Schedule 80 PVC and CPVC Schedule 40 PVC Piping

Schedule 80 PVC and CPVC Schedule 40 PVC Piping
Schedule 80 PVC and CPVC
Schedule 40 PVC
Technical Manual
Piping Systems
Table of Contents
Introduction: PVC and CPVC Piping Systems .............................................................................................. 4
Product Summary . ................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Material Data . .................................................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Engineering Data . ........................................................................................................................................ 7
Pressure Ratings ................................................................................................................................................................7-9
Water Hammer . ................................................................................................................................................................ 9-11
Temperature — Pressure Relationship .............................................................................................................................. 12
Thermal Expansion and Contraction ............................................................................................................................ 13-17
Friction — Loss Characteristics ....................................................................................................................................18-21
Installation Instructions . ........................................................................................................................... 22
Storage and Handling .......................................................................................................................................................... 22
Solvent Welding . .............................................................................................................................................................22-27
Threading ....................................................................................................................................................................... 28-29
Flanging . .............................................................................................................................................................................. 30
Above Ground Installation ..............................................................................................................................................31-33
Below Ground Installation . ........................................................................................................................................... 34-36
Standards ................................................................................................................................................... 37
ASTM ............................................................................................................................................................................ 37-38
ASME/ANSI............................................................................................................................................................................ 38
NSF/ANSI............................................................................................................................................................................... 38
Specifications ........................................................................................................................................ 39-41
IPS Socket Dimensions............................................................................................................................... 42
Weld Lines in Molded Fittings..................................................................................................................... 43
Useful Charts and Conversions ........................................................................................................... 44-46
3
Introduction: PVC and CPVC Piping Systems
Product Summary
Thermoplastics PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) are light, flexible, tough and
provide exceptional corrosion resistance. Because of these and other properties of a high quality engineered thermoplastic, the savings that can be realized in initial installation and continuing maintenance costs are substantial.
Temperature
PVC can handle temperatures up to 140˚F (60°C). CPVC handles temperatures up to 210˚F (99°C).
Chemical Resistance
PVC and CPVC thermoplastics are
highly resistant to acids, alkalis,
alcohols and many other corrosive
materials. Both materials are
ideal for process piping installation
and most service piping applications. For details, please consult
our Chemical Resistance Chart or
contact your local sales representative.
Maintenance Free Service
PVC and CPVC thermoplastics
will not rust, scale, pit or corrode,
nor are they subject to electrolysis. You are assured many years
of leak-free, maintenance-free service. For buried applications, PVC and CPVC are not affected by soil conditions or
galvanic corrosion..
Painting is not required for indoor non-exposed installations. For outdoor installation where the piping may be
exposed to significant sunlight, we recommend painting; two coats of a white or light-colored, water-base, outdoor
latex paint provides added protection.
Lower Installed Cost
Both PVC and CPVC have installed costs substantially lower than steel alloys or lined steel and are usually more
competitive than carbon steel. Solvent cemented connections contribute to this lower installed cost while the much
lighter weight (about one-sixth as much as steel) speeds and simplifies handling during installation.
Applications: Versatility and Dependability
PVC and CPVC fittings, pipe and valves have been found suitable for more than 50% of the corrosive and non-corrosive applications within the Chemical Process Industries. Vinyl piping systems have been sold into industrial
applications for over 50 years. The establishment of strong industry standards and specifications, plus a third party
certification through NSF, provides the specifying engineer, contractor and end user with a tested and accepted piping
system to solve their corrosion problems.
4
Material Data
Physical Properties of Rigid PVC and CPVC Thermoplastic Materials
The following table lists typical physical properties of PVC and CPVC thermoplastic materials.
Variations may exist depending on specific compounds and product.
Mechanical
Properties
Unit
PVC
CPVC
Specific Gravity
g/cm3
1.40 ± .02
1.55 ± .02
Remarks
ASTM Test
D-792
Tensile Strength @ 73°F
PSI
7,200
8,000
Same in Circumferential Direction
D-638
Modules of Elasticity Tensile @ 73°F
PSI
430,000
360,000
Ratio of Stress on Bent Sample at Failure
D-638
Compressive Strength @ 73°F
PSI
9,500
10,100
Flexural Strength @ 73°F
PSI
13,000
15,100
Tensile Stress/Strain on Bent Sample at
Failure
D-790
Izod Impact @ 73°F
Ft-Lbs/In of
Notch
1.0
1.5
Impact Resistance of a Notched Sample to
a Sharp Blow
D-256
Relative Hardness @ 73°F
Durometer “D”
Rockwell “R”
80 ± 3
110-120
—
119
Equivalent to Aluminum
—
D-2240
D-785
Remarks
D-695
Thermodynamics
Properties
Unit
PVC
CPVC
Coefficient of Thermal Linear
Expansion per °F
in/in/°F
2.8 x 10-5
3.4 x 10-5
Thermal Conductivity
BTU/hr/ft2/ F/in
1.3
0.95
Specific Heat
CAL/g/°C
0.20-0.28
Maximum Operating Temperature
°F
140
210
Pressure Rating is Directly Related to
Temperature
Heat Distortion Temperature
@ 264 PSI
°F
158
217
Thermal Vibration and Softening Occurs
Decomposition Point
°F
400+
400+
Scorching by Carbonization and
Dehydrochloration
Properties
Unit
PVC
CPVC
Remarks
Average Time of Burning
sec.
<5
<5
Average Extent of Burning
mm
ASTM Test
D-696
Average Specific Heat of 0-100°C
C-177
Ratio of Thermal Capacity to that of Water
at 15°C
D-648
Flammability
Test Method
D-635
<10
<10
Flame Spread Index
<10
<10
E-162
Flame Spread
10-25
4-18
E-84
730
900
D-1929
Smoke Developed*
1000
285
Flammability (.062”)
V-O
V-O, 5VB
5VA
Flash Ignition
°F
Softening Starts, approx.
°F
250
295
Material Become Viscous
°F
350
395
Material Carbonizes
°F
425
450
Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)
Vol. %
43
60
UL-94
D-2863
5
Other
Properties
Unit
Water Absorption
%
PVC
+0.05
CPVC
Poisson’s Ratio @ 73°F
0.38
0.27
ASTM Cell Classification
Industry Standard Color
12454-B
23447-B
Dark Gray/ Medium Gray
White
NSF Potable Water Approved
Yes
Remarks
+0.03 @ 73°F Weight Gain in 24 Hours
+0.55 @ 212°F
ASTM Test
D-570
D-1784
Yes
Note: This data is based on information supplied by the raw material manufacturers. It should be used as a general recommendation only
and not as a guarantee of performance or longevity. The determination of the suitability of any material for a specific application is the
responsibility of the end user.
6
Engineering Data
In the engineering of thermoplastic piping systems, it
is necessary to have not only a working knowledge of
piping design but also an awareness of a number of the
unique properties of thermoplastics.
In addition to chemical resistance, important factors to
be considered in designing piping systems employing
thermoplastics are
1. Pressure ratings
2. Water hammer
3. Temperature-Pressure relationships
4. Thermal expansion and contraction
5. Friction-loss characteristics
These factors are considered in detail in this manual.
Pressure Rating
Determining pressure-stress pipe relationships
ISO Equation: The pressure rating of a pipe is determined by the circumferential stress which results from
internal pressure. The relationship between internal
pressure, circumferential stress, wall thickness, and
diameter is governed by an ISO equation. In various
forms this equation is:
Log T = a + b log S
Where:
a and b are constants describing the slope and
intercept of the curve, and T and S are time-tofailure and stress, respectively.
The regression curve may be plotted on a log-log paper,
as shown in the Regression Curve figure below, and
extrapolated from 10,000 to 100,000 hours (11.4 years).
The stress at 100,000 hours is known as the Long Term
Hydrostatic Strength (LTHS) for that particular thermoplastic compound. From this (LTHS) the Hydrostatic
Design Stress (HDS) is determined by applying the
service factor multiplier, as shown on page 8.
Long-Term Strength Test per ASTM D-1598
( )
2S
2St
P = R-1= DO-t
2S
DO
P = t -1
2S
P = R - 1
S=
Where:
P =
S =
t =
DO =
R =
characteristic regression curve that represents the
stress/time-to-failure relationship for the particular
thermoplastic pipe compound under test. This curve is
represented by the equation:
Figure 1-C
P (R-1)
2
Internal Pressure, psi
Circumferential Stress, psi
Wall Thickness, in.
Outside Pipe Diameter, in.
DO/t
Pipe test specimen per ASTM D-1598 for “Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe
Under Long-Term Hydrostatic Pressure”
Regression Curve —
Stress/Time-to-Failure for PVC Type 1
Long-Term Strength: To determine the long-term
strength of thermoplastic pipe, lengths of pipe are
capped at both ends (see Fig. 1-C) and subjected to
various internal pressures, to produce circumferential
stresses that will produce failure within 10 to 10,000
hours. The test is run according to ASTM D 1598
— Standard Test for Time Hydrostatic Pressure.
The resulting failure points are used in a statistical
analysis (outlined in ASTM D 2837) to determine the
7
Service Factor: The Hydrostatic Stress Committee of
the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) has determined that a
service (design) factor of one-half the Hydrostatic Design Basis would provide an adequate safety margin for
use with water to ensure useful plastic-pipe service for
a long period of time. While not stated in the standards,
it is generally understood within the industry that this
“service life” is a minimum of 50 years.
Accordingly, the standards for plastic pipe, using the
0.5 service factor, required that the pressure rating of
the pipe be based upon this Hydrostatic Design Stress,
again calculated with the ISO equation.
While early experience indicated that this service factor,
or multiplier, of 0.5 provided adequate safety for many if
not most uses, some experts felt that a more conservative service factor of 0.4 would better compensate for
water hammer pressure surges, as well as for slight
manufacturing variations and damage suffered during
installation.
The PPI has issued a statement recommending this 0.4
service factor. This is equivalent to recommending that
the pressure rating of the pipe should equal 1.25 times
the system design pressure for any particular installation. Based upon this calculation, many thousands of
miles of thermoplastic pipe have been installed in the
United States without failure.
It is best to consider the actual surge conditions, as
outlined later in this section. In addition, reductions in
working pressure should be considered when handling
aggressive chemical solutions and in high-temperature
service.
Numerical relationships for service factors and design
stresses of PVC and CPVC are shown in the table below.
Service Factors and Hydrostatic Design Stress
(HDS)*
(Hydrostatic Design Basis equal 4000 psi) (27.6 MPa)
Service Factor
HDS
0.5
2000 psi (13.8 MPa)
0.4
1600 psi (11 MPa)
*Material: PVC Type I & CPVC
8
Maximum Pressures: The pressure ratings of thermoplastic pipe represent the maximum allowable operating pressure within a piping system for water at 73°F
(22.8°C) based upon a service factor of 0.5.
Maximum Pressure Rating for Schedule 80
PVC/CPVC Pipe at 73°F
Size
PSI
Bar
½”
848
57.7
¾”
688
46.8
1”
630
42.9
1¼”
520
35.4
1½”
471
32.0
2”
404
27.5
2½”
425
28.9
3”
375
25.5
4”
324
22.0
6”
279
19.0
8”
246
16.7
10”
234
15.9
12”
228
15.5
External Pressures — Collapse Rating
Thermoplastic pipe is frequently specified for situations
where uniform external pressures are applied to the
pipe, such as underwater applications. In these applications, the collapse rating of the pipe determines the
maximum permissible pressure differential between
external and internal pressures. The basic formulas for
collapsing external pressure applied uniformly to a long
pipe are:
1.For thick wall pipe where collapse is caused by elastic instability
of the pipe wall:
Pc = Ó 2 (DO2 - Di2)
2DO
2.For thin wall pipe where collapse is caused by elastic instability
of the pipe wall:
t 3
Pc = 2cE2
1-v Dm
( )
Where:
Pc = Collapse Pressure (external minus internal pressure),
psi
Ó = Compressive Strength, psi
v = Poisson’s Ratio
E = Modulus of Elasticity, psi
DO = Outside Pipe Diameter, in.
Dm = Mean Pipe Diameter, in.
Di = Inside Pipe Diameter, in.
t = Wall Thickness, in.
c = Out of Roundness Factor, Approximately 0.66
Choice of Formula: By using formula 2 on thick wall
pipe an excessively large pressure will be obtained. It
is therefore necessary to calculate, for a given pipe size,
the collapse pressure using both formulas and use the
lower value as a guide to safe working pressure. See
the following table for short term collapse pressures
at 73°F. For long term loading conditions, appropriate
long term data should be used.
Vacuum Service
As implied by the collapse rating, thermoplastic pipe
is suitable for vacuum or negative pressure conditions
that are found in many piping applications.
Laboratory tests have been conducted on Schedule 80
PVC pipe to determine performance under vacuum at
temperatures above recommended operating conditions. A 6” pipe showed slight deformation at 165°F and
20 inches of mercury. Above this temperature, failure
occurred due to thread deformation.
Conclusion: All sizes of Schedule 80 PVC and CPVC
thermoplastic pipe are suitable for vacuum service up
to 140°F and 30 inches of mercury. In addition, CPVC
may be used up to 210°F. Solvent cemented joints are
required for vacuum applications.
Short Term Collapse Pressure in psi at 73°F
½”
¾”
1”
1¼” 1½” 2”
3”
4”
6”
8”
10”
12”
494
Schedule 40 PVC
2095 1108 900
358
211
180
109
54
39
27
29
2772 2403 2258 1389 927
632
521
335
215
147
126
117
Schedule 80 PVC/CPVC
Note: These are short term ratings; long term should be reduced by ¹/3
to ½ of the short term ratings.
Water Hammer
Surge pressures due to water hammer are a major
factor contributing to pipe failure in liquid transmission
systems. A column of moving fluid within a pipeline,
owing to its mass and velocity, contains stored energy.
Since liquids are essentially incompressible, this energy
cannot be absorbed by the fluid when a valve is suddenly closed.
The result is a high momentary pressure surge called
water hammer. The five factors that determine the
severity of water hammer are:
1. Velocity
(The primary factor in excessive water hammer; see
discussion of “Velocity” and “Safety Factor” below)
2. Modulus of elasticity of pipe material
3. Inside diameter of pipe
4. Wall thickness of pipe
5. Valve closing time
Maximum pressure surges caused by water hammer
can be calculated by using the equation below. This
surge pressure should be added to the existing line
pressure to arrive at a maximum operating pressure
figure.
Ps
=V
( E t E+ t33960
10 Di )
Where:
Ps
V
Di
E
t
½
x
=
=
=
=
=
5
Surge Pressure, in psi
Liquid Velocity, in feet per second
Inside Pipe Diameter, inch
Modulus of Elasticity of Pipe Material, psi
Wall Thickness, inch
Calculated surge pressure, which assumes instantaneous valve closure, can be calculated for any material
using the values for E (Modulus of Elasticity).
However, to keep water hammer pressures within reasonable limits, it is common practice to design valves
for closure times considerably greater than 2L/c.
2L
Tc
> c
Where:
Tc =
L =
c =
Valve Closure Time, second
Length of Pipe Run, feet
Sonic Velocity of the Pressure
Wave = 4720 ft/second
9
Velocity
Thermoplastic piping has been successfully installed
in systems with a water velocity in excess of 10 feet per
second. Thermoplastic pipe is not subject to erosion
caused by high velocities and turbulent flow and in this
respect is superior to metal piping systems, particularly
where corrosive or chemically aggressive fluids are
involved. The accepted industry position is that while
the maximum safe water velocity in a thermoplastic
piping system depends on the specific details of the
system and the operating conditions, five feet per second is considered safe. Higher velocities may be used
in systems where the operating characteristics of the
valves and pumps are known and sudden changes in
flow velocity can be controlled. It is important that the
total pressure in the system at any time (operating plus
surge or water hammer) not exceed 150 percent of the
pressure rating for the system.
Safety Factor
Since the duration of any pressure surges due to water
hammer is extremely short — seconds, or more likely,
fractions of a second — the calculations used in determining the Safety Factor, the maximum fiber stress due
to internal pressure must be compared to some very
short-term strength value. Referring to the “Regression Curve” chart on page 7, it shows that the failure
stress for very short time periods is very high when
compared to the Hydrostatic Design Stress.
Using this premise, the calculation of Safety Factor
may be based, very conservatively, on the 20-second
strength value given in the “Regression Curve” chart
(page 7) — 8470 psi for PVC Type I.
A sample calculation is shown below, based upon the
listed criteria:
Pipe = 1¼” Schedule 80 PVC I
O.D. = 1.660; Wall = 0.191
HDS = 2000 psi
The calculated surge pressure for 1¼” Schedule 80 PVC
pipe at a velocity of 1 ft/sec. is 26.2 psi/ft/sec. (see next
page)
10
Water Velocity = 5 feet per second
Static Pressure in System = 300 psi
Total System Pressure = Total Static + Surge Pressure
Pt= P + PS
= 300 + 5 x 26.2
= 431.0 psi
Maximum circumferential stress is calculated from a
variation of the ISO Equation:
S = Pt (Do-t) = 431 (1.660 - 191) = 1657.4
2t
2 x 191
Safety Factor = 20-second strength
Maximum stress
= 8470 = 5.11
1657
Surge Pressure, Ps in psi at 73°F
water
velocity
(ft./sec.)
½”
¾”
1”
1¼”
1½”
2”
3”
4”
6”
8”
10”
12”
Schedule 40 PVC
1
27.9
25.3
24.4
22.2
21.1
19.3
18.9
17.4
15.5
14.6
13.9
13.4
2
55.8
50.6
48.8
44.4
42.2
38.6
37.8
34.8
31.0
29.2
27.8
26.8
3
83.7
75.9
73.2
66.6
63.3
57.9
56.7
52.2
46.5
43.8
41.7
40.2
4
111.6
101.2
97.6
88.8
84.4
77.2
75.6
69.6
62.0
58.4
55.6
53.6
5
139.5
126.5
122.0
111.0
105.5
96.5
94.5
87.0
77.5
73.0
69.5
67.0
6
167.4
151.8
146.4
133.2
126.6
115.8
113.4
104.4
93.0
87.6
83.4
80.4
Schedule 80 PVC/CPVC
1
32.9
29.9
28.7
26.2
25.0
23.2
22.4
20.9
19.4
18.3
17.3
17.6
2
65.6
59.8
57.4
52.4
50.0
46.4
44.8
41.8
38.8
36.6
35.6
35.2
3
98.7
89.7
86.1
78.6
75.0
69.6
67.2
62.7
58.2
59.9
53.4
52.8
4
131.6
119.6
114.8
104.8
107.0
92.8
89.6
83.6
77.6
73.2
71.2
70.4
5
164.5
149.5
143.5
131.0
125.0
116.3
112.0
104.5
97.0
91.5
89.0
88.0
6
197.4
179.4
172.2
157.2
150.0
133.2
134.4
125.4
116.4
109.8
106.8
105.6
The “Safety Factors vs. Service Factors” table (see below) gives the results of Safety Factor calculations based
upon Service Factors of 0.5 and 0.4 for the 1¼” PVC I Schedule 80 pipe of the example shown on page 10 using the
full pressure rating calculated from the listed Hydrostatic Design Stress. In each case, the Hydrostatic Design
Basis = 4000 psi, and the water velocity = 5 feet per second.
Safety Factors vs. Service Factors — PVC Type I Thermoplastic Pipe
Pipe Class
Service
Factor
HDS, psi
Pressure
Rating psi
Surge
Maximum
Pressure
Pressure psi
at 5 ft./sec.
Maximum
Stress psi
Safety Factor
1¼” Sch. 80
0.5
2000
520
131.0
651.0
2503.5
3.38
1¼” Sch. 80
0.4
1600
416
131.0
547.0
2103.5
4.03
Pressure Rating values are for PVC I pipe, and for most sizes are calculated from the experimentally determined Long Term Strength of PVC I extrusion compounds. Because molding compounds may differ in Long Term Strength and elevated temperature properties from pipe compounds, piping
systems consisting of extruded pipe and molded fittings may have lower pressure ratings than those shown here, particularly at the higher temperatures. Caution should be exercised in design of systems operating above 100°F.
Comparing Safety Factors for this 1¼” Schedule 80 pipe
at different Service Factors, it is should be noted that
changing from a Service Factor of 0.5 to a more conservative 0.4 increases the Safety Factor only by 16%.
Cyclic Fatigue in Vinyl Piping Systems
When discussing water hammer or pressure surge in
a piping systems, one should also be aware of a failure
mode termed “Cyclic Fatigue.” A piping system that has
frequent and significant changes in flow conditions or
pressure, creating a fluctuating surge, can have an effect on the structural integrity of a thermoplastic fitting.
This condition has been observed in golf course irrigation systems that experience tens of thousands of water
pressure surges over the course of a year. The resultant failure from cyclic fatigue is very similar in ap-
pearance to long-term static failure and it may be very
difficult to ascertain the exact cause of such failures.
However, the design engineer should consider this
phenomenon when designing a GF Piping System with
frequent pressure changes, particularly if the surge
pressure exceeds 50% of the systems working pressure. Based on some testing by Keller-Bliesener Engineering, the engineer may want to consider devaluing
the fitting by 40% from the published pipe burst pressure. Keeping the flow velocity to 5 fps or less will also
have an effect on pressure surges. Other considerations would be to use actuated valves that can be set to
provide a slow opening or to install “soft start” pumps,
as both of these will limit the water hammer and the
resultant pressure surges.
11
Temperature-Pressure Relationship
The effects of temperature have been exhaustively
studied and correction (derating) factors developed for
each thermoplastic piping material. To determine the
maximum operating pressure at any given temperature,
multiply the pressure rating for the pipe size and type
found in the following table by the temperature derating
factor (f).
Pressure ratings for thermoplastic pipe are generally
determined using water at room temperature (73°F).
As the system temperature increases, the thermoplastic pipe becomes more ductile, increases in impact
strength and decreases in tensile strength. The pressure ratings of thermoplastic pipe must, therefore, be
decreased accordingly.
P
DR = D/t
73˚F
t Wall
D Outside Dia
Nom. Size (inch)
Solvent-Welded Pressure Rating vs. Service Temperature — PVC and CPVC
90˚F
100˚F
110˚F
120˚F
PVC
CPVC PVC
CPVC PVC
CPVC PVC
CPVC PVC
f=1.00
f=1.00
f=0.92
f=0.85
f=0.77
f=0.75
f=0.62
f=0.50
130˚F
CPVC PVC
f=0.40 f=0.70
140˚F
CPVC PVC
f=0.30 f=0.62
150˚F 160˚F 180˚F 200˚F 210˚F
CPVC CPVC CPVC CPVC CPVC CPVC
f=0.22 f=0.50
f=0.47 f=0.40 f=0.25 f=0.18 f=0.16
s=2000 s=2000 s=1500 s=1840 s=1240 s=1700 s=1000 s=1540 s=800 s=1400 s=600 s=1240 s=440 s=1000 s=940 s=800 s=500 s=400 s=320
½
0.84 0.15
5.71
848
848
636
780
526
721
424
653
339
594
254
526
187
466
399
339
212
153
136
¾
1.05 0.15
6.82
688
688
516
633
426
585
344
530
275
482
206
427
151
378
323
275
172
124
110
101
1
1.32 0.18
7.35
630
630
473
580
390
536
315
485
252
441
189
391
139
347
296
252
158
113
1¼
1.66 0.19
8.69
520
520
390
478
322
442
260
400
208
364
156
322
114
286
244
208
130
94
83
1½
1.90 0.20
9.50
471
471
353
433
292
400
236
363
188
330
141
292
104
259
221
188
118
85
75
2
2.38 0.22
10.89
404
404
303
372
251
343
202
311
162
283
121
250
89
222
190
162
101
73
65
2½
2.88 0.28
10.42
425
425
319
391
263
361
213
327
170
298
128
264
94
234
200
170
106
77
68
3
3.50 0.30
11.67
375
375
281
345
233
319
188
289
150
263
113
233
83
206
176
150
94
68
60
4
4.50 0.34
13.35
324
324
243
298
201
275
162
249
130
227
97
201
71
178
152
130
81
58
52
6
6.63 0.43
16.34
279
279
209
257
173
237
140
215
112
195
84
173
61
153
131
112
70
50
45
8
8.63 0.50
17.25
246
246
185
226
153
209
123
189
98
172
74
153
54
135
116
98
62
44
39
10
10.75 0.59
18.13
234
234
175
215
145
199
117
180
94
164
70
145
51
129
110
94
59
42
37
12
12.75 0.69
18.56
228
228
171
210
141
194
114
176
91
160
68
141
51
125
107
91
57
41
36
P =
P =
S =
D =
2St = 2S = P f
73°F
D-t DR-1
Pressure rating of pipe at service temperatures (psi)
Hydrostatic design stress (psi)
Outside diameter of pipe (inches)
1) Figures for pressure rating at 73°F are rounded off from actual calculated values. Pressure ratings for other temperatures are calculated from
73°F values.
2) Pressure rating values are for PVC (12454-B) and CPVC (23447-B) pipe and for most sizes are calculated from the experimentally determined
long-term strength of PVC1 and CPVC extrusion compounds. Because molding compounds may differ in long-term strength and elevated
temperature properties from pipe compounds, piping systems consisting of extruded pipe and molded fittings may have lower pressure ratings
than those shown here, particularly at the higher temperatures. Caution should be exercised when designing PVC systems operating above 100°F
and CPVC systems operating above 180°F.
3) The pressure ratings given are for solvent-cemented systems. When adding valves, flanges or other components, the system must be derated to
the rating of the lowest component. (Pressure ratings: molded or cut threads are rated at 50% of solvent-cemented systems; flanges and unions
are 150 psi; for valves, see manufacturer’s recommendation.)
12
Thermal Expansion and Contraction
Thermoplastics exhibit a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion — as much as ten times that of steel.
When designing plastic piping systems, expansion of long runs must be considered. Installation temperature
versus working temperature or summer to winter extremes must be considered.
Linear Expansion and Contraction
@T
180
Coefficient of Thermal Linear
Expansion
170
PVC = 2.8 x 10-5 in/in/°F
CPVC = 3.4 x 10-5 in/in/°F
160
To Calculate:
∆L = Change in pipe length due
to thermal changes.
150
L = Straight runs of pipe with
no changes in direction.
Y = Coefficient of thermal
expansion (see above).
CP
VC
140
130
∆T = maximum change in
temperature between
installation and operation
(T MAX. - T. MIN.)
PV
C
120
110
∆L = Y x L x ∆T
Example:
• A system has 350 feet
(4,200”) of straight run (L)
with no direction change.
100
90
•
Pipe material is CPVC.
Coefficient (Y) is 3.4 x 10-5
(0.000034”).
80
•
Pipe is installed at an
ambient temperature of
60°F. Maximum anticipated
operating temperature is
140°F. The difference (∆T)
is 80°F.
70
60
∆L = 0.000034 x 4200 x 80
∆L = 11.4” of linear expansion
in 350 ft. in pipe.
50
40
30
20
10
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
Change in Pipe Length (Inches/Foot)
0.08
0.09
0.10
@L
13
1. Offsets: Most piping systems have occasional changes
in direction which will allow the thermally induced length
changes to be taken up in offsets of the pipe beyond the
bends. Where this method is employed, the pipe must be able
to float except at anchor points.
2. Expansion Joints: Piston type expansion joints can be an
effective means of compensating for expansion or contraction
when the system has critical dimensions with no room for
movement, or where appearance is important. It is important
to follow the manufacturers recommendations regarding
support, anchoring and the proper setting of the expansion
joint.
Tables for expansion loops, offsets and expansion joints have
been generated for elevated temperatures as noted beneath each table. If the change in temperature and working
temperatures are lower than those used to derive expansion
loop and offset tables, the figures will be conservative. These
tables can be generated for any temperature and expansion
by using the following equations and the modulus of elasticity
and working stress at the given temperature.
Assume the pipe to be a cantilevered beam.
For a beam, the bending stress can be calculated by
“Equation 1:”
S=M*C
I
Where:
S =
M =
C =
I =
Stress (psi)
Moment (in lbs.)
Distance from neutral axis (in.)
Moment of Inertia (in4)
For application to pipe, the maximum stress occurs where
C equals the radius of the pipe. Substituting the radius for
C and rearranging the equation to solve for the Moment is
shown in “Equation 2:”
M=2*S*I
OD
Where:
OD = Pipe Outer Diamter (in)
C = Radius of pipe = OD/2 (in)
14
The free body diagram which most closely approximates the
deflected pipe in an expansion loop, offset or change in direction is shown in Figure A (see page 16). This is not a cantilever beam but rather a guided cantilever beam. For a guided
cantilever, the moment induced by an imposed deflection is
calculated by “Equation 3:”
M = 6 * E * I2* y
DPL
Where:
E = Modulus of Elasticity (psi)
y
= imposed deflection (in)
DPL = deflected pipe length (in)
By equating “2” and “3,” the equation for the deflected beam
length (DPL) can be solved:
2 * S * I
OD
=
6*E*I*y
DPL 2
“Equation 4:”
DPL =
√
3 * E * OD * y
S
After determining the proper allowable stress, “Equation 4”
gives an estimate of the minimum deflected pipe length (DPL)
required to sustain a piping thermal movement of length y
normal to the piping.
“Equation 4” can be used to calculate the minimum deflected
pipe length for expansion loops, offsets and change of directions:
Note: In some cases, a stress intensification factor (i) is
added as shown in “Equation 5.” The stress intensification factor is used as a safety factor to account for the
effect of localized stresses on piping under repetitive
loading. For example, the stress intensification factor
for socket welded joints is 1.3 and for threaded joints the
factor is 2.3 per ANSI/ASME B31.3, B31.4, B31.5 and B31.8
codes.
“Equation 5:”
DPL =
√
3 * E * OD * y * i
S
“Equation 6” is used to calculate the change in length caused
by thermal expansion:
∆L = 12 * e * L * ∆T
Where:
∆L e
L
∆T
= Change in length (in)
= Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (in/in °F)
= Length of Straight Pipe Run (ft)
= Change in Temperature (°F)
For the expansion loop, shown in Figure B (see page 16), the
imposed deflection is one-half the change in length as repre-
“Equation 10:” Offsets and Change of Direction
DPL = 6.0 *
√
E * OD * e * L * ∆T
S
Where:
DPL = Deflected Pipe Length (in)
E = Modulus of Elasticity (psi)
OD = Pipe Outer Diameter (in)
e = Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (in/in °F)
L = Length of Straight Pipe Run (ft)
∆T = Change in Temperature (°F)
S = Allowable Stress (psi)
sented in “Equation 7”:
“Equation 11” Piston Type Expansion Joints
y = ∆L
2
Px = Tmax – Tamb x ∆L
Tmax – Tmin
“Equation 4” can be modified to replace the deflection (y)
with equation 6 for the change in length (∆L) according to the
relationship shown in “Equation 7.”
“Equation 8:” Expansion Loop
√
E * OD * e * L * ∆T
DPL = 4.243 *
S
Where:
DPL = Deflected Pipe Length (in)
E = Modulus of Elasticity (psi)
OD = Pipe Outer Diameter (in)
e = Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (in/in °F)
L = Length of Straight Pipe Run (ft)
∆T = Change in Temperature (°F)
S = Allowable Stress (psi)
Where:
Px =
Tmax=
Tmin =
Tamb=
∆L =
Piston Installation Position
Maximum temperature
Minimum Temperature
Ambient Temperature
Length of Expansion Joint (6” or 12”)
Note: In the tables to follow (see page 16), we have
chosen to use values for the allowable stress (S) and the
modulus of elasticity (E) at the upper temperature limit.
Many calculations (in other manufacturers’ literature) are
based on the allowable stress and the modulus of elasticity at ambient conditions. This simplification is allowed
because for most plastics (S) and (E) vary with temperature at approximately the same rate.
For the offset shown in Figure C (see page 17) and the change
in direction shown in Figure D (page 17), the imposed deflection is equal to the change in length caused by thermal
expansion.
“Equation 9:”
y = ∆L
“Equation 4” can be modified to replace the deflection (y) with
“Equation 6” for the change in length ∆L according to the
relationship shown in “Equation 9.”
15
PVC Expansion Loops
PVC
Pipe Size
(in.)
Length of Run (feet)
10
20
30
O.D. of
Pipe (in.)
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Minimum Deflected Pipe Length (DPL) (inches)
½
0.840
11
15
19
22
24
27
29
31
32
34
¾
1.050
12
17
21
24
27
30
32
34
36
38
1
1.315
14
19
23
27
30
33
36
38
41
43
1¼
1.660
15
22
26
30
34
37
40
43
46
48
1½
1.900
16
23
28
33
36
40
43
46
49
51
2
2.375
18
26
32
36
41
45
48
51
55
58
3
3.500
22
31
38
44
49
54
58
62
66
70
4
4.500
25
35
43
50
56
61
66
71
75
79
6
6.625
30
43
53
61
68
74
80
86
91
96
8
8.625
35
49
60
69
78
85
92
98
104
110
10
10.750
39
55
67
77
87
95
102
110
116
122
12
12.750
42
60
73
84
94
103
112
119
127
133
70
80
90
100
PVC Offsets and Change of Directions
PVC
Pipe Size
(in.)
Length of Run (feet)
10
20
40
50
60
Minimum Deflected Pipe Length (DPL) (inches)
½
0.840
15
22
27
31
34
37
41
43
46
48
24
30
34
38
42
45
48
51
54
¾
1.050
17
1
1.315
19
27
33
38
43
47
51
54
57
61
1¼
1.660
22
30
37
43
48
53
57
61
65
68
1½
1.900
23
33
40
46
51
56
61
65
69
73
2
2.375
26
36
45
51
58
63
68
73
77
81
3
3.500
31
44
54
62
70
77
83
88
94
99
4
4.500
35
50
61
71
79
87
94
100
106
112
6
6.625
43
61
74
86
96
105
114
122
129
136
8
8.625
49
69
85
98
110
120
130
139
147
155
10
10.750
55
77
95
110
122
134
145
155
164
173
12
12.750
60
84
103
119
133
146
158
169
179
189
Figure A: Guided Cantilever Beam
30
O.D. of
Pipe (in.)
16
Figure B: Expansion Loop
CPVC Expansion Loops
CPVC
Pipe Size
(in.)
Length of Run (feet)
10
20
30
O.D. of
Pipe (in.)
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Minimum Deflected Pipe Length (DPL) (inches)
½
0.840
15
21
26
30
33
36
39
42
44
47
¾
1.050
17
23
29
33
37
40
44
47
50
52
1
1.315
18
26
32
37
41
45
49
52
55
58
1¼
1.660
21
29
36
42
46
51
55
59
62
66
1½
1.900
22
31
39
44
50
54
59
63
67
70
2
2.375
25
35
43
50
56
61
66
70
75
79
3
3.500
30
43
52
60
67
71
80
85
91
95
4
4.500
34
48
59
68
77
84
91
97
103
108
6
6.625
42
59
72
83
93
102
110
117
125
131
8
8.625
47
67
82
95
106
116
125
134
142
150
10
10.750
53
75
92
106
118
130
140
150
159
167
12
12.750
58
81
100
115
129
141
152
163
173
182
70
80
90
100
CPVC Offsets and Change of Directions
CPVC
Pipe Size
(in.)
Length of Run (feet)
10
20
30
O.D. of
Pipe (in.)
40
50
60
Minimum Deflected Pipe Length (DPL) (inches)
½
0.840
21
30
36
42
47
51
55
59
63
66
33
40
47
22
57
62
66
70
74
¾
1.050
23
1
1.315
26
37
45
52
58
61
69
74
78
83
1¼
1.660
29
42
51
59
66
72
78
86
88
93
1½
1.900
31
44
54
63
70
77
83
89
94
99
2
2.375
35
50
61
70
79
86
93
99
105
111
3
3.500
43
60
74
85
95
105
113
121
128
135
4
4.500
48
68
84
97
108
119
128
137
145
153
6
6.625
59
53
102
117
131
144
155
166
176
186
8
8.625
67
95
116
134
150
164
177
189
201
212
10
10.750
75
106
130
150
167
183
198
212
224
237
12
12.750
81
115
141
163
182
200
216
230
244
258
Figure C: Expansion Offset
Figure D: Change of Direction
17
Friction-Loss Characteristics
Introduction
Hazen and Williams Formula
A major advantage of thermoplastic pipe is its exceptionally smooth inside surface area, which reduces
friction loss compared to other materials.
The head losses resulting from various water flow rates
in plastic piping may be calculated by means of the
Hazen and Williams formula:
Friction loss in plastic pipe remains constant over
extended periods of time, in contrast to many traditional
materials where the value of the Hazen and Williams C
factor (constant for inside roughness) decreases with
time. As a result, the flow capacity of thermoplastics is
greater under fully turbulent flow conditions like those
encountered in water service.
C Factors
Tests made both with new pipe and pipe that had been
in service revealed C factor values for plastic pipe
between 160 and 165. Thus, the factor of 150 recommended for water in Equation 12 is on the conservative
side. On the other hand, the C factor for metallic pipe
varies from 65 to 125, depending upon age and interior
roughening. A benefit with plastic piping systems is
that it is often possible to achieve the desired flow rate
using a smaller diameter pipe, resulting in less initial
cost for pipe, valves, fitting and pumps, and still maintain the same or even lower friction losses. A longer
term benefit would be the resultant savings in energy
required to operate the system.
18
“Equation 12:”
f = 0.2083 100
C
( )
1.852
1.852
x g 4.8655
Di
= 0.0983 q1.852
for C = 150
Di4.8655
P = 4335f
Where:
f =
P =
Di=
g =
C =
Friction Head in ft. of Water per 100 ft. of Pipe
Pressure Loss in psi per 100 ft. of Pipe
Inside Pipe Diameter, in.
Flow Rate in U.S. gal./min.
Constant for Inside Roughness
(C equals 150 for thermoplastics)
Friction Loss — Schedule 40 Pipe
Carrying capacity, friction loss and flow data for Schedule 40 thermoplastic pipe are presented in tabular form
in the table below. This table is applicable to pipe made of any of the thermoplastic piping materials as all have
equally smooth interior surfaces.
Carrying Capacity and Friction Loss — Schedule 40 Thermoplastics Pipe
1 in.
0.22
0.44
2.48
4.56
8.68
18.39
32.32
0.77
1.93
2.72
3.86
5.79
7.72
9.65
0.009 11.58
0.013
0.013
0.017
0.022 0.56
0.030 0.67
0.043 0.79
0.048 0.84
0.056 0.90
0.069 1.01
0.082 1.12
0.125 1.41
0.17 1.69
0.235 1.97
0.30 2.25
0.45 2.81
0.63 3.37
0.85 3.94
1.08 4.49
1.34 5.06
1.63 5.62
8.43
11.24
0.55
1.72
3.17
6.02
12.77
21.75
32.88
46.08
1¼ in.
0.24
0.75
1.37
2.61
5.53
9.42
14.22
19.95
0.44
1.11
1.55
2.21
3.31
4.42
5.52
6.63
7.73
8.84
9.94
6 in.
0.02 0.009 11.05
0.03 0.013
0.04 0.017
0.05 0.022
0.05 0.022
0.06 0.026
0.08 0.035 0.65
0.12 0.052 0.81
0.16 0.069 0.97
0.22 0.096 1.14
0.28 0.12 1.30
0.43 0.19 1.63
0.60 0.26 1.94
0.79 0.34 2.27
1.01 0.44 2.59
1.26 0.55 2.92
1.53 0.66 3.24
3.25 1.41 4.86
5.54 2.40 6.48
8.11
9.72
0.14
0.44
0.81
1.55
3.28
5.59
8.45
11.85
15.76
20.18
25.10
30.51
1½ in.
0.06
0.19
0.35
0.67
1.42
2.42
3.66
5.13
6.82
8.74
10.87
13.21
0.33
0.81
1.13
1.62
2.42
3.23
4.04
4.85
5.66
6.47
7.27
8.08
9.70
0.07
0.22
0.38
0.72
1.53
2.61
3.95
5.53
7.36
9.43
11.73
14.25
19.98
0.012
0.015
0.017
0.024
0.030
0.048
0.069
0.091
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.37
0.63
0.95
1.33
0.03
0.09
0.17
0.31
0.66
1.13
1.71
2.39
3.19
4.08
5.80
6.17
8.65
0.49
0.69
0.98
1.46
1.95
2.44
2.93
3.41
3.90
4.39
4.88
5.85
6.83
7.32
7.80
8.78
9.75
0.066
0.11
0.21
0.45
0.76
1.15
1.62
2.15
2.75
3.43
4.16
5.84
7.76
8.82
9.94
12.37
15.03
0.027
0.035
0.05
0.065
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.28
0.48
0.73
1.01
1.72
2.61
0.012
0.015
0.022
0.028
0.039
0.048
0.056
0.12
0.21
0.32
0.44
0.74
1.13
0.029
0.048
0.091
0.19
0.33
0.50
0.70
0.93
1.19
1.49
1.80
2.53
3.36
3.82
4.30
5.36
6.51
12 in.
1.01
1.16
1.30
1.45
2.17
2.89
3.62
4.34
5.78
7.23
0.027
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.12
0.20
0.31
0.43
0.73
1.11
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
3 in.
10 in.
0.82
1.03
1.23
1.44
1.64
1.85
2.05
3.08
4.11
5.14
6.16
8.21
10.27
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
2 in.
8 in.
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.055
0.07
0.11
0.16
0.21
0.27
0.33
0.40
0.85
1.45
2.20
3.07
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
¾ in.
0.51
1.02
5.73
10.52
20.04
42.46
72.34
5 in.
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.19
0.29
0.40
0.54
0.69
1.05
1.46
1.95
2.49
3.09
3.76
Velocity
feet per second
0.63
1.26
3.16
4.43
6.32
9.48
0.013 12.65
0.017
0.026 0.49
0.035 0.57
0.048 0.65
0.056 0.73
0.069 0.81
0.095 0.97
0.13 1.14
0.15 1.22
0.16 1.30
0.20 1.46
0.25 1.62
0.38 2.03
0.53 2.44
0.71 2.84
0.90 3.25
1.36 4.06
1.91 4.87
2.55 5.69
3.26 6.50
7.31
8.12
0.90
1.80
10.15
18.64
35.51
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
½ in.
2.08
4.16
23.44
43.06
82.02
4 in.
0.51 0.03
0.64 0.04
0.77 0.06
0.89 0.08
1.02 0.11
1.15 0.13
1.28 0.16
1.53 0.22
1.79 0.30
1.92 0.34
2.05 0.38
2.30 0.47
2.56 0.58
3.20 0.88
3.84 1.22
4.48 1.63
5.11 2.08
6.40 3.15
7.67 4.41
8.95 5.87
10.23 7.52
1.13
2.26
5.64
7.90
11.28
Velocity
feet per second
1
2
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
Velocity
feet per second
Gallons per minute
Independent variables: Gallons per minute and nominal pipe size O.D. (Min. I.D.)
Dependent variables: Velocity, friction head and pressure drop per 100 feet of pipe, interior smooth.
0.03
0.49
0.68
1.03
1.37
1.71
2.05
2.39
2.73
3.08
3.42
4.10
4.79
5.13
5.47
6.15
6.84
8.55
10.26
0.015
0.021
0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.23
0.31
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.85
1.13
1.28
1.44
1.80
2.18
3.31
4.63
6.16
7.88
11.93
0.007
0.009
0.013
0.030
0.048
0.074
0.10
0.13
0.17
0.22
0.26
0.37
0.49
0.55
0.62
0.78
0.94
1.43
2.00
2.67
3.41
5.17
0.012
0.017
0.022
0.026
0.052
0.087
0.13
0.19
0.32
0.49
19
Friction Loss — Schedule 80 Pipe
Friction Loss — Schedule 80 Fittings
Carrying capacity, friction loss and flow data for Schedule 80 thermoplastic pipe are presented in tabular form
in the table below. This table is applicable to pipe made
of any of the thermoplastic piping materials as all have
equally smooth interior surfaces.
The table “Friction Loss in Equivalent Feet of Pipe”
gives the estimated friction loss in equivalent feet of
pipe, through thermoplastic fittings of various sizes and
configurations.
Carrying Capacity and Friction Loss — Schedule 80 Thermoplastics Pipe
0.54
0.63
0.72
0.81
0.90
1.08
1.26
1.35
1.44
1.62
1.80
2.25
2.70
3.15
3.60
4.50
5.40
6.30
7.19
8.09
8.99
1”
0.94
2.34
3.23
4.68
7.01
9.35
11.69
5 in.
0.03 0.013 14.03
0.04 0.017
0.04 0.017
0.05 0.020
0.07 0.030 0.63
0.10 0.043 0.75
0.13 0.056 0.88
0.14 0.061 0.94
0.16 0.069 1.00
0.20 0.087 1.13
0.24 0.10 1.25
0.37 0.16 1.57
0.52 0.23 1.88
0.69 0.30 2.20
0.88 0.38 2.51
1.34 0.58 3.14
1.87 0.81 3.76
2.49 1.08 4.39
3.19 1.38 5.02
3.97 1.72 5.64
4.82 2.09 6.27
9.40
12.54
1¼ “
0.88
2.78
5.04
9.61
20.36
34.68
52.43
73.48
0.33
1.19
2.19
4.16
8.82
15.02
22.70
31.62
0.52
1.30
1.82
2.60
3.90
5.20
6.50
7.80
9.10
10.40
11.70
6 in.
0.03 0.013 13.00
0.04 0.017
0.05 0.022
0.06 0.026
0.07 0.030
0.08 0.035
0.10 0.043
0.16 0.068 0.90
0.22 0.095 1.07
0.29 0.12 1.25
0.37 0.16 1.43
0.56 0.24 1.79
0.78 0.34 2.14
1.04 0.45 2.50
1.33 0.68 2.86
1.65 0.71 3.21
2.00 0.87 3.57
4.25 1.84 5.36
7.23 3.13 7.14
8.93
10.71
0.21
0.66
1.21
2.30
4.87
8.30
12.55
17.59
23.40
29.97
37.27
45.30
1½”
0.09
0.29
0.53
1.00
2.11
3.59
5.43
7.62
10.13
12.98
16.14
19.61
0.38
0.94
1.32
1.88
2.81
3.75
4.69
5.63
6.57
7.50
8.44
9.38
11.26
0.10
0.30
0.55
1.04
2.20
3.75
5.67
7.95
10.58
13.55
16.85
20.48
28.70
0.019
0.022
0.033
0.039
0.61
0.087
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.47
0.80
1.20
1.68
0.041
0.126
0.24
0.45
0.95
1.62
2.46
3.44
4.58
5.87
7.30
8.87
12.43
0.56
0.78
1.12
1.63
2.23
2.79
3.35
3.91
4.47
5.03
5.58
6.70
7.82
8.38
8.93
10.05
11.17
0.10
0.15
0.29
0.62
1.06
1.60
2.25
2.99
3.86
4.76
5.79
8.12
10.80
12.27
13.83
17.20
20.90
0.036
0.045
0.07
0.085
0.11
0.14
0.17
0.36
0.61
0.02
1.29
2.19
3.33
0.015
0.02
0.03
0.037
0.048
0.061
0.074
0.16
0.26
0.40
0.56
0.95
1.44
0.040
0.088
0.13
0.27
0.46
0.69
0.97
1.29
1.66
2.07
2.51
3.52
4.68
5.31
5.99
7.45
9.05
0.39
0.54
0.78
1.17
1.56
1.95
2.34
2.73
3.12
3.51
3.90
4.68
5.46
5.85
6.24
7.02
7.80
9.75
11.70
0.05
0.07
0.12
0.26
0.44
0.67
0.94
1.25
1.60
1.90
2.42
3.39
4.51
5.12
6.77
7.18
8.72
13.21
18.48
12 in.
1.12
1.28
1.44
1.60
2.40
3.20
4.01
4.81
6.41
8.01
9.61
11.21
12.82
0.037
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.15
0.20
0.40
0.55
0.84
1.42
1.99
2.65
3.41
3”
0.022
0.032
0.052
0.11
0.19
0.29
0.41
0.64
0.89
0.86
1.05
1.47
1.35
2.22
2.50
3.11
3.78
5.72
8.00
0.25
0.35
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.49
1.74
1.99
2.24
2.49
2.98
3.49
3.74
3.99
4.48
4.98
6.23
7.47
8.72
9.97
12.46
0.02
0.023
0.04
0.09
0.15
0.22
0.31
0.42
0.54
0.67
0.81
1.14
1.51
1.74
1.94
2.41
2.93
4.43
6.20
8.26
10.57
16.00
0.016
0.022
0.026
0.030
0.065
0.11
0.17
0.24
0.41
0.62
0.86
1.15
1.48
Friction Loss in Equivalent Feet of Pipe — Schedule 80 Thermoplastics Fittings
Nominal Pipe Size, In.
Tee, Side Outlet
90° Ell
45° Ell
Insert Coupling
Male-Female Adapters
20
/
3
1½
¾
—
—
3 8
½
4
1½
¾
½
1
¾
5
2
1
¾
1½
1
6
2¾
13/8
1
2
1¼
7
4
1¾
1¼
2¾
1½
8
4
2
1½
3½
2
12
6
2½
2
4½
2½
15
8
3
3
—
3
16
8
4
3
6½
3½
20
10
4½
—
—
4
22
12
5
4
9
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
2½”
10 in.
0.90
1.14
1.36
1.59
1.81
2.04
2.27
3.40
4.54
5.67
6.80
9.07
11.34
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
2”
8 in.
0.045
0.05
0.075
0.09
0.14
0.20
0.27
0.34
0.42
0.51
1.08
1.84
2.78
3.89
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
Velocity
feet per second
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
Friction head
feet
Velocity
feet per second
0.017
0.026
0.035
0.048
0.061
0.074
0.091
0.13
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.27
0.33
0.50
0.70
0.93
1.19
1.81
2.52
3.35
4.30
0.37
0.74
4.19
7.59
14.65
31.05
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
4 in.
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.11
0.14
0.17
0.21
0.30
0.39
0.45
0.50
0.63
0.76
1.16
1.61
2.15
2.75
4.16
5.33
7.76
9.93
¾”
0.86
1.72
9.67
17.76
33.84
71.70
Friction head
feet
0.57
0.72
0.86
1.00
1.15
1.29
1.43
1.72
2.01
2.15
2.29
2.58
2.87
3.59
4.30
5.02
5.73
7.16
8.60
10.03
11.47
0.74
1.57
3.92
5.49
7.84
11.76
Velocity
feet per second
1.74
3.48
19.59
35.97
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
½”
4.02
8.03
45.23
83.09
Friction head
feet
Friction loss
pounds per square inch
1.43
2.95
7.89
10.34
Velocity
feet per second
Friction head
feet
1
2
5
7
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000
1250
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Velocity
feet per second
Gallons per minute
Independent variables: Gallons per minute and nominal pipe size O.D. (Min. I.D.)
Dependent variables: Velocity, friction head and pressure drop per 100 feet of pipe, interior smooth.
6
32
18
8
6¼
14
8
38
22
10
—
—
0.009
0.013
0.017
0.039
0.055
0.095
0.13
0.13
0.23
0.29
0.35
0.49
0.65
0.74
0.84
1.04
1.27
1.92
2.68
3.58
4.58
8.93
Head Loss Characteristics of Water Flow Thru Rigid Plastic Pipe
This nomograph provides approximate values for a wide
range of plastic pipe sizes. More precise values should
be calculated from the Hazen and Williams formula.
Experimental test value of C (a constant for inside pipe
The values of this chart are based on the
Hazen & Williams formula:
f = 0.2083 100
C
( )
1.852
1.852
x g 4.8655
Di
1.852
= 0.0983 g 4.8655 for C = 150
Di
P = 4335f
Where:
f =
P =
Di=
g =
C =
Friction Head in ft. of Water per 100 ft. of Pipe
Pressure Loss in psi per 100 ft. of Pipe
Inside Pipe Diameter, in.
Flow Rate in U.S. gal./min.
Constant for Inside Roughness
(C equals 150 for thermoplastics)
roughness) ranges from 155 to 165 for various types of
plastic pipe. Use of a value of 150 will ensure conservative friction loss values.
The nomograph is used by lining up values on the scales by
means of a ruler or straight edge. Two independent variables
must be set to obtain the other values. For example: line (1)
indicates that 500 gallons per minute may be obtained with a
6-inch inside diameter pipe at a head loss of about 0.65 pounds
per square inch at a velocity of 6.0 feet per second. Line (2)
indicates that a pipe with 2.1 inch inside diameter will give a
flow of about 60 gallons per minute at a loss in head of 2 pounds
per square inch per 100 feet of pipe. Line (3) and dotted line (3)
show that in going from a pipe 2.1 inch inside diameter to one of
2 inches inside diameter, the head loss goes from 3 to 4 pounds
per square inch in obtaining a flow of 70 gallons per minute.
Remember, velocities in excess of 5.0 feet per second are not
recommended.
Nomograph courtesy of Plastics
Pipe Institute, a division of The
Society of The Plastics Industry.
21
Installation Instructions
Storage and Handling
GF thermoplastics have excellent resistance to weathering and can be stored outside for long periods.
However, it is recommended that any plastic pipe stored
outside be covered with a light tarpaulin, or kept under
cover in a warehouse or shed that is well ventilated to
prevent excessive temperature buildup and possible
warping. Care should also be exercised to keep the
product away from exposure to UV from direct sunlight.
The storage area should not be located near steam
lines or other heat sources.
To prevent sagging or “draping,” particularly of the
longer sections, pipe should be stored on racks that
provide close or continuous support. Any sharp edges
or burrs on the racks should be removed or covered.
To prevent excessive deflection, loose stacks of pipe
should not exceed a height of three feet. Bundled pipe
can be stacked twice as high.
Fittings and flanges should be kept in their original
packaging or in separate bins until they are needed.
They should never be mixed with metal piping components.
Since plastic pipe has lower impact strength and
resistance to mechanical abuse than steel, it requires
somewhat more care in handling. Pulling a length of
pipe off a truck bed and letting the free end plummet
to the ground should be avoided. Also to be avoided is
dragging the pipe over rough ground, dropping heavy
objects on it, or using any kind of chains. The resulting
scratches, splits or gouges can reduce the pressure
rating.
If damage from careless handling does occur, one of
the advantages of plastic pipe is readily apparent. The
damaged section can be quickly cut out and the pipe
ends rejoined using the cutting and joining techniques
described below.
Solvent Welding PVC and CPVC Pipe
and Fittings
Basic Principles
The solvent cemented connection in thermoplastic pipe
and fittings is the last vital link in a plastic pipe instal-
22
lation. It can mean the success or failure of the system
as a whole. Accordingly, it requires the same professional care and attention given to other components of
the system.
There are many solvent cementing techniques published covering step by step procedures on just how to
make solvent cemented joints. However, we feel that if
the basic principles involved are explained, known and
understood, a better understanding would be gained,
as to what techniques are necessary to suit particular
applications, temperature conditions, and variations in
sizes and fits of pipe and fittings.
To consistently make good joints the following should be
clearly understood:
1. The joining surfaces must be dissolved and made
semi-fluid.
2. Sufficient cement must be applied to fill the gap
between pipe and fitting.
3. Assembly of pipe and fittings must be made while
the surfaces are still wet and fluid.
4. Joint strength develops as the cement dries. In the
tight part of the joint the surfaces will tend to fuse
together, in the loose part the cement will bond to
both surfaces.
Penetration and dissolving can be achieved by a suitable primer, or by the use of both primer and cement. A
suitable primer will penetrate and dissolve the plastic
more quickly than cement alone. The use of a primer
provides a safety factor for the installer for he can
know, under various temperature conditions, when he
has achieved sufficient softening.
More than sufficient cement to fill the loose part of the
joint must be applied. Besides filling the gap, adequate
cement layers will penetrate the surface and also
remain wet until the joint is assembled. Prove this for
yourself. Apply on the top surface of a piece of pipe two
separate layers of cement. First apply a heavy layer of
cement, then alongside it, a thin brushed out layer. Test
the layers every 15 seconds or so by a gentle tap with
your finger. You will note that the thin layer becomes
tacky and then dries quickly (probably within 15 seconds). The heavy layer will remain wet much longer.
Check for penetration a few minutes after applying
these layers. Scrape them with a knife. The thin layer
will have achieved little or no penetration. The heavy
one, much more penetration.
As the solvent dissipates, the cement layer and the
dissolved surfaces will harden with a corresponding
increase in joint strength. A good joint will take the
required working pressure long before the joint is fully
dry and final strength will develop more quickly than in
the looser (bonded) part of the joint.
If the cement coatings on the pipe and fittings are wet
and fluid when assembly takes place, they will tend to
flow together and become one cement layer. Also, if the
cement is wet the surfaces beneath them will still be
soft, and these softened surfaces in the tight part of the
joint will tend to fuse together.
23
Making the Joint
Step 1:
1. Cutting: Pipe must be squarely cut to allow for the
proper interfacing of the pipe end and the fitting socket
bottom. This can be accomplished with a miter box saw
or wheel type cutter. For saw cuts on pipe too large
for a miter box, a pipe wrap should be used and a line
drawn with marker. If using a wheel cutter, it must have
a cutting blade specifically designed for plastic pipe.
Note: Power saws should be specifically designed to
cut plastic pipe.
2. Deburring: Use a plastic deburring tool or file to
remove burrs from the end of small diameter pipe. Be
sure to remove all burrs from around the inside as
well as the outside of the pipe. A slight chamfer (bevel)
of about 10°-15° should be added to the end to permit
easier insertion of the pipe into the fitting. Failure to
chamfer the edge of the pipe may remove cement from
the fitting socket, causing the joint to leak. For pressure pipe systems of 2” and above, the pipe must be
end-treated with a 15° chamfer cut to a depth of approximately 3/32.” Commercial power bevelers are
recommended.
Step 2:
3. Test Dry Fit of the Joint: Tapered fitting sockets are
designed so that an interference fit should occur when
the pipe is inserted about 1/3 to 2/3 of the way into the
socket. Occasionally, when pipe and fitting dimensions
are at the tolerance extremes, it will be possible to fully
insert dry pipe to the bottom of the fitting socket. When
this happens, a sufficient quantity of cement must be
applied to the joint to fill the gap between the pipe and
fitting. The gap must be filled to obtain a strong, leakfree joint.
Step 3:
A 15° chamfer cut to a depth of approx. 3/32 .”
24
4. Inspection, Cleaning, Priming: Visually inspect the
inside of the pipe and fitting sockets and remove all dirt,
grease or moisture with a clean, dry rag or cloth. If wiping
fails to clean the surfaces, a chemical cleaner must be
used. Check for possible damage such as splits or cracks
and replace if necessary.
Step 4:
Depth-of-Entry Mark: Marking the depth of entry is a way
to check if the pipe has reached the bottom of the fitting
socket in step #6. Measure the fitting socket depth and
mark this distance on the pipe O.D. We recommend that
you add a second mark 2” above this mark as the primer
and cement may destroy the first mark and this second line
can be used to ensure that the pipe is fully inserted into the
fitting socket.
Apply primer to the surface of the pipe and fitting socket
using an approved applicator, working the primer in the
surface of both the fitting socket and pipe O.D. You should
continue to vigorously work the primer into these surfaces
until you can feel the applicator start to “drag” indicating a
softening of the material. It may take several applications
of the primer to effectively break down the surface of the
material, but this is a critical step in the cementing process. Move quickly, without hesitation, to the cementing
procedure while the surfaces are still wet with primer.
Caution: Primers and cements are extremely flammable and must not be stored or used near heat or open
flame. Read all warnings on primer and cement cans.
5. Application of Solvent Cement: A critical part of the
solvent cementing process is to make sure the cement is
well mixed. Periodically cover the container and shake the
cement to make sure it stays mixed and uniform. Apply
the solvent cement evenly and quickly around the outside of
the pipe and at a width a little greater than the depth of the
fitting socket while the primer is still wet.
Note: Individual scrape tests may be needed for pipes
and fittings from different manufactures or even for
pipes of different surface finishes to determine satisfactory penetration and softening of the material.
Step 5:
Apply a lighter coat of cement evenly around the inside of
the fitting socket. Avoid puddling. Apply a second coat of
cementing to the pipe end.
25
For sizes 6” and above, and possibly 4” in hot weather, we
recommend the consideration of two-man crews to effectively prime both pipe and fitting surfaces and apply the
cement while the material is still wet with primer.
Step 5:
(cont.)
Note: When cementing bell-end pipe, be careful not to
apply an excessive amount of cement to the bell socket.
This will prevent solvent damage to the pipe. For buried
pipe applications, do not throw empty primer or cement
cans into the trench along side the pipe. Cans of cement
and primer should be closed at all times when not in use to
prevent evaporation of chemicals and hardening of cement.
6. Joint Assembly: Working quickly, squarely insert the
pipe into the fitting socket, giving the pipe or fitting a ¼ turn
during insertion to evenly distribute the cement. Do not
continue to rotate the pipe after it has hit the bottom of the
fitting socket. A good joint will have sufficient cement to
form a uniform bead all the way around the outside of the
fitting hub. The fitting will have a tendency to slide back on
the pipe while the cement is setting, so hold the joint tightly
together for about 30 seconds. Please use the cement
manufacturer’s written recommendations regarding joint
set time, for initial movement of a joint, and cure time before a pressure test. For pipe sizes 4” and above, greater
axial forces are necessary for the assembly of interference
fit joints. Mechanical forcing equipment may be needed
to join the pipe and hold the joint until the cement “sets.”
The joint may have to be held together for up to 3 minutes.
Consult the factory for specifics.
Note: It may be necessary for two workers to perform
this operation for larger sizes of pipe.
Step 6:
Note: Always wait at least 24 hours before pressure
testing a piping system to allow cemented joints to cure
properly. For colder temperatures, it may be necessary to
wait a longer period of time. Please reference the solvent
cement manufacturer’s curing time.
Note: When using mechanical joining equipment, it will not
be possible to apply the ¼ turn as the pipe is inserted into
the fitting.
7. Clean-up and Joint Movement: Remove all excess cement from around the pipe and fitting with a dry, cotton rag
or cloth. This must be done while the cement is still soft.
The joint should not be disturbed immediately after the
cementing procedure and sufficient time should be allowed
for proper curing of the joint. Exact drying time is difficult
to predict because it depends on variables such as temperature, humidity and cement integrity. For more specific
information, contact your solvent cement manufacturer.
26
Step 7:
Joining Plastic Pipe in Hot Weather
There are many occasions when solvent cementing
plastic pipe in 95°F temperatures and over cannot be
avoided. At surface temperatures exceeding 110°F, we
recommend that the solvent cement manufacturer be
contacted. If special precautions are taken, problems
can be avoided.
Solvent cements for plastic pipe contain high-strength
solvents which evaporate faster at elevated temperatures. This is especially true when there is a hot wind
blowing. If the pipe is stored in direct sunlight, surface
temperatures may be 20°F to 30°F above air temperature. Solvents attack these hot surfaces faster and
deeper, especially inside a joint. Thus it is very important to avoid puddling inside socket and to wipe off
excess cement outside.
By following our standard instructions and using a
little extra care, as outlined below, successful solvent
cemented joints can be made in even the most extreme
hot weather conditions.
Tips to Follow When Solvent Cementing in High
Temperatures
1. Store solvent cements and primers in a cool or
shaded area prior to use.
2. If possible, store fitting and the pipe, or at least the
ends to be solvent welded, in shady area before
cementing.
3. Cool surfaces to be joined by wiping with a damp rag.
Be sure that surfaces dry prior to applying solvent
cement.
4. Try to do the solvent cementing in cooler morning
hours.
5. Make sure that both surfaces to be joined are still wet
with cement when putting them together. With large
size pipe, more people on the crew may be necessary.
6. Use a heavier, high viscosity cements since they will
provide a little more working time.
As you know, during hot weather there can be a greater
expansion-contraction factor.
Joining Plastic Pipe in Cold Weather
Working in freezing temperatures is never easy. But
sometimes the job is necessary. If that unavoidable job
includes cementing plastic pipe, you can do it successfully with regular cements.
Good Joints Can Be Made at Sub-Zero
Temperatures
By following standard instructions and using a little
extra care and patience, successful solvent cemented
joints can be made at temperatures even as low as
-15°F. In cold weather, solvents penetrate and soften
the surfaces more slowly than in warm weather. Also
the plastic is more resistant to solvent attack. Therefore, it becomes more important to pre-soften surfaces
with a primer. And, because of slower evaporation, a
longer cure time is necessary. Cure schedules already
allow a wide margin for safety. For colder weather,
simply allow more time.
Tips to Follow in Solvent Cementing During Cold
Weather
1. Prefabricate as much of the system as possible in a
heated working area.
2. Store cements and primers in a warmer area when
not in use and make sure they remain fluid.
3. Take special care to remove moisture including ice
and snow.
4. Use a primer to soften the joining surfaces before
applying cement.
5. Allow a longer cure period before the system is used.
6. Read and follow all of our directions carefully before
installation.
Regular cements are formulated to have well balanced
drying characteristics and to have good stability in
sub-freezing temperatures. Some manufacturers offer
special cements for cold weather because their regular
cements do not have that same stability.
For all practical purposes, good solvent cemented joints
can be made in very cold conditions with existing products, provided proper care and a little common sense
are used.
Guideline on Cement Usage
Pipe Size
½”
¾”
1”
1¼” 1½” 2”
No. of Joints 300 200 125 105 90
60
2½” 3”
4”
6”
8”
10”
12”
50
30
10
5
2-3
1-2
40
Note: This information is provided as a general guideline. Recommendation is for the number of joints per
quart. A Tee will have 3 joints, an Ell will have 2 joints.
Our recommendation for primer is to use 150% of the
cement number.
27
Threading
While threaded thermoplastic systems are not recommended for high-pressure systems, piping layouts
where leaks would be dangerous, or for larger pipe
sizes (more than two inches), they have two definite
advantages. They quickly can be dismantled for temporary or take-down applications; and they can be used to
join plastic to nonplastic materials.
Following are recommendations for making threaded
joints with thermoplastic pipe and fittings.
1. Thread only pipes that have wall thicknesses equal to
or greater than those of Schedule 80 pipe.
2. For pressure-rated pipes of PVC and CPVC reduce
the pressure rating of threaded pipe to one-half that
of unthreaded pipe.
3. To cut the threads, use only pipe dies designed for
plastic pipes. Keep the dies clean and sharp. Do not
cut other materials with them.
4. Vises for holding the pipe during thread cutting
and pipe wrenches should be designed and used in
such a manner that the pipe is not damaged. Strap
wrenches are recommended. Wooden plugs can be
inserted into the end of the pipe, if needed to prevent
distortion of the pipe walls and cutting of off-center
threads.
5. The following general procedure for cutting threads
may be used:
A. Use a die stock with a proper guide so the die will
start and go on square to the pipe axis. Any burrs
or sharp edges on the guide that can scratch the
pipe must be removed.
B. Do not use cutting oil. However, a drop of oil may
be rubbed onto the chasers occasionally. This
prevents tearing and helps to promote clean,
smooth threads.
C. If lubrication is necessary, it is best to use a water
based lubricant.
6. Before assembly, the threads should be lubricated
and sealed with a non-hardening pipe dope or
wrapped with Teflon® tape.
7. The proper threading of plastic parts requires some
cautions and concerns to maintain the integrity of the
threads. Since plastic threads can be easily damaged
or cross threaded, it is important that these threads
28
be properly lubricated using a pipe dope, which is
compatible with the materials being threaded, or TFE
tape.
TFE taped must be installed in a clockwise direction,
starting at the bottom of the thread and overlapping
each pass. Do not employ more than 3 wraps.
The starting of the thread is critical, to avoid thread
damage which could result in a leak. Product must
never be installed more than ½ - 1 turn past hand
tight and only strap wrenches should be used to
tighten plastic connections.
8. In general, applications for threaded plastic pipe fittings fall into two categories:
A. Fittings for use in an all-plastic system where
both the male and female parts are plastic.
B. Fittings for use as transition fittings from plastic
to metal.
Theoretically, it is possible to use any combination of
threaded parts such as:
1. Metal male to plastic female.
2. Plastic male to plastic female.
3. Metal female to plastic male.
Practical experience, however, suggests that the
METAL MALE TO PLASTIC FEMALE combination is
more susceptible to premature failure than the other
two applications.
The reason for this is due to the incompressibility of
metal. Standard instructions call for the male part to
be run in hand tight and then tightened ½ turn more.
It has been our observation, however, that it is very
common to find male metal parts screwed in for a total
of 7 to 8 threads. This results in excessively high stress
levels in the plastic female part.
The tensile strength of the Type I PVC is 7200 psi.
However, all fittings have knit lines (where the melted
material joins together after flowing around the core
which forms the waterway) which are the weakest portions of the fitting. The tensile strength at the knit lines
is therefore lower than the minimum of 7200 psi. A
metal nipple screwed in 7½ turns will generate a stress
Teflon® is a registered trademark of E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.
of approximately 6600 psi. This means that if the fitting
doesn’t crack open immediately, there will probably be a
small crack initiated on the inside which will ultimately
cause failure. It is for this reason that George Fischer
Piping Systems recommends that its threaded plastic
pipe fittings be used only in the following two combinations:
1. PLASTIC MALE TO PLASTIC FEMALE
2. PLASTIC MALE TO METAL FEMALE
If it is absolutely necessary to use a plastic female
thread for transition to metal nipple, then it is IMPERATIVE that the nipple not be turned more than ½ turn
past HANDTIGHT (“fingertight” for strong hands). To
insure a leakproof joint, a good sealant is recommended
(Teflon® tape or Teflon® pipe dope).
Note: Angle between sides of thread is 60 degrees.
Taper of thread, on diameter, is ¾ inch per foot.
The basic thread is 0.8 x pitch of thread and the crest
and root are truncated an amount equal to 0.033 x
pitch, excepting 8 threads per inch which have a basic
depth of 0.788 x pitch and are truncated 0.045 x pitch
at the crest and 0.033 x pitch at the root.
American Standard Taper Pipe Thread Dimensions
Nominal Size
(in.)
Pipe
Outside
Diameter (in.)
Number of
Threads Per
Inch
D
/
¼
3 8
/
½
¾
1
1¼
1½
2
2½
3
3½
4
5
6
8
10
12
1 8
.405
.540
.675
.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.000
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.750
12.750
Normal
Engagement by
hand (in.)
C
27
18
18
14
14
11½
11½
11½
11½
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
.180
.200
.240
.320
.339
.400
.420
.420
.436
.682
.766
.821
.844
.937
.958
1.063
1.210
1.360
Thread
Length of
Total Length
Effective Thread End of Pipe to
(in.)
Vanish Point
(in.)
A
B
.2639
.3924
.4018
.5946
.4078
.6006
.5337
.7815
.5457
.7935
.6828
.9845
.7068
1.0085
.7235
1.0252
.7565
1.0582
1.1375
1.5712
1.2000
1.6337
1.2500
1.6837
1.3000
1.7337
1.4063
1.8400
1.5125
1.9472
1.7125
2.1462
1.9250
2.3587
2.1250
2.5587
Pitch Diameter
at End of
Internal Thread
(in.)
E
.39476
.48989
.62701
.77843
.98887
1.23863
1.58338
1.82234
2.29627
2.76216
3.38850
3.88881
4.38713
5.44929
6.50597
8.50003
10.62094
12.61781
Depth of Thread
(Max.) (in.)
.02963
.04444
.04444
.05714
.05714
.06957
.06957
.06957
.06957
.10000
.10000
.10000
.10000
.10000
.10000
.10000
.10000
.10000
29
Flanging
The use of flanges in a PVC/CPVC piping system may have an
advantage if there is a need to dismantle the pipe, when the system is temporary and mobility is required or when transitioning to
dissimilar materials. Flanging should also be considered when it
is environmentally impossible to make solvent cemented joints on
location.
Selection of Materials
1. Gasket: full faced elastomeric material (Durometer “A” Scale of
55 to 80) usually 1/8” thick. Gasket material must be resistant to
the media in the pipe.
2: Fasteners: All nuts, bolts and flat washers must be resistant to
the chemical environment. All listed torque values are using
well lubricated bolt threads. Flat washers are required for both
the nut and the bolt head to minimize point loading on the flange.
We recognize that some facilities do not allow lubrication, but
the variables to determine torque values in such situations are
beyond the scope of this document and require specific engineering considerations.
3. Torque Wrench: A necessity for tightening bolts to prevent excessive or uneven torque.
Flange Bolt Tightening Pattern
(tighten bolts evenly:
follow numerical
sequence)
Flange Assembly
1. Join the flange to the pipe. Solvent cemented joints must be
allowed sufficient cure time per the manufacturer’s written recommendations prior to any movement or assembly
2. Align the flanges and gasket by inserting all the bolts through the
matching bolt holes. Proper mating of flanges and gaskets is
very important for a positive seal. Misalignment of flanges (Cold
Springing), pulling the flanges together, as well as uneven torque
can result in premature, possibly catastrophic, failure.
3. Use a torque wrench: The proper torque, as well as
the gradual tightening of the bolts, is necessary to
secure an effective seal and minimize those conditions which could lead to premature failure.
Note:
1. Do not over-torque flange bolts.
2. Use the proper bolt tightening sequence.
3. Make sure the system is in proper alignment.
4. Flanges should not be used to draw piping assemblies together.
5. Flat washers must be used under every nut and
bolt head.
Recommended Torque
Pipe Size
(IPS)
No. Bolt
Holes
Bolt
Diameter
Approx.
Bolt
Length*
Recommended
Torque ft/lbs
10-15
½
4
½
2½
¾
4
½
2½
10-15
1
4
½
2½
10-15
1¼
4
½
3
10-15
1½
4
½
3
10-15
2
4
5 8
/
3
20-30
2½
4
5 8
/
3½
20-30
3
4
5 8
/
3¾
20-30
4
8
5 8
/
4
20-30
6
8
¾
4¾
33-50
8
8
7 8
/
5¼
33-50
10
12
7 8
/
6
53-75
12
12
7 8
/
6½
53-75
*Bolt lengths were calculated using two flanges. Additional accessories
or different mating surfaces will alter these numbers.
Note: Flange bolt hole pattern meets ANSI B16.5.
30
Above-Ground Installation
Support Spacing
4
y = .00541 wL
EI
Where:
y = Deflection or sag (in.)
w = Weight per unit length (lb./in.)
L = Support spacing (in.)
E = Modulus of elasticity at given temperature
(lb./in.2)
I = Moment of inertia (in.4)
When thermoplastic piping systems are installed
above-ground, they must be properly supported to avoid
unnecessary stresses and possible sagging.
Horizontal runs require the use of hangers as described
on the next page, spaced approximately as indicated in
the table below. Note that additional support is required as temperatures increase. Continuous support
can be accomplished by the use of smooth structural
angle or channel.
If 0.100 in. is chosen arbitrarily as the permissible sag (y)
between supports, then:
L4 - 18.48 EL
w
Where:
w = Weight of pipe + weight of liquid (lb./in.)
For a pipe I =  (Do4-Di4)
64
Where:
Do = Outside diameter of the pipe (in.)
Di = Inside diameter of the pipe (in.)
Where the pipe is exposed to impact damage, protective
shields should be installed.
Tables are based on the maximum deflection of a uniformly loaded, continuously supported beam calculated
from:
Then:
L = .907 E (Do4-Di4)
W
(
)
E
= .976
( W Do -Di )
4
4
¼
¼
Recommended Support Spacing* (In Feet)
Nom.
Pipe
Size
(In.)
PVC Pipe
CPVC Pipe
60
80
100
120
140
60
80
100
120
140
60
80
100
120
140
180
½
4½
4½
4
2½
2½
5
4½
4½
3
2½
5½
5½
5
4½
4½
2½
¾
5
4½
4
2½
2½
5½
5
4½
3
2½
5½
5½
5½
5
4½
2½
1
5½
5
4½
3
2½
6
5½
5
3½
3
6
6
6
5½
5
3
1¼
5½
5½
5
3
3
6
6
5½
3½
3
6½
6½
6
6
5½
3
1½
6
5½
5
3½
3
6½
6
5½
3½
3½
7
7
6½
6
5½
3½
2
6
5½
5
3½
7
7
6½
6
4
3½
7
7
7
6½
6
3½
2½
7
6½
6
4
3½
7½
7½
6½
4½
4
8
7½
7½
7½
6½
4
3
7
7
6
4
3½
8
7½
7
4½
4
8
8
8
7½
7
4
4
7½
7
6½
4½
4
9
8½
7½
5
4½
9
9
9
8½
7½
4½
6
8½
8
7½
5
4½
10
9½
9
6
5
10
10½
9½
9
8
5
8
9
8½
8
5
4½
11
10½
9½
6½
5½
11
11
10½
10
9
5½
10
10
9
8½
5½
5
12
11
10
7
6
11½
11½
11
10½
9½
6
12
11½
10½
9½
6½
5½
12
11
10
7
6
12½
12½
12½
11
10½
6½
14
12
11
10
7
6
13½
13
11
8
7
16
12½
11½
10½
7½
6½
14
13½
11½
8½
7½
Schedule 40
Schedule 80
Temp. °F
Temp. °F
Schedule 80
Temp. °F
Note: This data is based on information supplied by the raw material manufacturers. It should be used as a general recommendation only and not as a guarantee of performance or longevity.
*Chart based on spacing for continuous spans and for uninsulated lines conveying fluids of specific gravity up to 1.00.
31
Hangers
There are many hangers and supports suitable for use
in plastic piping systems, although some may require
modification. It is important in a plastic piping system
to provide a wide load-bearing surface and that any
restraints recognize that vinyl piping systems are
somewhat notch sensitive. Also, if the thermal movement of a plastic piping system might cause the pipeline to abrade on a rough surface, such as concrete,
some means of isolating the pipe should be considered.
Wear pads of plastic can be fashioned from the pipe or
wooden isolators can be used.
It is also important to recognize the thermal movement
in any plastic piping system and the hangers and support structures should allow for, or direct, the expansion that may be in a particular system. Pipe hangers
must be carefully aligned and must have no rough or
sharp edges that could contact and potentially damage
the pipe. The hanger or support system should recognize the thermal expansion in a plastic pipe system and
pipe should be allowed to move.
Vertical lines must also be supported at intervals so
that the fittings at the lower end of a riser or column are
not overloaded. The supports should not exert a compressive strain on the pipe, such as riser–type clamps
that squeeze the pipe. A double bolt type, in conjunction with using a fitting shoulder, may afford the best
method for supporting vertical systems.
Recommended Hangers for
Plastic Piping Systems
Band Hanger with
Protective Sleeve
Roller Hanger
Clevis
Pipe Roll and Plate
Adjustable Solid
Ring Swivel Type
Riser Clamp
Single Pipe Roll
Double-Bolt Clamp
Sunlight and Plastics
Plastic pipe and fittings have been used extensively
outdoors and are resistant to weathering, but may have
some surface degradation from intense and prolonged
exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays in sunlight. This
degradation is a surface effect, reducing the impact
rating but has no affect on the temperature capability as
well as the chemical resistance or pressure rating of the
pipe. This reduced impact rating can be eliminated by
removal of the affected surface area and covering with a
good bonding exterior latex paint.
The latex paint must be applied thick enough, probably
several coats, to create an opaque covering. If the pipe
and fittings are prepared properly for painting (cleaning and very light sanding), a good grade of exterior
latex should last for many years. White or light colored
pigment is suggested, which offers a more reflective
surface.
32
A Typical Method of Anchorage of a Change in Direction
Anchors and Guides
Typical Method of Anchorage
Anchors in a piping system direct movement of pipe within
a defined reference frame. At the anchoring point, there is
no axial or transverse movement. Guides are used to allow
axial movement of pipe but prevent transverse movement.
Anchoring and guides should be engineered to provide the
required function without point loading the plastic pipe.
Typical Support Arrangements
Guides and anchors are used whenever expansion joints are
used and are also on long runs and directional changes in
piping.
Continuous Support Arrangements
33
Below-Ground Installation
Trenching and Bedding
1. Depth: When installing underground piping systems,
the depth of the trench is determined by the intended
service and by local conditions (as well as by local, state
and national codes that may require a greater trench
depth and cover than are technically necessary).
Underground pipes are subjected to external loads
caused by the weight of the backfill material and by
loads applied at the surface of the fill. These can range
from static to dynamic loads.
Static loads comprise the weight of the soil above the
top of the pipe plus any additional material that might
by stacked above ground. An important point is that the
load on a flexible pipe will be less than on a rigid pipe
buried in the same manner. This is because the flexible
conduit transfers part of the load to the surrounding
soil and not the reverse. Soil loads are minimal with
narrow trenches until a pipe depth of 10 feet is attained.
Dynamic loads are loads due to moving vehicles such as
trucks, trains and other heavy equipment. For shallow
burial conditions, live loads should be considered and
added to static loads, but at depths greater than 10 feet,
live loads have very little effect.
3. Snaking: To compensate for thermal contraction, the
snaking technique of offsetting the pipe with relation to
the trench centerline is recommended.
Example: Snaking is particularly important when laying small diameter pipe in hot weather. For example, a
100-foot length of PVC Type I pipe will expand or contract about ¾” for each 20°F temperature change. On
a hot summer day, the direct rays of the sun on the pipe
can drive the surface temperature up to 150°F. At night,
the air temperature may drop to 70°F. In this hypothetical case, the pipe would undergo a temperature change
of 80°F — and every 100 feet of pipe would contract
3”. This degree of contraction would put such a strain
on newly cemented pipe joints that a poorly made joint
might pull apart.
Installation: A practical and economical method is to
cement the line together at the side of the trench during
the normal working day. When the newly cemented
joints have dried, the pipe is snaked from one side of the
trench to the other in gentle, alternative curves. This
added length will compensate for any contraction after
the trench is backfilled (see “Snaking of Pipe Within
Trench” illustration below).
For static and dynamic soil loading tables, refer to specific materials sections, PVC and CPVC.
The “Snaking Length” table below gives the required
loop length, in feet, and offset in inches, for various
temperature variations.
Pipe intended for potable water service should be
buried at least 12 inches below the maximum expected
frost penetration.
Snaking of Pipe Within Trench
2. Bedding: The bottom of the trench should provide a
firm, continuous bearing surface along the entire length
of the pipe run. It should be relatively smooth and free
of rocks. Where hardpan, ledge rock or boulders are
present, it is recommended that the trench bottom be
cushioned with at least four (4) inches of sand or compacted fine-grained soils.
Snaking of thermoplastic pipe within
trench to compensate for contraction.
Snaking Length vs. Offset (in.) to Compensate for Thermal Contraction
Snaking Maximum Temperature Variation (°F) Between Time of Cementing and Final Backfilling
Length, 10°
20°
30°
40°
50°
60°
70°
80°
90°
100°
(ft.)
Loop Offset, (in.)
20
50
100
34
2.5
6.5
13.0
3.5
9.0
18.0
4.5
11.0
22.0
5.20
12.75
26.00
5.75
14.25
29.00
6.25
15.50
31.50
6.75
17.00
35.00
7.25
18.00
37.00
7.75
19.25
40.00
8.00
20.25
42.00
Anchors and Other Connections
Plastic pipe is not designed to provide structural
strength beyond sustaining internal pressures up to its
designed hydrostatic pressure rating and normal soil
loads. Anchors, valves and other connections must be
independently supported to prevent added shearing and
bending stresses on the pipe.
Risers: The above piping design rule applies also
where pipe is brought out of the ground. Above-ground
valves or other connections must be supported independently. If pipe is exposed to external damage, it
should be protected with a separate, rigidly supported
metal pipe sleeve at the danger areas. Thermoplastic
pipe should not be brought above ground where it is
exposed to high temperatures. Elevated temperatures
can lower the pipe’s pressure rating below design levels.
Backfilling
Before making the final connections and backfilling,
the pipeline should be cooled to near the temperature
of the soil. During hot weather, for example, backfilling
should be done early in the morning, when the solventcemented joints are completely dried and the line is
fully contracted.
Assuming that the pipe is uniformly and continuously
supported over its entire length on firm, stable material, it should first be covered with 6 to 8 inches of soil
that is free of debris and rocks larger than one-half
inch in diameter. This initial layer should be compacted
by hand or, preferably, by mechanical tamper so that it
acts as a protective cushion against the final backfill.
Any large, sharp rocks that could penetrate the tampered layer around the pipe should be removed from
the final backfill.
Heavy Traffic: When plastic pipe is installed beneath
streets, railroads or other surfaces that are subjected
to heavy traffic and resulting shock and vibration, it
should be run within a protective metal or concrete casing.
Locating Buried Pipe: The location of plastic pipelines
should be accurately recorded at the time of installation. Since pipe is a non-conductor, it does not respond
to the electronic devices normally used to locate metal
pipelines. However, a copper or galvanized wire can be
spiraled around, taped to or laid alongside or just above
the pipe during installation to permit the use of a locating device.
Note: For additional information, see ASTM D-2774,
“Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Piping.”
35
Trench Widths for PVC
Soil Load and Pipe Resistance for Flexible Thermoplastic Pipe —
PVC Schedule 80 Pipe
W
H
Nom. Size
Wc’ = Load Resistance
of Pipe (lb./ft.)
Schedule 80 Pipe
E’ = 200
1½
2
H
3
1400
1593
1416
1879
1772
W
3½
4
5
H
1161
1561
W
2½
H
1375
E’ = 700
1318
1266
1206
1731
1735
1796
W
6
Note: W = Trench Width at Top
of Pipe.
8
10
12
1323
1319
1481
1676
2028
2250
2649
3067
H=Height
Wc = Soil Loads at Various Trench Widths at Top
of fill
of Pipe (lb./ft.)
above pipe
(ft.)
2 ft
3 ft.
4 ft.
5 ft.
10
106
125
136
152
20
138
182
212
233
30
144
207
254
314
40
—
214
269
318
10
132
156
170
190
20
172
227
265
291
30
180
259
317
392
40
—
267
337
398
10
160
191
210
230
20
204
273
321
352
30
216
306
377
474
40
—
323
408
482
10
196
231
252
280
20
256
336
392
429
30
266
266
384
469
40
—
394
497
586
10
223
266
293
320
20
284
380
446
490
30
300
426
524
660
40
—
450
568
670
10
252
297
324
360
20
328
432
540
551
30
342
493
603
743
40
—
506
639
754
10
310
370
407
445
20
395
529
621
681
30
417
592
730
918
40
—
625
790
932
10
371
437
477
530
20
484
636
742
812
30
503
725
888
1093
40
—
745
941
1110
10
483
569
621
690
20
630
828
966
1057
30
656
945
1156
1423
40
—
970
1225
1415
10
602
710
774
860
20
785
1032
1204
1317
30
817
1177
1405
1774
40
—
1209
1527
1801
10
714
942
919
1020
20
931
1225
1429
1562
30
969
1397
1709
2104
40
—
1434
1811
2136
Note 1: Figures are calculated from minimum soil resistance values (E’ = 200 psi for uncompacted
sandy clay foam) and compacted soil (E’ = 700 for side-fill soil that is compacted to 90% or more of Proctor Density for distance of two pipe diameters on each side of the pipe). If Wc’ is less than Wc at a given
trench depth and width, then soil compaction will be necessary.
Note 2: These are soil loads only and do not include live loads.
36
Standards
Standards allow an engineer to develop a specification
which will provide accepted material and product performance. Having strong industry standards provides
the market with the necessary criteria to determine the
suitability of a specific material and/or product for a specific application. Within the plastics industry the primary
source of these standards is ASTM which are usually the
basis of most specifications.
Manufacturers may also subscribe to other standards,
such as IAPMO, NSF, ANSI, ASME and UL. For the
purposes of this manual we will restrict our listing of
standards to those that are relevant to Schedule 80 PVC
and CPVC.
ASTM (American Society for Testing and
Materials)
D-1784: ”Standard Specification for Rigid Poly(vinyl
Chloride) (PVC) and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(CPVC) Compounds”
materials, workmanship, dimensions, and burst pressure.
D-2672: “Standard Specification for Joints for IPS PVC
Pipe using Solvent Cement”
This specification covers the socket produced for solvent cements joints on both pressure and non-pressure
IPS pipe. It also covers the testing of the joints on both
pressure and non-pressure pipe, and includes requirements for socket dimensions, burst pressure, and joint
tightness tests of the solvent cemented joints. The tests
described are not intended for routine quality control, but
rather to evaluate the performance characteristics of the
joint.
D-2855: “Standard Practice for Making Solvent­Cemented Joints with Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe
and Fittings”
This specification covers the compound materials physical requirements for PVC and CPVC pipe, valves and fittings based on several physical and chemical properties.
This recommended practice describes, in detail, procedures for making solvent cemented joints. Preparation
of the surfaces, applying the cement, making the assembly, handling after assembly, testing and a schedule of
drying times related to temperature and pipe sizes are
covered.
D-1785: “Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120”
F-1498: “Standard Specification for Taper Pipe Threads
60° for Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings”
This specification covers poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pipe
made in Schedule 40, 80 and 120 sizes and pressurerated for water. Included are criteria for classifying PVC
plastic pipe materials and PVC plastic pipe, a system of
nomenclature for PVC plastic pipe and requirements and
test methods for materials, workmanship, dimensions,
sustained pressure, burst pressure, flattening, and
extrusion quality.
This specification established requirements for dimensions and gauging of taper pipe threads used on
threaded plastic pipe and fittings.
D-2466: “Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40”
This specification covers poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)
Schedule 40 pipe fittings. Included are requirements for
material, workmanship, dimensions, and bust pressure.
D-2467: “Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80”
This specification covers poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)
Schedule 80 pipe fittings. Included are requirements for
F-402: “Standard Practice for Safe Handling of Solvent
Cements, Primers, and Cleaners Used for Joining Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings”
This recommended practice covers procedures for the
safe handling of solvent cements containing solvents
which may be flammable, toxic or irritants. It recommends precautions and safeguards against the hazards
of fire.
F-437: “Standard Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings,
Schedule 80”
This specification covers chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
(CPVC) threaded Schedule 80 pipe fittings. Included are
requirements for materials, workmanship, dimensions,
37
and burst pressure.
F-439: “Standard Specification for Chlorinated
Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80”
This specification covers chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
(CPVC) Schedule 80 pipe fittings. Included are requirements for materials, workmanship, dimensions, and
burst pressure.
F-441: “Standard Specification for Chlorinated
Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40
and 80”
This specification covers chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
(CPVC) pipe made in Schedule 40 and 80 sizes and pressure-rated for water. Included are criteria for classifying
CPVC plastic pipe materials and CPVC plastic pipe, a
system of nomenclature for CPVC materials, workmanship, dimensions, sustained pressure, burst pressure,
flattening and extrusion quality. Methods of marking are
also given.
ASME/ANSI (American Society of
Mechanical Engineers / American
National Standards Institute)
These standards were developed for metal pipe systems
and some or all of the components have been adopted by
the plastic piping industry. It its extremely important for
the engineer or specifying influence to understand the
scope of these standards and the extent to which plastic
piping will conform.
B16.6: Flanges and Flanged Piping
In plastic piping systems, this standard is used to establish the flange O.D., bolt hole pattern and bolt hole size.
B1.20.1: National Pipe Thread Taper - Pipe Thread
Dimensions
This is a dimensional specification covering standard
tapered pipe threads, identified by GF Piping Systems as
FPT (Female Pipe Thread ) and MPT (Male Pipe Thread).
38
NSF/ANSI (National Sanitation Foundation / American National Standards
Institute)
This company acts as the third-party certification agency
for the plastics industry, as well as providing a certification regarding the acceptability of product for certain
applications, such as potable water or chemical waste.
Standard 14: Plastic Piping Systems Components and
Related Materials
This standard applies to inspection for compliance with
all relevant industry standards. This primarily relates to
ASTM but NSF will certify compliance with any standards
the company publicly claims to meet.
Standard 61: Drinking Water Systems Components
– Health Effects
This standard relates to the suitability of product in
potable water systems.
Sample Specification
PVC Schedule 40 Pipe and Fittings
Scope: This sample specification covers the manufacturer’s requirements for PVC Schedule 40 pipe and fittings
manufactured of Rigid Poly (Vinyl chloride) (PVC). All pipe and fittings shall be as manufactured by Georg Fischer
Piping Systems, Little Rock, Arkansas.
Materials: All materials shall be PVC type I, Grade I, meeting, or exceeding, the requirements of ASTM D-1784, cell
classification 12454-B. All compound components shall be listed with NSF and meet the requirements of ANSI/NSF
Standard 61 as suitable for Potable Water.
Pipe: All PVC Schedule 40 pipe shall meet, or exceed, the requirements of ASTM D-1785. Any pipe bells shall meet
the requirements of ASTM D-2672. All piping shall be listed with NSF under Standards 14/61 and shall carry the NSF
seal for suitability with Potable Water.
Fittings: All PVC Schedule 40 fittings shall meet, or exceed the requirements of ASTM D-2466 and shall be listed with
NSF under standards 14/61. Product shall carry the NSF seal for suitability with Potable Water.
Installation: Installation and testing shall be in accordance with accepted engineering and installation practices as
noted in the Georg Fischer Piping Systems Technical Manual as well as the solvent cement manufacturer’s written instructions. To ensure compatibility all pipe, valves and fittings shall be manufactured and supplied by Georg Fischer
Piping Systems.
******** CAUTION ********
Do not test with Air or Air over Water.
39
Sample Specification
CPVC Schedule 80 Pipe and Fittings
Scope: This sample specification covers the manufacturer’s requirements for CPVC Schedule 80 pipe and fittings
manufactured of Rigid Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC). All pipe, valves and fittings shall be as manufactured
and supplied by Georg Fischer Piping Systems, Little Rock, Arkansas.
Materials: All materials shall be CPVC Type IV, Grade I, cell classification 23447-B, and shall meet, or exceed, the
requirements of ASTM D-1784. All compound components shall be listed with NSF under Standard 61 and be certified as suitable for potable water systems.
Pipe: All CPVC Schedule 80 pipe shall meet, or exceed, the requirements of ASTM F-441. Any pipe bells shall meet
the requirements of ASTM D-2672. All pipe shall be listed with NSF under Standards 14/61 and shall carry the NSF
seal for Potable Water. Any threaded PVC 80 pipe shall meet the requirements of ASME/ANSI B1.20.1 and shall be accomplished with pipe dies specifically designed for use with plastic pipe.
Fittings:
Socket: All CPVC Schedule 80 fittings shall meet, or exceed, the dimensional and tolerance requirements of
ASTM F-439
Threads:All PVC Schedule 80 threaded fittings shall meet, or exceed, the dimensional and tolerance requirements of
ASTM F-437
All fittings shall meet, or exceed, the requirements of ASTM F 439 and shall be listed with NSF under standards 14/61
and shall carry the NSF seal for Potable Water.
Valves: All valves shall be of compatible materials utilizing EPDM or FPM O-rings and seals with TFE seats as manufactured and supplied by Georg Fischer Piping Systems.
Installation: Installation and testing shall be in accordance with accepted engineering and installation practices as
noted in the Georg Fischer Piping Systems Technical Manual as well as the solvent cement manufacturer’s written instructions. To ensure compatibility all pipe, valves and fittings shall be manufactured and supplied by Georg Fischer
Piping Systems.
******** CAUTION ********
Do not test with Air or Air over Water.
40
Sample Specification
PVC Schedule 80 Pipe and Fittings
Scope: This sample specification covers the manufacturer’s requirements for PVC Schedule 80 pipe and fittings
manufactured of Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC). All pipe, valves and fittings shall be as manufactured and supplied
by Georg Fischer Piping Systems, Little Rock, Arkansas.
Materials: All materials shall be PVC Type I, Grade I, with a cell classification of 12424-B, and shall meet, or exceed,
the requirements of ASTM D-1784. All compound components shall be listed with NSF and meet the requirements of
NSF Standard 61 as suitable for potable water.
Pipe: All PVC Schedule 80 pipe shall meet, or exceed, the requirements of ASTM D-1785. Any pipe bells shall meet
the requirements of ASTM D-2672. All pipe shall be listed with NSF under Standards 14/61 and shall carry the NSF
seal for Potable Water. Any threaded PVC 80 pipe shall meet the requirements of ANSI B1.20.1 and shall be accomplished with pipe dies specifically designed for use with plastic pipe.
Fittings:
Socket: All PVC Schedule 80 fittings shall meet, or exceed, the dimensional and tolerance requirements of
ASTM D-2467
Threads:All PVC Schedule 80 threaded fittings shall meet, or exceed, the dimensional and tolerance requirements of
ASTM D-2464
All fittings shall be listed with NSF under standards 14/61 and shall carry the NSF seal for Potable Water.
Valves: All valves shall be of compatible materials utilizing EPDM or FPM O-rings and seals with TFE seats. Valves
shall be manufactured and supplied by Georg Fischer Piping Systems, Little Rock, AR.
Installation: Installation and testing shall be in accordance with accepted engineering and installation practices as
noted in the Georg Fischer Piping Systems Technical Manual as well as the solvent cement manufacturer’s written instructions. To ensure compatibility, all pipe, valves and fittings shall be manufactured and supplied by Georg Fischer
Piping Systems.
******** CAUTION ********
Do not test with Air or Air over Water.
41
PVC IPS Schedule 40/80 Socket Dimensions
Entrance (A)
Size
Pipe O.D.
Max.
Min.
Bottom (B)
Max.
Min.
Max. out of
round
Schedule 40
socket depth
(C) (min.)
Schedule 80
socket depth
(C) (min).
¼
0.540
0.556
0.548
0.540
0.532
0.016
0.500
0.625
³/8
0.675
0.691
0.683
0.675
0.667
0.016
0.594
0.750
½
0.840
0.852
0.844
0.840
0.832
0.016
0.688
0.875
¾
1.050
1.062
1.054
1.050
1.042
0.020
0.719
1.000
1
1.315
1.330
1.320
1.315
1.305
0.020
0.875
1.125
1¼
1.660
1.675
1.665
1.660
1.650
0.024
0.938
1.250
1½
1.900
1.918
1.906
1.900
1.888
0.024
1.094
1.375
2
2.375
2.393
2.381
2.375
2.363
0.024
1.156
1.500
2½
2.875
2.896
2.882
2.875
2.861
0.030
1.750
1.750
3
3.500
3.524
3.508
3.500
3.484
0.030
1.875
1.875
3½
4.000
4.024
4.008
4.000
3.984
0.030
2.000
4
4.500
4.527
4.509
4.500
4.482
0.030
2.000
5
5.563
5.593
5.573
5.563
5.543
0.060
3.000
6
6.625
6.658
6.636
6.625
6.603
0.060
3.000
8
8.625
8.670
8.640
8.625
8.595
0.090
4.000
4.000
10
10.750
10.795
10.765
10.750
10.720
0.100
5.000
5.000
12
12.750
12.795
12.765
12.750
12.720
0.120
6.000
6.000
42
2.250
3.000
Weld Lines (Knit Lines) in Molded Fittings
Injection molding is the forcing of a viscous material, under pressure, to fill a space, forming a part. In the injection
molding of fittings there are two basic components, a mold, which forms the outside of the part, and a core, which
forms the inside of the part. The injection molding process forces the molten plastic material into this interstitial
space where the material is cooled and then released. Inherent in this process, for most geometries, is the flowing
together of the material and the development of a weld line.
The point where the plastic material is forced into the mold is termed the gate. The plastic material flows through
this gate, and when it hits the core it will flow around it in both directions. At the point where the material flows back
together there will usually be a line, termed a weld line or a knit line. This point of the material flowing back together
is usually located about 180˚ from the gate and, since the weld line is visible on both the OD and ID, it can sometimes
be thought to be a crack.
This knit line is a surface phenomenon and does not indicate a weakness or a defect in the part. Fittings are subject
to some significant pressure tests, using ASTM Specifications, assuring the user of a quality molded component.
The melted plastic material is introduced to the mold and starts to flow
around the core. Notice how the material tends to flow fairly evenly.
The plastic will continue to flow around the core.
As the material flows together, a knit line starts to form.
This knit line is fairly obvious at this point in the molding process.
However, as the mold cavity starts to fill, the material tends to
flow together and the knit lines become less obvious.
When the mold is completely full, the knit lines are still there, as
they are part of the process. This is just how the part is
manufactured.
43
Conversion Charts
Decimal and Millimeter Equivalents of Fractions
Fractions
Inches
Decimals
Milli­
meters
Fractions
Inches
Decimals
Milli­
meters
Fractions
Inches
Decimals
Milli­
meters
Fractions
Inches
Decimals
Milli­
meters
1/64
.015625
.397
17/64
.265625
6.747
33/64
.515625
13.097
49/64
.765625
19.447
1/32
.03125
.794
9/32
.28125
7.144
17/32
.53125
13.494
25/32
.78125
19.844
3/64
.046875
1.191
19/64
.296875
7.541
35/64
.546875
13.891
51/64
.796875
20.241
1/16
.0625
1.588
5/16
.3125
7.938
9/16
.5625
14.288
13/16
.8125
20.638
5/64
.078125
1.984
21/64
.328125
8.334
37/64
.578125
14.684
53/64
.828125
21.034
3/32
.09375
2.381
11/32
.34375
8.731
19/32
.59375
15.081
27/32
.83475
21.431
7/64
.109375
2.778
23/64
.359375
9.128
39/64
.609375
15.478
55/64
.859375
21.828
1/8
.125
3.175
3/8
.375
9.525
5/8
.625
15.875
7/8
.875
22.225
9/64
.140625
3.572
25/64
.390625
9.922
41/64
.640625
16.272
57/64
.890625
22.622
5/32
.15625
3.969
13/32
.40625
10.319
21/32
.65625
16.669
29/32
.90625
23.019
11/64
.171875
4.366
27/64
.421875
10.716
43/64
.671875
17.066
59/64
.921875
23.416
3/16
.1875
4.763
7/16
.4375
11.113
11/16
.6875
17.463
15/16
.9375
23.813
13/64
.203125
5.159
29/64
.453125
11.509
45/64
.703125
17.859
61/64
.953125
24.209
7/32
.21875
5.556
15/32
.46875
11.906
23/32
.71875
18.256
31/32
.96875
24.606
15/64
.23475
5.953
31/64
.484375
12.303
47/64
.734375
18.653
63/64
.984375
25.003
1/4
.250
6.350
1/2
.500
12.700
3/4
.750
19.050
1
1.000
25.400
Length Conversion
Units of Length
Multiply units in left column by proper factor below
in.
ft.
yd.
mile
mm
cm
m
km
1 inch
1
0.0833
0.0278
—
25.4
2.540
0.0254
—
1 foot
12
1
0.3333
—
304.8
30.48
0.3048
—
1 yard
36
3
1
—
914.4
91.44
0.9144
—
1 mile
—
5280
1760
1
—
—
1609.3
1.609
1 millimeter
0.0394
0.0033
—
—
1
0.100
0.001
—
1 centimeter
0.3937
0.0328
0.0109
—
10
1
0.01
—
1 meter
39.37
3.281
1.094
—
1000
100
1
0.001
1 kilometer
—
3281
1094
0.6214
—
—
1000
1
(1 micron = 0.001 millimeter)
Weight Conversion
Units of Weight
Multiply units in left column by proper factor below
grain
oz.
lb.
ton
gram
kg
metric ton
1 grain
1
—
—
—
0.0648
—
—
1 ounce
437.5
1
0.0625
—
28.35
0.0283
—
1 pound
7000
16
1
0.0005
453.6
0.4536
—
1 ton
—
32,000
2000
1
—
907.2
1 gram
15.43
0.0353
—
—
1
0.001
1 kilogram
—
35.27
2.205
—
1000
1
1 metric ton
—
35,274
2205
1.1023
—
1000
44
—
1
Density Conversion
Units of Density
1 pound/in.
3
Multiply units in left column by proper factor below
lb./in.3
lb./ft.3
lb./gal.
g/cm3
g/liter
1
1728
231.0
27.68
27,680
1 pound/ft.3
—
1
0.1337
0.0160
16.019
1 pound/gal.
0.00433
7.481
1
0.1198
119.83
1 gram/cm3
0.0361
62.43
8.345
1
1000.0
1 gram/liter
—
0.0624
0.00835
0.001
1
in. 2
ft. 2
acre
mile2
cm2
m2
hectare
1
0.0069
—
—
6.452
—
—
Area Conversion
Units of Area
1 inch2
Multiply units in left column by proper factor below
1 foot2
144
1
—
—
929.0
0.0929
—
1 acre
—
43,560
1
0.0016
—
4047
0.4047
1 mile2
—
—
640
1
—
—
259.0
1 centimeter2
0.1550
—
—
—
1
0.0001
—
1 meter2
1550
10.76
—
—
10,000
1
—
1 hectare
—
—
2.471
—
1
10,000
1
Volume Conversion
Units of Volume
Multiply units in left column by proper factor below
in.
liter
U.S. gal.
Imp. gal.
1
—
—
16.387
—
0.0164
—
—
1 foot3
1728
1
0.0370
28,317
0.0283
28.32
7.481
6.229
1 yard3
46,656
27
1
—
0.7646
764.5
202.0
168.2
1 centimeter 3
0.0610
—
—
1
—
0.0010
—
—
1 meter3
61,023
35.31
1.308
1,000,000
1
999.97
264.2
220.0
1 inch
3
3
ft.
3
yd.
3
cm.3
meter 3
1 liter
61.025
0.0353
—
1000.028
0.0010
1
0.2642
0.2200
1 U.S. gallon
231
0.1337
—
3785.4
—
3.785
1
0.8327
1 Imp. gallon
277.4
0.1605
—
4546.1
—
4.546
1.201
1
Pressure Conversion
Multiply units in left column by proper factor below
Units of
Pressure
lbs./in. 2
lb./ft. 2
Int. etc.
kg/cm2
mm Hg at
32°F
in. Hg at
32°F
ft. water at
39.2°F
kPa
lb./in.2
1
144
-
0.0703
51.713
2.0359
2.307
6.894
lb./ft.
2
Int. etc.
0.00694
1
-
-
0.3591
0.01414
0.01602
0.04788
14.696
2116.2
1
1.0333
760
29.921
33.90
-
kg/cm2
14.223
2048.1
0.9678
1
735.56
28.958
32.81
98.066
mm Hg
0.0193
2.785
-
-
1
0.0394
0.0446
0.1333
in Hg
0.4912
70.73
0.0334
0.0345
25.400
1
1.133
3.386
ft H20
0.4335
62.42
-
0.0305
22.418
0.8826
1
2.988
kPa
0.00145
20.89
-
0.010169
7.5006
0.2953
0.3346
1
45
Temperature Conversion
°F
-459.4
-450
-440
-430
-420
-410
-400
-390
-380
-370
-360
-350
-340
-330
-320
-310
-300
-290
-280
-273
-270
-260
-250
-240
-230
-220
-210
-200
-190
-180
-170
-160
-150
-140
-130
-120
-110
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
46
°C
-273
-268
-262
-257
-251
-246
-240
-234
-229
-223
-218
-212
-207
-201
-196
-190
-184
-179
-173
-169
-168
-162
-157
-151
-146
-140
-134
-129
-123
-118
-112
-107
-101
-96
-90
-84
-79
-73
-68
-62
-57
-51
-46
-40
-34
-29
-23
-17.8
°F
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
°C
-17.2
-16.7
-16.1
-15.6
-15
-14.4
-13.9
-13.3
-12.8
-12.2
-11.7
-11.1
-10.6
-10
-9.4
-8.9
-8.3
-7.8
-7.2
-6.7
-6.1
-5.6
-5
-4.4
-3.9
-3.3
-2.8
-2.2
-1.7
-1.1
-0.6
0
0.6
1.1
1.7
2.2
2.8
3.3
3.9
4.4
5
5.6
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.8
8.3
8.9
9.4
10
10.6
11.1
11.7
12.2
12.8
13.3
13.9
14.4
15
15.6
°F
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
212
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
°C
16.1
16.7
17.2
17.8
18.3
18.9
19.4
20
20.6
21.1
21.7
22.2
22.8
23.3
23.9
24.4
25
25.6
26.1
26.7
27.2
27.8
28.3
28.9
29.4
30
30.6
31.1
31.7
32.2
32.8
33.3
33.9
34.4
35
35.6
36.1
36.7
37.2
37.8
43
49
54
60
66
71
77
82
88
92
99
100
104
110
116
121
127
132
138
143
°F
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800
810
820
830
840
850
860
870
880
890
°C
149
154
160
166
171
177
182
188
193
199
204
210
215
221
227
232
238
243
249
254
260
266
271
277
282
288
293
299
304
310
316
321
327
332
338
343
349
354
360
366
371
377
382
388
393
399
404
410
416
421
427
432
438
443
449
454
460
466
471
477
°F
900
910
920
930
940
950
960
970
980
990
1000
1020
1040
1060
1080
1100
1120
1140
1160
1180
1200
1220
1240
1260
1280
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600
1650
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
2100
2150
2200
2250
2300
2350
2400
2450
2500
2550
2600
2650
2700
2750
2800
2850
2900
2950
3000
°C
482
488
493
499
504
510
516
521
527
532
538
549
560
571
582
593
604
616
627
638
649
660
671
682
693
704
732
760
788
816
843
871
899
927
954
982
1010
1038
1066
1093
1121
1149
1177
1204
1232
1260
1288
1316
1343
1371
1399
1427
1454
1482
1510
1538
1566
1593
1621
1649
GF Piping Systems > worldwide at home
Our sales companies and representatives
ensure local customer support in over 100 countries.
7777 Sloane Drive, Little Rock, AR 72206
Tel. (501) 490-7777, Toll Free (800) 423-2686
Fax (501) 490-7100
e-mail: [email protected]
www.gfpiping.com
Australia
George Fischer Pty Ltd
Kingsgrove NSW 2008
Phone +61(0)2-9554 3977
[email protected]
www.georgefischer.com.au
Denmark / Iceland
Georg Fischer A/S
2630 Taastrup
Phone +45 (0)70 22 19 75
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.dk
India
George Fischer Piping Systems Ltd
400 093 Mumbai
Phone +91(0)22-2821 7749
[email protected]
Norway
Georg Fischer AS
1351 Rud
Phone +47 67 18 29 00
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.no
Sweden / Finland
Georg Fischer AB
12523 Älvsjö-Stockholm
Phone +46(0)8-506 775 00
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.se
Austria
Georg Fischer Rohrleitungssysteme GmbH
3130 Herzogenburg
Phone +43(0)2782-856 430
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.at
France
George Fischer S.A.S.
93208 Saint-Denis Cedex 1
Phone +33(0)1-492 21 34 1
[email protected]
www.georgefischer.fr
Italy
Georg Fischer S.p.A.
20063 Cernusco S/N (MI)
Phone +39 02-921 861
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.it
Poland
Georg Fischer Sp. z o.o.
02-226 Warszawa
Phone +48(0)22-313 10 50
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.pl
Switzerland
Georg Fischer Rohrleitungssysteme (Schweiz) AG
8201 Schaffhausen
Phone +41(0)52-631 30 26
[email protected]
www.piping.georgfischer.ch
Belgium / Luxembourg
Georg Fischer NV/SA
1070 Bruxelles/Brüssel
Phone +32(0)2-556 40 20
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.be
Germany
Georg Fischer GmbH
73095 Albershausen
Phone +49(0)7161-302-0
[email protected]
www.rls.georgfischer.de
Japan
Georg Fischer Ltd
556-0011 Osaka
Phone +81(0)6-6635 2691
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.jp
Romania
Georg Fischer
Rohrleitungssysteme AG
70000 Bucharest - Sector 1
Phone +40(0)21-222 91 36
[email protected]
United Kingdom / Ireland
George Fischer Sales Limited
Coventry, CV2 2ST
Phone +44(0)2476 535 535
[email protected]
www.georgefischer.co.uk
Malaysia
Georg Fischer (M) Sdn. Bhd.
47500 Subang Jaya
Phone +603-8024 7879
[email protected]
Singapore
George Fischer Pte Ltd
417 845 Singapore
Phone +65(0)67-47 06 11
[email protected]
www.georgefischer.com.sg
USA / Canada / Latin America / Carribean
George Fischer Inc.
Tustin, CA 92780-7258
Phone (714) 731-8800, Toll Free (800) 854-4090
[email protected]
www.gfpiping.com
Netherlands
Georg Fischer N.V.
8161 PA Epe
Phone +31(0)578-678 222
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.nl
Spain / Portugal
Georg Fischer S.A.
28009 Madrid
Phone +34(0)91-781 98 90
[email protected]
www.georgfischer.es
Brazil
George Fischer Ltda
04795-100 São Paulo
Phone +55(0)11-5687 1311
[email protected]
www.georgefischer.com.br
China
Georg Fischer Piping Systems Ltd Shanghai
Pudong, Shanghai 201319
Phone +86(0)21-5813 3333
[email protected]
www.cn.piping.georgfischer.com
Item #469 (1/07)
© George Fischer, Inc. 2007
Printed in USA
Georg Fischer DEKA GmbH
35232 Dautphetal-Mornshausen
Phone +49(0)6468-915-0
[email protected]
www.dekapipe.de
Greece
Georg Fischer S.p.A.
10434 Athens
Phone +30(0)1/882 04 91
[email protected]
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