DIRECT WATER INJECTION COOLING FOR MILITARY ENGINES AND EFFECTS ON THE DIESEL CYCLE R. B. MELTON, JR., S. J. LESTZ, AND R. D. QUILLIAN, JR. U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory, Southwest Research Institute, San Anlonl.o, Texas ANn E. J. RAMBIE U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command, Detroit, Michigan A study was conducted on the feasibility" of totally cooling a single-cylinder diesel engine by direct injection of water into the combustion chanlber. The term "total cooling" can be taken to mean stabilized cooling at all loads and speeds so as to eliminate need for conventional cooling jackets, cooling fins, or oil spray jets. The engine used was a CLR Direct Injection Diesel with 42.5 cubic inch displacement and a compression ratio of 16:1. Most of the running was at 1800 rpm and 92 psi IMEP. Separate measurements were made of heat rejection to the cylinder tread, liner, and crankease oil to determine more accurately where the cooling effect was being applied. Water injection was by means of a Bosch pnmp and various pencil-type nozzles installed, adjacent to the fuel injector in the cylinder head. Port injection and port induction were also briefly investigated. A five-hole, 90 ~ included angle nozzle was used, as was a three-hole, 30 ~ included angle unit. For comparison, a nozzle directing one spray obliquely at the cylinder wall was also tested. Firing pressure was monitored using a piezo-eleetric transducer; both pressure-time and pressure~volume (indicator) records were obtained. In order to determine timing of both fuel and water injection, needle lift was monitored using a differential transformer pickup. The results of this study indicate: Optimum total engine cooling by direct water injection was accomplished over a wide range of water injection timings (from 450 to 720 CA degrees after TDC power stroke) at water/fuel ratios of 2.9 to 3.7 with output power and brake specific fuel consumption improved 5 to 20%, respectively, over that with the standard jacket-cooled CLR engine. Emissions are affected in an expected manner by the presence of water: NOx is decreased, sometimes substantially, while the other emissions (HC, CO) tend to increase. When cooling the exhaust, the condensate becomes an effective scrubber of sulfur oxides. NO~ was not significantly reduced by scrubbing, but if the condensate is made su~eiently alkaline (pH :>8), CO2 was unintentionally scrubbed out. The quail W of the uncondensed exhaust for turbooharglng is attractive. A thenretical gain of about 17.5% in available exhaust enerKy due to generation of steam was calculated, along with a temperature decrease of several hundred degrees Fahrenheit. Water contamination of the lubricating oil varies from negligible to extreme, depending on injection quantity, timing, and spray pattern. By not directing water at the liner wall, and by keeping the oil above 212~ one can maintain the oil in a dry condition. Based on this work, several pertinent recommendations have been made: (1) utilize water injection fl)r short-duration, very high-output operation which would otherwise be destructive due to thermal overload ; (2) use water induction cooling in event of loss of conventional liqnid coolant; (3) utilize exhaust scrnbbing in stationary applications to permit burning of high-sulfur fuels without producing sulfur oxide emissions; nitrogen oxides could likewise be reduced by the injection of small amounts of water; and (4) since 2-stroke-cycle engines are an important category of diesel engines, some work similar to this effort should be done to this engine type; prospects are good for success, but conditions are apt to be more restrictive. 1389 PRACTICAL SYSTEMS 1390 Introduction Internal combustion engines employed in military vehicles are often subjected to very severe duty cycle under environmental extremes. Engines with high power-to-weight ratios are required for operation in the Arctic at --60~ and in the desert up to 125~ One of the major problems, particularly for armored combat vehicles, is the extremely limited space in which to install the power package, Cooling airflow path is seldom ideal, affected by necessary use of armored grilles, brush screens, guards, and baffles to direct the air for satisfactory cooling. Military engines operate trader conditions ineluding radiator or heat exchanger damage, scaling and plugging, low oil and water level and deterioration which causes reduction of cooling system performance. Thermal stresses imposed on engine components and on the engine oil can result in reduced engine life or curly failure. Questions addressed in this study of total cooling by water injection feasibility are as follows: (l) Can operation of the diesel engine be achieved using direct water injection for total cooling? (2) What conditions of timing spray and quantity of water are required? (3) Can direct water injection be used for total cooling with 100~v recovery of cooling water ? (4) What is the impact of direct water injection on emissions, i.e., NO, NO~, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of sulfur? (5) When the exhaust is cooled to recover the water, does the condensate function as a scrubber for some emissions, i.e., sulfur oxides, NO~ or CO? (6) Does water injection cooling have potential for stationary engine applications? (7) Can water injection be utilized for short duratioo trader high-output operation which would otherwise be destructive due to thermal overload ? (8) What is the impact of water injectinn on lubricant quality, eagute deposits aaxd wear of engine parts ? For the foreseeable future, conservation and enviromnental pressures will cause all researchers to consider fuel availability, fuel economy and engine gaseous emissions. In addition to the reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO=) reported by others, a-4 the probability existed that oxides of sulfur (SO~) might also be removed from engine exhaust during operation with water injection. If so, this could make fuels with relatively high sulfur content look attractive, at least, perhaps for stationary applications. Earlier work2 conducted at our laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of totally cooling an air-cooled spark ignition engine by direct water in~eetion. While the concept of injecting (or inducting) water h~to an internal combustion engine (SI or CI) is not new, ~--~it is nevertheless considered that the idea of assuming the full burden of handling rejected heat via direct water injectinn and reaping the advantages is an approach which may contribute significantly to the potential of internal-combustion engines. In some cases, this is because of the new types of engines (high-speed and highoutput) that have come along; in other cases it is because the problems facing the internal combustion engine designer are somewhat different from those of times past (nitrogen and sulfur oxides emissions, particularly, and the fuel situatin~t). The current work1~ was mldertaken to determine feasibility of total cooling diesel engines by direct water injection a~td determhm effects on diesel cycle operation and combustiou. A schematic illustration of a proposed water-injection condensate recycle concept is shown in Fig. 1. One of the features of such an engine is the potential of providing for increased water injection with increased severity of cooling load. A~ illustrated by Fig. 1, liquid coolant is injected directly into the combustion chamber during compression, expansiov., mid/or immediately HOT EXHAUST GAS RADIATOR CONDENSER WATER CONDENSATE ~NJECTICN PUMP EXHAUST GAB UNBURNED HYDROCARflON$ WATER CONDENSATE HEAVY SOL~D5 Fla. 1. Schematic illustration of water-injection condensate recycle concept. WATER INJECTION COOLING following the "effective work" portion of the combustion cycle. When injected, the coolant absorbs heat front the combustion chamber, vaporizes, and is expelled during the exhaust cycle along with products of combustion. As the combustion and coolant products flow into the heat exchanger, the coolant condenses into a sump and the cooled exhaust gases are expelled into the air. Condensate from the sump is then recycled to the injection pump. Theoretical Considerations Early work~ successfully applied direct water injection total cooling to slow-speed, stationary gas engines. In this work, water was sprayed at all surfaces exposed to hot gas near top center on the fim~g stroke. It was important t h a t the water did not vaporize from the hot combustion gases, but rather, it was permitted to reach the hot surfaces from which it would remove heat by formation of steam. The injected water required was in close agreement with the normal engine heat rejection divided by the heat of vaporization water. Utilizing the concept of vaporization at solid surfaces as the basis for cooling effectiveness, it is possible to examine some of the implications of t h a t "mode]." In the absence of a n y known cogent model built to explain the direct effects of water injection on the combustion gases, the simplest analysis, based on the conservation of energy, can be applied. For example, assume a diesel engine has a thermal efficiency of 33.3v/v, and is operating with a fuel having a lower heating value (Qs) of 18 000 Btu/Ib. Distribution of supplied heat, Qs, is normally divided equally between the exhaust gas (6000 Btu/lb), the jacket cooling load (6000 Btu/lb, including lubricating oil), and shaft work (6000 Btu/lb). Then theoretical water required (Wj ) to pick up the jacket heat load, Q j , at total cooling would be W z = Q j / & H = 0.333 (18 000)/1100 = 5.5 lb water/lb fuel where &H = 1100 Btu/lb = average heat of vaporization for water between 200~ and 400~ A possible contribution of the current work to the theoretical understanding of water injeetion cooling is recognition of the effect of pressure in the combustion chamber on the cooling effect of water, n During a significant part of the diesel cycle (compressinn and power strokes), one cannot expect boiling film cooling 1391 to occur because ambieut pressure exceeds saturation pressure. If typical metal temperature is, say, 300~ then no boiling will occur when the pressure exceeds 67 psia. Above this pressure, water will simply wet the walls, warm up, and await the decline of cylinder pressure to the point that boiling carl occur. Thus, vaporization cooling can occur only during a portion of tbe compression stroke and the latter part of the power stroke. The only benefit obtained from injection during the early power stroke comes from the fact t h a t the piston is close to the head during t h a t time a n d the injection targeting may therefore be easier. This part of the cycle (power stroke) has high pressure; high injection pressure is required in consequence, and there will be a tendency for excessively atomized water to vaporize in the gas phase, rather than at the walls. As a result, excessive amounts of cooling water will be needed, while the charge cooling will cause increased ignition delay or substantial power loss just after cmnbustion. None of these effects is desirable. A question may be asked whether additional work is produced by the generation of steam during the power stroke. It appears from analysis of tliis situation that the pressure gain from steam formation is about one-sixth of tile pressure loss due to charge cooling; thus, a n y vaporization in the gas phase during the power stroke constitutes a pure loss. The other way to get work is to have steam formed by vaporization of water at the walls; this steam is "free" and is potentially a source of increased power. A calculation indicates that one can expect a 3-psi increase in mean effective pressure (assuming about 75 psi IMEP) if it were possible to get steam all formed halfway through the power stroke. Recalling the difficulty previously explained where belling is suppressed by firing pressure, it is not probable t h a t more tha~l half of the expaiLsion stroke can be utilized. However, it will be sho~al that when fuel injection timing is advanced to compensate for increased ignition delay (during total-cooling water injection operation), the combined diesel cycle effects actually can produce a significant increase in power output. Apparatus The engine* used in this work was the standard CLR (with the standard direct-injection diesel conversion package) coupled to an eddy-currenttype dynamometer. The fuel system used a * Bore and stroke=3.80 in.X3.75 in. =42.5 CID. 1392 PRACTICAL SYSTEMS showing the location of fuel injecter and water injector in relation to the piston cup. The exhaust system was modified as required to facilitate recovery, recycle, scrubbing, or analysis of the exhaust water, whatever the case being investigated. FUEL INJECTION . NOZZLE I Calorimetry System WAFER INJECTION NOZZLE , -S S P R A Y S OFFSET ANGLE INCLUDED ~ o i / ' ~ w ~A~ E t 16(] ~ .70~ ~ \ TOP OF PISTON Fro. 2. Engine head and wager injector location. four-hole fuel injector (4X0.010-1n. hole openings, equally spaced, 150 ~ included angle, with 20 ~ offset angle), having a 3000-psi crack pressure. A Bosch APE-1B fuel injection pump was used with a 6-ram delivery valve and 10-ram pump plunger. Fuel was supplied from an overhead burette with delivery rates taken in minutes for 100 ml of fuel consumed and reported in lb/min. The water-injection system used several slender, "pencil"-type (0.375 in. diam) nozzles manufaetm~ed to desired specifications. A Bosch refit pump (APE-IB) identical to the fuel injection pump was used to drive tim water injector. The geometry of the water injectors used in this work is show~ as follows: When this program was still in the plam~ing and setup stages, it was expected that total cooling might be difficult to accomplish and that some means of quantitatively determining the ex~tent of "partial" cooling would contribute guidance to the difficult optimization process that was anticipated to be necessary to achieve total cooling. The logical indicator of partial cooling effectiveness is a calorimetric deterruination of absolute heat rejection. It was decided to obtain separate heat flux measurements for the head coolant, liner coolant, and lubricating oil. Separate systems were developed for each of these based on appropriate measurements of fluid flow rates, temperature changcs, etc. so that rigorous heat balances could be made. Observed differences in heat-rejection measuroments made during engine operation were found to be reasonable and repeatable. Diethylene glycol was used for coolant temperatures up to 230~ and a vegetable oil was used at 325~ and above. Engine metal temperatures were monitored at the top of the cylinder liner and in the fire deck of the cylinder head. Pressure and Timing Measurements Pressure-time, pressure-volume, and fuel and water injection timing data were taken with conventional electro-mechanical devices and monitored on an oscilloscope. Exhaust Emissions Measurements Designation H40 L150, H150 "A" Hole size, in. 0. 012 0.010, O. 008 0.051 Number Offset Included of angle, angle, holes deg deg 5 3, 4 1 25 30 90 30 O 0 The numbers in the desi~lation represent the cra~lk angle from TDC at which the spray is expected to be directed into the piston cup. Figure 2 is a section through the cylinder head In all cases, bag sampling was used for basic emissions measurements. The instruments used oil this bag sample were as follows: NO NOt CO COs 02 HC Smoke Chemiluminescence analyzer Chemiluminescence analyzer NDIR NDIR Polarigraphic-type analyzer Flame type ionization detector apparatus Bosch paper filter type with photooptical reading unit Since sulfur content is an important factor WATER INJECTION COOLING in the fuel industry and since sulfate showed up in the water recovered from the e.xhaust, it was decided to conduct exhaust scrubbing tests to remove oxides of sulfur (SO,). Wet-chemical analysis was used since no direct reading instrument was available. For a more thorough description of test apparatus, the reader is referred to Re/. 10. ,200 1393 H4ONOZZL[ 325 F COOLANT o Experimental Results and Discussion C,~oling Via Direct Water ln:jection Utilizing the apparatus as previously described, the engine was operated under the following fixed conditions, /mless specified otherwise: Spend: 1800 rpm Fuel rate: Set to maintain constant brake load of 19.2 lb ~dth no water injection (5.2 Bhp at 1800 rpm) (Approx 0.056 lb/min). Fuel rate with water injection was also equal to 0.056 lb/min. Only fuel injection timing was varied and not fuel delivery rate. Timing advance l~equired to maintain TDC as the end of the iguition delay period ranged from 6 to 18 CA degrees over that of the standard jacket-cooled engine. Water injection Rate: 0 to 0.40 lb/min Timing: Varied hy 90 ~ CA increments Duration: Varied from 30 ~ to 90 ~ CA degrees Spray characteristics: Nozzles were chosen to provide spray angles which would be targeted for full spray entering the pistion cup at 40 ~ to 150 ~ from TDC utilizing cone angles of 30 ~ and 90 ~ Iu addition, one single spray nozzle of 0 ~ cone angle was used. Since three different heatflow measurements were obtained and since the cooling effect was not equally divided among head, liner, and oil systems, their sum was used to define total cooling. When net heat rejection from the engine equaled zero total absolute cooling was achieved. In practice, net heat flow had to be computed after-the-fact and the total-eoolfilg condition estimated by linear hlterpo/atiou because all tests were conducted using predetermined water injection rates which nfight have been slightly more or less than that required for total cooling. Space does imt permit discussior~ of the individual heat rejection data acquired for the cylinder head, cylinder liner, and sump. Figure 3 shows total engine heat rejection for the five-hole nozzle versus water/fuel ratio for the full range of injection timings. Total cooling water/fuel ratio is that ratio at which the net heat rejection ia zero. Interestingly, the range in water/fuel ratio 100 I I I I ~ qOeOi 2 3 4 5~4~6 WATER/FUEL IW/F) RATIO. LB'LB 7 FZG. 3. Total Btu rejected versus water/fuel raticr--Numbers on curves are the end of waterinjection timing, CA degrees from TDC power stroke. is from about three to somewhat over five. Maxinmm water/fuel ratio of 5 is required for total cooling when injecting during the first 90 deg of the power stroke. A minimum water/foe[ ratio of 2.9 results for injection during the last half of the intake stroke. In all probability, the former behavior results from unnecessary cooling of dense, hot gas (there is a marked power loss), while the latter is associated with spraying water directly onto the liner (which will be seen to cause a great deal of water to enter the crankcase). Figure 4 shows the interpolated water/fuel ratios on a weight basis for total cooling plotted versus the approximate end of the water injection event in degrees ATC (power stroke) for the 1[40 and L150 water injection nozzles. Water injection tinting has an important effect on required water/fuel ratio for total cooling. Total cooling is possible at any injection timing tried here. Since injection duration is a significant part of 90 deg, it m a y be said that no part of the cycle has been skipped, and further, that there is a slight sensitivity to water injection spray geometry. Ush~g the total cooling water/fuel ratio, Fig. 5 is obtained showing brake load and specific fuel consumption plotted against water injectiou timing. Note that the power output was obtained at constant fuel rate (0.056 lb/miu), and therefore increases in engine brake power result in decreases in brake specific fuel consumption. Notice that the instant water is injected into the hot, dense gas (middle of power stroke) there is a drastic decrease in power and fuel economy. This demonstrates that injection PRACTICAL SYSTEMS 1394 for injection during the exhaust stroke to 20.8% for injection at the end of the compression stroke are realized, compared with the standard jacketcooled engine. This shows that evaporative cooling of the metal surfaces is a more efficient process and produces beneficial effects in the cycle. Also note t h a t the fue[ consumption improves from 0.65 to 0.54 l b / B h p / h r for the best water injection condition. Figure 6 shows how water collected from the crankcase "blowby" (using a copper coil condenser) varies with water injection timing at the total-cooling water/fuel ratio. Since oil temperature exceeds 212~ water bypassing the rings will not accumulate but will be evaporated and expelled. As can be seen, the quantity of water T r Ig0 BTU/MIN PER 0.2 LE/MIN = ~o0 STO/LB - - LISO NOZZLE 325"F COOLANT ExHAusT INrAKE POWER , 0 E =i~, I =i~, - COMP'N I=i- I 100 200 300 4OO EO0 co0 END OF WATER INJECTION TIMING, ATC J~ _1_ _1 1 -POWER T , - EXHAUST'- INTAKE :'=COMP'N 'l 7O0 FIG. 4. Water/fuel ratio for total cooling versus water iDjectioa timing. into the hot gases causes charge cooling and has a detrimental effect on the cycle. However, if water injection is confined to the balance of the cycle--exhaust, intake, or compression strokes-power and economy increases ranging from 5.2~o o YI, IO0 , II 2O0 3O0 4O0 ,1 50O , 6O0 END OF WATER iNJECTION TIMING, ~ H40 NOZZLE, 325~F =_, 20 .--._. 17 --~ 0.65 ,s 0.6o 13 0.50 12 0.45 11 POWER ,or O ,'i~, EXHAUST ,~F, 7OO72O ArC FEO. 6. Water rejection to sump at total cooling versus water injection timing. NTAK ,=F, too 2OO 300 ~ 500 8OO END OF WATER INJECTFONTIMING, ATC :'o,o 70O 720' Fro. 5. Brake load a~ad BSFC at total cooling (interpolation of Fig. 3) versus water injection timing. going this way m n ~ s from 0.5 cc/min during the power stroke to 9.5 ce/min during the compression stroke. Probably the water cools the parts of the liner where it hits, and the rings pump this into the crankcase during the next stroke. Injection during the exhaust stroke has less tendency to flood the crankcase than intakecompression injection. The 30 ~ included angle nozzle (L150) produced essentially the s~me results (data not shown), which is somewhat remarkable, considering how much the two nozzles differ. Cooling via port injection and port induction were also studied on a limited scale. Figure 4 and Table I show the water/fuel ratio of 3.36 (required for total cooling with port injection) superimposed over the direct inieetion water/fuel ratio requireme.ts. In this instance, water was injected into the inlet port during the last of the compression stroke, and thus was all on the WATER INJECTION COOLING port walls by the time of the next intake stroke. It appears that port injection cooling is about equivalent to direct injection cooling but simpler to achieve for practical purposes. Of equal significance, there was a 10~ increase in brake power and fuel economy, and less than 1 cc/min of water fotmd its way to the engine sump. The experiment with port induction was conducted to deternfine the amount of water the engine could tolerate. At a water/fuel ratio equal to 3.5, there was a 10~0 increase in power a~ld fuel economy. Further increases in water input caused very rapid rates of pressure rise to occur at water/fuel ratio equal to 5, with power down 1 5 ~ at water/fuel ratio equal to 6, and a 50% power loss at water/fuel ratio equal to 9. Neither calorimetry nor emissions were taken during this test. Following tests to determine requirements for total cooling by water injection which were conducted with the calorimetry system, it was desired to demonstrate total cooling with direct water injection without coolant flow in the head and block. This was done and the results are shovnl in Fig. 7. During these tests, the water/fuel ratio was varied and the effects were determined. The data in Fig. 7 suggest that lower water/fuel ratios are possible as critical temperatures are being raised. Table 11 presents a summary of the totalcooling picture with emphasis placed on the more TABLE I Port injection test summarized Conditions: 1800 rpm 20 lb load without water Water flow rate: 0.188 lb/Min Fuel flow rate: 0.056 lb/Min Water/fuel ratio: 3.36 lb/lb Water injection during last of compression, into intake port Circulating coolant and oil temperature: 325~ Resulls : Load: 22.0 lb with water, up 10% Head heat flow: +6 Btu/Min Liner heat flow: --3 Btu/Min Sump heat flow: 0 Net heat flow: +3 Btu/Min, undercooled Deck temperature: 456~ Liner temperature: 349~ Exhaust temperature: 570~ Sump water flow: Less than 1 ml/min 1395 ~ 50( O=s1509 = H150NOZZLE,iNJ DURING t g ~ tg~Tg0*OFF~R STROKE COOLINGLAST = D E C K ~ X= TOTAL L150STROKE NOZZLE-W/F = 3.9go AT PWR COOLANT" 325~ 4~ / .... i ...p___ / , \ p,,..\, _ * H E N USED _ ~" _ --~_ I WATEWFUEL RATIO.LS/L8 FIG. 7. Estimated equilibrium temperatures versus water/fuel ratio with head and liner coolant drained. favorable or optimal times in the cycle for water injection. From this it is seen that optimum conditions range from 450 to 720 CA deg after TDC power stroke at wator/fuel ratios of 2.9 to 3.7 with output power and fuel economy improved 5 to 20 percent, respectively, over that with the standard jacket-cooled CLR engine. Effects on the Diesel Cycle The effects of direct water injection on the diesel work cycle were investigated at waterand fueMnjection timings believed likely to exhibit significant effects. For lack of space, the following discussion of cycle data concentrates on the most optimal time in the cycle for water injection--during late compressinn stroke--and summarizes the effects observed during water injection at two different timings during the power stroke. These conditions represent the extremes of strong combustion influence, i.e., charge cooling and 11o charge cooling effect: (1) " T D C " - - T h i s puts water injection in the range of 85 ~ to 30 ~ BTC and therefore just prior to fuel injection. General results are a substantial increase in ignition delay, strongly 1396 PRACTICAL SYSTEMS TABLE II Optimum engine selection chart at total internal cooling conditions End of water injection timing, ~ ATC power stroke Percent increase in brake power and fuel economy Water fuel ratio required 5.2 12.5 13.5 20.8 10 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.36 Direct injection 450 540 630 720 (TDC) Port injection 720 (TDC) effective cooling, and a power and BSFC gain, with this engine (Fig. 8). (2) "90-deg A T C " - - T h i s involves injecting water into dense, hot gas over the range of 5 ~ to 80 ~ ATC and inevitably causes a substantial power loss. Much water is required for total cooling, and the increase in ignition delay is relatively small. (3) "180-deg A T C " - - T h i s timing injects water during approximately the last 90 deg of the power stroke, where its presence is not felt so strongly. The total-coolhlg requh-ement is mod- I~ ps~ Sump water condensate cc/min 1.6 7.2 9.5 5.5 <1.0 erate, power loss is nil, and ignition delay increase is minor. Figure 8 shows the situation relative to the no-water case for water injection late in the compression stroke, just preceding fuel injection. Show~l in that figure are the whole i~tdicator diagram, the magnified bottom of same, and the pressure-time situation (plus injection timings) in the vicinity of power stroke TI)C. The flfll indicator diagram shows lower pressures to occur late in the compression stroke and early 500 R BEFORE TDC I - - - - - - ) COMPARED WITH CONDITION OF NO-WATER INJECTION ( - - . - - I H40 NOZZLE. 325~ COOLANT LOAD 20 LR WITHOUT WATER INJ, LOAD 21 .S WITH WATER INJ, WATER/FUEL RATIO-3.R "~ DELAY ~ EXPANDED BO'FrOM ~ ! , .Eo : RECORD -" 0.o01 5EC COMPENSATED} SID LESTZ, FIGURE B, REDUCE TO 45% OF ORIGINAL Fro. 8. Cycle data-wate~' injection immediately prior to TDC. WATER INJECTION COOLING 1397 TABLE I I I Engine emissions with various water-injection timings Date (1973) 21 Nov. 26 Dec. 21 Nov. 26 Dee. 21 Nov. 26 Dec. 21 Nov. 26 Dec. NO, ppm NO~ ppm HC, ppm CO, % 450 590 75 238 115 560 585 115 257 160 403 610 279 700 530 753 194 710 182 0.80 0.60 0.41 0.58 1 .Ol 0.30 1.26 0.54 377 200 412 240 428 Bosch smoke No. CO2, % -6.2 -2.2 -5.8 -6.4 5.2 6.2 6.9 8.5 9.4 7.1 8.7 7.6 8.9 9.6 0.35 Timing Timing Timing Water Approxinjection imate 0~, nozzle water/fuel % type ratio 9.0 8.3 12.0 9.35 11 .O 9.15 7.0 8.1 360~ 450~ 540~ None None A H150 A H150 A HI50 H150 H150 H150 0 0 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 Comments Three runs average One run only Timing last part Compression stroke Timing first part, Power stroke Timing l~st part, Power stroke (Smoke data only) (Smoke data only) (Smoke data only) 1800 rpm, 20-1b load, fuel rate about 0.05 ib/min temperature 325~ for oil and coolant (vegetable oil). in the expansion stroke with some slight gain in peak pressure late in the expansion stroke. The indicator and pressure-time (P-t) diagram show a net increasc in cycle work as a result of the following: (1) Reduced compression work due to ongoing cooling of the working fluid. This cooling, however, also reduces early expansion work by a similar amount. (2) Increase in end-of-cycle (late power stroke) work due to flash evaporation of water from the hot metal smffaees. Evaporation is suppressed until cycle pressure falls below the water saturation pressure corresponding to the cylinder metal temperature. (3) The P-t record shows conditions near-TDC which are not evident from the indicator diagram. We see the reduced compression pressure noted above. Also, the increased firing pressure just after TDC augments cycle work. Iguitinn delay was increased by water injection, but was compensated for by advancing fuel injection timing. The ignition delay is attributed to reduced compression temperature as well as possible chemical effects. It is considered that with this engine, the increased ignition delay with water injection improves fuel mixing and combustion, accounting for a substantial part of the observed power increase. Volumetric E~ciency The effect of water injection (using the 5-hole H40, 3-hole L150, and shlgle hole "A" nozzles) and port induction on volumet~bc efficiency was studied, in general, it was observed that water input caused a slight but sustained increase or decrease (2-3%) in volumetric efficiency. Increases occur due to charge and en~ue metal cooling, while decreases are due to the formation of steam on the intake stroke. However, in this study significant transient effects were observed in that commencement of water input ofteu produced a much greater reduction in volumetric efficiency (19-12%) and cessation of water input typically produced a temporary boost (a few percent) in volumetric efficiency. The Engine Exhaust Emissions. Table I I I shows the exhaust emissions produced at standard speed and load by the CLR ealghm without or with water injection for three water-injection timings and two wateriniection nozzles. Emissions data were not taken at any other times in the cycle. The following comments can be made about the data: (1) The basic engine exhaust contains a great deal of oxygen; the volumetric efficiency is low and so is the utilization of what air is taken in. Smoke is high, as is CO. (2) Injection of water during the last part of the compression stroke seems to cut NO= substantially, quite in keeping with expectations. In one case shown, smoke declined sharply while CO was not changed. Why oxygen should increase is not known. 1398 PRACTICAL SYSTEMS (3) Injection of water during the first part of the power stroke (into the hot high-pressure gas) produces a fair effect on NO=. Whether this is due to water carry-over into the combustion phase is not known for certain, of course. Hydrocarbons went up for one water injector and down for another, while smoke was unaffected. The decrease in CO is unexplained; the increase is more expected. (4) Injection of water late in the power stroke reduces NO= while the effect on hydrocarbons parallels that of the earlier timing. Smoke was tmaffected. Direct water injection has the greatest effect on combustion when injected during the late compression stroke. This is partially due to the increase in ignition delay caused by charge cooling, allowing greater mixing prior to ignition. Also, the resulting combustion is influenced by the large amount of water present. For the other two water injection timiugs, the water is introduced after the combustion event, and therefore, does not affect the course of combustion. However, carry-over effects are likely to affect emissions. It appears both experimentally a n d theoretically t h a t parts remain wet during the entire cycle, and that water vapor can get into the intake charge and chemically influence combustion rather than affecting it by cooling the compressed charge and causing increased delay as described above. It is worth noting that the changes in smoke and CO were independent, instead of being closely linked as normally expected. And finally, engine emissions values were reasonable, allowing for poor volumetric efficiency and air utilization of the CLR engine. Engine emissions as affected by injection of aqueous solutions. Several aqueous solutions were directly injected into the engine combustion chamber to compare their effects on exhaust emissions with the injection of plain water; results are in Ref. 10. Exhaust scrubbing. An extensive study of exhaust gas scrubbing (after the exhaust port) was conducted, but space permits reporting only the highlights. (1) None of the solutions attempted scrubbed NO and NO= significantly. These solutions ineluded sodium bicarbonate solution, sodium carbonate solution, strong caustic soda solution, weak peroxide solution, and neutral and acid solutions. The problem is t h a t NO must be oxidized to N(:h before it can hydrolyze, and even that process is inefficient. (2) Scrubbing of exhaust sulfur seems to be very effective regardless of acidity or alkalinity of the scrubbing solution, although only about i i i t i i 100~RECOVERY __ 180 " ~ ZERO MAKEUP 145 S RETICAL~~~oF/ARel ~ 03 >:120 -ITHEO r COMBUSTION -O~e'--%%~5~ -TOTAL WATERWATERT -190 \',., E i i 110 J i i i 120 130 140 150 EXHAUST TEMPERATURE. ~ 9 ' 180 170 F[o. 9. Exhaust water recovery rate versus exhaust temperature (single experiment). 45% of theoretical sulfur has been found in the exhaust by wet chemical methods. It is possible the remainder of the sulfur was combined with particulate carbon in the exhaust smoke, and being in the form of inert carbon-sulfur complexes, CS~ (Refs. 12, 13, 14, and 15), it could not be scrubbed out with the gaseous sulfur compounds. Indications are t h a t sulfur oxides will indeed be scrubbed out in ahuost a n y wet system, although our work did not result in a complete sulfur balance. Other exhaust studies. Exhaust water recovery and the aspects of turbocharging with direct water injection were also examined. Again, space does not permit discussion of these, and the reader is referred to Ref. 10 for these details, which conclude that: (1) Water can be recovered quantitatively from the exhaust in agreement with hunfidity table predictions; the exhaust must be cooled nearly to 100~ at atmospheric pressure for 100% recovery. This is shown graphically and compared with the theoretical case in Fig. 9. (2) Turboeharged engine calculations show a theoretical gain of about 17.5% in available exhaust energy due to generation of steam; exhaust temperature will be reduced several hundred degrees at the same time. Conclusions 1. Direct water injection cooling of diesel engines can be accomplished with increased power and better BSFC. Optimum total engine cooling by direct water injection was accomplished over a wide range of water injection timings (from 450 to 720 CA deg after T D C power stroke) at water/fuel ratios of 2.9 to 3.7 with output power a n d brake specific fuel consumption improved 5 to 2 0 0 , respectively, over that with the standard jacket-cooled CLR engine. W A T E R I N J E C T I O N COOLING 2. Total cooling of military diesel engines for ground mobile application is not feasible due to the required condensing temperature for full water recovery (approximately 100~ at atmospheric pressure). T h e totally cooled water injection engine is impractical as a military engine t h a t must operate on a self-sustaining basis. 3. Emissions are affected in an expected manner by the presence of injected water: NO~ is decreased, while HC and CO tend to increa~. 4. When the exhaust is cooled to recover the water, the condensate functions as a scrubber for some emissions. Sulfur oxides are effectively scrubbed, while NO, and CO are not removed from thc exhaust. 5. The possibility of control of sulfur oxides m a y justify use of a wet exhaust system for stationary applicatious to permit high-sulfur fuels in the future. 6. Short-duration direct-water injection (a more traditional role for water injection) m a y have t• use for spurt power or overload operation of military vehicles without water recovery. 7. Long-range effects of direct water injection on engine lubricant quality or hardware durability were not determined, but results show t h a t advcme effects arc minimized if excessivc water application to the cylinder wall is avoided. I t is also important to keep the oil above 212~ to maintain the engine oil in a dry condition. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Acknowledgments 10. This work wa~ sponsored by the U.S. Army, Contract D.a~AD05-72-C-0053, under technical management of E. J. Ramble, USA TACOM. Contract monitor was C. F. Schwarz, USA MERDC. The authors also thank E. R. Lyons who provided the laboratory assistance, and other members of the U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research Laboratory who provided many helpful sugg~tions. 11. REFERENCES 1. NICHOLLS~J. E., EL-]~ESSIR[, I. A., AND NEWHALL, II. K. : Inlet Manifold Water Injection 12. 13. 14. 15. 1399 for Control of Nitrogen Oxides--Theory and Experiment, Paper 690018 presented at SAE International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., January 1969. WEAT,~:R~'ORD JR., W. D. AND Q~mLTAN JR., R. D.: Total Cooling of Piston Engines by Direct Water Iniection, SAE Paper 700880, November 1970. L~STZ, S. S., MEYER, W. E., ANn C o L o ~ , C. M.: Emis~ions from a Direct-Cylinder WaterInjected Spark Ignition Engine, SAE Paper 720113, January 1972. LnSTZ, S. SI AND Mn~nn, W. E.: The Effect of Direct-Cylinder Water Injection on Nitric Oxide Emission from an S.I. Engine, Proc. 14th FISITA Congr., London, England, June 1972, pp. 2/34-2/41. HOPKI~SON, B.: A New Method of Cooling Gas Engines, British I.M.E. Proc., July 1913, pp. 679-695. R[CA~DO, H. R.: The High-Speed Internal Combustion Engine, pp. 37, 314, 381, Blaekie and Son, Ltd., 1955. TAYLOR,C. F. : The Internal Combustion Engine ia Theory ar~ Practice, p. 440, John Wiley and Sons, 1960. O~:RT, E. F.: Detonation and Internal Coolants, SAE Quarterly Trans., Janlmry 1948, pp. 52-59. VALD~.~NIS, E. ANn WULFNORST, D. E.: The Effects of Emulsified Fuels and Water Induction on Diesel Combustion. SAE Paper 700736, Vehicle En~issions, III, PT-14, 1970. M~L~ou JR., R. B., LESTZ, S. J., A~D QUILIaAN JR., R. D.: Direct Water Injection Cooling for Military Engines, U.S. Army Contract DAAD05-72-C-0053, USAFLRL Report No. 32, DDC No. AD 780175, March 1974. KnENA~, J. H. ANn KsY~s, F. G.: Thermodynamic Properties of Steam, 1st Ed., J. Wiley & Sons, 1963. DALZ, J. M.: U.S. Patent 3,304,158, February 1967. M~ULLO et al.: U.S. Patent 2,689,783, September 1954. TULL~R et al.: U.S. Patent 3,042,503, July 1902. GonMLEZ: U.S. Patent 3,071,445, January 1963.
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