(CDS) EZChrom Edition Users Guide

(CDS) EZChrom Edition Users Guide
`
Agilent OpenLAB
Chromatography
Data System (CDS)
EZChrom Edition
Users Guide
Notices
Warranty
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2015
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any
form or by any means (including electronic storage
and retrieval or translation into a foreign language)
without prior agreement and written consent from
Agilent Technologies, Inc. as governed by United
States and international copyright laws.
Manual Part Number
M8201-90014
Edition
February 2015
Printed in USA
Agilent Technologies, Inc.
5301 Stevens Creek Boulevard
Santa Clara, CA 95051
Acknowledgements
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Software is delivered and licensed as Commercial
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Safety Notices
CAUTION
A CAUTION notice denotes a hazard. It
calls attention to an operating procedure,
practice, or the like that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in
damage to the product or loss of
important data. Do not proceed beyond
a CAUTION notice until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
WARNING
A WARNING notice denotes a hazard.
It calls attention to an operating
procedure, practice, or the like that, if
not correctly performed or adhered
to, could result in personal injury or
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WARNING notice until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and
met.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Contents
Getting Started
17
As a data system user 17
Basics of Operation 18
View Version Information
18
EZChrom eFamiliarization modules
18
Access the help files 18
View version Information
19
System architecture 19
About new file templates
20
About the instrument window 20
About navigation pane buttons 21
View online signals 22
Change view preferences
24
Instrument wizard
25
To lock or unlock the instrument window 25
Open and save files 26
Open a method file 27
Open a sequence file 28
Open a result set
29
Open a data file
30
Open a recently opened file
Save a method
32
Save a master method
Save a sequence
33
Save a result set
33
Save a data file
34
Open a template
35
Save as a template 35
32
32
About the Chromatogram Window
36
View tiled or overlay data
36
Scroll the chromatogram
37
Add a trace 37
Axis setup 39
Annotations 39
Change the chromatogram appearance 40
Zooming
42
Clear overlaid traces 42
Copy to clipboard
42
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
3
Print a trace 42
Save a trace 43
Remove a trace
43
Set limits for X-axis and Y-axis 43
Chromatogram operations
44
Move a trace 44
Stack traces 44
Align two traces
46
Stretch a chromatogram
47
Normalize traces
48
Smoothing 49
Calculate derivatives 50
Add two traces
51
Subtract two chromatograms 51
Multiply two traces 51
Divide chromatograms or traces
Tutorial
51
53
Create a method
53
Run a sample
54
Set integration parameters graphically 54
Prepare a method for calibration
Calibrate a method
57
Create a sample sequence
Run a sequence
55
58
59
Review multilevel calibration curves
60
Change integration parameters 61
About Instruments 62
Configure instrument 62
To have the program automatically detect and configure your installed devices:
62
To manually choose which devices to configure: 62
Configure an analog detector 63
Commonly used Y-axis labels and corresponding multipliers
63
Configure an external event 64
To configure events for an instrument: 64
Enable optional analysis software
64
Configure a fraction collector 65
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CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Instrument activity log 65
View the instrument status
Not connected (gray)
Stand by (teal)
Idle (green) 66
Running (blue)
65
65
66
66
Set the instrument to Sleep or Wake mode
About Methods
66
67
Create a method with the method wizard68
Instrument setup
69
Open instrument setup
Import instrument setup
Trigger
70
External events
71
Baseline check
71
Aux traces 73
Fraction collector
73
69
69
Select a new project 74
View method reports 74
Method properties
75
Method properties description 75
Method properties options
75
Method properties calibration 76
Method properties audit trail log
Method properties audit trail 77
Data properties
78
About data file structure
78
View data file general information
Data file description 79
View data file electronic signatures
Data file audit trail log 80
Data file audit trail
80
76
79
80
Advanced method options
81
To export data as part of a method
81
Export graphics
84
Column/Performance parameters
85
Select user programs and baseline files 86
Advanced method reports
86
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
5
Sample prep 87
To open an existing sample prep file
87
To turn on the audit trail for the sample prep file 87
To enter a description for a sample prep file
87
To open a sample prep template
87
Launch lab monitor software
88
System suitability
88
System suitability setup
89
System suitability calculations 90
Run a system suitability test and print a report
About Integration
91
93
About integration tables
93
Integration events table
94
To view the integration events table:
94
To add an event manually:
94
To remove an event entirely from the table:
94
To temporarily remove an event from the table: 94
To view the context menu:
94
Manual integration fixes table 95
To view the Manual Integration Fixes table:
95
To add an event manually:
96
To remove an event entirely from the table:
96
To temporarily remove an event from the table: 96
To view the context menu:
96
Baseline code descriptions
97
Graphical programming
98
To view the integration toolbar: 98
To view the integration message window:
Width
100
Threshold 100
Shoulder Sensitivity 101
Integration off
102
Valley to valley
103
Horizontal baseline 104
Backward horizontal baseline 105
Lowest point horizontal baseline
106
Tangent skim
107
Front tangent skim 108
Minimum area
109
Negative peak
110
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CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Disable end of peak detection 111
Reassign peak
112
Manual baseline
113
Manual peak 114
Split peak 115
Force peak start /Force peak stop
Move baseline
117
Reset baseline
118
Reset baseline at valley
119
Exponential skimming 120
Front exponent skimming
121
Adjust RT window
122
Sampling rate
123
About Sequences
116
124
Create a sequence with the sequence wizard
Sequence Wizard - Method
125
Sequence Wizard - Unknowns 126
Sequence Wizard - Autosampler
Sequence Wizard - Calibration 128
Sequence Wizard - Reports 129
Create a reprocessing sequence
Edit a sequence
125
127
130
131
Easy sequence
131
Easy Sequence
131
Easy Sequence Setup 131
Create a sequence from a container sample list 131
Sequence properties 133
Sequence properties options 133
Sequence properties audit trail 134
Sequence properties audit trail log
134
About the sequence spreadsheet
135
Sequence spreadsheet context menu 135
Fill down
137
Insert a new sequence into a sequence spreadsheet
Customize the sequence spreadsheet columns 138
Sequence spreadsheet columns
138
Set sample run types 140
Set up a QC check standard 142
Concentration override
142
Set an action for a sequence run
143
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
137
7
About data acquisition and control
145
Single run acquisition 146
Sequence run acquisition
148
About overlapped sample prep mode
Bracketed calibrations 151
Schedule run 152
Reprocess a sequence
152
About the run queue 153
Add a run to the queue
154
Add a run to the result 154
User access to runs in progress
Stop a run in progress 155
Extend a run 156
Add and delete items in the run queue
Turn off processing for data acquisition
Submit a priority run 157
Fraction collector configuration 158
150
155
156
157
About the result sequence
159
View result review mode
159
Add signatures to the result sequence 159
Revoke signatures 159
Result set properties 160
About sequence reports
162
Generate a sequence report 162
View sequence reports
163
Print sequence reports
163
Edit a sequence report template
164
Edit and print a sequence contents report
About Calibration
164
166
Calibration theory
167
Steps for creating a calibration 168
Run a calibration standard
Define single peak
169
170
Define peaks 171
About the peak table 173
Change the peak table properties
180
Single level calibration using a stored data file
8
Renumbering peak ID's
181
Review calibration curves
182
180
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Concentration calculator
184
Calibration averaging 185
Automatically average replicates
186
Calibration averaging as part of a single run or sequence 187
About replicates and averaging calibrations
188
About groups and group calibration
191
Define a group
192
About the Group Table
193
Change the Group Table properties
196
Uncalibrated group range
196
Group calibration (Calibrated Range) 197
Group range definition 200
Calibrated peak grouping (Named Peaks)
Peak group definition 201
Group range adjustment
202
Report group amounts202
Calibrated range examples
203
About Reports
206
About report templates
206
Standard reports
207
Open a standard report
Open a method report 207
Save a standard report
Save a method report 208
Using the report editor 208
Basic report editor functions
Using print preview 211
Short-Cuts 211
Create headers and footers
Add lines and boxes 213
Add fields 214
Add a chromatogram 214
Import a report
215
Place a graph next to a report
Add objects 216
Adding a calibration curve
Print reports 217
207
207
209
212
215
217
Insert a report table 218
Add a report table
218
Change a report table parameter
Edit the appearance of a report table
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
200
220
220
9
Show report data at design time
Delete a report table 221
221
Types of report tables 222
Insert calibration information 223
Insert a calibration report
223
Insert electronic signatures
224
Insert a filtered method report 224
Insert a generic report 224
Insert an instrument activity log 224
Insert an instrument configuration report 225
Insert a method audit trail report
225
Insert a method report 226
Insert a run report
226
Modify the run report information
227
Insert a sequence calibration report
227
Insert a sequence check standard report 228
Insert a sequence duplicate report
229
Insert a sequence spike report 230
Insert a sequence table (customized) 231
Insert a sequence table (Full) 232
Insert a system suitability report
232
Insert a fraction report 233
Advanced reporting 234
Create an advanced report template
235
Format cell style for advanced reports 235
Define an advanced report header/footer
Add a chart to an advanced report
237
Add a fill color to cells in an advanced report
Change advanced report grid properties 238
Add a table using the table wizard
238
Add a function using the function wizard 239
Function wizard select function 240
Function wizard dynamic data 240
Function wizard data direction 241
Function wizard types 242
Function wizard identification 242
Advanced report audit trail
243
View advanced report audit trail log
243
Save the advanced report as a template 244
Intelligent reports
245
Create an intelligent report
Open an Intelligent Report
Save an intelligent report
10
236
237
245
245
245
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Standard report templates
246
Area % report
247
ConfigContents report 247
Current baseline check
Internal standard report
External standard report
Normalization report 248
Error condition flags 249
About Custom Parameters
247
248
248
250
Set a custom parameter for a method
251
Set a custom parameter for a sequence 252
Define a sequence based custom parameter for a method 252
Set a custom parameter for a sequence 252
Use the European Pharmacopeia (EP) System Suitability Signal To Noise custom parameter
253
Calculation 253
Use the parameter 254
Additional notes
256
Use the United States Pharmacopia(USP) Signal To Noise custom parameter
Calculation 257
Use the parameter 258
257
Use the Peak To Valley Ratio custom parameter 259
Calculation 259
Use the parameter 259
Use the Signal Conversion custom parameter
Calculation 260
Use the parameter 260
260
Use the Channel Wide Normalization custom parameter 261
Use the parameter 261
Use the Relative Area Percent custom parameter 262
Calculation 262
Use the parameter 262
Use the Script Processor and Script Files to create a custom parameter
Use the script processor
263
Use a script file
263
263
Use the EZChrom Elite Retention Index (Kovats Index) custom parameter
Retention index rules 264
To use the parameter: 264
264
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
11
Add custom parameters to the method report
View and print the method report
266
267
Reference 268
Conversion of PENelson Data Files
Open a CDF File
269
Configure CIO/DIO Events
User programs
268
269
269
Turn off GPIB instruments
270
Internal calculations 271
6-Sigma noise test 272
6-Sigma Signal-to-Noise
272
Area % report calculation
272
Area/Amount response factor definition 273
Area/Height calculation method 274
ASTM LOD (Limit of Detection) calculation
275
ASTM LOQ (Limit of Quantitation)
276
ASTM noise calculations
276
ASTM Signal to Noise 276
Automatic averaging 277
Average RF 277
Baseline check calculations 278
Calib weight 278
Calibration averages 279
Calibration curve calculations 280
Calibration curves
280
Capacity factor (k') 280
Cubic fit
281
DAB (German Pharmacopia) calculation method 281
Determining concentrations for uncalibrated peaks
282
Drift test for system suitability 283
EMG (Exponential Modified Gaussian) calculation method 283
External standard calibration curves
285
External standard report calculation
286
Internal standard amounts
286
Internal standard report calculation
286
Internal standard vs external standard and normalization 286
Internal standards
287
Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) 15th Edition calculation 288
Linear fit
289
Matrix operations
290
Modified least squares calculation
291
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CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Noise test (rms noise) 292
Normalization report calculation
292
Peak centroid
292
Performance calculations
293
Plates/Meter 293
Point-to-Point fit
294
Quadratic fit 295
Relative retention
296
Relative retention (Selectivity) 296
Reporting Zero for internal standard concentrations
Response factor definition
297
Savitsky-Golay smoothing
297
Scaling
298
USP (United States Pharmacopia) calculation method
Weighting and scaling 300
Weighting method (LSQ Weight)
301
About ASCII sequence file formats
302
ASCII sequence header
302
ASCII sequence records
303
ASCII action record 304
Example of ASCII sequence file
305
Example of ASCII dual tower sequence file
297
299
306
Functional reference 309
Parameter description 310
Datafile functions
311
Data.AcquisitionDate 312
Data.AnalysisDate 312
Data.BCDValue
312
Data.Description
313
Data.Filename
313
Data.FullFilename
314
Data.InstrumentName 314
Data.ISTDAmount
314
Data.LastMethodFilename
315
Data.LastMethodFullFilename 315
Data.MultiplierFactor 315
Data.OriginalMethodFilename 316
Data.OriginalMethodFullFilename
Data.SampleAmount 316
Data.SampleID
317
Data.SystemWideParam
317
Data.SystemWideParamByName
Data.TraceName
318
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
316
317
13
Data.UserName
Data.Vial
318
Data.Volume 319
318
Extended helper functions
Ex.D
319
Ex.R
320
319
Group functions
322
Group.Area 322
Group.AreaPercent 323
Group.ESTDConcentration
Group.Height324
Group.HeightPercent 324
Group.ISTDConcentration
Group.Name 325
Group.NORMConcentration
Group.Number
326
Group.Quantitation 327
Group.ResponseFactor
Group.Units 328
323
325
326
327
Instrument Functions 329
Instrument.ID
329
Instrument.Name
329
Instrument.UserName 329
Peak functions
330
Peak.AOHResolution 331
Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlates 331
Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.Area 332
Peak.AreaPercent
333
Peak.Asymmetry
333
Peak.AsymmetryTenPercent 334
Peak.CapacityFactor 334
Peak.CurrentResponseFactor 335
Peak.CustomParam 335
Peak.CustomParamByName 336
Peak.DABResolution 336
Peak.DABTheoreticalPlates 337
Peak.DABTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.EMGResolution 338
Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlates 338
Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.ESTDConcentration
339
14
332
337
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CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Peak.ExpectedRetentionTime 340
Peak.Height 340
Peak.HeightPercent 341
Peak.Index 341
Peak.IntegrationCodes
341
Peak.ISTDConcentration
342
Peak.JPResolution 343
Peak.JPTheoreticalPlates
343
Peak.JPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.Name 344
Peak.NORMConcentration
345
Peak.Number
345
Peak.Quantitation
346
Peak.RelativeRetentionTime 346
Peak.Resolution
347
Peak.ResolutionID 347
Peak.ResponseFactor 348
Peak.RetentionTime 348
Peak.StartTime
349
Peak.StopTime
349
Peak.TheoreticalPlates
350
Peak.TheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.Units 351
Peak.USPResolution 351
Peak.USPTheoreticalPlates 352
Peak.USPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.USPWidth
353
Peak.Width 353
Peak.WidthFiftyPercent
354
Peak.WidthFivePercent
354
Peak.WidthTenPercent
355
344
350
352
Project Functions
356
Project.DataPath
356
Project.Description 356
Project.MethodPath 357
Project.Name
357
Project.RootPath
357
Project.SequencePath358
Project.TemplatePath 358
Sequence Functions 359
Sequence.Filename 359
Sequence.FullFilename
Sequence.RunNumber
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
359
360
15
Advanced reporting formulas and Functions
Spreadsheet formulas 361
Formula syntax
362
Formula values
362
Formula operators 363
Referencing other cells in formulas
Cell referencing in spreadsheet 365
Constraint expressions
367
Explicit dependency 367
Built-in functions
368
Mathematical functions
369
Statistical functions 369
Conditional statistical functions 369
String functions
369
Logic functions
369
Digital logic functions 370
Financial functions 370
Date and time functions
372
Miscellaneous functions
372
Embedded tools
372
Functions 373
Mathematical functions
373
Statistical functions 374
Conditional statistical functions 376
String functions
376
Logic functions
377
Financial functions 378
Date and time functions
380
Miscellaneous functions
381
Embedded tools
382
Using spreadsheet built-in functions
Arguments 383
Using operators with functions 384
Computed cell references
384
Spreadsheet error messages 385
Types of errors
385
Summary of error messages 386
16
361
365
383
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Getting Started
Getting Started
Use the data system to control and acquire data from a variety of
instruments. Once an instrument has been properly connected and
configured in the Control Panel, data acquisition and control will
require that you perform the following general steps:
As a data system user



Create and save a data acquisition and control method. A
method contains several sections, including acquisition and
instrument control parameters, calibration information,
integration timed events, and reporting options. A method may
also contain special items such as export instructions and
customized parameters or user programs that can be run after
analysis.
Create and save a sequence that contains details of calibration
runs and unknown samples.
Run the sequence to calibrate the method and generate results.
Note Privileges/Roles assigned in the Control Panel may prevent a
user from performing all of these tasks.
See Also
Basics of Operation
Tutorial
About Instruments
About Methods
About Integration
About Sequences
About Calibration
About Reports
Reference
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
17
Basics of Operation
Basics of Operation
This section covers the basics of operation.
See Also
EZChrom eFamiliarization Modules
Access the Help files
View Version Information
System Architecture
About New File Templates
About the Instrument Window
Open and Save Files
About the Chromatogram Window
About Data Acquisition and Control
EZChrom eFamiliarization modules
An eFamiliarization DVD is included with your OpenLAB
software to help you get started and familiarize yourself with
EZChrom.
You can also acquire the eFamiliarization modules from Agilent
through the internet.
1
Go to https://agilent.subscribenet.com.
2
Log in with your Login name and Password. The Login name
and Password were provided when you enabled your
EZChrom licenses.
3
Click the OpenLAB Software link and agree to the conditions.
4
Select to either download the eFamiliarization modules to
your PC or order them on DVD.
Access the help files
There are two types of help file topics, optional and main.
The help topics for optional software are located in separate help
files that are unique for each option. These help files are only
accessed by the system when you are in a dialog or window that is
specific to that option. When you access the help file for an
optional program, the index and table of contents displayed will
be for the help file for that optional program.
All other topics are located in the main help file. To access the
main help file topics, you must first close the optional help file.
To access the help file:
From the Toolbar select Help > Contents, or select the Help
icon.
18
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
View version Information
Software version information for your system can be found in the
About Agilent OpenLAB CDS (EZChrom Edition) dialog box.
1
From the main menu select Help > About. The About Agilent
OpenLAB CDS (EZChrom Edition) dialog box is displayed
listing the version of your Agilent OpenLAB CDS (EZChrom
Edition) software.
2
To view version information for installed modules and
drivers, select Module Version. The Module Version Info
window displays the Product Name, Product Version, and
Driver Version of your installed modules.
System architecture
An Enterprise is a combination of data system clients, servers,
and instruments configured on a network. It can be as simple as
two laboratories with Agilent Instrument Controllers connected
together on a network, or as complex as a large pharmaceutical
company with multiple locations, many buildings, and hundreds
of laboratories, each with a wide range of instruments.
The data system can be installed as a single, stand-alone data
system, as a series of stand-alone data systems networked
together, or in a networked, client/server mode.
Agilent Instrument Controller's (AICs) are the machines where
the actual data acquisition and control of instruments occur. All
instruments are physically attached to the AICs.
Client workstations are where the users of the systems perform
all operations of the system such as developing methods and
sequences, and submitting data acquisition runs and sequences to
the AICs. Clients can access the servers or AIC through direct
network connection, or from remote locations using the Internet.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
19
Basics of Operation
A client/server system is comprised of servers and clients
configured together on a network, using a Windows computer as a
domain controller.
In client/server mode when you start a run or a sequence from a
client workstation, you are actually submitting that run or
sequence to the Acquisition Controller where the instrument is
attached. Once you have submitted a run or sequence, the server
or AIC assumes control over the acquisition and control functions.
All methods and sequences are copied to the Acquisition
Controller when a run queue item is submitted to the server. If
the network goes down, the Acquisition Controller will continue to
run with the files it has on its hard disk.
About new file templates
The system provides several pre-made file templates for:
See Also

Methods

Sequences

Sample Preps

Spectral Libraries

Reports
Open a Template
About the instrument window
In the Instrument Window many aspects of using the instrument
are performed, including:
Methods
Sequences
Calibration
Reporting
Integration
20
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
You can customize the appearance of the application window by
right clicking the toolbars or graphical events buttons and
selecting which buttons to show. See also Change View
Preferences.
See Also
Chromatogram Window
Navigation Buttons
Graphical Events Buttons
View Online Signals
Change View Preferences
Instrument Wizard
To Lock or Unlock the Instrument Window
About navigation pane buttons
The navigation pane buttons in the instrument window give you
single-click access to method, sequence, report, control, and
viewing options. The navigation buttons at the bottom of the
navigation pane open command trees that give you access to
commands that are also available from the menu bar of the
instrument window.
Method
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Method, Sample Prep, Data,and Tiled Display ( to display current data tiled
with selected Integration or Calibration/Peak Table information)
21
Basics of Operation
Sequence
Edit, Properties
Reports
Standard Report, Advanced Report, Intelligent Report, Area %, Config
Contents Report, Current Baseline Check, External Standard, Internal
Standard, Normalization, Properties
Control
Instrument Setup, Run Queue, Instrument Status
Views
Data Display (see View Online Signals), Data/Manual Integration Fixes,
Tiled Display/Sample Entry View
Use the sample entry view during data acquisition to set up the instrument
window for display of the most commonly used functions. When you select
this view, the instrument window will provide a tiled view containing
Instrument Status, Current Data, and the Run Queue. This single view
enables you to monitor the current run, check or modify instrument
parameters, and submit runs or sequences.
To view the Navigation pane, select View > Navigation Pane.
To close the Navigation pane, select the x button at the top of the
Navigation pane.
To park the Navigation pane, select the push-pin button at the
top of the Navigation pane.
To unpark the Navigation pane, select the Navigation tab, and
then select the push-pin button.
To customize the bars that are shown in the Navigation pane,
select the small arrow at the bottom right corner of the
Navigation pane, and select Show More Buttons, Show Fewer
Buttons, or Add or Remove Buttons.
View online signals
The Online Signals View enables you to monitor the current
online signals, and, if supported by the instrument, the
instrument parameter curves. This data in this view is not
acquired and stored, and is not associated with any runs.
Note: In order to view the Online Signals, the instrument must be
Monitored using the Control>Monitor function. Not all
instruments support View Online Signals.
To view online signals:
1
In the Navigation Pane, click Views and then under Data
Display select Online Signals.
2
From the online signals view window, click Change to open
the Edit Signal Plot dialog box where you can select signals
and define the x- and y-axis ranges.
3
Once you have the desired signals selected for view, you can
perform the following functions in this window:


22
Click Balance to balance the detector. This button is only
available for detectors that support this function.
Click Adjust to adjust the signal window for data that
exceed the absorbance range set.

Click on the horizontal arrows to adjust the x-axis range.

Click on the vertical arrows to adjust the y-axis range.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Note: The horizontal and vertical arrows are active only if the
signal is not zoomed.
To display the individual y-axis for a signal select the signal in
the display or the signal description in the header. The y-axis is
the same color as the signal displayed.
Use the thick crosshair cursor to trace the signal and display the
absorbance values at the foot of the window.
Zooming the Window
To zoom inside the online signal plot, hold down the left mouse
button and draw a rectangle around the area of interest. Doubleclick to zoom out. The horizontal and vertical arrows are not
active in a zoomed signal window. When changing x-axis or y-axis
range or selecting Adjust, the window is automatically zoomed
out.
Edit the Online Signal Plot
This dialog box is used to select and modify the ranges for signals
to be displayed in the Online Signal view. To open this dialog box,
click Change from the online signals view window. The signals
available for viewing for this instrument will appear in the
Available Signals list.
To select signals for display, highlight the signal in the list of
Available Signals and select the Add button.
To remove signals from display highlight the signal in the list of
Selected Signals and select the Remove button.
To change offsets and ranges for a given signal, select the signal
to highlight it, then use the range parameters shown to enter
values that will be used to display the signal in the Online Signal
view:




CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Select Predictable Range to enter absolute values for the
y-axis range.
Select Floating Range to provide an Offset that is used when
the Adjust button in the Signal Plot window is selected. The
current maximum value is then displayed at the proportion of
the screen provided in offset. You can use this function also to
display multiple signals with an offset. Just set a different
offset for each signal and then select Adjust.
The y-axis range defines the absolute length of the y-axis for
your signal. For signals that support it, you can also select
Auto y-adjust to automatically adjust the y-axis such that the
latest data point is always visible.
For setpoint (parameter) signals you can directly provide the
starting point from and offset for your y-axis. No offset and
y-adjust is possible.
23
Basics of Operation
Change view preferences
The View menu is used to set up view preferences in the
instrument window. These preferences are set by each user for
each instrument.
To change the appearance of the instrument window
24
1
In the toolbar select View > Preferences.
2
In the Preferences dialog box, select the General tab. The
following options are displayed:
Toolbar options
For each area of the window listed, you can turn on or off the
toolbar and tooltips if available. Click the toolbar area, then
select the Show toolbar and Tooltips check boxes to
enable your choices for that area.
Status bar options
Select the check box to turn on the status bar. The status bar
provides brief information at the bottom of the instrument
window, if enabled.
Time units
Select the time units for display of chromatographic
information.
Tooltips options
Select the Show graphical programming tooltips or Show
trace operations tooltips check box or both to enable your
choices for that area.
Recent Files
Set the maximum number of recent files shown under Files >
Recent Files.
Trace Stacking
Select the Default to Normalized check box to normalize
one or more chromatograms to the first chromatogram by
default. This adjusts the heights such that the apex height of
a selected peak matches that of the peak selected on the first
trace. If this option is not selected, the default will be Trace 1.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Instrument wizard
This wizard is designed to direct you to the basic functions of the
instrument window.
To open the instrument wizard:
There are two ways to open the instrument wizard from the
Instrument Window

Select the Instrument Wizard icon.

Select Help > Instrument Wizard.
The following options are displayed in the Instrument Wizard
dialog box:
Create a new method This button starts the Method Wizard that will enable you to step through
creating a method.
Modify the current
method
This button starts the Method Wizard that will enable you to step through
modifying a method.
Modify a method on This button starts the Method Wizard that will enable you to step through
disk
modifying a method on disk.
Create a sequence
This button starts the Sequence Wizard that will enable you to step through
creation of an acquisition or reprocessing sequence.
Intelligent Report
with Wizard
This button starts the Report Wizard that will enable you to step through
creating reports.
Run one sample
This button opens a dialog where you can use a stored method to run a single
sample.
Run a sequence of
samples
This button opens the Run Sequence dialog where you can start data
acquisition using a stored sequence.
Show at instrument If this box is selected, the Instrument Wizard will appear each time this
startup
instrument is started.
See Also
Create a Method with the Method Wizard
To lock or unlock the instrument window:
This lock command is useful for multiple user labs, where you
may want to lock your current work while you are temporarily
away from the computer. When you choose this command, all
menu items will be Locked except the Window and Help menu.
Locked commands will not be accessible until you unlock them
again.
To lock the instrument window, select Window > Lock.
To unlock the instrument window, select Window > Lock. In the
Login dialog box, enter your Username and Password that were
set in the Control Panel.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
25
Basics of Operation
Open and save files
Opening and saving files is part of the basics of operation.
The appearance of the Open and Save dialog boxes will vary
depending on your storage system.
See Also
Open a Method File
Open a Sequence File
Open a Result Set
Open a Data File
Open a Recently Opened File
Open a Template
Save a Method
Save a Master Method
Save a Sequence
Save a Result Set
Save a Data File
Save as a Template
26
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Open a method file
When you open a method file you will be presented with a dialog
box that allows you to open the file, and specify parameters for
searching.
The dialog appearance and behavior will be slightly different for
systems with advanced file security enabled. Users will be limited
to storing files within the current project folder and the
Enterprise Common folder.
To open a method file:
1
Select File > Open > Method.
2
The Open Method File dialog box opens to the method folder
in your project files, and the Files of type is set to .met.
3
The dialog box appearance and behavior will vary depending
on your storage type. Continue procedure for:
File Based storage
a. Use the Look in and File name fields to navigate to the
file.
b. To search for a file, complete the Text in Desc., Analyst
name, and date Created or last Modified fields and select
Find Now.
Note: When using the Search feature, make sure the
Windows Hide Extensions for Known File Types option is
turned off. To turn this off select My Computer > Tools >
Folder Options > View. Then deselect Hide Extensions for
Known File Types.0
Data Store
a. To search for files, select Advanced.
b. For more information, select the Data Store Help. 0
4
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Select the method and select Open.
27
Basics of Operation
Open a sequence file
When you open a sequence file you will be presented with a dialog
box that allows you to open the file, and specify parameters for
searching.
The dialog appearance and behavior will be slightly different for
systems with advanced file security enabled. Users will be limited
to storing files within the current project folder and the
Enterprise Common folder.
To open a sequence file:
1
Select File > Open > Sequence.
2
The Open Sequence File dialog box opens to the sequence
folder in your project files, and the Files of type is set to .seq.
3
The dialog box appearance and behavior will vary depending
on your storage type. Continue procedure for:
File Based storage
a. Use the Look in and File name fields to navigate to the
file.
b. To search for a file, complete the Text in Desc., Analyst
name, and date Created or last Modified fields and select
Find Now.
Note: When using the Search feature, make sure the
Windows Hide Extensions for Known File Types option is
turned off. To turn this off select My Computer > Tools >
Folder Options > View. Then deselect Hide Extensions for
Known File Types.0
Data Store
a. To search for files, select Advanced.
b. For more information, select the Data Store Help. 0
4
See Also
28
Select the sequence and select Open.
Edit a Sequence
Save a Sequence
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Open a result set
After you have run a sequence you can view your results in the
Result Sequence dialog box.
To open a result set file:
1
Select File > Open > Result Set.
2
The Open Result File dialog box opens to the result folder in
your project files, and the Files of type is set to .rst.
3
The dialog box appearance and behavior will vary depending
on your storage type. Continue procedure for:
File Based storage
a. Use the Look in and File name fields to navigate to the
file.
b. To search for a file, complete the Text in Desc., Analyst
name, and date Created or last Modified fields and select
Find Now.
Note: When using the Search feature, make sure the
Windows Hide Extensions for Known File Types option is
turned off. To turn this off select My Computer > Tools >
Folder Options > View. Then deselect Hide Extensions for
Known File Types.0
Data Store
a. To search for files, select Advanced.
b. For more information, select the Data Store Help. 0
4
Select the method and select Open.
5
The data file chromatogram and the Result Sequence dialog
box open. The yellow highlight in the Result Sequence dialog
box lets you know you are in result review mode.


See Also
The columns in the Result Sequence dialog box are
described under Sequence Spreadsheet Columns.
Right-click in the Result Sequence dialog box to open a
context menu. These options are described under
Sequence Spreadsheet Context Menu.
About the Sequence Spreadsheet
Sequence Spreadsheet Columns
Customize the Sequence Spreadsheet Columns
Sequence Spreadsheet Context Menu.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
29
Basics of Operation
Open a data file
When you open a data file, you will be presented with a dialog box
that allows you to not only open the file, but specify parameters
for searching, as well as previewing file contents.
The dialog appearance and behavior will be slightly different for
systems with advanced file security enabled. Users will be limited
to storing files within the current project folder and the
Enterprise Common folder.
To open a data file:
1
Select File > Open > Data.
2
The Open Data File dialog box opens to the result folder in
your project files, and the Files of type is set to .dat.
3
The dialog box appearance and behavior will vary depending
on your storage type. Continue the procedure for:
File Based storage
a. Use the Look in and File name fields to navigate to the
file.
b. To search for a file, complete the Text in Desc., Analyst
name, and date Created or last Modified fields and select
Find Now.
Note: When using the Search feature, make sure the
Windows Hide Extensions for Known File Types option is
turned off. To turn this off select My Computer > Tools >
Folder Options > View. Then deselect Hide Extensions for
Known File Types.
c.
Select the Preview button to view a preview of the
chromatogram
d. The Options box allows you to save time by loading
additional information at the time the data file is opened.
You can select Method or Results. 0
If you select Method, select from the following options:



30
Current: The current method will not change when you
open the data file. When one of the other Method options
is selected, the method selected will be loaded at the time
the data file is opened.
From Results: Loads the method used to create the
selected results.
Original/Acquisition: Loads the method used for the
original acquisition of the data file. This method will
replace your current active method.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
If you select Results, the data file will be opened along with
the selected results. When a data file is opened with results,
the integration and baselines that generated those results
will be displayed automatically when the chromatogram is
drawn on the screen.



If Most Recent is selected, the data file will be opened
with the results from the last time the chromatogram was
analyzed.
If the Save all analysis results option is turned on in the
Control Panel a list of all analysis results will be available
for you to open with the file.
If applicable, select Open with Sample Prep. When this
box is selected, the sample prep file (if applicable) used at
the time the data was acquired will be opened when the
data file is opened. See Sample Prep. •
Data Store
a. To search for files, select Advanced.
b. For more information, select the Data Store Help. 0
You can open an archived data file if Allow user to navigate
outside of project is enabled in the Control Panel for this
project. To enable this option, see the Control Panel Help,
Edit a Project.
If this option is not enabled you must first:
a. De-archive the files in Data Store. See the Data Store
Help, Archive and de-archive folders and files.
b. Restore the project in the Control Panel. See the Control
Panel Help, Restoring a project from the Data Store
archive.
4
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Select the data file and select Open.
31
Basics of Operation
Open a recently opened file
To open a recently opened file, select Files > Recent Files and select
the file from the list.
To change the number of recent files listed, see Change View
Preferences.
Save a method
When you have completed the sections for creation of a data
acquisition method, save the file on your hard disk before you use it
for data acquisition.
The dialog appearance and behavior will be slightly different for
systems with advanced file security enabled. Users will be limited
to storing files within the current project folder and the Enterprise
Common folder.
The Save As > Method command will only impact the selected
method. It won’t impact the method if the sequence is run again. To
update the Master Method see Update the Master Method.
To save a method with the current file name:
Select File > Save > Method.
To save a method with a new file name:
1
Select File > Save As > Method.
2
The Save Method File As dialog box opens to the method folder
in your project files, and the file type is set to .met.
3
In the File name field, type the filename.
4
Select Save.
Save a master method
To impact the method if the sequence is run again, update the
Master method.
To save your changes to the Master method, from the toolbar, select
File > Update Master > Method.
The Save As > Method command will only impact the selected
method. It won’t impact the method if the sequence is run again. To
save as a regular method see Save a Method.
32
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Save a sequence
Once you have created or edited a sequence, you must save it on
disk before you can use it to acquire or process data.
The dialog box appearance and behavior will be slightly different
for systems with advanced file security enabled. Users will be
limited to storing files within the current project folder and the
Enterprise Common folder.
To save a sequence with the current file name:
Select File > Save > Sequence.
To save a sequence with a new file name:
See Also
1
Select File > Save As > Sequence.
2
The Save Sequence File As dialog box opens to the sequence
folder in your project files, and the file type is set to .seq.
3
In the File name field, type the filename.
4
Select Save.
Open a Sequence File
Edit a Sequence
Save a result set
To save a result set, select File > Save > Result Set.
See Also
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About the Result Sequence
33
Basics of Operation
Save a data file
In your data system you can open many different 3rd party formats
such as AIA, CDF, and PE. When you open one of these the Save As
32-Bit option is enabled. This allows the user to save the file in the
native format and structure listed in About Data File Structure.
This command will save the current data file along with the current
method in a single file. This command is only enabled when the
current data file is not in 32-bit Elite data format (such as 16-bit or
converted files). In order to comply with good laboratory practices,
you will not be allowed to save as 32-bit using the same name as an
existing data file, unless the file is located in a Public directory. A
Public folder is a folder where the path contains the term public.
Data files in all other data system folders are protected from being
overwritten.
The dialog appearance and behavior will be slightly different for
systems with advanced file security enabled. Users will be limited
to storing files within the current project folder and the Enterprise
Common folder.
To save a data file:
1
In the toolbar select File > Save As > Data as 32-bit.
2
The Save Data File As dialog box opens to the data folder in
your project files, and the file type is set to .dat.
3
In the File name field, type the filename.
4
The dialog box appearance and behavior will vary depending on
your storage type. Continue procedure for:
File Based storage
a. To save your data in a different folder, select it from the
Save in drop down menu.
b. In the Description field, review or change the data
description if necessary.
d. To save the file in a compressed format, select the Compress
Data box. Once saved in compressed format, it will
automatically be decompressed whenever the file is opened.
However, once a file is saved in compressed format, you
must do a save as command to save it in decompressed
format again.0
Data Store
a. To save your data in a different folder, select it in the
navigation pane.
b. For more information, select the Data Store Help.
5
34
Select Save.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Open a template
To open and create a method, sequence, sample prep, or report with
a template:
See Also
1
Select File > New.
2
In the New File Templates dialog box, select the template you
wish to base your new method, sequence, sample prep, or report
on.
3
Select OK.
About New File Templates
Save as a template
To save a file as a Template, select File > Save As > Method,
Sequence, or Data as 32 bit and navigate to the Template folder in
your directory.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
35
Basics of Operation
About the Chromatogram Window
When there is data to be viewed, it displays in a Chromatogram
Window.
To access specialized commands for the Chromatogram Wiindow,
right-click in the Chromatogram Window. These commands allow
you to add graphs or chromatograms to the window, change the
appearance, annotations, and axes, perform mathematical
operations on chromatograms, and view or change the properties of
existing traces in the window.
See Also
View Tiled or Overlay Data
Scroll the chromatogram
Add a Trace
Axis Setup
Annotations
Change the Chromatogram Appearance
Zooming
Clear Overlaid Traces
Operations
Copy to Clipboard
Print a Trace
Save a Trace
Remove a Trace
Graphical Programming
Set Limits for X-Axis and Y-Axis
About Integration
View tiled or overlay data
When viewing data from multiple channel methods, you can choose
to view each channel in a separate window (View > Tile Data), or
you can overlay all channels in a single window (View/Overlay
Data). When all channels are overlaid in a single window, you can
still zoom, and change the individual channel appearances, as
described below.
When in Tiled mode, you can arrange how the windows are tiled on
your screen by using the Window > Cascade, Window > Tile
Horizontally, or Window > Tile Vertically command.
36
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Scroll the chromatogram
Once you have zoomed in on a chromatogram, you can scroll the
chromatogram to the right or left without losing the zoom. This is
done by pressing the CTRL SHIFT keys down and moving the
mouse until the cursor changes to a hand and dragging it to the left
or right.
You can also scroll the X- or Y- axis to view features which may be
out of the range. To do this, press the CRTL SHIFT keys down
while the mouse cursor is outside the graph area, yet near the axis
of interest. The cursor will change to an up/down arrow near the
y-axis, or a left/right arrow near the X-axis. Moving the mouse in
this mode will scroll the graph up/down or left/right on the axis.
To restore the original view, in the Chromatogram Window, click
the right mouse button and then click Full Unzoom.
Add a trace
You can view multiple traces in a single Chromatogram Window.
This is convenient if, for example, you want to compare a past run
with your current data or overlay an oven or pump profile.
To add a new trace to the Chromatogram Window:
1
Right-click in the Chromatogram Window and select Add Trace.
Select from the following options:



2
From Other Data Files - This allows you to select a stored
data file from which you can select a trace for display. If you
select this option, in the Open Data File dialog box, select
the data file.
From Current Method - This selection enables you to select
a trace from your current method (if available). For
example, you could load an oven temperature program from
an HP5890 instrument method.
In the Data Graph Properties dialog box, select the Trace Setup
tab. Each row in the spreadsheet represents one of the traces
currently in the Chromatogram Window. The details of the
highlighted trace appear in the trace properties boxes in the
bottom of the dialog box where you can view or change them.
Complete the following fields:
Show
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
From Current Data - This selection allows you to select a
trace from the current chromatography data.
Click this box to show the trace in the Chromatogram Window. De-select this box
to remove the trace from the display (but leaving it open). This is a convenient
way to temporarily remove a trace from the viewing window.
37
Basics of Operation
Legend
Click this box to show the legend for the trace. The legend appears in the upper
right corner of the window and displays the name of the trace. Deselect this box
to remove the legend for this trace from the Chromatogram Window. Setup for
the appearance of the legend (color, etc.) is done in the Appearance tab for the
Graph item. Note: If you have not turned on the Legend in the Axis Setup dialog,
this box will have no effect.
Data Source
Enter the name of the file from which to get the trace. You can also click the File
button adjacent to the field and select a data source from the options listed
above.
Trace
Select the trace to be displayed. Click the button to display available traces.
Scale to
Select one of the scaling options:
Trace x Scales to another trace in the window.
User Defined Allows you to enter a value for Y max and min.
Normalized Allows you to normalize one trace to fit on the graph.
Y min
If you have selected a User Defined scale, enter a minimum value for the Y-axis.
Y max
If you have selected a User Defined scale, enter a maximum value for the Y-axis.
Units
Select the units for display.
X Offset
Enter a value in units for offset of the X-axis.
x Scale
If desired, enter a multiplier that will be applied to the entire trace here.
Y Offset
Enter a value in units for offset of the Y-axis.
Y Scale
If desired, enter a multiplier that will be applied to the entire trace here.
Annotations
Click this button to display the trace annotations dialog.
Hide Details
Click this button to hide the current trace details and display only the
spreadsheet.
Reset Scaling
Click this button to reset the scaling values to their original values.
3
Select OK.
To perform mathematical operations on the two chromatograms,
see About Chromatogram Operations.
See Also
38
Remove a Trace
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Axis setup
The Axis Setup tab allows you to configure the appearance of the
axis on your chromatogram. These settings apply to active traces.
To change the axis properties:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, right-click and then select Axis
Setup, or select Properties > Axis Setup.
2
The following fields are available:


Graph Title - Enter a title for the graph, if desired. This
appears at the top of the graph.
Axis - Using the drop-down list, select the axis of interest:
Left Y-Axis, Right Y-Axis, or X-Axis. Then for your
selection, you can choose the limits for the axis.
For Y-Axis selections, you may choose Use limits of trace to
get the limits from one of the traces in the window, or you
can select the Manually set trace's limits to box and set the
Y-Axis limits to your desired range. If you choose None, no
Y-Axis values will be displayed.
For the X-Axis, you may either choose to Autoscale, where
the X-Axis is set to the longest trace. Or, you may set an
absolute range for the X-Axis by clicking the Use This
Range button, then enter a minimum and maximum X-Axis
value for the trace. Click the Get Current Axis Limits
button to retrieve the X-Axis range from the screen view.



Margins - Enter a value for the trace margins, in percent,
for top and bottom of the graph.
General Options - Select the check boxes to turn these
graph annotations on and off. If the legend box is selected,
the legend for a trace can be turned on or off from the Trace
Properties spreadsheet.
Orientation - Select portrait or landscape orientation for
your graph by clicking the appropriate button.
Annotations
To change the annotations on the chromatogram:
1
From the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and
then select Annotations.
2
Select the Trace.
3
In the drop down box, select Peaks, Groups, Fractions, or SEC.
If you have the SEC option installed, you can select SEC to
annotate specific SEC features on your chromatogram.
4
Click on an Available Annotation. When an annotation is
highlighted, you can add it to the annotations to be shown by
clicking the Green arrow key (pointing to the right). This can
also be done by double-clicking the selection.
5
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
For certain annotations, you can also designate the number of
places to be displayed to the right of the decimal point. Enter
this value in the Decimals box for the highlighted item.
39
Basics of Operation
6
Click the check box(s) to display Baseline, USP Width, or
Retention Time Windows, Show undetected named peaks,
Group ranges, and FRC Actual on the trace. With the SEC
option installed, you will have access to additional SEC
annotation features. You must have a Fraction Collector
installed for FRC Actual to be available.
Note: The Reference Peak window annotation displays the
window set in the Peak Table. This window is not adjusted for
relative retention time.
7
If you want to apply the annotation changes to all open
channels, click the Apply To All button. If you want to apply the
changes to the open chromatogram, select OK.
Annotations are not saved as part of the method and are
considered a function of the instrument application. If you close
a method and re-open it, the current settings will apply.
Change the chromatogram appearance
You can change the appearance of the trace (line type, color, etc.)
from the Appearance tab in the Properties box. Click on this tab to
display the Appearance tab dialog.
To change the appearance of a chromatogram or trace:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and
select Properties.
2
Click the Appearance tab. The following fields are available:



Scheme - If you have previously saved an appearance
scheme on disk, you can select it from this box. The Save As
button allows you to save the existing appearance scheme
on disk by giving it a name. The Delete button allows you to
delete a scheme and start again.
Item - This drop-down list lets you select which part of the
Chromatogram Window for which you wish to change the
appearance. The choices will include the graph itself
(including background and legends), and the available
traces.
Sub-item - Select the sub-item you wish to modify. The
choices for this will change based on the item you have
selected. For example, if the Item selected is the Graph, you
will have access to setting up appearances of sub-items
including the background, axes and labels for the graph. If
the item selected is a chromatogram data channel, you will
have access to setting appearances of sub-items such as
baselines, start and stop tic marks, and annotation. If the
item selected is text, you will have access to the Font
formatting commands as well.
When a sub-item is selected, you will have access to fields
appropriate to that item. For example, if you have chosen
the baseline sub-item, you can choose the color and line
type. If you have chosen the annotation sub-item, you can
choose the font appearance and color.
40
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
You can change the appearance of any trace without adding
a new trace, by doing a right click in the Chromatogram
Window, then selecting the Appearance… command. When
you select this command, you will see an identical dialog to
that shown above for the Appearance Tab.
Table 1 is an example of sub-items available in the
Appearance tab.
Table 1
Sub-items available in the Appearance tab
Item
Sub-item
Description
Graph
Graph
Background
Title
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Graph
Left Y-Axis
Left Y-Axis Major Ticks
Left Y-Axis Minor Ticks
Left Y-Axis On/Off
Right Y-Axis
Right Y-Axis Major Ticks
Right Y-Axis Minor Ticks
Right Y-Axis On/Off
X-Axis
X-Axis Major Ticks
X-Axis Minor Ticks
X-Axis On/Off
Legend
Graph
Grid
Data
Data
Trace
Annotation
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Baseline
Baseline Start Tick
Baseline Stop Tick
USP Width
RT Window
Data
RT Window (undet)
Select the color of the graph background. Default is black.
Select a color and font for the Title of the graph. There must be a Graph Title
defined in the Axis Setup tab in order for it to appear in the window.
Select a color for the left Y-Axis of the graph.
Select a color for display of major unit marks on the Left Y-Axis.
Select a color for display of minor unit marks on the Left Y-Axis.
Turns On or Off the Left Y-Axis.
Select a color for display of a right hand Y-Axis.
Select a color for display of right Y-Axis major ticks.
Select a color for display of right Y-Axis minor ticks.
Turns On or Off the right Y-Axis.
Select a color for the X-Axis display.
Select a color for display of major unit marks on the X-Axis.
Select a color for display of minor unit marks on the X-Axis.
Turns On or Off the X-Axis.
Select a color and/or font for display of the graph legend. The legend indicates what
traces are currently displayed in the window. The Legend is turned On or Off from
the Axis Setup tab.
Select a color for display of the grid lines. Grid lines are turned On and Off from the
Axis Setup tab.
Select a color and/or line type for display of the selected trace.
Select a color and font for display of the trace Annotation(s). The items to be
annotated for a trace are selected in the Annotations tab.
Select a color and/or line type for display of the baseline.
Select a color and/or line type for display of baseline start ticks.
Select a color and/or line type for display of baseline stop ticks.
Select a color and/or line type for display of the USP Width, if calculated.
Select a color and/or line type for display of expected retention time windows for
named peaks
Select a color for display of RT Window for expected peaks that were not detected.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
41
Basics of Operation
Zooming
You may want to examine a chromatogram in more detail, or zoom
in on a portion of the chromatogram. To do this, drag a box around
the area of interest by holding down the left mouse button and
dragging the box until it highlights the section of interest. Then
release the mouse button. To move quickly to the previous level of
zoom, double-click on the chromatogram. To zoom to the full
chromatogram again after multiple zooming operations, click the
right-hand mouse button anywhere in the Chromatogram Window,
then select Full Unzoom from the menu displayed. You can also
execute a full unzoom of your chromatogram with CTRL+Z or
SHIFT+double click in the Chromatogram Window. Once the
chromatogram is in a zoomed view, you can scroll it. See Scrolling
the chromatogram.
At the top of the Chromatogram Window is a display of Time and
Amplitude. These values change as you move the cursor and reflect
the time and amplitude of the trace where the cursor is located. If
you have more than one trace, you can change the display to
another trace by clicking on the chromatogram trace with the
mouse. If the traces are displayed in different colors, the color of the
Time and Amplitude display will reflect the color of the trace
displayed.
Clear overlaid traces
You can clear all overlaid traces from the current Chromatogram
Window by doing a right mouse click, then select the Clear
Overlays command from the pop up menu.
Copy to clipboard
The Copy to Clipboard command copies the current Chromatogram
Window to the clipboard as a metafile. From here, you can paste the
view into a word processing document or other application that
supports the clipboard. To paste into Microsoft Word, you need to
use the Edit/Paste Special/Picture command.
To copy the contents of the window to the clipboard:
From the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and select
Utilities followed by Copy to clipboard.
Print a trace
This command sends the current Chromatogram Window view to
the printer.
42
1
In the Chromatogram Window, right-click, and then select
Utilities.
2
From the Utilities menu, select Print Trace.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Save a trace
Use this utility to save a trace as a data file.
1
In the Chromatogram Window, right-click, and then select
Utilities.
2
From the Utilities menu, select Save Trace.
3
Click on the trace you wish to save.
4
In the Save Data File As dialog, browse to the location for
saving the file and type the name for the file.
Remove a trace
If you have multiple traces in your Chromatogram Window, and
you want to remove one or more of them from the Chromatogram
Window, right-click anywhere within the window, and select the
Properties command. A spreadsheet will appear where the
currently displayed traces are listed.
To completely remove a trace from the Chromatogram Window,
select the row by clicking on the # number, then press the Delete
key on your keyboard.
To temporarily remove the trace from the window, clear the check
box in the Show column. Click OK to return to the Chromatogram
Window.
Set limits for X-axis and Y-axis
Occasionally, you may want to set an absolute range for either the
X-Axis or Y-Axis, or both.
To set limits for the X- and Y- axis
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Right-click in the Chromatogram Window, and then select
Properties.
2
Click the Trace Setup tab to set Y-Axis minimum and
maximum values for the trace. To set an absolute voltage range
for all chromatograms, use the User-Defined option for the
Scale To field. You must then enter a Y-Min (minimum Y-Axis
value) and Y-Max (maximum Y-Axis value) for each
chromatogram. If you want all chromatograms to be displayed
using this same voltage scale, enter the same values for all
chromatograms.
3
Click the Axis Setup tab to set absolute ranges for the trace.
Select X-Axis, to set the range for the X-Axis. Click Autoscale to
set the X-Axis range automatically to the range of the longest
chromatogram (the default selection), or click Use this range to
enter an absolute range in minutes. The Get Current Axis
Limits button brings in the X-Axis range from the current
Chromatogram Window. This is useful because it allows you to
use the zoom function to identify the desired region of the
chromatogram and automatically enter the range values.
43
Basics of Operation
4
Once you have set an absolute range for one or both of these
axes, the designated chromatogram(s) will always be displayed
in the Chromatogram Window using these ranges until you
change or reset them.
5
To reset the scaling of all chromatograms to default values,
click the Reset Scaling button.
Chromatogram operations
There are a number of chromatogram comparison and
mathematical operations that are available from the
Chromatogram Window. These are accessed by doing a right mouse
click in the Chromatogram Window and then selecting Operations.
Move Trace
Lets you grab and move a trace within the Chromatogram Window.
Stack Traces
Positions multiple traces with an offset.
Align
Adjusts a second chromatogram such that a peak (or point) on one
chromatogram will be aligned with a peak (or point) on the first
chromatogram.
Stretch
Performs a two-point contraction or expansion of chromatogram relative to
another.
Normalize
Normalizes one or more chromatograms to the first chromatogram, adjusting
the heights such that the apex height of a selected peak matches that of the
peak selected on the first trace.
Smooth
Performs a 9-point Savitsky-Golay smoothing operation on a selected trace.
1st Derivative
Calculates and displays a 1st derivative of a selected trace.
2nd Derivative
Calculates and displays a 2nd derivative of a selected trace.
Add
Adds two traces and displays the result.
Subtract
Subtracts two traces and displays the result.
Multiply
Multiplies one trace by another and displays the result.
Divide
Divides one trace by another and displays the result.
Move a trace
To grab a trace and move it with your mouse:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and
select Operations followed by Move Trace.
2
Grab the trace by clicking the left mouse button and dragging
the trace to a new location. When you release the mouse button,
the trace will be placed where your cursor was located when
you released the button.
3
You can continue to move traces. When finished, do a right
mouse click and select Operations followed by the Move Trace
command again to turn off the move trace operation. 0
Stack traces
To quickly change the X-axis and Y-Axis offset for a trace:
1
44
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and then
select Operations followed by Stack Traces...
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
2
Enter a new X-axis and Y-axis offset, and click OK. The offset
will be applied to additional traces displayed in the
Chromatogram Window.
Chromatograms before stacking
Chromatograms after stacking
To remove these offsets:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the Chromatogram Window, click the right mouse button
and then select Properties.
2
Click the Trace Setup tab, then scroll to the right to the X-axis
and Y-axis offset columns where you can delete or change these
settings.
3
Click the Reset Scaling button to restore ALL settings to their
original values. Or, you can use the Stack command again,
entering 0 for both stack parameters.
45
Basics of Operation
Align two traces
To align one chromatogram to another:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click, and then
select Operations followed by Align. Click first on the point of
the first chromatogram to which you wish to align, then click on
the peak (or point) of the second chromatogram which you wish
to align to the first point. The second chromatogram will be
adjusted such that the peak (or point) you clicked second will be
aligned with the first point you clicked.
2
To remove the alignment, use the right mouse button/
Properties command to view the trace spreadsheet. Click the
Trace Setup tab, then scroll to the right to the X-axis and Y-axis
offset columns where you can delete or change these settings.
Click the Reset Scaling button to restore ALL settings to their
original values.
Chromatograms before alignment.
First peak of top chromatogram aligned to first peak on bottom
chromatogram.
46
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Stretch a chromatogram
The stretch function allows you to perform a two-point contraction
or expansion of chromatograms relative to another.
To stretch a chromatogram:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and then
select Operations followed by Stretch.
2
Select points (or peaks) on the first chromatogram to which the
second will be stretched (or contracted).
3
Select two points on the second chromatogram. The
chromatogram between these two points will be stretched or
contracted to fit the two points specified on the original
chromatogram.
To undo the stretch:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and then
select Properties. Click the Trace Setup tab, then scroll to the
right to the X-axis and Y-axis offset columns where you can
delete or change these settings.
2
Click the Reset Scaling button to restore ALL settings to their
original values.
Chromatograms before stretching.
Bottom chromatogram stretched relative to top chromatogram.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
47
Basics of Operation
Normalize traces
This function allows you to normalize one or more chromatograms
to the first chromatogram, adjusting the heights such that the apex
height of a selected peak matches that of the peak selected on the
first trace. Once you have selected this command, you will be
prompted to select the start and then the apex of a peak in the first
trace. Then you will be prompted to click on the start and apex of a
peak in the second trace for normalization.
To un-do the normalization, use the right mouse button/ Properties
command to view the trace spreadsheet. Click the Trace Setup tab,
then scroll to the right to the X-axis and Y-axis offset columns
where you can delete or change these settings. Click the Reset
Scaling button to restore ALL settings to their original values.
Chromatograms before normalization.
After Normalization.
You can set the default trace to Normalized for each instrument per
user. See Change View Preferences for more information.
48
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Smoothing
To perform a 9-point Savitsky-Golay smoothing operation on a
selected data file:
1
Right-click in the Chromatogram Window, point to Operations,
and then click Smooth. A prompt will appear in the window
instructing you to Click on trace.
2
Click the chromatogram to be smoothed. The result trace will
appear in the window.
Chromatogram before smoothing.
Smoothed result trace is displayed with original trace.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
49
Basics of Operation
Calculate derivatives
To calculate and display the 1st or 2nd derivative of a
chromatogram:
1
Do a right mouse click on the chromatogram, and then select
Operations followed by 1st Derivative or 2nd Derivative. A
prompt will appear in the window Click on trace.
2
Click on the chromatogram for which you wish to perform the
operation. The result trace will appear in the window.
Trace before 1st derivative.
1st derivative trace displayed with original trace.
2nd Derivative displayed with original trace
50
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Basics of Operation
Add two traces
To add two traces to a Chromatogram Window:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click, and
select Operations followed by Add.
2
Click on 1st trace to select the first file by clicking the mouse on
the chromatogram.
3
Click on the 2nd trace to select the trace to be added to the first
by clicking on the trace with the mouse. The result trace will
appear in the window. Note that in order for this operation to
be valid, both traces must have the same sampling frequency.
Subtract two chromatograms
To subtract two traces:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and then
select Operations followed by Subtract.
2
At the prompt, click on the 1st trace. Select the first trace by
clicking the mouse on the chromatogram.
3
Select the trace to be subtracted from the first by clicking on
the trace with the mouse. The result trace will appear in the
window.
Note: In order for this operation to be valid, both traces must have
the same sampling frequency.
Multiply two traces
1
Right-click in the Chromatogram Window, point to Operations,
and then click Multiply.
2
Select the first trace by clicking the mouse on the
chromatogram or trace.
3
Select the trace to be multiplied by the first by clicking on the
2nd trace with the mouse. The result trace will appear in the
window. For the multiply operation, the units of the resulting
trace are <trace 1 units> x <trace 2 units>.
Divide chromatograms or traces
To divide two traces:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the Chromatogram Window, do a right mouse click and then
select Operations followed by Divide.
2
A prompt will appear in the window Click on 1st trace. Select
the first trace by clicking the mouse on the chromatogram.
51
Basics of Operation
3
A second prompt Click on 2nd trace will appear. Select the trace
to be divided into the first by clicking on the trace with the
mouse. The result trace will appear in the window. The
equation used to calculate the result trace is as follows.
Where
p = the calculated point for the result trace at time t
y1 = a point from the first trace at time t
y2 = a point from the second trace at time t
ymult = the y multiplier for the trace that converts it from
microvolts to the trace's displayed units
52
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Tutorial
Tutorial
Use the tutorial to learn how to set up a method, acquire a data file,
optimize the method for integration, and set up calibration. Perform
all steps in the order presented.
See Also
Create a Method
Run a Sample
Set Integration Parameters Graphically
Prepare a Method for Calibration
Calibrate a Method
Create a Sample Sequence
Run a Sequence
Review Multi-level Calibration Curves
Change Integration Parameters
Create a method
The first step of the tutorial is to create a method. A method
contains the information needed to acquire data. Use the Method
Wizard to create a method.
Create a method using the Method Wizard:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Select the Instrument Wizard icon
.
2
In the Instrument Wizard dialog box, select Create a new
method.
3
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, each tab in the dialog box
corresponds to one of the configured modules of your
instrument. The tabs will vary depending on the type of
instrument and its configured modules. Select each tab to set
up the parameters for that module. Click the F1 key when each
tab is displayed to see specific help topics for each module. See
Instrument Setup.
4
Once you have completed the acquisition setup information,
select File > Save > Method.
5
The Save Method File As dialog box opens to the method folder
in your project files, and Save as type is set to .met. In the File
name field, type Test.met.
6
In the Description field, review or change the method
description if necessary.
7
Select Save.
8
Exit the dialog box.
9
Next Run a Sample.
53
Tutorial
Run a sample
You will now use the method you just created to make your first
data acquisition run.
1
To start the run, in the toolbar select Control > Single Run.
2
In the Single Run dialog box, locate the Sample ID field and
enter Test.
3
In the Method field, enter the name of the method you want to
run, including the full path name. Select the Open File button
to select Test.met from a list.
4
In the Data file field, enter Test.dat as the name for storing
your data. You must enter a unique file name in this field.
Therefore, if you have performed this tutorial before, you must
first delete this file from your disk, or move it to a different
directory before proceeding.
5
In the Result path field, enter the location where your results
will be saved, including the full path name. Select the Browse
for folder button to select the result .rslt folder.
6
In the Result name field, enter Test. This is the name of your
result file.
7
Select Submit. You will see the data as it is acquired in the
Chromatogram Window on your screen.
8
Next, Set Integration Parameters Graphically.
Set integration parameters graphically
The data system uses default integration parameters that are
appropriate for most simple chromatography. However, certain
peaks may require special integration treatment. Such special
integration treatments are entered into your method as Integration
Timed Events. These events can be placed at the beginning of the
run to apply to all peaks, or they can be inserted at a certain place
in the chromatogram so only some peaks are effected.
To add a timed event to turn off integration to your method:
54
1
At this point, your recently acquired chromatogram should be
displayed in your Chromatogram Window. If it is not, select
File > Open > Data, and select your result .rst file.
2
In the top toolbar, select the Analyze button
. This will
integrate the chromatogram and display the baselines.
3
In the bottom toolbar, select the Integration Off button
4
Follow the instructions in the Integration Off message window
(see To view the integration message window). As instructed in
the message window, click your mouse once prior to a part of
the chromatogram where you want to turn integration off.
(Select a section of chromatogram where one or more peaks
elute.) Then click the mouse again at the point on the
chromatogram where you want to turn integration on again.
.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Tutorial
5
In the Integration Off dialog box, complete the following fields:





Start Time and Stop Time indicate the points where you
clicked your mouse. The integration will be turned off
between these points on your chromatogram.
Value is set at zero, as no numeric value is required for this
event.
Add event to Method (all data) select this to add the event
to the Method. It will be used on all chromatograms
analyzed using this method.
Add event to this data file only select this to add the event
to this data file only. It will be applied only to this
chromatogram.
Add to Table will add the event to the integration timed
events table without re-integration.
6
Select Analyze Now to add the event to the method and
re-integrate the chromatogram. Your chromatogram will be
redrawn using the new integration event. Notice that the area
you selected has no baselines drawn because the integration
has been turned off for these peaks.
7
In the top toolbar, select the Integration Events button
to
open the Integration Timed Events table. The Integration Off
timed event has been added to the table.
8
To remove the event from your method, select the Integration
Off row number and select the Delete key on your keyboard.
You can also delete the event using the Edit > Cut command,
and re-insert the event using the Edit > Paste command.
9
To temporarily view the effect of removing an event without
actually removing it from the table, click the check box adjacent
to the event to deselect it. To reselect the event, click the check
box once again.
10 When you are finished with the Integration Events table, close
it and return to your chromatogram.
11 Next, Prepare a Method for Calibration.
Prepare a method for calibration
If you are interested in peak quantitation (calculation of results
based on the running of standards), you must prepare your method
for calibration. Further details on how to set up multiple level
calibrations are given in the Methods section of this manual. For
this tutorial, however, you will set up a single level of calibration.
Setting up any type of calibration involves the following steps:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Identify the Calibrated Peaks and enter standard amounts in
the method.
2
Run the standard sample(s).
3
Review the calibration curve.
55
Tutorial
To enter calibration peak data run the standard sample first, then
use the stored data file to graphically define your calibration peaks.
Run a standard sample using the steps shown in Run a Preliminary
Sample, or select one of the data files provided.
56
1
Select File > Open > Data and select a standard samples result
file. The chromatogram opens.
2
On the top toolbar, select the Analyze button
the chromatogram and show the baselines.
3
On the bottom toolbar, select the Define Single Peak button
4
In the Define Single Peak dialog box, the retention time of the
first detected peak will appear. To add this peak to the peak
table, complete the fields listed below. If you do not wish to add
this peak to the peak table, select the Next button. To move to a
specific peak in the chromatogram, select the peak with your
mouse.
to integrate
.
Peak Name
Enter the name of the compound in this field.
Conc Level
Concentration Level 1 is shown. Enter the amount of this compound for this
concentration level. (Note: For setting up more than one level for this
compound, you would enter Concentration Level 2 and the amount for that
level. Continue to enter level concentrations until you have completed the
number of calibration levels desired.)
Units
Enter the units to be used for display of results.
ISTD ID #
If you are doing internal standard calibration, enter the ID # for the internal
standard peak for this compound. This is the peak ID number from the peak
table. If you don’t know it, you can add it in the peak table later.
Ref ID #
Enter a retention time reference peak ID # to be used for this peak. This is
the peak ID number from the peak table. If you don’t know it, you can add it
later in the peak table. Reference peaks are used to locate calibrated peaks
when chromatographic conditions change such that retention times shift.
Retention Time
Window
Select how you want to enter the retention time window for this peak. The
window is used for peak identification in case of slight deviations from the
expected retention time.
Relative
Select this if you want the system to calculate the retention time window
based on a % of the expected retention time of the peak. Enter the % you
want to use for calculation of the window.
Absolute
Select this if you want to enter an absolute window for the peak. Enter the
value you want to use for the retention time window, in minutes.
Next
Select this to move to the next peak in the chromatogram.
Back
Select this to move to the previous detected peak in the chromatogram.
5
Select Done.
6
On the top toolbar, select the Peak/Group Tables button
.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Tutorial
7
In the Peak/Group Tables dialog box, select the Named Peaks
tab. Each peak you defined is a row in the Peak Table
spreadsheet, along with its retention time and other
parameters you entered.
8
Information in the spreadsheet can be edited. Each column
represents a parameter for the calibration, including the
Levels, which contain the calibration amounts for each
compound at each level of calibration. It is possible to customize
the Peak Table so that only parameters needed for a given
calibration are displayed. Details on what each column
represents, along with how to customize the Peak Table, are
given in the Calibration chapter of this manual.
9
Select File > Save > Method. If you wish to save the method
using a different name, select File > Save As > Method. See
Save a Method.
10 Close the Peak Table.
11 Next, Calibrate a Method.
Calibrate a method
Once you have Prepared a Method for Calibration you are ready to
calibrate the method.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
From the menu bar, select Analysis > Analysis/Single Level
Calibration. In the Analysis/Single Level Calibration dialog
box, designate the file information for your calibration.
2
In the Sample ID field enter Test.
3
In the Method field, enter the name of the method you want to
calibrate, including the full path name. Select the Open File
button to select Test.met from a list.
4
In the Data file field, enter the name of the data file you are
using to calibrate the method, including the full path name.
Select the Open File button to select Test.dat from a list.
5
In the Result path field, enter the location where your results
will be saved, including the full path name. Select the Browse
for folder button to select the result . rslt folder.
6
In the Result name field, enter Test. This is the name of your
result file.
57
Tutorial
7
Leave the Amount Values set to 1. For details on how these
values are used, see About Methods.
8
Click on the Calibration checkbox, then enter a 1 for
Calibration Level.
Since this method is currently uncalibrated, it is unnecessary to
select any of the boxes dealing with calibrations or replicates.
However, if you are unsure of the method contents, click the
Clear all calibration box before starting.
9
Select Start.
When the analysis is complete, the chromatogram will be
integrated, and the areas for the peaks identified as calibration
compounds will be entered into the method. The calibration
curves will be generated using these areas. At this point, the
method is calibrated for a single level, and it can now be used to
run and analyze samples with the calibration compounds in
unknown amounts.
10 Next, Create a Sample Sequence.0
Create a sample sequence
If you are using an autosampler to inject samples, you must define
the samples to be injected and how they are to be acquired and
analyzed. This is done using a sample Sequence. A sample
Sequence can be used to acquire both calibration and unknown
samples. It can also be used to automatically re-analyze stored data
files. Details on creating and using a Sequence are located in the
Sequence section. In this part of the tutorial you will create and use
a simple sequence to acquire a calibration sample and two or three
unknown samples.
To create a new sequence:
58
1
Select the Instrument Wizard button
.
2
In the Instrument Wizard dialog box, select Create a sequence.
3
In the Method field, enter the method to be used for acquisition,
including the full path name. Select the Open File button to
select Test.met from a list.
4
Select the For Acquisition button. This will cause the Sequence
Wizard to prompt you for information required for data
acquisition.
5
Leave the Amount values at their default values. Then select
Next.
6
In the Sample ID field, select the blue right arrow and select
the Line number and Method name. This will cause each
sample to be identified with the sequence line number and
current method name.
7
In the Data File field, select the blue right arrow and select
Sample ID. This will cause the data files to be named by the
sample ID you selected above. Using a numbered identification
ensures the data file name for each run is a unique name,
preventing errors that will occur if you try to acquire data using
an existing data file name.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Tutorial
8
In the Number of unknown runs in sequence field, enter 3.
Leave the other fields at default values.
9
Click Next.
10 In this dialog, the Calibration ID and Calibration file names are
automatically set to the identifications from the previous dialog.
11 Set the Number of calibration levels to 1, and leave the
Repetitions per level at 1.
12 Leave all other boxes unchecked, then click Next.
13 Select the check boxes Include unknown runs in summary
report and Include calibration runs in summary report. Do not
select the other boxes.
14 Select Finish.
15 A sequence spreadsheet will appear, with the file and method
names you specified shown.
At this point, the sequence is set up to run 1 calibration sample
and 3 unknown runs. Notice the Sample ID’s and Data File
names are numbered automatically to prevent duplication. In
order to run a calibration standard as the first run, you must
designate that run to be a calibration run. This has been done
automatically by the Sequence Wizard. Unknown runs always
have a Level of 0. The information in the Run Type field may be
abbreviated if there is more than one run type designation. To
view the possible Run Types, click the arrow next to the run
type. For details on each of these run types, see Set Sample Run
Types and About Sequences. Since the method we have been
creating in this Tutorial is a single level calibration, only one
calibration standard run is necessary.
16 To save the sample sequence file, select File > Save > Sequence.
Navigate to the Sequence folder, under File name enter Test.
By default, sequence files are saved with the .seq extension.
Select Save.
17 Next, Run a Sequence.
Run a sequence
Once you have Created a Sample Sequence you are ready to run the
sequence.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the toolbar, select the Sequence Run button
, or rightclick in the sequence spreadsheet, and select Run Sequence. In
the Sequence Run dialog box designate the file information for
your sequence.
2
In the Sequence name field, enter the name of the sequence file
you want to run, including the full path name. Select the Open
File button to select Test.seq from a list.
3
In the Result path field, enter the location where your results
will be saved, including the full path name. Select the Open File
button to select the result . rslt folder.
4
In the Result name field, enter Test. This is the name of your
result file.
59
Tutorial
5
Prepare your autosampler to inject your standard sample,
followed by 3 unknown samples.
6
Select Submit.
When the sequence is completed, you will have acquired and
saved the data files for one standard and three unknown runs.
7
Next, Review multilevel calibration curves.
Review multilevel calibration curves
Once you have fully calibrated a method, the calibration curves and
associated data can be viewed using the Review Calibration
function. In order to see a fully calibrated multilevel calibration,
use the multilevel calibration.met file provided with the data
system. For additional details on using Review Calibration, see
Review Calibration Curves.
1
Select File > Open > Method.
2
Select the multilevel calibration.met file from your disk. It will
be located in the \datasystem\Methods folder. (Where
datasystem = your installation program folder.)
3
Select the Review Calibration button
> Review Calibration command.
, or select the Method
The calibrated peaks in the method are listed in the peak list at
the top right corner of the window. The calibration curve shown
is for the peak that is highlighted. You can view the other
curves by highlighting their peak name. At the top of the screen
is a spreadsheet that displays all the calibration information,
including areas used to create the current calibration curve.
60
4
The calibration curve fit type by default is Point-to-Point. To
overlay a different fit type, click the right mouse button
anywhere in the calibration curve box. Select Fit Type and then
select Linear. Notice the new linear calibration curve is overlaid
on the Point-to-Point curve. In the box at the right, the
equations for the different fit types displayed are shown, along
with the goodness of fit calculation, R2, which is not calculated
for the Point-to-Point curve since it is by definition a perfect fit
to the data.
5
To close the window, click the X box at the upper right corner of
the Review Calibration window.
6
Change Integration Parameters.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Tutorial
Change integration parameters
Another important aspect of using a computerized data system is
the ability to customize the integration using Integration Timed
Events. In this part of the Tutorial, you will become familiar with
how to enter integration timed events into your method, and to
view the effects of some of these events. Complete details on how
each integration timed event works are given in the Integration
section.
1
Select File > Open > Data and select the Test.rst file.
2
Select the Analyze button
to analyze the chromatogram
and display the baselines. The vertical line cursor moves with
your mouse. The retention time where the cursor is located is
shown at the top of the Chromatogram Window.
3
Add the Valley-to-Valley timed event to integrate the cluster of
4 large peaks with valley-to-valley baselines. On the integration
. Then, select the
toolbar, select the Valley to Valley button
mouse once before the first large peak, then again just after the
last peak.
4
In the Valley to Valley dialog box, select the Analyze Now
button and view the chromatogram. Notice the peaks within the
region of the event are now integrated using the Valley-toValley event, and baselines are adjusted accordingly.
5
Select the Integration Events
button from the command
ribbon. Note the addition of the Valley to Valley event in the
table.
6
Remove the Valley to Valley event by clicking its number with
the mouse, then select Delete on your keyboard. You can also
test integration without the event, yet leave it in the timed
event table, by deselecting the check box next to the Valley to
Valley event and then reintegrating the chromatogram.
7
Close the Integration Events table by clicking the x box at the
top right corner of the table.
You have now completed the tutorial. Detailed explanations on how
to create multilevel calibrations, create custom reports, and create
and use sample sequences are given in later sections. Use the
online Help as you work with the software.0
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
61
About Instruments
About Instruments
See Also
Use the Instruments pane in the Control Panel to setup and control
the instruments connected to your system. See your Control Panel
help for more information about the Instruments pane.
Configure instrument
Configure an analog detector
Configure an external event
Configuration options
Configure a fraction collector
Instrument Activity Log
View the instrument status
Set the instrument to Sleep or Wake mode
Configure instrument
Configuration is the process by which you tell the software about
the installed detectors, injectors, or other components for an
instrument. Each instrument must be configured before the
program can be used to acquire data from it.
Before you can configure an instrument, it must be added to the
instruments list in the Control Panel.
To have the program automatically detect and configure your installed
devices:
1
From the Control Panel navigation pane, select Instruments.
2
Select the instrument.
3
In the Actions toolbar, select Configure Instrument.
4
In the dialog box, select Auto Configuration.
5
In the Auto Configuration dialog box, enter the Number of
Detectors, and Number of Pumps.
6
Select Autosampler if necessary.
7
Select OK.
To manually choose which devices to configure:
62
1
From the Control Panel navigation pane, select Instruments.
2
Select the instrument.
3
In the Actions toolbar, select Configure Instrument.
4
In the dialog box, select a module from the Available modules
and select the arrow to move it under Configured modules.
5
Double-click on a Configured module to open a dialog box
pertaining to that module. If applicable see Configure an analog
detector, Configure an external event, or Configure a fraction
collector.
6
Select Options.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Instruments
7
In the Configuration Options dialog box, select from the
following General options: System Suitability, SEC, PDA, and
Baseline check.
8
Select OK.
Configure an analog detector
1
From the Control Panel navigation pane, select Instruments.
2
Select the instrument.
3
In the Actions toolbar, select Configure Instrument.
4
In the dialog box, select an analog detector from the Available
modules and select the arrow to move it under Configured
modules.
5
Under Configured module, double-click an analog detector.
6
In the Detector Configuration dialog box complete the following
fields:
Detector Name
Enter a descriptive name for the detector. For example FID or TCD.
Detector Model
Select the type of detector from the drop-down list.
Acquisition
Source
Select the type of A/D board or device you are using from the drop-down list.
Then click the adjacent button to configure it.
Y-Axis Units
Type in the units to be displayed on the Y-Axis of your chromatogram. For
example, microvolts or AU, depending on the detector units of measurement.
Your analog signal is acquired and stored in microvolts. If you want to display the
signal in different units, you must use the correct multiplier. Consult the table
below.
Y-Axis Multiplier
The chromatogram is usually displayed in volts. If you wish to display another unit,
enter the conversion factor to be applied. Consult the table below.
Commonly used Y-axis labels and corresponding multipliers
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Y-Axis Label
Y-Axis Multiplier
Volts
0.000001
Millivolts
0.001
Microvolts
1
63
About Instruments
Configure an external event
Events include instrument triggers, valves, and other user-defined
external events.
To configure events for an instrument:
1
Insure that your event is properly connected to the data system.
2
From the Control Panel navigation pane, select Instruments.
3
Select the instrument.
4
In the Actions toolbar, select Configure Instrument.
5
In the dialog box, select Events from the Available modules and
select the arrow to move it under Configured modules.
6
Under Configured module, double-click Events.
7
In the Event Configuration dialog box complete the following
fields:
Name
To configure a Trigger or Ready line, select the drop-down button and select
Trigger or Ready.
To configure a value or other external event, enter the name of your event.
Source
Select the drop-down button and select the source of the event (the hardware
from which the event comes).
Setup
Select the button in the Setup field to open a dialog box. Enter information for the
operation of this event.
Note: It is possible to assign the same events to more than one
instrument. Be careful to assign events such that conflicts between
instruments will not happen.
8
The External Events tab is now available in EZChrom under
Instrument Setup.
Enable optional analysis software
To select the optional software or features to enable for an
instrument:
1 From the Control Panel navigation pane, select Instruments.
64
2
Select the instrument.
3
In the Actions toolbar, select Configure Instrument.
4
In the dialog box, select Options.
5
In the Configuration Options dialog box, select from the
available analysis options such as: System Suitability, SEC,
PDA, and Baseline check.
6
Select OK.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Instruments
Configure a fraction collector
See Also
1
From the Control Panel navigation pane, select Instruments.
2
Select the instrument.
3
In the Actions toolbar, select Configure Instrument.
4
In the dialog box, select Auto Configuration.
5
Under Configured modules, select FRC.
6
In the Fraction Collector (FRC) Configuration dialog box, select
Help or press F1 in a section for more information.
Fraction collector configuration
Instrument activity log
To view the instrument activity log, select View > Instrument
Activity Log.
The following information is displayed:

User

Logged

Source

Activity
The following options are available:

To refresh the Instrument Activity Log select, Refresh.

To add a manual entry, select Add Manual Entry.


To print a selection, select an item or items then select Print
Selection.
To print the entire Instrument Activity Log, select Print All.
View the instrument status
You can view the selected instrument status in the message bar at
the bottom of the screen at all times.
The status is shown as:
Not connected (gray)
The selected instrument is configured with the system and
available to use but the AIC/workstation is not currently running.
To use this instrument, select Launch from the Control Panel or
Run a sample or sequence from the Data System. Your specific
hardware and method will determine how long before the
instrument reaches the Idle state and is ready to process samples.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
65
About Instruments
Stand by (teal)
The selected instrument is running in a Sleep resource saving mode
(for example, gases and lamps turned off).
To use this instrument, select Control >Instrument> Wake or add a
run to the run queue and wait until the scheduled instrument
Wake Up time. Your specific hardware and method will determine
how long before the instrument reaches the Idle state and is ready
to process samples.
Idle (green)
The selected instrument is running and ready to process samples.
To use this instrument, select Launch from the Control Panel or
Run a sample or sequence from the Data System.
Running (blue)
The selected instrument is currently collecting data.
To use this instrument, submit a run to the run queue or wait until
it is Idle.
See Also
Set the instrument to Sleep or Wake mode
Set the instrument to Sleep or Wake mode
You can set the selected instrument in the Not connected or Idle
state to the Stand by state by selecting Control >Instrument> Sleep
or by scheduling specific sleep and wake times through the
instrument driver.
You can set the selected instrument in the Stand by state to the
Idle state by selecting Control >Instrument> Wake or by scheduling
specific sleep and wake times through the instrument driver. Your
specific hardware and method will determine how long before the
instrument reaches the Idle state and is ready to process samples.
See Also
66
View the instrument status
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
About Methods
A method contains the information for how a sample is processed. It
contains instructions for data acquisition (run time, sampling rate,
etc.), integration, calibration and peak information, and reports, as
well as optional functions such as data export and user programs.
Each method is capable of acquiring multiple independent channels
of data from a single chromatograph. Each channel can have its
own complete independent parameters.
Use the Method Wizard and the Instrument Setup information to
create and save a method. You can also select a new project, view
method reports, and edit method and data properties.
Use Advanced Method Options to customize results, or link to
external data systems or networks.
If Pretreatment, Lab Monitor, or System Suitability software is
supported by your instrument refer to those topics.
To add integration to your method see About Integration.
See Also
Create a Method with the Method Wizard
Instrument Setup
Open a Method File
Save a Method
Save a Master Method
Select a New Project
View Method Reports
Method Properties
Data Properties
Advanced Method Options
Sample Prep
Launch Lab Monitor Software
About System Suitability
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
67
About Methods
Create a method with the method wizard
In order to acquire data and save it on the hard drive of your
computer, you need to create a method that contains data
acquisition information such as run time and sampling rate. To
create a new method or edit an existing method, use the Method
Wizard.
You can create a new method whether or not the instrument is on
line. However, you only have access to starting actual data
acquisition when you have an on line instrument connected.
1
Select the Instrument Wizard icon
2
In the Instrument Wizard dialog box, select from the following:



68
.
Select Create a new method to start a new method with the
system default method parameters.
Select Modify the current method to step through the
current method and make changes.
Select Modify a method on disk to open a file saved on disk
and step through it to make changes.
3
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, each tab in the dialog box
corresponds to one of the configured modules of your
instrument. The tabs will vary depending on the type of
instrument and its configured modules. Select each tab to set
up the parameters for that module. Click the F1 key when each
tab is displayed to see specific help topics for each module. See
Instrument Setup.
4
Once you have completed the instrument setup information
Save the Method.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Instrument setup
The instrument setup portion of your method is where you define
instrument control parameters and define acquisition parameters.
If you are using a Generic instrument, parameters appear that
enable you to set up the acquisition. If you have installed one of the
instrument control options and are using one of those configured
instruments, the instrument setup will contain parameters that are
specific for the control of the selected instrument.
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, each tab in the dialog box
corresponds to one of the configured modules of your instrument.
The tabs will vary depending on the type of instrument and its
configured modules. Select each tab to set up the parameters for
that module. Select the F1 key when each tab is displayed to see
specific help topics for each module. A few of the common modules
are listed below.
See Also
Open Instrument Setup
Import Instrument Setup
Detector 1
Trigger
External Events
Baseline Check
Aux Traces
Fraction Collector
Open instrument setup
There are three ways to open the Instrument Setup dialog box:

In the toolbar, select the Method Wizard button
select Create a new method.
, then

In the navigation pane, select Method > Instrument Setup.

In the toolbar, select the Instrument Setup button
.
Import instrument setup
This command enables you to open the instrument setup
parameters from a saved method.
To import instrument setup:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Select Method > Import Instrument Setup.
2
In the Open Method File dialog box, select the method from
which you wish to import the instrument setup parameters.
3
Select Open. 0
69
About Methods
Detector 1
To configure the detector to use for a method:
1
Open Instrument Setup
2
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, select the Detector tab. If
no trigger is configured, this tab will not appear.
3
For each detector channel configured on the instrument, define
the following acquisition information:
Acquisition
Channel On
Select this box to turn the acquisition for this channel ON. If this box is not
selected, no data will be acquired for this channel.
Sampling
This is the rate at which data will be sampled by the system. You can choose how
you want to specify the sampling rate. When you select a sampling rate, a prompt
will appear indicating the narrowest peak width for which this sampling rate will be
adequate. It is recommended that you use the Graphical Events
Programming to determine the optimum sampling rate for your
chromatography.
Frequency
This selection is in Hz (samples per second). This is the selection for most
chromatography applications. Click on the down-arrow to get a list of the
frequencies available for the configuration of your system.
Period
When you select this type of sampling, you must select the number of seconds (or
milliseconds) between data points. Enter the value, then select whether the period
is in milliseconds (mSec) or seconds.
Run Time
Run Time determines the length of time data will be sampled.
Acquisition Delay Acquisition Delay is the interval between the start of run (Trigger) and the time
when sampling starts for this channel.
Trigger
The trigger determines how the data sampling is started.
To select the type of trigger to use for a method:
70
1
Open Instrument Setup
2
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, select the Trigger tab. If no
trigger is configured, this tab will not appear.
3
Select the Trigger Type for the type of remote start (if any) you
have installed for the instrument you will be using. The trigger
for each instrument is set up during configuration.
None
Sampling starts immediately after clicking on Start. Sequence acquisitions
do not pause between runs.
Manual
Operator has to press ENTER to start the run. Sequence acquisitions pause
for confirmation between runs.
External
If the data sampling is started from an external trigger, select this option.
The type of trigger is designated when the instrument is configured.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
External events
Once you have configured external events for your instrument, you
can program the events for your method. When you select this tab,
a spreadsheet appears where you can select the events and
designate when and how they activate during the run.
To configure external events:
1
Open Instrument Setup
2
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, select the External Events.
This tab will not appear on your menu unless you have
configured external events for your instrument.
3
To program an event, select it from the drop-down list of
configured events by clicking the Event field.
4
Enter the time at which the event is to actuate, the length of
time you wish the event to remain in the desired state
(Duration), and the State of the event during the event (Close
or Open).
5
You may configure up to 25 events for the run.
To view and edit the current state of the event:
1
Select Control > Instrument Status. This option will not appear
on your menu unless you have configured external events for
your instrument.
2
In the Instrument Status dialog box, select the External Events
tab.
3
Each configured event is displayed on a line, along with its
current Status. To change the status, click on the field
displayed in the Change To column.
4
Select Apply. If Ignore is selected in the Change To field for an
event, pressing Apply will not change that event.
Baseline check
Use Baseline Check to set the parameters for a baseline check
while acquiring data using this method.
When a method containing baseline check parameters is used for
data acquisition, a baseline check will occur when either:


The Perform Baseline Check checkbox is checked in the Single
Run dialog, or
The Run Type of the current Sequence line includes Baseline
Check.
When a baseline check is to occur as part of data acquisition, the
software will first download the initial conditions from the method
to the instrument. These initial conditions are then used to acquire
the baseline check data before the normal data acquisition. If the
baseline check data fails to meet the threshold for any channel,
then the data acquisition is aborted.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
71
About Methods
If the baseline check results indicate a failure of the test, then the
current run is aborted and the baseline check data and results are
stored in the data file without any other acquisition data. If the run
is aborted (by the user or because of a hardware error) prior to the
completion of the baseline check data acquisition, then no data is
saved.
To set up the Baseline Check:
1
Open Instrument Setup
2
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, select the Baseline Check
tab. For this tab to appear Baseline Check must be enabled in
an instrument's configuration options.
3
The following fields are available:
To pass, the baseline must meet This specifies the time during which the baseline must meet
the test criteria for
the criteria in order to pass the test.
72
Stop checking baseline if
conditions are not met after
This specifies the maximum time that will be spent checking
the baseline. If conditions are not satisfied in this time, then
the baseline check fails.
Noise Test Method
This is used to specify the noise calculation method that
should be applied to the acquired data.
Test Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet specifies the channels to be used for
baseline calculations and the tests that should be performed
on those channels. The number of rows of the spreadsheet
equals the number of acquisition channels based on
instrument configuration plus the number of PDA
Multichromatogram channels defined in the PDA Options
Window (if PDA is configured).
Channel
Each entry in this column contains the name of an acquisition
channel specified by instrument configuration or the PDA
multichromatogram definitions. The entries cannot be edited.
Enable Noise Test
Checking this box indicates that detector noise should be
calculated on the corresponding channel. If this box is
unchecked, the Threshold edit field to its right is disabled;
otherwise it is enabled.
Threshold (Noise)
This is used to specify the maximum acceptable value for the
calculated noise. If the calculated noise is greater than the
Threshold, the baseline check is considered to have failed.
Enable Drift Test
Checking this box indicates that detector drift should be
calculated on the corresponding channel. If this box is
unchecked, the Threshold edit field to its right is disabled;
otherwise it is enabled.
Threshold (Drift/hr)
This is used to specify the maximum acceptable value for the
calculated drift. If the calculated drift is greater than the
Threshold, the baseline check is considered to have failed.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
To perform an on-demand baseline check:
Select Control > Baseline Check. A dialog will appear where you set
the parameters for doing the baseline check.
To check the status of the Baseline Check function:
Select View > Baseline Check Status. A status box appears where
you can view the status of the most recent Baseline Check test. This
box contains status information only.
Aux traces
The Aux Traces tab is used to acquire traces of instrument status
parameters during normal data acquisition. Many instruments
have the ability to report continuous monitoring data on status
parameters such as flow rate and oven temperature. When this
option is enabled, this tab appears, allowing you to designate which
status parameters you wish to monitor during the run. Changes to
the aux. traces for the Agilent 1100 Column Comp, RI detector,
Isocratic pump, Binary pump and Quaternary pump are logged in
the audit trail.
To turn on acquisition and display of auxiliary traces for an
instrument:
1 Open Instrument Setup
2
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, select the Aux Traces tab.
3
The actual entries in this list will vary depending on the
instrument configuration.
To have status information logged for a parameter listed in this
dialog, click on the check box for that row and select the
appropriate units for that parameter. When data acquisition is
performed, status information will also be acquired. The resultant
data will be presented as an additional data channel whenever the
data file is viewed.
Fraction collector
To configure the Fraction Collector to use for a method:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Open Instrument Setup
2
In the Instrument Setup dialog box, select the Fraction
Collector tab. If no Fraction Collector is configured, this tab will
not appear.
3
Select F1 in any section of the Fraction Collector tab for more
information.
73
About Methods
Select a new project
You must select a project in the Control Panel before you can
launch an instrument. If the instrument settings in the Control
Panel include Always use default project, you will not be able to
select a new project in the data system.
To change the project:
1
On the File menu, click Select Project.
2
From the list of projects to which you have rights, click the
project you want to use for this instrument, and then click
Select Project.
View method reports
To view the custom report, from the Reports menu, click View
followed by Method Report. This command is available even when
you are not editing the custom report. The current method custom
report will appear in a window for viewing only. You cannot edit the
report from this window. See About Reports and Standard Reports.
74
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Method properties
Before you use a method to acquire data, be sure that the options
such as automatic post-run analysis of the data (if desired) are
turned on. To check these parameters, from the Method menu, click
Properties.
See Also
Description
Options
Calibration
Audit Trail Log
Audit Trail
Method properties description
To enter a description for your method:
1
From the Method menu, click Properties.
2
In the Method Properties dialog box, select Description.
3
In the dialog box enter text information about your method.
You can enter any information you wish. The description can be
viewed from the Open File dialog, and therefore can be useful in
sorting quickly through methods to find the right one.
Method properties options
To set the analysis options for your method:
1
From the Method menu, click Properties.
2
In the Method Properties dialog box, select Options.
3
Select from the following options:



CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Analyze during acquisition - If you select this box, the
chromatogram will be automatically analyzed during the
run at the interval you specify in the box.
Analyze after acquisition - If this box is selected, the
chromatogram will be analyzed automatically after every
acquisition. This is the default condition. If this box is not
selected, you must either manually analyze the
chromatogram by clicking the Analyze button, or analyze
the sample as part of a sequence reprocessing after the run
has been completed.
Enable compression for data file - When this box is checked,
the data files acquired using the data system will
automatically be compressed before saving. (Compressed
data files are smaller but take longer to load.) Once a file
has been saved using compression, the only way to
decompress it is to save it as another data file with
compression turned off.
75
About Methods
Method properties calibration
To set calibration defaults for your method:
1
From the Method menu, click Properties.
2
In the Method Properties dialog box, select Calibration.
3
Select from the following options:



Automatically average consecutive replicates of the same
level - When this box is checked, calibration replicates
(consecutive injections of a single calibration level) will
always be averaged. If this box is not checked, calibration
replicates will not be averaged unless you so specify at the
time of calibration. See Automatically Average Replicates.
Number of replicates in rolling average - If you wish to use
a rolling average, enter the number of replicates per
average here.
Response Factor Definition - Select how the response
factors are to be calculated and displayed - Area/Amount or
Amount/Area.
Method properties audit trail log
Use this option to export, print, and search for audit trail
information.
1
From the Method menu, select Properties.
2
In the Method Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail Log.
3
Enter the following:
4

User

Location

Description

Reason

From date/time

To date/time
Select from the following options:



76
Export - Select this to export the audit trail log
Print - Select this to print the audit trail log
Search - Select this to search the audit trail log
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Method properties audit trail
Select the Audit Trail tab. The Enable Audit Trail checkbox is an
important box because, if checked, subsequent changes to the
method will be logged in the method.
To enable the method audit trail:
1
From the Method menu, click Properties.
2
In the Method Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail.
3
Select Enable audit trail. Once the Enable Audit Trail box is
selected, it cannot be deselected. The method will continue to
have audit trail enabled unless you save the file under a new
filename.
4
In the Warning dialog box, select Yes. The Enable Audit Trail
will be permanently checked for this method.
5
In the Method Properties dialog box, select from the following
options:

Prompt for reason at every change - This option requires
the user to enter a reason for every subsequent change to
the method at the time the change is made.


Prompt for reason when saving Method - This option
requires the user to enter a reason for each change when
the method is saved. This records the changes to the data
file.
Do not prompt for reason - When this option is selected,
changes are documented, but the user is not required to
enter a reason for the changes.
When you have selected the Audit Trail Option with reasons, you
will be prompted for the reason for changes, either at the time of
the change, or when the method/sequence/data/system is saved.
If you have selected the option to enter a reason at every change,
the dialog will appear each time you make a change to the item
being audit trailed. A description of the change appears in the
Source/Activity box. Select the reason for the change in the Reason
box or type in your own reason, then click OK.
If you selected the option to enter a reason upon saving the
method/sequence/data, the dialog will appear when you save the
method/sequence/data and you must enter a reason for all changes
to the method/sequence/data. Use the Back and Next buttons to
view the descriptions of the changes. A change item number is
displayed on the lower right of the window, along with the total
number of changes. If you want to enter one reason for all changes,
type the reason, then click the Apply to All button. After you have
entered changes for all reasons, click OK.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
77
About Methods
Data properties
Data is acquired each time you run a method. Select Data >
Properties to edit and view the general information, description,
electronic signatures, audit trail log, and audit trail of data files.
See Also
About Data File Structure
View Data File General Information
Data File Description
View Data File Electronic Signatures
Data File Audit Trail Log
Data File Audit Trail
About data file structure
A data file is created on the designated drive whenever you acquire
a sample, or when you save a data file using the Save As 32-bit
command. The Save As 32-bit is used to save files from other
formats. You can open many different 3rd party formats such as
AIA, CDF, and PE. When you open one of these the Save As 32-Bit
will be enabled. This allows the user to save the file in the native
format and structure listed below. The file contains the following
information:





78
File Information Header. This contains information such as the
date and time of acquisition.
Complete method parameters used to acquire and process the
data (this is the original method saved only when the data is
acquired). Because you can acquire multiple channels of data
simultaneously on a given chromatograph, the method section
may contain complete parameters for more than one channel.
Raw data points for the run saved. Multiple chromatograms
may be present in a single data file, each of which represents a
detector channel acquired for the run. The raw data points are
saved in binary format.
Results. The original integration results are saved in the file
and can be recalled later when the file is opened. In addition,
the most recent analysis results and method are also saved in
the data file and updated whenever you analyze. The Sample
ID for the results is also saved, as are manual integration fixes.
If you did not select Result Package Mode when creating an
EZChrom project in the Control Panel, the result name is used
for the RST file, and ACAML file names. If you selected Result
Package Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the
Control Panel, the Result Name will also be used for the folder
name. In ECM it will be the name of the SSIZip.
File Description. If you entered a description for the file, this
text information is stored with the file, and can be viewed
under the Data File Properties or from the Open Data File
dialog.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods



Instrument Configuration. The configuration of the instrument
used to acquire the data file is saved.
Data File Audit Trail. An audit trail log is always saved in the
data file that tracks analysis of the data.
Data files are saved using the file name and extension you
specify when you initiate the data acquisition. The limit on file
name length is 255 characters, including path..
View data file general information
1
From the Data menu, select Properties.
2
In the Data File Properties dialog box, select General.
3
The following information is displayed:

Sample ID

Run Time

Analysis time

Analysis Computer Name

Vial

Injection Volume
Data file description
To enter a description for your data file:
1
From the Data menu, select Properties.
2
In the Data File Properties dialog box, select Description.
3
In the dialog box enter text information about your data file.
Because the description can be viewed from the Open File
dialog, the description can be useful in sorting through the data
files on your disk. If you want to change the description for the
current data file, you can enter or edit from this box.
Data file descriptions can be entered in the sequence at time of data
acquisition, or can be entered from the Single Run dialog when
running a single sample.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
79
About Methods
View data file electronic signatures
To view the electronic signatures for a data file:
See Also
1
Open the data file.
2
From the Data menu, select Properties.
3
In the Data File Properties dialog box, select Signatures.
Add Signatures to the Result Sequence
Data file audit trail log
1
From the Data menu, select Properties.
2
In the Data File Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail Log.
3
Enter the following:
4

User

Location

Description

Reason

From date/time

To date/time
Select from the following options:



Export - Select this to export the audit trail log.
Print - Select this to print the audit trail log.
Search - Select this to search the audit trail log.
Data file audit trail
Data files always have an associated audit trail. Select Audit Trail
to select whether or not you want the system to prompt you for
reasons whenever a change is made
1
From the Data menu, select Properties.
2
In the Data File Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail.
3
Select from the following choices:


80
Prompt for reason - This option requires the user to enter a
reason for every subsequent change to the data file at the
time the change is made.
Do not prompt for reason - When this option is selected,
changes are documented, but the user is not required to
enter a reason for the changes.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Advanced method options
Advanced Method Options are available for users who have a need
to go beyond the simple data acquisition and analysis provided by
customizing results or linking to external data systems or networks.
To open the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select Method >
Advanced. Select one of the following option tabs to set up advanced
options for your method:
Data Export
Turn on data export and set export parameters. See also Data
Export to Excel.
Graphics Export
Set up export for chromatograms and traces.
Custom Parameters
Define custom parameters.
Column/Performance
Set up automatic calculation of system performance values.
Files
Designate user programs and baseline file subtraction.
Advanced Reports
Turn on printing and export of advanced reports.
To export data as part of a method
You can export analyzed data automatically when the data is
analyzed with a method. To export data, the export function must
be enabled and defined in the method. In order to export advanced
reports, a printer must be configured on the computer doing the
exporting.
To export data as part of a method:
1
From the Method menu, select Advanced.
2
Select the Data Export tab.
3
Click the Export Enabled box to turn data export on for the
method. While this option is enabled, data export will occur
after each Analysis of the data. Since the export of data will
occur whether the analysis occurs automatically at the end of a
run, or when executed manually, you should turn this option off
while you are developing methods.
4
Choose the type of information to export from the drop-down
list from the following options:
5
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide

Peaks

Groups

Standard Reports

Chromatogram
For each type of export chosen, you can select parameters for
export. Select a parameter for export by double-clicking on it, or
clicking on it to highlight it, then click the green (Top) arrow
button to move it to the list of export items in the right box. To
remove an item from the export box, highlight it, then click the
red (bottom) arrow button.If you have defined any Custom
Parameters, they appear in the appropriate list of items you
can choose to export.
81
About Methods
6
For each parameter you export, set the number of decimals
reported by highlighting the parameter in the Export these
parameters list and entering the number of decimals in the
Decimals field.
7
If you select Chromatograms to be exported, you will be given
the option to export in either/or AIA (*.CDF), ASCII, or ASCII
Double file format. Selecting the AIA option causes Elite to
create a *.CDF (Chromatograph Data File) in the standard
format specified by the Analytical Instrument Association (AIA).
AIA Level 2 file export is supported. This includes the raw
chromatogram, and integration results. This is also called ANDI
file format (Analytical Data Exchange). This allows the results
to be read by other chromatography data systems.
8
If you selected Standard Reports, you may choose to use your
local time or GMT time on your reports. Enable Use Local Time
to display local time on your report. Disable Use Local Time to
display GMT time on your report.
9
In the Field Separator drop down box, select Tab, Space, or
Comma. If you want to import the file into a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet choose Tab.
10 In the Path for export file field, select a path name for the
directory where you want to save your export files. If you do not
know the name of the directory, you can select it from existing
paths by clicking the File button adjacent to the field.
11 Select Enable ODBC if you want to use ODBC format for your
data export. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is an
industry-standard method of sharing data between databases
and other programs.


82
In the Data source name field, enter the name of the
destination folder for export files or select the Open button
and browse for the folder. To create a new data source,
select the New button.
Enter a Table name for your data export.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Exported data are saved in files using the following conventions:
Peak and Group Export Files
For each parameter selected, a file is created containing that value
for each named peak, along with file and method name information.
Each time the method is used to acquire or process data, a row is
appended to the file containing the new calculated value for that
file. Each file is saved with the method name, with an extension
representing the type of value selected. For example, the following
is an example of a file created for export of area for 5 runs.
Note If you export data as part of a sequence, and you want to view
the export file in another application while data is being acquired,
you must make a copy of the file and save it with another name
before you use it. Otherwise, a file sharing violation may occur
when the software tries to update the file with data from a new run.
Standard Report Export Files
When you select a Standard Report option, a file is created each
time an analysis is run. The file contains the information in the
selected report.
Unlike peak and group export, Standard Report Export files are not
appended with information from additional runs. Each time the
method is used for acquisition or processing, a new file is created.
The new file name is based on the data filename and it uses the
export extension given below for the type of export data selected.
The following table shows an example of a file created for Standard
Export of an External Standard report.
See Also
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Advanced Method Options
83
About Methods
Export graphics
The Graphics Export function of the method will cause designated
graphics to be exported, in .WMF format, each time an analysis is
performed using the method.
To enable graphics export for a method:
See Also
84
1
From the Method menu, select Advanced > Graphics Export.
2
In the spreadsheet, click Export and then type the filename to
be used for the export.
3
The graphics window displays the current graphic for export. To
change the graphic, do a right mouse click in the window. All
the standard graphics parameters are available.
4
Select the Path for export files. The graphs exported will be
saved with file name <Data file name> + “ _ “ + <Export Name>
+ “.wmf”
About Advanced Method Options
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Column/Performance parameters
The Column/Performance tab allows you to set up automatic
calculation of system performance values such as Theoretical
Plates, Capacity Factor, Resolution, or Peak Asymmetry.
To set up column performance calculations:
1
From the Method menu, select Advanced > Column/
Performance.
2
Click the Calculate performance parameters for this channel
box. Then fill in the information for the following fields required
for the calculations.
3
Once you have completed the Column/Performance tab, the
system will calculate performance parameters after each
analysis. These parameters can be exported, annotated on the
chromatogram, and printed in a custom report.
Unretained peak time (min)
Enter the retention time of an unretained peak for this column.
Column length
Enter the length of the column, in meters or cm.
Particle diameter (microns)
Enter the particle diameter, in microns, for the column you are
using (if applicable).
Column serial number
Enter the serial number for the column (if applicable). This
information will be saved with the data and available for
reporting.
Column installation date
Enter the date the column was installed in the instrument (if
desired). This information will be saved with the data and
available for reporting.
Column description
Enter column description if desired. This information will be
saved with the data and available for reporting.
Calculate performance parameters Select one or more calculation methods. The choices include
for this channel
USP, EMG (Exponential Modified Gaussian), DAB (German
Pharmacopeia)/ BP (British Pharmacopeia)/EP (European
Pharmacopeia)/ ASTM, AOH (Area/Height), and JP (Japanese
Pharmacopeia), calculation methods.
See Also
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Advanced Method Options
85
About Methods
Select user programs and baseline files
To designate program files to associate with the method:
1
From the Method menu, select Advanced > Files.
2
Complete the following fields:
User Programs
In this section you can designate user programs to be run:
• Before each run
• Before Analysis of the chromatogram
• After Analysis of the chromatogram
• After export.
Enter the user program name, or select it from the drop down list. For
details on writing User Programs, see the User Programs appendix at the
end of this manual. (Note: Include the full UNC path name for the file.)
Baseline File
If you want the data system to automatically subtract a stored baseline
file after each run, select the Baseline File box. Designate a baseline file
name, and then check each channel from which the baseline file is to be
subtracted. The chromatogram will be analyzed after the subtraction is
performed. (Note: Include the full UNC path name for the file.)
Advanced method reports
To specify one or more reports to be printed and/or exported when
the method is used to analyze data, select Method > Advanced >
Advanced Reports. The following fields are available:
See Also
86
Print
Select this box if you want to print the designated report when data is
analyzed with this method.
Export
Select this box if you want to export the designated report when data is
analyzed with this method. This results in tab-delimited export only.
Report Template
Name
Enter or select the name of the report template file to be used to
generate this report.
Export Path
If the report is to be exported, enter or select the path for the export file
to be saved.
Export File Name
Select the file naming from the types presented in the list. The export
file name will be created using the identification selected.
About Advanced Method Options
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
Sample prep
An autosampler sample prep (injector program) is comprised of a
series of numbered lines, each of which defines an operation that
the injector carries out sequentially.
If your autosampler supports a sample prep program, the Sample
Prep menu will appear on the menu bar. From this menu, you can
create/edit an autosampler sample prep program, and set up
properties such as a description and audit trail for the sample prep
program.
To open an existing sample prep file
1
From the Instrument Window menu bar, click File > Open >
Sample Prep. A dialog will appear where you can select a
sample prep file to open for the current instrument.
2
Select the file to open, or use the search boxes at the bottom to
search for a file that matches criteria you select.
To turn on the audit trail for the sample prep file
1
From the Sample Prep menu, click Properties > Audit Trail.
2
To enable the audit trail function, select the Enable audit trail
box. You will be prompted with a warning that if you proceed,
you cannot disable the audit trail once it is turned on.



Prompt for reason at every change - This option requires
the user to enter a reason for every subsequent change to
the sample prep file at the time the change is made.
Prompt for reason when saving Method - This option
requires the user to enter a reason for each change when
the sample prep file is saved.
Do not prompt for reason - When this option is selected,
changes are documented, but the user is not required to
enter a reason for the changes.
To enter a description for a sample prep file
1
From the Sample Prep menu, click Properties > Description.
2
Type a description for the sample prep file. The description is
saved in the file and can be viewed when opening or used for
searching.
To open a sample prep template
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the menu select File > New.
2
In the New File Template dialog box, select the Sample Prep
tab.
3
Select the file you wish to open.
4
Select OK.
87
About Methods
Launch lab monitor software
To run the Lab Monitor program for supported instruments, from
the Control menu, click Launch Lab Monitor Software. This will
only show when you are running the 7890 GC.
System suitability
System suitability testing, originally conceived by the
pharmaceutical industry to determine if a chromatographic system
is suitable for a particular analysis, is now used routinely in
laboratories where quality of results is important. System
suitability testing is often used in conjuction with method
validation to provide a complete picture of laboratory quality and
reproducibility of results.
System suitability involves running a mixture containing the
analytes you will be running in your samples and examining
various parameters that describe the ability of the chromatograph
and column to separate those analytes.
System suitability is a license option that expands your Data
System to include the ability to do automatic System Suitability
calculations for experimental variables such as efficiency, capacity,
resolution, and reproducibility. The package includes five choices of
calculation methods, including:

USP (United States Pharmacopia)

EMG (Exponential Modified Gaussian)

See Also
DAB (German Pharmacopia) DAB calculation is also used for
BP (British Pharmacopia), EP (European Pharmacopia), and
ASTM.

AOH (Area/Height)

JP (Japanese Pharmacopia)
System Suitability Setup
Suitability Calculation Selection
Run a Suitability Test
Sequence Wizard - Reports
88
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
System suitability setup
Use the System Suitability Setup to enter the required acceptance
ranges for the peaks of interest. This must be done before the data
system can make System Suitability calculations.
To set up system suitability calculations:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
To enable System Suitability, in the Control Panel select the
Instrument and select Configure Instrument > Options >
System Suitability. Launch the instrument.
2
In EZChrom, from the Method menu, select System Suitability.
3
Select the first peak to be used for calculations by highlighting
it with the mouse in the Compound list.
4
In the adjacent spreadsheet, click on the first field in the
Parameter column. A drop-down list of available parameters is
displayed (See the table below). Select a parameter from the
list. If you do not wish to perform a suitability test on any given
peak, simply leave the Parameter fields blank. Similarly, if you
do not wish to have one of the test criteria used (for example,
%RSD), leave it blank. Some parameters have a choice of
calculation methods. These parameters have the calculation
method displayed after the parameter in parenthesis. (e.g.
Plates/Meter (JP) indicates Plates/Meter calculated using the
Japanese Pharmacopoeia calculation.) For details on these
calculations, see Internal_Calculations.
5
For each parameter selected, enter a minimum value (Min),
maximum value (Max), and maximum allowed percent relative
standard deviation (%RSD).
6
To perform a test on the entire chromatogram, click on the
lower spreadsheet in the column labeled Test. Select one of the
noise calculations from the drop-down list. Enter a Start and
End time for the test, and a threshold Value to determine
acceptable limit. The noise value for the portion of
chromatogram between the start and stop times will be
calculated and compared to the threshold value to determine
whether the test passed or failed. Note that the times you enter
for the noise test should be representative of a baseline area of
your chromatogram where no peaks elute.
7
To perform a drift test, click on the lower spreadsheet in the
column labeled Test. Select Drift (drift/min) from the drop-down
list. If you select this box, you must enter a Start and End time
for the test, and a threshold Value (in drift/Min) for the
acceptable limit.
8
When you have completed the System Suitability Setup, close
the box and set System Suitability Calculations.
89
About Methods
Suitability Parameters
Suitability Resolution
This checks the ability of the column to separate one analyte
from others in the mixture. Two peaks are considered resolved if
the calculated R factor is greater than 1.5.
Suitability Repeatability
Injection of the same sample multiple times lets you determine if
your chromatograph is providing reproducible results. Generally,
5 to 6 repeatability samples are necessary to provide adequate
data for meaningful results. Repeatability can be determined
through examination of the % relative standard deviation (%RSD)
for such parameters as peak area, height, or concentration.
Suitability Peak Asymmetry
(Tailing)
The quantitative values for peak asymmetry are important,
especially when dealing with trace components. Also, since
asymmetry can vary through the life of a column, it can be
important to track this data on an ongoing basis.
Suitability Theoretical Plates
Calculation of plate count is an important indication of column
efficiency. Many chromatographers like to monitor plate count as
an indication of when to replace the column.
Suitability Noise and drift
Particularly important to trace analyses, the noise and drift values
for your chromatograph indicate the limits of detection and
quantification. Per-peak calculations include 6-sigma and ASTM
signal to noise calculations. Noise and drift tests performed on a
designated section of the chromatogram include rms Noise, drift,
ASTM noise short (unscaled), ASTM noise short (scaled), ASTM
noise long (scaled), and 6-sigma noise.
System suitability calculations
System Suitability calculations require information about your
chromatography column. Do this after you have Setup System
Suitability.
To select the calculation method:
1
From the Method menu, select Advanced >
Column/Performance.
2
Enter values under Column Information. This is required for
calculation of performance options.
3
Under Calculation Method select a method for calculation of the
performance values from the following options:

USP (United States Pharmacopia)

EMG (Exponential Modified Gaussian)



90
DAB (German Pharmacopia) DAB calculation is also used
for BP (British Pharmacopia), EP (European Pharmacopia),
and ASTM.
AOH (Area/Height)
JP (Japanese Pharmacopia)
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Methods
See Also
4
Select Calculate performance parameters for this channel to
enable the suitability calculations for the method.
5
When you have completed the dialog box, exit to accept the
parameters and Run a System Suitability Test.
Column/Performance Parameters
Run a system suitability test and print a report
Run a System Suitability Test to create a sequence or modify an
existing sequence to include one or more system suitability runs
according to the needs and SOP’s of your laboratory. Do this after
completing the System Suitability Setup and System Suitability
Calculations dialogs.
For example, following USP standards, five replicate standards are
run at the beginning of the sequence. These are designated as
system suitability standards in the sequence. At the end of the
sequence, suitability calculations are made, and the software
generates a system suitability report.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
To open the Sequence Spreadsheet, select Sequence > Edit.
2
Set the Run Type of the first sample in your suitability set to
Begin System Suitability. Additional suitability standards
should be designated as System Suitability Standards, and the
final sample in your suitability set should be designated as End
System Suitability. Multiple sample run types can be selected
for a given sample.
3
A System Suitability Report will be generated at the end of the
set of suitability standards when the sequence is run. To view
the Suitability Report on screen, click Reports > View >
Sequence Report.
4
To print the Suitability Report, click on Reports > Print >
Sequence Report, and select the System Suitability Report
choice. In order to have your report printed automatically at the
end of the sequence, you must have selected the Print Sequence
Reports option in the Sequence Properties dialog. See Process a
Sequence.
91
About Methods
92
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Integration
About Integration
Integration Timed Events are used to customize the integration of
certain peaks or regions of the chromatogram.
There are two ways to add an integration timed event to a method:
by manually adding the event to the Integration Timed Event
Table, or graphically by clicking on the chromatogram.
Two Integration events are required for each run: Width, and
Threshold. These events are used to detect peak start, stop, and
apex, and to distinguish true peaks from noise. The system uses
default values of Width = 0.2 minute and Threshold = 50.
Before attempting to add integration timed events, make sure your
chromatogram has been analyzed using the current method. To
make sure, look for baselines and start/stop tic marks on your
chromatogram. Or, click the Analyze button on the command
ribbon.
See Also
About the Chromatogram Window
About Integration Tables
Integration Events Table
Manual Integration Fixes Table
Baseline Code Descriptions
Graphical Programming
About integration tables
There are two tables where integration timed events are saved.


The method Integration Events Table is used for all data files
integrated with the method.
The Manual Integration Fixes Table is saved with the data file
and used only for reintegration of the data file.
When you add an integration timed event graphically, a dialog box
will appear, allowing you to choose what integration table is to be
used for the event. The default table for each integration event is
selected.


CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
To add the event to the Integration Events Table, select Add
event to Method (all data) > Add to Table. If the method is
saved, the event is applied to every data file integrated using
this method.
To add the event to the Manual Integration Fixes Table, select
Add event to this data file only > Add to Table. The event is
applied only to this data file.
93
About Integration
Integration events table
The Integration Events table contains all current Integration
Timed Events for the current method channel. All of the integration
timed events can be added to your method using the Graphical
Programming technique. Each row of the Integration Events table
represents an integration event in the method.
When you add an integration event to the Integration Events table,
the integration changes will be used on all subsequent samples
analyzed using this method. (Assuming the method is saved.) This
is the default selection for events that are normally used to modify
integration of peaks that always occur in the sample.
To view the integration events table:
There are three ways to view the table.

In the toolbar, select the Integration Events

In the Method menu, select Integration Events.

button.
In the navigation pane, select Method > Method > Integration
Events
To add an event manually:
1
In a new line of the spreadsheet, click the Event field, and
select the event you wish to add.
2
Type an appropriate Start and Stop time and a Value for the
event (if required).
3
To remove an event’s effect from an analysis, yet keep the event
in the table, click on the checkmark next to the event. Only
events with a red check-mark will be used in subsequent
analyses.
To remove an event entirely from the table:
Click on the row number of the event, followed by the DELETE key
on your keyboard.
To temporarily remove an event from the table:
Deselect the check mark adjacent to the event. When the check
mark is not displayed, the event will not be applied to the
integration.
To view the context menu:
A right mouse click anywhere in the table produces a menu of
commands for manipulating cells and rows in the spreadsheet.


94
The Cut, Copy, and Paste commands enable you to cut, copy,
and paste the contents of a cell.
The Fill Down command will copy the selected line into the
following lines.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Integration




The Insert Paste command will insert a line and at the same
time do a paste to the location.
The Insert Line command simply inserts a blank line where
your cursor is located.
The Clear command clears the contents of the current cell or
selected row.
The Clear All command clears the contents of the entire
spreadsheet.
Manual integration fixes table
A Manual Integration Fix is an adjustment to integration required
only for a particular chromatogram.
Manual integration corrections that are created using graphical
integration are logged into the Manual Integration Fixes table.
These manual changes can also be entered in the table by selecting
the desired integration change from the Event drop-down list, then
entering a Start and Stop time, and a Value if appropriate.
These integration changes are applied only to an individual
chromatogram rather than becoming part of the method, and are
saved in the data file only. The manual integration fixes are saved
in the data file so that the integration of the chromatogram can be
recreated at a later date.
The Manual Integration Fixes table contains all current Manual
Integration Fixes for the current data file. When you add an
integration event to the Manual Integration Fixes table, it will be
applied only to this data file. Thus, Manual Integration Fixes are
One-time integration events. This is the default selection for events
that are normally used for one-time corrections to integration, such
as Manual Baseline changes. The results using these events will
also be stored in the data file. This allows you later to reproduce the
results generated using a manual integration event that was only
necessary for a single run.
To view the Manual Integration Fixes table:
There are three ways to view the table.

In the toolbar, select the MIF Table

In the Data menu, select Manual Integration Fixes.
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CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
button.
In the navigation pane, select Method > Data > Manual
Integration Fixes.
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About Integration
To add an event manually:
1
In a new line of the spreadsheet, click the Event field, and
select the event you wish to add.
2
Type an appropriate Start and Stop time and a Value for the
event (if required).
3
To remove an event’s effect from an analysis, yet keep the event
in the table, click on the check-mark next to the event. Only
events with a red check-mark will be used in subsequent
analyses.
To remove an event entirely from the table:
Click on the row number of the event, followed by the DELETE key
on your keyboard.
To temporarily remove an event from the table:
Deselect the check mark adjacent to the event. When the check
mark is not displayed, the event will not be applied to the
integration.
To view the context menu:
A right click anywhere in the table produces a menu of commands
for manipulating cells and rows in the spreadsheet.
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96
The Cut, Copy, and Paste commands enable you to cut, copy,
and paste the contents of a cell.
The Fill Down command will copy the selected line into the
following lines.
The Insert Paste command will insert a line and at the same
time do a paste to the location.
The Insert Line command simply inserts a blank line where
your cursor is located.
The Clear command clears the contents of the current cell or
selected row.
The Clear All command clears the contents of the entire
spreadsheet.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Integration
Baseline code descriptions
Baseline codes can be included in custom reports, and also can be
used to annotate chromatograms. A baseline code consists of two
letters. The first letter denotes the peak beginning baseline type
and the second letter indicates the peak ending baseline type.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Code
Baseline Type
B
Baseline
f
Force Peak Start or Stop (user defined)
I
Peak ended by Integration Off event
N
Begin negative peak
P
End negative peak
H
Forward horizontal
h
Backward horizontal
M
Manual baseline or Manual peak
m
Move baseline Start/Stop
S
Shoulder
T
Tangent skim
V
Valley
v
Forced valley point
x
Split peak
E
End of chromatogram encountered before the end of peak was found.
End of chromatogram used as peak end.
R
Reset Baseline
L
Lowest Point Horiz
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About Integration
Graphical programming
The Graphical Programming menu enables you to add timed events
and set up other method parameters graphically by clicking on the
displayed chromatogram. These commands are also available from
the Integration/Graphical Programming toolbar, which is displayed
by default at the bottom of the Instrument Window. The examples
in the following sections demonstrate how each integration timed
event would affect the integration of the chromatogram displayed,
in order to give you a feel for how an integration timed event might
be used in your chromatography method.
The Integration/Graphical Programming toolbar is located at the
bottom of the Instrument Window and contains graphical events
buttons. For help with integration, set the integration message
window to appear when you select a graphical event button.
To view the integration toolbar:
1
Select View > Preferences.
2
Under Toolbar options select Integration.
3
Select Show toolbar and Tooltips.
To view the integration message window:
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1
Select View > Preferences.
2
Under Toolbar options, select Integration.
3
Under Options, select Show the graphical programming
tooltips.0
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About Integration
Parameters that can be set using graphical programming include:
Width
Inserts a Width event at the point on the chromatogram.
Threshold
Inserts a Threshold event at the point on the chromatogram.
Shoulder Sensitivity
Inserts a Shoulder Sensitivity event at the point on the
chromatogram.
Integration Off
Turns off integration at the point on the chromatogram.
Valley to Valley
Turns on valley to valley baseline detection.
Horizontal Baseline
Forces a horizontal baseline from the point on the chromatogram.
Backward Horizontal
Baseline
Forces a backward horizontal baseline from the point on the
chromatogram.
Lowest Point Horizontal
Baseline
Forces a horizontal baseline at the next lowest point.
Tangent Skim
Forces a tangent skim.
Front Tangent Skim
Forces a front tangent skim.
Minimum Area
Set a minimum area for peak detection.
Negative Peak
Turn on negative peak detection.
Disable Peak End Detection Disables the end of peak detection.
Reassign Peak
Designates a different peak as the calibrated peak.
Manual Baseline
Manually define a baseline.
Manual Peak
Manually define the beginning and end of a peak.
Split Peak
Force a perpendicular to split a peak.
Force Peak Start
Force the start of a peak.
Force Peak Stop
Force the end of a peak.
Move Baseline
Manually move a baseline.
Reset Baseline
Force a baseline to the point.
Reset Baseline at Valley
Reset the baseline to the next valley.
Exponential Skimming
Integrate small peaks located on the tailing edge of a larger peak.
Front Exponent Skim
Force a exponential baseline for a daughter peak on the leading
edge of a mother peak.
Adjust Retention Time
Window
Adjusts the retention time window.
Adjust Group Range
Adjust the group range.
Define Single Peak
Define a single peak and add it to the peak calibration table.
Define Peaks
Define multiple peaks and add them to the peak calibration table.
Define Groups
Define groups and add them to the group calibration table.
Suggest Sampling Frequency Suggest a sampling frequency for the chromatogram.
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About Integration
Width
The Width event is used to calculate a value for bunching, or
smoothing, the data points before the integration algorithm is
applied. Integration works best when there are 20 points across a
peak. If a peak is over sampled (i.e. the sampling frequency was too
high), the Width parameter will be used to average the data such
that the integration algorithm sees only 20 points across the peak.
In setting a Width value graphically, the narrowest peak in the
chromatogram should be used.
A Width event will be applied to a given peak as long as it occurs
before or on the apex of the peak.
The Width parameter is only used to correct for over-sampling. It
cannot correct for data that was under-sampled (i.e. sampling
frequency too low causing fewer than 20 points acquired across the
narrowest peak.)
Note: In most circumstances, an initial Width value based on the
narrowest peak in the chromatogram will be adequate for proper
integration of all peaks. However, a new Width timed event should
be entered every time a peak width doubles.
Threshold
This parameter is the first derivative, used to allow the integration
algorithm to distinguish the start and stop of peaks from baseline
noise and drift. When setting the Threshold value graphically, you
select a section of baseline. The recommended Threshold value is
based on the highest first derivative value determined in that
section of the chromatogram.
The diagram below shows examples of how incorrect values for
peak Width and Threshold can effect the peak baseline.
Note that extreme values of both Width and Threshold (too large or
too small) can result in peaks not detected.
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About Integration
Shoulder Sensitivity
This parameter is used to enable the detection of shoulders on
larger peaks. A larger value will decrease shoulder sensitivity,
while smaller values increase sensitivity to shoulder peaks. When
setting the Shoulder Sensitivity value graphically, you select a
section of the baseline. The recommended Shoulder Sensitivity
value is based on the highest second derivative value determined in
that section of the chromatogram.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Shoulder Sensitivity button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points of a
baseline segment.
3
In the Shoulder Sensitivity dialog box, select Add event to
Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.
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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Shoulder Sensitivity value set too high
Shoulder Sensitivity value set correctly
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101
About Integration
Integration off
This event turns off the integration of your chromatogram during
the range specified. This event is useful if you are not interested in
certain areas of your chromatogram, and do not wish peaks to be
reported for that section.
When using Integration Off to disable peaks, these regions will be
included in the noise calculation. Leave all peaks integrated to get
the correct noise values.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Integration Off button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Integration Off dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.
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
4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Default integration
Integration Off event from 0 to 5 minutes
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About Integration
Valley to valley
This event causes the baselines of peaks that are not totally
resolved (i.e. do not return to baseline) to be drawn to the minimum
point between the peaks. If this event is not used, a baseline is
projected to the next point at which the chromatogram returns to
baseline, and a perpendicular is dropped for peaks which do not
reach baseline.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Valley to Valley button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Valley to Valley dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.
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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Default Integration
Integration with Valley to Valley event
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103
About Integration
Horizontal baseline
This event allows you to project the baseline forward horizontally
between the times specified for the event.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Horizontal Baseline button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Horizontal Baseline dialog box, select Add event to
Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.
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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Integration without Horizontal Baseline Event
Integration with Horizontal Baseline between 1.8 and 3.6 minutes
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About Integration
Backward horizontal baseline
This event is used to force a horizontal baseline in the direction of
the beginning of the chromatogram. A backward horizontal baseline
will be created between the times specified by the event.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Backward Horizontal Baseline
button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Backward Horizontal Baseline dialog box, select Add
event to Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.

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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Default integration
Integration after backward horizontal baseline
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
105
About Integration
Lowest point horizontal baseline
This event is similar to the Horizontal Baseline event, except that
the lowest point in the chromatogram determines the baseline. The
values you input for Start Time and Stop Time determine the
region within the chromatogram where the lowest point horizontal
baseline will be used.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Lowest Point Horizontal
Baseline button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Lowest Point Horizontal Baseline dialog box, select Add
event to Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.

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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Integration before using Lowest Point Horizontal event
Integration after using Lowest Point Horizontal event
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About Integration
Tangent skim
This event is used to integrate a small peak located on the tailing
edge of a larger peak. The baseline of the small peak becomes a
tangent drawn from the valley of the larger peak to the tangent
point on the chromatogram.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Tangent Skim button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Tangent Skim dialog box, select Add event to Method (all
data) or Add event to this data file only.
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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Integration without Tangent Skim Event
Integration with Tangent Skim Event
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107
About Integration
Front tangent skim
The Front Tangent Skim event is used to force a tangential baseline
for a daughter peak on the leading edge of a mother peak.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Front Tangent Skim button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Front Tangent Skim dialog box, select Add event to
Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.
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4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Before Tangent Skim Event
After Front Tangent Skim Event
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About Integration
Minimum area
This event allows you to enter an area limit for peak detection.
Peaks whose areas fall below this minimum area will not be
integrated and reported as peaks. This event is useful for
eliminating noise or contaminant peaks from your report.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Minimum Area button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Minimum Area dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Integration without Minimum Area Event
Integration with Minimum Area Event
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109
About Integration
Negative peak
This event causes portions of the chromatogram that drop below the
baseline to be integrated using the normal peak logic and reported
as true peaks. This event is useful when using detectors such as
Refractive Index types which give a negative response to certain
compounds.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Negative Peak button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Negative Peak dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Default integration
Integration with Negative Peak event
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About Integration
Disable end of peak detection
This event is used to turn off end of peak detection between the
specified times, forcing the software to treat peaks falling within
the window of the event as a single peak. This event is a useful way
to combine the areas of a series of contiguous peaks into one area.
Because the peaks are considered to be part of a single peak, the
retention time is assigned to the time of the first apex after the
Disable End of Peak Detection event.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Disable End Peak Detection
button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Disable End Peak Detection dialog box, select Add event
to Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Default Integration
Disable End of Peak Detection between 0.4 and 2.2 minutes
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
111
About Integration
Reassign peak
This event allows you to graphically designate a different peak as
the calibrated peak in place of the peak which has been identified.
This event does not change the values in the Peak Table.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Reassign Peak button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Reassign Peak dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
In the following example, Peak 2 has been reassigned to a new
peak.
Before Peak 2 reassignment
After reassignment of Peak 2
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About Integration
Manual baseline
This event allows you to change the way the baseline for a peak is
drawn without changing the integration parameters. This is
convenient when you want to change where a baseline is drawn for
a peak without changing how the baseline is drawn for other peaks
in the chromatogram.
The Manual Baseline event was used to draw a new baseline for the
second peak. To draw the new baseline, select the Manual Baseline
command, then click your mouse at the start of the desired
baseline, and again at the end of the desired baseline.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Manual Baseline button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Manual Baseline dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Manual Baseline events are stored in the Manual Integration Fixes
table by default.
Default Integration
Integration with Manual Baseline between 0.765 and 1.43 minutes
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113
About Integration
Manual peak
This command allows you to graphically define a peak that was not
previously detected. This is convenient when you want to force
integration of a peak, but do not want to change your overall
integration parameters.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Manual Peak button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Manual Peak dialog box, select Add event to Method (all
data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Default Integration
Small peak integration forced using Manual Peak event
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About Integration
Split peak
This event is used to force a perpendicular drop-line integration in
a peak. The perpendicular will be dropped at the point where the
event is inserted.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Split Peak button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start and end points.
3
In the Split Peak dialog box, select Add event to Method (all
data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
This event is stored in the Manual Integration Fixes table by
default.
Integration before split peak
Integration after split peak added at 5.3 minutes
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About Integration
Force peak start /Force peak stop
These events are used to force the start or stop of the peak
integration to a specific point.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Force Peak Start or Force Peak
Stop button.
2
In the chromatogram, select the start or stop points.
3
In the Force Peak Start or Force Peak Stop dialog box, click
Add event to Method (all data) or Add event to this data file
only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation.
Click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.0
This event is stored in the Manual Integration Fixes table by
default.
Default Integration
Integration after force middle peak start to 33.1 minutes
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About Integration
Move baseline
This event allows you to move the start or stop of a baseline by
clicking and dragging it to a new location.
1 When you select Move Baseline, you will be prompted to click
on the baseline segment you want to modify. The start and end
points of the baseline will then appear highlighted with a box.
2 When you move the cursor to a location within range of the
start or stop point, it will turn into an anchor. Click the left
mouse button and drag the baseline start-point to the new
location, then let go.
3 You can continue to click and drag the baseline in this manner
until it is in the correct location. Then press the Esc key. A
dialog will appear with the old and new baseline start and stop
values.
4 Click Select to include the modified baseline. When this box is
not selected, the baseline move event will not be used for
integration.
5 Select Add event to Method (all data) to make this baseline
change a part of the method to be used whenever the method is
used to integrate data. Select Add events to this data file only
to make this baseline change only for the current data file
(manual integration fix).
6 Click the Add to Table button, and the timed event will be
inserted in either the Integration Events Table, or the Manual
Integration Fixes Table, depending on which item in step 5
above is selected. Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and
cancel the operation. Click Analyze Now to add the event to the
table and analyze the chromatogram using the event.
7 Move Baseline Start and Move Baseline Stop events are stored
in the Manual Integration Fixes table by default.
The following is an example of the Move Baseline Start event.
Before baseline is moved. Baseline start and stop points are
indicated
Peak baseline start moved to approximately 71.7 minutes
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About Integration
Reset baseline
This event lets you set the baseline at a designated point on the
chromatogram.
To enter the event graphically:
1
In the Chromatogram Window, click the Reset Baseline graphic
event button.
2
Click the mouse on the point of the chromatogram to add the
event.
3
Click Add event to Method (all data) or Add event to this data
file only.
4
Click Add to Table to add the event to the integration events
table.
5
In the Reset Baseline dialog box:



118
Select Add event to Method (all data) to add the event to
the Integration Events table when you click the Add to
Table button. If the method is then saved, the event will be
applied to every data file integrated using this method.
Select Add event to this data file only to add the event to
the Manual Integration Fixes table when you click the Add
to Table button, and will be applied only to this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the
operation. Click Analyze Now to add the event to the table
and analyze the chromatogram using the event.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Integration
Reset baseline at valley
This event will cause the baseline to be reset at the next valley
detected after the event.
Note: The event should be placed after the start of the peak first
peak in the cluster; otherwise the start of the peak will be identified
as the valley.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Reset Baseline at Valley button.
2
In the chromatogram, select a location after the start of the
peak first peak in the cluster; otherwise the start of the peak
will be identified as the valley.
3
In the Reset Baseline at Valley dialog box, select Add event to
Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.


4
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
An example of this event is shown below.
Baseline before Reset Baseline at Valley event
Baseline after Reset Baseline at Valley event
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
119
About Integration
Exponential skimming
This event is used to integrate small peaks located on the tailing
edge of a larger peak. The baseline of the small peak becomes an
exponential drawn from the valley of the larger peak to the tangent
point on the chromatogram.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Exponential Skimming button.
2
In the Exponential Skim dialog box, select Add event to Method
(all data) or Add event to this data file only.


3
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Before Exponent Skim event
After Exponent Skim event
120
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Integration
Front exponent skimming
The Front Exponent Skim event is used to force a exponential
baseline for a daughter peak on the leading edge of a mother peak.
1
In the Integration toolbar located at the bottom of the
Instrument window, select the Front Exponent Skimming
button.
2
In the Front Exponent Skim dialog box, select Add event to
Method (all data) or Add event to this data file only.


3
If you select Add event to Method (all data) the event will
be added to the Integration Events table when you click the
Add to Table button. If the method is then saved, the event
will be applied to every data file integrated using this
method.
If you select Add event to this data file only the event will
be added to the Manual Integration Fixes table when you
click the Add to Table button, and will be applied only to
this data file.
Click Cancel to ignore the timed event and cancel the operation,
or click Analyze Now to add the event to the table and analyze
the chromatogram using the event.
Before Front Exponent Skim event
After Front Exponent Skim event
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
121
About Integration
Adjust RT window
The expected retention time window is set when you add a peak to
the calibration table. You can graphically change the retention time
window for any calibrated peak using this graphical event.
Note: In order to graphically adjust the RT Window, you must have
the RT Window annotation turned on. To turn on the RT
Windows, in the Chromatogram Window do a right mouse click
and then select Annotations. In Trace Annotation Properties, make
sure RT Window is selected in the Other pane at the bottom.
To adjust the RT Window from the Chromatogram Window
122
1
Click the Adj RT Window button at the bottom of the
Chromatogram Window and then click on the RT Window you
wish to adjust. The cursor will turn into a two-ended arrow and
two drag boxes will appear.
2
You can adjust the RT window by dragging either end or by
dragging the RT bar itself.
3
If you grab the bar itself and move it, the Expected RT will be
updated and the RT Window will remain the same.
4
If you grab either end of the bar and move it, the other end of
the bar will stay in its current position and the Expected RT
and the RT Window will be updated.
5
Repeat the procedure to adjust additional RT windows.
6
After you have adjusted the windows to your liking, press ESC
to finish. A dialog will appear that displays a table with the RT
Window changes you have made. Each row shows the peak
Name, the Old Ret. Time, the New Ret Time, the Old RT
Window, and the New RT Window. You can manually adjust
the New Ret Time and New RT Windows by clicking the field
and then typing the desired value.
7
By default, all RT Window updates are Selected. Clear the
Select box for each RT Window adjustment update you do not
wish to include.
8
Click Update RT, and the Retention Times will be updated in
the peak table. Click Cancel to ignore the event and cancel the
operation. Click Analyze Now to update the peak table and
analyze the chromatogram using the updated Retention Time
and RT Windows.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Integration
Sampling rate
The sampling rate used to acquire your data determines how much
information the integration algorithm has for drawing and
integrating the chromatogram. The sampling frequency is set in the
Instrument Setup part of your method. To make sure you have the
proper sampling rate, use the Suggest Sampling Frequency
command in graphical programming. Slight over-sampling of data
is corrected with the Width integration parameter and is not a
problem. Try to avoid gross over-sampling of data, however, as it
does not give better integration and it wastes space on the hard
drive of your computer. More important, however, is not to undersample, as there is no way to correct for data points that are not
sufficient to define and integrate your peaks.
Before attempting to add integration timed events, make sure your
chromatogram has been analyzed using the current method. To
make sure, look for baselines and start/stop tic marks on your
chromatogram. Or, click the Analyze button on the command
ribbon.
Suggest Sampling Frequency
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Right click the chromatogram and select Graphical
Programming > Suggest Sampling Frequency.
2
Following the instructions on the status bar, click once at the
beginning of your narrowest peak of interest, then once at the
end of that peak. The software will suggest a sampling rate or
period for acquisition of the sample. You can enter this value
for your sampling rate using the Instrument Setup button.
123
About Sequences
About Sequences
The sequence is the cornerstone of automatic operation. With a
sequence, you can automatically acquire, process, and store
multiple runs. You can use a sequence to automate calibration,
either at the time the runs are acquired, or post-acquisition by
sequence reprocessing. You can set up run queues for automatic
running of sequences, and you can trigger events based on results of
a run in a sequence (see Set an Action for a Sequence Run.) Once a
sequence is acquiring data, you can monitor the progress of the
sequence(s) using the Run Queue function.
See Also
Create a Sequence using Sequence Wizard
Open a Sequence File
Edit a Sequence
Easy Sequence
Create a Sequence from a Container Sample List
Save a Sequence
Sequence Properties
About the Sequence Spreadsheet
About Data Acquisition and Control
About the Result Sequence
About Sequence Reports
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About Sequences
Create a sequence with the sequence wizard
The Sequence Wizard is used to create a new sequence.
To start the Sequence Wizard:
See Also
1
From the Instrument window, click the Instrument Wizard
button and then click Create a Sequence.
2
Complete the wizard to define your sequence. The wizard will
step you through various parameter screens required to create
an acquisition or reprocessing sequence depending on your
choices and the instrument configured. The first screen of the
Wizard is Sequence Wizard - Method.
3
When you have completed the wizard, click Finish.
4
To save the sequence, from the menu, click File > Save As... >
Sequence. Browse to the location where you want to save your
sequence, enter the name of the sequence, and then click Save.
See Save a Sequence.
Tutorial - Create a Sample Sequence
Sequence Wizard - Method
Sequence Wizard - Unknowns
Sequence Wizard - Autosampler
Sequence Wizard - Calibration
Sequence Wizard - Reports
Create a Reprocessing Sequence
Sequence Wizard - Method
1
Specify a Method to be used for the sequence, or select it from a
list of existing methods by clicking the File Open button.
2
Select a Data File Type from the following options:


3
From existing data files enables you to select the data file
names from a list of existing data files from your data
directory. This is normally used to create a sequence to be
used for reprocessing. See Creating a Reprocessing
Sequence for details.
In the Amount Values section, you can enter values that affect
how the concentrations of unknown samples are calculated.

CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
For acquisition enables you to designate new file names to
be used for acquisition.
Sample Amount - The Sample Amount value is used as a
divisor during calculation of concentrations. It is intended
to compensate for differences between samples due to
weighing and when percentages of the total sample are
being calculated rather than the amount detected in an
injection.
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About Sequences



4
Internal Standard Amount - For calibration runs, the
Internal Standard Amount is taken from the method Peak
Table. For unknown runs, enter the amount of the Internal
Standard in your unknown sample.
Multiplication factors - Enter up to 3 multiplication factors
to be used for these runs. All quantitated peaks will be
multiplied by these factors.
Dilution factors - Enter up to 3 dilution factors to be used
for these runs. All quantitated peaks will be divided by
these factors.
When you have completed this dialog, click Next to continue.
See Sequence Wizard - Unknowns.
Sequence Wizard - Unknowns
In the dialog box shown below, you enter information for data
storage and sequence runs.
126
Sample ID
Type a sample identification label. This can be numerical and/or text
format, and will be saved with each data file.
If you want the system to generate a Sample ID for you
automatically, click on the blue arrow and select a parameter to be
used for the basis of your Sample ID. You can select more than one
parameter, which will be added sequentially to the Sample ID.
For example, if you select Line Number and Instrument name, the
sample ID's generated will be the row number of the sequence
followed by the instrument name: 3HPLC.
To use the Increment Number option, enter a number to start the
increment in angle brackets. For example, <33> would start
numbering from 33. By default, the Increment Number option allows
for 3 digits. To reduce or increase this number, adjust the digits in
your brackets accordingly. For example <0033>.
Data File
Enter a name for the data files. In order for unique data file names to
be created automatically, you can have the system generate file
names for you automatically, based on a system parameter. Click the
blue arrow and select a parameter to be used for the basis of your
data file names. You can select more than one parameter. The
software automatically appends the .DAT extension to the data file
names.
For example, you can use the Sample ID as the data file name.
Note: In order to generate unique filenames automatically for each
data file, you should make sure that the Line Number or Increment
number is included somewhere in the file name.
Number of unknown
runs in sequence
Enter the number of unknown samples to be acquired or reprocessed
with the sequence.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
Repetitions per run
Enter the number of times each unknown will be repeated or
re-injected.
Create a separate row Click this box if you wish to create a separate row in the sequence for
in the sequence for
each repetition. If you do not select this box, unknown repetitions will
each repetition
not be displayed in the sequence spreadsheet, although individual
data files will be created and stored for each repetition acquired.
When you have completed this dialog, click Next to continue. See
Sequence Wizard - Autosampler.
Sequence Wizard – Unknowns dialog box
Sequence Wizard - Autosampler
If you have an autosampler control option, this screen of the
sequence wizard will appear. It is used to set up the vial numbers
for the first unknown and calibration of the sequence, along with
increment number. A default injection volume can also be entered.
This can be changed on a per-run basis in the sequence
spreadsheet.
When you have completed the dialog box, click Next to continue.
See Sequence Wizard - Calibration.
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127
About Sequences
Sequence Wizard - Calibration
In the dialog box show below, allows you to set up calibration
standards in your sequence.
Calibration ID
Enter a calibration sample identification. This is a text value that is stored in
the calibration data file. The identifiers from Sample ID are automatically
entered in order to associate calibration IDs with your data file IDs. If you
wish, you can have the system generate a different Calibration ID for you
automatically based on a system parameter. Click the blue arrow and
select a parameter to be used for the basis of the Calibration ID.
Calibration file
Enter a name for the calibration data files. The system automatically will
apply the Cal_ prefix to each calibration file in the sequence. You can
change this if you wish. The identifiers from Data File are automatically
entered in order to associate calibration file names with your data file
names. You can change these if you wish by clicking the blue button and
selecting the parameter to be used for the basis of the calibration file
name. You can select more than one parameter.
Note: In order to generate unique filenames automatically for each data
file, you should make sure that the Line Number or Increment Number is
included somewhere in the file name.
Number of calibration
levels
Enter the total number of calibration levels to be run in the sequence.
Repetitions per level
Enter the number of repetitions or re-injections for each calibration level.
Note: If multiple repetitions are specified, a result file will be generated for
each injection with the data file’s name being created by appending Rep1,
Rep2, etc. to the data file name.
Clear all calibration at
start of sequence
Select this box if you want to clear all calibration information (response
factors, replicates) before the first run of the sequence.
Create a separate row in
the sequence for each
repetition
Select this box if you want to create a separate row for each calibration
repetition in your sequence. If you do not select this box, a separate data
file will be created for each calibration repetition, however the repetitions
will not appear in the sequence spreadsheet.
Multiple calibration sets
Select this box if you plan to run each calibration level (plus its replicates)
more than once.
Number of unknown runs If you have selected Multiple calibration sets box, this option will appear.
between sets
Enter the number of unknown samples to be run between each calibration
set.
If you have an autosampler with control installed, the vials options will
become available.
Vials
128
Select Intersperse calibration vials with unknown vials if you wish to
run unknown samples between calibration sets.
Select Reuse calibration vials from first calibration set if you wish to
reuse the same set of calibration vials for the entire sequence.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
When you have completed this dialog, click Next to continue. See
Sequence Wizard - Reports.
Sequence Wizard - Reports
Use this dialog (shown below) to set up summary reports for your
sequence.
Summary
These options allow you to designate summary runs.
Include unknown runs in
summary report
Select this box if you want your summary report to include unknown runs.
These runs will have their Run Type set for a summary run.
Include calibration runs in
summary report
Select this box if you want your summary report to include the calibration
runs. These runs will have the Run Type set to be included as a summary
run.
System Suitability
These options allow you to designate system suitability runs.
Run calibration as system
suitability
Select this box if you have the system suitability software option, and you
wish to designate calibration runs as system suitability types.
This also will cause display of system suitability parameters in the
sequence spreadsheet.
Select either First calibration set only or All calibration sets. See
About System Suitability.
QC Check Standard
After every ___ unknowns, set QC check standard
Include method contents
report
When this box is selected, a method contents report will be automatically
generated whenever the method changes in a sequence. When this
option is enabled, the sequence will automatically add a print additional
reports run type to each run where the method has changed from the
previous run in the sequence. This can be changed or deleted for any
given run in the Edit Sequence spreadsheet.
When you have finished this dialog, click the Finish button. A
sequence will be created using the information specified in the
dialogs and displayed as a spreadsheet.
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129
About Sequences
The new sequence will be displayed as untitled. To save your new
sequence, use the File > Save As > Sequence command and type the
name of the new sequence.
To close the sequence spreadsheet, click the X box in the upper
right corner of the spreadsheet. To open the current sequence
spreadsheet, use the Sequence>Edit command, or click the Edit
Sequence button on the command ribbon.
Create a reprocessing sequence
You can use the Sequence Wizard to create a sequence containing
existing data files, for the purpose of reprocessing only.
To create a reprocessing sequence:
130
1
From the Instrument Window, click the Instrument Wizard
button and then click Create a Sequence.
2
Complete the Sequence Wizard to select methods and data files
to be used for the reprocessing.
3
In Sequence Wizard - Method, select From existing data files as
the Data File Type. This will bypass the wizard screens
necessary for creating an acquisition sequence and allow you to
select data files to be reprocessed. In addition, amount values
from the data files selected will be entered into the sequence.
4
When you have completed the wizard, click Finish.
5
To save the sequence, from the menu, click File > Save As >
Sequence. Browse to the location where you want to save your
sequence, enter the name of the sequence, and then click Save.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
Edit a sequence
Once a sequence has been created, you can view or change the
sequence from the Instrument Window.
To edit the current sequence:
See Also
1
From the Sequence menu, click Edit.
2
Modify the sequence using the displayed spreadsheet.
Open a Sequence File
Save a Sequence
Easy sequence
Easy Sequence is an easy to use interface for using and setting up
sequences with predefined templates. Sequence setups can be
created, modified, and then reused for different users and analysis
types. This minimizes errors that occur each time a sequence is
created.
Easy Sequence
The Easy Sequence... option allows a user to run a sequence using a
predefined template.
To access Easy Sequence...:
1
From the main menu, select Sequence.
2
Select Easy Sequence.... The Easy Sequence dialog box opens.
See the Easy Sequence Help for more information.
Easy Sequence Setup
The Easy Sequence Setup... option allows a user to create and
modify templates.
To access Easy Sequence Setup...:
1
From the main menu, select Sequence.
2
Select Easy Sequence Setup.... The Easy Sequence Setup dialog
box opens. See the Easy Sequence Template Help for more
information.
Create a sequence from a container sample list
The Sample Entry option provides an easy to use graphical
interface for setting up sequences from the container, such as 96well plate or vial array. Sample list templates can be created,
modified, and then reused for different users and analysis types.
This option is only active when supported devices are used in your
system and the drivers are initialized when you start the
instrument. You can view the status of the driver initialization in
the Instrument Activity Log.
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131
About Sequences
To use a container sample list template:
1
If you are launching an instrument for the first time, or are
working with a sequence or method, select Sequence > Sample
Entry. If you are working with a result set, select Result Set >
Sample Entry. The Sample Entry dialog box opens.
2
Click Help in the Sample Entry window for detailed
instructions on:

Using existing sample lists

Creating and modifying sample list templates

Opening and saving sample lists
A Sample List submitted from the Sample Entry interface is added
to the Run Queue.
Once you submit your sequence, a sequence file is created in your
project's Sequence folder. The file will be named after the Sample
List name.
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About Sequences
Sequence properties
Select Sequence > Properties to edit and view the description,
export information, audit trail log, and audit trail of data files.
See Also
Sequence Properties Options
Sequence Properties Audit Trail Log
Sequence Properties Audit Trail
Sequence properties options
When you create a new sequence using the Sequence Wizard, you
enter a description, specify a summary export path, and designate
the default directories for data and methods.
To view or change these properties:
1
From the Sequence menu, select Properties.
2
In the Sequence Properties dialog box, select Options.
3
Enter the properties for the sequence.



CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Description - Enter a text description of the sequence, if
desired. The description is saved in the sequence file and
may be viewed from the Open Sequence dialog box.
Export summary - Click this box to export the summary
report. Enter the path where you want the summary text
file to be saved. The summary will be exported to a file
entitled Sequence Summary - 000005000.txt Where the
numbers represent nBatchTower, nReportRunTypeID,
nReportNumber.
File Paths - Select default paths to be used for methods,
data, and autosampler, if appropriate. You can select a path
from those available on the disk by clicking the file button
adjacent to the field. These paths are used in the event that
a file is specified in the sequence table without a path.
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About Sequences
Sequence properties audit trail
To enable the audit trail for sequences:
1
From the Sequence menu, select Properties.
2
In the Sequence Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail.
3
Click Enable Audit Trail. Once the Enable Audit Trail box is
selected, it cannot be deselected. The sequence will continue to
have audit trail enabled unless you save the file under a new
filename.
4
Once the Enable Audit Trail box is checked, the following
options are available for documenting changes.



Prompt for reason at every change - This option requires
the user to enter a reason for every subsequent change to
the sequence at the time the change is made.
Prompt for reason when saving Sequence - This option
requires the user to enter a reason for each change when
the Sequence is saved.
Do not prompt for reason - When this option is selected,
changes are documented, but the user is not required to
enter a reason for the changes.
Sequence properties audit trail log
To view the audit trail log for the current sequence:
1
From the Sequence menu, select Properties.
2
In the Sequence Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail Log.
3
Enter the following:
4

User

Location

Description

Reason

From date/time

To date/time
Select from the following options:



134
Export - Select this to export the audit trail log.
Print - Select this to print the audit trail log.
Search - Select this to search the audit trail log.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
About the sequence spreadsheet
A sequence is displayed as a spreadsheet, with each row
representing chromatography run or a file to be reprocessed. For
each row, you designate a method, data file name, whether the
sample is a calibration standard, along with various options for how
you want the data to be processed. The following section describes
the functions of the sequence spreadsheet.
See Also
Sequence Spreadsheet Context Menu
Fill Down
Insert a New Sequence into a Sequence Spreadsheet
Customize the Sequence Spreadsheet Columns
Sequence Spreadsheet Columns
Set Sample Run Types
Set up a QC Check Standard
Concentration Override
Set an Action for a Sequence Run
Sequence spreadsheet context menu
All sequences are displayed in a spreadsheet similar to the one
shown below. Although the information in the fields will vary, the
spreadsheets always support certain basic features. For a list of
spreadsheet columns and their definitions, see Sequence
Spreadsheet Columns.
Each row is assigned a Run #, followed by columns for information
for each run in the sequence. Rows and field information can be cut,
copied, pasted, and cleared. To access the menu for these
commands, click the right mouse button anywhere within the
spreadsheet.
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135
About Sequences
Context Menu Commands
Cut
This command will cut the current selection and place it into the clipboard.
You can subsequently paste the information to another application using the
paste command, or move the selection to another location in the
spreadsheet by selecting the location, then using the paste command. Note:
Once you have cleared or deleted a row from your spreadsheet, the blank
row will remain in the spreadsheet until you close the sequence spreadsheet
and re-open it, or press the F5 key.
Copy
Use this command to make an exact copy of the selection in the clipboard.
Once you select Copy, you can paste the selection to another application,
or copy the selection to a location in your spreadsheet.
Paste
This command is used to paste the information currently in the clipboard into
the spreadsheet at the location of the cursor.
Fill Down
This enables you to automatically copy spreadsheet information from one
field or row down through the rest of the spreadsheet.
Insert Paste
This command works like a combination of insert line and paste commands.
The item currently in the clipboard will be pasted into a new line above
where the cursor is located.
Insert Line
This command inserts a blank line in the spreadsheet above where the
cursor is located.
Clear
Use this command to clear the information in the selected location. (You can
also use the Delete key from your keyboard for this function.) The F5
function key can be used to collapse rows that have been deleted from the
spreadsheet.
Clear All
Use this command to clear the information from the entire spreadsheet.
Select All
Use this command to select the entire spreadsheet.
Open Method
This command will open the method associated with the currently selected
run in the spreadsheet.
Open Data
This command will open the data file associated with the currently selected
run in the spreadsheet. The data file will be opened with last results. If last
results is not available, the data file will be recalled with the original results.
Process
Sequence…
This command opens the Process Sequence dialog and enables you to
reprocess all or part of the current sequence.
Run Sequence… This command opens the Run Sequence dialog to enable you to start the
sequence acquisition.
Insert New
Sequence…
This command will start the sequence wizard to create a new sequence,
which will be inserted into your current sequence below the currently
selected row.
Set Run Types... This command allows you to select a desired run type from the displayed list
to be applied to the selected rows.
Properties…
136
This command opens the Sequence Properties dialog where you can
add/edit the sequence description and select default paths for data and
method files.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
Note: When copying or pasting spreadsheets from the data system
to other applications, hidden parameters that do not appear in the
spreadsheet (such as action item parameters) will not be pasted.
Fill down
The Fill Down command enables you to automatically copy
spreadsheet information from one field or row down through the
rest of the spreadsheet.
To use the Fill Down command:
1
In the sequence spreadsheet, select a row or field by
highlighting it with your mouse.
2
Do a right mouse click and select Fill Down. If you have
selected a numeric field such as level or repetitions, the selected
item will be automatically filled down the spreadsheet from
where it is highlighted. If you select either a row, a Filename,
or a Sample ID, a dialog will appear where you can designate a
name and indicate whether you want to increment its
associated numbering.
3
For Sample ID and Data File fields, you can opt to
automatically increment the number or change the name by
checking the Increment check box. You can select parameters
for the increment in a manner similar to that used in the
sequence wizard by clicking the blue arrow and selecting from
the list. (Be sure to include the correct number of place holders.
For example, if you start at number <10>, but the number of
files is between 100 and 1000, you should enter <010>.) Click
on OK to fill the information down the spreadsheet.
Insert a new sequence into a sequence spreadsheet
To create sequence rows and insert them into your spreadsheet:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the sequence spreadsheet, do a right mouse click at the point
where you want to insert new sequence rows and then click
Insert New Sequence.
2
The Sequence Wizard will appear. Complete the wizard to
define the new rows for the sequence.
3
Click Finish. The new sequence rows will be inserted Above the
selected row.
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About Sequences
Customize the sequence spreadsheet columns
You can customize the sequence spreadsheet to include only the
columns you will be using. The selections are saved on a peruser/per instrument basis. That is, each user can set spreadsheet
properties for each instrument.
1
In the sequence spreadsheet, do a right mouse click and then
click Properties.
2
In the Properties dialog box, select the columns that will appear
in the peak table. Columns with a check mark will be displayed
in the spreadsheet. Those without a check will not be displayed.
3
The blue anchor indicates what column will be used to anchor
the right-left scrolling in your spreadsheet. Once this anchor is
set, columns to the right of the anchor will scroll to the right
and left. Columns to the left of the anchor will not scroll. To
change the anchor, click on the name of the column you wish to
use as anchor, and click the Set Anchor button. The blue anchor
will move to the designated anchor column.0
Note: When using the anchor, it is best to remove all unnecessary
columns from the spreadsheet, and make the spreadsheet as wide
as possible before you set the anchor. If you set the anchor to a
column that does not currently show on the spreadsheet, you will
not be able to scroll the spreadsheet.
Sequence spreadsheet columns
The following columns appear in the sequence spreadsheet and in
the result sequence. Although the New Sequence Wizard allows you
to automatically create a sequence, you should review the sequence
to make sure the information for each run is correct before it is run.
To select a field, click on that field to highlight it. To select a row,
click on the Run # to highlight the entire row. To select the entire
spreadsheet, use the right-click menu, and click the Select All
command.
To resize the columns, move the cursor to the title area above the
column you wish to size. The cursor will turn into two vertical lines
with arrows. Click and drag the cursor until the column is the
desired size, then release the mouse key.
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About Sequences
To view the spreadsheet, in the navigation pane, select Sequence >
Edit.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Status
This field becomes active when a sequence acquisition or
processing is in progress. It indicates the current status of the run.
Run Type
Select a Run Type from the available types by clicking the arrow
button in the field. A dialog box will appear where you can select the
run type(s). To see a list of the run types and their actions, see Set
Sample Run Types.
Run Type Parameters
For each run type selected, you may be prompted to enter
parameters necessary for the run type to be used. In most cases,
this involves selecting a template to be used for a report.
Setting run types for multiple runs
You can quickly change the run type for multiple runs by
highlighting the desired rows in the spreadsheet, then click the right
mouse button and select Set Run Types. When you select the
desired run type from the displayed list it will be applied to the rows
you have selected.
Level
For a calibration run, you must enter the level number for the
calibration standard. (For example, if you have 5 calibration
concentration levels, each calibration run will have a level number
representing the calibration concentration level being run. This
number is NOT the concentration amount of the standards,
however. Concentration amounts are entered in the peak table.)
Conc Override
This field lets you enter a concentration override for one or more
peaks in the selected calibration run. This is not active unless the
selected run is designated as a calibration run.
(Sequence)Custom
Parameters
When you click this field, the Custom Parameters dialog box
appears where you can define per-peak or system-wide sequence
custom parameters. Custom parameters available are derived from
the active method for the sequence line being configured. See
About_Custom_Parameters and Set a Custom Parameter for a
sequence.
Reps
Enter the number of repetitions per vial.
Vial
Enter the autosampler vial number to be used for the injection.
For autosamplers that support it, in the drop down box, select Use
Method. To enter a specific vial such as A2 first press enter, left or
right arrow to exit the cell. Using the up or down arrow will always
select Use Method.
Volume
Enter the volume to be injected.
For autosamplers that support it, you can select Use Method to use
the default injection volume specified in the method used. Use the
Fill Down feature to populate one field or row down through the rest
of the spreadsheet.
Frac. Start
Select the starting location (vial or well) for the fraction collector.
Sample ID
Enter a sample identification here. This can be text and numeric
information. The Sample ID will have a unique number attached to
it. Enter the new sequence dialog in the following format,
<SampleID>. The Sample ID is saved in the data file.
Method
This is the name of the method to be used for data acquisition and
processing. If you don’t know the name of the method, click the
button to select it from a list of available methods on your disk.
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About Sequences
Filename
Enter a filename to be used for storing the raw data from the run.
The filename will already have a unique number appended to it.
Enter a data filename in the new sequence dialog in the following
format, <Filename>.
Note: If multiple repetitions are specified, a result file will be
generated for each injection with the data file’s name being created
by appending Rep1, Rep2, etc. to the data file name.
Sample Amt
The Sample Amount value is used as a divisor during calculation of
concentrations. It is intended to compensate for differences
between samples due to weighing and when percentages of the
total sample are being calculated rather than the amount detected
in an injection.
ISTD Amt
For calibration runs, the Internal Standard Amount is taken from the
method Peak Table. For unknown runs, enter the amount of the
Internal Standard in your unknown sample.
Multiplier 1,2,3,4,5
Enter up to 3 multiplication factors to be used for this run. All
quantitated peaks will be multiplied by these factors.
Dilutor 1,2,3,4 ,5
Enter up to 3 dilution factors to be used for this run. All quantitated
peaks will be divided by these factors.
Action
Brings up the run action dialog, where you can specify
test/result/action combinations for each run. For details on setting
up an action, see Set an Action for a Sequence Run.
Note: Action items that are user-interactive (e.g. pause and alarm)
will not trigger user input on client machines when using
client/server operation. This is because the server is controlling the
instrument.
Description
Enter a description for this sample. This is text information that will
be stored in the raw data file.
Set sample run types
Sample Run Types are used in a sequence to flag a run for
designated processing, calibration, or reporting. Each sample can
have multiple run types assigned. Some run types will be assigned
automatically if you are using the Sequence Wizard to create a new
sequence.
To change or add a run type after the sequence has been created:
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1
In the sequence spreadsheet, click the arrow in the Run Type
field for the sample of interest.
2
Select a run type from the available types listed below by
clicking the check box for that run type.
3
Where required, parameter fields will appear where you must
enter parameters or select templates to use for the processing of
the designated run type.
Run Type
Action
Clear All Calibration
Clears all calibration response factors and coefficients for all
calibration levels.
Clear Calibration at Level
Clears response factors and coefficients for current level only.
Print Calibration Report
Prints calibration report at end of calibration.
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About Sequences
Average Replicates
Forces averaging of replicates. See Calibration Averaging as Part of
a Single Run or Sequence.
Clear Replicates
Clears calibration replicates at this level before calibration.
Begin Loop
Flags the run as the start of an infinite loop. Runs between and
including these flags will be continuously run until stopped.
End Loop
Flags the end of an infinite sequence loop.
Startup
Flags this sample as a startup sample. (Appears when supported by
the instrument in use.)
Shutdown
Flags this sample as a shutdown sample.
Print Additional Reports
Enables you to select additional reports to print.
Begin System Suitability
First run of a System Suitability sample set.
System Suitability Standard System Suitability Standard sample between Begin and End System
suitability.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
End System Suitability
Last run of a System Suitability sample set.
Begin Summary
First run to be included in a sequence summary, also indicates the
summary report template to be used for the summary report. See
About Sequence Reports.
Summary Run
Run to be included in a sequence summary. See About Sequence
Reports.
End Summary
Last run to be included in a sequence summary. See About Sequence
Reports.
Vial Summary
Create a vial summary report.
QC Check Std
Check standard sample. A check standard inserted in a sequence is
used for generation of a Check Standard Report. It is a means for
checking the chromatograph and conditions without calibrating.
Unspiked
Unspiked sample of a Spiked/Unspiked pair, used for Spike Report.
Spiked
Spiked sample used in single level spike analyses (unknown smp. &
spiked smp.)
Spike 1 of 2
First spiked sample used for Spike Reports.
Spike 2 of 2
Duplicate sample used for Duplicate Reports.
Duplicate
Duplicate sample used for Duplicate Reports.
Begin Calibration
First calibration mixture to be used in Calibration Summary Report.
When this run type is encountered, the data system stores the current
retention times of all named peaks. These are displayed in the reports
as the Old RT. After the End Calib sample is run, the updated retention
times are stored and displayed as New RT in the Calibration Report. In
addition, the average response factor for each peak is calculated, the
% RSD is calculated, and compared to the expected % RSD from the
peak table. Compounds falling above this % trigger the failure action.
End Calibration
Last calibration mixture to be used in Calibration Summary Report.
Baseline Check
Enable baseline check.
Baseline File
Designates this run as a baseline subtraction file. Select the channels
to be subtracted from subsequent files in the sequence.
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About Sequences
Set up a QC check standard
To designate a sample as a QC Check Standard:
1
In the sequence spreadsheet, click Run Type for the QC Check
Standard sample.
2
In the Run Type dialog box, click QC Check Standard.
3
Enter the Check Standard Number and then select the QC
Check Standard.rep template to be used for the report.
To automatically designate multiple runs in a sequence as QC
Check Standard run types:
1
In the sequence spreadsheet, click and drag the mouse on the
Run # of the rows to highlight.
2
Do a right mouse click in the highlighted rows, and then click
Set Run Types followed by QC Check Standard.
3
Enter the number of runs between check standard runs. (For
example, if you enter 2, the first line will be set to QC Check
Standard, followed by two runs that are not set to QC Check
Standard, then the 4th run will be set to QC Check Standard,
and so on to the end of the highlighted rows.) Click OK. The
runs types will be set to QC Check Standard.
Concentration override
The Concentration Override allows you to modify a concentration
for a calibration component that is different from the concentration
in the method. This can be done from the Sequence Spreadsheet.
To enter a concentration override:
1
In the sequence spreadsheet, click Concentration Override for
the run you wish to change a concentration.
2
Select the Channel you wish to edit.
3
Locate the peak for which you want to enter a new
concentration, and click NewConc. Type the concentration you
wish to use for this peak for the designated run. You can update
the concentrations for as many of the component peaks as you
wish.
4
Click OK to finish.
Note: The concentration override field is only available for runs
designated as calibration runs.
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About Sequences
Set an action for a sequence run
A sequence action enables you to program an action to occur based
on a specified result of a sequence run. The action is designated in
the sequence spreadsheet for the run of interest.
To designate an action for a sequence run:
1
In the Instrument window, click the Edit Sequence button
to open the sequence spreadsheet.
2
Scroll the sequence to the right until the Action column is
visible. (If the column is not visible, see Customizing the
Sequence Spreadsheet Columns.)
3
Click Action for the desired run.
4
In the Action dialog box, select a Test whose result will trigger
the post run action selected. Available conditions include:
5
6
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
Any Condition

Calibration

QC

System Suitability

Hardware Status

Conc. Limit

Baseline Check
Click Result to select a result for the test that will trigger the
action. Results can include:

Pass

Fail

Recoverable

Above limit

Below limit
Click Action and select the action that will occur when the
selected result occurs.

Abort

Pause

Alarm

Run Shutdown

Continue

Re-inject

Run User Program

Goto

Restart System Suitability
If required, enter a Parameter for the action. (If no parameter is
required, this field will not be available.)
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About Sequences
8
In the Rules and Alerts table, you may set actions for the listed
errors of each of your configured modules. Click Action and
select the desired action for each module error.
9
When finished, click OK.
Note: Action items that are user-interactive (e.g. pause and alarm)
will not trigger user input on client machines when using
client/server operation. This is because the server is controlling the
instrument.
The following Actions require no Action Parameters
Action
Effect
Abort
Abort the sequence.
Pause
Pause the sequence after the current run and wait for user to review
and resume sequence.
Alarm
Trigger alarm.
Run Shutdown
On result, the sequence will search for and execute the next run with
a shutdown run type. If no shutdown run type is found, it will search
from the beginning of the sequence.
Continue
On result, continue sequence.
The following Actions require you to select Action Parameters
144
Action
Effect
Re-inject
Specify the number of times you wish to attempt re-injection of the sample if
the injection fails.
Run User Program
Specify the UNC path for the program to be run. To ensure you have the
correct path and file name, click the file button and browse to the location to
select the file.
Goto
Specify a line in the sequence to GO TO, and enter a Repeat count for the
number of retries before going to the new line.
Restart System
Suitability
Specify the number of times you wish to attempt restarting system suitability.
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About Sequences
About data acquisition and control
Commands that are available from the Control menu are related to
data acquisition and control of the instrument. In general, there are
two ways to acquire data:
Single run, where you acquire data for a single injection.
Sequence run, where you acquire data automatically for a series of
runs using a preprogrammed sequence that defines the number of
injections, methods, file names, and calibration. Additional control
menu items will appear depending on the features supported by the
instrument configured.
See Also
Single Run Acquisition
Sequence Run Acquisition
About Overlapped Sample Prep Mode
Bracketed Calibrations
Schedule Run
Reprocess a Sequence
About the Run Queue
Add a Run to the Queue
Add a Run to the Result
User Access to Runs in Progress
Stop a Run in Progress
Extend a Run
Add and Delete Items in the Run Queue
Turn off Processing for Data Acquisition
Submit a Priority Run
Fraction Collector Configuration
Set the instrument to Sleep or Wake mode
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About Sequences
Single run acquisition
There are two ways you can acquire data. One way is with a
sequence (for multiple runs), and the other way is to make a single
run. To make a single data acquisition run, you need to specify the
method to be used for analysis, and a file name for data storage.
Note: In order to use a method for data acquisition, its Instrument
Setup should have the acquisition channel turned on, and a
sampling rate and run time designated.
To make a single run:
1
In the toolbar select the Single Run button
select Control > Single Run.
2
In the Single Run dialog box, complete the fields listed in the
table below.
3
When you have completed the Single Run dialog box, click Start
to begin the acquisition.
4
The current data will appear in the Chromatogram Window as
it is acquired and stored on disk. At the end of the run, the
chromatogram will be analyzed according to the method
parameters, and a report generated if specified. If the sample is
not analyzed at the end of the acquisition, click the Analyze
button if you wish to view the results.0
Run Information
146
, or in the menu
This section allows you to specify files for the run.
• Sample ID - Enter a Sample ID for the run. This can contain text and
numbers, and is saved with the data file. You can also click the arrow
and select from a number of pre-defined ID’s.
• Method - Enter the name of the method to be used for data
acquisition and processing. Include the entire path name if the
method is not in your default method directory. You can select the
method from a list of methods available on your disk by clicking the
File button adjacent to the field.
• Data File - Enter a file name to be used to save the data on disk. You
can select from one of the pre-defined name types by clicking the
arrow button adjacent to the field. It is not possible to use an existing
file name, unless the file exists in located in a directory whose path
contains the term public. For example, if you data files are saved in a
directory entitled C:\Public\Data, the files saved in this directory can
be overwritten. The software automatically appends a .dat file
extension.
• Result Path - Enter a path name where the data acquired for this run
will be stored. Click the File button to select a path from a list of those
on your disk.
• Result Name - Enter a name for the result file. If you did not select
Result Package Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the
Control Panel, you will still need to enter a Result Name. The result
name is used for the RST file, and ACAML file names. If you selected
Result Package Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the
Control Panel, the Result Name will also be used for the folder name.
In ECM it will be the name of the SSIZip.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
Number of runs
Enter the number of runs you wish to make. The runs will automatically
proceed without review until completed, incrementing each file name as
designated. If the sequence of single runs is aborted, and the user then
repeats the single acquisition without changing any parameter, the run
number will start with the next number as if the sequence not been
aborted. For example, setting 4 runs with starting run number of 101,
then abort during run 102. When restarting, the next run number will be
105. If the Sample ID is also incremented, it will increment in parallel.
Reports
•
Amount Values
Calibrate
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Save as PDF - When this box is checked, a report will be saved as a
PDF at the end of the run.
• Print Hardcopy - When this box is checked, a report will be printed at
the end of the run.
• Select Printer - If Print Hardcopy is checked, select a printer from
the drop down menu.
In this section, you can enter values that affect how the concentrations
are calculated. If you are making a single data acquisition prior to
calibrating your method, simply leave these values at the default level.
• Sample Amount - The Sample Amount value is used as a divisor
during calculation of concentrations. It is intended to compensate for
differences between samples due to weighing and when percentages
of the total sample are being calculated rather than the amount
detected in an injection.
• ISTD - For calibration runs, the Internal Standard Amount is taken
from the method Peak Table. For unknown runs, enter the amount of
the Internal Standard in your unknown sample.
• Multipliers - Enter one to five multiplication factors to be used for this
run. All quantitated peaks will be multiplied by these factors.
• Dilutors - Enter one to five dilution factors to be used for this run. All
quantitated peaks will be divided by these factors.
Select this box if the sample is to be a calibration sample. Once this box
is clicked, the following fields and options will be available.
• Calibration Level - Enter the number of the calibration level
represented by this calibration standard. If this is a single level
calibration, enter 1.
• Clear all calibration - Click this box if you want to clear all existing
calibration factors from your method before running the sample.
• Clear calibration for level - Click this box if you want to clear the
existing response factors for this level only before running the sample.
• Print calibration report - Click this box if you want to print a
calibration report after running the sample.
• Clear replicates - Click this box if you want to clear all existing
replicates from the existing calibration level before running the
sample.
• Average replicates - Click this box if you want to average the
replicates for this calibration level. See Calibration Averaging as
Part of a Single Run or Sequence.
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About Sequences
Baseline Check
This box will appear if you have the Baseline Check option implemented
in the instrument configuration. When this box is checked, it will trigger a
baseline check prior to the start of the run.
Begin run
By default, the run will start immediately. To designate when you want
Description...
the run to start, select the Schedule Run
button. In the Schedule
Run dialog box, select from the following options:
• Now - immediately
• After - after a designated amount of time
• On - at a specific date and time
Click this button to enter a sample description for this run. This
description is saved with the data file that will be collected. The user can
view the description in the open dialog and in data properties when the
run is complete.
Startup/Shutdown
For instruments that support it, boxes for Startup and Shutdown will
appear in the dialog. These boxes enable you to designate the run as
either a Startup or Shutdown sample. When one of these boxes is
checked, it will trigger the Startup or Shutdown routine on your
instrument. For details, see the control documentation for your
instrument.
Autosampler
If the configured autosampler has the ability to use injection volume
specified by the method, this section will appear.
• Use program - Click the checkbox if you want to use a sample prep
program for your autosampler. After you click the checkbox, click the
folder button to browse to and select the sample prep file you wish to
use.
• Vial - Enter the autosampler vial number to use for the injection.
• Frac. Start – Enter the fraction collector vial number to use for the
injection.
• Injection volume - Enter the injection volume for this run. For
autosamplers that support it, the Use method option will appear.
When selected, this option will use the default injection volume
specified in the Instrument Setup for the instrument.
Sequence run acquisition
Once you have created and saved a sequence, you can use it to
acquire and process data.
To start a sequence acquisition:
148
1
From the Instrument window, click the Sequence Run button
, or from the Control menu, click Sequence Run....
2
In the Sequence Run dialog box, complete the fields listed in the
table below.
3
Click Start to initiate the sequence acquisition. You may see the
data displayed in real time in the Chromatogram Window(s), if
the current data is selected for viewing.
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About Sequences
Sequence Information This section allows you to specify files for the run.
• Sequence name - Enter the sequence name to be used, or select
the sequence file from a list of available sequence files by clicking
the File button. The filename cannot be more than 70 characters
long.
• Result path - Enter a path name where the data acquired for this
run will be stored. Click the File button to select a path from a list of
those on your disk.
• Result Name - Enter a name for the result file. If you did not select
Result Package Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the
Control Panel, you will still need to enter a Result Name. The result
name is used for the RST file, and ACAML file names. If you
selected Result Package Mode when creating an EZChrom project
in the Control Panel, the Result Name will also be used for the
folder name. In ECM it will be the name of the SSIZip.
Run Range
Select the range of the sequence to be run.
• All - Click this to execute all runs in the sequence.
• Selection - If you have currently selected a series of runs in your
sequence spreadsheet by highlighting them, click this to run only
the highlighted runs.
• Range - Enter a range of runs to be executed. For example, an
entry of 4 - 6 will execute runs 4, 5, and 6 of the sequence. An entry
of 4- designates the 4th run through the end of the sequence.
Mode
Select the manner by which you want to handle autosampler dual
towers (if any), processing mode, and bracketed calibration (if used.)
• Tower - If your instrument is configured for Dual Tower, you can
select the tower mode to be used for the sequence run. Selections
include Dual, Front, and Rear.
• Processing Mode - Select a mode for reprocessing the data.
Options here will vary depending on the instrument configured. If
the instrument does not support this feature, this option will be
grayed out. For certain autosamplers, Overlapped Sample Prep
mode will be available. See About Overlapped Sample Prep for
information and restrictions for using this mode.
• Bracketing - Select the type of bracketing you wish to perform.
(See Bracketed Calibrations for details.)
• None Select this if you do not wish to bracket calibrations.
• Standard Select this if you wish to perform the standard
mode of bracketing calibrations.
• Sequence Select this if you want to perform the sequence
mode of bracketing calibrations.
• Seq. w/ Back Calc Select this if you want to perform the
sequence mode of bracketing calibrations and backcalculate calibration runs.
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About Sequences
Reports
Review
Begin run
Email Recipient(s)
Save as PDF - When this box is checked, a report will be saved as
a PDF at the end of the run. Select either a Method or Sequence
report.
• Print Hardcopy - When this box is checked, a report will be printed
at the end of the run. Select either a Method or Sequence report.
• Select Printer - If Print Hardcopy is checked, select a printer from
the drop down menu.
• Results Review - Click this box if you want the sequence to pause
between runs for you to review results.
• Calibration Review - Click this box if you want the sequence to
pause after each calibration set, where a calibration set is defined
as one or more calibration runs that occur in a sequence.
By default, the run will start immediately. To designate when you want
•
the run to start, select the Schedule Run
button. In the
Schedule Run dialog box, select from the following options:
• Now - immediately
• After - after a designated amount of time
• On - at a specific date and time
Use this field to enable email notification to be sent to a designated
address (entered in the To: field).
Select the On start box to send email notification when the sequence
starts.
Select the On stop or error box to send email notification when the
sequence stops or if an error occurs.
About overlapped sample prep mode
When the Overlapped Sample Prep option is selected in the
Sequence Run dialog box, when running a sequence the software
will send the entire sequence to the hardware at once, instead of
line-by-line. This option allows the autosampler to optimize
throughput by performing overlapping pretreatment of samples.
When using Overlapped Sample Prep mode:



Do not use Run Types Begin Loop or End Loop
Do not specify Failure Action other than Alarm, Continue or
Send E-Mail
Do not edit the sequence after it has started.
For certain autosamplers that support it, as each line of the
sequence is submitted to the instrument, the vial number and
pretreatment program for the next sequence line will also be passed
on for implementation of the sample overlap. Sample overlap will:


Pre-fetch the next sample vial while a line of the sequence is
being analyzed
Pre-wash the syringe and load the sample
For these autosamplers, no sequence table options are prohibited.
In the event that a change in processing order results from a
priority run, sequence abort or Smart Sequence action, the prefetched sample will not be analyzed, but will instead be wasted.
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About Sequences
Note: Overlapped Sample Prep mode is only available for
autosamplers that support it. See the documentation provided with
your autosampler to determine how sample overlap is handled.
Bracketed calibrations
In the Sequence Run dialog box, the Bracketing option allows you
to process data using calibration replicates that are run in brackets
around your samples in the sequence. This enables you to process
all your data files using consistent response factors. When you
choose a bracketing option, calculation of results will be handled
such that the calibration standards will be processed before
calculation of the unknown results, regardless of the fact that the
calibration standards are bracketed around the unknown samples.
Bracketing can also be performed as part of sequence reprocessing.



Standard Bracketing - If you choose this method of bracketing
calibration, each group of unknowns will be calculated based on
the response factors determined by the calibration standards
directly before and after the unknown group in the sequence.
Sequence Bracketing - If you choose this option for bracketing,
the results for unknown samples will be calculated based on the
response factors generated by the entire sequence of calibration
standards, regardless of their position in the sequence.
Calibration takes place after all samples and standards have
been run.
Sequence Bracketing with Back-Calculation - This method of
bracketing uses the sequence bracketing method, then backcalculates and reports amounts for the calibration runs by
using the final calibration curves.
Using the following sequence as an example, using the Standard
method of bracketing, unknown samples number 3 and 4 will be
calculated using response factors generated after calibration runs 1,
2, 5, and 6 are completed. Unknown sample runs 7 and 8 will be
calculated using response factors generated after running
calibration sample runs 5, 6, 9 and 10.
For the same example, using the Sequence method of bracketing,
all unknown samples will be calculated using response factors
generated after all calibration standards are completed (1,2,5,6,9,
and 10).
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About Sequences
Schedule run
This dialog box appears when you click the Begin Run button in the
Single Run Acquisition or Sequence Run dialog box. It allows you to
designate when you want the run to start: immediately (Now), after
a designated amount of time (After), or at a specific date and time
(On).
Reprocess a sequence
After data has been acquired, you can use a sequence to
automatically analyze or re-analyze all or some of the files in the
sequence. Reprocessing a sequence is a convenient way to reanalyze
data if you have changed integration or other method parameters
and wish to generate new results for a series of data files. You can
also use a sequence to calibrate or recalibrate a multilevel
calibration method.
To reprocess a sequence:
1
Open the result set.
2
In the Instrument Window, select Result Set > Process
3
Complete the following fields:
Sequence
Information
Sequence Name, Result Path, and Result name are automatically
populated.
Run Range
Select the range of the sequence to be run.
• All - Click this to execute all runs in the sequence.
• Selection - If you have currently selected a series of runs in your
sequence spreadsheet by highlighting them, click this to run only the
highlighted runs.
• Range - Enter a range of runs to be executed. For example, an entry of 4
- 6 will execute runs 4, 5, and 6 of the sequence. An entry of 4designates the 4th run through the end of the sequence.
Select the manner by which you want to handle autosampler dual towers (if
any), processing mode, and bracketed calibration (if used.)
• Tower - If your instrument is configured for Dual Tower, you can select
the tower mode to be used for the sequence run. Selections include Dual,
Front, and Rear.
• Processing Mode - Select a mode for reprocessing the data.
Reintegrate analyzes the raw data using the method designated for each
row. Use Last Results prints out reports or sequence summaries using
the last results saved in the data file. Use Original Results prints reports
or sequence summaries using the original results stored in the data file.
Select Review Only to simply review the files.
• Bracketing - Select the type of bracketing you wish to perform. (See
Bracketed Calibrations for details.)
• None Select this if you do not wish to bracket calibrations.
• Standard Select this if you wish to perform the standard mode of
bracketing calibrations.
• Sequence Select this if you want to perform the sequence mode
of bracketing calibrations.
• Seq. w/ Back Calc Select this if you want to perform the
sequence mode of bracketing calibrations and back-calculate
calibration runs.
Mode
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.
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About Sequences
Save as PDF - Select Method or Sequence. When this box is checked,
a report will be saved as a PDF at the end of the run.
• Print Hardcopy - Select Method or Sequence. When this box is
checked, a report will be printed at the end of the run.
• Select Printer - Select a printer from the drop down menu.
Results Review - Click this box if you want the sequence to pause between
runs for you to review results.
Calibration Review - Click this box if you want the sequence to pause after
each calibration set, where a calibration set is defined as one or more
calibration runs that occur in a sequence.
Report
•
Review
See Also
Turn off Processing for Data Acquisition
About the run queue
The run queue is used to manage and schedule single runs and
sequence runs. Once a sequence or single run is initiated, it is
entered into the run queue automatically.
To view the current run queue, select the View Run Queue button
. Each row in the run queue represents a sample or sequence
that is in process or waiting. Both acquisition and reprocessing
samples and sequences for this instrument will be displayed.
From the run queue, you can view details about each run or
sequence in the queue, including the following:




Type - single run or sequence
Name - name of resulting data file
State - Pending, Running, Completed
Status - Completed Success, Aborted, Failed, Every X
minutes.

User

Vial

Volume

Description.
If you are running a sequence, the Status shown in the sequence
spreadsheet displays the status of an individual run in the
sequence.
When there are items in the run queue, buttons at the top of the
window will become available:


CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Start will start the run queue again after the Pause button
has been pressed. This button is disabled when a sample is
running or if the run queue is empty.
Pause will pause the run queue as soon as one run is
completed and wait for your action. You do not have to wait
for the entire sequence to be completed.
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About Sequences


Abort will immediately terminate the item currently
running in the queue and pause the sequence.
You can perform additional functions for the run queue by
doing a right mouse click in the run queue window.
Submit a Run to the Queue
The Submit button appears when data is currently being acquired
using a sequence or single run and you open either the single runs
or sequence runs dialog box.
Select the Submit button to submit a single acquisition to be run at
the completion of the current run. The run is entered at the end of
the Run Queue if you are currently running a sequence of runs.
Add a run to the queue
To add a run to the queue:
1
In the toolbar, select the View Run Queue button
.
2
In the Run Queue dialog box, in the Method drop down box
select the method to be used for the run. Methods displayed are
from the current project.
3
In the Sample ID box, type a unique sample ID to be used for
the sample. You can enter any valid Sample ID parameters
supported by Sample ID in the Single Run dialog (such as <D>).
This field will be incremented each time the Submit button is
pressed.
4
To specify additional information for the run, select Advanced
to open the Single Run dialog.
5
Click Submit to submit a single run to the run queue.
Add a run to the result
You may add multiple or single runs to an existing container.
To add a multiple runs to an existing container:
1
From the menu select Control > Add Runs to Result.
2
In the Add Runs to Result dialog box, the fields are populated
with the open method. Make sure all fields are completed.
3
Select Start.
To add a single run to result:
1
From the menu select Control > Add Single Run to Result.
2
In the Add Single Run to Result dialog box, the fields are
populated with the open method. Ensure all fields are completed.
3
Select Start.
View the new runs in the Result Sequence dialog box in result
review mode.
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About Sequences
User access to runs in progress
The user who submits the run or sequence, will have access to the
Stop Run, Extend Run, or Stop Sequence functions.
Other users who did not submit the run or sequence, can view the
run (if they have instrument rights), but cannot stop a run or
sequence that has been started by another user. Users with System
Administration or Instrument Administration rights have full
access to the run and sequence functions.
Once you have submitted a run or sequence to an Acquisition
Controller from a client workstation, you can modify the method.
You must save the file (File > Save Method) in order for the changes
to be used for subsequent sequence runs that use this method. If
more than one client changes and saves the method, the last client’s
changes are saved and all others are lost. If the method is not saved
before the start of the next sequence run using this method, the
changes on a client will be lost when the next sequence run starts.
The user who submitted a sequence to the acquisition controller
may add or remove runs from the submitted sequence from a client
workstation (if the user has appropriate privilege assignment). In
order for sequence changes to take effect, the sequence must be
saved (File > Save > Sequence). When the sequence is saved, all
other clients will be notified of the change, and the next run of the
sequence will be executed from the modified sequence.
Stop a run in progress
When a run is stopped, the data up to that point is saved in the
data file. However, no analysis of the data will be performed. If you
want to produce a report or view results from a run that was
stopped, you must analyze the data file.
If you are not the user that submitted the run or sequence or are
using an instrument offline, you do not have access to the Stop
command.
Note: When using the STOP button, make sure to hold the mouse
button down until the STOP button icon changes to the depressed
appearance before releasing.
To stop data acquisition during a run:
1
Select Control > Stop Run.
2
Select how you want to stop the run:



CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Stop current run only - Select this to end the run currently
in progress. If the run is a part of a currently-queued
sequence, the sequence will continue with the next run.
Stop current run and sequence run - This selection stops
the run currently in progress, and terminates the sequence
it is a part of. Other queued items will proceed.
Stop sequence after current run completes - This selection
will abort the sequence after the current run in progress is
completed.
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About Sequences


Stop all run queue items you submitted - This selection
stops the run currently in progress, and terminates all the
items in the queue that were submitted by you. Queue
items submitted by other users will be unaffected.
Stop all run queue items - This selection stops the run
currently in progress, and terminates all items in the run
queue.
Extend a run
While a run is in progress, you can extend the data acquisition
beyond the designated run time. If you are not the user that
submitted the run or sequence or are using an instrument offline,
you do not have access to the Stop or Extend Run command.
1
From the menu, click Control followed by Extend Run.
2
A dialog will appear where you can enter the amount of time by
which you wish to extend the run.
3
Enter the number of minutes you wish to extend the run, then
click the OK button.
Add and delete items in the run queue
The sample run queue is used to keep track of and acquisition and
processing. Once a single run or sequence is initiated, it is entered
into the run queue automatically.
To add or delete items from the run queue:
1
In the Instrument Window, click the
Display Run Queue
button, or from the Control menu, click Run Queue... .
2
In the Run Queue, do a right mouse click on the run queue item
where you want to make a change.
3
Select the change to be made.
4
When finished, close the Run Queue.
Delete
This command will delete the selected item from the run queue.
Delete My Runs
This command will delete only the runs you have submitted.
Delete All
This command deletes all items from the run queue.
Change Begin Time…
To designate when you want the run to start, select the Schedule
Run
button. In the Schedule Run dialog box, select from the
following options:
•
•
•
156
Now - Immediately
After - After a designated amount of time
On - At a specific date and time
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
Reports
•
•
•
•
•
Method as PDF - When this box is checked, a method report will
be saved as a PDF at the end of the run.
Sequence as PDF - When this box is checked, a method report
will be saved as a PDF at the end of the run.
Method as Hardcopy - When this box is checked, a method
report will be printed at the end of the run.
Sequence as Hardcopy - When this box is checked, a sequence
report will be printed at the end of the run.
Select Printer - If Method as Hardcopy or Sequence as
Hardcopy is checked, select a printer from the drop down menu.
Note: If you are currently reprocessing a sequence, you must have
the results review (pause after each run) option selected in order to
submit an additional sequence to the queue. If you are reprocessing
a sequence without this option selected, you must stop the
sequence, select the Results review (pause after each run) option,
then start it again. At this point you can submit one or more
sequences to the queue.
Turn off processing for data acquisition
If you wish to acquire and store data on the hard disk, but postpone
processing completely until you have reviewed the data, turn off the
option to analyze after acquisition before you acquire the data.
To turn off post-acquisition processing:
1
From the menu bar, click Method followed by Properties.
2
Click Options.
3
Click the check box to clear the check mark for Analyze after
acquisition. If the check box for Analyze after acquisition is
selected, data files generated with this method will be
integrated and results generated automatically after each
acquisition. If you deselect this option in your method, no
analysis will occur as you acquire runs with this method. The
data will be saved on the disk, but no results will be generated.
Note: The option to turn off analysis after acquisition is part of the
method. If you want to postpone processing of a sequence until after
data acquisition is completed, make sure all methods specified in
your sequence have this option turned off.
See Also
Reprocess a Sequence
Submit a priority run
The Submit Priority... button appears when data is currently being
acquired using a sequence or single run and you open either the
Single Run or Sequence Run dialog. The Submit Priority... button
allows you to submit a single acquisition to be run at the completion
of the current run. The run is entered at the end of the Run Queue
if you are currently running a sequence of runs.
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About Sequences
Note: If the chromatogram is not integrated at the end of the run,
or if you were expecting a report and none was printed, check the
Method Properties section of your method to make sure data
analysis and reporting are turned on for this method.
Fraction collector configuration
See Also
158
1
Select Control > Configuration > Fraction Collector.
2
In the Fraction Collector Configuration dialog box, select Help
or press F1 in a section for more information.
Configure a fraction collector
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
About the result sequence
The result sequence is a sequence of runs you have acquired and
the data that comes with it.
See Also
View Result Review Mode
Open the Result Sequence
Add Signatures to the Result Sequence
Revoke Signatures
Result Set Properties
Save a Result Set
View result review mode
Result Review Mode notifies you that you are in data review.
1
In the toolbar select View > Preferences.
2
In the Preferences dialog box, under Toolbar options select
Result.
3
Select Show Toolbar.
4
Select OK.
The yellow Result Review Mode appears in the instrument window.
Add signatures to the result sequence
Signatures are applied to a result sequence.
1
Open the Result Sequence.
2
In the toolbar select Data > Apply Signature.
3
In the Apply Electronic Signature dialog box, select from the
following options:



Sign current file - This will add a signature to the current
file.
Range - Select the range of the sequence to be run. It can be
a set of rows or ranges of rows, for example 1, 3, 5, 7 or 1-3,
7-10.
Sign all files - This adds signatures to all files in the open
result file.
4
Enter a Username and Password.
5
Select a Reason from the drop down list.
6
Add a Comment if necessary.
7
Select Signoff. The data is locked to further analysis.
Revoke signatures
Users with appropriate rights can revoke an electronic signature.
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159
About Sequences
Once you have revoked the electronic signature the data can be
analyzed. When the signature is revoked an entry is made in the
audit trail.
1
Open the Result Sequence.
2
In the toolbar select Data > Revoke Signature.
3
In the warning dialog box, select Yes.
4
In the Revoke Electronic Signature dialog box, select from the
following options:



Revoke current file - This revokes the signature in the
current file.
Range - Select the range of the sequence to be run. It can be
a set of rows or ranges of rows, for example 1, 3, 5, 7 or 1-3,
7-10.
Revoke all files - This revokes signatures to all files in the
open result file.
5
Enter a Username and Password.
6
Type a Reason.
7
Select Signoff. The data can now be analyzed.
Result set properties
From the menu select Result Set > Properties to view result set
options, audit trail log, and enable the audit trail.
Result Set Options
1
Open a result (.rst) file.
2
From the Result Set menu, select Properties.
3
In the Result Set Properties dialog box, select the Options tab:




160
Description - In the dialog box enter text information about
your result file. Because the description can be viewed from
the Open File dialog, the description can be useful in
sorting through the files on your disk.
Export Summary - Select this box to export the summary.
Then select the location where the files will be saved:
Path - Enter a summary export path
Method - Enter a method path
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
View the result set audit trail log
1
Open a result (.rst) file.
2
From the Result Set menu, select Properties.
3
In the Result Set Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail Log.
4
Enter the following:
5

User

Location

Description

Reason

From date/time

To date/time
Select from the following options:



Export - Select this to export the audit trail log
Print - Select this to print the audit trail log
Search - Select this to search the audit trail log
Enable the result set audit trail
1
Open a result (.rst) file.
2
From the Result Set menu, select Properties.
3
In the Result Set Properties dialog box, select Audit Trail.
4
Select Enable audit trail. Once the Enable Audit Trail box is
selected, it cannot be de-selected.
5
In the warning dialog box, select Yes. The Enable Audit Trail
will be permanently checked.
6
Select from the following options:0



CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Prompt for reason at every change - This option requires
the user to enter a reason for every subsequent change to
the method at the time the change is made.
Prompt for reason when saving Sequence - This option
requires the user to enter a reason for each change when
the Sequence is saved.
Do not prompt for reason - When this option is selected,
changes are documented, but the user is not required to
enter a reason for the changes.
161
About Sequences
About sequence reports
Reports can be generated that contain results from runs in a
sequence. The sequence file does not contain the report, but points
to an external template (or templates) that are used to generate the
reports as the sequence is run or reprocessed.
Reporting for any given sample in the sequence spreadsheet is
designated as part of its Run Type. If the Summary Run run type is
selected, the sample will be included in the sequence summary
report. If the Print Additional Reports box is selected, the
designated reports will be printed for that sample.
To create a custom report template that contains sequence run
information (such as a Sequence Summary report), in the menu
select Advanced Report. The Advanced Reports application enables
you to create a Sequence Summary template (.tpl file) that can be
used to generate a report for a sequence. Because the template is
not saved as part of a sequence, it can be used independently for
summarizing data from any sequence.
For details on how to create a Sequence Summary template, see
About Advanced Reporting.
See Also
Generate a Sequence Summary Report
View Sequence Reports
Print Sequence Reports
Edit a Sequence Report Template
Edit and Print a Sequence Contents Report
Generate a sequence report
To generate a sequence report either during acquisition or
reprocessing, the runs to be included in the summary report must
be designated as summary runs in the sequence. If you are using
the Sequence Wizard, these files will be selected during the
sequence creation at the Reports step in the wizard.
To designate runs to be included in a sequence report:
162
1
Open the sequence file if it is not already open.
2
To open the sequence spreadsheet, on the menu bar, click
Sequence followed by Edit.
3
In the first row of the sequence to be included in the summary
report, click Run Type.
4
In the Sample Run Types dialog box, click the Begin Summary
box to select it.
5
Click the open file button
to browse for and select the
report template to be used to generate the report (the
summary.tpl report is provided as a default template).
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
6
For each row to be included in the summary report, click Run
Type and select Summary Run.
7
For the last row to be included in the summary report, click
Run Type and select End Summary.
8
Save the sequence. All designated Summary runs between and
including the Begin Summary run and the End Summary run
will be summarized by this report.
9
In the Single Run, Sequence Run, or Sequence Process dialog
box, select the Print hardcopy box.
10 Run the sequence.
After the sequence has been acquired or reprocessed, the report will
be printed on the default printer. You can also view the report from
the Instrument Window.
View sequence reports
To view the sequence report:
1
Generate a Sequence Summary Report.
2
From the Reports menu, click View followed by Sequence
Report.
3
A list box appears with the sequence reports for the current
sequence listed. For each sequence report, the Report Type is
listed, along with the sequence rows included in the report, and
the report template used to produce the report. To view a report
on-screen, click on it with the mouse to highlight it, then click
the View button.
Sequence reports will only appear in this window if the sequence
has been run or analyzed.
In order to display a Sequence Summary report, you must have
defined a sequence summary advance report template, and set the
Run Type to include Summary in the Sequence Table for the
sequence runs to be included in the report, designating the correct
sequence summary template file to be used for generating the
report.
Print sequence reports
To automatically print a sequence report:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
Generate a Sequence Summary Report.
2
In the Single Run, Sequence Run, or Sequence Process dialog
box, select the Print hardcopy box.
3
Run the sequence.
163
About Sequences
To manually print a sequence report:
1
Generate a Sequence Summary Report.
2
From the menu bar, select Reports > Print > Sequence Report.
3
In the Print Sequence Reports dialog box, select a sequence
report. The report type, the sequence rows, and the report
template are shown.
4
Select Print.
Sequence reports will only appear in this window if the sequence
has been run or analyzed.
In order to display a Sequence report, you must have defined a
sequence summary advance report template, and set the Run Type
to include Summary in the Sequence Table for the sequence runs to
be included in the report, designating the correct sequence
summary template file to be used for generating the report.
Edit a sequence report template
You can modify an existing Sequence Summary Report template
using the Advanced Reports feature.
To open an existing template file for editing:
1
Select File > Open > Advanced Report.
2
Browse to and highlight the Summary.tpl template file (or the
summary template you wish to modify), then click Open.
3
Modify the report template using the Advanced Reports editor
and then save the template file by clicking File > Save >
Advanced Report.
Edit and print a sequence contents report
The Sequence Contents Report uses the
SequenceContentsReport.rep template file, which is located in the
Template folder of the current project.
To edit the template for the current sequence:
164
1
From the Instrument window, select File > Open > Standard
Report and then navigate to the Template folder of the current
Project.
2
Select the SequenceContentsReport.rep and click Open.
3
In the Standard Report window, right click on the Sequence
Print report table to customize the contents of the table. See
Using the Report Editor.
4
Select File > Save As > Standard Report. Navigate to the
template folder and save the template as
SequenceContentsReport.rep (overwriting the existing
template).
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Sequences
To print the current sequence:
1
From the Instrument Window, select File > Print > Sequence.
2
In the Print Setup dialog box, select a printer from the Name
drop down menu.
3
Select OK.
A Sequence Contents Report will be generated on the designated
printer.
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165
About Calibration
About Calibration
Before you can get accurate amounts calculated from the areas of
unknown peaks, you must have a method that contains a
calibration curve from which to calculate the answers. This involves
setting up your acquisition method to receive the areas from
calibrated standard peaks, then actually running the standards so
that the standard areas are entered into your method. Accurate
results cannot be obtained until the method is completely
calibrated. In other words, standards for each level of calibration
must be run to complete the calibrated method.
Once the method is set up for calibration, the calibration is not
completed until the areas for peaks in the standard samples are
entered into the method. Updating the method with these areas is
called Calibration or Calibrating the Method. Calibration can be
performed by updating the calibration in the method automatically
as each standard sample is run, or it can be performed by sequence
reprocessing using standard data files which were previously
acquired and stored on disk.
For information on how to create a sequence for either running
calibration samples, or for reprocessing stored data files, see About
Sequences.
See Also
166
You can also run calibration standards one at a time using the
Single Run procedure. To calibrate a single level method using a
single calibration standard that has been saved on the disk, follow
the procedure outlined in Single Level Calibration Using a Stored
Data File.
Calibration Theory
Steps for Creating a Calibration
Run a Calibration Standard
Define Single Peak
Define Peaks
About the Peak Table
Change the Peak Table Properties
Single Level Calibration Using a Stored Data File
Renumbering Peak ID's
Review Calibration Curves
Concentration Calculator
Calibration Averaging
About Groups and Group Calibration
Insert a Calibration Report
Insert Calibration Information
Adding a Calibration Curve
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Calibration theory
Calibration of chromatography instruments is usually necessary to
obtain accurate results. The purpose of calibrating an instrument is
to verify the response of a detector to a given component. The same
detector may give different responses to equal amounts of different
components under identical chromatographic conditions. Another
reason for calibration involves the linearity of the detector. The rate
of detector response to many compounds will decrease with
increasing component concentration, therefore requiring calibration
of the detector at varying concentration levels of the same
component (a multilevel calibration).
Multi-Level Calibration Curve
When all calibration standards have been run, each calibrated
component will have its own calibration curve, representing the
response of that compound to the detector over the concentration
range. When an unknown sample is run, each component
concentration is determined from the calibration curve by finding
the amount corresponding to the component area (or height). There
are two general techniques for calibrating samples: Internal
Standard and External Standard.
Internal Standards
With the Internal Standard technique, each sample (both standards
and unknowns) is spiked with a known amount of a known
compound. When samples are subsequently run, the areas are
adjusted using the internal standard. This technique is used to
compensate for variations in sample work-up and injection
technique.
External Standards
The External Standard technique does not use a spiked standard
component. All unknown samples are compared to the standards
without correction, and therefore it is important that the injection
size is accurate and reproducible.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
167
About Calibration
Single Level and Multiple Level Calibrations
A calibration curve can have as few as one level, or can have multiple
levels. A single level calibration curve is created from running just
one standard sample. The calibration curve for each peak then
becomes a line through the origin and a point representing the
area/amount relationship of the peak in the standard.
Running several (two or more) standard samples with different
concentration amounts creates a multiple level calibration curve
(also called Multi-level). The calibration curve for a given
component then becomes a line between the points that represent
the area/amount relationships of the compound at each
concentration. In some cases, the calibration curve is forced through
zero, which causes the line to use the origin as one of the points.
This eliminates the possibility of negative concentrations being
calculated for low area peaks. Several types of calculations are
available for calculation of the actual curve (called fit types). The
best-fit type would be the one where the calibration points most
closely fit on the line.
For details on calibrations and the equations used to calculate
results, see Internal_Calculations.
Steps for creating a calibration
Setting up a multilevel calibration for a method involves the
following steps:
1
Using your data acquisition method, run one calibration
standard, saving it on disk. Make sure your chromatography
conditions and integration are correct.
2
Use your stored standard data file to graphically create your
calibration peak table using the Define Single Peak or Define
Peaks command.
3
All the calibration parameters for each calibrated compound are
entered in the Calibration Peak Table. The peak information is
filled out graphically, then specific information for each peak is
entered manually. If you are doing multiple channel
calibration, be sure to set your calibration parameters for each
channel. Complete your peak table by typing the peak names
and concentration amounts, reference peak, internal standard
numbers, and other necessary parameters for your samples.
4
Save your method.
5
Calibrate your method. The method can be calibrated using
previously acquired standard data files or automatically as you
run your standard(s). A calibration can be performed in the
following ways:
Single Level Calibration

Calibrate using areas from a stored standard file.

Calibrate by running the standard sample.

168
Calibrate by running the standard sample as part of a
sequence of runs.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Multiple Level Calibration



Calibrate using stored standard files (one level at a time, or
sequence reprocess).
Calibrate bracketed calibration using stored standard files
(sequence reprocess using bracketed calibration).
Calibrate by running calibration standards as part of an
acquisition sequence.
Note: Concentration results for an unknown run cannot be
calculated until you have a complete calibration curve saved in your
method.
Run a calibration standard
Before you can run a calibration standard, the method must contain
the names of all the peaks you want to quantitate, their expected
retention times for identification, and the amounts you will be
injecting in the standard sample(s). These values are entered in a
spreadsheet-like table called a Peak Table.
How to define named peaks graphically:
The most efficient and accurate way to enter this data into your
method is to inject your first standard sample and save the data file
on disk, then use the stored chromatogram to graphically enter
most of the data you need.
Note: The following steps assume the acquisition sampling rate and
integration portion of the method have been optimized for the
samples to be acquired.
To acquire your first standard sample, follow the acquisition step
below. If you have already acquired a calibration standard and it is
saved on your disk, proceed to Step 3.
1
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Select the Control > Single Run command from the menu, or
click the Single Run button from the command ribbon. A dialog
box will appear. Fill in the information listed below. At this
point, leave the Amount Values at the default values.
Sample ID
Enter a Sample ID for the run. This can contain text and numbers,
and is saved with the data file.
Method
Enter the name of the method to be used for data acquisition and
processing. Include the entire path name if the method is not in your
default method directory. You can select the method from a list of
methods available on your disk by clicking the File Folder button
adjacent to the field.
Data file
Enter a file name to be used to save the data on disk. It is not
possible to over-write an existing data file. To use an existing data file
name, you should use the Windows utilities to rename the existing
file, or move it to another location first.
Result path
Enter a path location where the data/result file will be stored. If you
wish, you can select a path by clicking the File button.
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About Calibration
Result name
Enter a name for the result file. If you did not select Result Package
Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the Control Panel, you
will still need to enter a Result Name. The result name is used for
the RST file, and ACAML file names. If you selected Result Package
Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the Control Panel, the
Result Name will also be used for the folder name. In ECM it will be
the name of the SSIZip.
Calibrate
Do not select this box at this point, as you have not prepared your
method for calibration yet!
2
When ready, click Start to begin the acquisition of your sample.
3
When the run is completed, the chromatogram with baselines
drawn should be shown on the screen. (If you are starting with
an already-acquired data file, make sure the file is open and
has been Analyzed.)
4
If the baselines are not displayed, click the Analyze button to
make sure the chromatogram has been analyzed. If the baseline
still does not appear, click the right mouse button within the
Chromatogram Window, and select Appearance… Make sure
the baseline is displayed in a color that is visible on the screen.
See Change the Chromatogram Appearance. You are now ready
to define your calibrated peaks.
5
There are two ways to define calibration peaks. Using Define
Peaks you add all of the peaks of interest to the peak table,
then enter names and complete level information in the peak
table. Using Define Single Peaks, you name and define each
peak as you add it to the peak table.
Define single peak
The Define Single Peak button allows you to create a row in the
calibration peak table for a single peak. You can then edit the peak
in the Peak Table.
To add a single peak to the peak table:
170
1
Open the data file to display the chromatogram.
2
Right-click in the chromatogram and select Graphical
Programming > Define Single Peak, or in the integration
toolbar select the Define Single Peak button .
3
Select the peaks you want to define.
4
In the Define Single Peak dialog box, the retention time of the
first detected peak will appear. If you do not wish to add this
peak to the peak table, click the Next button. If you want to
move to a specific peak in the chromatogram, click on that peak
with your mouse. The retention time shown in the dialog will
change to reflect the selected peak. Complete the following
fields:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Peak Name
Enter the name of the compound in this field.
Conc Level
Concentration Level 1 is shown. Enter the amount of this compound
for this concentration level. If you are running more than one level for
this compound, enter Concentration Level 2 and the amount for that
level. Continue to enter level concentrations until you have completed
the number of calibration levels desired. You can also enter or edit
concentration level amounts from the method Peak Table.
Units
Enter the units to be used for display of results.
ISTD ID #
If you are doing internal standard calibration, enter the ID # for the
internal standard peak for this compound. This is the peak ID number
from the peak table. If you don’t know it, you can add it in the peak
table later.
Ref ID #
Enter a retention time reference peak ID # to be used for this peak.
This is the peak ID number from the peak table. If you don’t know it,
you can add it in the peak table later. Reference peaks are used to
calculate Relative Retention Times.
Retention Time Window The Retention Time Window values sets a window around the
expected retention time of calibrated peaks. A retention time window
is important because it allows a peak to drift slightly (within the
window) and still be identified as a calibrated peak. If no retention
time window is set, a calibrated peak must ALWAYS occur at exactly
the expected retention time in order to be identified as the calibrated
component. You can select a Relative Retention Time Window or an
Absolute Retention Time Window.
Relative
Relative retention time window is based on a % of the expected
retention time of the component. By default, the Relative Retention
Time Window is set to 2.5%, which means that the Retention Time
Window for calibrated peaks will be set to 2.5% of their expected
retention time. Setting a Relative Retention Time Window means that
peaks eluting later in the chromatogram will have larger retention
time windows than peaks eluting earlier in the chromatogram. Use a
relative retention time window if your peaks tend to drift later in the
run.
Absolute
Absolute retention time window sets up a retention time window that
is the same for all calibrated peaks. You enter a value for the
retention time window to be used for the peaks. An absolute retention
time window does not vary with the retention time of the calibrated
peak.
5
Click Next to move to the next detected peak. Click Back to
move to the previous detected peak in the chromatogram. To
move directly to a specific peak, click on that peak in the
chromatogram. The current peak and total peaks in the
chromatogram is displayed on the right of the dialog box.
6
When you are finished adding peaks to your peak table, click
Done.
7
Complete the peak table for each calibrated compound, as
described in About the Peak Table.
Define peaks
The Define Peaks button allows you to create a row in the
calibration peak table for each detected peak in a selected range.
You can then edit each peak in the Peak Table.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
171
About Calibration
To add peaks to the peak table:
172
1
Open the data file to display the chromatogram.
2
Right-click in the chromatogram and select Graphical
Programming > Define Peaks, or in the integration toolbar
.
select the Define Peaks button
3
Select the peaks you want to define.
4
In the Define Peaks dialog box, enter the peaks for your
calibration by clicking the mouse once to the left of the first
calibration peak in the chromatogram, then once to the right of
the last calibration peak in the chromatogram. A dialog box will
appear where you set up some of the parameters for the peaks
that will be added to the peak table. Complete the following
fields:
Define peaks in range
All peaks detected within the range between the Start Time and
Stop Time shown will be added to your peak table. This range was
defined by your mouse clicks on the chromatogram. You may
change these times manually in the boxes shown if you desire.
Retention time window
The Retention Time Window values sets a window around the
expected retention time of calibrated peaks. A retention time window
is important because it allows a peak to drift slightly (within the
window) and still be identified as a calibrated peak. If no retention
time window is set, a calibrated peak must ALWAYS occur at exactly
the expected retention time in order to be identified as the calibrated
component. You can select a Relative Retention Time Window or an
Absolute Retention Time Window.
Relative retention time window is based on a % of the expected
retention time of the component. By default, the Relative Retention
Time Window is set to 2.5%, which means that the Retention Time
Window for calibrated peaks will be set to 2.5% of their expected
retention time. Setting a Relative Retention Time Window means that
peaks eluting later in the chromatogram will have larger retention
time windows than peaks eluting earlier in the chromatogram. Use a
relative retention time window if your peaks tend to drift later in the
run.
Absolute retention time window sets up a retention time window that
is the same for all calibrated peaks. You enter a value for the
retention time window to be used for the peaks. An absolute
retention time window does not vary with the retention time of the
calibrated peak.
Units
Enter the units to be used for labeling the concentration results using
the calibrated peaks.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Quantitate Peaks On
Select Area or Height for the basis of calculation of response
factors. Note: if you are doing both Peak and Group quantitation
using internal standards, both Peaks and Groups must use the same
quantitation measurement type (area or height).
Minimum Peak Area
If you enter a minimum peak area, any peaks found within the
defined peak range whose areas fall below this limit will not be
considered calibration peaks, and will not be entered in the
calibration Peak Table.
Add all peaks to table
Select this button to add the peaks in the current defined peak range
to existing peaks in your calibration table.
Replace existing peaks in Select this button if you want to replace all existing peaks in the
table
current calibration peak table with the peaks from the defined peak
range.
5
Click OK to accept your selections.
6
A spreadsheet view of the Peak Table will appear with the
retention time of each peak in the selected peak range
displayed. Complete the peak table for each calibrated
compound, as described in About the Peak Table.
About the peak table
All of the information required to calculate concentrations for
unknown peaks using a calibration is contained in the Peak Table.
Each row of the peak table represents one of the calibrated
components. Once you have graphically entered the peaks into the
peak table (see Create Calibrations Graphically), you must
complete the peak table with information required to correctly
identify and calculate unknown concentrations for each peak. You
may not need to use all the columns of the spreadsheet. Enter
information only for columns that will be required for calculation of
amounts for each peak of interest.
Note: Once you have become familiar with the parameter columns
in the Peak Table, you can customize the appearance of the table to
only display the columns of interest to you by doing a right mouse
click in the table and selecting Properties. See Change the Peak
Table Properties.
To open the Peak/Group tables:
1
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
There are three ways to open the Peak/Group tables:

In the navigation pane select Method > Peaks/Groups.

In the menu select Method > Peaks/Groups.

In the toolbar select the Peaks/Groups button
.
2
In the Peak/Group Tables dialog box, select the Named Peak
tab.
3
The following columns in the Peak Table are used for
calculating results for calibrated peaks.
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About Calibration
174
#
Row number
Name
Type the name of the component that matches the retention time
displayed.
ID
Peak identification number. The data system will automatically
assign a peak ID# for each peak, starting with 1. This ID# is used
to designate reference peak and internal standard peak number. If
you are adding peaks to an existing peak table, you can renumber
the new peak table automatically by doing a right mouse click in
the peak table, followed by Renumber Peak ID#.
Note: If you renumber the Peak ID#, make sure any custom
parameter programs or other user programs that may use Peak
ID# are updated to reflect the new Peak ID#’s.
Ret. Time
The calibrated peak's expected retention time. If you have used
graphical events to enter the peaks into the peak table, Retention
Times are automatically filled in using the retention times of the
detected peaks in the standard file used to create the table.
Window
Retention time window for calibrated components, used for
identification of calibrated peaks. The width of the window is
indicated and is centered on the retention time value. If a peak's
retention time (adjusted for reference peak shift) falls outside this
window, it is not considered to be the calibrated peak. If more than
one peak falls within the window, the peak closest to the center of
the window is identified as the calibrated component. You can
change the size of the window by entering a new value.
Resolution ID #
Enter a peak ID# to be used for calculation of resolution, if desired.
If this is left blank, resolution will be calculated for the peak of
interest based on the detected peak preceding it. If the peak
entered here is not detected, or if a peak refers to itself for the
Resolution ID #, the resolution will not be calculated.
Ref. ID#
ID# of the peak to be used as a reference peak for this
component. A reference peak is used to adjust the expected
retention time of a calibrated component to compensate for
changes in the chromatograph such as flow rate. If more than one
peak falls within the reference peak window, the largest peak in
the window is used as the reference peak. Each peak can have its
own reference peak.
An ideal reference peak is one that is always present in the
sample, and is well resolved from other peaks in the
chromatogram. (Internal standards make excellent reference
peaks.)
If a named peak is assigned a reference peak, then its expected
retention time is calculated as follows:
Expected RT = (Actual Ref. Peak RT/Expected Ref. Peak RT) *
Peak RT.
ISTD.ID#
ID# of the peak to be used as internal standard for this component,
if you are using an internal standard method.
Note: If you are doing an Internal Standard calibration, you must
enter an ISTD ID# for each calibrated component. If the peak is an
internal standard, enter its own ID# in the ISTD ID# column. If you
are doing External Standard calibration, you should enter 0 in the
ISTD ID# column for all components. You may designate more
than one internal standard.
Units
Enter the concentration units to be used in reporting results, such
as mg/ml or vol%.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
RT Update
Select how you want to update the expected retention times in
your Peak Table. The selection includes None, after every analysis
(Run), after calibration runs only (Calib), or after every run and
calibration (Run & Calib).
LOD
This parameter is used to calculate and report the ASTM LOD
(Limit of Detection) value that is used to determine if the peak is
within the Limits of Detection as previously determined for the
method. The value entered here is the S/N ratio (signal to noise
ratio) to be used for the calculation for this peak. This calculation is
valid only for ESTD or ISTD methods.
LOQ
This parameter is used to calculate and report the ASTM LOQ
(Limit of Quantitation) value that is used to determine if the peak is
within the Limit of Quantitation as previously determined for the
method. The value entered here is the S/N ratio (signal to noise
ratio) to be used for the calculation for this peak. This calculation is
valid only for ESTD or ISTD methods.
Quantitate
Choose whether the calibration and quantitation are to be based
on peak height or peak area. Note: if you are doing both Peak and
Group quantitation using internal standards, both Peaks and
Groups must use the same quantitation measurement type (area
or height).
Fit Type
This option determines how the calibration curve will be fit to the
data.
Note: You have five choices for how the calibration curves will be
drawn: point-to-point, linear, and quadratic, cubic, and Average RF
fits. You must have at least two calibration levels for a linear fit (not
including zero), three levels for a quadratic and four levels for a
cubic fit.
Force Zero
When this box is selected, the calibration curve will be forced
through zero.
Calib Flag
The Replace/WtAverage selection allows you to determine how
the calibration areas/heights for each peak in your method will be
affected by running a standard: they will either be replaced, or
averaged with the current replicate areas in the calibration method.
If Calib Weight is set to a value other than 100, a weighted
average of the areas/heights will be calculated. For details on
calibration averaging, see About Replicates and Averaging
Calibrations.
Each time a calibration average is performed, the value is saved in
the method as Last Area, which is subsequently used for
calculation of weighted averages.
Calib Weight
You can designate a weight for the average of the replicates. The
weighting factor is applied to replicate injections as shown in the
following example.
Current run value (area/height) 101
Replicate 1 104
Replicate 2 100
Replicate 3 102
Current Last Area Value = 102
Using a weighting factor of 60, the new method average is:
[((104 + 100 + 102) / 3) * .6] + [101 * .4] = 101.6
Note: For Internal Standard calibrations, each Replicate
represents a ratio of the component area/height to internal
standard area/height.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
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About Calibration
176
% Calib Margin
This selection creates an acceptance margin based on the %
difference between the peak area or height found during
calibration and the current peak area or height in the method. If the
% difference between these values exceeds this limit, the
calibration for this peak will not be updated.
Scale
This parameter allows you to apply a scaling factor to the
calibration curve. This factor is applied to the entered amounts or
response values prior to computing the calibration curve. The
purpose of using a scaling factor is to create a relationship
between areas (or heights) and amounts or response that can be
approximated by a polynomial fit. A scaling factor can be applied
to any fit type. The available scaling operations are:
None
1/Amount
1/Amount2
ln[Amount]
1/ln[Amount]
sqrt[Amount]
Amount2
1/Response
1/Response2
ln[Response]
1/ln[Response]
sqrt[Response]
Response2
Log (Amount)
1/ log (Amount)
log (Response)
1/ log (Response)
ln (Amt)&ln(Resp)
log(Amt)&log(Resp)
Weighting Method
Select a LSQ Weighting Method to be used for calculation of least
squares regression fits, either 1/Response, 1/Response2,
1/Amount, 1/Amount2 or none. Weighting gives increased
importance to smaller concentrations and areas in the regression
calculation.
Level
Type in the exact amount of each compound (corrected for purity)
in your first calibration standard in the column labeled Level1. If
you are doing a single-level calibration, you do not need to fill in
any other Level columns. If you are doing a multiple-level
calibration (e.g. you have more than one calibration standard
mixture) you should repeat this process for each standard
concentration level you plan to inject.
For example, assume you have a multi-level calibration where
component A is present in standard mixture 1 at 10 ppm, in
standard mixture 2 at 20 ppm, and standard mixture 3 at 30 ppm.
You would enter 10 in the Level 1 column, 20 in the Level 2
column, and 30 in the Level 3 column.
Note: Occasionally, a situation may arise where one or more
named components may not be present in the calibration level
mixture. To avoid introducing error in your calibration curve, you
can cause the component area to be ignored at that level by
leaving the Level of interest blank for that component. (Click on the
cell and press the delete key.)
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
STD ID#
If you wish to calculate the concentration of a peak for which you
have no standard sample, you can designate that the calibration
curve of a different peak be used. Using STD Mult (see below),
you can multiply the result to arrive at a proportional number.
STD Mult
If you have designated another peak to be used to calculate
concentration, enter a multiplier here to be used. The equation
used to calculate the concentration of the peak of interest then
becomes:
Where:
ƒ=
the calibration curve equation for the standard peak
according to the fit type selected (linear, quadratic, point to point,
etc.)
Conc I = concentration of peak of interest
Areai = area of the peak of interest
Mult S = STD Mult of designated STD peak
Mult I = STD Mult of peak of interest
Manual RF
If you wish to assign a response factor to be used for a peak
instead of the response factor calculated from the standard data,
enter that value here. If a manual response factor is present in this
field, it will be used to calculate amounts for this peak instead of
using the calibration curve.
Low Conc
You can enter a concentration lower limit in this column. After each
analysis, the data system can compare the calculated
concentration of the peak to this value. If the value falls below the
lower limit value, in order for a message to be posted in the
Instrument Activity log, a post-run sequence action must be
selected. Note: If you enter a value of zero, this function will be
disabled.
High Conc
You can enter a concentration upper limit in this column. After
each analysis, the data system can compare the calculated
concentration of the peak to this value. If the concentration value
falls above the upper limit value, in order for a message to be
posted in the Instrument Activity log, a post-run sequence action
must be selected
QC Reports Parameters
The following parameters in the Peak Table are used for calculation
of QC Reports.
Check Std 1…5 Conc
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Enter the amount of component present in the designated Check
Standard. (Up to 5 check standards can be defined.) If you enter a
value of zero, this check will be disabled.
Note: If you enter a value of 0, the check will be disabled.
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About Calibration
178
Check Std 1…5 %RD
If you are generating a Check Standard Report, enter the value to
be used for the percent relative difference limit here. When the run
is made, the calculated concentration of the peak will be compared
with the check standard concentration specified in the peak table
(Check Std Conc). If the difference is less than the Check Std %
RD, the component passes. If the difference is more than the
Check Std % RD, the component fails, and the failure action for
that line of the sequence will be taken. Up to 5 check standards
can be defined. Note: If you enter a value of 0, the check will be
disabled.
Spike 1 Amt
For Spike Recovery Report, enter the amount(s) of the first
component(s) used to spike the first spiked sample.
Spike 2 Amt
For Spike Recovery Report, enter the amount(s) of the second
component(s) used to spike the second spiked sample (if you are
spiking the sample twice).
Low Spike Limit
Enter the lower limit (in %) for spike recovery. The calculated spike
recovery will be compared to this value. If it falls below the low
spike limit, it fails. Note: If you enter a value of 0, the check will be
disabled.
High Spike Limit
Enter the high limit (in %) for spike recovery. The calculated spike
recovery will be compared to this value. If it falls above the high
spike limit, it fails.
Dup % RD Limit
Enter the value to be used for % relative difference for duplicate
reports. If the % relative difference falls above this value, the
sample fails. Note: If you enter a value of 0, the check will be
disabled.
RF % RSD Limit
Enter the % relative standard deviation for calibration response
factors. When a Calib Start and Calib End are designated in the
sequence table, this value will be used to determine whether the
calibration passes or fails. Note: If you enter a value of 0, the
check will be disabled.
PDA Parameters
The following columns appear if you have a PDA detector
configured.
Detection
Select the basis for the identification of the peak. If you choose
Ret Time, only the retention time will be used for identification of
the peak. If you choose Ret Time with Spectral Confirm, the
Similarity of the peak’s spectrum to that of a designated reference
spectrum will be used in addition to the retention time as the basis
of peak identification.
Spectrum
If you want Similarity to be used as a basis for peak identification,
then click on the arrow to the right of this field to specify the stored
reference spectrum to be used for comparison. During
identification, this reference spectrum is compared to the peak
apex spectrum and a similarity index is computed. A peak is
considered identified if this calculated similarity index is at least the
value specified in the Similarity column of the peak table.
If Similarity is not specified as a basis for peak identification, then
this field is ignored.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Similarity
If Similarity is specified as a basis for peak identification, then this
field specifies required minimum similarity index for a peak to be
considered identified. During identification, the reference spectrum
(see previous section) is compared to the peak apex spectrum and
a similarity index is computed. A peak is considered identified if
the calculated similarity index is at least the value in this field.
If Similarity is not specified as a basis for peak identification, then
this field is ignored.
Analysis Channel
Specify which Diode Array wavelength channel is to be used for
analysis of the peak. The choices will be those specified in
Instrument Setup/DAD.
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About Calibration
Change the peak table properties
If you are not using one or more of the parameters presented in the
Peak Table, you can remove it from view. The selections entered are
saved on a per-instrument/per-user basis. This allows each user to
set his/her own peak table parameters for each instrument.
To change the columns displayed in the peak table:
1
In the peak table, do a right mouse click and then click
Properties.
2
In the Properties dialog box, select the columns that will appear
in the peak table. Columns with a check mark will be displayed
in the Peak Table spreadsheet. Those without a check will not
be displayed.
3
The blue anchor
indicates what column will be used to
anchor the right-left scrolling in your spreadsheet. Once this
anchor is set, columns to the right of the anchor will scroll to
the right and left. Columns to the left of the anchor will not
scroll. To change the anchor, click on the name of the column
you wish to use as anchor, and click the Set Anchor button. The
blue anchor will move to the designated anchor column.0
Note: When using the anchor, it is best to remove all unnecessary
columns from the spreadsheet, and make the spreadsheet as wide
as possible before you set the anchor. If you set the anchor to a
column that does not currently show on the spreadsheet, you will
not be able to scroll the spreadsheet.
Single level calibration using a stored data file
If you already have your calibration standard saved on your disk,
you can calibrate your method using the areas from this file. This
does not initiate data acquisition. It updates the method specified
using areas from the stored data file specified.
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1
From the Analysis menu, click Analysis/Single Level
Calibration.
2
Complete the fields listed below.
3
When you have completed the dialog box, click Start. The stored
data file will be opened and the areas for calibrated peaks will
be used to update the method specified.
Sample ID
The sample ID for the data file selected is displayed here.
Method
Enter the name of the method to be calibrated. Include the entire
path name if the method is not in your default method directory. You
can select the method from a list of methods available on your disk
by clicking the File button adjacent to the field.
Data File
Enter the name of the file to be used to calibrate the method. You
can select a data file by clicking the File button adjacent to the field.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Result Path
Enter the path name where the result file is located. You can select
the path name from a list by clicking the File button.
Result Name
Enter a name for the result file. If you did not select Result Package
Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the Control Panel, you
will still need to enter a Result Name. The result name is used for
the RST file, and ACAML file names. If you selected Result
Package Mode when creating an EZChrom project in the Control
Panel, the Result Name will also be used for the folder name. In
ECM it will be the name of the SSIZip.
Save as PDF
When this box is checked, the method report(s) will be saved as a
PDF.
Print Hardcopy
When this box is checked, the method report(s) will be printed.
Amount Values
In this section, you can enter values that affect how the
concentrations are calculated. If you are making a single data
acquisition prior to calibrating your method, simply leave these
values at the default level.
Sample Amount
The Sample Amount value is used as a divisor during calculation of
concentrations. It is intended to compensate for differences between
samples due to weighing and when percentages of the total sample
are being calculated rather than the amount detected in an injection.
Internal Standard
Amount
For calibration runs, the Internal Standard Amount is taken from the
method Peak Table. For unknown runs, enter the amount of the
Internal Standard in your unknown sample.
Multiplication factors
Enter up to 3 multiplication factors to be used for this
analysis/calibration. All quantitated peaks will be multiplied by these
factors.
Dilution factors
Enter up to 3 dilution factors to be used for this analysis/calibration.
All quantitated peaks will be divided by these factors.
Calibrate
Select this box to trigger calibration. Once this box is clicked, the
following fields and options will be available.
Calibration Level
Enter the number of the calibration level represented by the stored
calibration standard. If this is a single level calibration, enter 1.
Clear all calibration
Click this box if you want to clear all existing calibration factors from
your method before running the calibration.
Clear calibration for
level
Click this box if you want to clear the existing response factors for
this level only before running the calibration.
Print calibration report Click this box if you want to print a calibration report after running the
calibration.
Clear replicates
Click this box if you want to clear existing replicates from this level
before running the calibration.
Average replicates
Click this box if you want to average replicates for this calibration
level.
Renumbering peak ID's
Peak ID numbers are assigned to calibrated peaks in the order in
which they are added. If you add peaks to your peak table
renumber the Peak ID’s so the ID numbers are in order of the peak
retention times.
To renumber peak ID's, in the peak table, right click and select
Renumber Peak ID’s. The Peak ID numbers in the peak table will
be renumbered (including Ref and ISTD Peak ID numbers to reflect
the changes).
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
181
About Calibration
Note: Renumbering Peak ID#’s may require items identified by
Peak ID# in custom parameters or custom reports to be re-defined
using the new Peak ID#’s.
Review calibration curves
After you have completed running all of the calibration standards
for your method, you can review the calibration curve and
associated data by clicking the Review Calibration button. A
window will appear with the calibration information from your
current method.
From Review Calibration, you can

Look at the calibration curve for each calibrated peak.

Change and overlay calibration curve fit types.




Review the equations for curve fit types, and examine the
R-squared (goodness of fit) value for each.
Temporarily remove points from the calibration curve.
View response factors, replicate areas, and standard deviation
values.
Use the concentration calculator to calculate amounts from
manually entered areas.
Viewing the Calibration Curve
Calibrated peaks are listed in the Peak List. To view the calibration
information for a given calibrated peak, click on the peak name
from the Peak List. It will be highlighted, and the spreadsheet and
calibration curve will be updated to include the current calibration
information for that peak.
The calibration curve for the peak selected appears in the lower left
corner of the window.
The box at the lower right of the window displays parameters and
calculation data for the calibration curve displayed. This includes
Average Response Factor, the Response Factor Standard Deviation,
the Response Factor % RSD, Scaling factor, LSQ Weighting factor,
Force through zero On or Off, Replicate mode, and calculations for
each fit type displayed, along with R2 for the fit.
Temporarily removing points from the calibration curve
If you want to see the effect of removing one of the points from your
calibration curve, you can temporarily remove it from the
calculation by clicking the point once with your mouse. The point
will turn red, which indicates it is not currently used for the
calculation of the calibration curve. The spreadsheet cells
represented by the point will also turn red. To return the point to
the calculation of the curve, click on the point again. Points can also
be disabled from the spreadsheet by clicking the cell in the
spreadsheet, then pressing the Delete key. To restore the point,
click the Delete key again.
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Using the right mouse button
Clicking the right mouse button give you access to quick menus.
When you right-click in the calibration curve region of the window,
a menu will appear where you can change the characteristics of the
displayed calibration curve.
View Fit Type
Select a new fit type to be displayed in the review peak calibration
graph. The fit is overlaid with the current calibration curve. You can
also select View all fits or Clear all fits from this menu.
Change Fit Type
Select a new fit type to be applied to the calibration curve. When you
change the fit type, the change will also be entered into your peak
table for this peak.
Scaling
Select a new scaling factor for the calibration curves. This scaling will
be applied to all calibration fits displayed, and will be applied to the
peak table for this peak.
LSQ Weighting
Select a least squares weighting factor to apply to the calibration
curves. (Applies only to linear, cubic, and quadratic fits.) The LSQ
Weighting selected will be entered in your peak table for this peak.
Force Through Zero
Select this to force the calibration curve(s) through the origin.
Changing this will automatically change the peak table for this peak.
View Mode
Select Peaks or Groups for viewing.
Replicate View Mode
This selects how you want to view the replicate data in the calibration
data spreadsheet. Select Area/Height to view the replicate area or
heights. Select Response Factor to view the replicate response
factors.
Response Factor
Definition
Select how the response factors are to be calculated and displayed,
Area/Amount or Amount/Area. The selection of Area/Amount or
Amount/Area for your method is located in the
Method>Properties>Calibration dialog.
Print Current
Peak/Group
Select this to print the currently selected peak or group information.
Print All Peaks/Groups Select this to print all the peaks or group information.
Full Unzoom
Restores calibration curve display to 100%.
Concentration Calculator The Concentration Calculator lets you calculate amounts based on
areas or heights you input. See Concentration Calculator.
Viewing Calibration Data
When you select a peak from the peak list, the calibration data for
that peak will be displayed in the spreadsheet at the top of the
window. Each row in the spreadsheet represents a calibration level
for that compound.
Level
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
A calibration level corresponds to a point (or points, if replicates are
used) on the calibration curve, and represents the relationship of
peak area(s) to calibrated amount. The number of calibration levels
may be different for each component. EZChrom software can handle
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About Calibration
an unlimited number of concentration levels per component. For each
Level, the following fields are displayed.
Amount/Amount Ratio This is the component Amount (external standard) or Amount Ratio
(internal standard) represented by this level.
Area (or Height)/Area
Ratio (Height Ratio)
This is the peak area or height (if external standard) or Area Ratio or
Height Ratio (for internal standard) for the designated level.
RF
This is the response factor for the peak at the designated level.
Last Area (ratio)/Height If no replicate injections are made, this is the last area or height (or
(ration)
area ratio/height ratio) for the peak at the designated level. If
replicate injections have been made, this is the old average of the
replicates, which is used for weighting purposes.
Residual
A residual is the difference between the user entered concentration
and the concentration read back from the computed calibration curve.
Rep StDev
This is the standard deviation for the replicates.
Rep %RSD
This is the % relative standard deviation for the replicates.
Rep 1…x Area (ratio)/
height (ratio)
Each level can have multiple replicates (duplicate injections of a
single standard level). Rep 1 is the first calibration replicate run,
Rep 2 is the second replicate, etc. When replicate standards are
used, and the Calib Weight is set to 100, the response factor will be
based on the true average of all replicates in the calibration level. In
order for replicates to be used, you must select the Wt Average
option in the Peak Table Calib Flag column. Otherwise, each
injection at a given level will replace the current calibration
areas/heights.
Rep 1…x User
This is the logged user at the time the calibration was last performed
using this replicate.
Rep 1…x Data File
This is the data file where the replicate data is stored.
Rep 1…x Sample ID
This is the Sample ID for the replicate sample.
Rep 1…x Calib. Time
This is the date and time the last calibration was performed using this
replicate.
Concentration calculator
The Concentration Calculator lets you calculate amounts based on
areas or heights you input. In order to use the concentration
calculator, you must have a calibrated method open.
To open the Concentration Calculator:
1
In the Instrument Window, click the
Calibration button.
2
Do a right mouse click in the calibration curve window, and
then click Concentration Calculator.
3
Complete the following fields:



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Review Peak
Fit Type - Select a fit type to be used to calculate the
concentration or area.
Scaling - If desired, select a scaling factor to be used for the
calculation.
LSQ Weighting - Select a least squares weighting factor to
be used, if desired.
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About Calibration


Force Through Zero - Select this if you want the curve
forced through the origin for the calculation.
Area - If you want to calculate an Amount, enter an area
that represents the peak to calculate, then click the
Calculate button.
Calibration averaging
The following selections designate how calibration averaging is to
be treated for the method.
To turn on automatic calibration averaging, select Method >
Properties > Calibration. Check Automatically average consecutive
replicates of the same level. To turn it off uncheck this box.
See Automatically Average Replicates.
To designate a calibration run type, select Control > Single Run.
Check Average Replicates. To turn it off uncheck this box.
See Calibration Averaging as Part of a Single Run or Sequence.
To average a calibrated peak’s areas, in the Peak Table set the
Calib Flag for that peak to Wt Average. If you do not want a peak’s
areas to be averaged, set the Calib Flag for that peak to Replace.
See About Replicates and Averaging Calibrations.
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Automatically average replicates
Automatic calibration averaging is a quick way to average
calibration replicates that are grouped together, and is the most
common use of averaging.
To set up your method such that all calibrations are averaged:
1
From the Method menu, click Properties and then click the
Calibration tab. Here, you can select the option to automatically
average after every calibration.
2
To turn averaging on, make sure there is a check mark next to
the Automatically average replicates prompt. This is the
default (recommended) selection. The default averaging is
explained below. See Method Properties Calibration.
When the automatic averaging of replicates is selected, averaging of
all replicates for a given level will be performed until the replicates
are cleared. If a sequence calibration (or sequence reprocessing
calibration) is performed, automatic averaging of all replicates for a
given level will occur automatically at the end of a series of
calibration replicates for that level. The area/height average at that
point will be saved in the method as Last Area. When a new level is
encountered, the replicates for the previous level will be cleared
automatically from the method.
Note: Averaging only occurs for peaks where the Calib Flag is
designated as Wt Average.
If you turn the Automatic Averaging Off, be aware that for peaks
whose Calib Flag is set to Wt Average, no results will be calculated
until you force averaging by setting the Run Type to Average
Replicates in either a single run or sequence run.
Rolling Average Calibration
If you have entered a number for replicates in rolling average in the
Method > Properties > Calibration dialog, a rolling average will be
calculated for replicates as described below. See Method Properties
Calibration.
The rolling replicate average is done as in the following example:
For an acquisition sequence, where S = Standard and U =
Unknown, and the number of replicates in rolling average = 4,
S1, U1, S2, U2, S3, U3, S4, U4, S5, U5, S6, U6, S7, U7
In the above acquisition sequence, U1 would be quantitated
using S1, U2 would be quantitated using the average of S1 and
S2, U3 would be quantitated using the average of S1, S2, and
S3, U4 would be quantitated using the average of S1, S2, S3,
and S4, and U5 would be quantitated with the average of S2,
S3, S4, and S5. In this example, every 4 calibration replicates
will roll the average forward.
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About Calibration
The following example demonstrates how replicates are treated
during a calibration sequence using Automatic Averaging:
1
As each run is analyzed, the area for each named peak is saved
in the method as the current area. At the end of Run 3, a true
average will be calculated from replicates for Runs 1 - 3 for
Level 1. This value is the calibration area/height for this level.
2
At Run 4, the calibration for Level 2 begins. Replicates for
Level 2 will be saved for runs 4, 5, and 6.
3
At the end of Run 6, the replicates for Level 2 will be averaged
and used to calculate the calibration point for Level 2. This
area/height is saved as Last Area for Level 2.
4
At the beginning of Run 7, the existing replicates for Level 1
will be cleared and new Level 1 replicates will be saved for Run
7 and Run 8.
5
At the end of Run 8, the existing calibration area/height
becomes the Last Area, the true average of Runs 7 and 8 is
calculated and a weighted average is calculated using this value
and the Last Area (see calculation in Calib Weight section).
Note that if the Calib Weight is set to 100, the Last Area value
is not taken into account.
Calibration averaging as part of a single run or sequence
Single run
Whether or not you are doing Automatic Calibration Averaging, you
can designate averaging at the start of a single run, or as part of
the Run Type of a sequence entry.
To designate a calibration run type, select Control > Single Run.
Check Average Replicates. The replicates are averaged and the
average is used in conjunction with the Calib Weight and Calib
Flag to calculate a new calibration point.
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About Calibration
Sequence
For a sequence, calibration averaging is designated as part of a
run’s Run Type.
In the sequence spreadsheet select the Run Type field. In the
Sample Run Type(s) dialog box, select Average Replicates. The
replicates are averaged and the average is used in conjunction with
the Calib Weight and Calib Flag to calculate a new calibration
point.
You can quickly determine if a calibration run has an Average
Replicates run type associated with it by looking at the sequence
table. Runs that are designated for Average Replicates have the
code Average Replicates in the Run Type column.
If you click on the Run Type for one of these runs, you will see the
Average Replicates box has been checked for the Run Type of that
sample. Click again on this check mark to remove the Average
Replicates from the Run Type for this sample, if desired.
Note: When Automatic Averaging is turned OFF, calibration
replicates will continue to be saved in the method until you clear or
average them at the beginning of a calibration run.
About replicates and averaging calibrations
Initially, a method contains no calibration. When you run the first
calibration standard, the areas/heights for each calibrated peak are
entered into the method calibration. If you run a subsequent
standard at the same calibration level (a replicate), you have a
choice of how you want the data system to treat the new
areas/heights for the calibration.
To average a calibrated peak’s areas, in the Peak Table set the
Calib Flag for that peak to Wt Average. If you do not want a peak’s
areas to be averaged, set the Calib Flag for that peak to Replace.
If you choose to Replace the existing calibration, the areas/heights
for each replicate replaces the area/height for the previous replicate
in the calibration. Only the most recent replicate areas/heights are
used to create the calibration curve. Previous replicates are ignored.
If you choose Wt Average, each calibration point on the curve will
be determined by performing the average of the current calibration
with previous replicate areas/heights in the method. The following
example describes how this is done.
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About Calibration
Assume a starting method for a single-level calibration with no
existing calibration data. After a series of n calibration replicate
samples are run, the calibration curve is determined as shown
below.
Level 1 Replicate Area
1. Area1
2. Area2
3. Area3
..
..
..
n Arean
The resulting calibration curve is shown above, with the point (x,y)
representing the calibration point for Level 1. The area, y, of this
point is calculated by taking the average of the replicates at this
level.
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About Calibration
This average, y, is saved as the last area in the method. This value
is used to calculate the weighted average when a new series of
replicates for this level is run, as shown below.
Level 1 Replicate Area
1 Area1
2 Area2
3 Area3
..
..
..
m Aream
Because this is the second time a series of replicates was run for
this level, a weighted average is now calculated, using the Calib
Weight (weighting factor) set in the peak table.
A new calibration curve is calculated.
The new calibration point (x2,y2) is used to draw the calibration
curve, with the area, y2, calculated as follows.
y2 =
Where
y2 = area of calibration point x2,y2
W = Calib Weight, expressed as a percentage
y = Last area
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About groups and group calibration
A group is a collection of peaks, which are somehow related. The
data system allows you to define as many groups as you want.
Peaks in a group do not have to be contiguous peaks in the
chromatogram, and may be treated in one of three ways:



See Also
Uncalibrated Range. In this type of grouping, you define a time
range. A manual response factor will be applied to determine
concentration of uncalibrated peaks eluting within that time
range.
Calibrated Range (Group Calibration). Using this technique,
you calibrate peaks together as a group, creating a common
response factor for the group. Peaks in the Calibrated Range
will be reported as a single peak using the common response
factor for the group as a basis for calculation of concentration.
Designate Named Peaks to be included in a group (Calibrated
Peak Grouping). Using this technique, a group report gives the
concentration summation of all calibrated peaks designated as
belonging to that group. All peaks in the group can also be
reported individually because they also appear in the Peak
Table.
Define a Group
Group Table Properties
Uncalibrated Group Range
Group Calibration (Calibrated Range)
Group Table
Group Range Definition
Calibrated Range Examples
Calibrated Peak Grouping (Named Peaks)
Peak Group Definition
Group Range Adjustment
Report Group Amounts
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About Calibration
Define a group
Defining a group is similar to defining calibrated peaks. The group
can either be defined manually, by typing information into the
Groups table, or it can be defined graphically using an integrated
chromatogram.
To define a group graphically:
192
1
Open the data file to display the chromatogram.
2
Right-click in the chromatogram and select Graphical
Programming > Define Groups, or in the integration toolbar
select the Define Groups button.
3
Select the group you want to define. Click once at the beginning
and once at the end of a region of peaks you wish to add to the
group. You may continue to add groups by clicking to define the
group regions. When you are done defining the group regions,
press the ESC key.
4
In the Define Peaks dialog box further define the group by
completing the following fields:
Group name
Enter a name to be assigned to this group.
Group type
Select Uncalibrated Range, Calibrated Range, or Named Peaks for the
type of group you want to define.
Quantitate group on
Select whether you want to use Area or Height for calculation of
response factors. Note: If you are doing both Peak and Group
quantitation using internal standards, both Peaks and Groups must use
the same quantitation measurement type (area or height).
ISTD ID #
If you wish to use an internal standard method for the group calibration,
you must add to your sample a known amount of an internal standard.
The internal standard must be entered in your Peak Table, and must
have a calibration amount assigned to it. Enter the Peak ID number of
the internal standard from your Peak Table in this field.
Reference ID #
If you are using a reference peak, enter its Peak ID number from the
Peak Table for the peak to be used as a reference peak. The retention
time of the reference peak will be used to adjust the start and end times
of the group windows. Note that the reference peak must be identified in
the Peak Table and given an expected retention time. The reference
peak does not need to have calibration levels assigned to it.
Units
Enter the units to be used for reporting group concentration results.
Include named peaks
Click this box if you want to include any individually calibrated peaks
(named peaks) in this calibrated group. The areas of the named peaks
will be used in calculation of the group response factor.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Calculate concentration Selecting the Calculate concentration for unnamed peaks in group
for unnamed peaks in box will cause the concentrations of the unnamed (uncalibrated) peaks
group
in the group to be calculated using the group response factor and listed
in the peak report. The peak report will include the unnamed peak
concentrations, but will not report the group concentration as a peak.
The group concentration will be reported in a separate group report
section.
Note: When this box is checked, the total group area and height are not
reported as part of the peak table, so the Area% and Height% columns
in the peak report will add up to 100%. If Groups are reported in the run
report, a separate report section will be generated that only includes
groups. This will be the only place where the total group concentration
using this option can be viewed. If this box is not selected, the group will
be reported as part of the peak table, and the Area%, Height%,
concentrations may add up to more than 100%.
For examples of reports using various Calibrated Range options,
see Calibrated Range Examples.
About the Group Table
To view the Group Table:
1
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
There are three ways to open the Peak/Group tables:

In the navigation pane select Method > Peaks/Groups.

In the menu select Method > Peaks/Groups.

In the toolbar select the Peaks/Groups button
.
2
In the Peak/Group Tables dialog box, select the Groups tab.
3
In order to calibrate the group(s), you need to enter calibration
amount(s) for each group. In the columns of the group table
labeled Level 1, etc., enter the calibration amount to be used in
calculation of the calibration curve for that group. Also, enter
the concentration units for reporting group results in the
column labeled Units.
4
In order to properly do group calibration, you need to designate
the following parameters:
#
Row number
Name
Type the name of the component.
Ref. ID#
ID# of the group to be used as a reference group for this component.
ISTD.ID#
ID# of the group to be used as internal standard for this component, if
you are using an internal standard method.
NOTE: If you are doing an Internal Standard calibration, you must enter
an ISTD ID# for each calibrated component. If the peak is an internal
standard, enter its own ID# in the ISTD ID# column. If you are doing
External Standard calibration, you should enter 0 in the ISTD ID#
column for all components. You may designate more than one internal
standard.
Group Type
The Group Type should indicate Calibrated Range.
Group Def
If you click the Group Def field, you will see the retention time range for
the region(s) you selected using the mouse to define the group.
Units
Enter the concentration units to be used in reporting results, such as
mg/ml or vol%.
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About Calibration
Quantitate
Choose whether the calibration and quantitation are to be based on
peak height or peak area. Note: if you are doing both Peak and Group
quantitation using internal standards, both Peaks and Groups must use
the same quantitation measurement type (area or height).
Fit Type
This option determines how the calibration curve will be fit to the data.
Note: You have five choices for how the calibration curves will be drawn:
point-to-point, linear, and quadratic, cubic, and Average RF fits. You
must have at least two calibration levels for a linear fit (not including
zero), three levels for a quadratic and four levels for a cubic fit.
Zero
When this box is selected, the calibration curve will be forced through
zero.
Calib Flag
The Replace/WtAverage selection allows you to determine how the
calibration areas/heights for each group will be affected by running a
standard: they will either be replaced, or averaged with the current
replicate areas in the calibration method. If Calib Weight is set to a value
other than 100, a weighted average of the areas/heights will be
calculated. For details on calibration averaging, see the Replicates and
Calibration Averaging section.
Each time a calibration average is performed, the value is saved in the
method as Last Area, which is subsequently used for calculation of
weighted averages.
Calib Weight
You can designate a weight for the average of the replicates. The
weighting factor is applied to replicate injections as shown in the
following example.
Current run value (area/height) 101
Replicate 1 104
Replicate 2 100
Replicate 3 102
Current Last Area Value = 102
Using a weighting factor of 60, the new method average is:
[(104 + 100 + 102) / 3) * .6] + [101 * .4] = 101.6
Note: For Internal Standard calibrations, each Replicate represents a
ratio of the component area/height to internal standard area/height.
% Calib Margin
194
This selection creates an acceptance margin based on the % difference
between the group area or height found during calibration and the
current group area or height in the method. If the % difference between
these values exceeds this limit, calibration for this group will not be
updated.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Scale
This parameter allows you to apply a scaling factor to the calibration
curve. This factor is applied to the entered amounts or response values
prior to computing the calibration curve. The purpose of using a scaling
factor is to create a relationship between areas (or heights) and amounts
or response that can be approximated by a polynomial fit. A scaling
factor can be applied to any fit type. The available scaling operations
are:
None
1/Amount
1/Amount2
ln[Amount]
1/ln[Amount]
sqrt[Amount]
Amount2
1/Response
1/Response2
ln[Response]
1/ln[Response]
sqrt[Response]
Response2
Log (Amount)
1/ log (Amount)
log (Response)
1/ log (Response)
ln (Amt)&ln(Resp)
log(Amt)&log(Resp)
Weighting Method
Select a Weighting Method to be used for calculation of least squares
regression fits, either 1/Response,
, 1/Amount,
or none. Weighting gives increased importance to smaller
concentrations and areas. A scaling factor can be applied to linear,
quadratic, and cubic fits.
Level 1… x
You must designate one or more calibration levels to be used in
calculation of a group response factor. For each Level, enter the amount
of the group in that calibration sample.
Occasionally, you may want to calibrate one group with fewer levels than
the other groups in your group table. (For example, when you have more
than one calibration mixture for the same concentration level.) To avoid
introducing error in your calibration curve, you can cause the group area
to be ignored at that level by leaving the Level of interest for that group
blank. To insert a blank, double-click on the cell and press the Delete
key.
If you are performing QC checks, you should fill out the appropriate
columns for your groups. See the Calibration section for details on
these columns.
Note: As with the Peak Table, the Group Table can be customized
to include only those parameter columns that you need for your
group calibration. To select the group parameters, click on the
upper left corner of the group spreadsheet, and select Properties
from the drop-down menu. From the dialog box, click on those
parameters you wish to include in the spreadsheet.
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About Calibration
Be sure to save your method. To complete the group calibration, you
must run a calibration standard at each level for which you have
entered an amount. This can be done manually using stored data
files, or as a part of a sequence. For details on how to calibrate, see
Calibration.
Change the Group Table properties
If you are not using one or more of the parameters presented in the
Group Table, you can remove it from view. The selections entered
are saved on a per-instrument/per-user basis. This allows each user
to set his/her own peak table parameters for each instrument.
To change the columns displayed in the group table:
1
In the Group Table, do a right mouse click and then click
Properties.
2
In the Properties dialog box, select the columns that will appear
in the group table. Columns with a check mark will be
displayed in the Group Table spreadsheet. Those without a
check will not be displayed.
3
The blue anchor
indicates what column will be used to
anchor the right-left scrolling in your spreadsheet. Once this
anchor is set, columns to the right of the anchor will scroll to
the right and left. Columns to the left of the anchor will not
scroll. To change the anchor, click on the name of the column
you wish to use as anchor, and click the Set Anchor button. The
blue anchor will move to the designated anchor column.
Note: When using the anchor, it is best to remove all unnecessary
columns from the spreadsheet, and make the spreadsheet as wide
as possible before you set the anchor. If you set the anchor to a
column that does not currently show on the spreadsheet, you will
not be able to scroll the spreadsheet.
Uncalibrated group range
The Uncalibrated Range group type is used to enter a response
factor for uncalibrated peaks eluting within a specified retention
time range. When the chromatogram is analyzed, the concentration
of unnamed peaks eluting within the uncalibrated range will be
calculated using the response factor entered for the uncalibrated
range.
Defining an Uncalibrated Range group is done using a stored
chromatogram. Since you are simply defining a range for
uncalibrated peaks, it is not necessary for the chromatogram to be
analyzed in order to create the group.
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About Calibration
To define an uncalibrated group range:
1
Select File > Open > Data. Navigate to the data file that
contains the range(s) you wish to include in your group.
2
Click on Analyze. Make sure all the peaks you wish to include
in the group are detected. (optional)
3
Click on the Define Group button, or select the Define Group
command from the right mouse click> graphical programming
menu. With this function, you define one or more group
windows using the mouse. The regions defined by the mouse
become the uncalibrated range(s) for the group. You can define
any regions in the chromatogram, whether or not peaks are
present.
4
Click the mouse once at a point on the chromatogram where
you wish to define the beginning of the group region.
5
Click the mouse again to define the end of the group region.
6
If you want to add additional peak regions to the same group,
repeat the above procedure as many times as necessary. When
you are finished adding regions to the group, press the [ESC]
key.
7
A dialog box will appear for the group. Select Uncalibrated
Range for Group type, and enter a name for Group name.
Because the concentration of the uncalibrated range is
calculated from the manual response factor, it is not necessary
to enter values for any other field, except Units for reporting.
8
When you have completed the dialog box, click on OK. A row
will be added to your Group Table containing the information
you entered.
9
To view the Group Table, click the Peak/Group Tables button
on the command ribbon. Click the Groups tab to view the group
information table.
10 Enter a response factor to be used for the uncalibrated range
group in the Manual RF column for the group.
11 If you are using a reference peak, enter its Peak ID number
from the Peak Table for the peak to be used as a reference peak.
The retention time of the reference peak will be used to adjust
the start and end times of the group windows. Note that the
reference peak must be identified in the Peak Table and given
an expected retention time. The reference peak does not need to
have calibration levels assigned to it.
12 No other parameters are necessary. Click the X to exit the
Peak/Group Tables box. Be sure to save your method.
Group calibration (Calibrated Range)
Calibrated Range grouping calibrates and analyzes peaks defined
in the group as a single peak. A common response factor is
calculated for the group, based on one or more calibration runs
where concentration level(s) are defined for the group. In addition,
you can choose to include calibrated (named) peaks in the group.
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About Calibration
In the following example, we do not want to calibrate peaks
individually. Instead, we want to combine peaks in certain regions
of the chromatogram together and calibrate them in groups,
creating a unique response factor for each group. Follow the steps
to set up the groups.
To define a group of peaks graphically using the stored
chromatogram:
198
1
Select File > Open > Data. Navigate to the data file that
contains the peaks you wish to include in your group.
2
Click on Analyze. Make sure all the peaks you wish to include
in the group are detected.
3
Click on the Define Group button, or select the Define Group
command from the right mouse click> graphical programming
menu. With this function, you define one or more group
windows using the mouse. All detected peaks within the group
window(s) will become part of the group being defined. This
allows you to create a group that contains non-contiguous peaks
in the chromatogram.
4
Click the mouse once to the left of the first peak to be included
in the group. This defines the beginning of a group window.
5
Click the mouse again to the right of the last peak to be
included in the group window. This defines the end of the group
window.
6
If you want to add additional peak regions to the same group,
repeat the above procedure as many times as necessary. When
you are finished adding peaks to the group, press the [ESC]
key.
7
A dialog box will appear where you can give the group a name,
number, and designate a reference peak and internal standard
for the group. Complete the following fields:
Group Name
Enter a name to be assigned to this group.
Group Type
Select Calibrated Range for the type of group you want to define.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
Quantitate Group On Select whether you want to use Area or Height for calculation of response
factors. Note: If you are doing both Peak and Group quantitation using
internal standards, both Peaks and Groups must use the same
quantitation measurement type (area or height).
ISTD ID #
If you wish to use an internal standard method for the group calibration,
you must add to your sample a known amount of an internal standard.
The internal standard must be entered in your Peak Table, and must
have a calibration amount assigned to it. Enter the Peak ID number of the
internal standard from your Peak Table in this field.
Reference ID #
If you are using a reference peak, enter its Peak ID number from the
Peak Table for the peak to be used as a reference peak. The retention
time of the reference peak will be used to adjust the start and end times
of the group windows. Note that the reference peak must be identified in
the Peak Table and given an expected retention time. The reference
peak does not need to have calibration levels assigned to it.
Units
Enter the units to be used for reporting group concentration results.
Include Named
Peaks
Click this box if you want to include any individually calibrated peaks
(named peaks) in this calibrated group. The areas of the named peaks
will be used in calculation of the group response factor.
Calculate
concentration for
unnamed peaks in
group
Selecting the Calculate concentration for unnamed peaks in group
box will cause the concentrations of the unnamed (uncalibrated) peaks in
the group to be calculated using the group response factor and listed in
the peak report. The peak report will include the unnamed peak
concentrations, but will not report the group concentration as a peak. The
group concentration will be reported in a separate group report section.
Note: When this box is checked, the total group area and height are not
reported as part of the peak table, so the Area% and Height% columns in
the peak report will add up to 100%. If Groups are reported in the run
report, a separate report section will be generated that only includes
groups. This will be the only place where the total group concentration
using this option can be viewed. If this box is not selected, the group will
be reported as part of the peak table, and the Area%, Height%,
concentrations may add up to more than 100%.
8
When you have completed the dialog box, click on Ok. A row
will be added to your Group Table containing the information
you entered.
9
After the group has been defined, you must enter calibration
levels into the group table and then run the calibration
sample(s) to determine the group response factors.
10 After you have completed your group setup and calibration, the
peaks in the defined groups will appear on your chromatogram
if you have the peaks annotation on.
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About Calibration
Group range definition
To review or change the chromatogram time range(s) currently
selected for the group:
1
Open the Group Table by clicking the
Tables button and then click Groups.
Peak/Group
2
Click on the Group Def field. The Group Range Definition
dialog box appears with the currently defined range(s) for the
group. You can manually change the range(s) if desired.
Note: If the group selected is a Named Peaks group, a different
dialog box will appear. See Peak Group Definition.
3
Click the Include Named Peaks option if you want to include in
the group any named (calibrated) peaks that fall within the
range. When this option is checked, the areas of named peaks
falling within the defined ranges will be used in calculation of
the group response factor. If this is not selected, the named
peaks eluting within this region will not be considered part of
the group, and the areas will not be used in calculation of group
response factor.
4
Selecting the Calculate concentration for unnamed peaks in
group box will cause the concentrations of the unnamed
(uncalibrated) peaks in the group to be calculated using the
group response factor and listed in the peak report. The peak
report will include the unnamed peak concentrations, but will
not report the group concentration as a peak. The group
concentration will be reported in a separate group report
section.
Note: When this box is checked, the total group area and height
are not reported as part of the peak table, so the Area% and
Height% columns in the peak report will add up to 100%. If
Groups are reported in the run report, a separate report section
will be generated that only includes groups. This will be the
only place where the total group concentration using this option
can be viewed. If this box is not selected, the group will be
reported as part of the peak table, and the Area%, Height%,
concentrations may add up to more than 100%.
Calibrated peak grouping (Named Peaks)
This technique assumes you have individually calibrated peaks in
your chromatogram. You define the groups by designating in the
Group Table the named peaks to be included in each group, and
giving each group a name.
Note: In order to define a peak group graphically, 1) make sure the
current chromatogram is the chromatogram you wish to use, 2) you
have already created a calibrated peak table in your method, and 3)
you have analyzed the chromatogram.
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About Calibration
1
Open the data file containing the calibrated peaks you wish to
include in your group. Click on Analyze to integrate the
chromatogram and make sure the peaks are detected.
2
Define the peaks belonging to the group by graphically defining
the group using a stored chromatogram. To do this, click the
Define Group button on the toolbar, or select the Define Group
command from the right-mouse click /graphical programming
menu. Click the mouse to the left of the first peak to be
included in the group, then click the mouse again to the right of
the last peak to be included in the group (if they are contiguous
peaks). You may continue to add peaks to the group by clicking
the mouse to define peak regions. When you are done adding
peaks to the group, press the Esc key on your keyboard. A
dialog box will appear.
3
Type a name to be used for the group in the Group Name field.
4
Select Named Peaks for the Group Type. Click OK to accept
and exit the dialog.
5
Click the Peak/Group Tables button from the command ribbon.
Click the Groups tab to view the group table.
6
The Group Type field should show Named Peaks. Click the
Group Def arrow to review the calibrated peaks selected for this
group. See Peak Group Definition for details on defining the
named peaks for this group.
Peak group definition
To review or edit the peaks in a group:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
On the command toolbar, click the Peak/Group Tables button
and then select the Groups tab.
2
For the group you wish to review or edit, click the Group Def
field. If this group is a Named Peaks group, the Peak Group
Definition dialog box will appear.
3
Note: If the group selected is not a Named Peaks group, a
different dialog box will appear. See Group Range Definition.
4
Review the list of peaks on the right. If there is a peak that you
do not want in the group, click on it with the mouse, then click
Remove Selection.
5
To add a peak to the group, select it from the Named Peaks list,
then click on Add Selection. You can quickly add or remove all
of the peaks using the Add All or Remove All buttons.
6
When you are finished, click OK. The peaks in the box labeled
Peaks in this Group will become the defined peaks for this
group, and the Group Table will appear once more.
7
If you are using a calibrated peak group, you should not enter
any Level information in the table, as the group total will be
calculated using the calibrated amounts for the individual
peaks in the group. To leave the group table, click on the upper
left corner of the Group Table spreadsheet.
201
About Calibration
Once your peak group has been defined, it can be reported by
selecting the Report groups option in the report properties.
Group range adjustment
To graphically change the Group Range, you must have the option
to display the Group Range annotation turned on.
1
To turn on the Group Range annotation, do a right mouse click
on the chromatogram and select Annotations. In the Trace
Annotation Properties dialog, select Group Range.
2
Click the Adj Group Range button
3
Select the Group Range you wish to adjust. The cursor will turn
into a two-ended arrow and two drag boxes will appear. You can
adjust the Group Range by dragging either end or by dragging
the Group Range bar itself. If you grab the bar itself and move
it, both the start and stop of the Group Range will be updated.
If you grab either end of the bar and move it, the other end of
the bar will stay in its current position and the Group Range
will be updated accordingly.
.
Note: The groups from results and the method are matched
based on group #. Therefore, you must analyze first (if the
method has changed) before doing group range graphical
programming.
4
After you have adjusted the window to your liking, press ESC
to finish.
5
In the Adjust Group Range dialog box, select Update Group.
The Group Range will be updated in the group table. Select
Analyze Now to analyze the chromatogram using the updated
Group Range.
Report group amounts
To report the group amounts in a new standard report:
202
1
In the navigation pane select Reports > Standard Report.
2
Right click in the report editor and select Insert Report > Run
Report.
3
In the Run Report dialog box select Groups.
4
To report peaks that are part of an Uncalibrated Range group,
select Unnamed peaks.
5
Select OK.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Calibration
To add the group amounts to an existing run report table:
1
In the existing run report table, right click and select Report
Properties.
2
In the Run Report dialog box select Groups.
3
To report peaks that are part of an Uncalibrated Range group,
select Unnamed peaks.
4
Select OK.
Calibrated range examples
The following example reports were generated using the peak
options for calibrated range groups, using the simple chromatogram
shown below. In this example, there are four named (calibrated )
peaks Peak 1…Peak 4, and one calibrated range group defined,
Group 1, where Peak 2 falls within the time range defined for the
group. In this situation, there are various options on how to treat
the named peak as part of the group.
The various reports are generated based on the options selected in
the Group Range Definition dialog. This appears when you define
the group graphically, or when you click the group def field in the
Group Table.
Example 1
In this example, the concentration of Peak 2 is calculated using its
own response factor and its area is used in the calculation of the
group response factor. (Include named peaks option is On.) The
concentrations of unnamed peaks in the group range are calculated
using the group response factor. The group concentration is
calculated by summing the concentrations of the peaks defined for
the group. The total group is not included in the individual peak
report, but is listed separately in the group report section. Because
the group total is not included as a separate line in the peak table,
the Area% and Norm concentrations add up to 100%. (Calculate
concentration for unnamed peaks option is On.)
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203
About Calibration
Example 2
In this example, the concentration of Peak 2 is calculated using its
own response factor and its area is used in the calculation of the
group response factor. (Include named peaks option is On.) The
concentrations of unnamed peaks in the group range are not
calculated and reported individually. The group concentration is
calculated using the total area of all defined group peaks and the
group response factor. The total group concentration is included in
the individual peak report. Because the group total is included as a
separate line in the peak table, the Area% and Norm concentrations
do not add up to 100%. (Calculate concentration for unnamed peaks
option is Off.)
Example 3
In this example, the concentration of Peak 2 is calculated and
reported using its own response factor. Its area is NOT used in the
calculation of the group response factor. (Include named peaks
option is Off.) The concentrations of unnamed peaks in the group
range are calculated using the group response factor. The group
concentration is calculated by summing the concentrations of the
peaks defined for the group. The total group is not included in the
individual peak report, but is listed separately in the group report
section. Because the group total is not included as a separate line in
the peak table, the Area% and Norm concentrations add up to
100%. (Calculate concentration for unnamed peaks option is On.)
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About Calibration
Example 4
In this example, the concentration of Peak 2 is calculated and
reported using its own response factor. Its area is NOT used in the
calculation of the group response factor. (Include named peaks
option is Off.) The concentrations of unnamed peaks in the group
range are not calculated and reported individually. The group
concentration is calculated using the total area of all defined group
peaks and the group response factor. The total group concentration
is included in the individual peak report. Because the group total is
included as a separate line in the peak table, the Area% and Norm
concentrations do not add up to 100%. (Calculate concentration for
unnamed peaks option is Off.)
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About Reports
About Reports
Standard Reports and Method Reports use the Report Editor, which
is similar to a word processing program. You can change fonts,
colors, margins, insert chromatograms, graphics, system
information, even multimedia sound and video clips.
Advanced Reports use a spreadsheet approach. Formulas can be
entered for creating a customized display of simple statistics or
complex mathematical computations for the data.
Intelligent Reports provide an easy way to create and modify
templates.
Standard report templates are provided to enable you to easily
print reports.
See Also
About Report Templates
Standard Reports
Advanced Reports
Intelligent Reports
Standard Report Templates
About Sequence Reports
About report templates
Report templates are report designs that enable you to customize
your reporting by creating a report design that can be reused or
modified as desired.
A suite of standard report templates for all types of reports is
provided. These can be used as-is or can be modified and saved as
new templates.
Standard Report Templates
Standard templates for all reports are provided with the data
system, however you may wish to create your own or edit the
templates provided. Standard report templates (Area %, External
Standard, Internal Standard, and Normalization) are provided and
have the .SRP extension. You can create new standard report
templates by saving your report template using the .SRP extension.
Examples of the standard reports can be found in the Standard
Report Templates section.
Sequence Reports
Sequence summary reports are created and saved using the
Advanced Reports editor. Sequence report templates are not saved
as part of the sequence file, and therefore must be saved as a
template file if you want to use a sequence report template to
generate a report. Standard sequence report templates provided
(Calibration, Summary, Duplicate, QCCheckStd, Spike, and
SysSuit), have the .brp, .tpl, or .rdl extension. See About Sequence
Reports and About Sequence Summary Reports.
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About Reports
Sequence report templates are used for reporting data generated
during batch sequence operations. For example, certain Run Types
require a report template for reporting the data. When you
designate a run as a Begin Summary run, for example, you will be
required to designate a template name for the summary report.
Other run types requiring templates include Suitability, QC Check
Standards, and Duplicates.
Standard reports
Create and edit Standard reports and Method reports in the report
editor.
See Also
Open a Standard Report
Open a Method Report
Save a Standard Report
Save a Method Report
Using the Report Editor
Open a standard report
To open a blank standard report, in the navigation pane select the
Report > Standard Report.
Open a method report
To open a method report, select Method > Report. The report editor
will open with either a blank page where you will create your
report, or the current method custom report.
Click the Edit the Custom Report button
report for editing.
to open the method
The Method Report is part of the method and is not saved as a
template.
Save a standard report
To save a standard report with the current file name:
Select File > Save > Standard Report.
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207
About Reports
To save a standard report with a new file name:
1
Select File > Save As > Standard Report.
2
The Save Standard Report Template File As dialog box opens to
the template folder in your project files, and Save as type is set
to .rep.
3
In the File name field, type the filename, or select it from the
drop down list.
4
Select Save.
Save a method report
The Method Report is part of the method and is not saved as a
template.
If you have opened a method report that is linked to a method, it is
saved automatically when you close the report.
Using the report editor
The Report Editor allows you to create and edit reports.
The Report Editor is similar to a word processing program. You can
change fonts, colors, margins, insert chromatograms, graphics,
system information, even multimedia sound and video clips.
In addition to free-form text, you can select a wide variety of
information and objects to be placed in your report. These items are
presented in four categories:




208
Field items are individual fields of information related to the
current data. File name, method name, and injection volume
are examples of chromatography field items.
Graph items generally contain groups of graphically related
information that belong together. Chromatograms are examples
of graph items. These items can be placed, moved, and edited
independently of other items on the report.
Reports are tables of information where the user defines the
columns. A report table can include, for example, compound
name, retention time, and concentration, and/or a variety of
other sample-related items. Report tables can be formatted with
fonts, centering, and decimal places. Reports are inserted as
tables, because the number of rows is dynamic and can change
from run to run.
Object items are non-chromatography objects that enhance or
aid in the usefulness of your report. These objects can include
bitmap graphics, Excel spreadsheets or graphs, audio or video
clips.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Reports
See Also
Basic Report Editor Functions
Using Print Preview
Short-Cuts
Create Headers and Footers
Add Lines and Boxes
Add Fields
Add a Chromatogram
Import a Report
Place a Graph Next to a Report
Add Objects
Adding a Calibration Curve
Print Reports
Insert a Report Table
Basic report editor functions
To set default font:
1
In the report editor, click the right mouse button and select
Edit > Text > Font.
2
In the font dialog box, select font, font style, size, color, and
effects.
3
Select OK.
These commands are also available on the toolbar. You can use the
drop-down font selection to change the current font, or to quickly
change a section of highlighted text without changing the default
font. Use the color button, along with the Bold, Italic, Underline,
and strike-through buttons to quickly format these aspects of the
text.
To set justification:
In the report editor, click the right mouse button and select Edit >
Text > Left Justify, Center Justify, or Right Justify. These
commands are also available on the toolbar.
To add/remove bullets:
In the report editor, click the right mouse button and select Edit >
Text > Bullets. `
This command is also available on the toolbar
.
To turn off the bullets, click the Bullets button again.
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About Reports
To add borders and shading:
1
In the report editor, click the right mouse button and select
Edit > Text > Borders and Shading.
This command is also available on the toolbar
.
2
Select the check boxes where the border or shading is to appear.
3
Type the percent of shading to apply, if desired.
4
Click OK to apply the borders and shading.
To set the zoom Levels:
Select the level of magnification for viewing your report by clicking
the Zoom button on the command ribbon, then selecting the zoom
level. You can zoom in to get a close-up view of your document
(increase %zoom), or zoom out to see more of the page at a reduced
size (decrease %zoom).
To set default margins:
To set margins for the report, click the right mouse button, followed
by Margin Setup… A dialog will appear for you to enter the units
(inches or centimeters) and margins for the page (right, left, top,
and bottom).
Other features:





210
Ruler which shows position relative to the page. Black arrows
that can be dragged to suit your needs indicate margins and
indents.
Command ribbon that contains frequently used commands for
formatting. These buttons include bold, italic, underline, strikethrough, color, left justify, center, right justify, view
header/footer, add buttons, borders/shading, and zoom. When
clicked, the formatting represented by these buttons will be
applied to any text or item currently selected. Once a
formatting button is clicked, it remains in effect for new text
until the button is clicked again.
Right mouse click access to menus for inserting chromatograms,
report objects, chromatography, method information, and
electronic results signoff fields.
Items inserted into the report must first be activated by
clicking on them in order to edit or move them.
Report tables can be removed quickly with a right mouse click
inside the table, followed by selecting the Delete Table
command.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Reports
Using print preview
You can preview the current custom report by clicking the Print
Preview button on the command ribbon, or by doing a right mouse
click followed by Print Preview… . The Print Preview screen allows
you to examine one or two pages of the current report at a time.
When you are in the print preview screen, the cursor temporarily
turns into a magnifying glass image. You can click on a location of
the report to zoom in for details.
Print
Click this button to print the report.
Next Page
Click this button to view the next page of the report.
Prev Page
Click this button to view the previous page of the report.
Two Pages
Click this button to view two pages of the report at a time.
Zoom In
Click this button to zoom in on the chromatogram. This has the
same effect as clicking on the report when the cursor has a
magnifying glass shape.
Zoom Out
Click this button to zoom out one level.
Close
Click this button to return to the custom report editor.
Short-Cuts
There are a number of short-cut ways to customize the appearance
of the information in the report editor.
Quick-Undo
If you want to reverse, or undoan action you just performed,
press Ctrl-Z. The action (such as insert a field) most recently
performed will be reversed. This is the same as doing a right
mouse click followed by the Edit > Undo command.
Select all
Press Ctrl-A to select the entire custom report.
Quick copy/cut/paste
Press Ctrl-C to copy the selected item.
Press Ctrl-V to paste the item.
Press Ctrl-X to cut a selected item.
Forcing a Page Break
When you want to cause a certain element of your report to be
printed always at the top of a new page, you should insert a
page break before that item.
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About Reports
To insert a page break on your custom report, position your
cursor at the point where you want the new page to begin, then
press Ctrl Enter on your keyboard. This will force whatever
follows in the report to be printed on a new page of paper when
the report is printed. A page break is indicated on the custom
report template by a dotted line that extends completely across
the page. To remove a page break, move the cursor to just below
the page break line, and press the Backspace key until the page
break is removed.
Tab Stops
Tab stops are used to align items on a page. By default, tab
stops are set every ½ inch. However, you can move the tab stops
so that there is room between items to accommodate changes
(such as field items that change in length). To set a new tab
stop, use your mouse to insertthe tab onto the ruler bar at the
top of the page, as described below. Once you have inserted a
new tab stop, you can move it by clicking and draggingit to a
new location on the horizontal ruler. To remove a tab stop, click
on it and dragit completely to the left of the horizontal ruler.
Left Tab Stop
Click the left mouse button on the ruler at the
location for the new tab. A left tab stop left-justifies tabbed text
to that location.
Right Tab Stop Click the right mouse button on the ruler at
the location for the new tab. A right tab stop right-justifies
tabbed text to that location.
Center Tab Stop
Hold the shift key down and click the left
mouse button on the ruler at the location for the new tab. A
center tab stop center-justifies tabbed text to that location.
Numeric Tab Stop
Hold the shift key down and click the
right mouse button on the ruler at the location for the new tab.
A numeric tab stop aligns the tabbed text to the decimal point.
Create headers and footers
If you want to enter information that will appear on every page of
your report, click the View Header/Footer button or click the right
mouse button anywhere in the report area, then select
Header/Footer. This will allow you view and edit the header and
footer area of your report. To edit the header or footer, click your
mouse in the displayed header or footer area and enter the
information you want to include. Note that this area can contain
both free text as well as chromatography fields and objects. It may
not include report tables or drawing objects.
When you have finished formatting the header and/or footer, you
can turn off the display of the header and footer by again clicking
the View Header/Footer toolbar button, or the right mouse button,
followed by Header/Footer. Note the check mark next to
Header/Footer is turned off.
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About Reports
Add lines and boxes
You can add emphasis to your report by drawing lines, rectangles,
and text boxes.
Draw and move a line
To add a line to your report, click the right mouse button and select
Drawing > Line.
A line will appear at the location of your cursor. Activate the line by
clicking on it with the mouse. A box will appear at each end of the
line and the cursor will change to a +. You can click and drag the
line handles to change its size and orientation on the page (angle).
You can also drag and drop the line by selecting it with your mouse,
holding down the mouse button and dragging the line to a new
location on the report.
Draw and move a rectangle
To add a box to your report, click the right mouse button and select
Drawing > Rectangle.
A rectangle will appear on the report where your cursor was
located. To size the box, click on it, then drag the edges to the size
desired. To move the box, click the box to activate it, then move the
cursor to just outside the box, where the cursor becomes a +. Then
hold down the mouse button and drag and drop the box in its new
position.
Draw and move a text box
To add a text box to your report, click the right mouse button and
select Drawing > Text Box.
A rectangle will appear with a cursor where you can type text. This
tool creates an independent text box in the location of your cursor.
To move the text box, click the text box to activate it, then move the
cursor to just outside the text box, where the cursor becomes a +.
Then hold down the mouse button and drag and drop the box in its
new position.
Positioning Graphs Next to Tables
You can use the Text Box function to move a chromatogram or
other graph to a position next to a report table. To do this, first
create a text box. Then click inside the text box and insert a graph.
Once the graph is inserted in the text box, you can use the drag and
drop feature of the text box to move the chromatogram or graph to a
position adjacent to a report table on your custom report. Note that
you cannot place a report in a text box. See Place a Graph Next to a
Report.
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About Reports
Add fields
To add a selected field of information:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click where you want to
insert the field, and then click Insert Field.
2
Select the field you wish to insert from the selections shown.
When you click on any of the Field items, it will be placed on your
report at the current location of your cursor. These items can be
placed individually, or they can be grouped together to create a
custom area of chromatography information for your report. These
items are updated to reflect current data information whenever a
report is printed or viewed. They can also be updated by choosing
the Update Fields command from the right mouse click menu, or by
pressing the F9 key to update the current field.
Note: The directory path shown for data files in reports is the
originally specified directory path, even if the data has been
subsequently moved.
Once a field is added to the report, you can move it, change the font,
and the appearance. The formatting will remain constant, however
the field information will change as each report is printed to reflect
the current information.
Add a chromatogram
You can include as many chromatograms in your report as you
wish. Each chromatogram can appear in its own region, or you can
display multiple chromatograms, pump profiles, or graphs in the
same region. You can include chromatograms that have been saved
on disk, and you can include current data that will change as each
run is acquired.
To add a chromatogram or trace:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click where you want to
insert the trace and then click Insert Graph followed by Data
Graph.
2
In the Data Graph Properties dialog box, select the data source
and set the appearance and annotations desired for the graph.
The spreadsheet allows you to add chromatograms or other
traces to the current graph. Each row represents a trace which
will appear in this graph. For each row, you must designate
how you want the data to be displayed.
3
After the graph has been inserted, to modify any of these items
or add traces, click the right mouse button anywhere in the
trace box, and make the desired changes.
Note: If you insert Current Data into your report, it will be
updated whenever your current data changes. Therefore you can
see the effects of integration by clicking the Analysis button while
you are in the custom report screen.
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Import a report
You can import an existing report template into a report in the
report editor. When you import a report template, it will replace the
current report template.
To import an existing report:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click and then select
Import Report You will be asked if you want to overwrite your
current report.
2
If you click Yes, a dialog box opens where you can select the
report you want to import. When you select the new report and
click Open, the current report information will be replaced with
the selected report.
3
If you click No, the existing report will remain and no report
import will be performed.
Place a graph next to a report
To insert a chromatogram (or other graph) adjacent to a report:
1
To draw a text box on your report, click the right mouse button
and select Drawing > Text Box.
2
To insert a chromatogram (or other graph) into the text box,
click the right mouse button and select Insert Graph > Data
Graph.
3
To move the text box with the chromatogram/graph inside, click
on the border of the text box until the black rectangular
handles appear. Then move the cursor just outside the border
until the cursor turns to crosshair +. Then hold down the left
mouse button and drag the text box with the graph a new
location (for example, next to a report) and then release the
mouse button.
4
To edit the chromatogram/graph (annotations, etc.), doubleclick the mouse within the chromatogram/graph. Make sure you
have selected the chromatogram and not the text box. To resize
the chromatogram, select the text box (look for the text box
handles), then click and drag the handles to the desired size.
Note that you cannot place a report in a text box.
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Add objects
Custom reports have full Object Linking and Embedding (OLE)
support. This means you can add objects that are linked to other
Windows applications, such as Excel. You can even add a video clip
or voice recording to your report. These items are added as Objects
to your report.
A variety of objects (graphs, charts, bitmaps, logos, word
documents) can be added to a custom report.
To add an object to your report:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click at the location where
you want to insert the object. Click Insert Object….
2
In the Insert Object dialog box, select Create New to create a
new object of the selected Object Type, or select Create from file
to browse to and select the object from existing files. If creating
from a file, click the Link box to create a link from the report to
the object in the report.
3
Click Display as icon to display the object as an icon in the
editor. You can also select an icon to use for the object if this is
selected.
There are a variety of object types to insert, based on the
applications you have installed on your computer. For many
selections, inserting an object will cause an application to
runwithin your report editor, allowing you to modify and edit the
object. To exit the application back into the custom report, simply
click anywhere outside the object area on the report. You can create
a new object to insert, or you can open an existing object file to
insert.
For example, a Microsoft Excel chart can be inserted as an object
into the custom report. When the Excel chart is inserted, the menus
and ribbons from Microsoft Excel become available and are active
for you to edit and modify the object.
If an OLE object, such as a Microsoft Excel chart, is inserted as a
linked object it will be updated automatically in the custom report
if the chart changes. This creates a very efficient way of combining
data for reports.
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Adding a calibration curve
1
In the report editor, click the right mouse button and select
Insert Graph/Calibration Curve.
2
In the Calibration Curve Properties dialog box, complete the
following fields:

Source - Select the source of the calibration curve data from
the Source drop-down list. Choose Peaks, Groups, or
Template to select what calibration peak table to use.
You should select Template only if you are editing a
calibration report template. If you select this option within
a method report template, the information will not be
printed. If you select Template, calibration curves for all
peaks in the calibration will automatically be printed as
defined in the .crp calibration report template file.


3
Trace - For the calibration curve trace, select the specific
data to be displayed. When you select a data channel for the
trace, you must then select a Peak from the list. This peak
will always be displayed.
View Replicate Points - Click this box if you want replicate
data points to be displayed on the report calibration curve.
Click OK to enter the calibration curve into your custom report.
Print reports
You can print reports in one of four ways:




From within the report editor. To print a report from the report
editor, use either the Print button in Print Preview, or print the
report directly by doing a right mouse click followed by Print.
From an instrument window. To print the current method or
sequence report, from the menu bar click Reports followed by
Print and then select the report you want to print.
As a part of data acquisition or reprocessing. A custom report
can be printed at the end of each analysis, at the end of a data
acquisition run, during or at the end of a sequence. When
starting a single run, sequence run, or reprocessing a sequence,
select the Print Hardcopy and select Method or Sequence. When
this box is checked, a report will be printed at the end of the
run.
Sequence reports are not printed unless the Print Sequence
Reports option is selected in the Run Type column of the
sequence spreadsheet. See About Sequence Reports.
Note: When opening an instrument on-line, the configured printer
is remembered for that instrument regardless of the user. When
opening an instrument off-line, the configured printer is
remembered for the user of that instrument.
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Insert a report table
Report tables can be inserted into a standard report. The following
topics describe the types, creation, and editing of report tables.
See Also
Add a Report Table
Change a Report Table Parameter
Edit the Appearance of a Report Table
Show Report Data at Design Time
Delete a Report Table
Types of Report Tables
Add a report table
There are a variety of report tables you can add to your standard
report.
To add a report table:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click where you want to
add the report table, then click Insert Report... A list of
available report tables will be displayed.
2
Select the report type you want to insert from the following
options:
Baseline Check Report
Use this command to insert a table with Baseline Check
information.
Calibration Info
Use this command to insert a table containing details of your
calibration.
Calibration Table
Use this command to insert a table containing the peak
calibration details into your report.
Data Audit Trail
Use this to insert the data file audit trail table into your report.
Electronic Signatures Table
Use this command to insert the electronic signatures table into
the report.
Extra Sequence Columns
Use this command to insert a table containing name and data
for extra sequence columns.
Fraction Report
Use this command to insert a table containing fraction report
information.
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Generic Report
Use this command to insert a report table file that was created
by a user program. A dialog requests you to enter the filename
for the generic report file. You can also select the file by clicking
the Open button.
For details on the required format for generic reports, see About
Generic Report Tables.
Instrument Activity Log
Use this command to create or update the template for viewing
and printing Instrument Activity logs (LogViewInstActReport.lrp).
Instrument Configuration Report
Use this command to insert a configuration report for the
instrument into your report.
Library Definition Report
Use this command to insert a table containing Library
Definitions.
Library Search Report
Use this command to insert a library search report.
Method Audit Trail
Use this command to create or update the template for viewing
and printing the Method Audit Trail
(LogViewMethodAuditReport.lrp).
Method Report
Use this command to insert a report containing method details
into your report.
Purity Report
Use this command to insert a purity report.
Run Report
Use this command to insert a table containing chromatography
results into your report.
Sequence Audit Trail
Use this command to insert the sequence audit trail into your
report.
Spectrum Report
Use this command to insert the spectrum report into your
custom report.
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Change a report table parameter
To change a report parameter without re-defining the entire report:
1
In the header of the report table, do a right mouse click and
select Change Parameter.
2
The currently-selected parameter is highlighted. Select the new
parameter from the list of available parameters.
3
Enter the number of decimal places to be displayed (for
numerical parameters).
4
Type the parameter name as you want it to appear in Column
Header.
5
Click OK to replace the selected parameter with the new one.
Note: This command can be used to replace existing parameters or
to update them with new column header name or decimal places.
The current parameter is selected. To change it, simply click on
another parameter in the list, then click OK.
Edit the appearance of a report table
The right mouse click gives you access to commands for modifying
the report table.
Change Column Width
To change a column width, move the cursor over the border of the
column until double vertical lines appear. Hold down the mouse
button and drag the column border to the width you require.
Change Fonts
To change a font for text in the table, select the text by highlighting
it with the mouse, or click once in the field. Then choose one of the
formatting buttons to change the formatting to desired appearance.
You can change formatting for both column headings and sample
data areas.
Change Column Titles/Headers
Default titles for each parameter selected for the report will be
displayed. You can change the column titles by editing them in the
Column Header box in the right mouse click/Report Properties
dialog. You cannot change the data fields other than formatting
changes.
Delete a report table
Report tables can be removed quickly with a right mouse click
inside the table, followed by selecting the Delete Table command.
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Show report data at design time
By default, the software displays template fields when you create
report tables in a standard report, without the actual data
displayed.
To view the actual data while editing the template, in a table in the
report editor, do a right mouse click and then click Show Data at
Design Time. When this is enabled, the data for the report table
will always be displayed in the template while you are editing.
Delete a report table
To delete a table:
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1
In the report window, do a right mouse click inside the table,
followed by selecting the Delete Table command.
2
Click Yes to confirm that you want to delete the table from the
report.
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Types of report tables
To place the following reports into a standard report, right click in
the report editor and select Insert Report.
* A number of quality control reports can be generated
automatically as you run a sequence. They are selected in the Run
Type column of the Sequence. The values used to test the results of
a sequence analysis are set in the Peak Table of the Method for
each component in the analysis. See About Sequence Reports.
See Also
Insert Calibration Information
Insert a Calibration Report
Insert Electronic Signatures
Insert a Filtered Method Report
Insert a Generic Report
Insert an Instrument Activity Log
Insert an Instrument Configuration Report
Insert a Method Audit Trail Report
Insert a Method Report
Insert a Run Report
Modify Run Report Information
Insert a Sequence Calibration Report
Insert a Sequence Check Standard Report *
Insert a Sequence Duplicate Report *
Insert a Sequence Spike Report *
Insert a Sequence Table (Customized)
Insert a Sequence Table (Full)
Insert a System Suitability Report *
Insert a Fraction Report
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Insert calibration information
To add the calibration information:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click where you want to
insert the calibration information, and then click Insert Report
followed by Calibration Info.
2
In the Calibration Info Setup dialog box, complete the following
fields:

Source - Select the source of the calibration information
from the Calibration Data Source/Source drop-down list.
Choose Peaks, Groups, or Templates to select what
calibration peak table to use.
Select Template only if you are creating or editing a
calibration report template. If you select this for a method
report, the information will not be printed. When you select
Template, calibration information for all peaks in the
calibration will automatically be printed, as defined in the
Calibration.brp calibration report template file.

Detector

Peak
Insert a calibration report
To add a calibration table to a report:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click where you want to
add the calibration table and then click Insert Report followed
by Calibration Report.
2
Select the calibration report options in the dialog box and then
click OK.


Detector

Peak



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Source - Select the source of the calibration table from the
Calibration Data Source/Source drop-down list. Choose
Peaks, Groups, or Templates to select what calibration peak
table to use. Do not select Template unless you are creating
or editing a calibration report template. If you select
Template, calibration tables for all peaks in the calibration
will automatically be printed as defined in the .crp template.
View Replicate RF - Click this box if you want to display
response factors for all replicates in the calibration table.
View Replicate Identification Information - Click this box if
you want to display the User, Sample ID, and Calib Time
for each replicate.
Number of levels to print before break - Enter the number
of calibration levels to print on each line.
Click OK to accept and enter the calibration table on your
custom report template. A calibration table can be removed
quickly with a right mouse click inside the table, followed by
selecting the Delete Table command
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Insert electronic signatures
To add an electronic signature table, in the custom report window,
do a right mouse click in the report, then select Insert Report
followed by Electronic signatures table. This command will insert a
table that contains the electronic signatures for this data file into
your report.
To delete an electronic signatures table, do a right mouse click in
the table, then select Delete table and click OK.
Insert a filtered method report
A filtered method report is a condensed method report that can be
inserted into a custom report. The Filtered Method Report Layout
must be created ahead of time in order to appear in the list of
filtered method layouts.
To insert a Filtered Method Report:
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click followed by Insert
Report and then select Filtered Method Report.
2
Select the filtered method report layout to be inserted. A
filtered method report layout must be available in order to use
this feature. Once you have selected the report layout, it will be
inserted into your report.
Insert a generic report
Use this command to insert a report table file that was created by a
user program.
To insert a generic report:
1
In the navigation pane, select Reports > Standard Report.
2
In the report editor, right click and select Insert Report >
Generic Report.
3
A dialog requests you to enter the filename for the generic
report file. You can also select the file by clicking the Open
button.
For details on the required format for generic reports, see the
Generic Report Tables topic.
Insert an instrument activity log
To insert a copy of the instrument activity log:
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1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click at the
location where you want to insert the report, then click Insert
Report followed by Instrument Activity Log.
2
A table for the instrument activity log will be inserted in your
report. This table is a template placeholder and will not display
the actual instrument activity report until the custom report is
printed.
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Insert an instrument configuration report
To add and view a listing of the current instrument configuration:
1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click at the
location where you want to insert the report, then click Insert
Report > Instrument Configuration Report.
2
A table for the instrument configuration report will be inserted
onto your report. The instrument configuration information can
be viewed using Print Preview.
Insert a method audit trail report
To insert a listing of the current method’s Audit trail:
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1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click at the
location where you want to insert the Audit Trail Report, then
click Insert Report followed by Method Audit Trail.
2
A table template for the audit trail report will be inserted on
your custom report template. This table is a template
placeholder and will not display the actual audit trail report
until the custom report is printed.
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Insert a method report
To add details about the current method to your report, select the
Method Report option from the right mouse click>Insert Report
menu. A dialog box appears where you select the items from the
method you wish to include in your report.
Use the drop-down menu to select the channel(s) from which to
display method information. Then select the method items to
display by clicking the check-boxes adjacent to the desired items.
When finished, click OK.
A method report can be deleted from the custom report template by
a right mouse click inside the table, followed by the Delete Table
command.
Insert a run report
To add run details to a report:
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1
In the report window, do a right mouse click where you want to
insert the run information, and then click Insert
Report followed by Run Report.
2
In the dialog box, designate items for your report.
3
Click OK to insert the run details table into your report.
Data Source
Select the Data Source (current data or stored data file) and the Channel
from which you want to display information.
Report
Use the check boxes to select what peaks you want to report.
Named Peaks
Choose All if you want to report all calibrated peaks, whether detected or
not. Choose Detected Only if you want to report only the calibrated peaks
detected in the sample.
Unnamed Peaks
Click here if you want to include unnamed peaks in your report. A separate
table is not generated. When an unnamed peak is part of an uncalibrated
group, the group name is used for each peak in the peak name field in the
report.
Groups
Click here if you want to include defined groups in your report.
Totals
Click here if you want to include totals for numeric columns in your report.
Available
Parameters
A list of the possible parameters to report is displayed in this box. To add
one of the parameters to your report, double-click on it, or click on it with the
mouse to select it, then click the Green arrow to move it to the Report the
following parameters box. You may select one or more of the parameters
at a time by holding down either the Shift key (to select contiguous
parameters), or the Ctrl key (to select non-contiguous parameters).
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Decimals
For each numeric parameter, you can enter the number of decimal places to
be displayed. Click the parameter in the Report the following parameters
box, then type the number of decimals to be shown for that parameter.
Default decimals will appear for all numeric parameters.
Column Header Use this box to enter or edit the title that will appear at the top of the
column.
Click OK to insert the report table into your custom report at the
current location of your cursor. The report table will appear on your
custom report page, with column headings and data placeholders
shown.
Modify the run report information
Once you have inserted a Run Report in your report, you can edit
that information.
To edit the run report information:
1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click in the run
report table, and select Report Properties.
2
In the dialog box, redefine or add items to your report.
3
When you are finished, click OK.
Insert a sequence calibration report
To add a sequence calibration report:
1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click at the
location where you want to insert the report, then click Insert
Report followed by Sequence Calibration.
2
A table template will be inserted into your sequence report for
the sequence calibration report. Note that this table contains
placeholder information only - it does not contain data from
your system.
Note: In order for your sequence report to contain valid Calibration
Report information when it is printed, you must make sure your
method and sequence are set up to create a sequence calibration
report. Make sure your Method Peak Table contains RF %RSD
Limit values for peaks in your calibration. Also, make sure the
sequence table contains correct Run Types for Begin Calibration,
End Calibration, and Print Calibration at the appropriate runs in
the sequence.
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Insert a sequence check standard report
If you want your sequence report to include a Sequence Check
Standard report:
1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click followed by
Insert Report and then click Sequence Check Standard.
2
At the prompt, indicate whether you want to include Fully
Qualified file names. Check the box if you want to include full
paths in the file names.
3
A table template will be inserted into your report for the
sequence check standard report. Note that this table contains
placeholder information only - it does not contain data from
your system.
In order for your sequence report to contain valid check standard
information when it is printed, you must make sure your method
and sequence are set up to create a sequence check standard report.
In the Peak Table of the Method, the concentration of the compound
in the check sample is entered as the Check Std Conc value. The %
relative difference limit between the actual amount and the calculated
amount is entered as Check Std % RD.
In the Sequence, select QC Check Std in the Run Type column for
the samples to be used as QC check standard.
After the QC check samples have been analyzed, the QC Check
Standard Report is printed showing the expected concentration
value from the Peak Table, the calculated concentration, the
calculated % relative difference for the sample, the % relative
difference limit from the Peak Table and the Pass/Fail status of the
result.
The following is an example of a QC Check Standard report.
QC Check Standard Report
The following equation is used in this QC Standard report:
%RD = Abs | Expected Conc - Actual Conc | * 100
Expected Conc
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Insert a sequence duplicate report
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click followed by Insert
Report and then click Sequence Duplicate.
2
At the prompt, indicate whether you want to include Fully
Qualified file names. Check the box if you want to include full
paths in the file names.
3
A template will be inserted into your report for the sequence
duplicate report. Note that this table contains placeholder
information only - it does not contain data from your system.
In order for your sequence report to contain valid duplicate report
information when it is printed, you must make sure your method
and sequence are set up to create a sequence duplicate report.
In the Peak Table of the Method, the % relative difference limit for
the calculated concentrations between duplicate samples is entered
as the Dup % RD value.
In the Sequence, select Duplicate in the Run Type column for the
samples of interest. For each duplicate, you must also designate the
Duplicate Level for that sample (for example, Duplicate 1 and
Duplicate 2).
After Duplicate samples are analyzed, the QC Duplicate Report is
printed showing the calculated concentrations of the two samples,
the mean value of the concentrations, calculated % relative
difference between the two, the % relative difference limits entered
in the Peak Table and the Pass/Fail status of the results.
The following is an example of a QC Duplicate report.
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About Reports
The following equations are used in this QC Duplicate report:
Mean Conc = Dup 1 Conc + Dup 2 Conc
2
%RD = | Dup 2 Conc - Dup 1 Conc | * 100
Mean Conc
Insert a sequence spike report
To add a Sequence Spike report:
1
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click, and then
click Insert Report followed by Sequence Spike.
2
Select the Spike/Unspike button if the report is to cover a
spiked sample followed by an unspiked sample. Select the Spike
2 of 2 button if you wish a QC Spike report where the unspiked
sample is followed by the first spiked sample, followed by the
second spiked sample.
3
Check the Fully qualified filenames box if you want to include
full paths in the file names.
4
Click OK. A table template will be inserted into your report for
the sequence Spike report. Note that this table contains
placeholder information only - it does not contain data from
your system.
In order for your sequence report to contain valid spike information
when it is printed, you must make sure your method and sequence
are set up to create a sequence Spike report.
In the Peak Table of the Method, entries are made for the Spike 1
Amount and Spike 2 Amount (if two spiked samples are to be run),
the Low Spike Limit and the High Spike Limit. The Low and High
Spike limit values are entered as a percentage recovery used to
determine whether the test passes or fails.
In the Sequence, one sample must have an unspiked Run Type.
This is the sample that is not spiked. This sample must be followed
by the spiked sample. This sample is identical to the unspiked
sample, except that it has been spiked with the standard
component(s).
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After the unspiked and spiked samples are analyzed, a report is
printed, showing the calculated concentration of the compound(s) in
the unspiked sample, the amount(s) entered for the spiked
amount(s), the calculated concentration(s) for the spiked sample(s)
and the percentage(s) of the spiked amount(s) that is recovered. The
recovery percent value is compared to the Low and High Limit
values, and the status of the results (Low, High or OK) is printed.
The following is an example of a QC Spike report (template
Spike1.brp), where the unspiked sample is followed by the spiked
sample.
Spike Report
The following equation is used in this QC Spike report:
Spike Recovery = 100 x Spiked Conc. – Unspiked Conc
Spiked Amt
Insert a sequence table (customized)
The Sequence Print Table contains the information from all rows in
the sequence.
To add a Sequence Print Table to a report:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the report editor, do a right mouse click where you want to
insert the table and click Insert Report followed by Sequence
Table (Customized).
2
In the displayed Properties, select or clear the check boxes for
the items you want to include in the report. Click Select All to
quickly select all of the check boxes or click Clear All to quickly
clear all of the check boxes. When finished, click OK to insert
the table in the report.
3
To modify the report, in the report table area do a right mouse
click to access the options menu for the report. Click the Text
command to change the font and justification of text in the
report. Click the Show Data at Design Time to populate the
table with data from the current sequence as you design the
table. Click Delete Table to remove the table from the report.
Click Properties to open the table properties dialog box where
you can change the contents of the table.
4
Select the Print Preview button.
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Insert a sequence table (Full)
The Full Sequence Print Table contains the information from all
rows and columns in the sequence.
To add a Sequence Print Table to a report:
1
In the report window, do a right mouse click where you want to
insert the table and click Insert Report followed by Sequence
Table (Full).
2
To modify the report, in the report table area do a right mouse
click to access the options menu for the report. Click the Text
command to change the font and justification of text in the
report. Click the Show Data at Design Time to populate the
table with data from the current sequence as you design the
table. Click Delete Table to remove the table from the report.
Click Properties to open the table properties dialog box where
you can change the contents of the table.
3
Select the Print Preview button.
Insert a system suitability report
To add a System Suitability report to your report:
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click, and then click
Insert Report followed by System Suitability.
A table template will be inserted into your report for the sequence
System Suitability report. Note that this table contains placeholder
information only - it does not contain data from your system.
In order for your report to contain valid check standard information
when it is printed, you must make sure your method and sequence
are set up to create a sequence System Suitability report. For
details on how to do this, see the System Suitability section.
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Insert a fraction report
In the report editor window, do a right mouse click at the location
where you want to insert the report, then select Insert Report >
Fraction Report. A table for the fraction report will be inserted in
your report. The following is an example of a Fraction Report.
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Advanced reporting
The Advanced Reporting feature uses a spreadsheet format to make
it easy to create complex customized reports. A variety of advanced
report templates are provided for you that can be easily modified to
suit your application (sequence summary reports, for example, are
created using an advanced report template). In addition, you can
create completely customized report templates that extract
virtually any data or file information and apply mathematical
functions to it. For example, you can create reports that combine
peak data from multiple channels into a single report. Or, you can
take the results from a sequence of runs and calculate statistical
analysis on them.
Each advanced report begins as an advanced report template. Once
the report template is created and saved, it can be used to create
and print reports from sequence runs or sequence reprocessing by
designating the report template from the Run Type of the run in
the sequence.
Note: In order to export advanced reports, a printer must be
configured on the computer doing the exporting.
See Also
Create an Advanced Report Template
Format Cell Style for Advanced Reports
Define an Advanced Report Header/Footer
Add a Chart to an Advanced Report
Add Color to Cells in an Advanced Report
Change Advanced Report Grid Properties
Add a Table using the Table Wizard
Add a Function Using the Function Wizard
Advanced Report Audit Trail
View Advanced Reports Audit Trail Log
Save the Advanced Report as a Template
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Create an advanced report template
To create a new advanced report template:
1
In the Navigation pane, select Reports > Advanced Report. A
blank spreadsheet template will appear.
2
Define the new template by inserting data series, formulas and
text into the cells of the spreadsheet. You can also define a
header and footer, insert charts of data, and format the cells.
See Advanced Reporting above for links to these topics.
3
Select File > Save As > Advanced Report. In the Save Advanced
Report File As dialog box, navigate to the template folder.
Enter a File name and select Save.
Format cell style for advanced reports
There are a wide variety of ways to automatically format the style
of the selected cell (or cells).
1
Select a cell to format, and select the Cell Style button
2
In the Cell Style dialog box, select a Category. Based on your
selection, fields on the right may be come active to further
define the cell style.
3
Under Decimal places, enter the number of decimal places to be
displayed for numeric data.
4
Select from the following:



CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
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Floating - If this is selected, text or numeric data that
exceeds the width of the cell will automatically floatinto the
next cell (if empty). If this selection is Off, the text or data
that extends beyond the limits of the cell width will be
either truncated, or displayed with an overflow indicator
selected.
Word Wrap - When this button is selected, information
entered into a cell will be wrapped to the next line when the
end of the cell is encountered.
Normal - When this button is selected, information will be
displayed in the default mode.
5
In the Overflow indicator drop down box, select the way cells
that overflow are to be displayed: with no indicator, with
ellipsis (e.g. cell overflow is…), or with pound sign (#########).
6
Select OK.
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Define an advanced report header/footer
To define the header and/or footer for the report, click the right
mouse button on the spreadsheet and select the Header/Footer…
command. A dialog will appear where you define the contents of
your header and footer.
Click in one of the fields of the Left Aligned, Centered, or Right
Aligned columns. You can type text that will appear with the
indicated alignment, or you can insert field codes for automatic
insertion of items such as date, time, and page numbers. When you
have a cell selected, you can change the font by clicking the Font…
button and selecting the desired font and characteristics.
Note: Font colors are not supported in the header and footer
sections.
Field codes that can be inserted in a header or footer:
$F Report Template Name
$P Page number
$N Number of pages
$SEQNUM Sequence page number
$D Date – you can specify the date formatting with an
additional parameter, as for example $D{%h:%m}
Date format codes:
%a Abbreviated weekday name
%A Full weekday name
%b Abbreviated month name
%B Full month name
%c Date and time representation appropriate for locale
%d Day of month as decimal number (01 - 31)
%H Hour in 24-hour format (00 - 23)
%I Hour in 12-hour format (01 - 12)
%j Day of year as decimal number (001 - 366)
%m Month as decimal number (01 - 12)
%M Minute as decimal number (00 - 59)
%p A.M./P.M. indicator for 12-hour clock
%S Second as decimal number (00 - 59)
%U Week of year as decimal number, with Sunday as first day
of week (00 - 51)
%w Weekday as decimal number (0 - 6; Sunday is 0)
%W Week of year as decimal number, with Monday as first day
of week (00 - 51)
%x Default Date representation
%X Default Time representation
%y Year without century, as decimal number (00 - 99)
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%Y Year with century, as decimal number
%z, %Z Time-zone name or abbreviation; no characters if time
zone is unknown
Distance to frame
The values you enter here determine how far the header and footer
are placed from the edge of the paper. This value is independent of
the paper margin, and if set incorrectly can result in overlap with
the body of the report.
To view headers and footers:
When you click the OK button, the header and footers defined will
become part of your template, however they will not appear. To
view the header and footer, click the Print Preview button and
zoom in to see the details.
Add a chart to an advanced report
To add a chart to an advanced report:
1
Open the advanced report template.
2
In the advanced report template editor, do a right mouse click
where you want to add the chart, and then click Insert followed
by Chart.
3
Complete the parameters and then click OK to insert the chart.
Chart Title
Enter a title that will appear at the top of your chart.
Font
Click this button to change the font for your chart title.
Chart Style
Select the style for your chart from the drop-down list.
Initial Cell
Enter the cell where the initial data is located (the first cell of a
series, for example). In many cases, the cell location you want to
enter is the cell where the formula for the data series is defined.
Data Set
Select whether the data series extends vertically or horizontally on
the spreadsheet.
Groups
Choose Single to display one series of data or Multiple to display
more than one series of data. For example, in a sequence summary
report where the summary table contains areas from 4 peaks in 5
runs, you would choose Single to chart areas from one peak, or
Multiple to chart areas from all 4 peaks.
Group Titles
Enter a cell reference to be used for titles(legends) for the charted
data series, or type in text to be used.
Show example chart
Check this box if you wish to view an example of the chart in your
advanced report spreadsheet. (Note: This is not the actual data. To
view the actual data in the chart, click the print preview button.)
Add a fill color to cells in an advanced report
Use the paint bucket tool to add color to cells in an advanced report.
To add a fill color to cells:
1
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Open an advanced report.
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2
Select the cells you wish to color.
3
Select a color using the arrow next to the paint bucket icon
Change advanced report grid properties
To format the general characteristics of your advanced report, click
the right mouse button in the spreadsheet, and select Grid
Properties. A dialog will appear where you can customize the grid
size, margins, page order, and default cell style.
Grid Size
You can limit the size of the report spreadsheet to make it more
manageable.
Row count
To limit the number of rows in your report, type in a number here.
Column count
Enter a number of columns for your report.
Autosize grid when
generating reports
When this is selected, the spreadsheet grid will automatically be
reduced to include only the number of rows and columns required
for your report when printing. If this is not selected, empty rows
and columns will be printed.
Page Order
Select the order for printing pages.
Margins
Enter the page margins in the fields indicated. This will establish
the margins used for printing the body of the advanced report.
Note that these margins are independent of the distance to frame
setting in header and footer.
Default Cell Style
Select the default setting for your cell style. Any cell or range of
cells can be changed from this independently.
Floating
If this is selected, text or numeric data that exceeds the width of
the cell will automatically float into the next cell (if empty). If this
selection is Off, the text or data that extends beyond the limits of
the cell width will be either truncated, or displayed with an overflow
indicator selected.
Overflow indicator
Select the way cells that overflow are to be displayed: with no
indicator, with ellipsis (e.g. cell overflow is…), or with pound sign
(#########).
Word Wrap
When this button is selected, information entered into a cell will be
wrapped to the next line when the end of the cell is encountered.
Normal
When this button is selected, information will be displayed in the
default mode.
Add a table using the table wizard
Use the Table Wizard to create tables in advanced reports.
238
1
In the navigation pane, select Reports > Advanced Report.
2
Select a cell where you would like your table to be located, and
select the Table Wizard button.
3
In the Table Type dialog box, select the type of table from those
available, and select Next.
4
In the Parameters dialog box, select Peaks or Groups from the
drop down list.
5
Select a parameter from the list on the left by double-clicking it.
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About Reports
You may select as many parameters as you wish. If the
parameter is numeric, you can enter a value for Precision, or
accept the value presented.
6
Select the Trace index of the channel you want to include (if
using a multichannel file), where 1 = first trace, 2 = second
trace, etc, and select Next.
7
In the Types dialog box, select the types of peaks or groups to be
included in your summary by checking the box(es), and select
Next.
8
In the Run Parameters dialog box, double click each parameter
you want to include for each run in the summary table, and
select Next.
9
In the Run Direction dialog box, select which direction you want
the runs to be displayed on the table, and select Next.
10 In the Statistics dialog box, select Yes if you want to include a
statistics section in your table. Calculated statistics include
Min, Max, Mean, Std. Deviation, and %RSD.
11 Select Finish. A sequence summary table will be inserted in
your Advanced Report at the current cell location.
Add a function using the function wizard
Functions bring data into the report by extracting the desired
information from the data system. The Function Wizard enables
you to select the type of information to be displayed and how it will
appear on the report. The result of your choices becomes a formula
(a combination of functions) that is placed in the currently selected
spreadsheet cell.
To use the Function Wizard:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the Navigation pane, select Reports > Advanced Report.
2
Select a cell where you would like your table to be located, and
.
select the Function Wizard button
3
The Function Wizard will step you through the following
dialogs that will help you define the information to be inserted
in the selected cell.
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About Reports
See Also
Function Wizard Select Function
Function Wizard Dynamic Data
Function Wizard Data Direction
Function Wizard Types
Function Wizard Identification
Advanced Reporting Formulas and Functions
Functional Reference
Function wizard select function
The Function Wizard options will change depending on your
selections in this dialog box.
1
In the Select Function dialog box, under Data Source select
Sequence file or Current data file.
2
Select a category from the following options:




Data - Data and parameters available in a data file
Group - Information from the group table
Instrument - Instrument parameters (ID, Name, User
Name)
Peak - Information from the peak table

Project - Project name and associated paths

Sequence - Sequence names, run numbers, and run types
3
Select a function from the list on the right. Detailed
descriptions of all functions can be found under Advanced
Reporting Formulas and Functions and Functional Reference.
4
Select Repeating formula if the formula is to be repeated for a
series of peaks or files, then select Next.
Function wizard dynamic data
This screen only appears if you have selected the Repeating
formula box. The questions here enable you to specify the source of
data for repeated formulas.
When Advanced Report is used to display dynamic data, such as
data from a sequence of runs, or peaks from every run where the
number of peaks may change, the report uses Dynamic Data
Functions. This type of function enables the report to expand or
contract by repeating the function for all data that meet the
specified requirements.
1
In the Dynamic Data dialog box, select from the following options:

240
Repeat formula for all runs in a sequence - Select this box
to extract the designated data from all runs of the sequence.
For example, if the selected function is peak area from a
sequence file, this option would enable you to select one
peak from a trace of the sequence and then report its area
for each run in the sequence.
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About Reports


2
Repeat formula for all peaks or groups - This option will
extract the designated information for all peaks or all
groups of a sequence run you select. (Sequence run number
prompt appears when this option is chosen.) For example if
the selected function is peak area from a sequence file, this
option would extract the area for all peaks or groups of the
chosen sequence run.
Repeat formula for all runs in a sequence and Repeat for all
peaks or groups - If you select both options, the formula will
be repeated for all runs and all peaks/groups of the
sequence. For example, if the selected function is peak area
from a sequence file, the combination of these options would
produce a listing of areas for all peaks in every sequence
run.
Select Next.
Function wizard data direction
In the Data Direction dialog box, select how you want the data
series to be displayed:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
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Across the row

Down a column
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About Reports
Function wizard types
This dialog allows you to select the peak or group information.
Peaks
Using
Select the boxes for the type of peaks you will be using.
Trace Index
Select the trace number (if multichannel files), where the first
trace = 1, second trace = 2, etc.
Groups
When you select groups to generate the data, the following
choices appear.
Using
Select the type of group to be reported. Calibrated range and
named peak groups are supported. For Calibrated range
groups, if you have defined your group to calculate
concentrations for unnamed peaks you can include these in
your group reporting by selecting the appropriate button.
Trace Index
Select the trace number (if multichannel files), where the first
trace = 1, second trace = 2, etc.
When you are done with this dialog, click Finish. The function
defined by your answers to the Function Wizard will be inserted
in the currently selected cell.
Function wizard identification
Peak
If a peak function is specified, this dialog allows you to
designate which peak to report.
Trace Index
Select the trace number (if multichannel files), where the first
trace = 1, second trace = 2, etc.
Peak Index
If you select this button, enter the peak index number for the
peak of interest, where the first peak = 1, second peak = 2, etc.
Peak ID
If you select this button, enter the Peak ID number from the
peak table for the peak of interest.
Using
Select the boxes for the type of peaks to include.
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Group
If a group function is specified, this dialog allows you to
designate which group to report.
Trace Index
Select the trace number (if multichannel files), where the first
trace = 1, second trace = 2, etc.
Group Index
If you select this button, enter the group index number for the
group of interest, where the first group = 1, second group = 2,
etc.
Using
Select the type of group to be reported. Calibrated range and
named peak groups are supported. For Calibrated range
groups, if you have defined your group to calculate
concentrations for unnamed peaks you can include these in
your group reporting by selecting the appropriate button.
Advanced report audit trail
To turn on the Advanced Report Audit Trail:
1
From the Reports menu, click Advanced Report Properties.
2
Select the Audit Trail tab.
3
Select Enable audit trail to turn on the audit trail for Advanced
Report Templates.
4
Select from the following options:


Prompt for reason when saving file - This option requires
the user to enter a reason for each change when the
template is saved.
Do not prompt for reason - When this option is selected,
changes are documented, but the user is not required to
enter a reason for the changes.
View advanced report audit trail log
To view the Advanced Reports Audit Trail Log:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the toolbar, select Reports > Advanced Report Properties.
2
Select the Audit Trail Log tab.
3
Enter the following:

User

Location

Description

Reason

From date/time

To date/time
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4
Select from the following options:

Export - Select this to export the audit trail log

Print - Select this to print the audit trail log

Search - Select this to search the audit trail log
Save the advanced report as a template
244
1
Select File > Save As> Advanced Report.
2
In the Save Advanced Report File As dialog box, select the
templates folder.
3
Enter a File name and select Save.
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About Reports
Intelligent reports
You can easily create and modify templates using Intelligent
reports. Report templates are saved in the standardized Report
Definition Language (RDL) format that is also used by Microsoft
Business Intelligence Studio.
See Also
Create an Intelligent Report
Open an Intelligent Report
Save an Intelligent Report
Create an intelligent report
To create a new Intelligent Report, in the navigation pane or the
toolbar select Report > Intelligent Report. The Open Lab Intelligent
Report (OLIR) editor opens.
To create a new Intelligent Report using the Report Wizard, in the
toolbar select Reports > Intelligent Report with Wizard. The Report
Wizard opens.
Open an Intelligent Report
To open an Intelligent Report from your project files:
1
In the toolbar select File > Open > Intelligent Report.
2
In the Open Intelligent Report File dialog box, navigate to the
Template folder and select an .rdl file.
3
Select Open.
To open an Intelligent Report from the templates in your data
system:
1
In the toolbar select File > New.
2
In the New File Templates dialog box, select the Report tab.
3
Select an .rdl file.
4
Select OK.
Save an intelligent report
To save an Intelligent Report:
In the toolbar select File > Save > Intelligent Report.
Or,
In the toolbar select the drop down menu next to the Save icon
and select Save Intelligent Report.
To save an Intelligent Report with a different name or location:
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
In the toolbar select File > Save As > Intelligent Report.
2
In the Save Intelligent Report File As dialog box, navigate to
the folder where you wish to save the report.
3
Enter a File name, and Type, and select Save.
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Standard report templates
Standard report templates are provided to enable you to easily
print reports.
To open a standard report template:
Select File > Open > Standard Report. In the Open Standard
Report File dialog box, navigate to the Templates folder.
Or,
In the Navigation pane, select Reports and select a standard report
template. Some examples are listed below.
See Also
Area %
ConfigContents Report
Current Baseline Check
External Standard
Internal Standard
Normalization
Error Condition Flags
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Area % report
This is an example of the Area % (Area%.srp) report template
output.
ConfigContents report
This is an example of the ConfigContents Report
(ConfigContentsReport.srp) report template output.
Current baseline check
This is an example of the Current Baseline Check (Current
Baseline Check.srp) report template output.
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247
About Reports
Internal standard report
This is an example of a report using the Internal Standard
(Internal Standard.srp) template output.
External standard report
This is an example of a report using the External Standard
(External Standard.srp) template.
Normalization report
This is an example of the Normalized Report (Normalization.srp)
template output.
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Error condition flags
When an error condition occurs for a calculated value, an error flag
is printed that indicates the nature of the problem. These flags are
used in reports, exported data, and for certain annotations.
0.00 BDL Below detection limit
0.00 ISTD Problem with ISTD peak
0.00 STD Problem with standard peak
0.00 FIT Problem with curve fit
<conc> CAL Currently calibrating, <conc> = peak table conc.
for current level
0.00 NEG Negative concentration
<conc> LC Low conc, <conc> = calculated conc.
<conc> HC High conc, <conc> = calculated conc.
In cases where 0.00 is reported, the 0.00 is reported because the
nature of the error prevents further calculation.
See Also
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
Open a Standard Report Template
249
About Custom Parameters
About Custom Parameters
Custom Parameters are used to calculate specific values that are of
interest to you, but are not normally calculated. This feature gives
you access to the entire database of named and detected peaks.
Custom parameters programs are called after all other analysis is
finished.
Custom Parameter programs may be written in VB Script or be
compiled DLLs written in C++. Compiled DLLs must implement a
function called EvaluateCustomParam(). Please see the Elite CD
for complete documentation and examples on developing custom
parameter programs.
Custom parameters can be reported in a custom report, exported as
a result, and annotated on chromatograms (per-peak parameters
only).
Custom parameters are separate from Internal calculations.
Internal calculations are available without configuring any custom
parameter and are always calculated. See Internal Calculations.
See Also
Set a custom parameter for a method
Set a custom parameter for a sequence
Use the European Pharmacopeia(EP) System Suitability Signal To Noise custom
parameter
Use the United States Pharmacopia(USP) Signal To Noise custom parameter
Use the Peak To Valley Ratio custom parameter
Use the Signal Conversion custom parameter
Use the Channel Wide Normalization custom parameter
Use the Relative Area Percent custom parameter
Use the Script Processor and Script Files to create a custom parameter
Add custom parameters to the method report
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About Custom Parameters
Set a custom parameter for a method
1
From the Method menu, select Advanced > Custom Parameters.
2
To define a Custom Parameter, enter the title you want to use
to report the result in the Parameter Name field.
3
Next, move the cursor to the Type field and click your mouse.
You will be given a choice of System-wide or Per-peak.


A System-wide parameter is one that is calculated once for
the whole chromatogram. System-wide parameters can be
displayed in a custom report, and will be printed at the
bottom of the report. An example of a System-wide
parameter would be a BTU calculation, where the program
multiplies each peak by its BTU content, then sums the
calculated BTU values providing a single value equal to the
BTU content of the entire mixture.
A Per-peak parameter is one that is calculated once for each
peak in the chromatogram. Per-peak parameters can be
displayed in a custom report column similar to the way the
peak number or concentration would be displayed. Per-peak
parameters can also be annotated on the chromatogram. An
example of a Per-peak parameter would be HETP (height
equivalent to a theoretical plate). For HETP, the Custom
Parameter program would take the length of the column (in
centimeters) and divide it by n, the theoretical plates for the
component which is already calculated by the system.
Note: If the custom parameter is designated as a sequence
table parameter, any change to the Type (per-peak or
system-wide) will not be updated until you reopen the
sequence custom parameter dialog from the sequence.
4
Select Number or String from the Returns drop-down list to select
what type of value is returned by the parameter or calculation.
5
Click the Source field. From the Parameter Source dialog box,
select from the following options:



RelArea Perc
Script Processor - Select this and double click on the
Additional Parameters field to open the Custom Parameter
Scripter.
Sequence Table Parameter - Select this if you want to
define the custom parameter as part of the sequence.
6
Use the Additional Parameters field as necessary for your
custom parameter application. The value entered here will be
the default for the parameter, unless written over in the
sequence table. See Sequence Custom Parameters.
7
Once you have a custom parameter defined in your method, the
software will attempt to run the Custom Parameter Program(s)
designated whenever you analyze your chromatogram.
Note: In order to enter a sequence custom parameter in a sequence
spreadsheet, the method must have a custom parameter defined as
sequence-based, and that method must be saved.
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About Custom Parameters
Set a custom parameter for a sequence
In order to enter a sequence custom parameter in a sequence
spreadsheet, the method must have a custom parameter defined as
sequence-based, and that method must be saved.
Define a sequence based custom parameter for a method
1
Open a method.
2
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
3
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
4
In the Custom Parameters table, in the Source list, select
Sequence Table Parameter.
5
Save the Method.
Set a custom parameter for a sequence
1
From the main instrument window, select Sequence > Edit.
2
In the sequence spreadsheet, select the Custom Parameters
field.
3
In the Custom Parameters dialog box, either the Channel or the
System wide values area will be active. This is determined by
how the custom parameter has been defined in the method
designated for this line of the sequence.


252
If Channel is active, select the channel for which you want
to define per-peak parameters from the drop down menu.
The peaks defined for that channel will appear in the
spreadsheet. Under Peak Name, enter a value for the
custom parameter for each of the peaks displayed.
If System wide values is active, enter a Value to be used.
This value applies to the entire chromatogram.
4
To set parameters for multiple runs, select the down and up
arrows to move to the next or previous run in the sequence. You
can also copy or fill-down parameters that do not change from
run to run, if each run is using the same method.
5
Select OK.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Custom Parameters
Use the European Pharmacopeia (EP) System Suitability Signal To Noise
custom parameter
The European Pharmacopeia System Suitability Signal to Noise
custom parameter calculates a signal to noise ratio for peaks using
the techniques documented for the European Pharmacopeia and
influences the precision of quantification.
Do not use Integration Off when using the European Pharmacopeia
System Suitability Signal to Noise custom parameter. Integration
Off disables peaks, however these regions are still included in the
noise calculation. Leave all peaks integrated to get the correct noise
values.
Calculation
The European Pharmacopeia System Suitability Signal to Noise
custom parameter is calculated using the following equation:
H = The height of the peak corresponding to the component in
the chromatogram obtained with the prescribed reference
solution. It is measured from the maximum of the peak to the
extrapolated baseline of the signal observed over a distance
equal to 20 times the width at half-height.
h = The range of the background noise in a chromatogram
obtained after injection or application of a blank. It is observed
over a distance equal to 20 times the width at half-height of the
peak in the chromatogram obtained with the prescribed
reference solution. If possible, situated equally around the place
where this peak would be found.
The time range for noise determination can either be entered
manually or automatically determined. The time range for noise
determination should be a minimum of five times the width at halfheight of the peak. The automatic noise range determination uses
20 times the peak width at half-height, centered on the retention
time of the peak of interest where possible. In cases where the
automatically determined time range cannot be directly centered on
the peak, (for example, when the peak is too close to the beginning
or end of the chromatogram) the time range is shifted to remain
within the limits of the chromatogram.
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About Custom Parameters
Use the parameter
In this example, noise is calculated using an ASTM unscaled short
noise calculation over the noise range. For the ASTM unscaled
short noise calculation, see ASTM Noise Calculations.
The parameter calculates values for named and unnamed peaks as
appropriate and the results are stored with the peak information in
the results file. This information may then be reported using the
standard reporting tools in the system.
In order to use this custom parameter, you must include a blank
run in your sequence. This blank run is used for the noise
determination and, therefore, should be an appropriate
representation of noise in the system. Only one blank run can be
used within each sequence. The blank run should use the same
acquisition method parameters as the sample runs and must
contain the same signals as the sample runs.
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the
Column/Performance tab.
3
Enable the Calculate performance parameters for this channel
option. This selection is necessary to trigger the determination
of peak width at half-height for the noise range determination.
It is not necessary to select any of the optional Calculation
method(s) to generate the custom parameter values.
4
Select the Custom Parameters tab.
5
In the Custom Parameters table, complete the following fields:
Column
Value
Parameter Name
Enter Signal to Noise EP or any name desired.
This name will show up for graph annotation purposes
and reporting purposes.
The name must not contain a /.
Select Per-peak from the list.
Select Number from the list.
Select Signal Noise from the list.
Enter additional arguments as described below.
Type
Returns
Source
Additional Parameters
In the Additional Parameters list, enter additional arguments as
shown in the following examples:




254
BASELINE_FILE_NAME: Name of the baseline file run in the
current sequence
StartTime and StopTime (optional): Indicates the time range
(in minutes) for noise level determination
Separate the arguments with a semicolon character (;). A
trailing semicolon can be entered after the last argument, but is
not necessary.
If a start time is entered it must be accompanied by a stop time
and vice-versa.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Custom Parameters




Do not insert empty semicolon separators for start-stop times
(baselinefile.dat;;) unless other parameters will follow (See
Diagnostic codes section below) or the system will report an
error and will not calculate a result.
BASELINE_FILE_NAME;StartTime;StopTime
To enter a baseline file with a manually designated start time
of 1.5 minutes and a stop time of 3.5 minutes for noise
determination, in the Additional Parameters field enter
solvent002.dat;1.5;3.5.
You may also include reporting of intermediate values used in
the calculations. These additional values can be reported by
designating an optional fourth argument in the Additional
Parameters field. The optional fourth argument is a twocharacter diagnostic code which controls the return value of the
parameter DLL. When entering the diagnostic parameters, it is
important that the method specifies the same baseline file and
time range options as used for the calculation of the Signal to
Noise parameter. Otherwise, the diagnostic parameter values
will not reflect the intermediate values used for calculation of
the Signal to Noise.
Diagnostic code
Value returned by system suitability signal/noise custom
parameter DLL
NB
NE
NV
Begin time for noise determination (in minutes)
End time for noise determination (in minutes)
Noise Value (h) - Calculated as (Max signal value – Min signal
value) within noise time range
Signal Value (H) – Identical to Peak Height
Flag to indicate whether a valid S/N value was calculated
(1=Yes, 0=No) *See notes
SV
VC


When determining noise using fixed time ranges, simply add
the additional fourth parameter to the parameter list to return
the diagnostic value of interest.
BASELINE_FILE_NAME;StartTime;StopTime;DiagnosticCode
When using automatic noise time ranges, place three semicolon
characters between the baseline file name and the diagnostic
code so the code is located in the fourth place in the parameter
list.
BASELINE_FILE_NAME;;;DiagnosticCode
The EP Signal to Noise calculation is not performed during
acquisition. You need to reprocess in order to get this calculation.
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About Custom Parameters
Additional notes
Processing time
Please be aware that selecting multiple diagnostic values will
significantly increase the time needed to process the results, as the
custom parameter code is called once for each diagnostic value
returned. Since the custom parameter must open two different
signal files each time, processing times may be significant.
Signal matching
The custom parameter code attempts to calculate signal to noise for
each signal trace in the data file. For the calculation to work, an
exact corresponding trace must exist in the baseline noise file. If no
matching signal trace is found in the baseline noise file, the custom
parameter code will post an error to the Instrument Activity log
indicating that the matching signal could not be found. No S/N
values will be calculated for any signal trace where no matching
signal is present in the baseline noise file.
Values of zero
When no value can be calculated for signal to noise or the
associated diagnostic parameters, the system will report a value of
zero. This is necessary as the system must place a value in the
return parameter. In these cases, the diagnostic parameter VC
should also return a zero to indicate that the result is not valid.
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Use the United States Pharmacopia(USP) Signal To Noise custom parameter
The USP Signal To Noise custom parameter performs a signal to
noise calculation according to the guidelines presented by the US
Pharmacopeia. Once the custom parameter is turned on in a
method, the reporting variables become available for reports and
annotations.
Do not use Integration Off when using Signal to Noise. Integration
Off disables peaks, however these regions are still included in the
noise calculation. Leave all peaks integrated to get the correct noise
values.
In EZChrom Elite 3.3.2 & 3.3.2 SP1 the US Pharmacopeia custom
parameter was not supported.
Calculation
The USP Signal To Noise custom parameter is calculated using the
following equation:
H = The height of the peak corresponding to the component
concerned.
hn = The difference between the largest and smallest noise
values over a distance of 20 times the width at the half height
of the peak.
The time range for the noise can be entered manually or
automatically. If this value is to be calculated manually, the user
must enter the first two parameters as the start time of the noise
and the end time of the noise.
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About Custom Parameters
Use the parameter
To have this custom parameter automatically computed for peaks of
a chromatogram, modify the method as follows:
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the
Column/Performance tab.
3
Select Calculate performance parameters for this channel.
4
Select the Custom Parameters tab.
5
In the Custom parameters table, complete the following fields:
Column
Value
Parameter Name
Enter USP Signal to Noise or any name desired.
This name will show up for graph annotation purposes
and reporting purposes.
The name must not contain a /.
Select Per-peak from the list.
Select Number from the list.
Select Signal Noise USP from the list.
Additional parameters are optional.
Parameter that will be used for actual calculation:
Start Time;StopTime – To manually enter the start
and stop time for the noise. These parameters will be
used in the US Pharmacopeia signal to noise
calculation. If these manual parameters are not
entered, the system will automatically use start and
stop values from the calculation above.
Diagnostic parameters which give outputs:
;;NB – Outputs Noise Beginning (Start Time)
;;NE – Outputs Noise Ending (End Time)
;;VC - Outputs if calculation is good or bad (1 is good
and 0 is bad)
;;NV – Outputs Noise Value – Calculated as (Max
signal value – Min signal value) within noise time range
;;SV – Outputs Signal Value – Identical to Peak Height
Type
Returns
Source
Additional Parameters
If this custom parameter was added after a run was acquired, you
need to perform an analysis before the parameter will be calculated.
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Use the Peak To Valley Ratio custom parameter
When a baseline separation between two peaks is not achieved, the
Peak To Valley Ratio custom parameter may be used as a system
suitability requirement in a test for related substances.
Calculation
The Peak To Valley Ratio custom parameter is calculated using the
following equation:
Hp = The height above the extrapolated baseline of the minor
peak.
Hv = The height above the extrapolated baseline at the lowest
point of the curve separating the minor and major peaks.
Use the parameter
To have this custom parameter automatically computed for peaks of
a chromatogram, modify the method as follows:
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
3
In the Custom Parameters table, complete the following fields:
Column
Value
Parameter Name
Enter Peak To Valley Ratio or any name desired.
This name will show up for graph annotation purposes
and reporting purposes.
The name must not contain a /.
Select Per-peak from the list.
Select Number from the list.
Select Peak To Valley Ratio from the list.
Additional parameters are optional.
Type
Returns
Source
Additional Parameters
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About Custom Parameters
Use the Signal Conversion custom parameter
The Signal Conversion custom parameter allows you to calculate
peak height and area using the actual signal numbers on the y-axis
of the chromatogram without the use of multipliers. Once the
custom parameter is turned on in a method, the reporting variables
become available for reports and annotations.
In EZChrom Elite 3.3.2 & 3.3.2 SP1 the Signal Conversion custom
parameter was not supported.
Calculation
The Signal Conversion custom parameter is calculated using the
following equation:
Additional parameter 1: Peak Height/109
Additional parameter 2: Peak Area/109
Use the parameter
To have this custom parameter automatically computed for peaks of
a chromatogram, modify the method as follows:
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
3
In the Custom Parameters table, complete the following fields:
Column
Value
Parameter Name
Enter Signal Conversion or any name desired.
This name will show up for graph annotation purposes
and reporting purposes.
The name must not contain a /.
Select Per-peak from the list.
Select Number from the list.
Select Signal Conversion from the list.
Enter 1 for peak height and 2 for peak area.
Type
Returns
Source
Additional Parameters
If this custom parameter was added after a run was acquired, you
need to perform an analysis before the parameter will be calculated.
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About Custom Parameters
Use the Channel Wide Normalization custom parameter
The Channel Wide Normalization custom parameter is used to
calculate normalized concentration values across all available
channels. This is a per-peak custom parameter.
Use the parameter
To have this custom parameter automatically computed for peaks of
a chromatogram, modify the method as follows:
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
3
In the Custom Parameters table, complete the following fields:
Column
Value
Parameter Name
Enter Channel Wide Normalization or any name
desired.
This name will show up for graph annotation purposes
and reporting purposes.
The name must not contain a /.
Select Per-peak from the list.
Select Number from the list.
Select Channel Wide Normalization from the list.
Enter additional parameters as described below.
Type
Returns
Source
Additional Parameters
Additional Parameters are optional and may contain the following
items. These items are not case sensitive:

Normalization Type Flag




/estd Use to normalize the ESTD Concentrations across all
channels.
/istd Use to normalize the ISTD Concentrations across all
channels.
/norm Use to normalize the NORM Concentrations across
all channels.
Report Export Flag

/report Use to generate an export file of the normalized
results.
If no additional parameters are specified, then the concentration
used will either be ESTD or ISTD depending on what is available in
the datafile. Also, no eport report will be generated.
Only one of the Normalization Type Flags may be specified at one
time. It is not possible to combine these flags. For example, it is an
error to specify /estd /istd.
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About Custom Parameters
If /report is specified, then the normalization type flag must also be
specified. The exported report will end up in a subdirectory of the
datafile directory. The subdirectory will be called export, and the
name of the exported file will be the same as the datafile, with an
extension of .NOM. For example, if the datafile was called
C:\EZChrom Elite\Data\Test1.dat, then the exported results
would be called C:\EZChrom Elite\Data\Export\Test1.nom. Any
export file in this directory with this same name will be overwritten
with the new file.
Use the Relative Area Percent custom parameter
This topic describes the installation and use of a custom parameter
DLL to compute the Relative Area Percent for peaks of a
chromatogram relative to a user specified reference peak.
The Relative Area Percent of a peak is the ratio of the area of the
peak to the area of a user specified reference peak.
Calculation
The Relative Area Percent custom parameter is calculated using
the following equation:
Use the parameter
To have this custom parameter automatically computed for peaks of
a chromatogram, modify the method as follows:
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
3
In the Custom Parameters table, complete the following fields:
Column
Value
Parameter Name
Enter Relative Area Percent or any name desired.
This name will show up for graph annotation purposes
and reporting purposes.
The name must not contain a /.
Select Per-peak from the list.
Select Number from the list.
Select Rel Area Perc from the list.
Enter the peak number to be used as the reference
peak in the calculation.
Type
Returns
Source
Additional Parameters
Once a chromatogram has been analyzed with this method, the
relative area percent for each peak will available as a reportable
result in custom and advanced reports, as well as for export and as
a graph annotation.
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About Custom Parameters
Use the Script Processor and Script Files to create a custom parameter
The script processor allows advanced users to write simple VB
script calculations. The script file allows you to reuse previously
written script for your custom parameter.
For more information about scripting see the Scripting Custom
Parameters Guide (CDS_EE-script-custom-param.pdf) found in the
documents folder of OpenLAB CDS.
Use the script processor
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
3
In the Custom Parameters table, enter a Parameter Name. This
can be any name desired.
4
Select a Type and Returns.
5
In the Source list, select Script Processor.
6
In the Additional Parameters field, click the arrow to edit
script.
7
In the Custom Parameter Script dialog box, enter your script
between Sub EvaluatecustomParam() and End Sub.
8
Select OK.
Use a script file
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Advanced.
2
In the Advanced Method Options dialog box, select the Custom
Parameters tab.
3
In the Custom Parameters table, enter a Parameter Name. This
can be any name desired.
4
Select a Type and Returns.
5
In the Source list, select Script File.
6
In the Select Custom Parameter File dialog box, navigate to the
script file.
7
Select Open.
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About Custom Parameters
Use the EZChrom Elite Retention Index (Kovats Index) custom parameter
The EZChrom Elite Retention Index is used to calculate the
retention index of a solute based on the retention times of a series
of normal alkanes at a given, isothermal temperature for a
particular stationary phase. Retention indices can be used to
compare the relative elution order of solutes for a given column and
chromatographic conditions. The retention indices can also be used
to compare the retention or selectivity of two columns.
Retention index rules
The normal alkanes are like reference peaks: regardless of their
elution times, their retention indexes are determined by the
number of carbon atoms in their molecules. The retention indexes of
the other peaks in the mixture are determined by their times
relative to the n-alkanes.
The retention index of an n-alkane is always 100 times its carbon
number and should be reported as such, for example, C-10 is 1000
and C-13 is 1300.
The retention time used in the calculation of the retention index is
the peak’s actual retention time in the chromatogram (corrected for
the time of the unretained peak). The detected retention time of the
first peak in the Peak Table is used as the time of the unretained
peak.
I=100(y) + (100(z-y) ((log tRx - log tRy)/(log tRz - log tRy))
Where:
I = The retention index
x = Solute of interest
y = n-alkane with y carbon atoms, eluting before x
z = n-alkane with z carbon atoms, eluting after x
tR = Retention time minus time of unretained peak
To use the parameter:
1
Copy RetentionIndex.DLL and RetIndex.CFG into your
EZChrom Elite directory.
2
Create a standard mixture with the normal alkanes covering
the boiling point range of the solutes you wish to measure.
3
Analyze this mixture using the chromatographic conditions
(isothermal temperature and column-type) to be compared.
4
264
Create a Peak Table with the names and retention times of the
n-alkanes and other solutes in the mixture. Note that the
unretained peak (usually methane) must be in the Peak Table.
CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
About Custom Parameters
5
Using Microsoft NotePad or similar text editor, edit the
RETINDEX.CFG file in your EZChrom directory to include for
each of the n-alkane solutes in your calibration mixture. Use
Tab to separate the values in a row. Do not use spaces between
the values; doing so may cause the Custom Parameter to fail
when it is executed.

CDS EZChrom Edition Users Guide
The number of n-alkane peaks, as Peaks

The Channel (A,B,C,D),

Type (P for Peak),

The Peak ID# for each alkane from the Peak Table,

Number of carbon atoms in this peak’s molecule (Carbon#),

Retention time (Ret.) of each peak
6
If you are using a Workstation/Networked Workstation, save
the file in a local folder or a shared network location accessible
by the workstation (for example,
c:\RegIndexConfigFiles\MethodName.cfg).
If you are using a Client-Server, save the file in a shared
network location accessible by the client and the AIC (for
example, \\RetIndexConfigShare\MethodName.cfg).
7
Set a custom parameter for a method.
8
Add custom parameters to the method report.
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About Custom Parameters
Add custom parameters to the method report
Once a custom parameter has been defined in the Advanced Method
Options and the method has been saved, the parameter appears in
the list of available parameters in the method report and can be
included in the report definition.
1
From the main instrument window, select Method > Report.
2
In the Method Report Editor, right-click and select Insert
Report > Run Report.
3
In the Run Report dialog box, add the additional custom
parameter(s) from the Available parameters list.
4
Adjust the Column Header text and data reporting precision as
needed.
The run report table preview will display the new parameter
columns, but no preview data will be available until the data are
processed.
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View and print the method report
Once the data has been reprocessed, the final report will display the
custom parameter results and other run data that has been added
to the report.
To view the final report, select Reports > View > Method Report.
To print the final report, from the instrument client select Reports
> Print > Method Report.
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Reference
See Also
Conversion of PENelson Data Files
Open a CDF File
Configure CIO/DIO Events
User Programs
Turn Off GPIB Instruments
Internal Calculations
About ASCII Sequence File Formats
Functional Reference
Advanced Reporting Formulas and Functions
Conversion of PENelson Data Files
The transparent conversion of TurboChrom Version 6.1 .RAW data
files and AccessChrom .RAW files is supported. Some conversions
may require the presence of PE software in order to work.
The following table summarizes the acceptable limitations in the
conversion of data files:
Data File
PE Software Requirements
AccessChrom
None
TurboChrom 4.0 and
earlier
None
TurboChrom 4.1 and
later
TurboChrom must be installed on the client PC (The data
system will automatically launch TurboChrom to perform the
conversion)
TotalChrom
TotalChrom must be installed on the client PC and the user
must log into the system. (The data system will automatically
launch TotalChrom, but the user will need to login, in order for
the data system to perform the conversion.)
In all cases, only the data points will be converted, not the results
or other parts of the data file.
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Open a CDF File
When opening a CDF file, the software looks for one of the following
Y-axis labels:
microvolts, uvolts, uv, uau or millivolts, mvolts, mv, mau
If one of these labels is not found, the software will try to read it
from an AIA.ini file, which is used to get multipliers for nonstandard file types. If there is no AIA.ini file available, the software
will try to make an estimate based on the range of values.
If the CDF file being read is nonstandard, you need to make an
AIA.ini file and put it in the data system program folder. The file
should contain the y-axis label and multiplier.
Configure CIO/DIO Events
If you are using one of the CIO/DIO boards, a dialog will appear
when you click the Setup field in the event configuration
spreadsheet.

Board - Select the board for which you want to configure events.

Connector - Select the connector to be used.

Signal - Select the signal source for the event.

Idle State - Select the idle state for the event: default, open, or
closed.
When you have completed the dialog, click the OK button. Once the
events are configured, you can program them from the Instrument
Setup section of the methods for instruments using this board.
User programs
User Programs are external programs that are run before an
acquisition or before or after an analysis. These programs are
meant to synchronize actions between the data system and an
instrument or another data processing program you may be
running. A User Program may be an executable (.EXE) or a
dynamic link library (.DLL) file.
If the User Program is an executable (.EXE) program, the data
system will launch the program, and then wait until the program
exits. The EXE is launched with a command line containing 3
string arguments:
addlParams - The contents of the 'Additional Parameters' field
(from the dialog)
strMethod - The fully qualified path/filename of the current
method (in quotes)
strData - The fully qualified path/filename of the current data
file (in quotes)
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Note that, although the user program receives the name of the
current method and data file, the .EXE does not have access to the
content of the files.
If the User Program is a .DLL, it has access to all data and
parameters of the current method and data file. When the User
Program is a .DLL, the data system will call the function
RunUserProg() in the .DLL and wait for it to return before
continuing. The .DLL should implement the following function:
void RunUserProg ((LPCTSTR)m_addlParams, (CClientInfo*)
m_pInfo)
where 'm_addlParams' is the contents of the 'Additional
Parameters' field (from the dialog.)
'm_pInfo' points to a CClientInfo object
Note: By default, all user program path/filenames are specified
using drive letters. To instead use UNC naming conventions, create
a DWORD values called 'UserProgramNetworkPaths' with a value
of '1' in the following registry location (Replace 'c:/datasystem' with
your install directory):
\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\ChromatographySystem\c:
/datasystem\Inst\
Warning - always consult with your network administrator before
editing the Windows registry.
Turn off GPIB instruments
If you are using two instruments attached to a GPIB board, it is
important to close the instrument application (or close the
instrument window and then close the server) prior to turning off
the power to the instrument or instrument modules, otherwise the
other instrument attached to the GPIB board may freeze.
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Internal calculations
Internal calculations are available without configuring any custom
parameter and are always calculated.
6-Sigma Noise Test
Calib Weight
Internal Standard
Amounts
Plates/Meter
6-Sigma Signal-toNoise
Calibration Averages
Internal Standard
Report Calculation
Point-to-Point Fit
Area % Report
Calculation
Calibration Curve
Calculations
Internal Standard vs
External Standard and
Normalization
Quadratic Fit
Area/Amount
Response Factor
Definition
Calibration Curves
Internal Standards
Relative Retention
Area/Height calculation
method
Capacity Factor (k')
Japanese
Pharmacopoeia (JP)
calculation
Relative Retention
(Selectivity)
ASTM LOD (Limit of
Detection) Calculation
Cubic Fit
Linear Fit
Reporting Zero for
Internal Standard
Concentrations
ASTM LOQ (Limit of
Quantitation)
DAB (German
Pharmacopia)
calculation method
Matrix Operations
Response Factor
Definition
ASTM Noise
Calculations
Determining
Concentrations for
Uncalibrated Peaks
Modified Least
Squares Calculation
Savitsky-Golay
Smoothing
ASTM Signal to Noise
Drift Test for System
Suitability
Noise test (rms noise)
Scaling
Automatic Averaging
EMG (Exponential
Modified Gaussian)
calculation method
Normalization Report
Calculation
USP (United States
Pharmacopia)
calculation method
Average RF
External Standard
Calibration Curves
Peak Centroid
Weighting and Scaling
Baseline Check
Calculations
External Standard
Report Calculation
Performance
Calculations
Weighting Method
(LSQ Weight)
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Reference
6-Sigma noise test
The 6-Sigma Noise is the standard deviation of the signal derived
from n measurements multiplied by 6, defined over the time
segment chosen. The equation uses a linear regression line, instead
of the average measurement, to eliminate drift from the noise
calculations.
Where Ei is a data point and f(Ei) is the point on the linear
regression line of all the data points.
The n measurements are made between the time limits entered.
6-Sigma Signal-to-Noise
To calculate the S/N, the 6-Sigma noise is calculated in 30 second
intervals, back from the data point immediately preceding the
peak’s baseline (the integration Start time). It proceeds in
30 second intervals until it finds another peak’s integration Stop
time. Only 30 second intervals are used in the calculations. If an
interval is less than 30 seconds, it is not considered.
The average of all the noise calculations is divided into the
measured Height for the peak of interest to determine the Signalto-Noise value.
Do not use Integration Off when using Signal to Noise. Integration
Off disables peaks, however these regions are still included in the
noise calculation. Leave all peaks integrated to get the correct noise
values.
Area % report calculation
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Area/Amount response factor definition
If you choose Area/Amount for your response factor definition, the
calibration curve (which can be viewed in Review Calibration) is
defined where y = amount and x = area or height. (For internal
standard calibrations, y = amount ratio and x = area or height
ratio.) An example calibration curve using Area/Amount response
factor definition is given below.
Calibration Curve with Area/Amount Response Factor Definition
If you choose Amount/Area for your response factor definition, the
calibration curve (which can be viewed in Review Calibration) is
defined where y = area or height and x = amount. (For internal
standard calibrations, y = area or height ratio and x = amount
ratio.) An example calibration curve using Amount/Area response
factor definition is given below.
Calibration Curve with Amount/Area Response Factor Definition
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Reference
Area/Height calculation method
Theoretical Plates
Where
N = theoretical plates
t = The retention time of the component
W = The width of the base of the component peak.
W=4x
σ
Where
Where
A= Peak area
H= Peak height
Peak Asymmetry (Tailing Factor)
Where
T = Peak asymmetry, or tailing factor
W0.05 = The distance from the leading edge to the tailing edge of
the peak, measured at a point 5% of the peak height from the
baseline
f = The distance from the peak maximum to the leading edge of
the peak at the position of 5% peak height
For peak asymmetry at 10%, the values for W and f are
measured at 10% of peak height.
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Resolution
Where
R = Resolution between a peak of interest (peak 2) and the
peak preceding it (peak 1).
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection of peak
2.
t1 = The retention time measured from point of injection of
peak 1.
W2 = The width of the base of the component peak 2
W1 = The width of the base of the component peak 1
ASTM LOD (Limit of Detection) calculation
This is a per peak result. The purpose of an LOD parameter is to
determine whether the peak being evaluated is within the Limits of
Detection as previously determined experimentally for that Method.
SNM = H/ ND t
LOD = C * SN / SNM
Where
SN: S/N ratio for LOD entered in Peak Table
SNM: Calculated S/N ratio
H: Peak height
ND: Measured noise level
C: Concentration result of peak being evaluated.
Note: The noise for a peak is calculated based on the first 30-second
baseline segment prior to the peak start. The baseline after a peak
is not used in the noise calculation for that peak.
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ASTM LOQ (Limit of Quantitation)
This is a per peak result and should calculated and report as such.
The purpose of a LOQ parameter is to determine if the peak being
evaluated is within the Limits of Quantitation as previously
determined experimentally for that Method.
SN = H/ ND
LOQ = C * SN / SNM
Where
SN: S/N ratio for LOQ entered in Peak Table
SNM: Calculated S/N ratio
H: Peak height at concentration C
ND: Measured noise level
C: Concentration result of peak being evaluated.
Note: The noise for a peak is calculated based on the first 30-second
baseline segment prior to the peak start. The baseline after a peak
is not used in the noise calculation for that peak.
ASTM noise calculations
As in the 6-Sigma noise calculations, the best fit Linear Least
Squares is calculated for the time range chosen (30-second window
for short or 60-second window for long). The noise value is
calculated using the largest positive and negative differences
between the actual points and the calculated points as shown
below:
Noise = (Ei - f (Ei))max - (Ei - f (Ei))min
Where:
Ei = individual data point
f (Ei) = calculated data point using the LSQ formula
Note: For Scaled calculations, the results will be reported as scaled
detector units rather than microvolts.
ASTM Signal to Noise
As with the 6-Sigma, the noise for this calculation is performed in
30 second intervals. The average of all the noise calculations is
divided into the Height of the peak of interest to determine the
Signal-to-Noise value.
Do not use Integration Off when using Signal to Noise. Integration
Off disables peaks, however these regions are still included in the
noise calculation. Leave all peaks integrated to get the correct noise
values.
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Automatic averaging
When you have the Automatic Averaging turned On for your
method (in Method Properties), averaging will take place for all
peaks designated with the WtAverage flag in the peak table.
Replicates will continue to be saved in the method until a new level
is calibrated for the method. When a new level is encountered, the
replicates for the previous level will be cleared, and the average at
that point will be saved in the method as Last Area.
If you want replicate areas to be continuously saved in the method,
whether or not a new level is encountered, turn the Automatic
Averaging OFF. You must then designate in your sequence where
you want averaging to take place by designating Average Replicates
in the Run Type of the sample.
Average RF
If the Average RF fit type is selected, the slope of the calibration
line between each calibration point and zero is calculated
independently. These values (the Response Factors, or RFs) are
then averaged to give an Average RF value. The Average RF is then
used to calculate the uncorrected amount of the unknown
component as follows:
ConcUnknown= (Average RF ) *
AreaUnknown
Where:
ConcUnknown = Area/RF if Response Factor is set to
Area/Amount
ConcUnknown = Area * RF if Response Factor is set to
Amount/Area
The slope of each calibration line is calculated as follows:
Cu = a Y
For an External Standard and Normalization:
Cu = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
a = Slope of the calibration line segment
Y = Area or height value from Y-Axis
For an Internal Standard:
Cu = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
a = Slope of the calibration line segment
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Baseline check calculations
The following calculation is used for determining baseline drift in
Baseline Check.
N = Number of Points
x = X Values (in minutes)
y = Y values
For Noise calculations, see ASTM Noise Calculations and Noise
Test topics, depending on your choice for this option. For Baseline
check, the ASTM Noise Long selection is scaled to use Y-units
scaled by the detector instead of microvolts.
Calib weight
You can designate a Calib Weight in the Peak Table for the average
of the replicates with the method Last Area. Note that a Calib
Weight of 100 causes the Last Area value to be ignored.
A weighted average is calculated using the following equation:
Where
Aw is the weighted average result
Xc is the true average of replicates (if any) with current run
area/height
W is the Calib Weight / 100
Xo is the Last area from the method
A weighted average is calculated for the following method example
as shown:
Method Last Area
100
Current run area
101
Replicate 1
104
Replicate 2
100
Replicate 3
102
Using a Calib Weight of 60, the weighted average becomes:
[(101 +104 + 100 + 102)/4] * .6 + [100 * (1 - .6)]
Enter a weight factor of 50 to give equal weight to the Last Area
average and the new calibration replicates.
Note: For Internal Standard calibrations, each replicate represents
a ratio of the component area/height to internal standard
area/height.
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Calibration averages
The Replace/Wt Average Calib Flags in the Peak Table allow you to
select whether or not calibration the calibration area will be
averaged with previous replicates (Last Area). In general, when
Replace is selected, the current calibration area will replace any
existing calibration area or averaged area in the method. When
WtAverage is selected, replicates are averaged, and then weighted
with the Last Area value (if applicable).
For External Standard calibrations:
When Wt Average is selected, the current peak area/height
replicates are averaged. When Replace is selected, each calibration
run replaces the previous value in the method.
For Internal Standard calibrations:
When Wt Average is selected, the individual replicate ratios are
calculated first, then the average of the ratios is taken. When
Replace is selected, each calibration run replaces the previous value
in the method.
For example, for a calibration component area, U, and its associated
internal standard component area, I, the average ratio, Y, for three
replicates is calculated as follows:
Internal Standard
Replicate Area (In)
Component
Replicate Area (Un)
I1 = 100
U1 = 210
I2 = 99
U2 = 215
I3 = 104
U3 = 212
Ratio 1 = 210 / 100 = 2.1
Ratio 2 = 215 / 99 = 2.172
Ratio 3 = 212 / 104 = 2.039
Y = Average Ratio = 2.104
Note: In the Review Peak Calibration window, if you eliminate a
replicate from the calibration curve of an internal standard peak by
highlighting it with the mouse, then the associated replicates for
peaks using that internal standard are ignored when calculating
the average ratio.
If averaging, replicates for each peak level are saved in the method
until they are cleared. Replicate 1 is the most recent replicate.
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Calibration curve calculations
The calibration of a method results in the creation of a calibration
curve for each calibrated component. The calibration curve equation
is specified by the type of fit selected in the Peak Table, the
definition of response factor for the method, whether it is an
internal standard or external standard calibration, scaling factor
selected, and weighting selected.
The Uncorrected Amount is the amount (or amount ratio) of a
component represented by a given response (or response ratio). The
term Uncorrected Amount is used because factors such as sample
amount and multiplication factors have not been applied.
The Response Factor for a component is calculated from the
calibration curve. It can be reported either as Amount/Area or
Area/Amount. This is selected as part of the Method/Properties tab.
Note: When a calibration contains replicates, the average of the
replicates is calculated prior to the fit calculation.
Calibration curves
A calibration curve relates the component amount to detector
response, (or for an Internal Standard calibration, the amount ratio
to the area or height ratio). The software fits a curve to the
calibration points, according to the fit type, scaling, and weighting
factors you select. The resulting calibration curve is used to
calculate component concentrations in unknown samples, and is
generally defined by a least squares calculation
y = f (x)
where ƒ = point to point
linear (with or without force through zero)
quadratic (with or without force through zero)
cubic (with or without force through zero)
average RF fit
Capacity factor (k')
Where
k' = Capacity Factor
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection
ta = The retention time of an inert component not retained by
the column, taken from Unretained Peak Time in the
Performance Options section of the method.
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Cubic fit
A cubic calibration fit uses a least squares calculation to determine
the best curve fit for a series of calibration points. A minimum of
four calibration points is required to determine a cubic fit. The
equation for calculating the uncorrected amount is:
For External Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
a = Calibration Curve Coefficient
b = Calibration Curve Coefficient
c = Calibration Curve Coefficient
d = Y-Axis intercept
X = component area or height
For an Internal Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
a = Calibration Curve Coefficient
b = Calibration Curve Coefficient
c = Calibration Curve Coefficient
d = Y-Axis intercept
X=
Component Area or Height
Internal Standard Area or Height
DAB (German Pharmacopia) calculation method
NOTE: This calculation equation is also called the BP (British
Pharmacopia), EP (European Pharmacopia), and ASTM.
Theoretical Plates
Where
N = Theoretical plates
t = The retention time of the component
W0.5 = Width of peak at the position of 50% peak height
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Peak Asymmetry (Tailing Factor)
Where
T = Peak asymmetry, or tailing factor
W0.05 = The distance from the leading edge to the tailing edge of
the peak, measured at a point 5% of the peak height from the
baseline
f = The distance from the peak maximum to the leading edge of
the peak at the position of 5% peak height
For peak asymmetry at 10%, the values for W and f are
measured at 10% of peak height.
Resolution
Where
R = Resolution between a peak of interest (peak 2) and the
peak preceding it (peak 1).
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection of peak
2.
t1 = The retention time measured from point of injection of
peak 1.
W0.5 = The width of the component peak at 50 % peak height.
Wp0.5 = The width of the previous component peak at 50 % peak
height.
Determining concentrations for uncalibrated peaks
You can report concentrations for uncalibrated peaks by creating an
Uncalibrated Range group and assigning a Manual Response
Factor for this range in the Group Table. Once you have done this,
any uncalibrated peak that falls within this range will have its
concentration calculated using this response factor, and will be
included in a run report that has unnamed peaks selected. Note
that you can define as many uncalibrated ranges as you want for a
given method.
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Drift test for system suitability
The drift test measures the change in voltage over a given period of
time.
Where
y2 = voltage at time x2 (drift test start time in minutes)
y1 = voltage at time x1 (drift test stop time in minutes)
Note: For SS420x, the voltage is in µv.
EMG (Exponential Modified Gaussian) calculation method
Theoretical Plates
Where
N= The number of theoretical plates
t= The retention time of the component
W0.1 = The width of the peak at the position of 10% peak height
a0.1 = The width of the first half (start to top) of peak at the
position of 10% peak height
b0.1 = The width of the second half (top to end) of peak at the
position of 10% of peak height
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Peak Asymmetry (Tailing Factor)
Where
T = Peak asymmetry, or tailing factor
W0.05 = The distance from the leading edge to the tailing edge of
the peak, measured at a point 5% of the peak height from the
baseline
f = The distance from the peak maximum to the leading edge of
the peak at the position of 5% peak height
For peak asymmetry at 10%, the values for W and f are
measured at 10% of peak height.
Resolution
Where
R = Resolution between a peak of interest (peak 2) and the
peak preceding it (peak 1).
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection of peak
2.
t1 = The retention time measured from point of injection of
peak 1.
W0.1 = The width of peak at the position of 10% peak height
Wp0.1 = The width of previous peak at the position of 10% peak
height
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External standard calibration curves
In the following example for an External Standard and
Normalization curve, the component Amount is plotted on the
Y-Axis and the component Area is plotted on the X-Axis
(Amount/Area Response Factor Definition).
The external calibration curve (for Response Factor definition
Area/Amount) is calculated as:
Amtcal = f (Areacal)
Where:
ƒ = the equation of the calibration points according to the fit
type you have selected (linear, quadratic, point to point, etc.)
Amtcal = the amount of the calibration standard
Areacal = the area of the calibration standard
Therefore the unknown is determined by:
Amtunk(u) = f (Area unk)
Where:
Amtunk(u) = the uncorrected amount of the unknown
component
ƒ = the equation of the calibration points according to the fit
type you have selected
Areaunk = the area of the unknown component
To calculate the concentration of the unknown sample:
Where:
Conc = the concentration (in the same units used for
calibration) of the unknown analyte of interest
Amtunk(u) = the uncorrected amount of the unknown
component
Sample Amtu= the amount of the unknown sample taken from
the Sequence Table or Single Run dialog
MF = multiplication and dilution factors applied =
M1*M2*M3/D1*D2*D3 for the unknown sample
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External standard report calculation
Where:
Conc = Corrected Amount of component.
Cu = Amount value from calibration curve for a given unknown
area
Samp.Amt = Sample amount
MF = multiplication and dilution factors applied =
M1*M2*M3/D1*D2*D3
Internal standard amounts
The Internal Standard Amounts for any calibration run is always
taken from the method Peak Table. Any value for Internal
Standard Amount in the Sequence table or in the Single Run
Acquisition dialog for a calibration run is ignored.
For an unknown run, the Internal Standard Amount is entered in
the Single Run Acquisition dialog box, or in the Sequence Table. It
is used as a multiplier in calculation of the unknown concentration.
Internal standard report calculation
Where:
Conc = Corrected Amount of component
ISTDu = Amount of Internal Standard
Samp.Amt = Sample amount
MF = multiplication and dilution factors applied =
M1*M2*M3/D1*D2*D3
Cu = Amount ratio taken from the calibration curve for the
given area/height ratio
Internal standard vs external standard and normalization
External Standard and Normalization calibration curve plots differ
from Internal Standard calibration curves. This is because the
amounts and responses in the Internal Standard calibration
represent the ratios of the internal standard component to the
amounts and responses of the calibrated components.
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Internal standards
In this example of an Internal Standard calculation, the ratio of
component amount to Internal Standard amount is plotted on the
Y-Axis and the ratio of component area to Internal Standard area is
plotted on the X-Axis (Amount/Area Response Factor definition):
The calibration is calculated as:
Amt RatioISCal =
 (Ar ea R a t ioIS Ca l)
Where:
Amt RatioISCal = amount ratio of the calibration standard
ƒ = equation of the calibration points according to the fit type
you have selected
Area RatioISCal = area ratio of the calibration standard
Therefore the unknown is determined by:
Amt Ratiounk(u) =
 (Ar ea Ra t iou n k )
Where:
Amt Ratiounk(u) = the uncorrected amount ratio of the
unknown component
ƒ = the equation of the calibration points according to the fit
type you have selected
Area Ratiounk = the area ratio of the unknown component
The concentration of the unknown sample is calculated by:
Concu= Concentration (in the same units used for calibration)
of the analyte of interest.
AmtIS =
Amount of the internal standard
SampleAmtu = Amount of the unknown sample from sequence
or at start of single run
MF = multiplication and dilution factors applied =
M1*M2*M3/D1*D2*D3 for the unknown sample
AmtRatioUnk = Amount ratio value taken from the calibration
curve at the given area ratio for the unknown sample
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Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) 15th Edition calculation
These equations are for the JP 15th Edition calculations.
Theoretical Plates
Where
N = Theoretical plates
t = The retention time of the component
W0.5 = Width of peak at the position of 50% peak height
Peak Asymmetry (Tailing Factor)
Where
T = Peak asymmetry, or tailing factor
W0.05 = The distance from the leading edge to the tailing edge of
the peak, measured at a point 5% of the peak height from the
baseline
f = The distance from the peak maximum to the leading edge of
the peak at the position of 5% peak height
For peak asymmetry at 10%, the values for W and f are measured
at 10% of peak height.
Resolution
Where
R = Resolution between a peak of interest (peak 2) and the
peak preceding it (peak 1).
t2 = Retention time measured from point of injection of peak 2.
t1 = Retention time measured from point of injection of peak 1.
W0.5 = The width of the component peak at 50 % peak height.
Wp0.5 = The width of the previous component peak at 50 % peak
height.
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Linear fit
A linear calibration fit determines the best line (linear regression)
for a series of calibration points. A minimum of two calibration
points are required to determine a linear fit. The equation for
calculating the uncorrected amount is:
Y=aX+b
For Response Factor definition Area/Amount,
External Standard:
Y = Component area or height
a = slope of the calibration line
X = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
b = Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line
Internal Standard:
a = slope of the calibration line
X = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
b = Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line
For Response Factor definition Amount/Area,
External Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
a = slope of the calibration line
X = component area or height
b = Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line
Internal Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
a = slope of the calibration line
b = Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line
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Matrix operations
The following example illustrates the matrix operations used to
determine curve coefficients for quadratic calibration curve fits.
The equation for the quadratic calibration curve is
For a series of amount/area pairs (x, y) representing calibration
points (or averaged calibration points)
(x1, y1) (x2, y2) (x3, y3)…..(xnyn)
These points produce n quadratic equations, which can be solved for
the coefficients a, b, and c by writing the equations in matrix
notation as follows.
or,
Y=M•Z
To ensure a square matrix, the equation is multiplied by
to
become
where
is matrix M transposed
then
If the curve is forced through zero, then c=0, and M becomes a
2-column matrix which is solved for coefficients a and b.
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Modified least squares calculation
The following modified least squares formula is used to determine
the calibration curve coefficients for linear fits:
Where:
a = the slope of the calibration line
b = the Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line
W is the weighting term = 1/X or 1/X2
where X = Response or Amount. This is selected as the
Weighting Method in the peak table.
For Internal Standard calculations, X is the uncorrected amount
ratio of the component of interest in the calibration sample Cu. Y is
the corrected relative area = peak area/int std area
For External Standard calculations, X is the uncorrected amount of
the component of interest in the calibration sample Cu. Y is the
corrected relative area = peak area
The modified least squares calculation can be extended to higher
order fits. As an example, the following formula is used to
determine the calibration curve coefficients for weighted quadratic
fits:
The following formula is used to determine the R-squared value for
a series of values:
Where
is an ordinate of the least squares line.
is the observed value of Y.
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Noise test (rms noise)
The rms noise is the standard deviation of the signal derived from
n measurements, defined by the time segment chosen.
rms noise =
Where EI = individual voltage readings
and E bar = the average of n measurements.
Normalization report calculation
Where:
Conc = Corrected Amount of component
Cu = Uncorrected Amount of component
SumCR = Sum of calibrated range groups
Peak centroid
The peak centroid is the position in the peak at which 50% of the
area has been reached. This calculation is available for calculation,
annotation, and export.
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Performance calculations
The following values are calculated that can be used to assess
overall system performance:

Relative Retention

Theoretical Plates

Capacity Factor

Resolution

Peak Asymmetry

Plates per Meter
These values can be included in a custom report.
The following diagram shows the parameters used to calculate
these system performance values for the separation of two
chromatographic components.
Separation of two chromatographic components
Note: To accurately calculate suitability values, the sampling
frequency (set in Acquisition Setup) must be set to provide at least
20 data points for the narrowest peak of interest.
Plates/Meter
Where
N = Plates per meter
n = Theoretical plates in the column
L = Column length, in meters. This value is taken from the
Performance Options section of the method.
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Point-to-Point fit
A point-to-point calibration fit connects a series of calibration points
with lines. The result for point-to-point calculations are the same
regardless of Response Factor definition. The equation for
calculating the uncorrected amount is:
Y = aX + b
For an External Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
a = Slope of the calibration line segment
X = Area or height value from Y-Axis
b = Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line segment
For an Internal Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
a = Slope of the calibration line segment
X = component area or height/internal standard area or height
b = Y-Axis intercept of the calibration line segment
NOTE: For points beyond the last calibration point, the line
segment between the last two calibration points is extrapolated. If
the value falls below the lowest calibration point, then the line
segment is constructed between zero and the first calibration point.
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Quadratic fit
A quadratic calibration fit determines the best quadratic curve fit
for a series of calibration points. A minimum of three calibration
points is required to determine a quadratic fit. The equation for
calculating the uncorrected amount is:
For Response Factor definition Area/Amount,
External Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
a = Calibration Curve Coefficient
b = Calibration Curve Coefficient
c = Y-Axis intercept
X = component area or height
Internal Standard:
Y = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
a = Calibration Curve Coefficient
b = Calibration Curve Coefficient
c = Y-Axis intercept
For Response Factor definition Amount/Area,
External Standard:
Y = Component area or height
a = Calibration Curve Coefficient
b = Calibration Curve Coefficient
c = Y-Axis intercept
X = Uncorrected Amount (With scaling factor applied, i.e. 1/x if
applicable)
Internal Standard:
a = Calibration Curve Coefficient
b = Calibration Curve Coefficient
c = Y-Axis intercept
X = Uncorrected Amount Ratio
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Relative retention
Relative retention is calculated for named peaks with reference
peaks and detected unnamed peaks that are members of
uncalibrated or calibrated range groups if a reference peak is
specified. The reference peak specified in the group is used to
calculate the Relative RT for the unnamed peaks using the same
equation used for named peaks.
Where
= Relative retention.
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection
ta = The retention time of an inert component not retained by
the column, taken from Unretained Peak Time in the
Performance Options section of the method.
t1 = The retention time from point of injection for reference
peak defined in the peak table. If no reference peak is found,
this value becomes zero.
Relative retention (Selectivity)
Where
= Relative retention.
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection
ta = The retention time of an inert component not retained by
the column, taken from Unretained Peak Time in the
Performance Options section of the method.
t1 = The retention time from point of injection for reference
peak defined in the peak table. If no reference peak is found,
this value becomes zero.
Note: This parameter is labeled as Relative RT in reports.
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Reporting Zero for internal standard concentrations
Internal standard components always have an RF value of 1.00.
Normally a concentration is reported for internal standard
components using the RF value.
To force the concentration of the internal standard component to be
reported as zero (and therefore will not contribute to analyte
concentration totals), enter a Manual RF value of zero for the
internal standard components in the peak table.
Response factor definition
You can choose to have response factors defined as either
Amount/Area or Area/Amount. This selection is made in the Method
Properties>Options tab and will apply to the entire method. The
calibration curve and assignment of x and y values will differ
depending on the response factor selection you make.
Savitsky-Golay smoothing
A 9-point digital filter is applied as a sliding filter to the data points
as shown in the following example for data points a1 through a3.
Where a1….ax are the data points, f1…fx are the filtering factors,
and norm is the normalization factor. The filtering factors and
normalization factor are given below.
f0: -21
f1: 14
f2: 39
f3: 54
f4: 59
f5: 54
f6: 39
f7: 14
f8: -21
The normalization factor is 231.0.
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Scaling
This parameter allows you to apply a scaling factor to the
calibration curve. This factor is applied to the entered amounts
prior to computing the calibration curve. The purpose of using a
scaling factor is to create a relationship between areas (or heights)
and amounts that can be approximated by a polynomial fit. A
scaling factor can be applied to any fit type. The available scaling
operations are:
None
1/Amount
ln[Amount]
1/ln[Amount]
sqrt[Amount]
Amount2
1/Response
1/Response2
ln[Response]
1/ln[Response]
sqrt[Response]
Response2
Log (Amount)
1/ log (Amount)
log (Response)
1/ log (Response)
ln (Amt)&ln(Resp)
log(Amt)&log(Resp)
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USP (United States Pharmacopia) calculation method
Theoretical Plates
Where
n = theoretical plates
t = The retention time of the component
W = The width of the base of the component peak using
tangent method.
Peak Asymmetry (Tailing Factor)
Where
T = Peak asymmetry, or tailing factor
W0.05 = The distance from the leading edge to the tailing edge of
the peak, measured at a point 5% of the peak height from the
baseline
f = The distance from the peak maximum to the leading edge of
the peak at the position of 5% peak height
Note: For peak asymmetry at 10%, the values for W and f are
measured at 10% of peak height.
Asymmetric Peak
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Resolution
Where
R = Resolution between a peak of interest (peak 2) and the
peak preceding it (peak 1).
t2 = The retention time measured from point of injection of peak
2.
t1 = The retention time measured from point of injection of
peak 1.
W2 = The width of the base of the component peak 2
W1 = The width of the base of the component peak 1
Weighting and scaling
There are a number ways to do averaging and weighting. The
following table summarizes the differences between these
selections.
Table 2
Differences between averaging and weighing
Selection
Located In
Effect or Use
Calib Flag
Replace/WtAverage
Peak Table
If Replace, each new calibration area will replace
previous calibration area in the method. If
WtAverage, replicates will be averaged. Weighted
average using Calib Weight will be calculated if
method contains a Last Area. If Auto Averaging is
also ON,calibration replicates will be cleared when
the level is re-calibrated.
Calib Weight (Value)
Peak Table
A weighting factor used to calculate a weighted
calibration average of current replicates with method
Last Area.
Peak Table
Applied to amounts prior to creating calibration curve
for a peak, for purpose of creating a relationship
between area and amounts that can be
approximated by a polynomial fit.
Peak Table
LSQ Weighting Method to be used for calculation of
least squares regression fits. Generally gives more
importance to points representing smaller areas and
amounts.
Scaling
Weighing Method
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Weighting method (LSQ Weight)
Selecting a LSQ Weighting Method to be used for calculation of
least squares regression fits, either 1/x or 1/
, gives increased
importance to smaller concentrations and areas. LSQ Weight can be
applied to linear, quadratic, and cubic fits only. Examples are
shown below.
Linear fit with No LSQ Weighting
Linear Fit with 1/x LSQ Weighting
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About ASCII sequence file formats
An ASCII sequence suitable for importing consists of lines of text
(each line terminated with a newline character). The first line of the
text file must be: ASCII Sequence n where n is the version number
of the ASCII sequence. Currently, this number must be set to 1
(one), so the first line of the file should be ASCII Sequence 1. The
ASCII double export is one version higher than the ASCII version
number. An ASCII sequence file contains the following elements:
See Also
ASCII Sequence Header
ASCII Sequence Records
ASCII Action Record
Example of ASCII Sequence File
Example of ASCII Dual Tower Sequence File
ASCII sequence header
The next part of the text file contains sequence header information
of the form
<keyword>=<value>
For example:
DATAPATH=C:\DATASYSTEM\DATA
The following keywords are recognized as elements of the sequence
header (Keywords are case sensitive and should be typed as shown
below):
CREATIONDATE=
LASTCHANGEDATE=
METHODPATH= (128 characters maximum)
PRINTREPORTS=(YES or NO)
DATAPATH= (128 characters maximum)
PRETREATPATH= (128 characters maximum)
SUMMARYPATH= (128 characters maximum)
DESCRIPTION=
None of these keywords are mandatory; if a keyword does not exist
in the text file, a default value will be used.
Note: When creating description fields with multiple lines, a hex
0x07 character may be used to embed a <CR> (new line) within the
text. Typically this should be done by a software program that can
directly write hexadecimal characters. Some text editors support
keyboard entry of hexadecimal characters by holding the alt key
while typing 07 on the numeric keypad.
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ASCII sequence records
After all sequence header elements have been specified, the rest of
the text file consists of lines specifying the records of the sequence
table. The record contains comma-delimited elements detailing the
operation of that line of the sequence.
Note: Some autosamplers use a non-numeric designation for vial
poisitons (e.g. 'A7' for a micro plate). If the instrument
configuration includes such an autosampler, please refer to that
driver's installation guide for detail on how to encode it in a manner
that is compatible with ASCII sequence import.
These lines are of the form:
RECORD=a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u
Where:
a = Sample ID (63 characters maximum)
b = Method name (63 characters maximum)
c = File name (63 characters maximum)
d = Calibration level (0 - x, 0 = no calibration)
e = Sample amount (real number > 0)
f = Internal standard amount (real number > 0)
g = Multiplication factor 1 (real number > 0)
h = Injection vial
i = Injection volume
j = Pretreatment file name
k = Fraction collector file name
l = Reserved; do not specify anything between the commas
m = Run type (see list below)
n = Action (Leave blank. This is no longer used.)
o = Run description
p = Repetitions per vial (1 - 9)
q = Multiplication factor 2 (real number > 0)
r = Multiplication factor 3 (real number > 0)
s = Dilution factor 1 (real number > 0)
t = Dilution factor 2 (real number > 0)
u = Dilution factor 3 (real number > 0)
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Run Types
Decimal Hex Name
4 0x0000004 UnSpiked
8 0x0000008 Spiked
16 0x0000010 Spike 1 of 2
32 0x0000020 Spike 2 of 2
64 0x0000040 Duplicate 1
128 0x0000080 Duplicate 2
256 0x0000100 System Suit Start
512 0x0000200 System Suit End
1024 0x0000400 System Suit Std.
2048 0x0000800 Shutdown
4096 0x0001000 Begin Calibration
8192 0x0002000 End Calibration
16384 0x0004000 QC Standard
32768 0x0008000 Summary Start
65536 0x0010000 Summary End
131072 0x0020000 Summary Run
262144 0x0040000 Clear All Response Factors
524288 0x0080000 Clear Response Factors for this Level
1048576 0x0100000 Print Response Factors
2097152 0x0200000 Average Replicates
4194304 0x0400000 Clear Replicates
8388608 0x0800000 Begin Loop
16777216 0x1000000 End Loop
ASCII action record
Action records relate to the previous Sequence Record only.
Form:
ACTION=a,b,c,d,e
a: CONDITION:
0 Any Condition
1 Calibration
2 QC
3 System Suitability
4 Hardware Status
5 Conc. Limit
b: RESULT:
0 Pass
1 Fail
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2 Below Limit
3 Above Limit
c: ACTION:
0 Abort
1 Pause
2 Reinject
3 Run User Program
4 Run Shutdown
5 Alarm
6 Goto
7 Restart System Suit
d: PARAMETER 1:
For Reinject and Goto - Rep Count.
For Run User Program - Program Path and Name.
e: PARAMETER 2:
For Goto - Goto Record Number.
Notes: Regarding method name, file name, pretreat name and
fraction collector file name: If these items do not have path names
embedded, the appropriate path from the header will be used
(fraction collector files are assumed to reside in the pretreatment
file path). All elements of the record line MUST be present;
however, any record element not of interest can be skipped by
specifying nothing in-between the commas. If you are creating the
ASCII file using Microsoft Excel, save the file in the *.CSV format.
Sample ID must be in the same cell as RECORD= to prevent a
comma after the (=). Method and data paths must be selected
manually using Sequence Properties because the .CSV adds a
comma to the path.
Example of ASCII sequence file
The following is an example of an ASCII Sequence file.
ASCII Sequence 1
CREATIONDATE=
LASTCHANGEDDATE=
METHODPATH = D:\System\Methods
PRINTREPORTS = NO
DATAPATH = D:\System\data
PRETREATPATH =
SUMMARYPATH =
DESCRIPTION = The description of this ASCII Sequence.
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical001.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,1,12,,,,16384,1,,3
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical002.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,2,12,,,,,2,Record Desc,3
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RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical003.dat,3,1.2,2.91,1
.1,1,12,,,,16384,,,3
ACTION = 1,1,3,D:\CHROM\Program.EXE
ACTION = 1,0,2,4
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical004.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,2,12,,,,,4,Record Desc,3
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical005.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,1,12,,,,16384,,,3
ACTION = 3,1,6,7 ,2
ACTION = 3,0,2,4
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical006.dat,6,1.2,2.91,1
.1,2,12,,,,16384,3,,3
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical007.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,1,12,,,,,2,,3
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical008.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,2,12,,,,76,,Record Desc,3
ACTION = 4,1,5
ACTION = 4,0,2,4
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical009.dat,9,1.2,2.91,1
.1,1,12,,,,16384,1,,3
RECORD=Samp,MULTICAL.MET,Multical010.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1
.1,2,12,,,,16384,2,,3
Example of ASCII dual tower sequence file
ASCII Sequence 1
CREATIONDATE=
LASTCHANGEDDATE=
METHODPATH = \\Qa-glisowski01\transfer
PRINTREPORTS =
NO DATAPATH = \\Qa-glisowski01\transfer\public
PRETREATPATH =
SUMMARYPATH =
DESCRIPTION = The description of this ASCII Sequence.
TOWER=0
RECORD=Front Samp 1,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical001.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,1,1,,,,16384,1,,3
RECORD=Front Samp 2,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical002.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,2,1,,,,,2,Record
Desc,3
RECORD=Front Samp 3,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical003.dat,3,1.2,2.91,1.1,3,1,,,,16384,,,3
ACTION = 1,1,3,D:\CHROM\Program.EXE
ACTION = 1,0,2,4
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RECORD=Front Samp 4,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical004.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,4,1,,,,,4,Record
Desc,3
RECORD=Front Samp 5,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical005.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,5,1,,,,16384,,,3
ACTION = 3,1,6,7 ,2
ACTION = 3,0,2,4
RECORD=Front Samp 6,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical006.dat,6,1.2,2.91,1.1,6,1,,,,16384,3,,3
RECORD=Front Samp 7,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical007.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,7,1,,,,,2,,
RECORD=Front Samp 8,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical008.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,8,1,,,,76,,Record
Desc,3
ACTION = 4,1,5,
ACTION = 4,0,2,4,
RECORD=Front Samp 9,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical009.dat,9,1.2,2.91,1.1,9,1,,,,16384,1,,3,
RECORD=Front Samp 10,HP6890 FRONT
JL01.MET,FrontMultical010.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,10,1,,,,16384,2,,3
,
TOWER=1 ASCII Sequence 1
CREATIONDATE=
LASTCHANGEDDATE=
METHODPATH = \\Qa-glisowski01\transfer
PRINTREPORTS =
NO DATAPATH = \\Qa-glisowski01\transfer\public
PRETREATPATH =
SUMMARYPATH =
DESCRIPTION = The description of this ASCII Sequence.
RECORD=Rear Samp 1,REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical001.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,11,1,,,,16384,1,,3
RECORD=Rear Samp 2,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical002.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,12,1,,,,,2,Record
Desc,3
RECORD=Rear Samp 3,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical003.dat,3,1.2,2.91,1.1,13,1,,,,16384,,,3
ACTION = 1,1,3,D:\CHROM\Program.EXE
ACTION = 1,0,2,4
RECORD= Rear Samp 4,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical004.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,14,1,,,,,4,Record
Desc,3
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RECORD=Rear Samp 5,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical005.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,15,1,,,,16384,,,3
ACTION = 3,1,6,7 ,2
ACTION = 3,0,2,4
RECORD=Rear Samp 6,HP6890REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical006.dat,6,1.2,2.91,1.1,16,1,,,,16384,3,,3
RECORD=Rear Samp 7,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical007.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,17,1,,,,,2,,3
RECORD=Rear Samp 8,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical008.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,18,1,,,,76,,Record
Desc,3
ACTION = 4,1,5
ACTION = 4,0,2,4
RECORD= Rear Samp 9,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical009.dat,9,1.2,2.91,1.1,19,1,,,,16384,1,,3
RECORD=Rear Samp 10,HP6890 REAR
JL01.MET,RearMultical010.dat,0,1.2,2.91,1.1,20,1,,,,16384,2,,3
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Functional reference
Functions are used to define what data is displayed and the source
of the data, as well as for application of mathematical formulas.
Functions do not appear on the spreadsheet unless they are being
edited. (To view the function in a cell, double-click on that
cell.) The results of defined functions do not appear on the
spreadsheet, but will appear in Print Preview or when the report is
printed, provided the data is available for the function to work. (For
example, sequence summary tables will not contain valid data until
after a sequence has been acquired and processed or reprocessed.)
In cases where data is not available for the function to work on, an
error may be displayed on your spreadsheet. If this happens, click
OK to close the error, then click the Print Preview button. If the
function is technically correct, but has no data available, no error
messages will appear on the print preview. If an error message
appears on the print preview, your function has not been entered
correctly.
The following functions are available when creating advanced
reports using the template editor.
Syntax Notes:
= All of the functions described here are placed in cells in the
template reporting spreadsheet, and must begin with an '=' sign.
For example, if a function were described as Custom.Func([Param
A]), then the actual function would look something
like =Custom.Func(Param A)
[] These brackets indicate optional parameters. The brackets
themselves are not included in the actual parameters. For example,
if a function were described as Custom.Func([Param A]), then the
actual function would look something like =Custom.Func(Param A)
<> These brackets indicate required parameters. The brackets
themselves are not included in the actual parameters. For example,
if a function were described as Custom.Func(<Param A>), then the
actual function would look something like =Custom.Func(Param A)
"" Quotation marks shown are required. The quotation marks are
included in the actual parameters. For example, if a function were
described as Custom.Func(<"Param A">), then the actual function
would look something like =Custom.Func("Param A")
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See Also
Parameter Description
Datafile Functions
Extended Helper Functions
Group Functions
Instrument Functions
Peak Functions
Project Functions
Sequence Functions
Parameter description
The following describes the parameters that may be passed to
template functions to describe the requested data file, peak, and
group information.
'Run Info' may be one of the following:
RC
The current run or currently loaded data file.
R<x>
The sequence run specified by run <x>.
'Trace Info' may be one of the following:
T<x>
The trace specified by index <x>.
'Peak Info' may be one of the following:
P<x>; <peak type> The peak with an index of <x> having the given peak type.
'Group Info' may be one of the following:
G<x>; <group
type>
The group with an index of <x> having the given group type.
'Direction' may be one of the following:
0
The data will be repeated across the spreadsheet.
1
The data will be repeated down the spreadsheet.
'Peak Type' may be any combination of the following:
1
Report named peaks that were detected.
2
Report named peaks that were not detected.
4
Report unnamed peaks.
'Group Type' may be one of the following:
310
0
Report calibrated range groups that calculate concentrations for
unnamed peaks in this group.
1
Report calibrated range groups that do not calculate
concentrations for unnamed peaks in this group.
2
Report named peak groups.
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Datafile functions
These functions return information about data files that have been
collected and analyzed.
See Also
Data.AcquisitionDate
Data.AnalysisDate
Data.BCDValue
Data.Description
Data.Filename
Data.FullFilename
Data.InstrumentName
Data.ISTDAmount
Data.LastMethodFilename
Data.LastMethodFullFilename
Data.MultiplierFactor
Data.OriginalMethodFilename
Data.OriginalMethodFullFilename
Data.SampleAmount
Data.SampleID
Data.SystemWideParam
Data.SystemWideParamByName
Data.TraceName
Data.UserName
Data.Vial
Data.Volume
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Data.AcquisitionDate
Returns date and time of acquisition for the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.AcquisitionDate(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Date/Time
Data.AnalysisDate
Returns date and time of the last analysis for the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.AnalysisDate(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Date/Time
Data.BCDValue
Returns BCD value of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.BCDValue(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Data.Description
Returns the description of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.Description(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.Filename
Returns file name of the specified data file. Only the file name is
returned the path information is not returned.
Syntax
=Data.Filename(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
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Data.FullFilename
Returns full file name of the specified data file. The file name and
path information is returned.
Syntax
=Data.FullFilename(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.InstrumentName
Returns the name of the instrument that was used to acquire the
specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.InstrumentName(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.ISTDAmount
Returns ISTD amount of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.ISTDAmount(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Data.LastMethodFilename
Returns the name of the last method file that was used to analyze
the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.LastMethodFilename(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.LastMethodFullFilename
Returns the full name and path of the last method file that was
used to analyze the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.LastMethodFullFileName(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.MultiplierFactor
Returns multiplier factor of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.MultiplierFactor(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Data.OriginalMethodFilename
Returns the name of the method file that was used to acquire the
specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.OriginalMethodFilename(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.OriginalMethodFullFilename
Returns the full name and path of the method file that was used to
acquire the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.OriginalMethodFullFileName(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.SampleAmount
Returns sample amount of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.SampleAmount(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Data.SampleID
Returns sample id of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.SampleID(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract
the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.SystemWideParam
Returns a custom system wide result from the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.SystemWideParam (<Param ID>, <Run Info>)
Parameters
<Param ID> A numeric identifier of the requested system wide
custom parameter.
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract
the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String / Number
Data.SystemWideParamByName
Returns a custom system wide result from the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.SystemWideParamByName (<Param Name>, <Run Info>)
Parameters
<Param ID> The name of the identifier of the requested system
wide custom parameter.
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract
the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String / Number
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Data.TraceName
Returns trace name for the specified index and data file.
Syntax
=Data.TraceName(<Trace Index>, <Run Info>)
Parameters
<Trace Index> A numeric index of the requested trace.
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.UserName
Returns the name of the user that acquired the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.UserName(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Data.Vial
Returns vial of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.Vial(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Data.Volume
Returns volume of the specified data file.
Syntax
=Data.Volume(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Extended helper functions
These functions are provided to make the user of other features in
the spreadsheet easier to user.
See Also
Ex.D
Ex.R
Ex.D
Returns a cell range for a dynamic set of data. If data in a cell will
be expanded dynamically, then this function can be used to create a
reference to the cells that the data expands into.
Syntax
=Ex.D (<Cell>, [Range Direction])
Parameters
<Cell> Contains a reference to a cell that will be expanded for a
dynamic data range. This is in the form of 'B5', 'C12', etc. There are
no enclosing quotes on the cell reference.
[Range Direction] This is an optional numeric parameter that
specifies the direction of the dynamic expansion to use. If data is
being expanded in only one direction, then this parameter is not
necessary. If data is being expanded both across and down, then
this parameter can be used to control the range that will be used.
The values of this parameter are as follows:
Not Used or 0 Use any dynamic range that is available. If the data
expands both across and down, then a range will be generated that
contains the entire expansion.
1 Only generate a range for dynamic data that expands across the
spreadsheet.
2 Only generate a range for dynamic data that expands down the
spreadsheet.
Return Type
Cell Range
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Ex.R
This function can be used to repeat an enclosed spreadsheet
formula over a series of cells, based on a dynamic data set. For
example, this function could be used to produce a total field
showing the sum of a set of peak areas for all peaks in a data file.
When using this function, the enclosed function must not have any
run, trace, or peak information. For example, the formula to show
the peak area for the first named peak from the current data file
using the first trace would be:
=Peak.Area("RC", "T1", "P1;3")
However, when repeating the formula with the EX.R function to
show the peak area for all named peaks from all runs of a sequence
using the first trace, the formula would look as follows:
=Ex.R(Peak.Area(), "RA;1;0", "T1", "PA;3;0;0")
Syntax
=Ex.R(<Spreadsheet Formula>, <Dynamic Run Info>, [Trace Info],
[Dynamic Peak Info])
or
=Ex.R(<Spreadsheet Formula>, <Dynamic Run Info>, [Trace Info],
[Dynamic Group Info])
Parameters
<Spreadsheet Formula> Contains any valid spreadsheet formula
that will be expanded for a dynamic data range.
[Range Direction] This is an optional numeric parameter that
specifies the direction to repeat the formula. If the referenced cell is
being repeated in only one direction, then this parameter is not
necessary. If the referenced cell is being repeated both across and
down, then this parameter can be used to control the direction that
will be used. The values of this parameter are as follows:
Not Used or 0 Repeat exactly like the referenced cell. If the
referenced cell repeats both across and down, then this formula will
be repeated both across and down.
1 Only repeat the formula across the spreadsheet as the referenced
cell does.
2 Only repeat the formula down the spreadsheet as the referenced
cell does.
<Dynamic Run Info> Used to determine the dynamic range to
expand the formula over.
[Trace Info] This is an optional parameter that is used to determine
the dynamic range to expand the formula over. See the Parameter
Description section for a description of this parameter.
[Dynamic Peak Info] This is an optional parameter that is used to
determine the dynamic range to expand the formula over.
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Return Type
None
'Dynamic Run Info' may be one of the following:
RC
The current run or currently loaded data file.
R<x>
The sequence run specified by run <x>.
R<x-y>; <direction>;
<separation>
The sequence runs specified by <x-y>. The runs will be repeated
in the direction specified by <direction>, and will be separated by
<separation> rows or columns.
RA; <direction>;
<separation>
All sequence runs. The runs will be repeated in the direction
specified by <direction>, and will be separated by <separation>
rows or columns.
'Dynamic Peak Info' may be one of the following:
P<x>; <peak type>
The peak with an index of <x> having the given peak type.
P<x-y>; <peak type>;
<direction>; <separation>
The peaks with an index in the range of <x-y> having the given
peak type. The peaks will be repeated in the direction specified
by <direction>, and will be separated by <separation> rows or
columns.
PA; <peak type>;
<direction>; <separation>
All peaks of the given peak type. The peaks will be repeated in
the direction specified by <direction>, and will be separated by
<separation> rows or columns.
'Dynamic Group Info' may be one of the following:
G<x>; <group type>
The group with an index of <x> having the given group type.
G<x-y>; <group type>;
<direction>; <separation>
The groups with an index in the range of <x-y> having the given
group type. The groups will be repeated in the direction specified
by <direction>, and will be separated by <separation> rows or
columns.
GA; <group type>;
<direction>; <separation>
All groups of the given group type. The groups will be repeated in
the direction specified by <direction>, and will be separated by
<separation> rows or columns.
'Direction' may be one of the following:
0
The data will be repeated across the spreadsheet.
1
The data will be repeated down the spreadsheet.
'Peak Type' may be any combination of the following:
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Report named peaks that were detected.
2
Report named peaks that were not detected.
4
Report unnamed peaks.
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Reference
'Group Type' may be one of the following:
0
Report calibrated range groups that calculate concentrations for
unnamed peaks in this group.
1
Report calibrated range groups that do not calculate
concentrations for unnamed peaks in this group.
2
Report named peak groups.
Group functions
These functions return information about groups.
See Also
Group.Area
Group.AreaPercent
Group.ESTDConcentration
Group.Height
Group.HeightPercent
Group.ISTDConcentration
Group.Name
Group.NORMConcentration
Group.Number
Group.Quantitation
Group.ResponseFactor
Group.Units
Group.Area
Returns the area for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.Area(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Group.AreaPercent
Returns the area percent for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.AreaPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Group.ESTDConcentration
Returns the ESTD concentration for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.ESTDConcentration(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Group.Height
Returns the height for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.Height(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Group.HeightPercent
Returns the height percent for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.HeightPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Group.ISTDConcentration
Returns the ISTD concentration for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.ISTDConcentration(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Group.Name
Returns the group name for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.Name(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
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Group.NORMConcentration
Returns the NORM concentration for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.NORMConcentration(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Group.Number
Returns the group number for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.Number(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Group.Quantitation
Returns the group quantitation for the requested group(s). This will
return 'Area', 'Height', or 'Counts'.
Syntax
=Group.Quantitation (<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Group.ResponseFactor
Returns the response factor for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.ResponseFactor(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Group.Units
Returns the units for the requested group(s).
Syntax
=Group.Units(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Group Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Group Info> Describes the group(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
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Instrument Functions
These functions return information about the current instrument.
See Also
Instrument.ID
Instrument.Name
Instrument.UserName
Instrument.ID
Returns the internal instrument id of the current instrument.
Syntax
=Instrument.ID()
Parameters
None
Return Type
Number
Instrument.Name
Returns the instrument name of the current instrument.
Syntax
=Instrument.Name()
Parameters
None
Return Type
String
Instrument.UserName
Returns the name of the user logged into the current instrument.
Syntax
=Instrument.UserName()
Parameters
None
Return Type
String
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Peak functions
These functions return information about detected and named
peaks.
See Also
Peak.AOHResolution
Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlates
Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.Area
Peak.AreaPercent
Peak.Asymmetry
Peak.AsymmetryTenPercent
Peak.CapacityFactor
Peak.CurrentResponseFactor
Peak.CustomParam
Peak.CustomParamByName
Peak.DABResolution
Peak.DABTheoreticalPlates
Peak.DABTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.EMGResolution
Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlates
Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.ESTDConcentration
Peak.ExpectedRetentionTime
Peak.Height
Peak.HeightPercent
Peak.Index
Peak.IntegrationCodes
Peak.ISTDConcentration
Peak.JPResolution
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Peak.JPTheoreticalPlates
Peak.TheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.Name
Peak.NORMConcentration
Peak.Number
Peak.Quantitation
Peak.RelativeRetentionTime
Peak.Resolution
Peak.ResolutionID
Peak.ResponseFactor
Peak.RetentionTime
Peak.StartTime
Peak.StopTime
Peak.TheoreticalPlates
Peak.USPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.Units
Peak.USPResolution
Peak.USPTheoreticalPlates
Peak.USPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Peak.USPWidth
Peak.Width
Peak.WidthFiftyPercent
Peak.WidthFivePercent
Peak.WidthTenPercent
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Peak.AOHResolution
Returns the AOH resolution for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.AOHResolution(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlates
Returns the AOH theoretical plates for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlates(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Returns the AOH theoretical plates per meter for the requested
peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.AOHTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>,
<Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Area
Returns the area for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Area(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.AreaPercent
Returns the area percent for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.AreaPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Asymmetry
Returns the asymmetry for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Asymmetry(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.AsymmetryTenPercent
Returns the asymmetry at 10% for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.AsymmetryTenPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.CapacityFactor
Returns the capacity factor for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.CapacityFactor(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.CurrentResponseFactor
Returns the current response factor for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.CurrentResponseFactor(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.CustomParam
Returns a custom peak result for the requested peaks.
Syntax
=Peak.CustomParam(<Param ID>, <Run Info>, <Trace Info>,
<Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Param ID> A numeric identifier of the requested peak custom
parameter.
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String / Number
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Peak.CustomParamByName
Returns a custom peak result for the requested peaks.
Syntax
=Peak.CustomParamByName(<Param Name>, <Run Info>, <Trace
Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Param ID> The name of the requested peak custom parameter.
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String / Number
Peak.DABResolution
Returns the DAB resolution for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.DABResolution(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.DABTheoreticalPlates
Returns the DAB theoretical plates for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.DABTheoreticalPlates(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.DABTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Returns the DAB theoretical plates per meter for the requested
peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.DABTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>,
<Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.EMGResolution
Returns the EMG resolution for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.EMGResolution(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlates
Returns the EMG theoretical plates for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlates(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Returns the EMG theoretical plates per meter for the requested
peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.EMGTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>,
<Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.ESTDConcentration
Returns the ESTD concentration for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.ESTDConcentration(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.ExpectedRetentionTime
Returns the expected retention time for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.ExpectedRetentionTime(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Height
Returns the height for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Height(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.HeightPercent
Returns the height percent for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.HeightPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Index
Returns the peak index information for the requested named peak,
based on its peak id. The returned information can be used in place
of <Peak Info> for another function. For example, to find the peak
name of a named peak with a peak id of 2 in the current data file,
use the following formula: =Peak.Name("RC", "T1", Peak.Index(2,
"RC", "T1"))
Syntax
=Peak.Index(<Peak ID>, <Run Info>, <Trace Info>)
Parameters
<Peak ID> A numeric identifier of the requested named peak. This
number comes from the peak table.
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Peak.IntegrationCodes
Returns the integration codes for the requested peak(s).
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Syntax
=Peak.IntegrationCodes(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Peak.ISTDConcentration
Returns the ISTD concentration for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.ISTDConcentration(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.JPResolution
Returns the JP resolution for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.JPResolution(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.JPTheoreticalPlates
Returns the JP theoretical plates for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.JPTheoreticalPlates(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.JPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Returns the JP theoretical plates per meter for the requested
peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.JPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>,
<Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Name
Returns the peak name for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Name(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
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Peak.NORMConcentration
Returns the NORM concentration for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.NORMConcentration(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Number
Returns the detected peak number for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Number(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.Quantitation
Returns the peak quantitation for the requested peak(s). This will
return 'Area', 'Height', or 'Counts'.
Syntax
=Peak.Quantitation (<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Peak.RelativeRetentionTime
Returns the relative retention time for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.RelativeRetentionTime(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.Resolution
Returns the resolution for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Resolution(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.ResolutionID
Returns the resolution ID for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.ResolutionID(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.ResponseFactor
Returns the response factor for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.ResponseFactor(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.RetentionTime
Returns the retention time for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.RetentionTime(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.StartTime
Returns the start time for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.StartTime(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.StopTime
Returns the stop time for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.StopTime(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.TheoreticalPlates
Returns the theoretical plates for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.TheoreticalPlates(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.TheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Returns the theoretical plates per meter for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.TheoreticalPlatesPerMeter(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.Units
Returns the concentration units for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Units(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
String
Peak.USPResolution
Returns the USP resolution for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.USPResolution(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.USPTheoreticalPlates
Returns the USP theoretical plates for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.USPTheoreticalPlates(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak
Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.USPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter
Returns the USP theoretical plates per meter for the requested
peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.USPTheoreticalPlatesPerMeter(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>,
<Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.USPWidth
Returns the USP width for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.USPWidth(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.Width
Returns the width for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.Width(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.WidthFiftyPercent
Returns the width at 50% for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.WidthFiftyPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
Peak.WidthFivePercent
Returns the width at 5% for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.WidthFivePercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Peak.WidthTenPercent
Returns the width at 10% for the requested peak(s).
Syntax
=Peak.WidthTenPercent(<Run Info>, <Trace Info>, <Peak Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
<Trace Info> Describes the trace that will be used to extract the
value.
<Peak Info> Describes the peak(s) to use for the value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Project Functions
These functions return information about the current project.
See Also
Project.DataPath
Project.Description
Project.MethodPath
Project.Name
Project.RootPath
Project.SequencePath
Project.TemplatePath
Project.DataPath
Returns the default path used to store data files in the current
project.
Syntax
=Project.DataPath()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
Project.Description
Returns the description for the current project.
Syntax
=Project.Description()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
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Project.MethodPath
Returns the default path used to store method files in the current
project.
Syntax
=Project.MethodPath()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
Project.Name
Returns the name of the current project.
Syntax
=Project.Name()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
Project.RootPath
Returns the default root path for the current project.
Syntax
=Project.RootPath()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
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Project.SequencePath
Returns the default path used to store sequence files in the current
project.
Syntax
=Project.SequencePath()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
Project.TemplatePath
Returns the default path used to store report template files in the
current project.
Syntax
=Project.TemplatePath()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
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Sequence Functions
These functions return information about the sequence file that will
be used for reporting purposes.
See Also
Sequence.Filename
Sequence.FullFilename
Sequence.RunNumber
Sequence.Filename
Returns file name of the sequence file that will be used for
reporting. Only the file name is returned the path information is
not returned.
Syntax
=Sequence.Filename()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
Sequence.FullFilename
Returns full file name of the sequence file that will be used for
reporting. The file name and path information is returned.
Syntax
=Sequence.FullFilename()
Parameters
None.
Return Type
String
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Sequence.RunNumber
Returns the run number of the specified sequence run. This
function can be used in conjunction with the EX.R() formula to
generate the run number of the runs in a sequence. For example,
the following formula would generate run numbers for all runs of a
sequence going down:
=EX.R(SEQUENCE.RUNNUMBER(),"RA;1;0")
Syntax
=Sequence.RunNumber(<Run Info>)
Parameters
<Run Info> Describes the data file(s) that will be used to extract the
value.
See the Parameter Description section for a description of the above
parameter(s).
Return Type
Number
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Advanced reporting formulas and Functions
This section gives details on formulas available in the spreadsheet
engine used in the Advanced Reports feature.
See Also
Spreadsheet Formulas
Built-in Functions
Functions
Using Spreadsheet Built-in Functions
Spreadsheet Error Messages
Spreadsheet formulas
Formulas are the backbone of the spreadsheet, establishing and
calculating mathematical relationships between elements of the
spreadsheet. Whereas numeric entries remain the same until you
change them, cells defined by formulas are automatically changed
to reflect changes in referenced cells - even where there are complex
interdependencies among cells.
Spreadsheet formulas can calculate with numbers, text, logical
values, cell references, and other formulas. For example, you can
easily calculate the sum of a series of cells, the total of values in a
column, a minimum or maximum value within a range, the rounded
result of another formula, or the absolute value of a cell entry.
Formulas can express complex interdependencies among cells, and
they can define constraints on the calculation, such as limits on
acceptable values or specific conditions under which a calculation
should take place.
Once entered in a cell, formulas are hidden behind the scenes,
perform their work in the background, and display only the result of
their calculation. To view the formula in a cell, simply select the cell.
Spreadsheet also provides an option that lets you make all formula
expression visible (via CGXGridParam::m_nDisplayExpression).
See Also
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Spreadsheet also provides a wide array of functions that perform
certain tasks. Functions can be used alone or in conjunction with
formulas and other functions. Spreadsheet provides many
specialized functions in addition to those that are found in typical
financial spreadsheets.
Formula Syntax
Formula Values
Formula Operators
Referencing Other Cells in Formulas
Cell Referencing in Spreadsheet
Constraint Expressions
Explicit Dependency
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Formula syntax
The general form of a Spreadsheet formula is:
= expression ; constraint expression // comment
where expression defines the calculations needed to generate the
cell's value, constraint expression places limits on acceptable values
or the circumstances under which the calculation should take place,
and comment is any text you want to attach to the cell.
The expression part of Spreadsheet formulas looks just like an
algebraic formula; it contains values and operators that define the
relationships between values.
Spreadsheet uses the following conventions for formulas:

A formula must begin with an equal (=) sign. When you begin
typing into a cell, Spreadsheet automatically assumes that you
are typing a formula if you start with one of the following
characters:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . - @ =+

Formulas can have as many as 511 characters. You can type
spaces if you wish, but the spreadsheet automatically removes
them.
Formula values
Formulas can contain any or all of the following types of values:
Numbers, such as 123, -123, 12.3.
Addresses of single cells, such as A1, D5, Z100.
Addresses of cell ranges such as B12..G29, A1..D5.
Absolute cell references deNoted with dollar signs before the fixed
coordinate ($A$1, $A1, or A$1), which will not be updated when the
referencing cell is moved or copied.
Spreadsheet functions, such as @SUM or @RADIANS, with their
arguments.
Text surrounded by double quotation marks, such as "The sum is "
or "Total".
User-defined cell names or cell range names, such as TOTALS or
PROJECT1
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Formula operators
Spreadsheet supports all the arithmetic, boolean and logical
operators available in the C programming language. It does not
support the C address operators or the operators that have side
effects, such as ++. Spreadsheet provides two operators,
exponentiation (**) and percent (%), that are not available in the
C language.
Spreadsheet Formulas can contain the following operators to define
relationship between values.
Operator Precedence Definition
% 14 Unary percent
** 13 Exponentiation
+ 12 Unary plus
- 12 Unary minus
~ 12 Bitwise complement (integer)
! 12 Logical not
* 11 Multiplication
/ 11 Division
% 11 Remainder (integer)
+ 10 Addition
- 10 Subtraction
<< 9 Shift left (integer)
>> 9 Shift right (integer)
< 8 Less Than
> 8 Greater Than
<= 8 Less Than or Equal
= 8 Greater Than or Equal
== 7 Equal
!= 7 Not Equal
& 6 Bitwise And, or String Concatenation
^ 5 Bitwise Exclusive-Or (integer)
| 4 Bitwise Or
&& 3 Logical And
|| 2 Logical Or
?: 1 Conditional
In formulas with more than one operator, Spreadsheet evaluates
operators in the order of precedence presented above, with highest
precedence first. That is, AND/OR/NOT operators are evaluated
after inequality operators in a logical expression, and
multiplication/division operations are performed before
subtraction/addition operations in an arithmetic expression.
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Operators at the same precedence level are evaluated from left to
right.
The precedence of operators can be overridden by using parentheses
to explicitly specify the order of evaluation.
Here are some special Notes about Spreadsheet operators:






The operators marked ``(integer)'' on the table above
automatically convert their operands to integers.
The & operator performs double duty: as a bit-wise ``and'' if the
operands are numbers or as a string concatenation operator
joining two strings together if the operands are text.
The % operator also performs double duty: as the ``percent''
operator when appended to a number or numeric expression, or
as the C-style ``modulus'' operator when applied between two
integer expressions.
Operators that define equality/inequality relationships (such as
== and < ) can be used to compare text strings lexically
(alphabetically). In comparing mixed strings lexically,
Spreadsheet considers string operands to be lower than
numeric operands.
The conditional operator returns its second operand if its first
operand evaluates True (non-zero) and returns its third
operand if it evaluates False, (zero).
In formulas with conditional operators, the second and third
operands may be any type the spreadsheet supports, including
ranges. For example, the expression
[email protected](A1 ? B1..C20 : C10..D15)
returns the sum of B1..C20 if A1 evaluates to non-zero;
otherwise it returns the sum of C10..D15.

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Spreadsheet accepts most arithmetic operators used in other
spreadsheets like MS Excel, but there are a few differences in
syntax and precedence.
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Referencing other cells in formulas
The real power of Spreadsheet lies in its ability to calculate
relationships among different cells in the spreadsheet by typing the
row/column coordinates, or address, in the formula.
To reference a cell by address:
Type the row and column coordinates of the cell in the formula. For
example, to reference Row 5 in Column D, type D5.
To reference a contiguous group of cells by address:
Type the row and column coordinates of two cells in opposite
corners of the block to be referenced, with two periods ( .. ) between
the coordinates. For example, to reference the first five columns and
the first five rows of the spreadsheet, type A1..E5.
Cell referencing in spreadsheet
Spreadsheet differentiates between relative, absolute, and indirect
references. The latter is unique to Spreadsheet.
Relative Reference
Spreadsheet tracks the referenced cell by considering its position
relative to the formula cell, not by its address. For example, if the
formula in cell A1 references cell B2, Spreadsheet remembers that
the referenced cell is one row down and one column right. If you
copy the formula in cell A1 to another location (e.g., D17), the
formula will reference the cell one row down and one column right
of the new location (e.g., E18).
Absolute Reference
Absolute references remain the same, no matter where you move or
copy the original formula. For example, if the formula in cell A1
references cell B2, and you copy the formula in cell A1 to another
location (e.g. D17), the formula still references cell B2. To specify an
absolute cell address, insert a dollar sign ($) before the address
coordinate to be fixed, or before both coordinates if the row and
column coordinates are to be fixed. For example: $B$2.
To specify all or part of a cell address to be absolute, insert a dollar
sign ($) before the address coordinate to remain fixed For example:



B$5 makes the complete address absolute.
$B5 makes the column coordinate (B) absolute, the row
coordinate (5) relative.
B$5 makes the column coordinate (B) relative, the row
coordinate (5) absolute.
Cell ranges are also relative, so when you move a cell range,
references in formulas within that range are updated to reflect
their new location.
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To specify an absolute range reference, insert dollar signs ($) before
the coordinates in the formula. For example, to make the range
A1..D5 absolute, type the reference as $A$1..$D$5.
To specify part of a cell range to be absolute, insert dollar signs only
before the coordinates to remain absolute. For example, $A1..$D5
will fix the column coordinates of cell references but adjust the row
coordinates to reflect the new location.
To reference a cell or range by name:
Type the pre-assigned name of the cell or cell block into the
formula.
To assign a name to a cell or range of cells, use the SetRangeName
command.
Current Cell Reference
Certain expressions within the context of Spreadsheet require a
means to express the current cell.
Examples include the conditional statistical functions described in
Built-In Worksheet Functions, and constraint expressions described
in Section Constraint Expressions.
The current cell is identified in any expression with a pound sign
(#). References to cells in the neighborhood of the current cell are
made with offset values enclosed in braces ( {} ) following the #.
The offsets tell Spreadsheet where to look, in relation to the current
cell, for the cell being referenced.
The format is as follows:
#{column offset, row offset}


If you include only one value in the offset, Spreadsheet assumes
that it is a column offset. For example, the offset reference #{-1}
tells Spreadsheet to look to the column just left of the current
cell.
The offset values may be constants or expressions.
Examples:

#{0,-1} refers to the cell above the current cell.

#{-2} refers to the cell two columns left of the current cell.




366
#{1} refers to the cell to the right of the current cell.
#{0,1} refers to the cell below the current cell.
@CSUM(C4..C100, #{-1} == "Joe") calculates the sum of all the
values in the range C4..C100 for which the cell in the column to
the left contains the string Joe.
@CCOUNT(C4..C100, # #{0,-1}) counts all the cells in the range
C4..C100 whose value is greater than the contents of the cell
immediately above.
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

@XVALUE("master.xs3", #) returns the value of the same cell
reference in which this function is stored from the sheet
indicated.
/verb/#-1+2/ adds 2 to the cell value from the cell to the left.
Constraint expressions
Constraints are limitations or conditions placed on the variables in
your spreadsheet. They are expressed as algebraic statements
appended to formulas. You can attach a constraint expression to
any formula, by typing a semicolon (;) and the constraint conditions
after the formula.
Constraint expressions establish conditions under which a formula
operates or boundaries for valid results of the formula. Constraint
expressions may be simple equality/inequality relationships, or they
can be arbitrary formulas. Any valid Spreadsheet expression which
returns a numeric value is also a valid constraint expression.
However, unlike the expression that defines a cell value, a
constraint expression can reference the cell in which it resides,
using the symbol #.
For example, the formula
=A1 + A2 ; #2 && #<=B5 || #==C7
means, ``the value of the current cell is the sum of cells A1 and A2,
and that value must be either greater than 2 and less than or equal
to the value of cell B5, or equal to the value of cell C7.''
Constraint expressions are used for example in the conditional
statistical functions.
The benefit of constraint expressions is maximized when combined
with current cell reference support (#) as indicated in the above
example.
Explicit dependency
There may be instances where you need to force a recalculation
when certain cell values change, when there is no implicit
dependency in the formula that would trigger an automatic
recalculation. This option is indicated by appending a backslash (\)
to the end of the dependent formula. For example, the formula:
[email protected](A1..A20)\D50
instructs Spreadsheet to recalculate @SUM(A1..A20) whenever the
contents of D50 change. This feature is particularly important
when you have a constraint expression containing an offset
reference that produces a cell reference outside the cell range
referenced in a dependent formula. Under these circumstances,
Automatic Recalculation would not necessarily be triggered. Take
for instance, the example from above:
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@CCOUNT(C4..C100, # #{0,-1})
Counts all the cells in the range C4..C100 whose value is greater
than the contents of the cell immediately above. In order for C4 to
be evaluated, it must be compared to C3 - which is not part of the
explicit range, C4..C100. Without indicating an explicit dependency,
C4 would never be evaluated properly. So, in this case, we would
indicate the dependency as follows:
@CCOUNT(C4..C100, # #{0,-1})\C3..C99
which tells Spreadsheet to recalculate whenever any cell in the
range C3..C99 changes.
Built-in functions
Spreadsheet functions are predefined formulas supplied with the
program. They offer a shortcut approach to accomplishing the work
of long, complex formulas. Mathematical and statistical functions
are often used to sum a column of numbers, compute an average,
determine a minimum or maximum value, or round the results of a
formula. Other functions are used for more specialized purposes
such as computing the future value of an investment or the product
of multiplying one cell range by another range. Some functions
perform calculations that arithmetic operators cannot handle such
as text-string manipulations.
See Also
Mathematical Functions
Statistical Functions
Conditional Statistical Functions
String Functions
Logic Functions
Digital Logic Functions
Financial Functions
Date and Time Functions
Miscellaneous Functions
Embedded Tools
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Mathematical functions
Mathematical Functions perform calculations such as determining
absolute value, finding the integer portion of a number, or
establishing the value of a constant. Although you could accomplish
these tasks with a formula, using a function saves time and trouble.
Spreadsheet also provides a full range of trigonometric functions
including sine, cosine, tangent, arc sine, hyperbolic sine, hyperbolic
arc sine as well as vector and matrix arithmetic and manipulation.
Mathematical functions perform calculations with numeric values
as arguments, returning numeric values.
Statistical functions
Statistical Functions perform aggregation operations such as
calculating means, minimums, maximums, and averages.
Spreadsheet also provides more sophisticated statistical test
functions that perform operations on a group of values expressed as
a list of arguments. These include the F-test, T-tests, correlation
coefficient, deviations, and all common averages.
Statistical functions return numeric values.
Conditional statistical functions
Conditional Statistical Functions operate much like statistical
aggregation functions, except that the last argument is a constraint
expression that Spreadsheet evaluates for each cell in the argument
list.
Only cells that meet constraint criteria are included in the
calculation. The constraint expression may be any Spreadsheet
expression that evaluates to a numeric result.
Conditional Statistical Functions return a numeric value.
String functions
String Functions manipulate and evaluate character strings. For
example, string functions can return the length of a string, find the
first occurrence of a string in a range, change a string from upper to
lower-case and vice versa, or replace one string with another.
String functions return strings or numeric values.
Logic functions
Logic Functions return one value if an argument meets certain
criteria, another value if it does not.
Logic functions are used as an adjunct to conditional statements.
Logic functions return the value 1, 0, or a value.
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Digital logic functions
Digital Logic Functions perform digital logic operations such as
AND, OR, NOT, etc.
Digital logic functions return the values 0, 1, or -1 (unknown). Any
value whose integer portion is not equal to 0 or 1 is considered
unknown. Unknown input values may cause unknown output
values.
Financial functions
Financial Functions perform common financial calculations, such as
calculating the future value of an annuity at a given interest rate,
straight-line depreciation, double-declining depreciation, or the
payment term for a given investment. The financial functions in
Spreadsheet cover annuities, cash flows, assets. bonds, and
Treasury Bills.
Financial functions are most useful for solving cash flow
calculations where you know all but one variable. For example, if
you know the present value of an investment, interest rate, and
periodic payment, you can use the @FV function to calculate the
future value of the investment. If you know the future value and
other variables, but need to know the present value, you can use
the @PV function.
Many financial functions require specifying a Day Count Basis. A
Day Count Basis indicates the way in which the days in a month
and the days in a year are to be counted. Most of the financial
functions in securities involve 4 different Day Count Basis: 30/360,
actual/actual, actual/360 and actual/365. 30/360 Day Count Basis
assumes 30-day months and 360-day years (12 months x 30 days).
Spreadsheet also follows the ``End-of-Month'' rule which assumes
that a security pays interest on the last day of the month and will
always make its interest on the last day of the month. Special rules
are followed when calculating the days between two dates on 30/360
Day Count Basis.
For example, let Start_Date = D1/M1/Y1, End_Date =
D2/M2/Y2.
1. If D1=31, Spreadsheet uses 30 for D1.
2. If D2=31, Spreadsheet uses 31, unless D1=30 or D1=31. In
this case, Spreadsheet uses 30.
3. If D1 is the last day of February (D1=28 or 29 in a leap year),
Spreadsheet uses 30 for D1.
4. If D2 is the last day of February (D2=28 or 29 in a leap year)
and D1 is also the last day of
February, Spreadsheet uses 30 for D2.
The special arguments used by Spreadsheet financial functions
are defined in Table TODO:
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Financial functions use the arguments defined in Table interest rate
The interest rate to be used in the calculations. The rate may be
specified as annual, monthly or quarterly, but it must agree with
the increment you use for periods. By default the interest rate is an
annual rate.








Present value The present value of an investment, representing
the amount already received from or committed to an
investment.
Period The number of periods over which the loan, investment
or depreciation is to be calculated. The periods may be defined
in months, quarters or years, but must agree with the
increment used to define interest rate.
Future value The future value of an investment, given a certain
present value, interest rate, and number of periods.
Cost The original cost of a depreciable capital asset.
Salvage value The remaining value of a capital asset after the
depreciation period has expired.
Allowable life The allowable life of a depreciable item.
Yield The interest rate that will make the present value of the
expected future cash flows equal to the price of the financial
instrument.
Price The present value of the expected future cash flows where
the discount rate is equal to the yield of the financial
instrument.

Coupon rate The annual coupon rate of a security.

Frequency The number of coupon payments in a year.

Basis The day count basis to be used in calculation.
Functions related fixed income securities usually require special
dates as arguments: issue date, settlement date, first coupon date,
last coupon date, maturity date of a security. When specified, the
following constraints should be followed:
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Issue settlement maturity

Issue first coupon maturity

Issue last coupon maturity
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Date and time functions
Date and Time Functions return values corresponding to the
specified date, month, year, hour, minute or second. You can also
use date/time functions to enter the current system time and date
in a cell.
These functions open up many possibilities for managing accounts
receivable and calculating test times.
Spreadsheet internally stores date and time information using the
same convention as other popular spreadsheet programs:


Dates are represented as an integer equal to the number of
days since December 31, 1899, so January 1, 1900 equals 1.
Times are represented as fractions of a day, starting at
midnight. For example, 6:00 AM is stored as 0.25 (a quarter of a
24-hour day).
Using this convention, date and time values may be used together.
For example, the date/time value 1.25 corresponds to 6:00:00 AM,
January 1, 1900.
Miscellaneous functions
Miscellaneous Functions perform a variety of calculations, such as
returning a reference to specific cells or ranges or returning the
Nth argument from a list of arguments.
Embedded tools
Embedded Tools are a powerful feature in Spreadsheet. Their
power derives in part from their ability to return a set of data, not
just a single value. This function makes non-scalar operations such
as matrix multiplication and live recalculation as easy to use as an
ordinary spreadsheet function.
Embedded tools store values in a group of adjacent cells. These
adjacent cells are set to constant formulas with explicit
dependencies on their neighboring cells. For example, an embedded
tool in cell B2 might produce the formula =1.3459\B2 in cell B3.
This formula indicates that the cell currently contains the constant
1.3459 but that its value depends on the contents of cell B2 (the cell
containing the embedded tool).
This notion of explicit dependencies is important for recalculation.
It guarantees that any cell that references B3 will not be
recalculated until after cell B2 is recalculated. This ensures that
data generated by the embedded tool is always current.
Embedded tools look like normal functions, and they can be copied,
moved and formatted just as any other formula in the spreadsheet.
However, you must follow one important guideline: DO NOT
combine embedded tools with other embedded tools in a single
formula. For example the following formula is not allowed:
@INVERT(@MMUL(A1..C4,F1..I3))
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Functions
See Also
Mathematical Functions
Statistical Functions
Conditional Statistical Functions
String Functions
Logic Functions
Financial Functions
Date and Time Functions
Miscellaneous Functions
Embedded Tools
Mathematical functions
@ABS(X) -The absolute value of X.
@ACOS(X) -The arc cosine of X.
@ASIN(X) -The arc sine of X.
@ATAN(X) -The 2-quadrant arc tangent of X.
@ATAN2(X, Y) -The 4-quadrant arc tangent of Y/X.
@CEIL(X) -The smallest integer greater than or equal to X.
@COS(X) -The cosine of X.
@COSH(X) -The hyperbolic cosine of X.
@DEGREES(X) -Converts the angle expressed in radians to degrees
( ).
@DET(M) -The determinant of the matrix range M, which must be
a square matrix.
@DOT(R1, R2) -The dot product of the vectors R1 and R2.
@EXP(X) -e raised to the X power.
@FACT(N) - The value of N!.
@FLOOR(X) -The largest integer less than or equal to X.
@FRAC(X) -The fractional portion of X.
@GAMMA(X) -The value of the gamma function evaluated at X.
@GRAND -A 12th-degree binomial approximation to a Gaussian
random number with zero mean and unit variance.
@INT(X) -The integer portion of X.
@LN(X) -The natural log (base e) of X.
@LNGAMMA(X) -The log base e of the gamma function evaluated
at X.
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@LOG(X) -The log base 10 of X.
@LOG10(X) -The log base 10 of X.
@LOG2(X) -The log base 2 of X.
@MOD(X, Y) -The remainder of X/Y.
@MODULUS(X, Y) -The modulus of X/Y.
@PI -The value of p.
@POLY(X, ...) -The value of an Nth-degree polynomial in X.
@PRODUCT(X, ...) -The product of all the numeric values in the
argument list.
@RADIANS(X) -Converts the angle expressed in degrees to radians
( ).
@RAND -A uniform random number on the interval [0,1).
@ROUND(X, n) -X rounded to n number of decimal places (0 to 15).
@SIGMOID(X) -The value of the sigmoid function .
@SIN(X) -The sine of X.
@SINH(X) -The hyperbolic sine of X.
@SQRT(X) -The positive square root of X.
@SUMPRODUCT(R1, R2) -The dot product of the vectors R1 and
R2, where R1 and R2 are of equal dimension.
@TAN(X) -The tangent of X.
@TANH(X) -The hyperbolic tangent of X.
@TRANSPOSE(M) -The transpose of matrix M.
@VECLEN(...) -The square root of the sum of squares of its
arguments.
Statistical functions
@AVG(...) -The average (arithmetic mean) of its arguments.
@CORR(R1, R2) -Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient
for the paired data in ranges R1 and R2.
@COUNT(...) -A count of its non-blank arguments.
@F(M, N, F) -The integral of Snedecor's F-distribution with M and
N degrees of freedom from minus infinity to F.
@ERF(L[, U]) -Error function integrated between 0 and L; if U
specified, between L and U.
@ERFC(L) -Complementary error function integrated between L
and infinity.
@FORECAST(...) -Predicted Y values for given X.
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@FTEST(R1, R2) -The significance level ( ) of the two-sided F-test
on the variances of the data specified by ranges R1 and R2.
@GMEAN(...) -The geometric mean of its arguments.
@HMEAN(...) -The harmonic mean of its arguments.
@LARGE(R, N) -The Nth largest value in range R.
@MAX(...) -The maximum of its arguments.
@MEDIAN(...) -The median (middle value) of the range R1.
@MIN(...) -The minimum of its arguments.
@MODE(...) - The mode, or most frequently occurring value.
@MSQ(...) -The mean of the squares of its arguments.
@PERCENTILE(R, N) -The value from the range R which is at the
Nth percentile in R.
@PERCENTRANK(R, N) -The percentile rank of the number N
among the values in range R.
@PERMUT(S, T) -The number of T objects that can be chosen from
the set S, where order is significant.
@PTTEST(R1, R2) -The significance level ( ) of the two-sided T-test
for the paired samples contained in ranges R1 and R2.
@QUARTILE(R, Q) -The quartile Q of the data in range R.
@RANK(E, R[, O]) -The rank of a numeric argument E in the range
R.
@RMS(...) -The root of the mean of squares of its arguments.
@SMALL(R, N) -The Nth smallest number in range R.
@SSE(...) -The sum squared error of its arguments. It is equivalent
to @VAR(...) @COUNT(...).
@SSQ(...) -The sum of squares of its arguments.
@STD(...) -The population standard deviation (N weighting) of its
arguments.
@STDS(...) -The sample standard deviation (N-1 weighting) of its
arguments.
@SUM(...) -The sum of its arguments.
@T(N, T) -The
integral of Student's T-distribution with N degrees of freedom from
minus infinity to T.
@TTEST(R, X) -The significance level ( of the two-sided single
population T-test for the population samples contained in range R.
@TTEST2EV(R1, R2) -The significance level ( ) of the two-sided
dual population T-test for ranges R1 and R2, where the population
variances are equal.
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@TTEST2UV(R1, R2) -The significance level ( ) of the two-sided
dual population T-test for ranges R1 and R2, where the population
variances are not equal.
@VAR(...) -The sample variance (N weighting) of its arguments.
@VARS(...) -The sample variance (N-1 weighting) of its arguments.
@VSUM(...) -The ``visual sum'' of its arguments, using precision
and rounding of formatted cell values.
Conditional statistical functions
@CAVG(..., C) – Conditional average.
@CCOUNT(..., C) – Conditional count.
@CMAX(..., C) – Conditional maximum.
@CMIN(..., C) – Conditional minimum.
@CSTD(..., C) – Conditional sample standard deviation (N
weighting).
@CSTDS(..., C) – Conditional sample standard deviation (N-1
weighting).
@CSUM(..., C) – Conditional sum.
@CVAR(..., C) – Conditional population variance (N weighting).
@CVARS(..., C) – Conditional population variance (N-1 weighting).
String functions
@CHAR(N) -The character represented by the code N.
@CLEAN(S) -The string formed by removing all non-printing
characters from the string S.
@CODE(S) -The ASCII code for the first character in string S.
@EXACT(S1, S2) -Returns true (1) if string S1 exactly matches
string S2, otherwise returns 0.
@FIND(S1, S2, N) -The index of the first occurrence of S1 in S2.
@HEXTONUM(S) -The numeric value for the hexadecimal
interpretation of S.
@LEFT(S, N) -The string composed of the leftmost N characters of
S.
@LENGTH(S) -The number of characters in S.
@LOWER(S) -S converted to lower case.
@MID(S, N1, N2) -The string of length N2 that starts at position N1
in S.
@NUMTOHEX(X) - The hexadecimal representation of the integer
portion of X.
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@PROPER(S) -The string S with the first letter of each word
capitalized.
@REGEX(S1, S2) -Returns true (1) if string S1 exactly matches
string S2; otherwise returns false (0). Allows ``wildcard''
comparisons by interpreting S1 as a regular expression.
@REPEAT(S, N) -The string S repeated N times.
@REPLACE(S1, N1, N2, S2) -The string formed by replacing the N2
characters starting at position N1 in S1 with string S2.
@RIGHT(S, N) -The string composed of the rightmost N characters
of S.
@STRCAT(...) -The concatenation of all its arguments.
@STRING(X, N) -The string representing the numeric value of X, to
N decimal places.
@STRLEN(...) -The total length of all strings in its arguments.
@TRIM(S) -The string formed by removing spaces from the string S.
@UPPER(S) -The string S converted to upper case.
@VALUE(S) -The numeric value represented by the string S;
otherwise 0 if S does not represent a number.
Logic functions
@FALSE -The logical value 0.
@FILEEXISTS(S) -1 if file S can be opened for reading; otherwise 0.
@IF(X, T, F) -The value of T if X evaluates to on-zero, or F if X
evaluates to zero.
@ISERROR(X) -Returns 1 if X ``contains'' an error, otherwise 0.
@ISNUMBER(X) -1 if X is a numeric value; otherwise 0.
@ISSTRING(X) -1 if X is a string value; otherwise 0.
@TRUE -The logical value 1.
Digital Logic Functions
@AND(...) -0 if any arguments are 0; 1 if all arguments are 1;
otherwise -1.
@NAND(...) -0 if all arguments are 1; 1 if any arguments are 0;
otherwise -1.
@NOR(...) -0 if any arguments are 1; 1 if all arguments are 0;
otherwise -1.
@NOT(X) -0 if X=1; 1 if X=0; otherwise -1.
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@OR(...) -0 if all arguments are 0; 1 if any arguments are 1;
otherwise -1.
@XOR(...) - 1 if any of the arguments are not 0 or 1; otherwise 0 if
the total number of arguments with the value 1 is even; 1 if the
total number of arguments with the value 1 is odd.
Financial functions
@ACCRINT(I, Ft, S, R, P, F[, B]) -Accrued interest for a security
that pays periodic interest.
@ACCRINTM(I, S, R, P[, B]) - Accrued interest for a security that
pays interest at maturity.
@COUPDAYBS(S, M, F[, B]) -The number of days between the
beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.
@COUPDAYS(S, M, F[, B]) -The number of days in the coupon
period that the settlement date is in.
@COUPDAYSNC(S, M, F[, B]) -The number of days between the
settlement date and the next coupon date.
@COUPNCD(S, M, F[, B]) -The next coupon date after the
settlement date.
@COUPNUM(S, M, F[, B]) -The number of coupon payments
between the settlement date and maturity date.
@COUPPCD(S, M, F[, B]) -The previous (most recent) coupon date
before the settlement date.
@CTERM(R, FV, PV) -The number of compounding periods for an
investment.
@CUMIPMT(R, NP, PV, S, E, T) -The cumulative interest on a loan
between start period S and end period E.
@CUMPRINC(R, NP, PV, S, E, T) -The cumulative principal paid
on a loan between start period S and end period E.
@DB(C, S, L, P[, M]) -Fixed- declining depreciation allowance.
@DDB(C, S, L, N) -Double- declining depreciation allowance.
@DISC(S, M, P, R[, B]) -The discount rate for a security.
@DOLLARDE(FD, F) -Converts a dollar amount expressed as a
fraction form into a decimal form.
@DOLLARFR(DD, F) -Converts a dollar amount expressed as a
decimal form into a fraction form.
@DURATION(S, M, R, Y, F[, B]) The Macauley duration of a security assuming $100 face value.
@EFFECT(NR, NP) -Returns the effective annual interest rate.
@FV(P, R, N) -Future value of an annuity.
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@FVSCHEDULE(P, S) -The future value of an initial investment
after compounding a series of interest rates.
@INTRATE(S, M, I, R[, B]) -The interest rate for a fully invested
security.
@IPMT(R, P, NP, PV, FV[, T]) -The interest payment for a specific
period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and
a constant interest rate.
@IRR(G, F) -The internal rate of return on an investment. (See also
@XIRR and @MIRR.)
@MDURATION(S, M, R, Y, F[, B]) -The modified Macauley
duration of a security assuming $100 face value.
@MIRR(CF, FR, RR) -The modified internal rate of return for a
series of periodic cash flows.
@NOMINAL(ER, NP) -The nominal annual interest rate.
@ODDFPRICE(S, M, I, FC, R, Y, RD, F[, B]) -The price per $100
face value of a security with an odd (short or long) first period.
@ODDFYIELD(S, M, I, FC, R, PR, RD, F[, B]) -The yield per of a
security with an odd (short or long) first period.
@PMT(PV, R, N) -The periodic payment for a loan.
@PPMT(R, P, NP, PV, FV, T) -The payment on the principal for a
specific period for an investment based on periodic, constant
payments and a constant interest rate.
@PRICE(S, M, R, Y, RD, F[, B]) -The price per $100 face value of a
security that pays periodic interest.
@PRICEDISC(S, M, D, RD[, B]) -The price per $100 face value of a
discounted security.
@PRICEMAT(S, M, I, R, Y[, B]) -The price per $100 face value of a
security that pays interest at maturity.
@PV(P, R, N) -The present value of an annuity
@RATE(FV, PV, N) -The interest rate required to reach future
value FV.
@RECEIVED(S, M, I, D, [, B]) -The amount received at maturity for
a fully vested security.
@SLN(C, S, L) -The straight-line depreciation allowance.
@SYD(C, S, L, N) -The ``sum-of-years-digits'' depreciation
allowance.
@TBILLEQ(S, M, D) -The bond-equivalent yield (BEY) for a
Treasury Bill.
@TBILLYIELD(S, M, D) -The yield on a Treasury bill.
@TERM(P, R, FV) -The number of payment periods for an
investment.
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@VDB(C, S, L, S, E) -Fixed- declining depreciation allowance
between two periods.
@XIRR(G, V, D) -Internal rate of return for a series of cash flows
with variable intervals.
@XNPV(R, V, D) -Returns the net present value for a series of cash
flows with variable intervals.
@YIELD(S, M, R, PR, RD, F[, B]) -Yield of a security that pays
periodic interest.
@YIELDMAT(S, M, I, R, PR[, B]) -Annual yield of a security which
pays interest at maturity.
Date and time functions
@DATE(Y, M, D) -The date value for year Y, month M, and day D.
@DATEVALUE(S) -The corresponding date value for a given string
S.
@DAYS360(S, E) -The number of days between two dates, based on
a 30/360 day count system.
@DAY(DT) -The day number in the date/time value DT.
@EDATE(S, M) -The date/time value representing number of
months (M) before or after start date (S).
@EOMONTH(S, M) -The date/time value representing the last day
of the month M months after S, if M is positive, or M months before
if M is negative.
@HOUR(DT) -The hour value (0-23) of date/time value DT.
@MINUTE(DT) -The minute value (0-59) of date/time value DT.
@MONTH(DT) -The number of the month in date/time value DT.
@NETWORKDAYS(S, E[, H]) -The number of whole working days,
starting at S and going to E, excluding weekends and holidays.
@NOW -The date/time value of the current system date and time.
@SECOND(DT) -The seconds value (0-59) of the date/time value
DT.
@TIME(H, M, S) -The time value for hour H, minute M, and second
S.
@TIMEVALUE(S) -The corresponding time value for a given string
value S.
@TODAY -The date value of the current system date.
@WEEKDAY(D) -The integer representing the day of the week on
which the day D falls. 1 is Sunday, 7 is Saturday.
@WORKDAY(S, D[, H]) -The day that is D working days after S, if
D is positive, or before S, if D is negative, excluding weekends and
all holidays specified as dates in range H.
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@YEAR(DT) -The year value of date/time value DT.
@YEARFRAC(S, E[, B]) -The portion of the year represented by the
number of days between start date ( S) and end date (E).
Miscellaneous functions
@CELLREF(N1, N2) -A reference to the cell in column N1 and row
N2.
@CHOOSE(N, ...) -The Nth argument from the list.
@COL(C) -The column address of the cell referenced by C.
@COLS(R) -The number of columns in the specified range R.
@HLOOKUP(X, S, R) -The value of the cell in range S that is R
number of rows beneath X.
@INIT(X1, X2) -The first argument on the first recalculation pass
and the second argument on all subsequent recalculation passes
when Spreadsheet is performing iterative calculations.
@INTERP2D(R1, R2, N) -The interpolation value for a 2dimensional vector.
@INTERP3D(R, X, Y) -The interpolation value for a 3-dimensional
vector.
@MATCH(V, R[, T]) -The relative position in range R of value V
based on positioning criteria T.
@N(R) -The numeric value of the top left cell in range R.
@RANGEREF(N1, N2, N3, N4) -A reference to the range defined by
coordinates N1 through N4.
@ROW(C) -The row address of the cell referenced by C.
@ROWS(R) -The number of rows in the specified range R.
@S(R) -The string value of the top left cell in range R.
@VLOOKUP(X, S, C) -The value of the cell in range S that is C
number of columns to the right of X.
IMPORTANT: Some Spreadsheet functions return a result that is a
range or cell reference.
Spreadsheet does not include these indirect references in
determining the pattern of recalculation.
Plan carefully before using these functions. See the section,
Computed Cell References at the end of this chapter for more
information.
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Embedded tools
@DFT(R) -The Discrete Fourier Transform of the range R.
@EIGEN(M) -The eigenvalues of the matrix M.
@FFT(R) -The Discrete Fourier Transform of the range R using a
fast Fourier Transform algorithm.
@FREQUENCY(R, B) -Returns a frequency distribution for values
R with a set of intervals B.
@INVDFT(R) -The inverse of the Discrete Fourier Transform of the
range R.
@INVERT(M) -The inverse of matrix M.
@INVFFT(R) -The inverse of the Discrete Fourier Transform of the
range R using a fast Fourier Transform algorithm.
@LINFIT(X, Y) -The straight line least squares fit. This function is
equivalent to @POLYFIT(X, Y, 1).
@LLS(A, Y) -The linear least squares solution X to the overdetermined system of equations AX=Y.
@MMUL(M1, M2) -The product of multiplying matrix M2 by matrix
M1.
@PLS(X, Y, d) -Analyzes the least squares polynomial model
Y=P(X), where P is a polynomial of degree d.
@POLYCOEF(X, Y, d) -The least squares coefficients for the
polynomial fit Y=P(X), where P is a polynomial of degree d.
@TRANSPOSE(M) -The transpose of matrix M.
@TREND(NX, KX, KY) -The y values for new x values given
existing x and y values.
Note
Embedded tools should not be contained within other functions or
arithmetic operations in a single formula. You may, however, copy,
move and format embedded tools just as any other function.
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Using spreadsheet built-in functions
You enter a function in a cell in the same way you enter a formula
or any other entry, with a few additional guidelines.
Type in the function name. Spreadsheet recognizes the string as a
function. Function names are abbreviations that indicate what the
function does. For instance, ABS computes absolute value, ROUND
rounds to the specified number of places, and AVG computes the
average of a list of arguments. Function names may be preceded
with an '@' sign, but this is not required.
After typing the function name, enter arguments in parentheses.
Most functions use one or more arguments to define the task to be
performed. For example, the @AVG function averages the value of
two or more arguments. The @LENGTH function returns the length
of an argument that is a character string.
Use only the arguments required by the function, in the exact order
specified in the function syntax. If you enter other arguments or
enter them in the wrong order, Spreadsheet will misinterpret their
meaning or return an error message.
All the function names in this chapter are typed in uppercase
letters, but you can enter them in upper or lower-case for your
entries.
See Also
Arguments
Using Operators with Functions
Computed Cell References
Arguments
Arguments specify the values the function should use in its
calculations. The number of arguments, their types, and their
formats varies from one function to another. Arguments are usually
numeric values, cell or range references, or string values. Most
functions have at least one argument; a few have none.
The following chart shows different types of arguments used in
Spreadsheet functions.
Argument Example
Numeric Value 123
Address of a cell A10
Address of a range F9..F99
String Value ``Quarterly Report''
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Using operators with functions
The result of a function depends on the order in which Spreadsheet
handles the calculations.
Computed cell references
Several Spreadsheet functions such as @CELLREF and
@RANGERE return a result that is itself a cell reference or range
reference. This is a powerful facility, but it must be used with
caution because Spreadsheet can not take these indirect references
into account when determining the order of recalculation. The same
caution applies to constraint expressions used in conditional
statistical functions. As a rule, cells that are indirectly referenced
by a function are not automatically recalculated. Spreadsheet
provides a special construct to force a recalculation, referred to as
an explicit dependency.
Spreadsheet does not recalculate the spreadsheet unless explicit
dependencies have been changed, so you may need to force
recalculation if you change the value of a cell that is referenced only
indirectly through a function.
For example, suppose you want to count the numeric values in the
range C3..J100 that fall within the limits specified in cells A1 and
A2. The Spreadsheet formula to compute this is
@CCOUNT(C3..J100,#A1 && #<A2)
This formula will correctly count the numeric values in the range
C3..J100. However, if you change the value in A1, Spreadsheet will
not automatically recalculate the result, because A1 is referenced
only indirectly through the constraint expression.



To force Spreadsheet to recalculate the entire spreadsheet you
should call the Recalc() command. You should also add
Recalculate menu in your application that calls Recalc().
You can also force Spreadsheet to do a partial recalculation
with respect to that cell, edit the cell and append a blank and
press the [Return] key on the cell containing the @CCOUNT
formula.
You can also use explicit dependencies to circumvent the
limitation described above, if you entered the formula below in
the form, the Spreadsheet would take into account the
dependencies on A1 and A2 and update the spreadsheet just as
you expect.
@CCOUNT(C3..J100,#A1 && #<A2)\A1\A2

Another approach is to construct the condition string with an
expression that references the cells directly. In this example, A1
and A2 are directly referenced and thus will properly trigger
recalculation. Explicit Dependency is described in more detail
in Section Explicit Dependency.
@CCOUNT(C3..J100, @STRCAT("#",A1,"&_<",A2))
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Spreadsheet error messages
Spreadsheet checks for a variety of errors. Depending on the error
type, the most recent error message is displayed either inside the
affected cell(s), on the Message Line or is displayed inside the
Spreadsheet Message dialog box.
See Also
Types of Errors
Summary of Error Messages
Types of errors
Errors in functions
Errors that occur inside functions are reported along with the name
of the function in which the error occurred.
Formula syntax errors
These errors occur only when you are typing in a formula. When
you finish entering the formula, Spreadsheet will attempt to read
the formula and convert it to an internal representation. If it is
unable to do so, it continues to display the erroneous formula,
switches into ``edit mode'', places the text cursor at the beginning of
the text which it had difficulty parsing, and displays the error
message.
The problem must be corrected before Spreadsheet can continue.
Formula evaluation errors
Formula evaluation error occurs when Spreadsheet reads in a
formula and converts it into its internal formula representation, but
is not able to evaluate the formula and produce a correct numeric or
string formula. In some cases, the formula has been entered
incorrectly, for example, an operand or parenthesis is missing. In
other cases, an error has occurred as a result of computation that
cannot be handled properly by the computer's floating point
hardware, or there is an error condition in a cell or range that is
referenced in the context of this formula. Errors can also occur in
the evaluation of Spreadsheet built-in functions.
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Summary of error messages
argument must be an integer
@FACT has been passed a non-integer argument.
argument not a cell or range
@@ has been passed an argument that is neither a cell nor a range.
argument out of range
An argument to a function is not within the correct range for the
function and its other arguments.
arguments must be numeric
The function requires numeric arguments, which may be literal
numbers, formulas which return numeric values, or references to
cells containing numeric values.
arguments must be positive
The arguments in this function must be all positive values.
can not parse condition string
Spreadsheet has encountered a malformed conditional expression.
cannot find interpolation
@INTERP2D or @INTERP3D is unsuccessful in finding
interpolated values.
cash flow series must be a range
@NPV and @MIRR require that their cash flow series must be a
range, which must represent a single column or row.
cash flow series must be single column or row
@NPV and @MIRR require that their cash flow series must be a
range, which must represent a single column or row.
cell operand contains error condition
A cell which is referenced from the cell in which the error occurs
contains an error condition.
cell reference out of range
A cell reference has been made which is outside the range
A1..FAN32767
coefficient matrix has linearly dependent columns
The existence of a unique solution to a linear least squares (@LLS)
problem, Ax=b, requires that the columns of A are linearly
independent.
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column offset out of range
The third argument to the @VLOOKUP function specifies an offset
that is less than 0 or is greater than the width of the range
specified in the second argument.
constraint check not supported with ``As Needed''
Constraint checking is not supported when the recalculation is set
to ``As Needed''.
contains an error indicator
A cell in one or more of the data ranges for a graph contains an
error condition. The error condition must be resolved before
Spreadsheet can plot the graph.
could not find real root
@IRR could not find a real root. This suggests that the data given to
@IRR is probably wrong.
count less than zero
User has passed a negative argument to a function which requires a
count, for example, with @LEFT, it is impossible to take the -2
leftmost characters of a string.
data set size must be = 3
@LINFIT and @LINCOEF require a data set of size 3 or larger.
data set size must be = polynomial degree + 2
@PLS, @POLYFIT, and @POLYCOEF require that the data set size
be greater than or equal to the polynomial degree + 2.
date series must be single column or row
@XIRR and @XNPV require the argument D (date series) to be a
single column or single row.
decimal places out of range
@STRING only takes a decimal place argument between 0 and 15.
degrees of freedom must be 0
@F and @T require degrees of freedom greater than zero, as
``degrees of freedom'' is mathematically undefined for zero or less.
dimension must be power of 2
@FFT and @INVFFT require matrices whose dimensions are
powers of two. The somewhat slower functions @DFT and
@INVDFT, respectively, are equivalent functions which do not
share this requirement.
divide by zero
An attempt has been made to divide by zero. Note that Spreadsheet
considers cells which are empty or contain text strings to have the
value zero in the context of a numerical calculation.
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does not accept arguments
Several Spreadsheet functions, including @PI, @TRUE, @FALSE,
@RAND, and @GRAND, do not accept any arguments.
domain is -1 < x < 1
@ATANH only takes arguments between -1 and 1, exclusive.
domain is -1 <= x <= 1
@ACOS and @ASIN only take arguments between -1 and 1,
inclusive.
domain is 0 <= x <= 170
@FACT only takes arguments between 0 and 170, inclusive. (Most
platforms)
domain is 0 <= x <= 33
@FACT only takes arguments between 0 and 33, inclusive. (VAX
platforms)
domain is x 0
@LN, @LOG2, @LOG, @GAMMA, and @LNGAMMA only take
arguments greater than zero.
domain is x = 1
@ACOSH only takes arguments greater than or equal to 1.
``End Period'' must be = 1
@CUMIPMT and @CUMPRINC require the argument E (end
period) to be greater than or equal to 1.
``End Period'' must be = ``Start Period''
@CUMIPMT, @CUMPRINC and @VDB require the argument E
(end period) to be greater than or equal to S (start period).
ending line with a
\
The \ is an escape sequence introducer, which should be followed
by another character for interpretation, but the string ended
prematurely.
ending line with a superscript command
When displaying text in the context of graphics, a ^ is a superscript
introducer. Like y^2 means ``y squared.'' This message occurs when
a ^ occurs at the end of the string.
ending line with subscript command
When displaying text in the context of graphics, an `_' is a subscript
introducer. Like y_2 means ``y subscript 2.'' This message occurs
when an `_' occurs at the end of the string.
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error in regular expression
An error occurred while parsing the regular expression used in a
search or extract operation, or while executing @REGEX or
@MATCH.
expected the right hand side of a range here
The outer range reference is missing.
expected to find [something] here
There was a parsing error. The cursor will be placed in the edit
window in edit mode. Read the documentation for the function and
correct the error.
expecting a function
There is something wrong with the formula you have entered on the
edit line. The parser was expecting to find a function name at the
point indicated by the cursor position.
expecting an operand
There is something wrong with the formula you have entered on the
edit line. The parser was expecting to find a function name at the
point indicated by the cursor position.
expecting an operator
There is something wrong with the formula you have entered on the
edit line. The parser was expecting to find a function name at the
point indicated by the cursor position.
extraneous operands
There is something wrong with the formula you have entered on the
edit line. The parser was expecting to find a function name at the
point indicated by the cursor position.
F must be = 0
The third argument to @F must be greater than or equal to 0.
first argument must be numeric
@NPV and @CHOOSE require that their first argument be
numeric.
floating exception
A floating-point arithmetic hardware exception occurred during the
computation of the function or expression. This means that the
calculations resulted in a number out of the range that the
computer hardware is able to represent.
found something unexpected here
Spreadsheet has found something it doesn't understand in an
expression.
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``Fraction'' must be = 1
@DOLLARDE and @DOLLARFR require the argument F (fraction)
to be greater than and equal to 1.
``Frequency'' must be 1, 2 or 4
The argument Frequency (number of coupon payment per year) in
financial functions is limited to one of the following choices: 1, 2 or
4
function not installed
This error occurs when Spreadsheet encounters an ``@'' followed by
a function name which it does not recognize as one of its built-in
functions, or one that has been installed by a connection program.
function stack overflow
This error occurs when functions are nested too deeply.
Spreadsheet supports nesting of functions up to 50 levels deep.
hex number greater than 32 bits
Spreadsheet cannot convert a hex string to a number if the hex
string is longer than 8 characters, which translates to 32 bits in the
internal binary representation.
IEEE Floating Exception (Infinity or NaN)
This error means that the formula caused a computation to occur
which could not be calculated properly by the computer's IEEE
standard floating point hardware. Most likely, this means that the
computation would produce an intermediate or final result outside
the range +/-1.8e308.
illegal cell or range reference
It happens when a copy or move operation results in a cell or range
reference that is outside the range A1..FAN32767.
illegal operand of ``operator''`
This error occurs when one or both of the operands of the specified
``operator'' are not valid. Most likely, a range name was used as an
operand in an arithmetic expression.
improper argument type
One or more arguments to the function are incompatible with the
type of arguments required by the functions.
improper coefficient type
In the polynomial evaluation function (@POLY), one or more of the
polynomial coefficients are non-numeric.
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improper dimensions
Several Spreadsheet matrix functions and embedded tools have
certain requirements on the dimensions of their matrix arguments.
Check the reference manual if you are uncertain about those
requirements.
incompatible matrix dimensions
In matrix multiplication (@MMUL), the number of columns in the
first matrix must equal the number of rows in the second matrix.
incompatible range dimensions
The Spreadsheet dot product functions (@DOT) requires vectors of
equal size. It will also compute the sum-of-products of any two
ranges with equal dimensions.
index column contains empty cell
The first column in the lookup table referenced by @VLOOKUP
must not contain empty cells.
index out of range
In @FIND, the third argument may not be larger than the length of
the second argument. In @MID, the second argument may not be
larger than the length of the first argument.
index row contains empty cell
The first row in the lookup table referenced by @HLOOKUP must
not contain empty cells.
integer parameter out of range
An integer parameter greater than 4294967296 or less than 2147483649 has been entered.
interest rate should be 0
@EFFECT and @NOMINAL require that argument R (interest rate)
to be greater than 0.
interest schedule must be a single column or row
The argument R (array of interest rates) in @FVSCHEDULE must
be a single column or row.
invalid cell reference
User has tried to access a cell with a row which is negative, zero, or
greater than 32767, or with a column which is negative or greater
than FAN, or 4095.
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invalid date
Spreadsheet could not understand the date format. Date values
must be in the range 1-73,050, representing the dates January 1,
1900, to December 31, 2099, respectively. This error can also occur
when the year, month, and day values passed to @DATE do not
represent an actual date within this range (February 31, 1950, or
January 1, 2589, for example).
invalid day count basis
The day count basis in financial functions should be one of the
following choices: 0 (30/360), 1 (actual/actual), 2 (actual/360) or 3
(actual/365)
invalid range reference
User has tried to make a range reference that references cells
beyond the range of the spreadsheet; that is, a row which is
negative, zero, or greater than 32767, or a column which is negative
or greater than FAN, or 4095.
invalid table
The table of reference points in @INTERP2D or @INTERP3D
contains non-numeric values or blank cells.
invalid time
Spreadsheet cannot parse a time which the user has provided. Time
values are fractional values from 0 to 1, representing fractions of a
24-hour period. When interpreting a number as a date/time value,
Spreadsheet interprets the integer portion of the number as the
date and the fractional portion as the time on that date. A negative
value is invalid. Also, the @TIME function must have arguments in
the range of 0-23 hours, 0-59 minutes, and 0-59 seconds. Any other
values are invalid.
iterative calculation not supported with ``As Needed''
To avoid infinite looping, iterative (self-referential) calculations are
not supported when the recalculation method is ``As Needed''. To
use iterative calculations, the user must choose manual
recalculation.
less than 2 arguments
@POLY requires 2 or more arguments.
``Life'' and ``Period'' must be integers
@DDB requires that ``Life'' and ``Period'', arguments 3 and 4,
respectively, be integers.
``Life'' must be 0
@SLN and @SYD require that ``Life'' is greater than 0.
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lookup failed to produce a match
@HLOOKUP or @VLOOKUP failed to produce a match. This should
only happen with an alphabetic lookup.
``Lower limit'' must be =0
The argument L (lower limit) should be greater than or equal to 0
in @ERF and @ERFC.
magnitude too large
@NUMTOHEX requires an argument between 2147483646 and 2147483647, inclusive.
matrix is singular
It is mathematically impossible to invert a singular matrix.
matrix must be square
It is impossible to invert, take the eigenvalue of, or take the
determinant of a non-square matrix.
``Match Type'' must be 0 for string match
The argument T (type of match) must be 0 if argument V (value to
be matched) is text in @MATCH.
matrix must be symmetric
@EIGEN requires a symmetric matrix.
modula divide by zero
Mod 0 is an undefined operation.
must be -15 to +15 places
@ROUND cannot round to greater than 15 places on either side of
the decimal point.
must have ``Cost'' = ``Salvage'' = 0
@DDB, @SLN, @SYD, @DB, and @VDB require that the ``Cost''
argument be greater than or equal to the ``Salvage'' argument,
which must be greater than or equal to 0.
must have issue < first coupon < maturity
The values of argument I (issue date), FC (first coupon date) and M
(maturity date) must satisfy the following condition: I < FC < M
must have issue < last coupon < maturity
The values of argument I (issue date), LC (last coupon date) and M
(maturity date) must satisfy the following condition: I < LC < M
must have ``Life'' = ``Period'' = 1
@DDB, @DB, and @VDB all require that the ``Life'' argument be
greater than or equal to the ``Period'' argument, which must be
greater than or equal to 1.
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must have N 0, K 0 and N < K
The arguments N (number of objects to choose from) and K
(Number of objects to be chosen) in @PERMUT must follow the
following condition: N0, K0 and N <K.
need at least 2 cash flow values
A single data point does not a cash flow series make; it takes two to
trend. Computing the internal rate of return (@IRR) is undefined
for only one value.
no duplicate number found
The @MODE can not find the most frequently occurring number
because all numbers appears only once in the argument list.
no match was found
@MATCH is unsuccessful in finding a match.
non hex digits in string
@HEXTONUM requires that its argument be a string containing
only hex digits, 0-9 and a-f.
non-numeric operand
An expression of some sort has a non-numeric operand where a
numeric operand is required, making the result of the expression
undefined.
non-numeric value in ...
Doing arithmetic on alphabetic entities is undefined.
not enough arguments to function
User has entered too few arguments to the function.
``Number'' is not in the reference list
The number to be ranked is not in the reference list in @RANK.
number is too [large|small]
The number is at or beyond the limit of the ability of the computer
to express, and is treated as if it were slightly within the limit.
number of compounding periods should be =1
@EFFECT and @NOMINAL require that argument C (number of
compounding periods) to be greater than or equal to 1.
one argument must be non-zero
@ATAN2 requires that one of it's arguments be non-zero.
operand contains error condition
Some cell referenced by the operand is in an error condition, or
contains a reference to a cell which is in an error condition, etc.
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operand equal to 0
@HMEAN does not take arguments whose value is 0.
operand larger than 32 bits
Integers in Spreadsheet cannot take more than 32 bits to express.
This restricts integers to the range 2147483647 to -2147483648, or
4294967295 to zero, depending on whether the operand is only
positive or can be negative.
operand less than or equal to 0
@GMEAN does not take arguments which are 0 or negative.
operand out of range
@CHAR only takes integers between 1 and 255
operands of ``&'' must be same type
The ``&'' operator serves a dual purpose: if its operands are
numeric, then it performs a bitwise AND operation; if its operands
are text strings, then it concatenates the two strings. If the
operands are neither numeric nor both strings, this error occurs.
operands of ``..'' must be cell reference
The .. operator can only join two cell references to create a range. It
cannot join integers to make a range of integers, or do anything
else.
``Payment'' and ``FV'' must have the same sign
@TERM requires that Payment and Future Value have the same
sign.
Payment`` must be non-zero
@TERM requires that Payment be non-zero.
``Period'' must be = 0
@SYD requires that Period be greater than or equal to 0.
``Period'' must be an integer 0
@FV, @PMT, @PV, and @RATE require that Period be an integer
greater than 0.
polynomial degree must be between 1 and 10
@PLS, @POLYFIT, and @POLYCOEF require that the polynomial
degree by between 1 and 10.
pooled sample size less than 3
@TTEST2EV requires a pooled sample size greater than 2 to be
mathematically defined.
population less than 1
@CVAR, @CSTD, @SSE, @VAR, and @STD require a population
greater than or equal to 1.
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``PV'' and ``FV'' must be non-zero
@CTERM and @RATE require that Present and Future Values be
non-zero by definition.
``PV'' and ``FV'' must have the same sign
@CTERM and @RATE require that Present and Future Values
have the same sign.
ranges must be same dimensions
@PTTEST and @CORR require that both their arguments be ranges
of equal dimensions, since they work with pairs of values, one value
from each range.
``Rate'' must be greater than -1
@CTERM, @FV, @PMT, @PV, @TERM, @NPV, @XNPV, and @XIRR
require that their Rate argument be greater than -1.
``Rate'' must be non-zero
@CTERM requires that its Rate argument be non-zero.
rate found is less than -1
@IRR has found a rate less than -1 after iterating the maximum
number of times.
recursion too deep
This error will occur if Spreadsheet encounters ``a condition string
within a condition string.'' For example, it happens with a
conditional statistical formula whose condition string calls another
conditional statistical function which in turn contains its own
condition string.
result of expression is a range
Some Spreadsheet functions, such as @CELLREF and
@RANGEREF, return cell references or range references as a
result. Cell and range references can not be the final result of a
formula.
resultant string too long
A string generated by a formula is too long (greater than 512
characters).
row offset out of range
The third argument to the @HLOOKUP function specifies an offset
that is less than 0 or is greater than the depth of the range specified
in the second argument.
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sample missing from pair
The two input ranges to the paired t-test (@PTTEST) and Pearson
product-moment correlation (@CORR) functions contain paired
values. If a value appears at a given position in the first range, then
there must also be a value in the corresponding position of the
second range.
sample size less than 2
@CVARS, @CSTDS, @VARS, @STDS, @TTEST, @PTTEST,
@TTEST2UV, and @FTEST require a sample size greater than 1.
searching NULL list
searching list with a NULL function.
selector out of range
The first argument to @CHOOSE must be 0 or more and be less
than or equal to the number of the rest of the arguments - 1.
settlement date should be < maturity date
Settlement date should be earlier than maturity date in financial
functions.
settlement date should be = issue date
Settlement date should not be earlier than the issue date.
showing NULL list
showing list with a NULL function
``Start Period'' must be = 1
@CUMIPMT and @CUMPRINC require the argument S (start
period) to be greater than or equal to 1.
starting date should be at beginning of ``Dates''
The number in argument D (dates) should not precede the starting
date in @XIRR and @XNPV.
substring longer than string
@FIND cannot find an instance of the pattern string within a
shorter target string, since it is impossible to embed a string in a
string shorter than itself.
substring not found
@FIND could not find an instance of the pattern string in the target
string.
token buffer overflow
This error can only occur when a formula is entered which is more
complex than Spreadsheet can accept. Spreadsheet can accept up to
200 operators, numbers, function calls, and text strings in a single
formula, which is more than any human can reasonably deal with.
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too few arguments
The function requires more arguments.
too many arguments to function
User has provided too many arguments to the function. No function
can take more than 100 arguments.
too many arguments
@NOT only takes one argument, unlike the rest of the digital logic
functions. @ROW and @COL take 1 argument, @ANNOTATE takes
3-5 arguments.
Treasury Bill should not be outstanding more than 1 year
The period between the settlement date and maturity date of a
Treasury bill should not exceed one year.
unable to parse extract filter
Happens when you are doing an Extract operation and you specify
an invalid boolean expression; e.g., #==/5.
unable to parse search condition
Happens when you are doing a numeric search and you specify an
invalid boolean expression; e.g., #==/5
undefined symbolic name
This error occurs when Spreadsheet encounters a symbolic range or
cell reference which has not been defined. To use a symbolic name
to refer to a cell or range, you must first define it using the
SetRangeName command.
unexpected question mark
Spreadsheet supports C-language compatible condition expressions,
which use the operator pair ``?'' and ``:''. If one of these operators
appears without the other, an error occurs.
unresolved name in expression
A name which is not a valid function or named range has been used
in the expression.
``Upper limit'' must be =0
The argument U (Upper limit) should be greater than or equal to 0
in @ERF.
``values'' and ``dates'' series must have the same dimension
@XIRR and @XNPV require the argument V (cash flow series) and
the argument D (date series) to have the same dimension.
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``Values'' must have at least one inflow and one outflow
@MIRR requires the value range contains at least one income
(positive value) or one payment (negative value)
wrong number of arguments
The number of arguments passed to the function is incorrect. Check
the reference manual to determine the correct number of
arguments that the function expects.
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© Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Printed in USA, February 2015
M8201-90014
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