MIB Explorer 4.0
MIB Explorer 4.0
The user-friendly SNMP MIB Browser and Monitor
for Java SE
Copyright © 2001-2014, Frank Fock. All rights reserved.
Table Of Contents
1
2
3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.4
3.4.1
3.5
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
3.6.6
3.6.7
3.6.8
3.6.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
6
MIB Explorer Manual Overview .................................................................... 1
System Requirements .................................................................................... 3
Setup ............................................................................................................. 4
Installation .................................................................................................. 4
Java Runtime Environment (JRE) Installation ........................................... 4
Installation with Java Web Start ................................................................ 5
Installation as Classic Java Application ...................................................... 5
Starting MIB Explorer ................................................................................. 5
Setup ........................................................................................................... 6
Install Templates, Examples, and MIBs ..................................................... 6
Upgrade ...................................................................................................... 6
Upgrade License ........................................................................................ 6
Uninstall ..................................................................................................... 7
Preferences .................................................................................................. 7
General ...................................................................................................... 7
MIB Compiler ........................................................................................... 8
PDU Size .................................................................................................. 9
Trap Receiver ............................................................................................ 10
Server ........................................................................................................ 15
SNMPv3 ................................................................................................... 18
Transport .................................................................................................. 18
View .......................................................................................................... 22
Monitor ..................................................................................................... 23
MIBs ............................................................................................................. 25
Getting MIB modules ................................................................................. 25
MIB Repository ........................................................................................... 26
Compiling MIBs ......................................................................................... 26
Compiler Log ............................................................................................ 28
Loading MIB Modules ................................................................................ 29
Deleting MIB Modules ............................................................................... 29
Exporting MIB Modules ............................................................................. 30
Importing a MIB Module ........................................................................... 31
MIB File Editor ............................................................................................. 32
Save, Compile, and Load a MIB File at Once .............................................. 32
Search and Replace Function ....................................................................... 32
Regular Expression Syntax ........................................................................... 33
MIB Sets ........................................................................................................ 38
i
ii
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
8
8.1
8.1.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
9
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.6.1
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
11
11.1
11.2
Creating a New MIB Set ............................................................................. 39
Editing a MIB Set ........................................................................................ 40
Associating a MIB Set with a Target ............................................................ 40
Determining a Target‘s MIB Set .................................................................. 41
Loading MIB Sets ........................................................................................ 42
Saving a MIB Set ......................................................................................... 43
Deleting a MIB Set ...................................................................................... 43
Targets ........................................................................................................... 44
Target Configuration ................................................................................... 44
Selecting the Active Target .......................................................................... 45
Adding a New Target .................................................................................. 45
Removing a Target ...................................................................................... 47
Communities ............................................................................................... 47
USM Users .................................................................................................. 47
Adding an USM User .................................................................................. 49
Deleting an USM User ................................................................................ 50
MIB Tree Panel ............................................................................................. 51
Browse Tab ................................................................................................. 52
Result Table .............................................................................................. 53
Colors .......................................................................................................... 54
MIB Tree Context Menu ............................................................................ 54
Set Dialog .................................................................................................... 56
Node Info .................................................................................................... 58
Search .......................................................................................................... 59
Table View ..................................................................................................... 60
Context Menu ............................................................................................. 60
Toolbars ...................................................................................................... 61
Refresh Toolbar ......................................................................................... 63
Table ........................................................................................................... 64
Buttons ........................................................................................................ 65
Scalars ......................................................................................................... 66
SNMP Tables .............................................................................................. 66
Cells .......................................................................................................... 67
Grid View (Pro Edition) .............................................................................................69
Editing and Cell Navigation ........................................................................ 70
Toolbar ....................................................................................................... 71
Context Menu ............................................................................................. 71
Protocol Data Units (PDUs) .......................................................................... 73
Editing PDUs .............................................................................................. 74
Context Menu ............................................................................................. 75
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.4
12
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
13
13.1
13.1.1
14
14.1
14.2
15
15.1
15.1.1
15.2
15.2.1
15.2.2
16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.3.1
16.4
17
17.1
17.1.1
17.2
17.2.1
17.3
17.3.1
17.3.2
17.3.3
17.3.4
17.3.5
17.4
17.5
Toolbars ...................................................................................................... 75
Main Toolbar ............................................................................................ 75
Periodic Refresh Toolbar ........................................................................... 77
Sending a PDU ........................................................................................... 78
Trap Receiver ................................................................................................ 80
Toolbars ...................................................................................................... 80
Traps/Notifications Table ........................................................................... 82
Traps Payload Table .................................................................................... 83
Trap Severity Editor .................................................................................... 83
Scripts (Pro Edition) ...................................................................................................86
Script Editor ................................................................................................ 89
Toolbars .................................................................................................... 89
TFTP (Pro Edition) ....................................................................................................92
TFTP Client ............................................................................................... 92
TFTP Server ................................................................................................ 93
Server (Pro Edition) ....................................................................................................94
MIB Explorer Headless Server ..................................................................... 94
Server Options ........................................................................................... 95
HTTP Server .............................................................................................. 98
Architecture ............................................................................................... 99
Customizing Dynamic Content ................................................................. 100
Snapshots (Pro Edition) .............................................................................................102
Use Cases .................................................................................................... 102
Snapshot Operations ................................................................................... 103
Snapshot Browser ........................................................................................ 103
Toolbar ..................................................................................................... 104
Snapshot Comparison Browser .................................................................... 105
Monitors (Pro Edition) ..............................................................................................107
Basic Monitoring Operations ...................................................................... 108
DBM Monitor Operations ........................................................................ 111
Monitor Configuration ............................................................................... 112
Monitoring Series Configuration Matrix ................................................... 113
Monitor Alarms ........................................................................................... 114
Alarm Configuration Dialog ...................................................................... 115
Monitor Chart Types ................................................................................ 117
3D Chart Types ........................................................................................ 120
Monitor Expressions .................................................................................. 120
Monitor Properties .................................................................................... 127
Interactive Chart Customization ................................................................. 140
Customizing DB Support ............................................................................ 140
iii
17.5.1
18
18.1
19
19.1
19.2
20
20.1
20.2
21
21.1
22
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
23
24
iv
Database Mapping XML File .................................................................... 141
Packet Analyzer .............................................................................................. 150
Operations ................................................................................................... 151
Discovery of Network Elements (Pro Edition) .......................................................153
Toolbar ....................................................................................................... 154
Table of Discovered Network Elements ....................................................... 155
SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro Edition) ..........................................................156
Create or Modify an USM User .................................................................. 156
Deleting an USM User ................................................................................ 158
Logging .......................................................................................................... 160
Configuration .............................................................................................. 160
Tools ............................................................................................................ 161
Incremental Search ...................................................................................... 161
Searching the MIB Tree .............................................................................. 161
Identifying Duplicate OIDs ......................................................................... 162
Extracting SMI from RFC documents ........................................................ 162
MIB Compiler Error Messages ...................................................................... 164
Trouble Shooting ........................................................................................... 172
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Explorer Manual Overview
1
1
MIB Explorer Manual Overview
The MIB Explorer manual is organized into the following main topics. If
you are new to MIB Explorer and SNMP/SMI, start with the following
sections:
 System Requirements
 Setup
 MIBs
 MIB Sets
 Targets
As SNMP versed user you may prefer the following section order:
 Setup
 MIB Repository
 Compiling MIBs
 Loading MIB Modules
 MIB Sets
 Targets
Any MIB Explorer user should read at least how the MIB Tree view and the
Table view panel are used in:
 MIB Tree Panel
 Table View
Supplementary features are described in:
 Trap Receiver
 Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
 Packet Analyzer
Users of the Pro Edition should read the following advanced topics to be
able to make full use of MIB Explorer Pro‘s capabilities:
Sections only applicable to the
MIB Explorer Pro edition are
marked with „Pro Edition“ in
red.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Explorer Manual Overview
 Scripts (Pro Edition)
 TFTP (Pro Edition)
 Server (Pro Edition)
 Snapshots (Pro Edition)
 Discovery of Network Elements (Pro Edition)
 SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro Edition)
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
System Requirements
2
System Requirements
The system requirements for MIB Explorer are:
 Java 2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.6 or later.
 UDP transport and/or TCP transport
 256 MB RAM
 MIB Explorer will use up to 128 MB RAM by default. You can use the
-Xmx option of the JRE the increase or decrease the maximum memory used by MIB Explorer. For example
java -Xmx512M -jar mxp-pro.jar
will allow MIB Explorer Pro to use up to 512MB of RAM.
 ~60 MB free hard disk space
3
4
3
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
Setup
Please read the section “System Requirements” on page 3 for prerequisites
needed to install and run MIB Explorer. Then follow the below steps to
install and setup MIB Explorer Lite and MIB Explorer Pro respectively.
3.1
Installation
MIB Explorer can be installed as Java Web Start application or regular Java
application. Java Web Start provides operating system integration, such as
icons on the desktop and start menu integration. In addition, Java Web
Start installation will provide better integration with your operating system
and will keep MIB Explorer up-to-date automatically1.
Java Web Start is supported by any recent Web browser. Depending on
operating system and system setup, you need to install a Java Runtime
Environment from http://www.java.com (see also “Java Runtime
Environment (JRE) Installation” on page 4).
To run (install) MIB Explorer using Java Web Start, simply click on the
link
 https://agentpp.com/mxp/MIBExplorerLiteWebStart.jnlp.
 https://agentpp.com/mxp/MIBExplorerProWebStart.jnlp.
To install MIB Explorer as classic Java application, first make sure you
have installed a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.6 or later (see
“System Requirements” on page 3). Then follow the steps set forth in
section “Installation as Classic Java Application” on page 5.
3.1.1
Note: On many operating systems
a JRE is already installed or the
Web browser comes with a JRE. In
that case you do no need to install
another JRE if the installed one is
of version 1.6 or later.
Java Runtime Environment (JRE) Installation
1. Download the latest JRE from http://www.java.com.
2. Install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 1.6 (also named JRE 6)
or later on your system and add the bin directory of the JRE (or
SDK) installation to your PATH environment variable (this is often
already done by the installation process).
3. If you want to use strong encryption required by the SNMPv3 privacy
protocols AES 192 and 256, you will have to download the Java Cryp1. Although Java Web Start caches resources locally, it checks for new versions regularly
when the application is used and updates the application automatically.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
tography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files and
install the policy files in the lib/security folder of the JRE you are
using.
4. Log on to your system as the user who is supposed to use MIB
Explorer and install MIB Explorer following “Installation with Java
Web Start” or “Installation as Classic Java Application” on page 5.
3.1.2
Installation with Java Web Start
1. Log on to your system as the user who is supposed to use MIB
Explorer.
2. Open the link https://agentpp.com/mxp/MIBExplorerProWebStart.jnlp
in your Web browser, if you want to install the Pro edition. For the
Lite edition use the link https://agentpp.com/mxp/MIBExplorerLiteWebStart.jnlp
3. Java Web Start will download MIB Explorer and start it.
4. Follow the instructions to setup MIB Explorer in section “Setup” on
page 6.
3.1.3
Installation as Classic Java Application
Download the mxp-pro.jar (Pro edition) or the mxp-lite.jar
(Lite edition) file in a folder of your choice. Start the MIB Explorer
application by
 double clicking it from your system’s file explorer, or
 running:
java -jar mxp-pro.jar
or
java -jar mxp-lite.jar
3.2
Starting MIB Explorer
If you have used Web Start to install MIB Explorer then you can start it
from your systems application start menu or clicking on https://
agentpp.com/mxp/MIBExplorerProWebStart.jnlp or https://agentpp.com/
mxp/MIBExplorerLiteWebStart.jnlp.
Otherwise double click the downloaded mxp-pro.jar file or run java
-jar mxp-pro.jar from the command line (see previous section). When
MIB Explorer is started for the first time, you will be prompted for your
license information.
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6
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
Please enter your license key
including blanks! The license key is
case sensitive.
If you are using a restricted license you can upgrade it later without
reinstalling MIB Explorer by choosing Help>License… from the main
menu.
3.3
Note:
When
updating
accompanied files, modifications
on that files may get lost. Thus, it is
recommended to use a new
installation directory and delete
the old manually if it is not needed
any more.
Setup
Once you have started MIB Explorer and entered your license
information, choose File>Install... to install MIB Explorer MIB files and
repository as well as other accompanied files on your system.
At first application start, you will be automatically asked to specify an
empty installation directory for MIB Explorer accompanied files.
Every time MIB Explorer is updated, regardless whether through Web
Start or manually, and the structure or version of the accompanied file set
has changed, you will be asked to install/update those files again. You have
then the choice to install the files to a new location or update the existing
location.
3.3.1
Install Templates, Examples, and MIBs
Once you have started MIB Explorer and entered your license
information, choose File>Install... to install MIB Explorer MIB files,
repository of precompiled MIB files, example scripts and monitors as well
as other accompanied files on your system.
3.4
Upgrade
When installed through Java WebStart, MIB Explorer will be
automatically updated through Web Start on application startup, if a
newer version is available on the MIB Explorer web site.
If a newer version of the accompanied file set is available with the new
version, MIB Explorer will ask you to install them over the current
installation location. If you confirm the installation, MIB Explorer will
overwrite existing files with their newer version.
If the newer version has a higher major release number it is recommended,
but not required to install the files into a new directory.
3.4.1
Upgrade License
To upgrade to a new major release version, purchasing an upgrade license
is an alternative to purchasing a regular new license. To upgrade your
existing software you can download the new software and start it.
It will then prompt for a license key (because the stored license key is not
valid for the new version). Now enter your upgrade or regular license key.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
If the configuration file of the old version cannot be found then you will
be prompted for entering the license key of the previous version too in
order to validate the upgrade license. For a regular license this step is not
necessary.
3.5
Uninstall
If MIB Explorer has been installed using Java Web Start, then run
javaws -viewer
to bring up the Java Web Start viewer. Select “MIB Explorer Pro” or „MIB
Explorer Lite“ from the cached applications list and use Delete from the
context menu to remove MIB Exlorer from your Web Start cache. This
will also remove any desktop integration from your start menu.
If you have not used Java Web Start to run MIB Explorer it is sufficient to
remove the mxp-pro.jar or mxp-lite.jar file.
Both uninstall procedures described above do not remove any
accompanied file sets installed by MIB Explorer.
MIB Explorer holds its configuration data in the mxp4.cf
(MIBExplorer3.cf for MIB Explorer 3.x) file in your home
directory. To completely uninstall MIB Explorer, this file has to be
removed manually. By removing it, you will have to reenter your license
information - as well as other configurations - when you reinstall MIB
Explorer.
3.6
Preferences
With the preferences dialog accessible from the toolbar ( ) or with
Edit>Preferences from the menu bar, MIB Explorer‘s settings are
configured.
The preferences are divided into the top level areas of configuration that
are described by following sub-sections.
3.6.1
General
The general preferences can be used to configure overall settings of MIB
Explorer. These are:
 Maximum number of undo/redo steps
Specifies how many undo steps should be stored by MIB Explorer.
This value applies to each table or PDU frame independently.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
 Load a target's associated MIB set (if present) when the target is
selected
If checked, MIB Explorer will automatically load a target's MIB set (if
there is any associated MIB Set) when a new target is selected.
 Enable SET for variables with MAX-ACCESS read-only
Enabling this option allows you to use the Set Dialog on OBJECTTYPES with MAX-ACCESS read-only and write or create "read-only"
table columns using the Table View or Grid View. This option might
be useful for testing purposes or when configuring an AGENT++ simulation agent, but this option should be disabled by default.
 Confirm overwriting a file
If checked, MIB Explorer will always ask before it overwrites a file
(except its configuration file).
 Support obsolete RFC 1442 BIT STRING syntax
Enable this option to communicate with SNMP entities that implement and use the obsolete RFC 1442 BIT STRING syntax.
 Use always GETNEXT instead of GETBULK
By enabling this option, MIB Explorer will never send GETBULK
PDUs. Instead GETNEXT PDUs are used in a compatible way. This
option is useful in an environment where agents exists, that are capable
of SNMPv3 but do not support the GETBULK PDU type.
3.6.2
MIB Compiler
The MIB Compiler preferences define where to store compiled MIB
modules and other settings about the integrated MIB compiler.
 MIB Repository Path
The MIB repository directory must be specified before any MIB modules can be compiled (see MIBs). It must exclusively contain compiled
MIB modules and the MODULE.IDS file which stores module IDs.
 Maximum Errors per MIB File
The maximum parse errors specify the number of errors the MIB compiler should collect before bailing out and reporting the found errors.
 Record file name of the imported MIB file in the MIB repository
Activate this option, if you want to later append the original file name
to the file name of exported MIB modules. The MIB compiler will
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
store the file name but not any path information in the compiled MIB
module file. See also section “Exporting MIB Modules” on page 30.
 Compress MIB module files in the MIB repository
To save disk space, the compiled MIB modules can be stored in the
MIB repository using GZIP compression. Deactivate this option if
you are using AgenPro or MIB Designer with the same repository if
either version is less than 2.5.
 Compile MIBs Leniently
If the MIB files you want to use with MIB Explorer contain many
errors you may use this option to compile those MIBs anyway with a
minimum syntax error checking. Although this might work in most
cases, lenient compiled MIB modules might cause problems - therefore they are marked with '(!)' in the module list.
 When compiling „new“ MIB modules update existing if LASTUPDATED is newer
If disabled, only MIB modules will be compiled and added to the current repository, that do not exists in the repository yet. If enabled, only
MIB modules will be compiled as „new“ that do not exists, or which
LAST-UPDATED time stamp clause exists (thus is a SMIv2 MIB
module) and is newer that those of the existing MIB module with the
same name. SMIv1 modules will be always overwritten by SMIv2
modules of the same name.
3.6.3
PDU Size
The PDU Size settings define indirectly the maximum size of request
PDUs sent by MIB Explorer. Because of implementation specific
restrictions such as message buffer sizes not all SNMP agents are able to
process arbitrary sized SNMP messages. Bigger values for the below
parameters provide best
performance but result in a higher risk of timeouts, because of nonresponding agents.
The maximum VBs per PDU restriction limits the number of variable
bindings sent in a PDU on behalf of table retrieval operations. The
maximum repetitions for GETBULK operations limits the number of
'rows' in a response PDUs to be sent by the target agent on behalf of table
operations.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
 GET BULK repetitions
Specifies the maximum number of variable bindings an agent may
return on a GETBULK request sent by MIB Explorer during a Browse
or Get operation with SNMPv2c or SNMPv3.
 Maximum VBs per PDU
Specifies how many variable bindings should be sent by MIB Explorer
in a GETNEXT or GETBULK request to retrieve table data. To optimize table operations, normally all column or scalar OIDs of a table
are put together into one PDU. If the table has more columns or scalars than specified by this value, then MIB Explorer will send the following number of packets to retrieve a single row with SNMPv1:
number of columns
----------------------------------------------------------maximum VBs per PDU
and with SNMPv2c or SNMPv3:
number of columns
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------max. VBs per PDU  GETBULK repetitions
3.6.4
Trap Receiver
In order to be able to receive SNMPv1 traps or SNMPv2c notifications
and INFORM PDUs, MIB Explorer has to be configured to listen on at
least one UDP or TCP port on a specific or all local address(es). The
default is UDP port 162 on all local IP addresses ("0.0.0.0"). You can
specify listen addresses and ports in the following subtopics:
 UDP Trap Addresses
 TCP Trap Addresses
 TLS Trap Addresses
To receive SNMPv3 notifications and INFORM PDUs, MIB Explorer
also needs its own authoritative SNMP engine ID specified and which
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
management targets are allowed to send notifications or INFORMs to
MIB Explorer.
Once you are able to receive traps and notifications, you might want to
prioritize them according to their trap/notification ID. You can do this
using the Trap Priorities subtopic.
The general trap receiver settings specify MIB Explorer's behavior when a
new trap or notification is received:
To Add a Trap Listen Port:
1. Choose Add from the Notification Listen Addresses area. A trap listen
address configuration dialog will be shown.
2. Choose one of the local system's IP addresses from the drop down list.
0.0.0.0 represents all local addresses.
3. Choose the UDP port to listen on.
4. Press OK to activate the listen address.
To Specify Authoritative Engine ID:
1. Either press the Default button or enter a 5 to 32 bytes long Authoritative Engine ID as a hexadecimal string into the corresponding text
field. If the entered engine ID has less than 5 or more than 32 bytes or
is otherwise invalid, the default authoritative engine ID will replace
the entered value when preferences are saved.
To Specify Principals for Trap Reception:
If you want to enable trap reception for some management targets:
1. Choose one or more targets from the "Available Principals" list for
which you want to enable trap reception.
2. Press the Add button.
If you want to disable trap reception for some management targets:
1. Choose one or more targets from the "Enabled Principals" list for
which you want to disable trap reception.
2. Press the Remove button.
Actions on New Trap:
 Beep
If checked, an audio beep is emitted whenever a new trap or notification is received.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
 Bring trap receiver to front
If checked, the trap receiver frame is brought to front whenever a new
trap or notification is received, even if the trap receiver frame has not
been visible.
 Auto-Inhibition
The auto-inhibition hides new traps in the trap receiver dialog if more
than the specified amount of traps per second is received for within a
interval of the specified number of seconds.
If you specify a notification history file by checking the "Use persistent
notification history" box, notifications and traps received by MIB Explorer
will be stored on (normal) application exit to the specified file. At
application restart, this file is read again to fill the trap receiver table with
the previously received traps.
Trap Priorities
With the Trap Priorities settings you can specify logging severities for
categories of incoming traps, notifications, and inform messages. The
severity is determined by analysis of the notification ID. For each
incoming trap/notification, the trap severities table will be searched for the
entry (category) whose subtree object identifier (OID) is the longest
possible match. The severity for this message will then be set to the severity
specified for the matched category.
The trap severities configuration table has the following columns:
COLUMN
DESCRIPTION
Subtree
The OID of the subtree for which a trap/
notification severity (=priority) is defined.
Matching entries with longer (subtree) OIDs
override entries with a shorter OID.
Severity
The severity defines the trap/notification
priority. The severity FATAL has the highest
priority and INFO the lowest.
Table 1: Trap severities configuration table.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
COLUMN
DESCRIPTION
Script
(Pro Edition)
The path of a MIB Explorer script (see below)
that has to be executed when this entry
matches an incoming trap or notification.
Comment
An arbitrary comment that can be referenced
by the above script.
Table 1: Trap severities configuration table.
If there has been assigned a MIB Explorer Script for the matched category
(only available for the Pro Edition), then the corresponding script will be
executed with the snmp, utils, and mib contexts and additionally the
following special context values:
CONTEXT
DESCRIPTION
severity
The assigned severity for the received
notification as one of the following strings:
FATAL, ERROR, WARN, and INFO.
content
The comment string assigned to the category
the received notification matches or null if the
comment is left empty.
sourceAddress
The complete
notification.
sourceHost
The host (IP address) of the notification
source.
sourcePort
The UDP or TCP port of the notification
source.
source
address
of
the
Table 2: Special context values for Trap Recveiver scripts.
To Open the Trap Severities Editor:
1. Open Preferences from the Edit menu.
2. Choose Trap Receiver from the preferences tree.
3. Add or remove categories by either using the Add orRemove buttons
respectively or alternatively using the context menu of the shown
table.
4. Press OK to save your changes.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
To Configure a Script for a Notification Category:
1. Select the category row by clicking on the row's Script column cell.
2. Open the context menu by pressing the right mouse button.
3. Choose Script... and choose or enter the file name of the script to run
for notifications of this category.
4. Press OK to save your changes to the category.
There is an example for sending an email when receiving a trap in the
examples/script directory of the MIB Explorer installation named
email_on_trap.vm.
UDP Trap Addresses
To receive traps, notifications, and inform requests over UDP, you can
specify the local UDP listen address(es) and port(s) here. If the status of a
listen port is 'Unavailable' then the port is used by another application or
MIB Explorer has insufficient system rights to bind the port. On UNIX
system, for example, super-user rights are needed to bind ports below
1024.
When you add a listen address, MIB Explorer immediately tries to bind
the address. The status column of the configuration table indicates then
whether binding the address and port was successful (status Available) or
not (status Unavailable). When closing the preferences dialog, MIB
Explorer will update its configuration again, depending on whether you
saved your changes or not.
TCP Trap Addresses
To receive traps, notifications, and inform requests over TCP, you can
specify the local TCP listen address(es) and port(s) here. If the status of a
listen port is 'Unavailable' then the port is used by another application or
MIB Explorer has insufficient system rights to bind the port. On UNIX
system, for example, super-user rights are needed to bind ports below
1024.
When you add a listen address, MIB Explorer immediately tries to bind
the address. The status column of the configuration table indicates then
whether binding the address and port was successful (status Available) or
not (status Unavailable). When closing the preferences dialog, MIB
Explorer will update its configuration again, depending on whether you
saved your changes or not.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
TLS Trap Addresses
To receive traps, notifications, and inform requests over TLS, you can
specify the local TLS listen address(es) and port(s) here. If the status of a
listen port is 'Unavailable' then the port is used by another application or
MIB Explorer has insufficient system rights to bind the port. On UNIX
system, for example, super-user rights are needed to bind ports below
1024.
When you add a listen address, MIB Explorer immediately tries to bind
the address. The status column of the configuration table indicates then
whether binding the address and port was successful (status Available) or
not (status Unavailable). When closing the preferences dialog, MIB
Explorer will update its configuration again, depending on whether you
saved your changes or not.
3.6.5
Server
The Server preferences specifies settings that are used (primarily) by MIB
Explorer Server. One of the main features of MIB Explorer Server is its
integrated HTTP server which can be configured with the HTTP server
settings described in the following section.
The general server settings comprise the security information used for the
client/server communication when monitors are configured or run
remotely:
 Server Secret
The server secret is a secret that is shared between MIB Explorer server
and the client. The server uses the secret to authorize client connections. Unauthorized clients (thus clients that use a different secret
from those secrets configured for the server) will not be able to configure, stop, start, and load any monitors on the server.
By default the server only accepts the secret specified in this dialog and
stored in the configuration. Additional secrets may be accepted by the
server, if additional secrets have been specified on the command line
with the -accept option.
HTTP Server Settings
MIB Explorer's built-in HTTP server can be used to remotely access
monitor data and charts, static content, and run scripts to produce while
MIB Explorer or MIB Explorer Server is running. The HTTP server has
three built-in servlets that dynamically generate chart images, data HTML
for all running (loaded) monitors, and run scripts. The servlets can be
individually enabled.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
 Enable HTTP Server
By unchecking this option, MIB Explorer's built-in HTTP server will
be disabled and not run.
 Enable Chart Servlet
Check this option to enable the monitor chart servlet which provides
HTTP access to GIF, JPEG, PDF, PNG, and TIF images of the running monitor(s).
 Enable Data Servlet
Check this option to enable the monitor data servlet which provides
HTTP access to the monitor data (including consolidation data) as
Excel (XLS), Comma Separated Values (CSV), and any other text format (e.g. HTML or XML) generated by a Velocity template. You can
provide your own template to be used for all monitors instead of the
default template that generates a HTMLtable.
 Enable Script Servlet
Check this option to enable the script servlet. The script servlet is a
powerful tool to monitor and control SNMP devices. When enabling
the script tool you also need to specify a directory which contains the
scripts that could be called through HTTP requests.
 HTTP Server Port
The standard HTTP port is 80. The default setting for MIB Explorer
is however 8080 which indicates that you might not want to run MIB
Explorer HTTP server as your primary HTTP server because you
want to run other Web applications or you need to enforce access protection to certain content and use SSL encryption over HTTPS.
 HTTP Server Content
To enable static content that is served under the /html root context
you need to specify the directory that contains this content. Static content can be any file including but not limited to HTML, CSS, image,
and JavaScript files. Only files in the specified directory and its subdirectories can be accessed. Watch out for symbolic links on UNIX files
systems because such links may point to directories outside the specified one. Relative paths (with "..") provided in the calling HTTP
request URL will be ignored.
 Monitor Data Template
Enter a path to a Velocity template file here, if you wish to customize
the way monitor data is presented when the URL for monitor data is
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
called with a monitor/consolidation name with an extension other
than CSV and XLS.
Static Content
By providing a 'content directory' its content can be accessed under the
'html' root context. By leaving the 'content directory' empty, no static
content is served. Static content can be referenced by Velocity scripts and
templates of the monitor data and script Servlet respectively.
All files in the configured content directory can be accessed through
HTTP including all subdirectories. Parent directories cannot be accessed
(for example by using relative paths with "..").
Dynamic Content
The interesting part of the MIB Explorer HTTP server are the available
servlets that provide dynamic HTML (or other) content based on SNMP
data through the HTTP protocol.
Depending whether you have enabled the corresponding servlet, the
servlet can be accessed with a Web browser using the following URL
templates:
 The images generated by the chart servlet can be accessed via:
http://localhost:<port>/monitor/chart/<monitorname>[_<consolidationname>].[gif|jpg|pdf|png|tif]
 The monitor data and consolidation values can be accessed via:
http://localhost:<port>/monitor/data/<monitorname>[_<consolidationname>].[html|csv|xls]
 Scripts can be run using the following URL:
http://localhost:<port>/script/
<name>[?<param1>=<value1>[&<param2>=...]]
In the above URLs replace
 <port> by the HTTP port you have specified for MIB Explorer's
HTTP server (default is 8080).
 <monitorname> by the name of the monitor you want to access.
The name of a monitor is displayed as its title in the Monitors tool
panel. A monitor's name is defined by its filename (without extension).
 <consolditionname> by the name of the consolidation round
robin archive you want to access.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
 <name> by the name of the Velocity script you want to call (including
extension).
"<paramN> by the parameter(s) you want to provide to the called script.
Each parameter name can be used more than once, since the script gets a
list of values for each parameter name.
"<valueN> by the parameter(s) value.
3.6.6
SNMPv3
The SNMPv3 settings local engine ID and engine boots counter do not
need to be changed manually in general. However, if you encounter
connectivity problems then a probable cause might be an agent that is
using the same engine ID as MIB Explorer's default engine ID. In this case,
you should change the local engine ID (or the remote - if feasible) to make
both unique again.
Note: Changes to these settings
take effect after restarting MIB
Explorer.
The engine boots counter should be strictly monotonic increased. It is
automatically increased by one on each restart of MIB Explorer.
 Authoritative Engine ID
The engine ID that uniquely identifies the authoritative SNMP entity
MIB Explorer. All SNMPv3 applications and services running in a
network must have such unique identifier. It is therefore recommended to include IP address and SNMP port in the authoritative
SNMP engine ID. MIB Explorer by default includes the local host
name into the default engine ID if available.
 Engine Boots
The engine boots counter should not be decreased because this could
cause interoperability problems with running SNMPv3 entities. The
boots counter can be manually increased to force time resynchronization with SNMPv3 entities contacted after increasing the counter
value.
3.6.7
Transport
The supported transport protocols are:
 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
 Transport Layer Security (TLS)
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
At least one transport protocol needs to be enabled in order to be able to
communicate with a SNMP entity. The default transport protocol is
UDP, but there are also SNMP agents that support TCP as well as the new
TLS transport mapping. TCP and TLS provide better performance for
bulk data retrieval. TLS in addition simplifies security deployment by
using established certificate infrastructure.
UDP
The UDP transport mapping is the default transport mapping for SNMP.
By default the wildcard IP address '0.0.0.0' with the wildcard port '0' will
be used to send SNMP requests and receive responses. You may choose
other values although ports below 1024 may require system administrator
privileges on some operating systems.
When you first run MIB Explorer, the default UDP transport mapping
will be added to the configuration.
The elements that define a transport mapping are:
 Enabled
If checked UDP is made available as transport mapping. If UDP is disabled you will not be able to access most SNMP devices, since UDP is
the default transport mapping for SNMP.
 IP Address
The local IP addresses and the wildcard address 0.0.0.0 are listed here
and can be chosen as source address for SNMP packets sent by MIB
Explorer.
 UDP Port
The source UDP port for outgoing SNMP packets. The outgoing
UDP port is different from the incoming - well known - SNMP port.
It is highly recommended to use the wildcard port 0 the allow MIB
Explorer to choose any free port above 1024.
 Maximum Inbound Message Length
The maximum inbound message length defines the maximum allowed
number of bytes SNMP response PDUs returned to MIB Explorer
may have. It is recommended for most situations to use 65535 bytes.
A smaller value may cause tooBig errors if an agent tries to sent a bigger response than specified here.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
TCP
The TCP transport mapping is an alternative transport mapping for
SNMP which can increase performance when retrieving bulk data from a
few devices. By default the wildcard IP address '0.0.0.0' with the wildcard
port '0' will be used to send SNMP requests and receive responses. You
may choose other values although ports below 1024 may require system
administrator privileges on some operating systems.
The elements that define a transport mapping are:
 Enabled
If checked then TCP is made available as transport mapping.
 IP Address
The local IP addresses and the wildcard address 0.0.0.0 are listed here
and can be chosen as source address for SNMP packets sent by MIB
Explorer.
 TCP Port
The source TCP port for outgoing SNMP packets. The outgoing TCP
port is different from the incoming - well known - SNMP port. It is
highly recommended to use the wildcard port 0 the allow MIB
Explorer to choose any free port above 1024.
 Maximum Inbound Message Length
The maximum inbound message length defines the maximum allowed
number of bytes SNMP response PDUs returned to MIB Explorer
may have. It is recommended for most situations to use at least 65535
bytes. A smaller value may cause tooBig errors if an agent tries to
sent a bigger response than specified here.
TLS
The basic Transport Layer Security settings are the same as for “TCP”. The
Maximum Inbound Message Length however, is reduced to 32KB or less,
because TLS recommends to not use more than 16KB for each packet sent.
Most applications allow up to 32KB.
TLS Security
With the TLS Security settings, you can choose the TLS version to use and
other security properties. Currently only v1.0 is supported. With Java 7,
also v1.1 and v1.2 are supported. Changing the TLS version applies after
restarting MIB Explorer.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
21
 TLS Version
TLS v1.0 (SSL v3.1) is supported with Java 6. With Java 7 Update 25
or later also TLS 1.1 and 1.2 are supported.
 Key Store File
A Java key store file that contains X.509 certificates for the TLS transport mapping according to RFC 5953.
 Key Store Password
The password for the key store file.
 Test
Test the loading of the key store file with the specified password and
displays success or failure in a message box.
TLS Security Name Mapping
Because the transport layer security model does not exchange a security
name on the wire, the security name used by the View Access Control
Model (VACM) to authorize access to a SNMP entity, has to be derived
from authentication identities. As those identities are certificates a
mapping specification has to be provided that assigns a security name to a
fingerprint, subject distinguished name (DN), issuer DN, and other
attributes of a X.509 certificate.
Those mappings are used for notifications by MIB Explorer and can be
specified here.
The Fingerprint column specifies the certificate‘s fingerprint that is
mapped to a security name. The Type column defines the mapping type
(see RFC 5953) and the Data column defines the security name.
If type is Specified then Data contains the security name whereas for all
other mapping types, the security name will be derived from a certificate
attribute.
TLS Accepted SubjectDN
The TLS protocol requires client and server authentication by exchanging
X.509 certificates. The remote SNMP entity then needs to accept the
presented certificate based on key attributes of the certificate. Such an
attribute is either the subject distinguished name (DN) or the issuer DN
of the certificate. You can here specify a list of accepted certificate DNs.
TLS Accepted IssuerDN
See “TLS Accepted IssuerDN”.
Note: The password will be stored
in plain text in the MIB Explorer
configuration file.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
3.6.8
View
The view preferences tab can be used to configure the appearance of MIB
Explorer:
 SMI Definition Font Size
Specifies which font size should be used for the SMI definition text
area.
 Default OCTET-STRING Display Mode
The default OCTET-STRING display mode is used when there is no
DISPLAY-HINT defined for a variable binding.
 Enable syntax highlighting for SMI Definition pane
Specifies whether the SMI definition text should be displayed colored
or not.
 Enable syntax highlighting for MIB Editor
Enables syntax highlighting for the MIB file editor. Disabling syntax
highlighting may slightly improve performance and also disables font
styles when printing a MIB file.
 Split MIB tree and Tools pane horizontally
Splitting the main window horizontally between tree and tools panel is
the default. Nevertheless, for some purposes it might be useful to split
them vertically.
 Resolve OIDs to object names if feasible
If checked, OIDs will be displayed as the last known object name in
the path denoted by the OID (last name) plus the remaining OID suffix in dot notation. For example, the OID 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0
will be displayed as sysDescr.0 if the SNMPv2-MIB is loaded or as
mib-2.1.1.0 if only SNMPv2-SMI MIB module is loaded.
 Update Browse pane while retrieving instances (slow)
For better performance, MIB object instances are not displayed in the
browse tab as while they are being received. Instead, they are displayed
at once when all instances have been received or the operation has
been canceled. By checking this box, immediate update of the browse
view is enforced.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Setup
23
 Enable cell delta highlighting in Table View by default
If checked, the Table View will use an orange background for cells that
have changed their content between the last and the actual refresh (or
manual update).
 Enable auto-save (restore) of changed column widths in Table Views
If checked, changed column widths are automatically saved and
restored when the same table (MIB object) is viewed again. As this
option saves changed column width for each opened table node, it
requires more disk space for the MIB Explorer config file, if enabled.
Look and Feel
Choose the Look&Feel you want to use for MIB Explorer. There are three
Look&Feels built-in. The selected Look&Feel will be loaded when MIB
Explorer is restarted.
Some look & feels may cause exceptions on certain platforms, if you
encounter such an exception and you cannot start MIB Explorer to change
the look & feel to the default again, then remove the row starting with
LookAndFeel from the mxp4.cf file in your home directory. MIB
Explorer will then use the default look and feel which does not cause the
exception.
3.6.9
Monitor
The Monitor preferences section defines global settings for database
monitors (.DBM). Settings have to be provided here, if you want to use a
database which is not supported out-of-the-box by MIB Explorer.
To Specify a New Database Mapping File
1. Create a XML file according to the XML schema SlimDAO.xsd
located in the db-monitor directory of the MIB Explorer installation. See “Customizing DB Support” on page 140.
2. In the Preferences dialog select the Monitor node and select the created XML file using the Choose... button or enter its path directly
into the text field.
3. Save your changes by pressing the OK button of the Preferences dialog.
Experts may enter the Java class
name (including package name)
of a third party Look&Feel if the
appropriate JAR file is added to
the classpath of MIB Explorer.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Preferences
To Add a JDBC Driver
To register a JDBC driver with MIB Explorer, you need the Java class
name of the driver and the driver JAR (or ZIP) file. The class name is
usually provided in the driver‘s documentation.
1. Within the Preferences dialog, select the JDBC Drivers node under
the Monitor node.
2. Press the Add button.
3. In the Register JDBC Driver pop-up dialog enter the class name of the
driver in the field JDBC Driver Class Name or select one of the known
class names.
4. Enter the JAR file path into the text field Driver JAR File or select it
using the Choose button.
5. Register the driver by pressing the Add button.
6. The new driver will be added to the table and the Status column will
indicate if the driver could be loaded successfully or not. If not, you
can find additional information in the Log panel.
7. Save your changes by pressing the OK button of the Preferences dialog.
To Remove a JDBC Driver
1. Within the Preferences dialog, select the JDBC Drivers node under
the Monitor node.
2. Select the driver you want to remove from the registration in the table.
3. Press the Remove button.
4. Save your changes by pressing the OK button of the Preferences dialog.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIBs
4
MIBs
SNMP Management Information Base (MIB) specifications are
documents containing definitions of management information so that
network systems can be remotely monitored, configured, and controlled.
MIB Explorer makes extensive use of all machine readable information
within MIBs. This information is available as so called MIB modules.
MIB Explorer is a generic tool for managing any SNMP system. It has only
very limited built-in knowledge of MIB information (see SNMPv3
Administration). As a consequence, it is essential to MIB Explorer to be
able to parse MIB modules and compile them into an internal format.
Once MIB module information is available, this Structure of Management
Information (SMI) may be used to access, format, organize, and modify
MIB object values.
The most important operations on MIBs are:
 Getting MIB Modules.
 Compiling MIBs.
 Creating a MIB Repository.
 Loading MIBs.
 Deleting MIBs.
4.1
Getting MIB modules
MIB specifications developed by the IETF working groups contain prose
descriptions and references to other documents that enclose the actual
MIB module(s). MIB Explorer compiles SMIv1 (RFC 1155) and SMIv2
(RFC 2578-2580) conforming MIB modules. However, MIB modules
have to be extracted from RFC specifications before they can be compiled.
Whereas extracting MIB modules from RFC documents can be done
manually by removing any prose descriptions, page headers, and footers
from an RFC MIB text document, it is much easier to use the Tool
“Extracting SMI from RFC documents” on page 162 to create SMI MIB
specification files that can be parsed by MIB Explorer.
If you are looking for an enterprise specific MIB module that did not came
along with your SNMP device, then you might want to search for it on:
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Repository
 SNMP Link: http://www.snmplink.org
 MIB Depot: http://www.mibdepot.com
4.2
MIB Repository
A MIB repository is a directory that MIB Explorer exclusively uses to store
compiled MIB modules in an internal format. Before a MIB module can
be loaded into MIB Explorer's MIB tree, it has to be compiled and stored
into a MIB repository.
To Create a MIB Repository:
1. From the file menu choose Set MIB Repository. A File Open menu
dialog box will appear.
2. Navigate through the file system to the directory where you want to
create the MIB Repository.
3. Within that directory, create a new folder by clicking on the Create
New Folder (
clicking it.
Note: Do not double-click the new
folder! Otherwise you cannot
select the folder itself.
) button. The new folder can be renamed by double-
4. Choose the new (or any other empty folder) by selecting it. Click
Open.
As long as a MIB Repository directory is used by MIB Explorer, it must
not be altered outside MIB Explorer (except other AGENT++ tools, like
AgenPro or MIB Designer). Once a valid MIB Repository has been set,
you may compile MIB files to store them in the repository.
To Select a MIB Repository:
Note: Do not double-click the new
folder! Otherwise you cannot
select the folder itself.
1. From the file menu choose Set MIB Repository. A File Open menu
dialog box will appear.
2. Navigate through the file system and select the MIB Repository directory you want to use.
3. Click Open.
The MIB repository will be verified. If any inconsistent or corrupted MIB
modules are found, a dialog will be displayed with instructions to repair
the repository.
4.3
Compiling MIBs
Before you can compile MIB modules into MIB Explorer's internal
format, a MIB repository has to be created where the compiled MIBs are
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIBs
stored. During the first startup of MIB Explorer you will be asked to
specify a MIB repository.
Precompiled MIBs
MIB Explorer comes with a set of precompiled SMIv2 MIBs which are
located in the repository directory of the MIB Explorer installation. MIB
Explorer uses that directory as its initial default repository.
To Compile MIBs
1. From the File menu, choose Compile MIBs (or
from the main
toolbar). A file open dialog will appear.
Alternatively you may also use the Compile New MIBs menu item to
compile only MIBs that are newer than the existing or not available yet
in the repository. With the MIB Compiler settings, you can fine-tune
the behavior of the Compile New MIBs operation.
2. Choose a MIB file, ZIP file or a directory and click Open. If you
choose a file, then that file will be compiled and all contained MIB
modules (typically one) are stored into the MIB repository
If you choose a directory or a ZIP file, then recursively all contained
files will be parsed. All successfully parsed MIBs will be automatically
sorted by their dependencies and then compiled into the MIB repository. Directories may also contain ZIP files.
3. After compilation a message dialog with summary information is
shown.
4. Press Details to open the Compiler Log window (see Figure 1). It lists
status information for each MIB file compiled. A MIB file that failed
to compiled has a status Failed in the status column. To view the errors
detected for that file, click on the + sign in the first column of that
row. The error list will then be expanded. By double clicking on an
error description, the failed MIB file is opened for editing and later
recompilation.
5. The MIB modules of the successfully compiled MIB files are automatically stored in the MIB repository. From there, the MIB modules can
be loaded into the MIB Explorer application.
Existing MIB modules will be overwritten (updated). If you do not
want to change any MIB modules that already exist in the current
MIB repository, then use Compile New MIBs from the File menu.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Compiling MIBs
4.3.1
Compiler Log
The Compiler Log dialog lists the status of all MIB files of a compilation
run. If the compilation of a MIB file failed, the Status column displays the
text Failed. The error messages for that file can be expanded by clicking on
the + sign of the file's row. By selecting an error message, its description
text will be displayed in the text pane on the bottom of the dialog.
The file name of the MIB file is displayed in the File column, whereas its
complete path is displayed in the Path column.
Figure 1:
Compiler Log window with compilation errors displayed per MIB module.
To Correct a MIB File
Double click on the row corresponding to the MIB file you want to edit.
The MIB file editor window will appear (see section “MIB File Editor” on
page 32). Alternatively, you may double click on an error message to
directly jump to that error location in the file.
If the error message selected includes location information about the
error's line and column, then the editor's cursor will be placed at that
location in the MIB file. When you have clicked on the file, the first error
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIBs
will be located. Otherwise, the first occurrence of the object name
corresponding to a semantic error will be searched. The next occurrence of
the object name may be found with the Find Again button .
After having fixed the error, the MIB file can be saved and compiled again
by using the Import button .
If the compilation was successful, the editor window will be closed.
Otherwise the cursor of the editor will be positioned on the new error.
4.4
Loading MIB Modules
MIB Explorer needs to load MIB modules from a MIB Repository into its
memory to be able to display and use the contained information. For a
better overview and performance, it is recommended to not load unneeded
MIBs.
To Load MIBs:
1. From the File menu, choose Open/Close MIB (or
from the main
toolbar). A shuffle dialog will appear. It contains two lists of MIB
modules. The left list shows all MIB modules currently not loaded but
available from the MIB repository. The right list shows the MIB modules currently loaded.
2. Select any MIB modules you want to load from the left list of available
MIB modules. Click on the Add button to move the selected modules
to the right list of MIBs to be loaded. If a MIB that is moved to the
right list depends on another MIB module that is currently not
loaded, then that MIB (and all MIBs it depends on) will be also
moved to the right list. This ensures that MIB Explorer has always a
consistent view on MIB data.
3. Select any MIB modules you want to unload (close) from the right list.
Click on the Remove button to move the selected modules to the left
list of available MIBs. Loaded MIB modules that depend on the
removed (unloaded) MIB modules will also be unloaded and thus
moved to the left list.
4. Click on the OK button to execute the changes made. Depending on
the number of MIB modules that need to be loaded, it may take a
while until all modules are loaded and the MIB tree is refreshed.
4.5
Deleting MIB Modules
Deleting a MIB module from a MIB Repository cannot be undone. A MIB
module can only be deleted together with those MIB modules that depend
on it by importing any MIB objects from it.
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Tip: You can print the expanded
compiler log's content from the
context menu.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Exporting MIB Modules
1. From the File menu, choose Delete MIB (or
from the main toolbar).
A shuffle dialog will appear. It contains two lists of MIB modules. The
left list shows all MIB modules available from the current MIB repository. The right list shows the MIB modules that are to be deleted.
2. Select any MIB modules you want to delete from the left list of available MIB modules. Click on the Add button to move the selected
modules to the right list of MIB modules that should be deleted. Any
MIB modules that depend on a MIB that is moved to the right list will
be moved to the right list too. This ensures that MIB Explorer has
always a consistent view on MIB data.
3. Select any MIB modules you want to preserve from deletion in the
right list. Click on the Remove button to move the selected modules
to the left list of available MIBs. Any MIB modules that preserved
MIB module depends on will also preserved from deletion.
4. Click on the OK button to execute the changes made.
5. Confirm the deletion of the displayed number of MIB modules by
choosing the Yes option.
4.6
Exporting MIB Modules
MIBs can be exported from the current MIB repository to:
1. Plain text files
2. HTML files
3. XML files that are using the SMI DTD v0.1
4. XML Schema files (XSD)
5. PDF 1.4
To Export MIBs:
1. Choose Export MIBs from the File menu.
2. Choose the file format for the exported MIB modules.
3. Select the MIBs to export from the list of available modules and press
the Add button to add them to the list of modules to be exported.
4. Choose the destination directory.
Any files that already exist in that
directory might be overwritten!
5. Press OK to start the export operation. Each MIB module will be
exported to a file, whose name will be the MIB modules name concatenated with one of the suffixes .txt, .html, .xml, .xsd or .pdf.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIBs
31
6. When exporting to PDF, you will be now prompted by an additional
dialog for page layout and other document settings. You can choose
the page size, footer, outline structure and font size. Press OK to export
the selected MIBs with the selected settings.
The option Append the original file name separated by „_“ can be used
to append the original file name of the MIB specification file the exported
MIB module was imported from. The resulting file name will then be
<module-name><sep><orig-fname-w/o-suffix>.<suffix>
By default MIB Explorer will not record the file name of the imported
MIB specification file in the compiled MIB modules. The original file
name cannot be appended in that case. To let MIB Explorer record the file
name, activate this option as described in section “MIB Compiler” on
page 8.
4.7
Importing a MIB Module
In contrast to “Compiling MIBs” on page 26, Importing a MIB compiles a
single MIB file and directly loads the contained MIB modules into the
MIB tree.
To Import a MIB:
1. Choose Import MIB (
) from the File menu.
2. Select the MIB file to import.
3. Press the Open button to compile the selected file, add it to the current MIB repository, and load the contained MIB modules. If there is
a syntax error in the MIB file, then the MIB File Editor will open with
that file and the cursor will be positioned at the error location in that
file. None of the contained MIB modules will be loaded nor added to
the MIB repository if the parser detects a syntax error.
With
the
configuration
MIB
file
Explorer
entry
mibexplorer.compile.s
toreFilenameSeparator
=- you can specify the hyphen
character as separator,
example. Other characters
strings can be defined
separator as well, including
empty string.
for
or
as
the
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB File Editor
MIB File Editor
The MIB file editor has the usual capabilities of a text editor including
printing, undo and redo. The status bar displays row and column position
of cursor. The table below the editor displays error messages from the
integrated MIB compiler.
The annotation bar highlights the location of SMI syntax errors in the text.
The text is rechecked at least one second after each change. During the
update of the annotation bar the overall status on the top is gray.
The background validation of the text can be disabled using the Enable
Background Validation toggle menu item of the editor‘s File menu.
5.1
Save, Compile, and Load a MIB File at Once
By choosing Import MIB
from the editor's File menu the edited file is
saved, compiled, and loaded into the MIB tree. If compilation fails, then
the edited MIB module(s) will not be imported into MIB Explorer.
Instead an error text will be displayed in the text area below the editor's
toolbar. On successful compilation, the MIB module(s) will be stored in
the MIB Repository and loaded. At the same time the editor window will
be closed.
5.2
Search and Replace Function
A powerful way to make modifications to a MIB file is searching and
replacing by regular expressions.
To search a MIB file by a regular expression, choose Find from the Edit
menu. Enter the expression to search for in the opened dialog. The combo
box will remember ten expressions used last.
To search and replace found matches, choose Replace
from the Edit
menu. Enter the search expression and the substitution expression and
press OK. A matched region in the MIB file will be selected and a
confirmation dialog will be shown. Each substitution can be confirmed
individually or all substitutions can be confirmed at once.
The substitution string may contain variable interpolations referring to the
saved parenthesized groups of the search pattern. A variable interpolation
is denoted by $1, or $2, or $3, etc. It is easiest to explain what an
interpolated variable does by giving an example:
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB File Editor
33
Suppose you have the pattern b\d+: and you want to substitute the b's
for a's and the colon for a dash in parts of your input matching the pattern.
You can do this by changing the pattern to b(\d+): and using the
substitution expression a$1-. When a substitution is made, the $1 means
„Substitute whatever was matched by the first saved group of the matching
pattern“. An input of b123: after substitution would yield a result of
a123-.
5.3
Regular Expression Syntax
A regular expression (or RE) specifies a set of strings that matches it. Thus,
a regular expression can be used to check whether an input string is
matched by that expression.
Regular expressions can be concatenated to form new regular expressions;
if A and B are both regular expressions, then AB is also a regular expression.
If a string p matches A and another string q matches B, the string pq will
match AB. Thus, complex expressions can easily be constructed from
simpler primitive expressions like the ones described here.
A brief explanation of the format of regular expressions borrowed from the
Python Library Reference follows.
Regular expressions can contain both special and ordinary characters. Most
ordinary characters, like A, a, or 0, are the simplest regular expressions;
they simply match themselves. You can concatenate ordinary characters, so
last matches the string 'last'. (In the rest of this section, we will write
RE's in this special style, usually without quotes, and strings to be matched
'in single quotes'.
Some characters, like "|" or "(", are special. Special characters either stand
for classes of ordinary characters, or affect how the regular expressions
around them are interpreted.
The special characters are shown by Table 3 on page 33:.
EXPRESSION
DESCRIPTION
.
(Dot.) In the default mode, this matches any character
except a newline. If the DOTALL flag has been
specified, this matches any character including a
newline.
^
(Caret.) Matches the start of the string, and in
MULTILINE mode also matches immediately after
each newline.
Table 3: Regular expression syntax characters with special meaning.
For details of the theory and
implementation
of
regular
expressions you may consult the
following Internet site http://pyhowto.sourceforge.net/regex/
regex.html
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Regular Expression Syntax
EXPRESSION
DESCRIPTION
$
Matches the end of the string and in MULTILINE
mode also matches before a newline. foo matches
both 'foo' and 'foobar', while the regular
expression foo$ matches only 'foo'.
*
Causes the resulting RE to match 0 or more
repetitions of the preceding RE, as many repetitions as
are possible. ab* will match 'a', 'ab', or 'a' followed
by any number of 'b' s.
+
Causes the resulting RE to match 1 or more
repetitions of the preceding RE. ab+ will match 'a'
followed by any non-zero number of 'b's; it will not
match just 'a'.
?
Causes the resulting RE to match 0 or 1 repetitions of
the preceding RE. ab? will match either 'a' or 'ab'.
*?,+?,??
The *, +, and ? qualifiers are all greedy; they match as
much text as possible. Sometimes this behavior is not
desired; if the RE <.*> is matched against
'<H1>title</H1>', it will match the entire string,
and not just '<H1>'. Adding ? after the qualifier
makes it perform the match in non-greedy or minimal
fashion; as few characters as possible will be matched.
Using .*? in the previous expression will match only
'<H1>'.
{m,n}
Causes the resulting RE to match from m to n
repetitions of the preceding RE, attempting to match
as many repetitions as possible. For example, a{3,5}
will match from 3 to 5 a characters. Omitting n
specifies an infinite upper bound; you can't omit m.
{m,n}?
Causes the resulting RE to match from m to n
repetitions of the preceding RE, attempting to match
as few repetitions as possible. This is the non-greedy
version of the previous qualifier. For example, on the
6-character string 'aaaaaa', a{3,5} will match 5 a
characters, while a{3,5}? will only match 3
characters.
Table 3: Regular expression syntax characters with special meaning.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB File Editor
EXPRESSION
DESCRIPTION
\
Either escapes special characters (permitting you to
match characters like *, ?, and so forth), or signals a
special sequence; special sequences are discussed
below.
[]
Used to indicate a set of characters. Characters can be
listed individually, or a range of characters can be
indicated by giving two characters and separating
them by a "-". Special characters are not active inside
sets. For example, [akm$] will match any of the
characters "a", "k", "m", or "$"; [a-z] will match
any lowercase letter, and [a-zA-Z0-9] matches any
letter or digit. Character classes such as \w or \S
(defined below) are also acceptable inside a range. If
you want to include a "]" or a "-" inside a set,
precede it with a backslash, or place it as the first
character. The pattern []] will match ']', for
example.
You can match the characters not within a range by
complementing the set. This is indicated by including a
"^" as the first character of the set; "^" elsewhere will
simply match the "^" character. For example, [^5]
will match any character except "5".
|
A|B, where A and B can be arbitrary REs, creates a
regular expression that will match either A or B. This
can be used inside groups (see below) as well. To
match a literal "|", use \|, or enclose it inside a
character class, as in [|].
(...)
Matches whatever regular expression is inside the
parentheses, and indicates the start and end of a
group; the contents of a group can be retrieved after a
match has been performed (for example in a
substitution expression), and can be matched later in
the string with the \number special sequence,
described below. To match the literals "(" or "')", use
\( or \), or enclose them inside a character class:
[(] [)].
Table 3: Regular expression syntax characters with special meaning.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Regular Expression Syntax
EXPRESSION
DESCRIPTION
(?...)
This is an extension notation (a "?" following a "(" is
not meaningful otherwise). The first character after
the "?" determines what the meaning and further
syntax of the construct is. Extensions usually do not
create a new group; (?P<name>>...) is the only
exception to this rule. Following are the currently
supported extensions.
(?imsx)
(One or more letters from the set "i", "L", "m", "s",
"x".) The group matches the empty string; the letters
set the corresponding flags for the entire regular
expression:
i - Do case-insensitive pattern matching.
m - Treat string as multiple lines. That is, change "^"
and "$" from matching the start or end of the string
to matching the start or end of any line anywhere
within the string.
s - Treat string as single line. That is, change "." to
match any character whatsoever, even a newline,
which normally it would not match.
The /s and /m modifiers both override the $*
setting. That is, no matter what $* contains, /s
without /m will force "^" to match only at the
beginning of the string and "$" to match only at the
end (or just before a newline at the end) of the string.
Together, as /ms, they let the "." match any character
whatsoever, while yet allowing "^" and "$" to match,
respectively, just after and just before newlines within
the string.
Extend your pattern's legibility by permitting
whitespace and comments.
(?:...)
A non-grouping version of regular parentheses.
Matches whatever regular expression is inside the
parentheses, but the substring matched by the group
cannot be retrieved after performing a match or
referenced later in the pattern.
(?#...)
A comment; the contents of the parentheses are
simply ignored.
Table 3: Regular expression syntax characters with special meaning.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB File Editor
EXPRESSION
DESCRIPTION
(?=...)
Matches if ... matches next, but doesn't consume
any of the string. This is called a look-ahead assertion.
For example, Isaac(?=Asimov) will match
'Isaac' only if it's followed by 'Asimov'.
(?!...)
Matches if ... does not match next. This is a
negative look-ahead assertion. For example, Isaac
(?!Asimov) will match 'Isaac' only if it's not
followed by 'Asimov'.
Table 3: Regular expression syntax characters with special meaning.
37
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6
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Sets
MIB Sets
A MIB set is a named group of MIB modules. MIB sets are stored in the
MIB Explorer configuration. Users can define their own MIB sets while
sharing the same MIB repository. Consequently, MIB sets do not contain
any MIB information. Instead they contain only references to MIB
module names.
MIB sets can facilitate loading MIB modules for different targets or
purposes:
 A MIB set can be associated with a target to ensure that (only) these
MIB modules are loaded whenever that target is selected.
 A MIB set can be used to store references to the MIB modules supported (implemented) by a target. In conjunction with the above feature, this can be used to automatically load the MIBs supported by a
target when selecting it.
 A MIB set can be created to combine MIBs for any purpose. Using
MIB sets can reduce memory consumption, increase performance, and
improve overview.
Operations on MIB Sets:
 Creating a New MIB Set
 Editing a MIB Set
 Associating a MIB Set With a Target
 Determining an Agent's MIB Set
 Deleting a MIB Set
 Loading MIB Sets
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Sets
The following operations are available from the context menu of the MIB
Set tab:
OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
New
Creates a new mib set. You will be asked for a
name of the new MIB set. The name may
include blanks. If the name already exists, an
error message will be displayed. By confirming
the MIB set name, an empty MIB set will be
created in the MIB set tree.
Edit
Edits the content of the selected MIB set. MIB
modules can be added to or removed from the
MIB set by using a shuffle dialog. Analogous
to the “Loading MIB Modules” on page 29
dialog, dependent MIBs are automatically
added or removed respectively.
Delete
Deletes the selected MIB set. Since MIB sets
only store references to MIB modules, the
MIB modules themselves are not deleted. The
deletion of a MIB set is not undoable.
Export
Exports some or all of the MIB Set's modules
as plain text, HTML, XSD, PDF, or XML
files. See “Exporting MIB Modules” on
page 30.
Load
Unloads all MIBs from the MIB tree and loads
the MIB modules referenced by the selected
MIB set from the MIB repository.
Add
Adds the MIB modules referenced by the
selected MIB set to the MIB tree. Already
loaded MIB modules remain unchanged.
Table 4: Operations of the MIB Set context menu.
6.1
Creating a New MIB Set
To create a new MIB Set:
1. Choose New MIB Set (
) from the MIB Sets menu.
2. Enter a name for the MIB new MIB set and press
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Editing a MIB Set
Once a MIB set has been created
its name cannot be changed.
3. OK. The name may include any printable characters and spaces.
4. If the entered name is already used by another MIB set, an error dialog
will be display.
5. Otherwise, a new MIB set will be created and selected in the MIB Sets
tab. You may then edit this MIB set.
Alternatively to step 1, you may choose New... from the context menu of
the MIB Set panel.
6.2
Editing a MIB Set
A MIB set consists of references to MIB modules. The contents of a MIB
set can be edited at any time.
To Edit a MIB Set:
1. Select the MIB Sets tab from the MIB Explorer's MIBs panel.
2. Select the MIB set you want to edit and press the right mouse button
to activate the context menu.
3. From the context menu choose the Edit... item.
4. A shuffle dialog will be displayed that shows all available MIBs on the
left side and the MIBs referenced by the selected MIB set on the right.
Similar to the Open/Close MIBs dialog you can add (remove) MIBs to
(from) the MIB set. By adding a MIB module, MIB Explorer makes
sure that all MIB modules imported by the MIB are also added.
Please note: All MIB modules that
are not available in the current
MIB repository will be removed
from the MIB set when the MIB set
is saved.
5. Pressing the OK button will save the MIB set.
6.3
Associating a MIB Set with a Target
By associating a target with a MIB Set, its MIB modules are automatically
loaded whenever the target is selected.
To Associate a Target with a MIB set:
1. Choose Edit->Targets from the main menu.
2. Select the Targets tab.
3. Choose a target from the target table by clicking on its name (first column).
4. Choose the MIB set you want to associate with the target from the
dropdown list in the MIB Set column. Choosing the empty entry will
remove any association previously made.
5. Save your changes with Save.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Sets
You can let MIB Explorer determine the MIB set supported by the agent
(See “Determining a Target‘s MIB Set” on page 41.) and then assign it to
the target used to access the agent.
6.4
Determining a Target‘s MIB Set
Making sure MIB Explorer's MIB tree contains only those MIBs actually
supported by the currently selected target, improves overview, increases
performance, and reduces memory footprint. Thus, whenever you have
created a new target, it is recommended to let MIB Explorer scan the agent
for supported MIBs. Before a target can be scanned, the following
prerequisites have to be met:
 All available MIBs (or at least those possibly supported by the target)
have to be compiled into the MIB repository.
 A target has to be configured for the agent.
 That target should have been successfully used to browse the system
group of the target agent.
To Determine a Target's MIB Set:
1. Select the target you want to scan from the target toolbar.
2. Choose Determine Target's MIB Set from the MIB Sets menu. MIB
Explorer will then immediately start scanning the target as follows:
 The scalar and tabular MIB objects of each MIB module in the
current MIB repository are requested from the agent.
 If MIB Explorer gets a valid response (no error and no exception
value) for an object, then that MIB module will be added to the MIB
set. This MIB module will not be processed any further. Instead, the
next one will be loaded and processed.
 If a timeout occurs or an engine ID discovery fails a corresponding
error dialog will be displayed and the scan will be stopped.
3. When the scan is complete or has been canceled, a shuffle dialog will
be displayed. The right list contains the MIB modules that are at least
partially implemented by the target agent. The left list contains all
other MIB modules available in the MIB repository. You can add
MIBs to the MIB set or remove MIBs from it as described in Loading
MIBs.
4. Press the OK button to save the MIB set under the target's name. An
already existing MIB set with the same name will be overwritten. Press
the Cancel button to abandon any changes.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Loading MIB Sets
5. After having saved the MIB set you will be prompted to replace the
currently loaded MIBs by the MIB modules from the MIB set and
associate the MIB set with the current target. If you confirm the dialog, the MIBs modules of the determined MIB set will be loaded
whenever you select the current target. Otherwise the MIB set will be
saved only.
6.5
Loading MIB Sets
The main purpose of MIB sets is to facilitate MIB loading by grouping
MIB modules in named units. A MIB set can be loaded exclusively or
additively. When exclusively loading a MIB set , all already opened MIBs
are closed before the modules of the MIB set are loaded. Loading a MIB
set additively will load those modules of the MIB set, that are not already
opened.
To Load a MIB Set:
1. Select the MIB Sets tab from the MIB Explorer's MIBs panel.
2. Select the MIB set you want to load and press the right mouse button
to activate the context menu.
3. From the context menu choose the Load item.
Or
1. Choose Open MIB Set... from the MIB Sets menu.
2. Choose the MIBs set you want to load from the shown list and press
OK . If there is a MIB set associated with the current target, then this
MIB set will be selected as default.
To Add a MIB Set to the MIB Tree:
1. Select the MIB Sets tab from the MIB Explorer's MIBs panel.
2. Select the MIB set you want to add to the MIB tree and press the right
mouse button to activate the context menu.
3. From the context menu choose the Add item.
If a MIB set has been associated with the current target, that MIB set can
be (exclusively) loaded by choosing Load MIB Set for Target from the MIB
Sets menu.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Sets
6.6
Saving a MIB Set
The MIB modules loaded can be saved as a new MIB set or to replace an
existing one.
To Save a MIB Set
1. Choose Save MIB Set as from the MIB Set menu.
2. Select the MIB set you want to replace with the currently loaded MIB
modules from the drop down list. If the current target is associated
with a MIB set, then this set will be selected as default. If you want to
save the set of loaded MIB modules as a new MIB set, then enter a
new name for the set.
6.7
Deleting a MIB Set
When a MIB set is deleted, any references from targets to this MIB set are
also removed. Deleting a MIB set cannot be undone.
To Delete a MIB Set:
1. Select the MIB Sets tab from the MIB Explorer's MIBs panel.
2. Select the MIB set you want to delete press the right mouse button to
activate the context menu.
3. From the context menu choose the Delete item.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Targets
Targets
The set of information that describes where and how to send a SNMP
message is called a 'Target' and consists of three kinds of information:
 Destination information, consisting of the network transport protocol, an IP address or host name, and the port.
 Message processing parameters, consisting of timeout value, number
of retries, and SNMP version (message processing model).
 SNMP parameters, consisting of security model (community based or
USM), security level, and security name information. For SNMPv3
targets there are additional parameters like engine ID, context, and
context engine ID which may be optionally configured.
Targets may be configured for the following purposes:
1. To manage a SNMP agent or proxy agent (also known as command
responder).
 These targets have typically a host IP address and the default
SNMP port 161.
2. To send traps/notifications or Inform requests to a trap receiver application (also known as command generator).
 These targets have typically a host IP address and the SNMP trap
port 162.
3. To discover SNMP agents in a (sub) network.
 These targets may have a broadcast IP address.
7.1
Target Configuration
Targets are configured by using the target and user editor which provides
two tabs with two tables. The first table is used to configure targets and the
other is used to configure USM users. The topmost entry in the target table
is always the active target. Both tables can be sorted by abitrary columns by
clicking on the column headers.
To Edit Targets:
1. Choose Targets from the Edit menu or
from the toolbar.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Targets
2. Edit the targets as described by “Adding a New Target” on page 45 and
“Removing a Target” on page 47.
3. Save your changes by pressing OK.
7.2
Selecting the Active Target
To select the target you want to work with:
1. Select the target from the combo-box in the Targets toolbar.
2. Open the Targets editor by choosing Edit->Targets, select the target
you want to use, and then choose Set Active from the context menu
or select the checkbox in the first column named "Active".
7.3
Adding a New Target
Although targets may be used for different purposes, they are created in the
same way. Only the used address/port distinguishes between agent, trap,
or discovery targets.
To Add a New Target:
1. From the Edit menu choose Targets (
shown.
). A modal dialog will be
2. Choose the Targets tab.
3. Press the New Target button.
4. A new row will be inserted into the target configuration table and the
target name editor is activated.
5. Enter an unique name for the target.
6. Select the transport mapping (UDP, TCP or TLS) with which the target can be accessed from the Transport column.
7. Enter the IP address and port of the target separated by a slash (/). You
can also enter a hostname if the target uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to determine its IP address. If you want to
access the SNMP of your local system, you can either enter
127.0.0.1/161, 127.0.0.1, localhost/161, or localhost
which are all the same. Additional examples are:
 switch01:1161 - Switch on non-standard port 1161
 92.168.0.1:162 - A trap target using standard trap port 162
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Adding a New Target
255.255.255.255 - Discovery target using an IPv4 broadcast address (only
works with UDP)
92.168.0.255:4700 - Discovery target for port 4700 in class C network
192.168.0
080::8:800:200C:417A - An IPv6 address.
FFFF:129.144.52.38/161 - An standard IPv4 address in IPv6 format.
8. Select the SNMP version for the target:
 SNMPv1
Community based weak security
No GETBULK
 SNMPv2c
Community based weak security
GETBULK
 SNMPv3
Strong security using the User Security Model (USM) or the
Transport Layer Security Model (TSM).
GETBULK
9. Choose the Timeout value and the number of Retries.
10.Choose the MIB set you want to associate with the target from the
drop down list. Select the empty entry, if you do not want to associate
any MIB set with the target.
11.If you have chosen SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c as SNMP version then enter
the community to be used with the target.
12.Otherwise, if you have chosen SNMPv3 then select an USM user from
the dropdown list. If you need to add a new user then create it using
New User.
13.You can continue to specify the optional SNMPv3 security parameters
engine ID, context name, and context engine ID as described below.
14.Save the new target into MIB Explorer's configuration by pressing OK.
To Configure Optional SNMPv3 Security Parameters:
1. Use the Discover menu item from the context menu to discover the
targets Engine ID. Leaving the engine ID field empty will let MIB
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Targets
47
Explorer discover the target's engine ID automatically, once for each
session.
2. Enter the Context to be used with the target as plain text. The default
is an empty string.
3. Enter the Context Engine ID which selects the subsystem or proxy as
a plain text or hexadecimal string, for example 0f:ab:12:A:g5 (use
the context menu Format to change the input format). The default is
an empty string. In this case, MIB Explorer will use the entered or discovered engine ID as context engine ID.
7.4
Removing a Target
1. From the Edit menu choose Targets (
shown.
). A modal dialog will be
2. Choose the Targets tab.
3. Select the target to delete from the by clicking on it (using the Name
column).
4. Press the Delete Target button.
5. Select a target you want to work with and choose Set Active from the
context menu or select the corresponding checkbox in the column
Active.
6. Press the Save button.
7.5
Communities
A SNMPv1/SNMPv2c community contains one agent and one or more
managers. A community is named by a string of octets which is called a
community string . Although many SNMP developers and users believe
that a community string is a password, its originally intended use was not
that simple. Nevertheless, many agent implementations are using a
community string as password for read-only access and another for readwrite access.
With MIB Explorer you can specify a single community for each target
that is used for all request types.
7.6
Removing a target will not
invalidate monitor configurations
using that target, however the
removed target will no longer
available for the discovery
configuration after restarting MIB
Explorer.
USM Users
The User based Security Model (USM) associates a user name with
security information and is defined in RFC 2574. A USM user consists of:
Community strings are send as
plain text over the wire.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
USM Users
 User Name
An internal name for the user. In most cases this name would match
the security name. The user name must be unique within a MIB
Explorer configuration.
 Security Name
Identifies the user. The security name is used to refer to an user in
many MIBs, in particular the SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM-MIB
maps security model/name combinations to groups in the VACM.
Without such a mapping a USM user cannot access any MIB information in an agent.
 Authentication Protocol
Determines which authentication protocol (no authentication, MD5
or SHA) can be used with this user.
 Authentication Passphrase
If the authentication protocol is MD5 or SHA, an authentication
passphrase has to be entered, which will be combined with the target's
SNMP engine ID to form the localized authentication key by using
the selected hashing algorithm.
If you do not provide a Localization Engine ID for a USM user then
the target's engine ID will be used to localize passphrases on-the-fly.
The USM user can thus be used securely for several SNMP targets.
If you provide a Localization Engine ID then this user can only be
used with a target whose authoritative engine ID equals the used localization engine ID.
To enter a pass phrase in
hexadecimal format, use the
context menu to change the input
format.
 Privacy Protocol
Determines which privacy protocol (no privacy, DES, 3DES, AES128,
AES196, or AES256) is used with this user.
The nonstandard privacy protocols AES192-KeyExt3DES and
AES256-KeyExt3DES are provided to ensure interoperability with
some devices that implemented AES 192 and 256 privacy with a key
extension algorithm specified for 3DES. Although, that combination
was never specified by an IETF RFC or draft, it has been implemented
by some manufactures.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Targets
 Privacy Passphrase
If the privacy protocol DES is selected then the entered privacy passphrase is localized with the selected authentication protocol (analogous to localizing an authentication passphrase) and then used to
encrypt/decrypt SNMP messages.
 Localization Engine ID
The localization engine ID can be left empty by default. However, if
two targets use the same security name with different passphrases and/
or authentication/privacy protocols then you need to localize each user
for its specific engine ID to avoid clashes. You can localize the passphrases of an user easily by using Localize User from the context
menu. It prompts for the target engine ID used for the localization in
hexadecimal format. Once you press OK, the passphrases are localized
and the entered localization engine ID is stored with the USM user
security credentials.
MIB Explorer abstracts from security names by using User Profiles. The
User Profile Name is independent from the user's security name.
Nevertheless, it makes sense to choose the profile name according to an
user's security name for better readability.
7.7
Adding an USM User
Please note that adding a new user to MIB Explorer's configuration does
not create that user in the USM MIB of the target for which you added the
user. To create a new user in the USM MIB of one or more targets, use the
SNMPv3 user administration (See “SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro
Edition)” on page 156.).
To Add a USM User Profile:
1. Select Targets from the Edit menu.
2. Press the New User button from the toolbar. The USM User tab will
be shown and a new row at the bottom of the table will be inserted.
The user name column editor is activated, so you can press <Ctrl>-A
and then directly begin to enter the name of the USM user profile.
3. Enter a unique name for the user profile. If possible, the profile name
should be equal to the security name of the user.
4. Enter the properties of the USM user (See “USM Users” on page 47.).
5. Press the Save button.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Deleting an USM User
7.8
Deleting an USM User
A user profile can be deleted from MIB Explorer's configuration if there is
not any target using that profile any more. Otherwise a different user has
to be selected for those targets first. Deleting a user profile does not delete
the corresponding USM user in the SNMP agent associated with the
target. In order to delete a user from the USM MIB of an agent use the
SNMPv3 user administration.
To Remove a User Profile:
1. From the Edit menu choose Targets (
shown.
). A modal dialog will be
2. Choose the USM Users tab.
3. Select the user profile to be deleted.
4. Press the Delete User button to delete the profile. If other targets are
also referencing that user an error message will be displayed and the
profile will not be deleted.
5. Press the Save button to finally commit your change.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Tree Panel
8
51
MIB Tree Panel
The MIB tree panel displays the MIB objects defined by the loaded MIBs
as a tree. Each node represents an object. All objects below the Objects
node have an object identifier assigned which is shown as tooltip. Type
assignments and textual conventions do not have an object identifier
assigned and thus they are displayed below the Textual-Conventions
node.
By clicking on a node, the SMI definition of the corresponding object is
displayed in the SMI Definition tab of the Info/Tools panel. In addition,
the MIB module(s) defining the object will be selected in the MIB
Modules tab of the MIBs panel.
All MIB Explorer's basic functions can be accessed from the tree node's
context menu which is displayed by clicking with the right mouse button
on a node.
Instances of MIB objects (variables) can be displayed in the MIB tree as
well.
In contrast to MIB objects, instance nodes are displayed as two parts:
1. The instance's index objects' values enclosed in brackets ([ ]).
2. The value of the variable.
The OID of a MIB object instance is composed by appending its index
OID to the OID of the corresponding object type. MIB Explorer displays
the index OID of an instance within two brackets [and]. Scalar instances
like usmUserSpinLock.0, have [0] as their index value if the
corresponding MIB object is known. If not, the index denotes the whole
path down from the last known MIB object's OID to the instance's OID.
See also the below sample MIB
tree cutout.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Browse Tab
The complete OID of an instance or any other node is shown by the node's
tooltip.
Figure 2:
Sample MIB tree cutout with MIB object nodes and instances.
8.1
By changing the general
preferences to allow changing
read-only values, all browsed
values may be edited even if the
corresponding MIB defintion
specifies it as read-only.
Browse Tab
The browse tab shows MIB object instances in a table. The object instances
are retrieved from a target agent using the Browse function. You can
directly change browsed values within the browse tab by simply editing
them. All values with a blue background can be edited.
Whether a value is editable or not, is determined by their corresponding
MIB specification. If such a specification is not available (i.e., not loaded)
then the value is assumed to be editable. However, the agent may reject a
change in any case because of its own constraints.
The result table of the Browse Tab can be searched for object names and
values using the ?? Search Panel if the Browse Tab is selected.
To Browse a Target:
1. Select the target you want to browse from the Target toolbar.
2. Select the subtree (node) you want to browse in the MIB tree.
3. Choose Browse (
) from the Edit or the tree's context menu.
During the browse operation, the status bar shows the instances received
from the agent so far. Retrieved instances are displayed immediately, when
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Tree Panel
53
the option "Refresh browse view during operation" is enabled in
Preferences. However, this option drastically slows down the operation.
The browse operation can be canceled by pressing the status bar's Stop
button ( ). Any instances received so far will then be displayed in the
browse table.
The Progress Bar displays the portion of the timeout value passed for the
current request. If the displayed value reaches 100% during a browse
operation you should consider increasing the timeout value for the target.
8.1.1
Result Table
Each row in the table represents a MIB object instance. The columns are:
 OID
The object identifier of the object instance. Typically the OID of an
instance is displayed as the corresponding MIB object's last name and
the instance sub-identifiers. The complete OID is displayed as tool-tip
or if the option "Resolve OIDs to object names" is deactivated in
Preferences.
Tip: By clicking on an OID, the
corresponding object (denoted by
the OIDs last name) will be
selected in the MIB tree.
If the corresponding MIB object for an instance is not defined in the
loaded MIB set, then the row will be displayed with orange background.
 Syntax
The SNMP syntax of the MIB instance as received from the agent. If
the syntax is not compatible with the syntax defined for the corresponding MIB object in a loaded MIB module, then the row will be
displayed with red background. A red background may also indicate
that there are two MIB modules loaded that define the same MIB
object with different syntax. If you are unsure whether a returned
value does not match its MIB definition, check with the Node Info
window whether all syntax definitions for that object are consistent.
 Value
The value of the MIB instance. Values are formatted according available MIB information such as DISPLAY-HINT and enumerations. If
there is no formatting information for an OCTET STRING type,
then its value is displayed as a printable string where non-printable
characters are displayed as dots. The tool-tip then displays the hexadecimal string representation.
Tip: You can copy the content of a
single cell or a range of cells to the
clipboard by pressing <Ctrl-C>.
The format of the copied content
is compatible with most
spreadsheet applications.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Colors
If the value has a blue background then you can directly edit it. When
you press <Enter> after having changed the value it will be directly
changed in the agent by sending a SET PDU to the active target. If the
SET request fails a corresponding error message is displayed in the status bar. Changes can be undone and redone by using the context
menu of the value column. For a description of the input formats supported, please see the Set Dialog documentation.
8.2
Colors
The node label colors in the MIB tree have the following meaning:
 Black denotes a not-accessible or accessible-for-notify MIB object as
well as textual conventions or type assignments.
 Gray denotes a read-only MIB object type or instance.
 Light-Gray denotes any MIB object that is obsolete or deprecated.
 Blue denotes a read-write MIB object type or instance.
 Red denotes a read-create MIB object type or instance.
 Orange denotes a trap or notification type.
The background color green denotes a bookmarked MIB object.
8.3
MIB Tree Context Menu
The MIB tree's context menu can be accessed by clicking with the right
mouse button on a node. It provides the following functions that are also
partially available from the main menu:
 Browse
Selects the browse tab and sends a series of GETNEXT (SNMPv1) or
GETBULK (SNMPv2c/SNMPv3) requests to the target agent in
order to get all instances that are available in the selected node's subtree.
 Get
Displays all MIB object instances whose OID starts with the OID of
the selected node in the MIB tree. If the SNMP protocol for the current target is SNMPv1 a series of GETNEXT request PDUs is sent to
the target until an error or an instance with an OID outside the node's
subtree is returned. If the protocol is SNMPv2c or SNMPv3 a series of
GETBULK requests is sent until an error, exception, or an OID outside the node's subtree is returned by the target agent. Getting a single
instance, for example the instance of a scalar MIB object, can be inef-
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Tree Panel
fective, depending on the max repetitions value set in Preferences. In
such cases it might be more efficient to issue a Get on a parent node in
order to get more instances at once.
A double click on a node is a shortcut for this function.
 Table
Opens a table view that displays scalar or tabular instances as a table
for the currently selected target agent.
 Table (*)
Opens a table view that displays scalar or tabular instances as a table
for choosable number of target agent at once. The table content is
sorted by instance index + target by default. Thus, row instances from
different targets but with same index can be directly compared.
With the Copy... function from the table‘s context menu, you can
copy the writable column‘s values to one or more target rows of the
same or a different target agent.
 Grid (Pro Edition)
Opens a grid view that displays one or more related SNMP tables as a
hierarchy of tables. The Grid View is not available for Nimbus look &
feel.
 Set
Opens a set dialog to modify or create a single MIB object instance.
 Subtree
 Clear
Remove all instance nodes from the subtree. MIB object nodes are
not affected by this operation.
 Expand All
Expand all nodes (including MIB object instances) in the subtree.
 Collapse All
Collapse the subtree.
 Hide Absent
Remove those nodes from the subtree that denote a subtree which
(currently) does not contain any MIB instances available from the
target agent. In particular, conformance statements, object groups,
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Set Dialog
and notification definitions will be hidden from the tree. To show
all objects again, choose Refresh from the Edit menu.
 Dump Subtree
Dump the subtree to a given text file as a tree. MIB instances contained in the subtree will be dumped too. If you do not want
instances to be dumped, remove them from the subtree first by
using the Clear button. This function is especially useful for documentation purposes.
 Node Info
Shows the Node Info window that displays all SMI definitions for the
selected node's OID. Normally there is only one MIB module that
defines an OID.
 Bookmarks
 Toggle
Toggle the bookmark for the selected node. Only MIB objects with
OID can be bookmarked.
 Previous
Go to the closest lexicographic smaller MIB object (if available)
that is bookmarked.
 Next
Go to the next lexicographic greater MIB object (if available) that
is bookmarked.
 Copy OID
Copies the object identifier in dot-notation into the clipboard.
8.4
Set Dialog
The set dialog can be used for setting (modifying or creating) a single MIB
object instance at once. If you only need to modify existing values, you can
also use the Browse panel.
To Perform a Set:
1. Select a node in the MIB tree representing
 the MIB object instance you want to modify or
 the MIB object for which you want to create/modify an instance.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Tree Panel
2. Choose Set Instance from the Edit menu or Set from the nodes context menu.
3. If you have selected a non-scalar MIB object, enter the index value(s)
for the instance you want to modify/create. The format for the entered
index objects depend on the type of the respective object (see below).
Each given index value will be checked for size constraints. If an object
value violates such a restriction, then the corresponding object name
will be reported in an error message when OK is pressed, the PDU will
not be sent, and you will then be able to adjust the value.
4. Enter the new value in the Value field. If the underlying node is an
instance, its value and index will become the preset values, otherwise
the DEFAULT value specified for the MIB object (if present).
The value format for OCTET STRING syntaxes is as specified in the
DISPLAY-HINT clause of the OBJECT-TYPE specification, if present. Otherwise, the default format as specified in the View preferences
(see section “View” on page 22) applies if that is not MIB. In the latter
case, the string has to be entered in hexadecimal format.
5. Press OK to send the SET request PDU to the target agent.
6. If the request was successful, the corresponding instance node will be
created or updated. Otherwise the Status Bar will provide information
about the error occurred.
Depending on the object‘s Type the value has to be entered as follows:
 OCTET STRING
If there is a DISPLAY-HINT format defined for the MIB object, the
value has to be entered according to that format. For example, DisplayString values (format "255a") are entered as plain text.
If there is no DISPLAY-HINT defined and no default format given in
the View preferences then the value is entered as an hexadecimal
string, for example: 'ab 8 2f 16' without the quotes.
For convenience, ASCII characters may be entered directly when they
are enclosed by double quote characters ("). For example, if you enter
' "publi"1c ' this will result in the hex string '70 75 62 6c 69
1c'.
 OBJECT IDENTIFIER
Enter an object name and press enter to convert the name into an
OID and append then any instance suffix. For example, enter ifIndex and press Return and the displayed value will become
'1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1'. Now append '.2' to reference the second
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Node Info
interface. The resulting OID ('1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.2') can
then be send to the target agent.
 Enumerated INTEGER
Select one of the enumerated values from the provided list or enter an
integer value to set a value not defined in the MIB.
 TimeTicks, Counter32, Counter64, Unsigned32, Integer 32, INTEGER
Enter a numeric value. You can use the spin box to browse through
possible values. Range restrictions defined for the MIB object are not
enforced by MIB Explorer, because the agent will reject out of range
values anyway.
If there is a DISPLAY-HINT format defined for the MIB object, no
spin box will be displayed and the value has to be entered according to
that format.
 BITS
The value may be entered as a series of 1 and 0 characters that are
grouped in packets of eight bits separated by spaces. For example to set
the second, fourth, and thirteenth bits enter '01010000 00001'
without quotes.
 IpAddress, NetAddress
Either enter the IP address in raw IP address format (e.g.
"192.168.0.1") or enter the host name (e.g. "www.mibexplorer.com") and press Enter to resolve it into a raw IP address.
If a value does not comply with the input format, a beep will be emitted.
8.5
Node Info
The node info window is opened by choosing the Node Info menu item (
) from the MIB tree context menu. It shows detailed information about
the SMI definitions for a node in the MIB tree. The info window can be
opened for MIB object nodes under the Objects root node but not for
instances.
The tab title denotes the MIB module that contains the shown definition
which is:
 The Name of the MIB object. The object name may differ for
OBJECT-IDENTIFIER objects between MIB modules. For example
the OID "0.0" is named "null" in RFC1155-SMI and "zeroDotZero"
in SNMPv2-SMI.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
MIB Tree Panel
 The object identifier (OID) of the MIB object. The OID value is the
same for all module tabs.
 By clicking on the Path value, the named sub-identifiers from the current node up to the root node are displayed in a list.
 If the node is an OBJECT-TYPE, the Effective Syntax represents the
node's base syntax with all refinements. This base syntax is used by
MIB Explorer (in combination with a possibly defined DISPLAYHINT) to render and edit instances of the object.
 The Definition text area shows the complete definition from the corresponding MIB module.
8.6
Search
You can search the whole MIB Tree including possibly retrieved MIB
object instances by regular expressions. A node whose specified property
matches the given regular expression will be selected. With the Find Again
( ) menu item or button you are then able to find the next node that
matches the expression.
To Find a Node:
1. Choose Find from the Edit menu or press from the main toolbar. The
search dialog will be displayed.
2. Enter the Search Expression in regular expression syntax.
3. Select whether case should ignored or not. If selected, this will insert
(?i) at the beginning of the used search expression.
4. Select what type of properties of a node you want to be matched
against the search expression. Choosing All will match the whole SMI
text of a MIB object node, including key words, or the value part of a
MIB instance node against the given search expression.
To Find a Node Again:
1. Choose Find Again from the Edit menu or press from the main toolbar. The next node in depth first search order from the currently
selected node will be searched matching the previously specified search
expression and options.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Table View
Table View
MIB Explorer provides two kinds of table views:
1. SNMP Tables
Displays a table with rows and columns as defined in a special
OBJECT-TYPE object definition whose name ends with Table by
convention. The instances of a row are identified by an uniform indexing scheme that is defined by a row object definition by its INDEX
clause. This index value is displayed for each row in the first column,
the Index column. It has a gray background and is frozen.
2. Scalars
Displays a list of scalar object instances. Since scalar instances are
always identified by a zero OID suffix ".0", there is no Index column.
If the table has a RowStatus column, the keys <INS>, <DEL>, and
<Ctrl>-<INS> can be used to modify the RowStatus column of the
current row.
Pressing <INS> changes the RowStatus to createAndGo(4), <Ctrl><INS> to createAndWait(5), and <DEL> to destroy(6).
The Pro edition can display both kinds also in a multi-target mode. Here
the same table information of one or more agents can be displayed (and
compared) in a single table view. This is accomplished by appending the
target address to the row indexes.
9.1
Context Menu
A context menu is available for each column of a SNMP table (for each row
of a Scalars view) which provides additional information like the MIB
object's description and its effective syntax.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Table View
In addition, the display and input format for columns with OCTET
STRING syntax can be chosen. The chosen format overrides the default
format chosen in the View Settings. The available formats are:
FORMAT
DESCRIPTION
SAMPLE VALUE DISPLAY OF „ABC“
ASCII
Plain text formatting.
aBc
Decimal
Formats each byte as a decimal value
with a dot (".") as separator.
97.66.99
Hexadecimal
Formats each byte as a hexadecimal
value with a colon (":") as separator.
61:42:63
Octal
Formats each byte as a octal value
with a colon (":") as separator.
141:102:143
Binary
Formats each byte as a binary value
with a colon (":") as separator.
1100001:1000010:1100011
Table 5: The available column formats of the table view.
If the view setting "Enable auto-save (restore) of column widths in
Table View" is checked in Preferences, then any manual column width
change will be stored for a table node and restored when it is opened again.
With the Copy... menu item, the writable cells of a row (or column in
transposed view) can be copied to one or more other existing rows.
9.2
Toolbars
The main toolbar contains the following elements (items marked with *
Figure 3:
Table View‘s main toolbar.
are not available for scalars):

New Row (*)
Add a new row to the table. Before the new row can be inserted into
the table the row's index has to be specified. You will be prompted to
enter a value for each index object. The presented input fields depend
on the type of the index object. For a description of the different input
fields see “Set Dialog” on page 56.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Toolbars
In a multi-target table view, you need also to select the targets for
which a row with the given index should be created.

Duplicate Row
Duplicates the selected row and prompts for its new index, because an
index must be unique within the same agent (and context). If the table
view had been opened for multi-target view, the user is also prompted
for the target for which the new row should be created.
The duplicated row is not committed to the target agent. Thus it can
be edited before committing it with Commit button.

Note: You may create a new row in
the table even if its index does not
match the filter criteria, but if you
refresh the table contents, that
row will not be displayed
anymore. Also if there were rows
added to the table that have not
been committed (sent) to the
agent yet, then those rows will be
removed from the table when
applying a filter. There is no undo
available for applying a filter!

Apply Filter (*)
Restricts the requested and viewed rows in the table to those rows
whose index value matches a given range. In the filter dialog you may
specify a lower and/or an upper bound. If you do not want to specify a
lower bound, then uncheck the "Use lower bound" check box. If you
do not want to specify an upper bound, then uncheck the "Use upper
bound" check box. If you want to disable the filter, then uncheck
both.
Toggle Cell Delta Highlighting
Enables or disables the highlighting of cell data changes with orange
background color. When the data in a cell changed after a refresh or by
manually modifying its value, the cell gets a orange background
instead a blue (writable column) or white background (read-only column).

Refresh
Invalidates the table contents, resets (deletes) the undo/redo history,
and then retrieves the table data from the target agent. The operation
can be canceled by pressing the Cancel button of the progress window.
Each GETNEXT (SNMPv1) or GETBULK (SNMPv2c/v3) PDU is
filled up with column/instance OID's up to the maximum number of
variable bindings per PDU as set in “Preferences” on page 7.
Thus, more than one PDU may be sent to the agent per row. If an
agent returns a tooBig error, MIB Explorer splits the original request
PDU into two PDUs and (re)sends those PDUs to the agent.

Redo
Redo last undone change.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Table View

63
Undo
Undo last change. The maximum number of steps that can be undone
is set in MIB Explorer's “Preferences” on page 7.

Transpose (*)
Swaps rows and columns. This might be useful for tables with many
columns.

Find
Finds the next cell in the table whose value (as displayed) matches a
given regular expression (See “Regular Expression Syntax” on
page 33). The search starts at the current position and continues row
by row from left to right.

Find Again
Finds the next cell in the table whose value (as displayed) matches the
last search expression.

Replace
Replaces occurrences of a given regular expression with a substitution
(expression) in any writable cells.
Preferences
Configures whether OID values in this table are displayed with lastname and instance identifier or numerically. In addition, one can specify whether the cell tool tip should display the cells value or its type.
Displaying the type is useful when modifying cells to determine the
required type of a value.

Print
Open a dialog to print the table on a printer or save the output to a
PDF, PCL, or PS file. Before actually printing the table, the result can
be previewed on the screen. The table can be wrapped or shrunk to fit
on the selected paper size.
9.2.1
Refresh Toolbar
With the refresh toolbar you specify the refresh interval in seconds and
whether the Table View is periodically refreshed or not. You can either use
the predefined values or enter your own value. By pressing Enter,
Note: In contrast to the Find and
Find Again functions, the Replace
function does not match the cell
values as they are displayed,
rather than it compares the
search expression against the
representation of a cell's value as
shown by the cell editor.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Table
periodically refresh starts with the given refresh interval. 0 deactivates
periodical refresh.
Figure 4:
Table View‘s periodic refresh toolbar.

Start
Starts periodically refresh, if the refresh interval value is not zero (or
"disabled").

Stop
Stops the periodical refresh.
 Monitor
Shows the time passed until the next refresh.

Export Data
By pressing the toggle button, you can specify a comma separated
value (CSV) text file, an Excel (XLS), or an XML file to save the table
data to whenever the table is refreshed. The CSV as well as the XLS
file can be later opened by a spreadsheet application. As long as the
toggle button is pressed, refreshed table data will be written or
appended to the file. If a file already exists you can choose whether
new data should replace existing data in the file or if the new data
should be appended. If a file does not exists, then the new data will be
appended. This is also the case, if the periodic refresh is enabled.
If the XLS file format has been selected as output format, data is
appended sheet by sheet
9.3
Table
The table area is composed of:
 Column Labels
The column table texts are the names of the corresponding object
types. If there can be identified a common prefix for all columns in a
table (including its index columns), then the labels will be displayed
without that common prefix.
By clicking on a column header the rows in the table are sorted on that
column in ascending order. Another click on that column sorts in
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Table View
descending order. A third click resets sorting on that column. If the
table is sorted by more than one column, the table is sorted by those
columns from left to right.
 Index Columns (*)
The index columns represent the index objects defined in the INDEX
clause definition of a table row definition. Index columns have a grey
background and are frozen (not scrolled). Index columns cannot be
edited.
 Read-Only Columns
Columns that cannot be edited have a white background.
 Read-Write Columns
Columns that can be edited have a blue background.
The object instances are displayed and edited within the cells of the
table. You may copy a range of cells to the clipboard using <Ctrl-C>.
The columns of the copied cells will be separated by a <Tab> character and the rows by a newline. Cell values may also be pasted from the
clipboard into writable cells (those with blue background) by pressing
<Ctrl-V>.
 Status Bar
Displays the active filter expression (if present) and error status messages. In addition, the progress of the current request is shown. With
the Stop button
9.4
, the current request can be canceled.
Buttons
 Commit
Send a series of SET requests to the target agent. For each modified
cell, the cell's value is combined with the cell's OID (resulting from
the column OID + index OID). OID and value together build a variable binding. For each row that has been modified, the variable bindings representing the modifications are sent as a single SET PDU to
the agent. Since SNMP assures that a SET request is atomic, either all
variables will be successfully set to the new values or none of the variables will be modified. Set PDUs are sent row by row, starting with the
row with the lowest index value.
If a SET fails for a row, a dialog box will be shown that reports the
error occurred and displays the row index of the failed row in its title.
MIB Explorer will then continue to commit modifications made on
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Scalars
following rows. If the error index is zero, all modified cells in the
affected row will get a red background. If the error index is not zero,
the failed cell will be marked with red background. Failed rows will
not be marked as successfully committed. Thus, by committing
changes again, only the modified cells of failed rows and any newly
modified cells will be sent to the agent.
 Commit and Verify
Same as Commit, but sends a GET request to the agent after each
SET request response it receives to verify the value of the modified
cells after the SET. This is particularly useful in conjunction with row
creation using the RowStatus textual convention, since values set for
creation remain not the same after creation.
 By Row (Pro Edition)
If committing changes with this option checked all writable columns
of each changed row are sent to the target within a SET request per
changed row. Otherwise, only the changed columns are SET.
 Close
Close the table view and abandon any changes.
9.5
Scalars
The scalars table view displays all scalar MIB objects defined under the
selected node in a two column list. The left column represents the object
name of the corresponding scalar object and the right column contains the
actual value of its instance.
To Open a Table View for Scalars:
1. Select an OBJECT-IDENTIFER node (no leaf ) in the MIB tree that
is the closest parent of the scalars you want to view or modify.
2. Choose Table from the node's context menu or from the Edit menu.
Modifications will be committed atomically by sending a single SET
PDU. See “Table View” on page 60.
9.6
SNMP Tables
The SNMP table view displays all columnar MIB objects defined under
the selected node and optionally from augmenting tables as well as other
depending tables. The leftmost columns with gray background represent
the index of the table. Columns with a white background are read-only.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Table View
To Open a Table View for SNMP Tables:
1. Select an OBJECT-TYPE node (no leaf ) with a SYNTAX definition
starting with "SEQUENCE OF". Typically, the object names of those
nodes end with "Table".
2. Choose Table from the node's context menu or from the Edit menu.
If the table is augmented or extended by other tables of currently loaded
MIB modules, a shuffle dialog will be displayed. You can add the tables
with which you want to extend the master table from the left list to the
right one. By pressing the OK button you add the columns of the tables in
the right list to the table view. By pressing the Cancel button the table
selected in the MIB tree is opened as it is.
9.6.1
Cells
MIB object instances are displayed (and edited) according to the
corresponding MIB object's effective syntax:
 OCTET STRING
If there is a DISPLAY-HINT format defined for the MIB object, the
value has to be entered according to that format. For example, DisplayString values (format "255a") are entered as plain text.
If there is no DISPLAY-HINT defined, the value is entered as hexadecimal string, for example: "ab 8 2f 16".
For convenience, ASCII characters may be entered directly when they
are enclosed by double quote characters ("). For example, if you enter
'"publi"1c' this will result in the hex string '70 75 62 6c 69
1c'.
Alternative display and edit formats for string objects can be set by the
context menu available for each cell. See “Table View” on page 60.
 OBJECT IDENTIFIER
Whether OIDs are displayed with last name or as numeric only OIDs
depends on the preferences set. To edit an OID you may enter an
object name and press <Enter> to convert the name into an OID.
Then any instance suffix may be appended. For example, enter
"ifIndex" and press <Enter> and the displayed value will become
"1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1". Now append ".2" to reference the second interface. The resulting OID ("1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.2")
can then be saved into the cell by pressing <Enter> or <Tab> again.
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SNMP Tables
 Enumerated INTEGER
Select one of the enumerated values from the provided list or enter an
integer value to set a value not defined in the MIB.
 TimeTicks, Counter32, Counter64, Unsigned32, Integer 32, INTEGER
Enter a numeric value. You can use the spin box to browse through
possible values. Range restrictions defined for the MIB object are not
enforced by MIB Explorer, since the agent will reject out of range values.
If there is a DISPLAY-HINT format defined for the MIB object, no
spin box will be displayed and the value has to be entered according to
that format.
 BITS
The value may be entered as a series of '1' and '0' digits that are
grouped in packets of eight bits separated by spaces. For example, to
set the second, fourth, and thirteenth bits enter "01010000 00001"
without quotes. Alternatively, BITS can also be entered by enumerating their names in the following form:
{ bitName1, bitName<n>, ... bitName<k> }
 IpAddress, NetAddress
Either enter the IP address in raw IP address format (e.g.
"192.168.0.1") or enter the host name (e.g. „www.mibexplorer.com") and press <Enter> to resolve it into a raw IP address.
Cells with white background are read-only cells. Cells with blue
background can be modified. See “Set Dialog” on page 56.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Grid View (Pro Edition)
10 Grid View (Pro Edition)
The grid view provides an intuitive structured visual representation of
related SNMP tables. MIB Explorer recognizes relationship between tables
according to their indexes. The following types of table relationships are
recognized by MIB Explorer:
 One-To-One Dependent Relationships
Two tables have a one-to-one relationship if one table augments the
other. When a table augments another, it shares the same index columns with its base table and contains the same number of rows than
its base table.
 Sparse Dependent Relationship
A table is sparse dependent related to its base table, if it extends only
some of the base table's rows. The dependent table then shares the
index columns of the base, but in contrast to the one-to-one dependent relationship, the sparse dependent table does contain less rows
than its parent. Typically, the sparse dependent table conceptually
extends the base table with additional columns for those rows that
have a specific attribute value.
 Dependent Expansion Relationship
A table is dependent expansion related to its base table, if it shares the
same index than its base but adds additional index columns to its
index. An expansion table thus may contain more than one row for
each row in its base table.
Reordering relationships where the index objects in two tables are the
same, but in a different order cannot be viewed directly in a MIB Explorer
grid view. Reordering relationships are often used to improve lookup
performance for specific management tasks. In most cases it is not useful
to view reordered tables in the same view.
To Open a Grid View for SNMP Tables
1. Select an OBJECT-TYPE node (no leaf ) with a SYNTAX definition
starting with "SEQUENCE OF". Typically, the object names of those
nodes end with "Table".
2. Choose Grid from the node's context menu or from the Edit menu.
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Editing and Cell Navigation
3. If the table is augmented or extended by other tables of currently
loaded MIB modules, a shuffle dialog will be displayed. You can add
the tables with which you want to extend the master table from the left
list to the right one. By pressing the OK button you add the columns
of the tables in the right list to the table view. By pressing the Cancel
button the table selected in the MIB tree is opened as it is.
The SNMP grid view displays all columnar MIB objects defined under the
selected node and optionally from augmenting tables as well as other
depending tables.
The leftmost columns with gray background represent the index of the
table. Columns with a white background are read-only. For each row in
the base table, there may be zero or more rows of dependent tables. To
view these rows, click on the Plus sign ('+') on the left side of the row or
choose Expand Current from the context menu to expand all rows of the
current table. The headers of the different tables will be shaded in different
blue tones.
10.1
In the Table View there is an
option „By Row“, which allows to
commit all writable columns of a
row too.
Editing and Cell Navigation
The editing model of the grid view is different from the model of the table
view. While the table view allows undo and redo of editing steps, the grid
view allows to cancel the changes made to the current row only.
If the value of a cell is changed and the focus leaves that row, the changes
to the row are automatically committed to the target agent. Changes may
also be committed manually by clicking on the edit symbol on the left side
of the edited row.
Even if only a single value has been changed in a row, all writable columns
of that row will be set which is another difference to the table view's
commit policy where only changed values are sent to the agent when
committed.
The editing cell format equals to the format of the Table View as described
by the section “Cells” on page 67, but with the following limitations:
 Enumerated values cannot be chosen from a list by using a combo box,
only the numeric representation can be entered.
 OIDs can only be entered as integer values separated by dots, thus
object names cannot be used to lookup OID values in grid views.
 BITS can only be entered by their binary representation.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Grid View (Pro Edition)
10.2
Toolbar
Figure 5:

Grid View‘s toolbar.
Find
Find the next cell in the table whose value (as displayed) matches a
given regular expression. The search starts at the current position and
continues row by row from left to right.

Find Again
Find the next cell in the table whose value (as displayed) matches the
last search expression.

Refresh
Refresh the whole table. The top level table is retrieved from the agent
and then for each received row the dependent and augmented table
rows are retrieved.
10.3
Context Menu
 Insert Row
Insert a new row into a table of the selected type. Before the new row is
inserted into the table, you will be prompted to specify the new row's
index by entering a value for each index object. The presented input
fields depend on the type of the index object. For a description of the
different input fields see “Set Dialog” on page 56.
If a row with the entered index already exists, an error dialog will be
displayed and the insert operation will be aborted. Otherwise, the new
row is inserted in a table with the selected type whose base table's
index is lexicographic less than the index of the new row. If such a
table does not exists yet, then it will be created.
 String Format
Selects the display and input format for the selected/current column
with OCTET STRING syntax. The available formats are described in
“Column syntax formats of the PDU editor.” on page 75.
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Context Menu
 Cancel
Cancel the changes made to the current row and restores the values of
the row of the last refresh or successful commit.
 Requery
Requery the specified rows by sending GETNEXT (SNMPv1) or
GETBULK (SNMPv2c/v3) requests to the target agent.
 Update
Update the agent by committing row changes to the target agent. A
row is always completely updated which means that all writable elements are sent with a SET request message to the target.
Tip: If the option "Allow editing of
objects with MAX-ACCESS readonly" is selected in Preferences/
SNMP, then committing rows on
regular SNMP entities will fail.
Either use the table view instead
or deselect that option.
 Select
Select the specified range of rows.
 Expand Current
Expand all rows in the current table.
 Print
Directly print the selected parts of the grid to the default printer.
 Print Preview
Open a dialog to print the table on a printer. Before actually printing
the table, the result can be previewed on the screen. The page layout
and the printer can be selected.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
11 Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
MIB Explorer provides means to easily compose SNMP PDUs with the
PDUs tab from the info panel. A variable binding can be appended to a
PDU by simply dragging the corresponding MIB tree node into the PDU
editor table. PDUs created with the PDUs tab can be used for the
following purposes:
 Monitoring an arbitrary set of MIB objects of the current target.
 Atomically modifying an arbitrary set of MIB objects of the current
target.
 Sending any type of SNMP PDU to the one or more targets (see also
Script and Monitor tools).
 Save retrieved object instances into a XML file for further processing
or later reuse. See “To Save a PDU:” on page 73.
To Create a New PDU:
1. Select the PDUs tab from the main window's tools panel.
2. Press the New button to create a new PDU. If you want to create a
trap, notification or INFORM PDU, then press the New Trap button
instead. A new PDU will be created and displayed on the right hand
side.
3. Edit the PDU.
To Open a PDU:
1. Select the PDUs tab from the main window's tools panel.
2. Press the Open button to open a previously saved PDU from disk. If
the extension of the file is xml then it has to follow the XML schema
MIBExplorerPDU.xsd. Otherwise, the file will be opened with
MIB Explorer's internal PDU file format.
3. Select the PDU file in the file open dialog and press Open. The corresponding PDU will be displayed on the right hand side.
To Save a PDU:
1. Select the PDU to save in the PDUs tab.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Editing PDUs
2. Press the Save As button. A file selection dialog will be displayed.
Select a file or enter a new filename to save the PDU to. To save the
PDU as a XML file following the XML schema MIBExplorerPDU.xsd, use a file name with the extension xml (case insensitive). The MIBExplorerPDU.xsd located in the xsd directory of
the MIB Explorer installation. For all other extensions, MIB
Explorer's internal PDU file format is used.
3. Press OK. When the PDU is saved successfully, the change list will be
cleared.
To Close a PDU:
1. Select the PDU to save in the PDUs tab.
2. Press Close. If there are any unsaved changes, you will be prompted
for saving them.
11.1
Editing PDUs
The PDU editor can be used to create a SNMP PDU by specifying the
variable bindings contained in the PDU. Each row in the editor represents
a variable binding. The row positions correspond to the variable binding
positions of the edited PDU. A variable binding is specified by supplying
values for the following columns
1. Object ID
Specifies the object identifier of the variable binding. This value must
be given for each row.
2. Syntax
Specifies the SMI syntax of the value supplied in the third column. If
syntax Null is chosen, a value must not be specified.
3. Value
The actual value of the variable binding. The format of the value
depends on the chosen syntax in the second column. The formats are
the same as for the Set Dialog.
To create correct trap and inform PDUs the first variable binding has to
be a sysUpTime.0 instance with a TimeTicks syntax and the second
binding has to be a snmpTrapOID.0 instance with an OID syntax. For
SNMPv1, the required enterprise, genericID, and specificID fields
are automatically determined from these two variable bindings if the target
uses SNMPv1 and the PDU type is TRAP. If you want to specify the
agentIpAddress field of the SNMPv1 trap, then include a
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
75
snmpTrapAddress.0 (1.3.6.1.6.3.18.1.3.0) variable binding
with syntax IpAddress as third variable binding in the trap PDU.
11.2
Context Menu
With the Unlock option of the PDU table's context menu, you can unlock
the Object ID and Syntax columns of variable bindings that have been
dropped from the MIB tree into the PDU. Unless such a variable binding
has not been unlocked, you cannot edit its object ID and syntax.
In addition, the display and input format for variable bindings with
OCTET STRING syntax can be chosen. The available formats are listed
in the table below.
FORMAT
DESCRIPTION
SAMPLE VALUE DISPLAY OF „ABC“
ASCII
Plain text formatting.
aBc
Decimal
Formats each byte as a decimal value with a
dot (".") as separator.
97.66.99
Hexadecimal
Formats each byte as a hexadecimal value
with a colon (":") as separator.
61:42:63
Octal
Formats each byte as a octal value with a
colon (":") as separator.
141:102:143
Binary
Formats each byte as a binary value with a
colon (":") as separator.
1100001:1000010:1100011
MIB
Uses the format defined by the DISPLAYHINT clause of the corresponding
OBJECT-TYPE definition (if available)
otherwise the Hexadecimal format will be
used if non-printable characters occur.
Depends on the MIB format!
Table 6: Column syntax formats of the PDU editor.
11.3
Toolbars
11.3.1 Main Toolbar
Figure 6:
PDU Editor‘s main toolbar.
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Toolbars

Add New Variable Binding
Adds a new row representing a variable binding before the selected
row. If no row is selected, the row will be added at the end of the
PDU.

Duplicate Variable Binding
Duplicate the selected row (variable binding).

Remove Variable Binding
Remove the selected rows (variable bindings) from the PDU.

Move Variable Binding Up
Move the selected variable binding(s) one position to the beginning
of the PDU.

Move Variable Binding Down
Move the selected variable binding(s) one position to the end of the
PDU.

Set Values
Sends the PDU's variable bindings as a single SET request PDU to
the current target agent. If the target agent returns an error, then
the corresponding error message and error index will be displayed
in the status bar.

Send PDU to Targets
Open a dialog for choosing one or more targets to send the variable
bindings of the current PDU to.
 PDU Type Selection
Defines the PDU type to be used by any Refresh operation (manual or periodic) and defines the pre-selected PDU type for “Send
PDU to Targets”.

Refresh Values From/To Current Target
Sends the current PDU as a PDU of the selected type (see “PDU Type
Selection”) request to the current agent. The values of the variable
bindings in the sent request are set to the SNMP Null syntax for
GET, GETNEXT and GETBULK PDU types. The values of each
variable binding will be replaced with the value returned by the agent.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
If the agent returns an exception value (SNMPv2c or SNMPv3 targets
only) that corresponding value will be displayed with orange background. If the agent returns an error, the corresponding message and
error index will be displayed in the status bar and no value will be
changed.

Redo Last Change
Redo the last change made to the PDU (if there is any in the redo
stack).

Undo Last Change
Undo the last change made. The undo stack is reset when the PDU is
saved.

Detach PDU
Detach the PDU from the main window and show it in its own window.

Attach PDU
Attach a previously detached window to the main window again.
11.3.2 Periodic Refresh Toolbar
Figure 7:
PDU editor‘s periodic refresh toolbar.
 Refresh Interval
Specifies the refresh interval in seconds. You can either use the predefined values or enter your own value. By pressing <Enter>, periodically refresh starts with the given refresh interval. 0 deactivates
periodical refresh.

Start
Starts periodically refresh, if the refresh interval value is not zero (or
"disabled").

Stop
Stops the periodical refresh.
 Progress Bar
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Sending a PDU
Shows the percentage of the refresh period left until next refresh.

Export Data
By pressing the toggle button, you can specify a comma separated
value (CSV) text file to save the PDU data to whenever it is refreshed.
The CSV file can be later opened by a spreadsheet application. As long
as the toggle button is pressed, refreshed table data will be written or
appended to the file. If the file already exists you can choose whether
new data should replace existing data in the file or if the new data
should be appended. If a file does not exist, then the new data will be
appended. This is also the case, if the periodic refresh is enabled.
11.4
Sending a PDU
MIB Explorer is able to send any type of SNMP PDU to one or more
targets at once. Because trap (SNMPv1 only), notification, and INFORM
PDUs have a slightly different format than other SNMP PDUs, they
always require two variable bindings which are as follows:
1. The first variable binding in a trap, notification or INFORM PDU
has to be a sysUpTime.0 instance (1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0) with
syntax TimeTicks.
2. The second variable binding in a trap, notification or INFORM PDU
has to be a
3. snmpTrapOID.0 instance (1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.4.1.0) with syntax OBJECT-IDENTIFIER.
To specify the agent IP address of a SNMPv1 trap PDU, you may add a
snmpTrapAddress.0 instance (1.3.6.1.6.3.18.1.3.0) as the
third variable binding. If the third variable binding is not
snmpTrapAddress.0, then the agent address will be set to "0.0.0.0".
To send a PDU
1. Create or open a PDU. If you want to send a trap, notification, or
INFORM PDU, then create a new PDU using the New Trap button
in the PDUs tab.
2. Add all variable bindings you want in the PDU to the variable bindings table. See “Editing PDUs” on page 74.
3. Press the Send PDU ( ) button in the PDUs toolbar. A dialog window will be shown, where you can specify the targets to send the PDU
to.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Protocol Data Units (PDUs)
79
4. Add those targets to the Selected Targets panel on the right side. The
current target will be added to the selected targets by default.
5. Select the PDU Type. If the PDU does not contain the two required
variable bindings for TRAP and INFORM PDUs listed above, then
the GET, SET, GETNEXT, and GETBULK PDU types will be available only.
6. If you have chosen GETBULK as PDU type, specify the number of
non-repeaters in the PDU and the maximum repetitions for the
repeatedly requested variable bindings.
7. Press OK to send the PDU to the selected targets.
After pressing OK, MIB Explorer will display a Result Window. It
contains a table, which displays for each target the status of the respective
SNMP request. If a request is successfully finished, the status column will
be "Success". Since a TRAP request is not responded, its status will be
"Success" when it has been sent successfully. This does not imply that the
target has received it! For all other PDU types where the request has not
timed out, you can click on the row in the status table to show the response
PDU of the respective target.
The Response PDU table displays the variable bindings of the selected
target's response (if any response is available) in the same manner as
described for the Browse Tab.
If a target responded with an error, the error status will be displayed in the
Status column. Is the error index greater than zero, then the
corresponding variable binding will be displayed with a red background.
Variable bindings with OIDs that are not known (cannot be resolved with
the currently loaded MIB modules) are displayed with orange background.
Note: If you select GETBULK for a
SNMPv1 target, then MIB Explorer
will send a GETNEXT request
instead.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Trap Receiver
12 Trap Receiver
The trap receiver pane displays SNMPv1 traps, SNMPv2c/v3
notifications, and INFORM messages received on specified trap listener
addresses. UDP and TCP trap listener addresses and ports are configured
using the Trap Receiver section of the Preferences. See “Trap Receiver”
on page 10.
The background color of the Notification ID field of a trap, notification,
or inform message reflects the severity assigned for the object ID subtree
the notification ID belongs to. A red background indicates a message with
a severity of FATAL, an orange background indicates an ERROR, and a
yellow background indicates a WARNING.
SNMPv3 traps and INFORMS are received on behalf of principals which
can be configured by setting up a target.
To setup SNMPv3 INFORM request reception:
In contrast to SNMPv3 trap reception or sending of SNMPv3 requests,
MIB Explorer is the authoritative entity when receiving SNMPv3
INFORM requests. To enable reception of such requests on behalf an
USM user, one has to configure an user as follows:
 The Localization Engine ID (if specified at all) has to be set to engine
ID of MIB Explorer which can be found in SNMPv3 section of the
Preferences dialog.
 The Principal check box has to be selected for that USM user.
12.1
Figure 8:
Toolbars
Trap Receiver‘s main toolbar.
 Acknowledge
Moves selected traps from the list of new traps to the notification history. The notification history contains acknowledged traps for further
reference.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Trap Receiver
81
 Save As
Saves the selected trap as a MIB Explorer PDU file. This PDU file can then
be loaded and modified with the PDU editor or used in MIB Explorer
Scripts.
 Delete
Deletes the selected traps/notifications from the list of new traps or the
notification history respectively.
 Redo
Redo last change.
 Undo
Undo last change. You can undo trap deletions and acknowledgments.
 Properties
Open the Trap Severities dialog for specifying logging severities for
incoming traps, notifications, and inform messages. In addition,
scripts can be specified for each notification category to be executed
when receiving a notification whose ID matches that category.
 Notification History
Toggles the display between list of new traps and notification history.
If selected (dark background), the notification history is shown, otherwise the list of new traps is displayed.
Figure 9:
Trap Receiver‘s acknowledgement toolbar.
 Suspend Trap Table Update
Suspend the update of the trap table. Press this button to save processor time or to stabilize the trap list while MIB Explorer is receiving a
lot of traps. The new traps received while the Pause button is selected
will be counted by the Hidden traps counter (see below). By reactivating the trap table update, any hidden traps will be inserted into the
table according to the current sort settings.
 New
The total number of traps received that have not yet been acknowledged.
Note: If the trap receiver receives
more than given number of traps
per second, MIB Explorer will
automatically suspend update of
the trap table. Suspension has to
be disabled manually. The
number of traps per second to be
tolerated by the auto-inhibition
can be configured in Preferences.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Traps/Notifications Table
 Acknowledged
The total number of traps in the notification history list.
 Hidden
The total number of traps received while the trap table update is suspended.
 Total
The total number of traps, new traps and acknowledged traps, available in the trap receiver.
12.2
Traps/Notifications Table
The traps table displays new and acknowledged traps/notifications
depending on the status of the Notification History toggle button. Each
row represents an event. The row label indicates the time and date when
the event has been received. The other columns are as follows:
 Notification ID
The notification ID is the OID identifying the event. Although,
SNMPv1 traps are not identified by OIDs, but identified by a combination of an OID and an integer value, SNMPv1 traps can be easily
mapped to an unique OID.
The "generic traps" are mapped to the notification IDs defined under
the snmpTraps (1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5) node. The "specific traps"
are mapped to an OID value by using the ENTERPRISE OID value of
the trap, adding a zero OID sub-identifier, and adding a final subidentifier value corresponding to the specific trap value. See RFC 2576
for details on this mapping.
The background color of the Notification ID field reflects the assigned
severity for this notification ID:
FATAL, ERROR, WARN, INFO
 Originator
Note: If there is no UDP port
specified, then the displayed
address is not the originator's UDP
transport address, but the IP
address value of the agent
address field of the SNMPv1 trap
received.
The originator address denotes the IP address (host name) and UDP
port of the SNMP entity that sent the event.
 Destination
The destination address value denotes trap listener address on whose
behalf the trap has been received.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Trap Receiver
 System Up Time
The system up time value represents the up time of the system (e.g.
SNMP agent) that sent the trap.
 Security Name
The security name denotes the security user on whose behalf the event
was sent (SNMPv3) or the community of the trap/notification
(SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c).
 Version
The SNMP version of the event message.
 Context
For SNMPv3 events, the context value denotes the event generating
subsystem.
 Context Engine ID
For SNMPv3 events, the context engine ID value denotes the engine
ID of the subsystem that sent the event.
By clicking a row, the variable bindings contained in an event message are
displayed in the below described Trap Payload Table.
12.3
Traps Payload Table
The trap payload table displays the variable bindings contained in the first
selected trap (event) message of the Traps Table. The variable bindings are
displayed in the same manner as described for the Browse Tab. See
“Browse Tab” on page 52.
12.4
Trap Severity Editor
The Trap Severities Editor dialog that lets you specify (logging) severities
for categories of incoming traps, notifications, and inform messages. The
severity is determined by analysis of the notification ID. For each
incoming trap/notification, the Trap Severities table will be searched for
the entry (category) whose subtree OID is the longest possible match. The
severity for this message will then be set to the severity specified for the
matched category.
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Trap Severity Editor
If there has been assigned a MIB Explorer Script for the matched category,
then the corresponding script will be executed with the snmp, utils, and
mib contexts and additionally the following special context values:
CONTEXT
DESCRIPTION
severity
The assigned severity for the received
notification as one of the following strings:
FATAL, ERROR, WARN, and INFO.
comment
The comment string assigned to the category
the received notification matches or null if
the comment is left empty.
sourceAddress
The complete
notification.
sourceHost
The host (IP address) of the notification
source.
sourcePort
The UDP or TCP port of the notification
source.
source
address
of
the
Table 7: Special context values for MIB Explorer Scripts triggered by traps.
To Open the Trap Severities Editor
1. Choose Trap Receiver from the Tools menu.
2. Click on the Properties (
) button.
3. Add or remove categories by either using the Add or Remove buttons
respectively or alternatively using the context menu of the shown
table.
4. Press OK to save your changes.
To Configure a Script for a Notification Category
1. Select the category row by clicking on the row's Script column cell.
2. Open the context menu by pressing the right mouse button.
3. Choose Script... and choose or enter the file name of the script to run
for notifications of this category.
4. Press OK to save your changes to the category.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Trap Receiver
There is an example for sending an email when receiving a trap in the
examples directory of the MIB Explorer installation directory named
email_on_trap.vm.
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Scripts (Pro Edition)
13 Scripts (Pro Edition)
MIB Explorer can execute scripts based on VTL, the Velocity Template
Language from Apache. Also VTL, in the first place, is designed for
generating text or HTML output with dynamic content, its clear
differentiation between model, view, and controller (MVC) makes it also
a first choice for scripting.
The control structures provided by VTL are limited, but they also make it
easy for users with little or no programming experience to write scripts
based on VTL. Supported control statements are #if..#else..#end to
conditionally execute statements and #foreach..#end to execute
statements for each element of a given list. With the #macro statement
parts of script that are frequently used can be combined into a function
that can called in the script with #<macro_name>. Please refer to the
VTL user guide for a complete description of the VTL language.
A MIB Explorer script differs from any other Velocity Macro (VM) only
by the model MIB Explorer provides for the script. The model is accessed
from a VM through contexts. To access the methods (services) provided by
a context, a VTL reference with the context's name is used, for example
$utils.sleep(1000)
will cause the script to cease execution for one second by calling the sleep
method of context utils. The contexts supported by MIB Explorer are
shown in the table below. The Scope column indicates in which type of
scripts the corresponding context can be used. The methods implemented
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87
by the contexts are documented in the JavaDoc HTML documentation
also available in the doc directory of the MIB Explorer installation:
CONTEXT
SCOPE
DESCRIPTION
snmp
any
(except
monitordataservlet)
The snmp context provides services to create SNMP request,
load PDUs, modify their variable bindings, send SNMP
requests and notifications synchronously and inspect SNMP
responses. The context has several internal members which can
be accessed through this interface:
 Current Target - The target to be used for subsequent
requests.
 Default Target - The target set for MIB Explorer.
 Request PDU - The PDU to be used for subsequent SNMP
operations.
 Response PDU - The PDU received from the last request
operation.
 PDU directory - The directory the search for PDU files, if
their file name is relative.
mib
utils
any
(except
monitordataservlet)
The mib context provides services to
any
The utils context provides utility services to
 load/unload MIB modules,
 retrieve and exploit MIB object definitions, and
 manipulating OID values.
 temporarily execute a system command,
 send email using (authenticated) SMTP,
 cease script execution,
 stop script execution,
 create random integers, and to
 create an empty Vector (e.g., to collect response PDUs).
Table 8: Velocity Macro (VM) language contexts available for MIB Exlorer scripts.
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CONTEXT
SCOPE
DESCRIPTION
parameters
monitorscriptservlet
The parameters context is a Map that associates (HTTP
request) parameter names with a String array of associated
values. Each parameter may thus have zero or more values.
Note: This context is only available for scripts executed on behalf of the
HTTP server script servlet.
gui
scripttool
The gui context provides means to get input from the user
when the script is executed. The user can be prompted for a
string value, or for a variable binding.
Note: This context is only available for scripts executed on behalf of the
script tool pane of the MIB Explorer GUI.
alarm
monitorname
monitoralarmscript
The alarm context provides information about the alarm
event that triggered the script's execution.
monitordataservlet
The monitorname context contains the name of the monitor
for which data is requested through a HTTP request to the
monitor data servlet.
Note: This context is exclusively available for scripts executed on behalf
of a monitor's alarm configuration.
Note: This context is exclusively available for scripts executed on behalf
of monitor data servlet.
Table 8: Velocity Macro (VM) language contexts available for MIB Exlorer scripts.
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89
CONTEXT
SCOPE
DESCRIPTION
monitordata
monitordataservlet
The monitordata of the monitor for which data is requested
through a HTTP request to the monitor data servlet. The
monitordata object is an array of MonitorData instances.
The first instance contains the primary data table or the
requested consolidation table. If there are additional instances
then these are all the consolidation data tables and the first one
is the primary data table. The column labels can be accessed by
calling the getColumnLabels() method. It returns the
lables as a List. The cells of of a MonitorData object can be
retrieved through getCells() which returns a List of row
objects. Each row object is a List of columns containing
Double or String objects.
Note: This context is exclusively available for scripts executed on behalf
of monitor data servlet.
consolidationname
monitordataservlet
The consolidationname context contains the name of the
consolidation table for which data is requested through a HTTP
request to the monitor data servlet. This context is only available
(not null) if a consolidation table has been requested explicitly.
Note: This context is exclusively available for scripts executed on behalf
of monitor data servlet.
Table 8: Velocity Macro (VM) language contexts available for MIB Exlorer scripts.
13.1
Script Editor
The script editor is divided into three areas: the Toolbar area, the Script
area, and the Output area. The Script tab is used to edit the script whereas
the Output tab shows the script's output from its last run.
13.1.1 Toolbars
Figure 10:

Script tab‘s main toolbar.
Run
Executes the script once. The Output tab is selected and the script's
output is shown as it is generated.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Script Editor

Stop/Abort
Stop the execution of the script.

Redo
Redo last change made to the script.

Undo
Undo last change made to the script.

Detach
Detach this script panel from the main window and show it in its own
window.

Attach
Attach a previously detached window to the main window again.
Figure 11:
Script refresh toolbar.
 Run Interval
Specifies the run interval in seconds. You can either use the predefined
values or enter your own value. By pressing <Enter>, periodically
script execution starts with the given interval. 0 deactivates periodical
refresh.
During periodically script execution, the script is scheduled for
repeated fixed-delay execution. Subsequent executions take place at
approximately regular intervals, separated by the specified period.
In fixed-delay execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the
actual execution time of the previous execution. If an execution is
delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background
activity), subsequent executions will be delayed as well. In the long
run, the frequency of execution will generally be slightly lower than
the reciprocal of the specified period.

Start
Start periodically script execution, if the interval value is not zero (not
"disabled").
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Scripts (Pro Edition)

Stop
Stop the periodical script execution.
 Progress Bar
Shows the percentage of the execution pause period left until the next
scheduled execution.

Export Output
By pressing the toggle button, a text file can be specified to store the
script's output. While the export toggle button is selected the script's
output is saved to the specified file whenever it is updated.
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TFTP (Pro Edition)
14 TFTP (Pro Edition)
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) as specified in RFC 1350
provides means to transfer files over an IP network with very little protocol
overhead. Files can be transferred to a remote TFTP server (PUT) or
retrieved from a remote server to a local file (GET).
MIB Explorer can provide a TFTP server and client which are described in
the following sections.
14.1
TFTP Client
To put a file on a TFTP server
1. Select the TFTP tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Select/configure the target which represents IP address of the remote
TFTP server.
3. Choose the local file to be transferred by pressing the Choose button.
You could also drag&drop a file from a file explorer to the local file
text field.
4. Enter the remote file name or drag&drop a MIB instance containing a
file name string from the MIB tree.
5. Press the Put button to transfer the local file to the specified remote
file using binary transfer mode. The bytes transferred so far as well as
encountered errors are displayed in the status bar.
To get a file from a TFTP server
1. Select the TFTP tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Select/configure the target which represents IP address of the remote
TFTP server.
3. Choose the local file for the transferred data by pressing the Choose
button. You could also drag&drop a file from a file explorer to the
local file text field. Please note that the local file is overwritten by
pressing the Get button in step 5.
4. Enter the remote file name or drag&drop a MIB instance containing a
file name string from the MIB tree.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
TFTP (Pro Edition)
5. Press the Get button to transfer the remote file to the specified local
file which will be overwritten. The bytes transferred so far as well as
encountered errors are displayed in the Status Bar.
14.2
TFTP Server
A TFTP server is a non-secure (no password required to login) trivial file
server. It should not be run unattended. It can be used to transfer BULK data
such as system dumps from or to a (SNMP) device.
To start a TFTP server
1. Select the TFTP tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Use Choose from the TFTP Server area of the TFTP pane to specify a
directory that contains the file(s) to be served by the TFTP server. Files
in the specified directory and below.
3. Specify the UDP TFTP Port that should be used by the TFTP server.
The default port is 69.
4. Press the Start button to start the TFTP server.
To stop a TFTP server
1. Select the TFTP tab from the main window's tools panel.
2. Press the Stop button in the TFTP Server area of the TFTP pane to
stop the TFTP server.
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Server (Pro Edition)
15 Server (Pro Edition)
Existing monitor (configuration)
files can easily migrated to a
database using the -m2db
parameter of MIB Explorer Server
(mxp-server).
MIB Explorer Pro can be used as a monitoring server that collects,
aggregates, and otherwise computes data from remote SNMP entities. The
collected data can then be stored on disk in MIB Explorer‘s native format
or XML.
In addition, with version 3 or later, monitoring data can also be stored
using Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) database connections to DB
servers. Currently IBM® DB2® 9.7 or later1 and PostgreSQL are supported
out-of-the-box. See “Monitors (Pro Edition)” on page 107.
For presenting the monitoring data to end-users, MIB Explorer Pro also
provides a HTTP-Server which can be configured and instrumented using
MIB Explorer scripts. See also “Scripts (Pro Edition)” on page 86.
All the above mentioned server features are available in the GUI
application of MIB Explorer Pro which is started by default. For pure
server use, a headless (non-GUI) application can be the better choice especially if the server should run in a command line oriented
environment. Therefore, MIB Explorer Pro can be run headless too while
monitoring, HTTP server, and scripts are configured at server start.
Running monitoring scripts can be reconfigured at runtime too.
The following sections describe the server related functions of MIB
Explorer Pro.
15.1
MIB Explorer Headless Server
When MIB Explorer is run without command line arguments it starts with
its graphical user interface (GUI). This is the best choice for most use cases.
However, there are use cases where running MIB Explorer without a GUI
is more appropriate, for example:
 to run monitors as background process to create chart images for a
Web server
 to run scripts to automate SNMP configuration, test agent implementations, or send traps.
1. IBM and DB2 are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation,
registered in many jurisdictions worldwide.
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To run a monitor or script in server mode:
1. Change the working directory to the MIB Explorer installation directory.
2. On UNIX systems use the mxp-server.sh script instead mxppro.sh. This script starts the JRE with the "-Djava.awt.headless=true" option set, so that MIB Explorer can even be run in
server mode on UNIX systems without X installed:
mxp-server.sh {options}
 On windows systems, start the Java virtual machine by using:
mxp-server.bat {options}
 Without special script from any operating system command line
with Java installed:
java -D java.awt.headless=true-jar mxp_pro.jar -server {options}
where in all cases {options} is replaced by any combination of the
below listed options.
15.1.1 Server Options
The table below shows the available options for the headless MIB Explorer
version. All options can be specified more than once, although in case of h and -w only their last occurence will be effective then.
OPTION
DESCRIPTION
-?
Print usage information on the console.
-a[ccept] secret
Accept client connections from MIB Explorers that use the
specified secret (see “Server” on page 15). This option can be
supplied more than once. By default only the secret specified for
this MIB Explorer user/configuration will be accepted.
-acceptall
Disable client authorization. All MIB Explorer clients will be
able to connect as long as the "server.security" policy allows it
(see option -securitymanager below).
Table 9: Command line options for MIB Explorer Pro headless server.
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OPTION
DESCRIPTION
-d[isableMonitorScripting]
Disable scripting for monitors run by the server. Because a
monitor script can execute system commands and send emails,
using this option provides another level of security, if necessary.
-http-port port
Specify the port for the built-in HTTP server (this option has no
effect if the HTTP server is disabled by the option "httpservlets off".
-http-serlvets
off|all|monitorcharts|
monitordata|script
Disable the built-in HTTP server by setting this option off.
Enable all servlets by using all or enable any servlet subset by
specifying the monitorcharts, monitordata, and script
options once for each servlet to enable.
-h[eight]
Set the default height of monitor charts in pixels, default is 480.
This size is used if a monitor's preferred height is 0 and the
height is not specified otherwise (for example by providing the
height parameter for the HTTP monitor servlet).
-w[idth]
Set the default widths of monitor charts in pixels, default is 640.
This size is used if a monitor's preferred width is 0 and the width
is not specified otherwise (for example by providing the width
parameter for the HTTP monitor servlet).
Table 9: Command line options for MIB Explorer Pro headless server.
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97
OPTION
DESCRIPTION
-m2db jdbc-url driver-class
Migrate all for restart configured monitors and all monitors
specified using the -m option to a database monitor on the
relational database accessible through JDBC using the URL
jdbc-url. For PostgreSQL the URL has the format:
jdbc:postgresql://hostname:port?user=username&password=password
The URL format for DB2 is (the trailing ; is important!):
jdbc:postgresql://hostname:port:user=username;password=password;
The driver-class name identifies the DB version and
driver to be used. For PostgreSQL the driver class name is
org.postgresql.Driver whereas for DB2 it is
com.ibm.db2.jcc.DB2Driver.
During migration, .xml and .mon files will be saved to the
specified database and the access parameters will be stored for
further reference in a file with .dbm extension in the same
directory as the source file. Then the monitors are started and
any collected data will be stored to the database only. If you
want to rerun the monitors from the database after migration,
you will have to specify the saved files on startup with the -m
option and/or replace the monitor paths in the mxp4.cf file in
your home directory with the migrated ones ending with .dbm.
-m[onitor] filename
Run the specified monitor file. The file specified by filename will
be rewritten (updated) after each refresh*. Any changes made to
the monitor by a MIB Explorer GUI while this server is running
will get lost then.
-server
Start MIB Explorer Pro as MIB Explorer Server (without GUI).
-s[cript] script output
Run the script script and write the output to the file output.
-mibs[et] name
Load the specified MIB set in addition to already loaded
modules (i.e. those modules that were loaded when the MIB
Explorer GUI has been exited last).
Table 9: Command line options for MIB Explorer Pro headless server.
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HTTP Server
OPTION
DESCRIPTION
-rmihost hostname
Sets the java.rmi.server.hostname system property that
is necessary to allow remote clients to connect to the MIB
Explorer server. Client connections might be possible without
setting this option, but that depends on your environment.
-securitymanager
Run the server with a security manager. This options requires
specifying a policy file with
-Djava.security.policy=server.security
at the command line as shown in
mxp-sec-server.[sh|bat].
By specifying this option, the connections allowed to and by the
server, file access, and other security settings can be controlled
via a policy file. An example policy file is located in the MIB
Explorer installation directory. It can be edited by using a text
editor or the policytool from the JDK bin directory.
-p[ath] monitor-path
Directory path that specifies where to load and store monitor
files. If this option is not given, the last used directory when a
monitor file had been saved by the MIB Explorer GUI will be
used.
-l[oglevel] category=level
Set (override) the configured log level for category with level .
Use, for example, 'Script=OFF' to switch off logging for
scripting.
Table 9: Command line options for MIB Explorer Pro headless server.
*. Only .mon and .xml files are rewritten. Database monitor configuration files with suffix .dbm are
opened read-only.
15.2
HTTP Server
MIB Explorer Pro contains an internal HTTP server which is available for
the MIB Explorer Pro GUI application and Server. The HTTP server can
be configured by through the Preferences editor of the GUI application.
Some basic settings can be overridden by command line options of the
MIB Explorer Server.
Fields of application for the HTTP server include (besides others):
 Make monitor charts and/or data available via HTTP.
 Create your own simple Web application to monitor and/or control
SNMP enabled devices through a Web interface.
 Integrate monitor charts and/or data into your own Web application.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Server (Pro Edition)
15.2.1 Architecture
The figure below illustrates an example architecture that can be setup with
MIB Explorer Pro's HTTP Server. The architecture suggests that MIB
Explorer's HTTP server is run behind a HTTP reverse proxy server (could
be SSL enabled or not). This is not a requirement, but this approach is
recommended if
"access to the content provided through MIB Explorer's HTTP server
needs to be secured or
"the content provided by MIB Explorer's HTTP server needs to be
integrated into a Web application.
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HTTP Server
The default port for the HTTP server is 8080. You can change it in the
HTTP server preferences to any other value - including the standard port
80 (on UNIX systems you will need system privileges to use that port).
Figure 12:
Sample Architecture with MIB Explorer Pro Server behind a HTTP reverse proxy.
15.2.2 Customizing Dynamic Content
There are two ways to customize the dynamic content generation of the
MIB Explorer HTTP server:
1. Provide a set of MIB Explorer Scripts to monitor and/or control
SNMP enabled applications and devices. The context provided to the
scripts is slightly extended compared to the available contexts for the
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Server (Pro Edition)
Script tool. You can find the context reference in the section “Scripts
(Pro Edition)” on page 86.
2. Provide your own monitor data servlet template that generates a
HTML page or XML file from monitor data. The template monitor
data servlet template is called with three contexts exclusively provided
to the monitor data servlet and it is called with the utils context,
well known from other script environments of MIB Explorer.
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Snapshots (Pro Edition)
16 Snapshots (Pro Edition)
Snapshots can be taken either from the MIB Tree or from the Browse tab
and then stored to a file. A snapshot file contains the MIB object instances
(values) that were in the MIB Tree or Browse panel when the snapshot has
been taken. A snapshot can be loaded from file at any time thereafter and
displayed within a snapshot browser dialog. In addition, snapshots can be
compared to identify differences between snapshots.
16.1
Use Cases
Snapshots can be used inter alia to:
 Save the state of an agent or of a sub-tree of the same for future reference.
How-To: Browse the iso sub-tree of the agent and create a snapshot
file from it. Then you can load and browse the snapshot (file) at any
later time.
 Save the state of an agent or of a sub-tree of the same to restore the values at a later time.
How-To: Browse the iso sub-tree of the agent and create a snapshot
file from it. At a later time re-select the target agent's target and then
load the snapshot (file). By using the Restore function of the Snapshot Browser, the values can be set on the target agent.
 Compare the state of two agents or of two states of the same agent at
different points in time.
How-To: Browse the iso sub-tree of the agent and create a snapshot
file from it for both agents or at two different points in time respectively. Then compare the two snapshot files by using the Snapshot
Comparison Wizard.
 Copy the values of one agent or any sub-tree of its MIB to another
agent.
How-To: Select the source agent as target and browse the iso sub-tree
of that agent. Create a snapshot file from the Browse panel. Then load
select the target agent's target and open the snapshot. By using the
Restore function of the Snapshot Browser, the values can be set on
the target agent.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Snapshots (Pro Edition)
16.2
Snapshot Operations
To Create a Snapshot
1. Select the target from which you want to create the snapshot.
2. Select the sub-tree you want to create a snapshot from in the MIB tree.
To create a snapshot from the complete MIB of an agent, select the
iso node.
3. Either use Browse or Get from the selected node's context menu to
retrieve the instances in the selected sub-tree. Using Get is slower than
Browse if the sub-tree contains many instances. However, the first
allows to retrieve several sub-trees one after the other so that the resulting snapshot contains the union set of the retrieved sub-trees.
4. Choose File>Snapshots>Save from Tree if you used Get to retrieve
the values or File>Snapshots>Save from Browse tab if you used
Browse. Select a file or specify a new file name and press Save to save
the snapshot file.
To Open a Snapshot
1. Choose File>Snapshots>Open from the main menu and select the
snapshot file to open.
2. Press Open to load and display the snapshot in a Snapshot Browser
window.
To Compare Two Snapshots
1. Choose File>Snapshots>Compare from the main menu.
2. The Snapshot Comparison Wizard is displayed. It has three steps.
The first two steps are required and specify the snapshots to be compared. The third (optional) step specifies which syntaxes should be
compared and whether only values that are present in both snapshots
should be compared.
16.3
Snapshot Browser
A Snapshot Browser is divided into a toolbar and a tree-table area. The
tree-table has four columns:
1. MIB Tree
The MIB tree column contains the MIB object identifiers of the MIB
objects and instances in the snapshot. By default the MIB tree column
display objects and instances as an expanded tree. By clicking on the
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Snapshot Browser
button in the upper left corner of the table's header, the tree is flattened and the objects and instances in the snapshot are displayed as a
table.
2. Syntax
If the MIB object in a row is an OBJECT-TYPE definition or
instance, then its syntax is displayed in this column. The syntax of
MIB OBJECT-TYPE definitions is displayed as defined in the corresponding MIB module, whereas the syntax of MIB object instances is
displayed as received from the agent.
3. Value
The value of an object instance. The value is displayed by using the
DISPLAY-HINT specification applicable for that object definition, if
such a definition is available in the currently loaded set of MIB modules.
4. Status
The status column shows the operation status for Restore or Refresh
operations per value instance. The status values Restored and
Refreshed indicate operation success, whereas Not Restored and
Not Refreshed indicate that the restore or refresh operation did
not succeed on the particular instance, because there was an error on
another instance which has been sent in the same PDU. For restore
operations, values are sent within the same PDU, when they are part
of the same row. For refresh operations, up to the maximum number
of variable bindings allowed per PDU are sent within one PDU. An
error status is indicated by a lower letter starting error status description.
16.3.1 Toolbar

Refresh
Refresh the values in the snapshot from the current target. The target
that will be used for any operations in a snapshot browser window is
displayed in the window's title. While the refresh operation is performed, a progress bar is being displayed. After completion, a message
box is shown and the status column contains detail information about
the operation success for each value instance.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Snapshots (Pro Edition)

105
Save
Saves the content of the snapshot browser to a snapshot file. With this
function snapshot files can be copied or kept up-to-date with the latest
agent state (in conjunction with the Refresh operation).

Restore
The restore operation sends the values in the snapshot as SET requests
to the current target (as displayed in the title). In other words, the
restore operation assigns the values in the snapshot to the corresponding MIB object instances of the target agent. By pressing the Restore
button an option dialog is shown which allows to specify whether
 only mismatched instances are restored;
 rows with a RowStatus column should be set into notInService(2) before updating them or set to createAndWait(5)
Note: This option is only available
from the Snapshot Comparison
Browser.
before creating them;
 only those objects are restored whose OBJECT-TYPE definition
(which has to be present in the loaded MIB modules) has a MAXACCESS value of read-write or read-create.
By pressing OK, the values that match the selected criteria are set in the
target agent. Each scalar value will be set by itself, which means that each
scalar variable binding instance is sent in its own PDU to the target.
Columnar object instances (if the corresponding table definition is
contained in the loaded MIB modules) will be sent row-by-row to the
agent.
If the second option (use RowStatus states) is selected rows will be
created in the target agent by setting the RowStatus column to
createAndWait(5) and then sending a SET PDU with all matched
values for that row. Then the status of the RowStatus column is set to
active(1) or it is left unchanged if the status is not specified by the
snapshot or it is specified as any other value than active(1).
During the restore operation a progress bar is shown. After completion, a
message box is displayed and the status column contains detail information
about the operation success for each value instance.
16.4
Snapshot Comparison Browser
The Snapshot Comparison Browser is similar to the Snapshot Browser
described above, except that it contains a second tool bar for the second
snapshot and the following three additional columns:
Note: If the tool bar is part of the
Snapshot Comparison Browser
and the second option is active
and the values restored do not
contain a row that is contained in
the opposite snapshot, then the
row is deleted from the target by
sending a SET request on the
corresponding
RowStatus
column with a value of
destroy(6).
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Snapshot Comparison Browser
 Difference
The Difference column shows the comparison result for each value
pair. Possible values are:

Equal Sign
The equal sign indicates that both values have been compared,
have the same syntax, and that they equal each other.

Less Than (Yellow)
The yellow less-than-sign indicates that both values have the same
syntax, have been compared, and the left value is less than the right
value.

Greater Than (Yellow)
The yellow greater-than-sign indicates that both values have been
compared, have the same syntax, and the left value is greater than
the right value.

Less Than (Red)
The red less-than-sign indicates that only the right snapshot contains a value for this instance.

Greater Than (Red)
The red greater-than-sign indicates that only the left snapshot contains a value for this instance.

Error
The stop/error sign indicates that the values of the both snapshots
have different syntax and therefore cannot be compared.
 Right Syntax
The syntax of the right snapshot's value.
 Right Value
The right snapshot's value.
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Monitors (Pro Edition)
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17 Monitors (Pro Edition)
The Monitor tool is used to collect numerical and other values from one
or more targets and store them in a round robin database. The collected
numerical values can be recomputed based on spreadsheet like formulae.
The collected and computed values can then be displayed graphically as
2D charts or 3D charts.
Data is collected on demand or periodically in the, so called, primary
round robin database with configurable number of samples, start time, and
refresh interval. Each monitor has exactly one primary round robin
database.
The collected data can be consolidated based on consolidation functions
like AVERAGE, MAX, MIN, LAST, and SUM into secondary round
robin databases. A monitor can be configured to have an arbitrary number
of such consolidation round robin archives.
New in version 3: The round robin
database can be stored in
relational databases using Java
Database Connectivity (JDBC).
Currently IBM® DB2® 9.7 or later1
and PostgreSQL are supported
out-of-the-box.
For each primary data point, regardless whether it is a collected or a
computed one, an alarm configuration can be specified. Each alarm
configuration consists of a boolean expression which raises the alarm and
optionally another boolean expression which clears the alarm. Alarms are
logged in the MIB Explorer logging system with a configurable severity.
In addition, MIB Explorer may be configured to execute scripts to generate
traps, notifications, and informs, as wells as to send emails or execute
system commands if one of the configured raise or clear alarm conditions
becomes true.
Using the email feature of the logging system, alarms and other log entries
may be forwarded to an arbitrary email address.
Primary and secondary round robin databases as well as the corresponding
charts may be exported to XLS and CSV files (tabular data) or JPEG,
PNG, PDF, PS, and PCL graphic files (charts) whenever data is updated
periodically. The monitor configuration and data can be automatically
saved as XML or an internal binary file whenever its data has been updated.
Monitors can be run on a headless server as a background service using the
MIB Explorer Server. See “Server (Pro Edition)” on page 94.
1. IBM and DB2 are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation, registered in many jurisdictions worldwide.
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Basic Monitoring Operations
MIB Explorer instances can then connect to the server via TCP/IP and
configure, watch, stop, and run monitor instances on the server.
Monitor examples can found in
the examples/monitor directory
of the MIB Explorer installation.
MIB Explorer can be configured to run an internal HTTP server that,
besides others, may serve requests for monitor data. There are two different
servlets that can be enabled: a chart and a data servlet. The first generates
chart images of the requested monitor on the fly and the second generates
a HTML page using a default or an user configured Velocity template
from the monitors data.
17.1
Basic Monitoring Operations
MIB Explorer provides means to easily create Monitors with the Monitors
tab from the info panel. Monitors can be used for the following purposes:
 Collecting numerical SNMP data over a long time period and optionally compute additional values based on the collected data.
 Displaying collected or computed data as plot, bar, area, and pie
charts. Alternatively, collected data can be also displayed as 3D bar,
surface, and scatter plot charts.
 Exporting data and charts to XLS, CSV and JPEG, PNG (as well as
2D charts to PDF, PS, and PCL) files.
 Generating SNMP traps/ informs and log entries on configurable
alarm conditions.
 Run MIB Explorer scripts to spawn external processes, send emails, or
send SNMP requests.
To Create a New Monitor
1. Select the Monitors tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Press the New button to create a new Monitor. If you want to create a
monitor with 3D chart display like 3D bars, surface, or scatter plot,
then press the New 3D button instead. A new Monitor will be created
and displayed on the right hand side.
3. Configure the Monitor
To Open a Monitor
1. Select the Monitors tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Press the Open button to open a previously saved Monitor from disk.
3. Select the PDU file in the file open dialog and press Open. The corresponding Monitor will be displayed on the right hand side.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
To Save a Monitor
1. Select the Monitor to save in the Monitors tab.
2. Press the Save or Save As button. A file selection dialog will be displayed in the latter case or if the monitor has not been saved yet or the
file is no longer accessible.
Select a file or enter a new filename to save the Monitor to. The monitor will be saved in XML format if the file name's suffix is ".xml" or
".XML". It will be saved into a relational database if the suffix is
".dbm" or ".DBM". Otherwise the internal binary format will be used.
The XML schema of the monitor configuration file can be found in
the xsd directory of the MIB Explorer Pro installation.
3. For DBM monitors, you now have to enter the database connection
parameters. See “DBM Monitor Operations” on page 111.
4. Press OK. When the monitor is saved successfully, the change list will
be cleared.
To Close a Monitor
1. Select the Monitor to save in the Monitors tab.
2. Press Close. If there are any unsaved changes, you will be prompted
for saving them.
To Convert a Monitor from 2D to 3D Charts or Vice Versa
1. Select Monitors tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Press the Convert... button to open an existing monitor which will
then be automatically converted to from 2D to 3D or from 3D to 2D
charts depending on the type of the opened monitor.
3. The converted monitor will be displayed on the right hand side.
Check the properties of the monitor in order to adjust any settings.
To View, Stop, or Run a Monitor from a Remote (DB) Server
1. Select Monitors tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Press the Connect... button. You will be then prompted to enter the
host name of the MIB Explorer Server or the JDBC DB connection
URL of the relational MIB Explorer database you want to connect to.
3. If the server is available and your client host is allowed to connect to
the server, a dialog that lists the running monitors on that server will
be opened. Otherwise an error message will be displayed. By having
successfully connected to the server you can:
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1. Press the Run... button of the dialog to start a monitor from the
server's monitor directory remotely.
2. Press the Stop... button to stop the selected monitor on the server.
This will also stop all remotely connected monitors since data collection is done by the server process not the clients. The text „Monitor has
been stopped on server“ will be then displayed on all connected monitors.
3. Select a monitor and then press the Connect button to open the
selected monitor from the remote server. By opening a remote monitor, all configuration and collected data will be transferred (unencrypted) to the local MIB Explorer process via a TCP/IP connection
and the monitor will be set into run mode. While in run mode,
updates on the data of the server monitor will propagated to the local
(client) monitor. Its data and charts will be updated accordingly. If the
monitor's settings are changed so that the changes are incompatible
with the server monitor, then the local monitor will be automatically
disconnected from the server1. The local version might then be
(re)deployed (see below) to the server to replace the original one or to
start a new copy on the server.
To Deploy a Monitor to a Server
1. Open or create a monitor as described above.
2. Press the Deploy... button. You will be then prompted to enter the
host name of the MIB Explorer Server or the JDBC URL of the relational MIB Explorer database.
3. If the entered MIB Explorer server could be contacted you will be
prompted to enter the name of the monitor on the remote server.
4. Press OK to start the monitor on the server. The local monitor will be
automatically connected to the deployed instance on the server. The
monitor configuration and data will be saved to the monitor path of
the server.
If you deployed the monitor to a database, the monitor cannot run itself
on the database server. The data will be collected locally and then stored
remotely into the database.
To store a monitor configuration (and data) on a database it is
recommended to use Save as instead Deploy.
1. DBM monitors are automatically reloaded completely if the configuration on the
server changes incompatible with the current local configuration.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
To Restart Open Monitors When MIB Explorer is Run Next
Time
1. Select Monitors tab from the main window's Tools panel.
2. Open all monitors that should be run the next time MIB Explorer or
MIB Explorer Server is started following the instructions above.
3. Select the "Restart Next Time" checkbox.
4. Exit MIB Explorer at any later time without opening or closing monitors meanwhile.
5. If MIB Explorer Server is run then, the monitors will be started from
the location where they were opened under (2). If MIB Explorer Pro is
started, then you will be prompted at startup whether you want to run
the monitors. If you confirm, the monitors are loaded and started otherwise they are loaded only.
17.1.1 DBM Monitor Operations
This section describes the characteristics of the basic monitor operations
for monitors stored on relational databases. Whereas the classic MON and
XML monitor files store configuration and data in a single file on the local
file system, the DBM monitor files contain only database access
information. Configuration and data of the DBM monitors are stored in
the associated relational database.
The typical content of a DBM monitor file is:
jdbc.url=jdbc\:postgresql\://localhost\:5432/mxp
jdbc.driver=org.postgresql.Driver
monitor.id=1
monitor.name=InterfacesIO_PostgreSQL.dbm
# Add the following lines if you do not want to
# get prompt for user and password when opening
# the monitor file (required on a MIB Explorer Sever).
# Alternatively, for most JDBC drivers, you can also
# add user and password in the jdbc.url.
user=foo
password=bar
The above configuration would access a database named mxp in the
PostgreSQL database server at the localhost on port 5432. The
monitor.id property selects a monitor with the ID 1 from the monitors
in the database. If you do not know the monitor ID, you can specify the
monitor.name property only. MIB Explorer will then try to lookup the
ID by the name.
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Monitor Configuration
Any changes to the configuration or the collected data of a DBM monitor
are saved and committed immediately to the database. It is not necessary
to save the DBM file to commit any changes.
17.2
Monitor Configuration
The monitor panel is divided into three regions: the tool bars at the top,
the view navigation tree on the left, and the view itself on the right
(configuration, table, or chart).
To configure a Monitor
1. Create a new monitor as described here or open one as described here.
2. Select the target you want to monitor and make sure that all MIB
objects (modules) you want to monitor are loaded.
3. Select the Configuration node from the navigation tree of the monitor panel.
4. For each object to be monitored, select it in the tree (preferably the
corresponding instance) and drag it into the configuration table. A
new row will be created with the name of the MIB object. In case you
have dragged an OBJECT-TYPE definition, its OID will be filled into
the OID/Formula column of the new series. If the dragged object is
an instance of an OBJECT-TYPE, then the Index column will be
filled with the index portion of the instance's OID.
5. Add additional rows to the table if you need to compute any values
from the collected ones above. Enter a formula beginning with an
equals sign ("=") into the OID/Formula column. After the equals sign,
enter an arithmetic expression.
6. Choose the properties button ( ) from the tool bar. From the properties dialog choose the Data tab and configure data coverage, update
interval, and number of primary samples. Save your changes by pressing OK.
The above steps are sufficient to setup basic monitors. However, in many
situations you may need to use some of the advanced monitoring features:
 Index Calculation
 Customized Legend
 Alarm Configuration
How to configure these features is described in the following sub-sections.
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17.2.1 Monitoring Series Configuration Matrix
The Configuration node of the Monitor navigation pane displays the
monitoring series configuration matrix on the content pane. This table
specifies which data is monitored and which series of the monitored data
is displayed in the associated charts. The table below describes the columns
of the series configuration matrix.
COLUMN
DESCRIPTION
Name
The name of the series. If the Legend column is empty, then the series name
will be used in the chart legend instead.
Target
The target from which data is retrieved for this series. If the target field is
empty, then data is retrieved from the current target configured for MIB
Explorer.
OID/Formula
The OID of the OBJECT-TYPE definition (without any index portion) that
defines the data to be collected. The OID may be specified as dotted string of
positive integers, for example 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10, or as a combination
of object name and a numerical dotted string, for example ifInOctets or
ifTable.1.10.
Instead of collecting the series from a target it may also be computed based on
other values in the primary round robin database by specifying a formula
instead of an OID. A formula begins with an equals sign ("="). After the equals
sign, an arithmetic expression has to be entered.
The evaluation of formulas is done for a row left to right when all "OID" data
points have been retrieved (even if an error occurred).
Index
The index portion of the OID that identifies the OBJECT-TYPE instance to
retrieve data from, for example 1 (index has Integer32 syntax) or
127.0.0.1 (index has IpAddress syntax).
In addition to simple OID string any type of OID string expression can be
entered as formula (thus, the leading equals sign ("=") is required), for example:
="1"+indexof(ifName, "eth0.*").
If the OID/Formula column contains a formula, then this column will be
ignored.
Display
Specifies whether this series is displayed in chart views. Series with data
retrieved from OBJECT-TYPES with a syntax other than Integer, Counter,
TimeTicks, Gauge, and Counter64 must not be displayed. Such series may
only be used to reference them from chart name or legend templates.
Table 10: Column description of the monitoring series configuration matrix.
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COLUMN
DESCRIPTION
Legend
Specifies the text to be displayed for this series in the chart's legend. The text
may include an arbitrary number of formatted arithmetic expressions enclosed
in brackets { and }. For example, "Foo Average
{FORMAT(AVERAGE(Z?:Z0), "#,##0")}" prints the average over all data
points in the series Foo as Foo's legend.
Alarm
The alarm column indicates whether alarm checking is enabled, disabled, or
not present (no alarm) for this series. To configure an alarm for this series, select
the corresponding row by clicking on the row's label and then pressing the rightmouse button to open the context menu. There choose Configure Alarm.
Table 10: Column description of the monitoring series configuration matrix.
17.3
Sending SMTP E-mails is support
with password protected SMTP
servers too.
Monitor Alarms
It is often useful to generate an alarm when a value crosses a certain
boundary, for example if the free disk space is lower than a predefined
value or percentage. MIB Explorer provides means to raise and clear an
alarm dependent on respective boolean expressions for each series of a
monitor configuration. An alarm can be simply logged or a script can be
executed, which may send a trap/inform SNMP message when the alarm
is triggered. Logged alarms may easily be forwarded to an email address by
configuring an email appender.
To Configure an Alarm
1. Within the monitor configuration table, select the row (series) that
should be watched for an alarm condition by clicking on the row label.
2. Press the right mouse button to open the context menu.
3. Select Configure Alarm to open the Alarm Configuration dialog,
which is described below.
4. Select Log Severity and enter at least a Raise Condition.
5. Press OK to save your changes. The alarm is then enabled.
To Disable an Alarm Watch
1. Select a row (series) in the monitor configuration with an enabled
alarm status.
2. Press the right mouse button to open the context menu.
3. Select Disable to disable the alarm watch. No alarms will be generated
for this series until it is enabled again.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
To Enable an Alarm Watch
1. Select a row (series) in the monitor configuration with an disabled
alarm status.
2. Press the right mouse button to open the context menu and select
Enable to enable the alarm watch. From now on, alarms will be generated for this series if the corresponding conditions are met.
To Remove an Alarm
1. Select a row (series) in the monitor configuration with a disabled or
enabled alarm status.
2. Press the right mouse button to open the context menu and select
Remove to remove the alarm watch.
17.3.1 Alarm Configuration Dialog
 Target
The alarm target for scripts executed on behalf of this alarm. This field
has no effect, if Type is set to Log Only. The special target "MIB
Explorer" sends alarms to the MIB Explorer's trap receiver using
UDP transport. The alarm target which will be configured when "MIB
Explorer" is selected, is the first entry in the list of trap listener
addresses/ports.
 Severity
Specifies the log priority (severity) to be used for logging events generated on behalf of this alarm. This is also the severity returned within
the alarm context of alarm scripts.
 Raise
 Condition
The boolean expression which raises the alarm when true. Unless a
Clear Condition is also provided, the alarm is transient. Thus, it
will be raised whenever the raise condition evaluates to true. When
a Clear Condition is given, the alarm will be raised only once.
Before it could be raised again, the clear condition has to be true at
least once.
 Script
Specifies a MIB Explorer script to be executed when this alarm is
raised. Besides the normal script contexts snmp, mib, and utils
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Monitor Alarms
Note: The gui context is not
supported in alarm scripts!
there is also the alarm context supported, which provides an interface to access alarm and monitor data from within the script.
There are two example alarm scripts available from the examples
directory: alarm.vm and alarm_email.vm. The first can be
used to send a SNMP notification when an alarm is raised or
cleared whereas the second can be used to send an E-mail using
(un-)authenticated SMTP. See the MIB Explorer Script API documentation for details.
If the Embed Script check box is selected, the supplied script file will be
copied into the alarm configuration. This is particularly useful when a
monitor should be run on a server or distributed to other MIB Explorer
instances, because one need not to deploy the script file separately. A
disadvantage of using embedded scripts is the fact that embedded scripts
cannot be changed by changing a single file per MIB Explorer instance.
With Edit, an embedded script can be viewed and changed.
To test a script, click on the Test button and the supplied script will be
executed as if the given condition would be true. The values presented to
the script are taken from the most recent row of the primary values table.
 Clear
 Condition
Specifies the boolean expression which clears the alarm when true.
By providing a clear condition an alarm is non-transient. Clear
Condition and Raise Condition have to be mutually exclusive.
 Script
Note: The gui context is not
supported in alarm scripts!
Specifies a MIB Explorer script to be executed when this alarm is
cleared. In most cases, this will be the same script as for the Raise
Condition. Besides the normal script contexts snmp, mib, and
utils there is also the alarm context supported, which provides
an interface to access alarm and monitor data from within the
script.
See the MIB Explorer Script API documentation for details.
If the Embed Script check box is selected, the supplied script file
will be copied into the alarm configuration. This is particularly
useful when a monitor should be run on a server or distributed to
other MIB Explorer instances, because one need not to deploy the
script file separately. A disadvantage of using embedded scripts is
the fact that embedded scripts cannot be changed by changing a
single file per MIB Explorer instance.
With Edit, an embedded script can be viewed and changed.
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To test a script, click on the Test button and the supplied script
will be executed as if the given condition would be true. The values
presented to the script are taken from the most recent row of the
primary values table.
 Value
Specifies the alarm text or alarm value that provides further information about the alarm. The alarm text may include formatted arithmetic expressions placed between brackets { and }. The brackets will not
be part of the output text but replaced by the result of the entered
expression. For example, an alarm text value
"This is the series average: {AVERAGE(Z?:Z0)}"
will result in the following text if the series average is 100.0:
"This is the series average: 100.0"
17.3.2 Monitor Chart Types
CHART TYPE
DESCRIPTION
PLOT
Each series is drawn as connected points of data.
 X-axis annotated using time labels.
 Series appearance determined by line style and symbol style.
SCATTERED PLOT
Each series is drawn as unconnected points of data.
 X-axis annotated using time labels.
 Series appearance determined by symbol style.
Table 11: Monitor 2D chart types.
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CHART TYPE
DESCRIPTION
AREA
Each series is drawn as a bar in a cluster. The number of
clusters is the number of points in the data. Each cluster
displays the n-th point in each series.
 X-axis annotated using time labels.
 Series appearance determined by line style color
STACKING AREA
Each series is drawn as connected points of data, filled
below the points. Eeach series is placed on top of the last
one to show the area relationships between each series
and the total.
 X-axis annotated using time labels.
 Series appearance determined by line style color.
BAR
Each series is drawn as a bar in a cluster. The number of
clusters is the number of points in the data. Each cluster
displays the n-th point in each series.
 X-axis annotated with time labels of the respective
data points.
 Series appearance determined by line style color
 3D effect available using depth, elevation, and rotation properties.
STACKING BAR
Each series is drawn as a portion of a stacked bar cluster,
the number of clusters being the number of data points.
Each cluster displays the n-th point in each series.
Negative Y-values are stacked below the X-axis.
 X-axis annotated with time labels of the respective
data points.
 Series appearance determined by line style color.
 3D effect available using depth, elevation, and rotation properties.
Table 11: Monitor 2D chart types.
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119
CHART TYPE
DESCRIPTION
PIE
Each series is drawn as a slice of a pie. The number of
pies is the number of points in the data. Each pie
displays the n-th point in each series.
 Pies are annotated with time labels only.
 Series appearance determined by line style color.
 3D effect available using depth and elevation properties.
HILO
Two series are drawn together as a "high-low" bar. The
points in each series define one portion of the bar:
 1st series - points are the "high" value
 2nd series - points are the "low" value
The appearance is determined by line style color
property in the first series of each pair.
Table 11: Monitor 2D chart types.
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17.3.3 3D Chart Types
CHART TYPE
DESCRIPTION
BAR
Each series is drawn as a series of 3D bars. Bars can be
shaded, contoured, and zoned by elevation data (Z-axis).
When zoned mode is chosen, the zone color ranges are
displayed in the charts legend.
SURFACE
From the elevation data of all displayed series an
(optionally shaded) surface is drawn.
The surface's top and bottom color can be defined
independently.
SCATTER
Each series is drawn as a series of points in the x,z plane,
where x denotes the time and z the collected or computed
value.
Z values can be zoned. The zone colors and their
corresponding value ranges are then display in the chart's
legend.
Table 12: Monitor 3D chart types.
17.3.4 Monitor Expressions
There are four types of expressions that can be used for monitor
configuration: arithmetic, formatted arithmetic, boolean, and OID string
expressions.
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Within arithmetic expressions, values from the primary round robin
database may be referenced. Like a spreadsheet application, this can be
done by specifying simple references or regions:
 Reference
A reference consists of a letter and an optional positive integer or question mark ("?"). The letters A-S refer to the columns of the primary
data table (thus they refer to the rows of the configuration table). The
integer value refers to the row in the data table, where 0 refers to the
last row, 1 to the second to last row and so on. The question mark
refers to the first row.
The special letter T refers to the time column which contains the number of milliseconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00:00 GMT.
The special letter Z refers to that column of the primary data table for
which the expression has been entered.
Examples:
 A1 refers to the second to last value of first series (if such a value
exists).
 Z refers to the last value of the series for which the expression has
been entered.
 Region
A region consists of two references where the first reference denotes the
upper left corner of the region in the primary data table and the second reference denotes the lower right corner. Both references are concatenated by a colon (":"). Regions where the first and second
reference do not follow the above rule are invalid.
Examples:
 A?:A0 refers to all values of the first series.
 Z?:Z0 refers to all values of the series for which the expression has
been entered.
 T1:T0 refers to the time values of the last two collected rows.
 A?:E0 refers to all values of the first to fifth series.
Arithmetic Expressions
Arithmetic expressions evaluate to a scalar numerical value, for example
"(1+2)*3^2" and "SUM(Z?-Z0)". The following unary and binary
Please note: Z may be used for
legend and alarm configuration
only!
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operators are supported and take precedence in the shown order (from
highest to lowest):
^
+,- (unary)
%
/
*
+,-
The following functions are supported (operands might be scalar values,
expressions, references, or regions):
OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
ABS(s)
Return the absolute value of scalar operand.
AVERAGE(r1[,r2])
Returns the sum of all elements divided by the number of
elements.
CEILING(r)
Return the least integer greater than or equal to the operand,
which may be a scalar or a list of values (region).
COUNT(r1[,r2])
Return the total number of elements in its operands.
COUNTWHEN(sumOID[,selOID,
regex[,displayHint]])
Return the number of elements found in the subtree (i.e., column
of a table) denoted by sumOID. If selOID and a regular
expression regex are also given, only those objects in subtree of
sumOID are counted where the corresponding value in subtree of
selOID matches the given regular expression. For example, The
OID(s) may be specified as "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3" or
"ifTable.1.3". With the optional displayHint string the
display format defined for selOID can be overridden. For
example, by specifying a display hint of "255a" OCTET
STRING values will be compared as ASCII strings, by specifying
"1x:" values will be compared as hexadecimal strings where each
character is separated by a colon. The syntax of displayHint is
the same as for the DISPLAY-HINT clause defined for SMIv2.
Note: Use this function carefully since it could cause heavy load if
used on large tables.
Table 13: Arithmetic expressions of the monitor configuration.
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123
OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
DELTA(r,s)
Return the delta between the last and second to last element of
the value list r, which is r[n]-r[n-1]. If r contains only one
element, then zero will be returned. If r[n]-r[n-1] is negative,
a counter wrapping is assumed and the delta is computed as
(s+(r[n]-r[n-1]))+1.
If the region r contains cells for which no values could be
retrieved (because of a timeout or an error returned by the agent)
then those cells will be ignored.
DELTA32(r)
Return the delta between the last and second to last element of
the value list r, which is r[n]-r[n-1]. If r contains only one
element, then zero will be returned. If r[n]-r[n-1]is negative,
a counter wrapping is assumed and the delta is computed as :
 2 32 +  r[n]-r[n-1]   + 1
If the region r contains cells for which no values could be
retrieved (because of a timeout or an error returned by the agent),
then those cells will be ignored.
DELTA32(s1,s2)
Return s2-s1 if this difference is not negative. If it is negative,
then will be returned.
2 32 +  s2 – s1 
DELTA64(r)
Return the delta between the last and second to last element of
the value list r, which is r[n]-r[n-1]. If r contains only one
element, then zero will be returned. If r[n]-r[n-1]is negative,
a counter wrapping is assumed and the delta is computed as :
 2 64 +  r[n]-r[n-1]   + 1
If the region r contains cells for which no values could be
retrieved (because of a timeout or an error returned by the agent),
then those cells will be ignored.
DELTA64(s1,s2)
Return s2-s1 if this difference is not negative. If it is negative,
then will be returned.
2 64 +  s2 – s1 
FLOOR(s)
Return the greatest integer less than or equal to the scalar
operand.
GEOMETRICMEAN(r1[,r2])
Return the n-th root of the product of a set of n numbers.
Table 13: Arithmetic expressions of the monitor configuration.
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OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
IF(cond,s1,s2)
Return s1 if the boolean expression cond evaluates to true,
otherwise s2 is returned.
MAX(r1[,r2])
Return the largest element of one or two regions or the largest
element of two scalars.
MEDIAN(r1[,r2])
Return the middle element of a sorted list, or the average of the
two middle values if the list has an even number of elements.
MIN(r1[,r2])
Returns the smallest element of one or two regions or the largest
element of two scalars.
POWER(s1,s2)
The exponentiation (^) operation. It takes two scalar values or
expressions. The left operand (s1) is the base and the right
operand (s2) is the exponent:
 s1  s2
PRODUCT(r1,r2)
A product can be performed on a pair of elements or across a list.
The product of a region is the product of its individual members.
Multiplication order is left-to-right, and first element of a list to
last element. The result of a matrix multiplication may depend on
the order of the operands.
ROOT(s)
Return the positive square root of its operand:.
s
ROUND(s)
Return the nearest integer to the operand. Rounding is done to an
even number if the operand is exactly midway between two
integers.
SORT(r1[,r2])
Return a sorted list of the given elements. Any secondary or nested
lists are flattened.
STDDEVIATION(r1[,r2])
The sample standard deviation, given by
n
1
 r –  1--- n r  
------------ 
1 – n i = 1  i  n i = 1 i  
where n is the number of samples.
Table 13: Arithmetic expressions of the monitor configuration.
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OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
SUM(r1[,r2])
Return the sum of two scalars or the sum across one or two
regions:
125
n
i = 1 r i
SUMWHEN(sumOID[,selOID,
regex[,displayHint]])
Return the sum of all (numerical) values found in the subtree (i.e.,
column of a table) denoted by sumOID. If selOID and a regular
expression regex are also given, only those objects in subtree of
sumOID are add up where the corresponding value in subtree of
selOID matches the given regular expression. With the optional
displayHint string the display format defined for selOID can
be overridden. See also COUNTWHEN.
Note: Use this function carefully since it could cause heavy load if used
on large tables.
TRUNC(s)
Returns the integer part of a number. Equivalent to rounding to
the nearest integer closer to zero. Example:
trunc(-3.5) = -3
Table 13: Arithmetic expressions of the monitor configuration.
Formatted Arithmetic Expressions
A formatted arithmetic expression is an arithmetic expression enclosed in
an optional FORMAT operation:
<formatted arithmetic expression>:
[FORMAT( <arithmetic expression>,
<decimal format string>
[, <minimum width>] )] | <arithmetic expression>
where <decimal format string> is a pattern string as described in
the Java DecimalFormat class documentation, for example "#,##0"
formats a positive number with no decimal digits and a separator. The
optional <minimum width> positive integer specifies the minimum
width in characters of the formatted string. If the formatted string's length
is less than the specified number, spaces will be inserted at the beginning
of the result string until it has the specified length.
Boolean Expression
A boolean expressions evaluates to a truth value: true or false. MIB
Explorer supports several comparison operators that take one or two
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arithmetic expressions. These boolean operators take the following
precedence (from highest to lowest):
<, >, <=, >=
==, !=
!
||, &&
All arithmetic operators take precedence over these boolean operators, for
example the boolean expression
5 * 10 < 50 || (5 == 2+3)
evaluates to true.
OID String Expression
An OID string expression evaluates to an OID string, which is a dotted
string of positive integers (e.g., "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3.4976").
There is only one operator supported for OID string expressions:
+
The plus sign concatenates two OID strings by inserting a dot (".")
between them. Thus, the expression
"1.3.6"+"1.2.1.2.2.1.3.4976"
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127
will evaluate to "1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3.4976". In addition, MIB
Explorer supports two very powerful operations to retrieve OID strings
from a target:
OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
INDEXOF(oid,
regex[,n,[displayHint]])
Searches all instances of the OBJECT-TYPE represented by
oid for the n-th matching of the given regular expression
regex with the value of the respective instance. If n is not
specified, then the index of the first instance of oid that matches
regex will be returned. The parameter oid may be an OID
string ("1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3") or an object name with an
OID string suffix ("ifTable.1.3"). In the latter case, the
MIB module needed to resolve the object name must be loaded
whenever the monitor is used!
The optional parameter displayHint can be used to specify
how the values of the instances of oid are converted to strings
for matching with regex. For example, by specifying a display
hint of "255a" OCTET STRING values will be compared as
ASCII strings, by specifying "1x:" string values will be
compared as hexadecimal strings where each character is
separated by a colon.The syntax of displayHint is the same
as for the DISPLAY-HINT clause defined for SMIv2.
VALUEOF(oid)
Returns the value of the MIB object instance represented by
oid. The parameter oid may be an OID string
("1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3.4976") or an object name with
an OID string suffix ("ifType.4976").
Table 14: OID string operations of the monitor configuration.
17.3.5 Monitor Properties
To configure the properties of a monitor, click on the Properties ( )
button of the monitor's main toolbar.
The following categories of settings are available (italic categories are
available for 3D chart monitors only):
1. Chart
2. Chart Area
3. X Axis
4. Y Axis
5. Z Axis
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6. Legend
7. Titles
8. Data
Chart Properties
 Chart Type
Selects the chart type from eight supported basic types: Plot, Scatter
Plot, Area, Stacking Area, Bar, Stacking Bar, Pie, and Hi-Lo.
 Chart Name
Specifies the chart's name which is shown by the chart's legend (if visible). You may enter a single line of plain text or HTML formatted
text. The HTML text has to start with <html> and end with </
html>. Formatted arithmetic expressions may be placed within plain
text as well as in HTML text between brackets { and }. The brackets
will not be part of the output text but replaced by the result of the
entered expression. For example, the chart name
<html><center>Chart Name<p>Maximum of A=
{FORMAT(MAX(A?:A0), "#,##0")}</center><tml>
will produce the following output:
Chart Name
Maximum of A=1.234
 Foreground Color
Defines the foreground color for the chart.
 Background Color
Defines the background color of the chart
 Preferred Width
Specifies the width of the chart image in pixels when this monitor is
run on a headless server. If a width of 0 pixels is given, a server will use
either its built-in default value of 640 pixels or the width specified by
the server's command line option.
 Preferred Height
Specifies the height of the chart image in pixels when this monitor is
run on a headless server. If a height of 0 pixels is given, a server will use
either its built-in default value of 400 pixels or the width specified by
the server's command line option.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
Chart Area Properties
 Font
The font for text printed within the chart area.
 3D Effect (not available for 3D charts)
 Depth
The depth property controls the apparent depth of a graph.
 Elevation
The elevation property controls the distance above the x axis for
the 3D effect.
 Rotation
The rotation property controls the position of the eye relative to
the y axis for the 3D effect.
 3D Settings (not available for 2D charts)
 Axis Scaling
The three axes (x,y,z) of a 3D chart can be individually scaled relative to each other.
 Cube
 Transparency
If selected, all lines of the objects (e.g. bars) within the 3D cube will be
displayed.
 Zoned
If selected, the distribution of the elevation data is shown.
 Contoured
Displays data distribution by drawing contour lines demarcating each
of the contour levels.
 Meshed
If selected, the X-Y grid projected onto the 3D surface is displayed in a
3D view with a Z-axis.
 Shaded
If selected data will be displayed as a flat shaded surface.
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 Shaded With Series Color
If selected, the color assigned to the respective chart series are used for
shading.
Axis Properties
 General
 Title
The title for the axis. It can be specified as a plain text string or a
HTML string, which has to start with <html> and end with </
html>. In order to make the title visible you have to select the Visible check box.
 Rotation
The rotation of the title.
 Placement
The placement for the title relative to the axis.
 Grid
The grid tab specifies the axis grid and whether it will be shown or
not. The grid settings will have no effect on 3D charts.
 Font
The font to be used for point labels and axis title.
Legend Properties
The legend of 2D charts is created from the Legend column of the
Monitor Configuration. The legend of 3D charts is computed from the
elevation data (z series) of the monitor.
 General
 Visible
If selected the legend will be displayed, otherwise it will be not visible.
 Anchor
The anchor property specifies the location of the legend relative to
the chart area.
 Orientation
Set the orientation of the chart.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
 Font
Set the font used to print the legend.
 Colors
In order to specify a background color for the legend the Opaque
check box has to be selected. The foreground color can be specified in
either way.
Titles Properties
 Header
 General
Set the header text, which can be specified as a single line of plain
text or a multi-line HTML text. Select the Visible check box to
make the header visible. Formatted arithmetic expressions may be
placed within plain text as well as in HTML text between brackets
{ and }. The brackets will not be part of the output text but
replaced by the result of the entered expression. For example, the
chart name
<html><i>Chart Title</i>
<p>Total Average is {FORMAT(AVERAGE(A?:F0),
"#,##0", 10)}</center><html>
will produce the following output:
Chart Name
Total Average is
10.234
 Font
Select the font for the header.
 Colors
In order to specify a background color for the header the Opaque
check box has to be selected. The foreground color can be specified
in either way.
 Footer
 General
Set the footer text, which can be specified as a single line of plain
text or a multi-line HTML text. Select the Visible check box to
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make the footer visible. As with header text, also the footer supports formatted arithmetic expressions.
 Font
Select the font for the footer.
 Colors
In order to specify a background color for the footer the Opaque
check box has to be selected. The foreground color can be specified
in either way.
Data Properties
The data properties define how SNMP data is collected and consolidated
by the monitor and how that data is exported and saved to disk.
 General
 Data Coverage
The collected values can be stored as Absolute or as Delta values.
Delta data coverage should be chosen for monitors that exclusively
collect data from Counter, Counter32, and Counter64
objects. In delta mode, counter wrappings will be detected if a delta
value is negative. Then the delta will be computed as described for
the DELTA32 and DELTA64 operations (DELTA64 is used if syntax
of collected object is Counter64).
All other monitors should use absolute data overage. If you want to
collect absolute data, like temperature, and counter based values,
like incoming packets, with the same monitor, then you should use
absolute data coverage and add a computed series for each counter
based value that computes its delta value using one of the available
DELTA operations.
If delta coverage is selected, then the raw delta value can be put
into ratio with the time delta by specifying a factor f unequally
zero. A zero factor will disable the time ratio and the raw delta values will be stored (dv=(v0-v1)). Otherwise the delta will be
computed according to the following formular:
 v0 – v1 
dv = ---------------------------------------------1
 ----------
-  t0 – t1   f
 1000

where v0 denotes the last value collected and v1 the second to last
value, t0 the time in milliseconds when the last value has been col-
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
lected, t1 the time when the second to last value has been collected, and f denotes the specified factor (!=0). Thus, to collect
delta values on a per second basis, use a factor of 1.
 Data Source
By default, data is being collected by sending GET, GETNEXT or
GETBULK requests to the target(s) configured for a monitor and
collecting the values from the corresponding responses.
If the data that needs to be collected and monitored is sent by notifications, then a monitor can be configured to use passive data collection. In passive mode, a monitor listens for notifications on the
listen address(es) configured for MIB Explorer's trap receiption.
When it receives a notification, its ID is compared to the notification ID prefix configured for the monitor. If they match and the
source IP address of the notification matches the target configured
for the first series (A), then a new primary data row is appended to
the primary data. Those values of variable bindings will be assigned
whose OID match the OID prefix defined for a series while the
series' target is empty or equals the source IP address of the notification.
 Start Time
If given, the start time specifies when data collection for this monitor starts.
By specifying a date and time (yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss) in the
future and closing the monitor properties dialog with OK, the
monitor will switch into run mode. Leaving the start time empty
will allow a manual start of the monitor. When a monitor with a
start time in the future is deployed to a server, then the server will
start data collection for that monitor at the given time.
 Round Start Time
Check this option, if you want to MIB Explorer to use a round
start time when starting the monitor. A round start time is the next
full minute, five minutes, ten minutes, fifteen minutes, half an
hour, hour, six hours, twelve hours, or 24 hours - depending on the
interval specified.
 Interval
The update interval specifies the period in seconds between two
consecutive data collections while the monitor is in run mode.
 Fixed Rate
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If checked, updates are scheduled for repeated fixed-rate execution,
beginning at the specified time. Subsequent updates take place at
approximately regular intervals, separated by the specified period.
In fixed-rate execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the
scheduled execution time of the initial execution. If an execution is
delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background activity), two or more executions will occur in rapid succession to "catch up." In the long run, the frequency of execution will
be exactly the reciprocal of the specified period.
If Fixed Rate is not checked, updates are scheduled for repeated
fixed-delay execution. Subsequent executions take place at approximately regular intervals, separated by the specified period.
In fixed-delay execution, each execution is scheduled relative to the
actual execution time of the previous execution. If an execution is
delayed for any reason (such as garbage collection or other background activity), subsequent executions will be delayed as well. In
the long run, the frequency of execution will generally be slightly
lower than the reciprocal of the specified period.
 Primary Samples
The maximum number of data points (rows) for all series in the
primary round robin database.
 Index Calculation
Specifies whether calculated index values should be cached for subsequent data collections or whether index values should be determined for each collection separately.
 Consolidation
For each monitor an arbitrary number of consolidation round robin
archives can be configured. To add a consolidation archive to the monitor press the Add button and a new row will be added at the end of
the table. To remove a consolidation archive, select it and press the
Remove button. Changes will not take effect until the monitor properties dialog is closed using the OK button. However, if the changes are
saved, no undo is available and all data in any removed consolidation
archives will be lost!
The properties of a consolidation archive are:
 Name
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135
The name of the consolidation archive. This name will be
appended to the monitor name when primary and consolidation
tables are exported and if the corresponding charts are exported.
Thus, if you intend to export any data, you should avoid any special characters and use letters and digits only.
 Function
Set the consolidation function to be used to create consolidation
data points. The consolidation function takes a vector of primary
data points, whose size is specified by Stepping, and computes a
consolidated data point from it. Available functions are: AVERAGE,
MAX, MIN, LAST, and SUM.
 Samples
The (maximum) number of rows in the consolidation archive.
 Stepping
The number of primary data points needed to create a consolidated
data point.
 Export
 Export Directory
The directory where data table and charts should be exported to. If the
specified directory is invalid or empty, data or chart export will not
work. Please check the log, category "Monitor", for any errors.
 Data File Type
Specifies whether data tables (primary as well as consolidated)
should be exported as comma separated values (CSV) or XLS files
whenever data is updated while the Export ( ) button is selected.
Check the corresponding Enable button to enable export of data
tables.
 Chart File Type
Specifies whether charts (primary as well as consolidated) should be
exported as JPEG, GIF, PNG, PDF, PS, or PCL files whenever data is
updated while the Export ( ) button is selected. Check the corresponding Enable button to enable export of charts.
 Monitor
Enable the "Auto save monitor after data update" check box to
save the monitor (including any uncommitted configuration
changes) whenever new data is collected and (a) the Export (
)
Note: Even if the Enable button is
selected no export takes place
until the Export toggle button is
selected.
Note: Even if the Enable button is
selected no export takes place
until the Export toggle button is
selected. When running the
monitor on a server, the export of
the monitor configuration is
always activated.
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toggle button is selected or (b) the monitor is being run on a server.
With the option "Auto Save Interval" you can specify how many
updates have to have been processed before an auto save is actually
performed. A value of zero will save the monitor data each time
new data has been collected.
With the option "Number of Backup Files" the number of
backup files of the auto saved monitor configuration can be configured. No backup file is saved if the number is zero. Otherwise, up
to the specified number backup files will be saved, where the file
with the suffix .001 contains the next to last version.
Monitor Series Styles
To change the style of a series:
1. Select the Configuration node in the navigator tree.
2. Select the row representing the series to change by clicking on the row
label.
3. Open the popup menu with the right-mouse button.
4. Choose Style... from the popup menu. A dialog with the tabs Line
Style and Symbol Style will be opened.
5. Change the settings and press OK to save the changes.
 Line Style
Set the color, width, and style of lines drawn for a series in the chart
view. The selected line color will also be used for filling bars and areas.
 Symbol Style
Set the color, shape, and size of symbols drawn by plot and scattered
plot charts.
Monitor Toolbars
Figure 13:
Monitor main toolbar.

Add New Data Point
Add a new row representing a series before the selected row. If no row
is selected, the row will be added at the end of the monitor configura-
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Monitors (Pro Edition)
tion (in order to remove any selection in the configuration table, press
<ESC>).

Duplicate Series
Duplicates the selected row in the monitor configuration table.

Remove Selected Series
If the current view is the monitor's configuration, then remove the
selected rows (series) from the monitor. The corresponding rows in the
round robin databases, where collected and computed data is stored,
will also be deleted when you commit your configuration changes by
either selecting a data table or chart in the navigator tree or by choosing
from this toolbar.
If the current view is one of the data table views, then it removes the
selected rows from the viewed data table. In contrast to the row deletion in the configuration view, this operation cannot be undone.

Move Series Up
Move the selected series one position up in the configuration table.
This will also move the corresponding columns in the data tables one
position to the left when configuration is committed. Accordingly, this
will also change the order of series in the charts' legends.

Move Series Down
Move the selected series one position down in the configuration table.
This will also move the corresponding columns in the data table one
position to the right when configuration is committed. Accordingly,,
this will also change the order of series in the charts' legends.

Delete Collected Data
Empty all data tables of the round robin databases and charts.

Collect Data Once (Not Available for Remote Monitors)
If there have been made any changes to the configuration of this monitor, you will be prompted to commit the changes to the data tables by
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deleting all data or by preserving existing data. Choosing the latter will
have the following affect:
 All columns referring to series that have been removed from the
configuration will be removed from the series.
 New series will be filled with null (no data) values.
 Series that have been reordered in the configuration will also be
reordered in data tables and charts.
Once changes have been committed, a new primary data row will be
created in the primary data table and the corresponding series values
will be collected and computed.

Redo Last Change

Undo Last Change

Detach Monitor
Detach the monitor from the main window and show it in its own
window. This can be useful if you want a custom size for the created
chart(s).

Attach Monitor
Reattach a previously detached window to the main window.

Save As
Saves the displayed table, chart, or configuration (depending on the
selected view) to a file. When the configuration view is selected, this
function is the same as the Save As function from the basic monitor
operations (“Basic Monitoring Operations” on page 108).
If a chart is displayed, it is saved as a JPEG, GIF, PNG, PDF, PS, or PCL
file. If a data table is displayed, the table is saved as a XLS or CSV file.
Which format is used, depends on the file extension for the target file.

Monitor Properties
Configures the monitor properties, for example chart type and appearance, data coverage, update interval, number of samples, and data consolidation. Although, monitor properties may be changed while it is
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
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139
running, it is not recommended to change any data properties while a
monitor is running.
Figure 14:


Refresh and update monitor toolbar.
Start Monitor
Start the monitor. If there are any uncommitted changes to this monitor's configuration pending, then you will be prompted to commit the
changes to the data tables by deleting all data or by preserving existing
data.
Then the monitor collects one new primary data row from the configured target(s). This operation will repeated for each update interval as
specified by the monitor properties.
Stop Monitor
Stop the monitor. Data will no longer be updated regularly. If a client
monitor is stopped, the server's monitor instance will be not affected.
If you want to stop a monitor on the server, use the Connect dialog as
described in “Basic Monitoring Operations” on page 108.
 Progress Status
The progress status shows date and time when the next update will
occur. At the same time, the progress bar shows the percentage of time
elapsed for this interval waiting for the next update. If a client monitor
is started, "Waiting for next remote update" will be
displayed in the progress status bar until the next update on the primary data of the remote monitor has been propagated to the client.

Export
Enable the export of data tables and charts. The export directory as
well the export file types have to be specified with the monitor data
export properties. Otherwise, enabling this option has no effect.
Caution: If the monitor is a client
monitor connected to a MIB
Explorer server, then the server's
monitor instance will be
automatically updated with the
new monitor configuration when
committed.
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Interactive Chart Customization
Note: If you want to integrate
monitor chart images or data into
a Web application, you should
consider using the built-in HTTP
server for performance reasons. In
contrast to the monitor export
feature the monitor HTTP chart
and data servlets generate their
output (images/files) only when
requested.
Important note: The auto save
mode will also save any
configuration changes you make
to the monitors configuration
while it is running!
Table data can be exported to comma separated value (CSV) files and
XLS files. Chart images can be exported as JPEG, GIF, PNG, PDF, PS
or PCL files. If the auto save mode is enabled and export is selected,
the monitor file will be saved whenever data is collected.
17.4
Interactive Chart Customization
A monitor's chart view can be interactively customized by the user. The
following interactions are provided:
 moving the chart by holding down the <Shift> key while dragging
the mouse with the left mouse button pressed
 zooming into or out of the chart by holding down the <Alt> key
while dragging the mouse with the left mouse button pressed
 rotation of 3D charts or 2D bar or pie charts with 3D effect by holding down the <Ctrl> key while dragging the mouse with the left
mouse button pressed
To reset a chart to its default view settings, select the chart view and press
<Alt>+<R>.
17.5
Customizing DB Support
The following relational databases are supported out-of-the-box for DBM
monitors:
 IBM DB2 9.5 or later.
 PostgreSQL 9.0 or later.
If you want to use DBM monitors with other relational databases with
JDBC driver support, you have two options:
1. Send an E-mail to [email protected] and ask for supporting the
database. Please provide name, version, and license type of the database.
2. Modify the existing DB mapping file and extend it for your database.
If you choose the second option, read the following sections on how to
adapt the existing DB mapping to your SQL dialect.
Once you have extended the mapping XML file, you need to load it into
MIB Explorer. See “Monitor” on page 23.
If you needed to extend the DB mapping file you will most likely also need
to register an additional JDBC driver. This can be done in the Monitor
section of the Preferences dialog too.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
The database model is quite simple and is directly related to the XML
monitor schema. The Settings and DataSeries elements of the
MIBExplorerMonitor.xsd schema are stored as an XML file CLOB1
within the database. The Data element content is stored in lower three
tables of the database model shown below.
Figure 15:
DB monitor data model.
17.5.1 Database Mapping XML File
Instead of using a static object relational database mapping, MIB Explorer
uses its own lightweight and easy configurable database mapping
mechanism called SlimDAO2.
Basically a SlimDAO DB mapping configuration file contains SQL
statements and their fragments in an XML file. Because the SQL dialects
of different databases often differ only for special statements, like sequence
and constraint creation, SlimDAO supports statement inheritance.
1. CLOB is a Character Large OBjec t database type.
2. SlimDAO stands for slim data access object
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Customizing DB Support
A SQL statement (or a complete script) can be defined in the default
context „.“ and overwritten in a specific context whose name matches the
JDBC driver class name for the database whose SQL dialect differs from
the default context‘s dialect (e.g., org.postgresql.Driver for a
PostgreSQL database).
Each statement and script in the mapping configuration has a unique
name within its context. MIB Explorer will lookup a statement by its
name. The name is hard-coded. The supported statement names are
defined by the default context in the Monitor2DB.xml file from the dbmonitor directory.
A statement is defined for example by the following construct:
<statement name="select.monitor.by.id">
SELECT * FROM @INSERT[SCHEMA].MXP_MONITOR
WHERE ID = @VALUE[ID]
</statement>
During runtime, MIB Explorer uses the statement to get monitor data
from the database. It replaces the constructs of the pattern
@<TAG>[<PARAM_LIST>]
with the corresponding values as described by Table 15 on page 143. The
resulting SQL statement would then be executed on the DB server as
follows:
SELECT * FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE ID = ?
The question mark (?) is a placeholder for the value within the prepared
statement. The value will be inserted by the JDBC driver when the
prepared statement is being executed. MIB Explorer sets the value for the
statement by replacing the @VALUE[ID] reference with the ? in the
statement and setting the statements first parameter value to the value of
ID (for example 2).
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Monitors (Pro Edition)
143
The following table lists the available tags for monitor SQL statements.
TAG
DESCRIPTION
@VALUE[<param>]
Replace the tag by ? in the statement and set the value of the
prepared parameter to the value of the MIB Explorer variable with
name <param>.
Example:
SELECT ID FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE NAME =
@VALUE[NAME]
will be rendered to
SELECT ID FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE NAME = ?
where ? is assigned with the value of the MIB Explorer variable
NAME when the statement is being executed.
@INSERT[<param>]
Replace the tag by the value of MIB Explorer variable with name
<param>.
Example:
SELECT ID FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE NAME =
‘@INSERT[NAME]‘
will be rendered to
SELECT ID FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE NAME =
‘MyMonitor‘
if the variable NAME has the string value MyMonitor.
@USE[<statementName>]
Replace the tag with the rendered content of the statement with
name <statementName> of the same context.
Example:
<statement name="select.id">
SELECT ID
</statement>
<statement name="select.monitor.id.by.name">
@USE[select.id] FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE NAME
= @VALUE[NAME]
</statement>
will be rendered to
SELECT ID FROM MXP.MXP_MONITOR WHERE NAME =
‘MyMonitor‘
if the variable NAME has the string value MyMonitor.
Table 15: List of MIB Explorer SQL statement tags.
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TAG
DESCRIPTION
@IF[<stmt>,<test>,<value>
..]
Replace the tag with the statement with name <stmt> if the
condition <test> is true for the MIB Explorer variable references
<value1> through <valueN>. The supported tests are listed in
table Table 16 on page 145.
Example:
<statement name="monitor.dataset.by.id">
SELECT * FROM MXP.MXP_MONITORDATASET WHERE
MONITOR_ID = @VALUE[ID]
@IF[and.nameOrDataType,not-null,NAME,DATATYPE]
ORDER BY MONITOR_ID,DATATYPE
</statement>
<statement name="and.nameOrDataType">
AND (NAME = @VALUE[NAME] OR DATATYPE =
@VALUE[DATATYPE])
</statement>
will be rendered to
SELECT * FROM MXP.MXP_MONITORDATASET WHERE
MONITOR_ID = ? AND (NAME = ? OR DATATYPE = ?)
ORDER BY MONITOR_ID,DATATYPE
if the MIB Explorer variables NAME and DATATYPE are not null.
Table 15: List of MIB Explorer SQL statement tags.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
145
TAG
DESCRIPTION
@IFELSE[<stmtTrue>,
<stmtFalse>,<test>,
<value>..]
Replace the tag with the statement with name <stmtTrue> if the
condition <test> is true for the MIB Explorer variable references
<value1> through <valueN>. Otherwise, replace the tag with
the statement with name <stmtFalse>. The supported tests are
listed in table Table 16 on page 145.
Example:
<statement name="monitor.dataset.by.id">
SELECT * FROM MXP.MXP_MONITORDATASET WHERE
MONITOR_ID = @VALUE[ID]
@IFELSE[dataTypeNotNull,dataTypeNull,notnull,DATATYPE]
</statement>
<statement name="dataTypeNull">
AND DATATYPE IS NULL
</statement>
<statement name="dataTypeNotNull">
AND DATATYPE IS NOT NULL
</statement>
will be rendered to
SELECT * FROM MXP.MXP_MONITORDATASET WHERE
MONITOR_ID = ? AND DATATYPE IS NOT NULL
if the MIB Explorer variables DATATYPE is not null. Otherwise,
the statement would be rendered as:
SELECT * FROM MXP.MXP_MONITORDATASET WHERE
MONITOR_ID = ? AND DATATYPE IS NULL
Table 15: List of MIB Explorer SQL statement tags.
The tags @IF and @IFELSE insert a statement depending on the truth of
a condition. The supported condition rules are listed by the following
table.
TEST CONDITION
DESCRIPTION
exists
Is true if all parameters exists. A parameter value might still be null
though.
not-exists
Is true if at least one of the parameters does not exists.
is-null
Is true if at least one parameter is null or does not exists.
not-null
Is true if all parameters are not null and exist.
Table 16: Supported test conditons for @IF and @IFELSE tags.
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Customizing DB Support
TEST CONDITION
DESCRIPTION
=
Is true if all parameters are equal to the first parameter.
!=
Is true if all parameters (starting from the second one) are not equal to
the first parameter.
<
Is true if the first parameter is less than all the following parameters.
>
Is true if the first parameter is greater than all the following
parameters.
<=
Is true if the first parameter is less or equal than all the following
parameters.
>=
Is true if the first parameter is greater or equal than all the following
parameters.
Table 16: Supported test conditons for @IF and @IFELSE tags.
You can change the default DB
schema name by setting the
property db.schema in MIB
Explorer‘s configuration file.
STATEMENT (SCRIPT) NAME
As mentioned above, MIB Explorer provides a list of variables that can be
accessed for each statement. MIB Explorer supports a fixed number of
statements and scripts. The difference between statement and script is
simple: Scripts may contain more than one SQL statement. Scripts are
used to create the database schema used by MIB Explorer.
The statement separator string is the semi-colon (;) by default. You can
specify a different one by using the separator attribute for the script
XML element.
The scripts and statements that need to be implemented are listed in the
table below. For most databases, you have only to reimplement the schema
creation script and a few additional statements. Most statements can be
inherited from the default context “.“.
The variable SCHEMA is available for all statements. It contains the schema
name MIB Explorer uses for DB monitors. The default value is MXP..
VARIABLES/PARAME-
DESCRIPTION
TERS
create.schema (Script)
Schema creation script.
check.schema
Check if schema version matches
the MIB Explorer version.
Table 17: List of SQL scripts and statements that need to be implemented for a monitor DB mapping.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
STATEMENT (SCRIPT) NAME
VARIABLES/PARAME-
147
DESCRIPTION
TERS
select.monitor.by.id
ID
Select the monitor master values by
its ID.
select.monitor.keyValues.by.
id
ID
Select the monitor key values (ID,
name, and status) by its ID.
select.monitor.id.by.name
NAME
Select the monitor master values by
its name.
list.monitors
List the key values of all monitors.
select.monitor.dataset.id
MONITOR_ID
Seelct the data set IDs of the
monitor with the given
MONITOR_ID.
select.monitor.dataset.by.id
ID[, NAME,
DATATYPE]
Get the datasets for a monitor. If
NAME and DATATYPE are provided,
return only the matching datasets.
select.monitor.status.by.id
ID
Get the monitor status for the
monitor with the given ID.
select.monitor.rows.by.date
ID, CTIME
Get the monitor regular data rows
for the monitor with the given ID
which are newer than CTIME and
from the primary data set.
select.monitor.values.by.row
ID
Get the monitor values for the data
row with the given ID.
select.monitor.values.by.dat
aset
ID
Get the monitor values for rows of
the data set with the given ID.
select.monitor.rows.by.datas
et
ID
Get the monitor rows of the data
set with the given ID.
update.monitor
ID, NAME,
CONFIGXML,
NEXT_STATUS
Update NAME, CONFIGXML, and
NEXT_STATUS of the monitor
with the given ID.
update.next.status
ID, NEXT_STATUS
Update the NEXT_STATUS of the
monitor with the given ID.
Table 17: List of SQL scripts and statements that need to be implemented for a monitor DB mapping.
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STATEMENT (SCRIPT) NAME
VARIABLES/PARAME-
DESCRIPTION
TERS
update.monitor.status
ID, STATUS,
NEXT_STATUS
Update the STATUS and
NEXT_STATUS of the monitor
with the given ID.
update.monitor.dataset
ID, NAME,
DATATYPE
Update the NAME and DATATYPE
of the monitor data set with the
given ID.
insert.monitor
ID, NAME,
CONFIGXML,
NEXT_STATUS
Insert an new monitor into the DB.
The last configuration timestamp is
set to the current date and time.
The status is set to started.
insert.monitor.dataset
ID, MONITOR_ID,
NAME, DATATYPE
Insert a new monitor data set.
insert.monitor.row
ID,
MONITORDATASET_
ID, CTIME,
ROWTYPE
Insert a new monitor data row.
insert.monitor.value
MONITORDATAROW_
ID, COLINDEX,
DOUBLEVALUE,
STRINGVALUE
Insert a new set of monitor row
values.
delete.monitor.by.id
ID
Delete the monitor with the given
ID.
delete.monitor.datasets.by.i
d
ID
Delete the monitor data set with
the given ID.
delete.monitor.rows.by.id
ID
Delete all rows for the monitor
with the given ID.
delete.monitor.rows.by.datas
et_id
MONITORDATASET_
ID [, CTIME]
[, ROWTYPE]
Delete all rows for the monitor data
set with the given
MONITORDATASET_ID. If CTIME
or ROWTYPE are given, delete only
those rows with matching
attributes.
Table 17: List of SQL scripts and statements that need to be implemented for a monitor DB mapping.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Monitors (Pro Edition)
STATEMENT (SCRIPT) NAME
VARIABLES/PARAME-
149
DESCRIPTION
TERS
delete.monitor.rows.before
MONITORDATASET_
ID, CTIME[,
ROWTYPE]
Delete all rows for the monitor data
set with the given
MONITORDATASET_ID and a
creation time before CTIME. If
ROWTYPE is given, delete only
those rows with matching type.
delete.monitor.rows.by.date
MONITORDATASET_
ID, CTIME
Delete all rows for the monitor data
set with the given
MONITORDATASET_ID and a
creation time equal CTIME.
delete.monitor.values.by.id
ID
Delete all monitor values for the
monitor with the given ID.
delete.monitor.values.by.dat
aset_id
MONITORDATASET_
ID [, CTIME]
[, ROWTYPE]
Delete all monitor values for the
monitor data set with the given
MONITORDATASET_ID. If CTIME
or ROWTYPE are given, delete only
those rows with matching
attributes.
delete.monitor.values.before
MONITORDATASET_
ID, CTIME[,
ROWTYPE]
Delete all values for the monitor
data set with the given
MONITORDATASET_ID and a
creation time before CTIME. If
ROWTYPE is given, delete only
those rows with matching type.
generate.id
TABLE_NAME
Generate a new ID for the specified
TABLE_NAME.
Table 17: List of SQL scripts and statements that need to be implemented for a monitor DB mapping.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Packet Analyzer
18 Packet Analyzer
The SNMP Packet Analyzer can be used to analyze all SNMP packets sent
and received by MIB Explorer and in addition packets you provide as a hex
string. By default the packet capturing is disabled to save resources and
increase overall performance.
The Packet Analyzer panel is the second to right tab of the Tools panel.
It is divided into three areas:
1. The top most pane contains a list of all captured packets with their
source and destination addresses, their transport, size and content (as a
hex string). Packets you have entered manually for analysis have an all
zero source and target address with UDP as transport.
2. The left pane contains the SNMP message structure of the selected
message as a tree. The tree reflects the SNMPv1, v2c, or v3 message
format defined using the Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1). The
tool tips of the tree nodes and the node text provide you with information about the message's encoding according to the Basic Encoding
Rules (BER).
3. The right pane displays the selected packet as a hex dump with a view
of the printable characters on the right. The above selected BER element (node) is highlighted through bold text within the message's hex
dump.
Captured packets can be saved into a capture XML file. The XML schema
for the capture file format can be found in the xsd directory of the MIB
Explorer installation. Capture files can be opened later at any time to
continue analysis.
MIB Explorer can also parse packet dumps from log files. With that feature
you can easily analyze the complete packet flow from a log file including
the send and receive times if logged at the beginning of each packet line.
Pro Edition
The packet analyzer of MIB Explorer Pro tries to decrypt the scoped PDU
of SNMPv3 DES, 3DES or AES encrypted messages on the fly when
displaying the messages BER structure. When the security credentials have
been changed or are not identical with those used by the message sender,
then the structure tree may contain a "BER error..." node below the
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Packet Analyzer
"Encrypted Scoped PDU:..." node. This node does not actually indicate an
error - it is just caused by an incorrect decryption of the scoped PDU due
to non-matching security credentials.
When you click on a node within an encrypted scoped PDU then the
scoped PDU will be displayed decrypted in the hex dump at the
appropriate place. Because decrypted PDUs may have less payload bytes
than their encrypted counter part, it may contain superfluous bytes at its
end.
18.1
Operations
To Start Packet Capturing
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Capture Packets toggle button. MIB Explorer will start
to capture all SNMP packets send and received via the configured
transport mappings.
To Stop Packet Capturing
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Capture Packets toggle button to deselect it. MIB
Explorer immediately stops capturing packets.
To Clear Packet List
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Clear (
) button and the packets list will be cleared.
To Save Packet List
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Save as (
) button.
3. Specify a (new) XML file to store the captured packets (those currently
in the packet list).
4. Click Save to save the file.
To Open a Packet List
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Open (
) button.
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Operations
3. Specify a previously saved captured packets XML file.
4. Click on Open to load the packets into the packets list. Any already
listed packets will be removed and replaced by the packets in the
loaded file.
To Manually Analyze (Decode) a Packet
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Analyze (
) button.
3. Enter a complete SNMP message in hexadecimal format (bytes separated by a colon) and press OK.
4. The message will be added to the packet list. Click on it in the list to
analyze its structure and content.
To Analyze Packets from a Log File
1. Select the Packets tab from the tools panel.
2. Click on the Analyze Log... (2nd
) button.
3. Enter the file name of the log file to extract the packets from. The
packets must be dumped in the log file in hexadecimal format (bytes
separated by a colon).
4. Enter a format of date and time information at the beginning of a log
line with a dumped packet as Java SimpleDateFormat. The format
for SNMP4J is the default (yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss). For
AGENT++ log files, use yyyyMMdd.HH:mm:ss.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Discovery of Network Elements (Pro Edition)
19 Discovery of Network Elements (Pro Edition)
With MIB Explorer, SNMPv1/v2c/v3 command responder, generators
and other network elements can be discovered in a Local Area Network
(LAN) by using broadcast targets and other targets (e.g. routers or bridges)
as seeds. To perform a discovery you need to specify at least one seed target.
That target should use a community or SNMPv3 user common to most
(possible) targets in your network.
Besides active discovery, source addresses of notifications are also covered
by the discovery process.
To Discover Network Elements
1. Choose the Discovery tab from the Tools panel.
2. If you have not yet defined targets to be used as seeds, choose Discovery Preferences ( ) from the toolbar. A configuration dialog with
three tabs will be opened:
 In the first tab you specify the seed targets, by adding them to right
list of the shuffle lists.
 The refresh interval and the scan interval in seconds are specified in
the second tab. The refresh interval defines the number of seconds
MIB Explorer will wait until it refreshes the state of each discovered
network element. The scan interval must be less or equal to the refresh
interval. The scan interval defines the number of seconds MIB
Explorer will scanning for new network elements and updating existing ones.
 With the third tab additional variables may be defined that should
be collected by the discovery process. The given OIDs will be added to
the GET request sent to discovered network elements. The default
variables requested are:
ifNumber.0, sysName.0, sysUpTime.0, sysLocation.0,
sysContact.0, sysDescr.0, sysObjectID.0, and sysServices.0
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Toolbar
19.1
Figure 16:
Toolbar
Discovery toolbar.

Start
Starts the discovery process. All items in the discovery table will be
removed and newly discovered network elements will be added to the
table in background.

Stop
Stops the discovery process. This may take a few seconds.

Refresh
Discovers agents using the selected target and add them to the result
table. Already discovered targets will be updated. A GET PDU is send
to the IP address and UDP port specified in the discovery target. The
PDU's variable bindings are. If a target responds with an error status
other than 0 (no error), the target will not be displayed in the result
table. Instead, the error counter will be incremented by one and displayed in the Status Bar.

Add Selected Network Elements to Target Configuration
Adds the selected targets to MIB Explorer's configuration. Each target
will be named by its discovered system name (sysName.0). The
selected targets will be contacted with the configured seed target security information (by order of their position in the seed configuration
list). The new target gets the configuration of the first seed whose
security information results in a successful contact.

Discovery Preferences
Opens the target configuration window, where you can make adjustments to any target, in particular discovery targets. The target selected
in the configuration when you save your changes using the Save button will become the next discovery target.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Discovery of Network Elements (Pro Edition)
19.2
Table of Discovered Network Elements
The table of discovered network elements may contain SNMP command
responder (typically agents) as well as simple network addresses discovered
from notifications and routers. If a network element has been discovered
through evaluation of a system's address table then that source system's IP
address will be displayed in the Source Address column and its Domain
Name System (DNS) name in the Hostname column.
The Last Contact column shows the time of the last update of the
discovered variables of the network element. If there is not any time
shown, then no variables has been discovered for the network element and
it could not be contacted with a ping. The refresh interval for the variables
can be configured with the Discovery Preferences.
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SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro Edition)
20 SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro Edition)
An USM User associates SNMPv3 security parameters with a user name.
RFC 3414 describes how the use of the User Security Model (USM)
protects SNMPv3 communication against classic threads against network
protocols.
A resource is commonly secured by password protection. However, the
administrative overhead for using a different password for each network
device is big. On the other hand, using a single password for all network
devices is very dangerous; because once an attacker has deciphered the
password it compromises all devices in the network. As a consequence, the
USM security model localizes a plain text password with a SNMP entity's
engine ID using a hashing algorithm. The resulting key is no longer
human readable and even if it is deciphered it provides only access to a
single SNMP entity. Nevertheless, changing the secrets of a USM user on
a regular basis is required to protect the secrets against disclosure, as stated
in RFC 3414 §11.1 Recommended Practices:
The frequency with which the secrets of a User-based
Security Model user should be changed is indirectly
related to the frequency of their use. Protecting the
secrets from disclosure is critical to the overall security of the protocols. Frequent use of a secret provides a continued source of data that may be useful to
a cryptanalyst in exploiting known or perceived weaknesses in an algorithm. Frequent changes to the secret
avoid this vulnerability.
MIB Explorer provides all necessary operations to:
 create a new USM user by cloning it from an existing user
 modifying the secrets (changing passwords) of an USM user
 deleting a USM user
on more than one target at once.
20.1
Create or Modify an USM User
A new USM user is created via SNMP by cloning it from an existing user.
Thus, an initial user has to be configured for each SNMP command
responder (agent) by other means than SNMP, for example a
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SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro Edition)
157
configuration file. The authentication and privacy passwords of an USM
user should be always changeable.
To Create an USM User
1. If not done yet, configure the target(s) for which the new user should
be created (see “Adding a New Target” on page 45). For each of the
targets, configure the USM user you want the new user to be cloned
from (see “Adding an USM User” on page 49).
2. Choose Create/Modify SNMPv3 User from the Edit menu.
3. Select as User for Operation the user configured in step 1, thus the
user you want the new user to be cloned from.
4. Specify all necessary values for the user to be created in the User to Be
Created/Modified pane. Fill in a SNMP engine ID, if the user should
be created on behalf of an engine ID different from the targets engine
ID. This is necessary for setting up a user for enabling a target to send
INFORM messages or to proxy SNMP requests to other targets. In all
other cases, the engine ID field can be left empty.
5. For very specific tasks it could be useful to check the „Do not modify
or add local user“ option. When checked, the user information of
MIB Explorer will not be changed trough the operation, thus the
cloned user will not be added to the user repository of MIB Explorer.
6. Press the Next button to get to the next step of the wizard.
7. Select the targets you want the new user to be created for from the
Available Targets table. It shows all targets for which the selected
operational user (specified in step 3) is configured. Press the Add button to add the selected target to the list of targets to be changed.
8. Press the Finish button to start the creation of the new user.
9. The status of the operation will be shown in step 3 of the wizard. You
cancel the operation by pressing the Stop button. For each target the
status is shown in a table.
The new user will be added to MIB Explorer's user configuration. The
configuration of the changed targets will not be changed.
10.Close the wizard by pressing the Close button.
To Modify an USM User
1. If not done yet, configure the target(s) for which a user should be
modified (see “Adding a New Target” on page 45). Configure for each
Note: A user cannot provide a
higher security level than the user
it has been cloned from.
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Deleting an USM User
of the targets the USM user you want modify (see “Adding an USM
User” on page 49).
2. Choose Create/Modify SNMPv3 User from the Edit menu.
3. Select as User for Operation the user configured in step 1, thus the
user to be modified.
4. Change the properties of the user to be modified in the „User to Be
Created/Modified“ pane. Select the same user in both User fields! Fill
in a SNMP engine ID, if the user is modified on behalf of an engine
ID different from the targets engine ID. This is necessary for enabling
a target to send INFORM messages or to proxy SNMP requests to
other targets.
Warning: When checking the Do
not modify or add local user
option, make sure that you have
configured a user with the new
credentials or otherwise you will
not be able to access the agent(s)
any more!
5. For very specific tasks it could be useful to check the „Do not modify
or add local user„ option. When checked, the user information of
MIB Explorer will not be changed trough the operation! As a consequence, after having successfully changed the users security credentials, you will not be able to access the agent(s) with the user you have
chosen for the operation.
6. Press the Next button to get to the next step of the wizard.
7. Select the targets for which you want the user to be modified from the
Available Targets table. It shows all targets for which the selected
operational user (specified in step 3) is configured. Press the Add button to add the selected target to the list of targets to be changed.
8. Press the Finish button to start the creation of the new user.
9. The status of the operation will be shown in step 3 of the wizard. You
cancel the operation by pressing the Stop button. For each target the
status is shown in a table.
If the operation failed or was canceled for any of the selected targets,
MIB Explorer will add a new user to MIB Explorer's configuration
with the current date and time appended to the user profile name of
the modified user. That new user will be an exact clone of the original
(unmodified) user profile. Each failed target will then be automatically
configured to use the clone user, whereas each successfully updated target will use the modified user.
10.Close the wizard by pressing the Close button.
20.2
Deleting an USM User
When deleting an USM user the user is deleted from a target's USM and
thus that user cannot be used with that target anymore. That is why MIB
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
SNMPv3 User Administration (Pro Edition)
Explorer requires that the delete operation is performed on behalf of a
different user than the deleted one. This ensures, that you can still access
the target agent after the operation.
To Delete an USM User
1. If not done yet, configure the target(s) for which you want to delete a
user (see “Adding a New Target” on page 45). Configure for each of
the targets an USM user different from the user you want to delete
from their USM (see “Adding an USM User” on page 49). Add a user
profile for the USM user to be deleted to MIB Explorer's configuration.
2. Choose Delete SNMPv3 User from the Edit menu.
3. Select as User for Operation the user configured in step 1, thus not
the user you want to delete.
4. Select the user to be deleted in the „User to Be Deleted“ pane. Fill in
a SNMP engine ID, if the user should be deleted on behalf of an
engine ID different from the targets engine ID. This is necessary for
deleting a user used for enabling a target to send INFORM messages
or to proxy SNMP requests to other targets.
5. Press the Next button to get to the next step of the wizard.
6. Select the targets for which you want to delete the selected user from
the Available Targets table. It shows all targets for which the selected
operational user (specified in step 3) is configured. Press the Add button to add the selected target to the list of targets to be changed.
7. Press the Finish button to start the deletion process.
8. The status of the operation will be shown in step 3 of the wizard. You
cancel the operation by pressing the Stop button. For each target the
status is shown in a table.
9. Close the wizard by pressing the Close button.
159
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MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Logging
21 Logging
MIB Explorer provides a highly configurable and well known logging
mechanism, called Log4J from Apache. By default logging is enabled.
Logging can be disabled or enabled by using the Log panel of MIB
Explorer's user interface (see below). Logged events are shown in the
logging table of the Log panel. They can be exported to a text file using the
Save As
button.
21.1
Configuration
1. Select the Log tab from the tools panel.
2. Press the Properties
displayed.
button. The logging properties window will be
3. Enter the maximum number of log records to be held by MIB
Explorer in the log table. Zero will disable logging.
4. Browse through the event tree and assign priorities other than FATAL
to the events you want to monitor. Assigning FATAL to the root priority will disable logging for all subtrees in the event hierarchy that do
not override that priority.
5. Press Save to save the settings. The logging properties will be restored
when MIB Explorer is started for the next time.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Tools
22
22.1
Tools
Incremental Search
Many dialogs and screen elements support instance search if you select the
element (by mouse or keyboard actions) and then starting to type the term
you are looking for.
The first matching element in the list, combo box, or table will be selected
then and a popup menu will open where the search term can be entered or
modified.
Using the up and down keys navigates through the found matches.
Matching is case-insensitive and searches for sub-strings. The search term
is a (Java) regular expression.
22.2
Searching the MIB Tree
MIB Explorer's MIB Tree can be searched by regular expressions. The
standard Search Panel help you to find MIB nodes and MIB object
instances by text and regular expression.
Figure 17:
161
Standard Search Panel.
The left most button
provides access to the search history which saves
the last ten search expressions. The search expression is entered into the
text field and search immediately starts from the root of the MIB Tree after
a character has been entered.
A node whose SMI text (or instance value) matches the given regular
expression will be selected. With the Find Again
menu item or button
you are then able to find the next node that matches the expression.
To Find a Node:
1. Enter a search term or regular expression into the text field of the
“Standard Search Panel.” on page 161. The search operation starts
immediately when a character is entered from the root node (and top
level row of the “Browse Tab” on page 52).
To start the incremental search,
you can press <Ctrl->-<I>.
162
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Identifying Duplicate OIDs
2. Alternatively, choose Find from the Edit menu or press
main toolbar. The search dialog will be displayed.
from the
3. Enter the search expression in regular expression syntax (see “Regular
expression syntax characters with special meaning.” on page 33 for
details).
4. Select whether case should be matched or not.
5. Only available with the Find dialog:
Select what type of attributes of a node you want to be matched
against the search expression. Choosing All will match the whole SMI
text of a MIB object node, including key words, or the properties rendered as "key= value" node against the given search expression.
To Find the Next Node:
Choose Find Again from the Edit menu or press
from the main
toolbar. The next node in depth first search order from the currently
selected node will be searched, that matches the previously specified search
expression and options.
Using the down arrow button from the Search Panel will also find the next
occurrence.
To Find the Previous Node:
Choose the Up arrow button on the Search Pane
To Clear Search Expression:
Press the red button right of the search text field.
22.3
Identifying Duplicate OIDs
It could be problematic and it is not desirable for the code generation if an
object identifier (OID) is not unique within the set of generated MIB
objects. To avoid such a situation, MIB Explorer can list the duplicate
OIDs of the loaded MIB modules in a table. From the Tools menu, choose
Duplicate OIDs to open this list.
22.4
Extracting SMI from RFC documents
SMI MIB module definitions are embedded in IETF RFC documents
which also includes page headers within the module text. This extraction
tool can read a RFC file or a directory of RFC files to extract any embedded
SMI modules and save them into new files.
MIB EXPLORER USER GUIDE
Tools
163
To Extract SMI Modules from RFCs:
1. Choose Extract SMI from RFC from the Tools menu.
2. Choose a source file or a source directory.
3. Choose a target file if you have chosen a source file or choose a target
directory if have chosen a source directory.
4. Press the Ok button to run the extraction. A progress dialog will open
where you can also cancel the operation if more than one file is being
processed.
If two directories are specified,
then the target file name is build
from the source file name by
appending „.smi“. If such a file
exists already, then „-<n>.smi“ is
appended where <n> is counted
up from 1 to 999 until such a file
does not exists.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
23 MIB Compiler Error Messages
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
0000
File open error: <X>.
The file <X> could not be read, please check
access rights.
0010
The length of identifier <X> exceeds 64
characters (RFC 2578 §3.1, §7.1.1,
§7.1.4).
It is recommended to use only identifiers with a
length of less than 32 characters for
interoperability issues. Identifiers that exceed 64
characters in length must be avoided.
0050
Encountered lexical error at …
The encountered character is not allowed in a
SMI MIB module.
1000
Syntax error: Encountered „token1“ at
row r, column c, expected one of the
following: ...
The parser encountered a string it did not
expect. Please look at the list of expected tokens
carefully in order to determine the trouble cause.
If the parser complains about a SMIv2 keyword
like MAX-ACCESS, please check whether the
first statement after the IMPORTS clause is a
MODULE-IDENTITY definition. This is a
requirement for a SMIv2 MIB module
(RFC2578 §3).
1001
The DISPLAY-HINT clause value
„token1“ at row r, column c is
invalid (RFC 2579 §3.1).
The DISPLAY-HINT clause does not
correspond to any of the allowed formats for
INTEGER or OCTET STRING base types.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
165
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
1002
The UTC time value “token1” at row r,
column c does not match the mandatory
format YYMMDDhhmmZ or
YYYYMMDDhhmmZ (RFC 2578 §2)
The UTC time value does not correspond to the
format YYMMDDhhmmZ or YYYYMMDDhhmmZ
where
YY
- last two digits of year (1900-1999 only)
YYYY - last four digits of the year (any year)
MM
- month (01 through 12)
DD
- day of month (01 through 31)
hh
- hours (00 through 23)
mm
- minutes (00 through 59)
Z
- denotes GMT (the ASCII character Z)
1020
Identifier <X> is ambiguous (RFC 2578
§3.1).
The identifiers (descriptors) in a MIB module
must be unique.
1050
The clause <X> is not allowed within
this context.
There are several clauses in SMI that are
optional, but if specified those clauses need to be
consistent with other clauses in the object
definition. Examples for such clauses are the
ACCESS, MIN-ACCESS, and SYNTAX clauses
in MODULE-COMPLIANCE constructs,
which must not be present for variations of
NOTIFICATION-TYPEs.
1100
Imported MIB module <X> unknown.
The MIB module <X> could not be found in the
MIB repository and neither in the MIB modules
being compiled. Make sure that the MIB
module name is not misspelled (this is often the
case for older SMIv1 MIBs).
1101
Imported MIB module <X> contains a
circular import.
The MIB module <X> imports from a module
that either imports itself from <X> or any other
module in the import chain imports from a
preceding module.
1102
MIB module <X> is imported more
than once.
The ASN.1 rules about IMPORTS that SMI is
based on require that an import source is defined
not more than once in a module.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
1110
<X> imported from MIB module <Y>
must be imported from <Z> instead.
For historical reasons, SMI requires to import
the MACRO definitions SMI is based on from
some ASN.1 modules. For SMIv1 and SMIv2 it
is defined which MACRO (construct) is
imported from which ASN.1 module. Since
those ASN.1 modules (e.g. SNMPv2-SMI) are
not SMI themselves, the MACRO definitions
have to be removed in order to be able to
compile them.
1111
Missing import statement for <X> (RFC
2578 §3.2).
To reference an external object, the IMPORTS
statement must be used to identify both the
descriptor and the module in which the
descriptor is defined, where the module is
identified by its ASN.1 module name.
1112
Imported object <X> is not defined in
MIB module <Y>.
Use the Edit>Search MIB Repository to search
for the MIB module that defines <X>.
1113
Object <X> is imported twice from MIB
module <Y>.
An object definition shall only be imported once
from a MIB module.
1114
<X> cannot be imported (RFC 2578
§3.2).
Notification and trap type definitions as well as
SEQUENCE constructs cannot be imported by
other MIB modules.
1150
Wrong module order within file.
The MIB file that failed to compile contains
more than one MIB module and the order of
those MIB modules does not correspond with
their import dependencies.
1200
The SYNTAX clause of the columnar
OBJECT-TYPE definition <X> does
not match with the SYNTAX clause of
the corresponding SEQUENCE
definition.
The object <X>’s syntax differs in a
SEQUENCE definition from its OBJECTTYPE definition.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
167
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
1202
The OBJECT-TYPE <X> has
inconsistent maximum access (RFC
2578 §7.3).
An object <X> has a MAX-ACCESS or
ACCESS clause that does not match its context
(RFC 2578 §7.3). For example, a columnar
object must not have a MAX-ACCESS value of
“read-write” if any other columnar object in the
table has a MAX-ACCESS value of “readcreate”.
1210
The conditionally GROUP clause <X>
must be absent from the corresponding
MANDATORY-GROUPS clause (RFC
2580 §5.4.2).
A conditionally group cannot be mandatory at
the same time!
1211
OBJECT variation <X> must be
included in a GROUP or
MANDATORY-GROUPs reference
(RFC 2580 §5.4.2).
The object reference <X> must be part of any
object group specified as conditionally or
mandatory for this compliance module.
1212
Only ‘not-implemented’ is applicable for
the ACCESS clause of the notification
type variation <X> (RFC 2580
§6.5.2.3).
If the notification has to be implemented, then
the ACCESS clause should be removed.
1220
The CREATION-REQUIRES clause of
variation <X> must only be present for
conceptual row definitions (RFC 2580
§6.5.2.4).
The CREATION-REQUIRES clause must not
be present unless the object named in the
correspondent VARIATION clause is a
conceptual row, i.e., has a syntax which resolves
to a SEQUENCE containing columnar objects.
1221
Only columnar object type definitions
with ‚read-create‘ access may be present
in the CREATION REQUIRES clause
of variation <X> (RFC 2580 §6.5.2.4).
Other objects and columns cannot be created
and thus they cannot participate in a row
creation.
1500
Undefined syntax(es): <X>[,…]
The syntax (data type) <X> is not defined in the
parsed MIB module and it is not imported from
another MIB module. Use the Edit>Search MIB
Repository function to search the MIB
repository for object name <X> and add the
corresponding IMPORT FROM clause for <X>.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
1501
Undefined object(s): <X>[,…]
The object name <X> is not defined in the
parsed MIB module and it is not imported from
another MIB module. Use the Edit>Search MIB
Repository function to search the MIB
repository for object name <X> and add the
corresponding IMPORT FROM clause for <X>.
1502
The object <X> must be defined or
imported (RFC 2578 §3.2).
The object <X> is not defined in the parsed MIB
module and it is not imported from another
MIB module. Use the Edit>Search MIB
Repository function to search the MIB
repository for object name <X> and add the
corresponding IMPORT FROM clause for <X>.
1600
The object definition <X> references a
<Y> definition, expected a reference to
an OBJECT-TYPE conceptual row
definition instead.
The AUGMENTS clause, for example, requires
that the referenced object definition is a
conceptual table definition, i.e., has a syntax
which resolves to a SEQUENCE containing
columnar objects.
1601
The GROUP clause <X> references a
<Y> definition, expected a reference to
an OBJECT-GROUP or
NOTIFICATION-GROUP instead
(RFC 2580 §5.4.2).
The GROUP clause requires a reference to an
object group definition.
1602
The object reference <X> points to a
<Y> definition, expected a reference to
an OBJECT-TYPE or
NOTIFICATION-TYPE definition
instead.
The VARIATION clause, for example, requires a
reference to an OBJECT-TYPE or a
NOTIFICATION-TYPE definition.
1700
Object reference(s) with wrong type:
<X> (expected <Y> but found <Z>)
[,…]
The referenced to object <X> must be of type
<Y> but it is of type <Z>.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
169
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
1800
The SEQUENCE clause of the table
entry definition <X> does not match the
order or number of objects registered for
that table at entry <Y>.
The column references in the SEQUENCE
definition of a table must be lexicographically
ordered by their object-identifiers. The object
name Y is the name of the first object reference
in the SEQUENCE definition that does not
match the order of columnar objects of that
table.
1810
The OBJECT-TYPE <X> has an invalid
index definition (RFC 2578 §7.7).
The OBJECT-TYPE <X> has an invalid INDEX
clause, i.e., an empty clause.
1811
The OBJECT-TYPE <X> has invalid
index definition because <Y> may be
negative (RFC 2578 §7.7).
Index values have to be encoded as OID suffixes
on the wire. Since OID sub-identifiers are 32-bit
unsigned integer values, negative values cannot
be encoded over the wire. See RFC 2578 §7.7
for more details.
1850
The OBJECT-TYPE <X> has invalid
index definition, because <Y> is not a
columnar object (RFC 2578 §7.7).
The OBJECT-TYPE <X> has an invalid INDEX
clause, because <Y> does not refer to a columnar
OBJECT-TYPE definition. An OBJECT-TYPE
is columnar object, if it is part of a table
definition. See RFC2578 §7.7 for more details.
1851
OBJECT-TYPE definition <X> is a
scalar and therefore it must not have an
INDEX clause (RFC 2578 §7.7).
Scalar objects have a fixed instance identifier
(“index”) of ‘0’, thus an INDEX clause must not
be specified.
2000
Duplicate object registration of <X>
after <Y> for the object ID <Z> (RFC
2578 §3.6).
Once an object identifier has been registered* it
must not be reregistered.
2010
Illegal object registration of <X> under
<Y> for the object ID <Z>.
For example, it is not legal to register objects in
the sub-tree of an OBJECT-TYPE registration.
3000
The default value of OBJECT-TYPE
<X> is out of range (RFC 2578 §7.9).
The values specified in a DEFVAL clause have to
be valid values for the corresponding data type
syntax.
3001
The size of the default value of
OBJECT-TYPE <X> is out of range
(RFC 2578 §7.9).
The length of the specified octet string exceeds
the SIZE constraints defined for the
corresponding data type syntax.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
3002
The format of the default value of
OBJECT-TYPE <X> does not match its
syntax (RFC 2578 §7.9).
The value <X> is not properly defined for the
corresponding syntax.
3003
A DEFVAL clause is not allowed for
OBJECT-TYPE <X> which has a base
syntax of Counter (Counter32 or
Counter64) (RFC 2578 §7.9).
Either change the syntax type to non Counter
type (if the MIB has not been released yet) or
remove the DEFVAL clause.
4000
The syntax definition of the object <X>
is not a valid refinement of its base
syntax (RFC 2578 §9).
A refinement must not extend the range of valid
values for a data type.
4010
The range restriction is invalid because
…
The lower bound (first value) of range restriction
must be less or equal than the corresponding
upper bound (second value). In addition,
bounds for unsigned values cannot be negative.
4100
The TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
definition <X> must not have a
DISPLAY-HINT clause because its
SYNTAX is OBJECT IDENTIFIER,
IpAddress, Counter32, Counter64, or
any enumerated syntax (BITS or
INTEGER) (RFC 2579 §3.1)
Only textual conventions for INTEGER and
OCTET STRING base types may have a
DISPLAY-HINT clause.
4101
The DISPLAY-HINT clause value
„token1“ of the TEXTUALCONVENTION definition <X> is not
compatible with the used SYNTAX
(RFC 2579 §3.1)
The integer DISPLAY-HINT format must be
used with the INTEGER base type only whereas
the string DISPLAY-HINT format must be used
with OCTET STRING base type only.
5000
The object definition <X> must be
included in an OBJECT-GROUP or a
NOTIFICATION-GROUP definition
respectively (RFC 2580 §3.1 and §4.1).
This requirement ensures that compliance
statements for a MIB module can be written.
5100
Object group <X> must not reference
OBJECT-TYPE <Y> which has a MAXACCESS clause of not-accessible (RFC
2580 §3.1).
Only accessible objects and notifications may be
included in object groups.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
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MIB Compiler Error Messages
171
ERROR #
MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION/SOLUTION
6000
The PIB-INDEX clause of OBJECTTYPE definition <X> does not reference
a columnar object with an 'InstanceId'
syntax (RFC3159 §7.5)
Create an columnar object with SYNTAX
InstanceId and reference it in this PIBINDEX clause or change the SYNTAX of the
referenced OBJECT-TYPE to InstanceId.
6001
The PIB-TAG clause present in <X>
must be absent because the SYNTAX is
not 'TagReferenceId' (RFC3159 §7.11)
Remove the PIB-TAG clause or change the
OBJECT-TYPE SYNTAX clause to
TagReferenceId.
6002
The PIB-REFERENCES clause present
in <X> must be absent because the
SYNTAX is not 'ReferenceId'
(RFC3159 §7.10)
Use the PIB-REFERENCES only if the
SYNTAX is ReferenceId.
6003
A PIB-TAG clause must be present in
<X> because its SYNTAX is
'TagReferenceId' (RFC3159 §7.11)
The PIB-TAG clause is mandatory if the
SYNTAX is TagReferenceId.
6004
The PIB-REFERENCES must be
present in <X> because its SYNTAX is
'ReferenceId' (RFC3159 §7.10)
The PIB-REFERENCES is mandatory if the
SYNTAX is ReferenceId.
6005
The UNIQUENESS clause of
OBJECT-TYPE definition <X> must
not contain the attribute <Y> referenced
in the PIB-INDEX clause (RFC3159
§7.9)
Do not include the PIB-INDEX attribute in an
UNIQUENESS clause.
6006
The UNIQUENESS clause of
OBJECT-TYPE definition <X> must
not contain the attribute <Y> more than
once (RFC3159 §7.9)
There must not be duplicate attributes in an
UNIQUNESS clause.
6007
The INSTALL-ERRORS clause of
OBJECT-TYPE definition <X> has an
invalid error number <N> for label <L>
which is out of the range 0-65535
(RFC3159 §7.4)
Error numbers in a INSTALL-ERRORS clause
must be between 0 and 65535.
Table 18: MIB Explorer SMI compiler error messages.
*. An object registration is any object definition other than OBJECT-IDENTIFIER.
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Trouble Shooting
24 Trouble Shooting
Although MIB Explorer has been designed to make dealing with SNMP
and MIBs straightforward, there are some situations where MIB Explorer
cannot solve a problem without help from the user. The following hints
should help you to cope with such exceptional incidents.
PROBLEM
SOLUTION
Some GUI elements like buttons,
window borders, or text are not
displayed or not displayed at the
correct location.
Current Java versions has much faster GUI refreshing mechanisms
than older ones. Generally, this is a good thing, but unfortunately
some graphic card drivers have bugs that cause a highly optimized
rendering system to fail properly refreshing the display. If you
encounter such problems, please try to get and install an updated
version of your graphic card drivers.
MIB files cannot be compiled
although other SNMP tools
accept them.
In almost all such cases, the MIB module that fails to compile has a
serious syntax error, thus, an error that clearly violates a SMI rule. If
you are not able to fix the MIB module with the built-in MIB
editor, you may switch the MIB compiler into lenient mode and
recompile the module.
Caution: Using lenient MIB compilation may cause problems later
because incorrect or inconsistent data may have been read. If you
encounter problems with MIB Explorer, please make sure that all
your MIBs have passed normal compilation.
The chart view of a monitor does
not update correctly when data
collection is performed by
expressions only.
Workaround: Add a (dummy) row that collects an arbitrary
numerical value (e.g. sysUpTime) and uncheck the Display box in
the configuration of the new row to avoid displaying the dummy
value. The chart update will be then correct.
The axis labels of 3D charts are
not correctly rendered when
saved as PDF, PS, or PCL files.
This is a known issue and there is currently no workaround other
than using the JPEG or PNG data types instead.
Table 19: MIB Explorer trouble shooting hints.
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Trouble Shooting
173
PROBLEM
SOLUTION
Timeout in SNMP Table view or
a tooBig error status is returned
when refreshing a table, but
single columns of the table can be
retrieved without problems.
The packet size of the response might be too big.
Determining a target's MIB set
detects MIB modules that are not
implemented by the agent.
The agent does not implement lexicographic ordering correctly.
Sometimes timeout on a specific
target.
Timeout or retries value to small.
Try reducing the "Max VBs per PDU" value or increasing the
"Maximum inbound message size" value of the transport
mapping used in Preferences. If the target is not a SNMPv1 target,
then reducing the "Get Bulk repetitions" value will also help to
reduce the size of the response PDU send back by the target.
Enable logging with a log table size of at least 100 entries and set the
logging priority for SNMP to DEBUG. Verify the responses got
from the target for correct lexicographic ordering.
Alternatively, you can also use the Packet Analyzer to inspect the
responses sent by the agent.
First, try to increase the timeout value in Target Preferences. If
this does not help, try to increase the "Number of retries" value.
MIB Explorer seems to hang after
having connected to a remote
monitor or after having deployed
a monitor.
The remote MIB Explorer server is most likely behind a firewall or
the client and remote are connected using Network Address
Translation (NAT). The server therefore cannot open a connection
to the client to inform the client about monitor data updates. To
solve the problem, please check the "Do not use callback
connection" option when connecting to a remote server or when
deploying to a remote server. If the client already "hangs" please
wait (up to 6 minutes) for the TCP connection to time out. The
MIB Explorer will respond again.
Timeout on any type of request
for a specific target.
Wrong community or USM user specified for the target.
Change the community or the user settings in Target Preferences.
Internal 1405 (encryption) or
1406 (decryption) error when
sending or receiving SNMPv3
request with strong encryption
(AES192 or AES256).
Your current Java Runtime Environment does not have a security
policy installed that allows strong encryption. If the corresponding
prerequisites are met, you can download strong encryption from
http://java.oracle.com.
Table 19: MIB Explorer trouble shooting hints.
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Trouble Shooting
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