Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS 15.2(1)GC

Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS 15.2(1)GC
Software Configuration Guide for
Cisco IOS Release 15.2(1)GC
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Text Part Number: OL-24065-01
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Software Configuration Guide for Cisco IOS Release 15.2(1)GC
© 2010-2012 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
Preface
vii
Audience
vii
Organization
viii
Related Documentation
viii
Conventions ix
Commands in Task Tables
x
Obtaining Documentation, Support, and Security Guidelines
CHAPTER
1
Product Overview
1-1
Transmit Flow Control
1-1
IP Mobility 1-1
New MANET Features
CHAPTER
2
IP Mobility
x
1-1
2-1
Introduction to the Cisco Mobile Ad-hoc Network 2-1
Effective Networking in a MANET 2-2
Routing Challenges for MANETs 2-2
Highly Dynamic Routing Topologies 2-3
Topology Databases 2-3
Router-to-Radio Links 2-3
Link-status Signaling 2-3
Link-Quality Reporting 2-3
Link-Quality Metrics 2-3
Dynamic Reporting 2-4
Tunable Hysteresis 2-4
Neighbor Up/Down Signaling 2-4
Neighbor Sessions 2-5
OSPFv3 or EIGRP 2-5
Increased Performance 2-5
Dynamic Radio Capacities 2-6
Credit-based Flow Control
Metrics Scaling 2-6
2-6
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Contents
CHAPTER
3
Using the Command Line
Accessing the CLI
3-1
3-1
Performing Command Line Processing
Performing History Substitution
3-1
3-2
Understanding Cisco IOS Command Modes 3-2
Working with Frequently Used Command Modes
Using the “do” Command 3-4
Getting a List of Commands and Syntax
CHAPTER
4
Configuring the Interfaces
3-3
3-5
4-1
Using the Interface Command
4-1
Configuring FastEthernet Interface Features 4-3
Configuring an IP Address 4-3
Adding a Description for an Interface 4-3
Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces 4-4
Monitoring Interface and Controller Status 4-4
Clearing and Resetting the Interface Counters 4-6
CHAPTER
5
Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET
Introduction to RAR
MANET Protocols
5-1
5-1
5-2
Understanding Virtual Templates
5-3
Configuring QoS 5-3
QoS Configuration Types 5-3
CDR-based QoS 5-4
Standard IOS QoS 5-4
Traffic Class Configuration 5-4
Policy Map Configuration 5-4
Policy Assignment 5-5
CHAPTER
6
Understanding and Configuring DLEP
Prerequisite Reading 6-1
6-1
Configuring DLEP 6-1
Configuring the Physical Interface 6-1
Disabling Virtual Template Subinterfaces
Creating the Virtual Template 6-3
Configuring the VMI 6-4
Configuring Optional Timers 6-6
6-3
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Verifying DLEP Configuration 6-6
Displaying Information for DLEP Clients 6-7
Displaying DLEP Router Configuration 6-7
Displaying Neighbors on a DLEP Interface 6-7
Technical Support for DLEP
CHAPTER
7
6-8
Configuring R2CP 7-1
Prerequisite Reading 7-1
R2CP Configuration 7-1
Configuring R2CP on the Router 7-1
Configuring the Heartbeat Threshold 7-2
Configuring the Node Terminate ACK Threshold 7-3
Configuring the Node Terminate ACK Timeout 7-4
Configuring the Port Number for the Server 7-5
Configuring the Session Activity Timeout 7-6
Configuring the Session Terminate ACK Threshold 7-7
Configuring the Session Terminate ACK Timeout 7-8
Configuring the Virtual Access Template Number 7-9
Verifying R2CP Configuration 7-10
Displaying Radio Clients on an R2CP Interface 7-11
Displaying R2CP Router Configuration 7-12
Displaying Neighbors on an R2CP Interface 7-12
CHAPTER
8
Configuring PPPoE 8-1
Prerequisite Reading
PPPoE in a MANET
8-1
8-1
VMI in a MANET 8-2
Link-Quality Metrics 8-3
Neighbor Signaling 8-4
PPPoE Credit-based Flow Control 8-5
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet 8-5
PPPoE and VMI 8-6
Continuing with PPPoE Configuration
8-6
Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI 8-7
Creating a Subscriber Profile 8-7
Configuring PPPoE Service Selection 8-8
Configuring PPPoE on an Ethernet Interface 8-9
Configuring a Virtual Template Interface 8-10
Mapping Outgoing Packets 8-12
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Contents
Configuring Multicast Support 8-14
Using Aggregate Mode 8-14
Using Bypass Mode 8-16
Enabling Multicast Support on a VMI
Showing VMI Neighbors
CHAPTER
9
OSPFv3 Address Families
8-16
8-18
9-1
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families 9-1
Enabling IPv6 9-2
Enabling IPv6 on the Interface 9-3
Configuring OSPFv3 for a Unicast Address Family 9-3
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv6 Unicast Address Family
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv4 Unicast Address Family
Working with Multiple Address Families
Redistributing IPv4 Routes
10
9-7
9-11
9-12
Verifying OSPFv3 Address Families Configuration and Operation
CHAPTER
9-4
Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
9-14
10-1
OSPFv3 for MANET 10-1
Cooperative Radios 10-2
Initial Configuration Procedures 10-2
Enabling IPv6 Routing 10-2
Enabling IPv6 on the Interface 10-3
Configuring the OSPFv3 Process 10-4
Configuring the Interface for OSPFv3 MANETs
Radio Aware Routing in a MANET 10-8
Prerequisites 10-8
Link Metrics 10-8
Fine-Tuning RAR Configurations
10-5
10-8
Selective Peering for Efficiency 10-11
Determining Peering Criteria 10-12
Link Costs 10-12
Enabling Selective Peering 10-12
Preventing Full Peering over Poor Links 10-14
Fine-Tuning Selective Peering 10-15
Higher Costs without the Fine-Tuning 10-15
Improved Cost-Effectiveness through Fine-Tuning
Verifying OSPFv3 MANET Configuration and Operation
10-16
10-18
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Contents
CHAPTER
11
Configuring EIGRP in a MANET
11-1
Understanding The Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol
Using EIGRP Cost Metrics for VMI Interfaces
11-2
Understanding VMI Metric to EIGRP Metric Conversion
Understanding EIGRP Metric Dampening for VMI
APPENDIX
A
B
11-9
11-11
Setting the EIGRP Interval-based Metric Dampening for VMI
11-12
Command Reference
A-1
Debug Commands
A-1
List of Commands
A-2
A-3
Technical Support Reference
B-1
Default Settings for DLEP B-1
Configuring the Heartbeat Threshold
APPENDIX
C
11-8
Setting the EIGRP Metric Change-based Dampening for VMI
Commands
APPENDIX
11-6
11-7
Activating EIGRP IPv4 on a Configured VMI
Enabling EIGRP for IPv6
11-4
11-5
Understanding Neighbor Up/Down Signaling for EIGRP
Enabling EIGRP for IPv4
11-1
Acronyms and Glossary Terms
B-2
C-1
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Contents
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Preface
This preface describes the audience, organization, and documentation conventions for this guide and
provides information on how to obtain related documents and technical assistance.
This preface includes the following major sections:
•
Audience, page vii
•
Organization, page viii
•
Related Documentation, page viii
•
Conventions, page ix
•
Obtaining Documentation, Support, and Security Guidelines, page x
Audience
This guide is for experienced network administrators responsible for configuring routers for use in a
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET).
This guide is also intended for system intergrators incorporating the Cisco 5915 Embedded Services
Router (ESR) or the Cisco 5940 ESR into their designs. This book documents the Cisco IOS.
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Preface
Organization
This guide is organized into the following chapters:
Chapter
Title
Description
1
Product Overview
Introduces new features
2
IP Mobility
Introduces Cisco IP mobility
3
Using the Command Line
Describes how to use the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
4
Configuring the Interfaces
Describes configuring interfaces and verifing
connectivity
5
Introduction to Radio Aware Routing
and MANET
Provides an overview of the protocols
supported for MANET
6
Understanding and Configuring DLEP Describes how to configure the Dynamic Link
Exchange Protocol (DLEP)
7
Configuring R2CP
Describes how to configure the
Router-to-Radio Control Protocol (R2CP)
8
Configuring PPPoE
Describes how to configure Point-to-Point
Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)
9
OSPFv3 Address Families
Describes how to use OSPFv3 address families
to route IPv6 packets over OSPFv3—using
IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. This chapter also
describes how to configure and use OSPFv3
address families in conjunction with MANETs
and RAR
10
Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Describes how to configure OSPFv3 in a
MANET
11
Configuring EIGRP in a MANET
Describes how to configure the Enhanced
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) in
a MANET
Appendix A
Command Reference
Describes the commands referenced in this
book
Appendix B
Technical Support Reference
Provides information intended only for
reference while working with a Cisco Support
engineer
Appendix C
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Defines acronyms and abbreviations used in
this book
Related Documentation
Documentation for Cisco IOS Release 15.2(1)GC includes the following documents:
•
Release Notes for Cisco IOS Software Release 15.2(1)GC
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Preface
•
Cisco 5940 ESR Technical Hardward Guide
•
Cisco 5915 ESR Technical Hardware Guide
These documents are located at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10148/tsd_products_support_series_home.html
For all documentation related to the main release, Cisco IOS Release 15.2(1)T, see the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11746/tsd_products_support_series_home.html
Conventions
This document uses the following typographical conventions:
Convention
Description
boldface font
Commands, command options, and keywords are in boldface.
italic font
Command arguments for which you supply values are in italics.
[ ]
Command elements in square brackets are optional.
{x|y|z}
Alternative keywords in command lines are grouped in braces and separated by
vertical bars.
[x|y|z]
Optional alternative keywords are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical
bars.
string
A nonquoted set of characters. Do not use quotation marks around the string
because the string will include the quotation marks.
screen
font
System displays are in screen font.
boldface screen
Information you must enter verbatim is in boldface screen font.
font
italic screen
font
Arguments for which you supply values are in italic screen font.
This pointer highlights an important line of text in an example.
^
Represents the key labeled Control—for example, the key combination ^D in a
screen display means hold down the Control key while you press the D key.
< >
Nonprinting characters such as passwords are in angle brackets.
Notes use the following conventions:
Note
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the
publication.
Cautions use the following conventions:
Caution
Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might do something that could result in equipment
damage or loss of data.
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Preface
Warnings use the following conventions:
Warning
Safety warnings appear throughout this publication in procedures that, if performed incorrectly, may
cause harm to you or the equipment. A warning symbol precedes each warning statement.
Commands in Task Tables
Commands listed in task tables show only the relevant information for completing the task and not all
available options for the command. For a complete description of a command, see Appendix A,
“Command Reference.”
Obtaining Documentation, Support, and Security Guidelines
For information on obtaining documentation, obtaining support, providing documentation feedback,
security guidelines, and also recommended aliases and general Cisco documents, see the monthly
What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation, which also lists all new and revised Cisco technical
documentation, at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/general/whatsnew/whatsnew.html
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CH A P T E R
1
Product Overview
This chapter provides the following major sections to introduce the new features supported in this release
of the Cisco IOS software release:
•
Transmit Flow Control, page 1-1
•
IP Mobility, page 1-1
Transmit Flow Control
You can enable and disable transmit flow control on a per interface basis.
IP Mobility
Using a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) for router-to-radio communications addresses the
challenges faced when merging Internet Protocol (IP) routing with mobile radio communications.
The Cisco solution for MANETs provides optimal performance by providing such capabilities as route
selection based on real-time reporting from the radio network; fast convergence when nodes join and
leave the network; integration of point-to-point, directional radio topologies with multi-hop routing;
flow-controlled router-radio communications; OSPFv3 for MANET features; and more.
For more information on the Cisco MANET solution, see Chapter 2, “IP Mobility.”
New MANET Features
This section describes IP Mobility features introduced in this release.
•
Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP)—Similar to R2CP, DLEP is a Radio Aware Routing
(RAR) protocol providing efficient routing over Radio Frequencies (RF). DLEP provides all of the
functionality that R2CP provides plus features such as the following:
– IP Multicast support across Broadcast Multi-Access (BMA)
– DLEP server interaction with an existing MANET infrastructure
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Product Overview
IP Mobility
– DLEP server interaction with an existing Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI)
– Supported interaction between DLEP (and/or the underlying MANET infrastructure) and
capabilities such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Cisco IOS Timer Services
For more information, seeChapter 6, “Understanding and Configuring DLEP.”
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CH A P T E R
2
IP Mobility
This chapter provides the following major sections to describe the Cisco Mobile Ad-hoc Network
(MANET):
•
Introduction to the Cisco Mobile Ad-hoc Network, page 2-1
•
Router-to-Radio Links, page 2-3
•
Link-Quality Reporting, page 2-3
•
Neighbor Up/Down Signaling, page 2-4
•
Credit-based Flow Control, page 2-6
Introduction to the Cisco Mobile Ad-hoc Network
The Cisco solution for MANETs provides the following capabilities:
•
Optimal route selection based on Layer 2 feedback from the radio network
•
Faster convergence when nodes join and leave the network
•
Efficient integration of point-to-point, directional radio topologies with multi-hop routing
•
Flow-controlled communications between each radio and its partner router
•
OSPFv3 MANET features
– OSPFv3 MANET Per Node Overlapping Relays
– OSPFv3 MANET Selective Peering
•
OSPFv3 Address Families
•
VMI NBMA-Mode Multicast
•
Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP)—Similar to R2CP, DLEP is a Radio Aware Routing
(RAR) protocol providing efficient routing over Radio Frequencies (RF). DLEP provides all of the
functionality that R2CP provides plus features such as the following:
– IP Multicast support across Broadcast Multi-Access (BMA)
– DLEP server interaction with an existing MANET infrastructure
– DLEP server interaction with an existing Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI)
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IP Mobility
Introduction to the Cisco Mobile Ad-hoc Network
– Supported interaction between DLEP (and/or the underlying MANET infrastructure) and
capabilities such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Cisco IOS Timer Services
•
Router-Radio Control Protocol (R2CP)—R2CP is a RAR protocol providing efficient routing over
Radio Frequencies (RF). R2CP provides a bidirectional, event-driven communication channel
between router and modem. Event-driven communication reduces convergence time and decreases
the overhead traffic that must be sent to the radio link. R2CP allows real-time link quality metrics
on a neighbor-by-neighbor basis. R2CP supports Broadcast Multi-Access (BMA) radios that operate
in rapidly changing mobile environments. For more information, see Chapter 7, “Configuring
R2CP.”
•
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET)—Cisco MANETs for router-to-radio communications address
the challenges faced when merging IP routing with mobile radio communications. For more
information, see Chapter 5, “Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET.”
•
Virtual Multipoint Interfaces (VMI)—VMI provides services that map outgoing packets to the
appropriate Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) sessions. The VMI also provides a
broadcast service that emulates a set of point-to-point connections as a point-to-multipoint interface
with broadcast ability. For more information, see Chapter 8, “Configuring PPPoE” and Chapter 5,
“Configuring Virtual Multipoint Interfaces.”
•
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)—EIGRP integrates the capabilities of
link-state protocols into distance-vector protocols. In addition to providing fast convergence, EIGRP
is distinguished from other routing protocols by supporting variable-length subnet masks, partial
updates, and multiple network layer protocols. For more information, see Chapter 11, “Configuring
EIGRP in a MANET.”
Effective Networking in a MANET
The following are benefits of effective networking in a MANET environment:
•
Routers and radios can interoperate efficiently, and without impacting operation of the radio
network
•
Radio point-to-point and router point-to-multipoint paradigms can be rationalized
•
Radios can report status to routers for each link and each neighbor
•
Routers can use this information to optimize routing decisions
Routing Challenges for MANETs
MANETs enable users deployed in areas with no fixed communications infrastructure to access critical
voice, video, and data services. For example, soldiers in the field can employ unified communications,
multimedia applications, and real-time information dissemination to improve situational awareness and
respond quickly to changing battlefield conditions. Disaster managers can use video conferences,
database access, and collaborative tools to coordinate multi-agency responses within an Incident
Command System (ICS) framework. For event planners and trade show managers, MANETs represent
a cost-effective way to accommodate mobile end users on a short-term basis. MANETs set the stage for
more timely information sharing and faster, more effective decision-making.
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Chapter 2
IP Mobility
Router-to-Radio Links
Highly Dynamic Routing Topologies
In a Cisco MANET environment, highly mobile nodes communicate with each other across
bandwidth-constrained radio links. An individual node includes both a radio and a network router, with
the two devices interconnected over an Ethernet. Since these nodes can rapidly join or leave the network,
MANET routing topologies are highly dynamic. Fast convergence in a MANET is challenging because
the state of a node can change well before the event is detected by the normal timing mechanisms of the
routing protocol.
Radio link quality in MANETs can vary dramatically because it can be affected by a variety of factors
such as noise, fading, interference, and power fluctuation. As a result, avoiding congestion and
determining optimal routing paths also pose significant challenges for the router network.
Topology Databases
Finally, directional radios that operate on a narrow beam tend to model the network as a series of
physical point-to-point connections with neighbor nodes. This point-to-point model does not translate
gracefully to multi-hop, multipoint router environments, as it increases the size of each router’s topology
database and reduces routing efficiency.
Router-to-Radio Links
Through the router-to-radio link, a radio can inform the router immediately when a node joins or leaves,
and this enables the router to recognize topology changes more quickly than if it had to rely on timers.
The link-status notification from the radio enables the router to respond faster to network topology
changes. The radio passes metric information regarding the quality of a link to the router, enabling the
router to more intelligently decide on which link to use.
Link-status Signaling
With link-status signaling provided by the router-to-radio link, applications such as voice and video
work better because outages caused by topology changes are reduced or eliminated. Sessions are more
stable.
Link-Quality Reporting
The quality of a radio link has a direct impact on throughput. The Cisco IOS software implements DLEP,
R2CP. RFC5578, OSFPv3, and EIGRP such that the route cost to a neighbor is updated dynamically
based on radio-reported metrics, thus allowing the best route to be selected within a given set of radio
links.
Link-Quality Metrics
Each routing protocol receives raw, radio-link data and computes a composite quality metric per link. In
computing these metrics, the router may consider the following factors:
•
Maximum Data Rate (MDR) — theoretical MDR of radio link, in scaled bits per second (bps)
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Neighbor Up/Down Signaling
•
Current Data Rate (CDR) — CDR achieved on the link, in scaled bps
•
Latency— encountered transmission-delay packets, in milliseconds
•
Resources—a percentage (0-100) indicating remaining resource availability (such as battery power)
•
Relative Link Quality (RLQ) —a numeric value (0-100) representing relative quality, where 100
indicates the highest quality
Router metrics can be weighted during the configuration process to emphasize or de-emphasize
particular characteristics. For example, if throughput is a particular concern, you can weight the
throughput metric so that it is factored more heavily into the composite route cost. Similarly, a metric of
no concern can be omitted from the composite calculation.
Dynamic Reporting
Link metrics change rapidly, which can result in a flood of trivial routing updates. In a worst-case
scenario, the network churns while reacting to relentless, minor variations. To prevent such churn, the
Cisco IOS software provides a tunable dampening mechanism, thereby allowing you to configure
thresholds. Any change in metrics below a configured threshold is ignored.
When the routing protocol is OSPFv3 or EIGRP, the connection quality for a neighbor session is
determined by characteristics of that interface. The routing protocol receives dynamic, raw, radio -ink
characteristics and computes a composite metric that is used to reduce the effect of frequent routing
changes.
Tunable Hysteresis
A tunable hysteresis mechanism allows you to adjust the threshold to the routing changes that occur
when the router receives a signal that a new peer has been discovered, or that an existing peer is
unreachable. The tunable metric is weighted and adjusted dynamically to account for the following
characteristics:
•
Current and Maximum Bandwidth
•
Latency
•
Resources
•
Relative Link Quality (RLQ)
Individual weights can be deconfigured and all weights can be cleared so that the cost returns to the
default value per interface type. Based on the routing changes, cost can be determined by the application
of these metrics.
Neighbor Up/Down Signaling
MANETs are highly dynamic environments. Neighbors enter and exit radio range rapidly. Each time a
node joins or leaves the network, routers must reconstruct the topology logically. Routing protocols
typically track topology changes with the use of timer-driven “hello” messages or neighbor timeouts.
MANETs, however, cannot rely on such mechanisms given unacceptably slow convergence.
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IP Mobility
Neighbor Up/Down Signaling
Neighbor Sessions
Each radio-router pair is a roaming client (or potential neighbor), constantly seeking new neighbors
while checking for the continued existence of those already established. Neighbor discovery occurs
when one radio discovers another. Each time a radio-to-radio link is established (between one neighbor
and another), the radio initiates a neighbor session with its local router. When this neighbor session is
successfully created and becomes active at both ends, router-to-router communication ensues—thereby
completing the successful formation of a new neighbor session.
The neighbor up/down signaling capability in the Cisco IOS software provides faster network
convergence by using link-status signals received from the local radio. The local radio notifies the router
each time a link to a neighbor is established (up) or terminated (down), as depicted in Figure 2-1.
This change in link status occurs each time DLEP, R2CP, or RFC5578 creates or terminates a neighbor
session.
Figure 2-1
Up and Down Signaling Sequence
Radio
Radio link is up
Radio
link is up
Ethernet link is up
VMI
Ethernet
Radio
Router
VMI
170452
Radio link is up
Router
Ethernet link is up
Ethernet
OSPFv3 or EIGRP
The Cisco IOS routing protocol (OSPFv3 or EIGRP) responds immediately to each link-status signal by
expediting a new adjacency (up—for a new neighbor) or tearing down an adjacency (down—for a
neighbor suddenly lost). For example, if a vehicle drives behind a building and loses its connection, the
router immediately senses the loss and establishes a new route to the vehicle through neighbors that are
not blocked. This high-speed network convergence is essential for minimizing dropped voice calls and
video disruptions.
When using VMI with RAR protocol and the link status changes (indicating a new or lost neighbor), the
radio informs the router immediately of the topology change. Immediately upon receiving the link-status
signal, the router declares the change and updates the routing tables.
Increased Performance
Link-status signaling provides the following benefits:
•
Reduced routing delays
•
Prevention of application time-outs
•
Reliable and quick delivery of network-based applications and information over directional radio
links
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IP Mobility
Credit-based Flow Control
•
Fast convergence and optimal route selection—preventing disruption of delay-sensitive traffic such
as voice and video
•
Reduced impact on radio equipment by minimizing the need for internal queuing/buffering
•
Consistent Quality of Service (QoS) for multiple-radio networks
•
Messaging enables dynamic rerouting to avoid disruptions and interference such as radio-link noise,
fading, congestion, and power fade.
Dynamic Radio Capacities
The carrying capacity of each radio link may vary due to location changes or environmental conditions,
and many radio-transmission systems have limited buffering capabilities. To minimize the need for
packet queuing in the radio, the Cisco IOS software implements PPPoE with capabilities to control
traffic buffering when congested.
Implementing flow-control also allows the use of fair queuing.
Credit-based Flow Control
The flow-control solution implements a credit-based mechanism documented in RFC 5578. When the
PPPoE session is established, the radio can request a flow-controlled session. If the router acknowledges
the request, all subsequent traffic must be flow-controlled. If a flow-control session has been requested
and cannot be supported by the router, the session is terminated. Typically, both radio and router grant
credits during session discovery. Once a device exhausts its credits, it must stop sending until additional
credits have been granted. Credits can be added incrementally over the course of a session.
Metrics Scaling
High-performance radios use metrics scaling to meet high-speed link requirements. The radio can
express the maximum and Current Data Rates (CDRs) with varying scalar values. Credit scaling allows
a radio to change the default credit grant (or scaling factor) from 64 bytes to its default value.
You can use the show vmi neighbor detail command to display scalar values and maximum and current
data rates (MDRs and CDRs).
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3
Using the Command Line
This chapter describes the Command Line Interface (CLI) you use to configure platforms utilizing 
Cisco IOS 15.1(2) GC. This chapter includes the following major sections:
•
Accessing the CLI, page 3-1
•
Performing Command Line Processing, page 3-1
•
Performing History Substitution, page 3-2
•
Understanding Cisco IOS Command Modes, page 3-2
•
Getting a List of Commands and Syntax, page 3-5
Note
Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses. Any
examples, command display output, and figures included in the document are shown for illustrative
purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental.
Note
The examples in this chapter are not specific to the Cisco 5940.
Accessing the CLI
You can access the Cisco IOS CLI through the Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 interface using Secure Shell (SSh)
or Telnet to establish a Virtual TeletYpe (VTY) session with the router.
After accessing the CLI on the router, the screen displays the following message:
Press Return for Console prompt
Router> enable
Password:< >
Router#
Performing Command Line Processing
Commands are not case-sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters if the abbreviations
contain enough letters to be different from any other currently available commands or parameters.
You can scroll through the last 20 commands stored in the history buffer and enter or edit a command at
the prompt. Table 3-1 lists the keyboard shortcuts for entering and editing commands.
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Using the Command Line
Performing History Substitution
Table 3-1
Keyboard Shortcuts
Keystrokes
Result
Press Ctrl-B or 
press the Left Arrow key1
Moves the cursor back one character.
Press Ctrl-F or
press the Right Arrow key1
Moves the cursor forward one character.
Press Ctrl-A
Moves the cursor to the beginning of the command line.
Press Ctrl-E
Moves the cursor to the end of the command line.
Press Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Press Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
1. The Arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals, such as VT100s.
Performing History Substitution
The history buffer stores the last 20 command lines you entered. History substitution enables you to
access these command lines without retyping them. Table 3-2 lists the history substitution commands.
Table 3-2
History Substitution Commands
Command
Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key
Purpose
1
Ctrl-N or the Down Arrow key1
Router# show history
Recalls commands in the history buffer, beginning with
the most recent command. Repeat the key sequence to
recall older commands successively.
Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer
after commands have been recalled with Ctrl-P or the
Up Arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall more
recent commands.
Lists the last several commands you entered in EXEC
mode.
1. The Arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.
Understanding Cisco IOS Command Modes
The Cisco IOS user interface has many different modes: user EXEC, privileged EXEC (enable), global
configuration, interface, subinterface, and protocol-specific modes. The commands available to you are
dependent on your current command mode. To get a list of the commands in a given mode, enter a
question mark (?) at the system prompt. See the Getting a List of Commands and Syntax section for more
information.
Note
For complete information about Cisco IOS command modes, see the Cisco IOS Configuration
Fundamentals Configuration Guide and the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command
Reference at: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/index.htm
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Using the Command Line
Understanding Cisco IOS Command Modes
Working with Frequently Used Command Modes
When you start a session, you begin in user mode, also called user EXEC mode. Only a small subset of
commands are available in EXEC mode. To have access to all commands, you must enter privileged
EXEC mode, also called enable mode. To access the privileged EXEC mode, you must enter a password.
When you are in the privileged EXEC mode, you can enter any EXEC command or access global
configuration mode. Most EXEC commands are one-time commands, such as show commands, which
display the current configuration status, and clear commands, which reset counters or interfaces. The
EXEC commands are not saved when the Cisco router is rebooted.
The configuration modes allow you to make changes to the running configuration. If you save the
configuration, these commands are stored when you reboot the router. You must start in global
configuration mode. From global configuration mode, you can enter interface configuration mode,
subinterface configuration mode, and a variety of protocol-specific modes.
Table 3-3 lists and describes frequently used Cisco IOS modes.
Table 3-3
Frequently Used Cisco IOS Command Modes
Mode
What You Use It For
How to Access
User EXEC
To connect to remote devices, Log in.
change terminal settings on a
temporary basis, perform basic
tests, and display system
information.
Privileged EXEC
(enable)
To set operating parameters. The
privileged command set
includes the commands in user
EXEC mode, as well as the
configure command. Use the
configure command to access
the other command modes.
Global configuration
To configure features that affect From privileged EXEC mode,
the system as a whole, such as enter the configure terminal
the system time or router name. command.
Prompt
Router>
From user EXEC mode, enter the Router#
enable command and the enable
password (if a password has been
configured).
Router(config)#
From global configuration mode, Router(config-if)#
Interface configuration To enable or modify the
operation of a Gigabit Ethernet, enter the interface type location
Fast Ethernet, E1/T1, or smart command.
serial interface with interface
commands.
The Cisco IOS command interpreter, called the EXEC, interprets and runs the commands you enter. You
can abbreviate commands and keywords by entering just enough characters to make the command unique
from other commands. For example, you can abbreviate the show command to sh and the configure
terminal command to config t.
When you type exit, the router backs out one level. To exit configuration mode completely and return to
privileged EXEC mode, press Ctrl-Z.
When you type end, the router returns to EXEC mode.
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Using the Command Line
Understanding Cisco IOS Command Modes
Using the “do” Command
EXEC-level commands, such as the show commands, are not listed on the same modes as the
subcommand modes, such as SEU configuration. Use this command to execute EXEC commands (such
as show, clear, and debug commands) while configuring your routing device. After the EXEC command
is executed, the system will return to the configuration mode you were using.
To execute an EXEC-level command from global configuration mode or any configuration submode, use
the do command in any configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
Router(config)#do command
Allows execution of an EXEC-level command
from global configuration mode or any
configuration submode.
The following example implements the show r2cp config command from global configuration mode:
Router(config)# do show r2cp config
R2CP Configuration from FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=3
session activity timeout=1 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=3
No Virtual Template defined.
Router(config)#
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Using the Command Line
Getting a List of Commands and Syntax
Getting a List of Commands and Syntax
In any command mode, you can get a list of available commands by entering a question mark (?).
To obtain a list of commands that begin with a particular character sequence, enter those characters
followed by the question mark (?). Do not include a space before the question mark. This form of help
is called word help, because it completes a word for you.
To list keywords or arguments, enter a question mark in place of a keyword or argument. Include a space
before the question mark. This form of help is called command syntax help, because it reminds you
which keywords or arguments are applicable based on the command, keywords, and arguments you have
already entered.
Router# show
entry
interface
neighbors
traffic
|
<cr>
cdp ?
Information for specific neighbor entry
CDP interface status and configuration
CDP neighbor entries
CDP statistics
Output modifiers
Router#
To redisplay a command you previously entered, press the Up Arrow key or Ctrl-P. You can continue
to press the Up Arrow key to see the last 20 commands you entered.
Tip
If you are having trouble entering a command, check the system prompt and enter the question mark (?)
for a list of available commands. You might be in the wrong command mode or using incorrect syntax.
Type exit to return to the previous mode. Press Ctrl-Z or enter the end command in any mode to
immediately return to privileged EXEC mode.
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Getting a List of Commands and Syntax
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4
Configuring the Interfaces
This chapter provides the following major sections to describe how to configure and verify a
router-to-modem interface.
Note
•
Using the Interface Command, page 4-1
•
Configuring FastEthernet Interface Features, page 4-3
•
Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces, page 4-4
For complete command syntax and usage, see Appendix A, “Command Reference.”
Using the Interface Command
The following general instructions apply to all interface-configuration processes:
Step 1
At the privileged EXEC prompt, enter the configure terminal command to enter global configuration
mode:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Router(config)#
Step 2
End with CNTL/Z.
In global configuration mode, enter the interface command. Identify the interface type and the number
of the connector on the interface card. The following example shows how to select a fastEthernet
interface of 0:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#
Note
Step 3
You do not need to add a space between the interface type and interface number. For example,
in the preceding line you can specify either fastEthernet0/0 or fastEthernet 0/0.
Interface numbers are assigned at the factory at the time of installation. Enter the show interfaces EXEC
command to see a list of all interfaces installed on your router. A report is provided for each interface
that your router supports, as shown in this display:
Router(config-if)# Ctrl-Z
Router# show interfaces
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is MV96340 Ethernet, address is 001f.ca0f.6508 (bia 001f.ca0f.6508)
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Using the Interface Command
Description: OPERATIONS ACCESS - DO NOT CHANGE ADDRESS
Internet address is 9.9.9.10/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit/sec, DLY 100 usec,
reliability 254/255, txload 1/255, rxload 6/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:06, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 18/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 2627000 bits/sec, 231 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
86251 packets input, 119155372 bytes
Received 5158 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 1 throttles
27 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 27 ignored
0 watchdog
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
35714 packets output, 3513886 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
Router#
Step 4
Follow each interface command with the interface-configuration commands your particular interface
requires. The commands you enter define the protocols and applications that run on the interface. The
commands are collected and applied to the interface command until you enter another interface
command or press Ctrl-Z to exit interface configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
You can use the exit command to exit interface configuration mode and return to global configuration
mode.
Step 6
After you configure an interface, you can check the status of the interface by using the EXEC show
commands listed in the “Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces” section on page 4-4.
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Configuring the Interfaces
Configuring FastEthernet Interface Features
Configuring FastEthernet Interface Features
The following subsections describe fastEthernet interface configuration procedures:
•
Configuring an IP Address, page 4-3
•
Adding a Description for an Interface, page 4-3
Configuring an IP Address
To configure an IPv4 address and subnet mask on an interface, perform the following task:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet interface
Specifies the interface to be configured.
Step 2
Router(config-if)# ip address ip-addr mask
Sets the IP address.
Example
The following example shows how to set the IPv4 address 10.108.1.27 with subnet mask 255.255.255.0
on interface fastEthernet 0/0:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.108.1.27 255.255.255.0
Adding a Description for an Interface
You can add a description about an interface to help you remember its function. The description displays
in the output of the following commands: show configuration, show running-config, and 
show interfaces.
To add a description for an interface, enter the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
Router(config-if)# description string
Adds a description for an interface.
Examples
This example shows how to add the description Operations on fastEthernet interface 0/0:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router(config-if)# description Operations
Router(config-if)# end
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Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces
This example shows how to verify the configuration:
Router# show interface fastEthernet 0/0
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is MV96340 Ethernet, address is 001f.ca0f.6508 (bia 001f.ca0f.6508)
Description: OPERATIONS ACCESS - DO NOT CHANGE ADDRESS
Internet address is 10.108.1.27/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit/sec, DLY 100 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input 00:00:02, output 00:00:09, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/38054/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
3289500 packets input, 1652322462 bytes
Received 18932 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 37924 throttles
1933147 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 1933147 ignored
0 watchdog
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
133400 packets output, 13054277 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
Router#
Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces
The following sections describe how to monitor and maintain the interfaces:
•
Monitoring Interface and Controller Status, page 4-4
•
Clearing and Resetting the Interface Counters, page 4-6
Monitoring Interface and Controller Status
The router contains commands that you can enter at the EXEC prompt to display information about the
interface. The following table lists some of the interface monitoring commands. You can display the full
list of show commands by entering the show ? command at the EXEC prompt. These commands are
fully described in the Interface Command Reference.
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Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces
To display information about the interface, enter any of the following commands in user EXEC mode:
Command
Purpose
Router#show interfaces [type interface]
Displays the status and configuration of a specific
interface or all interfaces.
Router#show running-config
Displays the configuration currently running in RAM.
Router#show protocols [type interface]
Displays the global (system-wide) and
interface-specific status of any configured protocol.
Router#show version
Displays the hardware configuration, software version,
names and sources of configuration files, and boot
images.
This example shows how to display information about fastEthernet interface 0/0:
Router# show interfaces fastEthernet 0/0
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is MV96340 Ethernet, address is 001f.ca0f.6508 (bia 001f.ca0f.6508)
Description: OPERATIONS ACCESS - DO NOT CHANGE ADDRESS
Internet address is 10.108.1.27/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit/sec, DLY 100 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input 00:00:25, output 00:00:03, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/38054/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
3289517 packets input, 1652328854 bytes
Received 18949 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
0 runts, 0 giants, 37924 throttles
1933147 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 1933147 ignored
0 watchdog
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
133525 packets output, 13066527 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 unknown protocol drops
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
Router#
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Monitoring and Maintaining Interfaces
Clearing and Resetting the Interface Counters
To clear the interface counters shown with the show interfaces command, enter the following command:
Command
Purpose
Router#clear counters {type interface}
Clears interface counters.
This example shows how to clear and reset the counters on fastEthernet interface 0/0:
Router#clear counters fastEthernet 0/0
Clear "show interface" counters on this interface [confirm] y
Router#
*Sep 30 08:42:55: %CLEAR-5-COUNTERS: Clear counter on interface fastEthernet0/0
by vty1 (171.69.115.10)
Router#
The clear counters command (without any arguments) clears all the current interface counters from all
interfaces.
Note
The clear counters command does not clear counters retrieved with SNMP; it clears only those counters
displayed with the EXEC show interfaces command.
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5
Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET
After configuring the interfaces and verifying connectivity as described in Chapter 4, “Configuring the
Interfaces,” you will need to configure each interface with the appropriate protocol.
This chapter provides the following major sections to describe Radio Aware Routing (RAR) for use in a
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET):
•
Introduction to RAR, page 5-1
•
MANET Protocols, page 5-2
•
Understanding Virtual Templates, page 5-3
•
Configuring QoS, page 5-3
Introduction to RAR
The Radio Aware Routing (RAR) (Figure 5-1) strategy relies on a hierarchy of routing interfaces. At the
top-most level is the Virtual Multipoint Interface, or VMI. The VMI provides a single, unified
representation of the MANET to routing protocols (OSPFv3 or EIGRP), and to the rest of the attached
topology.
For traffic originating outside the MANET, the VMI represents the ingress and egress point to and from
the MANET. As traffic comes into the router, destined for the MANET, the router passes the traffic to
the VMI interface. The VMI, in turn, fans the traffic out (based on destination) to the correct
Virtual-Access interface, where QoS policy can be applied to queue the traffic based on the radio
characteristics of the next hop. After applying (potentially different) QoS parameters on the
Virtual-Access interfaces, the Virtual-Access interface funnels the traffic to the physical interface for
transmission to the radio device.
The Virtual-Access interfaces are logically “underneath” the VMI interface. Each Virtual-Access
interface represents a “destination” which is either a routing next-hop, or a multicast group. The QoS
logic and associated queues on the Virtual-Access interfaces facilitate the fine-grained QoS. The
Virtual-Access interface that exists for each next-hop or group gives the ability to vary QoS behavior on
a hop-by-hop (or group-by-group) basis.
At the bottom of the interface hierarchy is the actual physical interface connecting the router and radio.
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MANET Protocols
Figure 5-1
RAR Interface Hierarchy
EIGRP
or
OSPFv3
Virtual Multipoint Interface
(VMI)
Virtual-Access
Interface
Virtual-Access
Interface
Virtual-Access
Interface
Virtual-Access
Interface
QoS applied at this level
320012
Physical Interface
(e.g. Fast Ethernet)
MANET Protocols
The protocols described in this guide support Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). MANET-routing
protocols provide signaling among MANET routers, including scope-limited flooding and point-to-point
delivery of MANET routing protocol signaling in a multi-hop network. Packets may be unicast or
multicast and use any appropriate transport protocol.
The RAR protocols supported Cisco IOS Release 15.2(1) GC provide the capabilities listed in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1
RAR Protocols
Router-to-Radio Control
Protocol (R2CP)
Dynamic Link Exchange
Protocol (DLEP)
Feature
RFC 5578
Point-to-Point Protocol over UDP
Ethernet (PPPoE)
UDP
Transport
Packet Transport
Point-to-Point
Point to Multipoint
Broadcast
Multi-access
Broadcast
Multi-access
Flow Control
Credit or Rate-based
Rate-based
Rate-based
Convergence Events
Yes
Yes
Yes
Defined in RFC 5578
Same metrics as RFC 5578, Same metrics as RFC 5578,
draft-dubois-r2cp-00
draft-ietf-manet-dlep-00
Split-stack
PPPoE to router
UDP to router
Transparent bridge on data
path
UDP to router
Transparent bridge on data
path
Informational
Informational (submitted,
not yet approved)
Standards-track (submitted,
not yet approved)
Metrics
Modem Support
RFC Status
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Understanding Virtual Templates
Table 5-1
RAR Protocols (continued)
Feature
RFC 5578
Router-to-Radio Control
Protocol (R2CP)
Supports Modem Multiple
Hops from Router
No, PPPoE discovery is
broadcast
No, TTL=1 on control plane Yes
messages
Available for client only
Available for both client and Available for both client and
server
server
Chapter 8, “Configuring
PPPoE”
Chapter 7, “Configuring
R2CP”
Open Source
See Chapter
Dynamic Link Exchange
Protocol (DLEP)
Chapter 6, “Understanding
and Configuring DLEP”
Table 5-2 lists the routing protocols that support RAR and MANET:
Table 5-2
Routing Protocols that Support RAR and MANET
Routing Protocol
See Chapter
Open Shortest Path First, Version 3 (OSPFv3)
Chapter 9, “OSPFv3 Address Families”
Chapter 10, “Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET”
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(EIGRP)
Chapter 11, “Configuring EIGRP in a MANET”
Understanding Virtual Templates
Each RAR protocol requires a virtual template. The virtual template is used to create Virtual-Access
interfaces. All Virtual-Access interfaces inherit the attributes of the virtual template. When configuring
each RAR protocol, you will assign a virtual-template number. To configure virtual templates for each
RAR protocol, see the chapter in this manual on the specific protocol.
Configuring QoS
When using RAR, QoS is applied at the Virtual-Access interfaces. Defining and enforcing QoS profiles
is configured on a next-hop basis. Traffic prioritization to one peer system should not impact traffic
prioritization to other peers.
Configuring Quality of Service (QoS) varies per protocol:
•
MQC—For RFC 5578, DLEP, and R2CP, Modular QoS CLI (MQC) configurations are supported.
Full MQC configurations include remarking, shaping, and policing.
•
CDR-based QoS—For DLEP and R2CP, QoS configuration is based entirely on Current Data Rate
(CDR) shaping.
For more information about CDR-based QoS configurations, see CDR-based QoS, page 5-4.
QoS Configuration Types
Configuring Quality of Service (QoS) can follow one of various approaches:
•
CDR-based QoS, page 5-4
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Configuring QoS
•
Standard IOS QoS, page 5-4
CDR-based QoS
The only QoS configuration required for DLEP or R2CP is the shaping definition. When DLEP or R2CP
detects a new neighbor, a set of metrics is exchanged from radio to router. These metrics include a
Current Data Rate (CDR) value. When configuring rate-based shaping, the router shapes the traffic
destined for each neighbor based on its CDR rate.
Reporting CDR Values
When using rate-based shaping, the parent policy includes a percent value for the shaping command.
This allows the radio to report a different CDR value and the shaping to adapt to the new value on the
router. While you can use a static bandwidth on the shaping command, it may not represent the link
properly, resulting in traffic that can queue unpredictably.
Traffic Queues
Traffic queues are based on the child policy-map while the parent policy-map shapes the traffic. Most of
the configuration is a normal hierarchical configuration.
For more information on normal hierarchical configuration, go to the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/qos/configuration/guide/qos_mqc_ps6441_TSD_Products_
Configuration_Guide_Chapter.html
Standard IOS QoS
Standard QoS configuration requires the following:
1.
Traffic Class Configuration, page 5-4
2.
Policy Map Configuration, page 5-4
3.
Policy Assignment, page 5-5
For general information on configuring QoS, go to the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/qos/configuration/guide/qos_mqc.pdf
Traffic Class Configuration
You must configure traffic classes for QoS. Traffic classes contain a traffic class name, a match
command, and instructions on how to evaluate match commands. Once configured, you can assign the
QoS policy to the Virtual-Access interface.
For information on how to configure classes, refer to the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/qos/configuration/guide/qos_mqc.ps6441_TSD_Products_
Configuration_Guide_Chapter.html#wp1058823
Policy Map Configuration
You must configure policy maps for QoS. After configuring policies, you can attach the policies to a
Virtual-Access interface.
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Configuring QoS
For information on how to configure policies, refer to the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/qos/configuration/guide/qos_mqc.ps6441_TSD_Products_
Configuration_Guide_Chapter.html#wp1059601
Policy Assignment
After configuring traffic classes and policy maps, you can assign policies to the virtual interface. You
assign policies to the Virtual-Access interface to apply QoS shaping to the previously created virtual
template. Policies are applied to every peer that the RAR protocol creates.
For information on how to assign policies to the virtual template, refer to the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/qos/configuration/guide/qos_mqc.ps6441_TSD_Products_Confi
guration_Guide_Chapter.html#wp105970
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Configuring QoS
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6
Understanding and Configuring DLEP
After configuring the interfaces and verifying connectivity as described in Chapter 4, “Configuring the
Interfaces,” the next step is to configure the protocols for those interfaces. The Dynamic Link Exchange
Protocol (DLEP) is a radio aware routing (RAR) protocol.
Prerequisite Reading
Read the following chapters before selecting the appropriate protocol per each interface configured in
Chapter 4, “Configuring the Interfaces,”:
•
Note
Chapter 5, “Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET”
See Appendix A, “Command Reference” for detailed command reference.
Configuring DLEP
This chapter provides the following major sections for initiating, verifying, and managing all aspects of
Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) on an interface:
•
Configuring the Physical Interface, page 6-1
•
Disabling Virtual Template Subinterfaces, page 6-3
•
Creating the Virtual Template, page 6-3
•
Configuring the VMI, page 6-4
•
Verifying DLEP Configuration, page 6-6
•
Technical Support for DLEP, page 6-8
Configuring the Physical Interface
In addition to configuring a description, IP address, and other interface characteristics, you must specify
that the physical interface use a virtual template which is the source for all of the DLEP Virtual-Access
interfaces.
To configure the virtual template for an interface, perform the following procedure. For completeness
sake, this procedure shows ....
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Configuring DLEP
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
intereface FastEthernet0/1
4.
description description
5.
ip address A.B.C.D a.b.c.d
6.
no ip proxy-arp
7.
ip dlep vtemplate number
8.
duplex auto
9.
speed auto
10. ipv6 enable
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface fastethernetnumber
Enters infterface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastethernet0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
description description
Example:
Router(config-if)#description DLEP RADIO
CONNECTION
Step 5
Specifies a description for the interface.
In this example, the description is DLEP RADIO
CONNECTION.
ip address A.B.C.D a.b.c.d
Specifies the IP address and subnet mask for the physical
interface.
Example:
In this example, the IP address is set to10.10.10.4 and the
subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
Router(config-if)#ip address 10.10.10.4
255.255.255.0
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Configuring DLEP
Step 6
Command or Action
Purpose
no ip proxy-arp
Prevents the interface from responding to ARP requests for
other routers on the interface.
Example:
This command is required for DLEP.
Router(config-if)#no ip proxy-arp
Step 7
ip dlep vtemplate number port number
Example:
Router(config-if)#ip dlep vtemplate number 13
Initiates DLEP on the interface by setting the virtual-access
template number and optional port number. The valid values
for the templates range from 1 to 4096.
The valid values for the port number range from 1 to 65534.
If you do not specify a port number, Port number 55555 is
used be default.
Step 8
duplex auto
Configures the interface to automatically set up duplexing.
Step 9
speed auto
Configures the interface to automaticaly negotiate with the
corresponding interface and set the communication speed.
Step 10
ipv6 enable
Enables IPv6 on the interface.
Step 11
exit
Exits the current mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Disabling Virtual Template Subinterfaces
By default, Cisco IOS configures virtual-access interfaces as subinterfaces, You must enter the no
virtual-template subinterface command so that the virtual access interfaces are not configured as
sub-interfaces.
Creating the Virtual Template
Perform this task to create the DLEP virtual template:
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
intereface virtualtemplate number
4.
ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/1
5.
exit
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Configuring DLEP
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface virtualtemplate number
Example:
Router(config)# interface virtualtemplate 13
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/1
Creates a virtual template for DLEP.
This example creates virtual template 13.
Specifies the physical interface where the VMI retrieves the
IP address for the physical interface.
Example:
Router(config-if)#ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/1
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the VMI
The VMI is the upper level in the RAR environment that communicates with the routing protocols. It is
important to set the IP address to unnumbered and to the physical interface so that the VMI knows where
to get the IP address for each virtual-access interface.
It is equally important to set the phyical interface correctly, so that DLEP knows where to insert the
packets for delivery.
To configure the VMI, perform the following procedure:
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
intereface vmi number
4.
ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/1
5.
physical-interface Fast-Ethernet0/1
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Configuring DLEP
6.
ipv6 enable
7.
ospfv3 1 network manet
8.
ospfv3 1 area0
9.
ospfv3 2 network manet
10. ospfv3 2 area 0 ipv4
11. exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface vmi number
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/1
Creates a VMI and enters interface configuration mode.
This example creates VMI1.
Specifies the physical interface where the VMI retrieves the
IP address for the physical interface.
Example:
Router(config-if)#ip unnumbered FastEthernet0/1
Step 5
physical-interface FastEthernet0/1
Specifies where the Virtual-Access interface inserts packets
for delivery.
Example:
Router(config-if)#physical-interface
FastEthernet0/1
Step 6
ipv6 enble
Enables IPv6 on the VMI
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Configuring DLEP
Command or Action
Purpose
Step 7
Configure the routing protocols for your network. These
commands will vary depending on the routing protocol for
the network.
Example:
Router(config-if)#ospfv3
Router(config-if)#ospfv3
Router(config-if)#ospfv3
Router(config-if)#ospfv3
Step 8
1 network manet
1 area 0
2 network manet
area 0 ipv4
This example configures ospfv3 as the routing protocol
using manet as the network type, and uses address families
for IPv4 addressing.
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring Optional Timers
DLEP has several optional timers that you can configure. Cisco recommends that you use the defaults
settings for these timers. These commands are documented in the Appendix A, “Command Reference.”
•
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold count, page A-16
•
ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout seconds, page A-17
•
ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout seconds, page A-18
•
ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout seconds, page A-19
Verifying DLEP Configuration
The following examples show how to verify DLEP configuration on the router interface:
Note
•
Displaying Information for DLEP Clients, page 6-7
•
Displaying DLEP Router Configuration, page 6-7
•
Displaying Neighbors on a DLEP Interface, page 6-7
You can display general information per the following examples:
•
For DLEP clients:
Router> show dlep clients ?
FastEthernet FastEthernet IEEE 802.3
Vlan
Vlan IEEE 802.1q
|
Output modifiers
<cr>
•
For the DLEP server configuration:
Router> show dlep config ?
FastEthernet FastEthernet IEEE 802.3
Vlan
Vlan IEEE 802.1q
|
Output modifiers
<cr>
•
For DLEP neighbors:
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Configuring DLEP
Router> show dlep neighbors ?
FastEthernet FastEthernet IEEE 802.3
Vlan
Vlan IEEE 802.1q
|
Output modifiers
<cr>
Displaying Information for DLEP Clients
This example shows how to display router-to-radio peer associations on DLEP interfaces.
Router> show dlep clients
DLEP Clients for all interfaces:
DLEP Clients for Interface FastEthernet0/1
DLEP Server IP=12.12.12.101:55555 Sock=1
DLEP Client IP=12.12.12.7:38681
Peer ID=1, Virtual template=13
Description: DLEP_Radio_Sim_1
Peer Timers (all values in seconds):
Heartbeat=10, Dead Interval=40, Terminate ACK=10
Neighbor Timers (all values in seconds):
Activity timeout=0, Neighbor Down ACK=10
Displaying DLEP Router Configuration
This example shows how to display configuration details for the DLEP server configuration:
Router> show dlep config
DLEP Configuration for FastEthernet0/1.5
DLEP Server IP=10.10.5.4:55555
Virtual template=13
Missed heartbeat threshold=4, Peer Terminate ACK timeout=10
Neighbor activity timeout=0, Neighbor Down ACK timeout=10
Displaying Neighbors on a DLEP Interface
This example shows how to display information about established neighbor sessions on DLEP
interfaces.
Router> show dlep neighbors
DLEP Neighbors for Interface FastEthernet0/1
DLEP Server IP=12.12.12.101:55555 Sock=1
SID=2150 MAC_Address=1122.3344.5566
Addresses:
No Layer 3 addresses are specified.
Metrics: rlq=100 resources=100 latency=250 milliseconds
cdr=100000000 bps mdr=100000000 bps
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Technical Support for DLEP
Technical Support for DLEP
Contact your Cisco Support engineer for any troubleshooting support you may need. The following
information is available for your reference:
Caution
•
Debug Commands, page A-1
•
Default Settings for DLEP, page B-1
We do not recommend that you change the default DLEP configuration unless a Cisco Support engineer
instructs you to do so.
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7
Configuring R2CP
After configuring the interfaces and verifying connectivity as described in Chapter 4, “Configuring the
Interfaces,” the next step is configuring the protocols for those interfaces.
Prerequisite Reading
Read the following chapters before selecting the appropriate protocol per interface:
•
Note
Chapter 5, “Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET”
See Appendix A, “Command Reference” for detailed command reference.
R2CP Configuration
This chapter provides the following major sections for initiating, verifying, and managing all aspects of
R2CP on an interface:
•
Configuring R2CP on the Router, page 7-1
•
Verifying R2CP Configuration, page 7-10
Configuring R2CP on the Router
When configuring R2CP on the router you must perform the following tasks:
•
Configuring the Heartbeat Threshold, page 7-2
•
Configuring the Node Terminate ACK Threshold, page 7-3
•
Configuring the Node Terminate ACK Timeout, page 7-4
•
Configuring the Port Number for the Server, page 7-5
•
Configuring the Session Activity Timeout, page 7-6
•
Configuring the Session Terminate ACK Threshold, page 7-7
•
Configuring the Session Terminate ACK Timeout, page 7-8
•
Configuring the Virtual Access Template Number, page 7-9
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Configuring R2CP on the Router
Note
You must perform all tasks to properly configure R2CP on the router.
Configuring the Heartbeat Threshold
Perform this task to configure the heartbeat threshold on the router. The heartbeat threshold determines
the number of heartbeats allowed by R2CP before declaring a failed association.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold count
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
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Step 4
Command or Action
Purpose
ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold count
Sets the heartbeat-threshold. The heartbeat-threshold
ranges between 2 and 8.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold
3
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Node Terminate ACK Threshold
Perform this task to configure the node terminate acknowledgement (ACK) threshold. You configure the
node terminate acknowledgement threshold to set the number of missed and/or lost node
acknowledgements performed before declaring the terminate effort complete.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold value
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
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Step 3
Command or Action
Purpose
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold value
Sets the node terminate acknowledgement (ACK) threshold.
The node-terminate ACK threshold ranges between 1 and 5.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp
node-terminate-ack-threshold 2
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Node Terminate ACK Timeout
Perform this task to configure the node terminate acknowledgement timeout. You configure the node
terminate acknowledgement timeout to set the duration allowed when waiting for the node terminate
acknowledgement.
Note
The duration of the node terminate acknowledgement timeout is set in milliseconds.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
5.
exit
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DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
Example:
Sets the node terminate acknowledgement timeout. The
node-terminate ACK timeout ranges between 100 and 5000
milliseconds.
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp
node-terminate-ack-timeout 2200
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Port Number for the Server
Perform this task to configure the port number for the server. You configure the port number for the
server to set the port number on which the server listens.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp port number
5.
exit
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DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp port number
Sets the port number on which the server listens. The port
number ranges between 1 and 65534.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp port 5858
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Session Activity Timeout
Perform this task to configure the session activity timeout. You configure the session activity timeout to
set a guard timer duration in order to catch stale sessions. The session activity timeout terminates when
the timer expires.
Note
The duration of the session activity timeout is set in seconds.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp session-activity-timeout seconds
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5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp session-activity-timeout seconds
Sets the session activity timeout. The session activity guard
timer ranges between 0 and 4 seconds.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp
session-activity-timeout 2
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Session Terminate ACK Threshold
Perform this task to configure the session terminate acknowledgement threshold. You configure the
session terminate acknowledgement threshold to set the number of missed and/or lost session
acknowledgements allowed before declaring the terminate effort complete.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold value
5.
exit
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DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold value
Example:
Sets the threshold of missed session-terminate
acknowledgements (ACKs). The session-terminate ACK
threshold ranges between 1 and 5 sessions.
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp
session-terminate-ack-threshold 4
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Session Terminate ACK Timeout
Perform this task to configure the session terminate acknowledgement timeout. You configure the
session terminate acknowledgement timeout to set the time duration allowed when waiting for the
session terminate acknowledgement.
Note
The duration of the node terminate acknowledgement timeout is set in milliseconds.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
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4.
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout
milliseconds
Sets the session-terminate ACK guard timer duration. The
session-terminate ACK timeout ranges between 100 and
5000 milliseconds.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp
session-terminate-ack-timeout 2400
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Configuring the Virtual Access Template Number
Perform this task to configure the virtual access template number. You configure the virtual access
template number to determine which virtual template to use when creating the virtual access interface.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
ip r2cp virtual-template number
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5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
interface [type slot/port]
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface fastEthernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip r2cp virtual-template number
Sets the virtual access template number. The virtual access
template number ranges between 0 and 21474883647.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp virtual-template 224
Router(config-if)#
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Verifying R2CP Configuration
The following procedures are available for verifying the R2CP configuration on the router:
Note
•
Displaying Radio Clients on an R2CP Interface, page 7-11
•
Displaying R2CP Router Configuration, page 7-12
•
Displaying Neighbors on an R2CP Interface, page 7-12
You can show general details related to Fast Ethernet, VLAN, and output modifiers for all R2CP clients.
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Example
General R2CP Client Details
The following example shows how to display general radio client details:
Router> show r2cp clients ?
FastEthernet FastEthernet IEEE 802.3
Vlan
Vlan IEEE 802.1q
|
Output modifiers
<cr>
Displaying Radio Clients on an R2CP Interface
You show radio clients to exchange metric information with the radio for either all radio clients on all
interfaces or for one radio client on a specific interface.
Examples
All Radio Clients on all Interfaces
The following example shows how to display all radio clients on all interfaces:
Router> show r2cp clients
R2CP Clients for all interfaces:
R2CP Clients for Interface FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
R2CP Client ID=1 IP=12.12.12.7:5500
node heartbeat missed count=0
node heartbeat interval=5 seconds
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack missed count=0
node terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=3
session activity timeout=1 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=3
No Virtual Template defined.
One Radio Client on a Specific Interface
The following example shows how to display one radio client on a specific interface:
Router> show r2cp fastEthernet 0/1
r2cp clients fastEthernet 0/1
R2CP Clients for Interface FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
R2CP Client ID=1 IP=12.12.12.7:5500
node heartbeat missed count=0
node heartbeat interval=5 seconds
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack missed count=0
node terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=3
session activity timeout=1 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=3
No Virtual Template defined.
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Displaying R2CP Router Configuration
You can display router configuration information details for the R2CP interface. These configuration
details include the following components:
•
Heartbeat threshold
•
Node-terminate acknowledgement (ACK) threshold
•
Node-terminate ACK timeout
•
Port number
•
Session-activity timeout
•
Session-terminate ACK threshold
•
Session-terminate ACK timeout
•
Virtual-access template number
Example
Displaying R2CP Router Configuration
The following example shows how to display configuration details for the R2CP interface:
Router> show r2cp config
R2CP Configuration from FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack timeout=2200 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=2
session activity timeout=3 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=5
virtual template=220
Displaying Neighbors on an R2CP Interface
You show neighbors on an R2CP interface to display information about the neighbors with which the
radio can talk from a Layer 3, next-hop perspective. Show R2CP neighbors allows you to get metric data
associated with a next-hop, so you can better understand the paths that the traffic is taking.
Example
Displaying Two Radio Neighbors/Sessions
This example shows how to displaya configuration that includes two radio neighbors/sessions:
Router> show r2cp neighbors
R2CP Neighbors for all interfaces:
R2CP Neighbors for Interface FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
Global Session ID=101
MAC Address: 1122.3344.5566
Vlan ID: 0
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Metrics:
rlq=100 resources=100 latency=10 milliseconds
cdr=100000 Kbps mdr=100000 Kbps
Global Session ID=102
MAC Address: 2222.3344.5566
Vlan ID: 0
Metrics: rlq=100 resources=100 latency=10 milliseconds
cdr=100000 Kbps mdr=100000 Kbps
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8
Configuring PPPoE
After configuring the interfaces and verifying connectivity as described in Chapter 4, “Configuring the
Interfaces,” the next step is configuring the protocols.
Prerequisite Reading
Read the following chapter before selecting a RAR protocol:
•
Note
Chapter 5, “Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET”
You can use only one RAR protocol per interface.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
PPPoE in a MANET, page 8-1
•
VMI in a MANET, page 8-2
•
PPPoE and VMI, page 8-6
•
Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI, page 8-7
•
Showing VMI Neighbors, page 8-18
PPPoE in a MANET
The Cisco MANET solution employs PPPoE sessions to enable intra-nodal communications between a
router and its partner radio. Each radio initiates the PPPoE session as soon as the radio establishes a radio
link to another radio. After the PPPoE sessions are active, a PPP session is established end-to-end
(router-to-router.) This is duplicated each time a radio establishes a new radio link. VMI on the router
can aggregate multiple PPPoE sessions and multiplex them to look like a single interface to the routing
processes. Underneath VMI are virtual access interfaces that are associated with each of the PPP/PPPoE
connections.
If you are running multicast applications that require the virtual-access interfaces to be exposed to
applications above L2 directly, you can configure VMI to operate in bypass mode. Most multicast
applications require that the virtual-access interfaces be exposed directly to the routing protocols to
ensure that multicast Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) can operate as expected. When you use the bypass
mode, you must define a VMI to handle presentation of cross-layer signals such as neighbor up, neighbor
down, and metrics. Applications are aware of the actual underlying virtual-access interfaces and send
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packets to the underlying virtual-access interfaces directly. Additional information is required on the
virtual template configuration. Operating VMI in bypass mode can cause databases in the applications
to be larger than would normally be expected because knowledge of more interfaces is required for
normal operation.
A PPPoE session is established between a router and a radio on behalf of every other router/radio
neighbor located in the MANET. These L2 sessions are the means by which radio network status gets
reported to the Layer 3 (L3) processes in the router. Figure 8-1 illustrates the PPPoE session exchange
between mobile routers and directional radios in a MANET.
Figure 8-1
Router
PPPoE Session Exchange Between Mobile Routers and Directional Radios
Mobile radio
Mobile radio
PPPoE
RF
Router
PPPoE
PPP LCP Config
170455
PPP IPCP Exchange (MAC/IP Addr)
PPP Data Session
This capability requires that an RFC-5578 compliant radio be connected to a router using Ethernet. The
router always considers the Ethernet link to be up. If the radio side of the link goes down, the router waits
until a routing update time-out occurs to declare that the route is down and then updates the routing table.
Figure 8-2 illustrates a simple router-to-radio link topology. The routing protocols optimized for VMI
PPPoE are EIGRP (IPv4, IPv6) and OSPFv3 (IPv4, IPv6).
Figure 8-2
Router-to-Radio Link
Radio
Radio link
Router
Ethernet
Radio
Router
170454
Ethernet
VMI in a MANET
VMI provides services that map outgoing packets to the appropriate PPPoE sessions based on the
next-hop forwarding address for that packet. VMI also provides a broadcast service that emulates a set
of point-to-point connections as a point-to-multipoint interface with broadcast ability. When a packet
with a multicast address is forwarded through VMI in aggregate mode, VMI replicates the packet and
sends it using the virtual-access interface(s) to each of its neighbors.
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Directional radios are frequently used in applications that require greater bandwidth, increased
power-to-transmission range, or reduced probability of detection. These radios operate in a
point-to-point mode, and generally have no broadcast capability. On the other hand, the routing
processes in Cisco’s MANET solution operate most efficiently when viewing the network link as
point-to-multipoint, with broadcast capability. For the router, modeling the MANET as a collection of
point-to-point nodes has a dramatic impact on the size of its internal database.
VMI within the router can aggregate all of the per-neighbor PPPoE sessions from the Radio Ethernet
connection. VMI maps the sessions to appear to L3 routing protocols and applications as a single
point-to-multipoint, multi-access, broadcast-capable network. However, VMI preserves the integrity of
the PPPoE sessions on the radio side, so that each point-to-point connection can have its own Quality of
Service (QoS) queue.
VMI also relays the link quality metric and neighbor up/down signaling from the radio to the routing
protocols. Currently, VMI signals are used by Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
(for IPv4 and IPv6 neighbors) and OSPFv3 (for IPv6 neighbors).
Link-Quality Metrics
The quality of a radio link has a direct impact on the throughput. The PPPoE protocol has been extended
to provide a process by which a router can request report link quality metric information. Cisco’s
OSFPv3 and EIGRP implementations are enhanced so that the route cost to a neighbor is dynamically
updated based on metrics reported by the radio, thus allowing the best route to be chosen within a given
set of radio links.
The routing protocols receive raw radio link data, and compute a composite quality metric for each link.
In computing these metrics, the router may consider the following factors:
•
Maximum Data Rate—the theoretical maximum data rate of the radio link, in scaled bits per second
•
Current Data Rate—the current data rate achieved on the link, in scaled bits per second
•
Latency—the transmission delay packets encounter, in milliseconds
•
Resources—a percentage (0-100) that can represent the remaining amount of a resource (such as
battery power)
•
Relative Link Quality—a numeric value (0-100) representing relative quality, with 100 being the
highest quality
On the router, metrics can be weighted during the configuration process to emphasize or de-emphasize
particular characteristics. For example, if throughput is a particular concern, you can weight the
throughput metric so that it is factored more heavily into the composite route cost. Similarly, a metric of
no concern can be omitted from the composite calculation.
Link metrics can change rapidly, often by very small degrees, which could result in a flood of
meaningless routing updates. In a worst case scenario, the network churns almost continuously as it
struggles to react to minor variations in link quality. To alleviate this concern, Cisco provides a tunable
dampening mechanism that allows the user to configure threshold values. Any metric change that falls
below the threshold is ignored.The quality of a connection to a neighbor varies, based on various
characteristics of the interface when OSPFv3 or EIGRP is used as the routing protocol. The routing
protocol receives dynamic raw radio link characteristics and computes a composite metric that is used
to reduce the effect of frequent routing changes.
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A tunable hysteresis mechanism allows you to adjust the threshold to the routing changes that occur
when the router receives a signal that a new peer has been discovered, or that an existing peer is
unreachable. The tunable metric is weighted and adjusted dynamically to account for the following
characteristics:
•
Current and Maximum Bandwidth
•
Latency
•
Resources
•
Relative Link Quality (RLQ)
Individual weights can be deconfigured and all weights can be cleared so that the cost returns to the
default value for the interface type. Based on the routing changes that occur, cost can be determined by
the application of these metrics.
Neighbor Signaling
MANETs are highly dynamic environments. Nodes may move into, or out of, radio range at a fast pace.
Each time a node joins or leaves the network, topology must be logically reconstructed by the routers.
Routing protocols normally use timer-driven “hello” messages or neighbor time-outs to track topology
changes, but MANETs reliance on these mechanisms can result in unacceptably slow convergence.
Neighbor up/down signaling capability provides faster network convergence by using link-status signals
generated by the radio. The radio notifies the router each time a link to another neighbor is established
or terminated by the creation and termination of PPPoE sessions. In the router, the routing protocols
(OSPFv3 or EIGRP) respond immediately to these signals by expediting the formation of a new
adjacency (for a new neighbor) or tearing down an existing adjacency (if a neighbor is lost). For example,
if a vehicle drives behind a building and loses its connection, the router immediately senses the loss and
establishes a new route to the vehicle through neighbors that are not blocked. This high speed network
convergence is essential for minimizing dropped voice calls and disruptions to video sessions.
When VMI with PPPoE is used and a partner node has left or a new one has joined, the radio informs
the router immediately of the topology change. Upon receiving the signal, the router immediately
declares the change and updates the routing tables.
The signaling capability provides the following benefits:
•
Reduces routing delays and prevents applications from timing out
•
Enables network-based applications and information to be delivered reliably and quickly over
directional radio links
•
Provides faster convergence and optimal route selection so that delay-sensitive traffic such as voice
and video are not disrupted
•
Reduces impact on radio equipment by minimizing the need for internal queuing/buffering
•
Provides consistent Quality of Service (QoS) for networks with multiple radios
The messaging allows for flexible rerouting when necessary because of the following conditions:
•
Noise on the Radio links
•
Fading of the Radio links
•
Congestion of the Radio links
•
Radio link power fade
•
Utilization of the Radio
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Figure 8-3 illustrates the signaling sequence that occurs when radio links go up and down.
Figure 8-3
Up and Down Signaling Sequence
Radio
Radio link is up
Radio
link is up
Router
Ethernet link is up
VMI
Ethernet
Radio
Ethernet
Router
VMI
170452
Radio link is up
Ethernet link is up
PPPoE Credit-based Flow Control
Each radio initiates a PPPoE session with its local router as soon as the radio establishes a link to another
radio. Once the PPPoE sessions are active for each node, a PPP session is then established end-to-end
(router-to-router). This process is duplicated each time a radio establishes a new link.
The carrying capacity of each radio link may vary due to location changes or environmental conditions,
and many radio transmission systems have limited buffering capabilities. To minimize the need for
packet queuing in the radio, Cisco has implemented extensions to the PPPoE protocol that enable the
router to control traffic buffering in congestion situations. Implementing flow-control on these
router-to-radio sessions also allows the use of fair queuing.
The flow control solution utilizes a credit-granting mechanism documented in RFC 5578. When the
PPPoE session is established, the radio can request a flow-controlled session. If the router acknowledges
the request, all subsequent traffic must be flow-controlled. If a flow control session has been requested
and cannot be supported by the router, the session is terminated. Typically, both the radio and the router
initially grant credits during session discovery. Once a device exhausts its credits, it must stop sending
until additional credits have been granted. Credits can be added incrementally over the course of a
session.
High performance radios that require high-speed links use metrics scaling. The radio can express the
maximum and current data rates with different scaler values. Credit scaling allows a radio to change the
default credit grant (or scaling factor) of 64 bytes to its default value. You can view the maximum and
current data rates and the scalar value set by the radio from the output of the show vmi neighbor detail
command.
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
Cross-layer feedback for router-radio integration radio aware routing takes advantage of the functions
defined in RFC 5578. RFC 5578 is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard that defines
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) extensions for Ethernet-based communications between
a router and a device such as a mobile radio that operates in a variable-bandwidth environment and has
limited buffering capabilities. These extensions provide a PPPoE session based mechanism for sharing
radio network status such as link-quality metrics and establishing flow control between a router and an
RFC 5578-capable radio.
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PPPoE and VMI
An RFC 5578 radio initiates an L2 PPPoE session with its adjacent router on behalf of every router and
radio neighbor discovered in the network. These L2 sessions are the means by which radio network
status for each neighbor link is reported to the router. The radio establishes correspondence between each
PPPoE session and each link to a neighbor.
PPPoE and VMI
To use the PPPoE and Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI) features described in this document, a radio
device that implements the PPPoE functionality described in the RFC 2516 and RFC 5578 is required.
OSPF enhancements are not tied to the PPPoE/VMI implementations, and as such do not require such
radio devices.
VMI provides services that map outgoing packets to the appropriate PPPoE sessions based on the
next-hop forwarding address for that packet. VMI also provides a broadcast service that emulates a set
of point-to-point connections as a point-to-multipoint interface with broadcast ability. When a packet
with a multicast address is forwarded through VMI in aggregate mode, VMI replicates the packet and
sends it using the virtual-access interface(s) to each of its neighbors.
Note
VMI operates in aggregate mode by default. This release supports VMI in aggregate mode and also in
bypass mode.
Directional radios are frequently used in applications that require greater bandwidth, increased
power-to-transmission range, or reduced probability of detection. These radios operate in a
point-to-point mode, and generally have no broadcast capability.
Conversely, the routing processes in the Cisco MANET solution operate most efficiently when viewing
the network link as point-to-multipoint with broadcast capability. For the router, modeling the MANET
as a collection of point-to-point nodes has a dramatic impact on the size of its internal database.
VMI within the router can aggregate all of the per-neighbor PPPoE sessions from the radio Ethernet
connection. VMI maps the sessions to appear to L3 routing protocols and applications as a single
point-to-multipoint, multi-access, broadcast-capable network. However, VMI preserves the integrity of
the PPPoE sessions on the radio side, so that each point-to-point connection can have its own Quality of
Service (QoS) queue.
VMI also relays the link-quality metric and neighbor up/down signaling from the radio to the routing
protocols. Currently, VMI signals are used by Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
(for IPv4 and IPv6 neighbors) and OSPFv3 (for IPv6 neighbors).
Continuing with PPPoE Configuration
This chapter provides the following major sections to describe how to configure Point-to-Point Protocol
over Ethernet (PPPoE) on a specific interface.
Note
•
Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI, page 8-7
•
Showing VMI Neighbors, page 8-18
See Appendix A, “Command Reference” for detailed command reference.
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Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI
This section provides the tasks required to configure PPPoE for use with Virtual Multipoint Interface
(VMI):
•
Creating a Subscriber Profile, page 8-7
•
Configuring PPPoE Service Selection, page 8-8
•
Configuring PPPoE on an Ethernet Interface, page 8-9
•
Configuring a Virtual Template Interface, page 8-10
•
Mapping Outgoing Packets, page 8-12
•
Configuring Multicast Support, page 8-14
Creating a Subscriber Profile
Perform this task to configure a subscriber profile for PPPoE service selection.
Note
Configuring a subscriber profile for PPPoE service selection is required for VMI to function properly.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
exit
4.
subscriber authorization enable
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
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Step 3
Command or Action
Purpose
exit
Returns to global configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config-sss-profile)# exit
Step 4
subscriber authorization enable
Enable Subscriber Service Switch type authorization. This
command is required when VPDN is not used.
Example:
Router# subscriber authorization enable
Configuring PPPoE Service Selection
Perform this task to associate the subscriber profile with a PPPoE profile. In this configuration, the
Broadband Access (BBA) group name must match the subscriber profile name defined in the subscriber
profile.
Note
In this example, manet_radio serves as the subscriber profile name.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
bba-group pppoe {group-name | global}
4.
virtual-template template-number
5.
service profile subscriber-profile-name [refresh minutes]
6.
end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
bba-group pppoe {group-name | global}
Defines a PPPoE profile and enters BBA group
configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# bba-group pppoe pppoe_group_1
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Step 4
Command or Action
Purpose
virtual-template template-number
Specifies the virtual template required for cloning
virtual-access interfaces. All PPPoE ports using this PPPoE
profile will use this virtual template.
Example:
Router(config-bba-group)# virtual-template 1
Step 5
service profile subscriber-profile-name
[refresh minutes]
Assigns a subscriber profile to a PPPoE profile.
•
Example:
The PPPoE server will advertise the service names that
are listed in the subscriber profile to each PPPoE client
connection that uses the configured PPPoE profile.
Router(config-bba-group)# service profile
subscriber_1
Step 6
(Optional) Returns to privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-bba-group)# end
Configuring PPPoE on an Ethernet Interface
Perform this task to assign a PPPoE profile to an Ethernet interface.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type slot/port]
4.
pppoe enable [group group-name]
5.
end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
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Step 3
Command or Action
Purpose
interface [type slot/port]
Specifies an interface type and enters interface
configuration mode. Valid interfaces include the following
interface types:
Example:
•
Fast Ethernet interface
•
Ethernet
•
Fast Ethernet
•
Gigabit Ethernet
•
VLAN or VLAN subinterface
Router(config)# interface fastethernet 1/0
Step 4
pppoe enable [group group-name]
Enables PPPoE sessions on the interface or subinterface.
Example:
Router(config-if)# pppoe enable group
pppoe_group_1
Step 5
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and returns to
privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Configuring a Virtual Template Interface
Perform this task to configure a virtual-template interface. The virtual-template interface is required to
clone configurations. For each VMI neighbor, a new virtual-access interface will be created dynamically.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
no virtual-template subinterface
4.
policy-map policy-map-name
5.
class class-default
6.
fair-queue
7.
exit
8.
interface virtual-template 1
9.
ip unnumbered vmi1
10. service-policy output FQ
11. keepalive 60 20
12. end
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Detailed Steps
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
no virtual template subinterface
Disables the virtual template on the subinterface.
Example:
Router# no virtual template subinterface
Step 4
policy-map policy-map-name
Example:
Enters policy map configuration mode and creates, or
modifies, a policy map that can be attached to one or more
interfaces to specify a service policy.
Router(config-pmap)# policy-map FQ
Step 5
class class-default
Specifies one of the following:
•
Class Name for the policy you are about to create or
change
•
Default Class (also known as a Class-default Class) for
general policy configuration
Example:
Router(config-pmap)# class class-default
Step 6
fair-queue
Enables Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ) in the policy-map.
Example:
Router(config-pmap)# fair-queue
Step 7
exit
Exits the current mode and returns to configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config-pmap)# exit
Router(config)#
Step 8
interface virtual-template number
Creates a virtual-template interface for configuration and
dynamic application to virtual-access interfaces.
Example:
Router(config)# interface virtual-template 1
Step 9
ip unnumbered interface-type interface-number
Enables IP processing of IPv4 on the interface without
assigning an explicit IP address.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip unnumbered vmi1
Step 10
service-policy output policy-map-name
Example:
Attaches a policy map to an input interface, Virtual Circuit
(VC), or output interface. This policy map will serve as the
service policy for that interface or VC.
Router(config-if)# service-policy output FQ
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Step 11
Command or Action
Purpose
keepalive [[keepalive-period]
[keepalive-retries]]
Enables a keepalive period of 60 seconds with 20 retries.
Example:
Router(config-if)# keepalive 60 20
Step 12
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and returns to
privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Example Configuration
no virtual-template subinterface
!
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered vmi1
keepalive 60 20
service-policy output FQ
!end
Mapping Outgoing Packets
Perform this task so that VMI can map outgoing packets to the appropriate PPPoE sessions. VMI will
use the next-hop forwarding address from each outgoing packet perform this mapping.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface vmi interface-number
4.
ip address ip_addr subnet_mask
5.
physical-interface interface-type/slot
6.
end
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Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI
Detailed Steps
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface vmi number
Creates a VMI interface.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Step 4
ip address ip_addr isubnet_mask
Specifies the IP address and subnet mask for the VMMI
interface.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.2.2.1
255.255.255.0
Step 5
physical-interface interface-type/slot
Creates the physical subinterface to be associated with VMI
on the router.
Example:
Router(config-if)# physical-interface fa0/0
Step 6
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and returns to
privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Examples
The following examples show the IP address coordination needed between virtual-template
configuration and VMI configuration.
VMI in Aggregate Mode for IPv6
The following example shows the configuration of VMI in aggregate mode for IPv6.
interface Virtual-Template1
ipv6 enable
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ipv6 enable
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
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Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI
VMI in Aggregate Mode for IPv4
The following example shows the configuration of VMI in aggregate mode for IPv4.
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered vmi1
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
VMI in Aggregate Mode for IPv4 and IPv6
The following example shows the configuration of VMI in aggregate mode for IPv4 and IPv6.
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered vmi1
ipv6 enable
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
Configuring Multicast Support
This section identifies the recommended modes and tasks for working with multicast:
•
Using Aggregate Mode, page 8-14
•
Using Bypass Mode, page 8-16
•
Enabling Multicast Support on a VMI, page 8-16
Using Aggregate Mode
VMI operates in aggregate mode by default. All of the virtual-access interfaces created by PPPoE
sessions are aggregated logically under the configured VMI. Applications above Layer 2 (L2), such as
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) and OSPFv3, should be defined only on VMI.
Packets sent to VMI are forwarded to the correct virtual-access interface(s). Aggregate mode VMIs
operate in Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) mode. Multicast traffic is forwarded only to the
NBMA neighbors where a listener for that group is present. This is the preferred mode when operating
in PIM sparse mode.
Note
NBMA multicasting only supports IPv4 and sparse mode.
Perform this task to configure interface vmi1 to operate in NBMA mode and PIM sparse mode:
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface vmi interface-number
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Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI
4.
ip address ip_addr subnet_mask
5.
ip pim nbma-mode
6.
ip pim sparse-mode
7.
load-interval number
8.
physical-interface interface-type/slot
9.
end
Detailed Steps
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface vmi number
Creates a VMI interface.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Step 4
ip address ip_addr isubnet_mask
Specifies the IP address and subnet mask for the VMMI
interface.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip address 10.2.2.2
255.255.255.0
This example sets the IP address to 10.2.2.2 and the subnet
mask to 255.255.255.0
Step 5
ip pim nbma-mode
Enables NBMA mode.
Step 6
ip pim sparse-mode
Enables sparse mode.
Note
Step 7
load interval seconds
Example:
Router(config-if)#load-interval 30
You must set this to sparse mode.
Specifies the load interval in seconds.
This example sets the load interval to 30 seconds.
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Step 8
Command or Action
Purpose
physical-interface interface-type/slot
Creates the physical subinterface to be associated with VMI
on the router.
Example:
Router(config-if)# physical-interface fa0/0
Step 9
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and returns to
privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Using Bypass Mode
Using bypass mode is recommended for multicast applications.
In bypass mode, the virtual-access interfaces are directly exposed to applications running above L2. In
bypass mode, you must still define a VMI because VMI continues to manage presentation of cross-layer
signals, such as, neighbor up, neighbor down, and metrics. However, applications will still be aware of
the actual underlying virtual-access interfaces and send packets to them directly.
Using bypass mode can cause databases in the applications to be larger because knowledge of more
interfaces are required for normal operation.
If you are running multicast applications that require virtual-access interfaces to be exposed to
applications above L2 directly, you can configure VMI to operate in bypass mode. Most multicast
applications require that the virtual-access interfaces be exposed directly to routing protocols in order
for the multicast Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) to operate as expected. When you use the bypass mode,
you must define a VMI to handle cross-layer signals such as neighbor up, neighbor down, and metrics.
Applications will be aware of the actual underlying virtual-access interfaces, and will send packets to
them directly. Operating VMI in bypass mode can cause databases in the applications to be larger than
normally expected because knowledge of more interfaces is required for normal operation.
Enabling Multicast Support on a VMI
Perform this task to enable bypass mode on a VMI and override the default aggregation that occurs on
VMI. This configuration assumes that you have already configured a virtual template and appropriate
PPPoE sessions for VMI.
After you enter the enable bypass mode, Cisco recommends that you copy the running configuration to
Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) because the default mode of operation for VMI is to
logically aggregate the virtual-access interfaces.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface vmi number
4.
mode bypass
5.
exit
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Configuring PPPoE
Configuring PPPoE for use with VMI
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface vmi number
Enters interface configuration mode and relates a VMI
interface.
Example:
Router(config-if)# interface vmi1
Step 4
Overrides the default aggregation on the VMI interface and
sets the mode to bypass to support multicast traffic on the
interface.
mode bypass
Example:
Router(config-if)# mode bypass
Step 5
Exits the current mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
Examples
Note
VMI is required to have IP addresses assigned for VMI to work even though it will be shown as
down/down while in bypass mode.
VMI in Bypass Mode for IPv6
The following example shows the configuration of VMI in bypass mode for IPv6.
interface Virtual-Template1
ipv6 enable
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ipv6 enable
mode bypass
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
VMI in Bypass Mode for IPv4
The following example shows the configuration of VMI in bypass mode for IPv4.
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Showing VMI Neighbors
Note
The IPv4 address configured on VMI will not be advertised or used. Instead, the IPv4 address
on the virtual-template will be used.
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
mode bypass
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
VMI in Bypass Mode for IPv4 and IPv6
The following example shows the configuration of VMI in bypass mode for IPV4 and IPv6.
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 2.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
mode bypass
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
Showing VMI Neighbors
To display information about neighbor connections to VMI, use the show vmi neighbors command in
User EXEC mode.
The following example shows how to display neighbors created dynamically on a VMI:
Router# show vmi neighbors vmi1
1 vmi1 Neighbors
Interface
vmi1
Router#
IPV6
Address
::
IPV4
Address
10.3.3.2
Uptime
00:02:11
Transmit
Packets
0000000008
Receive
Packets
0000000073
Example
The following example shows the details about known VMI neighbors.
Router# show vmi neighbors detail
1 vmi1 Neighbors


vmi1
IPV6 Address=FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:C00
IPV4 Address=12.12.12.2, Uptime=00:12:19
Output pkts=0, Input pkts=0
METRIC DATA: Total rcvd=3, Avg arrival rate (ms)=234952
CURRENT: MDR=2048000, CDR=1024000, Lat=70, Res=100, RLQ=95, load=1
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MDR
Max=10240000, Min=2048000, Avg=4795050
CDR
Max=10240000, Min=1024000, Avg=4104192
Latency Max=1000, Min=70, Avg=380
Resource Max=100, Min=100, Avg=100
RLQ
Max=100, Min=95, Avg=96
Load
Max=1, Min=1, Avg=1
Transport PPPoE, Session ID=1
INTERFACE STATS: 
VMI Interface=vmi1, 
Input qcount=0, drops=0, Output qcount=0, drops=0
V-Access intf=Virtual-Access2, 
Input qcount=0, drops=0, Output qcount=0, drops=0
Physical intf=Ethernet0/0, 
Input qcount=0, drops=0, Output qcount=0, drops=0

PPPoE Flow Control Stats
Local Credits: 65296
Peer Credits: 65196 
Credit Grant Threshold: 28000
Max Credits per grant: 65534 
PADG Seq Num: 696
PADG Timer index: 0 
PADG last rcvd Seq Num: 697 
PADG last nonzero Seq Num: 0 
PADG last nonzero rcvd amount: 0
PADG Timers:
[0]-1000
[1]-2000
[2]-3000
[3]-4000 
PADG xmit: 698 rcvd: 698
PADC xmit: 698 rcvd: 698
PADQ xmit: 0 rcvd: 2
Router#
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Showing VMI Neighbors
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CH A P T E R
9
OSPFv3 Address Families
This chapter describes how to use OSPFv3 address families to route IPv6 packets over OSPFv3—using
IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. This chapter also describes how to configure and use OSPFv3 address families
in conjunction with Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANETs) and Radio Aware Routing (RAR).
This chapter includes the following major sections:
•
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families, page 9-1
•
Working with Multiple Address Families, page 9-11
•
Redistributing IPv4 Routes, page 9-12
•
Verifying OSPFv3 Address Families Configuration and Operation, page 9-14
OSPFv3 is defined to support IPv6 unicast prefixes. The Internet draft, Support of Address Families in
OSPFv3 (IETF RFC 5838), extends OSPFv3 to support multiple address families. Cisco IOS
implemented this extension, which allows IPv4 unicast addresses to be supported.
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
This section describes how to configure OSPFv3 Address Families for IPv6 and IPv4.
The Cisco OSPFv3 Address Families feature implements RFC 5838 and enables the ability to
concurrently route IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes. The Cisco OSPFv3 Address Families feature is turned on in
conjunction with the OSPFv3 MANET feature, which supports routing of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and
prefixes in mobile environments.
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families is similar to configuring traditional IPv6 OSPFv3—the main
difference being parameter usage in the CLI configuration commands. When configuring OSPFv3
Address Families, the new parameter ospfv3 replaces the deprecated ipv6 ospf parameter.
Note
See Appendix A, “Command Reference” for complete command reference information.
Working with IPv6 and OSPFv3 involves the following tasks:
1.
Enabling IPv6, page 9-2
2.
Enabling IPv6 on the Interface, page 9-3
3.
Configuring OSPFv3 for a Unicast Address Family, page 9-3
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Enabling IPv6
This task explains how to enable IPv6 routing, which is disabled by default.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
ipv6 unicast-routing
4.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
ipv6 unicast-routing
Enables the forwarding of IPv6 unicast datagrams.
Example:
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Step 4
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config)# exit
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Enabling IPv6 on the Interface
This task explains how to enable IPv6 on an interface. This is a prerequisite to configuring OSPFv3 on
the interface. IPv6 is disabled on the interface by default.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ipv6 enable
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Specifies an interface type and number and places the router
in interface-configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
Step 4
Enables IPv6 processing on an interface that has not been
configured with an explicit IPv6 address.
ipv6 enable
Example:
Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable
Step 5
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Configuring OSPFv3 for a Unicast Address Family
Perform one of the following tasks:
•
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv6 Unicast Address Family, page 9-4
•
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv4 Unicast Address Family, page 9-7
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv6 Unicast Address Family
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv6 unicast address family involves the following tasks:
•
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv6 Address Family Instance on the Interface, page 9-4
•
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv6 Address Family Process, page 9-6
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv6 Address Family Instance on the Interface
This task explains how to enable IPv6 packet forwarding and IPv6 routing. By default, both are disabled.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ospfv3 [process-id] area [area-id] ipv6 [instance instance-id]
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Configures an interface type.
Example:
Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0
Step 4
ospfv3 [process-id] area [area-id] ipv6
[instance instance-id]
Attaches the OSPFv3 process to an interface.
Process ID: Valid range is 1 to 65535.
Example:
Step 5
Instance ID: 0 (Default value)
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv6
The valid range is 0 to 31.
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
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Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Example
The following is a configuration example:
version 15.1
!
hostname Router1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
no aaa new-model
ip cef
!
ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Ethernet0/0
ipv6 enable
ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv6
!
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
!
ip forward-protocol nd
!
no ip http server
!
router ospfv3 6
router-id 6.6.6.6
log-adjacency-changes
address-family ipv6 unicast
exit-address-family
!
control-plane
!
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv6 Address Family Process
This task explains how to enable an OSPFv3 routing process and configure the address family.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
router ospfv3 [process-id]
4.
router-id [OSPFv3 router-id in IP address format]
5.
address-family ipv6 unicast
6.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
router ospfv3 [process-id]
Example:
Enables an OSPFv3 routing process to route IPv6
address-family traffic in IPv6 networks and enters router
configuration mode.
Router (config)# router ospfv3 6
Step 4
router-id [OSPFV3 router-id in IP address
format]
Identifies a specific router rather than allowing the dynamic
assignment of the router ID to occur.
Example:
Router (config-rtr)# Router-id 10.1.1.1
Step 5
address-family ipv6 unicast
Places the router in address family configuration mode for
IPv6 address family.
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# address-family ipv6 unicast
Step 6
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router (config-router-af)# exit
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv4 Unicast Address Family
Configuring an IPv4 unicast address family involves the following tasks:
1.
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv4 Address Family Instance on the Interface, page 9-7
2.
Configuring an IPv4 Address on the Interface, page 9-9
3.
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv4 Address Family Process, page 9-10
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv4 Address Family Instance on the Interface
This task explains how to enable IPv4 packet forwarding and IPv4 routing. By default, both are disabled.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ospfv3 [process-id] area [area-id] ipv4 [instance instance-id]
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Specifies the interface type and number and places the
router in interface-configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0
Step 4
ospfv3 [process-id] area [area-id] ipv4
[instance instance-id]
Configures the OSPFv3 process ID. The valid range is 1 to
65535.
Optional—Instance ID: 64 (Default value)
Example:
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 4 area 0 ipv4
Step 5
exit
The valid range is 64 to 95.
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
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Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Example
The following is a configuration example:
version 15.1
!
hostname Router1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
no aaa new-model
ip cef
!
ipv6 unicast-routing
!
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 64.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
ospfv3 4 area 0 ipv4
!
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
!
ip forward-protocol nd
!
no ip http server
!
router ospfv3 4
router-id 4.4.4.4
log-adjacency-changes
address-family ipv4 unicast
exit-address-family
!
control-plane
!
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring an IPv4 Address on the Interface
This task configures an IPv4 address on the interface. You can assign a primary IP address for a network
interface.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ip address [ip address] [net mask]
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Specifies an interface type and number and places the router
in interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
Step 4
ip address [ip address] [net mask]
Assigns an IPv4 address to the interface.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip address 64.1.1.1
255.255.255.0
Step 5
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
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Configuring OSPFv3 Address Families
Configuring the OSPFv3 IPv4 Address Family Process
This task explains how to enable an OSPFv3 routing process and configure the address family.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
router ospfv3 [process-id]
4.
router-id [OSPFv3 router-id in IP address format]
5.
address-family ipv4 unicast
6.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
router ospfv3 [process-id]
Example:
Enables an OSPFv3 routing process to route IPv4
address-family traffic in IPv6 networks and enters router
configuration mode.
Router (config)# router ospfv3 4
Step 4
router-id [OSPFv3 router-id in IP address
format]
Identifies a specific router rather than allowing the dynamic
assignment of the router ID to occur.
Example:
Router (config-rtr)# Router-id 10.1.1.1
Step 5
address-family ipv4 unicast
Places the router in address family configuration mode for
IPv4 address family.
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# address-family ipv4 unicast
Step 6
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router (config-router-af)# exit
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Chapter 9
OSPFv3 Address Families
Working with Multiple Address Families
Working with Multiple Address Families
You can run Address Families OSPFv3 for IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously on one interface.
Note
To configure OSPFv3 for IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously—with MANET and RAR features included, use
tasks from this chapter and Chapter 10, “Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET” The following example
shows how to do this.
Example
version 15.1
!
hostname Router1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
no aaa new-model
!
ip cef
ipv6 unicast-routing
!
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile Dargo7
pppoe service manet_radio
!
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
no virtual-template subinterface
!
bba-group pppoe Group1
virtual-template 1
service profile Dargo7
!
interface Ethernet0/0
no ip address
pppoe enable group Group1
!
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Virtual-Template1
no ip address
ipv6 enable
no peer default ip address
no keepalive
!
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Redistributing IPv4 Routes
interface vmi1
ip address 64.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
ospfv3 6 network manet
ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv6
ospfv3 4 network manet
ospfv3 4 area 0 ipv4
physical-interface Ethernet0/0
!
ip forward-protocol nd
!
router ospfv3 4
router-id 4.4.4.4
log-adjacency-changes
address-family ipv4 unicast
exit-address-family
!
router ospfv3 6
router-id 6.6.6.6
log-adjacency-changes
address-family ipv6 unicast
exit-address-family
!
control-plane
!
line con 0
exec-timeout 0 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end
Redistributing IPv4 Routes
Should you need to redistribute IPv4 routes between OSPFv3 Address Families and OSPFv2, be aware
of common issues when redistributing IPv4 routes between OSPF processes as documented here:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_white_paper09186a0080531fd2.shtml
Example:
The following example shows how to redistribute IPv4 routes from OSPFv2 process 22 into OSPFv3
Address Families process 4:
Router (config)#router ospfv3 4
Router (config-router)#router-id 4.4.4.4
Router (config-router)#address-family ipv4 unicast
Router (config-router-af)#redistribute ?
bgp
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
connected Connected
eigrp
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
isis
ISO IS-IS
iso-igrp
IGRP for OSI networks
lisp
Locator ID Separation Protocol (LISP)
mobile
Mobile routes
odr
On Demand stub Routes
ospf
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
ospfv3
OSPFv3
rip
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
static
Static routes
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Redistributing IPv4 Routes
Router (config-router-af)#redistribute ospf ?
<1-65535> Process ID
Router (config-router-af)#redistribute ospf 22 ?
match
Redistribution of OSPF routes
metric
Metric for redistributed routes
metric-type OSPF/IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes
route-map
Route map reference
tag
Set tag for routes redistributed into OSPF
vrf
VPN Routing/Forwarding Instance
<cr>
Router (config-router-af)#redistribute ospf 22
Example:
The following example shows how to redistribute IPv4 routes from OSPFv3 Address Families process 4
into OSPFv2 process 22:
Router (config)#router ospf 22
Router (config-router)#redistribute ?
bgp
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
connected
Connected
eigrp
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
isis
ISO IS-IS
iso-igrp
IGRP for OSI networks
lisp
Locator ID Separation Protocol (LISP)
maximum-prefix Maximum number of prefixes redistributed to protocol
mobile
Mobile routes
odr
On Demand stub Routes
ospf
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
ospfv3
OSPFv3
rip
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
static
Static routes
Router (config-router)#redistribute ospfv3 ?
<1-65535> Process ID
Router (config-router)#redistribute ospfv3 4 ?
match
Redistribution of OSPF routes
metric
Metric for redistributed routes
metric-type OSPF/IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes
nssa-only
Limit redistributed routes to NSSA areas
route-map
Route map reference
subnets
Consider subnets for redistribution into OSPF
tag
Set tag for routes redistributed into OSPF
<cr>
Router (config-router)#redistribute ospfv3 4 subnets ?
match
Redistribution of OSPF routes
metric
Metric for redistributed routes
metric-type OSPF/IS-IS exterior metric type for redistributed routes
nssa-only
Limit redistributed routes to NSSA areas
route-map
Route map reference
tag
Set tag for routes redistributed into OSPF
<cr>
Router (config-router)#redistribute ospfv3 4 subnets
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OSPFv3 Address Families
Verifying OSPFv3 Address Families Configuration and Operation
Verifying OSPFv3 Address Families Configuration and Operation
You can use any combination of the commands listed in this section to check the operation status of
OSPFv3 for Address Families.
Note
You must be in privileged EXEC mode to enter the command listed in this section.
Command or Action
Purpose
show run
Verify a configuration.
Example:
Router# show run
Displays general information about all OSPFv3 routing
processes.
show ospfv3
Example:
Router# show ospfv3
Displays OSPFv3 neighbor information per routing
process.
show ospfv3 neighbor
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor
show ospfv3 neighbor detail
Displays a detailed list of all neighbors.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor detail
show ospfv3 interface
[interface-type
interface-number]
Displays all OSPFv3 routing information for an interface.
Example:
show ospfv3 interface e0/0
The show ospfv3 command can be used to show general information about the OSPFv3 Address Family
router process.
Router# show ospfv3
Routing Process "ospfv3 4" with ID 4.4.4.4
Supports IPv4 Address Family
Event-log enabled, Maximum number of events: 1000, Mode: cyclic
Initial SPF schedule delay 1000 msecs
Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 2000 msecs
Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 2000 msecs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs
Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Graceful restart helper support enabled
Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
Relay willingness value is 128
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Verifying OSPFv3 Address Families Configuration and Operation
Pushback timer value is 2000 msecs
Relay acknowledgement timer value is 1000 msecs
LSA cache Disabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
ACK cache Disabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
Selective Peering is not enabled
Hello requests and responses will be sent multicast
Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 0 times
Number of LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
Number of DCbitless LSA 0
Number of indication LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
Flood list length 0
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor
OSPFv3 Router with ID (4.4.4.4) (Process ID 4)
Neighbor ID
2.2.2.2
Pri
0
State
FULL/
-
Dead Time
00:00:19
Interface ID
3
Interface
Ethernet0/0
Router# show ospfv3 interface e0/0
Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Link Local Address FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:5500, Interface ID 3
Area 0, Process ID 100, Instance ID 0, Router ID 4.4.4.4
Network Type MANET, Cost: 10 (dynamic), Cost Hysteresis: Disabled
Cost Weights: Throughput 100, Resources 100, Latency 100, L2-factor 100
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT
Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 00:00:01
Graceful restart helper support enabled
Index 1/1/1, flood queue length 0
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Incremental Hello is enabled
Local SCS number 1
Relaying enabled
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Verifying OSPFv3 Address Families Configuration and Operation
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CH A P T E R
10
Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
This chapter provides the following major sections for configuring OSPFv3 in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network
(MANET):
•
OSPFv3 for MANET, page 10-1
•
Initial Configuration Procedures, page 10-2
•
Radio Aware Routing in a MANET, page 10-8
•
Selective Peering for Efficiency, page 10-11
•
Verifying OSPFv3 MANET Configuration and Operation, page 10-18
OSPFv3 for MANET
Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET has similar requirements to many traditional OSPFv3
configurations. The primary difference is to configure the network type of OSPFv3 as a MANET. To
optimize the use of OSPFv3 with MANETs, Cisco IOS implements extensions to OSPFv3 as defined in
IETF RFC 5820. The result is a well-understood routing protocol designed for a constantly changing
network topology constrained by limited bandwidth.
This is accomplished in several ways:
•
Radio Aware Routing (RAR): Provides tight coupling of OSPFv3 with cooperative radios (fast
convergence and re-convergence through neighbor-presence indicators). Determines accurate,
real-time, link-metric costs.
•
Incremental Hello: Minimizes OSPFv3 packet size.
•
Caching Multicast Link-State Advertisements (LSAs): Minimizes OSPFv3 packet transmissions.
•
Optimized Flooding (Overlapping Relay): Minimizes the number of flooded LSAs.
•
Selective Peering: Reduces OSPFv3 network overhead by limiting redundant full-peering
adjacencies.
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Chapter 10
Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Initial Configuration Procedures
Cooperative Radios
While non-cooperative radios are supported, OSPFv3 in a MANET operates best when used with
cooperative radios, which is a configuration requiring Virtual Multipoint Interfaces (VMIs). See
Chapter 5, “Introduction to Radio Aware Routing and MANET” for detailed information.
Note
This document defines a Cooperative radio as a radio containing the firmware and software required to
support RAR-based flows.
Initial Configuration Procedures
Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET begins with the following tasks:
1.
Enabling IPv6 Routing, page 10-2
2.
Enabling IPv6 on the Interface, page 10-3
3.
Configuring the OSPFv3 Process, page 10-4
4.
Configuring the Interface for OSPFv3 MANETs, page 10-5
Enabling IPv6 Routing
This task enables IPv6 packet forwarding and IPv6 routing, both disabled by default.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
ipv6 unicast-routing
4.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
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Initial Configuration Procedures
Step 3
Command or Action
Purpose
ipv6 unicast-routing
Enables the forwarding of IPv6 unicast datagrams.
Example:
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Step 4
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config)# exit
Enabling IPv6 on the Interface
This task enables IPv6 on an interface—a prerequisite to configuring OSPFv3 on the interface. IPv6 is
disabled by default.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ipv6 enable
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Specifies an interface type and number and places the router
in interface configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
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Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Initial Configuration Procedures
Step 4
Command or Action
Purpose
ipv6 enable
Enables IPv6 processing on an interface that has not been
configured with an explicit IPv6 address.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable
Step 5
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Configuring the OSPFv3 Process
This task configures the OSPFv3 process for IPv6 or IPv4.
Note
The commands in this task indicate IPv6. If you want to configure the OSPFv3 process for IPv4 instead,
see the detailed steps for examples.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
router ospfv3 [process-id]
4.
router-id [OSPFv3 router-id in IP address format]
5.
address-family ipv6 unicast
6.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
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Initial Configuration Procedures
Step 3
Command or Action
Purpose
router ospfv3 [process-id]
Enables OSPFv3 for IPv6 router configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# router ospfv3 6
Example for IPv4:
Router(config)# router ospfv3 4
Step 4
router-id [OSPFv3 router-id in IP address
format]
Enables the use of a fixed router ID.
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# router-id 10.1.1.1
Step 5
address-family ipv6 unicast
Enables the address family for IPv6.
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# address-family ipv6 unicast
Example for IPv4:
Router(config-rtr)# address-family ipv4 unicast
Step 6
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# exit
Configuring the Interface for OSPFv3 MANETs
This configures the OSPFv3 process for IPv6 or IPv4.
Note
The commands in this task indicate IPv6. If you want to configure the OSPFv3 process for IPv4 instead,
see the detailed steps for examples.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ospfv3 [process-id] area area-id ipv6 [instance instance-id]
5.
ospfv3 [process-id] network manet
6.
exit
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Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Initial Configuration Procedures
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Configures an interface type.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Step 4
ospfv3 [process-id] area area-id ipv6 [instance
instance-id]
Example:
Attaches the OSPFv3 process to an interface.
Note
The instance number defaults to 0 for ipv6.
(Router-if)# ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv6
Example for IPv4:
(Router-if)# ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv4
Step 5
ospfv3 [process-id] network manet
Configures the OSPFv3 network type to MANET.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 6 network manet
Example for IPv4:
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 4 network manet
Step 6
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
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Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Initial Configuration Procedures
EXAMPLE
version 15.1
!
hostname Router1
!
...
<output truncated>
...
interface Ethernet0/0
no ip address
ipv6 enable
ospfv3 6 network manet
ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv6
!
interface Ethernet0/1
ip address 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.0
ipv6 enable
ospfv3 4 network manet
ospfv3 4 area 0 ipv4
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
!
ip forward-protocol nd
!
no ip http server
!
router ospfv3 6
router-id 1.1.1.1
address-family ipv6 unicast
log-adjacency-changes
!
router ospfv3 4
router-id 4.4.4.4
address-family ipv4 unicast
log-adjacency-changes
...
<output truncated>
...
end
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Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Radio Aware Routing in a MANET
Radio Aware Routing in a MANET
This section describes how to configure OSPFv3 in MANETs for Radio Aware Routing (RAR).
Prerequisites
All radios in OSPFv3 for MANET must be cooperative radios attached to a Virtual Multipoint Interface
(VMI).
Before performing the tasks in this section, you must configure OSPFv3 for MANETs on a VMI as
described in Chapter 5, “Configuring Virtual Multipoint Interfaces”.
Link Metrics
Cooperative radios in the MANET report link-quality metrics, which can include the following
information:
•
Maximum Data Rate—the theoretical maximum data rate of the radio link, in bytes per second
•
Current Data Rate—the current data rate achieved on the link, in bytes per second
•
Latency—the transmission delay packets encounter, in milliseconds
•
Resources—a percentage (0-100) that can represent the remaining amount of a resource (such as
battery power)
•
Relative Link Quality—a numeric value (0-100) representing relative quality, with 100 being the
highest quality
Fine-Tuning RAR Configurations
You can fine-tune RAR configurations within a MANET by converting the link metrics to OSPFv3 link
costs and configuring a hysteresis threshold. Configuring a hysteresis threshold on the resultant link
costs helps minimize the propagation of LSAs responding to link-metric changes.
Metrics can be weighted during the configuration process to emphasize or de-emphasize particular
characteristics. For example, if throughput is highly important, the metric for Current Data Rate (CDR)
could be weighted more heavily into the composite metric. Similarly, a metric that is of no concern can
be omitted.
Link metrics can change rapidly, often by very small degrees, which can result in a flood of meaningless
routing updates. In a worst case scenario, the network will churn almost continuously as it struggles to
react to minor variations in link quality. To alleviate this concern, Cisco provides a tunable dampening
mechanism that allows the user to configure threshold values. Any metric change that falls below the
threshold is ignored.
A tunable hysteresis mechanism allows users to adjust the threshold to the routing changes that occur
when the router receives a signal that a new peer has been discovered, or that an existing peer is
unreachable. The tunable metric is weighted and is adjusted dynamically to account for the following
characteristics:
•
Current and Maximum Bandwidth
•
Latency
•
Resources
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Configuring OSPFv3 for a MANET
Radio Aware Routing in a MANET
•
Hysteresis
Individual weights can be deconfigured and all weights cleared so that the cost is set back to the default
value for the interface type. Based on the routing changes that occur, cost can be determined by the
application of these metrics.
The dynamic cost metric used for interfaces is computed based on the Layer 2 (L2) feedback to Layer 3
(L3), where the metric calculations are as follows:
OC = maximum-data-rate
S1 = ospfv3 6 dynamic weight throughput (Bandwidth component)
S2 = ospfv3 6 dynamic weight resources (Resources component)
S3 = ospfv3 6 dynamic weight latency (Latency component)
S4 = ospfv3 6 dynamic weight L2 factor (L2 factor component)
Note
While the commands and output in this section reflect IPv6 configurations, all examples and commands
work for IPv4 as well.
Throughput = (current-data-rate)/(maximum-data-rate)
Router-dynamic cost = OC + (S1) + (S2) + (S3) + (S4)
For a dynamic cost to have the same cost as a default cost, all parameters must equal zero.
Each L2 feedback can contribute a cost in the range of 0 to 65535. To tune down this cost range, use the
optional weight keyword in conjunction with the throughput, resources, latency, or L2-factor
keyword. Each of these weights has a default value of 100 percent and can be configured in a range from
0 to 100. When 0 is configured for a specific weight, that weight does not contribute to the OSPFv3 cost.
Because cost components can change rapidly, you may need to dampen the amount of changes in order
to reduce network-wide churn. Use the optional hysteresis keyword with the threshold threshold-value
keyword and argument to set a cost change threshold. Any cost change below this threshold is ignored.
You can use the hysteresis keyword to specify a hysteresis value based on the percentage of change of
the currently stored value in the routing table for the peer.
Each time the router receives a new PADQ packet from the radio for a peer, a new cost will be calculated
for it. The hysteresis keyword specifies the amount of change required before saving the new value.
The hysteresis percent calculated is performed as follows:
If the absolute value of (new_cost - saved_cost) is greater than (hysteresis_percent*saved_cost), then the
new_cost will be saved.
Because cost components can change rapidly, it might be necessary to dampen the volume of changes to
reduce network-wide churn. The recommended values for S2, S3, and S4 are based on network
simulations that may reduce the rate of network changes. The recommended value for S1 is zero to
eliminate this variable from the route cost calculation.
While each network might have unique characteristics that require different settings to optimize actual
network performance, these are recommended values intended as a starting point for optimizing a
OSPFv3 network. Table 10-1 lists the recommended value settings for OSPFv3 cost metrics.
Table 10-1
Recommended Value Settings for OSPFv3 Cost Metrics
Setting Metric Description
Default Value Recommended Value
S1
ospfv3 6 dynamic weight throughout
100
0
S2
ospfv3 6 dynamic weight resources
100
29
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Radio Aware Routing in a MANET
Table 10-1
Recommended Value Settings for OSPFv3 Cost Metrics
Setting Metric Description
Default Value Recommended Value
S3
ospfv3 6 dynamic weight latency
100
29
S4
ospfv3 6 dynamic weight L2-factor
100
29
The overall link cost is computed using the following formula:
EXAMPLE
To illustrate these settings, the following example shows how OSPFv3 cost metrics can be defined for a
VMI interface with one type of radio:
interface vmi1
ospfv3 6 cost
ospfv3 6 cost
ospfv3 6 cost
ospfv3 6 cost
ospfv3 6 cost
dynamic
dynamic
dynamic
dynamic
dynamic
hysteresis percent 10
weight throughput 0
weight resources 29
weight latency 29
weight L2-factor 29
EXAMPLE
The following is an IPv6 example of configuration:
version 15.1
!
hostname Router1
!
boot-start-marker
boot-end-marker
!
no aaa new-model
!
ip cef
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile pppoe_group_1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
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Selective Peering for Efficiency
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
no virtual-template subinterface
!
bba-group pppoe pppoe_group_1
virtual-template 1
service profile pppoe_group_1
!
interface Ethernet0/0
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
!
interface Virtual-Template1
no ip address
ipv6 enable
no peer default ip address
no keepalive
!
interface vmi1
no ip address
ipv6 enable
ospfv3 6 network manet
ospfv3 6 area 0 ipv6
physical-interface Ethernet0/0
!
ip forward-protocol nd
!
router ospfv3 6
router-id 1.1.1.1
log-adjacency-changes
address-family ipv6 unicast
exit-address-family
...
<output truncated>
...
end
Selective Peering for Efficiency
Use selective peering to minimize network costs by minimizing each node’s redundant adjacencies. For
each OSPFv3 MANET node, you can restrict full-peering rights to the adjacent neighbors that enhance
reachability while remaining cost-effective. For each neighbor adjacency calculated to cause excessive
link costs, you can use selective peering to keep that neighbor in a 2-way state. This reduces the need
for control-plane bandwidth by reducing database exchanges and routing updates.
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Note
Selective peering does not reduce dataplane connectivity. User traffic will flow over 2-way links when
provided with the best path through the network.
Determining Peering Criteria
Upon discovery of each new neighbor within an OSPFv3 MANET node, selective peering determines
whether the forming of an adjacency is cost-effective:
•
Yes—Form the full-peering adjacency if the neighbor is not in the OSPFv3 link-state database or
reachable via the Shortest Path Tree (SPT).
•
No—Instead of forming a full-peering adjacency, maintain a 2-way state when the neighbor is in the
OSPFv3 link-state database, reachable, and configured with a redundant-path threshold.
Because dynamic topologies can cause a neighbor path redunancy level to fall below the configured
threshold, selective peering can change a neighbor 2-way state to full peering.
Link Costs
Selective peering includes link cost as a factor when determining adjacency formation. Ideally, only the
links having the lowest costs are granted full-peering adjacency. You can configure OSPFv3 link costs
manually, and with cooperative radio interfaces, link costs are obtained directly from the radios through
the VMI.
Working with selective peering involves the following tasks:
•
Enabling Selective Peering, page 10-12
•
Preventing Full Peering over Poor Links, page 10-14
•
Fine-Tuning Selective Peering, page 10-15
Enabling Selective Peering
This task explains how to enable OSPFv3 selective peering for IPv6 or IPv4.
Note
The commands in this task indicate IPv6. If you want to configure the OSPFv3 process for IPv4 instead,
see the detailed steps for examples.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
router ospfv3 [process-id]
4.
address-family ipv6 unicast
5.
manet peering selective [redundancy <level>] [per-interface]
6.
exit
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DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
router ospfv3 [process-id]
Creates OSPFv3 process.
Example:
Router (config)# router ospfv3 6
Example for IPv4:
Router(config)# router ospfv3 4
Step 4
address-family ipv6 unicast
Specifies that the OSPFv3 process supports the IPv6 unicast
address family.
Example:
Router (config)# address-family ipv6 unicast
Example for IPv4:
Router(config)# address-family ipv4 unicast
Step 5
manet peering selective [redundancy <level>]
[per-interface]
Enables selective peering for all MANET interfaces using
this router process.
Example:
Optional: Redundancy level configuration (valid range
0-10). Lower redundancy reduces OSPFv3 control-plane
overhead. Higher levels increase control-plane redundancy.
Router(config-rtr)# manet peering selective
redundancy 2
1—Default redundancy level (maintains two or more
paths—one primary and one redundant path) for each
one-hop OSPFv3 neighbor.
The per-interface option adjusts the scope of peer selection
to the interface level.
By default, the peer-selection scope is per-area and across
all MANET interfaces in a given area.
Step 6
exit
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# exit
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Preventing Full Peering over Poor Links
You can prevent full peering over poor links by performing this optional task, which configures the
following:
Note
•
Configure OSPFv3 to wait for link metrics before considering a neighbor for OSPFv3 peering. (A
cooperative radio may not advertise link metrics to the router before being discovered as a new
OSPFv3 neighbor.)
•
Configure OSPFv3 with a minimum metric threshold. If the radio-reported link metric is above this
threshold, the neighbor will be held in 2-way state.
The commands in this task indicate IPv6. If you want to configure the OSPFv3 process for IPv4 instead,
see the detailed steps for examples.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering link-metrics [<threshold>]
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface [type number]
Configures an interface type and enters interface
configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
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Step 4
Command or Action
Purpose
ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering link-metrics
[<threshold>]
Requires receipt of link metrics from each radio before
considering the new neighbor for selective peering. If the
threshold (0-65535) is specified, the resultant link cost must
be less than the threshold. Otherwise, the neighbor remains
in a 2-way state.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 6 manet peering
link-metrics 200
Step 5
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router to
privileged EXEC mode.
exit
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Fine-Tuning Selective Peering
This section describes how to optimize dynamic path costs by means of fine-tuning selective peering.
Given a scenario without fine-tuning, each one-hop neighbor is awarded full-peering capabilities upon
discovery, regardless of link cost:
•
Selective-peering redundancy level is greater than zero
•
Link metrics are good (as determined by the configuration settings established in the “Preventing
Full Peering over Poor Links” section on page 10-14)
As each additional neighbor is discovered, dynamic path costs are measurable immediately. To minimize
path costs dynamically, you can configure the higher-cost links to remain in 2-way states until other
peering opportunities become available.
Higher Costs without the Fine-Tuning
Consider the topology shown in Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1
Peering Costs
D
70
30
B
30
50
A
30
50
30
50
193401
C
Full
2-way
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Given the example shown in Figure 10-1, we have a static snapshot of a dynamic topology, beginning
from this point:
•
The redundancy level is set to 1 (the default value)—Router A attempts to maintain two paths for
each one-hop neighbor.
•
From the perspective of Router A, established neighbor sessions exist only with Routers B and C.
Router D will join later.
•
Router A has a full-peering relationship established with each of these known routers (B and C).
•
The link cost for each of these neighbor sessions has a value of 50.
•
At this point, only Router B has a link up to Router D—its peering relationship is full, and the link
cost has a value of 30.
Change is then introduced between Router A and Router D:
1.
Router D comes into radio range of Router A with a link cost of 70.
2.
Router A establishes a full-peering relationship with this new neighbor. (The number of paths from
Router A to Router D is currently 1 (through Router B).
The conclusion in this scenario (assigning full-peering capabilities between Routers A and D) is allowed
given the original condition specified—the selective-peering redundancy level being greater than zero.
Improved Cost-Effectiveness through Fine-Tuning
To prevent the kind of scenario described in the “Higher Costs without the Fine-Tuning” section on
page 10-15, you can fine-tune selective peering so that Routers A and D remain in a 2-way state until
the link cost improves or an additional router comes into range—one with better link costs available to
both routers (A and D).
Cost Thresholds for Redundant Paths
Setting a redundant-path cost threshold requires each redundant path to cost less than the existing, best
path cost by a minimum value. For example, if the best link cost is 80, and you set the threshold value
to 20, the new link cost must be less than 60 (80 minus 20).
Note
The incremental improvement can be an absolute value or percentage.
Given the topology from Figure 10-1, if you set the redundant-path cost threshold to 20, you can prevent
full peering between Routers A and D. This changes the outcome of our scenario, then, as follows:
Note
1.
Router D comes into radio range of Router A with a link cost of 70.
2.
Selective peering compares link costs:
•
80—Existing link cost between Routers A and D; the sum of link costs via Router B (50 + 30)
•
70—The additional link cost between Routers A and D, if full peering is granted
3.
The additional link cost (70) is incrementally better than the existing link cost (80) by a value of 10.
4.
The incremental improvement (10) does not meet the minimum threshold (20); therefore, Routers A
and D remain in the 2-way state.
The commands in this task indicate IPv6. If you want to configure the OSPFv3 process for IPv4 instead,
see the detailed steps for examples.
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SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface [type number]
4.
ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering cost {threshold <0-65535> | percent <0-100>}
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
Enters global configuration mode.
configure terminal
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
Configures an interface type.
interface [type number]
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Step 4
ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering cost {threshold
<0-65535> | percent <0-100>}
Example:
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 6 manet cost percent 10
Step 5
exit
Requires redundant paths to have an incrementally
better path cost than the current best path cost. The
incremental improvement can be specified either as an
absolute value (0-65535) or as a percentage (0-100) of
the current best path cost.
Exits global configuration mode and returns the router
to privileged EXEC mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
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Verifying OSPFv3 MANET Configuration and Operation
Verifying OSPFv3 MANET Configuration and Operation
You can use any combination of the commands listed in this section to check the operation status of
OSPFv3 MANET for IPv6 or IPv4. See Appendix A, “Command Reference” for detailed command
reference.
Note
You must be in privileged EXEC mode to enter the command listed in this section.
Command or Action
Purpose
show run
Verify a configuration.
Example:
Router# show run
show ospfv3 [process-id]
Displays general information about all OSPFv3 routing
processes.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 6
Example for IPv4:
Router# show ospfv3 4
show ospfv3 neighbor
Displays OSPFv3 neighbor information per routing
process.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor
show ospfv3 neighbor detail
Displays a detailed list of all neighbors.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor detail
show ospfv3 neighbor manet
Displays all neighbors in a MANET.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor manet
show ospfv3 [process-id] interface
[interface-type interface-number]
Displays information about OSPFv3 routing processes for
an interface.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 6 interface ethernet0/0
Example for IPv4:
Router# show ospfv3 4 interface ethernet0/0
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Verifying OSPFv3 MANET Configuration and Operation
EXAMPLES
The examples in this section show how you can use the show ospfv3 command to display general
information about the OSPFv3 router process.
Example:
Router# show ospfv3
Routing Process "ospfv3 6" with ID 1.1.1.1
Supports IPv6 Address Family
Event-log enabled, Maximum number of events: 1000, Mode: cyclic
Initial SPF schedule delay 1000 msecs
Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 2000 msecs
Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 2000 msecs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs
Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Graceful restart helper support enabled
Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
Relay willingness value is 128
Pushback timer value is 2000 msecs
Relay acknowledgement timer value is 1000 msecs
LSA cache Disabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
ACK cache Disabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
Selective Peering is not enabled
Hello requests and responses will be sent multicast
Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 0 times
Number of LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
Number of DCbitless LSA 0
Number of indication LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
Flood list length 0
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor
OSPFv3 Router with ID (1.1.1.1) (Process ID 6)
Neighbor ID
2.2.2.2
Pri
0
State
FULL/
Dead Time
00:00:19
-
Interface ID
3
Interface
Ethernet0/0
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor manet
OSPFv3 Router with ID (1.1.1.1) (Process ID 6)
Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive)
Codes: D - cost dynamic default, R - received link cost,
I - inherited from interface
Neighbor ID
2.2.2.2
State
FULL
Nbr Relay
-
10
Cost
(I)
Interface
Ethernet0/0
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Verifying OSPFv3 MANET Configuration and Operation
Example:
Router# show ospfv3 interface e0/0
Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Link Local Address FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:5500, Interface ID 3
Area 0, Process ID 100, Instance ID 0, Router ID 1.1.1.1
Network Type MANET, Cost: 10 (dynamic), Cost Hysteresis: Disabled
Cost Weights: Throughput 100, Resources 100, Latency 100, L2-factor 100
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT
Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 00:00:01
Graceful restart helper support enabled
Index 1/1/1, flood queue length 0
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Incremental Hello is enabled
Local SCS number 1
Relaying enabled
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11
Configuring EIGRP in a MANET
This chapter explains how to configure the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) in a
MANET.
This chapter includes the following major sections:
•
Understanding The Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol, page 11-1
•
Using EIGRP Cost Metrics for VMI Interfaces, page 11-2
•
Understanding VMI Metric to EIGRP Metric Conversion, page 11-4
•
Understanding EIGRP Metric Dampening for VMI, page 11-5
•
Understanding Neighbor Up/Down Signaling for EIGRP, page 11-6
•
Enabling EIGRP for IPv4, page 11-7
•
Activating EIGRP IPv4 on a Configured VMI, page 11-8
•
Enabling EIGRP for IPv6, page 11-9
•
Setting the EIGRP Metric Change-based Dampening for VMI, page 11-11
•
Setting the EIGRP Interval-based Metric Dampening for VMI, page 11-12
Understanding The Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol
The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) integrates the capabilities of link-state
protocols into distance vector protocols. EIGRP is distinguished from other routing protocols by the
following key capabilities:
•
Fast convergence
•
Supports variable-length subnet mask
•
Supports partial updates
•
Supports multiple network layer protocols
A router running EIGRP stores all of its neighbors' routing tables so that the router running EIGRP can
quickly adapt to alternate routes. If no appropriate route exists, EIGRP queries its neighbors to discover
an alternate route. These queries propagate until an alternate route is found.
EIGRP supports variable-length subnet masks permitting routes to be automatically summarized on a
network number boundary. EIGRP can be configured to summarize on any bit boundary at any interface.
EIGRP does not make periodic updates. EIGRP sends partial updates when the route metric changes.
Propagation of partial updates is automatically bounded, so only routers needing the information update.
EIGRP consumes significantly less bandwidth than the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP).
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Configuring EIGRP in a MANET
Using EIGRP Cost Metrics for VMI Interfaces
Using EIGRP Cost Metrics for VMI Interfaces
When using EIGRP as the routing protocol, metrics allow EIGRP to respond to routing changes. The
link-state metric is advertised as the link cost in the router link advertisement. The reply sent to any
routing query always contains the latest metric information. The following exceptions result in an
immediate update being sent:
•
A down interface
•
A down route
•
Any change in metrics that result in the router selecting a new next hop
EIGRP receives dynamic raw radio link characteristics and computes a composite EIGRP metric based
on a proprietary formula. To avoid churn in the network as a result of the change in the link
characteristics, EIGRP uses a tunable dampening mechanism.
EIGRP uses the metric weights along with a set of vector metrics to compute the composite metric for
local Routing Information Base (RIB) installation and route selections. The EIGRP composite metric is
calculated using the formula:
metric = [K1 * BW + (K2 * BW) / (256 - Load) + K3 * Delay] * [K5 / (Reliability + K4)]
Note
Use K values only after careful planning. Mismatched K values prevent a neighbor relationship from
being built, which can cause your network to fail to converge.
Note
If K5 = 0, the formula reduces to metric = [K1 * BW + (K2 * BW)/(256 - Load) + K3 * Delay].
Table 11-1 lists the EIGRP vector metrics and their descriptions.
Table 11-1
EIGRP Vector Metrics
Vector Metric
Description
BW
Minimum bandwidth of the route in kilobits per second. It can
be 0 or any positive integer.
Delay
Route delay in tens of microseconds. It can be 0 or any positive
number that is a multiple of 39.1 nanoseconds.
Reliability
Likelihood of successful packet transmission expressed as a
number between 0 and 255. The value 255 means 100 percent
reliability; 0 means no reliability.
Load
Effective load of the route expressed as a number from 0 to 255
(255 is 100 percent loading).
MTU
Minimum Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size of the
route in bytes. It can be 0 or any positive integer.
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Using EIGRP Cost Metrics for VMI Interfaces
EIGRP monitors metric weights on an interface to allow for the tuning of EIGRP metric calculations and
indicate Type of Service (ToS). Table 11-2 lists the K-values and their default.
Table 11-2
EIGRP K-Value Defaults
Setting
Default Value
K1
1
K2
0
K3
1
K4
0
K5
0
As shown in Table 11-2, cost configurations use the first two metrics—delay and bandwidth. The default
formula of (BW +Delay) is the EIGRP metric. The bandwidth for the formula is scaled and inverted by
the following formula:
(10^7/minimum BW in kilobits per second)
Note
You can change the weights, but these weights must be the same on all the routers.
For example, look at an EIGRP link where the bandwidth to a particular destination is 128k and the
Relative Link Quality (RLQ) is 50 percent.
BW = (256 * 10000000) / 128 = 20000000
Delay = (((10000000000 / 128) * 100) / (50 * 1000)) * 256 = (40000000 / 10) = 4000000
Using the cut-down formula, the EIGRP metric calculation would simplify to 256*(BW + Delay),
resulting in the following value:
Metric = (BW + Delay) = 20000000 + 4000000 = 240000000
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Configuring EIGRP in a MANET
Understanding VMI Metric to EIGRP Metric Conversion
Understanding VMI Metric to EIGRP Metric Conversion
With the VMI interface, the quality of connection to a neighbor varies based on a number of
characteristics computed dynamically as a result of layer 2 feedback to layer 3. Table 11-3 lists the
metrics and their significance.
Table 11-3
MANET Metrics for VMI Interfaces
Metric
Format
Significance
current data rate
uint64_t
The current data rate reported from the radio. EIGRP
converts the value into kilobits per second.
max data rate
uint64_t
The maximum data rate reported from the radio. EIGRP
converts the value into kilobits per second.
latency
unsigned int
The latency computed and reported by the radio in
milliseconds.
resources
unsigned int
The resources computed by the radio. A representation of
resources, such as battery power, ranges from 0 to 100. If a
radio does not report dynamic resources, the value is
always 100.
relative link quality
unsigned int
An opaque number that ranges from 0 to 100 is computed
by the radio, representing radio's view of link quality. 0
represents the worst possible link, 100 represents the best
possible link.
link-load
unsigned int
An opaque number that ranges from 0 to 100 is computed
by VMI, representing the load on the Ethernet link. 0
represents an idle Ethernet link, 100 represents a fully
loaded Ethernet link. Note that this is not associated with
the radio link.
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Understanding EIGRP Metric Dampening for VMI
Table 11-4 lists these EIGRP vector metric values map to the basic EIGRP interface parameters.
Note
Although not explicit in Table 11-4, all variables are converted to the proper units.
Table 11-4
Mapping of MANET Metric Values to EIGRP Vector Metrics Values
Metric
EIGRP Metric
Mapping
current data rate
Bandwidth
Calculated:
bandwidth = (256 * 10000000) / (current data rate /
1000)
relative link quality
resources
Reliability
Calculated:
reliability = (255 * (relative link quality) / 100)) *
(resources / 100)
current data rate
Delay
relative link quality
load
Calculated:
delay = 256 * (1E10 / (current data rate / 1000)) *
((100 / relative link quality) / 1000) / 10
Load
Calculated:
load = ((255 * link-load) / 100)
Understanding EIGRP Metric Dampening for VMI
Because metric components can change rapidly, the frequency of the changes have an impact on the
network. Frequent changes require that prefixes learned though the VMI be updated and sent to all
adjacencies. This update can result in further updates and, in a worst-case scenario, cause network-wide
churn. To prevent such effects, metrics can be dampened, or thresholds set, so that any change that does
not exceed the dampening threshold is ignored.
The following network changes cause an immediate update:
•
A down interface
•
A down route
•
Any change in a metric that results in the router selecting a new next hop
Dampening the metric changes can be configured based on change or time intervals.
If the dampening method is change-based, changes in routes learned though a specific interface, or in
the metrics for a specific interface, are not advertised to adjacencies until the computed metric changes
from the last advertised value significantly enough to cause an update to be sent.
If the dampening method is interval-based, changes in routes learned though a specific interface, or in
the metrics for a specific interface, are not advertised to adjacencies until the specified interval is met,
unless the change results in a new route path selection.
When the timer expires, any routes with outstanding changes to report are sent out. If a route changes,
such that the final metric of the route matches the last updated metric, no update is sent.
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Understanding Neighbor Up/Down Signaling for EIGRP
Understanding Neighbor Up/Down Signaling for EIGRP
MANETs are highly dynamic environments. Nodes may move in to, or out of, radio range at a fast pace.
Each time a node joins or leaves, the network topology must be logically reconstructed by the routers.
Routing protocols normally use timer-driven “hello” messages or neighbor time-outs to track topology
changes. MANETs reliance on these mechanisms can result in unacceptably slow convergence.
This signaling capability provides faster network convergence by using link-status signals generated by
the radio. The radio notifies the router each time a link to another neighbor is established or terminated
by the creation and termination of PPPoE sessions. In the router, the EIGRP responds immediately to
these signals by expediting the formation of a new adjacency (for a new neighbor) or tearing down an
existing adjacency (if a neighbor is lost). For example, if a vehicle drives behind a building and loses its
connection, the router immediately senses the loss and establishes a new route to the vehicle through
neighbors that are not blocked. This high speed network convergence is essential for minimizing dropped
voice calls and disruptions to video sessions.
When VMI with PPPoE is used and a partner node has left or a new one has joined, the radio informs
the router immediately of the topology change. Upon receiving the signal, the router immediately
declares the change and updates the routing tables.
The signaling capability offers the following benefits:
•
Reduces routing delays and prevents applications from timing out
•
Enables network-based applications and information to be delivered reliably and quickly over
directional radio links
•
Provides faster convergence and optimal route selection so that delay-sensitive traffic such as voice
and video are not disrupted
•
Reduces impact on radio equipment by minimizing the need for internal queuing/buffering
•
Provides consistent Quality of Service (QoS) for networks with multiple radios
The messaging allows for flexible rerouting when necessary because of the following factors:
•
Noise on the Radio links
•
Fading of the Radio links
•
Congestion of the Radio links
•
Radio link power fade
•
Utilization of the Radio
Figure 11-1 illustrates the signaling sequence that occurs when radio links go up and down.
Up and Down Signaling Sequence
Radio
Radio link is up
Radio
link is up
Radio link is up
Router
Ethernet link is up
VMI
Ethernet link is up
Ethernet
Radio
Ethernet
Router
VMI
170452
Figure 11-1
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Enabling EIGRP for IPv4
Enabling EIGRP for IPv4
To create an EIGRP routing process, use the following commands beginning in global configuration
mode:
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
router eigrp as-number
4.
network network-number
5.
end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
router(config)# router eigrp as-number
Enables an EIGRP routing process in global
configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# router eigrp 1
Step 4
router(config)# network network-number
Associates networks with an EIGRP routing
process in router configuration mode.
Example:
Router(config)# network 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.255
Step 5
End
Exits interface configuration.
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
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Activating EIGRP IPv4 on a Configured VMI
Activating EIGRP IPv4 on a Configured VMI
Perform this task to activate EIGRP IPv4 on a configured VMI.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface vmi interface-number
4.
no ip redirects
5.
no ip split-horizon eigrp as-number
6.
exit
7.
router eigrp as-number
8.
network network-number ip-mask
9.
end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface type interface-number
Specifies the number of the VMI.
Example:
Router(config-if)# interface vmi 1
Step 4
no ip redirect
Example:
Disables the sending of ICMP redirect messages if the
Cisco IOS software is forced to resend a packet through the
same interface on which it was received.
Router(config)# no ip redirect
Step 5
no ip split-horizon eigrp as-number
Disables the split horizon mechanism for the specified
session.
Example:
Router(config)# no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
Step 6
exit
Exits a command mode to the next higher mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
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Enabling EIGRP for IPv6
Step 7
Command or Action
Purpose
router eigrp as-number
Enables EIGRP routing on the router and identifies the
autonomous system number.
Example:
Router(config)# router eigrp 1
Step 8
Identifies the EIGRP network.
network network-number ip-mask
Example:
Router(config)# network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
Step 9
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and returns to
privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config)# end
Enabling EIGRP for IPv6
Perform the following task to enable EIGRP for IPv6 on a specified interface. EIGRP for IPv6 is directly
configured on the interfaces over which it runs, which allows EIGRP for IPv6 to be configured without
the use of a global IPv6 address.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
ipv6 unicast-routing
4.
interface type number
5.
ipv6 enable
6.
ipv6 eigrp as-number
7.
no shutdown
8.
ipv6 router eigrp as-number
9.
router-id {ip-address | ipv6-address}
10. no shutdown
11. end
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Enabling EIGRP for IPv6
DETAILED STEPS
.
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
ipv6 unicast-routing
Enables IPv6 unicast routing.
Example:
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Step 4
interface type number
Creates a VMI.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Step 5
ipv6 enable
Enables IPv6 routing on the virtual template.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable
Step 6
ipv6 eigrp as-number
Enables EIGRP for IPv6 on a specified interface and
specifies the Autonomous System (AS) number.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp 100
Step 7
no shutdown
Restarts a disabled interface or prevents the interface from
being shut down.
Example:
Router(config-if)# no shutdown
Step 8
ipv6 router eigrp as-number
Example:
Places the router in router configuration mode, creates an
EIGRP routing process in IPv6, and allows you to enter
additional commands to configure this process.
Router(config-if)# ipv6 router eigrp 101
Step 9
router-id {ip-address | ipv6-address}
Enables the use of a fixed router ID.
Example:
Router(config-router)# router-id 10.1.1.1
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Setting the EIGRP Metric Change-based Dampening for VMI
Step 10
Command or Action
Purpose
no shutdown
Restarts a disabled EIGRP process or prevents the EIGRP
process from being shut down.
Example:
Router(config-router)# no shutdown
Step 11
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and returns to
privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# end
Setting the EIGRP Metric Change-based Dampening for VMI
Perform the following tasks to set the change-based dampening interval for VMI:
This configuration assumes that a virtual template and appropriate PPPoE configurations have already
been completed. Refer to the Cisco IOS IP Mobility Configuration Guide for VMI configuration details.
This configuration sets the threshold to 50 percent tolerance routing updates involving VMIs and peers.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface type number
4.
eigrp as-number interface [dampening-change value] [dampening-interval value]
5.
physical-interface interface-type/slot
6.
end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Step 3
interface type number
Enters interface configuration and creates a VMI.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi 1
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Step 4
Command
Purpose
eigrp as-number interface [dampening-change value]
[dampening-interval value]
Sets the EIGRP change-based dampening.
Example:
Router(config-if)# eigrp 1 interface dampening-change
50
Step 5
physical-interface interface-type/slot
Creates a physical subinterface to be associated
with the VMI.
Example:
Router(config-if)# physical-interface Ethernet0/0
Step 6
(Optional) Exits the configuration mode and
returns to privileged EXEC mode.
end
Example:
Router(config-rtr)# end
Setting the EIGRP Interval-based Metric Dampening for VMI
Perform this task to set an interval-based dampening interval for VMI interfaces.
This configuration assumes that a virtual template and appropriate PPPoE configurations have already
been completed. Refer to the Cisco IOS IP Mobility Configuration Guide for VMI configuration details.
This configuration sets the interval to 30 seconds at which updates occur for topology changes that affect
VMI interfaces and peers:
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface type number
4.
eigrp as-number interface [dampening-change value] [dampening-interval value]
5.
end
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Step 2
configure terminal
Enters global configuration mode.
Example:
Router# configure terminal
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Setting the EIGRP Interval-based Metric Dampening for VMI
Step 3
Command
Purpose
interface type number
Enters interface configuration and creates a VMI.
Example:
Router(config)# interface vmi 1
Step 4
eigrp as-number interface [dampening-change value]
[dampening-interval value]
Sets the EIGRP interval-based dampening
interval.
Example:
Router(config-if)# eigrp 1 interface
dampening-interval 15
Step 5
Exits interface configuration.
End
Example:
Router(config-if)# end
Examples
Basic VMI PPPoE Configuration with EIGRP IPv4
The following example illustrates the simplest configuration using EIGRP as the routing protocol. This
configuration includes one VMI.
...
<output truncated>
...
!
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile host1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
!
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
bba-group pppoe MANET1
virtual-template 1
service profile host1
!
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
pppoe enable group MANET1
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered vmi1
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 10.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
router eigrp 1
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network 10.3.0.0 0.0.255.255
auto-summary
!
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end
Basic VMI PPPoE Configuration Using EIGRP for IPv6
This example shows the basic requirements for configuring a VMI that uses EIGRP for IPv6 as the
routing protocol. It includes one VMI.
...
<output truncated>
...
!
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile host1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
!
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
!
!
bba-group pppoe MANET1
virtual-template 1
service profile host1
!
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
pppoe enable group MANET1
!
!
interface Virtual-Template1
no ip address
ipv6 unnumbered vmi1
ipv6 enable
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
no ip address
ipv6 address 2001:DB1:2::1/96
ipv6 enable
no ipv6 redirects
ipv6 eigrp 101
no ipv6 split-horizon eigrp 101
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
ipv6 router eigrp 101
router-id 10.9.1.1
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no shutdown
!
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end
VMI PPPoE Configuration Using EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6
The following examples shows the configuration VMI PPPoE using EIGRP as the IP routing protocol
when you have both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses configured on the interface. This configuration includes
one VMI. While EIGRP allows you to use the same AS number on an IPv4 EIGRP process and on an
IPv6 process, we recommend using a unique AS number for each process for clarity.
...
<output truncated>
...
!
ipv6 unicast-routing
ipv6 cef
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile host1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
!
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
bba-group pppoe MANET1
virtual-template 1
service profile host1
!
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
pppoe enable group MANET1
!
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered vmi1
ipv6 unnumbered vmi1
ipv6 enable
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 10.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
ipv6 address 2001:0DB1:2::1/64
ipv6 enable
no ipv6 redirects
ipv6 eigrp 101
no ipv6 split-horizon eigrp 1
eigrp 1 interface dampening-interval 30
eigrp 101 interface dampening-interval 30
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
!
router eigrp 1
network 10.3.0.0 0.0.255.255
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auto-summary
!
!
ipv6 router eigrp 101
router-id 10.9.1.1
no shutdown
!
!
!
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
login
!
end
EIGRP Metric Dampening for VMI Interfaces
The eigrp interface command advertises routing changes for EIGRP traffic only.
The REPLY sent to any QUERY will always contain the latest metric information. The following
exceptions result in an immediate UPDATE:
•
A down interface
•
A down route
•
Any change in metric which results in the router selecting a new next hop
To prevent network-wide churn from frequent metric changes from impacting the network, even causing
network-wide churn, metrics can be dampened, or thresholds set, so that any change that does not exceed
the dampening threshold is ignored. The examples in this section show how to set the EIGRP dampening
intervals to avoid such impacts.
EIGRP Change-based Metric Dampening for VMI Interfaces
The following example sets the threshold to 50 percent tolerance routing updates involving VMIs and
peers:
interface vmi1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
ipv6 address 2001:0DB1:2::1/64
ipv6 enable
no ipv6 redirects
ipv6 eigrp 101
no ipv6 split-horizon eigrp 101
eigrp 1 interface dampening-change 50
eigrp 101 interface dampening-change 50
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
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EIGRP Interval-based Metric Dampening for VMI Interfaces
The following example sets the interval to 30 seconds at which updates occur for topology changes that
affect VMIs and peers:
interface vmi1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
no ip redirects
no ip split-horizon eigrp 1
ipv6 address 2001:0DB1:2::1/64
ipv6 enable
no ipv6 redirects
ipv6 eigrp 101
no ipv6 split-horizon eigrp 101
eigrp 1 interface dampening-interval 30
eigrp 101 interface dampening-interval 30
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
EIGRP VMI Bypass Mode
The following examples show the configuration of VMI bypass mode with EIGRP IPv4, EIGRP IPv6,
and EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6.
VMI Bypass mode PPPoE Configuration Using EIGRP for IPv6:
...
hostname host1
!
no ip domain lookup
!
ipv6 unicast-routing
!
ipv6 cef
!
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile host1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
no virtual-template subinterface
!
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
!
!
bba-group pppoe VMI1
virtual-template 1
service profile host1
!
!
interface Loopback1
load-interval 30
ipv6 address 3514:1::1/64
ipv6 enable
ipv6 eigrp 1
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
no ip mroute-cache
load-interval 30
speed 100
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full-duplex
pppoe enable group VMI1
!
interface Virtual-Template1
no ip address
load-interval 30
ipv6 address 3514:2::1/64
ipv6 enable
ipv6 eigrp 1
no keepalive
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
no ip address
load-interval 30
ipv6 enable
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
mode bypass
!
ipv6 router eigrp 1
no shutdown
redistribute connected
...
end
VMI Bypass mode PPPoE Configuration with EIGRP IPv4:
hostname host1
!
ip cef
!
no ip domain lookup
!
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile host1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
no virtual-template subinterface
!
archive
log config
!
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
!
!
bba-group pppoe VMI1
virtual-template 1
service profile host1
!
!
interface Loopback1
ip address 35.9.1.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
no ip mroute-cache
load-interval 30
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speed 100
full-duplex
pppoe enable group VMI1
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address 4.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
no keepalive
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
! the IP Address of the vmi1 interface needs to be defined,
! but it will not be routable since the vmi interface will be
! down/down.
ip address 4.3.9.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
mode bypass
!
router eigrp 1
redistribute connected
network 4.2.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 4.3.0.0 0.0.255.255
auto-summary
!
...
end
VMI Bypass mode PPPoE Configuration Using EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6:
...
hostname host1
!
ip cef
!
no ip domain lookup
!
ipv6 unicast-routing
!
ipv6 cef
!
subscriber authorization enable
!
subscriber profile host1
pppoe service manet_radio
!
multilink bundle-name authenticated
!
no virtual-template subinterface
!
policy-map FQ
class class-default
fair-queue
!
bba-group pppoe VMI1
virtual-template 1
service profile host1
!
!
interface Loopback1
ip address 35.9.1.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
ipv6 address 3514:1::1/64
ipv6 enable
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ipv6 eigrp 1
!
interface FastEthernet0/0
no ip address
no ip mroute-cache
load-interval 30
speed 100
full-duplex
pppoe enable group VMI1
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address 4.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
ipv6 address 3514:2::1/64
ipv6 enable
ipv6 eigrp 1
no keepalive
service-policy output FQ
!
interface vmi1
ip address 4.3.9.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
ipv6 enable
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
mode bypass
!
router eigrp 1
redistribute connected
network 4.2.0.0 0.0.255.255
network 4.3.0.0 0.0.255.255
auto-summary
!
ipv6 router eigrp 1
eigrp router-id 35.9.1.1
no shutdown
redistribute connected
...
end
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A P P E N D I X
A
Command Reference
This appendix provides command reference documentation in the following major sections:
•
Debug Commands
•
List of Commands, page A-2
•
Commands, page A-3
Debug Commands
You can search for debug commands from privileged EXEC mode.
Caution
Do not use debug commands unless a Cisco Support engineer instructs you to do so.
Example for DLEP
This example shows how to display debug commands for Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP):
router# debug dlep ?
client
debug DLEP client information
neighbor DLEP neighbor transaction information
server
DLEP server transaction information
timer
display DLEP timer information
Example for R2CP
This example shows how to display debug commands for Router-to-Radio Control Protocol (R2CP):
router# debug r2cp ?
client
debug R2CP client information
neighbor R2CP neighbor transaction information
server
R2CP server transaction information
timer
display R2CP timer information
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Appendix A
Command Reference
List of Commands
List of Commands
This section lists the mobility commands modified or introduced in this Configuration Guide:
•
clear dlep client, page A-6
•
clear dlep counters, page A-7
•
clear pppoe relay context, page A-9
•
clear vmi counters, page A-10
•
flowcontrol send, page A-13
•
interface vmi, page A-14
•
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold, page A-16
•
ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout, page A-17
•
ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout, page A-18
•
ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout, page A-19
•
ip dlep vtemplate, page A-20ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold, page A-21
•
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold, page A-22
•
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout, page A-23
•
ip r2cp port, page A-24
•
ip r2cp session-activity-timeout, page A-25
•
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold, page A-26
•
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout, page A-27
•
ip r2cp virtual-template, page A-28
•
ipv6 redirects, page A-29
•
keepalive, page A-31
•
manet cache, page A-33
•
manet hello unicast, page A-35
•
manet peering selective, page A-36
•
manet willingness, page A-37
•
mode, page A-39
•
ospfv3 area, page A-41
•
ospfv3 cost dynamic default, page A-44
•
ospfv3 cost dynamic hysteresis, page A-45
•
ospfv3 cost dynamic weight, page A-47
•
ospfv3 dead-interval, page A-49
•
ospfv3 hello-interval, page A-50
•
ospfv3 manet peering cost, page A-51
•
ospfv3 manet peering link-metrics, page A-53
•
ospfv3 network, page A-54
•
physical-interface, page A-56
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Command Reference
Commands
•
router ospfv3, page A-57
•
show dlep clients, page A-58
•
show dlep config, page A-59
•
show dlep counters, page A-60
•
show dlep counters, page A-60
•
show ip eigrp neighbors, page A-63
•
show ip redirects, page A-64
•
show ipv6 eigrp neighbors, page A-65
•
show ospfv3, page A-66
•
show ospfv3 database, page A-68
•
show ospfv3 flood-list, page A-71
•
show ospfv3 interface, page A-73
•
show ospfv3 neighbor, page A-75
•
show ospfv3 neighbor manet, page A-79
•
show ospfv3 promiscuous acknowledgments, page A-80
•
show pppoe, page A-81
•
show pppoe derived, page A-83
•
show pppoe session, page A-84
•
show r2cp clients, page A-86
•
show r2cp config, page A-88
•
show r2cp neighbors, page A-90
•
show vmi counters, page A-91
•
show vmi neighbors, page A-94
•
summary-prefix (OSPFv3), page A-98
•
timers manet, page A-100
•
timers throttle spf, page A-102
Commands
This section provides the complete reference pages for all commands listed in this appendix.
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Command Reference
clear ospfv3
clear ospfv3
To clear redistribution by the IPv4 OSPFv3 routing process, use the clear ospfv3 command in privileged
EXEC mode.
clear ospfv3 [process-id] {counters [neighbor [neighbor-interface] [neighbor-id] | force-spf |
process | redistribution | traffic [interface-id]]}
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Process ID.
counters
OSPF counters.
neighbor
(Optional) Neighbor statistics per interface.
neighbor-interface
(Optional) Neighbor interface.
neighbor-id
(Optional) Neighbor ID.
force-spf
Run SPF for the OSPF process.
process
Reset the OSPF process.
redistribution
Clear OSPF route redistribution.
traffic
Clear traffic-related statistics.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the process-id argument to clear only one OSPF process. If process-id is not specified, all OSPF
processes are cleared.
Examples
The following example clears all OSPFv3 processes:
router# clear ospfv3 process
Reset ALL OSPFv3 processes? [no]: yes
router#
The following example clears the OSPFv3 counters for neighbor s19/0.
router# clear ospfv3 counters neighbor s19/0
Reset OSPFv3 counters? [no]: yes
router#
The following example now shows that there have been 0 state changes since using the clear ospfv3
counters neighbor s19/0 command:
Router# show ospfv3 counters neighbor detail
Neighbor 172.16.4.4
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clear ospfv3
In the area 0 via interface POS4/0
Neighbor: interface-id 14, link-local address FE80::205:5FFF:FED3:5406
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes
Options is 0x63AD1B0D
Dead timer due in 00:00:33
Neighbor is up for 00:48:56
Index 1/1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 1
First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor 172.16.3.3
In the area 1 via interface FastEthernet0/0
Neighbor: interface-id 3, link-local address FE80::205:5FFF:FED3:5808
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes
DR is 172.16.6.6 BDR is 172.16.3.3
Options is 0x63F813E9
Dead timer due in 00:00:33
Neighbor is up for 00:09:00
Index 1/1/2, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 2
First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 2
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor 172.16.5.5
In the area 2 via interface ATM3/0
Neighbor: interface-id 13, link-local address FE80::205:5FFF:FED3:6006
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes
Options is 0x63F7D249
Dead timer due in 00:00:38
Neighbor is up for 00:10:01
Index 1/1/3, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 0
First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 0
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Router#
The following example shows the clear ospfv3 force-spf command:
Router1#clear ospfv3 force-spf
The following example clears all OSPF processes:
router# clear ospfv3 process
Reset ALL OSPFv3 processes? [no]: yes
router#
The following example clears all OSPF processes for neighbors:
router# clear ospfv3 process neighbor
The following example shows the clear ospfv3 redistribution command:
router# clear ospfv3 redistribution
The following example shows the clear ospfv3 traffic command:
router# clear ospfv3 traffic
Related Commands
Command
Description
show ospfv3 neighbor
Displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis.
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Command Reference
clear dlep client
clear dlep client
To clear a router-to-radio peer association, use the clear dlep client command in privileged EXEC mode.
clear dlep client [interface] [peer-id]
Syntax Description
interface
FastEthernet or Vlan
peer-id
Peer ID with valid range from 1 to 2147483647
Clears a specific router-to-radio peer association (client) identified in the
output of the show dlep clients command
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to clear a router-to-radio peer association.
The following example clears a router-to-radio peer association on the fa0/1 interface (with a peer ID
value of 11):
Router# clear dlep client fa0/1 11
Related Commands
Command
Description
show dlep clients
Displays router-to-radio peer associations.
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Command Reference
clear dlep counters
clear dlep counters
To clear DLEP counters, use the clear dlep counters command in privileged EXEC mode.
clear dlep counters [interface]
Syntax Description
interface
Command Default
If no arguments are specified, all counters on all VMI interfaces with DLEP configured are cleared.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Examples
(Optional) Interface where DLEP is configured.
The following example shows how to clear counters on one DLEP interface:
Router# clear dlep counters gigabitEthernet 0/1.5
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Command Reference
clear dlep neighbor
clear dlep neighbor
To clear a neighbor session, use the clear dlep neighbor command in privileged EXEC mode.
clear dlep neighbor [interface] [session-id]
Syntax Description
interface
FastEthernet or Vlan
session-id
Session ID with valid range from 1 to 2147483647
Clears a neighbor session with a specific neighbor identified in the
output of the show dlep neighbors command
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to clear the neighbor session on the specified interface.
Examples
The following example clears a DLEP neighbor session on a specific FastEthernet interface—where the
interface is fa0/1 and the session ID is 11:
Router# clear dlep neighbor fa0/1 11
Related Commands
Command
Description
show dlep neighbors
Displays neighbor sessions on the specified interface.
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Command Reference
clear pppoe relay context
clear pppoe relay context
To clear the PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) relay context created for relaying PPPoE Active Discovery
(PAD) messages, use the clear pppoe relay context command in privileged EXEC mode.
clear pppoe relay context {all | id session-id}
Syntax Description
all
Clears all relay contexts.
id session-id
Clears a specific context identified in the output of the show pppoe
relay context all command.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.3(4)T
This command was introduced.
12.2(28)SB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to clear relay contexts created for relaying PAD messages.
Examples
The following example clears all PPPoE relay contexts created for relaying PAD messages:
Router# clear pppoe relay context all
Related Commands
Command
Description
show pppoe relay context all
Displays PPPoE relay contexts created for relaying PAD messages.
show pppoe session
Displays information about currently active PPPoE sessions.
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Command Reference
clear vmi counters
clear vmi counters
To clear VMI counters, use the clear vmi counters command in privileged EXEC mode.
clear vmi counters [vmi-interface]
Syntax Description
vmi-interface
Command Default
If no VMI interfaces are specified, counters on all VMI interfaces are cleared.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Examples
(Optional) Number assigned to the VMI.
The following example shows how to clear counters on VMI 1:
Router# clear vmi counters vmi1
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Command Reference
eigrp interface
eigrp interface
To set a threshold value to minimize hysteresis in a router-to-radio configuration, use the eigrp interface
command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the hysteresis threshold to the default value, use the
no form of this command.
eigrp vmi-interface-number interface [dampening-change value] [dampening-interval value]
no eigrp vmi-interface-number interface [dampening-change value] [dampening-interval value]
Syntax Description
Command Default
vmi-interface-number
The number assigned to the Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI).
dampening-change value
(Optional) Value used to minimize the effect of frequent routing
changes in router-to-radio configurations. Percent interface metric
must change to cause update. Value ranges from 1 to 100.
dampening-interval value
(Optional) Specifies the time interval in seconds to check the interface
metrics at which advertising of routing changes occurs. The default
value is 30 seconds. Value ranges from 1 to 65535
Default for change-based dampening is 50 percent of the computed metric.
Default for interval-based dampening is 30 seconds.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(15)XF
This command was introduced.
12.4(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T.
Usage Guidelines
This command advertises routing changes for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
traffic only.
The REPLY sent to any QUERY always contains the latest metric information. Exceptions that result in
an immediate UPDATE being sent include the following replies:
•
A down interface
•
A down route
•
Any change in metric which results in the router selecting a new next hop
Change-based Dampening
The default value for the change tolerance will be 50 percent of the computed metric. It can be
configured in a range of 0 to 100 percent. If the metric change of the interface is not greater (or less)
than the current metric plus or minus the specified amount, the change will not result in a routing change,
and no update will be sent to other adjacencies.
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Command Reference
eigrp interface
Interval-based Dampening
The default value for the update intervals is 30 seconds. It can be configured in the range from 0 to
64535 seconds. If this option is specified, changes in routes learned though this interface, or in the
interface metrics, will not be advertised to adjacencies until the specified interval is met. When the timer
expires, any changes detected in any routes learned through the interface, or the metric reported by the
interfaces will be sent out.
Examples
Change-based Dampening Example
The following example sets the threshold to 50 percent tolerance routing updates involving VMI
interfaces and peers:
interface vmi1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 address 2001:0DB1:2::1/96
ipv6 enable
eigrp 1 interface dampening-change 50
physical-interface Ethernet0/0
Interval-based Dampening Example
The following example sets the interval to 30 seconds at which updates occur for topology changes that
affect VMI interfaces and peers:
interface vmi1
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 address 2001:0DB1:2::1/96
ipv6 enable
eigrp 1 interface dampening-interval 30
physical-interface Ethernet0/0
Related Commands
Command
Description
debug vmi
Displays debugging output for VMIs.
eigrp interface
Sets a threshold value to minimize hysteresis in a router-to-radio
configuration.
interface vmi
Creates a VMI that can be configured and applied dynamically.
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Command Reference
flowcontrol send
flowcontrol send
To enable transmit flow control on an interface, use the flowcontrol send command in
interface-configuration mode. To disable transmit flow control, use the no form of this command.
flowcontrol send
no control send
Command Default
Transmit flow control is disabled.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(1)GC
This command was introduced.
Examples
The following example shows how to enable transmit flow control on interface FastEthernet 0/0:
router (config)#interface fastethernet0/0
router (config-if)#flowcontrol send
router (config-if)#end
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Command Reference
interface vmi
interface vmi
To create a Virtual Multipoint Interface (VMI) for dynamic configuration and application, use the
interface vmi command in global-configuration mode. To remove a VMI interface, use the no form of
this command.
interface vmi interface-number
no interface vmi interface-number
Syntax Description
interface-number
Command Default
No VMI is defined.
Command Modes
Global configuration (config)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(15)XF
This command was introduced.
12.4(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T.
Usage Guidelines
Number assigned to the VMI. The value range for VMI interface numbers is
from 1 to 2147483647
VMI Interface Aggregation Point
The VMI interface acts as an aggregation point for multiple PPPoE connections from one or more radios
over one or more physical interfaces.
OSPFv3 and EIGRP Route Advertisements
All OSPFv3, EIGRPv4, and EIGRPv6 route advertisements that are received over the PPPoE
connections are reported to the routing protocol as coming from a single interface, thus simplifying the
routing protocol topology table and providing scalability benefits of each of the routing protocols.
Examples
The following example shows how to create a VMI interface:
interface vmi 1
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
ipv6 address 2001:0DB8:1:1:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFE/64
ipv6 enable
physical-interface GigabitEthernet 0/0
end
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Command Reference
interface vmi
Related Commands
Command
Description
debug vmi
Displays debugging output for VMIs.
eigrp interface
Sets a threshold value to minimize hysteresis in a router-to-radio
configuration.
mode bypass
Enables VMIs to support multicast traffic.
physical interface
Creates a physical subinterface to be associated with the VMIs on a router.
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Command Reference
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold
To set the maximum number of consecutively missed heartbeats allowed on the DLEP router-to-radio
association, use the ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold command in interface-configuration mode.
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold count
Syntax Description
count
Command Default
The default DLEP heartbeat threshold is 4.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Maximum number of missed heartbeats allowed. The valid range is from 2 to 8.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold command to set the maximum number of consecutively missed
heartbeats allowed on the DLEP router-to-radio association before declaring a failed association.
Examples
The following example sets the DLEP heartbeat threshold to 4:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold 4
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Command Reference
ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout
ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout
To set the maximum time allowed for inactivity before ending a neighbor session, use the ip dlep set
nbr-activity-timeout command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the timeout to the default
value, use the no form of this command.
ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout seconds
no ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout seconds
Syntax Description
seconds
Command Default
The default neighbor-activity timeout is 0 (the timer is disabled).
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
The valid range is from 0 to 240 seconds.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout command to set the maximum number of seconds before a
neighbor session-timer determines a neighbor session is stale.
Examples
The following example sets the neighbor-activity timeout to 2 seconds:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout 2
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Command Reference
ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout
ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout
To set the maximum number of seconds allowed for neighbor sessioning against a lost neighbor-down
acknowledgement, use the ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout command in interface-configuration
mode. To reset the timeout to the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout seconds
no ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout seconds
Syntax Description
seconds
Command Default
The default neighbor-down-ack timeout is 10 seconds.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
The valid range is from 0 to 50 seconds.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout command to set the maximum number of seconds allowed
for neighbor sessioning against a lost neighbor-down acknowledgement.
Examples
The following example sets the neighbor-down-ack timeout to 12 seconds:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout 12
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Command Reference
ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout
ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout
To set the maximum number of seconds allowed for neighbor sessioning against a lost
peer-terminate-acknowledgement, use ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout command in
interface-configuration mode. To reset the timeout to the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout seconds
no ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout seconds
Syntax Description
seconds
Command Default
The default neighbor-down-ack timeout is 10 seconds.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
The valid range is from 0 to 50 seconds.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout command to set the maximum number of seconds allowed
for neighbor sessioning against a lost peer-terminate-acknowledgement.
Examples
The following example sets the neighbor-down ack timeout to 12 seconds:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout 12
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Command Reference
ip dlep vtemplate
ip dlep vtemplate
To initiate DLEP on the interface (and set the virtual-template interface number), use the
ip dlep vtemplate command in interface-configuration mode. To disable DLEP on the interface, use the
no form of this command.
ip dlep vtemplate number [port number]
no ip dlep vtemplate number [port number]
Syntax Description
vtemplate
Sets the virtual-template interface number for DLEP.
number
The valid range is from 1 to 4096.
port number
(Optional) Keyword and port number to designate the port used for the
virtual-template interface. The port number valid range is from 1 to 65534.
Command Default
If you do not specify a port number, the default port number used is 55555.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip dlep vtemplate command to specify a virtual-template interface number for DLEP. When
assigning this number, you are initiating DLEP on the interface.
To change the virtual-template interface number for DLEP, you must enter the no version of the last
ip dlep vtemplate command you entered before entering the new ip dlep vtemplate command.
Examples
The following example shows how to set the DLEP virtual-template interface number to 88:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep vtemplate 88
The following example shows how to set the DLEP virtual-template interface number to 88 and then
change it to 96:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep vtemplate 88
Router(config-if)# no ip dlep vtemplate 88
Router(config-if)# ip dlep vtemplate 96
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Command Reference
ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold
ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold
To set the maximum number of missed R2CP heartbeat messages allowed before declaring the
router-to-radio association failed, use the ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold command in
interface-configuration mode.
ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold count
Syntax Description
heartbeat-threshold
The number of missed R2CP heartbeats allowed before declaring a failed
association between the router and locally attached radio.
count
The valid range is from 2 to 8.
Command Default
The default R2CP heartbeat threshold is 3.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold command to set the R2CP heartbeat threshold. This heartbeat
threshold is the number of consecutively missed R2CP heartbeats allowed before declaring the
router-to-radio association failed.
Examples
The following example sets the R2CP heartbeat threshold to 3:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp heartbeat-threshold 3
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Command Reference
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold
To set the R2CP node-terminate acknowledgement threshold, use the ip r2cp
node-terminate-ack-threshold command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the default-node
terminate acknowledgement threshold to the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold value
no ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold value
Syntax Description
node-terminate-ack-
threshold
The number of missed and/or lost R2CP node acknowledgements allowed
before declaring the terminate effort complete.
value
The valid range is from 1 to 5.
Command Default
The default R2CP node-terminate acknowledgement threshold is 3.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold command to set the number of missed and/or lost R2CP
node acknowledgements allowed before declaring the terminate effort complete.
Examples
The following example sets the R2CP node-terminate-ack-threshold to 2:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-threshold 2
Related Commands
Command
Description
node-terminate-
ack-timeout
Sets the number of milliseconds the client waits for the node-terminate
acknowledgment.
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Command Reference
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout
To set the R2CP node-terminate acknowledgement timeout, use the ip r2cp
node-terminate-ack-timeout command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the R2CP
node-terminate acknowledgement timeout to the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
no ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
Syntax Description
node-terminate-ack-
timeout
The maximum number of milliseconds allowed by R2CP when waiting for
the node-terminate acknowledgement.
milliseconds
The timeout range is between 100 and 5000 milliseconds.
Command Default
The default node-terminate acknowledgement timeout is 1000 milliseconds.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp node-terminate ack-timeout command to set the maximum number of milliseconds the
client can wait for a node-terminate acknowledgement.
Examples
The following example sets the node-terminate acknowledgement timeout to 2200 milliseconds for
R2CP:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout 2200
Related Commands
Command
Description
node-terminate-
ack-threshold
Sets the number of missed and/or lost node acknowledgements allowed by
R2CP before declaring the terminate effort complete.
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Command Reference
ip r2cp port
ip r2cp port
To specify a port for R2CP , use the ip r2cp port command in interface-configuration mode. To reset
the R2CP port number to the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip r2cp port number
no ip r2cp port number
Syntax Description
port
The port specified for R2CP.
number
The port number valid range is from 1 to 65534.
Command Default
The default port number is 28672.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp port command to specify the port for R2CP.
Examples
The following example sets the R2CP port to 5858:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp port 5858
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Command Reference
ip r2cp session-activity-timeout
ip r2cp session-activity-timeout
To configure the R2CP neighbor session-activity timeout, use the ip r2cp session-activity-timeout
command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the neighbor session-terminate activity timeout to
the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip r2cp session-activity-timeout seconds
no ip r2cp session-activity-timeout seconds
Syntax Description
session-activity-
timeout
The port specified for R2CP.
seconds
The valid range for R2CP neighbor session-activity timeout is from 0 to 4
seconds.
Command Default
The default neighbor session-activity timeout is 1 second.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp session-activity-timeout command to set the maximum number of seconds before a
neighbor session-timer determines a neighbor session is stale.
Examples
The following example sets the neighbor-session activity timeout for R2CP to 2 seconds:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp session-activity-timeout 2
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Command Reference
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold
To set the R2CP neighbor session-terminate acknowledgement threshold, use the ip r2cp
session-terminate-ack-threshold command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the R2CP
neighbor session terminate-acknowledgement threshold to the default value, use the no form of this
command.
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold value
no ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold value
Syntax Description
session-terminate-ack- The number of missed and/or lost R2CP neighbor session
threshold
acknowledgements allowed before declaring the terminate effort complete.
value
The value range is from 1 to 5 sessions.
Command Default
The default neighbor session-terminate acknowledgement threshold is 3.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp session-terminate-acknowledgement-threshold command to set the number of missed
and/or lost R2CP neighbor session acknowledgements allowed before declaring the terminate effort
complete.
Examples
The following example sets the R2CP neighbor session-terminate acknowledgement threshold to 4:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-threshold 4
Related Commands
Command
Description
session-terminate-
ack-timeout
Sets the amount of time the client waits for the neighbor session terminate
acknowledgment in milliseconds.
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Command Reference
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout
ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout
To set the maximum number of milliseconds allowed on the R2CP interface before sending a neighbor
session terminate-acknowledgement, use the ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout command in
interface-configuration mode. To reset the timeout to the default value, use the no form of this command.
ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
no ip r2cp node-terminate-ack-timeout milliseconds
Syntax Description
session-terminate-ack- The time duration allowed by R2CP when waiting for the neighbor
timeout
session-terminate acknowledgement.
milliseconds
The timeout range is between 100 and 5000 milliseconds.
Command Default
The neighbor session terminate-acknowledgement timeout default is 1000 milliseconds.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout command to set the amount of time the client waits for
the node terminate acknowledgement to occur in milliseconds.
Examples
The following example sets the neighbor session terminate-acknowledgement timeout to 2400
milliseconds for R2CP:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp session-terminate-ack-timeout 2400
Related Commands
Command
Description
session-terminate-
ack-threshold
Sets the number of missed and/or lost session acknowledgements allowed
by R2CP before declaring the terminate effort complete.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
ip r2cp virtual-template
ip r2cp virtual-template
To set a virtual-template access number for R2CP, use the ip r2cp virtual-template command in
interface-configuration mode. To free a virtual template from R2CP, use the no form of this command.
ip r2cp virtual-template number
no ip r2cp virtual-template number
Syntax Description
virtual-template
Sets the virtual-template access number for R2CP.
number
The valid range is from 0 to 21474883647.
Command Default
The default virtual-template number is 0.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use the ip r2cp virtual-template command to specify a virtual-template access number for R2CP. When
creating a virtual-access interface, R2CP requires this access number for virtual-template selection.
Examples
The following example sets the R2CP virtual-template access number to 224:
Router(config-if)# ip r2cp virtual-template 224
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Command Reference
ipv6 redirects
ipv6 redirects
To enable the sending of ICMP IPv6 redirect messages if Cisco IOS software is forced to resend a packet
through the same interface on which the packet was received, use the ipv6 redirects command in
interface-configuration mode. To disable the sending of redirect messages, use the no form of this
command.
ipv6 redirects
no ipv6 redirects
Syntax Description
This command has no arguments or keywords.
Defaults
The sending of ICMP IPv6 redirect messages is enabled.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.2(4)T
This command was introduced.
12.0(21)ST
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(21)ST.
12.0(22)S
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.0(22)S.
12.2(14)S
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(14)S.
12.2(28)SB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.
12.2(25)SG
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SG.
12.2(33)SRA
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.
12.2(33)SXH
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.
Usage Guidelines
The rate at which the router generates all IPv6 ICMP error messages can be limited by using the ipv6
icmp error-interval command.
Examples
The following example disables the sending of ICMP IPv6 redirect messages on Ethernet interface 0/0
and reenables the messages on Ethernet interface 0/1:
Router(config)# interface ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)# no ipv6 redirects
Router(config)# interface ethernet0/1
Router(config-if)# ipv6 redirects
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Command Reference
ipv6 redirects
To verify whether the sending of IPv6 redirect messages is enabled or disabled on an interface, enter the
show ipv6 interface command:
Router# show ipv6 interface
Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up
IPv6 is stalled, link-local address is FE80::1
Global unicast address(es):
2000::1, subnet is 2000::/64
3000::1, subnet is 3000::/64
Joined group address(es):
FF02::1
FF02::2
FF02::1:FF00:1
MTU is 1500 bytes
ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds
ICMP redirects are disabled
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds
ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds
Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
Ethernet1 is up, line protocol is up
IPv6 is stalled, link-local address is FE80::2
Global unicast address(es):
2000::2, subnet is 2000::/64
3000::3, subnet is 3000::/64
Joined group address(es):
FF02::1
FF02::2
FF02::1:FF00:1
MTU is 1500 bytes
ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds
ICMP redirects are enabled
ND DAD is disabled, number of DAD attempts: 0
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds
ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds
Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
Related Commands
Command
Description
ipv6 icmp
error-interval
Configures the interval for IPv6 ICMP error messages.
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Command Reference
keepalive
keepalive
To enable keepalive packets and to specify the number of times that the Cisco IOS software tries to send
keepalive packets without a response before bringing down the interface or before bringing the tunnel
protocol down for a specific interface, use the keepalive command in interface-configuration mode.
To turn off keepalive packets entirely, use the no form of this command.
keepalive [period [retries]]
no keepalive [period [retries]]
Syntax Description
period
(Optional) Integer value, in seconds, that represents the time interval
between messages sent by the Cisco IOS software to ensure that a network
interface is alive. Value must be greater than 0, and the default is 10.
retries
(Optional) Number of times that the device will continue to send keepalive
packets without response before bringing the interface down. Integer value
greater than 1 and less than 255. If omitted, the value that was previously set
is used; if no value was specified previously, the default of 5 is used.
If this command is used with a tunnel interface, specifies the number of times
that the device will continue to send keepalive packets without response
before bringing the tunnel interface protocol down.
Defaults
seconds 10 seconds
retries 3
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
10.0
This command was introduced.
12.2(8)T
The retries argument was added and made available on tunnel interfaces.
12.2(13)T
The default value for the retries argument was increased to 5.
12.2(14)S
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS release 12.2(14)S.
12.2(28)SB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.
12.2(33)SRA
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.
12.2SX
This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support
in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set,
platform, and platform hardware.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
keepalive
Usage Guidelines
Defaults for keepalive command
If you enter only the keepalive command with no arguments, defaults for both arguments are used. If
you enter the keepalive command and the timeout parameter, the default number of retries (5) is used.
If you enter the no form of the command, keepalive packets are disabled on the interface.
Keepalive Time Interval
You can configure the keepalive time interval, which is the frequency at which the Cisco IOS software
sends messages to itself (Ethernet and Token Ring) or to the other end (serial and tunnel), to ensure that
a network interface is alive. The interval is adjustable in 1-second increments down to 1 second. An
interface is declared down after five update intervals have passed without receiving a keepalive packet
unless the retry value is set higher. If you are running a Cisco IOS image prior to Cisco IOS Release
12.2(13)T, the default retry value is 3.
Examples
The following example shows how to enable keepalive packets and set the keepalive interval to 3
seconds:
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)# keepalive 3
The following example shows how to enable keepalive packets and set the keepalive interval to 3 seconds
and the retry value to 7:
Router(config)# interface tunnel 1
Router(config-if)# keepalive 3 7
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Command Reference
manet cache
manet cache
To configure the number of MANET cached LSA updates and acknowledgments, use the manet cache
command in router-configuration mode. To restore the default values, use the no form of this command.
manet cache {update update-value | acknowledgment ack-value}
no manet cache {update | acknowledgment}
Syntax Description
update
Cached LSA updates.
update-value
The number of cached LSA updates. The value ranges from 0 to
4294967295. The default value is 1000.
acknowledgment
Cached LSA acknowledgments.
ack-value
The number of cached LSA acknowledgments. The value ranges from 0 to
4294967295. The default value is 1000.
Defaults
1000 updates or 1000 acknowledgments
Command Modes
Router configuration (config-router)
CommandHistory
Release
Modification
12.4(24) GC
This command was introduced.
Setting the Cache Size
When you set the cache size, the router keeps a larger number of temp LSAs and ACKs. If the cache fills
up before the timers expire, the LSAs and ACKs are deleted from the cache. In some cases, the deleted
ACKs can cause the router to flood 1-hop neighbors because the router no longer knows about the
deleted ACKs.
Increasing the Cache Size
If you increase the size of the cache, you might prevent non-primary relay routes from flooding in the
case when ACKs were deleted because the cache became full before the ACK timer expired. Increasing
the cache size reduces the amount of memory available for the cache storage.
Caution
Before you decide to increase the cache size, ensure that the free memory is not reduced to levels that
can affect basic route processing.
Assessing How Cache Size Affects Performance
It is difficult to assess the number of times that flooding occurs because LSAs and ACKs have been
deleted before the ACK timer expired. Use the show ospfv3 command to compare the current and
maximum cache values. Over time, if the two values are very close, it indicates that the cache is filling
up faster than the timer expiration is occurring. In that case, increasing the cache size may be helpful.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
manet cache
Examples
The following example uses cache size for the LSA update and LSA ACKs. The manet cache update
command optimizes the exchange of the LS database while forming adjacencies with new neighbors in
the radio environment. The result is minimized OSPF control traffic and reduced use of radio bandwidth.
The ACK cache size improves the dynamic relaying of the LSA update information:
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Router(config)# router ospfv3 1
Router(config-router)# manet cache acknowledgment 2000
Router(config-router)# manet cache update 2000
Router(config-router)# ^Z
Router# show ospfv3 1
Routing Process "ospfv3 1" with ID 172.27.76.13
Supports IPv6 Address Family
Event-log enabled, Maximum number of events: 1000, Mode: cyclic
Initial SPF schedule delay 1000 msecs
Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPFs 2000 msecs
Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPFs 2000 msecs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs
Minimum LSA arrival 1000 msecs
LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Graceful restart helper support enabled
Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
Relay willingness value is 128
Pushback timer value is 2000 msecs
Relay acknowledgement timer value is 1000 msecs
LSA cache Enabled : current count 0, maximum 2000
ACK cache Enabled : current count 0, maximum 2000
Selective Peering is not enabled
Hello requests and responses will be sent multicast
Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 2 times
Number of LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x0116AD
Number of DCbitless LSA 0
Number of indication LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
Flood list length 0
The lines that begin with "LSA cache Disabled" and "ACK cache Disabled" contain the cache size
information.
Related Commands
Command
Description
timers manet
Configures MANET timer parameters.
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Command Reference
manet hello unicast
manet hello unicast
To configure whether MANET hello requests and responses are sent as unicast packets or multicast
packets use the manet hello unicast command in router-configuration mode. To return to multicast
MANET hello requests, use the no form of this command.
manet hello unicast
no manet hello unicast
Syntax Description
unicast
Command Default
The default is multicast manet hello requests.
Command Modes
Router configuration (config-rtr)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
For broadcast radios, multicast mode typically provides improved performance with reduced bandwidth
utilization. For point-to-point radios, unicast mode typically provides improved performance and
reduced bandwidth utilization.
Note
Examples
Configures manet hello requests and responses to send in unicast.
For optimal performance, configure all nodes consistently.
The following example shows how to configure the manet hello unicast command.
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# router ospfv3 1
Router(config-rtr)# manet hello unicast
Router(config-rtr)# end
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Appendix A
Command Reference
manet peering selective
manet peering selective
To enable selective peering on a per-area or per-interface basis and configure the maximum number of
redundant paths to each neighbor, use the manet peering selective command in router-configuration
mode. To disable selective MANET peering, use the no form of this command.
manet peering selective [redundancy redundancy-count] [per-interface]
no manet peering selective
Syntax Description
redundancy
To only count redundant paths on a per-interface basis, rather than across all
interfaces.
redundancy-count
Change the preferred number of redundant paths to any given peer. The
default redundancy count if not specified is 1 (2 paths).
per-interface
To only specify the maximum number of redundant paths desired to a given
peer. The range of this value is 0-10. A value of 0 indicates only a single path
is desired.
Command Modes
Router configuration (config-rtr)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Selective peering will only be enabled for instances of the OSPF process for which the corresponding
interface have been configured with the ospfv3 network manet command.
Examples
The following example shows how to enable manet selective peering per interface with a redundancy of
10.
router(config)#router ospfv3 1
router(config-rtr)#manet peering selective per-interface redundancy 10
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Command Reference
manet willingness
manet willingness
To configure the overlapping relay willingness value on a MANET router, use the manet willingness
command in router-configuration mode. To disable a willingness value, use the no form of this command
which restores the default willingness value of 128.
manet willingness will-value
no manet willingness
Syntax Description
will-value
Defaults
The willingness default value is 128.
Command Modes
Router configuration (config-rtr)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
The willingness value range is from 0 to 255.
Willingness is a one-octet unsigned integer describing the willingness of the sender to act as an active
overlapping relay for its peers. A willingness value of 100 is less willing to become a relay than a value
of 128.
A willingness value of 0 means that the router will NEVER be chosen as an active relay by its peers. A
willingness value of 255 means that the router will ALWAYS be chosen as an active relay by its peers.
Examples
The following example shows how to control the willingness of the router to be an active relay for the
MANET network:
Router(config)# router ospfv3 100
Router(config-rtr)# manet willingness 100
Router(config-rtr)# end
Router# show ospfv3 100
Routing Process "ospfv3 100" with ID 5.5.5.5
Supports IPv6 Address Family
Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
It is an autonomous system boundary router
Redistributing External Routes from,
connected
SPF schedule delay 1 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 1 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
Number of external LSA 3. Checksum Sum 0x00AAB6
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
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Command Reference
manet willingness
Relay willingness value is 100
Pushback timer value is 2000 msecs
Relay acknowledgement timer value is 1000 msecs
LSA cache Enabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
ACK cache Enabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
Selective Peering is not enabled
Hello requests and responses will be sent multicast
Area BACKBONE(0)
Number of interfaces in this area is 1
SPF algorithm executed 2 times
Number of LSA 6. Checksum Sum 0x02D90A
Number of DCbitless LSA 0
Number of indication LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
Flood list length 0
Related Commands
Command
Description
show ospfv3
Displays general information about OSPF routing processes.
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Command Reference
mode
mode
To enable VMI to support multicast traffic, use the mode command in interface-configuration mode. To
return the interface to the default mode (aggregate), use the no form of this command.
mode {aggregate | bypass}
no mode {aggregate | bypass}
Syntax Description
aggregate
Keyword to set the mode to aggregate. All virtual-access interfaces created by
PPPoE neighbor sessions are logically aggregated under the VMI.
bypass
Keyword to set the mode to bypass.
Command Default
The default mode is aggregate.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(15)XF
This command was introduced.
12.4(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T to support
multicast traffic on Virtual Multipoint Interfaces (VMIs).
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to support multicast traffic in router-to-radio configurations.
Aggregate Mode
Aggregate mode is the default mode for VMI, where VMI aggregates all virtual-access interfaces
logically. To enable VMI to forward packets to the correct virtual-access interface, you must define
applications such as EIGRP and OSPFv3 (all applications above Layer 2) on VMI.
Bypass Mode
Using bypass mode is recommended for multicast applications.
In bypass mode, the virtual-access interfaces are directly exposed to applications running above Layer2.
In bypass mode, definition of a VMI is still required because the VMI continues to manage presentation
of cross-layer signals such as neighbor up, neighbor down, and metrics. However, applications will still
be aware on the actual underlying virtual-access interfaces and send packets to them directly.
Using bypass mode can cause databases in the applications to be larger because knowledge of more
interfaces are required for normal operation.
After you enter the mode command, Cisco recommends that you copy the running configuration to
NVRAM because the default mode of operation for VMI is to logically aggregate the virtual-access
interfaces.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
mode
Examples
The following examples set the interface mode to bypass:
Router# enable
Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Router(config-if)# mode bypass
The following example shows how to enable Multicast Support on a VMI Interface:
Note
Enabling Multicast on VMI interfaces includes changing the VMI interface to bypass mode and
enabling "ip pim" on the virtual-template interface.
!
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address 4.3.3.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
no keepalive
ip pim sparse-dense-mode
service-policy output FQ
!
!
interface vmi1
ip address 4.3.9.1 255.255.255.0
load-interval 30
physical-interface FastEthernet0/0
mode bypass
!
end
Related Commands
Command
Description
interface vmi
Creates a VMI interface.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 area
ospfv3 area
To attach an interface to a specific OSPFv3 area and enable routing of IPv6 network traffic using IPv4
or IPv6 addresses, use the ospfv3 area command in interface-configuration mode. To detach the
interface from the OSPFv3 area, use the no form of this command.
ospfv3 process-id area area-number {ipv4 | ipv6} [instance instance-number]
no ospfv3 [process-id] area area-number {ipv4 | ipv6} instance instance-number
Syntax Description
process-id
OSPFv3 process ID. This ID number must match the process ID used in the
router OSPFv3 global configuration command. The process-id is not optional
in the ospfv3 area command.
area area-number
Keyword and area number to specify OSPF area for the OSPF process-id.
ipv4
Keyword to define that the OSPFv3 instance that will use IPv4 routing tables
to route IPv6 traffic.
ipv6
Keyword to define that the OSPFv3 instance that will use IPv6 routing tables
to route IPv6 traffic
instance
instance-number
(Optional) Keyword to specify an OSPFv3 instance with instance number. The
valid instance number can range from 0 to 31 of IPv6 address families and 64
to 95 for IPv4 address families. The default IPv6 instance is 0. The default
instance for IPv4 is 64.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
You must enter this command to attach an interface to a specific OSPFv3 process and instance. After you
have attached an interface to a specific OSPFv3 process and interface, you can enter other OSPFv3
characteristics.
An interface can only support one IPv4 address family process and one IPv6 address family process at
the same time.
Examples
The following example shows a typical configuration with both IPv6 and IPv4 routing in OSPF that use
the default instance numbers.
Router(config)# interface ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)# ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 1 area 0 ipv6
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 2 area 0 ipv4
Router(config-if)#
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Appendix A
Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic
ospfv3 cost dynamic
To specify that the OSPF cost associated with a path on an interface is dynamic, use the ospfv3 cost
dynamic command in interface-configuration mode.
ospfv3 [process-id] cost dynamic
Syntax Description
process-id
Command Default
By default, MANET interfaces are set to use dynamic costs. Non-MANET networks are set to use static
costs
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to
65535.
To reset the OSPF cost associated with an interface to a static cost, enter the OSPFv3 cost command.
When the network type is set to MANET, the OSPF cost associated with an interface automatically sets
to dynamic. All other network types, keep the interface cost, and you must enter the ospfv3 cost
dynamic command to change the cost to dynamic.
Examples
The following example shows how to configure the OSPFv3 instance 4 to use dynamic costing for the
OSPF interface:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 4 cost dynamic
Router(config-if)# exit
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 cost dynamic
default
Configure default metric value to use until metric information is received
from the radio.
ospfv3 cost hysteresis
Dampen cost changes.
ospfv3 cost dynamic
weight
Amount of impact a link metric change has on the dynamic cost.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic
Command
Description
show ospfv3 interface
Displays information on the OSPFv3 interfaces.
show ospfv3 neighbor
manet
Displays information on costs for MANET networks.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic default
ospfv3 cost dynamic default
To specify that the OSPF interface cost associated as dynamic, but use a static value until link metric
data arrive, use the ospfv3 cost dynamic default command in interface-configuration mode. To reset the
interface cost, use the no form of this command.
ospfv3 [process-id] cost dynamic default interface-cost
no ospfv3 [process-id] cost dynamic default
Syntax Descriptionz
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
interface-cost
OSPF interface cost to use until mink metric data arrive. Valid values range
from 0 to 65535.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
For a MANET interface, if you do not specify a default dynamic cost, OSPF uses the interface cost until
it receives link metric data.
Examples
The following example shows how to configure the OSPFv3 instance 4 to use 30 as the default cost until
link metric data arrive for dynamic costing:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 4 cost dynamic default 30
Router(config-if)# exit
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 cost hysteresis
Dampen cost changes.
ospfv3 cost dynamic
weight
Amount of impact a link metric change has on the dynamic cost.
show ospfv3 interface
Displays information on the OSPFv3 interfaces.
show ospfv3 neighbor
manet
Displays information on costs for MANET networks.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic hysteresis
ospfv3 cost dynamic hysteresis
To enable cost dynamic hysteresis, use the ospfv3 cost dynamic hysteresis command in
interface-configuration mode. To disable cost dynamic hysteresis use the no form of this command.
ospfv3 [process-id] cost dynamic hysteresis [threshold threshold_value | percent percent_value]
no ospfv3 [process-id] cost dynamic hysteresis [threshold threshold_value | percent
percent_value]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be
any positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 0 to
65535.
percent percent-value
(Optional) Configure threshold by percentage.The percent-value can
range from 0 to 100.
threshold threshold-value
(Optional) Cost change threshold at which hysteresis will be
implemented. The threshold range is from 0 to 64K, and the default
threshold value is 10K.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
The percent percent-value option was added in this version.
12.4(15)T
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to dampen the frequency of OSPFv3 route cost changes due to small changes in link
metrics. The threshold option specifies the magnitude of change in cost before OSPFv3 is notified. The
percent option specifies the change relative to the original cost necessary before OSPFv3 is notified.
The no ospfv3 cost dynamic hysteresis command disables cost dynamic hysteresis. The no ospfv3 cost
dynamic hysteresis command with the threshold or percent keywords leaves hysteresis enabled and
returns the type and value to their defaults.
If hysteresis is enabled without a mode, the default mode is threshold and the default threshold-value
is 10.
The higher the threshold or percent value is set, the larger the change in link quality required to change
OSPF route costs.
Examples
The following example sets the cost dynamic hysteresis to 10 percent for OSPFv3 process 4:
Router(config)# interface vmi1
Router(config-if)# ospfv3 4 cost dynamic hysteresis percent 10
Router(config-if)# end
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Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic hysteresis
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 cost dynamic
default
Configure default metric value to use until metric information is
received from the radio.
ospfv3 cost dynamic
weight
Amount of impact a link metric change has on the dynamic cost.
show ospfv3 interface
Displays information on the OSPFv3 interfaces.
show ospfv3 neighbor
manet
Displays information on costs for MANET networks.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic weight
ospfv3 cost dynamic weight
When dynamic cost is configured, OSPF route cost is calculated from a set of link metrics. To change
how each link metric affects route cost, use the ospfv3 cost dynamic weight command in
interface-configuration mode. The no version of this command sets the weight to the default weight for
the specified metric.
ospfv3 process-id cost dynamic weight [threshold threshold_value | percent percent_value]
no ospfv3 process-id cost dynamic weight [threshold threshold_value | percent percent_value]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
throughput percent
Throughput weight of the Layer 2 link, expressed as a percentage. The
percent value can be in the range from 0 to 100. The default value is 100.
resources percent
Resources weight (such as battery life) of the router at the Layer 2 link,
expressed as a percentage. The percent value can range from 0 to 100. The
default value is 100.
latency percent
Latency weight of the Layer 2 link, expressed as a percentage. The percent
value can range from 0 to 100. The default value is 100.
L2-factor percent
Quality weight of the Layer 2 link expressed as a percentage. The percent
value can range from 0 to 100. The default value is 100.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
The default weight for throughput, resources, latency, and L 2-factor is 100%.
The higher the threshold or percent value is set, the larger the change in link quality required to change
OSPF route costs.
Examples
The following example sets the cost dynamic weight for latency to 20%:
Router(config)#interface vmi1
Router(config-if)#ospfv3 4 cost dynamic weight latency 20
Router(config-if)#end
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Appendix A
Command Reference
ospfv3 cost dynamic weight
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 cost dynamic
default
Configure default metric value to use until metric information is received
from the radio.
ospfv3 cost hysteresis
Dampen cost changes.
show ospfv3 interface
Displays information on the OSPFv3 interfaces including weights.
show ospfv3 neighbor
manet
Displays information on costs for MANET networks.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 dead-interval
ospfv3 dead-interval
To set the time period for which hello packets must not be seen before neighbors declare the router down,
use the ospfv3 dead-interval command in interface-configuration mode. To return to the default time,
use the no form of this command.
ospfv3 [process-id] dead-interval seconds
no ospfv3 [process-id] dead-interval
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
seconds
Specifies the interval (in seconds). The value must be the same for all nodes
on the network.
Command Default
The default interval is four times the interval set by the ospfv3 hello-interval command.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
If no hello-interval is specified, the default dead-interval is 120 second for MANETs and 40 seconds for
all other network types.
The interval is advertised in router hello packets. This value must be the same for all routers and access
servers on a specific network.
Examples
The following example sets the OSPF dead interval to 60 seconds for OSPFv3 process 6:
Router(config)#interface etherinet1/0
Router(config-if)#ospfv3 6 dead-interval 60
Router(config-if)#end
Router#
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 hello-interval
Specifies the interval between hello packets that the Cisco IOS software
sends on the interface.
ospfv3 network
Specifies the network type for the interface
show ospfv3 interface Displays information about the OSPFv3 parameters for an interface,
including the dead-interval.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 hello-interval
ospfv3 hello-interval
To specify the interval between hello packets that the Cisco IOS software sends on the interface where
the OSPFv3 address family is defined, use the ospfv3 hello-interval command in
interface-configuration mode. To return to the default time, use the no form of this command.
ospfv3 [process-id] hello-interval seconds
no ospfv3 [process-id] hello-interval
Syntax Description
Defaults
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
seconds
Specifies the interval (in seconds). The value must be the same for all
nodes on a specific network. The range is from 1 to 65535.
30 seconds for MANETs
10 seconds for all other network types
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
This value is advertised in the hello packets. The smaller the hello interval, the faster topological changes
will be detected, but more routing traffic will ensue. This value must be the same for all routers and
access servers on a specific network.
Examples
The following example sets the interval between hello packets to 15 seconds for OSPFv3 process 4:
Router(config)#interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)#ospfv3 4 hello-interval 15
Router(config-if)#end
Router#
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 dead-interval
Sets the time period for which hello packets must not have been seen
before neighbors declare the router down.
show ospfv3 interface
Displays information about the OSPFv3 parameters for an interface,
including the hello-interval.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 manet peering cost
ospfv3 manet peering cost
Use selective peering to minimize the full neighbor adjacencies in a MANET. To set a minimum cost
change threshold necessary before a new neighbor is considered for selective peering, use the ospfv3
manet peering cost command in interface-configuration mode. To exclude cost considerations from the
selective peering decision, use the no form of this command.
ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering cost {threshold threshold_value | percent percent_value}
no ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering cost
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to
65535.
threshold threshold-value
Absolute improvement in cost relative (relative to current cost)
necessary to consider a new neighbor for selective peering. Valid
values range from 0 to 65535.
percent percent-value
Configure threshold by percentage.The percent-value can range from
0 to 100.
Command Default
The default MANET peering cost is 0. No incremental improvement in route cost is required to consider
selective peering with a new neighbor.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command Modes
Usage Guidelines
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
When selective peering is configured at a given redundancy level, the first 50% of redundant paths do
not consider the cost change threshold associated with this command. This allows a minimum OSPFv3
topology to be established in high cost networks.
For example, if you configure selective peering to have a redundancy level of 3 (a total of four paths
allowed), the first two neighbors are considered for selective peering, regardless of the neighbor cost.
Only the subsequent paths are held to the relative cost change requirements.
Examples
The following example shows how to set the MANET peering cost threshold to 3000.
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface Ethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#ospfv3 4 manet peering cost threshold 3000
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Command Reference
ospfv3 manet peering cost
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 manet peering OSPF may be configured to not respond until metrics and link cost are
link-metrics
known.
manet peering
selective
Used to enable selective peering on a per-area or per-interface basis and
configure the maximum number of redundant paths to each neighbor.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 manet peering link-metrics
ospfv3 manet peering link-metrics
To configure and OSPFv3 process to wait for link metrics from a neighbor before attempting selective
peering with that neighbor, use the ospfv3 manet peering link-metrics command in
interface-configuration mode. The threshold value specifies a minimum incremental improvement over
the existing OSPFv3 route cost before attempting selective peering. The no version of the command
disables the requirement to wait for link metrics before attempting selective peering.
ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering link-metrics threshold
no ospfv3 [process-id] manet peering link-metrics
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
threshold-value
Absolute improvement in OSPFv3 route cost derived from link metrics
necessary to begin selective peering process with neighbor. Valid values
range from 0 to 65535.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
CommandHistory
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
By default, selective peering does not require initial link metrics. If you enter this command without a
specified threshold, the default threshold is 0.
Examples
The following example shows how to set the peering link metrics threshold to 3000 for OSPFv3
process 4.
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface Ethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#ospfv3 4 manet peering link-metrics 3000
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 manet peering
cost
Set peering cost for OSPFv3 process
manet peering selective
Enable selective peering on a per-area or per-interface basis and configure
the maximum number of redundant paths to each neighbor.
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Command Reference
ospfv3 network
ospfv3 network
To configure the OSPFv3 network type to a type other than the default for a given medium, use the
ospfv3 network command in interface-configuration mode. To return to the default value, use the no
form of this command.
ospfv3 [process-id] network {broadcast | non-broadcast | {point-to-multipoint [non-broadcast]
| point-to-point | manet}
no ospfv3 [process-id] network
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be
any positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to
65535.
network broadcast
Sets the network type to broadcast.
network manet
Sets the network type to MANET.
network non-broadcast
Sets the network type to Non Broadcast Multi Access (NBMA).
network point-to-multipoint
[non-broadcast]
Sets the network type to point-to-multipoint. The optional
non-broadcast keyword sets the point-to-multipoint network to
non-broadcast. If you use the non-broadcast keyword, the neighbor
command is required.
network point-to-point
Sets the network type to point-to-point.
Defaults
The default network type is broadcast.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
MANET Networks
Use the ospfv3 network manet command to enable relaying and caching of LSA updates and LSA
ACKs on the MANET interface. This will result in a reduction of OSPF traffic and save radio bandwidth
By default, selective peering is disabled on MANET interfaces.
By default, the OSPFv3 dynamic cost timer is enabled for the MANET network type, as well as caching
of LSAs and LSA ACKs received on the MANET interface. The following default values are applied for
cache and timers:
LSA cache
Default = 1000 messages
LSA timer
Default = 10 minutes
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Command Reference
ospfv3 network
LSA ACK cache
Default = 1000 messages
LSA ACK timer
Default = 5 minutes
NBMA Networks
Using this feature, you can configure broadcast networks as NBMA networks when, for example, routers
in your network do not support multicast addressing. You can also configure non-broadcast multiaccess
networks (such as X.25, Frame Relay, and Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS)) as broadcast
networks. This feature saves you from needing to configure neighbors.
Configuring NBMA networks as either broadcast or non-broadcast assumes that there are virtual circuits
from every router to every router or fully meshed network. There are other configurations where this
assumption is not true, for example, a partially meshed network. In these cases, you can configure the
OSPF network type as a point-to-multipoint network. Routing between two routers that are not directly
connected will go through the router that has virtual circuits to both routers. You need not configure
neighbors when using this feature.
If this command is issued on an interface that does not allow it, this command will be ignored.
Point-to-Multipoint Networks
OSPF has two features related to point-to-multipoint networks. One feature applies to broadcast
networks; the other feature applies to non-broadcast networks:
Related Commands
•
On point-to-multipoint broadcast networks, you can use the neighbor command, and you must
specify a cost to that neighbor.
•
On point-to-multipoint non-broadcast networks, you must use the neighbor command to identify
neighbors. Assigning a cost to a neighbor is optional.
Command
Description
ospfv3 cost dynamic
default
Configure default metric value to use until metric information is received
from the radio.
ospfv3 cost hysteresis
Dampen cost changes.
ospfv3 cost dynamic
weight
Amount of impact a link metric change has on the dynamic cost.
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Command Reference
physical-interface
physical-interface
To associate physical interfaces with the VMI on a router, use the physical-interface command
command in interface-configuration mode. To remove the interface associated interface, use the no form
of this command.
physical-interface interface-type/slot
no physical-interface
Syntax Description
interface-type
Specifies the type of interface or subinterface; value can be Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, or Gigabit Ethernet.
slot
Indicates the slot in which the interface is present.
Command Default
No physical interface exists.
Command Modes
Interface configuration (config-if)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(15)XF
This command was introduced.
12.4(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T to support
VMIs in Mobile Ad Hoc Router-to-Radio Networks.
Usage Guidelines
Use the physical-interface command to create a physical subinterface.
Only one physical interface can be assigned to a VMI interface. Because a very high number of VMI
interfaces can be used, assign a new VMI for each physical interface.
Examples
The following examples shows how to configure the physical interface for vmi1 to FastEthernet0/1.
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface wmi1
Router(config-router-if)#physical-interface FastEthernet0/1
Router(config-router-if)#exit
Router(config)#
Related Commands
Command
Description
interface vmi
Creates a VMI interface.
mode bypass
Enables VMI to support multicast traffic
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Command Reference
router ospfv3
router ospfv3
To enter router configuration mode and enable an OSPFv3 routing process to route IPv6 or IPv4
address-family traffic in IPv6 networks, use the router ospfv3 command in global configuration mode.
To terminate an OSPFv3 routing process, use the no form of this command.
router ospfv3 process-id
no router ospfv3 process-id
Syntax Description
process-id
Defaults
No OSPFv3 routing process is defined.
Command Modes
Global configuration
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be
any positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to
65535.
You can specify multiple IP OSPFv3 routing processes in each router.The router ospfv3 command must
be followed by the address-family command for routing of IPv6 traffic to occur.
Each OSPFv3 routing process must have a unique router ID. If a router ID is not configured manually
(using the router-id A.B.C.D command), Cisco IOS attempts to auto-generate a router ID for this
process from the IPv4 address of a configured interface. If Cisco IOS cannot generate a unique router-id,
the OSPFv3 process remains inactive.
When you use the no form of the global router ospfv3 process-id command, the associated interface
configuration ospfv3 process-id command is automatically removed from your configuration.
Examples
The following example configures an OSPF routing process and assign a process number of 4:
Router(config)# router ospfv3 4
Router(config-router)# router-id 1.1.1.1
Router(config-router)#address-family ipv4 unicast
Router(config-router)#exit
Router(config)#
Related Commands
Command
Description
ospfv3 area
Defines the interfaces on which OSPFv3 runs and defines the area ID
for those interfaces.
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Command Reference
show dlep clients
show dlep clients
To display router-to-radio peer associations, use the show dlep clients command in privileged EXEC
mode.
show dlep clients [FastEthernet | Vlan] [peer-id]
Syntax Description
peer-id
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(4) GC
This command was introduced.
Peer ID with valid range from 1 to 2147483647
Usage Guidelines
Use the show dlep clients command to display router-to-radio peer associations.
Examples
The following example shows how to display router-to-radio peer associations on all interfaces:
Router# show dlep clients
DLEP Clients for all interfaces:
DLEP Clients for Interface FastEthernet0/1
DLEP Server IP=12.12.12.101:55555 Sock=1
DLEP Client IP=12.12.12.7:38681
Peer ID=1, Virtual template=1
Description: DLEP_Radio_Sim_1
Peer Timers (all values in seconds):
Heartbeat=10, Dead Interval=40, Terminate ACK=10
Neighbor Timers (all values in seconds):
Activity timeout=0, Neighbor Down ACK=10
Related Commands
Command
Description
show dlep config
Displays the DLEP server configuration.
show dlep neighbors
Displays neighbor sessions on the specified interface.
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Command Reference
show dlep config
show dlep config
To display the DLEP server configuration, use the show dlep config command in privileged EXEC
mode.
show dlep config interface [interface-type interface-number]
Syntax Description
interface
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(4) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
FastEthernet or Vlan
Use the show dlep config command to display the DLEP server configuration.
Display DLEP server configuration example
The following example shows how to display the DLEP server configuration:
Router# show dlep config
DLEP Configuration for FastEthernet0/1
DLEP Server IP=12.12.12.101:55555
Virtual template=1
Timers (all values are in seconds):
Missed heartbeat threshold=4, Peer Terminate ACK timeout=10
Neighbor activity timeout=0, Neighbor Down ACK timeout=10
Related Commands
Command
Description
show dlep clients
Displays router-to-radio peer associations.
show dlep neighbors
Displays neighbor sessions on the specified interface.
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Command Reference
show dlep counters
show dlep counters
To display DLEP counters, use the show dlep counters command in privileged EXEC mode.
show dlep counters [vmi-interface]
Syntax Description
vmi-interface
Command Default
If no arguments are specified, counters on all VMI interfaces with DLEP configured are displayed.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Examples
(Optional) Interface where DLEP is configured.
The following is example output from the show dlep counters command used to display input and
output DLEP counts on the gigabitEthernet interface:
Router# show dlep counters gigabitEthernet 0/1.5
Peer Counters:
RX Peer Discovery
RX Heartbeat
RX Peer Terminate
RX Peer Terminate Ack
0
22
0
0
TX
TX
TX
TX
Neighbor Counters:
RX Neighbor Up
RX Metric
RX Neighbor Down
RX Neighbor Down Ack
0
27
0
0
TX Neighbor Up Ack
0
TX Neighbor Down Ack
TX Neighbor Down
0
0
Exception Counters:
RX Invalid Message
0
Pre-Existing Neighbor 0
Neighbor Not Found
0
RX Unknown Message
Neighbor Resource Error
Neighbor Msg Peer Not Up
0
0
0
Timer Counters:
Peer Heartbeat Timer
Peer Terminate Ack Timer
Neighbor Terminate Ack Timer
Neighbor Activity Timer
22
0
0
0
Peer Offer
Heartbeat
Peer Terminate Ack
Peer Terminate
0
22
0
0
Router#
Table A-9 describes the significant count definitions in the show dlep counters command display.
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Command Reference
show dlep counters
Table A-1
show dlep counters Count Definitions
Count
Definition
Peer Counter
RX Peer Discovery
Number of receive Peer Discovery messages.
TX Peer Offer
Number of transmit Peer Offer messages.
RX Heartbeat
Number of receive Heartbeat messages.
TX Heartbeat
Number of transmit Heartbeat messages.
RX Peer Terminate
Number of receive Peer Terminate messages.
TX Peer Terminate Ack
Number of transmit Peer Terminate acknowledgement messages.
RX Peer Terminate Ack
Number of receive Peer Terminate acknowledgement messages.
TX Peer Terminate
Number of transmit Peer Terminate messages.
Neighbor Counter
RX Neighbor Up
Number of receive Neighbor Up messages.
TX Neighbor Up Ack
Number of transmit Neighbor Up acknowledgement messages.
RX Metric
Number of receive Metric messages.
RX Neighbor Down
Number of receive Neighbor Down messages.
TX Neighbor Down Ack
Number of transmit Neighbor Down acknowledgement
messages.
RX Neighbor Down Ack
Number of receive Neighbor Down acknowledgement messages.
TX Neighbor Down
Number of transmit Neighbor Down messages.
Exception Counters
RX Invalid Message
Number of messages received of a type not expected.
RX Unknown Message
Number of messages received of unknown type.
Preexisting Neighbor
Number of messages received on a preexisting neighbor.
Neighbor Resource
Number of resource errors during a neighbor operation.
Neighbor Not Found
Number of messages received for a non-existent neighbor.
Neighbor Msg Peer Not Up
Number of neighbor messages received when the peer state was
down.
Timer Counters
Peer Heartbeat Timer
Number of timer expirations for Peer Heartbeat.
Peer Terminate Ack Timer
Number of timer expirations for Peer Terminate
acknowledgement.
Neighbor Terminate Ack Timer
Number of timer expirations for Neighbor Terminate
acknowledgements.
Neighbor Activity Timer
Number of timer expirations for Neighbor Activity.
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Command Reference
show dlep neighbors
show dlep neighbors
To display neighbor sessions on the specified interface, use the show dlep neighbors command in
privileged EXEC mode.
show dlep neighbors interface
Syntax Description
interface
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
FastEthernet or Vlan
Use the show dlep neighbors command to display the established neighbor sessions.
Display neighbors example
The following example shows how to display the established neighbor sessions on all interfaces:
Router# show dlep neighbors
DLEP Neighbors for all interfaces:
DLEP Neighbors for Interface FastEthernet0/1
DLEP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
Global Session ID=101
MAC Address: 1122.3344.5566
Vlan ID: 0
Metrics: rlq=100 resources=100 latency=10 milliseconds
cdr=100000 Kbps mdr=100000 Kbps
Related Commands
Command
Description
show dlep clients
Displays router-to-radio peer associations.
show dlep config
Displays the DLEP server configuration.
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Command Reference
show ip eigrp neighbors
show ip eigrp neighbors
To display neighbors discovered by Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), use the show
ip eigrp neighbors command in EXEC mode.
show ip eigrp neighbors [interface-type | as-number | static | detail]
Syntax Description
interface-type
(Optional) Filters that output by interface.
as-number
(Optional) Filters that output by autonomous system number.
static
(Optional) Displays static routes.
detail
(Optional) Displays detailed neighbor information.
Command Modes
USER EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
10.3
This command was introduced.
12.0(7)T
The static keyword was added.
12.2(15)T
Support for NSF restart operations was integrated into the output.
12.2(33)SRA
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.
Usage Guidelines
Use the show ip eigrp neighbors command to determine when neighbors become active and inactive.
The show ip eigrp neighbors command is also useful for debugging certain types of transport problems.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ip eigrp neighbors command:
Router# show ip eigrp neighbors
P-EIGRP Neighbors for process 77
Address
Interface
172.16.81.28
172.16.80.28
172.16.80.31
Ethernet1
Ethernet0
Ethernet0
Holdtime
(secs)
13
14
12
Uptime
(h:m:s)
0:00:41
0:02:01
0:02:02
Q
Count
0
0
0
Seq
Num
11
10
4
SRTT
(ms)
4
12
5
RTO
(ms)
20
24
20
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Command Reference
show ip redirects
show ip redirects
To display the address of a default gateway (router) and the address of hosts for which an ICMP redirect
message has been received, use the show ip redirects command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC
mode.
show ip redirects
Command Modes
User EXEC
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Usage Guidelines
Release
Modification
10.0
This command was introduced.
12.2(33)SRA
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.
12.2SX
This command is supported in the Cisco IOS Release 12.2SX train. Support
in a specific 12.2SX release of this train depends on your feature set,
platform, and platform hardware.
This command displays the default router (gateway) as configured by the ip default-gateway command.
The ip mtu command enables the router to send ICMP redirect messages.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ip redirects command:
Router# show ip redirects
Default gateway is 172.16.80.29
Host
Gateway
172.16.1.111
172.16.80.240
172.16.1.4
172.16.80.240
Related Commands
Last Use
0:00
0:00
Total Uses Interface
9 Ethernet0
4 Ethernet0
Command
Description
ip default-gateway
Defines a default gateway (router) when IP routing is disabled.
ip mtu
Enables the sending of ICMP redirect messages if the Cisco IOS software
is forced to resend a packet through the same interface on which it was
received.
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Command Reference
show ipv6 eigrp neighbors
show ipv6 eigrp neighbors
To display the neighbors discovered by EIGRP for IPv6, use the show ipv6 eigrp neighbors command
in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
show ipv6 eigrp neighbors [interface-type | as-number | static | detail]
Syntax Description
Command Modes
interface-type
(Optional) Interface type.
as-number
(Optional) Autonomous system number.
static
(Optional) Displays static routes.
detail
(Optional) Displays detailed neighbor information.
User EXEC
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(6)T
This command was introduced.
12.2(33)SRB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRB.
12.2(33)SXH
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.
Usage Guidelines
Use the show ipv6 eigrp neighbors command to determine when neighbors become active and inactive.
It is also useful for debugging certain types of transport problems.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ipv6 eigrp neighbors command:
Router# show ipv6 eigrp neighbors
IPv6-EIGRP neighbors for process 1
H Address
Interface
0 Link-local address:
FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:200
Et0/0
Hold
(sec)
14
Uptime
SRTT
(ms)
00:00:13
11
RTO
Q
Cnt
200
0
Seq
Num
2
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Appendix A
Command Reference
show ospfv3
show ospfv3
To display information about one or more OSPFv3 routing processes, use the show ospfv3 command in
user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
show ospfv3 [process-id]
Syntax Description
process-id
Command Modes
User EXEC
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
The syntax for the command changed from show IPv6 OSPF to show ospfv3.
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any positive
integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively when OSPF
routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
This output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6 address
family information.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 command:
Router# show ospfv3 100
Routing Process "ospfv3 100" with ID 5.5.5.5
Supports IPv4 Address Family
Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
It is an autonomous system boundary router
Redistributing External Routes from,
connected
SPF schedule delay 1 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 1 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
LSA group pacing timer 240 secs
Interface flood pacing timer 33 msecs
Retransmission pacing timer 66 msecs
Number of external LSA 2. Checksum Sum 0x01C812
Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
Reference bandwidth unit is 100 mbps
Relay willingness value is 128
Pushback timer value is 2000 msecs
Relay acknowledgement timer value is 1000 msecs
LSA cache Enabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
ACK cache Enabled : current count 0, maximum 1000
Selective Peering is enabled per node
Redundancy level: 1
Peering delay timer: 250 msecs
Hello requests and responses will be sent multicast
Area BACKBONE(0)
Number of interfaces in this area is 4
SPF algorithm executed 13 times
Number of LSA 6. Checksum Sum 0x0208A7
Number of DCbitless LSA 0
Number of indication LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
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Command Reference
show ospfv3
Flood list length 0
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 database
show ospfv3 database
To display the contents of the OSPFv3 Link State Advertisement (LSA) database, or selective parts
thereof, use the show ospfv3 database command in privileged EXEC mode. The various forms of this
command deliver information about different OSPF LSAs.
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [adv-router [router-id]]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [database-summary]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [external [link-state-id] [adv-router | internal |
self-originate] [ipv6-address]]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [inter-area prefix [link-state-id] [adv-router |
internal | self-originate] | [ipv6-address]]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [inter-area router [link-state-id] [adv-router |
internal | self-originate] | [destination-router-id]]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [link] [link-state-id] [adv-router | internal |
self-originate] [interface [interface-name]]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [network] [link-state-id] [adv-router | internal |
self-originate]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [nssa-external [link-state-id] [adv-router | internal
| self-originate] | [ipv6-address]]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [prefix] [link-state-id] [adv-router | internal |
self-originate] [router | network]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [promiscuous]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [router] [adv-router | internal | self-originate]
[link-state-id]
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] database [self-originate] [link-state-id]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be
any positive integer. The number used here may be assigned
administratively when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to
65535.
area-id
(Optional) Displays information only about a specified area of the
database.
adv-router [router-id]
(Optional) Displays all the LSAs of the specified router. This
argument must be in the form documented in RFC 2740 where the
address is specified in hexadecimal using 16-bit values between
colons.
database-summary
(Optional) Displays how many of each type of LSA for each area
there are in the database, and the total.
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 database
external
(Optional) Displays information only about the external LSAs.
link-state-id
(Optional) An integer used to differentiate LSAs. In network and link
LSAs, the link-state ID matches the interface index.
internal
(Optional) Internal LSA information.
self-originate
(Optional) Displays only self-originated LSAs (from the local
router).
ipv6-address
(Optional) Link-local IPv6 address of the neighbor. This argument
must be in the form documented in RFC 2373 where the address is
specified in hexadecimal using 16-bit values between colons.
destination-router-id
(Optional) The specified destination router ID.
inter-area prefix
(Optional) Displays information only about LSAs based on
inter-area prefix LSAs.
inter-area router
(Optional) Displays information only about LSAs based on
inter-area router LSAs.
link
(Optional) Displays information about the link LSAs.
interface
(Optional) Displays information about the LSAs filtered by interface
context.
interface-name
(Optional) Specifies the LSA interface.
network
(Optional) Displays information only about the network LSAs.
nssa-external
(Optional) Displays information only about the not so stubby area
(NSSA) external LSAs.
prefix
(Optional) Displays information on the intra-area-prefix LSAs.
promiscuous
(Optional) Displays temporary LSAs in a MANET environment.
ref-lsa {router | network}
(Optional) Further filters the prefix LSA type.
router
(Optional) Displays information only about the router LSAs.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.0(24)S
This command was introduced as show ipv6 OSPF database.
12.4(24)GC
The promiscuous keyword was added.
15.1(2)GC
The syntax for the command changed from show IPv6 OSPF
database to show ospfv3 database.
The output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6
address family information.
Usage Guidelines
The adv-router keyword requires a router ID. The self-originate keyword displays only those LSAs that
originated from the local router. Both of these keywords can be appended to all other keywords used with
the show ospfv3 database command to provide more detailed information.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
show ospfv3 database
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 database command when no arguments or
keywords are used:
Router# show ospfv3 database
OSPFv3 Router with ID (172.16.4.4) (Process ID 1)
Router Link States (Area 0)
ADV Router
172.16.4.4
172.16.6.6
Age
239
239
Seq#
0x80000003
0x80000003
Fragment ID
0
0
Link count
1
1
Bits
B
B
Inter Area Prefix Link States (Area 0)
ADV Router
172.16.4.4
172.16.4.4
172.16.6.6
172.16.6.6
172.16.6.6
Age
249
219
247
193
82
Seq#
0x80000001
0x80000001
0x80000001
0x80000001
0x80000001
Prefix
FEC0:3344::/32
FEC0:3366::/32
FEC0:3366::/32
FEC0:3344::/32
FEC0::/32
Inter Area Router Link States (Area 0)
ADV Router
172.16.4.4
172.16.6.6
Age
219
193
Seq#
0x80000001
0x80000001
Link ID
50529027
50529027
Dest RtrID
172.16.3.3
172.16.3.3
Link (Type-8) Link States (Area 0)
ADV Router
172.16.4.4
172.16.6.6
Age
242
252
Seq#
0x80000002
0x80000002
Link ID
14
14
Interface
PO4/0
PO4/0
Intra Area Prefix Link States (Area 0)
ADV Router
172.16.4.4
172.16.6.6
Age
242
252
Seq#
0x80000002
0x80000002
Link ID
0
0
Ref-lstype
0x2001
0x2001
Ref-LSID
0
0
Table A-2 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table A-2
show ospfv3 database Field Descriptions
Field
Description
ADV Router
Advertising router ID.
Age
Link-state age.
Seq#
Link-state sequence number (detects old or duplicate LSAs).
Link ID
Interface ID number.
Ref-lstype
Referenced link-state type.
Ref-LSID
Referenced link-state ID.
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 flood-list
show ospfv3 flood-list
To display a list of OSPFv3 LSAs waiting to be flooded over an interface, use the show ospfv3 flood-list
command in user EXEC or privileged EXEC mode.
show ospfv3 [process-id] flood-list [interface-type interface-number]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
interface-type
Interface type over which the LSAs will be flooded.
interface-number
Interface number over which the LSAs will be flooded.
Command Modes
User EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
15.1(2)GC
The syntax for the command changed from show IPv6 OSPF flood-list
to show ospfv3 flood-list.
This output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6
address family information.
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to display OSPF packet pacing.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 flood-list command:
Router# show ospfv3 flood-list
OSPFv3 Router with ID (172.16.6.6) (Process ID 1)
Interface POS4/0, Queue length 1
Link state retransmission due in 14 msec
Type
0x2001
LS ID
0
ADV RTR
172.16.6.6
Seq NO
0x80000031
Age
0
Checksum
0x1971
Interface FastEthernet0/0, Queue length 0
Interface ATM3/0, Queue length 0
Router#
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 flood-list
Table A-3 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table A-3
show ospfv3 flood-list Field Descriptions
Field
Description
OSPFv3 Router with ID (172.16.6.6) (Process
ID 1)
Identification of the router for which information is
displayed.
Interface POS4/0
Interface for which information is displayed.
Queue length
Number of LSAs waiting to be flooded.
Link state retransmission due in
Length of time before next link-state transmission.
Type
Type of LSA.
LS ID
Link-state ID of the LSA.
ADV RTR
IP address of advertising router.
Seq NO
Sequence number of LSA.
Age
Age of LSA (in seconds).
Checksum
Checksum of LSA.
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 interface
show ospfv3 interface
To display OSPF-related interface information, use the show ospfv3 interface command in privileged
EXEC mode.
show ospfv3 [process-id] interface [interface-type interface-number] [brief]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
interface-type
interface-number
(Optional) Interface type and number.
brief
(Optional) Displays brief overview information for OSPF interfaces, states,
addresses and masks, and areas on the router.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
The syntax for the command changed from show IPv6 OSPF interface to
show ospfv3 interface.
This output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6
address family information.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 interface command:
Router# show ospfv3 interface
Ethernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Link Local Address FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:5500, Interface ID 3
Area 0, Process ID 100, Instance ID 0, Router ID 172.16.3.3
Network Type MANET, Cost: 10 (dynamic), Cost Hysteresis: Disabled
Cost Weights: Throughput 100, Resources 100, Latency 100, L2-factor 100
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_MULTIPOINT,
Timer intervals configured, Hello 5, Dead 20, Wait 20, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 00:00:01
Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
Index 1/1/1, flood queue length 0
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 2, maximum is 2
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Incremental Hello is enabled
Local SCS number 1
Relaying enabled
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 12, maximum is 12
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 interface
Adjacent with neighbor 172.16.6.6
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Router#
(Designated Router)
Table A-4 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table A-4
show ospfv3 interface Field Descriptions
Field
Description
Ethernet0/0
Status of the physical link and operational status of
protocol.
Link Local Address
Interface IPv6 address.
Area 0, Process ID 100, Instance ID 0, Router ID The area ID, process ID, instance ID, and router ID
172.16.3.3
of the area from which this route is learned.
Network Type MANET, Cost: 10 (dynamic),
Cost hysteresis: Disabled
Network type and link-state cost.
Transmit Delay
Transmit delay, interface state, and router priority.
Timer intervals configured
Configuration of timer intervals, including
hello-increment and dead-interval.
Hello due in 00:00:01
Number of seconds until the next hello packet is
sent out this interface.
Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
Indicates that LLS is supported
Last flood scan length is 2, maximum is 2
Indicates length of last flood scan and the
maximum length
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0
msec
Indicates how many milliseconds the last flood
scan occurred and the maximum time length
Neighbor Count
Count of network neighbors and list of adjacent
neighbors.
Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2
Lists the adjacent neighbor
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Indicates the number of neighbors to suppress hello
messages
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 neighbor
show ospfv3 neighbor
To display OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis, use the show ospfv3 neighbor command
in privileged EXEC mode.
The show ospfv3 neighbor command without the process-id displays OSPFv3 neighbor information for
both IPv4 and IPv6 address families for all OSPFv3 processes.
show ospfv3 [process-id] neighbor [interface-type interface-number] [neighbor-id] [detail]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively
when OSPF routing is enabled.The range is 1 to 65535.
interface-type
interface-number
(Optional) Interface type and number.
neighbor-id
(Optional) Neighbor ID.
detail
(Optional) Displays all neighbors in detail (lists all neighbors).
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
The syntax for the command changed from show IPv6 OSPF neighbor to
show ospfv3 neighbor.
This output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6
address family information.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 neighbor command:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor
OSPFv3 Router with ID (42.1.1.1) (Process ID 42)
Neighbor ID
Pri
State
Dead Time
Interface ID
44.4.4.4
1
FULL/ 00:00:39
12
OSPFv3 Router with ID (1.1.1.1) (Process ID 100)
Neighbor ID
Pri
State
Dead Time
4.4.4.4
1
FULL/ 00:00:35
Interface ID
12
Interface
vm1
Interface
vm1
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 neighbor command with the detail keyword:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor detail
Neighbor 42.4.4.4, interface address 4.4.4.4
In the process ID 42 area 0 via interface vmi1
Neighbor: interface-id 12, link-local address FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:5800
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes
Options is 0x000F12 in Hello (E-Bit, R-bit, AF-Bit, L-Bit, I-Bit, F-Bit)
Options is 0x000112 in DBD (E-Bit, R-bit, AF-Bit)
Dead timer due in 00:00:33
Neighbor is up for 00:09:43
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 neighbor
Index 1/1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 0
First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 0
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor is incremental Hello capable
Last known SCS number 1
Neighbor's willingness 128
We are standby relay for the neighbor
This neighbor is standby relay for us
Neighbor is running Manet Version 10
Neighbor 4.4.4.4
In the process ID 100 area 0 via interface vmi1
Neighbor: interface-id 12, link-local address FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE01:5800
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes
Options is 0x000E13 in Hello (V6-Bit, E-Bit, R-bit, L-Bit, I-Bit, F-Bit)
Options is 0x000013 in DBD (V6-Bit, E-Bit, R-bit)
Dead timer due in 00:00:37
Neighbor is up for 00:09:43
Index 1/1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 0
First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 0, maximum is 0
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor is incremental Hello capable
Last known SCS number 1
Neighbor's willingness 128
Two-hop neighbors:
5.5.5.5
We are standby relay for the neighbor
This neighbor is active relay for us
Neighbor is running Manet Version 10
Selective Peering is enabled
1 paths to this neighbor
Neighbor peering state: Slave, local peering state: Master,
Default cost metric is 0
Minimum incremental cost is 10
Table A-5 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table A-5
show ospfv3 neighbor Field Descriptions
Field
Description
Neighbor ID; Neighbor
Neighbor router ID.
In the area
Area and interface through which the OSPF neighbor is
known.
Pri; Neighbor priority
Router priority of the neighbor, neighbor state.
State
OSPF state.
State changes
Number of state changes since the neighbor was created.
Options
Hello packet options field contents. (E-bit only. Possible
values are 0 and 2; 2 indicates area is not a stub; 0 indicates
area is a stub.)
Dead timer due in
Expected time before Cisco IOS software will declare the
neighbor dead.
Neighbor is up for
Number of hours:minutes:seconds since the neighbor went
into two-way state.
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 neighbor
Table A-5
show ospfv3 neighbor Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
Index
Neighbor location in the area-wide and autonomous
system-wide retransmission queue.
retransmission queue length
Number of elements in the retransmission queue.
number of retransmission
Number of times update packets have been resent during
flooding.
First
Memory location of the flooding details.
Next
Memory location of the flooding details.
Last retransmission scan length
Number of link state advertisements (LSAs) in the last
retransmission packet.
maximum
Maximum number of LSAs sent in any retransmission
packet.
Last retransmission scan time
Time taken to build last retransmission packet.
maximum
Maximum time taken to build any retransmission packet.
Neighbor is incremental Hello capable
The MANET neighbor interface is capable of receiving
increment Hello messages.
A neighbor must be capable of sending and receiving
incremental Hello packets to be a full neighbor on a
MANET interface.
Last known SCS number 1
Indicates the last received MANET state. The State
Change Sequence number is included in the incremental
Hello packet.
Neighbor’s willingness 128
Indicates the neighbors willingness to act as an Active
Relay for this router, on a scale of 0 (not willing) to 255
(always willing).
Willingness is used as a tiebreaker when electing an Active
Relay.
We are standby relay for neighbor
Indicates that this router will not flood LSAs received from
this neighbor until one or more of our neighbors fails to
acknowledge receiving the LSA flood from another
neighbor.
Neighbor is running Manet Version 10
Indicates Manet Version number.
Routers cannot establish full adjacency unless they are
running the same Manet Version.
Two-hop neighbors
Lists the router-ids of all full neighbors of the specified
router that are not also neighbors of this router.
Selective Peering is enabled
The MANET interface has selective peering enabled.
1 paths to this neighbor
Indicates the number of unique paths to this router that
exist in the routing table.
This number may exceed the redundancy level configured
for this OSPFv3 process.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
show ospfv3 neighbor
Table A-5
show ospfv3 neighbor Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
Neighbor peering state...
Indicates which router is entitled to make the selective
peering decision.
Generally speaking, the entitled router has the smaller
number of full neighbors at the time the routers discover
each other.
Default cost metric is 0
Indicates the maximum OSPF cost to a new neighbor in
order to be considered for selective peering.
If 0, a_threshold OSPF cost is not required for
consideration.
Minimum incremental cost is 10
Indicates the minimum cost increment for the specified
interface.
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 neighbor manet
show ospfv3 neighbor manet
To display OSPF neighbor information, use the show ospfv3 neighbor manet command in privileged
EXEC mode.
The show ospfv3 neighbor manet command displays manet neighbor information.
show ospfv3 [process-id] [area-id] neighbor manet
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any positive
integer. The number used here may be assigned administratively when OSPF
routing is enabled. Valid values range from 1 to 65535.
area-id
(Optional) Identifier to display information about a specified area of the
database.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24)GC
This command was introduced.
15.1(2)GC
This output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6 address
family information.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 neighbor manet command:
Router# show ospfv3 neighbor manet
OSPFv3 Router with ID (4.4.4.4) (Process ID 4)
Area BACKBONE(0) (Inactive)
Codes: D - cost dynamic default, R - received link cost,
I - inherited from interface
Neighbor ID
2.2.2.2
State
FULL
Nbr Relay
-
10
Cost
(I)
Interface
Ethernet0/0
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Command Reference
show ospfv3 promiscuous acknowledgments
show ospfv3 promiscuous acknowledgments
To display the cache of temporary acknowledgments, use the show ospfv3 promiscuous
acknowledgments command in privileged EXEC mode.
show ospfv3 [process-id] promiscuous acknowledgments [detail]
Syntax Description
process-id
(Optional) Internal identification. It is locally assigned and can be any
positive integer. The number used here is the number assigned
administratively when the OSPF routing process is enabled. The range is 1
to 65535.
detail
(Optional) Displays all neighbors in detail (lists all neighbors).
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2)GC
The syntax for the command changed from show IPv6 OSPF promiscuous
acknowledgements to show ospfv3 promiscuous acknowledgements.
This output for this command was expanded to include IPv4 and IPv6
address family information.
Examples
The following is example output from the show ospfv3 promiscuous acknowledgments command
using the detail keyword. It The shows that the cache of temporary acknowledgements is not allocated
for the router.
Router# show ospfv3 promiscuous acknowledgements detail
OSPFv3 Router with ID (5.5.5.5) (Process ID 100), (Area 0)
Type
LS ID
ADV RTR
Seq#
0x4005 2
7.7.7.7
0x80000001
Ack received from the following router-ids:
1.1.1.1
0x4005 8
7.7.7.7
0x80000002
Ack received from the following router-ids:
7.7.7.7
4.4.4.4
6.6.6.6
0x4005 10
7.7.7.7
0x80000002
Ack received from the following router-ids:
7.7.7.7
4.4.4.4
6.6.6.6
Router#
Related Commands
Age
114
Scope
AS
2
AS
2
1.1.1.1
AS
1.1.1.1
Command
Description
show ospfv3 database
Displays lists of information related to the OSPF database for a specific
router.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
show pppoe
show pppoe
To display information about active PPPoE neighbor sessions, use the show pppoe command in
privileged EXEC mode .
show pppoe {derived group | relay [context all] | session [all | interface | packets] | summary |
throttled mac}
Syntax Description
derived group
Displays information about the cached PPPoE configuration for the specified
PPPoE group.
relay
Displays PPPoE relay information.
context all
Displays PPPoE information about all relay contexts.
session
Displays summary information about PPPoE neighbor sessions.
all
Displays detailed information on all PPPoE neighbor sessions.
interface
Displays detailed neighbor session information for the specified interface.
packets
Displays PPPoE neighbor session packet statistics.
summary
Displays summary information about PPPoE neighbor sessions.
throttled mac
Displays information about PPPoE MAC addresses that are throttled.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.0(24)S
This command was introduced.
12.3(4)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3(4)T and was
enhanced to display information about relayed PPPoE Active Discovery
(PAD) messages.
Examples
The following example shows output for the show pppoe session command:
Router# show pppoe session
1 session in LOCALLY_TERMINATED (PTA) State
1 session total
Uniq ID PPPoE RemMAC Port Source VA State
SID LocMAC VA-st
Uniq ID
PPPoE SID
RemMAC
Port
VT
VA
N/A
10
aabb.cc01.5830
Et0/3 Vt1 Vi3
State
PTA
LocMAC
VA-st
aabb.cc01.5930 UP
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Command Reference
show pppoe
Table A-6 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table A-6
show pppoe sessions Field Descriptions
Field
Description
Uniq ID
The unique identifier for the PPPoE neighbor
session.
PPPoE SID
The PPPoE neighbor session identifier.
RemMAC
Local MAC
The MAC address for remote end point of the
PPPoE neighbor session and the MAC address for
the router interface of the PPPoE neighbor session.
Port
The interface on the router in the PPPoE neighbor
session.
VT
The virtual terminal in the PPPoE neighbor
session.
VA
VA-st
The virtual access and virtual access state for the
PPPoE neighbor session.
State
The state of the PPPoE neighbor session.
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Command Reference
show pppoe derived
show pppoe derived
To display the cached PPPoE configuration that is derived from the subscriber profile for a specified
PPPoE profile, use the show pppoe derived command in privileged EXEC mode.
show pppoe derived group group-name
Syntax Description
group group-name
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.3(4)T
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
PPPoE profile for which the cached PPPoE configuration displays.
A subscriber profile can be configured locally on the router or remotely on a AAA server. The PPPoE
configuration that is derived from a subscriber profile is cached locally under the PPPoE profile. Use the
show pppoe derived command to display the cached PPPoE configuration that is derived from the
subscriber profile for a specified PPPoE profile.
A subscriber profile contains a list of PPPoE service names. The PPPoE server will advertise the service
names that are listed in the subscriber profile to each PPPoE client connection that uses the configured
PPPoE profile. A subscriber profile is assigned to a PPPoE profile by using the service profile command
in BBA group configuration mode.
Examples
The following example shows the PPPoE configuration for PPPoE profile that is derived from subscriber
profile. The services are advertised to each PPPoE client connection that uses PPPoE profile.
Router# show pppoe derived group subscriber_1
Derived configuration from subscriber profile 'subscriber_1':
Service names:
manet_radio
Related Commands
Command
Description
clear pppoe derived
Clears the cached PPPoE configuration of a PPPoE profile and forces the
PPPoE profile to reread the configuration from the assigned subscriber
profile.
pppoe service
Adds a PPPoE service name to a local subscriber profile.
service profile
Assigns a subscriber profile to a PPPoE profile.
subscriber profile
Defines Subscriber Service Switch policy for searches of a subscriber profile
database.
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Command Reference
show pppoe session
show pppoe session
To display information about currently active PPPoE neighbor sessions, use the show pppoe session
command in privileged EXEC mode.
show pppoe session [all | packets]
Syntax Description
all
(Optional) Displays detailed information about the PPPoE neighbor session.
packets
(Optional) Displays packet statistics for the PPPoE neighbor session.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.2(4)YG
This command was introduced on the Cisco SOHO 76, 77, and 77H routers.
12.3(4)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.3(4)T and was
enhanced to display information about relayed PPPoE Active Discovery
(PAD) messages.
12.2(28)SB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB and
support was added for the Cisco 7200, 7301, 7600, and 10000 series
platforms.
12.2(31)SB2
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(31)SB2 and the
output following the use of the all keyword was modified to indicate if a
neighbor session is Interworking Functionality (IWF)-specific or if the tag
ppp-max-payload tag is in the discovery frame and accepted.
Examples
12.4(15)XF
The output was modified to display VMI and PPPoE process-level values.
12.4(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T to support
VMIs in MANETs.
12.2(33)SRC
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRC.
Single Neighbor Session: Example
The following is example output from the show pppoe session command:
Router# show pppoe session
1 session in LOCALLY_TERMINATED (PTA) State
1 session total
Uniq ID PPPoE RemMAC Port Source VA State
SID LocMAC VA-st
Uniq ID
PPPoE SID
RemMAC
Port
VT
VA
N/A
10
aabb.cc01.5830
Et0/3 Vt1 Vi3
State
PTA
LocMAC
VA-st
aabb.cc01.5930 UP
Table A-7 describes the significant fields shown in the displays.
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Command Reference
show pppoe session
Table A-7
Related Commands
show pppoe session Field Descriptions
Field
Description
Uniq ID
Unique identifier for the PPPoE neighbor session.
PPPoE SID
PPPoE neighbor session identifier.
RemMAC
Remote MAC address.
Port
Port type and number.
VT
Virtual-template interface.
VA
Virtual access interface.
State
Displays the state of the neighbor session, which will be one of the
following:
•
FORWARDED
•
FORWARDING
•
LCP_NEGOTIATION
•
LOCALLY_TERMINATED
•
PPP_START
•
PTA
•
RELFWD (a PPPoE neighbor session was forwarded for which the
Active discovery messages were relayed)
•
SHUTTING_DOWN
•
VACCESS_REQUESTED
LocMAC
Local MAC address.
Command
Description
clear pppoe relay context
Clears PPPoE relay contexts created for relaying PAD messages.
show pppoe relay context
all
Displays PPPoE relay contexts created for relaying PAD messages.
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Command Reference
show r2cp clients
show r2cp clients
To display R2CP clients, use the show r2cp clients command in privileged EXEC mode.
show r2cp clients
Syntax Description
show r2cp clients
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Displays all radio clients on all interfaces
Usage Guidelines
Use the show r2cp clients command to exchange metric information with the radio—either for all radio
clients on all interfaces or for one radio client on a specific interface.
Examples
Show all radio clients on all interfaces example
The following example shows how to display all radio clients on all interfaces:
Router# show r2cp clients
R2CP Clients for all interfaces:
R2CP Clients for Interface FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
R2CP Client ID=1 IP=12.12.12.7:5500
node heartbeat missed count=0
node heartbeat interval=5 seconds
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack missed count=0
node terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=3
session activity timeout=1 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=3
No Virtual Template defined.
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Command Reference
show r2cp clients
Show all radio clients on all interfaces example
The following example shows how to display one radio client on a specific interface:
Router# show r2cp fastethernet 0/1
r2cp clients fastEthernet 0/1
R2CP Clients for Interface FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
R2CP Client ID=1 IP=12.12.12.7:5500
node heartbeat missed count=0
node heartbeat interval=5 seconds
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack missed count=0
node terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=3
session activity timeout=1 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=3
No Virtual Template defined.
Related Commands
Command
Description
show r2cp config
Displays router configuration information details for the R2CP interface.
show r2cp neighbors
Displays neighbors on an R2CP interface indicating radio capabilities from
a Layer 3, next-hop perspective.
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Command Reference
show r2cp config
show r2cp config
To display R2CP configuration, use the show r2cp config command in privileged EXEC mode.
show r2cp config
Syntax Description
config
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Examples
Displays all configuration details for R2CP.
Use the show r2cp config command to display router configuration details for the R2CP interface. 
These details include the following components:
•
Heartbeat threshold
•
Node-terminate acknowledgement threshold
•
Node-terminate acknowledgement timeout
•
Port number
•
Session-activity timeout
•
Session-terminate acknowledgement threshold
•
Session-terminate acknowledgement timeout
•
Virtual access template number
Display R2CP router configuration details example
The following example shows how to display configuration details for the R2CP interface:
Router# show r2cp config
R2CP Configuration from FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672
node heartbeat missed threshold=3
node terminate ack timeout=2200 milliseconds
node terminate ack missed threshold=2
session activity timeout=3 minutes
session terminate ack timeout=1000 milliseconds
session terminate ack missed threshold=5
virtual template=220
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Command Reference
show r2cp config
Related Commands
Command
Description
show r2cp clients
Displays radio client information for one or more clients on the R2CP
interface.
show r2cp neighbors
Displays neighbors on an R2CP interface radio capabilities from a Layer 3,
next-hop perspective.
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Command Reference
show r2cp neighbors
show r2cp neighbors
To show neighbors for R2CP, use the show r2cp neighbors command in privileged EXEC mode.
show r2cp neighbors
Syntax Description
neighbors
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.1(2) GC
This command was introduced.
Displays configuration information for R2CP that includes two radio
neighbor sessions.
Usage Guidelines
View neighbors on an R2CP interface to display information about the neighbor with which the radio
can talk from a Layer 3, next-hop perspective. The show r2cp neighbors command output allows you
to get metric data associated with a next-hop, so you can better understand the paths that the traffic is
taking.
Examples
The following example shows metric data for R2CP neighbor sessions:
Router# show r2cp neighbors
R2CP Neighbors for all interfaces:
R2CP Neighbors for Interface FastEthernet0/1
R2CP Server IP=12.12.12.101:28672 Sock=1
Global Session ID=101
MAC Address: 1122.3344.5566
Vlan ID: 0
Metrics: rlq=100 resources=100 latency=10 milliseconds
cdr=100000 Kbps mdr=100000 Kbps
Related Commands
Command
Description
show r2cp clients
Displays metric data for R2CP neighbor sessions.
show r2cp config
Displays detailed R2CP configuration.
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Command Reference
show vmi counters
show vmi counters
The show vmi counters command in privileged EXEC mode displays input and output counts.
show vmi counters [vmi-interface]
Syntax Description
vmi-interface
Command Default
If no VMI interface is specified, counters for all VMI interfaces are displayed.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
15.2(2)GC
This command was introduced.
Examples
(Optional) Number assigned to the VMI interface.
The following example shows how to display the VMI input and output counts for DLEP and R2CP:
Router# show vmi counters vmi1
1 vmi counters
Input Counts:
Process Enqueue
Fastswitch
BMA Fast Path Drop
BMA Punt Drop:
Total
Dot1q Error
Queue Full
Not Permitted
VMI Punt Drop:
Queue Full
BMA Mac Match
BMA Mac NoMatch
Output Counts:
Transmit:
VMI Process DQ
Fastswitch VA
Fastswitch VMI
Drops:
Total
QOS Error
Encap Error
Transport Error
Interface Error
L2 Send Error
Mcast NBR Error
Ucast NBR Error
DPD_2951_1#
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
37 (PHY)
1005
0
18/1 (VMI)
0
0
0
0
0
8 (mcast)
35 (Fast)
=
=
=
31
1005
0
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
1016 (ucast)
35 (Punt)
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Command Reference
show vmi counters
Router#
The following example shows vmi counts for PPPoE.
Router#show vmi counters vmi 2
Input Counts:
Process Enqueue
Fastswitch
VMI Punt Drop:
Queue Full
Output Counts:
Transmit:
VMI Process DQ
Fastswitch VA
Fastswitch VMI
Drops:
Total
QOS Error
VMI State Error
Mcast NBR Error
Ucast NBR Error
Router#
=
=
10(VMI)
0
=
0
=
=
=
2
0
0
=
=
=
=
=
0
0
0
0
0
The following example shows vmi counts for DLEP and R2CP.
Router# show vmi counters vmi 2
Input Counts:
Process Enqueue
Fastswitch
BMA Fast Path Drop
BMA Punt Drop:
Total
Dot1q Error
Queue Full
Not Permitted
VMI Punt Drop:
Queue Full
BMA Mac Match
BMA Mac NoMatch
Output Counts:
Transmit:
VMI Process DQ
Fastswitch VA
Fastswitch VMI
Drops:
Total
QOS Error
Encap Error
Transport Error
Interface Error
L2 Send Error
Mcast NBR Error
Ucast NBR Error
Router#
=
=
=
10 (PHY)
0
0
=
=
=
=
0
0
0
0
=
=
=
0
1 (mcast)
9 (Fast)
=
=
=
2
0
0
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1/0 (VMI)
0 (ucast)
9 (Punt)
Table A-9 describes the count definitions in the show vmi counters command display.
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Command Reference
show vmi counters
Table A-8
show vmi counters Count Definitions
Count
Definition
Input Counts:
Process Enqueue
Number of packets enqueued to the Physical or VMI input
queue.
Fastswitch
Number of packets fastswitched.
BMA Fast Path Drop
Number of Broadcast Multi-Access (BMA) packets dropped in
the fast path due to resource issues.
BMA Punt Drop Total
Total number of BMA drops
BMA Punt Drop – Dot1q Error
Number of BMA packets that are unable to match the 802.1q tag.
BMA Punt Drop – Queue Full
Number of BMA VMI input queue full during BMA punt.
BMA Punt Drop – Not Permitted
Number of BMA Unicast and Multicast packets NOT permitted
on this interface.
VMI Punt Drop – Queue Full
Number of BMA VMI input queues full during Non-BMA punt.
BMA Mac Match
Number of Unicast and Multicast packets that match the VMI
neighbor.
BMA Mac NoMatch
Number of BMA Unicast and Multicast packets that do not
match a VMI neighbor.
Output Counts:
Transmit – VMI Process DQ
Number of packets dequeued from the VMI output queue.
Transmit – Fastswitch VA
Number of packets fastswitched out the VA interface.
Transmit – Fastswitch VMI
Number of packets fastswitched out the VMI Interface.
Drops – Total
Total number of packets dropped.
Drops – QOS Error
Number of packets dropped due to QoS error.
Drops – Encap Error
Number of packets dropped when unable to create an encap.
Drops – Transport Error
Number of packets dropped due to transport mismatch.
Drops – Interface Error
Number of packets dropped due to interface mismatch.
Drops – L2 Send Error
Number of packets dropped due to L2 resource error.
Drops – Mcast NBR Error
Number of packets dropped due to multicast neighbor not found.
Drops – Ucast NBR Error
Number of packets dropped due to unicast neighbor not found.
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Command Reference
show vmi neighbors
show vmi neighbors
To display information about neighbor connections to the VMI, use the show vmi neighbors command
in privileged EXEC mode.
show vmi neighbors [detail] [vmi-interface]
Syntax Description
detail
(Optional) Displays details about the VMI neighbors.
vmi-interface
(Optional) Number of the VMI interface
Command Default
If no arguments are specified, information about all neighbors for all VMI interfaces displays.
Command Modes
Privileged EXEC
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(15)XF
This command was introduced.
12.3(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(15)T.
Usage Guidelines
The show vmi neighbors command provides a list of devices that have been dynamically discovered by
the connected radio devices in a router-to-radio network, and for which connectivity has been achieved
through PPPoE and the radio network.
Examples
The following is example output from the show vmi neighbors command used to display dynamically
created neighbors on a VMI interface:
Router# show vmi neighbors vmi1
1 vmi1 Neighbors
Interface
vmi1
Router#
IPV6
Address
::
IPV4
Address
10.3.3.2
Uptime
00:02:11
Transmit
Packets
0000000008
Receive
Packets
0000000073
Table A-9 describes the significant fields shown in the show vmi neighbors command display.
Table A-9
show vmi neighbors Field Descriptions
Field
Description
Interface
The interface number.
IPv6 Address
IPv6 address of the neighbor.
IPv4 Address
IPv4 address of the neighbor.
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Command Reference
show vmi neighbors
Table A-9
show vmi neighbors Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
Uptime
How long the interface has been up. Time shown in hh:mm:ss format.
Transmit Packets
Number of packets transmitted from the interface during the monitored up time.
Received Packets
Number of packets received on the interface during the monitored up time.
show vmi neighbors command with detail keyword: Example
The following example shows the details about the known VMI neighbors:
Router# show vmi neighbors detail
1 vmi1 Neighbors
vmi1
IPV6 Address=::
IPV4 Address=10.20.1.6, Uptime=00:00:23
Output pkts=0, Input pkts=3
No Session Metrics have been received for this neighbor.
Transport PPPoE, Session ID=2
INTERFACE STATS:
VMI Interface=vmi1,
Input qcount=0, drops=0, Output qcount=0, drops=0
V-Access intf=Virtual-Access3,
Input qcount=0, drops=0, Output qcount=0, drops=0
Physical intf=FastEthernet0/0,
Input qcount=0, drops=0, Output qcount=0, drops=0
PPPoE Flow Control Stats
Local Credits: 65524
Peer Credits: 65524
Scalar Value 64 bytes
Credit Grant Threshold: 28000
Max Credits per grant: 65534
Credit Starved Packets: 0
PADG Seq Num: 24
PADG Timer index: 0
PADG last rcvd Seq Num: 24
PADG last nonzero Seq Num: 0
PADG last nonzero rcvd amount: 0
PADG Timers:
[0]-1000
[1]-2000
[2]-3000
[3]-4000
PADG xmit: 24 rcvd: 24
PADC xmit: 24 rcvd: 24
PADQ xmit: 0 rcvd: 0
Router#
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Command Reference
show vmi neighbors
Table A-10 describes the significant fields shown in the show vmi neighbors detail command display.
Table A-10
show vmi neighbors detail Field Descriptions
Field
Description
Interface
Interface number
IPv6 Address
IPv6 address of the neighbor.
IPv4 Address
IPv4 address of the neighbor.
Uptime
How long the interface has been up. Time shown in hh:mm:ss format.
Output pkts
Number of outgoing packets during the recorded up time.
Input pkts
Number of incoming packets during the recorded up time.
Metric Data
Metric data statistics:
Total rcvd: Total number of packets received on the interface.
Avg arrival rate: Average arrival rate for each packet in milliseconds.
CURRENT: Current values for the following statistics: Metric Data Rate
(MDR), Credit Data Rate (CDR), Latency (Lat), Resource
(Res), Root Link Query (RLQ), and the load.
MDR: Maximum, minimum, and average metric data rate.
CDR: Maximum, minimum, and average credit data rate.
Latency: Maximum, minimum, and average latency.
Resource: Maximum, minimum, and average resource.
RQL: Maximum, minimum, and average RQL.
Load: Maximum, minimum, and average load.
Transport
Routing protocol, in this case–PPPoE.
Session ID
Identifier of the VMI session.
INTERFACE
STATS
A series of statistics collected on the interface and shows for each of the VMI
interface, virtual access interface, and the physical interface. For each interface,
statistics display indicating the number of packets in the input and output queues
and the number of packets dropped from each queue.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
show vmi neighbors
Table A-10
show vmi neighbors detail Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Description
PPPoE Flow
Control Stats
Statistics collected for PPPoE credit flow:
Local Credits: Number of credits belonging to this node.
Peer Credits: Number of credits belonging to the peer
Scalar Value: Credit grant in bytes specified by the radio.
Credit Grant Number of credits below which the peer needs to dip before
Threshold: this node sends an inband or out-of-band grant.
Credit Starved Number of packets dropped or queued due to insufficient
Packets: credits from the peer.
Max Credits per 65534
grant:
PADG Seq Num: Sequence number for the PPPoE packet discovery grant.
PADG Timer Timer index for the PPPoE packet discovery grant.
index:
PADG last rcvd Sequence number for the previously received PPPoE packet
Seq Num: discovery grant.
PADG last Sequence number for the last non-zero PPPoE packet
nonzero Seq Num: discovery grant.
PADG last Received amount in the last non-zero PPPoE packet
nonzero rcvd discovery grant.
amount:
PADG Timers: PPPoE packet discovery grant timers
PADG xmit: Number of PPPoE packet discovery grants transmitted and
numberic rcvd: received.
PADC xmit: 133 Number of PPPoE packet discovery grant confirmations
rcvd: 133: transmitted and received.
PADQ xmit: 0 Number of PPPoE packet discovery quality grants
rcvd: transmitted and received.
Related Commands
Command
Description
debug vmi
Displays debugging output for VMIs.
interface vmi
Creates a virtual multipoint interface (VMI) that can be configured and applied
dynamically.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
summary-prefix (OSPFv3)
summary-prefix (OSPFv3)
To configure an IPv6 summary prefix, use the summary-prefix command in router address-family
configuration mode. To restore the default, use the no form of this command.
summary-prefix prefix [not-advertise | tag tag-value]
no summary-prefix prefix [not-advertise | tag tag-value]
Syntax Description
prefix
IPv6 route prefix for the destination.
not-advertise
(Optional) Suppress routes that match the specified prefix and mask pair. This
keyword applies to OSPF only.
tag tag-value
(Optional) Tag value that can be used as a “match” value for controlling
redistribution via route maps. This keyword applies to OSPF only.
Command Default
No IPv6 summary prefix is defined.
Command Modes
Router address family configuration (config-rtr-af)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.0(24)S
This command was introduced.
12.2(15)T
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(15)T.
12.2(18)S
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(18)S.
12.2(28)SB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.
12.2(33)SRA
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SRA.
12.2(33)SXH
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(33)SXH.
Usage Guidelines
The summary-prefix command can be used to summarize routers redistributed from other routing
protocols. Multiple groups of addresses can be summarized. The metric used to advertise the summary
is the smallest metric of all the more specific routes. This command helps reduce the size of the routing
table.
Examples
In the following example, the summary prefix FEC0::/24 includes addresses FEC0::/1 through
FEC0::/24. Only the address FEC0::/24 is advertised in an external LSA.
Router(config)# router ospfv3 100
Router(config-rtr)# router-id 4.4.4.4
Router(config-rtr)# address-family ipv4 unicast
Router(config-rtr-af)summary-prefix FEC0::/24
Router(config-rtr-af)#exit
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Appendix A
Command Reference
summary-prefix (OSPFv3)
Router# show ospfv3 summary-prefix
OSPFv3 Process 100, Summary-prefix
FEC0::/24 Metric 16777215, Type 0, Tag 0
OSPFv3 Process 200, Summary-prefix
Not configured
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Appendix A
Command Reference
timers manet
timers manet
To configure MANET timer parameters, use the timers manet command in router-configuration mode.
To restore the timer default values, use the no form of this command.
timers manet {ackwait ackwait-value | peering peering-value | pushback pushback-value}
no timers manet {ackwait ackwait-value | peering peering-value | pushback pushback-value}
Syntax Description
ackwait
Acknowledgment wait timer.
ackwait-value
Value specified in milliseconds. The default value is 1000 milliseconds.
Valid values range from 0 to 10,000.
peering
Used to specify the redundant peering delay timer value.
peering-value
Value specified in milliseconds. The default is 250 milliseconds. Valid
values range from 0 to 10,000.
pushback
MANET pushback timer set to assist in regulating traffic when flooding
occurs because multiple non-primary relays flood at the same time.
pushback-value
Value specified in milliseconds. The default is 2000 milliseconds. Valid
values range is from 0 to 60,000 milliseconds.
Command Modes
Router configuration (config-rtr)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.4(24) GC
This command was introduced.
Usage Guidelines
Timers on MANET Interfaces
Non-active relays do not immediately start helping with flooding. Timers can be configured to delay
Non-active relays until the active relay finishes its procedure. The timers manet command is used to
configure these timers.
Peering Timers on MANET Interfaces
When selective peering is enabled, this timer determines how long the OSPFv3 process waits between
selective peering decisions. Use the peering keyword to specify how long the router waits between
selective peering decisions.
Acknowledgements on MANET Interfaces
When sending acknowledgments on a MANET interface, a small delay is configured in order to
accumulate as many acknowledgments as possible into a single ACK message to reduce the number of
messages being sent. Use the ackwait ackwait-value keyword and argument to set the acknowledgment
wait timer.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
timers manet
Pushback Timers on MANET Interfaces
Use the pushback keyword to help prevent multiple non-primary relays from flooding at the same time.
If a relay has already seen all of the acknowledgements from the nodes for which it is going to relay, it
will cancel the pushback timer.
The default value for the pushback timer is 50 percent of the retransmit timer value.
Examples
The following example shows how to set the MANET pushback timer to 50,000 milliseconds, the
MANET acknowledgement timer to 1001 milliseconds, and the MANET peering timer to 1000 seconds:
Router(config)#router ospfv3 100
Router(config-router)#router-id 1.1.1.1
Router(config-router)#address-family ipv6 unicast
Router(config-router-af)#exit
Router(config-router)#timers manet pushback 50000
Router(config-router)#timers manet ackwait 1001
Router(config-router)#timers manet peering 1000
Router(config-router)#end
Router#show running-config | be router ospfv3 100
router ospfv3 100
router-id 1.1.1.1
timers manet ackwait 1001
timers manet pushback 50000
timers manet peering 1000
!
address-family ipv6 unicast
exit-address-family
!
Router#
Related Commands
Command
Description
manet cache
Configures the number of MANET cached LSA, updates and
acknowledgments.
manet selective peering
Enables selective peering on a per-area or per-interface basis and
configures the maximum number of redundant paths to each neighbor.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
timers throttle spf
timers throttle spf
To turn on Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) for IPv6 shortest path first (SPF) throttling, use the timers
throttle spf command in router-configuration mode. To turn off SPF throttling, use the no form of this
command.
timers throttle spf delay next-delay holdtime
no timers throttle spf
Syntax Description
delay
Initial delay before the spf calculation in milliseconds. The default is 10
seconds. Valid values range from 0 to 60,000 milliseconds.
next-delay
Delay in milliseconds between the first and second spf calculations receiving
a change in the SPF calculation. The default is 5000 milliseconds (5
seconds). Valid values range from 0 to 600000 milliseconds.
nextdelay holdtime
Hold time (in seconds) between consecutive SPF calculations. The default is
10 seconds. Valid values range from 0 to 600000.
Command Default
OSPF for IPv6 throttling is always enabled.
Command Modes
Router configuration (config-rtr)
Command History
Release
Modification
12.2(15)T
This command was introduced.
12.2(28)SB
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.2(28)SB.
12.4(24)GC
This command was integrated into Cisco IOS Release 12.4(24)GC.
Usage Guidelines
The first wait interval between SPF calculations is the amount of time in milliseconds specified by the
delay argument.
Use the next-delay argument to set the delay between the first and second SPF calculations.
Each consecutive wait interval is two times the current hold level in milliseconds until the wait time
reaches the maximum time in milliseconds as specified by the holdtime argument. Subsequent wait times
remain at the maximum until the values are reset or an LSA is received between SPF calculations.
When you configure an OSPFv3 network manet for any interface attached to the OSPFv3 process, the
default values for the delay, next-delay, and hold time are reduced to 1000 milliseconds,
1000 milliseconds, and 2000 milliseconds respectively.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
timers throttle spf
Examples
The following example shows a router with the delay and next-delay interval values configured at 40
milliseconds, and the holdtime value to 50 milliseconds:
Router(config)# router ospfv3 1
Router(config-router)# timers throttle spf 40 40 50
Router(config-router)#exit
Router#
Related Commands
Command
Description
show ospfv3
Displays general information about OSPF for IPv6 routing processes.
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Appendix A
Command Reference
timers throttle spf
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A P P E N D I X
B
Technical Support Reference
This appendix providesthe following major sections strictly for reference while working with Cisco
Technical Support:
•
Default Settings for DLEP, page B-1
Default Settings for DLEP
This section provides the following procedure as an example of how to change DLEP configuration
settings:
•
Caution
Configuring the Heartbeat Threshold, page B-2
Do not change the default DLEP configuration unless a Cisco Support engineer instructs you to do so.
The procedure in this section is available only for reference while working with Cisco Technical
Support.
If directed to do so, see Appendix A, “Command Reference” for the following reference pages:
•
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold, page A-16
•
ip dlep set nbr-activity-timeout, page A-17
•
ip dlep set nbr-down-ack-timeout, page A-18
•
ip dlep set peer-terminate-ack-timeout, page A-19
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Appendix B
Technical Support Reference
Default Settings for DLEP
Configuring the Heartbeat Threshold
The heartbeat threshold indicates the maximum number of consecutively missed heartbeats allowed on
the DLEP interface before declaring a failed association.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
enable
2.
configure terminal
3.
interface interface
4.
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold count
5.
exit
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
enable
Enables privileged EXEC mode.
•
Enter your password if prompted.
Example:
Router> enable
Router#
Step 2
Enters global configuration mode.
configure terminal
Example:
Router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Step 3
End with
interface interface
Specifies the interface and places the router in
interface-configuration mode.
Example:
Router# interface fa0/1
Router(config-if)#
Step 4
ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold count
Sets the heartbeat threshold. The
heartbeat-threshold valid range is from 2 to 8.
Example:
Router(config-if)# ip dlep set heartbeat-threshold 3
Step 5
exit
Exits the current mode.
Example:
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)#
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A P P E N D I X
C
Acronyms and Glossary Terms
This appendix provides the following tables to describe the acronyms and terms used in this guide:
•
Table C-1, “Glossary”
•
Table C-2, “Acronyms and Abbreviations”
Table C-1
Glossary
Glossary Term
Description
Broadcast Multi-Access
(BMA) radio
Radio having the same link characteristics as an Ethernet
segment—where multicast/broadcast packets are transmitted
physically only once, and where radio neighbors do not operate in any
type of connection-oriented (point-to-point) paradigm. See also
Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) radio.
Cooperative radio
Radio containing the firmware and software required to support
RAR-based flows.
DLEP client
Router-to-radio association configured to send and receive packets on
a DLEP interface
DLEP neighbor
Adjacent radio client established on the DLEP interface
DLEP peer
Router-to-radio association (client or server) on a DLEP interface
DLEP server
DLEP server configuration on the router interface—responsible for
receiving, parsing, and sending packets among DLEP clients
DLEP neighbor session
An established connection on a DLEP interface between local
router-radio and one-hop neighbor
Non-Broadcast Multi-Access
(NBMA) radio
Radio having link characteristics compatible for use in NBMA
networks, in which data is directed point-to-point only (and not for
use in broadcasting or multicasting). See also Broadcast Multi-Access
(BMA) radio.
RAR-compliant radio
See Cooperative radio
Table C-2
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym
Expansion
ABR
Area Border Router
ADM
Authentication Digest Manager
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Appendix C
Table C-2
Acronyms and Glossary Terms
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym
Expansion
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
AS
Autonomous System
ASBR
Autonomous System Boundary Router
BBA
Broadband Access
BMA
Broadcast Multi-Access
CDR
Current Data Rate
CF
Classic Flood
CLI
Command-Line Interface
CPU
Central Processing Unit
DLEP
Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol
DPD
Duplicate Packet Detection
DSCP
Differentiated Services Code Point
DVMRP
Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
EIGRP
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
ESR
Embedded Services Router
FSM
Finite State Machine
HSRP
Hot Standby Router Protocol
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
ISC
Interface Control Specification
ICV
Integrity Check Value
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force
IGRP
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
IGMP
Internet Group Management Protocol
IP
Internet Protocol
IPv4
Internet Protocol Version 4
IPv6
Internet Protocol Version 6
kbps
kilobits per second
LSA
Link-State Advertisement
MANET
Mobile Ad-hoc Network
mbps
megabits per second
MIB
Management Information Base
MQC
Modular Quality of Service Command
MTR
Multi-Topology Routing
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit
NBMA
Non-Broadcast Multiple Access
NVRAM
Nonvolatile Random Access Memory
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Acronyms and Glossary Terms
Table C-2
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronym
Expansion
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First
OSPFv3
Open Shortest Path First, Version 3
PAD
PPPoE Active Discovery
PIM
Protocol-Independent Multicast
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
PPPoE
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PSN
Packet-Switched Networks
QoS
Quality of Service
RAR
Radio Aware Routing
RIB
Routing Information Base
RLQ
Relative Link Quality
RPF
Reverse Path Forwarding
R2CP
Router-to-Radio Control Protocol
SMDS
Switched Multimegabit Data Service
SPT
Shortest Path Tree
TLV
Type-Length-Value
ToS
Type of Service
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UNA
Upstream Neighbor Address (field in PIM Join/Prune messages)
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
VMI
Virtual Multipoint Interface
WIN–T
Warfighter Information Network–Tactical
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Appendix C
Acronyms and Glossary Terms
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