N.P.R COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY NATHAM DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGG LECTURE NOTES Electric Energy Generation, Conservation and Utilization SUB CODE : EE1452 FACULTY NAME : R SATHISH KUMAR DESIGNATION : ASSISTANT PROFESSOR YEAR/SEM :IV/VIII ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013 EE1452 – ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION, CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION LTPC 3 0 0 3 UNIT I GENERATION Generation of electrical power by conventional methods: A brief review – Electrical systems in Aircrafts and Ships – Distributed Generation (DG): Prospects and challenges – Effect of DG on system operation. UNIT II CONSERVATION 9 Economics of generation – Definitions – Load curves – Number and size of units – Cost of electrical energy – Tariff – Need for electrical energy conservation – Methods – Energy efficient equipment – Energy management – Energy auditing – Economics of power factor improvement –Design for improvement of power factor using power capacitors – Power quality – Effect on conservation. UNIT III ILLUMINATION AND ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES 9 Nature of radiation –Solid and Plane angle and its relation – Definition – Basic Laws Photometry– Lighting Schemes – Lighting calculations – Design of illumination systems (for residential,industrial, commercial, health care, street lighting, sports, administrative complexes) – Types oflamps – Energy efficiency lamps – Design of choke and capacitor – Electrolytic Process – Basicprinciples – Electro-deposition – Extraction and refining of metals methods – Power supply for electrolytic processes. UNIT IV ELECTRIC TRACTION 9 Basic concepts of electric Traction – Requirements of an ideal traction system – Supply systems –Mechanics of train movement – Traction motors and control – Multiple units – Braking – Current collection systems – Recent trends in electric traction. UNIT V ELECTRIC HEATING AND WELDING 9 Introduction – Methods of heating – requirement of heating material – Design of heating element –Electric Arc Furnaces – Induction Heating – Dielectric Heating – Electric Welding –Types of Resistance welding – Welding transformer and its characteristics – Thyristorised Control circuit of welding – Energy storage system for welding. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Uppal, S.L. and Rao, S., “Electrical Power Systems”, Khanna Publishers, 2009. 2. Wadhwa, C.L., “Generation, Distribution and Utilization of Electrical Energy”, New Age International (P) Ltd, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Partab, H., “Art and Science of Utilisation of Electrical Energy”, Dhanpat Rai and Co, 2004. 2. Gupta, B.R., “Generation of Electrical Energy”, Eurasia Publishing House (P) Ltd, 2003. 3. Rao, S., “Testing Commissioning Operation and Maintenance of Electrical Equipments”, Khanna Publishers, 2007. 4. Anne Marie Borbely, Anne Marie Borbely, Jan F. Kreider., “Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millenium”, CRC Press, 2001 UNIT –I GENERATION 1. Introduction In this lesson a brief idea of a modern power system is outlined. Emphasis is given to create a clear mental picture of a power system to a beginner of the course Electrical Technology. As consumers, we use electricity for various purposes such as: 1. Lighting, heating, cooling and other domestic electrical appliances used in home. 2. Street lighting, flood lighting of sporting arena, office building lighting, powering PCs etc. 3. Irrigating vast agricultural lands using pumps and operating cold storages for various agricultural products. 4. Running motors, furnaces of various kinds, in industries. 5. Running locomotives (electric trains) of railways. 1.1 Basic idea of generation Prior to the discovery of Faraday‟s Laws of electromagnetic discussion, electrical power was available from batteries with limited voltage and current levels. Although complicated in construction, D.C generators were developed first to generate power in bulk. However, due to limitation of the D.C machine to generate voltage beyond few hundred volts, it was not economical to transmit large amount of power over a long distance. For a given amount of power, the current magnitude (I = P/V), hence section of the copper conductor will be large. Thus generation, transmission and distribution of d.c power were restricted to area of few kilometer radius with no interconnections between generating plants. Therefore, area specific generating stations along with its distribution networks had to be used. 2. Thermal, hydel & nuclear power stations In this section we briefly outline the basics of the three most widely found generating stations – thermal, hydel and nuclear plants in our country and elsewhere. 2.1 Thermal plant We have seen in the previous section that to generate voltage at 50 Hz we have to run the generator at some fixed rpm by some external agency. A turbine is used to rotate the generator. Turbine may be of two types, namely steam turbine and water turbine. In a thermal power station coal is burnt to produce steam which in turn, drives the steam turbine hence the generator (turbo set). In figure 2.2 the elementary features of a thermal power plant is shown. In a thermal power plant coil is burnt to produce high temperature and high pressure steam in a boiler. The steam is passed through a steam turbine to produce rotational motion. The generator, mechanically coupled to the turbine, thus rotates producing electricity. Chemical energy stored in coal after a couple of transformations produces electrical energy at the generator terminals as depicted in the figure. Thus proximity of a generating station nearer to a coal reserve and water sources will be most economical as the cost of transporting coal gets reduced. In our country coal is available in abundance and naturally thermal power plants are most popular. However, these plants pollute the atmosphere because of burning of coals. Figure 2.1: Basic components of a thermal generating unit. Stringent conditions (such as use of more chimney heights along with the compulsory use of electrostatic precipitator) are put by regulatory authorities to see that the effects of pollution is minimized. A large amount of ash is produced every day in a thermal plant and effective handling of the ash adds to the running cost of the plant. Nonetheless 57% of the generation in out country is from thermal plants. The speed of alternator used in thermal plants is 3000 rpm which means 2-pole alternators are used in such plants. 2.2 Hydel plants In a hydel power station, water head is used to drive water turbine coupled to the generator. Water head may be available in hilly region naturally in the form of water reservoir (lakes etc.) at the hill tops. The potential energy of water can be used to drive the turbo generator set installed at the base of the hills through piping called pen stock. Water head may also be created artificially by constructing dams on a suitable river. In contrast to a thermal plant, hydel power plants are eco-friendly, neat and clean as no fuel is to be burnt to produce electricity. While running cost of such plants are low, the initial installation cost is rather high compared to a thermal plants due to massive civil construction necessary. Also sites to be selected for such plants depend upon natural availability of water reservoirs at hill tops or availability of suitable rivers for constructing dams. Water turbines generally operate at low rpm, so number of poles of the alternator are high. For example a 20-pole alternator the rpm of the turbine is only 300 rpm. Figure 2.2: Basic components of a hydal generating unit. 2.3 Nuclear plants As coal reserve is not unlimited, there is natural threat to thermal power plants based on coal. It is estimated that within next 30 to 40 years, coal reserve will exhaust if it is consumed at the present rate. Nuclear power plants are thought to be the solution for bulk power generation. At present the installed capacity of nuclear power plant is about 4300 MW and expected to expand further in our 235 country. The present day atomic power plants work on the principle of nuclear fission of U. In the 235 natural uranium, 238 U constitutes only 0.72% and remaining parts is constituted by 99.27% of 234 and only about 0.05% of U. The concentration of 235 process to obtain enriched U 235 U may be increased to 90% by gas diffusion 235 U. When U is bombarded by neutrons a lot of heat energy along with 235 additional neutrons are produced. These new neutrons further bombard U producing more heat and more neutrons. Thus a chain reaction sets up. However this reaction is allowed to take place in a controlled manner inside a closed chamber called nuclear reactor. To ensure sustainable chain reaction, moderator and control rods are used. Moderators such as heavy water (deuterium) or very 12 pure carbon C are used to reduce the speed of neutrons. To control the number neutrons, control rods made of cadmium or boron steel are inserted inside the reactor. The control rods can absorb neutrons. If we want to decrease the number neutrons, the control rods are lowered down further and vice versa. The heat generated inside the reactor is taken out of the chamber with the help of a coolant such as liquid sodium or some gaseous fluids. The coolant gives up the heat to water in heat exchanger to convert it to steam as shown in figure 2.4. The steam then drives the turbo set and the exhaust steam from the turbine is cooled and fed back to the heat exchanger with the help of water feed pump. Calculation shows that to produce 1000 MW of electrical power in coal based thermal 6 plant, about 6 × 10 Kg of coal is to be burnt daily while for the same amount of power, only about 235 2.5 Kg of U is to be used per day in a nuclear power stations. Figure 2.3: Nuclear Power generating unit. The initial investment required to install a nuclear power station is quite high but running cost is low. Although, nuclear plants produce electricity without causing air pollution, it remains a dormant source of radiation hazards due to leakage in the reactor. Also the used fuel rods are to be carefully handled and disposed off as they still remain radioactive. 235 The reserve of U is also limited and cannot last longer if its consumption continues at the present 239 rate. Naturally search for alternative fissionable material continues. For example, plutonium ( 233 Pu) 238 and ( U) are fissionable. Although they are not directly available. Absorbing neutrons, U gets 239 converted to fissionable plutonium Pu in the atomic reactor described above. The used fuel rods 239 can be further processed to extract Pu from it indirectly increasing the availability of fissionable 233 fuel. Effort is also on to convert thorium into fissionable U. Incidentally, India has very large reserve of thorium in the world. Total approximate generation capacity and Contribution by thermal, hydel and nuclear generation in our country are given below. Electrical systems in Aircrafts and Ships: The function of the aircraft electrical system is to generate, regulate and distribute electrical power throughout the aircraft New-generation aircraft rely heavily on electrical power because of the wide use of electronic flight instrument systems Electrical Power Uses Aircraft electrical power is used to operate: Aircraft Flight Instruments Essential Systems Passenger Services Essential power is power that the aircraft needs to be able to continue safe operation Passenger services power is the power that used for: Cabin lighting Operation of entertainment systems Preparation of food Power Used Aircraft electrical components operate on many different voltages both AC and DC However, most of the systems use: – 115 VAC @ 400 Hz – 28 VDC 26 VAC is also used in some aircraft for lighting Power Sources There are several different power sources on large aircraft to be able to handle excessive loads, for redundancy, and for emergency situations. These power sources include: – Engine driven AC generators – Auxiliary Power Units – External power – Ram Air Turbines Most often the APUs power is used while the aircraft is on the ground during maintenance or for engine starting However, most aircraft can use the APU while in flight as a backup power source – One exception to this is the B272, which only allows APU operation in the ground External power may only be used with the aircraft on the ground This system utilizes a Ground Power Unit (GPU) to provide AC power through an external plug on the nose of the aircraft GPUs may be either portable or stationary units Distributed Generation: What is Distributed Generation? Distributed generation is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. DG technologies often consist of modular (and sometimes renewable-energy) generators, and they offer a number of potential benefits. In many cases, distributed generators can provide lower-cost electricity and higher power reliability and security with fewer environmental consequences than can traditional power generators. In contrast to the use of a few large-scale generating stations located far from load centers--the approach used in the traditional electric power paradigm--DG systems employ numerous, but small plants and can provide power onsite with little reliance on the distribution and transmission grid. DG technologies yield power in capacities that range from a fraction of a kilowatt [kW] to about 100 megawatts [MW]. Utility-scale generation units generate power in capacities that often reach beyond 1,000 MW. Some Examples of Distributed Generation Technologies: Distributed generation takes place on two-levels: the local level and the end-point level. Local level power generation plants often include renewable energy technologies that are site specific, such as wind turbines, geothermal energy production, solar systems (photovoltaic and combustion), and some hydro-thermal plants. These plants tend to be smaller and less centralized than the traditional model plants. They also are frequently more energy and cost efficient and more reliable. Since these local level DG producers often take into account the local context, the usually produce less environmentally damaging or disrupting energy than the larger central model plants. Distributed generation–impact on the system operation: Impact of DG on power system • Power Quality - at each unit – Starting and stopping – Flicker from tower shadow effect • Power balance - at large penetration – Non dispatchable, ”must run” units – Uncontrolled, negative loads – Wind power production hard to predict • Protection - of network and units Distributed Generation Advantages: • Size for Base load Capacity to Meet Minimum Constant Loads • Capture Intermittent and Peaking Loads in Residential and Commercial Cogeneration • Increased Energy Efficiency • Reduced Emissions UNIT –2 CONSERVATION Economics of Power Generation: Introduction to Economics of Power Generation: The function of a power station is to deliver power at the lowest possible cost per kilo watt hour. This total cost is made up of fixed charges consisting of interest on the capital, taxes, insurance, depreciation and salary of managerial staff, the operating expenses such as cost of fuels, water, oil, labor, repairs and maintenance etc. The cost of power generation can be minimized by : 1. Choosing equipment that is available for operation during the largest possible % of time in a year. 2. Reducing the amount of investment in the plant. 3. Operation through fewer men. 4. Having uniform design 5. Selecting the station as to reduce cost of fuel, labor, etc. All the electrical energy generated in a power station must be consumed immediately as it cannot be stored. So the electrical energy generated in a power station must be regulated according to the demand. The demand of electrical energy or load will also vary with the time and a power station must be capable of meeting the maximum load at any time. Certain definitions related to power station practice are given below: Load curve : Load curve is plot of load in kilowatts versus time usually for a day or a year. Load duration curve : Load duration curve is the plot of load in kilowatts versus time duration for which it occurs. Maximum demand : Maximum demand is the greatest of all demands which have occurred during a given period of time. Average load : Average load is is the average load on the power station in a given period (day/month or year) Base load : Base load is the minimum load over a given period of time. Connected load : Connected load of a system is the sum of the continuous ratings of the load consuming apparatus connected to the system. Peak load : Peak load is the maximum load consumed or produced by a unit or group of units in a stated period of time. It may be the maximum instantaneous load or the maximum average load over a designated interval of time. Demand factor : Demand factor is the ratio of maximum demand to the connected load of a consumer. Diversity factor : Diversity factor is the ratio of sum of individual maximum demands to the combined maximum demand on power stations Load factor : Load factor is the ratio of average load during a specified period to the maximum load occurring during the period. Load factor = Average Load / Maximum demand Station load factor : Station load factor is the ratio of net power generated to the net maximum demand on a power station. Plant factor : Plant factor is the ratio of the average load on the plant for the period of time considered, to the aggregate rating of the generating equipment installed in the plant. Capacity factor : Capacity factor is the ratio of the average load on the machine for a period of time considered, to the rating of the machine. Demand factor : Demand factor is the ratio of maximum demand of system or part of system, to the total connected load of the system, or part of system, under consideration. LOAD CURVES: Definition: The curve showing the variation of load on the power station with respect to time. Types of load curves: Daily load curve–Load variations during the whole day Monthly load curve–Load curve obtained from the daily load curve Yearly load curve-Load curve obtained from the monthly load curve Load Characteristics: Connected load Maximum demand Average load Load factor Diversity factor Plant capacity factor Plant use factor Load duration curve: When the elements of a load curve are arranged in the order of descending magnitudes. Cost of electrical energy: Electric Energy is the source of energy for electrical appliances. Your computer, the cooling, and the lighting at your home are all powered by electric energy. Can you imagine life without electric energy? Do you even know how much it costs? Electric Energy is measured in kWh (kilowatt-hour) or MWh (megawatt-hour). Power is equal to work done in respect to time, so work equals power multiplied by time. Since work equals energy, electric energy would be measured by a kilowatt-hour. P = W/t W = E = Pt (1000W)(1h) = 1kWh The cost of each kWh depends on your location and the company you use. In New York, the average kWh costs 14.31 cents, but it can cost as high as 16.73 cents in Hawaii or as low as 5.81 cents in Kentucky. You're probably thinking that's not so expensive, but when it all adds up, the number can become significant. Just look at your electric bill. An electric bill in New York can come out to be $81.68, depending on which appliances are being used. But imagine your electric bill when you're blasting your air conditioner. It can cost you a few hundred dollars. But you can decrease that cost by using more of your fan in place of your air conditioner because a typical fan would cost you in the teens rather than in the hundreds. This is mainly due to the amount of watts used to power your electric appliances. An air conditioner can use up to a few thousand watts, while a fan would only use a few hundred watts. If you want to keep your electric bill low, substitute high watt appliances for low watt appliances. Energy conservation: Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources Energy being an important element of the infrastructure sector has to be ensured its availability on sustainable basis. On the other hand, the demand for energy is growing manifold and the energy sources are becoming scarce and costlier. Among the various strategies to be evolved for meeting energy demand, efficient use of energy and its conservation emerges out to be the least cost option in any given strategies, apart from being environmentally benign. The steps to create sustainable energy system begin with the wise use of resources; energy efficiency is the mantra that leads to sustainable energy management. Energy Demand And Supply On the energy demand and supply side, India is facing severe shortages. 70% of the total petroleum product demand is being met by imports, imposing a heavy burden on foreign exchange. Country is also facing Peak power and average energy shortages of 12% and 7% respectively. To provide power for all , additional capacity of 100,000 MW would be needed by 2012, requiring approximately Rs.8000 billion investment. Further, the per capita energy consumption in India is too low as compared to developed countries, which is just 4% of USA and 20% of the world average. The per capita consumption is targeted to grow to about 1000 kWh per year by 2012 , thus imposing extra demand on power system. Importance Of Energy Conservation In a scenario where India tries to accelerate its development process and cope with increasing energy demands, conservation and energy efficiency measures are to play a central role in our energy policy. A national movement for energy conservation can significantly reduce the need for fresh investment in energy supply systems in coming years. It is imperative that all-out efforts are made to realize this potential. Energy conservation is an objective to which all the citizen in the country can contribute. Whether a household or a factory, a small shop or a large commercial building, a farmer or a office worker, every user and producer of energy can and must make this effort for his own benefit, as well as that of the nation. Energy audit methodology The methodology adopted for this audit was Formation of audit groups for specific areas and end use Visual inspection and data collection Observations on the general condition of the facility and equipment and quantification Identification / verification of energy consumption and other parameters by measurements Detailed calculations, analyses and assumptions Validation Potential energy saving opportunities Implementation Improving Power Factor Adding power factor capacitors is generally the most economical way to improve a facility‟s power factor to minimize a power factor penalty. While the current through an inductive load lags the voltage, current to a capacitor leads the voltage. Thus power factor capacitors serve as a leading reactive current generator to counter the lagging reactive current in a system. This action is explained in terms of the energy stored in capacitors and induction devices. As the voltage in ac circuits varies sinusoidally, it alternately passes through zero-voltage points and maximum voltage points. As the voltage passes through zero voltage and starts toward maximum voltage the capacitor stores energy in its electrostatic field, and the induction device gives up energy from its electromagnetic field. As the voltage passes through a maximum point and starts to decrease, the capacitor gives up energy and the induction device stores energy. Thus when a capacitor and an inductor are installed in the same circuit, there is an exchange of magnetizing current between them with the power factor capacitor actually supplying the magnetizing requirements of the induction device. The capacitor thus releases the energy source (the utility) from the need to supply the magnetizing current. Simply stated, power factor capacitors supply the magnetizing current required by motors at or near the motor site, instead of from the utility .This frees up utility capacity to provide more real power. Power Quality Events Transients: Impulsive Transients Oscillatory Transients Short Duration Variation Voltage Sags or Dips Voltage Swells Interruptions Voltage Magnitude Step Long Duration Variation Undervoltages Overvoltages interruptions What is power quality? Power quality is simply the interaction of electrical power with electrical equipment. If electrical equipment operates correctly and reliably without being damaged or stressed, we would say that the electrical power is of good quality. On the other hand, if the electrical equipment malfunctions, is unreliable, or is damaged during normal usage, we would suspect that the power quality is poor. As a general statement, any deviation from normal of a voltage source (either DC or AC) can be classified as a power quality issue. Power quality issues can be very high-speed events such as voltage impulses / transients, high frequency noise, waveshape faults, voltage swells and sags and total power loss. Each type of electrical equipment will be affected differently by power quality issues. By analyzing the electrical power and evaluating the equipment or load, we can determine if a power quality problem exists. See Power Quality events for a more detailed description of power quality problems. We can verify the power quality by installing a special type of high-speed recording test equipment to monitor the electrical power. This type of test equipment will provide information used in evaluating if the electrical power is of sufficient quality to reliably operate the equipment. The process is similar to a doctor using a heart monitor to record the electrical signals for your heart. Monitoring will provide us with valuable data, however the data needs to be interpreted and applied to the type of equipment being powered. Lets look at two examples of interpreting data for a USA location (other countries use different voltages but the same principal applies). Example No. 1 A standard 100-watt light bulb requires 120 volts to produce the designed light output (measured in lumens). If the voltage drops to 108 volts (-10%), the light bulb still works but puts out less lumens and is dimmer. If the voltage is removed as during a power outage, the light goes out. Either a low voltage or complete power outage does not damage the light bulb. If however the voltage rises to 130 volts (+10%), the light bulb will produce more lumens than it was intended to, causing overheating and stress to the filament wire. The bulb will fail much sooner than its expected design life; therefore, we could conclude that as far as a standard light bulb is concerned, a power quality issue that shortens bulb life is high voltage. We could also conclude that low voltage or a power outage would cause the lumen output to vary, which effects the intended use of the bulb. Example No. 2. A CRT or monitor for a personal computer uses a 120 volt AC power supply to convert the incoming voltage to specific DC voltages required to run the monitor, these voltages include 5 VDC for logic circuits and high voltage DC to operate the cathode ray tube (CRT). If the incoming voltage drops to 108 volts (-10%), the power supply is designed to draw more current or amps to maintain the proper internal voltages needed to operate the monitor. As a result of the higher current draw, the power supply runs hotter and internal components are stressed more. Although the operator of the monitor does not notice a problem, the long term effect of running on low voltage is reduced reliability and increased failures of the monitor. If the power drops below the operating range of the power supply, the monitor will shut down. If the voltage goes above 132 volts AC (+10%), the power supply will not be able to regulate the internal voltages and internal components will be damaged from high voltage; therefore, we conclude that the power quality requirements for the PC monitor are much higher than for a light bulb. Both high and low voltage can cause premature failures. The economic issues are much greater for the PC monitor in both replacement cost and utilization purposes. The above examples can be applied to any electrical or electronic systems. It is the task of the power quality consultant to determine if the power, grounding, and infrastructure of a facility is inadequate to operate the technological equipment. Once this assessment is made steps can be taken to remediate the problems. To use the physician example, the diagnosis has to be made before the medicine is prescribed. Many clients are buying power quality medicine without a proper diagnosis. This is both costly and many times ineffective. Power quality is simply the interaction of electrical power with electrical equipment. If electrical equipment operates correctly and reliably without being damaged or stressed, we would say that the electrical power is of good quality. On the other hand, if the electrical equipment malfunctions, is unreliable, or is damaged during normal usage, we would suspect that the power quality is poor. As a general statement, any deviation from normal of a voltage source (either DC or AC) can be classified as a power quality issue. Power quality issues can be very high-speed events such as voltage impulses / transients, high frequency noise, waveshape faults, voltage swells and sags and total power loss. Power Quality Events Power quality problems have many names and descriptions. Surges, spikes, transients, blackouts, noise, are some common descriptions given, but what do they mean? This section delves into defining power quality issues and terminology. Power quality issues can be divided into short duration, long duration, and continuous categories. The computer industry has developed a qualification standard to categorize power quality events. The most common standard is the CBEMA curve (Computer Business Equipment Manufacturing Association). What can cause power quality problems? Typical problems include grounding and bonding problems, code violations and internally generated power disturbances. Other internal issues include powering different equipment from the same power source. Lets take an example of a laser printer and a personal computer. Most of us would not think twice about plugging the laser printer into the same power strip that runs the PC. We are more concerned about the software and communication compatibility than the power capability; however, some laser printers can generate neutral-ground voltage swells and line-neutral voltage sags every minute or so. The long term effect to the PC may be power supply failure. We have to be careful in how technology is installed and wired. Most common Power Quality problems: Voltage sag (or dip) Description: A decrease of the normal voltage level between 10 and 90% of the nominal rms voltage at the power frequency, for durations of 0,5 cycle to 1 minute. Causes: Faults on the transmission or distribution network (most of the times on parallel feeders). Faults in consumer‟s installation. Connection of heavy loads and start-up of large motors. Consequences: Malfunction of information technology equipment, namely microprocessor-based control systems (PCs, PLCs, ASDs, etc) that may lead to a process stoppage. Tripping of contactors and electromechanical relays. Disconnection and loss of efficiency in electric rotating machines. Very short interruptions Description: Total interruption of electrical supply for duration from few milliseconds to one or two seconds. Causes: Mainly due to the opening and automatic reclosure of protection devices to decommission a faulty section of the network. The main fault causes are insulation failure, lightning and insulator flashover. Consequences: Tripping of protection devices, loss of information and malfunction of data processing equipment. Stoppage of sensitive equipment, such as ASDs, PCs, PLCs, if they‟re not prepared to deal with this situation. Long interruptions Description: Total interruption of electrical supply for duration greater than 1 to 2 seconds Causes: Equipment failure in the power system network, storms and objects (trees, cars, etc) striking lines or poles, fire, human error, bad coordination or failure of protection devices. Consequences: Stoppage of all equipment. Voltage swell Description: Momentary increase of the voltage, at the power frequency, outside the normal tolerances, with duration of more than one cycle and typically less than a few seconds. Causes: Start/stop of heavy loads, badly dimensioned power sources, badly regulated transformers (mainly during off-peak hours). Consequences: Data loss, flickering of lighting and screens, stoppage or damage of sensitive equipment, if the voltage values are too high. Harmonic distortion Description: Voltage or current waveforms assume non-sinusoidal shape. The waveform corresponds to the sum of different sine-waves with different magnitude and phase, having frequencies that are multiples of power-system frequency. Causes: Classic sources: electric machines working above the knee of the magnetization curve (magnetic saturation), arc furnaces, welding machines, rectifiers, and DC brush motors. Modern sources: all non-linear loads, such as power electronics equipment including ASDs, switched mode power supplies, data processing equipment, high efficiency lighting. Consequences: Increased probability in occurrence of resonance, neutral overload in 3-phase systems, overheating of all cables and equipment, loss of efficiency in electric machines, electromagnetic interference with communication systems, errors in measures when using average reading meters, nuisance tripping of thermal protections. UNIT –3 ILLUMINATION AND ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES Radiation is a form of energy. There are two basic types of radiation. One kind is particulate radiation, which involves tiny fast-moving particles that have both energy and mass. Particulate radiation is primarily produced by disintegration of an unstable atom and includes Alpha and Beta particles. Alpha particles are high energy, large subatomic structures of protons and neutrons. They can travel only a short distance and are stopped by a piece of paper or skin. Beta particles are fast moving electrons. They are a fraction of the size of alpha particles, but can travel farther and are more penetrating. Illumination And Light: Illumination differs from light very much, though generally these terms are used more or less synonymously. Strictly speaking light is the cause and illumination is the result of that light on surfaces on which it falls. Thus the illumination makes the surface look more or less bright with a certain colour and it is this brightness and color which the eye sees and interprets as something useful, or pleasant or otherwise. Light may be produced by passing electric current through filaments as in the incandescent lamps, through arcs between carbon or metal rods, or through suitable gases as in neon and other gas tubes. In some forms of lamps the light is due to fluorescence excited by radiation arising from the passage of electric current through mercury vapour. Lumen The lumen (symbolized lm) is the International Unit of luminous flux. It is defined in terms of candela steradians (cd multiplied by sr). One lumen is the amount of light emitted in a solid angle of 1 sr, from a source that radiates to an equal extent in all directions, and whose intensity is 1 cd. luminous intensity Luminous intensity is an expression of the amount of light power emanating from a point source within a solid angle of one steradian . Photometry Photometry is the science of measuring visible light in units that are weighted according to the sensitivity of the human eye. It is a quantitative science based on a statistical model of the human visual response to light -- that is, our perception of light -- under carefully controlled conditions. The human visual system is a marvelously complex and highly nonlinear detector of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from 380 to 770 nanometers (nm). We see light of different wavelengths as a continuum of colors ranging through the visible spectrum: 650 nm is red, 540 nm is green, 450 nm is blue, and so on. The sensitivity of the human eye to light varies with wavelength. A light source with a radiance 2 of one watt/m -steradian of green light, for example, appears much brighter than the same source 2 with a radiance of one watt/m -steradian of red or blue light. In photometry, we do not measure watts of radiant energy. Rather, we attempt to measure the subjective impression produced by stimulating the human eye-brain visual system with radiant energy. This task is complicated immensely by the eye‟s nonlinear response to light. It varies not only with wavelength but also with the amount of radiant flux, whether the light is constant or flickering, the spatial complexity of the scene being perceived, the adaptation of the iris and retina, the psychological and physiological state of the observer, and a host of other variables. Nevertheless, the subjective impression of seeing can be quantified for “normal” viewing conditions. In 1924, the Commission Internationale d‟Eclairage (International Commission on Illumination, or CIE) asked over one hundred observers to visually match the “brightness” of monochromatic light sources with different wavelengths under controlled conditions. The statistical result -- the so-called CIE photometric curve shown ,the photopic luminous efficiency of the human visual system as a function of wavelength. It provides a weighting function that can be used to convert radiometric into photometric measurements. Photometric theory does not address how we perceive colors. The light being measured can be monochromatic or a combination or continuum of wavelengths; the eye‟s response is determined by the CIE weighting function. This underlines a crucial point: The only difference between radiometric and photometric theory is in their units of measurement. With this thought firmly in mind, we can quickly review the fundamental concepts of photometry. Luminous Flux (Luminous Power) Luminous flux is photometrically weighted radiant flux (power). Its unit of measurement is the 12 lumen, defined as 1/683 watts of radiant power at a frequency of 540 x 10 Hertz. As with luminous intensity, the luminous flux of light with other wavelengths can be calculated using the CIE photometric curve. Luminous Energy Luminous energy is photometrically weighted radiant energy. It is measured in lumen seconds. Luminous Flux Density (Illuminance and Luminous Exitance) Luminous flux density is photometrically weighted radiant flux density. Illuminance is the photometric equivalent of irradiance, whereas luminous exitance is the photometric equivalent of radiant exitance. Luminous flux density is measured in lumens per square meter. (A footcandle is one lumen per square foot.) Lighting Calculations: Inverse-square law The skilled application of computerized point lighting calculations can optimize lighting levels in both the task and ambient domains in order to minimize energy consumption. The lighting professional should consider the use of point lighting calculations, both to design more energyefficient spaces, and to create spaces with more drama and visual interest. Point calculations are an exceptionally accurate way to compare general lighting systems. While the easier lumen method allows the comparison of average illuminance, point calculations permit the comparison of uniformity of light on the work plane, the patterns of light produced on ceilings and walls, and task contrast rendering. More specifically, point calculations allow consideration of the effects listed below. Effect on Room Surfaces. By evaluating the patterns of light on a wall caused by a row of compact fluorescent down lights, an aesthetic evaluation can be made. Artwork locations may be selected or lighting may be designed to highlight artwork. It may also be possible to determine whether the pattern created on a wall will produce luminance extremes that will cause glare or reflections in VDT screens. Indirect Lighting Effects on Ceiling. When they are too close to the ceiling, indirect lighting systems may create definite stripes or pools of light on the ceiling that are distracting and that may image in VDT screens. Careful ceiling luminance calculations can help identify the problem, and allow comparison of lighting products with various optical distributions and suspension lengths to reduce the effect. Gray-scale printouts or shaded VDT screen output of luminance make visual assessments possible. Interior Task-Ambient Lighting. Point calculations should be used for any type of lighting design where the task locations and types are well known and are unlikely to move without a lighting redesign. They may also be used for lighting designs where tasks that move end up in predefined locations. Cautions for Point Calculations. In the case where a task light is used, or where an indirect fixture is mounted within 12 inches of the ceiling, point calculations are not always appropriate. In general, if the luminaire is close to the surface where lighting patterns are to be evaluated, a near field situation exists. A shortcoming of the mathematics used in point calculations is that these near field calculations are comparatively inaccurate unless near field photometric data is available from the luminaire manufacturer, or the computer program is capable of adjusting the characteristics of the luminaires to improve the accuracy of the results. Otherwise, it may be more accurate to evaluate the light patterns from the task light or indirect fixture empirically. The most common methods used for lighting calculations are: (1) Watts Per Square Meter Method. This is principally a „rule of thumb‟ method very handy for rough calculations or checking. It consists of making an allowance of watts/m2 of area to be illuminated according to the illumination desired on the assumption of an average figure of overall efficiency of the system. (2) Lumen or Light Flux Method. This method is applicable to those cases where the sources of light are such as to produce an approximate uniform illumination over the working plane or where an average value is required. Lumens received on the working plane may be determined from the relation. Lumens received on the working plane = Number of lamps X wattage of each lamp X lamp efficiency (lumens/watt) X coefficient of utilization/depreciation factor. (3) Point-To-Point or Inverse Square Law Method. This method is applicable where the illumination at a point due to one or more sources of light is required, the candle power of sources in the particular direction under consideration being known. This method is not much used because of its complicated and cumbersome applications. Design of lighting system: Direct lighting Lighting provided from a source without reflection from other surfaces. In daylighting, this means that the light has travelled on a straight path from the sky (or the sun) to the point of interest. In electrical lighting it usually describes an installation of ceiling mounted or suspended luminaires with mostly downward light distribution characteristics. Indirect lighting Lighting provided by reflection usually from wall or celiling surfaces. In daylighting, this means that the light coming from the sky or the sun is reflected on a surface of high reflectivity like a wall, a window sill or a special redirecting device. In electrical lighting the luminaires are suspended from the ceiling or wall mounted and distribute light mainly upwards so it gets reflected off the ceiling or the walls. Types of Lighting One of the primary functions of a luminaire is to direct the light to where it is needed. The light distribution produced by luminaires is characterized by the Illuminating Engineering Society as follows: Direct Lighting ( 90 to 100 percent of the light is directed downward for maximum use. Indirect Lighting( 90 to 100 percent of the light is directed to the ceilings and upper walls and is reflected to all parts of a room. Semi-Direct Lighting( 60 to 90 percent of the light is directed downward with the remainder directed upward. Semi-indirect Lighting ( 60 to 90 percent of the light is directed upward with the remainder directed downward. Highlighting Lighting( the beam projection distance and focusing ability characterize this luminaire) Types of lamps: "Arc lamp" or "arc light" is the general term for a class of lamps that produce light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The lamp consists of two electrodes, first made from carbon but typically made today of tungsten, which are separated by a gas. The type of lamp is often named by the gas contained in the bulb; including neon, argon, xenon, krypton, sodium, metal halide, and mercury, or by the type of electrode as in carbon-arc lamps. The common fluorescent lamp is actually a low-pressure mercury arc lamp High Pressure Mercury Vapour Lamp The mercury vapour lamp in construction is similar to sodium vapour lamp. It gives greenish blue colour light, which causes colour distortion. The efficiency is about 30-40 lumens per watt. These lamps (MA type) are manufactured in 250 and 400 W ratings for use on 200-250 V ac supply. Lamps of this type are used for general industrial lighting, railway yards, ports, work areas; shopping centers etc where greenish-blue colour ligh is not objectionable. Another type, which is manufactured in 300 and 500 W ratings for use on ac as well as dc supply mains is MAT type. This is similar to MA type except that it does not use choke as ballast. Lower wattage lamps, such as 80 and 125 W, are manufactured in a different design and using high vapour pressure of about 5-10 atmospheres. These are known as MB type lamps. Incandescent lamp: The incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe produces light by heating a metal filament wire to a high temperature until it glows. The hot filament is protected from oxidation in the air with a glass enclosure that is filled with inert gas or evacuated. In a halogen lamp, filament evaporation is prevented by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electrical current by feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment, have low manufacturing costs, and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting. Some applications of the incandescent bulb use the heat generated by the filament, such as incubators, brooding boxes for poultry, heat lights for reptile tanks, infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes, and the Easy-Bake Oven toy. This waste heat increases the energy required by a building's air conditioning system. Gaseous discharge lamps: Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electrical discharge through an ionized gas, i.e. a plasma. The character of the gas discharge critically depends on the frequency or modulation of the current: see the entry on a frequency classification of plasmas. Typically, such lamps use a noble gas (argon, neon, krypton and xenon) or a mixture of these gases. Most lamps are filled with additional materials, like mercury, sodium, and/or metal halides. In operation the gas is ionized, and free electrons, accelerated by the electrical field in the tube, collide with gas and metal atoms. Some electrons in the atomic orbitals of these atoms are excited by these collisions to a higher energy state. When the excited atom falls back to a lower energy state, it emits a photon of a characteristic energy, resulting in infrared, visible light, or ultraviolet radiation. Some lamps convert the ultraviolet radiation to visible light with a fluorescent coating on the inside of the lamp's glass surface. The fluorescent lamp is perhaps the best known gas-discharge lamp. Gas-discharge lamps offer long life and high efficiency, but are more complicated to manufacture, and they require auxiliary electronic equipment such as ballasts to control current flow through the gas. Due to their greater efficiency, gas-discharge lamps are replacing incandescent lights in many lighting applications. Sodium Vapour Lamp Principally sodium vapour lamp consists of a bulb containing a small amount of metallic sodium, neon gas and two sets of electrodes connected to a pin type base. The lamp operates at a temperature of about 300°C and in order to conserve the heat generated and assure the lamp operating at normal air temperatures the discharge envelope is enclosed in special vacuum envelope designed for this purpose. The efficiency of a sodium vapour lamp under practical conditions is about 40-50 lumens/watt. Such lamps are manufactured in 45,60,85 and 140 W ratings. The average life is about 3000 hours and is not affected by voltage variations. The major application of this type of lamp is for highway and general outdoor lighting where colour discrimination is not required, such as street lighting, parks, rail yards, storage yards etc. Energy Efficiency Techniques Use of Day light, turn off the lights when not required Proper maintenance of lamps Replacement with energy efficient lamps Incorporate proper lighting controls Use of electronic chokes instead of conventional electromagnetic ballasts Use of dimming controls Electrolysis: A means of producing chemical changes through reactions at electrodes in contact with an electrolyte by the passage of an electric current. Electrolysis cells, also known as electrochemical cells, generally consist of two electrodes connected to an external source of electricity (a power supply or battery) and immersed in a liquid that can conduct electricity through the movement of ions. Reactions occur at both electrode-solution interfaces because of the flow of electrons. Reduction reactions, where substances add electrons, occur at the electrode called the cathode; oxidation reactions, where species lose electrons, occur at the other electrode, the anode. In the cell shown in the illustration, water is reduced at the cathode to produce hydrogen gas and hydroxide ion; chloride ion is oxidized at the anode to generate chlorine gas. Electrodes are typically constructed of metals (such as platinum or steel) or carbon. Electrolytes usually consist of salts dissolved in either water or a nonaqueous solvent, or they are molten salts. See also Electrochemistry; Electrode; Electrolyte; Oxidation-reduction. The Electrolytic Process: The electrolytic process requires that an electrolyte, an ionized solution or molten metallic salt, complete an electric circuit between two electrodes. When the electrodes are connected to a source of direct current one, called the cathode, becomes negatively (−) charged while the other, called the anode, becomes positively (+) charged. The positive ions in the electrolyte will move toward the cathode and the negatively charged ions toward the anode. This migration of ions through the electrolyte constitutes the electric current in that part of the circuit. The migration of electrons into the anode, through the wiring and an electric generator, and then back to the cathode constitutes the current in the external circuit. For example, when electrodes are dipped into a solution of hydrogen chloride (a compound of hydrogen and chlorine) and a current is passed through it, hydrogen gas bubbles off at the cathode and chlorine at the anode. This occurs because hydrogen chloride dissociates (see dissociation) into hydrogen ions (hydrogen atoms that have lost an electron) and chloride ions (chlorine atoms that have gained an electron) when dissolved in water. When the electrodes are connected to a source of direct current, the hydrogen ions are attracted to the cathode, where they each gain an electron, becoming hydrogen atoms again. Hydrogen atoms pair off into hydrogen molecules that bubble off as hydrogen gas. Similarly, chlorine ions are attracted to the anode, where they each give up an electron, become chlorine atoms, join in pairs, and bubble off as chlorine gas. The fact that electrical energy can produce chemical changes and the processes based on it, called the „electrolytic processes‟ are widely used for the extraction of pure metals from their ores (such as aluminum, zinc, copper, magnesium, sodium etc), refining of metals (such as gold, silver, copper, nickel, lead, iron etc.), manufacturing of various chemicals such as caustic soda, potassium permanganate, hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine etc), electro-deposition of metals including electro-plating, electro-typing, electro-forming, building up of worn out parts in metallurgical, chemical and other industries. Though the various processes mentioned are different in apparent detail but fundamentally they are alike, being based on the principle of electrolysis. The mass of chemical deposition due to flow of electric current I through the electrolyte for time t is given by the expression M = Zit where Z is the electro-chemical equivalent of the substance in kg/coulomb. Power supply required for electrolytic processes is direct current and at very low voltage. The power required for electro-deposition is usually very small (say 100-200A at 10-12V). Power supply required for extraction and refining of metals and large scale manufacture of chemicals is in very large amounts. Electroplating In electroplating, the plating metal is generally the anode, and the object to be plated is the cathode. A solution of a salt of the plating metal is the electrolyte. The plating metal is deposited on the cathode, and the anode replenishes the supply of positive ions, thus gradually being dissolved. Electrotype printing plates, silverware, and chrome automobile trim are plated by electrolysis. The English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that the amount of a material deposited on an electrode is proportional to the amount of electricity used. The ratio of the amount of material deposited in grams to the amount of electricity used is the electrochemical equivalent of the material. Actual electric consumption may be as high as four times the theoretical consumption because of such factors as heat loss and undesirable side reactions. Electric Cells An electric cell is an electrolytic system in which a chemical reaction causes a current to flow in an external circuit; it essentially reverses electrolysis. A battery is a single electric cell (or two or more such cells linked together for additional power) used as a source of electrical energy. Metal corrosion can take place by electrolysis in an unintentionally created electric cell. The Italian physicist Alessandro Volta discovered the principle of the electric cell. Within a few weeks William Nicholson and Sir Anthony Carlisle, English scientists, performed the first electrolysis, breaking water down into oxygen and hydrogen. Process of electrolysis The key process of electrolysis is the interchange of atoms and ions by the removal or addition of electrons from the external circuit. The required products of electrolysis are in some different physical state from the electrolyte and can be removed by some physical processes. For example, in the electrolysis of brine to produce hydrogen and chlorine, the products are gaseous. These gaseous products bubble from the electrolyte and are collected. 2 NaCl + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + H2 + Cl2 A liquid containing mobile ions (electrolyte) is produced by Solvation or reaction of an ionic compound with a solvent (such as water) to produce mobile ions An ionic compound is melted (fused) by heating An electrical potential is applied across a pair of electrodes immersed in the electrolyte. Each electrode attracts ions that are of the opposite charge. Positively charged ions (cations) move towards the electron-providing (negative) cathode, whereas negatively charged ions (anions) move towards the positive anode. At the electrodes, electrons are absorbed or released by the atoms and ions. Those atoms that gain or lose electrons to become charged ions pass into the electrolyte. Those ions that gain or lose electrons to become uncharged atoms separate from the electrolyte. The formation of uncharged atoms from ions is called discharging. The energy required to cause the ions to migrate to the electrodes, and the energy to cause the change in ionic state, is provided by the external source of electrical potential. Oxidation and reduction at the electrodes Oxidation of ions or neutral molecules occurs at the anode, and the reduction of ions or neutral molecules occurs at the cathode. For example, it is possible to oxidize ferrous ions to ferric ions at the anode: Fe2+aq → Fe3+aq + e– It is also possible to reduce ferricyanide ions to ferrocyanide ions at the cathode: Fe(CN)3-6 + e– → Fe(CN)4-6 Neutral molecules can also react at either electrode. For example: p-Benzoquinone can be reduced to hydroquinone at the cathode: + 2 e– + 2 H+ → In the last example, H+ ions (hydrogen ions) also take part in the reaction, and are provided by an acid in the solution, or the solvent itself (water, methanol etc.). Electrolysis reactions involving H+ ions are fairly common in acidic solutions. In alkaline water solutions, reactions involving OH- (hydroxide ions) are common. The substances oxidised or reduced can also be the solvent (usually water) or the electrodes. It is possible to have electrolysis involving gases. Energy changes during electrolysis The amount of electrical energy that must be added equals the change in Gibbs free energy of the reaction plus the losses in the system. The losses can (in theory) be arbitrarily close to zero, so the maximum thermodynamic efficiency equals the enthalpy change divided by the free energy change of the reaction. In most cases, the electric input is larger than the enthalpy change of the reaction, so some energy is released in the form of heat. In some cases, for instance, in the electrolysis of steam into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperature, the opposite is true. Heat is absorbed from the surroundings, and the heating value of the produced hydrogen is higher than the electric input. Faraday's laws of electrolysis First law of electrolysis In 1832, Michael Faraday reported that the quantity of elements separated by passing an electric current through a molten or dissolved salt is proportional to the quantity of electric charge passed through the circuit. This became the basis of the first law of electrolysis: Second law of electrolysis Faraday also discovered that the mass of the resulting separated elements is directly proportional to the atomic masses of the elements when an appropriate integral divisor is applied. This provided strong evidence that discrete particles of matter exist as parts of the atoms of elements. Electrolysis of water One important use of electrolysis of water is to produce hydrogen. 2 H2O(l) → 2 H2(g) + O2(g); E0 = +1.229 V Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for powering internal combustion engines by combustion or electric motors via hydrogen fuel cells (see Hydrogen vehicle). This has been suggested as one approach to shift economies of the world from the current state of almost complete dependence upon hydrocarbons for energy (See hydrogen economy.) The energy efficiency of water electrolysis varies widely. The efficiency is a measure of what fraction of electrical energy used is actually contained within the hydrogen. Some of the electrical energy is converted to heat, an almost useless byproduct. Some reports quote efficiencies between 50% and 70% This efficiency is based on the Lower Heating Value of Hydrogen. The Lower Heating Value of Hydrogen is total thermal energy released when hydrogen is combusted minus the latent heat of vaporisation of the water. This does not represent the total amount of energy within the hydrogen, hence the efficiency is lower than a more strict definition. Other reports quote the theoretical maximum efficiency of electrolysis as being between 80% and 94%.The theoretical maximum considers the total amount of energy absorbed by both the hydrogen and oxygen. These values refer only to the efficiency of converting electrical energy into hydrogen's chemical energy. The energy lost in generating the electricity is not included. For instance, when considering a power plant that converts the heat of nuclear reactions into hydrogen via electrolysis, the total efficiency is more likely to be between 25% and 40%. NREL found that a kilogram of hydrogen (roughly equivalent to a gallon of gasoline) could be produced by wind powered electrolysis for between $5.55 in the near term and $2.27 in the long term. About four percent of hydrogen gas produced worldwide is created by electrolysis, and normally used onsite. Hydrogen is used for the creation of ammonia for fertilizer via the Haber process, and converting heavy petroleum sources to lighter fractions via hydro cracking. Electro-Refining Operations Copper anodes from the converter process are dissolved electrolytically using an acid copper sulphate solution as an electrolyte. The products of this operation are pure copper cathodes and an anode slime which may contain gold and small quantities of the platinum group metals. The cells are constructed of rubber-lined concrete. Internal measurements are approximately 84 x2 x3 feet. The warmed electrolyte is fed in at one end and overflows from the other into a launder running between the lines of cells. From the launder the liquid is pumped to overhead tanks where its heat is maintained, and by gravity flows to a manifold which feeds it back to the cells. During electrolysis the electrolyte tends to accumulate nickel and quantities have to be bled off occasionally and replaced by pure copper sulphate. The impure electrolyte is treated for recovery of the copper sulphate and the nickel sulphate is passed to the nickel refinery. There are 21 anodes and 20 cathodes in each cell and a current of 15; amp per square foot is maintained. The quantity of anode slime formed by the dissolving of these anodes is small and falls to the bottom of the cells, where it is periodically recovered. The dissolving of the nickel anodes follows the same general pattern, the products being pure nickel cathodes and an anode slime containing the bulk of the platinum group metals. In this case the electrolyte is a neutral solution of nickel sulphate containing boric acid as a buffer and has to be continually purified to produce a pure cathode. Copper and iron are present in the anodes and being more electro-negative than nickel must be removed from the electrolyte or they will deposit on the cathode as impurities. To achieve this each cathode is placed in a calico bag with purified electrolyte flowing into it, so that the cathode will grow in clean liquor. The stripped liquor flows out of the bag laterally and picks up the impurities from the solution of the anode. This liquor flows out of each cell into a launder and is pumped across to large circular treatment tanks where it is heated to approximately 70°C. An emulsion of nickel carbonate is added to adjust the pH and air is blown through to hydrolyse out the iron. After this any copper present is precipitated and the contents pumped through a filter press to separate out the solid impurities. UNIT –4 ELECTRIC TRACTION Electric traction: Here power is applied to the vehicle from an overhead wire suspended above the track. Electric traction systems may be broadly categorized as those operating on : 1. Alternating current supply 2. Direct current supply. In general following electric traction systems exist : (A) AC 3 phase 3.7 kV system (B) AC single phase 15/16 kV -161/25 Hz (C) AC single phase 20/25 kV - 50/60 Hz (D) DC 600 V (E) DC 1200 V (F) DC 1.5 kV (G) DC 3 kV. Advantages : Electrical transmission, which is usually applied to high power units, has following advantages: 1. It has smooth starting without shocks. 2. Full driving torque is available from standstill. 3. Engine can be run at its most suitable speed range. This given higher efficiency range. 4. Characteristics of traction motor and generator are so chosen that the speed of the traction unit automatically adjusts according to the load and gradient so as to maintain constant output and not to overload the diesel engine. 5. Electrical transmission docs not only work as torque converter but also works as reversion gear. Ac single phase system : In this supply is taken from a single overhead conductor with the running rails. A pantograph collector is used for this purpose. The supply is transferred to primary of the transformer through on oil circuit breaker. The secondary of the transformer is connected to the motor through switchgear connected to suitable tapping on the secondary winding of the transformer. The switching equipment may be mechanically operated tapping switch or remote controlled contractor of group switches. The switching connections are arranged in two groups usually connected to the ends of a double choke coil which lies between the collections to adjacent tapping points on the transformer. Thus the coil acts as a preventive coil to enable tapping change to be made without short circuiting sections of the transformer winding and without the necessity of opening the main circuit. Direct current systems : The transformation and high voltage generation of dc is very inconvenient to the dc supply used is at normally 600 V and this voltage is almost universal for use in urban and suburban railways. For direct current equipment, the series motor is universally employed as its speed-torque characteristics are best suited to traction requirements. Generally two or more motors are used in single equipment and these are coupled in series or in parallel to give the different running speeds required. The motors are initially connected in series with starting rheostats across the contact line and rails, the rheostats are then cut out in steps, keeping roughly constant current until the motors are running in full series. After this the motors are rearranged in parallel, again with rheostats, the rheostats are cut out in steps, leaving the motors in full parallel. The power input remains approximately constant during the series notching, then jumps to twice this value during the parallel notching. Thus a 4 motor unit will have three economical speeds when the motors are running in series, series - parallel connections. The rheostats are operated electro magnetically or electro-pneumatically. Braking : When a locomotive is running at certain speed and if it is to be stopped within a short distance brakes are to be applied. For this purpose brake shoes are provided which are pressed against the wheels for retardation. Steam and diesel locomotives have pneumatic braking system. Some electrical methods of braking have also been devised which are used mainly to step electric motors. During electric braking the kinetic energy of the motor and the coupled mechanism is steadily dissipated in some form or other and the speed of the machine goes on reducing. Four method of electric braking are: 1. Magnetic braking : In this case the excitation of the armature is disconnected from the supply but the excitation remains on. When the armature rotates in the fixed field, there is reversal of flux in the armature and the iron losses are fed from the kinetic energy of the rotating components and the machine retards. This method can be adopted for shunt, compound „nd synchronous motors. In case of series motors the field cannot stand the full rated voltage, so separate battery has to provided for excitation during braking. 2. Plugging : In this case the connections of excitation are reversed. The motor tends to rotate in the reverse direction. Care should be taken to disconnect the motor when it has just stopped This method can be used for small motors and is not suitable for traction motors which are generally of large size. 3. Resistance braking : In this the motor after switching off is made to run as a generator. The output of generator is consumed in resistance thereby causing retardation. 4. Regenerative braking : In this method although motor is made to run as a generator but the current instead of being fed to a resistance is fed to the mains. The essential condition for this is that the induced emf should be slightly more than the supply voltage. This method of braking cannot be used for synchronous motors. Requirements of braking system : Before we deal with various systems of braking we will first enumerate various desirable requirements which a braking system should satisfy. These are: 1. The braking system should be robust, simple and easy for driver to control and operate. It should require less maintenance and should be reliable. 2. The system should apply brakes simultaneously over all the vehicles. 3. Brake actuation time should be as small as possible. 4. To avoid damage to the goods and discomfort to the passengers, normal service application of brakes should be very gradual and smooth. 5. In case of emergency braking, safety consideration is the prime most consideration. As such retardation rate would be maximum consistent with the safety, so as to make unfailing halt in the minimum possible distance. 6. In order to obtain uniform deceleration, braking force applied to the axle should be proportional to axle load. 7. The braking system should be inexhaustible i.e. repeated quick application of brake should be possible without needing any relaxation, recuperation or normalizing time in between consecutive operations. 8. Kinetic energy of the train should as far as possible be stored during braking which could subsequently be utilized for accelerating the train. 9. There should be automatic slack adjustment for constant piston stroke as a result of wear on the rim and the brake blocks in the case of mechanical braking. Speed time curve : The typical speed time curve for a locomotive is shown in Figure given above. The curve may be broadly split into the following periods : 1. Acceleration period : From starting to the stage when locomotive attains maximum speed, the period is known as acceleration period, as the vehicle is constantly accelerated. This is represented by OA portion of the curve and time duration is t1. 2. Free running : During this period the motor develops enough torque to overcome the friction and wind resistance and hence the locomotive runs at constant speed. This is shown by the portion AB of the curve. 3. Coasting : When the locomotive is running at certain speed, if the motor is switch off, due to inertia the vehicle will continue to run, of course with little deceleration due to friction and windage. 4. Braking : The locomotive is retarded to stop it within short distance and at a particular spot. The shape of the curve will change depending upon the distance between consecutive stations . Mechanics of Train Movement Essential driving mechanism of an electric locomotive is shown in fig. The armature of the driving motor has a pinion diameter d‟ attached to it. The tractive effort at the edge of the pinion is transferred to the driving wheel by means of a gear wheel. Tractive effort transferred tot the driving is given by the expression. F = = η F (d/D0 = η 2T/D) = ηT (2/D) (d/d) = ηT 2y/D Where T is the torque exerted in N-m, by the driving motor, d is the diameter of gear wheel in metres. D is the diameter of driving wheel in metres, η is the transmission efficiency and γ is the gear ratio and is equal to d/d‟ For obtaining train motion without slipping tractive effort F should be less than or at the most equal to µW where µ the coefficient of adhesion between the wheel is and the track and W is the weight of the train on the driving axles (called the adhesive weight). Train Movement And Energy Consumption: Speed-Time Curves The curve drawn between speed and time is called the speed-time-curve. The speed-time curve gives complete information of the motion of the train. The curve gives the speed at various instants after the start of run directly. Slop of the curve at any point gives the acceleration at the corresponding instant or speed. The area covered by the curve, the time axis and the ordinates through the instants between which the time is taken, represents the distance covered in the corresponding time interval. Speed-time curve mainly consists of (i) initial acceleration (a) constant acceleration or acceleration while notching up and (b) speed curve running or acceleration on the speed curve (ii) constant speed run or free run (iii) coasting and (iv) retardation or braking. Recent trends in electric traction: Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. Magnetic pressure is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational and any other accelerations. Earnshaw's theorem proves that using only static ferromagnetism it is impossible to stably levitate against gravity, but servomechanisms, the use of diamagnetic materials, superconduction, or systems involving eddy currents permit this to occur. In some cases the lifting force is provided by magnetic levitation, but there is a mechanical support bearing little load that provides stability. This is termed pseudo-levitation. Magnetic levitation is used for maglev trains, magnetic bearings and for product display purposes. Mechanical constraint (pseudo-levitation): With a small amount of mechanical constraint for stability, pseudo-levitation is relatively straightforwardly achieved. If two magnets are mechanically constrained along a single vertical axis, for example, and arranged to repel each other strongly, this will act to levitate one of the magnets above the other. Another geometry is where the magnets are attracted, but constrained from touching by a tensile member, such as a string or cable. Another example is the Zippe-type centrifuge where a cylinder is suspended under an attractive magnet, and stabilized by a needle bearing from below. Diamagnetism: Diamagnetism is the property of an object which causes it to create a magnetic field in opposition to an externally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect. Specifically, an external magnetic field alters the orbital velocity of electrons around their nuclei, thus changing the magnetic dipole moment. According to Lenz's law, this opposes the external field. Diamagnets are materials with a magnetic permeability less than μ0 (a relative permeability less than 1). Consequently, diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. It is generally quite a weak effect in most materials, although superconductors exhibit a strong effect. Diamagnetic materials cause lines of magnetic flux to curve away from the material, and superconductors can exclude them completely (except for a very thin layer at the surface). Direct diamagnetic levitation: A substance that is diamagnetic repels a magnetic field. All materials have diamagnetic properties, but the effect is very weak, and is usually overcome by the object's paramagnetic or ferromagnetic properties, which act in the opposite manner. Any material in which the diamagnetic component is strongest will be repelled by a magnet. Earnshaw's theorem does not apply to diamagnets. These behave in the opposite manner to normal magnets owing to their relative permeability of μr < 1 (i.e. negative magnetic susceptibility). Diamagnetic levitation can be used to levitate very light pieces of pyrolytic graphite or bismuth above a moderately strong permanent magnet. As water is predominantly diamagnetic, this technique has been used to levitate water droplets and even live animals, such as a grasshopper, frog and a mouse. However, the magnetic fields required for this are very high, typically in the range of 16 teslas, and therefore create significant problems if ferromagnetic materials are nearby. The minimum criterion for diamagnetic levitation is χ is the magnetic susceptibility ρ is the density of the material g is the local gravitational acceleration (−9.8 m/s2 on Earth) μ0 is the permeability of free space B is the magnetic field , where: UNIT –5 ELECTRIC HEATING AND WELDING Electric Heating Introduction: Electric heating is any process in which electrical energy is converted to heat. Common applications include heating of buildings, cooking, and industrial processes .An electric heater is an electrical appliance that converts electrical energy into heat. The heating element inside every electric heater is simply an electrical resistor, and works on the principle of Joule heating: an electric current through a resistor converts electrical energy into heat energy.Alternatively, a heat pump uses an electric motor to drive a refrigeration cycle, drawing heat from a source such as the ground or outside air and directing it into the space to be warmed. Definition Dielectric heating (also known as electronic heating, RF heating, high-frequency heating) is the process in which radiowave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material. This heating is caused by dipole rotation. Power For dielectric heating the generated power density per volume is calculated by Induction heating Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by electromagnetic induction, where eddy currents are generated within the metal and resistance leads to Joule heating of the metal. An induction heater (for any process) consists of an electromagnet, through which a high-frequency alternating current (AC) is passed. Heat may also be generated by magnetic hysteresis losses in materials that have significant relative permeability. The frequency of AC used depends on the object size, material type, coupling (between the work coil and the object to be heated) and the penetration depth. Applications of Induction Heating Induction furnace Induction welding Induction cooking Induction brazing Induction sealing Heating to fit Heat treatment Advantages of Induction Heating Optimized Consistency Maximized Productivity Improved Product Quality Extended Fixture Life Environmentally Sound Reduced Energy Consumption Electric Welding Equipment The electric welding sets may be either dc or ac type. DC welding sets are of two types namely generator type welding set consisting of a differential compound wound dc generator, giving drooping volt-ampere characteristic, driven by any type of prime-mover (a squirrel cage induction motor or a petrol or diesel engine) and dry type rectifier (selenium rectifier) used in conjunction with a multiphase high leakage transformer. IN generator type welding sets the control may be obtained by tapping the series field or by providing a suitable shunt across the series field winding. In the rectifier type set dc voltage is controlled by regulating the transformer output. If supply from existing dc distribution system is to be used for welding then a ballast (resistance) is put in series with the equipment and the control is affected by varying this external series resistance. AC welding sets are single phase or 3 phase step-down transformers which provide low voltage (80-100 V on open circuit) power for welding with some means of output control. In the set of this type the current control is achieved by using (a) magnetic shunt or (b) a choke coil or reactor placed in series with primary or secondary winding or (c) tap changing switch in the primary winding. The use of series resistance can also be made for current control but with reduced efficiency. Electric Arc Welding Arc welding is that process in which the pieces of the metal to be welded are brought to the proper welding temperature at a point of contact by the heat liberated at the arc terminals and in the arc stream so that the metal pieces are completely fused into each other, forming a single solid homogeneous mass, after it solidifies. In this process an electric arc is produced by bringing two conductors (electrode and metal piece) connected to a suitable source of electric current momentarily in contact and then separating by a small distance. The current continues to flow across the small gap and gives intense heat. The heat developed is utilized to melt the part of the work piece, and the filler metal and thus form the joint. So arc welded joint is a union of metal parts made by localized heating without any pressure. That is why sometimes this type of welding is known as the non-pressure welding. The heat developed by arc is also used for cutting of metal. The voltage necessary to strike the arc is higher than that required to maintain it. The temperature is of the order of 3600°C, at which mechanical pressure is not required for jointing. According to B.S.S. 638 maximum voltage specified for welding is about 100 volts for the safety of the operator. The arc voltage varies from 20 to 40 volts and current from 50 A in sheet metal work to 1000 A in heavy automatic welding. The electric arc welding is widely used for joining of metal parts, the repair of fractured castings and fillings by the deposition of new metal on the worn-out parts. The welding circuit essentially consists of a welding machine, two leads, an electrode holder, an electrode and the work itself. Types Of Resistance Welding: This is the recent development in the field of welding which depends on the arc effect for heating and not on the resistance. This is a self-timing spot welding method. In this process a current impulse is obtained by the discharge from a capacitor or from a magnetic field. The action of process is so rapid that there is little heating effect in the material adjacent to the contact tips to copper. The equipment used is quite expensive as it must be extremely rugged and provided with accurate holding fixtures and sensitive timing devices etc. Major Component Of Resistance Welding Major components of a resistance welding plant are heating unit consisting of transformer, timing unit for controlling the length of time of welding current flow and mechanical unit for providing the necessary electrode force. The source of power supply is usually 230 V single phase, ac supply or 400 V 3-phase ac supply. The large current at low voltage is supplied to the work through two copper alloy electrodes-the lower electrode being normally fixed and the upper electrode movable in a verticalplane. The supply voltage is reduced to suitable value through transformer. The magnitude of current is controlled by varying either the primary voltage of the welding transformer (by using an auto-transformer between supply and the welding transformer). Alternative method of controlling the current to weld is to vary the magnitude and wave form of the primary as well as secondary current by using thyratron or ignitron tubes in the primary circuit. Resistance Welding Resistance welding refers to a group of welding processes such as spot and seam welding that produce coalescence of faying surfaces where heat to form the weld is generated by the resistance of the welding current through the workpieces. Some factors influencing heat or welding temperatures are the proportions of the workpieces, the electrode materials, electrode geometry, electrode pressing force, weld current and weld time, etc. Small pools of molten metal are formed at the point of most electrical resistance (the connecting surfaces) as a high current (100–100 000 A) is passed through the metal. In general, resistance welding methods are efficient and cause little pollution, but their applications are limited to relatively thin materials and the equipment cost can be high. Welding Transformer A welding transformer is a step down transformer that reduces the voltage from the source voltage to a lower voltage that is suitable for welding, usually between 15 and 45 volts. The secondary current is quite high. 200 to 600 amps would be typical, but it could be much higher. The secondary may have several taps for adjusting the secondary voltage to control the welding current. The taps are typically connected to a several high-current plug receptacles or to a highcurrent switch. For welding with direct current (DC) a rectifier is connected to the secondary of the transformer. There may also be a filter choke (inductor) to smooth the DC current. The entire transformer and rectifier assembly may be called a transformer or welder, but "welding power supply" would be more appropriate term. Speculation: The impedance of a welding transformer may be higher that the impedance of a transformer designed for some other purpose. The transformer impedance may play a role in the process of establishing an arc and controlling the current. Special Features: Stepless current control within single range from front panel For its high permitted load, its ideal for fematic welding Phase compensation facility optional. Its a good investment as the primary current and rated output can be reduced, resulting in reduced fuse size and cable diameter Provided with wheels and handle for easy mobility Sturdy design for all working environments Horizontal shunt core travel ensures precise setting after prolonged use Class 'H' insulation provides longer coil life Multi voltage input supply Thyristorised Control Circuit Of Welding: fully thyristorised control means stable arc characteristics from min. To max. in-built energy saving feature. welding cable can be used up to 100 m length. in-built remote control to control welding current from site. infinitely variable current setting from 10 amps. To rated current. machine itself supports6010 series of electrodes without extra-switching. very high o. C. V. Machine due to which easy arc striking is possible. zinc plated and epoxy powder coated structure for rust free long life. The built in anti sticking device accelerates the droplet spearation from the electrode. The built in hot-start facility assures easy arc striking by delivering surge current at weldstart. Energy storage system for welding: Spot welding (RSW) is a process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current flow. Work-pieces are held together under pressure exerted by electrodes. Typically the sheets are in the 0.5 to 3 mm (0.020 to 0.12 in) thickness range. The process uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to concentrate welding current into a small "spot" and to simultaneously clamp the sheets together. Forcing a large current through the spot will melt the metal and form the weld. The attractive feature of spot welding is a lot of energy can be delivered to the spot in a very short time (approximately ten milliseconds). That permits the welding to occur without excessive heating to the rest of the sheet. The amount of heat (energy) delivered to the spot is determined by the resistance between the electrodes and the amperage and duration of the current. The amount of energy is chosen to match the sheet's material properties, its thickness, and type of electrodes. Applying too little energy won't melt the metal or will make a poor weld. Applying too much energy will melt too much metal, eject molten material, and make a hole rather than a weld. Another attractive feature of spot welding is the energy delivered to the spot can be controlled to produce reliable welds. Projection welding is a modification of spot welding. In this process the weld is localized by means of raised sections, or projections, on one or both of the work pieces to be joined. heat is concentrated at the projections, which permits the welding of heavier sections or the closer spacing of welds. The projections can also serve as a means of positioning the workpieces. Projection welding is often used to weld studs, nuts, and other screw machine parts to metal plate. It's also frequently used to join crossed wires and bars. This is another high-production process, and multiple projection welds can be arranged by suitable designing and jigging. UNIT 1 Electrical Energy generation utilization and conservation GENERATION 1) What are the sources of energy? Electrical energy is produced from energy available in various forms in nature. The sources of energy are · The Sun · The wind · Water · Fuels · Nuclear energy 2) Name the different types of power generation. Conventional methods (With prime movers) a) Hydro power generation b) Thermal power generation c) Nuclear power generation Non-Conventional methods (Without prime movers) d) MHD (magneto hydro dynamic) power generation e) Solar power generation f) Fuel cells generation g) Thermo electric generation h) Thermionic converters i) Solar cells j) Wind power generation k) Geo-thermal energy generation l) Tidal power generation 3) How will you classify hydro-electric plants according to nature of load? Classification according to nature of load 9_ Base load plants 9_ Pear load plants 9_ Pumped storage plants for peak load. 4) What is penstock? From the reservoir the water is carried to valve house through pressure tunnel and from valve house to the water turbine through pipes of large diameter made of steel or reinforced concrete, called the penstock. 5) What is the principle of pumped storage scheme? The basic principle of pumped storage scheme is to convert the surplus electrical energy generated by a power plant or available in a system in off peak periods, to hydraulic potential energy, in order to generate power in periods where the peak demand on the system exceeds the total available capacity of the generating stations. 6) What are the factors to be considered while selecting a site for steam power plants? The factors to be considered for selecting the steam power plant are as follows: ._Nearness to the load centre ._Availability and supply of cooling water ._Availability of coal ._Land requirement ._Transport facilities and Ash disposal facilities. 7) What is the function of deaerator in steam power plant? The function of deaerator is to reduce dissolved oxygen content in the condensate i.e. in the feed water. The feed water is then pumped into boiler through economizer in which it is further heated by the heat of the flue gas passing through it on the way to chimney. 8) What are the disadvantages of steam power plants? The disadvantages are High maintenance and operating cost. Pollution of atmosphere due to fumes and residues from pulverized fuels. Requirement of water in huge quantity. Handling of coal and disposal of ash is quite difficult. Troubles from smoke and heat from the plant. Requires long time for erection and put into action. 9) What is nuclear fission? In nuclear station, heavy elements such as Uranium (U235) or Thorium (Th232) are subjected to nuclear fission in a special apparatus known as reactor. Fission: The breaking up of nuclei of heavy atoms into two nearly equal parts with release of huge amount of energy is known as nuclear fission. 10) What are the components of nuclear reactor? The nuclear reactor consists of the following basic components · Reactor core · Moderator · Control rods · Coolant · Reflector · Thermal shielding · Reactor vessel · Biological shield. 11) What are the merits of nuclear power plants? The advantages are The amount of fuel required is small; therefore, there is no problem of transportation, storage etc. The demand for coal, oil and gas is reduced which are tending to rise in cost as the stocks are becoming depleted. These plants need less area as compared to any other plant. A 2000MW nuclear plant needs 80 acres whereas thermal stations need about 250 acres of land. Most economical in large capacity. The operating cost is quite low and once the installation is completed, the loading of the plant is always operated as a base load plant. 12) What are the advantages of MHD generation? The advantages are The conversion efficiency is around 50% to 60%. No moving part, so more reliable. Capital cost is less compared with conventional steam plants. Overall generation cost is less. Economic and reduced fuel consumption. The closed cycle system produces power free of pollution. Elimination of energy losses. 13) What is solar cell? The solar cells operate on the principle of photo voltaic effect, which is a process of generating an emf as a result of the absorption of ionizing radiation. It is possible to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy by means of silicon wafer photo-voltaic cells, also called the solar cells, without any intermediate thermodynamic cycle. Thus a solar cell is a transducer, which converts the sun‟s radiant energy directly into electrical energy and is basically a semi-conductor diode capable of developing a voltage of 0.5-1 volts and a current density of 20-40 mA/sq.cm depending on the materials used and the conditions of sunlight. 14) What are the types of collectors used in solar power generation? Types of collectors ¾_Flat plate collectors(60°C) ¾_Focusing or concentrating collectors · Cylindrical parabolic concentrator (100-200°C) · Paraboloids, Mirror Arrays( <200°C) 15) What is the basic principle of wind power generation? Winds are essentially caused by the solar heating of the atmosphere. They carry enormous quantity of energy. Wind as a source of power is very attractive because it is plentiful, inexhaustible, renewable and non-polluting. There is no depletion of scarce resources. In large portion of the world, wind blows for 320 days in a year and this gives them an advantage over sunlight in direct conversion programmes, operating cost of a wind mill is negligible. Further, it does not impose extra burden on the environment. The ideal maximum efficiency using Froud momentum theory is equal to 59% but an overall efficiency of 30% could be had due to aerodynamic and other mechanical losses. This gives a power of about 0.3KW/sq.m for a wind velocity of 10m/s. 16) What is tide? TIDE is a periodical rise and fall of the water level of sea which are carried by the action of the sun and moon on the water of the earth. The main feature of the tidal cycle is the difference in water surface elevations at the high tide end, the tidal energy can be converted into electrical energy by means of a generator. 17) What is the function of moderator in nuclear power plant? A nuclear reactor is a cylindrical stout pressure vessel and houses fuel rods of Uranium, moderator and control rods. The fuel rods constitute the fission material and release huge amount of energy when bombarded with slow moving neutrons. The moderator consists of graphite rods which enclose the fuel rods. The moderator slows down the neutrons before they bombard the fuel rods. 18) What are the merits and demerits of tidal power generation? The advantages of tidal power are ._It is free from the problems of uprooting the people and disturbing the ecology balance. ._It is everlasting and is not influenced by the charging mood of the nature such as failure of the monsoon. ._No extra submerging of land is involved. The major drawback of tidal power plants is their uneven operation. Variations in the tidal energy available through the lunar day and lunar month different from their solar counterparts prevent the tidal power from being regularly used in power systems during the periods of peak demand. 19) What is thermal efficiency? The ratio of heat equivalent of mechanical energy transmitted to the turbine shaft to the heat of combustion of coal is known as Thermal efficiency of Steam power station. 20) What are the types of wind mills? Wind energy conversion system are classified into two types, i) Horizontal axis wind mills The axis of rotation is horizontal and in the aero turbine, plane is vertical facing the wind. ii) Vertical axis wind mills The axis of rotation is vertical, the blades also be vertical. UNIT-2 CONSERVATION 21) What do you mean by Economics of power generation? The art of determining the per unit i.e. one KWh cost of production of electrical energy is known as Economics of power generation. 22) Explain the term depreciation. The decrease in the value of the power plant equipment and building due to constant use is known as depreciation. In practice, every power station has a useful life ranging from fifteen to thirty years. From the time the power station is installed, its equipment steadily deteriorates due to wear and tear so that there is a gradual reduction in the value of the plant. This reduction in the value of plant every year is known as annual depreciation. 23) Define load factor. Load factor is the ratio of average demand to the maximum demand during a certain period of time and is applicable to both generating equipment and receiving equipment. Load factor = Average demand Maximum demand 24) What is load curve? The curve showing the variation of load on the power station with reference to time is known as a load curve. The load curves supply the following information The variation of the load during different hours of the day. The area under the curve represents the total number of units generated in a day. The peak of the curve represents the maximum demand on the station on the particular day. The area under the load curve divided by the number of hours represents the average load on the power station. The ratio of the area under the load curve to the total area of the rectangle in which it is contained gives the load factor. 25) Define diversity factor. Diversity factor is defined as the state of being dissimilar to one another. It is defined as the ratio of sum of the maximum demands of individual consuming units in a group during a specified period to the maximum demand of the whole group during the same period. Diversity factor = Sum of individual demands of different units in a group Maximum demand of the entire group The value of diversity factor is always greater than one. If the diversity factor is higher, the cost per unit of generation will be lesser. 26) What do you mean by utilisation factor? It is a measure of the utility of the power plant capacity and is the ratio of maximum demand to the rated capacity of the power plant. It is always less than unity. Utilisation factor = Maximum Demand on the power station Rated capacity of the power station A low value of utilisation factor indicates that the plant has been installed much in advance of need. A high value indicates that the plant is probably most efficient in the system. If its value exceeds unity, it means that the load has been carried in excess of rated capacity of the plant. 27) Write short note on load duration curve? When the load elements of a load curve are arranged in the order of descending magnitudes, the curve thus obtained is called load duration curve. The load curve is obtained from the same data as the load curve but the ordinates are arranged in the order of descending magnitudes. In other words, the maximum load is represented to the left and decreasing loads are represented to the right in the descending order. Hence the area under the load duration curve and the load curve are equal. or and diversity factor. Load factor and diversity factor play a vital role in the cost of the supply of electrical energy. Higher the values of load factor and diversity factor, lower will be the overall cost per unit generated. 28) Write the significance of load factor? Higher load factor means greater average load, resulting in greater number of units generated for a given maximum demand. Thus, the standing charges, which are proportional to maximum demand and independent of number of units generated, can be distributed over a large number of units supplied and therefore overall cost per unit of electrical energy generated will be reduced. 29) What is mean by base load? The unvarying load which occurs almost the whole day on the station is known as base load. 30) What are the methods for determining depreciation charges? The decrease in the value of the power plant equipment and building due to constant use is known as depreciation. The cost of depreciation will depend on the size and type of equipment and on its estimated life. The reduction in the value of the plant every year is known as annual depreciation. Due to depreciation the plant has to be replaced by new one after its useful life. Therefore a suitable amount must be set aside every year, so that by the time the plant retires the collected amount by way of depreciation equals the cost of equipment. The methods commonly used for determination of annual depreciation charges are · Straight line method · Diminishing value method and · Sinking fund method. 31) What are the objectives of tariff? Electrical energy is sold at such a rate so that it not only returns the cost but also earns reasonable profit. Therefore, a tariff must cover the following items: ._Recovery of cost of capital investment in generating, transmitting and distributing equipment. ._Recovery of cost of operation, supplies and maintenance of equipment. ._Recovery of cost of metering equipment, billing, collection costs etc. ._A satisfactory return on the total capital investment. 32) Define energy audit. Energy Audit means studying the energy consumption pattern in the utilities or equipments by obtaining necessary data analyse the same to identify the areas where wastages or loses occur and suggest methods to avoid wastages or loss and also other consumption measures to ensure efficient use of energy. 33) What are the causes of low power factor? The following are the causes of low power factor 9_Most of the a.c motors are of induction type which have low lagging power factor. These motors work at a power factor which is extremely small on light load 0.2 to 0.3 and rises to 0.8 to 0.9 at full load. 9_Arc lamps, electric discharges lamps and industrial heating furnaces operate at low lagging power factor. 9_The load on the power system is varying, being high during morning and evening and low at other times. During low load period, supply voltage is increased which increases the magnetization current. This results in the decreased power factor. 34) Define the term connected load factor. It is the sum of the continuous rating in KW of all electrical devices installed at the consumer‟s premises and connected to the supply system. 35) What are the important points to be taken into consideration while selecting the size and number of units? The load on a power station is never constant due to variable demands from time to time. The nature of these demands can be seen from the load curve. The load variation is greater with a poorer load factor. The selection of the number and sizes of the units is decided from the annual load curve of the station. The number and size of the units are selected in such a way that they correctly fit the station load curve. The capacity of the plant should be made 15% to 20% more than the maximum demand to meet the future load requirements. There should be a spare generating unit so that repairs and overhauling of the working units can be carried out. UNIT-3 ILLUMINATION, HEATING AND WELDING 36) Define luminous flux. It is defined as the total quantity of light energy emitted per second from a luminous body. It is represented by symbol F and is measured in lumens. The conception of luminous flux helps us to specify the output and efficiency of a given light source. 37) What is meant by candle power? It is defined as the number of lumens given out by the source in a unit solid angle in a given direction. It is denoted by CP. CP=lumens 38) Define MHCP. The mean of candle power in all directions in the horizontal plane containing the source of light is termed as Mean Horizontal Candle Power. 39) Define utilisation factor. It is defined as the ratio of total lumens reaching the working plane to total lumens given out by the lamp. Utilisation factor= Total lumens reaching the working plane Total lumens given out by the lamp 40) What are the laws of illumination? Law of Inverse Squares: Illumination at appoint is inversely proportional to square of its distance from the point source and directly proportional to the luminous intensity (CP) of the source of light in that direction. If a source of light emits light equally in all directions be placed at the centre of a hollow sphere, the light will fall uniformly on the inner surface of the sphere. If the sphere be replaced by one of the larger radius, the same total amount of light is spread over a larger area proportional to the square of the radius. Lambert‟s cosine law: The illumination at a point on a surface is proportional to cosine of the angle which ray makes with the normal to the surface at that point. 41) What is meant by luminance? It is defined as the luminous intensity per unit projected area of either a surface source of light or a reflecting surface and is denoted by L. 42) Define space-height ratio. It is defined as the ratio of horizontal distance between adjacent lamps and height of their mountings. Space-height ratio= Horizontal distance between two adjacent lamps Mounting height of lamps above working plane 43) What is polar curve? In most lamps or sources of light the luminous intensity is not the same in all directions. If the luminous intensity, i.e. the candle power is measured in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis and a curve is plotted between candle power and the angular position, a curve is obtained is called as horizontal polar curve. The luminous intensity in all the directions can be represented by polar curves. If the luminous intensity in a vertical plane is plotted against the angular position, a curve known as vertical polar curve is obtained. 44) Name the various photometer heads. 1. Bunsen Head (or) Grease spot photometer 2. Lummer-Brodhun photometer head There are two types of Lummer Brodhun heads a) Equality of Brightness type photometer head b) Contrast type photometer head 45) What are all the sources of light? According to principle of operation the light sources may be grouped as follows. Arc lamps High temperature lamps Gaseous discharge lamps Fluorescent type lamps 46) What is stroboscopic effect of fluorescent tubes? With a.c. supply frequency of 50 cycles per second, discharge through the lamp becomes zero, 100 times in a second. Due to the persistence of vision, our eyes do not notice this. If this light falls on moving parts, they may appear to be either running slow or in the reverse direction or even may appear stationary. This effect is called stroboscopic effect. 47) Define beam factor. The ratio of lumens in the beam of a projector to the lumens given out by lamps is called the beam factor. This factor takes into account the absorption of light by reflector and front glass of the projector lamp. Its values vary from 0.3 to 0.6. 48) Mention the types of lighting schemes. The distribution of the light emitted by lamps is usually controlled to some extent by means of reflectors and translucent diffusing screens or even lenses. The interior lighting schemes may be classified as ._Direct lighting ._Semi-direct lighting ._Indirect lighting ._Semi-indirect lighting ._General lighting 49) What are the drawbacks of discharge lamps? Drawbacks of discharge lamps: · Take time to attain full brightness. · High initial cost and poor power factor. · Starting requires trigger-starter. · Light output fluctuates at twice the supply frequency. The flicker causes stroboscopic effect. · These lamps can be used only in particular position. 50) What are the requirements of lighting system/ The following factors are required to be considered while designing the lighting scheme. Illumination level Uniformity of illumination Colour of light Shadows Glare Mounting height Spacing of luminaries Colour of surrounding walls. 51) What are the advantages of electric heating? The main advantages of electric heating over other systems of heating such as coal, oil or gas heating are given below. o Economical o Cleanliness o Absence of flue gases o Ease of control or adaptation o Automatic protection o Upper limit of temperature o Special heating features o High efficiency of utilisation o Better working conditions o Safety o Heating of non-conducting materials 52) Classify the methods of electric heating. Kinds of electric heating A. Power frequency heating a. Resistance heating i) Direct resistance heating ii) Indirect resistance heating iii) Infrared or Radiant heating b. Arc heating i) Direct arc heating ii) Indirect arc heating B. High frequency heating a. Induction heating i) Direct induction heating ii) Indirect induction heating b. Dielectric heating 53) What is meant by indirect resistance heating? 9_In this method, the current is passed through a high resistance wire known as heating element. The heat produced due to I2 R loss in the element is transmitted by radiation or convection to the body to be heated. 9_Applications are room heaters, in bimetallic strip used in starters, immersion water heaters and in domestic and commercial cooking and salt bath furnace. 54) What are the properties of heating element material? The material of the heating elements should posses the following desirable properties for efficient operation and long life. High resistivity: It should have high specific resistance so that the overall length to produce a certain amount of heat may be smaller. High melting point: It should have high melting point so that high temperatures can be produced without jeopardizing the life of the element. Free from oxidation: It should be able to resist oxidation at high temperatures, otherwise its life will be shortened. Low temperature coefficient: It should have a low temperature coefficient so that resistance remains appreciably constant even with increases of temperature. This helps in accurate control of temperature. 55) What are the causes of failure of heating elements? Principle causes are 9_Formation of hot spots 9_General oxidation of the element and intermittency of operation 9_Embrittlement caused by grain growth 9_Contamination of element or corrosion 56) Write short note on infrared heating. In radiant heating, the elements are of tungsten operating about 2300°C as at this temperature a greater proportion of infra-red radiation is given off. Heating effect on the charge is greater since the temperature of the heating element is greater than in the case of resistance heating. Heat emission intensities up to 7500 watts/sq.m can be obtained leading to heat absorption up to 4300 watts/sq.m. This reduces the time taken by various drying process. 57) What is the basic principle of induction heating? It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction as same as a transformer. It has a metal disc surrounded by a copper coil in which a.c supply is flowing. The disc has a finite value of diameter and thickness and is spaced a given distance from the coil and concentric to it. We find that a secondary current is caused to circulate around the outer surface of the disc. 58) What are the different types of resistance welding? The different types are as follows ._Butt welding ._Spot welding ._Projection welding ._Seam welding ._Percussion welding UNIT-4 ELECTRIC TRACTION 61) What are the requirements of an ideal traction system? The requirements of an ideal traction system are as follows 9_The starting tractive effort should be high so as to have rapid acceleration. 9_The wear on the track should be minimum. 9_Pollution free 9_Speed control should be easy. 9_The equipment should be capable of withstanding large temporary loads. 9_Low initial and maintenance cost. 9_There should be no interference to the communication lines running along the lines. 9_Braking should be such that minimum wear is caused on the brake shoes. 62) Name the various systems of traction. 1. Direct steam engine drive 2. Direct Internal Combustion Engine Drive 3. Steam Electric Drive 4. Internal Combustion Engine Electric Drive 5. Petrol Electric traction 6. Battery Electric Drive 7. Electric Drive 63) Classify the supply system for electric traction. A. D.C system B. A.C system i) Single phase ii) Three phase C. Composite system i) Single phase AC-DC ii) single phase-Three phase 64) What are the advantages of electric traction? ._High starting torque ._Less maintenance cost ._Cheapest method of traction _Rapid acceleration and braking ._Less vibration ._Coefficient of adhesion is better ._It has great passenger carrying capacity at higher speed. 65) What are the disadvantages of electric traction? · High capital cost · Problem of supply failure · Additional equipment is required for achieving electric braking and control · The leakage of current from the distribution mains and drop of volts in the track are to be kept within the prescribed limits. · The electrically operated vehicles have to move on guided track only. 66) What is meant by speed-time curve? Why it is used? The movement of the train and their energy consumption can be studied by means of speed-time and speed-distance curves, which shows the speed at different time instants after start of run and speed at different distances from the starting point respectively. Of the two, the speed-time curve is generally used. The curve drawn between speed in Kw/hr along Y-axis and time in seconds along X-axis is called speed=time curve. The speed-time curve gives the complete information about the motion of the train. This curve gives the speed at various time instants after the start of run directly. Slope of the curve at any point gives the speed at that instant. The area under the curve gives the total distance traveled by the train. 67) What do you mean by average speed in electric traction? The mean of the speeds from the start to stop i.e the distance between two stops divided by the actual time of run is known as average speed. Average speed= Distance between stops in km Actual time of run in hours 68) What do you mean by schedule speed in electric traction? The ratio of distance covered between two stops and total time of run including time of stop is known as schedule speed. Schedule speed= Distance between stops in km Actual time of run in hours+ Stop time in hours The schedule speed is always smaller than the average speed. The difference is large in case of urban and suburban services and is negligibly small in case of main line service. 69) What is tractive effort? The effective force necessary to propel the train at the wheels of the locomotive to which the motor is geared is called the geared effort. It is measured in Newtons and is tangential to the driving wheels. Total tractive effort required to run a train on track = Tractive effort to produce acceleration + Tractive effort to overcome effect of gravity + Tractive effort to overcome train resistance. 70) What are the factors affecting energy consumption? The various factors affecting energy consumption are (i) Distance between the stops The greater the distance between the stops, the lesser will be the specific energy consumption for suburban service is 50 to 75 watts-hour/ ton-km and for main line service it is between 18 to 32 watt-hour/ton-km. (ii) Train resistance The train resistance depends upon the nature of track, speed of the train and shape of the rolling stock, particularly the front and rear portions of the train. If the train resistance is greater, the specific energy consumption is more. (iii) Acceleration and retardation If the acceleration and retardation increases, the specific energy consumption is increased. (iv) Gradient The steep gradients will involve more energy consumption though regenerative braking is applied. (v) Train equipment More efficient train equipment will reduce the specific energy consumption. 71) Define dead weight, adhesive weight. (i) Dead weight The total weight of locomotive and train to be pulled by the locomotive is known as dead weight. (ii) Adhesive weight The total weight to be carried on the driving wheels is known as the adhesive weight. UNIT-5 DRIVES AND THEIR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION 77) What is meant by electrical drives? Systems employed for motion control are called “DRIVES” and drives employ any of the prime movers such as, diesel or petrol engines, gas or steam turbines, hydraulic motors and electric motors for supplying mechanical energy for motion control. Drives employing electric motion known as “Electric Drives”. 78) Mention the parts of electrical drives? · Electric motors and load · Power modulator · Sources · Control unit · Sensing unit 79) Mention the application of electric drives? ._Paper mills ._Electric traction ._Cement mills ._Steel mills. 80) Mention the different types of classes of duty? · Continuous duty · Discontinuous duty · Short time duty · Intermittent duty 81) Define equivalent current method. The motor selected should have a current rating more than or equal to the current. It is also necessary to check the overload capacity of the motor. This method of determining the power rating of motor is known as the equivalent current method. 82) What are the three methods of operation of electric drive? ._Steady state ._Acceleration including starting ._Decceleration including stopping. 83) Define four-quadrant operation? A motor operate in two modes, motoring and braking. In motoring, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which supports its motion. In braking it works as a generator converting mechanical energy into electrical energy and thus, opposes the motion. Motor can provide motoring and braking operations for both forward and reverse directions. 84) Mention the types of braking? · Regenerative braking · Dynamic braking · Plugging 85) Define and mention different types of braking in a dc motor? In braking, the motor works as a generator developing a negative torque which opposes the motion. Types of regenerative braking are Dynamic (or) Rheostat braking; and plugging (or) reverse voltage braking. 86) List the drawbacks of armature resistance control? In armature resistance control, speed is varied by wasting power in external resistors that are connected in series with armature. Since it is an inefficient method of speed control, it was used in intermittent load application where the duration of low speed operation forms only a small proportion of total running time. 87) Mention the methods of armature voltage control dc motor? When the supply voltage is ac i) Ward-Leonard schemes ii) Transformer with taps and uncontrolled rectifier bridge iii) Static Ward-Leonard scheme (or) controlled rectifiers When the supply is dc i) Chopper control 88) What are the disadvantages of conventional ward-Leonard schemes? · Higher initial cost due to use of two additional machines. · Large weight and size. · Needs more floor space and proper foundation. · Required frequent maintenance. · Higher noise and higher loss. 89) Mention the drawbacks of rectifier fed dc drives? ._Distortion of supply ._Low power factor ._Ripple in motor current 90) What are the different methods of speed control of induction motors? · Stator voltage control · Supply frequency control · Rotor resistance control · Slip power recovery control 91) What is meant by stator voltage control? The speed of the induction motor can be changed by changing the stator voltage. Because the torque is proportional to square of the voltage. 92) Mention the applications of stator voltage control? The stator voltage control method is suitable for applications where torque demand reduced with speed, which points towards its suitability for i) Fan ii) Pump drives 93) Mention the applications of AC drives? AC drives are used in a number of applications such as fans, blowers, mill run-out tables, cranes, conveyors, traction etc. 94) What are the advantages of stator voltage control method? · The control circuitry is simple · Compact size · Quick response time · There is considerable savings in energy and thus it is economical method as compared to other methods of speed control.