= D:\DATA\TOP2.IDF
TOPIDF3= D:\DATA\TOP3.IDF
BOTIDF1= D:\DATA\BOT1.IDF
BOTIDF2= D:\DATA\BOT2.IDF
BOTIDF3= D:\DATA\BOT3.IDF
KDIDF1= D:\DATA\KD1.IDF
KDIDF2= D:\DATA\KD2.IDF
KDIDF3= D:\DATA\KD3.IDF
CIDF1=D:\DATA\C1.IDF
CIDF2=D:\DATA\C2.IDF
IXCOL=1
IYCOL=2
ITCOL=3
IBCOL=4
IQCOL=8
NIPF=3
IPF1=D:\DATA\INDUSTRY.IPF
IPF2= D:\DATA\DRINKINGCOOPERATION.IPF
IPF3= D:\DATA\AGRICULTURE.IPF
The example above, will classify each location in three IPF files according their length and associated
transmissivity, within any penetrating modellayer. The content of the IPF files is different than the
default IXCOL, IYCOL, ITCOL, IBCOL and IQCOL column indentifications, and therefore added here.
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XYZTOIDF-Function
Use this function to create an IDF from a plain data file(s) or IPF file(s) that contain x,y,z data at least.
The column (“z”) can contain any type of (real) data.
IPFFILE=
SOURCEDIR=
TARGETDIR=
NODATA=
CS=
WINDOW=
IDFFILE_IN=
IDFFILE
GRIDFUNC=
336
XYZTOIDF
Enter the name of a plain text file that contains x,y,z data, e.g. XYZFILE=D:\DATA\XYZ.TXT. The format of the file should be: 1st line: header;
next lines: x, y, z-data.
Enter the name of an IPF file that contains x,y,z data, e.g. IPFFILE=D:\DATA\POINTS.IPF.
IXCOL=
Enter the column number of the IPF that contains the xcoordinates, e.g. IXCOL=1 (default value).
IYCOL=
Enter the column number of the IPF that contains the ycoordinates, e.g. IYCOL=2 (default value).
IZCOL=
Enter the column number of the IPF that contains the zcoordinates, e.g. IZCOL=3 (default value).
Enter the folder and wildcard that corresponds to the XYZFILEs, e.g.
D:\DATA\REGION*.XYZ. The keyword XYZFILE and IPFFILE should be absent, otherwise XYZFILE or IPFFILE will be used!
Enter the folder to which the IDFFILEs will be saved that correspond
to the XYZFILEs or IPFFILEs found in the SOURCEDIR, e.g. TARGETDIR=D:\DATA\IDFS, the results will be called D:\DATA\IDFS\REGION*.IDF
whenever SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\REGION*.XYZ. This keyword is compulsory whenever the optional keyword SOURCEDIR is applied.
Enter a NoDataValue for those data points that need to be excluded from the
gridding, e.g. NODATA=0.0 to exclude data points equal to zero. By default,
NODATA=-999.99.
Enter the cellsize of the IDFFILE to be created, e.g. CS=100.0. This keyword
is not necessary whenever IDFFILE ....
Enter the coordinates of the window that needs to be computed. Enter coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates of the upperright corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0, 425000.0. When
WINDOW= is absent, the entire XYZFILE or IPFFILE will be gridded for its
maximum extent.
Enter the name of an IDF-file for which data points that are equal to its NoDataValue will be interpolated.
IDFFILE_
Enter an IDF-file that will be needed to specify what locaPOINTER=
tions will be interpolated, this file is optional. It temporarily
blanks out the IDF-file given by IDFFILE_IN before the interpolation and resets the original value in the blanked-out
area after the interpolation.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that need to be created, e.g. IDFFILE=D:\DATA\XYZ.IDF.
Enter the grid function to be used:
MIN
minimum of all data points inside a gridcell;
MAX
maximum of all data points inside a gridcell;
MEAN
mean of all data points inside a gridcell;
PERC
percentile of all data points inside a gridcell.
T
FUNCTION=
XYZFILE=
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T
PERCENTILE= Enter the percentile (>=0 PERCENTILE <=100.0) whenever GRIDFUNC=PERC, e.g. PERCENTILE=25.0. A percentile value will be interpolated linearly, whenever the
entered PERCENTILE falls in-between two values. Entering PERCENTILE=0.0 or PERCENTILE=100.0 will yield
the same results as with GRIDFUNC=MIN and GRIDFUNC=MAX, respectively, however, the latter functions are
faster than the function GRIDFUNC=PERC. Entered values
beyond 0.0 and above 100.0, will be trimmed to 0.0 and
100.0, automatically.
BIVAR:
takes a bivariate interpolation
SKRIGING:
takes a Kriging interpolation, SKRIGING stands for Simple
OKRIGING:
Kriging (assuming a constant mean over the entire domain);
OKRIGING stands for Ordinary Kriging (assuming a constant mean in the neighborhood of each estimation point).
Choose one of both at one time.
MINP=
Enter the minimum number of points used for the interpolation. Default MINP=10 (or less whenever the dataset contains less points).
MAXP=
Enter the minimum number of points used for the interpolation. Default MAXP=50 (or less whenever the dataset contains less points).
RANGE=
Enter the range that defines a neighborhood within which all
data points are related to one another, e.g. RANGE=1000
meter. The semivariance will become approximately equal
to the variance of the whole surface itself (SILL).
SILL=
Enter the distance at which the semivariance approaches a
flat region. SILL is referred as the range or span of the regionalized variable, e.g. SILL=2500. This parameter resemblances a variance. The magnitude of the semivariance between points depends on the distance between the points. A
smaller distance yields a smaller semivariance and a larger
distance results in a larger semivariance.
NUGGET=
Enter the offset of the semivariogram, e.g. NUGGET= 10.0.
KTYPE=
Enter the type of the Kriging model to be used to compute
the value at Xi , choose from:
1 Linear Model:
Xi =DISTi *(SILL-NUGGET)/RANGE
2 Spherical Model:
DISTi <=RANGE:
Xi =SILL*(1.5*(DISTi /RANGE))-(0.5*(DIST3 /RANGE3 ))
DISTi >RANGE:
Xi =SILL
3 Exponential Model:
Xi =SILL*(1.0-EXP(-DIST3 i /RANGE))
STDEVIDF=
Enter the name for the standard deviation computed, e.g.
STDEVIDF=D:\VAR.IDF.
VARIOGRAM: create a semivariogram, this yields no interpolation of the
data, it generates a table filled in with a variogram. Whenever the WINDOW keyword is specified, a variogram will be
computed for those data points that are within the bounds of
the given WINDOW. The results will be written in the VARIOGRAM.TXT file, see coming pages for an example.
LAGEnter the number of distances over which the VARIOGRAM
INTERVAL=
will be computed, e.g. LAGINTERVAL=50 will yield fifty intervals equally distributed between zero and the maximum
distance between point.
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RCLOSE=
NINNER=
Example 1
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FUNCTION=XYZTOIDF
XYZFILE=D:\DATA\28BN.XYZ
IDFFILE=D:\DATA\28BN.IDF
CS=5.0
GRIDFUNC=MEAN
Specify the lagdistance, e.g. LAGDISTANCE=50.0 to overrule the lagdistance as computed by LAGINTERVAL.
takes a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient interpolation
Enter a closure criterium for the PCG solver to terminate the
interpolation, e.g. HCLOSE=0.001 (this is the default).
Enter a closure criterium for the PCG solver to terminate the
interpolation, e.g. RCLOSE=1000.0 (this is the default).
Enter the number of inner iteration for the PCG solver, e.g.
NINNER=50 (this is the default). Use large values for NINNER to speed up the interpolation since the problem to be
solved is linear.
T
LAGDISTANCE=
PCG:
HCLOSE=
Above an example is given how to rasterize, for a 5x5 resolution (CS=5.0), the content of an XYZ file
by means of its mean values (GRIDFUNC=MEAN) inside the individual rastercells. The default NoDataValue of -999.99 will be assigned to those rastercells that doesn’t have any points inside, moreover, data points that have this particular value will be left out.
Example 2
FUNCTION=XYZTOIDF
SOURCEDIR=D:\DATA\*.XYZ
TARGETDIR=D:\DATA\IDF
IDFFILE=D:\DATA\28BN.IDF
CS=25.0
GRIDFUNC=PERC
PERCENTILE=5.0
NODATA=0.0
Example above shows how to rasterize, for a 25x25 resolution (CS=25.0), the content of all *.XYZ files
in the folder D:\DATA, by means of its 5.0 percentile values (PERCENTILE=5.0; GRIDFUNC=PERC)
inside the individual rastercells. A NoDataValue of 0.0 will be assigned to those rastercells that doesn’t
have any points inside, moreover, data points that have this particular value will be left out.
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Example of PCG interpolation:
T
Example of Bivariant interpolation:
Example of MEAN sampling:
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Example of a Variogram:
T
Example of Kriging interpolation (linear model):
From the above presented variogram, the SILL would be 30 and the corresponding RANGE approximately 1000m, at that distance the SILL value flattens. The NUGGET is zero in this example.
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Example of the different models to be used in the Kriging interpolation:
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ISGGRID-Function
Use this function to rasterize the selected ISG-files into IDF-files that can be used by iMODFLOW in a
runfile.
FUNCTION=
ISGFILE_IN=
CELL_SIZE=
MINDEPTH=
T
OUTPUT
FOLDER=
ISGGRID
Enter an ISG-file that need to be simplified, e.g. ISGFILE_IN=D:\PO.ISG.
Enter the cell size (meter) for the IDF-files that will be created from the ISG-file
mentioned by ISGFILE_IN, e.g. CELL_SIZE=25.0.
Enter the minimum waterdepth (meter) used for the calculation of the conductance of the streambed, e.g. MINDEPTH=0.10.
Enter a foldername to save all rasters into, e.g.
OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\OUTPUT. The following rasters will be saved:
1
COND
The computed streambed conductance (m2 /day)
2
STAGE
The interpolated riverlevel (m+MSL)
3
BOTTOM
The interpolated riverbed height (m+MSL)
4
INFFCT
The interpolated river infiltration factor (-)
5
TOTAL_LENGTH Total length if existing river segments in a single
rastercell (meter)
6
MEAN_
Mean wetted perimeter within a river segment
WPERIMETER
7
MEAN_WIDTH
Mean streambed width
8
RESISTANCE
Interpolated river resistance (days)
9
EROSION
Erosion matrix to be used to extent the riverbed
existence over more rastercells
The following will be created only whenever ICDIST=1
10
EFFECT
The computed waterlevel that are influenced by
the weirs.
11
CUR_ID
Identification of structures for current segment.
12
NEX_ID
Indentification of following structure for current
segment.
Enter a postfix to be used to add to the end of the IDF-file names mentioned above, e.g. POSTFIX=_SUMMER yields STAGE_SUMMER.IDF instead
of STAGE.IDF.
Enter a NoDataValue for which waterlevels will be skipped in determining the
waterlevels along profiles, e.g. NODATA=-999.
Enter the coordinates of the window that needs to be computed. Enter coordinates of the lower-left corner first and then the coordinates of the upper-right
corner, e.g. WINDOW=100000.0, 400000.0, 200000.0, 425000.0. When WINDOW= is absent, the entire ISG will be gridded for its maximum extent.
Enter the numbers to be saved solely, e.g. ISAVE=1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 to identify that the IDF-files COND, STAGE and BOTTOM need to be saved.
Specify whether the waterlevels need to be calculated for a specific period, by
default IPERIOD=1 which means that waterlevels will be computed as the mean
over the entire existing periods within the ISG-file (which can be different among
the segments). Specify IPERIOD=2 to enter a date over which the waterlevels
will be averaged.
SDATE= Enter a starting date to compute averaged waterlevels for, e.g.
SDATE=19910101 to represent the 1st of January 1991.
EDATE= Enter a starting date to compute averaged waterlevels for, e.g.
EDATE=19911231 to represent the 31st of December 1991.
DDATE= Enter a date-difference to be used to compute more rasters for different periods, e.g. DDATE=14 means that a sequence between SDATE
and EDATE will be computed with length of 14 days. By default
DDATE=0 which will ignore any timesteps in-between the SDATE and
EDATE variables. The names of the IDF-file will be extended to include
a date notification, e.g. STAGE{POSTFIX}_19910101.IDF
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POSTFIX=
NODATA=
WINDOW=
ISAVE=
IPERIOD=
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ISIMGRO=
MINDEPTH=
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IEXPORT=
Set this value to 1 to compute the effects of weir as stored in the ISG file. By
default ICDIST=0. See keyword OUTPUTFOLDER to get the names of the extra
IDF files that will be created.
Set this value to 1 to export the gridded values for the ISG into a MetaSWAP file
svat_swnr_drng.inp.
SVAT2SWNR_DRNG=
Enter the name for the svatswnr_drng.inp file.
SEGMENTCSVFNAME=
Enter the CSV that contains the list of ...
THIESSENFNAME=
Enter an IDF file that represents the SVAT-id for MetaSWAP.
AHNFNAME=
Enter an IDF file with the surface level.
SYSID= Enter a single value for the system identification.
WDEPTH=
Enter a waterdepth that will be used to define the appropriate trapezia
for MetaSWAP.
This value specifies the minimal waterdepth that is used to compute the overall conductance in a gridcell based upon the intersecting length and computed
wetted perimeter.
Set this value to 1 to export the gridded ISG into a MODFLOW river file, important to notice is that it yield a single value for each gridded cell. The export river
file will be called OUTPUTFOLDER\modflow.riv. By default IEXPORT=0 and IDF
files will be created.
NLAY= Enter the number of model layers for which the gridded ISG file need to
be assigned vertically, e.g. NLAY=3. This option is only valied whenever IEXPORT=1.
TOPi=
Enter an IDF file that represents the TOP elevation of the it h layer, e.g.
TOP1=D:\TOP_L1.IDF.
BOTi=
Enter an IDF file that represents the BOT elevation of the it h layer, e.g.
BOT2=D:\BOT_L1.IDF.
T
ICDIST=
Example:
FUNCTION=ISGGRID
ISGFILE_IN=D:\PO.ISG
CELL_SIZE=100.0
NODATA=-999.99
IPERIOD=1
SDATE=19980101
EDATE=19980131
OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\PO_GRIDS
The example above will rasterize the entire ISG for the period of the 1th of January upto the 31th of
January 1998 on a 100x100 meter grid.
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ISGADDCROSSSECTION-Function
Use this function to add cross-sections to an existing ISG-file (see section 9.7.3 for more information
about the content of an ISG-file and storage of cross-sections). The methodology is twofold:
1 One-dimensional cross-sections:
Reading cross-sectional information from a text file for one-dimensional cross-sections. Be
aware that ALL cross-sections will be removed and segment that didn’t receive any crosssection (from the CROSS-SECTION_IN file) will be gain a cross-section based upon the width
read from WIDTH_IDF and a default waterdepth of 5 meter.
2 Two-dimension cross-sections:
Reading two-dimensional bathymetry from an IDF-file for areas that are defined by a pointer IDF.
All existing cross-section will be used to assign two-dimensional cross-sections. The dimension
of the bathymetry will be overruling the dimensions of the pointer IDF.
CROSS_PNTR=
CROSS_BATH=
ISGADDCROSSSECTION
Enter an ISG-file for which cross-sections need to be added, e.g. ISGFILE_IN=D:\DATA\MAAS.ISG.
Enter the name of an IDF-file describes the spatial distribution of twodimensional cross-sections, e.g. CROSS_PNTR=D:\DATA\PNTR.IDF.
Enter the name of an IDF-file that describes the bathymetry for the riverbed,
e.g. CROSS_BATH=D:\DATA\RIVERBED.IDF.
CELL_SIZE=
Enter the cell size (meter) for the rasters to be created, e.g.
CELL_SIZE=50.
Enter the filename that stores the renewed cross-sections, e.g.
CROSS-SECTION_IN=D:\DATA\CROSS.TXT. The syntax of the CROSSSECTION_IN file is a free-formatted, comma-separated-values file with for
which each row is defined as follows:
T
FUNCTION=
ISGFILE_IN
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8.22
CROSSSECTION_IN=
WIDTH_IDF=
MAXDIST=
ISGFILE_OUT=
344
XC,YC,LABEL,X1 ,X2 ,..,XN ,Z1 ,Z2 ,..,ZN
XC
X-coordinate (meter) for the cross-section;
YC
Y-coordinate (meter) for the cross-section
LABEL
Label for the cross-section, maximum length is 32 characters.
Xi
Specify as many distances as needed to define the bathymetry of the riverbed. The amount of definitions n should be
>3.
Zi
Specify as many elevations as needed to define the bathymetry of the riverbed. The amount of definitions n would be
equal the number of definitions used for Xi .
Specify an IDF that represents the width of the cross-sections, e.g.
MAXDIST=D:\DIST.IDF.
Specify a distance (meter) over which the cross-section will be snapped to
the segment, e.g. MAXDIST=5.0.
Enter an ISG-file to save the renewed ISG for, e.g.
ISGFILE_OUT=D:\DATA\MAAS_NEWCROSSSECTIONS.IDF.
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Example 1 (one-dimensional cross-sections):
FUNCTION=ISGADDCROSSSECTION
ISGFILE_IN=D:\iMOD-DATA\MAAS.ISG
CROSS-SECTION_IN=D:\DATA\CROSS.TXT
WIDTH_IDF=D:\DATA\WIDTH.IDF
MAXDIST=2.5
ISGFILE_OUT=D:\iMOD-DATA\MAAS_RENEWEDCROSSSECTIONS.ISG
The example above will add cross-sections based upon the entered CROSS.TXT file that specifies a
cross-section for “New Cross” as follows:
12000.0,45300.0,”New Cross”,-10.0,-5.0,-2.5,2.5,7.5,12.0,5.0,3.0,2.0,1.0,2.5,5.0
Example 2 (two-dimensional cross-sections):
T
the results will be saved in MAAS_RENEWEDCROSSSECTION.ISG.
DR
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FUNCTION=ISGADDCROSSSECTION
CROSS_PNTR=D:\DATA\PNTR.IDF
CROSS_BATH=D:\DATA\BATHEMETRY.IDF
ISGFILE_OUT=D:\iMOD-DATA\MAAS_RENEWEDCROSSSECTIONS.ISG
The example above will transform the existing cross sections with two-dimensional definitions based
upon the pointerfile read in CROSS_PNTR and the corresponding bathymetry read in BATHEMETRY.IDF.
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ISGSIMPLIFY-Function
Use this function to reduce the amount of calculation points in a ISD file (part of the ISG-files, see
section 9.7.2). iMOD will eliminate calculation points that do not add significant information to the
declination of waterlevels, in other words, whenever the gradient of the waterlevel can be described by
less calculation points, iMOD will locate those calculation points that are able to represent the original
waterlevel most optimally. iMOD will use the mean waterlevels for all calculation nodes to determine
a mean descent of waterlevels along a segement. Simplification will be carried out for segments as a
whole. Whenever segments will be very short, this function will have a minor effect.
ZTOLERANCE=
NODATA=
ISGFILE_OUT=
ISGSIMPLIFY
Enter an ISG-file that need to be simplified,
e.g. ISGFILE_IN=D:\DATA\MAAS.ISG.
Specify a distance (meter) for which the simplified waterlevel along a profile may differ from the original one, e.g. ZTOLERANCE=0.10.
Enter a NoDataValue for which waterlevels will be skipped in determining
the waterlevels along profiles, e.g. NODATA=-999.
Enter an ISG-file to save the simplified ISG for, e.g. ISGFILE_OUT=D:\DATA\MAAS_SIMPLIFIED.IDF.
T
FUNCTION=
ISGFILE_IN=
DR
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8.23
Example:
FUNCTION=ISGSIMPLIFY
ISGFILE_IN=D:\iMOD-DATA\MAAS.ISG
ZTOLERANCE=0.10
NODATA=-999.99
ISGFILE_OUT=D:\iMOD-DATA\MAAS_SIMPLIFIED.ISG
The example above will reduce the amount of calculation points such that the simplified waterlevel will
be differ more than 0.10 from the original one, the results will be saved in MAAS_SIMPLIFIED.ISG.
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DINO2IPF-Function
This function will extract from a CSV file exported from DINO (TNO) appropriate data to generate an
IPF file with borehole information attached to it. The content of the CSV file is prescribed on the next
page.
WINDOW=
GENFILE=
IPFFILE=
DINO2IPF
Enter a CSV file that contains the necessary information from the DINO
database, e.g. CSVFILE=D:\DATA\DINO.CSV. The output file (IPF file)
will be named after the CSVFILE. Moreover, you can specify a wildcard to transform more CSV files into a single IPF file, e.g. CSVFILE=D:\DATA\*.CSV. In this case you need to specify an IPF filename
with the keyword IPFFILE=.
Specify a window (X1,Y1,X2,Y2) for which the entered RUNFILE will be
clipped, WINDOW=125100.0,345000.0,135000.0,355000.0.
Enter a name for a GEN-file that contains a polygon that determines the
area for which the CSV files need to be converted into the IPF files.
Enter the name of the IPF file to be created, e.g. IPFFILE=D:\DINO.IPF.
This keyword is obliged only whenever the CSVFILE contains a wildcard
“*”.
T
FUNCTION=
CSVFILE=
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8.24
Example 1:
FUNCTION=DINO2IPF
CSVFILE=D:\iMOD-DATA\DINO\*.csv
IPFFILE=D:\iMOD-DATA\DINO\AREA.IPF
WINDOW=130000.0,450000.0,141000.0,461000.0
This example imports all CSVFILES (*.csv) into the IPF file AREA.IPF for a particular window.
Example 2:
FUNCTION=DINO2IPF
CSVFILE=D:\iMOD-DATA\DINO\BOX12.CSV
GENFILE=D:\IMOD-DATA\AREA.AREA.GEN
WINDOW=130000.0,450000.0,141000.0,461000.0
The example above imports the boreholes from the BOX12.CSV for the area within the specified polygon(s) in AREA.GEN.
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IDFTIMESERIE-Function
Use this function to generate timeseries out of IDF-files that have the notation {item}_yyyymmdd_l{ilay}.idf.
These are IDF-files that yield from a normal iMODFLOW simulation.
IPF2=
SDATE=
EDATE=
ILAY=
SOURCEDIR=
LABELCOL=
IDFTIMESERIE
Enter the name of an IPF file that contains the locations of the measurements, e.g. IPF1=D:\DATA\MEASURE.IPF.
Enter the name of an IPF file that will be used to store the computed timeseries, e.g. IPF2=D:\IMOD\MODEL.IPF.
Enter the start date of the timeseries to be computed, e.g.
SDATE=19700803 to express the 3rd of August 1970.
Enter the end date of the timeseries to be computed, e.g.
SDATE=20120601 to express the 1st of June 2012.
Enter the modellayer, e.g. ILAY=2.
Enter
the
folder
that
contains
the
specific
files,
e.g.
SOURCEDIR=D:\MODEL\HEAD\HEAD. This will yield IDF-files that
belong to D:\MODEL\HEAD\HEAD_YYYYMMDD_L{ILAY}.IDF .
Enter the column to be used for labeling the associated text files. Default
LABELCOL=0 and will not be used.
T
FUNCTION=
IPF1=
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8.25
Example 1
FUNCTION=IDFTIMESERIE
IPF1=D:\MODEL\HEAD_TSERIES.IPF
IPF2=D:\MODEL\HEAD_TSERIES_IMODBATCH.IPF
ILAY=1
SDATE=19500101
EDATE=20120101
SOURCEDIR=D:\RESULT\HEAD
The example above will yield timeseries from the results in D:\RESULT\HEAD_*.IDF for the period
between the 1st of January 1950 and the 1st of January 2012.
Example 2
FUNCTION=IDFTIMESERIE
IPF1=D:\MODEL\HEAD_TSERIES.IPF
IPF2=D:\MODEL\HEAD_TSERIES_IMODBATCH.IPF
ILAY=1
SDATE=19500101
EDATE=20120101
SOURCEDIR=D:\RESULT\HEAD
LCOL=3
The example above differs for LCOL only. The 3rd column will be used to generate the name of the
text file that stores the timeseries.
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BMPTILING-Function
Use this function to create a set of topographical bitmaps out of a single one, to be used as background topology. The function assumes that one single bitmap needs to be split in small “tiles” for
different resolutions. Those different resolutions can be used at different zoom levels to maintain a
high performance while plotting these bitmaps on the graphical canvas.
OUTPUTFOLDER=
BMPTILING
Enter the name of a BMP file, e.g. D:\DATA\AIRPHOTO.BMP.The function
assumes that a worldfile (*.BMPW) is accompanied by the bitmap for the
syntax of a worldfile.
Enter the name of the folder that will store all the generated bitmaps (tiles)
at different resolutions (5), e.g. D:\DATA\BMP. The function will generate a
*.CRD file too and associated TXT files. Referring to the *.CRD file from
the iMOD preference file will ensure that the bitmaps can be used directly
in iMOD.
T
FUNCTION=
BMPFILE=
Example
FUNCTION=BMPTILING
BMPFILE=D:\DATA\AIRPHOTO.BMP
OUTPUTFOLDER=D:\DATA\BMP
DR
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8.26
The example above generates different tiles from the bitmap AIRPHOTO.BMP in the folder D:\DATA\BMP.
In this folder the file BMP.CRD will be stored that can be used to direct with a keyword TOP25 in the
iMOD preference file.
Tile 1
Tile 3
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Tile 4
Tile 5
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CREATESUBMODEL-Function
Use this function to create submodels for iMODFLOW based upon a pointer IDF that determines the
active area to be simulated.
IBOUND=
SUBMODELFILE=
CREATESUBMODEL
Enter the maximum size of a submodel in meters, e.g. DSIZE=10000.0.
Enter the cellsize to be used in the submodels, this will be used to fill in
the appropriate column in the runfile, e.g. CSIZE=25.
Enter the IDF-file that describes the location of active area to be simulated,
e.g. IBOUND=D:\IBOUND_L1.IDF.
Enter the name of the text file that will be created that stores the
header of a runfile that describes the submodels, e.g. SUBMODELFILE=D:\SUBMODELS. iMOD will create a SUBMODELFILE.RUN to
be used in a runfile and a SUBMODELFILE.GEN of the submodels to be
displayed in iMOD.
Example 1
FUNCTION=CREATESUBMODEL
DSIZE=10000.0
CSIZE=25.0
IBOUND=D:\DBASE\IBOUND_L1.IDF
SUBMODELFILE=D:\RUNFILE\SUBMODEL
T
FUNCTION=
DSIZE=
CSIZE=
DR
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8.27
The example above will create submodels with a maximum extent of 10000m (10km) and will write a
runfile header with cellsizes of 25m. The IDF-file IBOUND.IDF will be used to determine the active
areas of the model. iMOD creates boxes with 10x10km first and then decreases submodels whenever
this is possible, moreover, whenever submodels become too small (25% of 10km), they will be joined
together.
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9 iMOD Files
The following files are used within iMOD.
Extent
Associated
Extension(s)
*.prf
*.imf
*.bmp
*.png
*.pcx
*.ps
DR
AF
*.mdf
*.asc
*.iff
*.ipf
*.isg
iMOD Preference File (ASCII):
File containing the initial settings for iMOD.
iMOD-MetaFile (ASCII):
File containing information to display selected maps including legend
and topographical overlays.
Window Bitmap (BMP), Portable Network Graphics Image (*.PNG),
ZSoft PC Paintbrush, PostScript (*.PS) (all BINARY):
Export file containing the image of the current window.
iMOD Data-File (BINARY):
Raster file, containing information on a raster with evenly or non-evenly
distributed rows and columns. Format is specific for iMOD and developed to handle large sized data sets in a time-efficient way. Besides
geographical information, IDF-files can handle meta-data as well (such
as descriptive information).
iMOD Multi-Data-File (ASCII):
This file contains several references to IDF-files. Whenever IDF will be
grouped they will be collected into a MDF-file.
ERSI raster file (ASCII):
Raster file, containing information on a raster with evenly distributed
width for rows and columns.
iMOD Flow-File (ASCII):
File containing the information that result after computing flow-lines
within iMOD. It describes mainly lines in 3D-coordinates with their age
and velocity.
iMOD Point-File (ASCII):
File containing the information on points. An IPF-file can direct to
several *.TXT files that contain timevariant information (such as timeseries) or vertical descriptions (such as drilling logs or cone penetration
test logs).
iMOD Segment-File (ASCII):
File containing the information to describe a line/segment for
river modeling. An ISG-file directs to an ISP-file (containing
the actual coordinates of the segment), an ISD#-file (containing
timevariant information on e.g. waterlevels), an ISC#-file (containing information on the cross-section of the segments) and
*.IST# (containing timevariant information on e.g. waterlevels at
weirs and/or water structures)
T
*.idf
Description
*.gen
*.nc
*.shp
*.msk
*.isp
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*.txt
*.dat
*.isp
(BINARY)
*.isd1
(BINARY)
*.isd2
(BINARY)
*.isc2
(BINARY)
*.ist2
(BINARY)
*.dat
(both ASCII):
ESRI Generate File that described line elements, e.g. lines, polygons
(closed lines). For polygons, *.DAT can be included that contain information for polygons.
NetCDF File (BINARY):
ESRI Shape File (BINARY):
File containing topological information on lines, points, polygons.
iMOD Mask-File (BINARY):
File contains coordinates of a rectangular area that can be loaded into
iMOD to zoom to that particular area.
iMOD Startpoint File (ASCII):
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Associated
Extension(s)
*.leg
*.clr
*.dlf
*.scn
*.sdf
*.prj
*.run
*.ini
*.sol
*.ses
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*.*
iMOD Legend File (ASCII):
File containing information on classes and colours used by iMOD to
display an IDF, IPF, IFF and/or GEN.
iMOD Colour File (ASCII):
File containing the initial colour used by iMOD
File containing color information to display boreholes
iMOD Scenario File and iMOD Scenario Definition File (both ASCII):
File containing polygon information and a link to an sdf-file(s) that describe what parameters need to be altered within the polygon(s).
iMOD Project File (ASCII):
File containing the characteristics of files used in a model simulation.
iMOD Runfile (ASCII):
File used to run a model simulation with iMODFLOW. An iMOD Runfile
may be generated from an iMOD Project File
iMOD Coordinate File (ASCII):
File that directs to other files depending on the zoom levels.
iMOD Initialization File (ASCII):
File containing specific information for particular parts of iMOD, such
as the ScenarioTool and the QuickScanTool. The syntax is comparable
to the *.INI-files of Windows.
iMOD Solid Project file (ASCII):
File containing the layer definitions of a solid
File describing the operations that need to be carried out by ISG Edit.
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*.crd
Description
T
Extent
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iMOD Files
PRF-files
During the start-up of iMOD the iMOD preference file is read to instruct iMOD to operate with the
correct settings. These settings are placed in the IMOD_INIT.PRF file, or in a *.PRF file saved by the
user.
The following keywords can be included in the *.PRF file:
KeyWord
Description
User Map. iMOD will create the following map structure:
{USER}\imffiles – storage of iMOD MetaFiles (*.IMF)
{USER}\tmp – storage of temporary files;
{USER}\legend – storage of legend files (*.LEG);
{USER}\masks – storage of maskfiles (*.MSK);
{USER}\runfiles – storage of runfiles (*.RUN);
{USER}\scenarios – storage of scenario folders with scenario files
(*.SCN;*.SDF);
{USER}\solids – storage of SOLID-folders (*.SOL and *.SPF);
{USER}\qsresults – storage of results of the QuickScanTool;
{USER}\scentool – storage of results of the ScenTool;
{USER}\settings – storage of setting-files (*.*);
{USER}\shapes – storage of shape-file (*.GEN; *.SHP);
{USER}\startpoints – storage of startingpoint (*.ISP)
Map that directs to the location of the model data. This map is used
to replace the string $DBASE$ in a runfile.
Give the name of the *.CRD file to be able to position topographical
bitmaps at the right coordinates.
Map to store all the Tags (Comments), make sure this location is
accessible by all relevant iMOD users.
Map to direct to the map that stores topographical vector information (GEN, IPF, SHP files).
Give the name of the iMODFLOW executable.
Initialization file (*.INI) for usage of the QuickScanTool.
Initialization file (*.INI) for usage of the ScenarioTool.
Initialization file (*.INI) for usage of the SolidTool.
Give a bitmap (BMP, PNG) that represents a North arrow that can
be placed on the graphical window.
Give the iMOD Help file (*.PDF) that can be used by the Help ...
button throughout the application.
Give the exectuable for the Acroat Reader to be used to read the
iMOD Help file as specified by the Keyword HELPFILE.
Give the folder in which the corresponsing files are organised for
the Subsurface Explorer, see section 5.7.
Give the exectuable that will be used to unzip the files used by the
Subsurface Explorer, see section 5.7.
T
USER (compulsory)
Folder/
File
Folder
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9.1
DBASE
Folder
TOP25
File
TAGS
File
VECTOR
Folder
MODFLOW
QSTOOL
SCENTOOL
SOLIDTOOL
NORTHARROW
HELPFILE
File
File
File
File
File
ACROBATREADER
DATABASE
Exe
7ZIP
Exe
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File
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T
Example of a PRF-file:
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Note: iMOD will search for the IMOD_INIT.PRF file in the same folder from where iMOD is started.
If such a file can not be found, iMOD will ask to create its own, with the minimal required keyword:
USER.
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iMOD Files
IMF-files
All information of an iMOD project as shown in the iMOD Manager is saved in an iMOD Meta File
(IMF). The file enables to save the project contents for later use. The IMF-file contains information to
display the selected maps including legend and topographical overlays.
The IMF-file is saved in ASCII-format and it has a logical structure. However it is not advised to change
this file outside iMOD due to the long list of map properties.
T
On default, iMOD saves the content of the iMOD Manager each minute whenever the option Autosave
On (1 minute) from the File menu is checked. This file is called AUTOSAVE-IMOD.IMF and is located
in the folder {USER}\imffiles.
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9.2
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IDF-files
The file syntax of IDF-files (iMOD Data Files) is based upon a file structure without any linefeeds. This
means that all data is written direct after each other. It is not written on a different line, but in a different
record. An advantage of such a file structure is the possibility to access data randomly throughout the
file (known as direct-access). The fileformat is unformatted and can therefore not be read in a normal
TextEditor. It is based upon the little-endian data format, as we read the file with records of 4 bytes (or
1 word).
IEQ=0
IEQ=0
ITB=1
ITB=1
IEQ=1
IEQ=1
IP1=1
IP1=1
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Record
1
Format (bytes)
Integer 4
Variable
1271
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Integer 4
Integer 4
Float 4
Float 4
Float 4
Float 4
Float 4
Float 4
Float 4
Integer 1
Ncol
Nrow
Xmin
Xmax
Ymin
Ymax
Dmin
Dmax
NoData
IEQ
Integer 1
ITB
Integer 1
IVF
12
Integer 1
Float 4
Dx
13
Float 4
Dy
12+abs(IEQ-1)*2
13+abs(IEQ-1)*2
12+ITB*2
Float 4
Float 4
Float 4
Top
Bot
Dx(Ncol)
13+ITB*2+Ncol
Float 4
Dy(Nrow)
Description
Lahey RecordLength
Ident.
Number of columns
Number of rows
X lower-left-coordinate
X upper-right-coordinate
Y lower-left-coordinate
Y upper-right-coordinate
Minimal data value
Maximal data value
NoData value
0: equidistant IDF
1: nonequidistant IDF
0: no usage of Top and Bot
Values
1: usage of Top and Bot Values
0: no usage of vectors
1: vectors to be stored
Not used
Column width, minimum
width in case IEQ=1
Row
height,
minimum
height in case IEQ=1
Top value if ITB=1
Bot value if ITB=1
Column width for each column, ranging from west to
east
Row height for each row,
ranging from north to south
T
Cond.
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9.3
iRec=10 + abs(IEQ-1)*2 + IEQ*(Nrow+Ncol) + ITB*2 + 1
Whenever IVF=0
iRec
Float 4
X(Ncol,Nrow)
Value for each cell
iRec
Integer 1
IAdit
Binary number to store op+(Nrow*Ncol)
tional arguments:
IP1=1: Comments added
IP?=?:
iRec
Integer 1
Nline
Number of lines that contain
+(Nrow*Ncol)+1
comments
Char. 4
Comm(Nline)
Comment for Nlines
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iMOD Files
MDF-files
iMOD map files can be grouped into a Multi Data File (MDF) which contains the references to all
grouped IDF-files. The MDF-file helps to control the number of files in the iMOD Manager.
The MDF-file is saved in ASCII-format and it has a logical structure. However it is not advised to
change this file outside iMOD.
T
The content of the MDF-file can be displayed by the option Info on the Map Info window
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IPF-files
The file syntax for IPF-files (iMOD Point File) is very straightforward and stored in ASCII-format. In
this way this type of file can be easily edited, created outside iMOD with other type of (commercial)
software. The syntax of the file is comparable of that of a database file, however, instead of mentioning
columnlabels above each column, they should be mentioned in a header part. The formal syntax is as
follows:
IndexColumn,Extension
DataBlock
Description
Number of records
Number of fields
Name of the field number i, data is stored in column number i in the
DataBlock. Repeat this item for NFields.
Number of the index column, to be used for assess an extra file. Use
IndexColumn=0, to indicate that there are no extra files associated. If
IndexColumn>0, the Extension (e.g. txt), will be added to the names
in the IndexColumn to form the actual filename to be read.
For NRecords each record (line) will contain data for each field. It is
not sustained to leave data out, whenever no data is known for that
particular field.
T
Variable
NRecords
NFields
FieldNamei
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9.5
Example of an IPF-file:
Note: The different data for each field should be delimited by a single (or more) space(s), or a comma.
Do not use tabs as delimiters! Entries that contain spaces should be encapsulated by quotes, e.g. City
of Holland should be entered as “City of Holland”.
Note: For each data field there is a maximum of 50 characters! The maximum length for the Extension
is 10 characters.
Associated File with Timevariant Information
Timevariant information of timeseries can be stored in *.TXT files and their location and other spatial
attributes (e.g. depth of the screen, surfacelevel) or non-dimensional information (e.g. id, name) can
be stored in the IPF-file. The syntax of the *.TXT file is as follows:
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Variable
NRecords
NFields,IType
FieldNamei ,
FieldNoDatai
DataBlock
Description
Number of records
Number of fields and the type of this file. Use IType=1 for timevariant information.
Name of the field number i, data is stored in column number i in the DataBlock.
Missing data is determined by their Field NoDataValue. Repeat this item for
NFields.
For NRecords each record (line) will contain data for each field. It is not sustained to leave data out, whenever no data is known for that particular field
use the corresponding Field NoDataValue.
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Example of a TXT-file with time measurements:
T
It is compulsory to use the first column to enter the date, expressed by a yyyymmdd notation. Use
comma’s and/or space(s) as delimiters.
Note: It is not necessary to choose the extension *.TXT for these type of files, moreover, any extension
can be chosen as long as the right Extension is given in the IPF-file that should call these timevariant
files. However, for reasons of uniformity it is advisable to choose *.TXT for these type of files.
Associated File with Borehole Information
Boreholes can be stored in *.TXT files and their location and other spatial attributes (e.g. surfacelevel)
or non-dimensional information (e.g. id, name) can be stored in the IPF-file. The syntax of these *.TXT
files is equal to the syntax of the TimeVariant information, however, IType=2.
It is compulsory to use the first column to enter the vertical coordinate, expressed by meter+MSL
(mean-sea-level). Use comma’s and/or space(s) as delimiters. Moreover, the second column is used
for colouring the interval i and i+1. In the example in Figure 2-7, the Lithology=S will be used to colour
the interval between 3.90 and -3.10 m+MSL. The colours that will be used are defined in iMOD or can
be read by iMOD from a *.DLF-file.
Example of a TXT-file with borehole information:
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Associated File with Cone Penetration Test Information
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iMOD, User Manual
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Cone Penetration Test(or borelog) information can be stored in *.TXT files and their location and other
spatial attributes (e.g. surfacelevel) or non-dimensional information (e.g. id, name) can be stored in the
IPF-file. The syntax of these *.TXT files is equal to the syntax of the TimeVariant information, however,
IType=3.
It is compulsory to use the first column to enter the vertical coordinate, expressed by meter+MSL
(mean-sea-level). Use comma’s and/or space(s) as delimiters.
Example of a TXT-file with borelog information:
In the example above, the fields that contain values equal to the Field NoDataValue will not be drawn.
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iMOD Files
IFF-files
The File syntax for IFF-files (iMOD Flowpath File) is very simple and stored in ASCII-format. In this way
these type of files can be easily edited and/or created outside iMOD with other (commercial) software.
The formal syntax is as follows and prescribed:
Number of fields; NFields=7.
Number of the particle in the particle tracking.
Modellayer number of the current position of the particle.
X-coordinate of the current position of the particle.
Y-coordinate of the current position of the particle.
Z-coordinate of the current position of the particle.
Age at the current position of the particle.
Velocity at the current position of the particle.
Each record (line) will contain data for each field (7).
T
NFields
Labels:
ParticleNumber
ILAY
XCRD.
YCRD.
ZCRD.
Time(Years)
Velocity(m/d)
DataBlock
iMOD will draw the flowpath using the XCRD, YCRD and ZCRD (the latter is used within the CrossSection Tool and the 3DTool). Whenever the ParticleNumber changes, iMOD will start drawing another
line until the end of the IFF-file is reached.
DR
AF
9.6
Example of an IFF-file:
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ISG-files
T
The ISG-file format is developed to capture all relevant information used by surface water elements
in direct relation with groundwater. It stores stages, bottomheights, infiltration factors, resistances,
and moreover, the actual outline of the surface water element. To store all these different types of
information the ISG-file format consists of associated files that are connected by the ISG-file. This ISGfile is the one that will be actually read by iMOD, the other file will be opened by iMOD automatically.
The syntax of the ISG-file format, and its associated files is as follows:
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9.7
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iMOD Files
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AF
Note: Be aware not to edit this file outside iMOD.
T
NSegments
Number of segments.
For each segment add the following columns
Label
Name of the segment, use quotes to distinguish names with empty spaces.
ISEG
Record number that defines the first coordinate (node) in the associated ISP-file
NSEG
Number of records in the ISP-file that describes the segment by coordinates
ICLC
Record number that defines the first calculation points on the segment ISEG
within the associated ISD1-file.
NCLC
Number of calculation points on segment ISEG
ICRS
Record number that defines the first cross-section on the segment ISEG within
the associated ISC1-file.
NCRS
Number of cross-sections on segment ISEG
ISTW
Record number that defines the first weir/structure on the segment ISEG within
the associated IST1-file.
NSTW
Number of weirs/structures on segment ISEG
IQHR
Obsolete
NQHR
Obsolete
Example of an ISG-file:
The structure of the ISG can be illustrated by the following figure:
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For nodes, calculations points, cross-section, structures a similar setup is used. A first reference is
made from the *.ISG file to the record in the *.ISD1 file. From there another reference is made to the
*ISD2 file that contains the specific configuration parameters. The above mentioned files are all binary
and indexed files and can not be edited in regular texteditors. In the following section these files will be
explained in more detail.
9.7.1
ISP fileformat
Attributes for each record in an ISP-file:
9.7.2
Description
X-coordinate of node (meter)
Y-coordinate of node (meter)
DR
AF
Attribute Width (bytes)
X
4 (real)
Y
4 (real)
T
The ISP-file is built with a record length of 8 bytes/2 words. The first record of the ISP is reserved
to store the record length (2295). The ISEG variable in the ISG points to the record number that
determines the first coordinate of the segment. Since the first record is reserved already, iMOD actually
reads the ISEG+1 record instead. From each record two reals will be read that represent the x and y
coordinate of the current node on the segment, see table below:
ISD1 and ISD2 fileformat
The ISD1-file is built with a record length of 44 bytes/11 words. The first record is solely reserved to
store the record length (11511). The ICLC variable in the ISG-file points to the record number that
determines the first calculation point on the segment. Since the first record is reserved already, iMOD
actually reads the ICLC+1 record instead. Each record contains the following attributes:
Attributes for each record in an ISD1-file:
Attribute Width (bytes)
N
4 (int)
IREF
DIST
CNAME
4 (int)
4 (real)
32 (char)
Description
Number of data records in the ISD2-file that describes
the timeserie of the calculation point.
Record number within the ISD2-file for the first data
record that describes the timeserie for the calculation
point.
Distance (meters) measured from the beginning of the
segment (node 1) that located the calculation point.
Name of the calculation point.
The ISD2-file is built with a record length of 20 bytes/5 words. The first record is solely reserved to
store the record length (5367). The IREF variable in the ISD1-file points to the record number that
determines the data for the calculation point on the segment. Since the first record is reserved already,
iMOD actually reads the IREF+1 record instead. Each record contains the following attributes:
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iMOD Files
Attributes for each record in an ISD2-file:
Attribute
IDATE
WLVL
BTML
RESIS
INFF
Description
Date representation as yyyymmdd.
Waterlevel of the river (m+MSL)
Bottom level of the riverbed (m+MSL).
Resistance of the riverbed (days).
Infiltration factor (-)
ISC1 and ISC2 fileformat
Attributes for each record in an ISC1-file:
Attribute Width (bytes)
N
4 (int)
T
The ISC1-file is built with a record length of 44 bytes/11 words. The first record is solely reserved to
store the record length (11511). The ICRS variable in the ISG-file points to the record number that
determines the first calculation point on the segment. Since the first record is reserved already, iMOD
actually reads the ICRS+1 record instead. Each record contains the following attributes:
Description
The meaning of this attribute is twofold:
>0
Number of data records in the ISC2-file that describes the
actual cross-section.
<0
The absolute number of data records in the ISC2-file that
describes the riverbed as a collection of x,y,z points including an extra record to describe the dimensions (DX,DY ) of
the network that captured the x,y,z points.
Record number within the ISC2-file for the first data record
that describes the cross-section.
Distance (meters) measured from the beginning of the segment (node 1) that locates the cross-section.
Name of the cross-section.
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AF
9.7.3
Width (bytes)
4 (int)
4 (int)
4 (real)
4 (real)
4 (real)
IREF
4 (int)
DIST
4 (real)
CNAME
32 (char)
The ISC2-file is built with a record length of 12 bytes/3 words. The first record is solely reserved
to store the record length (3319). The IREF variable in the ISC1-file points to the record number
that determines the data for the calculation point on the segment. Since the first record is reserved
already, iMOD actually reads the IREF+1 record instead. Each record contains the following attributes
whenever N>0:
Attributes for each record in an ISC2-file:
Attribute
DISTANCE
Width (bytes)
4 (real)
BOTTOM
4 (real)
KM
4 (real)
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Description
Distance of the cross-section measured from the center of
the riverbed (minus to the left en positive to the right)
Bottom level of the riverbed (meter), whereby zero will be
assigned to the lowest riverbed level.
KManning resistance factor (-).
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Alternatively, the record can have a different meaning whenever N<0:
4 (real)
Z
4 (real)
Width in meters of the rectangular raster that follows.
Height in meters of the rectangular raster that follows.
Not used
X coordinate (meter) for a riverbed “pixel”, these coordinates
need to be on a rectangular network with spatial distance of
DX.
Y coordinate (meter) for a riverbed “pixel” , these coordinates need to be on a rectangular network with spatial distance of DY.
Bottom level of the riverbed (meter).
IST1 and IST2 fileformat
The IST1-file is built with a record length of 44 bytes/11 words. The first record is solely reserved to
store the record length (11511). The ISTW variable in the ISG-file points to the record number that
determines the first calculation point on the segment. Since the first record is reserved already, iMOD
actually reads the ISTW+1 record instead. Each record contains the following attributes:
DR
AF
9.7.4
Y
Description
T
Attribute
Width (bytes)
First record at IREF+1
DX
4 (real)
DY
4 (real)
4 bytes
Following records starting at IREF+2
X
4 (real)
Attributes for each record in an IST1-file:
Attribute
N
Width (bytes)
4 (int)
IREF
4 (int)
DIST
CNAME
4 (real)
32 (char)
Description
Number of data records in the IST2-file that describes the
actual timeserie for the weir/structure.
Record number within the IST2-file for the first data record
that describes the weirs/structure.
Distance (meters) measured from the beginning of the segment (node 1) that locates the weir/structure.
Name of the weir/structure.
The IST2-file is built with a record length of 12 bytes/3 words. The first record is solely reserved to
store the record length (3319). The IREF variable in the IST1-file points to the record number that
determines the data for the calculation point on the segment. Since the first record is reserved already,
iMOD actually reads the IREF+1 record instead. Each record contains the following attributes:
Attributes for each record in an IST2-file:
Attribute
IDATE
WLVL_UP
Width (bytes)
4 (int)
4 (real)
WLVL_DWN
4 (real)
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Description
Date representation as yyyymmdd.
Water level for the upstream side of the weir/structure
(m+MSL).
Water level for the downstream side of the weir/structure
(m+MSL).
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GEN-files
The GEN-file format is developed by ESRI, maker of ArcINFO, ARCGIS, ArcView. Creating a GEN-file
can be done in ArcView3.x by means of the sample script shp2gen.ave
(installdirectory \ESRI\AV_GIS30\ARCVIEW\Samples\scripts\shp2gen.ave). Within ArcGIS this can
be performed only by a conversion of the ArcGIS shapefile to a ArcINFO coverage and finally using
the command UNGENERATE to create a GEN-file. The syntax of a GEN-file should be as follows:
Lines
ID1
X1 ,Y1
X2 ,Y2
X3 ,Y3
...
Xn ,Yn
END
ID2
X1 ,Y1
X2 ,Y2
X3 ,Y3
...
Xn ,Yn
END
END
T
Points
ID1 , X1 , Y1
ID2 , X2 , Y2
..
IDn , Xn , Yn
END
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9.8
Polygons
ID1
X1 ,Y1
X2 ,Y2
X3 ,Y3
...
X1 ,Y1
END
ID2
X1 ,Y1
X2 ,Y2
X3 ,Y3
...
X1 ,Y1
END
END
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DAT-files
DAT-files can be used to associate information to GEN-files (see previous section). The DAT-file should
have the same name as the GEN-file. The IDi number(s) for the polygons is used to relate to the
proper ID in the DAT-file. The syntax of a DAT-file is simple.
Header
Values
Header label for each column. The first column is reserved for the ID number to
relate to the ID number of the associated GEN-file.
Enter a value for each column for each unique ID value in the associated GEN-file.
T
Example of a DAT-file:
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AF
9.9
Note: It is possible, however, to relate more polygons with identical ID numbers, to the same ID in the
DAT-file.
Note: The different data for each field should be delimited by a single (or more) space(s), or a comma.
Do not use tabs as delimiters! Entries that contain spaces should be encapsulated by quotes, e.g. Het
Rif should be entered as �Het Rif’.
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CSV-files
Throughout the iMOD application it is possible to import or export data for and into a CSV-file format
(comma-separated-values file). The syntax for those files is simple and straightforward and equal to a
DAT-file format (see section 9.9).
Header
Values
Header label for each column.
Enter a value for each column, use quote for entry fields that contain spaces,
comma’s, e.g. Klompen Plein should be noted as “Klompen Plein”.
Read CSV-file:
T
Whenever a CSV is imported in iMOD the Read CSV-file window is shown. For each parameter that
needs to be assigned (depending on the calling interface, see section 6.13.3.2), this window links the
parameter read from the CSV-file to the column in the CSV-file.
DR
AF
9.10
Field in the Table:
OK
Click this checkbox to use the associated column for the corresponding column, e.g.
the Distance parameter will be read from the column with the label X.
Parameter
The rows for this column will be filled in automatically based on the parameters
needed from the calling interface.
Column La- Select the appropriate column in the CSV-file to be assigned to the parameter listed
bel
in the Parameter column.
Constant
Enter a value to be used as a constant value for all rows in the CSV-file.
Value
OK
Click this button to import the data from the CSV-file and use the read value for the
appropriate Parameters.
Help . . .
Cancel
Click this button the cancel the import from the selected CSV-file.
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ASC-files
The format is relatively straight-forward: the first six lines indicate the reference of the grid, followed by
the values listed in the order they would naturally appear (left-right, top-down). For example, consider
a grid, shown to the left. This could be encoded into an ASCII grid file that would look like:
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ESRI ASCII Format:
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9.11
Variable
#
Ncols
Nrows
Xllcorner
Yllcorner
Cellsize
NODATA_
value
Format
Integer
Integer
Real
Real
Real
Real
DataBlock
Integer
Real
Description
Comments
Numbers of columns
Numbers of rows
The western (left) x-coordinate
The southern (bottom) y-coordinate
The length of one side of a square cell
The value that is regarded as “missing” or “not applicable”; this
line is optional, but highly recommended as iMOD will expect
this line to be declared
Listing of the raster values for each cell, starting at the upperleft corner (north-west). These number are delimited using a
single (or more) space(s) character(s).
Note: These ESRI ASCII rasters will be converted into IDF-files whenever they are read into iMOD.
However, iMOD can export IDF-files into ESRI ASCII files again.
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LEG-files
Each map file in iMOD (IDFs, IPFs, ISGs, GENs and IFFs) can be displayed by classes that are defined
in a legend. The legend is stored internally, but can be saved to, and loaded from disk. The syntax of
a *.LEG-file is as follows:
ColourMarks
Upper BND
Lower BND
IRED
IGREEN
IBLUE
Label
Number of classes. Bear in mind that legends that have NClass<=50, behave
differently than legends that have 50<NClass<=255, see for more information
0.
In the Legend window (see 3.3.4), these ColourMarks (0-1) define whether
the ColourMark is turned on or off in the colour ramp.
Upper Boundary of the class
Lower Boundary of the class
Red component in RGB-colour model (0-255)
Green component in RGB-colour model (0-255)
Blue component in RGB-colour model (0-255)
Label, make sure the length of the label is less or equal to 50 characters.
For Labels that contain more than one word, such as Dunes and Shore, they
should be bracketed by quotes, i.e. “Dunes and Shore”.
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NClass
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9.12
Example of a LEG-file:
Note: Use comma’s and/or space delimiters within LEG-files.
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CLR-files
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iMOD supports 50 predefined colours to be used as default in a variety of iMOD functionalities. The
colour definitions are stored in the IMOD_INIT.CLR file which is stored in the USER directory.
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DLF-files
The colour information for boreholes will be read from a DLF-file. On default, iMOD tries to read the
file: {user}\settings\DRILL.DLF. If this fails, iMOD will use its internal default values. The syntax of a
DLF-file is as follows:
Class
Ired
Igreen
Iblue
Legendtext
Width
(optional)
Use the first line of the file to identify the columns. These are however unchangeable!
Repeat the following attributes (Litho, Ired, Igreen, Iblue, Litho-text) for each line.
Use the first column to specify the search-string that should match the first column of
the associated *.TXT file as described.
Red saturation (0-255)
Green saturation (0-255)
Blue saturation (0-255)
Label used in the legend.
Enter the width category (1-10) used in 2D and 3D plotting. This is an optional value
and is assigned the value 1 by default.
Example of a DLF-file:
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Labels
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9.14
Note: The maximum string length of the Class-column is 20 characters. The maximum string length
for the Legendtext column is 50 characters. The maximum number of classes is 250 (lines, excluding
the header).
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CRD-files
The display of tiled background maps is directed by the iMOD coordinate CRD-file. The CRD-file is
defined with the keyword TOP25 in the iMOD preference file.
The CRD-file links BMP-files as background maps by specifying the scale (at unit 1000) at which the
BMP-files will be displayed and the name of the TXT-files in which the BMP-files are defined.
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Example of a CRD-file:
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9.15
The TXT-files referred to in the CRD-file define the BMP-files used as background maps. For each
BMP-file is specified: coordinates LL-corner, coordinates UR-corner, number of pixels in X-direction,
number of pixels in Y-direction, cellsize (m), name of the BMP-file.
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Example of a TXT-file linked to a CRD-file:
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ISD-files
An ISD-file contains information about the location of startpoints used in the calculation of pathlines
from model output. An ISD-file can be created by IMOD using the Define Startpoints option from the
Toolbox option on the main menu. The syntax of an ISD-file is as follows:
Top-level file /
Numeric value
Bottom-level file /
Numeric value
Number
Name of the shape, use quotes for a name containing more than one word
Number of the shape type, type of shape
POINT, RECTANGLE, POLYGON, CIRCLE, LINE, GRID
Depending on the shape type:
POINT: radius of the circle around the point, distance between points on the
circle
POLYGON: distance X, distance Y between points within the polygon
CIRCLE: radius of the circle, distance between points on the circle
LINE: distance between points along the line
IDF-file defining the top level at which startpoints are defined or
Numeric value defining the top level at a fixed elevation
IDF-file defining the bottom level at which startpoints are defined or
Numeric value defining the bottom level at a fixed elevation
Number indicating whether a reference level is used
0 = reference level is not used; 1 = reference level is used
Reference level used to position the startpoints ;
The number of points to be used between the specified top-level and bottomlevel
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Delimiter line
ShapeName
Delimiter line
Number, Shapetype
Number, Number
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9.16
Reference level
Vertical
interval
number
Delimiter line
No. Points Shape
Xcrd,Ycrd
Delimiter line
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Number of points defined laterally as startpoints
X- and Y-coordinates of the startpoints
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Example of an ISD-file:
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SCN-files
An SCN-file contains polygon information and a link to SDF-file(s) that describe the alternation to
default values read from a RUN-file. An SCN-file can be created by IMOD using the Define Model
Scenarios option from the Toolbox option on the main menu. The syntax of a SCN-file is as follows:
Delimiter line
No. Definitions
Scenario Definition File
No. Points Shape
Xcrd,Ycrd
Delimiter line
Example of a SCN-file:
Name of the shape/polygon, use quotes for a name containing more
than one word
Number of definitions (*.sdf) associated to the polygon
SDF-file
Number of polygon points
X- and Y-coordinate of the polygon
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Delimiter line
ShapeName
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9.17
The number of coordinates is unlimited, though the selection process will take more time for large
polygons. A polygon will be “closed” automatically, therefore it is not necessary to equalize the first
and last coordinate. More than one *.sdf file can be given within a single polygon to create more
“complex” scenario that can not be described within a single *.sdf file, or just to avoid complex *.sdf
files and organize individual measure within single *.sdf files. Simply add another data block as shown
above (without empty lines in between) to add more than one polygon within a *.scn file.
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SDF-files
A Scenario Definition SDF-file describes any alteration to be carried out on the default values read
from a RUN-file. An SDF-file can be created by IMOD using the Define Model Scenarios option from
the Toolbox option on the main menu (see section 7.6). The syntax of a SDF-file is as follows:
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iMOD Scenario Definition File Version: . . . . . .
Name of the user who created the SDF-file
Date of creation
Delimiter line
Name of the model parameter (should not be changed!)
Delimiter line
*-SYSTEM
Numbers indicate which systems are affected by the scenario definition: 0
means all input systems; 1 1 means only first system;
2 1 2 means first two systems, etc.
*-LAYER
Numbers indicate which layers are affected by the scenario definition: 0
means all layers; 1 1 means only first layer; 2 1 2 means first two layers,
etc.
*-DATE
Numbers indicate the years, months and days affected by the scenario definition
*-STRENGTH
First number is a multiplication factor, second number is an addition number
(e.g. 2.0 0.0 means input multiplied by 2; 1.0 +0.50 means input raised by
0.50 m)
Delimiter line
Etc.
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9.18
The parameter scenario definition is available for the model parameters: WELLS, RIVERS, DRAINS,
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, GENERAL_HEAD_BOUNDARY, RECHARGE, OVERLANDFLOW, CONSTANT_HEAD.
Example of a SDF-file:
In the following table, the modules/packages are given for which the scenario functionality is applicable:
Package
WEL
DRN
RIV
EVT
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Adjustable Parameter
WEL-STRENGTH
DRN-CONDUCTANCE
DRN-ELEVATION
RIV-CONDUCTANCE
RIV-STAGE
RIV-BOTTOM
RIV-RATIOFACTOR
EVT-STRENGTH
Units
m3 /day
m2 /day
m+MSL
m2 /day
m+MSL
m+MSL
mm/day
Adjustable parameter
Well strength
Conductance
Elevation of drainage level
Conductance
Elevation of river water level
Elevation of river bottom level
Infiltration ratio
Evapotranspiration strength
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GHB
RCH
OLF
CHD
EVT-SURFACE
m+MSL
EVT-DEPTH
m+MSL
GHB-CONDUCTANCE
GHB-ELEVATION
RCH-STRENGTH
OLF-ELEVATION
CHD-HEAD
m2 /day
m+MSL
mm/day
m+MSL
m+MSL
Elevation of surface for maximal evapotranspiration
Thickness in which evapotranspiration
reduces to zero
Conductance
Elevation
Recharge strength
Elevation
Head
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that an adjustment should take place for a particular:
system(s)
model layer (s)
stress period(s)
that the adjustment should be perturbed by:
a multiplication factor
an addition/subtraction
values read from a given IDF file
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For each of these above mentioned model parameters it is compulsory to define:
Within a *.sdf these are notated as follow (all free format):
iMOD Scenario Definition File Version: 2.6.2
CREATOR: vermeule
DATE: 18-August-2010
======================================================================
WELLS: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
WEL-SYSTEM 1 1
WEL-LAYER 1 1
WEL-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
WEL-STRENGTH 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
DRAINS: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
DRN-SYSTEM 1 1
DRN-LAYER 1 1
DRN-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
DRN-CONDUCTANCE 1.00 0.00
DRN-ELEVATION 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
RIVERS: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
RIV-SYSTEM 1 1
RIV-LAYER 1 1
RIV-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
RIV-CONDUCTANCE 1.00 0.00
RIV-STAGE 1.00 0.00
RIV-BOTTOM 1.00 0.00
RIV-RATIOFACTOR 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
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======================================================================
EVT-SYSTEM 1 1
EVT-LAYER 1 1
EVT-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
EVT-STRENGTH 1.00 0.00
EVT-SURFACE 1.00 0.00
EVT-DEPTH 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
GENERAL_HEAD_BOUNDARY: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
GHB-SYSTEM 1 1
GHB-LAYER 1 1
GHB-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
GHB-CONDUCTANCE 1.00 0.00
GHB-ELEVATION 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
RECHARGE: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
RECHARGE-SYSTEM 1 1
RECHARGE-LAYER 1 1
RECHARGE-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
RECHARGE-STRENGTH 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
OVERLANDFLOW: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
OLF-SYSTEM 1 1
OLF-LAYER 1 1
OLF-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
OLF-ELEVATION 1.00 0.00
======================================================================
CONSTANT_HEAD: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
CHD-SYSTEM 1 1
CHD-LAYER 1 1
CHD-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
CHD-HEAD 1.00 0.00
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It is not compulsory to sum up all the packages as done above. Packages can be left out that are
not affecting any model parameter. Simply delete the entire section, e.g. delete the following lines to
remove the configuration for drainage systems:
======================================================================
DRAINS: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
======================================================================
DRN-SYSTEM 1 1
DRN-LAYER 1 1
DRN-DATE 1994 2007 1 12 1 31
DRN-CONDUCTANCE 1.00 0.00
DRN-ELEVATION 1.00 0.00
Parameter
NSYSTEM
ISYSTEM(NSYSTEM)
Adjustable parameter
Number of systems to involve
System to be involved as given sub sequentially
in Data Set 10
Number of model layers to be affected
Model layer number
Start year
End year
Start month
End month
Start day
End day
A name that exists in the results files, e.g.
head_[NAME]_l1.idf. Only one name can be
given per [pck]-DATE
Multiplication factor
Addition/subtraction
IDF file
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Attribute
[pck]-SYSTEM
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Each package consists at least out of the following parameters:
[pck]-LAYER
[pck]-DATE
[pck]-ATTRIB.
NLAYER
LAYER(NLAYER)
Y1
Y2
M1
M2
D1
D2
NAME
FCT
IMP
IDF (optional)
To illustrate the usage of the above-mentioned attributes, the following example is given:
File Content
========================================
DRAINS: <– do not edit/change this KEYWORD!
========================================
DRN-SYSTEM 2 1 2
DRN-LAYER 3 4 2 10
DRN-DATE 2008 2010 5 8 1 31
DRN-CONDUCTANCE 2.00 3.00
DRN-ELEVATION 2.00 0.00 c:\new_elev.idf
Description
delimiter
KEY-WORD
delimiter
[pck]-SYSTEM
[pck]-LAYER
[pck]-DATE
[pck]-ATTRIB
[pck]-ATTRIB
In the above-mentioned example the following adjustments are made:
drainage systems 1 and 2 are infected, and
are configured within the model layers 4, 2 and 10, and
are in the period between may-2008 and august-2010,apply
a multiplication factor of 2 for the conductance and add 3 to it, and
read a new drainage elevation from c:\new_elev.idf and multiply these with 2.
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The next table gives more information on the syntax of [pck]-DATE. The parameter Y1 and Y2 operate
identical compared to the parameters M1, M2, D1 and D2. For each example, the data is adjusted for
the marked period:
M1
1
1
1
1
M2
2
1
1
2
D1
1
1
28
1
D2
31
31
30
2
1
1
x
x
1
2
x
x
x
x
1
28
x
x
x
1
29
x
x
x
1
30
x
x
x
1
31
x
x
2
1
x
2
2
x
x
x
2
3
x
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Month
Day
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
Example 1
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SOL-files
A SOL-file describes the number of modellayers that are within a Solid. A solid contains several IDFfiles that describe the top and bottom elevation of modellayers. Those files are listed in a SOL-file
too. Each modellayer is described by two IDFs, one that stores the top elevation and one for the
bottom elevation. Thereafter, a SOL-file includes a number of references to SPF-files that describe
how the elevation of those top and bottom elevations vary along a cross-sectional line. A SOL-file will
be created and updated by iMOD, however, it can be edited outside iMOD easily. The syntax of a
SOL-file is shown below:
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Example of a SOL-file with reference to 8 modellayers and 16 cross-sections:
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SPF-files
A SPF-file describes the variation in the top and bottom elevation along a cross-sectional line. Each
SPF-file can be alternated individually within iMOD or within regular text editors, such as NotePad. The
latter is not recommended however.
NP{i},Clr{i},Lt{i}
x{i},z{i}
x1 ,y1 ,x2 ,y2 ,bitmap
Number of coordinates that describe the cross-sectional line.
Enter NCRD number of coordinates X and Y.
Total length of the cross-section. This is used (and updated whenever the
coordinates X and Y are adjusted inside and/or outside iMOD) to avoid any
adjustments of the elevations outside the outer limit of the cross-sectional line.
Number of alternations of the top (i =uneven) or bottom (i =even) elevations.
Clr{i} and Lt{i} are the linecolour (colour number for a colourdisplay of 16 million colours; 255=red) and linethickness (between 1 and 10) of the ith top or
bottom IDF as mentioned in the SOL-file that directs to this SPF-file.
The distance from the first coordinate (X1,Y1) of the cross-sectional line, followed by the vertical position of the elevation (top or bottom).
On the last line of the SPF file it is possible to add a bitmap (*.JPG, *.BMP or
*.PNG) that need to be attached to the cross-section. Specify the position of
the bitmap by the x1 ,y1 ,x2 ,y2 variables.
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NCRD
X{i},Y{i}
TotLength
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9.20
Example:
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SES-files
A SES-file describes the operations that need to be carried out by ISG Edit. The file can be loaded
into ISG Edit in order to recompute identical operations sequentially.
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Example of a SES-file:
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10 Tutorial 1: Map Display
This tutorial gives a brief introduction to several display options for IDF (rasters) and IPF (points) files.
See for more detailed references chapter 6 and subsections.
Outline
This is what you will do:
Required Data
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Displaying an IDF-file and manipulate its associated legend;
Displaying an IPF file and configure its presentation;
Using the 3D Tool;
Saving your display configuration.
For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Files (IDF), iMOD Point Files (IPF) and TXT-files to
which the IPF-files are directing:
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KR_TCC.IDF;
KR_BCC.IDF;
NAWO_TCC.IDF;
NAWO_BCC.IDF;
BOREHOLE.IPF;
OBSERVATION.IPF;
Folder BOREHOLE that contains seven folders called SUBSET{i} containing files called B{i}.TXT
that represents borehole-logs;
Folder OBSERVATIONS chat contains files called B{i}.TXT that contains values of the timeseries.
All these files are located in the folder: {installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT1_MAP_DISPLAY.
Getting Started
1. If iMOD is not yet installed, double click the INSTALL.BAT on the iMOD DVD/USB-stick, e.g.
D:\install.bat. You will be prompted to enter the folder in which iMOD will be installed, we call
this the {installfolder} and will be referred to in this tutorial and those following.
The installer will copy files from the iMOD DVD/USB-stick onto the {installfolder}. It will include several
tutorial folders, so it can take a while.
2. Launch iMOD by double click on the {installfolder}\iMOD.EXE in the Windows Explorer.
3. Accept the creation of the IMOD_INIT.PRF file by clicking the OK button.
4. Accept the license agreement by clicking the OK button.
The IMOD_INIT.PRF is the only file that iMOD needs at the initial startup. If it does not exist, iMOD will
create one. The file contains several keywords that are needed by a variety of functionalities in iMOD,
however, the keyword USER is the only one that is obligatory. In the coming up tutorial you’ll notice
that the content of the IMOD_INIT.PRF file will change. Let us examine the current content.
5. Open Windows Explorer or Total Commander (or whatever file explorer you’re used to) and
browse to the location of the iMOD executable (probably in the {installfolder}).
6. Open the IMOD_INIT.PRF file with Notepad, TextPad or equivalent texteditor. The IMOD_INIT.PRF
is a plain textfile.
As you might observe the file contains the keyword USER followed by {installfolder}\USER. Several
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folders will be created in the USER folder. Those folders might be used by iMOD for different purposes,
moreover, during your iMOD usage, new folders could be created. However, the most important thing
you need to remember about the USER folder is that it stores data created by iMOD, e.g. temporary
files, modelresults and drawings. In this case you might interprete a USER folder as a project folder as
well, e.g. USER D:\IMOD\PROJECT_X.
Okay, let us continue with iMOD.
7. Select the option Create a new iMOD Project from the Start iMOD window and click the Start
button.
An empty graphical window will appear surrounded by a default axes and a scale bar. The initial
position of the graphical window is (-1,-1) by (1,1). It is possible to turn off the axes and scale bar, so:
Display of an IDF-file
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An IDF-file stores rasterized data, let us open an IDF-file:
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8. Go to View and then choose the option Layout and turn the options Show Scalebar and/or
Show Axes on and off and observe what is happening.
9. Go to View in the menu bar and select the iMOD Manager (or use the shortcut Ctrl+M). Select
) and select the IDF-file KR_TCC.IDF and click the button Open. If
the Open Map button (
the file is not showing up, you might need to change the folder to the appropriate tutorial folder,
{installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT1_MAP_DISPLAY.
Observe that the loaded IDF-file emerges in the iMOD Manager. iMOD will adjust the zoomlevel
automatically to display the entire IDF.
10. Use the zoom buttons on the toolbar (
) to familiarize with their behavior.
Be aware of the fact that a right-click of the mouse button is necessary to stop moving the map around
(
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Illustration of image that might appear:
Adjust the legend
Each IDF-file that has been loaded into the iMOD Manager will be displayed by a legend with values
that decline linearly between the maximum and minimum values of the IDF-file. A legend is connected
to the IDF internally and can be changed easily.
11. Select the Map option from the main menu, choose the option Current Zoom Level and then
choose the option Percentiles.
By selecting the percentile option, iMOD will compute classes for a legend based upon the distribution
of the IDF values, like a duration curve. Since the option Current Zoom Level has been chosen, the
legend will be computed for those values that are inside the current zoom level only.
12. Adjust the legend for the other options (Linear, Percentile and Unique Values) and observe their
differences in combination with the options Current Zoom Level and Entire Zoom Extent.
13. Click the Legend tab on the iMOD Manager to display the current legend colours and values.
Adjusting a legend like this automatically, is extremely useful whenever the content of an IDF-file needs
to be explored. However, legends can be constructed manually and/or loaded from disk.
14. Click the Legend button (
) on the Legend tab of the iMOD Manager to display the Legend
window (see section 6.6). Make sure you’ve selected the IDF on the Map tab to gain access to
this particular Legend tab.
15. Deselect the numbered buttons on the left that indicate 2,3,4,5 and6 to turn off their appearance
in the colours used by the legend. Click the Apply button and observe the renewed legend
ranging linearly from dark brown to cyan (light-blue).
In this way it is easy to change the colour range of the legend.
Illustration of a two-coloured legend:
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Let’s use more colours in the legend.
16. Reopen the Legend window (step 14) and change the dark brown colour into a red one by
clicking on the coloured field. Include more colours in the legend by selecting the buttons that
indicate a 2,3,4,5 and/or 6. See the effects for different legends by clicking the Apply button.
iMOD distinguishes two types of legends:
Stretched: a legend that consists of 255 colours and classes that can be specified for 7 levels
only;
Classes: a legend that consists of maximal 50 classes and colours that can be specified individually.
Reopen the Legend window (step 14) again and let us create a legend with 10 classes:
17. Click the Classes tab on the Legend window and give in [10] classes in the Class Definition
window that appears. Check the optionForce exact numbers and classes and click the OK
button.
18. Each row in the table represents a class. Change the values in the first column (Upper ) for each
row into [0.0; -5.0; -10.0; -15.0; -20.0; -25.0; -30.0; -35.0; -40.0; -45.0]. Observe that the second
column (Lower ) will be adjusted automatically, except for row 10. Change the second column
for row 10 into [–50.0] to specify the lowermost limit of the legend.
19. The column Label will not be updated automatically, this is the text that will be printed next to
the legend. Click the Update Labels button to reflect the entered legend value correctly.
Let’s look at another way of adjusting the legend, more convenient actually.
20. Click the Stretched tab to return to the 255 classes legend and then return back to the Classes
tab. Given in [10] classes and deselect the option Force exact numbers and classes and click
the OK button.
iMOD will try to adjust the number of classes such that a legend is created with nicely legend classes,
automatically. Select the Force exact numbers and classes optionwhenever you do not want iMOD to
create nice, round classes.
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21. Click the Save button (
) to save this legend on disk. Use the Open button (
) to reload
the legend (this is not necessary of course).
22. Click the OK button to observe the display of the IDF-file with this adjusted legend.
Let us plot a legend on the map
23. Click the Map option from the main menu, choose the Legend option and then choose Plot
Legend on Map.
24. Click the left mouse button inside the legend to change the mouse cursor into a
Now the legend can be moved to the desired position.
– symbol.
25. Drag around the legend and reshape its size.
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Observe how the cursor changes when the mouse is moved to the boundary of the legend.
The textsize of the legend will be adjusted automatically to fit the boundary box of the legend. Change
the width or height of the legend box in case the label text is not readable.
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26. Remove the legend by deselecting the Plot Legend on Map option.
Let us open some more IDF-files.
27. Open the IDF-files: KR_BCC.IDF, NAWO_TCC.IDF, NAWO_BCC.IDF.
28. Select all IDF-files in the Maps tab of the iMOD Manager by dragging the mouse over all files.
Or use the combination Ctrl-left mouse button to select the different IDF-files.
Whenever more than one IDF-file is selected in the iMOD Manager the Legend button will become
inactive. However, the following method can be used to adjust all legends simultaneously.
29. Click the Map option from the main menu, choose the option Legend and then choose the
option Synchronize Legends to display the Synchronize Legends by: window. Select the first
IDF (KR_TCC.IDF) and click the Apply button.
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Illustration of a Synchronize legend by: window:
30. Observe that all IDF-files have identical legends. Select in the iMOD Manager each file sequen).
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tially and click the Redraw button (
Display of an IPF file
An IPF file stores pointwise information, such as boreholes and/or observation wells. Let us open such
a file.
31. Click the Open Map button (
) and select the file BOREHOLE.IPF.
An IPF file is an iMOD-Point-File and see section 9.5 for more detailed information about the content
of these IPF files. The IPF file that we’ve just opened in iMOD does contain the following information:
X-CRD X coordinate value of borehole in UTM coordinates;
Y-CRD Y coordinate value of borehole in UTM coordinates;
ID Identification name for borehole;
SURFACELEVEL Altitude of surfacelevel at borehole in m+MSL;
Y_END End depth of borehole in m+MSL;
I_USED Attribute specifying whether this particular borehole has been used in building the geological
model.
Be aware that all of these attributes do not have any direct meaning in iMOD or whatsoever. In the next
steps we will show how these attributes can be used in iMOD.
32. Click the Zoom Full Extent button (
points are displayed.
) on the tool bar to adjust the zoom level such that all
All points will be plotted as grey dots initially, however, it is easy to change that.
33. Click the Map option from the main menu, choose IPF-options and then choose IPF Configure
to display the IPF Configure window.
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iMOD will use the first column of the IPF file (label is X-CRD) for the X coordinate (X-Crd.:) and the
second column (label is Y-CRD) for the Y coordinate (Y-Crd.:). On default, the Z coordinate will be
assigned to the first column, too, which is incorrect.
34. Select the label [SURFACELEVEL] from the dropdown menu at the menu field Z-Crd.:.
iMOD is able to position points in 3D and/or in cross-sections when this Z-Crd.: is assigned properly.
35. Select the option Highlight and select the label [I_USED] in the dropdown menu to the right.
iMOD will increase the symbol and applies a different colour to highlight each point that has values for
the chosen label [I_USED] not equal to zero. This feature can be useful to emphasize specific points
on a map.
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36. Click the Colour button to change the colour to cyan (light-blue)
All points will be coloured as cyan (light-blue), however, a legend can be used to colour the points.
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37. Select the option Apply Legend to and choose the label [Y_END] in the dropdown menu.
iMOD will create a legend initially, based upon the minimum and maximum values of the label [Y_END].
The legend functionalities as described by step 14-20 can be applied to IPF files too.
38. Click the Define Colouring and Styles to change the Symbol No. to [21] and the Thickness to
[2].
39. Click the Apply button to apply the entered configuration.
iMOD will colour all points by their values for the label [Y_END] and highlight those that have values
for [I_USE] that are not equal zero. iMOD will use an inversed colour (i.e. black becomes white, red
becomes light-blue) of the colour used to emphasize the point by a disc around the original point.
Let us adjust the zoomlevel such that we enter coordinates that are the centre of the current zoomlevel.
40. Zoom in onto a particular area by selecting the View option from the main menu and then
choose the option Goto XY. Enter the coordinates [111000.0] and [456000.0] for the X- and Y
coordinate, respectively.
As we used Zoom (m) as [500.0], the zoomlevel will have a minimum width and/or height of about 2 x
500 meter. Let us measure that.
) from the tool bar to measure the distances of the current
41. Click the Measurement tool (
display. Break-off with your right mouse button.
The Measurement tool can be used to identify distances between objects on the map, use the left
mouse button to include more points during the measuring of the distance.
Since we’ve zoomed in, let us place some labels to the points to see the actual values for [Y_END].
42. Click the Define Labels to be Plotted button on the IPF Configure window (see step 33) to open
the Define Label to be Plotted window. Select the label [Y_END] in the list and turn off the
option Use different colouring for each field. Select a Textsize of 6 and select the option Use
Labelname.
Notice that some labels will overlap other labels. iMOD does not support (yet) any advanced labeling
to avoid overlapping. Use the zoom functionalities to avoid overlapping.
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43. Try to add more labels, remember that it could be handy, in that case, to display the column
names too, select therefore the option Use Labelname.
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Illustration of how the result might look like:
44. Turn off all labeling. Use the combination Ctrl-left mouse button to deselect the labels from the
Define Label to be Plotted window (see step 42). You should select the BOREHOLE.IPF in the
iMOD Manager solely to outgrey the IPF Configure option.
45. Click the 3D Tool (
) from the tool bar to enter the 3D environment to observe the boreholes.
By default the colouring used to display the boreholes is different than used in this dataset, so we will
load the proper legend file used for displaying the lithology of the boreholes.
) button on the IPF’s tab on the 3D Plot Settings window and select the
46. Click the Load (
[BOREHOLES.DLF] from the .\TUT1_Map_Display folder. iMOD will reload the IPF file and
displays the boreholes according to the legend read from the DLF file. See section 9.14 for
more detailed information about a DLF file.
47. Use your left mouse button to rotate the image and your right mouse button to zoom.
The 3D Tool is simulated by OpenGL libraries and is very powerful; however, the display of borehole
data can take a while to load since all boreholes are stored in individual textfiles that need to be
processed sequentially. The associated IO consumes most of the time.
48. Check the options Boundary Box and Axes from the Miscellaneous tab in the 3D Plot Settings
window to display the axes and a boundary box.
Illustration of the current iMOD appearance:
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Let us reshape the representation of the boreholes. As you can notice each borehole represents a
lithology as displayed in the Legend for Boreholes table. This legend can be created inside and/or
outside iMOD; however, the last column expresses the width that will be used to present the corresponding lithology. So, [Clay] is displayed by a smaller width (with=0.25) than [Sand] that has a width
of 1.0.
49. Change the width for different lithologies and even change colours by clicking in the appropriate
column(s). Click the redraw button (
) to update the 3D image for your inserted changes.
For example you might increase the width for Sand to 2.0 to distinguish the difference between
clay and sand more. Use the Load (
) button to restore the legend setting to the original
values by selecting the .\TUT1_Map_Display folder\boreholes.dlf file.
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Illustration of different thicknesses for presenting lithology in boreholes:
Alternatively we can change the 3D representation of the borehole.
) to enter the Define Labels to be plotted window, turn off the
50. Select the properties button (
checkbox Fancy and click the OK button. Observe what has happened. Check the option Fancy
again and see the effects of the options Size, Number of Subdivisions and the option Shade.
Often the number of boreholes is large and therefore we would like to concentrate upon those with a
particular bore depth. Let us select only those with a penetration depth of more than 100 meter.
51. Select the option (
) to start the 3D IPF settings dialog. Check the option Hide boreholes
with less penetration depth and enter the value of [100]. Click the Apply button and observe
what happened.
52. Click the option Plot labels to add to the boreholes the label selected in theDefine Labels to be
plotted window .
53. Close the 3D Tool by clicking the File option from the main menu and then choose Quit 3D Tool,
or alternatively use the close button (
).
Let us combine in 3D the boreholes with the top and bottom IDF’s we’ve loaded into iMOD previously.
54. Select in the iMOD Manager all IDF-files together with the BOREHOLES.IPF and enter the 3D
Tool.
You’ll notice that prior to the 3D tool the 3D IDF Settings dialog appears. In this dialog the appearance
of the IDF-files can be configured. For example, an IDF can be represented by planes (quads between
mids of gridcells giving a smooth surface) and/or cubes (representing the gridcells as flat surfaces, like
Lego-blocks). However, any adjustments in this dialog can be made while in the 3D environment as
well, so let us accept the dialog as it is.
55. Click the Apply button.
Illustration of how the image might look like:
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You’ll see the graphical representation of the surface for the different IDF’s. Another way to do that is
by means of a cross-section (Tutorial 3). Since the IDF-files represent a clay-body, it is nice to draw
them as solids.
56. Click the properties button (
) to change the settings used to display the IDF-files.
Each row defines how that particular IDF will be displayed. To make a solid of two IDF-files you should
combine an IDF with another one. The next image shows how the settings should be configured. For
example we combined the IDF-file KR_TCC.IDF (top of the KR-formation) with KR_BCC.IDF (bottom
of the KR-formation) by selecting that file from the dropbox in the third column. Also we changed to
Off the Type in the second column of the KR_BCC.IDF-file. Similarly we adjusted this for the NAWO
formation.
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Illustration of how the 3D IDF Settings window might look like:
57. Adjust the 3D IDF Settings window as above, keep in mind that your order of files might be
different and as so yield a slightly different configuration. Click the Apply button.
The following image might appear:
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58. Activate and deactivate files from the IDF’s tab on the 3D Plot Settings window. Experiment
with the options Filled, Wireframes and Filled+Wireframes to see the effects and finally place a
legend by checking the Legend checkbox.
59. Experiment with the functionalities on the 3D Plot Settings window. See what you could do with
the Plot Original Window options from the Miscellaneous tab.
60. Close the 3D Tool window (see step 51)
Let us open another IPF file.
61. Open the IPF file [OBSERVATION.IPF] and adjust the zoom level to display all points.
All observation points are displayed by a grey circular dot, however, these points have timeseries
associated. Let us look at these associated timeseries.
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62. Select the Map option from the main menu, choose IPF-options and then IPF Configure to start
the IPF Configure window.
63. Select the option Define Labels to be plotted to start the Define Labels to be plotted window.
64. Place a label named ID at each point (see step 37) by selecting the attribute [ID] from the Select
one or more labels from the menu field and select a Textsize of 6.
By default any “\” string will be deleted from the ID field, so the ID-string will shorten whenever it will be
displayed on the graphical canvas.
65. Click the OK button to close the Define Labels to be plotted window and click the Close button
to close the IPF Configure window. Observe the results. You might want to change the number
of labels by repeating steps 62 to 64 again.
66. Select the Map option from the main menu, choose IPF-options and then choose the IPF Analyse option to display the IPF Analyse window.
67. Click the option Select For in the dropdown menu when you right click your mouse button on
the graphical window. In the IPF Find window, select the label [ID] next to the menu field Attrib.:,
check theUse following character expression button and enter the Search String: [*B31D0117*].
iMOD will find any point that satisfies this search string. Notice that the wildcard is necessary at the
first portion of the search string, since all label IDs start with “observation\”. As a result 2 points will
be selected and displayed in the table on the IPF Analyse window. Both points represent two different
observation screens. Let us display the associated timeseries.
68. Click the IPF Figure button (
more information).
) to open the IPF Analyse Figure window (see section 6.11 for
Two figures are displayed. Whenever one figure is selected in the Select one/more to plot list, a table
is presented with the actual values for the timeseries.
69. Select one of the items in the list Select one/more to plot and analyse the content of the table.
70. Select the checkbox Plot all figures in one frame and select both items in the listSelect one/more
to plot. Use the zoom functionalities to analyse the figure in more detail (
71. Quit the IPF Analyse Figure window by selecting the option File and then choose Quit.
).
Let us look at another way of adding/deleting points from the selection table.
72. Move the mouse over the points and observe that the mouse symbol changes to
. It
indicates that when clicking the mouse the particular point will be added to the selection. If the
mouse symbol changes to
selection.
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73. Explore the dropdown menu at your right mouse button to experiment with more options to
(de)select points.
Additionally to the display options of timeseries in the IPF Analyse Figure window, let us plot timeseries
on the map.
74. Select the Settings tab on the IPF Analyse window and select the option [Simple] from the Graph
dropdown menu and click the Apply button.
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Illustration of the current iMOD appearance (more or like):
For those points in the selection table on the Attributes tab, their associated timeseries will be plotted
on the map. Each time another point is added or deleted the display is updated.
75. Use your left mouse button on the map to add and/or delete points from the selection table.
Whenever a small crossed-out rectangle is displayed, it means that the associated timeseries for that
point is missing.
76. Click the Close button to stop the IPF Analyse window.
Whenever the IPF Analyse window is closed, timeseries cannot be plotted on the map anymore.
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Show a background image
One of the first things one would like to display is an image of the underlying topography. Let’s do that.
77. Select the option View from the main menu and then select Add Topography .. from the dropdown menu. This will start the Add Topography dialog.
78. Select the option Add from the dialog and select the file .\TUTORIAL\TUT1_Map_Display\wsrl.bmp
from the Windows Explorer, see section 5.3 for more information about this dialog.
79. Select the Apply button that closes the dialog.
80. Click the Show Topography (
) on the main menu whenever the image does not appear.
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Example of showing a topographical map (full extent, red dots represent the observation.ipf):
Save /Open a Display Configuration
The entire configuration of legends and settings for the files that are loaded in the iMOD Manager
can be saved on disk. Whenever iMOD will be restarted, this file can be loaded to recover the iMOD
session again.
81. Click the Save As Current Project button (
e.g. TUTORIAL1.IMF.
) on the tool bar and enter a name for the file,
The filename entered will be saved in the {USER}\IMFILES folder on default, however, another location
can be entered too. For reasons of efficiency and transferability, it is advisable to store these IMF files
in that particular folder.
Let us quit iMOD now.
82. Click the File option from the main menu and choose the option Quit and confirm this action.
Let us restart iMOD.
83. Repeat step 1 in the beginning of this tutorial to launch iMOD.
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84. Select TUTORIAL1 from the display list and select the Start button from the Start iMOD window.
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As expected, the original iMOD session has been restored.
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11 Tutorial 2: Map Operations
This tutorial gives an introduction to several map operations using IDF-files. See for more detailed
references section 6.10.
Outline
This is what you will do:
Calculate differences between two IDF-files;
Assign values to an IDF-file, conditionally;
Perform an up- and or downscaling of the cellsize for an IDF-file.
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Required Data
For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Files (IDF):
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TOP_LAYER3.IDF;
BOTTOM_LAYER3.IDF;
KD-VALUE_LAYER3.IDF.
All these files are located in the folder:{installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT2_DATA_MAP_OPER.
Getting Started
1. Launch iMOD by double clicking the iMOD executable in the Windows Explorer, and start with
Create a new iMOD Project.
2. Go to View in the menu bar and select the iMOD Manager (or use the shortcut Ctrl+M).
Calculate Layer Thickness
Quite often it is necessary to compute the difference between two maps. In this example we compute the thickness of a particular modellayer. We start by opening the files: TOP_LAYER3.IDF, BOTTOM_LAYER3.IDF from disk.
) from the Maps tabs on the iMOD Manager. Select the above
3. Click the Open IDF button (
mentioned files in the Open File window and click the Open button. Go to the folder where the
tutorial material has been installed.
After the files have been opened, those files will be added to the list of opened iMOD files in the
iMOD Manager. iMOD will draw the first IDF from the list and will zoom to the full extent of that IDF
automatically. The latter will occur only whenever no maps were available in the iMOD Manager.
Let us compute the thickness of modellayer 3.
4. Click on the maps TOP_LAYER3.IDF and BOT_LAYER3.IDF as they appear in the iMOD Manager, while pressing the Ctrl button.
Alternatively, you can select those files by left click your mouse and drag your mouse position over
the files. If necessary, deselect those files that are undesired by clicking your left mouse button in
combination with the Ctrl button.
5. Click on the iMOD Calculator button (
Map Operations window.
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The selected IDF-files (inputfiles) will be filled in, as well as the outputfile. On default the output
file will be saved in the folder: {USER}\TMP\DIFF.IDF. The default equation (Formulae is [C=A-B])
subtracts the first IDF minus the second IDF, in the order in which those IDF-files will appear in the
iMOD Manager. Whenever your BOT_LAYER3.IDF is mentioned before the TOP_LAYER3.IDF in the
iMOD Manager, you have to change the Formulae into [C=B-A].
6. Change the output file DIFF.IDF into THICKNESS3.IDF, so enter this name in the field specified
behind Map C.
7. Select the option Map A. This allows the size of the THICKNESS3.IDF to be exactly the size of
the first mentioned IDF. Whenever you need results for the current zoom extent only, click the
option Window instead, this will speed up the calculation since only a part of the selected maps
(Map A and Map B) will be subtracted.
8. Click the Compute button.
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Let us check the result.
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The computed difference between the files TOP_LAYER3.IDF and BOT_LAYER3.IDF will be saved in
the TMP folder of your USER environment by the name THICKNESS3.IDF. iMOD has added that file
to the iMOD Manager, automatically.
9. Select the maps TOP_LAYER3.IDF, BOTTOM_LAYER3.IDF and THICKNESS3.IDF from the
iMOD Manager.
) on the Map tabs on the iMOD Manager window to start the
10. Select the Map Value button (
Map Value window. Check the results by moving your mouse around the graphical display. Stop
this inspection by rightclicking your mouse somewhere on the graphical display.
Illustration of the appearance of iMOD at this step (more or like):
Since this kind of visual inspection is rather easy to use, it is recommended to use it frequently to check
any computations.
11. Select the Map Info button (
) to inspect some simple statistics for THICKNESS3.IDF. Observe that the history of the THICKNESS3.IDF is saved and that the content is shown in the
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Additional Information box. Moreover click the Statistical button (
characteristics of the data.
) to get some statistical
Calculating Permeability
Each resulting IDF can be used subsequently for other map operations.
) and select this file
12. Open the KD-VALUE_LAYER3.IDF by clicking the Open IDF button (
from the {installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT2_DATA_MAP-OPER.
13. Select the maps KD-VALUE_LAYER3.IDF and the THICKNESS3.IDF from the iMOD Manager.
) and change for Map C the IDF-file DIFF.IDF into K-VALUE_LAYER3.IDF.
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14. Select the IDF Calculator (
15. Enter the formula: [C=A/B].
All values in Map A (will be KD-VALUE_LAYER3.IDF) will be divided by the values of Map B (THICKNESS3.IDF). If map A and map B are reversed, the equation can be entered as [C=B/A] without
interchanging the IDF name next to the field Map A and Map B.
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16. Select the option Window and click the Compute button; in this manner we will compute the
permeability only for the current zoom extent.
To decrease computational times, map operations can be computed for the current zoomlevel on the
graphical display only. The resulting IDF will have dimensions equal to the zoom level, however, cellsizes will be copied from the first mentioned IDF in the equation.
17. Check the result again with Map Value (
).
Bear in mind that the legend is initially based upon the minimum and maximum values inside the IDFfile(s). Whenever you do not see much detail on the map, those minimum and maximum values might
be far apart from each other. Use the Percentile legend for more detail, however, switching to Linear
legend might yield an error in your computations.
Conditioned Map Operation
IDF Edit is a tool in which map operations can be applied for a particular selection of cells. In this
tutorial a simple example is demonstrated. Suppose a map is required that shows all areas of the third
modellayer that have a thickness of more than 25 meter.
First we make an empty copy of THICKNESS3.IDF and name it THICKNESS3_25.IDF.
18. Enter the Map Calculator with THICKNESS3.IDF, enter the equation [C=0.0*A] and enter a
filename for Map C to be THICKNESS3_25.IDF.
By means of the Map Calculator it is easier to make copies of IDF-files, rather than using the Windows
Explorer, since the content can be blanked out and/or the resulting IDF can be resized (use the option
Window or the optionx1,y1,x2,y2 where you can specify specific coordinates yourself).
Next step is to enter IDF Edit.
19. Select the option IDF Edit from the IDF Options menu from the Map menu.
It is not relevant what IDF is (de)selected in the iMOD Manager, since all IDF-files that are inside the
iMOD Manager can be manipulated in IDF Edit.
Important is to specify an IDF that operates as a template. All mids of raster cells inside that particular
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IDF will be used to store any selection. Be aware that a coarse IDF used as template, will not make
adjustments to a finer IDF.
20. Select THICKNESS3_25.IDF from the dropdown menu Use selected IDF to store selected cells.
21. Click the Select button to open the IDF Edit Select window.
22. Select the IDF-file THICKNESS3.IDF from the dropdown menu by Evaluate IDF A: and specify
the Logic operator to be [>] and enter a Value to be [25].
23. Click the Get Selection button and observe that 97088 cells are selected.
The current selection will be displayed as filled rectangles. Especially whenever a large selection need
to be displayed it can take a while.
) to turn the selection on or off.
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Illustration of how the iMOD window might look like:
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24. Click the option Show Selection (
A selection is stored on disk in the {USER}\tmp folder. For each user of iMOD a specific filename will
be used, {USERNAME}_selected{i}.dat. These files will store the current (i) and previous selections
(i-?). As long as these files exist, iMOD can undo a selection.
25. Click the Undo Selection (
) button to reset the selection. Repeat step 20 to 23 again to
restore the selection.
26. Close the IDF Edit Select window and click the Calculate button in the IDF Edit window to open
theIDF Edit Calculation window.
This window offers several functions to adjust values in IDF-files based upon the current selection.
27. Select the option Take From and select THICKNESS3.IDF from the dropdown menu.
28. Select the THICKNESS3_25.IDF from the dropdown menu at the menu field Assign Value TO.
29. Click the Calculate button.
The iMOD Manager can be used whenever the IDF Edit Calculate window is active. Let us check
whether the computation has been carried out correctly.
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30. Select the maps THICKNESS3.IDF and THICKNESS3_25.IDF in the iMOD Manage, click the
redraw button (
) and click the Map Value button (
). Inspect the values.
As long as the IDF Edit Calculation window is active, any computation to any IDF can be undone.
31. Click the Undo Calculation button (
) in the IDF Edit Calculation window to undo the computation. Repeat step 29 to compute the values again.
32. Click the Close button and confirm the next window.
Let us see what other method can be used to apply a selection and/or calculation.
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33. Clear the current selection by clicking the Clear button in the IDF Edit window. Accept the
following window stating whether you’re sure to delete the selection.
34. Click the Trace button and select the option [Greater than selected value] in the Values should
be option. Leave the option Search Criterium selected for [5 Point] which means that iMOD will
search connecting cells that are connected on a five-point stencil. Use the option [9 Points] to
use diagonal connected cells too.
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This option allows you to make a selection that is determined by the location that you will select on
the graphical window for all cells that have values greater than the value at the selected point. The
selection should be connected to each other which makes it quite different to the previous selection
method. Let us do that.
35. Select somewhere for which a selection should be made that have greater values. Click your
left mouse button. Be aware that it can take a while to get the selection.
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Illustrations of using the Trace option:
Finally we can adjust the current selection by means of a drawing functionality that allows you to
interactively draw regions to add to the selection and/or remove from the current selection.
36. Select the Draw option and choose option Remove Cells from the window. Observe what is
happening, try to add cells to the selection too.
37. Click the Close button and finally close the IDF Edit window by clicking its Close button too.
Map Scaling
One of the great options within iMOD is its ability to rescale datafiles. A variety of up- and downscaling
algorithms have been implemented. In this example we will rescale the top elevation of a modellayer
from a cellsize of 100 x 100 meter into a cellsize of 1000 x 1000 meter.
38. Select the map TOP_LAYER3.IDF from the iMOD Manager.
39. Enter the Map Calculator (
) and select the Scale/Size tab.
On this particular tab, a variety of up- and downscaling options are available by the menu fields Upscale
Formulae and Downscale Formulae.
40. The resulting IDF will be saved in the same folder as the TOP_LAYER3.IDF and will be called
TOP_LAYER3_SCALED.IDF. We accept this default output name.
41. Enter a gridsize of 1000 meter in the Scale field.
As a consequence, all resulting IDF-files from up- or downscaling will become IDF-files with equidistant
cellsizes.
42. Select the option Arithmetic Mean from the Upscale Formulae menu. Click the OK button.
This formula takes the arithmetic mean for all values that lie inside a coarsened raster of the resulting
IDF-file.
43. Observe the values of the TOP_LAYER3.IDF in relation to the scaled version TOP_
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LAYER3_SCALED.IDF. Use Map Value (
(
) and inspect the Additional Information in Map Info
).
Experiment with different Formulae for up- and downscaling.
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Illustration of the original THICKNESS3.IDF-file (100x100 meter):
Illustration of the upscaled THICKNESS3_SCALED.IDF-file (1000x1000 meter):
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12 Tutorial 3: Map Analyse
This tutorial gives a brief introduction to several options to visualize and analyse the content of IDF
(raster) files. See for more detailed references section 7.1 (Cross-Section Tool), section 7.2 (Timeseries Tool) and section 7.3 (3D Tool).
Outline
This is what you will do:
Required Data
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Creating cross-sections over several IDF-files (combined with an IPF file) and manipulate the
configuration;
Computing timeseries out of IDF-files (combined with an IPF file);
Using the 3D Tool.
For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Files (IDF):
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Folder HEAD that contains HEAD_*_L1.IDF-files that represent transient model results;
Folder SUBSOILSYSTEM that contains SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF and HYDROLOGICAL_
BASE.IDF that represent the top and bottom elevation of the modeled hydrological system.
In-between there are 6 aquitards distinguished that are described by their top and bottom elevations, called TOP_SDL{i} and BOT_SDL{i}, respectively for each of the 6 aquitards. Moreover, a subfolder called BOREHOLES containing borehole information stored in the file BOREHOLES.IPF
Folder OBSERVATION that contains the file OBSERVATION.IPF representing several synthetic
measurements.
All these files are located in the folder: {installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT3_MAP_ANALYSE.
Getting Started
1. Launch iMOD by double click on the iMOD executable in the Windows Explorer, and start with
Create a new iMOD Project.
2. Go to View in the menu bar and select the iMOD Manager (or use the shortcut Ctrl+M).
Cross-Section
Let us start by creating a cross-section that visualizes the subsoil system as described by the data
stored in the folder SUBSOILSYSTEM.
3. Open all IDF-files that are located in the SUBSOILSYSTEM subfolder of the folder TUTO) from the Maps tabs on the iMOD
RIAL\TUT3_Map_Analyse. Click the Open IDF button (
Manager. Select the IDF-files in the Open File window and click the Open button.
All files will appear in theiMOD Manager, they will be ordered similar to the order in which they appeared in the Windows Open File window. Whenever the Cross-Section Tool is used to visualize
the subsoil system it is important that IDF-files are arranged such that internal values are higher for
IDF-files that appear higher in the list. Let us change the order of the files in the iMOD Manager.
4. Select the file HYDROLOGICALBASE.IDF from the iMOD Manager and click the button (
)
sequentially until the file is at the bottom of the list. Select the file SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF and
click the button (
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Now we should arrange the TOP_SLD{i} and BOT_SLD{i} properly.
5. Select all TOP_SLD{i} files simultaneously in the iMOD Manager and press the button (
) to move them all together direct below the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF. Now deselect the file
TOP_SLD1.IDF by clicking the Ctrl-key and your left mouse button simultaneously. Now press
the button (
)to move all files directly below the file BOT_SLD1.IDF.
It is important to place the IDF-files in the right order and to put together the top and bottom of of each
layer. Also, you can arrange files simultaneously by selecting them. It is faster to select multiple files
and move them downwards to move the file underneath upwards.
) to inspect whether all files are arranged in the proper sequence.
Let us now make a cross section of the subsoil.
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6. Use the Map Value (
7. Select all IDF-files from the iMOD Manager and select the option Toolbox and select the option
) from the main
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Cross-Section Tool, or, click alternatively, the Cross-Section Tool button (
toolbar.
iMOD will display an empty graphical canvas, called the iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window, since no
cross-section has been available. Let’s start drawing the location of the cross-section.
8. Click the Draw Line of the Cross-Section button (
) and left click your mouse button somewhere in the Draw Cross-Section window. Now move your mouse and you’ll notice that the cross
section will be built up automatically and will be refreshed each time you move your mouse.
Right click somewhere else on the Draw Cross-Section window to store the line.
Whenever you move your mouse in the iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window, you’ll notice a circle on the
line of the cross-section that directs to the current location in the cross-section. Once a cross-section
has been drawn, you can adjust/manipulate it, let’s do that.
9. Move your mouse in the neighbourhood of the cross-section line in the Draw Cross-Section
window. Click your left mouse button whenever the mouse symbol changes to
. You can
drag the current location of the cross-section.
10. Release the left mouse button and move towards one of the ends of the cross-sectional line.
Press the left mouse button as soon as the symbol changes to
watch that you can change the start- and/or end-location of the line.
. Move the mouse and
Let’s change the configuration of the cross-section, so our aquitards will be filled by different colours
and our aquifers will become yellow.
11. Click the Cross-Section Properties button (
) on the Draw Cross-Section window to display
the Cross-Section Properties window for a more detailed description of its functionalities.
12. Click the option Block Lines to display the cross-section with lines that represent the true values
and extent of the grid cells, rather than connecting lines from the grid cell mids to others. Click
the OK button to observe the effects.
13. Re-open the Cross-Section Properties window.
14. Click the checkbox for the fifth column (Line) in the first row (Label is Adjust all) twice. Once to
select it and then to deselect it. All rows underneath will become unchecked.
15. Click the checkbox for the seventh column (Fill) in the first row to check all rows underneath.
16. Click the first inputfield for the fourth column (Colour ) and select a yellow colour from the default
Colour window. All rows become yellow in this way.
17. Click the inputfield for the fourth column (Colour ) for the third row (Label=TOP_SLD1.IDF)
and change the colour into, let’s say, green. Repeat this for TOP_SLD2.IDF, TOP_SLD3.IDF,
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TOP_SLD4.IDF, TOP_SLD5.IDF and TOP_SLD6.IDF. Give a grey colour to the HYDROLOGICALBASE.IDF. Click the OK button and observe the result.
Since this can be quite laborious, iMOD facilitates several display configurations that configure the
table assuming the IDF-files are ordered in a particular manner (see section 7.3.2). For this set of IDF
files you might use the one below.
18. Choose the configuration Quasi 3D model from the dropdown menu. Turn off the Block Fills to
have a smoother surface. Check the differences with or without this feature.
19. Click the OK button to close the Properties window.
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As you might observe, the cross-section gives a clear image of the subsurface. Moreover, the settings
we just applied in the steps 12 until 19 are stored internally. Whenever you leave the Cross-Section
Tool and re-enter it, these settings remain intact. Try it.
20. Leave the Cross-Section Tool by clicking the Close button on the Draw Cross-Section window,
or press the symbol (
) on the top-right of theiMOD Cross-Section CHILD window.
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Let’s us include some boreholes in the cross-section of the subsoil.
21. Open the file BOREHOLES.IPF from the folder {installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT3_MAP_
ANALYSE\SUBSOILSYSTEMS\BOREHOLES
22. Select this file together with all other files before entering the Cross-Section Tool (step 7).
23. Draw a cross-section (step 8) and insert some extra points by clicking your left mouse button,
while drawing the cross-sectional line. Observe that all settings are still intact and a vertical
dashed line is drawn at the intermediate points. Moreover, all boreholes that are within a close
range to the cross-sectional line, are projected perpendicular on the cross-section.
We need to tell iMOD to use a different colour legend for plotting the boreholes, just like we did in
Tutorial 1.
24. Click the Properties button (
) on the Settings tab of the Draw Cross-Section window.
25. Select the tab Colouring on the Cross-Section Properties window and click the Open DLF button
(
). Select the [BOREHOLES.DLF] from the .\TUTORIAL3_MAP_ANALYSE folder and click
the Open button.
iMOD will redraw the cross-section using this renewed legend and will use this legend during your
iMOD session.
The cross-section might look like this:
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26. Try to apply the zoom functionalities on the right of the iMOD Cross-Section CHILD window, and
those located on the Draw Cross-Section window.
27. Close the Cross-Section Tool (see step 20).
Next step would be to analyse this data in the 3D tool.
28. Select the 3D Tool from the menu bar.
29. Now you’re in the 3D IDF Settings dialog, select the identical display configuration from the
configuration dropdown menu as you did in the Cross-Section tool.
30. Observe the contents of the Display Configuration and see whether you understand what has
happened, if so, click the Apply button. You should see the following image (more-or-less). You
can, of course, change all settings in the 3D IDF Settings window.
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Illustration of the 3D Tool:
31. Close the 3D Tool by selecting File from the main menu and then Close 3D Tool.
32. Click the Save As Current Project button (
) on the Map Menu bar and enter a name for
the file, e.g. TUTORIAL3.IMF. All settings for the cross-section will be saved into the TUTORIAL3.IMF for later usage.
Timeseries
Let’s draw some timeseries, interactively. In iMOD you need to open just one IDF-file that contains
specific information about a date in its name notation, such as *_20101231_* to express the 31th of
December 2010. Without having to open other files for other dates, iMOD searches for equivalent files,
instead. Just as easy!
33. Open a single IDF-file located in the HEAD subfolder of the folder {installfolder}
\TUTORIAL\TUT3_MAP_ANALYSE. Click the Open IDF button(
) from the Maps tabs on
the iMOD Manager.
34. Click the option View from the main menu, choose Show IDF Features and select IDF Raster
Lines.
Choose
to see the selected IDF. Observe that the current IDF has a non-equidistant network.
35. Zoom in on a particular area in the highly detailed area to observe the network layout even
better.
36. Click the option Toolbox from the main menu and the option Timeserie Tool to start drawing
timeseries, interactively. Accept the Available Dates window for now. You could have specified
a selection of the available IDF-files.
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iMOD will read/open all available IDF-files from the same folder as the IDF-files that you’ve opened in
step 31. This could take several seconds, watch the progress in the status bar. Once this has finished
the Draw Timeseries window will be displayed.
37. Move your mouse over the screen and watch how the timeseries will be updated for the adjusted
location.
Since iMOD will draw a timeserie that can be computed within one second only, you’ll notice that not
the entire timeserie will be plotted. This can be seen in the progress bar on the bottom of the Draw
Timeseries window.
38. Click your right mouse button to compute the entire timeserie and stop the hoover mode.
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Now the hovering has stopped you can examine the drawn timeserie.
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Illustration of the appearance in iMOD of timeseries stored in IDF-files:
39. Use the regular zoom buttons to navigate on the timeserie.
40. Explore the tab Preferences, to see what you can do and how it works.
41. Change the appearance of the timeserie by clicking the Legend button (
) on the Graph tab.
Experiment with the options that are available in the Individual Colouring window.
Please for more explanation about the usage of this timeseries tool.
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This tutorial gives a short introduction in creating a groundwater flow model from scratch. It yields a
preliminary model that will be enhanced even more in Tutorial 5.
Outline
This is what you will do:
Required Data
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Create the basic input files that are necessary to simulate a simple groundwater flow model;
Enhance the model with an extraction well to compute the drawdown caused by the well;
Simulate flowlines that describe the catchment area of the well;
Experiment with extraction rates to compute the maximum sustainable yield without extracting
water from the sea.
For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Folders:
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ISLAND.PNG/ISLAND.PNGW: this image sketches the outlines of the island
This file is located in/below the folder: .\TUTORIAL\TUT4_INITIAL_MODELLING.
Beside this data you will need iMODFLOW.EXE to make the final model computations.
Getting Started
1. Place iMODFLOW.EXE somewhere on your disk (for instance next to the iMOD executable) and
define the keyword MODFLOW in the IMOD_INIT.PRF.
Example of an iMOD_INIT.PRF:
See Tutorial 1 and chapter 9 for more information about the folder structure in iMOD and a description
of IMOD_INIT.PRF (see section 9.1 for more information about this PRF file). Please restart iMOD
after changing the IMOD_INIT.PRF file.
2. Launch iMOD by double clicking the iMOD executable in the Windows Explorer, and start by
selecting the option Create a new iMOD Project. Click the Start button.
Background Image
One of the first things one would like to display is an image of the outline of our island that we’re going
to model. Let’s do that.
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3. Select the option View from the main menu and then select Add Topography .. from the dropdown menu. This will start the Add Topography dialog.
4. Select the option Add from the dialog and select the file .\TUTORIAL\TUT4_INITIAL_
MODELLING\ISLAND.PNG from the Windows Explorer, see section 5.3 for more information
about this dialog.
5. Select the Apply button that closes the dialog.
6. Click the Show Topography (
) on the main menu whenever the image does not appear.
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Example of showing a topographical map:
This island represents a small tropical island (3 x 3 km) somewhere in the Pacific. It is surrounded by
shallow waters with crystal clear water (light blue), white beaches all around (yellow) and meadows
(light green) with some bush areas (dark green). In the centre of the island there exists a small
settlement with a few houses that use groundwater for watering their fields and cattle and use it as
primary source for drinking water. They extract groundwater at the centre of the island (blue circle).
Many people have discovered the beauty of this island and plans arise to build a resort on the island.
This will increase the pressure on the natural water resource and the question to be answered is: “How
much water can be sustainably extracted from the subsoil, without attracting seawater in the near future
to the pumps?”.
With this very simple example we will use iMOD to build a hypothetical model of this island. By means
of this example we will illustrate the methodology in iMOD to create a groundwater flow model. At this
stage we will ignore any effects of driven components caused by salt-water. The following steps will be
undertaken:
build an IDF-file for the surface level of the island which will be our uppermost boundary of the
system modeled;
create an IDF-file that defines the boundary conditions of the model, for which part the groundwater head needs to be computed and for which part this is known beforehand;
create an IPF file that describes the location and rate of the pumping well;
create a runfile that describes the necessary files and values for the simulation;
simulate the model using the runfile;
create startpoints for the particle tracking simulation and carry out this simulation;
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modify the extraction rate in order to search for the maximum sustainable yield.
Okay, a lot of work needs to be done, so let’s go!
Creating the topography
Our model will describe the groundwater flow in-between the surface level and the bedrock in the
subsoil. Our first task is to get a digital representation of the surface elevation. Often this is available
in the form of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), unfortunately, we’re lacking this DEM for our island, so
we’ve to sketch it ourselves.
7. Select the option Edit /Create feature from the main menu, then select the option IDF’s from
and finally the option Polygons/Lines [GEN] to start the Create IDF window.
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With this functionality in iMOD we’re able to create simple features into the format that iMOD needs to
perform a model simulation. In this case we would like to create the outline of the surface level and
therefore we need to draw the contours of the surface level and assign appropriate levels to it. After
that we can tell iMOD to interpolate from the contours. Okay, let’s start this by digitizing the shore of
the island (i.e. 0.0 m+MSL contour).
8. Make sure you’ve shown the topographical image of the island (repeat step 3 upto 6 whenever
) and select the option Polygon from the
you don’t see the image). Click the Draw button (
Shape types on the Select window that pops up. Click the Ok button.
Your cursor has been changed into the following cursor symbol
drawing a polygon.
which means that you can start
9. Click your left mouse button on the graphical canvas at the location of the first point of the
polygon to be drawn. Repeat clicking your left mouse button to insert more point of the polygon.
Whenever you are satisfied click your right mouse button to stop this process.
See section 4.4 for more details how to modify the polygon once you’ve created it.
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Example of the polygon that you might have created:
Now we have to assign a surface level of 0.0 m+MSL to the drawn polygon.
10. Click the Information button (
) to start the Content of File window. Click the Yes button
whenever iMOD asks “Do you want to add additional data to the shapes?”.
Example of the Content of file window:
With this Content of file window we can observe/change the attributes that can be added to the shapes
(polygons, lines). We have to add a new attribute to the data to store the contour values of the surface
level. Let’s do that.
11. Click the Add Attribute button (
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) and enter the label [Level] in the Input window that arises.
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Example of the input window to add an attribute:
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Example of the Content of file window:
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12. Click the OK button to return to the Content of file window. Observe that an extra column has
been added to the table.
13. Enter the value [0.0] to the inputfield Level.
14. Select the option Use following column for gridding/interpolation and select the attribute [Level]
from the dropdown menu. iMOD will use the values from this column during the interpolation.
15. Click the Apply button.
In this manner we can repeat the step 9 up to 15 to sketch the outline of the island. Be aware that it is
not necessary to add the attribute column named [Level] for each shape since this will be applicable for
all shapes that are entered. Also use a [Line] feature to express the watershed on the more elevated
parts of the island.
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Example of the final result sketching the surface level for the island:
16. Select the shape of the outline of the island and click the Save As button (
separately as ISLAND.GEN in the folder iMOD-USER\SHAPES.
) to save it
The associated labels are saved to the file ISLAND.DAT at the same location. Both files (ISLAND.GEN
and ISLAND.DAT) may be modified outside iMOD using a text-editor. Be aware that the first column in
the DAT file will be used to reference between the GEN and DAT file. Make sure that this connection
remains intact!
Once we’ve outlined the surface level, we will interpolate the contours to a grid (IDF) with rastersize
of 10 meter. This will be accurate enough for our simulation. However, gridsizes at this stage will not
be determined for the final simulation scale. See Tutorial 6 for more information on scaling issues for
model simulations.
17. Click the button GEN-Extent to adjust the coordinate settings for the IDF to be created such that
the entire GEN will be included in the gridding.
18. Enter a cellsize of 10 meter in the field Cellsize (m).
19. Select the option [PCG (Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient)] from the Method dropdown menu.
This interpolation method will follow the given contours accurately giving a smooth representation of
the entered contours.
20. Click the Apply button and save the gridded IDF-file in the folder iMOD-USER\DBASE as SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF. Probably you need to create this folder first!
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Example of the resulting topography of the island:
It is completely irrelevant where files are saved actually; however, in order to keep your project organized well, it is advisable to create a clear structure in which you save all files that are related to the
model. Commonly, we use the foldername DBASE to store all model files. So whenever we refer to the
folder DBASE in the coming parts of this tutorial we actually denote the IMOD-USER\DBASE folder.
21. Use your experience from the Tutorials 1, 2 and 3 to create a 3D image of the topography we
just created.
Example of a 3D image of our created island:
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Creating the boundary conditions
Okay, now we’ve outlined the uppermost boundary of our model, we will determine those areas that
are part of the model simulation (active areas) and areas that have fixed values (fixed or non-active
areas) for the hydraulic heads. We will use IDF-Calc and IDF-Edit that you both have experienced in
Tutorial 2. In this tutorial we will assume of course you have followed that Tutorial before this. Okay,
we need to copy the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF into an IDF that we can use for the definition of boundary
conditions.
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22. Select the [SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF] from the iMOD Manager and Click the IDF Calculator button.
23. Enter the IDF-file [.\DBASE\BOUNDARY.IDF] in the Map C field on the Algebra tab on the
Map Operations window. Make sure you use the same folder name as the one used for
.\DBASE\SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF.
24. Make sure the entered formulae is [C=A].
25. Select the option Map A to create an IDF that has the same dimensions as the IDF-file mentioned by Map A (i.e. SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF).
26. Click the OK button.
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Be aware that when we created the BOUNDARY.IDF and it is drawn and listed in the iMOD Manager,
it is a copy of the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF. Now we are going to determine the active areas of the
simulation by selecting the area with surface level values above zero. Areas with values less than zero
will be fixed areas. So let’s continue with that.
27. Select the [BOUNDARY.IDF] from the iMOD Manager and click the Map option from the main
menu, select IDF Options and then IDF Edit option to start the IDF Edit window.
28. Click the Select button to start the IDF Edit Select window.
29. Select the option [>=] from the dropdown menu Logic in the groupbox Evaluate IDF A.
30. Click the Get Selection button to get a selection of all cells that have values greater and equal
zero.
Example of the selection for cells with values greater or equal zero:
31. Click the option Close to return to the IDF Edit window again.
32. Click the Calculate option from the IDF Edit window to start the IDF Edit Calculation window.
33. Select the option New Value in the group Define Values by and enter the value [1] so it says
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New Value [=] [1.0].
34. Click the Calculate button.
35. Click the Close button and click Yes on the appearing window asking you to be sure to leave
this Edit environment.
Repeat steps 28 upto 35 to adjust all values that have values less than zero and calculate those values
to become -1.0.
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Illustration of the outline of the boundary condition:
Last thing we need to do is to create an IPF file (iMOD Point File) to represent the well in our model.
We have a single well situated in the centre of the island, in the following steps we will create this
simple file inside iMOD; however, it can be easily modified/created outside iMOD. For large datasets it
is often more convenient to process these types of data in another program.
36. Make sure you’ve switched the background image on, if not press Show Topography (
)
again.
37. Select the option Edit from the main menu, then select the option Create Feature and then IPF’s
to start the Create IPF’s window.
38. Click the Draw button (
) and click your left mouse button when the cursor is on the location
of the well.
39. Click your right mouse button to return to the Create IPF’s window.
40. Click the Information (
) button and click the Yes button on the question “Do you want to add
additional data to the shapes?”.
).
41. Select the third column and press the Rename button (
42. Enter the name [Q] in the field Rename Attribute and click the OK button.
43. Enter a value of [-500.0] for the extraction rate in the first row, third column. Rates are entered in
m3 /day and you cannot perturb the first two columns since these are used by iMOD for internal
processes.
Example of the screen layout at the current step:
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44. Click the Apply button to close this window and return to the Create IPFs window.
45. Click the Save As button (
) to save this file in .\DBASE\WELL.IPF.
For this hypothetical model, these three IDF-files (.\DBASE\SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF, .\
DBASE\IBOUND.IDF and .\DBASE\WELL.IPF) are the only spatial varying data sources. The other
model input are constant values throughout the model domain and we will assign those values by
creating a modeling project in the following section. In the next figure we’ve given a sketch of the
subsoil and flowpatterns that might occur.
Illustration of the estimated flowpatterns that might occur in our island model:
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Creating a Modeling Project and defining a runfile
iMOD arranges a model project by a project file, a so called PRJ file. This file stores all files that are
assigned to particular phenomena in the model. From a project file (*.PRJ) you can generate a runfile
(*.RUN) that will be used eventually to simulate groundwater heads for a specific configuration. We can
imagine that you’ll need to simulate different scenarios (e.g. steady-state simulation versus transient
simulations) that can be initiated by the Project-Manager. Well, probably it is better just to start with it.
46. Select the option View from the main menu and select the option Project Manager to start the
Project Manager window.
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This window shows all available packages that are supported by iMOD. Still many will come in future
though. Okay, we have to fill in this project manager with our model configuration. In the table, shown
below, we have outlined the requirements for this particular three-layered model.
Table 1: Model requirements for a confined, steady-state three layered model:
Modellayer
1
2,3
1,2,3
1,2
3
1
2
3
1,2,3
IDF/Constant Value
.\DBASE\BOUNDARY.IDF
1
0.0 m+MSL
.\DBASE\SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF
-15.0 m+MSL
.\DBASE\SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF
-15.0 m+MSL
-20.0 m+MSL
25.0 m/day
1,2,3
25.0 m/day
3
1
1,2,3
1,2,3
.\DBASE\WELL.IPF
0.5 mm/day
0.3
0.1
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Parameter
Boundary
Starting Heads
Top Elevation
Bottom Elevation
Horizontal
Permeability
Vertical
Permeability
Wells
Nett Recharge
Porosity Aquifer
Porosity Aquitard
Okay let us fill in the boundary conditions in the Project Manager.
47. Select the option [(BND) Boundary Conditions] in the Project Definition list.
48. Click the Properties button (
) to start the Define Characteristics for window.
In the current window you can specify how the package (in this case the Boundary Condition) needs
to be configured. Let us fill this dialog for the boundary condition for modellayer 1.
49. Enter the value [1] in the Assign Parameter to modellayer . . . field, if this is not the case by
default.
50. Specify a Parameter Multiplication Factor of [1.0], if that is not the case by default. Any parameter can be multiplied with the associated factor during runtime. You can use this factor to
easily perform some sensitivity analyses on parameters and their effect on the distribution of the
groundwaterhead.
51. Specify a Parameter Addition Value of [0.0], if that is not the case by default. Any value can be
added to or subtracted from a parameter.
52. Select the option Add File and click the Open File button. Select the file .\DBASE\BOUNDARY.IDF
from the appropriate folder. This file we’ve created in step 35, remember?
Illustration of the filled in Define Characteristics for: window:
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53. Click the OK button and this will return you to the Project Manager window. You’ll notice that the
option [(BND) Boundary Conditions] has been altered. You can select the “plus” sign to expand
the tree view. You’ll notice the entered fields in the presented string.
Now let us fill in the remaining parameters from the table given.
54. Repeat the steps 47 upto 53 for the remaining parameters. Take care to select the parameter
name in the Project Definition list each time you want to open the Define Characteristics for
window to enter NEW parameters.
Whenever you select the expression under the expanded branch in the treeview in the Project Definition
list, you’ll be able to edit an existing entered parameter; see for example below:
Example to create a NEW parameter for the parameter BOT:
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Example to adjust an entered parameter for the parameter BOT:
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As you might have noticed, we simulate this model with three modellayers. The first modellayer has
a thickness of 0.0 meter (no horizontal flow in that modellayer) to intercept the recharge. From there
water will migrate to the deeper layers 2 and 3. The third modellayer is the actual aquifer from which
water is extracted via the well screen. For this type of model it is important to have the centre of a
modellayer at the position at which it will gain or lose water. You should know that water enters of
leaves a particular modelcell from its centre and whenever a modellayer is rather thick, water will enter
the cell without following the appropriate path. In schematization the model can be represented by the
following figure:
Schematic representation of the model:
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Example of the Project Manager window after filling in the model configuration:
55. Click the Save button (
) to save this model configuration in a PRJ file. This file may be
loaded again whenever we need to modify this project.
The next step will be to create a runfile than can be used for a model simulation.
56. Click the Save Runfile button (
) to start the Define Simulation Configuration window.
iMOD will fill this dialog depending on the definitions in the Project Manager. We are not able to create
a transient runfile since we do not have any transient data. We will generate a runfile for a three-layered
model.
57. Enter the value [3] for the Number of Active Modellayers.
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Example of the Define Simulation Configuration window:
58. Click the OK button and save the runfile in the folder .\IMOD-USER\RUNFILES and call it ISLAND.RUN.
iMOD will create a runfile for a steady-state simulation taking into account all active packages in the
Project Manager. This runfile can be used to start the model simulation.
59. Click the OK button that says that the runfile has been written successfully. This will return you
to the Project Manager. Click the Close button to close the Project Manager window. It remains
active in the background and can be re-opened by selecting the option Project Manager from
the View menu at the main menu.
Running the Model
60. Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then the option Start Model Simulation to
start the Model Simulation window.
61. Select the [ISLAND.RUN] from the Runfiles (*.run) list.
iMOD will draw a hatched rectangle showing the maximum extent of the model described in the runfile.
In Tutorial 6 we will demonstrate more functionalities in scaling and creating a submodel using the
Model Simulation Tool. For now we will just skip most of the functionalities on this window and start
running the model.
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Example of the screen with the Model Simulation window:
62. Select the Result Folder tab and enter the name [ISLANDQ500] in the Enter or Select Output
Folder field.
Example of the tab Result Folder:
63. Click the Start Model Simulation button to start the model simulation.
The actual simulation will be carried out by the iMODFLOW executable and will run in the DOS box
attached to iMOD. Please check whether you can find this window and examine the results, it will look
more or like as follows:
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Example of the simulation window after completing the model simulation:
iMOD will create a folder .\IMOD-USER\MODELS\ISLANDQ500 in which the results of the model simulation will be saved. Moreover, a complete copy of the runfile, the used executable for the simulator
(iMODFLOW.EXE) and a batch script will be saved too. Double clicking this batch script (RUN.BAT)
from Windows Explorer or Total Commander will re-run this model outside iMOD. This can be very
convenient whenever some trial-and-error computations have to be carried out. For now, we will work
purely within iMOD.
Let’s see some results.
64. Close the Model Simulation window by selecting the Close button.
65. Select the option Map and then the option Quick Open to start the Quick Open window, see
section 6.2. With this window it is easy to open and view results from a model simulation.
66. Select the option [HEAD] from the Topic dropdown menu.
67. Select the options [1], [2] and [3] from the Layer dropdown menu.
68. Click the Open button.
iMOD will load the selected results files (HEAD for modellayers 1, 2 and 3) into the iMOD Manager and
displays the result on the graphical canvas. Use your experience learned from the previous Tutorials
to display the computed heads as shown in the example on the next page. To show the IDF by
contourlines, open the Legend window and click the Contourlines button (
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Example of the computed hydraulic heads on the island:
As we can see by the computed hydraulic head, the gradient towards the well in the centre of the island
tends to be such that no water is extracted from the ocean. To illustrate this even more we can compute
pathlines that show the actual path through the subsoil that groundwater follows from the location of
infiltration towards the location of extraction. We call that particle tracking.
Create Startpoints for a Pathline Simulation
69. Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then the option Define Startpoints to open
the Open/Create a Startpoint Definition window, see section 7.10 for more detailed information.
70. Enter the name [ISLAND] in the input field.
71. Click the Open and Continue button to open the Start Point Definition window.
iMOD offers the possibility to define startpoints for any particle tracking independently of a model,
modelsize and or cellsize. Startpoints will be defined by means of a polygon a line and/or points and
startpoints are distributed within the limits of that/those polygon(s)/lines. So, let us define startpoints
on the island.
72. Click the Draw button (
) and start drawing a polygon. We’ve done this before (see step 8)
so you’ll manage to get this done. Make a polygon wide around the island, so we can observe
whether seawater is flowing to the well too.
73. Select the right mouse button to stop drawing a polygon.
74. Select the Definition tab and enter a cellsize of [50] meter for the Distance X (m) and Distance
Y (m), so each 50 meter we will have a particle starting.
75. Select the Open IDF button (
) to select the computed hydraulic head of layer 1 to be used
as Top Level, use the same IDF for the Bottom Level.
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Example of the Start Points Definition window:
76. Click the Draw button to get an idea of the density of the particles to be started.
77. Click the Close button to close this Start Point Definition window. Whenever iMOD asks to
overwrite the current [ISLAND.ISD], do so.
So now we’re finished creating startpoints, let’s use them in the pathline simulator.
Running the Pathline Simulator
78. Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then the option Start Pathline Simulation.
This will start the Pathlines Simulation window; see section 7.11 for more detailed information.
79. Select the model [ISLANDQ500] in the list at Existing Results under Models.
iMOD will search in the appropriate folders to see whether all necessary files are available. For a
particle tracking you need at least the budget terms in the x, y and z direction, these files are stored in
the .\BDGFRF, .\BDGFFF and .\BDGFLF, respectively. iMOD will display the availability of those files
whenever you select a model result.
The example shown here will only highlight the most important steps to perform the particle simulation;
however, it is difficult to explain the results whenever one cannot fully understand the technique behind
it. So please, read some documentation on particle tracking, done by D.W. Pollock (USGS OpenFile
Report 94-464).
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Example showing the Pathline Simulation window:
80. Click the Input tab on the Pathlines Simulation window.
On this tab we need to tell iMOD the specific information that is needed for the particle simulation.
Most important are the top- and bottom interfaces for the two modellayers, see section 7.11 for more
detailed information on this topic. Let’s fill it in quickly.
81. Click the Properties button (
) next to the Boundary Settings to display the Input Properties
window.
82. Enter the [.\DBASE\BOUNDARY.IDF] in the first row and enter [1] for the second and third row.
The particle tracking algorithm will use this information to exclude areas where the values in the
IDF-files are less or equal zero.
Example of the Input Properties for the Boundary Conditions:
83. Click the Apply button to take the entered values as input.
84. Select the Properties button for the other input fields and fill in the Input Properties appropriately.
Use the configuration as mentioned in table 1 on page 427.
85. Click the Save As button (
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use the Load button (
) to read the input properties from disk. Whenever you save the
settings as [.\IMOD-USER\SETTINGS\IMODPATH.IPS], iMOD will read this file automatically
each time you start the Particle Simulation window.
For now we will skip most of the configuration setting in the other tabs, but feel free to look these over
in more detail at section 7.11.
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86. Click the Result tab and make sure the Trace Direction is [Forward]. We compute the particles
from the groundwater elevation upto the discharge location (a well and/or the ocean).
87. Select the option Save Entire Flowpath (*.IFF) so we will get a file that describes the entire
flowpath of each particle.
88. Enter a name for the yielding flowfile, e.g. [ISLAND.IFF].
89. Click the Start button. This can take a while, especially whenever you have a lot of particles.
Bear in mind that whenever you have a lot of particles to examine, but you’re not actually interested in
their paths but only in their age at interception, consider the IPF files as alternative to flowlines. Those
files are much-much smaller and can be examined quicker.
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90. Click the OK button on the Information summary that will be displayed after the particle tracking
is completed.
iMOD will load the computed IFF file and presents it like black lines. So let’s color it by their age, which
makes more sense.
91. Click the Map option from the main menu, select the option IFF Options and then the option IFF
Configure to display the IFF Configure window. See section 6.12.1 for more detailed information
about the functionalities on this window.
92. Select the option Apply Legend to and select the [TIME (YEARS)] from the dropdown menu.
One of the other items to be plotted is the velocity, that is computed as the flux (m3 /day) divided by
the porosity (-) divided by the area (m2 ; width*modellayer thickness). A change in porosity will change
the velocity linearly and therefore the age of the flowline, but will, however, not affect the shape of the
pathline.
93. Click the Close button to redraw the IFF with the assigned adjustments.
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Example of a 2 Dimensional image of the pathlines:
Example of a 3 Dimensional image of the pathlines near the well:
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Be aware that the vertical scale is always very exaggerated! From the 3D image above, it is clear that
most of the water penetrates vertically to the deeper subsoil and then flows to the well. Given that the
material is highly permeable (25m/day) and homogeneous. In the next Tutorial 5 we will enhance this
model to include more resistance in the subsoil which will affect the pathlines behavior more.
Finally, our major question is still unanswered.
Sensitivities and sustainable yield
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So, now we know that an extraction of 500m3 /day will be sustainable, we’re still wondering what the
maximum will be. It will be your task as hydraulic engineer to give an answer to that question by
simulating a variety of model simulations for different extraction rates for the well. Use the next figure
to monitor the behavior of the system for different rates. Moreover, you could vary the permeability
too, since this parameter is often uncertain. It will be interesting to illustrate the accuracy of your
sustainable yield estimation with a bandwidth that expresses the inaccuracy of the permeability too.
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After each model simulation you should check the total waterbalance of the model. Whenever you
open the file LOG_V{version}.TXT (located in the model directory .\MODELS\ISLANDQ500), it shows
the total summary of the model simulation. If you scroll down, you’ll see the total waterbalance for the
model, e.g.:
Resulting Waterbalance for: STEADY-STATE
Budget Type
Q-in (m3/d)
Q-out (m3/d)
bdgwel
0.00000E+00
-0.50000E+03
bdgrch
0.23437E+04
0.00000E+00
bdgbnd
0.25241E-02
-0.18167E+04
TOTAL
0.23437E+04
-0.23167E+04
ERROR
0.27054E+02m3
1.161%
In bold we show the quantity of water flowing in from the sea (0.0025m3 /day) and flowing out to the
sea (1,816m3 /day). You could use these as evaluation criterium as well!
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This tutorial gives a short introduction in enhancing the groundwater flow model from Tutorial 4 with an
aquitard that has been characterized by several boreholes. See for a more detailed description of the
Solid Tool section 7.4.
Outline
This is what you will do:
Required Data
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Visualizing the boreholes in 3D;
Enhancing the subsoil characteristics based upon the boreholes using the Solid Tool;
Simulate the updated model to observe the consequences of an aquitard in-between two aquifers;
Simulate flow of particles.
For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Folders:
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SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF: describes the surface level of the model area;
IBOUND.IDF: describes the boundary conditions;
WELL.IPF: ipf file that describes the location and rate of the wells;
ISLAND.PRJ: project file that describes the model configuration;
BOREHOLES.IPF: ipf file that describes the location and actual borehole data.
All these files are located in/below the folder: {installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT5_ SOLID_BUILDING.
Beside this data you will need iMODFLOW.EXE to make the model computations, see step 1 in Tutorial
4.
Getting Started
1. Launch iMOD by double click on the iMOD executable in the Windows Explorer, and start by
selecting the option Create a new iMOD Project.
2. Open the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF from by clicking the Open IDF (
The file is located in .\TUT5_SOLID_BUILDING\.
) from the main menu.
This file shows the surface level of a small island that we’ve been modeling in Tutorial 4. If you want
you can add a sketch of the outline of the island by following the steps 3 upto 6 from Tutorial 4.
Now we have an IDF of the uppermost interface of our model (the actual surface-level), we need to
have an IDF for our lowermost interface as well (to start with; this can be modified later). So, we will
copy the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF and assign a default value of 20m-MSL and call it BEDROCK.IDF. We
have done that for you, se please open this file in iMOD.
3. Open the BEDROCK.IDF from by clicking the Open IDF (
located in .\TUT5_SOLID_BUILDING\.
) from the main menu. The file is
These two files describe the vertical and horizontal limits of our model. In-between there exists an
aquitard that has been identified by several boreholes, when they we’re installing the well.
Illustration of the estimated flowpatterns that might occur in our island model:
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Boreholes
When they drilled the well in the early 80’s, the borehole company found some clays with low permeable
material (less than 0.0001 m/day). Probably these are some ancient deposits, but they can interfere
with the flowpath to the well screen and therefore might decrease the level of sustainability of the
well. To this end, they decided to collect more information about the extent of this clay layer by drilling
additional boreholes. A total of 5 boreholes were drilled, let’s start by loading these in iMOD.
4. Click the Open IDF button (
SOLID_BUILDING folder.
) and select the file BOREHOLES.IPF from the .\TUT5_
The syntax of the file BOREHOLES.IPF is as described in more detail in section 9.5. For now, each location of the boreholes has an x- and y coordinate and a reference to an attached textfile that describes
the actual borelog. Let’s see how the subsoil should look like whenever we include the boreholes.
5. Use your experience from the previous tutorials to produce the following figure, see steps 45
and further from the first tutorial whenever you need some assistance in this.
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Example of the subsoil underneath the hypothetical island:
From the above given figure, it seems that our estimation of the bedrock depth is not accurate as the
boreholes show an increasing bedrock depth from the west to the east. Moreover, we can clearly
observe a clay layer (green) in-between the aquifer (yellow). This clay layer has its greatest thickness
in the centre of the island (off course) and thins out to the side of the island. Probably eroded by some
ancient seas. We are going to use the Solid Tool to construct the interfaces that describe the top- and
bottom elevation of the aquitard, as well as adapting the bedrock level of the limestone.
Create a Solid
A solid is a representation of the subsoil divided into separate interfaces, such as clay and other loweror higher permeabilities. It contains a set of continuous interfaces that exist throughout the model
domain and can be used in a groundwater flow model.
6. Click the Toolbox option from the main menu and then select the Solid Tool to start the Solid
Tool window.
7. Click the New Solid button (
) to start the Create New Solid window.
8. Select the IDF-files [SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF] and [BEDROCK.IDF] from the list mentioned by
Scratch Modeling.
9. Enter [ISLAND] in the Give the name for the Solid input field.
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Example of the Create New Solid window:
iMOD will use the selected IDF-files (SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF and BEDROCK.IDF) as the uppermost
and lowermost interfaces of our model. It is important that the files are selected in the right sequence
(from the top to the bottom). iMOD can add extra interfaces whenever you specify that, so based upon
the two selected IDF-files iMOD can create extra interfaces in-between. In our modeling project, we
need at least two modellayers, one to describe the groundwaterhead above the aquitard, and one to
describe the situation underneath.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Click the OK button
Enter [2] for the Number of Modellayers .
Click the OK button
Click the OK button on the Information window that mentions that the solid has been created
successfully. This returns you to the Solid Tool window again.
14. Click the Information button (
the files to be used for the solid.
) to display the content of the *.SOL file. This file describes
As you can see, the names for the top and bottom interfaces are changed into TOP_L1.IDF and
BOT_L2.IDF. These are copied from the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF and BEDROCK.IDF, respectively. The
other interfaces BOT_L1.IDF and TOP_L2.IDF are interfaces that iMOD created and are by default the
mids in-between the TOP_L1.IDF and BOT_L2.IDF. All these files are located in the folder .\IMODUSER\SOLIDS\ISLAND.
15. Close the Texteditor as this will return you to the Solid Tool window.
16. Select the [ISLAND] in the list on the Solid Tool window, if this is not selected yet.
17. Open the iMOD Manager and observe that there is a file called [ISLAND.MDF]. An MDF-file
is a collection of IDF-files into a single file, see section 6.5 for more information about these
MDF-files, how to create them and how to dissolve them again.
18. Select the BOREHOLES.IPF and the ISLAND.MDF in the iMOD Manager.
19. Click the 3D Tool button (on the Solid Tool window!) to start the 3D Tool (see for more information section 7.3 and step 54 in Tutorial 1).
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Example of the initial Solid:
You can see how the current solid looks like, it contains a single aquifer on top of the (green) aquitard,
and another aquifer beneath it. It is not very accurate though, compared to the boreholes. We are
going to manipulate the green aquitard such that is resembles the boreholes more realistic.
20. Choose the option File from the main menu on the 3D Tool window and then select the Quit 3D
Tool option, this returns you to the main screen again.
21. Click the Cross-Section button (
) on the Solid Tool window (again not the one on the main
menu!). This will start the Cross-Section Tool as you experienced in Tutorial 3, step 7. Read
section 7.1 for more information about this tool.
22. Enlarge the Draw Cross-Section window such that you can see the boreholes more clearly.
23. Select the Snap option (
) on the Draw Cross-Section window (be aware that you do not
select the same option on the Cross-Section window!).
24. Click the Draw Cross-section button (
) on the Draw Cross-Section window and start drawing
a cross-section in the Draw Cross-Section window, start from the left borehole B7 via B1, B5 to
B3. Click your right mouse button to stop this drawing.
25. Select the tab Cross-Sections on the Draw Cross-Section window and click the New Crosssection button (
) on the Cross-Section window to start the Fit Cross-Section window.
Here, you can enter a name for the cross-section. We suggest that you enter the name [CROSSB7B1B5B3],
so it will be clear, in future, what cross-section this is.
Furthermore, this window offers the possibility to start your initial guess for the cross-section using the
current values for those interfaces.
Example of the Fit Cross-Section window:
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iMOD will fit the interface along the cross-section on the values read from the appropriate IDF, so in
this case iMOD will create a line for the [Top Layer 2] (fourth row in the table) on the content of the
ISLAND\TOP_L2.IDF. The accuracy of this fit is determined by the Tolerance, which is set to [1.0]
meter, which is rather high for this case; however, it is fine for now. Feel free to change the tolerance
values to see the impact.
26. Click the Apply button.
iMOD will fit each line to the corresponding IDF-files, the result is presented below.
Example of the current screen layout:
Now we can do two things:
We can manually edit the line such that it will fit the boreholes. You can easily move your cursor
in the neighborhood of the (red) line. Whenever it changes in a red arrow you can click the left
mouse button and drag the line to another position. Whenever it becomes a black arrow you
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can modify the existing node of the line. This behavior is similar to modifying polygons, see
section 4.4 for an example.
We can tell iMOD to connect the lines through the boreholes. We will start with this.
27. Click the Fit button (
) to adjust the nodes on each line such that the line crosses each
borehole at the right position.
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Example of the current screen layout:
For now we will accept this cross-section.
Okay, let us define the other cross-sections. Follow the steps 21 upto 26 for the different cross-sections.
) again to start another cross-section. We suggest
Simply press the New Cross-Section button (
you draw the following cross-sections (you’re free to draw other combinations as well):
[CROSSB7B1B5B3]: B7-B1-B5-B3 (you just did this one!)
[CROSSB6B1B2]: B6-B1-B2
[CROSSB4B7B2B3]: B4-B7-B2-B3
[CROSSB4B6B3]: B4-B6-B3
28. Click the Close button on the Draw Cross-Section window. You’ll be asked to save the current
cross-sections, click Yes.
iMOD will save the current cross-sections into separate files, e.g. called CROSSB7B1B5B3.SPF in
the .\IMOD-USER\SOLIDS\ISLAND folder. Also the ISLAND.SOL will be adjusted such that it includes
a reference to this CROSSB7B1B5B3.SPF. Please have a look in the ISLAND.SOL by pressing the
Information button (
).
Your result might look like the following example.
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Example of the outline of the cross-sections:
Bear in mind that the area outside the cross-sections will be extrapolated from the cross-sections.
You’re allowed to define other cross-sections in those areas too, to direct the interpolation more.
29. Select the [BOREHOLE.IPF] in the iMOD Manager solely.
30. Click the 3D Tool button (
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Example of a 3D image of the possible outline of cross-sections:
There is a Solid tab active now. On that tab you’ll find a list of all the cross-sections, you can select
them all or select them individually.
31. Select the cross-section CROSSB7B1B5B3 from the list on the Solid tab in the 3D Plot Settings
window.
Example of a 3D image of the individual cross-section [CROSSB7B1B5B3]:
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32. Click the File option from the 3D Tool menu and then select the optionQuit 3D Tool to return to
the Solid Tool window.
Our next step is to create a fully 3D interpretation of the interfaces by numerical interpolation. The
interpolation is based upon the cross-sections.
33. Click the Calculate button (
current Solid window.
) on the Solid Tool window to start the Compute Elevations for
In this window you’ll be allowed to determine what elevations/interfaces need to be computed. Since
the top elevation for our first modellayer is the SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF (see step 2) we will not recompute that interface, so we turn it off.
34. Deselect the Calc option for [(1) Top Layer 1].
We will overwrite our initial elevations/interfaces since that will increase the performance of our next
interpolations. Moreover, we will be able to see any update of our interfaces more easily.
Example of the Compute Elevations for Current Solid window:
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35. Click the Compute button to start the interpolation process.
iMOD uses as default the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method (the identical solver that will be
used to solve the groundwater flow model) to interpolate the interfaces.
36. Click the OK button whenever the interpolation has been finished.
37. Select ISLAND in the Solid Tool and click the Cross-Section Tool button on the Solid Tool
window and select the cross-section [CROSSB7B1B5B3.SPF] from theList of Available Crosssections on the Cross-Sections window.
Example of the cross-section CROSSB7B1B5B3 after interpolation:
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Pretty cool, but also a bit unrealistic. We can modify each cross-section easily to become more smooth.
38. Use your mouse cursor to move in the neighborhood of the a line to be modified and whenever
it becomes red, just press your left mouse button and drag the line. Try to create some detail,
or even try to create a hole inside the aquitard.
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Example after editing the interfaces in the cross-section CROSSB7B1B3B5:
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Example after editing the interfaces in the cross-section CROSSB6B1B2:
Be aware that whenever you move a node into the neighborhood of another node from another line,
iMOD will try to snap it. Whenever the line turns green, lines will be overlapping each other perfectly,
which means that there will be no thickness left for an aquitard. In this way, you can create a hole in
the aquitard.
39. Click the Close button on the Cross-Sections window to close the Cross-Section Tool, click the
Yes button whenever you are asked to save your adjustments.
40. Click the Calculate button (
) and deselect the Calc option for [(1) Top Layer 1] and click the
Compute button to start a new interpolation.
41. Click the OK button whenever the interpolation has finished and re-enter the Cross-Section Tool
by clicking the Cross-Section Tool button (
[CROSSB6B1B2.SPF] from the list.
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Example of the cross-section CROSSB6B1B2 after manual modification:
42. Click the Close button on the Cross-Section window to leave the Cross-Section Tool, click No
for the question whether you want to save the adjustments (well we did not adjust anything, did
we?)
43. Click the 3D Tool button (
) and select the Quasi 3D Model configuration. This will organize the table for the Display Configuration such that iMOD will create a solid representation of
aquitards.
44. Click the Apply button.
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3D image of the computed elevations in combination with the used cross-sections:
Okay, for now this looks quite nice, we’re done with our solid.
45. Click the option File from the 3D Tool main menu and then select the option Quit 3D Tool.
46. Click the Close button on the Solid Tool window.
We will examine what the consequences are for the flow paths towards the well. In Tutorial 4 we’ve
constructed a model from scratch and we will anticipate on your knowledge to do that again. We start
with the requirements for this particular three-layered model.
47. Select the option View from the main menu and then select the option Project Manager to start
the Project Manager window.
We have used this Project Manager in Tutorial 4 in detail. Please refer to that section for more information. Here, we will create the necessary model configuration as outlined in Table 2.
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Model requirements for a confined, steady-state three layered model:
Starting Heads
Top Elevation
Bottom Elevation
Horizontal Permeability
Vertical Permeability
IDF/Constant Value
.\DBASE\BOUNDARY.IDF
1
0.0 m+MSL
.\DBASE\SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF
.\SOLIDS\ISLAND\TOP_L2.IDF
.\DBASE\SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF
.\SOLIDS\ISLAND\BOT_L1.IDF
.\SOLIDS\ISLAND\BOT_L2.IDF
25.0 m/day
25.0 m/day
0.0001 m/day (1000 days/m)
.\DBASE\WELL.IPF
0.5 mm/day
0.3
0.1
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Wells
Nett Recharge
Porosity Aquifer
Porosity Aquitard
Modellayer
1
2,3
1,2,3
1,2
3
1
2
3
1,2,3
1
2
3
1
1,2,3
1,2,3
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Parameter
Boundary
So, the only difference with our previous model in Tutorial 4 is that we use different values for our Topand Bottom elevations. Let’s start with the Project file we saved in Tutorial 4.
48. Click the Open PRJ button (
) and select the PRJ file you’ve saved at step 55 of Tutorial 4.
49. Adjust the Top for modellayer 3 and the Bottom elevations for modellayer 2 and 3 by clicking the
Properties button (
) and change the parameter in the window accordingly. Don’t forget to
change the constant value for the Vertical Permeability for modellayer 2!
50. Click the Save As Runfile button (
) when you are finished and save the file as [ISLAND_SOLID.RUN] in the .\IMOD_USER\RUNFILES folder.
51. Click the Close button to hide the Project Manager window.
52. Select the option Tools from the main menu and then the option Start Model Simulation to start
the Start Model Simulation window.
53. Select the [ISLAND_SOLID.RUN] from the list of available runfile.
54. Select the tab Results on the Model Simulation window and enter the name
[ISLAND_SOLID] as the result name.
55. Click the Start Model Simulation button.
56. Close the Model Simulation window by selecting the Close button.
57. Use the Quick Open window to display the computed heads for the first modellayer, see step 65
in Tutorial 4.
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Example of the computed heads for the adjusted subsoil:
You can see what the effects are from the hole in the aquitard (denoted by the white arrow). So, let’s
compute the flowlines towards the well. Instead of computing a forward tracing, we will compute a
backward trace from the well back to its infiltration areas.
58. Click the Add Map button (
) on the main menu and select the [WELL.IPF] which is situated
in the .\TUTORIAL5_SOLID_BUILDING folder. So now we know where the well is actually.
59. Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and then choose the option Define Startpoints.
60. Enter [ISLAND_SOLID] in the input field and click the Open and Continue button.
61. Click the Draw button (
), select the option Circle from the Select window and click OK. Now
locate the well with your mouse cursor and left click your mouse on the well. Press the right
mouse button to stop.
62. Select the Definition tab on the Start Point Definition window.
63. Enter [25] for the Radius and [1] for the Sampling. We will create startpoints every 1 meter on a
circle which has a radius of 25 meter.
64. Click the Open IDF button (
) to select the Top elevation of the second aquifer (actually the
third modellayer in which the well is located) as Top Level, so select the TOP_L2.IDF from the
.\IMOD_USER\SOLIDS\ISLAND folder. Repeat this for the Bottom Level and select the bottom
elevation of the second aquifer (BOT_L2.IDF).
65. Enter [10] for the Vertical Interval. We will have 10 particles starting in-between the top- and
bottom elevation of the second aquifer (third modellayer).
66. Click the Draw button to see the actual location of the start points.
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Example of the Start Point Definition window:
67. Click the Close button to save and close the window. Click Yes if you will be asked to save the
file to [ISLAND_SOLID.ISD].
68. Select the option Toolbox from the main menu and the select the option Start Pathline Simulation
to start the Pathlines Simulation window.
We’ve have used this functionality before (see Tutorial 4, steps 78 onwards), so we will be brief this
time.
69. Select the model result [ISLAND_SOLID] from the list of Existing Results.
70. Select the Input tab and click the Open IPS File button (
you have saved in Tutorial 4.
) and search for the IPF file that
If you did not save any IPF file, follow the steps 78 onwards mentioned in Tutorial 4, to fill in this window.
Though we need to do a slight modification too. Since we’ve changed the interfaces of our model we
should change the Pathline settings accordingly. So, . . .
71. Click the Properties button (
) behind the Top- and Bottom files (second dropdown menu)
and change the filenames in the list as shown in the next figure (SURFACE_LEVEL.IDF may be
used instead of TOP_L1.IDF).
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72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
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Illustration of the Input Properties:
Click the Apply button to return to the Pathline Simulation window.
Select the [ISLAND_SOLID.ISD] from the list withStart Point Definition files.
Select the Results tab of the Pathline Simulation window.
Select the Backward option from the Trace Direction.
Select the option Save Entire Flowpath.
Enter [ISLAND_SOLID.IFF] as the name to save the results to.
Click the Start button.
Click the OK button in the Information window that appears after the simulation finished.
Click the Close button to quit the Pathline Simulation window.
iMOD will display the results directly on screen.
81. Use step 91upto 92 from tutorial 4 to change the visualization such that the total travel times will
be displayed.
82. Use the 3D Tool to visualize the flowlines in combination with the created solid in a single view.
You should be able to figure this out by yourself.
Finally, we complete this Tutorial with the results of our well capture zone in a 3D environment.
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Final results of the capture zone of the well:
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This tutorial gives a short introduction in starting a groundwaterflow model simulation. See for more
detailed references Model Scenarios and Model Simulation.
Outline
This is what you will do:
Required Data
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Understand the content of a model configuration file, i.e. a runfile;
Simulating a groundwaterflow model for different cellsizes and areas of interest;
Understand the resulting folder structure with results;
Defining a simple model scenario and include such a configuration to an original model configuration.
For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Folders:
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BND: IDF-files that describe the boundary conditions;
DRN: IDF-files that describe drainage conditions;
KDW: IDF-files that describe the horizontal transmissivity;
OLF: IDF-files that describe the overland flow conditions;
RCH: IDF-files that describe the natural recharge;
RIV: IDF-files that describe the river conditions;
SHD: IDF-files that describe the starting head conditions;
VCW: IDF-files that describe the vertical resistance;
WEL: IPF-files that describe the wells;
TUT6_MODEL.RUN: file that describes the model configuration and refers to the above mentioned folders;
SCENARIO.GEN: file that describes the area that needs to be manipulated.
All these files are located in/below the folder: {installfolder}\TUTORIAL\TUT6_MODELSIMULATION.
Beside this data you will need iMODFLOW.EXE to make the model computations.
Getting Started
1. Copy the TUT6_MODEL.RUN into the .\IMOD_USER\RUNFILES folder,
2. Place iMODFLOW.EXE somewhere on your disk (for instance in {installfolder}) and define the
absolute location of iMODFLOW.EXE (probably something like {installfolder}
\iMODFLOW.EXE}) in IMOD_INIT.PRF using the keyword MODFLOW.
See Tutorial 1 and chapter 9 for more information about the folder structure in iMOD and a description
of IMOD_INIT.PRF.
3. Launch iMOD by double click on the iMOD executable in the Windows Explorer, and start by
selecting the option Create a new iMOD Project.
4. Go to View in the menu bar and select the iMOD Manager (or use the short-key Ctrl+M).
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Model Parameters
Let us first observe some model parameters and understand what this model might be up to. We use
the Project Manager for that, so let start that one.
5. Click the option Project Manager from the View menu.
iMOD simulates a groundwater flow model by means of a runfile. A runfile gives a full description of
the usage of all files needed for the simulation. The Project Manager is able to read the entire runfile
and present the content in a treeview field.
) and select the TUT6_MODEL.RUN file from the {IMOD_
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6. Click the Open Runfile button (
USER}\RUNFILE folder.
iMOD presents the content of the runfile in a treeview. Each branch represents a model parameter,
and whenever a branch contains more information we can expand the branch to analyse its contents.
Let us visualize the starting conditions for this particular model.
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7. Expand the branch called (SHD) Starting Heads from the treeview field. Select this branch and
click the draw button (
).
As a result iMOD will open all the files below the selected branch and add them to the iMOD Manager.
In this manner it is easy to explore the available modelparameters for the model. In this model the
starting condition of a model simulation is equal to a result of a previous simulation. Since IDF-files
are georeferenced, they can be easily (re)used for different modules and/or packages in a model
configuration.
8. Explore the content of the Project Manager, e.g. plot the elevation of the existing Rivers in the
first system.
9. Analyse the starting condition by creating several cross-sections (see Tutorial 3), use the 3D
Tool and/or compute the difference between the starting condition for modellayer 1 and the one
for modellayer 2 (see Tutorial 2). This gives you insight in downward and upward fluxes.
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Illustration of the difference in starting heads for modellayer 1 minus modellayer 2:
10. Click the branch (RIV) Rivers (Cauchy conditions) and observe that this model has two river
systems. One is connected to modellayer 1 and the other one is connected to modellayer
2. Furthermore each river system consists of 4 input grids, CONDUCTANCE, RIVER LEVEL,
RIVERBOTTOM LEVEL and INFILTRATION FACTOR. Examine the content of these files.
In this particular model a river is discretized for two different modellayers , i.e. modellayer 1 and
modellayer 2. The number of river elements is unlimited, however, a single IDF can store one river for
each cell, so you should define more IDF files in those cases in which you want to specify more river
elements at the same location. In this particular case we specified river elements for modellayer 2 that
are penetrating through the first aquitard into the first aquifer (i.e. the second modellayer).
Illustration of the stages for the rivers in the first system:
Model Simulation
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Let’s start the model simulation.
11. Select the option Start Model Simulation from the Toolbox option on the main menu. Whenever
the Start Model Simulation window does not appear, check whether you made a type-mismatch
while entering the name of the iMODFLOW executable in step 2.
12. Select the TUT6_MODEL.RUN from the Runfiles list. You should see a hatched area of the
maximum extent of the model. If you do not see that, click the Zoom to Extent button (
Click the Info (
).
) to display the runfile in a texteditor.
The first 15 lines of the runfile can be manipulated by the Start Model Simulation window. The rest
refers to existing model input data, let’s check whether all these data is available.
).
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13. Close the editor and click the CheckRun button (
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iMOD will popup a summary file ({USER}\TMP\RUNFILE.LOG) of all files that cannot be found. Use
step 5 to open a runfile to change pathnames if needed. If no files are listed, all files can be found and
we can proceed.
14. Select the Result Folder tab and enter a name for the model results, e.g. MODEL25 and click
the Start Model Simulation button.
iMOD will copy the selected runfile [TUT6_MODEL.RUN] in to the {IMOD_USER}\MODELS\
MODEL25 folder and renames it into IMODFLOW.RUN. Thereafter it will copy the simulation executable (IMODFLOW.EXE) into the same folder and starts the simulation by the statement IMODFLOW.EXE IMODFLOW.RUN. A DOS-command tool will open in which the simulation runs. You can
proceed with iMOD or wait until the simulation finishes; it will take a very short time since the starting conditions are similar to the results. The model simulation is logged in the same folder in a file
called log_<iMODFLOW version>.txt. You should check this file whenever there is a problem with the
simulation.
15. Whenever the simulation finishes, click Quick Open from the menu option Map, on the main
menu.
16. Select the Folder [MODELS], then the variant [MODEL25], then choose the Topic [HEAD], and
choose Layer [1] and then click the Open button. Make sure the option Display is selected! If
everything went well the only option to be selected is [STEADY-STATE] in the dropbox Time. For
transient simulations, you might be able to select a specific date.
17. Compare the results to the starting conditions. Use tools experienced in Tutorial 1, 2 and 3 if
desired.
Let us simulate this model at a different resolution.
18. Start the Start Model Simulation (step 11) again and select the Model Dimensions tab and
change the cellsize in Simulate model with cellsizes equal to = [100]. You can select a cellsize
from the dropdown menu and/or enter a different cellsize in the input field to the right of the
dropdown menu.
19. Go to the Result Folder tab and enter an output foldername [MODEL100] and click the Start
Model Simulation button.
20. Open the resulting phreatic heads (modellayer 1) with Quick Open (see step 15) and subtract the
results using the Map Calculator (
Tool (
cellsizes.
) on the iMOD Manager and/or use the Cross-Section
) on the main toolbar to explore the differences caused by the different simulation
When using the Cross-Section Tool with the Block Line option (see Tutorial 3 step 12), you may expect
the width of 4 blocks of the MODEL25 line equal to the width of 1 block of the MODEL100 line. But this
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is probably not what you observe in step 20 and 23 of this tutorial, because iMOD standard reduces
the number of sampling points to speed up the calculations. To get the widths as expect, you have
to increase the value of Maximum number of sampling points in the Cross-Section Properties window
(see Tutorial 3 step 11 or ?? to open this window), e.g. set Maximum number of sampling points to
[1000].
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Illustration of the appearance of the 25x25 meter model (red) and the corresponding 100x100m model
(darkblue):
Let us simulate just a part of the model.
21. Start the Start Model Simulation (step 11) again and select the Model Dimensions tab and click
the Draw Simulation Area of Interest button. You can interactively draw the area of interest
within the hatched area. Click your left mouse button to set the first corner and give a second
left mouse click to specify the opposite corner. You may drag the area of interest interactively by
dragging the mouse while your inside the graphical display. Reset the cellsize to 25 meter and
include a buffer-zone of 1500 meter.
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Illustration of the strategy to compute a cutout of the entire model:
22. Go to the Result Folder tab and enter an output foldername [MODEL25PART] and click the Start
Model Simulation button.
23. Open the resulting phreatic heads (modellayer 1) with Quick Open (see step 14) and subtract
the results using the Map Calculator (
Tool (
) on the iMOD Manager and/or use the Cross-Section
) on the main toolbar to explore any differences.
Water Balances
An important aspect of groundwater flow modeling is the ability to compute waterbalances. In iMOD
you can compute these too. Important is that you select the appropriate output variables prior to your
simulation, see tab Output Variables on the Start Model Simulation window. In this case the output
variables were selected all by default.
24. Select the option Compute Water Balance from the Tool menu.
25. Select the desired model from the Models folder.
26. Select all items in the lowest menufield except the HEADS. The iMOD convention is that all flux
related output files start with BDG*. The content of these files is always in m3 /day.
27. Click the Apply button and save the Waterbalance as WBAL.TXT (default).
28. iMOD will present the content of the WBAL.TXT file. Inspect the terminology and its content;
more is explained below.
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Illustration of a waterbalance TXT-file:
In the above given example a waterbalance is presented for the entire model. In this case the waterbalance is given for a steady-state simulation and summed for the entire model area for modellayer 1.
There is only one zonation used and the following terms are organized rowwise:
CONSTANT HEAD
FLUX LOWER FACE
FLUX RIGHT FACE
FLUX FRONT FACE
WELLS
DRAINAGE
RIVERS
OVERLAND
RECHARGE
flux in or out across the boundary according the boundary condition specified around the model;
flux over the interface between modellayer 1 and 2;
flux over the interface between column interfaces between cells in modellayer 1;
flux over the interface between adjacent row interfaces in modellayer 1;
flux in the extraction wells;
flux out the drainage systems;
flux in or out the river systems;
FLOW flux in the overland flow system;
flux from the recharge.
Especially the percentages are interesting and can be used to observe the relationship between the
different waterbalance terms. In the above example >45% of the groundwater is discharged to the
surface water.
29. Close the waterbalance text file in order to continue. The file can be inspected any time by a
regular text editor.
Next thing we would like to do is to compute a waterbalance for a specific region.
30. Go to the Apply To tab and select the option Apply within shapes (*.gen). Select the pencil (
) and start drawing a polygon on the graphical canvas (see section 4.5 for more information
about the specific functionalities that you can use while drawing a polygon).
31. Click the Apply button and enter the name WBAL_PART.TXT and inspect the resulting waterbalance file.
In the iMOD Manager you will notice the POINTER.IDF. This file reflects the position of the given
polygon. You can reuse this file (e.g. after editing) in another waterbalance computation as well (Apply
for NoDataValues in given IDF-file).
32. Close the waterbalance text file in order to continue. The file can be inspected any time by a
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regular text editor.
Scenario Simulation
Let’s build a scenario in which we will increase a river stage from the current model configuration.
We can do that in two manners. One manner is to adjust the appropriate IDF-files that discretize
the river system, e.g. RIV\RIV_STAGE_L1.IDF and RIV\RIV_STAGE_L2.IDF by means of IDF Edit
(see section 6.10.4). Alternatively, and more advanced is the usage of the Model Scenarios tool (see
section 7.6).
33. Click the Close button on the Model Simulation window, if needed.
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34. Select the file RIV\RIV_STAGE_L1.IDF in the iMOD Manager and click the Redraw button (
) to (re)draw it.
35. Zoom in for the desired river segment at the coordinates [x=145000.0] and [y=448100]. You can
use the option GotoXY from the View menu (see section 5.2) and use Zoom(m)=[1500m].
36. Select the option Define Model Scenarios from the Toolbox menu.
37. Enter [RIVER_STAGE] for the name of the scenario that we are going to create.
38. Click the Open and Continue button.
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) and open the file SCENARIO.GEN that is located at {install39. Click the Open GEN button (
folder}\TUTORIAL\TUT6_MODELSIMULATION.
We’ve created a shape (polygon) to determine the area in which we will change the river stage. Let’s
assign the measure to be attached to the polygon.
40. Select [SHAPE1] from the list and select the Scenario Definitions tab.
41. Click the New button (
) and assign [STAGE.SDF] for the scenario definition file.
iMOD will create the file {IMOD_USER}\SCENARIOS\RIVER_STAGE\STAGE.SDF and displays it by
a regular text editor. Let’s edit the file to make it appropriate to adjust the stage levels in the polygon.
42. Scroll down the STAGE.SDF file until you reach the section [RIVERS:].
43. Change the line [RIV-SYSTEM 1 1] into [RIV-SYSTEM 0] (only one zero!), which means that all
rivers systems will be affected by this STAGE.SDF file.
44. Change the line [RIV-LAYER 1 1] into [RIV-LAYER 2 1 2] which means that you will change two
modellayers (1 and 2) only.
45. Change the line [RIV-STAGE 1.0 0.0] into [RIV_STAGE 1.0 +0.50] which means that the current
stage will be raised by +0.50m.
Illustration of an SDF file:
46. Save the STAGE.SDF and close the text editor.
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47. Click the Close button which saves/overwrites the file RIVER-STAGE.SCN.
So, we’ve created a scenario definition that raises by 0.50m the stage of all river systems that penetrate
modellayer 1 and 2 inside the current polygon (SHAPE1).
Okay, let’s use this scenario definition in a model simulation.
48. Select the option Start Model Simulation from the Toolbox option on the main menu. Select the
TUT6_MODEL.RUN from the Runfiles list.
49. Select the Include Scenario option and select RIVER-STAGE from the Existing Scenarios Fold) to examine the RIVER-STAGE.SCN and the STAGE.SDF
ers list. Use the Info button (
presented in the Scenario Definition Files list.
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iMOD will draw the polygon (SHAPE1) that is defined in the RIVER-STAGE.SCN. As you might observe, it is smaller than the total extent of our model. Let’s decrease the size of our model (in order to
speed up our simulation).
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50. Select the Model Dimensions tab and click the Draw Simulation Area of Interest button.
51. Left click your mouse approximately 1,000m west of the south west corner of the polygon
(SHAPE1) and left click on approximately 1,000m east of the north east corner of the polygon. This will be our area of interest. You can increase or decrease it by moving your mouse
in the neighbourhood of the boundaries and drag your mouse as soon as the mouse cursor
and
.
changes in
52. Select or enter a buffersize (Include a Buffer-zone of ) of [1500m].
53. Select the Output Variables tab and select the option Save Result Variable inclusive the given
Buffer Size.
A buffer zone prevents that model results are affected by boundary conditions on the lateral model
boundary. It depends on the scenario configuration, model configuration itself and the geohydrological
subsoil what this buffersize should be. It is hard to determine beforehand, so it is wise to analyse the
effects near the model boundaries to decide whether your simulation is affected by the lateral boundary
conditions too.
54. Select the Result Folder tab, click the Start Model Simulation button and confirm the operation.
Observe that you cannot change the output folder. Results of scenario computations will be
stored in the same folder as the folder in which the scenario was defined.
55. After the simulation ended, open the phreatic heads (HEAD_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF) with Quick
Open (see step 15 and 16).
56. Compute the differences in phreatic heads between the .\MODELS\MODEL25 and this scenario
.\SCENARIOS\RIVER_STAGE. Use step 14 and forward from Tutorial 2.
57. Analyse the differences in head for all modellayers to observe whether the chosen buffersize
was sufficient. Use Quick Open to load all files in the iMOD Manager.
Illustration of the computed effect of a raised waterlevel:
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In the above example it is clear that the boundaries of our submodel have been chosen appropriately
since the change in head is not affected by the modelboundary. You can also make a cross-section of
the computed effect to determine whether the boundary has been chosen right.
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Illustration of a cross-section over the computed effect caused by a raised waterlevel:
58. Finally try to answer the question: “Why are the head differences more than 0.50m at some
locations (0.55 meter), although river stages are increased by 0.50 meter only?”
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16 Tutorial 7: Pumping Tool
This tutorial gives a brief introduction to a more advanced Pumping Tool which serves to simulate
new features within an existing model configuration. It is advised to get familiar with Tutorial 6 that
handles the most regular model simulation. See for more detailed references regarding the Pumping
Tool section 7.9.
Outline
This is what you will do:
Required Data
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Take the minimum number of necessary steps to start the Pumping Tool;
Constructing a dewatering system of vertical extraction wells;
Include observation wells;
Start a model simulation and analyse the results;
Saving your configuration.
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For this tutorial you need the following iMOD Data Files/folders:
The entire folder (and subfolders) in TUTORIAL\TUT6_MODEL_SIMULATION (see Tutorial 6
for more information about these folders/files)
The entire folder (and subfolders) in TUTORIAL\TUT7_SCENARIO_TOOL, containing:
ADD_TO_IMOD_INIT.PRF – supplies an additional KEYWORD for the preference file for
iMOD;
SCENTOOL.INI – an initialization file for the Pumping Tool;
MEAN_SUMMER.RUN/MEAN_WINTER.RUN – configuration files that describe a mean
summer and a mean winter situation;
Files BOTTOM\BOT{i}.IDF;
Files TOP\TOP{i}.IDF;
Files EXTRACTIONRATES.CSV, FILTERPOSITIONS.CSV, MEASUREMENTA.CSV and
MEASUREMENTB.CSV representing the rates of the extraction of the entire dewatering
system, the horizontal and vertical layout of the individual filters and the observations of
phreatic heads (synthetic), respectively.
Getting Started
1. Open the File ADD_TO_IMOD_INIT.PRF and add the supplied string (SCENTOOL{path}
\TUTORIAL\TUT7_Scenario_Tool\SCENTOOL.INI) to the IMOD_INIT.PRF file that is used by
iMOD. The IMOD_INIT.PRF file is located in the same folder as the iMOD executable. Replace
the {path} by the correct foldernames in which the Tutorials are installed.
2. Open the files SCENTOOL.INI, MEAN_SUMMER.RUN and MEAN_WINTER.RUN and replace
the string {path} (if present) in the foldername of the TUTORIAL folder. e.g. use Notepad to
adjust the files and save them by their original names.
3. Launch iMOD, and start with “Create a new iMOD Project”.
4. Go to View in the menu bar and select the iMOD Manager (or use the short-key Ctrl+M).
Quit often it is necessary to display a map for orientation. In this example we use the initial computed
phreatic groundwaterhead located in the folder TOP\HEAD_STEADY-STATE_L1.IDF.
5. Click the Open IDF button (
) from the Maps tabs on the iMOD Manager. Select all above
mentioned files in the Open IDF File window and click the Open button.
6. Go to Toolbox in the main menu bar and select the Pumping Tool.
Configure dewatering system
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Let us construct a simple dewatering system that consists of 5 extraction wells along a single strip.
7. Click the Add Result button (
) on the Well Systems (0) tab. The latter means that there are
no well systems defined yet, which is the case.
In the Well Systems window, you can define how the dewatering system (or some equivalent, e.g.
Aquifer Recovery System (ARS), Aquifer Thermal Storage (ATS)) is configured. You can specify for
each date an extraction rate; alternatively, you can read a comma-separated-values file with that information. Let’s do that.
8. Click the Open File button (
TUT7_Scenario_Tool.
) and select the file EXTRACTIONRATES.CSV from the folder
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The EXTRACTIONRATES.CSV file contains one descriptive header and two columns; column one
stores the date (yyyymmdd) and column two the extraction rate (m3 /hr). iMOD will read the data and
put it in the table. Let’s make a graph of the extraction rate.
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9. Click the Graph button (
) to display a graph of the evolution of the extraction rates in time.
Experiment with the functionalities that are on the Graph window, e.g. zooming functionalities.
Each extraction rate is defined by its starting date, therefore a bar is drawn from that moment until
another rate is specified. Let’s define the filterpositions.
10. Select the Positions of Filter tab.
11. Instead of entering all positions manually or graphically, we’re going to read those positions from
a predefined file, called FILTERPOSITIONS.CSV. Click the Open File button (
) and select
that file from the folder TUT7_Scenario_Tool. As a result, 5 extraction wells are displayed in the
main graphical window of iMOD.
12. Zoom in to the location of the wells to inspect the layout. Just use the regular zoom functionalities
on the main toolbar.
The FILTERPOSITIONS.CSV file contains for each extraction filter, its label (e.g. Well 1), vertical position (top and bottom of the screen) and its horizontal position (x,y coordinates).
13. Use a regular texteditor (e.g. NotePad) to examine FILTERPOSITIONS.CSV and EXTRACTIONRATES.CSV.
14. Click the Close button to leave the Well Systems window. Please, save your adjustments when
iMOD asks you to do that, otherwise your changes will be deleted from memory (RAM). However, nothing will be saved on disk yet.
15. Experiment with the options by Plot Information on the Well Systems(1) tab.
16. Click the Save As button (
) on the Pumping Tool window to save the configuration on disk.
Give a new for the configuration, e.g. DEWATERING.
iMOD will save the file DEWATERING.SDF within the folder {USER}\SCENTOOL. The file is editable
by e.g. NotePad, although it is not advisable to change the file outside iMOD.
Effect Computation
Not much else is needed to start a model simulation.
17. Select the Results (0) tab in the Pumping Tool window and click the Add Result button (
).
The Compute Result(s) window shows the most important settings that can be changed before a
simulation starts. These are very limited, compared to the settings that can be changed in the Model
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Tutorial 7: Pumping Tool
Tool (see section 7.7). In this tutorial we experiment with a model configuration for a Mean Summer
Situation and a Mean Winter Situation.
18. Select the Mean Summer Situation configuration and click the Check Runfile Configuration button (
) to examine whether all files are available.
19. Select the options Phreatic Heads (this one is compulsory!) and Drawdown (computes drawdown in each modellayer for each stressperiod) from the Simulation Results menulist.
20. The current model simulation consists of one initial steady-state simulation and 8 intermediate
stressperiods. The distribution of stressperiods is defined automatically by the occurrences of
extraction rates. Click the Start button and confirm the operation.
T
iMOD will create a runfile (i.e. modelconfiguration) that consists of the extraction wells of the dewatering system. iMOD computes the strength for each of the individual wells and assigns them to the
appropriate modellayer based upon their screen depths.
21. After the simulation ends, select the option V1_MEAN_SUMMER SITUATION from the Available
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).
Results list and click the Contour button (
22. Select all modellayers [8] from the Layer list, select the option Display and click the Open button.
iMOD will open 8 IDF-files in the iMOD Manager (see section 5.4). It is advisable to check the extent
of the drawdown for each modellayer to see whether the applied buffersize is appropriate. In other
words, the drawdown may not reach the boundary of the model area significantly.
23. Select all IDF-files (DRAWDOWN*.IDF) from the iMOD Manager and use the Map Value Inspector (
) from the iMOD Manager to inspect the drawdown throughout the model. A maximum
can be found for modellayer 3 of –0.0012913 at the western boundary, which is acceptable.
24. Use the TimeSeries Tool (see section 7.2 and Tutorial 3) to observe the time variant behavior of
the drawdown throughout the model.
At the western boundary the maximum drawdown is 0.07 m that can be a reason to restart the simulation with an increased buffersize (see Compute Results window).
25. Repeat step 17 until step 24 to see what the effects are of an increased boundary, of let’s say
3000 m. Remember to increase the version number into 2 otherwise you’ll be overwriting your
previous results.
If you do it correctly you observe that the drawdown differences at the dewatering system, caused by
the difference in buffersize (version1 = 1500m and version2 = 3000m) are negligible (max 0.01-0.02 m
in the period with maximum extraction rates). Use the Crosssection Tool as explained in section 7.1
and Tutorial 3. You should be aware of the fact that the buffersize that you specify here, is a buffer
around a 2d-rectangular hull over all extraction wells.
Adding Observations
Let us add two observation wells that were measured during the dewatering.
26. Select the Observation Well (0) tab and click the Add Observation (
27. Change the Observation Name into [Observation A].
28. Click the Open CSV button (
folder.
) button.
) and select the file MEASUREMENTB.CSV from the TUT7_SCENARIO_TOOL
29. Click the Graph button (
) to display the timeseries of the measurement. Click the Close
button to close the Graph window.
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Let us define the horizontal and vertical position of the current observation.
). Move your mouse on
30. Click the Position of Filters tab and click the Add Filter button (
the graphical canvas and position the observation as close as you can near the coordinates:
[x=145555; y=448675]. Read the current coordinates of your mouse position on the lower left
corner of the graphical canvas. Press the left mouse button when you are satisfied.
31. Change the vertical position of the observation screen in [top=2.5; bottom=1.5].
32. Click Close and click Yes to save any adjustments.
Read section 7.9.3 for more detailed information about adding and changing observation wells.
T
33. Repeat steps 26 to 32 for another observation well, which we will call ObservationB. Read
the measurements from MEASUREMENTB.CSV and position the well near the coordinates
[x=145825;y=448730]. Assign values for the vertical position of the observation screen in [top=5.0; bottom=-10.0].
Now we have added two observation wells that we will use to evaluate our model simulation.
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34. Select one or both simulation results from the list. If you select more simulation results, you will
be able to analyse the behavior of different variants of your dewatering systems.
). It was greyed-out before, since there
35. Click the Results (2) tab and click the Graph button (
were no observations defined.
36. Click the dropdown menu on the top-right of the Graph window to switch between the observations [Observation A] and [Observation B].
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17 Runfile
17.1
Introduction
To initiate a groundwater flow model simulation using iMODFLOW a Runfile is required. This file
describes:
T
the current location of the (sub)model;
the simulation time (number of stress periods);
the current distribution of computational nodes (grid size);
the current number of model layers to be used;
the collection of files that describe the model parameters;
the desired output variables to be saved.
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A Runfile gives an overview of the entire model configuration and is therefore easy to transfer and
reproduce. A major difference between the input files necessary for other conventional simulators
(e.g. standard Modflow) is that a Runfile does not contain any model data, unless a constant value is
assigned to a model parameter. It consists mainly of references to other files (IDFs, IPFs, ISGs, GENs)
that contain the actual model data.
The philosophy of using iMODFLOW and the concept of a Runfile is that all the referred files are
constructed for a REGION of interest rather than for an AREA of interest. A REGION of interest can
be extremely large (provinces, countries); an AREA of interest is often smaller (watersheds, water
management areas). The key-thought is that model data is collected for large regional areas at the
finest scale available for that type of model data, e.g. land use observations at a resolution of 100 x
100 meter and precipitation distribution at a scale of 1000 x 1000 meter. These files are referred to in
the Runfile and iMOD combines the different data to the desired AREA of interest and resolution at the
moment a simulation will start. Different simulations for several AREAs of interest can be performed
using identical model data that need to be maintained at a single location.
In this documentation a description of the Runfile is given.
17.2
Runfile Description
A Runfile lists the configuration necessary to start a simulation. It consists of several Data Sets that
are briefly commented in the following table.
Repeat
Data
Set
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Each package (9)
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10
11
Description
Result folder
e.g. number of model layers, stress periods, type of simulation,
spatial network methodology
File to monitor time-series during a simulation
e.g. flags that specify number of sub models, computation mode
(simulation, debug, export modes), well positioning and usage
of scenarios
Solver configuration (e.g. closure criterion)
Location of the (sub)model and the chosen raster size
File that describes the scenario configuration
Activated modules(9)/packages(9) and their corresponding output
File that describes maximal extension of model domain
MODULES FOR EACH LAYER
Number of files
Actual file and association to particular model layer
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iMOD, User Manual
Each stress period
12
Each package (9)
10
11
PACKAGES FOR EACH LAYER AND STRESS PERIOD
Length of current stress period, name convention assigned to
result files and whether results should be saved
Number of files
Actual file and association to particular model layer
In the following sections each of these Data Sets are described in more detail. Bear in mind that all
input variables are free format!
Data Set 1: Output Folder
17.4
OUTPUT-FOLDER
Notification of the folder name in which the model results will emerge. Within this
folder an output file will be created that summarizes the model simulation, such a file
is called: log_[version-tag].txt. A non-existing folder will be created automatically. It
is compulsory to fill in a complete path, e.g.: c:\model\test rather than a relative path,
and not a relative path, e.g.: ..\..\test1
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Data Set 1
OUTPUTFOLDER
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17.3
Data Set 2: Configuration
Data Set 2
NLAY
MXNLAY
NPER
SDATE
NSCL
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NLAY,MXNLAY,NPER,SDATE,NSCL,IFTEST,ICONCHK,IIPF,
IUNCONF,IFVDL,IARMSWP,IBNDCHK
The number of model layers that the current simulation will take into account.
There is no need to adjust the Runfile as long as NLAY will be smaller or equally
to MXNLAY. Whenever NLAY becomes less than MXNLAY all active model cells,
within model layer NLAY, operate as a Dirichlet boundary condition and simulate
a vertical flux over the edge stressed by the starting head condition (SHD, see
Data Set 8) or last given heads from the constant head package (CHD, see Data
Set 8) for that particular model layer.
MXNLAY is used to determine whether the lowest model layer NLAY should
be modeled as an open model boundary, which is the case whenever
NLAY?MXNLAY.
The number of time periods (conform the stress periods within standard MODFLOW) to be simulated. For each time period it is compulsory to define at least
appropriate model input. iMODFLOW does not support the concept of time steps
within time periods as standard MODFLOW does.
Starting Date:
0
No usage of a starting date
>0
Eight digit number to express starting date, yyyymmdd
If SDATE=0 names will be constructed by SNAME solely (see Data Set 12), otherwise it is SDATE + DELT notated as yyyymmdd.
Flag that determines the methodology of constructing the modeling network:
0
The modeling network will be identical to the network that is described
in the IDF file (or entered xy coordinates) given by de keyword BNDFILE, see Data Set 9. In this manner, it is possible to compute with
networks that distorted spatially on different locations.
1
The modeling network will be defined by Data Set 6. The buffer around
the area of interest will be equal to the chosen grid sizes within that
area of interest.
2
The modeling network will be defined by Data Set 6 whereby the grid
sizes within the buffer around the area of interest will increase up to a
given maximum size.
3
Not explained in this syllabus
4
Not explained in this syllabus
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Runfile
IFTEST
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ICONCHK
Flag to indicate the mode in which iMODFLOW will perform the simulation:
0
Start the simulation without testing the existence of files. Any none
existing file will terminate the simulation and after recovering such file
the simulation need to be restarted from the beginning.
1
Test the entire Runfile on the existence of files and correct content of
IPF files. The model will not be computed and at the end of the evaluation a summary is written in a file called: imodflow_[version-tag].log.
Within a model configuration it can occur that within identical model cells, the
drainage level from the Drainage package (DRN, see Data Set 8) and/or the
drainage level from the Overlandflow package (OLF, see Data Set 8), or even
other elements from a River package (RIV, see Data Set 8) are positioned below
a specified water level of the River package (RIV) itself. To avoid such undesired
situation, e.g. within flooded areas, these drainage systems (DRN, OLF and RIV)
can be inactivated for this situation, automatically.
0
No adjustments of the DRN and OLF packages
1
The DRN, OLF and/or RIV systems are turned off whenever their
drainage levels are below existing river water levels (RIV-package) in
corresponding model cells.
This flag indicates whether time series need to be computed during the simulation.
0
No time series included
n
Include n-number of IPF files with location of time series to be computed for each stress period throughout the simulation, See Data Set
3.
-n
Apply an interpolation of computed heads toward the location of the
measurement.
This flag indicates the usage of unconfinedness for aquifers.
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IIPF
IUNCONF (optional)
0
1
2
IFVDL
(optional)
IARMSWP
IBNDCHK
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All aquifers are confined
(re)Compute transmissivities and/or storage coefficients for aquifers
(re)Compute transmissivities for aquifers and apply purge water table
concept
3
Perched Water Table concept
This flag indicates the methodology to be used computing the conductance for
streams given in the ISG package. The default value is IFVDL=0.
0
River conductance is a function of river length (m), wetted perimeter
(m) and river resistance (d), solely.
1
River conductance is a function of river length (m), wetted perimeter (m), river resistance (d), permeability and thickness of appropriate
aquifer, resistance of first aquitard.
Whenever IFVDL=1, it is obliged to have the keywords TOP and BOT activated
or the package SFT should be active
Use this to specify artificial recharge to be read from an IPF file
Use this option to check internally the consistency of the boundary settings. If
IBNDCHK=1, iMODFLOW will delete those active elements that do not connect
directly (x,y,z direction) to a constant head cell.
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Data Set 3: Timeseries (optional)
IPF_TS
IPFTYPE
(optimal)
Apply only whenever IIP<>0 from Data Set 2
IPF_TS,IPFTYPE,IXCOL,IYCOL,ILCOL,IMCOL,IVCOL
Notification of an IPF filename that stores the location of measures to be monitored as time series throughout the simulation.
Type of the IPF file
1
For a steady-state simulation the attributes within the given IPF should
be (in this order):
XY
x- and y coordinate
ILAY
Model layer identification
OBS
Observation (unit)
VAR
variance of the measurement Пѓ 2 = Var(X)
After the simulation the given IPF is copied to the folder [OUTPUTFOLDER]\[ipfname] and contains the additional records:
COMP
Computed values
DIFF
Difference (COMP-OBS)
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Data Set 3
в€љ
DIFFW
2
Weighed difference (COMP-OBS)*
Пѓ2
в€’1
For the transient simulation the attributes within the given IPF should
be (in this order):
XY
x- and y coordinate
ILAY
Model layer identification
After the simulation the given IPF is copied to the folder [OUTPUTFOLDER]\[ipfname] and contains the additional record:
XY
x- and y coordinate
ILAY
Model layer identification
ID
Reference ID to the individual time series
which are stored within the file [OUTPUTFOLDER]\timeseries\location_[i].txt.
Whenever the IPF_TS consists out of time series initially, those will be included
in the final time series. Time series within the buffer zone (see Data Set 6) will
be left out.
Specify the column number in the IPF file (IPF_TS) that is representative for the
X-coordinate of the measurement. Default value is IXCOL=1.
Specify the column number in the IPF file (IPF_TS) that is representative for the
Y-coordinate of the measurement. Default value is IYCOL=2, this data type is
compulsory whenever IXCOL is specified.
Specify the column number in the IPF file (IPF_TS) that is representative for the
layer identification of the measurement. Default value is ILCOL=3, this data type
is compulsory whenever IXCOL is specified.
Specify the column number in the IPF file (IPF_TS) that is representative for
the measurement value. Default value is IMCOL=4, whenever the number of
columns in the IPF file be less than 4, IMCOL=0 and no observations will be
used.
Default value is IVCOL=5, whenever the number of columns in the IPF file be
less than 5, IMCOL=0 and no observations will be used.
>0
Specify the column number in the IPF file (IPF_TS) that is representative for the variance of the measurement Var(X). The variance of a random variable X is its second central moment, the expected value of the squared deviation from the mean Вµ = E[X], thus:
Var(X) = E (X в€’ Вµ)2 . This definition encompasses random variables that are discrete, continuous, neither, or mixed. The variance
(Пѓ 2 ) can also be thought of as the covariance of a random variable
with itself: Var(X) = Cov(X, X) = Пѓ 2 .
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17.5
IXCOL
(optimal)
IYCOL
(optimal)
ILCOL
(optimal)
IMCOL
(optimal)
IVCOL
(optimal)
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Runfile
<0
Whenever IVCOL is negative (e.g. IVCOL=-5), it means that instead
of variances (Пѓ 2 ), weight values w are entered. Weight values are
computed as w =
Пѓ2
в€’1
.
Data Set 4: Simulation mode
IDEBUG
IEXPORT
NMULT,IDEBUG,IEXPORT,IPOSWEL,ISCEN,IBDG,MINKD,MINC
The number of areas to be computed sequentially. The areas need to be defined
in Data Set 6. NMULT need to be 0 in case NSCL=0.
A flag indicating the output frequency during a simulation:
0
Default configuration whereby a solution of the simulation is saved on
disk after convergence, or whenever the number of iteration exceeds
MXITER (see Data Set 5) and the simulation terminates thereafter.
1
Debug configuration whereby both input for the activated packages and
intermediate solutions during the iteration process are saved on disk.
Flag determining the export format:
0
No export is made
1
Export is made of the entire model for Deltares MODFLOW input files
2
Export is made of the entire model for standard MODFLOW 88 input
files
3
Export is made of the entire model simulation (excluding simulated
heads) to a model-dump file (model_dump_v{version}.dmp). This file
can be re-used in future simulation to interchange output variables and
will be used automatically during parameter estimation process (whenever the PST-package is active)
4
Export is made of the entire model simulation including simulated
heads to a model-dump file (model_dump_v{version}.dmp). This file
can be re-used in future simulation to interchange output variables and
will be used automatically during parameter estimation process (whenever the PST-package is active)
5
Creates a voxel model based upon specified number of layers (VXNLAY) and thicknesses (VXDZ(.))
Flag indicating the assignment of well onto the model network:
0
Assignment of the well onto the single model grid cell is based upon
the x and y coordinates of the well.
1
The well will be assigned to four, nearest model cells. The well
strengths are chosen such that they are distributed according the inverse distances from the well location to the centers of the selected
model cells. Use this option for better results, whenever an extraordinary up scaling is applied
Flag indicating the usage of scenario definitions:
0
No usage of scenarios
1
Usage of a scenario definition, see Data Set 7
Flag indicating the definition of budget computation for packages:
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Data Set 4
NMULT
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17.6
в€љ
IPOSWEL
ISCEN
IBDG
(optional)
0
MINKD
(optional)
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Fluxes from elements within one single model cell are lumped together
to form a single budget value
1
Fluxes from packages (except CHD) within one single model cell are
saved separately. As a result the output file name convention (see
ILSAVE in Data Set 8) will include a system number, e.g. _sys1_;
_sys12_.
Minimal value for transmissivity (m2 /day). Use MINKD > 0 for reasons of stability
in combination with horizontal anisotropy.
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MINC
(optional)
Data Set 4a: Export configuration
Data Set
4a
(optional)
VXNLAY
VXZ
VXDZ(.)
17.8
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TOPIDF
Apply only whenever IEXPORT=5
VXNLAY,VXZ,VXDZ()
or
VXNLAY,TOPIDF,VXDZ()
Number of voxel layers to be created, e.g. VXNLAY=4 will yield a four layers model
with thickness specified by VXDZ.
Specify the elevation of the uppermost voxel, e.g. VXZ=10.0 yields an elevation of
10 m to which all other layers will be subtracted from by the given VXDZ(.).
Specify the elevation of the uppermost voxel as an IDF file, e.g.
TOPIDF=SURFACE.IDF. It yields an spatial different elevation to which all other layers
will be subtracted from by the given VXDZ(.).
Specify for VXNLAY the thickness of the modellayer, e.g. VXDZ(1)=1.0 yields a thickness of 1 meter for modellayer 1 and whenever VXZ=10, a top- and bottom elevation
of 10 m and 9 m, respectively.
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17.7
Minimal value for the vertical resistance (days). Use MINC > 1 for reasons of stability and to avoid large contrasts between horizontal en vertical conductances.
Especially whenever the cell size (CELLSIZE) increases, it could be advisable to
specify MINC > 1.
Data Set 5: Solver configuration
Data Set 5
(optional)
OUTER
INNER
HCLOSE
QCLOSE
RELAX
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OUTER,INNER,HCLOSE,QCLOSE,RELAX,NPCOND
MAXWBALERROR,MXCNVG,CNVGDELT,IDAMPING
Maximal number of “outer” iteration loops. The iterative procedure used in MODFLOW for solving nonlinear problems is commonly referred to as Picard iteration.
It splits the solving process into an outer iteration loop, the equation that needs
to be solved in the “inner” is (re)formulated.
Maximal number of “inner” iteration loops. Within each inner iteration loop, the
equation that was formulated in the outer iteration loop is (partly) solved. In
common, it is more expensive to have much inner iteration though each iteration
loop represents a temporary formulation of the equation. True linear systems
can speed up drastically by increasing the number of inner iterations and RELAX
= 1, however, most groundwater models are a mixture of linear and non-linear
elements and therefore a fair trade-off between robustness and speed seems to
be NITER = 20. Whenever INNER < 0 MODFLOW will adjust the number of
“inner” iterations itself according to the current residual:
ABS(INNER)*(LOG(dH)+1.0)
Residual higher than 1.0m
ABS(INNER)/ABS(LOG(dH)-1.0) Residual less than 1.0m
m
Closure criterion for the hydraulic head (state variable). Commonly
it is practice to choose HCLOSE to be 2 orders of magnitude smaller
than the desired accuracy to be obtained.
m3
Closure criterion for the mass balance. This criterion depends on the
grid size, since large grid cells produce larger errors in mass balances
than smaller ones does.
Relaxation factor that quantifies the amount of confidence for each solution obtained after an inner iteration loop, default value is 0.98. It influences the robustness and efficiency of convergence. For purely linear systems it can/must be
1.0, though non-linear system prefers lower values (e.g. 0.50-0.97). It is difficult
to know the optimal value for RELAX beforehand. Use the adaptive damping
(IDAMPING) instead.
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Runfile
MAXWBALERROR
(optional)
MXCNVG (optional)
CNVGDELT
(optional)
17.9
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IDAMPING
Data Set 6: Simulation window (optional)
Data Set 6
IACT
XMIN
YMIN
XMAX
YMAX
CSIZE
MAXCSIZE
BUFFER
CSUB
(optional)
17.10
Pre-conditioning method. If the Preconditioning Method is set to Cholesky, the
Relaxation parameter can be set. Although the default is 1, in some cases a value
of 0.97-0.99 may reduce the number of iterations required for convergence.
1
Cholesky
2
Polynomial
Maximal overall acceptable error for the water balance in percentage (the default
value = 0.01%). Whenever the external-iteration does not converge (due to numerical instability), the simulation will continue whenever the overall error in de
the water balance is less than the given MAXWBALERROR criterion.
Whenever the number of internal convergences of the PCG-solver exceeds MXCNVG (default value = OUTER*INNER), the simulation will continue nevertheless
(when met by the MAXWBALERROR criterion too).
Enter CNVGDELT=1 to allow DELT to be adjusted sequentially in such a way to
achieve convergence. This will be ignored for (intermediate) steady-state simulations (DELT=0.0). The default value is CNVGDELT=0.
Set this parameter IDAMPING=1 to include adaptive damping. The relaxation
factor (RELAX) will be adjusted according to Cooley’s method with Huyakorn’s
modification. This will increase convergence for nonlinear model.
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NPCOND
Apply whenever NMULT=1 and NSCL=1
XMIN,YMIN,XMAX,YMAX,CSIZE,BUFFER
Apply whenever NMULT>1 and NSCL=1
IACT,XMIN,YMIN,XMAX,YMAX,CSIZE,BUFFER,CSUB
Apply whenever NMULT=1 and NSCL=2
XMIN,YMIN,XMAX,YMAX,CSIZE,MAXCSIZE,BUFFER,CSUB
Apply whenever NMULT>1 and NSCL=2
IACT,XMIN,YMIN,XMAX,YMAX,CSIZE,MAXCSIZE,BUFFER,CSUB
Flag that determines the whether a sub model need to be computed:
-1
Sub model will be computed only whenever the result folder does not
exist
0
Sub model will not be computed
1
Sub model will be computed and overwrite existing results if available
m
Lower left X-coordinate of the area of interest
m
Lower left Y-coordinate of the area of interest
m
Upper right X-coordinate of the area of interest
m
Upper right Y-left coordinate of the area of interest
m
Grid cell size within the area of interest and within the buffer.
m
This is the maximum grid cell size within the buffer. Within the buffer the
entered grid cell size CSIZE, will increase gradually up to MAXCSIZE.
m
This represents the size of the buffer around the area of interest. The total simulation model will have a total width of (XMAXXMIN)+2*BUFFER and a total height of (YMAX-YMIN)+2*BUFFER.
This is the name of the result folder for the current sub model, yielding [OUTPUTFOLDER]\[CSUB]\as result folder. Whenever no name is given, the default folder
name will be submodel[i], where i represents the ith sub model within NMULT.
Data Set 7: Scenario file (optional)
Data Set 7
SCNFILE
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Apply only whenever ISCEN=1 from Data Set 4 SCNFILE
Notification of the file name (*.scn) that describes the scenario configuration to
be used. The usage of a scenario will be explained in more detail, in section 3.
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Data Set 8: Active packages
IPM,NLSAVE,ILSAVE(NLSAVE),KEY
This represents whether a specific time independent module (mod) / time dependent package (pck) is active in the current simulation. The following package
are supported:
Key
Act
Description
(mod)
CAP
0/1
Usage of the unsaturated zone package
(mod)
BND
0/1
(compulsory) Usage of boundary conditions
(mod)
SHD
0/1
(compulsory) Usage of starting heads
(mod)
KDW
0/1
Usage of hydraulic conductance
(mod)
VCW
0/1
Usage of vertical resistances
(mod)
KHV
0/1
Usage of horizontal permeabilities
(mod)
KVA
0/1
Usage of vertical anisotropy for aquifers
(mod)
KVV
0/1
Usage of vertical permeabilities
(mod)
STO
0/1
Usage of storage coefficients
(mod)
SSC
0/1
Usage of specific storage coefficients
(mod)
TOP
0/1
Usage of top of aquifers
(mod)
BOT
0/1
Usage of bottom of aquifers
(mod)
PST
0/1
Usage of parameter estimation
(mod)
PWT
0/1
Usage of the purge-water table package
(mod)
ANI
0/1
Usage of the horizontal anisotropy package
(mod)
HFB
0/1
Usage of the horizontal flow barrier package
(mod)
IBS
0/1
Usage of interbed storage/subsidence
(mod)
SCR
0/1
Usage of subsidence-creep package
(mod)
CON
0/1
Usage of concentration
(mod)
SFT
0/1
Usage of streamflow thickness
(mod)
CPP
0/1
Usage of common pointer package
(pck)
WEL
0/1
Usage of the well package
(pck)
DRN
0/1
Usage of the drainage package
(pck)
RIV
0/1
Usage of the river package
(pck)
EVT
0/1
Usage of the evapotranspiration package
(pck)
GHB
0/1
Usage of the general-head-bound. Package
(pck)
RCH
0/1
Usage of the recharge package
(pck)
OLF
0/1
Usage of the overland flow package
(pck)
CHD
0/1
Usage of the constant-head package
(pck)
ISG
0/1
Usage of the segment package
It is easy to turn an IPM on or off by assigning 0 (off) or 1 (on). There is no need
to adjust the Runfile for these adjustments. It is not necessary to include all the
packages and/or packages in a runfile and the order you specify is irrelevant.
Of course, the packages BND, SHD, (KDW or KHV), (VCW or KVV) are obliged
for any (multi-layered) model!
Determines the number of model layers for which output need to be saved on
disk. NLSAVE may be larger than NLAY, however all layers that exceed the
current simulation will be neglected.
This parameter stores the model layers for each IPM keyword for NLSAVE
model layers. The model layers may be given in any order, e.g. 4, 5, 1. Any
layer that exceeds the current NLAY is neglected.
=0
Identifies all modellayers
>0
Modellayer identification
The following result will be saved:
Key
NAME
Unit
Description
PST
No output available
T
Data Set 8
IPM
DR
AF
17.11
NLSAVE
ILSAVE
484
Deltares
Runfile
BDGCSM
m3 /day
BND
SHD
KDW
BDGBND
HEAD
BDGFRF
BDGFFF
BDGFLF
BDGFRF
BDGFFF
BDGFLF
BDGSTO
\PEST
folder
m3 /day
m
m3 /day
m3 /day
m3 /day
m3 /day
m3 /day
m3 /day
m3 /day
-
VCW
KHV
KVV
STO
SSC
TOP
BOT
PST
Flux between the unsaturated zone and
the saturated zone
Flux for constant head boundaries
Hydraulic head
Flux over the eastern model faces
Flux over the southern model faces
Flux over the lower model faces
Flux over the eastern model faces
Flux over the southern model faces
Flux over the lower model faces
Fluxes for storage
No output available
No output available
No output available
No output available, other than *.txt and
*.ipf files that write performance and residuals of optimalisation
No output available
No output available
Fluxes caused by anisotropy
No output available
Fluxes for interbed storage
T
CAP
DR
AF
KVA
PWT
ANI
BDGANI
m3 /day
HFB
IBS
BDGIBS
m3 /day
SCR
SFT
No output available
CPP
No output available
CON
No output available
WEL
BDGWEL
m3 /day Fluxes for wells
DRN
BDGDRN
m3 /day Fluxes out drainage
RIV
BDGRIV
m3 /day Fluxes for rivers
EVT
BDGEVT
m3 /day Fluxes out evapotranspiration
GHB
BDGGHB
m3 /day Fluxes for general head boundaries
RCH
BDGRCH
m3 /day Fluxes for recharge
OLF
BDGOLF
m3 /day Fluxes out overland flow
CHD
BDGBND
m3 /day Flux over constant head boundaries
ISG
BDGISG
m3 /day Fluxes for rivers (fast SOBEK )
All fluxes that extract water from a specific model cell are negative.
Therefore, seepage water values are negative, within the file BDGFLF. Identical
elements within one single model cell are lumped together in the output file,
e.g. fluxes from different drainage systems in a single model cell add together.
The naming convention for all files is:
DELT=0
[NAME]_[SNAME]_l[ILAY].idf;
e.g.
head_steadystate_l1.idf or bdgflf_quarter_l10.idf
DELT>0
[NAME]_[yyyymmdd]_l[ILAY].idf;
e.g.
head_20101231_l1.idf or bdgdrn_20110814_l1.idf
Whenever the option IBDG=1 (see Data Set 4), the naming convention will be including the system number of the package, e.g.: bdgriv_20110814_l1_sys1.idf
The number of system(s) is defined by the NFILES parameter in Data Set 10.
Packages should be specified between brackets: “(“and “)” so iMODFLOW can
recognize the keyword. It will be used to compare this with the variable KEY in
Data Set 10.
KEY
Deltares
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iMOD, User Manual
17.12
Data Set 9: Boundary file
Data Set 9
XMIN,YMIN,
XMAX,YMAX
17.13
DR
AF
T
BNDFILE
BNDFILE or XMIN,YMIN,XMAX,YMAX
Enter the coordinates of the entire model at maximum extension (area of regional
interest). Beyond these limits the model will give an error and below these limits
constant head boundary conditions will be applied, automatically whenever the
area of interest is smaller.
IDF file that represents the entire model at maximum extension (area of regional
interest). This file will be used differently for the following flag values for NSCL
(see Data Set 2):
NSCL=0
This file will be used to determine whether it extends the given
area of local interest defined in Data Set 6. If so the area of local interest will be trimmed to fit the area of regional interest. On
the other hand, whenever the area of local interest is smaller (in
many cases), the boundary nodes along the cutting edges are
transformed into “open”-boundaries. The starting heads (SHD) or
constant-head (CHD) values fixate these boundaries.
NSCL?0
The network as described in the given IDF file is used for the modeling simulation. Any network schematization is accepted as long
as it will not exceed the maximum extension of the area of regional
interest.
Data Set 10: Number of files
Data Set 10
NFILES
486
NFILES,KEY,PVARIABLE
This expresses the number of entries that will follow, zero entries can be defines
by NFILES=0. It is possible the reuse the entries obtained in the previous stress
period by assigning the value NFILES=-1.
For several package a single entry consist out of multiple
files (parts). Moreover: each individual part of a package should be repeated
NFILES times before entering the next part of a package; whenever a single
nodata value is read for one of the individual parts of a package for a particular
location, the package on that particular location will be turned off!; See table
below for the individual parts (No.) of each package (they should be entered in
this order!):
Key
No.
Unit
PST
1
Number of parameters to be estimated, see Data
Set 14, 15, 16 and 17 for more specific input information.
CAP
n
Number of input files (this is needed to determine
the number of files to be copied, which equals this
number – the 22 compulsory IDF’s)
1
BND
Boundary setting, used to specify active MetaSWAP elements
2
LGN
Landuse code, should be referred to
by the file luse_svat.inp
3
cm
RTZ
Rootzone thickness (min. value is 10
centimeter).
4
SFU
Soil Physical Unit should be referred
to by fact_svat.inp.
5
MET
Meteo Station number should be referred to by mete_svat.inp.
6
m+MSL
SEV
Surface Elevation.
Deltares
Runfile
ART
8
-
ARL
9
mm/d
ARC
10
m2
WTA
11
m2
UBA
Artificial Recharge (= Irrigation) Type,
0=no occurrence, ART>0 means
present at current location whereby
ART=1: from groundwater, ART=2:
from surface water extraction
Artificial Recharge (= Irrigation) Location, number of model layer from
which water is extracted.
Artificial Recharge (= Irrigation) Capacity. The capacity of the irrigation
installation. The applied capacity depends on the duration of the irrigation
(part of a day) as specified in the file
luse_svat.inp
Wetted Area specifies the total area
occupied by surface water elements.
Value will be truncated by maximum
cellsize.
Urban Area, specifies the total area
occupied by urban area. Value will be
truncated by maximum cellsize.
Ponding Depth Urban Area, specifying
the acceptable depth of the ponding of
water on the surface in the urban area
before surface runoff occurs
Ponding Depth Rural Area. Same as
above but for rural area.
Runoff Resistance Urban Area, specifying the resistance surface flow encounters in the urban area. The minimum value is equal to the model time
period.
Runoff Resistance Rural Area. Same
as above but for rural area.
Runon Resistance Urban Area, specifying the resistance surface flow encounters to a model cell from an adjacent cell in the urban area. The minimum value is equal to the model time
period.
Runon Resistance Rural Area. Same
as above but for rural area.
QINFBASIC Urban Area, specifying
the infiltration capacity of the soil surface in the urban area. The range is
0-1000 m/d. The NoDataValue -9999
indicates unlimited infiltration is possible.
QINFBASIC Rural Area. Same as
above but for rural area.
Depth of the Perched Water Table
level below the surface. When groundwater falls below this depth then the
capillary rise becomes zero.
T
-
DR
AF
7
Deltares
12
m
PDU
13
m
PDR
14
day
OFU
15
day
OFR
16
day
ONU
17
day
ONR
18
m/d
QIU
19
m/d
QIR
20
m-SL
PWT
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iMOD, User Manual
-
22
-
..n
1
-
SHD
1
m+MSL
KDW
1
m2 /day
VCW
1
days
Soil Moisture Factor to adjust the soil
moisture coefficient. This factor may
be used during calibration. Default
value is 1.0.
CFC
Conductivity Factor to adjust the vertical conductivity. This factor may be
used during calibration. Default value
is 1.0.
Remaining files will be copied to the simulation
folder as set by OUTPUTNAME (Data Set 1)
IDF with boundary settings; 0 = inactive, >0 = active, <0 = fixed for each model layer
IDF with starting heads for each model layer. Inactive cells will be transformed to nodata value 999.99
Transmissivity for each model layer (trimmed internally to be minimal 0 m2 /day)
Vertical Resistance between model layers
(trimmed internally for minimal 0.001 days). For
reasons of scaling, it is important to assign the
nodata value for VCW to be zero!
Horizontal Permeability for each model layer.
Vertical Permeability for each aquitard (in between modellayers!). KVV is assumed to be
1/3*KHV for the modellayers!
Storage coefficient for each model layer (clipped
internally between 0 and 1).
Specific unconfined storage coefficient
Specific confined storage coefficient
Top of the aquifer.
Bottom of the aquifer.
Vertical anisotropy for aquifers
Layer identification of the PWT unit; elements with
values <= 0 will be removed.
Storage coefficient of the phreatic part underneath the PWT layer
Top of the PWT layer
Thickness of the PWT layer
Thickness of layer of the aquifer above the PWT
layer in which the transmissivity will be adjusted.
Vertical resistance of the clay underlying the PWT
unit. This should be larger or equal to the given C
value of the PWT layer, otherwise the C value will
be used given by the module VCW.
The anisotropic factor perpendicular to the main
principal axis (axis of highest permeability). Factor between 0.0 (full anisotropic) and 1.0 (full
isotropic). Do not use a nodata value of 0.0 since
this will deactivate the package!
The angle along the main principal axis (highest permeability) measured in degrees from north
(0), east (90), south (180) and west (270).
Do not use a nodata value of 0.0 since
this will deactivate the package!
DR
AF
BND
SFC
T
21
KHV
KVV
1
1
m/day
m/day
STO
1
-
SSC
2
TOP
BOT
KVA
PWT
1
1
1
6
m+MSL
m+MSL
-
m+MSL
m
m
day
ANI
2
-
degrees
488
Deltares
Runfile
1
-
IBS
4
m+MSL
-
DR
AF
-
Line wise file (*.gen) expressing the location of
faults/horizontal barriers. Whenever the TOP and
BOT of the aquifer are present, the FCT value
is assigned the resistance value; otherwise it is
a FCT that multiplies the conductance between
cells. Whenever HFB becomes zero is becomes
impermeable!
Preconsolidation head or preconsolidation stress
in terms of head in the aquifer. Preconsolidation
head is the previous minimum head value in the
aquifer. For any model cells in which specified HC
is greater than the corresponding value of starting
head, value of HC will be set to that of starting
head.
The dimensionless elastic storage factor for interbeds present in model layer. The storage factor
may be estimated as the sum of the products of
elastic skeletal specific storage and thickness of
all interbeds in a model layer.
The dimensionless inelastic storage factor for interbeds present in model layer. The storage factor
may be estimated as the sum of the products of
inelastic skeletal specific storage and thickness of
all interbeds in a model layer.
The starting compaction in each layer with interbed storage. Compaction values computed by
the package are added to values in this array
so that printed or stored values of compaction
and land subsidence may include previous components. Values in this array do not affect calculations of storage changes or resulting compaction.
For simulations in which output values are to reflect compaction and subsidence since the start of
the simulation, enter zero values for all elements
of this array.
IMETHOD,IVOID,ALPHA,ITHK,ISTPCS,
IOUT(.)
IMETHOD Specify method, 1=Isotach,
2=Bjerrum
IVOID
Flag to determine how void ratios of
compressible sediments vary in response to changes in saturated thickness, IVOID=0 will be treated as a
constant, IVOID>0 will be treated as
a variable
ALPHA
Is a relaxation coefficient (0-1) to determine how discharge due interbeds
compaction or swelling will be calculated
ITHK
Is a flag to determine how thicknesses
of compressible sediments vary in response to changes in saturated thickness. ITHK=0 thickness of compressible sediments is constant, ITHK>0,
thickness of compressible sediments
varies in response to changes in saturated thickness
T
HFB
m
SCR
Deltares
489
iMOD, User Manual
ISTPCS
DR
AF
T
Is a flag to determine how initial
preconsolidation stress will be obtained, ISTPCS?0 offset values will be
read, ISTPCS=0 initial preconsolidation stress values will be read
IOUT(.)
Array of output settings, the following
are valid
(1)
Save Subsidence
(2)
Save Layer Compaction
(3)
Save Interbed Compaction
(4)
Save Z-displacement
(5)
Save
Preconsolidation
Stress
(6)
Save Change in preconsolidation Stress
(7)
Save Geostatic Stress
(8)
Save Change in Geostatic
Stress
(9)
Save Effective Stress
(10)
Save Change in Effective
Stress
(11)
Save Void Ratio
(12)
Save Thickness
GL0: Geostatic stress above model layer 1
SGM: Specific gravity of moist/unsaturated sediments
SGS: Specific gravity of saturated sediments
Thickness of compressible sediments
RRISOA: Reloading/swelling index of either the
NEN-Bjerrum method or the Isotach method
-
Specify
for
each
interbed
m
-
-
m
-
per
modellayer
m
m
490
CON
SFT
1
2
CPP
1
mg/l
m+MSL
m/d
-
WEL
1
m3 /day
RRISOB: compression index of either the NENBjerrum method or the Isotach method
CAISOC: secondary compression index of either
the NEN-Bjerrum method or the Isotach method
VOID: initial void ratio
SUB: initial compaction in each of the interbeds
QLAYER: modellayer that need to be used to excess water
PCSOFF: offset of initial effective stress to initial
preconsolidation stress at the bottom of the model
layer in units of height of a column of water, specify whenever ISTPCS=1
PCS: initial preconsolidation stress at the bottom
of the model layer in units of height of a column of
water, specify whenever ISTPCS=0
Salt Concentration.
Stream Flow Thickness
Permeability
Pointer assigning the areas for unconfinedness
(active whenever IUNCONF>0)
An IPF file with:
1
Three columns representing the
x,y coordinate and the rate, e.g.:
x,y,q,{z1,z2}
Deltares
Runfile
2
DR
AF
T
Two columns representing the x,y coordinate and a third column referring
to associated files with time-variant
rates, e.g. x,y,[id],{z1,z2}
The parameters z1 and z2 express the screen of
the well and are optional. Use these parameters
in combination with ILAY=0 (see Data Set 11)
DRN
2
m2 /day
Conductance of the drainage system within a single model cell; elements with values <= 0 will be
removed.
m+MSL
Elevation of the drainage system.
RIV
4
m2 /day
Conductance of the drainage system within a single model cell; elements with values <= 0 will be
removed.
m+MSL
Elevation of the water level.
m+MSL
Elevation of the bottom level.
Infiltration factor:
=0
No infiltration is allowed
>0
Infiltration is allowed whenever the
head is below the stage up to a maximum whenever the head is less than
the bottom.
<0
Infiltration is allowed whenever the
head is below the stage and bottom.
Be aware that the combination >0 and <0 within
one model cell might yield a lower infiltration factor
than desired. So usage of one sign in a single IDF
file is recommended.
EVT
3
mm/day Evapotranspiration strength.
m+MSL
Top elevation for maximal evapotranspi-ration
strength.
m
Thickness in which evapotranspiration strength
reduced to zero.
GHB
2
m2 /day
Conductance of the general head system within a
single model cell; elements with values <= 0 will
be removed.
m+MSL
Elevation at the general head boundary.
RCH
1
mm/day Recharge strength.
OLF
1
m+MSL
Surface elevation where above overland flow
takes place; elements with values equal to the nodata value will be removed.
CHD
1
m+MSL
Elevation of constant heads at the location where
BND < 0 only.
ISG
1
Specific segment file for the simulation of water
systems directly from vectors.
Text string that identifies the Key of the module/package listed by Data Set
10.
This variable is used differently for the different packages as listed below:
KEY
PVARIABLE
(optional)
OLF
Use this variable to overrule the default value of 1.0 day resistance for the overland flow package. For steep terrains, this
value might be too low and can be altered as wished.
...
17.14
Data Set 11: Input file assignment
Deltares
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iMOD, User Manual
ILAY,FCT,IMP,FNAME
This represents the model layer to which the input data assigns to. For the package: BND, SHD, KDW, VCW, STO, TOP, BOT and ANI, it is not sustained to assign
more input data to identical model layers. However, multiple assignments to identical model layers are sustained for the other packages: PWT, HFB, WEL, DRN,
RIV, EVT, GHB, RCH, OLF, CHD and ISG. ILAY can be used as follows:
>0
Expresses the model layer number to which the module and/or package
is assigned to
=0
Automatic allocation of model layers to packages. It is compulsory to
have included the TOP and BOT package (see Data Set 8). Only the
following packages are affected by ILAY=0:
WEL
Given IPF should contain the records, X,Y,Q,Z1,Z2. Z1 and
Z2 will be used to assign well strength to the appropriate
model layer(s)
DRN
The given elevation will be used to determine the actual
model layer
RIV
Both, the given stage and bottom elevation will be used to
determine the appropriate model layer(s)
GHB
The given elevation will be used to determine the model layer.
OLF
The given elevation will be used to determine the model layer.
ISG
Both, the given stage and bottom elevation will be used to determine the appropriate model layer(s). Moreover, the specified wetted perimeter will be used to adjust conductances.
<0
Assign package to the highest active model cell with a BND-value > 0
(see Data Set 10, Key=BND). Every package (except the CHD package)
can be affected by ILAY<0; package however, are not supported.
FCT
IMP
FNAME
17.15
DR
AF
T
Data Set 11
ILAY
The multiplication factor for the input data (nodata values excluded). It is possible to use the FCT parameter to assign mean values, e.g. apply FCT=0.5 for
conductance’s for rivers in summer and winter periods. Moreover, it is possible
to compute a weighed mean of two periods within the package assigned to the
identical model layer.
Addition for the input data (nodata values excluded). Mathematical order is that
multiplication (FCT) comes before the addition (IMP).
The name of the input file, although it is sustained, it is preferable to note the
FNAME with an absolute path (e.g. c:\fname) rather than a relative path (..\fname).
The following format of these files are assigned to the existing package:
Format Module/package
IDF
CAP,BND,SHD,KDW,VCW,KHV,KVV,STO,SSC,PWT,ANI,CHD,
DRN,RIV,EVT,GHB,RCH,OLF,CON,IBS,TOP,BOT,KVA,CPP
IPF
WEL
GEN
HFB
ISG
ISG
The ANI can be entered by means of IDF and GEN files. In case the input parameters are constant over the entire modeling domain, a constant value can be
given. An exception to this is made for the packages WEL,HFB and ISG packages
Data Set 12: Time discretisation
Data Set 12
KPER
DELT
SNAME
492
KPER,DELT,SNAME,ISAVE,ISUMSAVE
The number of the stress period. It will be used solely to verify whether the
current stress period matches the stress period read. If not a warning appears in
the log file.
day
The length of the current stress period.
The date or name for the current stress period.
Deltares
Runfile
DELT=0
17.16
DR
AF
ISUMSAVE
(optional)
T
ISAVE
For steady-state simulations, it should state “steady-state”, mainly
for reasons of compatibility with iMOD. Other phrases are sustained, e.g. quarter1, summer, winter.
DELT>0
For transient simulations it should state the date notated as: yyyymmdd; e.g. 20101231 to express the 31th of December 2010. Usage of these format is recommended strongly for compatibility with
iMOD (e.g. time-series plotting), however different names may be
used. If SDATE>0, the variable SNAME will be overruled by the
computation SDATE+DELT to form a date expressing the end date
of the current simulation period.
As a consequence, all result files will show the given date/name in their names,
e.g. head_[yyyymmdd]_l1.idf or bdgflf_steady-state_l8.idf.
This parameter defines whether output (as defined by Data Set 9) is generated
for the current stress period.
-1
Result will be saved with the buffer excluded
0
No results will be saved
1
Results will be save with the buffer included
In case NMULT>1 (see Data Set 4), ISAVE will become abs(ISAVE) because
the proper merging procedure will use the results in the buffer area.
Use this parameter to sum all fluxes over all modellayers and save all HEAD
values from the topmost active modellayer into one.
0
Default value, no fluxes and or heads will be lumped together
1
Fluxes and heads will be combined as described above. Whenever
the head is below the bottom of a modellayer it will denoted as
inactive.
Data Set 14: Parameter Estimation – Main settings
Data Set 14
PE_MXITER
PE_STOP
PE_SENS
PE_NPERIOD
PE_NBATCH
PE_TARGET(.)
Deltares
PE_MXITER,PE_STOP,PE_SENS,PE_NPERIOD,PE_NBATCH,
PE_TARGET(.),PE_SCALING,PE_PADJ,PE_DRES
MXITER can have different meanings:
>0
Maximum number of iterations.
=0
If PE_MXITER is equal to zero, a sensitivity matrix will
be computed yielding Jacobian values (finite difference between the change in head and the parameter update) for
the entire zones.
Those values will be written to disk in
.\head\head_{date}_l{i}_sens_{param}_ils{ils}.idf.
Those values
can be helpful to estimate the adjustment to a parameter to yield a
desired improvement of the head and/or flux (assuming the model
act linearly). The process will stop whenever all parameters are
perturbed.
Stop criterion whenever decrease of objective function J becomes less or equal
to the ratio Ji /Jiв€’1 . Entering a value of 0.1 means than the optimization stops
whenever the objective function value Ji for the current optimization step i, is
reduced less than 10% of the last objective function value Jiв€’1 .
Enter the acceptable sensitivity for parameters to be included in the parameter
upgrade vector, e.g. PE_SENS=0.5 mean that parameters that have less than
0.5% sensitivity will be left out until they achieve a higher sensitivity.
Enter the number of periods. If PE_NPERIOD > 0, than repeat Data Set 15 for
each period.
Enter the number of batch files to be included during the parameter estimation.
Each batch file can have its own fraction that determines the weigh for the total
objective function value.
Enter a fraction for each target:
(1)
The difference for each stress period between an available measurement and its corresponding observation
493
iMOD, User Manual
(2)
PE_PADJ
(optional)
17.17
DR
AF
PE_DRES
(optional)
Data Set 15: Parameter Estimation – Period Settings
Data Set 15
S_PERIOD
[yyyymmdd]
E_PERIOD
[yyyymmdd]
17.18
0
No use of scaling/Eigenvalue decomposition (SVD)
1
Only use of scaling
2
Use of scaling and Eigenvalue decomposition (SVD)
3
Only use of Eigenvalue decomposition (SVD)
In case a SVD decomposition is used (PE_SCALING=2 and PE_SCALING=3),
eigenvalues that explain at least 99% of variance are included.
Enter the stopping criteria for Parameter ADJustment, e.g. PE_PADJ=0.05
means than whenever the parameter adjustment vector is less than 0.05, the
optimization will stop. By default PE_PADJ=0.0 which means that the optimization will stop only whenever to parameters adjustment is applied.
Enter the minimal acceptable absolute residual used for the objective function.
Absolute residuals smaller that PE_DRES will not be included in the objective function and therefore not influence any parameter adjustment. By default
PE_DRES=0.0 which means that all residuals will be included.
T
PE_SCALING
(optional)
The difference between the measurement dynamics and the observational dynamics
The entered fraction should be entered relative to each other since iMODFLOW
will recomputed the normalized values for the fraction. e.g. entering 1.0 and
2.0 will yield the fraction values 0.33 and 0.66, they will be summed equal to one.
Whenever PE_NBATCH>0 (see Data Set 16), the entered weigh values for each
batch file will be included in the final normalization of the fractions.
Enter a scaling option:
Apply PE_NPERIOD times (see Date Set 14) S_PERIOD,E_PERIOD
Enter the start date for the period for which observations from the entered IPF
file (IPF_TS IN Data Set 3), need to be included, e.g. S_PERIOD=19890101 to
express the 1th of January 1989.
Enter the end date for the period for which observations from the entered IPF
file (IPF_TS IN Data Set 3), need to be included, e.g. S_PERIOD=20120321 to
express the 21th of March 2012.
Data Set 16: Parameter Estimation – Batch Settings
Data Set 16
B_FRACTION
B_BATCHFILE
B_OUTFILE
494
Apply PE_NPERIOD times (see Date Set 14)
B_FRACTION,B_BATCHFILE,B_OUTFILE
Enter the fraction for the results from the current batch files. The entered fraction
will be normalized together with the entered fraction for PE_TARGET(.) (see
Data Set 14).
Enter the name of the batch file to be executed after each simulation, e.g.
C:\BATCHFILES\FLOWLINES.BAT
Enter the name of the output file from the batch file (B_BATCHFILE), e.g.
C:\BATCHFILES\OUTPUT\FLOWLINES.OUT. The syntax of the file should be
as follows:
N
Enter the number of records, e.g. N=2.
Z,V,H
Enter for each record i to N the measurement (Z), variance (V) and
computed value (H). They can be entered in “free”-format. These
values will be added to the total objective function value and included in the determination of the gradient.
Deltares
Runfile
17.19
Data Set 17: Parameter Estimation - Parameters
Data Set
17
PACT
DR
AF
T
PPARAM
PACT,PPARAM,PILS,PIZONE,PINI,PDELTA,PMIN,PMAX,
PINCREASE,PIGROUP
Activation of the current parameter.
0
Parameter is not adjusted, initial parameter value PINI remains unchanged during the estimation
1
Parameter is part of the estimation process
Parameter type, choose out of:
Type
Transf.
KD
LOG
Transmissivity, equal to KDW
KH
LOG
Horizontal permeability, equal to KHV
KV
LOG
Vertical permeability, equal to KVV
VC
LOG
Vertical resistance, equal to VCW
SC
LOG
Storage coefficient equal to STO
RC
LOG
River conductance as mentioned in RIV
RI
LOG
River infiltration factor as mentioned in RIV
DC
LOG
Drainage conductance as mentioned in DRN
IC
LOG
River conductance as mentioned in ISG file
II
LOG
River infiltration factor as mentioned in ISG file
AH
Angle of Anisotropy
AF
LOG
Factor of Anisotropy
VA
LOG
Vertical Anisotropy
HF
LOG
Horizontal Barrier Factor
MS
LOG
MetaSWAP storage coefficient (Theta)
MC
LOG
MetaSWAP conductance (k)
RE
Recharge
Enter the layer number or system number for the parameter PPARAM. In case
KD,KH,KV,C,S,AH,AF,VA are used apply a model layer number, for the other parameters apply the system number.
Enter the zone number (integer value) for which the parameter PPARAM need to
be adjusted. For the parameter type HF this is irrelevant since all lines from the
HF module will be optimized together, not differentiation can be made along the
line within the same system. You should enter a value but it will not be used!
Enter the initial multiplication factor for the parameter PPARAM.
Enter the step size to be used for the sensitivity computation. PDELTA should be
larger than 1.0
Enter the minimum multiplication factor for the parameter PPARAM that might be
applied during the optimization.
Enter the maximum multiplication factor for the parameter PPARAM that might be
applied during the optimization.
Enter the maximum increase of the parameter factor.
Enter the group number to which the parameters belongs, parameters within the
same group will be estimated simultaneously.
PILS
PIZONE
PINI
PDELTA
PMIN
PMAX
PINCREASE
PIGROUP
(optional)
17.20
Data Set 18: Parameter Estimation – Zones
Data Set 18
NZONES
17.21
NZONES
Enter the number of zones to be used.
Data Set 19: Parameter Estimation – Zone Definition
Data Set 19
IDF
Deltares
IDF or CONSTANT
Enter for NZONES an IDF file that contains the position of zones. The zone
numbering should be equal to the value PIZONE from Data Set 16. You can
specify PIZONE to be specified in more than one IDF.
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iMOD, User Manual
CONSTANT
Enter a constant value to specify one PIZONE for the entire model area, e.g.
CONSTANT=2
A fraction can be added to specify a fraction that that parameter will be used for the parameter
optimization, e.g. the value within the IDF will be 2.34, meaning that the parameter belong to zone
number 2 and taken for 34% part of the optimization of that parameter.
17.22
Start simulation
A model simulation can be started within iMOD. The location, grid sizes and output configurations can
be set interactively. However, outside iMOD a simulation be started too. To start model simulations
simply type the following within a batch file (e.g. run.bat):
17.23
T
Syntax
iMODFLOW executable followed by the name of the runfile
Forces the command tool to remain visible after the simulation for
reasons of inspection
DR
AF
run.bat
imodflow.exe [name].run
Pause
Example Output file
Below an example is given for a log file with a summary of a simulation with iMODFLOW.
===========================
SUMMARY OF MODEL SIMULATION
===========================
Logfile for iMODFLOW v2.6
ACTIVE package
===================================================================
Module 1 present inactive SIMGRO
Module 2 present active IBOUND
Module 3 present active STARTING_HEAD
Module 4 present active TRANSMISSIVITIES
Module 5 present active VERTICAL_RESIST._VALUES
Module 6 present inactive STORAGE_COEFFICIENTS
Module 7 present inactive PURGED_WATER_TABLE
Module 8 present active ANISOTROPY
Module 9 present active HORIZONTAL_FLOW_BARRIER
Module 10 present active TOP_OF_AQUIFER
Module 11 present active BOTTOM_OF_AQUIFER
Module 12 not present CONCENTRATION
Module 13 not present HORIZONTAL_K_VALUE
Module 14 not present VERTICAL_K_VALUE
Module 15 not present INTERBED_STORAGE
Package 1 present active WELLS
Package 2 present active DRAINS
Package 3 present active RIVERS
Package 4 present active EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Package 5 present active GENERAL_HEAD_BOUNDARY
Package 6 present active RECHARGE
Package 7 present active OVERLANDFLOW
Package 8 present active CONSTANT_HEAD
Package 9 present active SEGMENT_RIVER
===================================================================
496
Deltares
Runfile
Solving system (ncol x nrow x nlay): 100 x 100 x 2
Given window of interest:
Xmin - Xmax - Delta X (m): 200000.00 202500.00 2500.00
Ymin - Ymax - Delta Y (m): 400000.00 402500.00 2500.00
Computed window of simulation:
Cellsize - Buffer (m) : 25.00 0.00
Xmin - Xmax - Delta X (m): 200000.00 202500.00 2500.00
Ymin - Ymax - Delta Y (m): 400000.00 402500.00 2500.00
Total Area (km2) : 6.25
T
Processing IBOUND module
Assigned D:\imod\boundary\imodflow_ibound1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Read Constant Value 1.000
* Modellayer: 2; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Constant Value becomes 1.000
DR
AF
Processing STARTING_HEAD module
Assigned D:\imod\starting_heads\imodflow_shead1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Assigned D:\imod\starting_heads\imodflow_shead2.idf
* Modellayer: 2; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Processing TRANSMISSIVITIES module
Assigned D:\imod\transmissivity\imodflow_kd1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
kD >= 0.000
Assigned D:\imod\transmissivity\imodflow_kd2.idf
* Modellayer: 2; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
kD >= 0.000
Processing VERTICAL_RESIST._VALUES module
Assigned D:\imod\vertical_resistance\imodflow_c1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
C >= 0.1000E-02 and vcond <=0.1000E+07
Processing TOP_OF_AQUIFER module
Read Constant Value 10.00
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Constant Value becomes 10.00
Read Constant Value -10.00
* Modellayer: 2; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Constant Value becomes -10.00
Processing BOTTOM_OF_AQUIFER module
Read Constant Value 0.000
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Constant Value becomes 0.000
Read Constant Value -50.00
* Modellayer: 2; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Constant Value becomes -50.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Processing ANISOTROPY module
Assigned D:\imod\anisotropy\imodflow_anifct1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Assigned D:\imod\anisotropy\imodflow_anihk1.idf
Deltares
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iMOD, User Manual
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Processing HORIZONTAL_FLOW_BARRIER module
Assigned D:\imod\horizontal_barrier\imodflow_hfb2.gen
* Modellayer: 2; Mult. Factor: 0.1000E-01; Addition: 0.000
Checking Anisotropy and Purge Water Table Combinations ...
0 out of 10000 ANISOTROPY elements were removed, remaining (10000)
Finished Checking Combinations
Busy computing diagonal conductances ...
Finished computing diagonal conductances ...
T
====================================================
Start steady-state period
====================================================
DR
AF
Processing WELLS package
Assigned D:\imod\wells\imodflow_well1.ipf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Assigned D:\imod\wells\imodflow_well2.ipf
* Modellayer: 0; Mult. Factor: 0.5000; Addition: 0.000
# Layer will be computed by TOP and BOT data
Processing DRAINS package
Assigned D:\imod\drainage\imodflow_drn_cond1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Assigned D:\imod\drainage\imodflow_drn_elev1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Processing RIVERS package
Assigned D:\imod\rivers\imodflow_riv_cond1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Assigned D:\imod\rivers\imodflow_riv_stage1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Assigned D:\imod\rivers\imodflow_riv_rbot1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Read Constant Value 1.000
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition:
Constant Value becomes 1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Processing EVAPOTRANSPIRATION package
Read Constant Value 0.9500
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Constant Value becomes 0.9500
Read Constant Value 4.000
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Constant Value becomes 4.000
Read Constant Value 1.000
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Constant Value becomes 1.000
Processing GENERAL_HEAD_BOUNDARY package
Read Constant Value 10.00
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Constant Value becomes 10.00
498
Deltares
Runfile
Read Constant Value 1.000
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Constant Value becomes 1.000
Processing RECHARGE package
Assigned D:\imod\recharge\imodflow_recharge1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Processing OVERLANDFLOW package
Assigned D:\imod\overlandflow\imodflow_olf1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
DR
AF
Processing SEGMENT_RIVER package
Reading D:\imod\segment_rivers\river.isg
* Layer: 1
T
Processing CONSTANT_HEAD package
Assigned D:\imod\constanthead\imodflow_chead1.idf
* Modellayer: 1; Mult. Factor: 1.000; Addition: 0.000
Checking input (and assigning modellayers) ...
WEL-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/0 errors/outliers from 1 remaining 1
system:2,layer:0, removed 0/0 errors/outliers from 1 remaining 1
system:2,layer:0, added 1 elements
DRN-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/0 errors/outliers from 1000 remaining 1000
RIV-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/2 errors/outliers from 100 remaining 98
EVT-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/200 errors/outliers from 10000 remaining 9800
GHB-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/200 errors/outliers from 10000 remaining 9800
RCH-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/200 errors/outliers from 10000 remaining 9800
OLF-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/200 errors/outliers from 10000 remaining 9800
CHD-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/9800 errors/outliers from 10000 remaining 200
ISG-elements
system:1,layer:1, removed 0/0 errors/outliers from 157 remaining 157
Finished Checking Input (and assigning modellayers).
========================================================================
Solving : 1 out of 1 stress periods
Deltares
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Period : [result for] STEADY-STATE
Duration: 0.00 days
========================================================================
(crit=.100E-03)
0.00007960
0.00008162
0.00008505
-0.00008176
-0.00008043
-0.00005071
0.00009456
0.00006879
0.00005098
0.00003795
0.00008421
0.00006098
0.00004617
0.00008836
0.00006661
0.00005089
0.00003906
-0.00007877
-0.00006424
-0.00004934
-0.00003818
-0.00002954
-0.00008718
-0.00006464
-0.00004758
-0.00007910
-0.00005518
0.00008938
0.00006853
0.00007230
0.00004142
0.00006576
0.00006123
0.00001564
-0.00004469
0.00003770
0.00005899
0.00003617
0.00005641
0.00005773
-0.00007747
(2-66-34)
(2-68-32)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-59-41)
(2-59-41)
(2-59-41)
(2-59-41)
(2-59-41)
(2-59-41)
(2-57-43)
(2-57-43)
(2-57-43)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-55-45)
(2-54-46)
(2-54-46)
(2-54-46)
(2-53-47)
(2-53-47)
(2-53-47)
(2-54-46)
(2-53-47)
(2-54-46)
(2-54-46)
(2-52-48)
(2-55-45)
(2-54-46)
(2-52-48)
(2-52-48)
(2-52-48)
(2-52-48)
(2-52-48)
(1-49-49)
BudgetClosure
(crit=.100E+02)
-0.00371670
0.00697907
-0.00860826
-0.00722867
-0.00753543
-0.00545266
-0.00835430
-0.00607491
-0.00440741
-0.00322557
0.00577193
0.00432422
0.00324282
0.00512757
0.00384382
0.00288539
0.00217747
-0.00420917
0.00322845
0.00251688
0.00197208
0.00154435
0.00368149
0.00267774
0.00198358
0.00502546
0.00461292
0.00780574
0.00641782
0.00580344
0.00383980
0.00481743
0.00421730
0.00215712
0.00255847
0.00209055
0.00171694
0.00140399
0.00109920
0.00173125
-0.00859503
Cell (lrc)
NIter
Sol.
(2-65-35)
(1-46-51)
(1-51-47)
(1-51-47)
(1-47-51)
(2-49-49)
(2-49-49)
(2-49-49)
(2-49-49)
(2-49-49)
(2-50-47)
(2-50-47)
(2-50-47)
(2-50-47)
(2-50-47)
(2-50-47)
(2-50-47)
(2-48-50)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-47-50)
(2-48-49)
(2-48-49)
(2-47-50)
(2-48-49)
(2-47-50)
(2-48-49)
(2-47-50)
(2-52-48)
(2-52-48)
16
29
41
52
62
72
81
90
99
108
116
124
132
139
146
153
160
166
172
178
184
190
195
200
205
209
213
216
219
222
225
227
229
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
245
(**)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
T
Cell (lrc)
DR
AF
Head-Closure
========================================================================
Model Converged
Writing Output ...
500
Deltares
Runfile
========================================================================
DR
AF
T
=============================================
Resulting Waterbalance for: STEADY-STATE
=============================================
Budget Type Q-in (m3/d) Q-out (m3/d)
bdgwel 0.00000E+00 -0.32500E+04
bdgdrn 0.00000E+00 -0.75011E+05
bdgriv 0.38958E+03 0.00000E+00
bdgevt 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00
bdgghb 0.70002E+05 0.00000E+00
bdgrch 0.30672E+04 0.00000E+00
bdgolf 0.00000E+00 0.00000E+00
bdgisg 0.14314E+04 0.00000E+00
bdgbnd 0.33709E+04 0.00000E+00
———————————————
TOTAL 0.78261E+05 -0.78261E+05
ERROR 0.10938E+00m3 0.000%
=============================================
———————————————
Succesfully completed iMODFLOW v3.0
Simulation time: 6 secs./0.10 minutes
———————————————
17.24
Example Output Folders
The output folder (Data Set 1) is created during a model simulation and all selected results (Data Set
8) are stored in subfolders:
Folder
OUTPUTFOLDER
Subfolder*
File
log_[version].txt
HEAD
head_steady-state_l[ilay].idf
head_[yyyymmdd]_l[ilay].idf
bdg_steady-state_[ilay].idf
bdg_[yyyymmdd]_[ilay].idf
bdg_sys[i]_[yyyymmdd]_[ilay].idf
[pck]_steady-state_[ilay].idf
BDGFLF
BDG[pck]
[pck]_[yyyymmdd]_[ilay].idf
Content
Log file of the entire
model simulation
Steady-state Head
Transient Head
Steady-state flux
Transient flux
Steady state
[pck]-information
Transient
[pck]-information
* see for further details Data Set 8
Deltares
501
DR
AF
T
iMOD, User Manual
502
Deltares
18 Theoretical background
In this chapter all packages will be described in more detail. In the following table these are listed and
their corresponding MODFLOW package (if available). The description here is mainly used to illustrate
the differences of those packages compared to their equivalents in MODFLOW.
18.1
x
x
Description
Unsaturated zone package
Boundary conditions (compulsory)
Starting heads (compulsory)
Transmissivity
Vertical resistances
Horizontal permeabilities
Vertical anisotropy for aquifers
Vertical permeabilities
Storage coefficients
Specific storage coefficients
Top of aquifers
Bottom of aquifers
Perched-water table package
Horizontal anisotropy package
Horizontal flow barrier package
Interbed Storage package
Subsidence Creep package
Streamflow thickness package
Common pointer package
Parameter estimation package
Well package
Drainage package
River package
Evapotranspiration package
General-head-boundary package
Recharge package
Overland flow package
Constant-head package
Segment package
Equivalent
MODFLOW package
n.a.
BAS
BAS
BCF
BCF
BCF
BCF
BCF
BCF
BCF
DIS
DIS
n.a.
LFP
HFB
IBS
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
WEL
DRN
RIV
EVT
GHB
RCH
n.a.
CHD/BAS
n.a.
DR
AF
CAP
BND
SHD
KDW
VCW
KHV
KVA
KVV
STO
SSC
TOP
BOT
PWT
ANI
HFB
IBS
SCR
SFT
CPP
PST
WEL
DRN
RIV
EVT
GHB
RCH
OLF
CHD
ISG
Req.
T
iMOD Key
CAP Unsaturated zone module
The process of groundwater recharge and discharge through the unsaturated zone is simulated in
iMODFLOW with the MetaSWAP concept (see Annex 1). MetaSWAP is developed by Alterra, Wageningen as part of the SIMGRO model code (??). The SIMGRO framework is intended for regions
with an undulating topography and unconsolidated sediments in the (shallow) subsoil. Both shallow
and deep groundwater levels can be modelled by MetaSWAP. This model is based on a simplification
of �straight Richards’, meaning that no special processes like hysteresis, preferential flow and bypass
flow are modelled. Snow is not modelled, and neither the influence of frost on the soil water conductivity. A perched watertable can be present in the SVAT column model, but interflow is not modelled.
There are plans for including the mentioned special processes in MetaSWAP Inundation water can be
modelled as belonging to both groundwater and surface water at the same time. Processes that are
typical for steep slopes are not included. The code contains several parameterized water management
schemes, including irrigation and water level management.
The input data required for MetaSWAP are (?):
BND
LGN
Deltares
Boundary setting, used to specify active MetaSWAP elements
Landuse code, should be referred to by the file luse_mswp.inp
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iMOD, User Manual
RTZ
SFU
MET
SEV
ART
ARL
ARC
WA
UA
DR
AF
T
PD
PWT
Rootzone thickness in cm (min. value is 10 centimeter).
Soil Fysical Unit should be referred to by fact_mswp.inp.
Meteo Station number, should be referred to by mete_mswp.inp.
Surface Elevation (m+MSL).
Artificial Recharge Type, 0=no occurrence, ART>0 means present at current location
whereby ART=1: from groundwater, ART=2: from surface water extraction
Artificial Recharge Location, number of modellayer from which water is extracted.
Artificial Recharge Capacity (mm/d).
Wetted Area (m2 ) specifies the total area occupied by surface water elements. Value
will be truncated by maximum cellsize.
Urban Area (m2 ) specifies the total area occupied by urban area. Value will be truncated by maximum cellsize.
Ponding Depth (m)
Depth of the perched water table level (m-SL)
Figure 18.1: Unsaturated zone with Pn = nett precipitation, Ps = irrigation, E = evapotranspiration, V = soil moisture, Veq = soil moistureat equilibrium and Qc = rising
flux.
18.2
BND Boundary conditions
The boundary conditions (-) consist of one IDF (or a constant value) for each modellayer specifying for
each cell whether
Boundary value < 0
Those values denote areas that fixated head. The model will not change these values and they
act as a fix boundary condition;
Boundary value = 0
Those values denote areas that are excluded for the simulation. No groundwater flow will go
through those areas;
Boundary value > 0
Those values denote aeras that take part of the simulation, groundwater flow goes through
them and the head are computed. An important constraint to those locations is that need to be
connected to at least a single fixed boundary condition, e.g. a boundary condition < 0 or one of
the other packages that are head-dependent, such as the RIV, GHB, DRN package. The latter
could be risky since that boundary condition might be removed whenever the head is below the
drainage base.
The cell values correspond with the IBOUND values specified in the MODFLOW BAS package.
504
Deltares
Theoretical background
18.3
SHD Starting Heads
T
Figure 18.2: Example of the boundary conditions for a single layer (source McDonald and
Harbaugh, 1988)
18.4
DR
AF
The starting head (L) consists of one IDF (or a constant value) for each modellayer specifying for each
cell the initial head to start the model simulation. The starting heads correspond with the initial heads
specified in the MODFLOW BAS package.
KDW Transmissivity
The transmissivity (L2 /T) of each modellayer is defined by one IDF (or a constant value). Alternatively the transmissivity of a modellayer may be defined by the product of the horizontal permeability
defined in the KHV package and the layer thickness derived from the TOP and BOT package (see
Figure 18.3). The KDW transmissivity corresponds with the TRAN variable specified in the MODFLOW
BCF package.
18.5
VCW Vertical resistances
The vertical resistance (T) of each modellayer is defined by one IDF (or a constant value). Alternatively the vertical resistance of a modellayer may be defined indirectly by the layer thicknesses derived
from the TOP and BOT package, the vertical permeability defined in the KVV package, the horizontal
permeability defined in the KHV package and the vertical anisotropy defined in the KVA package (see
Figure 18.3). The VCW vertical resistance corresponds with the reciprocal of the VCONT variable
1
specified in the MODFLOW BCF package, so V CW = V CON
T.
18.6
KHV Horizontal permeabilities
The horizontal permeability (L/T) of each modellayer is defined by one IDF (or a constant value). The
horizontal permeability is used in combination with the layer thickness to calculate the transmissivity
of a modellayer (see Figure 18.3). The KHV horizontal permeability corresponds with the HY variable specified in the MODFLOW BCF package and the HK variable specified in the MODFLOW LPF
package.
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iMOD, User Manual
18.7
KVA Vertical anisotropy for aquifers
The vertical anisotropy (-) of each modellayer is defined by one IDF (or a constant value). The vertical
anisotropy is multiplied with the horizontal permeability to calculate the vertical permeability in the
permeable part of a modellayer (see Figure 18.3). The KVA vertical anisotropy corresponds with the
VKA variable specified in the MODFLOW LPF package.
18.8
KVV Vertical permeabilities
DR
AF
T
The vertical permeability (L/T) of the resistance layer between two modellayers is defined by one
IDF (or a constant value). The vertical permeability is used in combination with the thickness of the
resistance layer to calculate the vertical resistance between two modellayers (see Figure 18.3). The
KVV vertical permeability corresponds with the HY variable specified in the MODFLOW BCF package
and the VKCB variable specified in the MODFLOW LPF package.
Figure 18.3: Hydraulic layer parameters used in iMODFLOW
18.9
STO Storage coefficients
The storage coefficient (for confined conditions) or specific yield (for unconfined conditions) of each
modellayer is defined by one IDF (or a constant value). The value depends on the lithology of the
modellayer. The storage coefficient in confined aquifers varies between 1x10в€’5 to 1x10в€’3 . The
specific yield ranges between 0.02 for clay to 0.25 for gravel. The STO storage coefficient corresponds
with the SF1 variable specified in the MODFLOW BCF package and the SS and SY variable specified
in the MODFLOW LPF package.
18.10
SSC Specific storage coefficients
The storage coefficient for modellayers which can change from confined to unconfined conditions is
defined by two IDFs (or constant values) for each modellayer. The location where conditions can
change from confined to unconfined or vice versa is defined in the CPP module. The SSC storage
coefficient corresponds with the SF2 variable specified in the MODFLOW BCF package and the SS
and SY variable specified in the MODFLOW LPF package.
18.11
TOP Top of aquifers
The top level of the permeable part of each modellayer (see Figure 18.3) is defined by one IDF (or a
constant value). The TOP level corresponds with the TOP variable specified in the MODFLOW DIS
package.
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Theoretical background
18.12
BOT Bottom of aquifers
The bottom level of the permeable part of each modellayer (see Figure 18.3) is defined by one IDF (or
a constant value). The BOT level corresponds with the BOTM variable specified in the MODFLOW DIS
package.
PWT Perched water table package
T
A perched water table (or perched aquifer) is a (temporary) water table that occurs above the regional
groundwater table in the unsaturated zone. This occurs when there is a (relatively) impermeable layer
above the regional groundwater table in the unsaturated zone. With the PWT-package a perched water
table can be schematized in iMOD, the perched water table concept is given in Figure 18.4.
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Figure 18.4: Conceptual schematization of a perched water table.
In the following pages the concept of the perched water table package is described and illustrated by
several hydrologic situations. Hereby, the following figure (Figure 18.5) is used which that represents
the perched water table in terms of model parameters. Important to understand is that there can be
only a single perched water table in each vertical column. Once a perched water table exists, both the
horizontal and vertical flow component will be reduced up to zero when the pressure head above the
perched water table drops below the top of the aquitard that creates the perched water table.
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Figure 18.5: Conceptual schematization of a perched water table in a groundwater model.
The PWT package is applied using the following assumptions, these are described in the following
table in more detail.
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Theoretical background
I.
There is no storage in the PWT aquitard and the driving force for vertical flow equals
the pressure head of layer x minus the top of the PWT-aquitard.
There are two situations to distinguish
No Perched Water table
This situation is depicted on the left figure, the perched water table is below the top
of the aquitard yielding a zero flux through the aquitard
Thickness of a perched water table
This situation is show on the right figure, in this particular case the vertical flux
through the aquitard is computed as:
(18.1)
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dH/(Hi в€’ Hi+1 ) whereby
dH = Hi в€’ T : thickness of the perched water table
T : top of the aquitard
Hi : pressure head of modellayer i
Schematization of vertical fluxes using the PWT-Package
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II.
The model cells with the PWT-package are considered to be the top most layer with
saturated groundwater.
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If the PWT cells are not within the first model layer the transmissivity above the PWT
cells is recalculated. On the figure left, the transmissivities are 10 and 10 for the first two
modellayer above the PWT. Since the PWT package will compute the transmissivity only for
the first modellayer above the PWT layer, iMODFLOW will redistribute the transmissivities
such that they all are lumped in the first modellayer above the PWT layer. This is shown in
the figure right. Now, the transmissivitiy of the first modellayer is 0.01 (actually this is equal
to the parameter MINKD in the runfile) and the first modellayer above the PWT layer has 20.
Schematization of transmissivity when the PWT-Package is used in second model layer
III.
The model cells with the PWT-package are considered to be unconfined and thus
also have a phreatic storage coefficient.
In order to compute the effective transmissivity Te , the permeability is computed initially by k = T /(T OPaquifer в€’ T OPaquitard ). This permeability is used to compute the
transmissivity Te as function of the pressure head as Te (h) = k(h в€’ T OPaquitard ).
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Theoretical background
IV.
The model cells in layer i + 1 have a phreatic storage coefficient, unless the pressure
Head of layer i + 1 is greater than the bottom of the PWT aquitard. In this case an
elastic storage coefficient is used.
underlying aquifer becomes
coefficient is used, this is
unconfined,
and
illustrated in the
therefore the
figures below.
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In case the
elastic storage
Schematization of transmissivity when the PWT-Package is used in second model layer
The numerical implementation is such that the horizontal conductances and the vertical resistances
are calculated on the heads of timestep t в€’ 1. This is in order to avoid numeric instability.
18.14
18.14.1
ANI Horizontal anisotropy module
Introduction
Anisotropy is a phenomenon for which the permeability k is not equal along the x- and y Cartesian
axis, kxx and ky y , respectively. It can be notated that for isotropic conditions kxx = ky y (see figure
5.1a), and for anisotropic conditions kxx = k y y (see Figure 18.6a).
(a) Isotropic conditions, flow [q] perpendicular (b) Anisotropic conditions, flow [q] non
to piezometric head [h]
perpen-dicular to piezome-tric head [h]
Figure 18.6: Example of groundwater flow [q] for (a) isotropic and (b) anisotropic flow
conditions.
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To express the amount of flow along the x- and y-axes of a Cartesian coordinate system, the following
equations are valid to compute the flow along these direction; qx and qy , respectively (Strack ODL
(1989), Groundwater Mechanics, Princeton Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New-Jersey):
qx
qy
=
в€’kxx
в€’kyx
в€’kxy
в€’kyy
∂hx
∂x
∂hy
∂y
(18.2)
kxx = f Г— T Г— cos(П•)2 + T Г— sin(П•)2
kxy = kyx = ((f Г— T ) в€’ T ) Г— cos(П•) Г— sin(П•)
kyy = f Г— T Г— sin(П•)2 + T Г— cos(П•)2
T
From equation (18.2), it can be seen that in anisotropic conditions (kxx = k y y ), flow along the xdirection is not influenced solely by the hydraulic gradient along this x-axis, but also by a hydraulic
gradient along the y-axis. The permeability’s kxy and kxy are equal to each other and depend on the
angle П• of the principal axis to the x-axis:
(18.3)
18.14.2
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For values П•=0.0; П•=90.0; П•=180.0; П•=270.0, kxy and kxy become 0.0.
Parameterisation
Anisotropy is expressed by an angle П• and anisotropic factor f. The angle П• denotes the angle along
the main principal axis (highest permeability k ) measured in degrees from north (0в—¦ ), east (90в—¦ ), south
(180в—¦ ) and west (270в—¦ ). The anisotropic factor f is perpendicular to the main principal axis. The factor
is between 0.0 (full anisotropic) and 1.0 (full isotropic), see Figure 18.7.
Figure 18.7: Anisotropy expressed by angle П• and anisotropic factor f
Most optimally, the model discretisation should follow the configuration of the anisotropy, see Figure 18.8a. However, anisotropy could be folded in many different directions (principal directions),
which probably yield for anisotropy in many angles throughout the modeling domain. With the chosen mathematical method (finite-differences) in iMODFLOW, it is impossible to fold the model network
according to the anisotropy, see Figure 18.8b.
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(a) Kx < Ky ; П• = 120.0в—¦
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Theoretical background
(b) Kx < Ky ; П• = 120.0в—¦
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Figure 18.8: Example of (a) anisotropy aligned to the model network and (b) anisotropy
non-aligned to the model network.
Since the principal direction of the permeability is not aligned to the axes of the modeling network, it
is necessary to add extra flow terms to the finite difference equation to take into account the diagonal
flow, caused by the anisotropy, see Figure 18.9.
(a) Isotropic conditions
(b) Anisotropic conditions
Figure 18.9: Example of (a) flow terms in isotropic flow conditions and (b) flow terms in
anisotropic flow conditions.
For more detailed explanation on the computation of these extra flow terms, see Vermeulen PTM
(2006) et al. Limitation to Upscaling of Groundwater Flow Models dominated by Surface Water Interaction, Water Resources Research 42, W10406, doi:10.1029/2005WR004620.
For each cell in the model network, anisotropic angles П• and factors f can be specified. For those
situations where a single model cell contains more than one of these anisotropic parameters, they will
be up-scaled to the model cell. For the anisotropic angle, the most frequent occurrence will be used,
as for the anisotropic factor, a mean value will be computed. This seems to be the most robust and fair
trade-off between a coarsened model network and loss in detail.
The ANI horizontal anisotropy corresponds with the TRPY variable specified in the MODFLOW BCF
package and the HANI variable specified in the MODFLOW LPF package.
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HFB Horizontal flow barrier module
Horizontal obstructions against flow such as a badly or impermeable fault zone or a sheet pile wall are
defined for each modellayer by a *.GEN line file. The behaviour of this is twofold:
Factor
This is used automatically whenever the packages TOP and BOT are omitted in the runfile. By
lines that obstruct groundwater with a particular reduction factor f for the hydraulic conductance
or permeability, see ??, resulting in variable resistances along the line. The factor f is applied
to the computed harmonic conductances in between cells i (icol index) and j (irow index).
2T T DY
j
CRi,j = f (T1 DXi2+T1 2 DX
iв€’1 )
(18.4)
T
2T2 T1 DXi
CCi,j = f (T1 DY
j +T2 DXjв€’1 )
Resistance
This is used automatically whenever the packages TOP and BOT are included in the runfile. By
lines that obstruct groundwater with a variable resistance in days for that line, see ??, resulting
in variable reduction factors F CT along the line. This factor F CT is computed internally as:
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CRi,j =
2T2 T1 DYj
(T1 DXi +T2 DXiв€’1 )
DZi,j = 21 (T OPi,j в€’ BOTi,j ) + 12 (T OPi+1,j в€’ BOTi+1,j )
CR
i,j
Ci,j = 21 DXi DXi+1 DYj В· DZ
i,j
(18.5)
F CTi,j = Ci,j /f
2T T DY
j
CRi,j = F CTi,j (T1 DXi2+T1 2 DX
iв€’1 )
In iMODFLOW faults can be simulated by entering GEN files diretly in the runfile. iMODFLOW will
define automatically what faces in between gridcell need to be adjusted based upon the specifications
of the fault.
Example of computing the blocking faces (black line) in between gridcells (grey-rectangles) by an irregular shaped fault line (white) and its effect on the computed hydraulic head for a rastersize of 25m2
(contour intervals).
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Example of computing the blocking faces (black line) in between gridcells (grey-rectangles) by an irregular shaped fault line (white) and its effect on the computed hydraulic head for a rastersize of 100m2
(contour intervals).
The line *.GEN file defines the location of the barrier. The multiplication factor is used to create the
obstruction by reducing the conductance between model cells. The HFB module corresponds with the
MODFLOW HFB package. See also section 4.2 in the iMOD Runfile description document.
18.16
IBS Interbed Storage package
The compaction of modellayers by a reduction in water pressure is calculated using four IDFs (or
constant values): preconsolidation head or preconsolidation stress in terms of head in the aquifer (L);
dimensionless elastic storage factor for interbeds present in the modellayer; dimensionless inelastic
storage factor for interbeds present in the modellayer; starting compaction in each layer with interbed
storage (m). The IBS package is comparable to the IBS package of MODFLOW.
18.17
SCR Subsidence-creep package
Will be released with iMOD 3.1
18.18
SFT Streamflow thickness package
The streamflow thickness is defined by two IDFs (or constant values): the streamflow thickness (L) and
the permeability (L/T).
18.19
CPP Common pointer package
The location (-) where conditions can change from confined to unconfined is defined for each modellayer by one IDF (or a constant value). With this package it is possible to denote areas that need to be
convertable between unconfined to confined conditions.
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18.20
WEL Well package
The well package defines the groundwater abstractions for each modellayer from wells by IPF-files.
The IPF-files contain the coordinates of the well locations and may contain an average abstraction
rate (L3 /T) or a link to a text-file with abstraction time series (L3 /T). The screen depth may be added
to assign automatically the modellayer from which the abstraction takes place. The WEL package is
comparable to the WEL package of MODFLOW.
18.21
DRN Drainage package
T
The drainage package defines the location, the elevation (L) and the conductance (L2 /T) of the drainage
system by two IDFs. The drainage system represents drainage pipes and drainage ditches by which
water is removed from the model when the calculated head in a modellayer exceeds the elevation of
the drainage system. The drainage package is usually connected to the first modellayer only. The DRN
package is comparable to the DRN package of MODFLOW.
18.22
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Drainage simulated in cells with surface water becomes inactive when the drainage elevation is below
the water level in the same cell as defined in the RIV package. Herefor it is necessary to set the
parameter ICONCHK=1 in the runfile.
RIV River package
The river package defines the location, the water level (L), the bottom level (L), the conductance (L2 /T)
and the infiltration factor (-) by four IDFs. The river package represents the presence of permanent
water from which water may infiltrate or to which water may discharge. The source of water in the river
package is unlimited which means that rivers never dry out. The RIV package is comparable to the
RIV package of MODFLOW, except for the infiltration factor which is added in iMODFLOW.
Figure 18.10: Principle of the RIV package (adapted from Harbaugh, 2005)
The RIV package may be replaced by the ISG package which defines the surface water in segments.
18.23
EVT Evapotranspiration package
The evapotranspiration package defines the evapotranspiration by plant transpiration or directly from
the saturated groundwater by three IDFs: evapotranspiration strength (1000L/T), top elevation (L) for
maximal evapotranspiration strength and thickness (L) over which the evapotranspiration strength is
reduced to zero. The EVT package is comparable to the EVT package of MODFLOW.
The EVT package may be replaced by the CAP module which makes a more sophisticated simulation
of the processes in the unsaturated zone.
18.24
GHB General-head-boundary package
The general head boundary package simulates flow to or from a model cell from an external source
by two IDFs: the elevation (L) and the conductance (L2 /T) of the general head boundary. The GHB
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Theoretical background
T
package assumes an unlimited source of water and is often used to model large water bodies which
border the area of interest.
18.25
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Figure 18.11: Principle of the General Head Boundary package (Harbaugh, 2005)
RCH Recharge package
The recharge package defines the quantity of water (1000L/T) from precipitation that percolates to the
groundwater by one IDF (or a constant value). The RCH package is comparable to the RCH package
of MODFLOW.
The RCH package may be replaced by the CAP module which makes a more sophisticated simulation
of the recharge process through the unsaturated zone.
18.26
OLF Overland flow package
The overland flow package defines the elevation (L) above which outflow of groundwater will occur
when exceeded by the groundwater head. The package simulates the effect of outflow of water across
the land surface. The water is discharged out of the model and does not return to the groundwater. The
OLF elevation may be determined at a few centimetres above ground elevation to represent shallow
ponding caused by small obstructions against outflow. The flow rate of the OLF package is calculated
assuming a fixed resistance against outflow of 1 day. This can be altered by the parameter PVARIABLE
in the runfile. The OLF package is not available in MODFLOW.
18.27
CHD Constant-head package
The constant head package defines the elevation (L) of groundwater heads at cells where the BND
value < 0 by one IDF (or a constant value). The CHD package is comparable to the definition of the
CHD in the BAS package of MODFLOW.
18.28
ISG iMOD Segment package
The iMOD segment package defines the surface water system with an ISG-file which contains all
relevant information used by surface water elements which are in direct relation with groundwater.
The ISG-file stores stages, bottomheights, infiltration factors, resistances and the actual outline of the
surface water element. To store all these different types of information the ISG-file format consists of
associated files that are connected by the ISG-file. The ISG package is not available in MODFLOW.
The ISG package may be used to replace the RIV package as it allows a more detailed simulation
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of the surface water system compared to the rasters used in the RIV package. The ISG package file
format is based on vectors and time series and therefore has a much more efficient disk use than the
RIV package. The ISG file format also makes it more easy to convert surface water model data such
as with the SOBEK import tool.
18.29
18.29.1
PST Parameter estimation
Introduction
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In mathematics and computing, the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (LMA) provides a numerical solution to the problem of minimizing a function, generally nonlinear, over a space of parameters of the
function. These minimization problems arise especially in least squares curve fitting and nonlinear
programming. The LMA interpolates between the Gauss–Newton algorithm (GNA) and the method of
gradient descent. The LMA is more robust than the GNA, which means that in many cases it finds
a solution even if it starts very far off the final minimum. For well-behaved functions and reasonable
starting parameters, the LMA tends to be a bit slower than the GNA. LMA can also be viewed as
Gauss–Newton using a trust region approach. The LMA is a very popular curve-fitting algorithm used
in many software applications for solving generic curve-fitting problems. However, the LMA finds only
a local minimum, not a global minimum.
The used algorithm is known as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) that goes back to 1943 as
Kenneth Levenberg presented his work to the Mathematical Society at their annual meeting (Levenberg, K. The Quarterly of Applied Mathematics 2, 164 (1944)). Marquardt on the other hand popularized the method by distributing his FORTRAN code for free. In the following section a brief overview is
given of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and its implementation in iMODFLOW.
Most of the following LMA implementation has been based on the paper of Olsthoorn (1995), Effective
Parameter Optimization for Ground-Water Model Calibration, Groundwater, Vol. 33, no.1) and the
paper of Knorr BM (2011), The Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm, Seminar in Modern Physics, Summer
2011 and the PEST Manual of Doherty (2010).
18.29.2
Methodology
The core of parameter estimation is the minimization of some error criterion, cost or objective function
О¦m (p), that depends on a parameter vector p with elements pi в†’ i = 1, Np where Np denotes the
number of unknowns to be optimized (i.e. the amount of parameters). In general the objective function
О¦m (p) is the sum of squares sum of the individual errors notated as:
T
О¦m (p) = (y в€’ П†(p)) Q1 (y в€’ П†(p))
where y are the measurements with elements yi в†’ i = 1, Nh ; where Nh denotes the number of
observations; П†(p) are the computed head for the parameters defined in p and Q is the weight matrix
assigned to the observations defined as:
Qi,i =
1
Пѓi2
where Qi,i is the weight for the ith observation. The variance Пѓi2 is the squared standard deviation
Пѓi that measures the amount of variation from the average. A low Пѓi indicates that an particular
observation yi should be able to the meet the corresponding computed head П†i more closely that
observations with higher values of variations Пѓ . It is possible to specify weight values Qi,i or variances
Пѓi2 in iPEST.
The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied to minimize the objective function value by adjusting
the individual values for the parameter vector with О±i pi where О±i is the optimal multiplication factor for
the ith parameter that yields a minimal objective function value. In order to arrive at a valid minimal
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Theoretical background
objective function value, it is advisable to let Nh substantially larger than the number of parameters Np
(Yeh and Yoon (1981), Aquifer parameter identification with optimum dimension in parameterization,
Wat.Res.Res, v17, no. 3, pp. 664-672) or apply regularisation as done by the Pilot Point concept
(Doherty, 2003), see subsection 18.29.4.
The Gradient Descent Method (the simplest method) approaches the minimum of the objective function
О¦m (p) by adjusting each parameter according to:
pi+1 = pi − ζi ∇Φm (pi ),
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where the subscript i denotes the sequential parameter iteration (parameter update cycle) and О¶i is
a weighting factor for the ith cycle. It says that for each cycle i, the individual parameter sensitivities
(∇Φm (p)) to the residual surface (i.e. the multi dimensional representation of the objective function),
multiplied with a weighting factor О¶ will contribute to a reduction on the objective function. In this
way steps are taken towards the minimum according to the gradient ∇ of the residual surface. The
problem is that the Gradient Descent Method takes large steps in those areas of the residual surface
that have small gradients and it takes small steps for those areas with large gradients. It normally
leads to zigzagging in long narrow valleys on the О¦m (p) residual surface. The Gauss-Newton method
replaces the scaling factor ζ by the inverse of the curvature (second derivative∇2 Φm (p) often called
the Hessian) of the О¦m (p) surface and interchanges the undesired behaviour of the Gradient Descent
Method. It therefore converges faster, so:
pi+1 = pi − ∇2 Φm (pi )
в€’1
∇Φm (pi ).
The gradient ∇Φm (p) is denoted as the Jacobian J and each column in that matrix J is defined by:
J=
П†(pi ) в€’ П†(p0 )
∂φ
=
,
∂ pi
∆αi
where J is a matrix Nh Г— Np (number of observations row wise and number of parameters column
wise) and represents the sensitivity of the residual for each observation point according to a small
perturbation ∆αi in the ith parameter compared to the original parameter value p0 . Since the algorithm
assumes linearity over the interval ∆αi , the second derivative ∇2 Φm (p) is approximated by JT QJ in
the neighbourhood of p0 . This yields the following Gauss-Newton parameter update formula:
pi+1 = pi + ∆pi
∆pi = −2 JT QJ
в€’1
JT Q (y в€’ П†(p))
where Q is the diagonal weight matrix with individual weight values qi in the diagonal, where the
product в€’2JT Q (y в€’ П†(p)) represents the steepest gradient on the residual surface. If parameters
are far from their optimum, which they are probably initially, this JT QJ is only a crude approximation
of the true Hessian matrix. As a result the parameter update vector ∆p might be quite wrong which
can result in a failure to converge. The great insight of Levenberg was to simply combine the Gradient
Descent and the Gauss-Newton Methods to include a damping factor О» which determines how much
of the Gradient Descent or Gauss-Newton Method to include, so:
∆p = −2 JT QJ − λI
в€’1
JT Q (y в€’ П†(p))
where I is the identity matrix. Whenever О» is large, the parameter update will be determined more by
the Gradient Descent Methods and whenever О» is small, the Gauss-Newton Method will be included
significantly. Olsthoorn (1994) suggested to adjust О» such that the yielding parameter update vector
∆p is within a certain trust hyper sphere (with a radius around the current parameter vector which is
determines by their minimal en maximal values and a maximal ∆p compared to the previous iteration). So, by starting at a small value for λ (full confidence in the contribution of Gauss-Newton), it
will increase until all parameter vectors are within their trust hyper sphere. It should be noticed that
parameters that exceed their upper and or lower bounds, within their trust hyper sphere, will influence
the parameter update for the other parameters and coming iterations. This is circumvented by temporarily remove the Jacobian vector Ji for that particular parameter i and hold the parameter at their
upper- or lower bounds (i.e. a frozen parameter). On later iterations, the parameter will be included
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whenever the parameters vector will be calculated that moves parameters from their bounds back into
the allowed parameter domain.
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In the figure below it is demonstrated how the trusted hyper sphere affects the behaviour of convergence to the minimum of the О¦m (p) surface. In practice, small trust hyper spheres will yield more
iterations than large trust hyper spheres; however, the latter can zigzag from one side of the valley
onto the other side. In table the following behavior has to be expected for the different settings.
Figure 18.12: Example of the different behaviours in a common О¦m (p) surface for different trust hyper spheres, purple=1000, green=100, red=10 and blue=2.
Solid lines are Levenberg and dashed lines are Marquardt.
18.29.3
Eigenvalue Decomposition
Identifiability of the parameters to be optimized is a prerequisite of model calibration. This means
that a unique set of parameters values p yields a unique head П† field. In fact, all information for
identifiability of the parameters is contained in the Jacobian matrix of the model at the optimum values
of the parameters.
J=
∂φ ∂φ
∂φ
,
, ...,
∂pi ∂pi+1
∂pnp
The Jacobian reveal the observability of the parameters by virtue of its rows and columns. Each row
expresses the sensitivity of a single observation with respect the set of parameters. Each column
expresses the sensitivity of all observations with respect to a single parameter. Some fundamental
studies have been carried out which shed light of the inverse problem with respect to the identifiability
parameters (Dietrich, 1990, Speed and Ahlfeld, 1996). These are based upon the singular valule
decomposition of the sensitivity matrix, they even define the dimensions of the inverse problem, given
the model and the data. Their conclusions should be valid if they are based on the optimum parameters
and if the model is no too non-linear near its optimum.
JT QJ v = О›v
1
where О› contains the ordered eigenvalues (singular values are О› 2 ) and v are theв€љ
eigenvectors. The
eigenvectors are representing the axis of the residual surface, the eigenvalues О»i represent the
length of axis i. The ratio between the first and last eigenvalues is the condition number. The size
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Theoretical background
of the condition number determines the shape of the minimum in the residual surface. Whenever the
condition number is small, the parameters are identifiable, they all contribute significantly and unique to
the residual surface. Whenever the eigenvalues decomposition leads to eigenvalues of zero, it means
that the matrix JT QJ is singular; in that case the determinant is zero. Whenever this occurs, it means
that the current rank of the Jacobian matrix is less than the actual dimensions of the Jacobian matrix, in
other words, there is a redundancy in the data, as a consequent it is impossible to generate a unique
solution. There is a true linear dependency in the data. More often, the smallest eigenvalue might
be very small that blow up small errors in the observations and cause large error in (some of) the
estimated parameters.
(double precision of Jacobian)
Pilot Points and Regularisation
18.29.5
Reliability
T
18.29.4
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The reliability of the solution can be roughly given since linearity is assumed and the model will be nonlinear most commonly. We assume that the model behaves linearly in the surrounding of the minimum
of the objective function. Here we assume that the model errors are non-correlated and the averaged
sum of residuals is zero (which is a logical consequence of the quadratic minimization). Here for we
can compute the parameter covariance matrix as the total objective function value О¦m divided by the
degrees of freedom, so:
Cp =
О¦m
JT QJ
Nh в€’ Np
Пѓip =
в€’1
p
Ci,i
the elements on the diagonal of this parameter covariance matrix give the confident limits (standard
p
error Пѓi ) of the parameters. So, the true parameter value pi might be in between:
pi − σip ≤ pi ≥ pi + σip
This standard parameter error is a measure of how unexplained variability in the data propagates
to variability in the parameters, and is essentially an error measure for the parameters. The variance
indicates the range over which a parameter value could extend without affecting model fit too adversely.
Moreover, from this parameter covariance matrix the correlation coefficients can be computed as:
p
Ri,j
=
p
Ci,j
p
p
Ci,i
В· Cj,j
The correlation matrix shows those parameters that are highly correlated whenever they have correlation factors of > 0.90 or < в€’0.90. This means that whenever it appears that parameter A would be
larger in reality, this also will be the case for parameter B.
toevoegen FOSM
The standard error of the fit is given by the standard error of the fit indicates how variability in the
parameters affects the variability in the curve-fit. The asymptotic standard parameter error is a measure
of how unexplained variability in the data propagates to variability in the parameters, and is essentially
an error measure for the parameters.
18.29.6
Scaling
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Sensitivity
The possibility that a parameter estimation problem runs smoothly decreases with the number of parameters. In highly parameterized problems some parameters are likely to be more sensitive in comparison with others. As a result, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm may decide that large adjustments
are required for their values if they are to make any significant contribution to reducing the objective
function F (p). However, limits are set on parameter changes, such that the magnitude (but not the direction) of the parameter update vector is reduced. If a parameter is particularly insensitive compared
to others, it may denominate the parameter update vector, yielding a large update vector. This need
to be trimmed to fit the limits of the parameter update and as a result the update for other parameters
might not change much at all, with a result that the objective function might be not reduced significantly
at all. The result is that the convergence takes place intolerable slowly (or not at all), with a huge
wastage of model runs. The relative sensitivity for a parameter is computed by:
si =
m
wj jij
j=1
si
В· 100%,
T
mв€’1
where si is the sensitivity of the ith parameter and is the product of the observational weigh times
the Jacobian value for that particular observation j in relation to the parameter I, divided by the total
observation m. In the figure below an example is given of the relative sensitivity of different parameter
during parameter estimation.
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18.29.7
Figure 18.13: Sensitivity ratio of different parameters during the parameter estimation
process.
The most sensitive parameter is the storage (S) in Figure 18.13, however, the parameter adjustment
is adjusting the storage the least since the least sensitive parameter, the RIVER, determines the final
parameter update vector. As can see in the decrease of the objective function, it is not the best thing
to do. Whenever the sensitivity of the Rivers increase, the storage becomes more important in the
gradient and the objection function declines more significantly.
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Theoretical background
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Figure 18.14: Parameter adjustments in relation to the reduction of the objective function
value.
In order to avoid the disturbance, and therefore slower convergence, due to insensitive parameters,
iMODFLOW temporary holds those parameter(s). Whether a parameter is insensitive or not is determined by the ratio of their si value compared to the total sensitive value, see Figure 4.8.
Notes:
Do not use parameter adjustments that are too large, whenever many parameters are concerned use a step size of 2, whenever you have less parameters you can increase this to a
maximum of 10;
Experiment with different starting values for a parameter to see whether you end up with the
same optimal values;
18.30
Runtimes
The time that a simulation will consume depends on many things, e.g. the type of machine that you’re
using (hardware), and the configuration of your model. So, the consumption of the ANI package is
more than whenever the HFB package is used to simulate any type of horizontal anisotropy.
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Figure 18.15: Computed run times for a single time step, for several different amount of
nodes. The results are based on the simulation of the IBRAHYM model for
5843 time steps, and cell sizes varying in between 25m2 and 1000m2 .
On average is seems that the simulation time is related to the number of nodes as follows:
Time (seconds) = 3.0в€’6 Г— Nodes1.15 Г— Number of Time steps
Nodes =
524
Time (seconds)
3.0в€’6 Г— Number of Time steps
1
1.15
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References
Berendrecht et al., 2007. MIPWA: A Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management, In: Oxley, L. and Kulasiri, D. (eds) MODSIM 2007 International Congress on Modelling
and Simulation. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, December
2007 , pp. 74-80.
Doherty, J.E., 2010. Approaches to highly parameterized inversion - A guide to using PEST for
groundwater-model calibration: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 20105169, ed. R.J. Hunt. 2010, Reston, Va.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
McDonald, M.G., and Harbaugh, A.W. (1988). A modular three-dimensional finite-difference
ground-water flow model (PDF). Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 6. U.S.
Geological Survey
T
Minnema, B., et al. (2013). Utilization of Interactive MODeling (iMOD) to Facilitate Stakeholder
Engagement in Model Development Using a Sustainable Approach with Fast, Flexible and Consistent Sub-Domain Modeling Techniques. MODFLOW AND MORE 2013: TRANSLATING SCIENCE INTO PRACTICE. Colorado, The United States of America.
DR
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Pollock, D.W., 1994, User’s Guide for MODPATH/MODPATH-PLOT, Version 3: A particle tracking
post-processing package for MODFLOW, the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference groundwater flow model: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-464, 6 ch.
Van Walsum, P. E. V., et al., 2011. SIMGRO V7.2.0, Theory and model implementation. Tech.
Rep. Alterra-Report 913.1, Alterra, Wageningen. 93 pp. 491
Vermeulen, P.T.M. 2006. Model-Reduced Inverse Modeling. Ph.D. thesis Delft, University of
Technology - with ref. - with summary in Dutch. ISBN-10: 90- 9020536-5. ISBN-13: 978-909020536-6.
Vermeulen, P.T.M. et al., 2013, Groundwater modeling for the Mekong delta using iMOD, paper
presented at the 20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM2013)
Vermeulen P.T.M., Becker B. and Heinz T., 2014. Coupling iMOD-SOBEK. Coupling of a surface
water- and groundwater flow model to compute bank storage effects in wetlands along the Elbe
River on different grid resolutions. Bundesanstalt fÃijr GewÃd’sserkunde, Koblenz, Germany.
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Release Notes iMOD
Version
3.00.00.xxxx iMOD_X32_D_v3.00.00.xxx (debug-version X32)
iMOD_X32_R_v3.00.00.xxx (optimized version X32)
iMOD_X64_D_v3.00.00.xxx (debug-version X64)
iMOD_X64_R_v3.00.00.xxx (optimized version X64)
Date
24-9-2014
Based On
3.00.00
Changed
Functionality
SVN 32
SVN 46
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SVN 33
- Displays Bitmaps in the SOLID TOOL, in cross-sections and 3D
displays.
- MODFLOW2000 does not have the capability as MODFLOW2005
does, to use LENUNI next to ITMUNI
- Added the functionality in the iMODBATCH function XYZ2IDF to
specify the keywords MONTHLY and YEARLY. In combination with
a transient IPF (including a TXT file), it is possible to grid the IPF
for mean values for selected years or months.
- Changed ACCURACY from EPSILON(1.0) to 0.0 in the IMODPATH. This influences the minimal velocity that determines whether
a particles does not move anymore, by changing it into 0.0 m/day,
particles will continue until they truly stop. The value EPSILON(1.0)
yielded the value 1.1920929E-07 m/day.
- Changed the method to write the borehole information in TXT
file for IPF files created by the iMODBATCH function DINO2IPF, in
situation whereby no values are read, the value becomes "�None"’.
- The iMODBatch function IMPORTMODFLOW has been modified
such that it can read external files from a MODFLOW 88 format.
- The iMODBatch function ISGGRID has been extended to export
the gridded data to a MODFLOW river file (SCD format).
SVN 48
SVN 70
New Functionality
SVN 39
SVN 43
SVN 48
SVN 51
SVN 70
SVN 71
Fixed Bugs
SVN 34
SVN 46
SVN 47
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- Added the iMODBATCH functionality UTM2LATLONG to transform IDF UTM coordinates to a Lat-Long IPF with data, e.g. to be
gridded by the IMODBATCH functionality XYZ2IDF.
- Added functionality to the WATERBALANCE TOOL to use
hours,minutes and seconds as time scales, so IDF files
with date and time identifications become processed, e.g.
HEAD_20141231063000 as the head on the 31s t of December
2014 at 6hours, 30 minutes and 0 seconds.
- Added functionality to the TIMESERIES TOOL to plot time series
using hours,minutes and seconds as time scale.
- Increase the size for the grid fields automatically in IPFANALYSE
whenever borelogs/timeseries are identified.
- Reading IPF files with associated TXT files with long dates
(yyyymmddhhmmss).
- Added the iMODBatch functionality ISGADDSTAGE to add and/or
modify existing waterlevels in an ISG file from a given IPF file with
timeseries.
- Added the functionalities Go Back to Previous Extent and Go to
Next Extent on the main icon bar and the Cross-Section window.
- Bug in IPFSAMPLING in combination with CSV-file format.
- SAVE button didn’t work for steady-state configuration, also the
selection of a different model layer didn’t responded accordingly.
- Bug in iMODPATH using NCON=0 should be NCON=1.
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SVN 60
SVN 70
SVN 72
SVN 76
External Influence
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New known
bugs; Change
Requests
- Bug in IDFCALC whenever the function MIN,MAX,MEAN or SUM
is selected; the variable LEX was not initiated.
- Bug in displaying the license agreement, the variable IU was not
initiated, bug became active in X64 versions only.
- Bug in WATERBALANCE as a result of implementation of SVN
43, dates with 8 digits didn’t work anymore.
- Bug in default legends that could not be saved temporarily whenever a relative pathname was specified by the USER keyword in
the preference file.
- Bug on the Add Topography window as the coordinates could not
be manipulated appropriately.
- Bug in memory allocation for the Quick-Response Tool.
- Bug in reading IPF files as CSV using the double quotes.
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Release Notes iMODFLOW
Version
3.00.01
Date
15-10-2014
Based On
3.00.00
linked with MetaSWAP SubVersion number 1004 from repository
https://repos.deltares.nl/repos/GWSobek/trunk/src/modmsw/
SVN 49
When a GEN-file coincides exactly with cell face no HFB-cell face
was assigned resulting in a barrier with a hole. This bug has partially been fixed; with the real world test model NHI the bug fix
works, however, the standard USGS HFB-test still fails because
the test contains a barrier partly at a cell face. Version 3.00.01 was
released because the bug manifests only in exceptional cases; a
subsequent bugfix is planned to also fix these exceptional cases.
iMODFLOW_V3_00_01_METASWAP_SVN1004_X32R
(optimized version X32)
iMODFLOW_V3_00_01_METASWAP_SVN1004_X64R
(optimized version X64)
Changed
Functionality
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Fixed Bugs
T
New Functionality
External Influence
New known
bugs; Change
Requests
Version
3.00.02
Date
20-11-2014
Based On
3.00.01
iMODFLOW_V3_00_02_METASWAP_SVN1004_X32R
(optimized version X32)
iMODFLOW_V3_00_02_METASWAP_SVN1004_X64R
(optimized version X64)
New Functionality
Changed
Functionality
Fixed Bugs
SVN 80
SVN 81
SVN 82
IMOD-319: default value added for KVA-module (1.0).
IMOD-327: bug fixed upscaling anisotropy factor (most frequent
occurrence).
Bug fixed applying factor for recharge.
External Influence
New known
bugs; Change
Requests
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PO Box 177
2600 MH Delft
Boussinesqweg 1
2629 HV Delft
The Netherlands
+31 (0)88 335 83 00
[email protected]
www.deltares.nl
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