PQFS - Manual Power Quality Filter
Power Quality Filter PQFS
Installation, operation and maintenance
instructions
Table of contents
1 Introduction to this manual......................................................................................... 5
1.1 What this chapter contains .................................................................................... 5
1.2 Intended audience ................................................................................................. 5
1.3 Compatibility .......................................................................................................... 5
1.4 Contents ................................................................................................................ 5
1.5 Related publications .............................................................................................. 5
2 Safety Instructions ....................................................................................................... 6
3 Upon Reception ........................................................................................................... 8
3.1 What this chapter contains .................................................................................... 8
3.2 Delivery inspection ................................................................................................ 8
3.3 Unpacking instructions .......................................................................................... 8
3.4 Lifting and transportation guidelines ...................................................................... 8
3.5 Identification tag .................................................................................................. 13
3.6 Storage ................................................................................................................ 13
4 Hardware description ................................................................................................ 14
4.1 What this chapter contains .................................................................................. 14
4.2 Typical PQFS filter panel layout .......................................................................... 14
4.3 The PQF current generator hardware ................................................................. 16
4.4 The PQF main controller ..................................................................................... 17
4.5 The PQF-Manager user interface ........................................................................ 18
4.6 Location of the main PQFS components ............................................................. 24
4.6.1 Active filter components .............................................................................. 24
4.6.2 Active filter cover components .................................................................... 27
5 Mechanical design and installation ......................................................................... 28
5.1 What this chapter contains .................................................................................. 28
5.2 Installation location requirements ........................................................................ 28
5.3 Standard enclosure dimensions and clearances................................................. 28
5.4 Instructions for mounting the filter ....................................................................... 29
5.5 Filter noise level ................................................................................................... 31
5.6 Airflow and cooling requirements ........................................................................ 31
5.7 Instructions for mounting the PQF-Manager in enclosures ................................. 32
6 Electrical design and installation ............................................................................. 34
6.1 What this chapter contains .................................................................................. 34
6.2 Instructions for connecting the PQF-Manager to a filter system ......................... 35
6.3 Checking the insulation of the assembly – earth resistance ............................... 36
6.4 EMC considerations ............................................................................................ 36
6.5 Earthing guidelines .............................................................................................. 36
6.6 Selection of the power cable size ........................................................................ 37
6.7 Selection of the power cable protection/filter input protection scheme ............... 41
6.8 Connection of the PQFS to the network .............................................................. 43
6.8.1 Connection of the PQFS in 3-wire mode..................................................... 43
6.8.2 Connection of the PQFS in 4-wire mode..................................................... 45
6.9 Selection of the current transformers .................................................................. 46
6.10 Current transformer installation and connection.................................................. 49
6.11 Electrical interconnection of PQFS enclosures ................................................... 51
6.11.1 Mechanical preparation of the enclosures .................................................. 52
6.11.2 Control board cable interconnection ........................................................... 52
6.11.3 CT cable interconnection............................................................................. 53
6.11.4 Connection of the power stage to the supply .............................................. 54
6.12 Electrical connections to the PQF-Manager user interface ................................. 54
6.12.1 Cabling of remote control functionality ........................................................ 56
2 Table of contents  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
6.12.2 Cabling of alarm functionality ...................................................................... 57
6.12.3 Cabling of warning functionality .................................................................. 62
6.12.4 Cabling of the digital output contacts to monitor other filter operation modes
than warnings and alarms ...................................................................................... 63
6.12.5 Cabling of main/auxiliary control functionality ............................................. 63
6.12.6 Implementation of local start/stop buttons................................................... 65
6.13 Electrical connections of filter options and accessories ...................................... 67
6.13.1 Connection of the RS-232 cable used for PQF-Link software communication
..................................................................................................................... 68
6.13.2 Connection of the Modbus adapter ............................................................. 69
7 The PQF-Manager user interface ............................................................................. 70
7.1 What this chapter contains .................................................................................. 70
7.2 PQF-Manager overview and navigation .............................................................. 70
7.3 The PQF-Manager behavior during filter initialization ......................................... 75
7.4 The PQF-Manager locking facilities..................................................................... 76
7.5 The PQF start, stop and fault acknowledgement menu ...................................... 77
7.6 The ‘Measurements’ menu .................................................................................. 78
7.6.1 The ‘Overview’ menu [/Welcome/Measurements/Overview] ...................... 78
7.6.2 The ‘System values’ menu [/Welcome/Measurements/System values] ..... 79
7.6.3 The ‘Min-Max logging’ menu [/Welcome/Measurements/Min-Max logging] 82
7.7 The ‘Settings’ menu ............................................................................................. 83
7.7.1 The ‘Customer settings’ menu [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set.] ............ 83
7.7.2 The ‘Commissioning’ menu [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning] .............. 91
7.7.3 The ‘Installation settings’ menu [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set.] ........ 99
7.8 The ‘PQF monitoring’ menu............................................................................... 102
7.8.1 The ‘Status of units’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Status of units] ... 102
7.8.2 The ‘Filter load’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Filter load] ................. 103
7.8.3 The ‘Event logging’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Event logging] ..... 103
7.8.4 The ‘Active warnings’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Active warn.] .... 106
7.8.5 The ‘Total number of errors’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Number of
errors] 106
7.8.6 The ‘PQF operation’ and ‘Fan operation’ parameters ............................... 107
7.8.7 The ‘Trip. Phase’ parameter ...................................................................... 107
7.9 The ‘About PQF’ menu ...................................................................................... 107
8 Commissioning instructions .................................................................................. 108
8.1 What this chapter contains ................................................................................ 108
8.2 Step 1: Visual and installation check ................................................................. 109
8.3 Step 2: Setting the address of each unit in a multi-unit filter and terminate the
CAN bus..................................................................................................................... 109
8.4 Step 3: Voltage rating check/adaptation and phase rotation check .................. 111
8.5 Step 4: Basic commissioning parameters set up (using PQF-Manager) .......... 113
8.6 Step 5: Automatic and manual CT detection procedure ................................... 114
8.6.1 Automatic CT detection procedure ............................................................ 114
8.6.2 Manual CT detection procedure ................................................................ 115
8.7 Step 6: Before starting the filter ......................................................................... 120
8.8 Step 7: Start the filter ......................................................................................... 120
8.9 Step 8: Generate filter load................................................................................ 121
8.10 Step 9: Set up the user requirements ................................................................ 122
8.11 Commissioning report ........................................................................................ 124
8.11.1 Filter identification ..................................................................................... 125
8.11.2 Inspection on site – verification of the active filter after installation .......... 126
8.11.3 Programming ............................................................................................. 127
8.11.4 Testing (with load) ..................................................................................... 128
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Table of contents 3
8.11.5 Programmed parameters .......................................................................... 129
8.11.6 Comments ................................................................................................. 131
9 Operating instructions ............................................................................................ 132
9.1 What this chapter contains ................................................................................ 132
9.2 Starting and stopping the filter ........................................................................... 132
9.2.1 Starting the filter with the PQF-Manager ................................................... 132
9.2.2 Stopping the filter with the PQF-Manager ................................................. 135
9.3 Modifying the user requirements ....................................................................... 136
9.4 Changing the system temperature unit and PQF-Manager contrast................. 137
9.5 Consulting filter measurements ......................................................................... 137
9.6 Consulting filter statistics and manufacturer data.............................................. 137
9.7 Filter behavior on fault – retrieving error information......................................... 137
10 Maintenance instructions........................................................................................ 140
10.1 What this chapter contains ................................................................................ 140
10.2 Maintenance intervals ........................................................................................ 140
10.3 Standard maintenance procedure ..................................................................... 140
10.3.1 Step 1: Check the ambient temperature conditions .................................. 140
10.3.2 Step 2: Record the filter operating status .................................................. 141
10.3.3 Step 3: Shut the filter down ....................................................................... 141
10.3.4 Step 4: Inspect and clean the filter ............................................................ 141
10.3.5 Step 5: Check the condition of the filter contactors and fuses .................. 142
10.3.6 Step 6: Check the tightness of the electrical and mechanical connections ....
................................................................................................................... 142
10.3.7 Step 7: Correct any abnormal conditions found ........................................ 142
10.3.8 Step 8: Restart the filter............................................................................. 142
10.4 Fan replacement ................................................................................................ 142
10.5 DC capacitor change ......................................................................................... 143
10.6 DC capacitor reforming...................................................................................... 143
10.7 Servicing report ................................................................................................. 144
10.7.1 Filter identification ..................................................................................... 145
10.7.2 Standard maintenance procedure ............................................................. 146
10.7.3 Special service actions .............................................................................. 147
10.7.4 Comments ................................................................................................. 148
11 Troubleshooting guide ............................................................................................ 149
11.1 What this chapter contains ................................................................................ 149
11.2 Fault treatment procedure ................................................................................. 149
11.3 Spare part list for normal and dedicated filter servicing .................................... 152
11.4 Troubleshooting guide ....................................................................................... 152
11.4.1 Verification of the PQF-Manager status and the system LEDs................. 152
11.4.2 Fault tracing ............................................................................................... 153
12 Technical specifications ......................................................................................... 162
12.1 What this chapter contains ................................................................................ 162
12.2 Technical specifications ..................................................................................... 162
Contact us ..................................................................................................................... 165
4 Table of contents  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
1 Introduction to this manual
1.1
What this chapter contains
This chapter gives basic information on this manual.
1.2
Intended audience
This manual is intended for all people that are involved in integrating, installing, operating
and/or maintaining the PQFS active filter range products. People involved in the
integration, installation and maintenance of the equipment are expected to know the
standard electrical wiring practices, electronic components and electrical schematic
symbols. End users should focus on the Operating instructions (Cf. Chapter 9) and
Maintenance instructions (Cf. Chapter 10) of this manual.
1.3
Compatibility
The manual is compatible with all filters of the PQFS-range with PQF-Manager software
version v2.10.r0 or higher. Technical specifications of this product range are given in
Chapter 12 of this manual. This product is not backward compatible with any other PQFx
(x: A, B, L, T, I, M, K, S) filter product.
1.4
Contents
• Chapter 1: Introduction to this manual
• Chapter 2: Safety instructions
• Chapter 3: Upon reception
• Chapter 4: Hardware description
• Chapter 5: Mechanical design and installation
• Chapter 6: Electrical design and installation
• Chapter 7: The PQF-Manager user interface
• Chapter 8: Commissioning instructions
• Chapter 9: Operating instructions
• Chapter 10: Maintenance instructions
• Chapter 11: Troubleshooting guide
• Chapter 12: Technical specifications
1.5
Related publications
• Power Quality Filters PQFI-PQFM-PQFK-PQFS Catalogue [English]
• Power Quality Filter, Active Filtering Guide [English]
• PQF-Link Installation and user’s guide [English]
• PQF Modbus CD [English]
• ABB PQF Active Filters - Raising system reliability to unprecedented levels
[English]
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Introduction 5
2
Safety Instructions
These safety instructions are intended for all work on the PQFS. Neglecting these
instructions can cause physical injury and death. All electrical installation and
maintenance work on the PQFS should be carried out by qualified electricians. Do not
attempt to work on a powered PQFS.
After switching off the supply to the PQFS, always wait at least 25 minutes before
working on the unit in order to allow the discharge of DC capacitors through the discharge
resistors. Always verify by measurement that the capacitors have discharged. DC
capacitors may be charged to more than 800 Vdc.
Before manipulating current transformers, make sure that the secondary is shortcircuited. Never open the secondary of a loaded current transformer.
You must always wear isolating gloves and eye-protection when working on electrical
installations. Also make sure that all local safety regulations are fulfilled.
DANGER: To ensure safe access, supplies to each individual enclosure must be
isolated before opening.
WARNING: This equipment contains capacitors that are connected between phase
and earth. A leakage current will flow during normal operation. Therefore, a good
earth connection is essential and must be connected before applying power to the
filter.
WARNING: There are AC capacitors & DC capacitors connected inside this filter.
Before performing any maintenance work, please short and ground the three line
terminals. The DC capacitor needs 25 mins to discharge after disconnection.
Please wait for this duration before touching any live parts even after discharging
the AC capacitors to avoid electrical shock.
WARNING: Never discharge DC capacitors through short circuit. Always use a
current limiting resistor of minimum 100Ω.
WARNING: If the ground is defeated, certain fault conditions in the unit or in the
system to which it is connected can result in full line voltage between chassis and
earth ground. Severe injury or death can result if the chassis and earth ground are
touched simultaneously.
WARNING: The neutral current in a PQFS filter may be as high as 3 times the line
current hence do not use a 4 pole breaker to connect this type of filter as the rating
of the neutral pole may not be adequate.
6 Safety instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
WARNING: To avoid electrical shock due to residual voltage on the capacitors, the
three phases & neutral are shorted and earthed at the incomer terminal. Prior to
connecting your power cable, please remove this shorting link, failing which will
result in a short circuit in your network and may damage the filter.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Safety instructions 7
3
Upon Reception
3.1
What this chapter contains
This chapter gives basic information on how to inspect, transport, identify and store the
PQFS active filter.
3.2
Delivery inspection
Each PQFS is delivered in a box designed to protect adequately the equipment during
shipment. Upon reception of the equipment, make sure that the packing is in good
condition. Verify the state of the shock and tilting indicators (if mounted on the enclosure
or on the filter panels).
3.3
Unpacking instructions
Figure 1: PQFS packing material opened
After removal of the top cover, check visually the exterior and interior of your filter for
transportation damage.
Your filter equipment comes with a package. Verify that all items are present, i.e.:
• this manual
• the electrical drawing
• the fixation bar and filter blocking screws
• the lifting ribbon + 2 pieces of rubber used to protect the ribbon
• the rubber seal to cover a knock-out (to be used for multi-unit operation)
• the communication cable needed for multi-unit operation
Any loss or damage should be notified immediately to your ABB representative.
3.4
Lifting and transportation guidelines
Please note that filter equipment weighs approximately 120 kilograms. Care should be
taken to ensure that correct handling facilities are used.
8 Upon reception  Manual Power Quality PQFS
In order to transport the equipment use a forklift or similar equipment. PQFS enclosures
are best transported horizontally.
Table 1: Maximum allowed ambient conditions during transportation
Transportation (in the protected package)
Temperature
-25 to 70°C (-13 to 158°F)
Relative humidity
Max. 95%
Contamination levels
Chemical class 3C3
(IEC 60731-3-3)
Mechanical class 3S3
(a)
(b)
Remarks:
(a)
Locations with normal levels of contaminants, experienced in urban areas with
industrial activities scattered over the whole area, or with heavy traffic. Also applies
to locations with immediate neighborhood of industrial sources with chemical
emissions.
(b)
Locations without special precautions to minimize the presence of sand or dust. Also
applies to locations in close proximity to sand or dust sources.
In order to lift the equipment once it is at the installation location:
• Remove the top cover of the protecting box (see Figure 1).
• Remove the 4 panel securing screws at the outer ends of the enclosure (see
Figure 2).
Figure 2: Locating the 4 panel securing screws
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Upon reception 9
• Remove the filter protective cover and put it at the bottom side of the filter
(see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Lifting the protective cover and putting it at the bottom side of the filter
• Unplug the PQF-Manager from the main system (see Figure 4). Then the
protective cover can be safely put aside.
Figure 4: Unplugging the PQF-Manager from the main system
• Remove the two screws fixing the filter unit to the wooden support (see Figure
5).
Figure 5: Position of the filter fixation screws that need to be removed
• Use the lifting tools which are available inside the PQFS. The lifting tools
contained into the PQFS accessories package are the lifting ribbon and the two
pieces of rubber (see Figure 6).
10 Upon reception  Manual Power Quality PQFS
Figure 6: Lifting ribbon and the two pieces of rubber from the PQFS accessories package
• Place the lifting ribbon and the two pieces of rubber as shown in the Figure 7.
Figure 7: Way to install the lifting ribbon and the two pieces of rubber
• Slide the lifting ribbon until reaching final position before lifting as indicated in
Figure 8.
Figure 8: Final position of the lifting ribbon before lifting the PQFS
• Put the active filter in the vertical position manually (without using the lifting
ribbon). Lifting the PQFS when the unit is laid on the wooden support or
positioned horizontally could cause the damage of the lifting ribbon (see Figure
9).
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Upon reception 11
Figure 9: Lifting a PQFS unit from a horizontally position may damage the lifting ribbon
• Use the lifting ribbon from the both soft eyes to lift the filter from the wooden
support. It can then be positioned at the desired location (see Figure 10).
Figure 10: Lifting a PQFS unit by using the lifting ribbon
• Do not use the lifting ribbon nor hook the PQFS as shown in Figure 11. Using
only one soft eye may damage the lifting ribbon.
12 Upon reception  Manual Power Quality PQFS
Figure 11: Bad using of the lifting ribbon to lift the PQFS
3.5
Identification tag
Each PQFS is fitted with nameplates for identification purposes.
The filter nameplate is located at the top right of the master panel door, at the outside.
The nameplate information should always remain readable to ensure proper identification
during the life of the filter. The main filter nameplate includes the filter type, the nominal
voltage range and frequency as well as a serial number and an ABB internal article code.
3.6
Storage
If your PQFS is not installed once unpacked, it should be stored in a clean indoor, dry,
dust free and non-corrosive environment. The storage temperature must be between
-25°C (-13°F) and 70°C (158°F) with a maximum relative humidity of 95%, noncondensing.
Table 2: Maximum allowed ambient conditions for storage
Storage (in the protected package)
Temperature
-25 to 70°C (-13 to 158°F)
Relative humidity
Max. 85%
Contamination levels
Chemical class 3C3
(IEC 60721-3-3)
Mechanical class 3S3
(a)
(b)
Remarks:
(a)
Locations with normal levels of contaminants, experienced in urban areas with industrial activities
scattered over the whole area, or with heavy traffic.
(b)
Locations without special precautions to minimize the presence of sand or dust. Also applies to
locations in close proximity to sand or dust sources.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Upon reception 13
4
Hardware description
4.1
What this chapter contains
This chapter describes a typical PQFS-filter system and discusses its main components.
4.2
Typical PQFS filter panel layout
The PQFS active filter is basically composed of two parts (Figure 12):
• A filter controller that determines the anti-harmonic current to be injected based
on the line current measurements and the user’s requirements. The line current
measurements are obtained from current transformers (CTs) provided by the
customer. The CTs must be connected upstream of the connection point of the
filter and the loads. The user enters his requirements by means of the PQFManager user interface. This device also acts as the user’s connection point for
the alarm/warning contacts, the remote control functionality, the other digital input
functionality and the interface for external communication.
• A current generator (power unit) that converts the control signals generated by
the filter controller into the filter compensation current. The current generator is
connected in parallel with the load(s). Up to four power units may be connected
in parallel in one filter unit. The enclosure(s) containing the/a filter GUI controller
are referred to as master units. The other enclosures are referred to as the slave
units. In an active filter system more than one master unit can be present.
Supply
Non-linear load(s)
- Three-phase
- Single-phase
1
2
Compensation
current
Current
measurements
PQF main
controller
PQF current
generator 1
3
6
PQF Manager
4
PQFS Filter panel
5
Figure 12: PQFS schematic overview with user connections
The user connection description is given in Table 3.
14 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Table 3: User connections for PQFS
Item
User connections
Connection requirement
1
CT connections
Mandatory
2
Power cable connection to the supply
(including neutral connection if 4-wire
operation is desired)
Mandatory
3
Programmable digital outputs (warnings…)
Not mandatory
Remote control contact connection or/and
4
local on/off buttons or/and
Not mandatory
main/auxiliary settings control
5
Modbus communication connection or serial
communication
Not mandatory
6
Earth connections from the enclosure to
installation earth
Mandatory
Mandatory connections are connections that must be present to make the filter
operational. Connections that are not mandatory can be made to enhance the filter’s
basic functionality. For more information on cabling the user connections, please refer to
Chapter 5.
Figure 13 shows a typical PQFS master filter panel.
3
4
5
2
1
Figure 13: Example of a typical PQFS master filter panel
The input/output connections and protection description is given in Table 4.
Table 4: Input/Output connections
Item
Input/Output connections
1
CT connection terminals
2
Main power connection
3
Auxiliary fuse protection
4
PQF-Manager user interface with connection terminals for user I/O
(e.g. alarm contact) and communication interfaces
5
Neutral connection
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 15
Up to 4 PQFS master panels can be connected in parallel providing full redundancy to
the customer.
In addition to using master panels only, PQFS units can be connected in a master-slave
arrangement.
4.3
The PQF current generator hardware
The power circuit of a PQFS unit is represented hereafter.
AC power supply
L
L
N
N
8
7
4
Output filter
Preload
resistor
5
6
3
2
1
IGBT
Inverter
Master Unit
Figure 14: Power circuit diagram of a PQFS active filter
The description of the main components is given in Table 5.
Table 5: Main components of a PQFS active filter
Item
Main components
1
IGBT inverter
2
DC bus capacitors
3
PWM reactor
4
Output filter
5
Preload resistor
6
Main contactor
7
Auxiliary fuses
8
Neutral cable connection (not mandatory)
The current generator is physically organized in power units. Each filter enclosure
contains one power unit. A PQFS filter can contain up to 4 power units. Power units can
16 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
be combined in a master-slave arrangement, or in a master-master arrangement, the
latter giving full operational redundancy. The current rating of different units in a filter
must be of the same rating. Please refer to Chapter 12 for more information on the
possible unit ratings.
In Figure 14 it may be seen that each current generator consists of an IGBT-inverter
bridge (1) that is controlled using PWM-switching technology. Information from the filter
controller is sent to the IGBTs through one flat cable. At the output of the inverter a
voltage waveform is generated which contains the desired spectral components (imposed
by the filter controller) as well as high frequency noise (due to the IGBT switching
technology). Coupling impedance consisting of a reactor (3) and a high frequency
rejection filter (4) ensures that the useful voltage components are converted into a useful
current while the high frequency noise is absorbed. The IGBT-inverter is equipped with
DC capacitors that act as energy storage reservoirs (2).
In active filters containing more than one power unit the control information between
different units passes through a CAN control cable.
If a master-master configuration of filter is chosen, all power units incorporate a PQFManager display. If a master-slave configuration of filter is chosen, only the master
enclosure contains a PQF-Manager display. All units contain a DC capacitors preloading
resistor (5) which charges the DC capacitors of the filter unit once the auxiliary fuse box
of the unit(s) is closed. This approach ensures a smooth filter start-up without excessive
inrush currents.
4.4
The PQF main controller
The PQF main controller controls the complete active filter system. Its tasks include:
• Accepting and executing customer requests to stop and start the equipment;
• Calculating and generating IGBT-inverter control references based on the line
current measurements and the user requirements;
• Interface to the IGBT-inverters;
• Measurement of system voltages and currents for control, protection and
presentation purposes.
Figure 15 depicts the controller interface diagram of the PQFS active filter.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 17
User interface
Direct Interface
(keypad and LCD)
ModBus & PQFLink Interface
(Through RS232)
PQF
Manager
CAN
Bus
PQF
main
controller
Programmable Digital I/O
CT signals
PQF
Power
Stage
First
unit
3∼ AC Out (+N)
(a)
CAN bus (1)
PQF
Manager
(b)
PQF
main
controller
PQF
Power
Stage
Second
unit
3∼ AC Out (+N)
(a)
(b)
CT signals to different units (master or slave) must be routed through daisy chain principle with return path.
If second unit is a slave unit, it will not have a PQF-Manager. If second unit is a master unit, it will have a
PQF-Manager.
Figure 15: Controller interface diagram of the PQFS
When the filter consists of a master unit only, the customer has to:
• Wire the CT signals (on a designated terminal),
• Prepare the filter for networks of nominal voltage 208-240V (if needed),
• Connect the AC power lines (with or without neutral),
• Set up the installation parameters and user’s requirements with the PQFManager.
He may also want to wire the communication interface (Modbus or serial communication)
and the programmable digital I/O (e.g. alarm contact, remote control).
When a second unit is added, it is connected to the first enclosure by means of a CAN
bus communication link (1). In addition, the CT measurements have to be supplied to
each unit, e.g. through a daisy chain link with return path.
All units have their own AC-connection and main contactor protection.
A PQFS active filter system consists of up to 4 units of equal rating. Additional units to
the first master unit may be master or slave units. Slave units do not have a PQFManager.
4.5
The PQF-Manager user interface
All user interaction with the filter is channelled through the PQF-Manager.
In multi-unit filters consisting of only one master, only the master has a PQF-Manager.
In multi-unit filters consisting of more than one master, all the master units have a PQFManager. However, only the PQF-Manager that is connected to the master unit which
has the overall control will be active. Figure 16 shows the front side of the PQF-Manager.
18 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
3
4
2
1
Figure 16: Front side of the PQF-Manager
Four main parts can be distinguished (see Table 6)
Table 6: Front side of the PQF-Manager
Item
Main components
1
Keypad
By navigating through the menus with the arrows
and the
button, the filter can be set-up and
controlled (start/stop). On-line help is available by
pressing the Help button.
2
Menu display
3
Digital output contact monitor
When the PQF-Manager closes one of its output
relays, the corresponding symbol lights up. The
digital outputs of the PQF-Manager are discussed
later in this section.
4
Alarm contact indicator
The PQF-Manager also acts as connection point for external user I/O communication.
Connections are made at the rear side of the PQF-Manager. Figure 17 depicts the
terminals that are present on the PQF-Manager rear side.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 19
Fuse 200mA
Com
Com
Out 1
Out 2
Out 3
Out 4
Out 5
Out 6
2
Alarm Outputs N.O.
(max 250Vac / 1.5A) N.C.
3
Power Supply
Do not connect
7
Digital Outputs
Power Supply
Do not connect
1
+
1
+
Digital Input
-
(max 110Vdc / 0.3A
or 440Vac / 1.5A)
1(15-24Vdc)
Do not connect
Digital Input 2(15-24Vdc)
-
H
CAN
L
Shield
RS485 MODBUS Adapter Supply
6
5
RS232
RS485
LOCK
Made in Belgium
PC-ABS
4
Figure 17: PQF-Manager rear side terminal designation
The terminal designation is given in Table 7.
Table 7: Terminal designation
Item
Customer terminals
1
Digital input 1 and 2
2
Digital outputs 1 to 6 with one common point
3
Alarm outputs (2 outputs with complementary signals)
4
Lock switch
5
Modbus adapter interface (optional) connection
6
CAN bus connection interface (routed to PQF-Manager
connector)
7
Power supply terminals (routed to PQF-Manager
connector)
The terminal explanation is given next:
1
Digital input 1 and 2
The digital inputs can be used for three different functions:
• Implementation of remote control functionality;
• Implementation of local on/off buttons (not provided);
• Selection of main filter settings or auxiliary filter settings (e.g. different filter
settings for the day and for the night)
The PQF-Manager is used to associate the required functionality with the chosen digital
input. The digital inputs can also be disabled.
20 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
WARNING: If a function is assigned to a digital input, the same function must
never be assigned to the other digital input. Otherwise the filter may behave
erratically.
The external voltage source needed to drive the digital inputs has to comply with the
following characteristics:
• Vlow: 0 Vdc
• Vhigh: 15-24 Vdc
• Driving current: 13 mA @ 24 Vdc (Rint = 1.88 kΩ)
The digital inputs have free of potential contacts (opto-isolated).
When implementing any of the functions described above, please note that according to
the setup done with the PQF-Manager for the input considered, the filter may behave
differently. Table 8 below gives an overview of the possible settings and the resulting filter
behavior.
Table 8: Overview of possible digital input settings and resulting filter behavior
Vlow applied to
digital input
Vhigh applied
to digital input
Filter off
Filter on
(a)
Auxiliary settings
are used
Main settings are
used
(a)
Main settings are
used
Auxiliary settings
are used
No effect
Filter starts on
rising edge
No effect
Filter stops on
rising edge
No effect
Filter starts on
first rising edge,
stops on second
rising edge etc.
Function
Remote control
(a)
PQF-Manager setup for digital input: Remote ON
Selection of main/auxiliary settings
PQF-Manager setup for digital input: Activ. Main
Selection of main/auxiliary settings
PQF-Manager setup for digital input: Activ. Aux.
Local ON/OFF buttons
(a) (b)
PQF-Manager setup for digital input: Edge ON
Local ON/OFF buttons
PQF-Manager setup for digital input: Edge OFF
(a) (b)
Local ON/OFF buttons
PQF-Manager setup for digital input: Edg ON/OFF
(a) (c)
Remarks:
(a)
: In order for this function to be activated, the PQF-Manager has to be set up accordingly.
To do this, navigate to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital Inputs]
(b)
(c)
: When using the Edge ON function the filter can only be switched on by applying voltage to the
digital input considered. It is therefore recommended in that case to configure and cable the
second digital input as Edge OFF.
: When using this function, the filter stop and start can be controlled by one digital input leaving
the other one available for an additional remote control or switching between main and
auxiliary settings.
Information on cabling the digital input contacts is given in Section 6.12.
Information on setting up the digital inputs with the PQF-Manager is given in Section
7.7.1.2.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 21
By default, the digital inputs are disabled.
In a master-master filter arrangement, only the master that has the control over the
complete system will monitor its digital outputs. For full redundant functionality, it is
recommended to cable the digital inputs of all the units in the filter system.
2
Digital Outputs 1 to 6
With each digital output different filter conditions can be associated. The association
between the filter condition and the digital outputs is done with the PQF-Manager. Table
9 gives an overview of the possible PQF-Manager settings for a digital output and the
effect on the corresponding digital output relay.
Table 9: Filter conditions that can be related to the digital outputs
PQF-Manager setting for digital output
(a)
Output relay closes when…
Auxil. ON
The auxiliary power is present in the main filter
enclosure and the main controller is
communicating with the PQF-Manager
PQF runs
The active filter is ‘on’ (IGBTs switching) or in
‘standby’ (main contactor closed but IGBTs not
switching)
Full load
The active filter is running under full load
condition
Armed
The filter is ON or is in the startup procedure, or
it is stopped in fault condition but will restart as
soon as the fault has disappeared
T limit
The filter temperature limit has been reached
and the filter is derating itself to run at a safe
temperature
In standby
The filter is in standby
Activ. Main
The main active filter settings are activated
Activ. Aux
The auxiliary active filter settings are activated
Unit miss.
One of the filter units in a multi-unit arrangement
is not available (e.g. due to a permanent error),
or has not yet been commissioned.
Pg. alarm 1
The programmable alarm 1 is activated
(c)
Pg. alarm 2
The programmable alarm 2 is activated
(c)
Pg. alarm 3
The programmable alarm 3 is activated
(c)
Warning 1
The programmable warning 1 is activated
Warning 2
The programmable warning 2 is activated
Warning 3
The programmable warning 3 is activated
(b)
(c)
(c)
(c)
Remarks:
(a)
: In order to set up this function, navigate to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital Outputs]
(b)
: More information on the standby function is given in Section 7.7.3.2
(c)
: Different programmable warnings and alarms can be defined. More information on this subject
is given in Section 7.7.1.2
Further it should be noted that:
• Whenever a digital output is activated the corresponding icon on the PQFManager display will light up.
• In a master-master filter arrangement, only the master that has the control over
the complete system will activate its digital outputs. For full redundant
22 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
functionality, it is recommended to monitor the digital outputs of all the units in the
filter system.
• The default set-up for the digital contacts is given in Table 10
Table 10: Default set-up for the digital output contacts
Digital output number
Default function
1
Auxil. ON
2
PQF Runs
3
Full Load
4
Armed
5
Unit miss.
6
T Limit
• The customer can change the default output settings by means of the PQFManager.
• The digital outputs contacts have a common point and are of the NO-type
(normal open). The contact ratings are:
o
Maximum continuous ac rating: 440 Vac/1.5 A;
o
Maximum continuous dc rating: 110 Vdc/0.3 A;
o
The common is rated at 9A/terminal, giving a total of 18 A.
Information on cabling the digital output contacts is given in Section 6.12.
Information on setting up the digital outputs with the PQF-Manager is given in Section
7.7.1.2
3
Alarm outputs
Apart from the digital outputs, one potential free relay with a NO and a NC alarm output is
available. This relay contact is activated if any error condition is present during a preset
time. The relay contact is deactivated if the error condition has disappeared for another
preset time. Information on changing the alarm activation/deactivation time is given in
Section 7.7.1.2.
In a master-master filter arrangement, only the master that has the control over the
complete system will activate its alarm contact. For full redundant functionality, it is
recommended to monitor the alarm contacts of all the units in the filter system.
The maximum continuous alarm contact ratings are: 250 Vac/1.5 A.
4
Lock switch
Allows locking the settings of the filter panel. This switch is documented in Section 7.4
5
Modbus adapter interface (optional) connection
The Modbus adapter interface is connected at this location. The output of the interface is
an RS-485 socket. The interface is described in the Modbus interface manual.
6
CAN bus connection interface
The PQF-Manager communicates with the main controller through a CAN bus. This bus
consists of three terminals, i.e.:
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 23
• Pin H: CAN High signal
• Pin L: CAN Low signal
• Pin Shield: shielding
The CAN bus wiring terminates into the PQF-Manager connection plug and is
subsequently routed to the main control (Cf. Section 4.6.1). It is used for PQF internal
communications only.
7
Power supply terminals
The PQF-Manager power supply is provided by the filter itself. The corresponding
terminals on the PQF-Manager labeled “Power supply” are connected to the PQFManager connection plug.
For information on how to cable external systems (e.g. remote control, Modbus interface)
to the PQF-Manager, refer to Chapter 6. For information on how to use the PQFManager, refer to Chapter 7. For background information on the Modbus communication
interface refer to the dedicated Modbus manual.
4.6
Location of the main PQFS components
4.6.1
Active filter components
Figure 18 shows a picture of the PQFS without cover panel.
7
9
5
10
12
11
2
4
6
3
8
10
1
Figure 18: PQFS main components
The component identification is given in Table 11.
Table 11: PQFS main components description
Item
Description
Circuit diagram designation
1
Main contactor (MC) (underneath controller
boards)
K01
2
Fuse holder auxiliaries circuit
Q02
3
DC voltage power supply 24V
U002
4
CT connection terminal
X21
5
Preload circuit resistor
R06
6
Main earth connection point
-
7
IGBT inverter with DC capacitors
U01
8
PQF main controller board
A005
9
IGBT heat extraction fans
M1, M2
24 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
10
EMC capacitors (underneath controller boards)
C9, C13, C14, C15
11
Main power supply terminals (phases) (underneath
controller boards)
L1, L2, L3
12
Main power supply neutral connection (not
mandatory) (underneath controller boards)
N
The PQF Main controller board has connectors which are predominantly pre-wired for
use within the filter. However, it also contains a DIP-switch used to set the identification
address and CAN bus connectors for use in a multi-module filter arrangements.
The main controller board is shown in Figure 19.
17
18
19
20
21
22
1
2
3
4
5
16
6
7
15
8
9
14
10
13
12
11
Figure 19: PQF main controller board
The designation of the principal terminals is given in Table 12.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 25
Table 12: PQF main controller board description
Item
Description
Circuit diagram
designation
1
System connector: 24 V power supply to control board
P2
2
CAN bus connection from previous filter unit
P20
3
CAN bus connection to next filter unit
P21
4
System connector: Power supply and CAN communication to PQF Manager
P4
5
System connector: 230 V power supply to control board
P3
6
System connector
P19
7
System connector: Main contactor control
P18
8
System connector
P17
9
System connector
P16
10
System connector
P25
11
System connector
P7
12
System connector: Coming from CT terminal X21 (internal)
P5
13
System connector: Supply and DC link voltage measurement
P6
14-15-16
System connectors
P9, P10, P11
17
System connector: control of IGBT-module
P12
18
Voltage selector DIP-switch
19
System LED’s (top to bottom)
LED 3: ON: Critical error in filter unit considered (red LED)
LED 3: OFF: No critical error in filter unit considered
LED 2: ON: PQF unit running or in startup process (Armed)
LED 2: OFF: PQF unit off and not in startup process
LED 1: Blinking at regular interval (1 s): Microcontroller running properly
LED 1: ON, OFF or blinking irregularly: Microcontroller not running properly
20
System LED’s (top to bottom)
LED 5: ON: Filter unit is acting as the master of the complete system
LED 5: OFF: Filter unit is acting as a slave in the filter system
LED 4: Blinking at regular interval (1 s): DSP processor running properly
LED 4: ON, OFF or blinking irregularly: DSP processor not running properly
21
PQF-Link communication link connector
22
Filter unit address selector (3 Left most DIP switches) and CAN bus termination
(Right hand DIP switch):
Symbols used: L: low – H: high
Address 1: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: L L L
Address 2: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: H L L
Address 3: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: L H L
Address 4: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: H H L
Address 5: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: L L H
Address 6: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: H L H
Address 7: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: L H H
Address 8: Position of the 3 switches starting from left: H H H
Note: In a multi-master arrangement, the master which is operational and which
has the lowest address controls the system.
The default address setting is L L L
26 Hardware description  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
CAN bus termination (Right hand DIP switch):
Must be High (H) for the units that are at the extremity of the CAN bus
(maximum 2 units in a multi-unit filters, typically the first one and the last one of
the chain). This setting is also applicable to single-unit filters.
Must be Low (L) for units in the middle of a chain.
The default factory setting is H.
Remarks:
(a)
For physical locations of customer CT connection terminals, please refer to Figure 18 item 4.
4.6.2
Active filter cover components
An active filter master panel cover contains the PQF-Manager user interface. This
interface is routed on to the main control board.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Hardware description 27
5
5.1
Mechanical design and installation
What this chapter contains
This chapter gives the information required for the mechanical design and installation of
the filter system.
In case you have a problem, please notify it to our service support mail box:
[email protected]
5.2
Installation location requirements
The PQFS is suitable for indoor wall-mount installation, in a well-ventilated area without
dust and excessive aggressive gases where the ambient operating conditions do not
exceed the following values:
Table 13: Ambient operating conditions for PQFS operation
Altitude
Nominal output at 0 to 1000m (3300ft) above sea level
Minimum temperature
-10°C (23°F), non condensing
Maximum temperature
40°C (104°F)
Maximum average
temperature (over 24 h)
35°C (95°F)
Relative humidity
Max. 95% non condensing
Contamination levels
Chemical class 3C2
(IEC 60721-3-3)
Mechanical class 3S2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Remarks:
(a)
At sites over 1000m (3300ft) above sea level, the maximum output current must be derated
by 1% every additional 100m (330ft). The derating factor must be entered at
commissioning.
(b)
Above 40°C (104°F), the maximum output current must be derated by 3.5% every
additional 1°C (1.8°F) up to 50°C (122°F) maximum limit. The derating factor must be
entered at commissioning.
(c)
Locations with normal levels of contaminants, experienced in urban areas with industrial
activities scattered over the whole area, or with heavy traffic.
(d)
Locations without special precautions to minimize the presence of sand or dust, but not
situated in proximity to sand or dust sources.
The filter installation must be indoor and it should be taken into account that the
protection class is IP30.
WARNING: Conductive dust may cause damage to this equipment. Ensure that the
filter is installed in a room where no conductive dust is present.
5.3
Standard enclosure dimensions and clearances
Standard PQFS enclosures have dimensions of 588 x 310 x 705 mm (width x depth x
height). Each enclosure contains one power unit and is fitted with its own main contactor.
Power cables with protecting fuses can be connected to each PQFS from the bottom.
A spacing of 30 mm between the filter sides and walls or other enclosures is
recommended.
28 Mechanical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
A spacing of 500 mm below the filter bottom and above the filter top is recommended.
Figure 20 shows a view of a typical PQFS with characteristic dimensions.
588 mm
705 mm
310 mm
Figure 20: View of a typical PQFS with characteristic dimensions
If a filter system consists of more than one filter unit, the units should be installed next to
each other. If it is not otherwise possible, additional units can be mounted above the
existing unit(s). However, care has to be taken that the hot air of the bottom unit cannot
be sucked in by the fans of the unit mounted above. An example of such an arrangement
is given in Figure 21.
Figure 21: Example of an installation where PQFS units are mounted above each other
5.4
Instructions for mounting the filter
The wall on which the filter unit is mounted must be able to support the weight of the filter,
which is about 120 kilograms. Please note that one enclosure contains always one unit.
In order to mount a filter unit on to the wall, follow the steps outlined below:
• Unpack the filter as per Section 3.3
• Transport the filter to the location of installation as per Section 3.4
• Mount the filter fixation bar (Figure 22) on the wall. Use a spirit level to ensure
horizontal fixation. Holes in the supporting bar are intended for bolts M8.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Mechanical design and installation 29
Figure 22: Fixation bar and characteristic dimensions
• Carefully lift the enclosure and slide it down over the fixation bar until it is
supported by the fixation bar (Figure 23). Then the lifting tool can be
disengaged.
Figure 23: Lifting the filter
• Once the filter is supported by the fixation bar, use the 2 screws provided with the
fixation bar to block the filter against the rear support (see Figure 24). Please
ensure that the torque used for tightening these M8 bolts is 1.4 Nm (max.) Over
tightening may result in deformation of this bar which may damage other
components inside the filter.
30 Mechanical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Figure 24: Mounting of filter blocking screws in the fixation bar
• By means of a lower end fixation screw (not provided) the enclosure can be
pushed against the rear support at the bottom also (see Figure 25).
Figure 25: View of the lower end fixation hole
• Remove the ribbon that has served to lift the filter.
For additional units, the same procedure has to be followed.
5.5
Filter noise level
Active filters produce a certain level of noise when they operate. The noise level depends
on the operating conditions of the unit. The maximum typical noise level is 67dBA. These
values should be taken into account when choosing a location for the filter.
5.6
Airflow and cooling requirements
The PQFS dissipates an amount of heat that has to be evacuated out of the room where
the filter is located. Otherwise, excessive temperature rise may be experienced. Please
note that life of the electrical equipment decreases drastically if the operating temperature
exceeds the allowable limit (divided by 2 every 10°C/23°F).
Each PQFS power unit has their own cooling fans. The air intakes are located at the
bottom of the unit. From the bottom, the air flows through the enclosure and is then
routed to the top of the enclosure. For proper cooling, a minimum airflow of cooling air
has to be supplied to each unit. Table 14 gives the airflow requirements for different unit
ratings.
Table 14: Airflow requirement
Unit rating
Airflow requirement (m³/h)
≤ 60A
400 m³/h
> 60A
600 m³/h
Please ensure that the air used for cooling is regularly renewed and does not contain
conductive particles, significant amounts of dust, or corrosive or otherwise harmful gases.
The cooling air intake temperature must not exceed 40°C under any operating condition.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Mechanical design and installation 31
The hot exhaust air also has to be properly ducted away. Figure 26 shows the cooling air
flow diagram for a single unit PQFS.
Figure 26: Cooling air flow for a single unit PQFS
When the natural cooling capacity at the location where the filter is installed is not
sufficient, air conditioning systems have to be installed to the room. In the design of the
air conditioning systems, the filter heat losses have to be taken into account. Table 15
gives an overview of the PQFS heat losses for the different power units. For multi-unit
filters, the values of Table 15 have to be multiplied by the number of filter units.
Table 15: Filter unit heat losses (maximum values)
5.7
Unit rating (Arms)
Heat loss (kW)
30
1.5
45
1.8
60
2.1
70
2.6
80
2.9
90
3.2
100
3.5
Instructions for mounting the PQF-Manager in enclosures
The PQF-Manager user interface is mounted on to the front panel. In case it needs to be
relocated to another enclosure, follow the guidelines presented next (Figure 27)
32 Mechanical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
3
4
1
5
2
Figure 27: Mechanical installation of the PQF-Manager
Step 1:
Make an opening in the new panel of dimensions 138 x 138 mm.
Step 2:
Slide the PQF-Manager (1) perpendicularly into the enclosure opening (2).
Step 3:
Rotate the PQF-Manager to insert it into the enclosure.
Step 4:
Insert the mounting bracket (3) in the corresponding fixation holes (4) of the
PQF-Manager.
Step 5:
Pull the mounting bracket backwards.
Step 6:
Turn the screw (5) into the mounting bracket and tighten until the PQFManager is secured in place. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for the bottom-mounting
bracket.
Once the PQF-Manager has been installed, it has to be connected electrically (Cf.
Section 6.2).
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Mechanical design and installation 33
6
6.1
Electrical design and installation
What this chapter contains
This chapter gives the data required for integrating the PQFS active filter successfully in
an electrical installation. It also gives electrical connection examples for popular filter
options.
WARNING: The PQFS is able to operate on networks in a voltage range 208-240 V
and 380-415 V with a tolerance range of +/- 10 % (inclusive of harmonics but not
transients). Since operation at the upper limits of voltage and temperature may
reduce its life expectancy, the PQFS should not be connected to systems for which
it is known that over voltages will be sustained indefinitely. Excessive voltage
levels may lead to filter damage.
WARNING: The PQFS is not designed to be connected to systems where one
phase serves as neutral. Connection of a PQFS to such a system is only
authorized after explicit approval by ABB.
The active filter must be connected to the network in parallel with the loads.
WARNING: The PQFS does not incorporate protective power line fuses or main
contactor. Hence the customer has to ensure that the feeding cables to each filter
panel are adequately protected taking into account the filter rating and the cable
section used. More information on this topic is presented in Section 6.7.
Basic filter functionality can be obtained after connection of:
• Ground (PE) (per enclosure)
• Four power cables including neutral. The neutral connection is not mandatory for
filtering three phase loads. The power lines must be protected by appropriately
sized fuses or a contactor.
• 3 CTs (one per phase, to be connected to each filter unit in a filter system
through a daisy chain method with return path)
More advanced filter features (e.g. external monitoring of the filter status) require some
more connections. The connections for these advanced features have to be made on the
PQF-Manager.
WARNING: To avoid electrical shock due to residual voltage on the capacitors, the
three phases & neutral are shorted and earthed at the incomer terminal. Prior to
connecting your power cable, please remove this shorting link (as shown in Figure
28 ), failing which will result in a short circuit in your network and may damage the
filter.
34 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Figure 28: Shorting link to remove before connection
WARNING: Ensure that the filter supply is isolated upstream during filter
installation. If the system has been connected to the supply before, wait for 25
minutes after disconnecting the mains power in order to discharge the capacitors.
Always verify by measurement that the capacitors have discharged. DC capacitors
may be charged to more than 800 Vdc.
The DC capacitors of PQFS units are automatically charged once the auxiliary
circuit is energized, regardless of whether the filter is switched off or on. Do not
touch the DC capacitor link when the auxiliary fuse box is closed.
The active filter control board carries dangerous voltages and shall not be touched
once the auxiliary circuit is energized, regardless of whether the filter is switched
off or on. Once the auxiliary circuit is opened, high voltage levels can still be
present on the control board. Respect a delay of 25 minutes after disconnecting
the mains power before touching the control board.
6.2
Instructions for connecting the PQF-Manager to a filter system
PQFS filter master units are by default equipped with the PQF-Manager user interface. In
some cases however it may be needed to remove and reconnect the PQF-Manager to
the filter.
In order to successfully connect the PQF-Manager to a PQFS filter unit, it suffices to plug
the male connector attached to the PQF-Manager into the corresponding female
connector attached to the filter hardware. This is illustrated in Figure 29.
Figure 29: Connection of the PQF-Manager user interface to the PQFS filter hardware
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 35
The female connector associated with the filter hardware is situated at the top right side
of the control board and becomes visible after removing/lifting slightly the filter protective
cover.
Note that the connector incorporates the following signals:
• The 230 V power supply connection
• The internal CAN bus connection
6.3
Checking the insulation of the assembly – earth resistance
WARNING: Follow the procedure outlined below to check the insulation of the filter
assembly. Applying other methods may damage the filter.
Every filter has been tested for insulation between the main circuit and the chassis/frame
at the factory. Therefore, do not make any voltage tolerance or insulation resistance tests
(e.g. hi-pot or megger) on the inverter units. Check the insulation of the assembly by
measuring the insulation resistance of the filter between the Protective Earth (PE) and all
3 phases shorted together, with main contactor shorted, and auxiliary circuit open
(auxiliary fuses removed). Remove P2 and P3 plugs from the control board. Remove also
the output cable of the 24 V power supply.
WARNING: Making the test with the auxiliary circuit closed may damage the filter.
Use a measuring voltage of 500 Vdc. The insulation resistance must be higher than 500
kΩ per enclosure.
6.4
EMC considerations
The active filter complies with the following EMC guidelines:
EN/IEC 61000-6-2, Industrial level: Immunity standard for industrial environments.
EN/IEC 61000-6-4, Class A: Emission standard for industrial environments.
6.5
Earthing guidelines
Each PQFS plate has one marked earth points (PE). The earth point is situated at the
bottom right side of the filter plate (Figure 30)
Earth point (PE)
Figure 30: Identification of the earth point on the PQFS hardware
For safety reasons and for proper operation of the filter the earth point of each enclosure
must be connected to the installation’s earth (PE). A copper (Cu) cable of minimum size
16 mm² is recommended but local regulations should also be taken into account.
Remark: in PEN systems, the earth connection of the filter must be connected to the
installation’s earth (PE) and not to the N-conductor.
Further, the following rules should be respected:
• When the PQFS consists of only one enclosure, the enclosure’s PE-point must
be connected directly to the installation’s PE-point
36 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• When the PQFS consists of more than one enclosure, each enclosure’s PE-point
must be connected directly to the installation’s PE-point. Additionally, all cubicles’
secondary PE-points must be interconnected. This is illustrated in Figure 31. The
interconnection cable should be minimum 16 mm².
Main earth
connection
point in
filter
cubicles
Master
Slave 1
Slave 2
Secondary
earth
connection
point
PE
PE
PE
Figure 31: Earth connection guidelines for a multi-unit PQFS
6.6
Selection of the power cable size
Several types of power cable can be used to connect the filter to the network. Local
regulations and habits often determine the user’s choice. Note however that due to the
high frequency output filter of the PQF, there is no radiated emission through the feeding
cables. Consequently, there is no need for special screening of the filter connection
cables.
The following steps have to be followed to determine the section of the power cables
feeding the filter:
1.
Determine the RMS current rating of the enclosure for which the cable has to be
rated (Irms).
The rating is marked on the enclosure label.
Each enclosure has to be individually connected to the supply and bottom cable
entry has to be used. If required an optional cable connection box can be added to
allow for multi-cable termination.
The minimum cable section to be used for the power conductors is 16 mm².
The RMS current for which the cable has to be rated equals the current rating of the
unit to be connected to the supply. Note that the neutral connection has to be able to
carry three times the unit current rating.
2.
Determine the factor X and the cable section required taking into account the skin
effect.
The multiplication factor X is a factor that takes into account that the current that will
flow through the filter connection cables is predominantly a harmonic current, i.e. a
current of which the frequency of the most important components is higher than the
network base frequency. Due to the frequency being higher than the network base
frequency a physical phenomenon called ‘skin effect’ comes into play. This effect
implies that for higher frequencies the current will not flow through the complete
cross section of the cable but will have the tendency to flow at the cable surface.
The result is that although one may use a cable of A mm², the section through which
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 37
the current flows is only x⋅A mm² (with x < 1). In order to compensate for this “loss of
section”, the cable has to be oversized such that the total equivalent section through
which the current flows taking into account the skin effect is acceptable.
The multiplication factor X to be used depends on the cable material (e.g. copper
[Cu], aluminum [Al]) and on the base frequency of the network on which the filter will
be installed. For a given installation its value can be determined using the following
process:
Step 1: Determine in a conventional way (e.g. using cable manufacturer’s tables) the
cable section A (mm²) for the RMS current Irms obtained in 1 above.
Step 2: Using the cable section A, the cable material and the network frequency as
entry points in Table 16, determine the multiplication factor X.
Table 16: Multiplication factors X for different cable sections
Network frequency
50Hz
Network frequency 60
Hz
Al-cable
Cu-cable
Al-cable
Cu-cable
16
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
25
1.00
1.01
1.00
1.01
35
1.01
1.01
1.01
1.02
50
1.01
1.03
1.02
1.04
70
1.02
1.05
1.03
1.06
95
1.04
1.08
1.05
1.10
120
1.05
1.11
1.07
1.14
Cable section
[mm²]
Step 3: Determine in a conventional way the cable section A2 (mm²) for the current
rating found by multiplying Irms by X.
If the new cable section A2 is equal to the initially found cable section A, the right
cable section taking into account the skin effect has been found.
If the new cable section A2 is bigger than the initially found cable section A, steps 2
and 3 have to be repeated with the new values until the cable section A2 found is
equal to the cable section A.
Remark: during this process it may be found that more than one cable per phase is
needed. The process then has to be applied to each cable.
As an illustration of the cable sizing process consider the following example:
PQFS 60 A/50Hz, 3-wire connection, cable material: Cu (copper)
Step 1: IN = 60A  cable section = 16 [mm2]
Step 2: multiplication factor for a 16 [mm2] copper cable at 50 Hz = 1.00
Step 3: I = IN x 1.00 = 60A x 1.00 = 60 A
Step 4: I = 60A  cable section: 16 [mm2]
This section is equal to the section found in the previous step.
Conclusion: one copper cable of 16 [mm2] per phase is sufficient.
Remark: The cable sizing process discussed in point 2 above only takes into
account the skin effect. Any further derating due to local standards and/or
installation conditions (e.g. distance between cables, number of cables connected in
38 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
parallel …) have to be taken into account by the company responsible for the PQF
cable connection.
As an example of the cable sizing procedure, consider Table 17 and Table 18,
which show the allowed current for different parameters noting typical cable
manufacturer data.
WARNING:
Consult your cable manufacturer for the applicable cable.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 39
Table 17: Allowed cable current for different cable sections noting the skin effect
and typical cable manufacturer data – Network frequency 50Hz
Copper
Cross section
Aluminum
[mm²]
[AWG]
Nr of
parallel
cables
16
6
1
1
100
0.997
100
75
0.999
75
25
4
1
1
130
0.993
125
100
0.997
100
35
2
1
1
160
0.987
158
120
0.994
119
50
1-1/0
1
1
190
0.975
185
145
0.989
142
70
2/0
1
1
230
0.955
220
180
0.98
176
95
3/0
1
1
285
0.93
265
220
0.965
210
120
4/0
1
1
325
0.904
290
250
0.95
238
150
300MCM
1
1
365
0.877
320
285
0.93
265
185
350MCM
1
1
415
0.844
350
325
0.908
295
240
500MCM
1
1
495
0.804
390
385
0.876
335
300
600MCM
1
1
550
0.768
420
425
0.843
358
16
6
2
0.8
160
0.997
159
120
0.999
120
25
4
2
0.8
208
0.993
205
160
0.997
160
35
2
2
0.8
256
0.987
250
192
0.994
190
50
1-1/0
2
0.8
304
0.975
290
232
0.989
229
70
2/0
2
0.8
368
0.955
350
288
0.98
282
95
3/0
2
0.8
456
0.93
420
352
0.965
340
120
4/0
2
0.8
520
0.904
470
400
0.95
380
150
300MCM
2
0.8
584
0.877
510
456
0.93
424
185
350MCM
2
0.8
664
0.844
560
520
0.908
472
240
500MCM
2
0.8
792
0.804
630
616
0.876
540
300
600MCM
2
0.8
880
0.768
675
680
0.843
573
Derating
due to
paralleling
Rated
current
[Arms]
Reduction
factor
Allowed
current
[Arms]
Rated
current
[Arms]
Reduction
factor
Allowed
current
[Arms]
Remark: The highlighted values in Table 17 refer to cable sizes that correspond to typical
filter ratings. Note that in 4-wire systems, the neutral may have to carry up to 3 times the
line current rating of the filter.
40 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Table 18: Allowed cable current for different cable sections noting the skin effect
and typical cable manufacturer data – Network frequency 60Hz
Copper
Cross section
Aluminum
[mm²]
[AWG]
Nr of
parallel
cables
16
6
1
1
100
0.996
99
75
1
75
25
4
1
1
130
0.99
128
100
1
100
35
2
1
1
160
0.981
157
120
0.99
119
50
1-1/0
1
1
190
0.965
183
145
0.98
143
70
2/0
1
1
230
0.941
216
180
0.97
175
95
3/0
1
1
285
0.911
260
220
0.95
210
120
4/0
1
1
325
0.88
286
250
0.93
233
150
300MCM
1
1
365
0.85
310
285
0.91
260
185
350MCM
1
1
415
0.817
339
325
0.89
288
240
500MCM
1
1
495
0.775
383
385
0.85
326
300
600MCM
1
1
550
0.738
406
425
0.81
346
16
6
2
0.8
160
0.996
159
120
1
120
25
4
2
0.8
208
0.99
205
160
1
160
35
2
2
0.8
256
0.981
250
192
0.99
190
50
1-1/0
2
0.8
304
0.965
293
232
0.98
228
70
2/0
2
0.8
368
0.941
346
288
0.97
280
95
3/0
2
0.8
456
0.911
415
352
0.95
336
120
4/0
2
0.8
520
0.88
457
400
0.93
374
150
300MCM
2
0.8
584
0.85
496
456
0.91
416
185
350MCM
2
0.8
664
0.817
542
520
0.89
460
240
500MCM
2
0.8
792
0.775
613
616
0.85
522
300
600MCM
2
0.8
880
0.738
649
680
0.81
553
Derating
due to
paralleling
Rated
current
[Arms]
Reduction
factor
Allowed
current
[Arms]
Rated
current
[Arms]
Reduction
factor
Allowed
current
[Arms]
Remark: The highlighted values in Table 18 refer to cable sizes that correspond to typical
filter ratings. Note that in 4-wire systems, the neutral may have to carry up to 3 times the
line current rating of the filter.
6.7
Selection of the power cable protection/filter input protection scheme
Once the power cables have been selected, a suitable cable and equipment protection
has to be selected. The protection only needs to protect the phases and not the neutral. It
is recommended to use fuses of type gG/gL with the RMS current ratings given in Table
19.
Table 19: RMS current ratings for protection fuses
Filter nominal current
rating (Arms)
Minimum fuse protection
(Arms)
Maximum fuse protection
(Arms)
30
40
125
45
63
125
60
80
125
70
100
160
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 41
80
100
160
90
125
160
100
125
160
Voltage rating of the fuses should be according to the network voltage.
As an alternative to fuse protection, MCCB protection of appropriate sizing can also be
used.
When the customer protection is in place, the following PQFS input protection will result.
L1
L2
L3
N
Customer added protection
2.5mm² reinforced
6A (10X38 for up to 415V)
To PQFS
power stage
To PQFS control circuit and
DC bus loading circuit
PQFS filter unit
Note: neutral connection only needed for 4-wire connection
Figure 32: Symbolic representation of the PQFS input protection
The active filter power circuit is internally connected to the network by means of a main
contactor of type ABB AF 75.
The PQFS control circuit and DC bus preload system is protected by a fuse protection
scheme, the characteristics of which are given in Table 20.
Table 20: Control circuit fuse characteristics for PQFS filters
Nominal
network voltage
(Vrms)
Control circuit fuse type
Irms fuse
(Arms)
Isc fuse (kA) at
rated voltage
Rated
Voltage
(Vrms)
208 ≤ Ue ≤ 415
French Ferrule 10 X 38 gG/gl
6
~ 120
500
(a)
Remark:
(a)
Fuse short circuit current capability
WARNING: Once the auxiliary fuse box is closed, the DC bus is automatically
charged when the upstream network is live. Therefore, close the auxiliary circuit
only when the upstream power circuit is not live. Failure to adhere to this guideline
may result in injury or death.
42 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
6.8
Connection of the PQFS to the network
WARNING: The PQF has to be installed in parallel with the loads, preferably on a
free feeder. Local regulations and requirements prevail in determining how the
equipment has to be connected to the network. The feeding cables to the filter
must be protected by their own cable and equipment protection device (see
Section 6.7).
WARNING: The PQF can operate on networks with nominal voltage in the range
208-240 V and 380-415 V. The unit must be configured for the operation range it will
be used on. Follow the guidelines in this section to ensure that the hardware is
configured properly. Failure to do so may lead to filter damage.
For applications where predominantly 3 phase loads are present and where there is
no need for neutral current filtering nor line to neutral balancing, connect the active
filter in 3-Wire mode.
For applications where predominantly single-phase loads are present and where
there is a need for neutral current filtering and/or line to neutral balancing, connect
the active filter in 4-Wire mode.
NOTE: When installing an active filter in installations containing power factor
correction capacitor banks, it is recommended to use detuned capacitor banks and
to connect the capacitor banks upstream of the filter measurement CTs.
NOTE: The PQF active filter is not compatible with high impedance devices
installed upstream of the filter in the neutral. The PQF may refuse to start or may
not function correctly when such a device is present. For best PQF performance,
these devices have to be removed or bypassed.
6.8.1
Connection of the PQFS in 3-wire mode
Use the 3-wire connection mode for installations where there is no need for neutral
current filtering or line to neutral balancing. In this mode, the active filter can compensate
20 individual harmonic components.
In order to connect the PQFS in 3-wire mode, follow the below guidelines:
1.
Fix the filter mechanically to the wall (Cf. Section 5.4)
2.
Ensure that an appropriately selected protecting device is connected upstream and
that the power supply cables are not live
3.
Remove the protective cover present at the bottom right side of the filter (Cf. Figure
33)
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 43
Figure 33: Removing the protective cover at the bottom side of the active filter enclosure
4.
Make holes in the protective cover of appropriate section corresponding to the
power cable section used. Also make holes for the earth cable, the CT wire and any
other control wires that may be needed, e.g. for implementing remote control
functionality. When finished, slide the cover over the feeding cables and the earth
cable.
5.
Connect the earth cable (Cf. Section 6.5)
6.
Connect the three power cables to the reactor terminals (Cf. Figure 34)
Figure 34: Connecting the three power cables and connecting them to the filter reactor terminals
Remarks:
• The left reactor terminal corresponds to phase L1 (R, A)
• The middle reactor terminal corresponds to phase L2 (Y, B)
• The right reactor terminal corresponds to phase L3 (B, C)
The cable lugs of the feeding cables should comply with:
• Maximum lug width: in accordance with terminal width
• Minimum lug eye diameter: M8
Appropriate torque (20Nm) must be applied to ensure that cables are properly fixed.
7.
Slide the bottom protective cover up and fix it with the screws to seal off the power
supply terminals
8.
In addition to the power cables and the earth connection cable, the CT connection
cable and any other control cables used for enhanced functions can at this stage be
passed through the protective cover into the filter panel.
9.1 Preparation of the filter for networks of nominal voltage 380-415V:
When the filter will be installed on a network with nominal voltage 380-415V, no
further hardware configuration is needed. The two wires ‘N’ are by default connected
to the terminal block X02-1 (Cf. Figure 35).
44 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Figure 35: Position of the wires ‘N’ for networks with nominal voltage 380-415V
9.2 Preparation of the filter for networks of nominal voltage 208-240V:
When the filter will be installed on a network with nominal voltage 208-240V, the
wires labeled ‘N’ (see Figure 35) have to be disconnected from the terminal X02-1
and have to be connected to the terminal X02-3 (see Figure 36).
Figure 36: Position of the wires ‘N’ for networks with nominal voltage 208-240V
Remark: the other wires labeled ‘N’ and also on the terminal X02-1 but on the other side
cannot be removed (see Figure 37).
Figure 37: Position of the wires ‘N’ which cannot be removed
6.8.2
Connection of the PQFS in 4-wire mode
Use the 4-wire connecting mode for installations where there is a need for neutral current
filtering and/or line to neutral balancing. In this mode, the active filter can compensate 15
individual harmonic components.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 45
In order to connect the PQFS in 4-wire mode, follow the guidelines of Section 6.8.1 with
the exception that:
4.
Make also a hole for the neutral cable in the protective cover noting the larger
section required for the neutral.
6.
Connect the three power cables and the neutral cable. Whereas the three power
cables can be connected as describes in item 6 of Section 6.8.1, the neutral cable
has to be connected to the neutral connection point (Cf. Figure 38).
Figure 38: Connection of the neutral cable when using the PQFS in 4-wire mode
The cable lugs for the neutral cables should comply with:
• Maximum lug width: in accordance with terminal width
• Minimum lug eye diameter: M8
Appropriate torque must be applied to ensure that cables are properly fixed.
Other points in the connection procedure are as per previous Section.
Remarks:
• In case of regenerative loads (e.g. loads that may inject active energy to the
network, usually called 4Q-loads), it is very important to connect the PQF outside
the protection of this load. Indeed, consider Figure 39 where a common
protection is installed for both the regenerative load and for the PQF. When the
load re-injects energy to the network and the mains protection trips, the whole
energy may be pushed into the PQF, which may damage it severely. Figure 40
shows the admitted protection scheme for regenerative loads. In this case, if the
breaker of the load trips, the PQF is isolated from the energy fed back by the
drive.
PQF
4Q
load
Figure 39: Incorrect connection
in the case of 4Q-loads
6.9
PQF
4Q
load
Figure 40: Correct connection
in the case of 4Q-loads
Selection of the current transformers
Each filter unit in a filter system has to monitor the line current in order to determine
the harmonic load and function correctly. This is done by three current transformers
(CTs). For proper operation of the PQFS standard accuracy CTs with the following
minimum specifications have to be used:
• 5 A secondary current rating.
46 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• 15 VA burden for up to 30 meters of 2.5 mm² cable. For longer cables lengths
refer to the chart in Figure 41. In case the CTs are shared with other loads, the
VA burden shall be adapted accordingly. Note that the burden requirement for a
complete filter system (consisting of up to 4 filter units) is 5 VA, excluding
connecting cables.
• Class 1 accuracy
• Primary side current rating sufficient to monitor the total line current (including
transient phenomena such as drive/motor starts …)
It is strongly recommended that the three CTs have the same characteristics.
WARNING: The connection of different filter units in a PQFS system, as well as
other loads, on the same CT must be in series.
In order to determine the suitable CTs for your application, please refer to the chart in
Figure 41.
Remark: in some applications two or more power supplies exist (e.g. a network
transformer supply and a generator supply). When the current into both supplies has to
be filtered, summing CTs have to be used. All summing CTs must have the same ratio.
More information on how to install the summing CTs is given in next section.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 47
Figure 41: Flow chart for CT determination
48 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Select 3 identical CT’s such that:
- rating at primary ≥ X2
- rating at secondary: 5A
- Burden ≥ 15 VA
- Class 1 accuracy or better
NO
YES
CT cables > 30 meters ?
X2 = …. Arms
Multiply X1 by
1.6:
X1 = ….. Arms
Maximum rms current of the
downstream loads (including starting
current of DC drives):
X4 = … VA
Select 3 identical CT’s such that:
- rating at primary ≥ X2
- rating at secondary: 5A
- Burden ≥ X4 VA
- Class 1 accuracy or better
X3 = … VA
Select 3 identical CT’s such that:
- rating at primary ≥ X2
- rating at secondary: 5A
- Burden ≥ X3 VA
- Class 1 accuracy or better
L=…m
R = … Ω/m
Determine the length (m) and
resistance (Ω/m)of
CT cables (meters)
X4 = (L x R x 25) + 10
NO
X3 = (L x 0.007 x 25) + 10
L=…m
Determine the length of
CT cables (meters)
YES
2.5 mm²? (recommended)
Section of CT cables:
6.10 Current transformer installation and connection
The location of the CTs is critical to ensure the proper operation of the active filter. The
CTs are the “eyes” of the filter and it will react in accordance with the information supplied
by them.
WARNING: Special care has to be taken for the connection and location of the
CTs: wrong CT installation is the most common source of problems found at the
commissioning stage.
WARNING: In a filter system consisting of more than one unit, the CT information
has to be supplied to all the units. This must be done through a daisy chain
connection configuration.
By default, the PQFS active filter is provided with CT terminals that are not shorted. A set
of shorting plugs is provided with the filter. They should always be kept with the filter and
accessible for service engineers.
WARNING: When connecting the CTs of a live system to the PQFS, the
secondaries of the CTs have to be shorted. Failure to do so may result in CT
explosion and consequent damage to the installation. Once the connections to the
filter have been made, the shorting links must be removed.
The basic rules for successful CT installation are given next (Cf. Figure 42):
• The three filter CTs have to be positioned for closed loop control, i.e. the CT
must monitor the load current and the filter current. In some cases, summation
CTs may be needed to fulfil the closed loop requirement (Cf. examples further
down this section).
• The CTs must be positioned in the correct direction around the power cable: the
K (P1) side should be in the direction of the supply and the L (P2) side should be
in the direction of the load.
• Each CT must have its own guard circuit, i.e. one terminal of each CTs
secondary terminal (k (S1) or l (S2)) should be earthed. Once a terminal is
chosen (e.g. k-terminal), the same terminal should be earthed for all the CTs.
• The CT monitoring a phase should be connected to the filter terminal dedicated
to the same phase. In practice this means that:
o
The k (S1) terminal of the line 1 CT (L1, Red, U) must be connected to
terminal X21-1 of the filter
o
The l (S2) terminal of the line 1 CT (L1, Red, U) must be connected to
terminal X21-2 of the filter
o
The k (S1) terminal of the line 2 CT (L2, Yellow, V) must be connected
to terminal X21-3 of the filter
o
The l (S2) terminal of the line 2 CT (L2, Yellow, V) must be connected to
terminal X21-4 of the filter
o
The k (S1) terminal of the line 3 CT (L3, Blue, W) must be connected to
terminal X21-5 of the filter
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 49
o
The l (S2) terminal of the line 3 CT (L3, Blue, W) must be connected to
terminal X21-6 of the filter
• The CT connection terminal X21 is located in the middle of the top plate of the
filter (Cf. Figure 43).
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L3
N
L
K
k
Load side
L
l
k
l
k
To X21.1/X21.2
l
To X21.5/X21.6
N L1
L2
L3
To X21.3/X21.4
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3 PQF
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
K = P1, L = P2, k = S1, l = S2
Figure 42: Basic CT connection example for a single unit active filter.
Figure 43: Location of the CT connection terminal X21 in the PQFS
The terminal block X21 can handle control cable wiring with sections from 2.5 mm² to 10
mm².
In addition to the 6-wire CT cabling approach shown in Figure 42 above, a 4-wire
approach may also be used. This approach is illustrated in Figure 44. In this case the CT
secondary terminal to which the guard circuit is connected is interconnected between the
CTs and also on the filter terminal X21. One common cable is used for this terminal. Note
that this cable must be able to withstand three times the secondary current rating of the
CTs.
50 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L
K
L3
Load side
L
N
To X21.2
To X21.4
To X21.6
N
L1
L2
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
L3
PQF
K = P1, L = P2, k = S1, l = S2
Figure 44: Four wires CT wiring approach that may be used with a single unit PQFS active filter
In case a filter system consists of more than one unit, all units have to be supplied with
the CT measurement information. This is done by cabling the CTs in a daisy chain
fashion between the different units. This is illustrated in Section 6.11.3.
6.11 Electrical interconnection of PQFS enclosures
This section explains how to electrically interconnect different PQFS enclosures.
Figure 45 shows schematically which interconnections have to be made between two
filter enclosures.
AC power supply
L
L
N
N
Output filter
Output filter
…
Preload
resistor
(1)
(2)
Unit 1
Unit 2
Power Unit 1
Power Unit 2
Master Unit
Master or Slave Unit
Figure 45: Overview of the connections to be made between two filter enclosures
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 51
The interconnection description is given in Table 21.
Table 21: Interconnections between two filter units
Item
Description
1
Control board intercommunication cable through CAN bus (RJ45 cable)
2
CT interconnection cable
Four steps have to be followed to electrically interconnect a new PQFS unit with an
existing filter. They are outlined in the next four paragraphs.
6.11.1
Mechanical preparation of the enclosures
• Remove the knockouts on the appropriate side of the filter cover panels (Cf.
Figure 46) where the filter interconnection cables have to be passed through.
Figure 46: View of knockout on filter sides
• Cover the sharp edges of the knockouts with the rubber seal provided with the
slave units.
6.11.2
Control board cable interconnection
WARNING: Failure to interconnect the control boards in an appropriate way will
result in filter malfunctioning and possibly sever damage of the unit.
Interconnect the control boards of a following unit with a previous filter unit by an RJ45based communication cable. This cable is provided with each unit.
Figure 47 shows the way to interconnect the control boards.
52 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
From previous unit (if present)
To next unit (if present)
Control board in the ‘previous’ unit
Control board in the ‘next’ unit
Figure 47: Control board interconnection cable connection method.
• The RJ45 control cable coming from the preceding filter unit is plugged in the left
hand side RJ45-socket at the top of the filter control board.
• The RJ45 control cable leaving for the next filter unit is plugged in the right hand
side RJ45-socket at the top of the filter control board
• Repeat the same procedure for any other filters to be connected.
Notes:
• In the first unit of a filter system, the left hand RJ45-socket will always be empty.
• In the last unit of a filter system, the right hand RJ45-socket will always be empty.
• During the commissioning phase, a unique address has to be assigned to each
unit in a filter system through dip switch. (see Chapter 8)
6.11.3
CT cable interconnection
WARNING: Failure to connect the CT’s to all units in a filter system in an
appropriate way will result in filter malfunctioning and possibly sever damage of
the unit.
In a multi-unit PQFS-system, all units have to be supplied with the CT –measurement
results. In order to do this the CT’s have to be cabled to each unit in a daisy chain
fashion. The connection principle is shown in Figure 48 for the CT of phase which is fed
to four filter units. The same approach has to be implemented for the other phases too.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 53
Unit 1
CT terminal X21
1
2
Unit 2
CT terminal X21
1
2
Unit 3
CT terminal X21
1
2
Unit 4
CT terminal X21
1
2
CT in
phase 1
Figure 48: Principle of the CT interconnection circuit for multi-unit filters.
Note that the overall burden requirement for a complete filter system is 5 VA. To this
value has to be added the burden requirement of the interconnection cables to obtain the
total burden requirement of the CT’s to be used.
6.11.4
Connection of the power stage to the supply
As a final step in the interconnection process, the power stage of the new unit has to be
connected to the supply.
The same connection approach as used for the other filter units must be adopted. More
information on how to connect a PQFS filter unit to the power supply can be found in
Section 6.8.
WARNING: Make sure that the phase rotation of the power cable connection is
clockwise at the filter terminals and that the L1, L2 and L3 terminal in each filter
unit is connected to the same phase for all units. Failure to do so may lead to the
filter being damaged upon startup.
WARNING: Once a new filter unit has been added to a filter system, this unit has to
be given a unique address (through DIP switch setting on its control board). In
addition, the filter unit has to be recommissioned.
If more than one unit is added, it is recommended to first finish the hardware
modifications and then set up the controller accordingly. More information on how to
change the filter controller unit settings can be found in Section 7.7.2.2 and Section 8.5.
After making and verification of all the electrical connections:
• Set a unique address on each filter unit control board
• Close the auxiliary fuse box of the filter units
• Restore the top cover(s) of the filter units
6.12 Electrical connections to the PQF-Manager user interface
The PQF-Manager is the user interface between the outside world and the filter
controller. It is mounted on the filter cover panel. Depending on the user requirements,
less or more electrical connections have to be made to it. Figure 49 shows the rear side
54 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
layout of the PQF-Manager. In order to get access to the rear side of the PQF-Manager,
remove the PQFS top cover (Cf. guidelines in Section 3.4.)
Fuse 200mA
Power Supply
Do not connect
Digital Outputs
Power Supply
Do not connect
+
-
Digital Input
(max 110Vdc / 0.3A
or 440Vac / 1.5A)
1(15-24Vdc)
Do not connect
+
-
Com
Com
Out 1
Out 2
Out 3
Out 4
Out 5
Out 6
Digital Input 2(15-24Vdc)
H
CAN
L
Shield
RS485 MODBUS Adapter Supply
Alarm Outputs N.O.
(max 250Vac / 1.5A) N.C.
RS232
RS485
LOCK
Made in Belgium
PC-ABS
Figure 49: Rear side layout of the PQF-Manager user interface
When looking at the PQF-Manager from the rear, on the left side can be found a 15-pole
terminal block and on the right side an 8 pole terminal block (top-right) and a 4-pole
terminal block (bottom right). In order to make control connections to any of these
terminals, the following procedure has to be applied:
1.
Push the lever of the connector backwards with a screwdriver
2.
Insert the control wires (from 0.75 mm² to 2.5 mm² single core without cable shoe or
max. 1.5 mm² for multi-strand wire) in the corresponding connection hole while
keeping the pressure on the lever.
3.
Release the screwdriver
4.
The wire is then properly connected
Figure 50: PQF-Manager lead connections
The remainder of this section gives examples of how to cable different functions, i.e.
Case 1:
Cabling of remote control functionality.
Case 2:
Cabling of alarm functionality.
Case 3:
Cabling of warning functionality.
Case 4:
Cabling of the digital output contacts to monitor other filter operation
modes than warnings and alarms.
Case 5:
Cabling of main/auxiliary control functionality.
Case 6:
Implementation of local start/stop buttons.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 55
It is recommended that for additional functions that are cabled to the PQFS, a connector
approach is used such as is the case for the internal communication and PQF-Manager
power supply.
WARNING: Before cabling any of the circuits discussed below, switch off the
power supply to the filter. When the filter has already been installed on site, this is
done by opening the protection system located just upstream of the filter and
opening the auxiliary fuse box present in the filter. Wait at least 25 minutes to allow
for the DC capacitors to discharge when the filter has been connected to the
network before. Failure to do so may result in lethal injury or death.
After making and verification of all the electrical connections
• Close the auxiliary fuse box of the filter units starting from the last slave and
ending with the master unit
• Restore the top cover(s) of the filter units including the connection of the PQFManager to the master unit
• The power to the filter may then be restored
6.12.1
Cabling of remote control functionality
The PQFS has the possibility to be controlled by remote control. An example of this
approach is a drive that is switched on at a location and which automatically gives a start
command to the filter. When the drive is then stopped, the drive sends automatically a
stop command to the filter too. This section gives an example of how the cabling has to
be done on the filter side.
Any of the two digital inputs on the PQF-Manager (Cf. Figure 49) can be used to cable
the remote control functionality. The electrical requirements of the digital inputs are given
in Table 60 (Filter characteristics section). Figure 51 gives an example of how to
implement the remote control functionality on Digital Input 1.
Switch controlled
by external process
PQF-Manager
S
+
24 Vdc
external
power
supply(b)
+
-
7 (a) Digital input 1
8 (a) (15-24Vdc)
-
Remarks:
(a)
Left hand terminal block when looking from rear, counting from top to bottom
(b)
Acceptable power supply range: 15Vdc-24 Vdc, driving current [email protected]
Figure 51: Implementation of remote control functionality on Digital Input 1 of the PQF-Manager
56 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
WARNING: If a function is assigned to a digital input, the same function must
never be assigned to the other digital input. Otherwise the filter may behave
erratically.
Once the cabling has been finished,
• The auxiliary fuse box may be closed
• The filter top cover may be replaced including the connection of the PQFManager to the master unit
• The power to the filter may then be restored
Then, the PQF-Manager has to be used to associate the remote control functionality with
Digital Input 1. This is done by going to the digital input setup menu and selecting
‘Remote ON’ for digital input 1. When this is done the filter will switch on when the switch
S shown in Figure 51 is closed and the filter will switch off when the switch S is opened.
Refer to Section 7.7.1.2 for guidelines on how to navigate to the digital input setup menu.
In a multi-master arrangement, the master that has the control over the system (i.e. the
master which is operational and which has the lowest address) will monitor the digital
inputs. Therefore, in order to obtain full redundancy with filters consisting of more than
one master unit, the digital inputs of all the units in a multi-master arrangement have to
be set up and cabled in the same way.
Remarks:
• When the remote control functionality has been activated this function has priority
over a local start/stop command. When the local command has to be given,
deactivate first the remote control functionality by navigating with the PQFManager to the digital input setup menu and setting the digital input considered to
‘Disabled’.
• The remote control functionality can also be implemented on the Digital
6.12.2
Input 2
Cabling of alarm functionality
An alarm represents an error condition that makes the filter trip.
Two types of error conditions exist:
• External error condition: These are conditions that are imposed on to the filter
from the outside world. Consider the example of the network voltage that
increases well above the filter safe operation level for a certain time. In that case
the filter will disconnect from the network reporting a network over voltage. When
the network voltage returns to a normal level however, the filter will reconnect to
the network and continue filtering providing that the same problem does not
occur systematically.
• Internal error conditions: These are error conditions that are reported by internal
controls of the filter itself. They may indicate an internal filter problem.
Two ways to cable the alarm functionality exist:
• The PQF-Manager alarm outputs located at the bottom right side (when looking
at the PQF-Manager from the rear) are triggered (return to default position)
whenever:
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 57
o
a permanent internal or external error condition is present. In order to
avoid transient switching of the contacts, the error has to be present for
3 minutes before the alarm relays are activated.
o
no power is supplied to the filter
Table 24 further down this section gives an overview of all the error conditions
that lead to the alarm contact being triggered. Two alarm contacts exist, one
being of type ‘normally open’ (NO) and the other of type ‘normally closed’ (NC).
The alarm contacts are
o
free of potential
o
rated for a maximum of 250 Vac/1.5 A or 30 Vdc/5 A. When using a 24
Vdc power supply, a minimum current of 25 mA should be drawn by the
circuit connected to the alarm contact.
Table 22 shows the status of the alarm contacts for different operation modes of
the filter.
Table 22: Status of the alarm contacts for different filter operation modes
Filter state
Normally open alarm
contact state
Normally closed alarm
contact state
Disconnected from the supply
Open
Closed
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to
the supply, no error present
Closed
Open
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to
the supply, error appears
Opens when error present for
3 minutes
Closes when error present for
3 minutes
Otherwise, remains closed
Otherwise, remains open
When open before, closes
when error disappears
When closed before, opens
when error disappears
When closed before, remains
closed
When open before, remains
open
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to
the supply, error disappears
Figure 52 shows an example of an alarm contact-cabling scheme using the NC
alarm contact. Using this scheme the bulb B will be on when the power supply to
the filter is interrupted or the filter trips due to an error. Otherwise the bulb will be
off.
230 Vac
external
power
supply
PQF-Manager
9
10
(a)
11
NC
(a)
12
NO
Alarm
outputs
External bulb
alarm indicator
B
Remark:
(a)
Right hand terminal block when looking from rear, counting from top to
Figure 52: Alarm bulb cabling scheme using the NC alarm contact on the PQF-Manager
When the filter system consists of multiple master-units and an alarm contact is
needed to signal when the complete system is off, then the NC alarm contacts of
58 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
all the master units have to be cabled in series. An example is given in Figure 53
for 2 master filters.
NC Alarm
contact of
master 1
NC Alarm
contact of
master 2
Alarm bulb
230 Vac
external
power
supply
B
Note: Contacts drawn in non-alarm position
Figure 53: Cabling of the alarm status of a multi-unit filter consisting of masters only, using the NC
alarm contact on each filter.
In the Figure 53, the alarm bulb will be activated when both master units are in
alarm.
Figure 54 shows a cabling scheme using a 24 Vdc supply in conjunction with the
NO alarm contact. The scheme assumes that an external digital input monitors
the alarm contact of the filter. In this case the voltage applied to the digital input
will be low when:
o
the filter is disconnected from the supply OR
o
the filter trips due to an error OR
o
the external 24 Vdc power supply fails
The voltage applied to the external digital input is high when:
o
the filter is connected to the supply and is not in error AND
o
the external 24 Vdc power supply is in working order
PQF-Manager
9 (a)
10 (a)
11
NC
12
NO
Alarm
outputs
+ 24 Vdc
external
- supply
+ External
digital
- input
Remark:
(a)
Right hand terminal block when looking from rear, counting from top to bottom
Figure 54: Alarm cabling example using NO alarm contact and external digital input
When the filter system consists of multiple master-units and an alarm contact is
needed to signal when the complete system is off, then the NO alarm contacts of
all the master units have to be cabled in parallel. An example is given in Figure
55 for 2 master filters.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 59
NO Alarm
contact of
master 1
24 Vdc +
external
supply
NO Alarm
contact of
master 2
External
digital
input
Note: Contacts drawn in non-alarm position
Figure 55: Cabling of the alarm status of a multi-unit filter consisting of masters only, using the NO
alarm contact on each filter.
In the Figure 55 above, the external input will be low if:
o
Both master units are in alarm OR
o
The external 24 V power supply fails OR
o
Both filter units are disconnected from the supply
• A second method to implement alarm functionality is to use the PQF-Manager’s
programmable digital output contacts. Use this approach when the condition for
alarm is uniquely defined, e.g. an alarm has to be given only when the filter trips
due to an unacceptably high network voltage or when the filter trips due to a well
defined internal error. In that case the desired function can be assigned to a
programmable alarm which can be monitored be assigned to a digital output.
This type of alarm has to be cabled on the 8 pin terminal block situated at the top
right corner when looking at the PQF-Manager from the rear (Cf. Figure 49)
The digital output contacts have a common point (cabled on contacts 1 and 2)
and are of the NO-type (normally open). The contact ratings are:
o
Maximum continuous ac rating: 440 Vac/1.5 A
o
Maximum continuous dc rating: 110 Vdc/0.3A
o
The common is rated at 9 A/terminal, giving a total of 18 A
o
When using a power supply of 24Vdc, a minimum current of 10 mA
should be drawn by the circuit connected to the digital output contact
Table 23 shows the status of a digital output contact configured as alarm contact
for different operation modes of the filter.
60 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Table 23: Status of a digital output contact configured
as alarm contact for different filter operation modes
Filter state
Normally open digital contact state
Disconnected from the supply
Open
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to the
supply, no error present
Open
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to the
supply, predefined error appears
Closes when error present for 3 minutes.
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to the
supply, predefined error disappears
When closed before, opens when error disappears.
Otherwise, contact remains open.
When opened before, remains open.
The alarm conditions that can be assigned to a digital output are given in Table
24. The assignment must be made with the PQF-Manager. Any of the six digital
outputs can be used to cable an alarm. A maximum of 3 alarms can be assigned
to the digital outputs. Note however that by default the digital outputs have been
set up for monitoring other functions than alarms (cf. Table 10) Refer to Section
7.7.1.2 for guidelines on how to navigate to the digital output setup menu.
Table 24: List of possible alarm conditions that may trigger the alarm/digital outputs
Alarm condition
Criteria to be fulfilled before contact is activated
Supply voltage (RMS) unacceptably
high
Vrms_max > 110% Vnominal
Supply voltage (RMS) unacceptably
low
Vrms_min < 90% Vnominal
One of the phases of the supply is
missing
Vrms_min < 60% Vnominal
Network imbalance unacceptably
high
Vimbalance > 2%
Frequency variation unacceptably
high
Frequency variation > 20%/s
PQFS DC bus voltage unacceptably
high
Vdc > 105% Vdc_max_allowed for each capacitor
stack
PQFS internal preload error
DC capacitor voltage rise too low in preload phase or
the DC capacitors could not be preloaded in an
acceptable time.
PQFS over current fault
Internal current higher than allowed
PQFS IGBT fault
IGBT hardware reports internal permanent error
PQFS IGBT over temperature
IGBT hardware reports internal over temperature
Control board temperature too high
Internal control board temperature probe reports too
high temperature
PQFS internal power supply fault
Internal control voltage too low or not present
PQFS control board fault
Internal control board reports an error
PQFS unit down (i.e. not operational
due to error)
Any of the units in a multi-unit arrangement is not
running although the start-command has been given.
Remark: the alarm trigger levels cannot be changed by the user.
For cabling the digital output contacts as alarm contact, the same approach as shown in
Figure 54 and can be adopted. Note however that the following behavior will result:
• The voltage applied to the external monitoring device will be low when:
o
The filter is disconnected from the supply or when there is no error
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 61
• The voltage applied to the external monitoring device will be high when:
o
The predefined error is present for the predefined time (minimum 180s)
AND
o
The external 24 Vdc power supply is in working order
The different electrical characteristics of the digital output contacts compared to the alarm
contact characteristics must be respected. Note also that all digital outputs have the
same common which is located at the pins 1 and 2 of the right hand terminal of the PQFManager (rear view, counting from top to bottom). This is clearly indicated in Figure 49
above.
A second use of the digital outputs is to monitor the status of individual master units in a
multi-filter system. This can be done by assigning the function ‘Unit missing’ (‘Unit miss.)
to a digital output. In that case the digital output of the master controlling the complete
system will activate the digital output considered when one of the units in a filter system is
not operational due to error.
In order to obtain full redundancy with filters consisting of more than one master unit, the
digital outputs of all the units in a multi-master arrangement have to set up and cabled in
the same way. The cabling scheme is given in Figure 55.
Once the cabling has been finished,
• The auxiliary fuse box may be closed
• The filter top cover may be replaced including the connection of the PQFManager to the master unit
• The power to the filter may then be restored
6.12.3
Cabling of warning functionality
A warning condition is a condition that can be set up by the user in such a way that if the
condition is met, a digital output contact of the PQF-Manager user interface (Cf. Figure
49) is closed. As an example consider a case where the user has set up an upper
warning level for the network voltage. If the level measured by the filter becomes higher
than the predefined warning level and this condition remains valid for a preset time, the
associated digital output will be closed. By monitoring the digital output, the customer will
then know when the network voltage becomes too high and subsequently he can take
appropriate action.
Note that the warning functionality is not associated with a filter trip. It only has a
monitoring function. Table 25 describes the behavior of the digital output contact
configured as warning contact for different filter operating modes.
Table 25: State of a digital output contact configured as
warning contact for different filter operation modes
Filter state
Normally open digital contact state
Disconnected from the supply
Open
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to the
supply, no warning present
Open
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to the
supply, predefined warning present
Closes when warning present for predefined time
Filter (auxiliaries) connected to the
supply, predefined warning disappears
When closed before and warning disappears for at least
the predefined time, contact opens.
Otherwise, contact remains open
When closed before and warning disappears for a time
smaller than predefined time, contact remains closed.
Otherwise, contact remains open.
62 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Table 26 gives a list of the warning conditions that can be assigned to a digital output.
Table 26: List of possible warning conditions that can be assigned to a digital output
Warning condition
Supply voltage (RMS) higher than preset value
Supply voltage (RMS) lower than preset value
Supply voltage imbalance higher than preset value
Ground current level higher than preset value
IGBT Temperature higher than preset value
Control board temperature higher than preset value
Remark: All warning levels can be changed by the user.
Any of the six digital outputs can be used to cable warning functionality. A maximum of 3
warnings can be assigned to the digital outputs. However, by default the digital outputs of
the PQF-Manager have been set up for monitoring other functions than warnings (cf.
Table 10) Refer to Section7.7.1.2 for guidelines on how to set up warning conditions and
how to associate them with digital output contacts.
For cabling the digital output contacts as warning contact, the same approach as shown
in Figure 54 can be adopted. The electrical characteristics of the digital output contacts
and the points to pay attention to are discussed in Section 6.12.2.
In order to obtain full redundancy with filters consisting of more than one master unit, the
digital outputs of all the units in a multi-master arrangement have to be set up and cabled
in the same way. The wiring diagram given in Figure 55 can be used to implement the
monitoring of the warnings in multi-master units.
6.12.4
Cabling of the digital output contacts to monitor other filter operation modes than
warnings and alarms
Table 9 gives an overview of the other functions that can be monitored with the digital
outputs in addition to the already discussed warnings and alarms.
For cabling the digital output contacts to monitor other filter operation, the same approach
as shown in Figure 54 can be adopted. The electrical characteristics of the digital output
contacts and the points to pay attention to are discussed in Section 6.12.2.
In order to obtain full redundancy with filters consisting of more than one master unit, the
digital outputs of all the units in a multi-master arrangement have to be set up and cabled
in the same way. The wiring diagram given in Figure 55 can be used to implement the
monitoring of these functions in multi-master units.
6.12.5
Cabling of main/auxiliary control functionality
The active filter features main and auxiliary control setup modes. This implies that two
different compensation characteristics can be defined, e.g. one for the day and one for
the night or one for normal network operation and one for backup generator operation.
With the PQF-Manager a set up can be made to either use always the main or the
auxiliary settings. In addition, the possibility exists to switch between main and auxiliary
settings ‘automatically’ according to a signal applied to a digital input of the PQF-Manager
(Cf. Figure 49). Any digital input can be configured to act as the deciding factor for
switching between the main and auxiliary settings. Moreover, both normal and inverse
logic can be used to drive the digital inputs.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 63
Note that in a multi-unit filter system in which more than one master system is present,
the digital inputs of all masters have to be set up and cabled in the same way to obtain
full redundancy.
The electrical requirements of the digital inputs are as discussed in Chapter 12.
Figure 56 gives an example of how to implement the main/auxiliary control switching
functionality on Digital Input 2. It is assumed that normal control logic is used.
24 Vdc
external
supply
-
PQF-Manager
+
External switch for
switching between main
and auxiliary filter settings
11 (a)
12
(a)
Digital input 2
(15-24Vdc)
Remark:
(a)
Left hand terminal block when looking from rear, counting from top to bottom
nd
Figure 56: Example of how to cable the 2 digital input of the PQF-Manager for main/auxiliary
control switching functionality
When implementing the function described above, please note that according to the
setup done with the PQF-Manager for the input considered, the filter may behave
differently. Table 27 shows the filter behavior as a function of the PQF-Manager settings.
WARNING: If a function is assigned to a digital input, the same function must
never be assigned to the other digital input. Otherwise the filter may behave
erratically.
Table 27: Filter behavior as a function of the PQF-Manager settings for main/auxiliary switching
PQF-Manager setup for
digital input
Vlow applied to digital input
Vhigh applied to digital
input
Activ. Main
Auxiliary settings are used
Main settings are used
Activ. Aux.
Main settings are used
Auxiliary settings are used
Remark: Vlow = 0 Vdc, Vhigh = 15-24 Vdc
In order to obtain full redundancy with filters consisting of more than one master unit, the
digital inputs of all the units in a multi-master arrangement have to be set up and cabled
in the same way and the individual PQF-Managers have to be set up accordingly.
Once the cabling has been finished,
• The auxiliary fuse box may be closed
64 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• The filter top cover may be replaced including the connection of the PQFManager to the master unit
• The power to the filter may be restored
Refer to Section 7.7.1.2 for guidelines on how to set up the digital inputs according to the
function required.
6.12.6
Implementation of local start/stop buttons
WARNING: If a function is assigned to a digital input, the same function must
never be assigned to the other digital input. Otherwise the filter may behave
erratically.
The PQFS active filter is equipped with a start/stop function integrated in the PQFManager user interface. If the customer desires this however, he can add extra start/stop
buttons (not provided) to the filter system. The start and stop button has to be connected
to the PQF-Manager’s digital inputs and the PQF-Manager has to be set up accordingly.
Note that in a multi-unit filter system in which more than one master system is present,
the digital inputs of all masters have to be set up and cabled in the same way to obtain
full redundancy.
Two connection approaches exist:
• The first approach is to use one digital input for the start function and the second
digital input for the stop function. Table 28 shows the PQF-Manager setup for
the input considered and the resulting effect when applying voltage to this input.
Table 28: Filter behavior as a function of the PQF-Manager settings for local start/stop
and using 2 digital inputs
PQF-Manager setup for
digital input
Vlow applied to digital input
Vhigh applied to digital
input
Edge ON
No effect
Filter starts on rising edge
Edge OFF
No effect
Filter stops on rising edge
Remark: Vlow = 0 Vdc, Vhigh = 15-24 Vdc
When using the Edge ON function the filter can only be switched on by applying
voltage to the digital input considered. It is therefore recommended in that case
to configure and cable the second digital input as Edge OFF. Refer to Section
7.7.1.2 for guidelines on how to set up the digital inputs according to the function
required.
The electrical requirements of the digital inputs are as discussed in Section 4.5.
Figure 57 shows a cabling diagram for implementing a start function on the first
digital input and a stop function on the second digital input.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 65
24 Vdc
external
supply
-
PQF-Manager
+
External
stop push
button
External
start push
button
7 (a)
Digital input 1 (15-24Vdc)
8 (a)
9
10
11 (a)
Digital input 2 (15-24Vdc)
12 (a)
Remark:
(a)
Left hand terminal block when looking from rear, counting from top to bottom
Figure 57: Cabling diagram for implementing start on digital input 1 and stop on digital input 2
• The second approach is to use one digital input for both the start function and the
stop function. This leaves the other digital input available for the implementation
of other functions.
Table 29 shows the PQF-Manager setup for the input considered and the
resulting effect when applying voltage to this input.
Table 29: Filter behavior as a function of the PQF-Manager settings for local start/stop and using
1 digital input
PQF-Manager setup for
digital input
Vlow applied to
digital input
Vhigh applied to digital input
Edge ON/OFF
No effect
Filter starts on first rising edge, stops on
second rising edge, etc
Remark: Vlow = 0 Vdc, Vhigh = 15-24 Vdc
Refer to Section 7.7.1.2 for guidelines on how to set up the digital inputs
according to the function required.
The electrical requirements of the digital inputs are as discussed in Section 4.5.
Figure 58 shows a cabling diagram for implementing a start function and a stop
function on the first digital input.
66 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
24 Vdc
external
supply
-
PQF-Manager
+
External start/stop
push button
7 (a)
8 (a) Digital input 1 (15-24Vdc)
9
10
11 (a)
12 (a)
Remark:
(a)
Left hand terminal block when looking from rear, counting from top to bottom
Figure 58: Cabling diagram for implementing start and stop on digital input 1
Once the cabling has been finished,
• The auxiliary fuse box may be closed
• The filter top cover may be replaced including the connection of the PQFManager to the master unit
• The power to the filter may be restored
Remarks:
• The implementation of local start/stop buttons does not inhibit the usage of the
start/stop function on the PQF-Manager.
• When remote control functionality is implemented (cf. Section 6.12.1) at the same
time as local start/stop buttons, the remote control has priority over the local
start/stop buttons. When the local start/stop command has to be given,
deactivate first the remote control functionality by navigating with the PQFManager to the digital input setup menu and setting the digital input associated
with the remote control to ‘Disabled’.
• Note that in a multi-unit filter system in which more than one master system is
present, the digital inputs of all masters have to be set up and cabled in the same
way to obtain full redundancy.
6.13 Electrical connections of filter options and accessories
Filter options must be ordered in advance and are cabled in the factory. For these
options, refer to the wiring diagram provided with your filter to identify the electrical
connections if desired. For some accessories however, the customer may have to do the
cabling on site. These accessories include:
• The connection of the RS-232 cable used for PQF-Link software communication
(optional)
• The connection of the Modbus adapter
The connections of the aforementioned accessories are discussed next.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 67
WARNING: Before cabling any of the circuits discussed below, switch off the
power supply to the filter. When the filter has already been installed on site, this
must be done by opening the protection system located just upstream of the filter
and opening the auxiliary fuse box present in the filter. Wait at least 25 minutes to
allow for the DC capacitors to discharge when the filter has been connected to the
network before. Failure to do so may result in lethal injury or death.
6.13.1
Connection of the RS-232 cable used for PQF-Link software communication
When the PQF-Link software is ordered, it comes with a serial communication cable that
is used to connect the PC’s serial port to the filter (Figure 59)
RS-232 connection
to PQF Manager
Cable
(length = 220 cm)
RS-232 connection to PC
to the printer.
Figure 59: RS-232 serial communication cable for PC-filter interconnection
On the filter side the cable has to be connected to the rear side of the PQF-Manager of
the ‘main’ master unit, i.e. the master unit that controls the complete system. This is done
by inserting the plug firmly in the dedicated socket. Figure 60 shows the location at the
rear of the PQF-Manager where the plug has to be inserted. In order to access the rear
side of the PQF-Manager, the filter panel cover has to be removed.
If the connection is only a temporary one (e.g. during commissioning) no special cable
pass through hole has to be made in the cable pass through cover present at the bottom
right side of the filter panel. The top cover can simply be restored without fixing the
screws.
If the connection is a permanent one a cable pass through hole of sufficient diameter has
to be made in the cable pass through cover present at the bottom right side of the filter
panel and the cable has to be guided through. Note however that in this case the
communication may be lost if the ‘main’ master unit goes in error and transfers the main
master rights to another master unit in this system. If full redundancy in communication is
required, a communication cable has to be connected to each master unit in a filter
system.
Figure 60: Location at rear of PQF-Manager where the serial communication cable
has to be inserted
68 Electrical design and installation  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
The other end of the cable has to be connected to the PC’s serial port.
More information on the PQF-Link software can be found in the ‘PQF-Link installation and
user’s guide’.
Note: The PQF Link software gives access to all the parameters of the unit to which the
cable is connected, as well as to general network data (e.g. line voltage data, line current
data etc.)
6.13.2
Connection of the Modbus adapter
For the connection setup of the Modbus adapter, please refer to the document
“2GCS212012A0050-RS-485 Installation and Start-up guide”.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Electrical design and installation 69
7
7.1
The PQF-Manager user interface
What this chapter contains
This chapter presents the features and operating instructions for the PQF-Manager user
interface (Figure 61) Use the contents of this chapter as background information for the
next chapters, which explain how to commission, operate and troubleshoot the active
filter and how to set up the Modbus communication interface.
Some of the functions discussed in this Chapter require cabling of external I/O to the
connection terminals at the rear of the PQF-Manager. Refer to Section 6.12 for guidelines
on how to do this.
3
2
4
1
Figure 61: Front view of the PQF-Manager user interface
The item description is given in Table 30.
Table 30: Front side of the PQF-Manager
Item
Description
1
Keypad
By navigating through the menus with the arrows and the
button, the filter can be setup and controlled (start/stop). On-line help is available by pressing the Help button.
2
Menu display
3
Digital output contact monitor
When the PQF-Manager closes one of its output relays, the corresponding symbol lights
up. The digital outputs of the PQF-Manager are discussed later in this section.
4
7.2
Alarm contact indicator
PQF-Manager overview and navigation
All user inter-action with the filter is channeled through the PQF-Manager. It provides for
the following main functions (Cf. Figure 61):
• Filter starting, filter stopping and acknowledgement of faults:
The PQF-Manager is the default device to be used to start and stop the filter
system. Further it is used to acknowledge and reset faults reported by the
system.
70 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Refer to Section 7.5 or detailed information on how to start, stop and reset the
filter.
• Measuring, analyzing, logging and printing of characteristic parameters:
The parameters that can be monitored include network voltages, line and filter
currents, network power, network power factor and system temperatures.
Refer to the Section 7.6 for detailed information on the monitoring of variables.
• Setting up the filter:
Setting up the filter consists of various aspects such as defining the customer’s
requirements for harmonic filtration and reactive power but also the configuration
of the external I/O and commissioning the filter at the moment of first use.
Refer to Section 7.7 for detailed information on setting up the filter.
• Monitoring the filter load, event logging and status of individual units:
The filter load can be monitored to get an idea of its operating point compared to
its nominal rating. In addition, logged warnings and faults can be retrieved for
troubleshooting the filter operation and any abnormal network conditions.
For multi-unit filters, the status of each individual unit can be retrieved and
individual units can be reset when in error.
Refer to Section 7.8 for detailed information on the monitoring of the filter load
and the analysis of warning and error conditions.
• Providing filter identification information:
Filter type information is provided including serial number and firmware versions.
Refer to Section 7.9 for detailed information on obtaining filter identification
information.
All main functions of the PQF-Manager can be accessed through the main
‘Welcome’ screen. In filter systems consisting of multiple masters, the PQFManager on the master controlling the system has full functionality whereas the
PQF-Managers on the other masters have limited functionality.
Figure 62 outlines the principle menus that are accessible through the ‘Welcome’ screen.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 71
Welcome
PQF
START
Measurements
PQF monitoring
Settings
Overview
Customer set.
About PQF
Select unit
Select unit
Manuf. set.
STOP
Vrms
Main settings
Status of units
ACK. FAULT
V1
Auxiliary set.
Filter load
Select unit
THDV
Activate
Event logging
PQF type
f
Alarms
Active warn.
V maximum
Irms
Warnings
I1
Digital Inputs
PQF operation
Manag. soft
THDI
Digital Outputs
Fan operation
uC soft
PQF Irms
Temp unit
Trip. module
DSP soft
P
Contrast
Trip. phase
Q
Commissioning
S
PQF
cos ϕ
Network charact.
PF
Filter charact.
T IGBT
Auto CT detect.
T Control
Man. CT settings
V dc bus
System values
Select unit
Voltages
Derating
User
Installation set.
Network charact.
Line currents
Filter charact.
Filter currents
CT Installation
Total filter cur.
Rating
Power
Start-Stop set.
Temperatures
Clock
Min-Max logging
Voltages
Line currents
Number of errors
Communication
Install. Lock
Change Password
Power
Frequency
Temperatures
Figure 62: Principle menus of the PQF-Manager
72 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Serial number
In addition to the main functions, the PQF-Manager also incorporates:
• A digital output contact monitor located at the top of the screen (Cf. Figure 61
item 3). When the PQF-Manager closes one of its six digital output relays (Cf.
Chapter 6) the corresponding symbol lights up. When the relay considered opens
again, the symbol disappears.
• An indicator showing when the PQF-Manager’s alarm contact has been activated
(Cf. Figure 61, item 4). For the conditions under which the alarm contact is
switched on, refer to Table 26 When the alarm condition has disappeared, the
indicator switches off.
In order to navigate through the menus of the PQF-Manager, the keypad (Cf. Figure 61
item 1) has to be used. The starting point for the navigation after a power up is the
‘Welcome’ screen. The item selected is highlighted (e.g. the ‘Measurements’ menu in
Figure 61). The keypad and its basic functions are shown in Figure 63.
Figure 63: Keypad of the PQF-Manager
Refer to Table 31 for an explanation on the basic functions of the keypad buttons.
Table 31: PQF-Manager keypad button explanation
Item
Description
1
Help key
(a)
Provides on-line help on the highlighted item
2
(b)
Escape key
To go back to the previous window or to leave the current menu or item selection without
making changes
3
Up and down arrows
(c)
To go up or down the item list or to go left (
or decrease a value
4
) or right (
) in the item list or to increase
(b)
OK key
To go to the next submenu or to validate a modification or an operation
Remark:
(a)
On some items, help is not available. In that case pressing the Help key will have no
effect.
(b)
Depending on the menu, this key has a different meaning.
(c)
Depending on the menu, these keys have a different meaning.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 73
Please note that:
• Walking through a list of items happens in a circular manner. When arriving at the
last item in a menu and pressing
, the first item of the menu is highlighted.
Similarly, when arriving at the first item in a menu and pressing the
last item of the menu is highlighted.
key, the
• Sometimes the complete item list in a menu cannot be shown on the display.
This is indicated by a small
74 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Figure 65: Illustration of different menu item types
The next sections discuss the five main submenus of the ‘Welcome’ screen.
Remark:
This manual uses a directory structure convention to indicate a submenu.
The main ‘Welcome’ screen is referenced as [/Welcome].
Example: [/Welcome/Measurements/System values] indicates that the ‘System values’
menu can be accessed by:
• Press
successively until the ‘Welcome’ screen is reached
• Highlighting the ‘Measurements’ menu in the main ‘Welcome’ screen using the
arrows
• Pressing the
key after which the ‘Measurements’ menu opens
• Highlighting the ‘System values’ menu using the arrows
• Pressing the
7.3
key will open the menu
The PQF-Manager behavior during filter initialization
After a system reset, the filter is initialized. This includes the PQF-Manager. Depending
on the type of reset, the initialization process of the PQF-Manager may consist of the first
or the first and the second step discussed below.
• Step 1: The PQF-Manager waits for the communication channel to be initialized.
This process can be observed when looking closely at the PQF-Manager. During
this period the following message will appear on the display (Figure 66):
Figure 66: PQF-Manager display during communication initialization
• Step 2: Once the communication channel has been initialized, the user interface
is set up. During this process the PQF-Manager retrieves the data structure to be
displayed from the PQF main controller. When the PQF-Manager is setting up
the user interface, the following message is displayed (Figure 67):
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 75
Figure 67: PQF-Manager display when the user interface is set up
Table 32 gives an overview of the initialization steps for common reset conditions.
Table 32: Overview of common reset conditions and
corresponding PQF-Manager initialization steps
7.4
Reset condition after…
PQF-Manager initialization steps
Applying power to the filter
Step 1 and Step 2
Setting up commissioning parameters
Step 1
Acknowledging fault successfully
Step 1
The PQF-Manager locking facilities
In order to prevent unauthorized people to modify any of the active filter settings, switch
on the hardware lock (Figure 17 item 4).
The hardware lock is switched on by pushing the blue button located at the bottom rear
side of the PQF-Manager with a pointed object (e.g. pencil). When the lock is set:
•
•
will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the graphics display
will appear next to the menus that are locked. No modification can be made
to the settings
• Most setting values can be consulted
Once the PQF-Manager is locked, it can be unlocked by pushing the blue button again.
In order to prevent unauthorized people to modify the core installation settings of the
active filter but still giving them access to typical user settings (e.g. harmonics selection,
programming digital outputs, …), switch on the software lock.
The software lock is switched on in the menu [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Install.
Lock].
In order to unlock the system go to the same menu. After giving the appropriate
password, the system will be unlocked. The password is a four-digit number, which is set
by default to 1234. Entering the password is done by choosing the right value with the
and
keys and then validating with
. The password can be changed in the menu
[/Welcome/Settings/Installation set/Change Password]. Entering the new password is
done by choosing the desired value with the
.
and
keys and then validating with
If hardware and software lock are combined, the hardware lock has priority over the
software lock.
Note: In active filter systems consisting of more than one master, the PQF-Manager of
the master that has the control over the system has full functionality and the PQFManagers of the other master units have limited functionality. In practice, the functions
76 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
that are not enabled on these units are also locked and a
them.
7.5
symbol will appear next to
The PQF start, stop and fault acknowledgement menu
WARNING: The active filter should only be started when it has been installed and
commissioned according to the guidelines of this manual. Failure to adhere to this
guideline may damage the filter and void warranty.
Refer to Chapter 8 for more information on commissioning the filter.
‘The PQF start, stop and fault acknowledgement’ menu is a one-line menu that can be
accessed:
• In the main ‘Welcome’ screen [/Welcome/PQF]
• In the ‘Commissioning’ screen [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/PQF]. For
more information on the ‘Commissioning’ screen refer to the Section 7.7.
‘The start, stop and fault acknowledgement’ menu is the default menu for starting,
stopping and resetting the filter.
As can be seen in Table 33, the ‘start, stop and fault acknowledgement’ menu has
another function depending on the filter status.
Table 33: ‘Start, stop and fault acknowledgement’ menu functionality according to the filter status
Filter status
Menu display
Pushing
Filter stopped, no critical error present
(i.e. ‘normal’ stop condition)
PQF START
Starting the filter
Filter running, no critical error present
(i.e. ‘normal’ running condition)
PQF STOP
Stopping the filter
Filter stopped on critical fault
ACK. FAULT
Acknowledging the fault
Filter controlled by remote control
PQF START or
No action on filter behavior
PQF STOP or
Display shows message that
filter is controlled by digital
input
ACK. FAULT
results in…
(a) (b)
(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Remark:
(a)
After pushing
(b)
In multi-master filter units, this function is available on the unit that has the control over the
system.
, there is always a validation phase.
In a multi-unit system, the PQF-start, stop and fault acknowledgement menu will only
switch to the ACK. FAULT message when the complete filter system is shut down.
If one of the units of a multi-unit system is shut down due to a fault, this fault can be
acknowledged and reset in the PQF-Monitoring menu [/Welcome/PQF Monitoring/Status
of Units]). Note that in the reset process the whole system will be shut down. If the fault
of the unit cannot be reset, the ACK. FAULT message will be displayed again for the unit
considered. The filter system can be restarted at any time and the units that are available
will operate normally.
Acknowledging of a fault which resulted in a complete filter system shut down has two
possible consequences:
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 77
• If the fault is permanent (e.g. permanent network under voltage due to phase
loss), it cannot be cleared and the message ‘ACK. FAULT’ will remain on the
display. In this case the cause of the problem has to be identified and removed
before the filter can be restarted.
• If the fault is not present anymore when the ‘ACK. FAULT’ command is given, the
menu will change into ‘PQF START’ to indicate that the filter can be restarted.
Fault analysis can be done by consulting the ‘PQF Monitoring’ menu [/Welcome/PQF
Monitoring]. For more information on the ‘PQF monitoring’ menu, refer to Section 7.8.
If the filter is set up for remote control operation, the local start/stop command has no
effect.
Disable
the
digital
inputs
to
override
the
remote
control
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital inputs].
7.6
The ‘Measurements’ menu
The ‘Measurements’ menu can be accessed in the main ‘Welcome’ screen
[/Welcome/Measurements].
This menu allows monitoring a variety of variables (e.g. voltage, current …) in a variety of
formats (e.g. RMS-values, spectra, time domain waveforms). Its submenus are discussed
next.
In multi-unit filters, several parameters are measured by the individual units. In order to
consult measurements from a specific unit, select the unit with the ‘Select Unit’ option
(where available). The order of the unit is determined by the DIP switch unit identification
setting at the moment of commissioning.
7.6.1
The ‘Overview’ menu [/Welcome/Measurements/Overview]
The Overview menu summarizes the following characteristic parameters (Table 34).
These parameters are expressed as numerical values in a list.
Table 34: Summary of parameters displayed in the ‘Overview’ menu
Parameter name
Unit
Description
Vrms
V
4-wire mode: RMS value of all the line-to-neutral voltages
3-wire mode: RMS value of all the line-to-line voltages
V1
V
4-wire mode: RMS value of the fundamental component of all
the line-to-neutral voltages
3-wire mode: RMS value of the fundamental component of all
the line-to-line voltages
THDV
%
4-wire mode: Total harmonic distortion of all the line-to-neutral
voltages
3-wire mode: Total harmonic distortion of all the line-to-line
voltages
F
Hz
Network frequency
Irms
A
4-wire mode: RMS value of all the line currents and the neutral
current
3-wire mode: RMS value of all the line currents
I1
A
RMS value of the fundamental component of all the line
currents
THDI
%
Total harmonic distortion of all the line currents.
PQF Irms
A
RMS value of all the filter currents
P
W,
Active power in the network at the location of the CTs
kW,
P > 0: Load absorbing active power
MW
P < 0: Load generating active power
78 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Q
var,
Reactive power in the network at the location of the CTs
kvar
Mvar
Q > 0: Inductive reactive power
Q < 0: Capacitive reactive power
S
VA,
kVA,
MVA
Apparent power in the network at the location of the CTs
cos ϕ
-
Displacement power factor: calculation based on the
fundamental values of the measurements.
: System has inductive behavior
: System has capacitive behavior
cos ϕ > 0: load absorbing active power
cos ϕ < 0: load generating active power
PF
-
Power factor: calculation based on the fundamental and the
harmonic values of the measurements. Measurement only
valid for quasi-balanced loads.
T IGBT
°C/°F
IGBT module temperature (hottest module)
T Control
°C/°F
Main control board temperature
V dc bus
V
Active filter DC capacitor voltage
On the display, the parameters are organized in such a way that a maximum of
information is obtained without having to scroll down. The user may customize the display
to his particular needs. To do this, follow the steps given below:
• Select the measured parameter that has to be moved
• Press
• Press
. The selected parameter starts flashing
or
to move the selected parameter up or down the list
• Once the selected parameter is located at the desired position in the list, press
Remark: During the display customization process, the
back to the original situation.
7.6.2
key cannot be used to revert
The ‘System values’ menu [/Welcome/Measurements/System values]
The ‘System values’ menu (Figure 62) gives detailed information on the following
parameters:
• The voltages: (Refer to Table 34 for an explanation of the symbols).
o
Vrms, V1 and THDV in table format
o
The network voltage waveforms for all phases (Figure 68)
All waveforms are synchronized with the rising edge zero crossing of
the voltage V (L1-N) (4-W mode) or V (L1-L2) (3-W mode)
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 79
Figure 68: Time domain waveform of line voltage displayed by the PQF-Manager
(4-W mode example)
o
The network voltage spectrum for all phases in chart format (Figure 69)
th
The spectral components up to the 50 order are expressed as a % of
the fundamental component with absolute values also shown in the top
right corner.
Go left or right
in the chart using
the
buttons
Figure 69: Spectrum of the network voltage in chart format displayed by the PQF-Manager
(4-W mode example)
o
The network voltage spectrum for all phases in table format (Figure 70)
Both the absolute values and the % of the fundamental component
th
values are shown for each spectral component up to the 50 order.
Go up or down
in the table using
the
buttons
Figure 70: Spectrum of the network voltage in table format displayed by the PQF-Manager
(4-W mode example)
o
The network frequency
o
The network imbalance
o
The active filter DC bus voltage
• The line currents: (refer to Table 34 for an explanation of the symbols)
o
Irms, I1 and THDI in table format
o
The line current waveforms for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current waveform (4-W mode). The graph layout is similar to the one of
the voltages (Figure 68) All waveforms are synchronized with the rising
80 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
edge zero crossing of the voltage V (L1-N) (4-W mode) or V (L1-L2) (3W mode).
o
The line current spectrum for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current spectrum (4-W mode) in chart format. The chart layout is similar
to the one of the voltages (Figure 69).
o
The line current spectrum for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current spectrum (4-W mode) in table format. The table layout is similar
to the one of the voltages (Figure 70).
• The filter currents: (Refer to Table 34 for an explanation of the symbols)
o
PQF Irms in table format for the unit selected with the ‘Select Unit’
option
o
The filter current waveforms for all phases for the unit selected with the
‘Select unit’ option. The graph layout is similar to the one of the voltages
(Figure 68). All waveforms are synchronized with the rising edge zero
crossing of the voltage V (L1-N) (4-W mode) or V (L1-L2) (3-W mode).
o
The filter current spectrum for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current spectrum (4-W mode) in chart format for the unit selected with
the ‘Select unit’ option. The chart layout is similar to the one of the
voltages (Figure 69) but the values are expressed in absolute terms.
o
The filter current spectrum for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current spectrum (4-W mode) in table format for the unit selected with
the ‘Select unit’ option. The table layout is similar to the one of the
voltages (Figure 70) but only absolute current values are shown.
• The total filter currents: (Refer to Table 34 for an explanation of the symbols)
o
PQF Irms in table format for the complete filter system
o
The filter current waveforms for all phases for the complete filter system.
The graph layout is similar to the one of the voltages (Figure 68) All
waveforms are synchronized with the rising edge zero crossing of the
voltage V (L1-N) (4-W mode) or V (L1-L2) (3-W mode).
o
The filter current spectrum for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current spectrum (4-W mode) in chart format for the complete filter
system. The chart layout is similar to the one of the voltages (Figure 69)
but the values are expressed in absolute terms.
o
The filter current spectrum for all phases (3-W mode) and the neutral
current spectrum (4-W mode) in table format for the complete filter
system. The table layout is similar to the one of the voltages (Figure 70)
but only absolute current values are shown.
Note: For a multi-unit filter system, the total filter current is an approximate
value. More detailed values for the individual units can be obtained in the
‘Filter currents’-menu.
• The power in the system at the location of the CTs: (Refer to Table 34 for an
explanation of the symbols).
o
Active power P
o
Reactive power Q
o
Apparent power S
o
Displacement power factor cos ϕ
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 81
o
Power factor PF
• Temperatures: (Refer to Table 34 for an explanation of the symbols)
Temperatures may be expressed in °C and in °F. For changing the temperature
unit, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set. /Temp unit].
7.6.3
o
Temperature of the hottest IGBT (‘T IGBT’) and the hottest phase (‘Hot
phase’) of the unit selected by the ‘Select unit’-option. For PQFS filters,
the hottest phase function is not available and a default value ‘1’ is
shown.
o
Temperature of the hottest IGBT (T IGBT max) in a multi-unit system
o
Temperature of the control board (‘T Control’) of the unit selected by the
‘Select unit’-option
o
Temperature of the hottest control board (‘T control max’) in a multi-unit
system
The ‘Min-Max logging’ menu [/Welcome/Measurements/Min-Max logging]
The ‘Min-Max logging’ function allows for the user to log for each significant measured
item and since the last clearance:
• The maximum (or minimum) value
• The duration above (or below) the threshold
Once a threshold has been set the PQF-Manager starts recording the maximum (or
minimum) value automatically as well as the total duration until a reset is performed.
Figure 71 illustrates this.
Figure 71: Illustration of the threshold and the maximum recorded value used in the Min/Max
logging function
The parameters that can be used with the logging function are Vrms, THDV, Irms, P, Q,
S, f, T IGBT max and Tcontrol max. Refer to Table 34 for an explanation of the symbols.
For the frequency, minimum values and duration below a threshold can also be recorded.
The recorded information may be cleared by selecting and validating the ‘Reset’ item.
If the hardware lock is engaged, the logging function cannot be started nor reset (Cf.
Section 7.4)
Figure 72 shows an example in which the network voltage between L1 and L2 is
monitored. The nominal network voltage is assumed to be 400 V. The threshold was
initially set at 1000 V and is changed to 250 V.
82 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Highlight value
Change value
Logging starts
Figure 72: Example of the Min/Max logging function (4-W mode)
7.7
The ‘Settings’ menu
The ‘Settings’ menu [/Welcome/Settings] has three main levels:
• The customer level which allows the user to set up the typical user requirements
such as harmonic filtration settings, the reactive power settings, set up the digital
inputs and outputs and define the programmable warnings and alarms. At this
level, the user can also change the temperature unit used by the system. The
customer level is accessed through [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set.]
• The commissioning level which allows the commissioning engineer to set up
the equipment according to the customer’s installation. Typical parameters that
need to be entered are the network voltage and frequency, the CT parameters
and a derating factor that needs to be applied when the installation is at great
height above sea level or in conditions where excessive ambient temperatures
are present. At the commissioning level the possibility also exists to set up the
user’s requirements for harmonic filtration and reactive power compensation. The
commissioning level is accessed through [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning].
• The installation settings level allows for the commissioning engineer to set up
advanced system functions such as the filter auto restart and standby functions,
the clock, the communication of Modbus and PQF-Link and the setting of a
system lock with password.
For information purposes the installation settings level also shows the settings for
the network voltage and frequency, the rating of the filter unit(s), the CT
parameters and the derating factor that has been set-up at the commissioning
level. The installation settings level is accessed through
[/Welcome/Settings/Installation set.]
Note: In active filter systems consisting of more than one master, the PQF-Manager of
the master that has the control over the system has full functionality and the PQFManagers of the other master units have limited functionality. In practice, the functions
that are not enabled on these units are locked and a
symbol will appear next to them.
These functions are set up in the ‘real’ master and are automatically further dispatched to
the other units by the control system.
The three main levels of the ‘Settings’ menu are discussed in more detail in the next
sections.
7.7.1
The ‘Customer settings’ menu [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set.]
The customer settings menu is intended to be used by people that are authorized to
change the filter operation settings.
Refer to Section 7.4 for determining appropriate locking facilities for this menu.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 83
7.7.1.1
Settings up harmonics, reactive power and filter mode
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up only in the master with the
lowest hardware ID setting.
• Setting up harmonics, reactive power and filter mode can be done in a main
window [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings] and in an auxiliary
window [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings]. By having two
windows, the customer can set two sets of different settings, e.g. one set for
mains operation and one set for generator operation, or one set for day settings
and one set for night settings. Both main and auxiliary settings windows have the
same setup possibilities, i.e.
o
Definition of the filter mode
o
Selection of the harmonics with setting of curve levels
o
Selection of reactive power compensation with balancing functionality
o
Deselection of all harmonics
• The filter has to be informed about whether the main window settings or the
auxiliary window settings must be used. This is done by the ‘Activate’ flag
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set/Activate]. Possible values for this flag are given
in Table 35. By default the filter uses the main filter settings.
Table 35: Possible settings for the activate field
‘Activate’ field value
Description
Main
Main window settings are always used
Auxiliary
Auxiliary window settings are always used
Ext. input
The filter switches between the main and the auxiliary settings
(a)
according to a signal applied to the PQF-Manager’s digital input .
Remark:
(a)
Refer to Section 6.12.5 for cabling instructions for this feature. Refer to Section 7.7.1.2
configuring the digital input for this feature.
• Setting up the filter mode
For setting up the filter’s main filter mode go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer
set./Main settings/Filter mode].
For setting up the filter’s auxiliary filter mode go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer
set./Auxiliary settings/Filter mode].
The filter can have three types of effect on the network:
o
Filter the selected harmonics until their magnitudes are close to zero
(Maximum Filtering)
o
Filter the selected harmonics until their magnitudes reach the residual
level permitted by the user (Filtering to Curve)
o
Produce or absorb reactive power including load balancing
The user can put the emphasis on one of the above effects by selecting the
filtering mode.
Table 36 shows the three available modes.
84 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Table 36: Available filter modes
Highest priority level
Lowest priority level
Mode 1
Filtering to curve
Maximum filtering
Reactive compensation
Mode 2
Filtering to curve
Reactive compensation
Maximum filtering
Mode 3
Filtering to curve
Reactive compensation
-
In Mode 1, the filter will first filter to the pre-programmed curve. Once the
requirements are fulfilled, the remaining resources will be allocated to reducing
the selected harmonics as close as possible to zero. If further resources are then
available, reactive power compensation and load balancing will be performed as
required.
In Mode 2, the second priority after filtering to the curve is reactive power
compensation and load balancing. Maximum filtering comes in third place and
will be done if both the curve specification and the reactive power requirements
including balancing are fulfilled.
In Mode 3, the filter will first ensure that the harmonic curve specification is
fulfilled. If then there are still resources available, the filter will do reactive power
compensation and load balancing if requested by the user.
Figure 73 illustrates the principle of filtering to curve for one particular harmonic
order. The flexibility of the PQF control is such that a specific curve level may be
defined for each selected harmonic.
Figure 73: Filtering to curve for harmonic order n
The default filter mode is Mode 3.
• Selecting the harmonics with setting of curve levels
For
setting
up
the
filter’s
main
harmonics
selection
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Main harmonics]
go
to
For setting up the filter’s auxiliary harmonics selection
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Aux. harmonics]
go
to
The harmonics that can be selected are presented in a table such as presented
in Table 37.
When the PQFS is operating in 4-W mode, 15 harmonics can be selected.
When the PQFS is operating in 3-W mode, 20 harmonics can be selected.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 85
Table 37: Example of harmonic settings table displayed by PQF-Manager
(a)
(b)
Order
Select
Curve
3
No
0A
5
No
10 A
7
No
0A
9
No
0A
Remarks:
(a)
The ‘Select’ column may have three values:
No: Harmonic not selected by user
Yes: Harmonic selected by user and being filtered
S: Harmonic selected by user but put in ‘standby’ by the filter. Refer to Section 8.10 for more
information on the “harmonic standby” mode.
(b)
Curve settings for allowed current into the network are expressed in Amps
In order to select the harmonics and set up a curve level (if desired)
o
Open the harmonic table. The first line will be highlighted.
o
Use
and
to select the desired order and press
to activate the
corresponding line. The item in the column ‘Select’ will be highlighted.
o
If the harmonic order of the selected line has to be changed, press
to go to the ‘Order’ field. Press
and use
or
to change the
order. The PQF-Manager will automatically propose the orders that are
not yet in the list. If the desired order is displayed, press
o
. Then,
press
which will highlight the item in the column ‘Select’.
Press
and then
harmonic. Press
o
Use the
o
Press
or
to select (Yes) or deselect (No) the
to validate the choice made.
to switch to the ‘Curve’ level column.
and then the
Amps. Press
or
to set up the desired curve level in
to validate the choice made.
o
Press
to highlight the complete line after which the other harmonics
can be programmed using the same procedure.
o
Once all the harmonics are programmed, the harmonic selection table
can be exit by pressing
.
• Deselect all harmonics
For deselecting all harmonics of the main window at
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Deselect all]
once
go
to
For deselecting all harmonics of the auxiliary window at once go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Deselect all]
This function allows for the customer to quickly deselect all harmonics in the
main or the auxiliary window. This may be useful e.g. when the commissioning
engineer realizes that the CTs have been installed wrong and an intervention is
required to correct the problem.
• Selecting the reactive power compensation and balancing options
For setting up the filter’s main reactive power and balancing mode go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Main PFC/Bal.]
86 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
For setting up the filter’s auxiliary reactive power and balancing mode go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Aux. PFC/Bal.]
The active filter can perform different reactive power tasks including balancing,
each of which require the appropriate setup. Table 38 shows an overview of the
possible tasks and shows how the filter set up should be done to implement this
task. The parameters (italic print) referred to in Table 38 can be accessed in the
‘Main PFC/Bal.’ and ‘Aux. PFC/Bal.’ windows of the PQF-Manager.
Table 38: Reactive power tasks that the filter can perform
Reactive power task requirement
Description and filter set-up to be made
No requirements
PFC type: Disabled
Balance load: Disabled
The filter will not do any reactive power task,
regardless of the values set for cos ϕ or static
reactive power
Power factor compensation with inductive
power factor set point, no load balancing
(a)
required
PFC type: Dyn. Ind.
Target cos ϕ: Desired power factor between 0.6
and 1.0
The filter will do power factor compensation up
to the cos ϕ set point, regardless of the value
set for static reactive power(b)
Power factor compensation with capacitive
power factor set point, no load balancing
(a)
required
PFC type: Dyn. Cap.
Target cos ϕ: Desired power factor between 0.6
and 1.0
The filter will do power factor compensation up
to the cos ϕ set point, regardless of the value
©
set for static reactive power
Fixed capacitive power step with a rating of x
(a)
kvar, no load balancing required
PFC type: Static cap.
Q static: x kvar
The filter will generate x kvar reactive
capacitive power, regardless of the value set
for the target cos ϕ
Fixed inductive power step with a rating of x
(a)
kvar, no load balancing required
PFC type: Static ind.
Q static: x kvar
The filter will absorb x kvar reactive inductive
power, regardless of the value set for the target
cos ϕ
Remarks:
(a)
When load balancing is required, set the ‘Balance load’ flag to the desired mode. The following
modes are available depending on the way the filter is connected (3-W or 4-W)
‘Disabled’: No load balancing is done.
‘L-L’: Loads connected between phases only are balanced. Loads connected between
phases and neutral are not balanced.
- ‘L-N’: Loads connected between phase and neutral are balanced. Loads connected
between phases are not balanced. This mode is only available when the filter is connected
in 4-W mode.
- ‘L-L & L-N’: Both loads connected between phase and neutral as well as loads connected
between phases are balanced. This mode is only available when the filter is connected in
4-W mode.
Note: The modes ‘L-N’ and ‘L-L & L-N’ can be used to minimize the amount of fundamental
frequency current flowing in the neutral.
-
(b)
If the measured cos ϕ is higher than the set point and is inductive (e.g. measured 0.97
inductive and set point 0.92 inductive, then the filter will not make any correction. If the
measured cos ϕ is capacitive, the filter will correct the power factor to 1.0
(c)
If the measured cos ϕ is higher than the set point and is capacitive (e.g. measured 0.97
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 87
capacitive and set point 0.92 capacitive, then the filter will not make any correction. If the
measured cos ϕ is inductive, the filter will correct the power factor to 1.0
7.7.1.2 Setting up alarms, warnings and digital inputs and outputs (D I/O)
The PQF-Manager contains 2 digital inputs, 6 digital outputs and 1 alarm contact (with two
complementary outputs). These contacts can be used to provide data to the filter (e.g.
remote control signals) and get data out of the filter (e.g. filter status information, alarm
information etc). This section discusses the PQF-Manager setup for controlling all the
digital I/O and creating warnings and alarms.
• Set up of the digital inputs of the PQF-Manager
For setting up the digital inputs go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital
Inputs]
WARNING: If a function is assigned to a digital input, the same function
must never be assigned to the other digital input. Otherwise the filter may
behave erratically.
For full redundancy with multi-master filters, these functions need to be set up in
each master unit of the filter system and the functions should be cabled
accordingly.
Table 8 gives an overview of the possible digital input settings and the resulting
filter behavior. The settings given in this table can be applied to any of the two
digital inputs.
For more information on:
o
The remote control functionality, refer to Section 6.12.1
o
The main/auxiliary control functionality, refer to Section 6.12.5
o
The implementation of local start/stop buttons, refer to Section 6.12.6
The default setting for the digital inputs is ‘Disabled’.
• Set up of the digital outputs of the PQF-Manager
For setting up the digital outputs go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital
Outputs]
For full redundancy with multi-master filters, these functions need to be set up in
each master unit of the filter system and the functions should be cabled
accordingly.
Table 9 gives an overview of the possible filter conditions that can be associated
with any of the six digital outputs. When interpreting this table it should be noted
that:
o
The ‘In standby’ function refers to a state of the filter in which it is
connected to the power supply (i.e. main contactor closed) but the
IGBTs are not switching. As a result the filter will have virtually no
losses. This mode can be activated when the load requirement is lower
than a preset value (e.g. all loads switched off for a long time). For more
information on the ‘In standby’ function, refer to Section 7.7.3.2
88 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
o
The three programmable alarms and warnings have to be set up before
they can be used. This is explained in the next sections. If a
programmable alarm has been disabled, the digital output associated
with it will never be activated.
The default settings for the digital outputs are given in Table 10. In order to
disable the digital outputs, choose the option ‘Disabled’.
For more information on cabling the digital output contacts refer to the Sections
6.12.2 and 6.12.4.
In a master-master configuration, the digital inputs of all masters have to be
cabled in case full redundancy is required.
• Set up of the programmable alarms trip points
For setting up the programmable alarms go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer
set./Alarms/Prog. Alarms]
For full redundancy with multi-master filters, these functions need to be set up in
each master unit of the filter system and the functions should be cabled
accordingly.
In addition to the alarm contact, which is triggered by any filter fault, three
programmable alarms can be defined. They can be associated with a digital
output (see preceding paragraph). Table 39 shows the possible alarm conditions
that can be associated with each programmable alarm.
Table 39: Overview of possible programmable alarm settings that can be associated with each
digital output
Alarm condition
Setting for programmable alarm
Supply voltage (RMS) unacceptably high
Vrms_max
Supply voltage (RMS) unacceptably low
Vrms_min
One of the phases of the supply is missing
Phase loss
Network imbalance unacceptably high
Imbalance
Frequency variation unacceptably high
Fq change
PQFS DC bus voltage unacceptably high for each
capacitor stack
Vdc_max
PQFS internal preload error
Prel. Err.
PQFS over current fault
Overcur.
PQFS IGBT fault
IGBT fault
PQFS over temperature fault
IGBT temp.
PQFS control board over temperature fault
T ctrl max
PQFS control board supply fault
PS fault
PQFS control board fault
Ctrl board
Any fault (of the ones listed above)
Any fault
If the alarm condition is met, the programmable alarm will be set and the
associated digital output will be activated when the alarm is present for a preset
time.
The time during which the alarm condition has to be present has a minimal value
of 180 s and can be increased if desired. In order to increase the time during
which the alarm has to be present before the digital output is triggered, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Alarms/Prog. Alarms/Alarm delay].
Note that the delay programmed here is also applied to the filter alarm contact.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 89
The digital output will be deactivated if the alarm has disappeared for a preset
time, which is by default 1 s. In order to change the alarm reset delay, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Alarms/Prog. Alarms/Alarm rst. Del.].
When configuring the programmable alarm as ‘Any’ it will trigger the digital output
if any of the fault conditions presented in Table 39 is met.
The programmable alarms can be deactivated by setting them to ‘Disabled’.
Remarks: Difference between the alarm contact and the digital output used as
alarm contact:
The alarm contact is triggered by any fault that makes the system trip. These
faults include the conditions mentioned in Table 39 but includes also all other
internal filter faults that may occur. An exhaustive list of faults that may make the
filter trip and thus trigger the alarm contact is given in Table 46 and Table 47.
Use the digital outputs as alarm contact if the aim is to find the exact cause of the
filter trip without having to analyze the event-logging window.
• Set up of the programmable warnings
For setting up the programmable warnings go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer
set./Warnings/Prog. Warnings]
For full redundancy with multi-master filters, these functions need to be set up in
each master unit of the filter system and the functions should be cabled
accordingly.
Three programmable warnings can be defined. Similar to the programmable
alarms, they can be associated with a digital output. Table 40 shows the possible
warning conditions that can be associated with each programmable warning.
Unlike alarms that cause a filter trip, warnings only activate the digital output
contact.
Table 40: Overview of possible programmable warning settings that can be associated with each
digital output
Warning condition
Setting for programmable warning
Supply voltage (RMS) higher than preset value
Vrms max
Supply voltage (RMS) lower than preset value
Vrms min
Supply voltage imbalance higher than preset value
Imbalance
PQFS IGBT Temperature higher than preset value
IGBT temp.
PQFS control board temperature higher than preset value
T ctrl max
If the warning condition is met, the programmable warning will be set and the
associated digital output will be activated when the warning is present for a
preset time. This time has a minimal value of 1 s and can be increased if desired.
In order to increase the time during which the warning has to be present before
the digital output is triggered, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer
set./Warnings/Prog. Warnings/Warning delay].
The digital output will be deactivated if the warning has disappeared for a preset
time, which is by default 1 s. In order to change the warning reset delay, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Warnings/Prog. Warnings/Warn. Rst del.]
The warning levels can be changed by the user. In order to do this, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Warnings/Warning levels].
90 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
7.7.1.3
Setting up the unit for temperature measurements
For changing the default unit for the
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Temp unit]
temperature
measurements,
go
to
For full redundancy with multi-master filters, these functions need to be set up in each
master unit of the filter system.
The temperature unit can either be °C or °F.
7.7.2
The ‘Commissioning’ menu [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning]
WARNING: The commissioning menu is intended to be used by qualified
commissioning engineers that are authorized to change the filter’s core installation
settings and to set up the user’s requirements.
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up only in the master with the lowest
hardware ID setting.
The complete commissioning procedure must be executed each time a filter is (re)installed or when a unit is added to the existing filter. During the commissioning
procedure, the user settings will be lost, so note them down prior to starting the
commissioning procedure.
Refer to Section 7.4 for determining appropriate locking facilities for this menu.
For an overview of the main items of the commissioning window, refer to Figure 62.
These items are discussed next.
For commissioning the active filter follow the commissioning procedure presented in
Chapter 8.
Remarks:
• The commissioning window incorporates the start, stop and fault
acknowledgement menu (Cf. Section 7.5)
• For advanced filter setup (auto restart function, standby function, system clock
setup, external communication setup, system lock activation and password
setup) refer to Section 7.7.3.
7.7.2.1
Setting up the network characteristics and the filter synchro mode
For modifying the network characteristics and the filter synchro mode, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/Network charact.]
The network characteristics include:
• The nominal supply voltage: This value has to be set up according to the nominal
value of the grid voltage.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 91
WARNING: The filter hardware is by default set for operation at voltages in the
range 380-415V. When the filter is used in networks with voltages in the range 208240V, its hardware configuration needs to be changed. Refer to Section Section 6.7
For guidelines on how this needs to be done. Failure to adapt the filter hardware to
the right network voltage range may result in hardware failure.
• The nominal value of the network frequency: This value has to be set up
according to the nominal value of the network frequency.
WARNING: If the filter nominal frequency is changed to the wrong value, the filter
will refuse to start indicating a frequency error in the event logging window.
• The active filter synchronisation mode (Synchro Mode): By default single phase
synchronisation is used (Single ph.). In exceptional circumstances this may not
be adequate. In that case choose three phase synchronisation (Three ph.).
WARNING: This parameter shall only be changed by experienced commissioning
engineers or after advice from the ABB service provider. Using the wrong synchro
mode will lead to filter malfunctioning.
Remarks:
• After going through the network characteristics menu, the filter system will be
automatically reset after which the new values will be taken into account.
• The filter needs to be stopped before the network characteristics menu can be
accessed. Attempting to access the menu while the filter is running will result in a
fault message being displayed.
• Pressing
in the network characteristics setup menu will result into jumping to
the next step in the menu without the values entered being taken into account.
When involuntarily entering the menu, walk through the menu by pressing
or
repeatedly. This way the menu can be quit without modifying any values.
7.7.2.2
Setting up the filter characteristics
For modifying the filter characteristics (3-wire or 4-wire connection mode) and number of
units/unit ratings, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/Filter charact.]
The filter may be connected in 3-wire mode (only phases connected) or in 4-wire mode
(both phases and the neutral connected). Also the filter may consist of up to 4 parallel
hardware units of the same rating. The filter connection mode must be adapted in software
to the on-site configuration. In addition, when the filter configuration is changed on site
92 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
(e.g. going from one connection mode to another), the filter setup has to be adapted
accordingly.
WARNING: Setting up a wrong filter configuration may lead to filter malfunction.
This should only be done by experienced commissioning engineers.
When entering the ‘Filter characteristics’ window, first the connection mode has to be
defined:
• 3-W: choose this mode when only the phases are connected. In this case, the
filter can filter harmonics that are flowing between phases and make phase to
phase balancing but cannot filter harmonics in the neutral nor make line to
neutral balancing.
• 4-W: choose this mode when both the phases and the neutral are connected. In
this case, the filter can filter harmonics between phases as well as harmonics in
the neutral, and can perform balancing of loads connected between phases as
well as connected phase to neutral.
Further note that:
WARNING: All hardware units in a master-slave filter arrangement must have the
same rating. Combining hardware units of different ratings in the same filter panel
will lead to hardware failure and/or inability for the filter to start up.
Remarks:
• The filter needs to be stopped before the unit ratings menu can be accessed.
Attempting to access the menu while the filter is running will result in a fault
message being displayed.
• Pressing
in the unit ratings setup menu will result into jumping to the next
step in the menu without the values entered being taken into account. When
involuntarily entering the menu, walk through the menu by pressing
or
repeatedly. This way the menu can be quit without modifying any values.
7.7.2.3 Setting up the current transformer ratios and position
The current transformers connected to the filter (units) have to be entered into the filter
system.
•
For single master units, this has to be done only for that master
•
For filter systems consisting of more than one unit, this has to be done for all the
units of the system
Two methods can be used to do this.
• Using the automatic CT detection feature
• Entering the CT ratios and positions manually
These approaches are discussed next.
• Detection of the CT positions and ratio’s using the automatic CT detection
feature:
For detecting the CT-settings automatically, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/Auto CT detection]
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 93
WARNING: When launching the automatic CT detection procedure, the
filter will connect to the network automatically. This may take several
minutes in the case of large multi-unit filters. During this operation (high)
operating voltages will be present in the filter unit. For personal safety
reasons, close the filter cover before launching the CT detection
procedure. Also ensure that the filter CT terminals (X21) are not shorted.
When engaging the automatic CT detection procedure the filter will execute the
following steps:
o
Deselect harmonics and reactive power/balancing settings previously
entered by the customer
o
Display a warning message to wait for the identification procedure to
end
o
Check the voltage level of the DC capacitors, close the main contactor
and start the IGBTs
o
Inject a small current into the supply
o
Record the current measured by the CTs and calculate the filter CT
ratios and positions
o
Display a message indicating whether the CT identification ended
successfully or not
NOTE: The automatic CT detection is repeated automatically for all the
units present in a multi-unit filter system.
After the CT detection procedure has finished, the user has to reprogram
the filter settings that were automatically deselected.
If the CT identification ended successfully, the filter carries on by:
o
Showing the CT positions found. This is done in a table format as given
in Table 41.
Table 41: Automatic CT detection position-results presentation
(a)
Filter connection CT terminal
Physical CT location and orientation
Input 1
Line 1
Input 2
Line 2
Input 3
Line 3
(b)
Remarks:
(a)
This column refers to the filter terminal X21 located in the filter cubicle.
Input 1: filter input X21/1-2 (L1, R, U)
Input 2: filter input X21/3-4 (L2, S, V)
Input 3: filter input X21/5-6 (L3, T, W)
(b)
This column refers to the physical location of the CT connected to the input shown in the first
column.
Line 1: CT connected in phase 1 (L1, R, U) with correct orientation
-Line1: CT connected in phase 1 (L1, R, U) with inversed orientation
Line 2: CT connected in phase 2 (L2, S, V) with correct orientation
94 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
-Line 2: CT connected in phase 2 (L2, S, V) with inversed orientation
Line 3: CT connected in phase 3 (L3, T, W) with correct orientation
-Line 3: CT connected in phase 3 (L3, T, W) with inversed orientation
When all CTs have been correctly installed, the PQF Manager should
display the results as in Table 41. If the CTs have been connected
wrongly, the corresponding line will read e.g.
Input 1
-Line 3
…
In the example above, the CT connected physically in phase 3 (L3, T,
W) has been routed to the filter terminal for phase 1 (L1, R, U). Further
the CT orientation or the cabling has been inversed (k terminal of CT
connected to l terminal of filter and vice versa).
o
After showing the CT positions found, the customer is asked to either
acknowledge the results found (by pressing
) or either not to accept
them by pressing any other key. If any other key than
is pressed,
the automatic CT detection program will be quit. The CT parameters
existing before the automatic CT detection program was started will be
restored.
If the CTs have been wrongly connected and the results are
acknowledged by the commissioning engineer, the filter controller
will automatically take into account the wrong positions and
correct them internally. Hence, there is no need to correct the CT
connections manually. However, in line with proper installation
guidelines, it may be recommended to correct physically the CT
installation. In that case, the CT setup of the filter has to be
adapted accordingly.
o
When the CT positions have been acknowledged the filter will carry on
by showing the CT ratio found phase per phase. The values shown are
indicative only and always have to be verified by the commissioning
engineer. He can change the values with the
and
if desired. In
order to approve the value entered
has to be pressed. Table 42
explains the meaning of the text that appears on the display:
Table 42: Automatic CT detection ratio-results presentation
Text on PQF Manager display
Meaning
Ratio found
Ratio found for the CT in the considered phase
E.g. 200 means a CT of 1000/5
CT Ratio L1
(a)
Ratio that will be used by the filter for the CT physically
connected in phase 1 (L1, R, U) of the installation
CT Ratio L2
(a)
Ratio that will be used by the filter for the CT physically
connected in phase 2 (L2, S, V) of the installation
CT Ratio L3
(a)
Ratio that will be used by the filter for the CT physically
connected in phase 3 (L3, T, W) of the installation
Remark:
(a)
The first phase has to be acknowledged before the second phase is displayed…
After acknowledging the last phase with
, the filter will automatically
reset and the new values will be taken into account. Pressing
at any
time will interrupt the automatic CT detection process. In single unit
filters, original CT-values and positions existing prior to the start of the
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 95
procedure will be restored. In multi-unit filters, the new values will be
stored in the units for which the CT setting were already accepted, and
will be restored to the initial value in the other units.
If the CT identification ended unsuccessfully:
o
The filter displays an error message indicating the reason for the
problem. Table 43 gives a list of the possible error messages.
Table 43: Possible error messages during automatic CT identification
PQF-Manager error messages during automatic CT identification
The CT identification found inconsistent CT positions.
The CT identification did not end within an appropriate time frame.
The CT identification required an abnormally high DC voltage.
The most common causes for these messages are:
o

CTs not connected or shorted

CTs connected in open loop configuration

Usage of an excessive CT ratio (including summation CTs). The
CT ratio limit is set at 20000/5.
After acknowledging the error message, the CT values existing before
the start of the process will be restored and the automatic CT detection
procedure will be ended. The unsuccessful CT detection attempt is
recorded in the event logging window.
Conditions under which the automatic CT identification process may give
unsatisfactory results include:
o
The use of CTs with extremely high ratio’s (> 20000/5). This will result in
an error message indicating inconsistent CT positions. In this, the ratio
of the summation CTs that may be present should be included.
o
The presence of a low impedance directly downstream of the filter
connection although the CTs have been correctly installed upstream of
the filter connection. This will result in wrong CT ratio’s being found. In
that case the commissioning engineer can easily correct the CT ratio’s
found.
o
The use of complex CT arrangements including summing CTs.
It is recommended that the results obtained with the automatic CT detection
procedure be crosschecked with a visual inspection of the installation.
• Setting up the CT positions and ratio’s using the manual setup procedure:
For entering the CT-settings manually, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/Man. CT settings]
For multi-unit filters the CT data for each unit has to be entered.
When entering the manual CT setup menu the user is subsequently prompted to
define for the selected filter unit of a filter system::
o
for the CT connected to the filter CT terminals X21/1-2 (Input 1):

in which line (phase) is it installed (Line 1, Line 2, Line 3)

does the CT (cabling) have the good orientation (Line x) or not
(-Line x)
Remark:
If the CT installation is correct, enter ‘Line 1’.
96 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
If the CT is installed in the right phase but inversed,
enter ‘-Line 1’.
o
for the CT connected to the filter CT terminals X21/3-4 (Input 2):

in which line (phase) is it installed (Line 1, Line 2, Line 3)

does the CT (cabling) have the good orientation (Line x) or not
(-Line x)
Remark:
If the CT installation is correct, enter ‘Line 2’.
If the CT is installed in the right phase but inversed,
enter ‘-Line 2’.
o
for the CT connected to the filter CT terminals X21/5-6 (Input 3):

in which line (phase) is it installed (Line 1, Line 2, Line 3)

does the CT (cabling) have the good orientation (Line x) or not
(-Line x)
Remark:
If the CT installation is correct, enter ‘Line 3’.
If the CT is installed in the right phase but inversed,
enter ‘-Line 3’.
o
for the CT physically installed in Line 1 (L1, R, U):

o
for the CT physically installed in Line 2 (L2, S, V):

o
the CT ratio, which is always positive; e.g. a CT of 5000/5 has a
ratio 1000
the CT ratio, which is always positive; e.g. a CT of 5000/5 has a
ratio 1000
for the CT physically installed in Line 3 (L3, T, W):

the CT ratio, which is always positive; e.g. a CT of 5000/5 has a
ratio 1000
After entering all the above mentioned values, the filter resets and the settings
are taken into account.
Remarks:
o
7.7.2.4
Pressing
during the manual CT setup procedure will result in:

For single unit filters, the original CT-values and positions
existing prior to the start of the procedure be restored.

For multi-unit filters, the new values will be stored in the units
for which the CT setting were already accepted, and will be
restored to the initial values in the other units.
o
Section 8.6 gives guidelines on how to identify the position of the CTs in
case the automatic CT detection procedure cannot be used or is
unsuccessful.
o
Refer to Section 6.9 and Section 6.10 for more information on the
selection and the installation of the current transformers.
Setting up the filter rating parameter
For entering the rating parameter, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/Rating]
The permissible ambient conditions for PQFS operation are laid out in Table 13.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 97
• If the filter is installed at locations higher than 1000 m (3300 ft) above sea level,
the maximum filter output current must be derated by 1% every additional 100m
(330ft).
• Above 40°C (104°F), the maximum output current must be derated by 3.5%
every additional 1°C (1.8°F) up to 50°C (122°F) maximum limit.
The total required derating is the sum of all the deratings taking into account the
installation height and the ambient temperature.
The PQF-Manager rating menu shows the filter nominal rating, which is by default 100%.
The new value to be set when derating is required is 100% - (total required derating %).
After approving the new rating value (
), the filter will reset and the new value will be
taken into account. In practice, this implies that the output current of the unit will be limited
to the filter nominal current times the entered rating factor. E.g. a rating factor of 50%
implies that the maximum RMS filter current is half the nominal filter current.
Pressing
quit.
7.7.2.5
will result in the original value being restored and the filter rating menu being
Setting up the user’s requirements
For entering the user’s requirements
[/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning/User]
at
the
commissioning
level,
go
to
At the commissioning level, a shortcut exists to the principal user set up menus. These
consist of:
• Setting up the filter mode for the main settings. After selecting the desired value,
press
to go to the next step.
• Setting up the harmonic selection table for the main settings. After entering the
desired values (cf. Section 7.7.1.1), press
displayed.
repeatedly until the next step is
• Setting up the reactive power requirements including balancing for the main
settings. After selecting the desired values, press
to go to the next step.
• After entering the data, the main settings can be copied on to the auxiliary
settings (if desired) by pressing
. Pressing any other key will omit this step.
• The set-up ends by displaying the main commissioning menu.
Remarks:
• Refer to Section 7.7.1.1 for more explanation on the main and auxiliary filter
settings, the filter mode, the harmonics selection table and reactive power setup
possibilities.
• A more complete user set up process can be done at he customer settings level
(cf. Section 7.7.1)
• In order to interrupt the set up process, press
repeatedly until the stop
message appears. It should be noted that any parameters entered before the
procedure is stopped, will have been recorded in the filter’s memory. Re-enter
the user set up to change the values again if desired.
98 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
7.7.3
The ‘Installation settings’ menu [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set.]
WARNING: The installation settings menu is intended to be used by qualified
commissioning engineers that are authorized to change the filter’s advanced
settings.
The filter’s advanced settings include:
• the auto restart function
• the standby function
• the system clock setup
• the external communication setup
• the software lock activation and password setup
The aforementioned functions are discussed more in detail later in this section.
For convenience, the installation settings menu also gives an overview of the installation
settings. More specifically, the following settings can be read:
• Settings for the nominal voltage, frequency and synchro mode
([/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Network charact.])
• Filter characteristics ([/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Filter charact.])
• CT installation settings ([/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./CT Installation])
• % Rating setting ([/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Rating])
Where applicable the settings for individual units in a filter system can be reviewed by
selecting the appropriate unit.
Note that the settings of the above-mentioned parameters can only be changed at the
commissioning level (Cf. Section 7.7.2)
7.7.3.1
Setting up the ‘auto restart’ function
For setting up the ‘auto restart’ function, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./StartStop set.]
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up in each master-unit in order to
obtain full redundancy.
The ‘auto restart’ function when enabled ensures that the filter restarts automatically after
a power outage if the filter was on before the power outage occurs. A time delay can be
programmed to define how long after the power returns, the filter will restart. When the
‘auto restart’ function is disabled, the filter will not restart automatically after a power
outage.
• To enable/disable the ‘auto restart’ function, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Installation
set./Start-Stop set./Auto start].
• To program the delay after which the filter has restart once the power returns, go
to [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Start-Stop set./Auto st. del].
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 99
Remark:
By default the ‘auto restart’ function is enabled and the delay time is set at 5s.
7.7.3.2
Setting up the ‘standby’ function
For setting up the ‘standby’ function, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Start-Stop
set.]
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up in each master-unit in order to
obtain full redundancy.
The ‘standby’ function when enabled puts the filter in standby, a preset time after the load
requirement disappears. In this condition, the IGBTs stop switching while the main
contactor remains closed (filter remains connected to the network). This way the filter
losses become virtually zero. The filter will resume normal operation a preset time after the
load requirement comes back. The standby function is particularly interesting for
applications where the load is present for a long time and subsequently switches off for
another long time.
In order to set-up the standby function, five parameters have to be defined:
• ‘Stdby status’:
When enabled, the ‘standby’ function is activated.
When disabled, the ‘standby’ function is deactivated.
• ‘Standby level’ and ‘Standby hyst’:
Define the filter load level in % on which the filter goes in standby and comes out
of standby.
• ‘Stdby del off’:
Defines the time during which the filter load level has to be smaller than the lower
threshold level before the filter is put in standby.
• ‘Stdby del on’:
Defines the time during which the filter load level has to be higher than the
upper threshold level before the filter comes out of standby.
The filter standby parameters are illustrated in Figure 74.
100 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Filter load requirement (%)
Stdby del on
Standby hyst.
Standby level
Standby hyst.
Stdby del off
Time
Filter operation
ON
OFF
Time
Figure 74: Illustration of the filter standby parameters
Remarks:
• The filter load requirement is determined from the user settings for harmonic
filtration, reactive power compensation and balancing
• It is recommended to put the lower threshold (i.e. [Standby level – Standby hyst.]
%) of the standby function at least to 15%
7.7.3.3
Setting up the system clock
For setting up the system clock, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Clock]
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up in each master-unit in order to
obtain full redundancy.
The PQF is equipped with a system clock, which can be modified by the user. Both the
date and the hour can be changed. The hour is presented in 24-hour format and is set up
for the time zone GMT +1.
7.7.3.4
Setting up the external communication parameters
For
setting
up
the
external
communication
[/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Communication]
parameters,
go
to
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up in each master-unit in order to
obtain full redundancy.
Two communication protocols can be selected for the external communication:
• PC:
Choose this setting if a PC running the PQF-Link software (optional) will be
connected to the PQF-Manager. When choosing this protocol, no other
communication parameters have to be set-up on the filter side. For more
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 101
information on how to connect the PQF-Link software, refer to the PQF-Link
manual.
• Modbus protocol:
Choose this setting if the filter will be connected to a Modbus network.
When the Modbus protocol is used, some more parameters have to be
configured. To do this, go to [/Welcome/Settings/Installation
set./Communication/Modbus]. The parameters to be set include:
o
Baud rate, parity and number of stop bits for the communication.
o
The PQF address in the Modbus network.
o
The Modbus lock which when activated ensures that the PQF
parameters can only be changed from the Modbus network.
For more information on the Modbus communication system, refer to the
“2GCS212012A0050-RS-485 Installation and Start-up guide”.
7.7.3.5
Setting up the software lock and password
In multi-master units these functions need to be set up in each master-unit in order to
obtain full redundancy.
The settings section of the PQF-Manager can be protected by a software and hardware
lock. More information on these locks is given in Section 7.4.
7.8
The ‘PQF monitoring’ menu
The ‘PQF monitoring’ menu can be accessed in the main Welcome screen
[/Welcome/PQF monitoring].
This menu allows to monitor the filter load and to get an idea of its operating point
compared to the nominal rating of the filter. In addition, logged warnings and faults can be
retrieved for troubleshooting the filter operation and any abnormal network conditions.
Where applicable the different units in a filter system can be selected to get more detailed
information on parameters of the individual unit.
The PQF monitoring menu can also be used to check the status of individual units of a
multi-filter system. If required, errors in individual units can be reset.
The items of the ‘PQF Monitoring’ menu are discussed next.
7.8.1
The ‘Status of units’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Status of units]
This menu shows for each unit of a filter system its status and allows resetting the ‘fault’
status of individual units.
Three possible status indications exist:
•
Ready: The unit considered does not have a fault and can run normally.
•
Ack. Fault: The unit considered has been stopped due to an error. By pressing
Ack. Fault, the reason for the fault will be displayed and an attempt will be made
to clear the fault. When doing this, the complete filter system will be shut down.
If the fault could be cleared, the unit status will become ‘Ready’. If the fault
could not be cleared, the unit status will remain ‘Ack. Fault’. In the fault clearing
process, the complete filter system will be shut down. The filter can be restarted
after the fault clearing process has ended.
•
Not present: The unit considered has been excluded of the normal filter
operation due to either:
102 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
7.8.2
o
The unit is physically not present
o
The unit is physically present but the control board power is not present
The ‘Filter load’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Filter load]
The filter load menu shows bar graphs expressed in % indicating the filter load with
respect to the nominal rating of the following parameters:
• Inverter DC bus voltage: ‘Udc’ graph
• Peak current of the IGBT-modules: ‘Ipeak’ graph
• RMS current of the IGBT-modules: ‘Irms’ graph
• IGBT-temperature: ‘Temp’ graph
For multi-unit filters, this data can be obtained for each individual unit.
7.8.3
The ‘Event logging’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Event logging]
The ‘event logging’ window stores the events that are recorded by the filter controllers.
The event buffer stores the 200 most recent events. Figure 75 gives an example of the
event window.
2
1
3
4
5
Figure 75: Example of an event window
The explanation of the different items is given in Table 44.
Table 44: Item explanation of the event window
Item
1
2
Explanation
Event number (0-199)
The smaller the number, the more recent the event
Event type
Table 45 gives an overview of the possible event types
3
Date and time at which the event occurred
4
If the event reported is a fault, which is considered critical by the system, a ‘Critical’
indication will appear on the screen.
5
Fault description list if the event was a fault.
Table 46 and Table 47 give an overview of the possible faults that can be reported.
When entering the ‘Event logging’ window, the most recent event is always displayed.
Use the arrow keys to scroll through the event list. Use any other key to quit the menu.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 103
Table 45: Overview of the events that can be recorded
Event
Description
No event
No storable event has occurred yet
Energization
The power has been switched on
System reset
The filter controller has been reset
Start request
A filter start has been requested
Stop request
A filter stop has been requested
Fault (DSP)
The DSP controller has reported a fault
Fault (uC)
The µcontroller has reported a fault
Fault cleared
A user attempt to clear a fault has been recorded (by validating the ‘ACK.
FAULT’ option on the PQF-Manager
No more fault
The system detects no more faults
Power outage
The system has detected a power outage
Download DSP
A DSP controller firmware upgrade (attempt) has been recorded
DSP stop
An internal stop command coming from the DSP controller has been
recorded
From Table 45 it can be seen that both the DSP controller and the µcontroller can record
faults. Where the faults reported by the µcontroller are predominantly relating to a control
board failure, the faults reported by the DSP relate predominantly to the filter interacting
with the installation. Table 46 gives an overview of the faults that can be reported by the
DSP controller. The list is in alphabetical order.
Table 46: Overview of the faults that can be reported by the DSP controller
DSP fault message
Description
Bad CT connection
The automatic CT detection procedure has encountered a
problem during the identification process.
Bad Ratings
The DSP has detected an inconsistent set of commissioning
parameters
DC over voltage (SW)
The DC software over voltage protection has been triggered (Cf.
Table 24 for limit values).
DC over voltage (HW)
The DC hardware over voltage protection has been triggered.
DC Top over voltage
The DC over voltage protection of the capacitors in the positive
stack has been triggered.
DC Bot over voltage
The DC over voltage protection of the capacitors in the negative
stack has been triggered.
DC under voltage (SW)
The DC software under voltage protection has been triggered.
IGBT check cooling
The software IGBT temperature protection has been triggered.
IGBT permanent
The IGBT modules report an error that cannot be cleared by the
system. This error can be due to peak over current or too low
control voltage for the IGBT drivers.
IGBT temporary
The IGBT modules report a transient error that could be cleared
by the system. This error can be due to peak over current or too
low control voltage for the IGBT drivers.
Loss of phase
The system has detected a loss of supply on at least one phase.
No synchronization
The system cannot synchronize on to the network.
SPI Error
The DSP has received no response after its request on the SPI
port.
Bad Sequence
The DSP has detected an inadequate behaviour in the
sequence.
104 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Out of mains freq. Limit
The system has detected that the network frequency is out of
range.
Over voltage RMS
The RMS value of the supply voltage is higher than the
acceptable maximum value.
Over volt. Transient (SW)
The software transient over voltage protection has been
triggered.
Over current RMS
The system has detected RMS over current.
Over current peak (SW)
The software peak current protection has been triggered.
Preload problem
The DC capacitors could not be preloaded. The voltage increase
on the DC capacitors during the preload phase is not high
enough.
Unbalanced supply
The supply imbalance is out of range.
Under voltage RMS
The RMS value of the supply voltage is lower than the
acceptable minimum value.
Unstable mains frequ.
The network frequency is varying too fast.
Wrong phase rotation
The filter is fed by a supply system, which has the wrong phase
rotation.
SPI Timeout
Internal system error
Mismatch between units
Different units in a filter system have different settings (e.g. 3wire and 4-wire setting) or are connected in a different way.
Remark: Maximum limits for certain parameters are given in Table 24
Table 47 gives an overview of the faults that can be reported by the µcontroller.
Table 47: Overview of the faults that can be reported by the µcontroller
µcontroller fault message
Description
Com. Problem 1 (CAN bus)
Communication problem between different units in a multiunit filter arrangement
Com. Problem (RS-232)
Serial communication problem between the main
controller board and an external PC
Corrupted DSP code
Internal system error
Corrupted uC code
Internal system error
Internal uC fault
Internal system error
Ctrl over temperature
The system detected an over temperature of the main
controller board
DSP watchdog
Internal system error
µController watchdog
Internal system error
SPI Time out
Internal system error
Flash memory corrupted
Internal system error
Power supply fault
Internal system error
Preload time-out
The DC capacitors could not be preloaded in an
acceptable time
Real time clock problem
Internal system error
Several units same id
Two or more units have the same CAN_ID (settings of the
S5 dip switches (1 tot 3) on the control board
Different firmwares
Different units in a filter system have different control
firmwares (DSP and/or microcontroller)
For guidelines on how to troubleshoot and solve the reported problems, refer to
Chapter 11.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 105
Remarks:
• For multi-unit filters, this data can be obtained for each individual unit.
• Internal system errors are most likely due to faulty hardware and thus the only
solution may be to exchange the controller cards.
• If the message ‘IGBT check cooling’ appears, this implies that the system is
stopped due to an over temperature problem.
In that case, check the cooling of the system (fans, filters) and of the switchgear
room (air conditioning system etc.)
After the problem is solved the system has to be manually reset (fault
acknowledgement) before normal operation can be resumed.
• In general the occurrence of transient faults is no problem for the proper
operation of the active filter. Only when an error becomes ‘critical’, a problem
may exist.
A fault is considered critical if after occurrence, it cannot be successfully
automatically cleared by the system within a reasonable time. The time frame
considered depends on the error type.
In practice the word ‘Critical’ will appear in the ‘Event logging’ window if the
system has detected a critical error. The user can then backtrack in the logging
window to see which errors were already present in the previous events, to know
which is/are the critical error(s).
7.8.4
The ‘Active warnings’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Active warn.]
The ‘Active warnings’ menu is constantly updated by the system. It shows at any time the
warning conditions set up by the customer that are met. For more information on setting
up the programmable warnings, refer to Section 7.7.1.2 and Table 26.
Table 48 shows an overview of the warning messages that will be displayed and the
corresponding warning condition.
For multi-master filters, this data can be obtained for each individual unit.
Table 48: Warning messages that can be displayed by the PQF-Manager and corresponding
warning conditions
7.8.5
Warning condition
Warning message displayed
Supply voltage (RMS) higher than preset value
Over voltage RMS
Supply voltage (RMS) lower than preset value
Under voltage RMS
Supply voltage imbalance higher than preset value
Unbalanced supply
PQFS IGBT temperature higher than preset value
IGBT temperature
PQFS control board temperature higher than preset
value
Ctrl over temperature
The ‘Total number of errors’ menu [/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Number of errors]
The ‘Total number of errors’ menu keeps track of all the errors that have been recorded
since the controller system has been initialized at the production stage. The errors that
have occurred the most are listed first. Errors that have not occurred are not listed. For an
explanation on the errors listed, refer to the Table 46 and Table 47.
106 The PQF-Manager user interface  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
For multi-master filters, this data can be obtained for each individual unit.
7.8.6
The ‘PQF operation’ and ‘Fan operation’ parameters
The ‘PQF operation’ ([/Welcome/PQF monitoring/PQF Operation]) parameter indicates
the total operating time of the filter (filter ‘on’).
The ‘Fan operation’ ([/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Fan Operation]) parameter indicates the
total operating time of the fans cooling the filter.
For multi-master filters, this data can be obtained for each individual unit.
7.8.7
The ‘Trip. Phase’ parameter
The value shown in the menu is by default 0. If a trip due to an overtemperature occurs,
the value will become 1 for the unit in which the problem occurred.
If a problem exists, an external intervention is required to solve the problem after which
the unit has to be reset by acknowledging the fault for the unit considered. After this, the
parameter value will be reset to 0.
7.9
The ‘About PQF’ menu
The ‘About PQF’ menu can be accessed in the main Welcome screen [/Welcome/About
PQF].
This menu gives basic data on the filter. This data includes:
• Basic manufacturer settings such as filter type, maximum voltage rating and filter
serial number. These settings can be accessed in [/Welcome/About
PQF/Manufacturer set.]
• Firmware version numbers for the PQF-Manager, the µcontroller and the DSP
controller.
WARNING: When communicating with your ABB representative on a specific filter,
please provide always the data shown in the ‘About PQF’ menu.
For multi-master filters, this data can be obtained for each individual unit.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 107
8
8.1
Commissioning instructions
What this chapter contains
This chapter presents the steps to follow to commission the active filter. The
commissioning of your PQF should be conducted in strict accordance with this procedure.
Before applying the commissioning procedure, make sure that you are familiar with:
-
The filter hardware (discussed in Chapter 4);
-
The mechanical installation requirements (discussed in Chapter 5).
-
The electrical installation requirements (discussed in Chapter 6).
-
The PQF programming interface PQF-Manager (discussed in Chapter 7).
-
If the Modbus option has been installed, please refer to the document
“2GCS212012A0050-RS-485 Installation and Start-up guide” for more information
on this item.
The commissioning procedure consists of 9 steps that should be strictly followed.
Table 49: Steps to follow to commission the active filter
Steps
Actions
Step 1
Visual and installation check
Step 2
Setting the address of each unit in a multi-unit filter and terminate
the CAN bus
Step 3
Voltage rating and phase rotation check
Step 4
Basic commissioning parameters setup
Step 5
Automatic and manual CT detection procedure
Step 6
Before starting the filter
Step 7
Start the filter
Step 8
Generate filter load
Step 9
Set up the user requirements
Section 8.11 presents the commissioning report to be filled in when commissioning
the filter.
108 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
8.2
Step 1: Visual and installation check
WARNING: Make sure that the filter supply is isolated during the visual and
installation check. For safety reasons, this must be done upstream of the active
filter and before removing the protective cover. In multi-unit filters, ensure that all
units are disconnected from the supply.
In order to perform a successful installation and commissioning, the filter protective cover
must be removed.
WARNING: When the protective cover is removed, open the auxiliary power fuse
holder. Verify that the filter DC capacitors are discharged before touching them.
Failure to adhere to these guidelines may result in lethal electric shock and/or filter
damage.
WARNING: Make sure that the filter is installed at a location where no conductive
dust is present. Conductive dust when distributed in the filter panel may lead to
equipment failure.
• Check that the mechanical and electrical installation fulfils the requirements
described in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 of this manual. Remove the filter lifting
ribbon if it is still present.
• Pay attention to the ambient temperature noting the filter cooling requirements.
• Check visually the condition of the filter (e.g. for transportation damage).
• Remove the anti-corrosion capsules which are affixed at the inside of the filter, at
the bottom (next to the fan and IGBT assembly).
• Check the tightness of all connections including power cable connections section
and tightness, CT connections, digital I/O connections on the PQF-Manager and
the control board connections inside the filter.
• Ensure that the feeding cable protection devices are rated appropriately (see
Table 19).
8.3
Step 2: Setting the address of each unit in a multi-unit filter and terminate the CAN bus
Each filter is defined by a filter address. This address is by default set to 1.
In a multi-filter arrangement, the address of each unit has to be set to a unique value.
Setting two filter units in the same system to the same address will lead to a conflict and
will inhibit the filter from running.
In a filter system consisting of more than one unit, the filter with the lowest address will be
considered as the first unit in the chain. The filter with the highest address will be
considered as the last unit in the chain:
•
In master-slave filter arrangements, it is recommended to assign the lowest
address to the master unit and increment the address by 1 for the next slave etc.
•
In master-master arrangements, the lowest address must be assigned to the
master unit that is considered as the main controlling unit. When the main
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 109
master unit is faulty, the master unit with the next lowest address will become the
main controlling unit.
In order to set the address of each unit in a filter system, the DIP switch module on the
control board has to be set accordingly. Figure 76 shows the location of the DIP switch
on the control board (Item 22 in the Figure).
17
18
19
20
21
22
1
2
3
4
5
16
6
7
15
8
9
14
10
13
12
11
Figure 76: Location of the filter identification DIP switch on the control board (Item 21)
The filter identification DIP switch consists of 4 switches that can be put in low or high
position (facing the board with the ABB logo at the top left side). The three left hand DIP
switches determine the filter unit address. Table 50 shows the filter unit addresses
that can be chosen and the corresponding configuration to be set.
Table 50: Possible filter unit addresses and corresponding DIP switch settings (facing the board
with ABB logo at the top), counting low to high.
Filter address
DIP switch 1
setting (ID0)
DIP switch 2
setting (ID1)
DIP switch 3
setting (ID2)
1
Low
Low
Low
2
High
Low
Low
3
Low
High
Low
4
High
High
Low
5
Low
Low
High
6
High
Low
High
7
Low
High
High
8
High
High
High
110 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Notes:
• Do not use other settings than the ones mentioned in the table
• It is recommended to assign increasing addresses starting from the main master
at the left and moving right
• Assigning the same address to different filter units in one filter system will lead to
the filter not being able to start up and go in error (Bad Ratings)
When a filter consists of more than one unit, attention has to be paid to the proper
termination of the communication bus between the different units. This communication
bus is depicted in the below Figure 77 by the black lines interconnecting the different
units.
From previous unit (if present)
To next unit (if present)
Control board in the ‘next’ unit
Control board in the ‘previous’ unit
Figure 77: Communication bus between different filter units
In order to terminate the bus correctly, the fourth switch (counting from left to right) from
DIP switch 22 (Cf. Figure 76) has to be set as follows:
•
High: For the first unit in a filter system (single unit filter or first physical unit of a
multi-unit filter)
•
High: For the last physical unit of a multi-unit filter
•
Low: For all the other units
WARNING: Failing to terminate the communication bus properly will lead to
equipment malfunction and equipment damage.
8.4
Step 3: Voltage rating check/adaptation and phase rotation check
• The active filter nominal voltage setting must be adapted to the actual network
voltage by adjusting the power supply connection of the control voltage (Cf.
Figure 18, wire ‘N’). Ensure that the filter panel is isolated upstream before
changing the power supply connection of the control voltage.
By default the power supply connection of the control voltage is configured for
networks in the voltage range 380-415 V (Cf. Figure 35). For networks in the
voltage range 208-240 V, use the connection given in Figure 36.
Note that in addition to configuring the unit hardware for a certain voltage range,
the network voltage also has to be set up in the filter controller software
(commissioning window).
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 111
WARNING: The PQFS is able to operate on networks where the supply
voltage is up to 10% higher (inclusive of harmonics but not transients) or
lower than the voltage range it is set up for. Since operation at the upper
limits of voltage and temperature may reduce its life expectancy, the PQFS
should not be connected to systems for which it is known that the
overvoltage will be sustained indefinitely.
• The voltage phase rotation at the active filter incoming power supply terminals
must be clockwise (L1 (R,U) -> L2 (Y,V) -> L3 (B,W) -> L1 (R,U)).
WARNING: Applying voltage to the filter to check the phase rotation may
only be done after ensuring that the network voltage level is acceptable for
the filter operation and after it has been found that the filter is not
mechanically nor electrically damaged.
When power is supplied to the active filter terminals, the unit will automatically do
a phase rotation check in the master unit. If the phase rotation is wrong the filter
will show the message ‘ACK. FAULT’ on the PQF-Manager ‘Welcome’ screen.
The filter will refuse to start and a message indicating wrong phase rotation will
be stored in the filter event log (Cf. Section 7.8.3)
WARNING: For safety reasons, when using a phase rotation meter, the
phase rotation must be measured at the upstream protection level and not
in the filter panel itself.
When checking the phase rotation with a phase rotation meter, ensure that the
auxiliary fuse box is open during the measurement process.
WARNING: In a multi-unit filter arrangement, care must be taken to connect
all units to the power supply in an identical way as the master unit
(individual phases and phase rotation). Otherwise, the equipment may be
damaged upon energization and/or may function incorrectly.
Before going to the next step, it is recommended at this stage to first install the other I/O
cabling if required.
Once all the hardware has been cabled,
• Close the auxiliary circuit fuse box
• Refit the filter protective cover including PQF-Manager and its connections
• Close the filter upstream protection
When the power is applied to the active filter:
-
The active filter fans will start running
-
The DC capacitors will be charged
-
The PQF-Manager will initialize and show the ‘Welcome’ screen (Cf. Figure 61),
or will show a screen indicating that it is in slave mode
If the voltage level or phase rotation is incorrect, the installation should be corrected
before applying power to the filter to avoid potential filter malfunctioning and/or damage.
112 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
8.5
Step 4: Basic commissioning parameters set up (using PQF-Manager)
In order to set up the basic commissioning parameters with the PQF-Manager, navigate
to [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning] (Cf. Section 7.7.2). An overview of the main
menus of the PQF-Manager is given in Figure 62.
The complete commissioning must be done at the first installation of a filter system and
each time a filter unit is added to an existing filter system.
If the window or some of its items are locked (i.e. a small
symbol or
symbol is
present on the screen), the hardware and/or software lock has been engaged. Refer to
Section 7.4 for more information on these features and for guidelines on how to unlock
the filter setting menus.
Note: In active filter systems consisting of more than one master, the PQF-Manager of
the master that has the control over the system has full functionality and the PQFManagers of the other master units have limited functionality. In practice, the functions
that are not enabled on these units are also locked and a
symbol will appear next to
them.
In the commissioning window, the following basic parameters have to be specified:
• The network characteristics (Cf. Section 7.7.2.1):
The parameters to enter are the nominal network voltage, network frequency and
filter synchronisation mode. The filter synchronisation mode shall normally not
be changed unless specifically instructed by the ABB service provider.
• The filter characteristics (Cf. Section 7.7.2.2):
This consists of setting up the filter connection mode: 3-wire (no neutral
connected) or 4-wire (neutral connected).
When the connection mode selected in the commissioning menu does not
correspond to the hardware set-up detected by the filter, the filter will trip out
when started. A ‘Bad Parameters’ fault will be reported in the filter event log.
Correct the problem before proceeding.
• The CT settings:
The CT settings can in many cases be automatically detected or can be entered
manually. Section 8.6 discusses the automatic and manual CT detection
procedure.
• The Rating parameter:
If the filter is installed at locations higher than 1000m /3300ft or is running under
ambient temperature conditions higher than 40°C/104°F, the filter has to be
derated. For more information on how to calculate the derating required and how
to enter the derating value, refer to Section 7.7.2.4.
Remarks:
• Although the user requirements for harmonic filtering and reactive power
compensation/balancing can be set up from the commissioning window this
should not be done before the filter has been started successfully for the first time
(Cf. Section 8.7)
• If digital I/O and/or the alarm contact have been cabled on the PQF-Manager, the
appropriate software settings have to be made. This has to be done in the
‘Customer settings’ menu ([/Welcome/Settings/Customer set.]). Refer to Section
7.7.1.2 for detailed information on how to set up digital I/O, alarms and warnings.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 113
In order to achieve full redundancy with master-master filters, the digital I/O have
to be cabled to all master units and all the PQF-Managers have to be set up
accordingly.
• In order to change the temperature unit used by the system, go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Temp unit].
• For setting up advanced filter functions such as the autorestart feature (after
power outage), the filter standby feature (which stops the IGBTs when the load
requirement is low), the system clock, the external communication protocol
(Modbus or PC) and the software lock, refer to Section 7.7.3. In order to achieve
full redundancy for the communication features in master-master filters, this
function has to be cabled to all master units and all the PQF-Managers have to
be set up accordingly.
If the CTs have been set up correctly at this stage, go to step 6 (Section 8.7)
If there is a need to do a manual check of the CT connections, go to step 5 (Section 8.6)
8.6
Step 5: Automatic and manual CT detection procedure
WARNING: Do not filter harmonics or do reactive power compensation/balancing
when the CTs have not been set up correctly. Failure to adhere to this guideline will
result in erratic filter operation.
Refer to Section 6.9 and Section 6.10 for the CT selection and installation guidelines.
WARNING: Before programming or detecting the CTs, make sure that:
-
The CTs have been connected to the filter CT terminal X21. For multi-filter
configurations all the units of a filter system have to be supplied with the same
CT information (daisy chain principle with return path as shown in Figure 48)
-
All shorting links in the CT path have been removed (i.e. on the CTs, on the
filter CT terminal X21 …)
CT shorting links are provided with the filter for servicing purposes, but they are not
installed by default on the X21 terminal.
The CT settings can be detected with the automatic CT detection feature or in a
conventional way. The automatic CT detection approach allows compensating for
physical connection errors in software. For multi-unit functions, the automatic CT
detection feature will automatically try and detect the CT-connections for the different
units.
8.6.1
Automatic CT detection procedure
The automatic CT detection procedure and the precautions to take when using it are
explained in detail in Section 7.7.2.3.
Section 8.6.2 discusses a way to check the CT installation if the automatic CT detection
procedure is not used or does not find the correct results.
114 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
NOTE: When the automatic CT detection procedure is started, the filter will
automatically deactivate all user requirements for filtering, reactive power
compensation and balancing. After the procedure has finished, the user has to
reprogram these parameters into the filter.
8.6.2
Manual CT detection procedure
Refer to Section 7.7.2.3 for guidelines on how to enter data when using the manual CT
setup.
The following procedure will allow you to check the CT connection. This step only has to
be executed if the CT setup could not be detected automatically. For filters consisting of
more than one unit, it is necessary to check the CT connections for each individual unit.
WARNING: The secondary circuit of a loaded CT must never be opened. Otherwise
extremely high voltages may appear at its terminals which can lead to physical
danger or destruction of the CT.
8.6.2.1 PQF connection diagram
Figure 78 shows the standard connection diagram for the PQF (Cf. Section 7.7.1). It
must be noted that:
• L1, L2 and L3 rotation must be clockwise
• The CTs must be on the supply (line) side of the PQF
• The CT monitoring a phase must be connected to the filter CT terminal dedicated
to the same phase
• One secondary terminal of the CT must be earthed
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L3
N
L
K
k
Load side
L
l
k
l
k
To X21.1/X21.2
l
To X21.5/X21.6
N L1
L2
L3
To X21.3/X21.4
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
PQF
K = P1, L = P2, k = S1, l = S2
Figure 78: Basic CT connection diagram
It is also seen that terminal X21.1 and X21.2 are related to the CT located in phase L1,
terminal X21.3 and X21.4 are related to the CT located in phase L2 and terminal X21.5
and X21.6 are related to the CT located in phase L3.
For multi-unit filters, the following diagram is applicable:
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 115
Unit 1
CT terminal X21
1
2
Unit 2
CT terminal X21
1
2
Unit 3
CT terminal X21
1
2
Unit 4
CT terminal X21
1
2
CT in
phase 1
Figure 79: Basic CT configuration in the case of a multi-unit filter arrangement (only shown for one
phase)
8.6.2.2 Material needed and hypotheses for correct measurements
A two-channel scopemeter with one voltage input and one current input is needed.
Adequate probes are also needed. A power analyzer like the Fluke 41B can also be
used.
Some minor knowledge of the load is also required. For instance, the method explained
below is based on the fact that the load is inductive and not regenerative (i.e. the load
current lags by less than 90° the phase voltage). If a capacitor bank is present, it is better
to disconnect it before making measurements in order to ensure an inductive behavior of
the load. It is also assumed that the load is approximately balanced.
Remark: Another ways to check the CT installation manually is to use the waveform
displays of the PQF-Manager. In this it should be noted that all waveforms displayed are
synchronized on the rising edge zero crossing of the voltage V (L1-N). Note however that
this approach requires some experience.
8.6.2.3 Checking the correct connection of the CTs with a two-channel scopemeter
• The first channel of the scopemeter must be connected to the phase voltage
referenced to the neutral or to the ground if the neutral is not accessible
• The second channel must measure the associated current flowing from the
network to the load as seen by the CT input of the PQF
8.6.2.3.1
Measurement of the CT in phase L1 (Figure 80)
• For the voltage measurement (channel 1), the positive (red) clamp must be
connected to the phase L1 and the negative clamp (black) must be connected to
the neutral (ground).
• For the current measurement (channel 2), the clamp should be inserted into the
wire connected on terminal X21.1 and the arrow indicating positive direction of
the current should point towards the PQF. Do not forget to remove the shorts on
the CT secondary (if present) before making the measurement.
116 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L
K
L3
N
k
Load side
L
l
k
l
k
l
N L1
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
Positive direction
Ch1
L2
L3
PQF
Ch2
Figure 80: Connection of the scopemeter for checking the CT in phase L1
On the scopemeter screen, two waveforms should appear. The voltage waveform should
be approximately a sine wave and the current waveform would normally be a welldistorted wave because of harmonic distortion. Usually, it is quite easy to extrapolate the
fundamental component as it is the most important one (Figure 81).
Remark: If the earthing of the system is bad, the phase to ground voltage may appear like
a much distorted waveform. In this case, it is better to measure the phase-to-phase
voltage (move the black clamp to the phase L2) and subtract 30° on the measured phase
shift.
I
I1
Figure 81: Extrapolation of the fundamental component from a distorted waveform
From the fundamental component of both signals, the phase shift must then be evaluated
(Figure 82). The time ∆T between zero crossing of the rising (falling) edge of both traces
must be measured and converted to a phase shift  by the following formula:
φ
ΔΤ
Τ1
* 360 
where T1 is the fundamental period duration.
For an inductive and non-regenerative load, the current signal should lag the voltage by a
phase shift lower than 90°.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 117
U
T
I1
T1
Figure 82: Phase shift evaluation between two waveforms
8.6.2.3.2
Measurement of the CT in phase L2 and L3 (Figure 83 and Figure 84)
The same operations as those described in the previous paragraph must be repeated
with the phase L2 (Figure 83) and phase L3 (Figure 84).
For a balanced load (which is usually the case in most of the three phase systems), the
phase shift should be approximately the same for all the three phases.
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L3
N
L
K
k
Load side
L
l
k
l
k
l
N L1
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
Positive direction
Ch1
L2
L3
PQF
Ch2
Figure 83: Connection of the scopemeter for checking CT in phase L2
118 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L3
N
L
K
k
Load side
L
l
k
l
k
l
N L1
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
Positive direction
Ch1
L2
L3
PQF
Ch2
Figure 84: Connection of the scopemeter for checking CT in phase L3
8.6.2.3.3
Checking the correct connection of the CTs with two current probes
If the main bus bar is available and all security rules are taken, it is possible to use the
two-channel scopemeter in order to see if the current measured through the CT is
matching the real current in the bus. Connect the current probes as shown on Figure 85.
The two traces must be in phase and of the same shape (the magnitude could be
different as the gains are different) if the wiring is correct.
Positive direction
L1
Supply side
K
L
K
L2
L3
N
L
K
k
Load side
L
l
k
l
k
l
N L1
X21.1
X21.2
X21.3
X21.4
X21.5
X21.6
Positive direction
Ch1
L2
L3
PQF
Ch2
Figure 85: Connection of the scopemeter for checking the CT in phase L1 by comparing the
currents
This operation has to be repeated for the remaining two phases for a complete check.
The current probes have to be changed accordingly.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 119
8.6.2.4
Checking the correct connection of the CTs with a Fluke 41B or similar
equipment
The Fluke 41B is a power analyzer that allows measurements of one voltage and one
current wave. Unfortunately, the device does not allow simultaneous display of both
waveforms on the screen. However, it is possible to synchronize the triggering on either
the voltage or on the current. All phase shift measurements are then referenced to the
chosen origin. To read directly the phase shift between the fundamental components, just
select the spectrum window of the signal which is not chosen as the origin.
The instrument must be configured for single-phase measurements.
The probes must be connected as shown in Figure 80, Figure 83 and Figure 84.
8.7
Step 6: Before starting the filter
Before switching the filter ON, ensure that all harmonics and reactive power
compensation/balancing options have been deselected.
• For deselecting all harmonics of the main filter settings at once go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Deselect all]
• For deselecting all harmonics of the auxiliary filter settings at once go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Deselect all]
• For deselecting the reactive power compensation option of the main filter settings
disable the option ‘PFC type’ in [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main
settings/Main PFC/Bal.]
• For deselecting the load balancing option of the main filter settings disable the
option ‘Balance load’ in [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Main
PFC/Bal.]
• For deselecting the reactive power compensation option of the auxiliary filter
settings disable the option ‘PFC type’ in [/Welcome/Settings/Customer
set./Auxiliary settings/Aux. PFC/Bal.]
• For deselecting the load balancing option of the auxiliary filter settings disable the
option ‘Balance load’ in [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Aux.
PFC/Bal.]
For more information on the main and auxiliary settings concept, refer to Section 7.7.1.1.
In multi-unit filters consisting of only masters, the master unit with the lowest address has
to be used to control the complete filter system.
8.8
Step 7: Start the filter
Fit the filter top cover before starting the filter.
The PQFS contains a main contactor that is controlled by the filter controller.
WARNING: Under no circumstances close the main contactor manually. Failure to
adhere to this guideline may result in physical danger and in filter damage.
With all harmonics and reactive power compensation/balancing deselected, you can start
the filter.
In order to do this with the PQF Manager:
120 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• Press
repeatedly until the ‘Welcome’ screen is displayed
• Highlight the filter start/stop menu (‘PQF’ item in the list). In this menu, the
‘START’ indication should be present.
• Press
. The filter will ask confirmation and then it will start. The main
contactor should close within 30 seconds. One second after closing, the IGBTs
will start and the filter will work under no load condition.
• The ‘START’ indication in the start/stop menu changes in a ‘STOP’ indication
once the filter is running
Detailed information on the filter start/stop menu can be found in Section 7.5.
Remarks:
• If the start/stop menu reads ‘ACK. FAULT’ (i.e. ‘acknowledge fault’), the filter has
encountered a fault that needs to be corrected before the filter can be started.
Refer to Chapter 11 for troubleshooting the problem.
• If the filter when activating the start menu displays a message to indicate that it is
remote control mode, the filter either has to be started by remote control or the
remote control mode has to be deactivated. More information about the remote
control functionality is given in Section 6.12.1 and Section 7.7.1.2.
• If one of the units in a multi-unit filter system does not switch on, the unit
considered is in error. Refer to [/Welcome/PQF Monitoring/Status of units]) to
find out about the problem.
8.9
Step 8: Generate filter load
Once the filter is connected to the supply and is running, some filter load can be
generated to verify if the filtering is performing well.
When a harmonic load is present, the filtering performance can be tested by selecting a
harmonic, e.g. of order 11, and verifying if it is filtered properly.
• For setting up the filter’s main harmonics selection go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Main harmonics]
• For setting up the filter’s auxiliary harmonics selection go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Aux. Harmonics]
For more information on the main and auxiliary settings concept and on the setting up of
harmonics, refer to Section 7.7.1.1.
Once the harmonic is selected, analyze the spectrum of the line currents to see if the
selected harmonic is filtered. Refer to Section 7.6.2 for more information on displaying
measurement results. If the harmonic is not filtered properly (e.g. if it is amplified),
deselect the harmonic and refer to Chapter 11 for troubleshooting the problem.
When harmonic load is not present, the filter can be tested by generating static reactive
power. Initially a low value can be set which can then be gradually increased to the
nominal filter rating.
• For setting up the filter’s main reactive power feature go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Main settings/Main PFC/Bal.]
• For setting up the filter’s auxiliary harmonics selection go to
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Auxiliary settings/Aux. PFC/Bal.]
Set the ‘PFC Type’ item to ‘Static cap.’ and choose the desired value for the item ‘Q
static’.
For more information on the main and auxiliary settings concept, refer to Section 7.7.1.1.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 121
Once the reactive power is selected, analyze the filter current. Refer to Section 7.6.2 for
more information on displaying measurement results. Refer to to Chapter 11 in case of
problems. Disable the reactive power setting after the test if it is not required by the user.
8.10 Step 9: Set up the user requirements
If everything goes well at this stage, the user requirements for harmonic filtration and
reactive power compensation/balancing can be set up. Both main and auxiliary settings
can be programmed if desired.
By default the filter is set up to take into consideration the main settings only.
• Select the desired filter mode
• Select the harmonics and the curve level
• Select the reactive power and balancing settings
Background information on all the items discussed above is given in Section 7.7.1.1.
At this stage, verify the functioning of the settings made for the digital I/O if possible (e.g.
remote control, local start/stop buttons).
Remarks:
• Refer to to Chapter 11 for troubleshooting problems
• Filter running at 100% load while RMS current rating is not attained
Under exceptional conditions it is possible that the active filter is showing a 100%
load indication whereas its nominal RMS current rating is not yet attained. This is
because the filter has reached an operating limit other than the RMS current
limit. Possible other limits are:
o
Temperature limit due to a too high ambient temperature or a failing
cooling system
o
Peak current limit due to an a-typical peak current requirement of the
load
o
Peak voltage limit due to an a-typical DC-link voltage requirement of the
load or due to a high network voltage
Under all these conditions, the filter will run in limited mode and may not attain
100% of its nominal current rating.
• Harmonics put in ‘standby’ by the filter system:
When selecting a harmonic that has not been selected before, the filter will
identify the network characteristics for this harmonic. After this process, the filter
will launch the filtering process for the component considered. If during the
network identification process for a given harmonic a special (problematic)
condition is encountered, the system puts the component in ‘standby’. In that
case the harmonic selected is not filtered for the time being. Special network
conditions include extremely high impedance of the supply network or extremely
low impedance towards the load. When consulting the harmonic selection table
of the PQF-Manager, harmonics put in ‘standby’ can be recognized by the label
‘S’ that is displayed in the harmonic selection column (which reads otherwise
either ‘Y’ or ‘N’). The following possibilities exist to bring a harmonic out of
standby:
o
The user restarts a network identification process by changing the ‘S’
indication into a ‘Y’ indication in the harmonic selection table
122 Commissioning instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
o
The filter automatically restarts an identification process on all
harmonics that were put in standby previously when a successful
identification of another harmonic is made. As a result, the harmonic
considered will be automatically filtered when the network conditions
allow for this.
• If plain capacitors (i.e. capacitor banks not incorporating detuning reactors) are
present in the network it is recommended to switch them off or change them into
detuned banks. Sometimes, the commissioning engineer is faced with an
installation where both an active filter and plain capacitors are present however.
While this is an ill advised and a technically unsound situation, ABB
acknowledges that in this case also the active filter should aim to give an optimal
performance. For this reason the control software of the filter incorporates a
Stability Detection Program (SDP) that aims to increase the filter performance in
this type of applications.
In installations where plain capacitors are present and cannot be switched off or
changed to detuned capacitor banks, adhere to the recommendations below for
optimal results.
o
Install the capacitor banks upstream of the active filter CT measurement
location
o
Set the filter in Mode 3
• In installations where detuned banks are present, it is recommended not to select
harmonic orders below the tuning frequency of the detuned banks. Table 51
indicates the harmonics recommended to be deselected for different types of
detuned banks.
Table 51: Recommended harmonics to be deselected for different detuned bank types
Detuned bank type
Harmonics recommended to be deselected
5.67 %
2, 3, 4
6%
2, 3, 4
7%
2, 3
14 %
2
For other types of detuned bank please contact your ABB Service provider to evaluate
the resonance frequency and the harmonics that are recommended to be deselected.
When background distortion is present on the network and detuned capacitor banks are
installed adjacent to the active filter but connected downstream of the filter CTs, filter
resources will be lost. To overcome this, it is recommended to either connect the detuned
capacitor bank upstream of the filter CTs or to use the CT connection approach shown in
Figure 86.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 123
Feeding
transformer Filter CTs
PQFx
+
Detuned
capacitor
bank
-
Figure 86: Connection approach for installations where detuned capacitor banks are installed
adjacent to the active filter but downstream to the active filter CTs (background distortion present)
• In installations where active filters and passive filters are present, the active filters
must be installed downstream of the passive filter. If this is not possible, the CT
connection scheme of Figure 87 shall be used.
Feeding
transformer Filter CTs
PQFx
Passive
filter
+
-
Figure 87: CT connection guidelines for the case that a passive filter is installed downstream of the
active filter
Further, when a passive filter and an active filter are installed on the same bus, it
is not recommended to select on the active filter the harmonics at or below the
tuning frequency of the passive filter. If these harmonics are selected, the SDP
function may stop filtering these harmonics temporarily resulting in a reduced
overall filtering performance.
• In installations where 2 non-compatible masters are connected to the same CT,
respect the following guidelines for best performance:
1. Select different harmonics on both units
2. If 1 above is not possible, put one filter in Mode 1 and the other filter in Mode 3
Note: ‘Non-compatible’’ master units are master units that cannot or are not
interconnected with the RJ45-communication cable.
Please do not forget to fill in the commissioning report for future reference.
8.11 Commissioning report
The commissioning report is designed to help the person in charge of the commissioning.
Before installation and operation of the PQF, read the relevant sections of the Instruction
Manual.
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8.11.1 Filter identification
(a)
Active filter type
Global ratings
Maximum voltage (V)
(a)
Total current (A)
(a)
System serial number
Filter connection mode (3-W
or 4-W)
Unit ratings/serial number
(b)
Rating (A)
Serial number
(b)
Article code
Unit 1 (M)
Unit 2 (M/S)
Software version
(c)
(d)
Unit 3(M/S)
(d)
Unit 4(M/S)
(d)
PQF-Manager software
µcontroller software
DSP software
Installation location
Remarks:
(a)
Read from main identification tag located on the master enclosure.
(b)
Read on identification tag located at the outside of each enclosure.
(c)
After the filter has been commissioned, navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/About PQF].
(d)
Select whether this unit is a master (M) or a slave (S) unit.
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Inspection on site – verification of the active filter after installation
Ambient conditions
Check the ambient temperature (< 40°C/104°F) (if > 40°C/104°F, derating is required)
Check the installation altitude (< 1000m/3300ft) (if > 1000m/3300ft, derating is required)
Check the ventilation (room and enclosure)
Ensure that no sources of conductive dust are present
Upstream cabling and protection
Upstream protection installed
Check cross-section of power supply cables (L1-L2-L3) and neutral (if connected)
Check cross-section of protective conductors (PE) (
16 mm²) connected to each
enclosure.
Check the setting and operation of the protective apparatus
PQFS neutral current can be up to 3 times the PQFS phase current!
Check rated current of the power supply cable fuses (if applicable)
Check tightness of conductor fixations
The material of busbars, terminals and conductors must be compatible (corrosion)
(a)
Internal connections
Disconnect the filter from the supply (disconnection recommended by upstream protection)
If filter connected to the supply before, wait 25 minutes to discharge DC capacitors
Remove the filter protective cover, disconnect PQF-Manager if required
Open auxiliary circuit fuse protection box
DC capacitor voltage low enough to operate safely (DC voltage measurement)
(b)
Filter hardware configured for the desired network voltage (208-240 V or 380-415 V)
Wiring of main and auxiliary circuit
Tightness of all electrical connections
Connectors properly plugged in
Fixation of components
DC capacitor voltage low enough to operate safely (DC voltage measurement)
Remove anti-corrosion capsules installed at the inside bottom of the filter (if still present)
Clearances
Address of each filter unit in a multi-unit system set to a different value and ‘main’ master
(c)
has the lowest address
(c)
CAN bus terminated properly on each unit of a multi-unit system
(c)
CAN bus communication cable between the different units properly installed
(a)
Installation
Check the factory installed shorting cable (3-phase, neutral, earth) is removed
Check the cabling of the digital I/O (if present)
Check the voltage in accordance with the specification
(b)
Check the phase rotation order (with filter auxiliaries off) (clockwise)
For multi-unit filters, check that the same phases are connected to the same filter power
terminals for the individual units
Check visually the current transformers
- Ratio
- Installed at the right side (feeding-side of the active filter)
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For multi-unit filters, check that the CTs of all units are cabled in a daisy chain fashion with
(d)
return path
Remove all jumpers of all current transformers (CTs and SCTs)
Remove all jumpers of the CT connection terminal(s) X21
Remarks:
(a)
Refer to Section 8.2 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(b)
Refer to Section 8.4 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(c)
Refer to Section 8.3 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(d)
Refer to Section 8.6.2.1 of the manual for more information on this topic.
8.11.3
Programming
(a)
Apply voltage to the filter
Close the auxiliary circuit fuse box
Refit the filter protective cover including PQF-Manager connection
Apply voltage to the active filter (restore upstream protection)
PQF-Manager booting and showing ‘Welcome’ screen (or standby screen on
master units running as slave)
Fans start running
(b)
Program equipment
Network characteristics
- Supply voltage (V)
- Supply frequency (Hz)
- Synchro mode (should normally not be changed, default value is Single ph.)
Filter ratings
- Connection mode (3-wire or 4-wire)
CT position and ratio (for first unit)
- Automatic detection feature used
(c)
- Filter terminal ‘Input 1’ is connected to the CT (including sign)
(c)
- Filter terminal ‘Input 2’ is connected to the CT (including sign)
(c)
- Filter terminal ‘Input 3’ is connected to the CT (including sign)
- Ratio of CT installed in line L1 (R, U)
- Ratio of CT installed in line L2 (Y, V)
- Ratio of CT installed in line L3 (B, W)
CT position and ratio for other units of a multi-unit filter system is ok?
Rating factor (temp > 40°C/104°F or altitude > 1000m/3300ft or…)
- Rating (%)
(d)
Configure digital inputs if applicable
For full redundancy, configure/cable digital inputs on all masters of a multi(d)
master system
(e)
Configure digital outputs if applicable
For full redundancy, configure/cable digital outputs on all masters of a multi(e)
master system
(f)
Configure programmable warnings if applicable
For full redundancy, configure programmable warnings on all masters of a
(f)
multi-master system
YES/NO
Line 1, 2, 3, -1, -2, -3
Line 1, 2, 3, -1, -2, -3
Line 1, 2, 3, -1, -2, -3
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  The PQF-Manager user interface 127
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(g)
Configure programmable alarms if applicable
For full redundancy, configure programmable alarms on all masters of a multi(g)
master system
Remarks:
(a)
Refer to Sections 8.5. and 8.6 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(b)
Navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/Settings/Commissioning].
(c)
Encircle the correct setting. Negative values imply inversed CT orientation or cabling.
(d)
Navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital inputs].
(e)
Navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital outputs].
(f)
Navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Warnings].
(g)
Navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Alarms].
8.11.4
Testing (with load)
Before starting the filter
(a)
Deselect all harmonics and reactive power/balancing
(b)
Start the filter
(c)
While the filter is running
th
If harmonic load is present, select for example the 11 harmonic
th
Check the line current (Irms, 11 harmonic level and waveforms)
If harmonic load is not present, generate static capacitive power (first select H3)
Check the filter currents (fundamental current level)
(d)
Set up the user requirements for harmonics and reactive power/balancing
Check the line currents (Irms, THDI and waveforms)
Check the line voltage (Vrms, THDV and waveforms)
Remarks:
(a)
Refer to Section 8.7 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(b)
Refer to Section 8.8 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(c)
Refer to Section 8.9 of the manual for more information on this topic.
(d)
Refer to Section 8.10 of the manual for more information on this topic.
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Programmed parameters
Activate
Main
Auxiliary
Ext. Input
Filter mode
Main settings
Auxiliary settings
1
1
2
2
3
3
Reactive power compensation
Main settings (Main PFC/Bal.)
PFC type
Disabled
Static ind.
Q static (kvar)
Static cap.
Q static (kvar)
Dyn. ind.
Target cos ϕ
Dyn. cap.
Target cos ϕ
Balance load
Disabled
L-L
Auxiliary settings (Aux. PFC/Bal.)
PFC type
Disabled
Static ind.
Q static (kvar)
Static cap.
Q static (kvar)
Dyn. ind.
Target cos ϕ
Dyn. cap.
Target cos ϕ
Balance load
Disabled
L-L
Harmonics
Main settings (Main PFC/Bal.)
Selected
H. Order
Curve (A)
YES
NO
1
3
2
5
3
7
4
11
5
13
6
17
7
19
8
23
9
25
10
29
11
31
12
35
13
37
14
41
15
43
16
47
17
49
18
9
19
15
20
21
Auxiliary settings (Aux. PFC/Bal.)
Selected
H. Order
Curve (A)
YES
NO
3
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
9
15
21
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
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Alarms
Prog. alarms
Prog. alarm 1
Prog. alarm 2
Prog. alarm 3
Alarm delay
Alarm rst del.
Page 6 of 7
Warnings
Warning levels
T IGBT warn.
T crtl war.
V. min. warn.
V. max. warn.
Imbalance
Ground fault
Prog. warnings
Prog. warn. 1
Prog. warn. 2
Prog. warn. 3
Warning delay
Warn. rst del.
Digital Inputs
Dig. In 1
Dig. In 2
Digital Outputs
Dig. Out 1
Dig. Out 2
Dig. Out 3
Dig. Out 4
Dig. Out 5
Dig. Out 6
Start-Stop set.
Stdby status
Standby level
Stdby del off
Standby hyst
Stdby del con
Auto start
Auto st. del.
Communication
Protocol
Modbus
Baud rate
Parity
Stop bit
Slave Address
Modbus lock
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Comments
Commissioning Engineer
Customer’s representative
Name
Signature
Date
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Commissioning instructions 131
9
9.1
Operating instructions
What this chapter contains
This chapter contains the user operating instructions for the active filter. It is assumed
that the filter has been installed and commissioned correctly (cf. previous chapters). The
following operations are discussed:
• Starting and stopping the filter
• Modifying the user requirements
• Changing the system temperature unit and PQF-Manager contrast
• Consulting filter measurements
• Consulting filter statistics and manufacturer data
• Filter behaviour on faults – retrieving error information
Note that in the context of this manual, the PQF-Manager is used to operate the filter.
Background information on the PQF-Manager can be found in Chapter 7.
An alternative way to operate the filter is using Modbus communication. Refer to
document “2GCS212012A0050-RS-485 Installation and Start-up guide” for more
background information on this subject and to the information provided by your system
integrator.
WARNING: High AC and DC voltage may be present in the filter enclosure. Do not
operate the unit with the protective panels removed. Do not touch any filter parts
unless you have ascertained that they do not carry dangerous voltage levels.
9.2
Starting and stopping the filter
The PQFS contains a main contactor that is controlled by the filter controller. The main
contactor should never be activated manually for normal filter operation.
WARNING: Under no circumstances close the main contactor manually. Failure to
adhere to this guideline may result in physical injury and/or in filter damage.
Normally, the commissioning engineer has set up the filter and the desired filter
requirements. As a result, the user only has to start and stop the filter. Detailed
information on the filter start/stop menu can be found in Section 7.5.
9.2.1
Starting the filter with the PQF-Manager
In order to start the filter with the PQF-Manager follows the instructions given below:
• Ensure that power is supplied to the filter and that the filter auxiliaries are ‘on’
(auxiliary fuse holder contains good fuses and is closed)
132 Operating instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• Press
on the PQF-Manager repeatedly until the ‘Welcome’ screen is
displayed
• Highlight the filter ‘start/stop’ menu (‘PQF’ item in the list). In this menu, the
‘START’ indication should be visible.
• Press
. The filter will ask confirmation and then it will start. The main contactor
should close within 30 seconds and one second after closing, the IGBTs will start
and the filter will work under no load condition.
• The ‘START’ indication in the ‘start/stop’ menu changes in a ‘STOP’ indication
once the filter is running
Remarks:
• If the ‘start/stop’ menu reads ‘ACK. FAULT’ (i.e. ‘acknowledge fault’), the filter
has encountered a fault that needs to be corrected before the filter can be
started. Refer to Chapter 11 for troubleshooting the problem. In filter systems
consisting of more than one unit, an ACK. FAULT message will only occurs when
all the masters in the system have failed.
• In filter systems consisting of more than one master, one master unit is the main
one and the other units behave as slaves. The PQF-Manager of the main master
unit has full functionality and can be used to control the complete system. If the
main master unit fails, then another master unit will assume the role of main
master unit. The order in which master units assume control has been
determined at the moment of commissioning.
• If some units of a multi-unit filter system do not start, this implies that the units
concerned are in error. Refer to [Welcome/PQF Monitoring/Status of units] to
identify the unit that is at fault and for which reason. Refer to Chapter 11 for
troubleshooting the problem.
• If the filter when activating the start menu displays a message to indicate that it is
remote control mode, the filter either has to be started by remote control or the
remote control mode has to be deactivated. More information about the remote
control functionality is given in Section 6.12.1 and Section 7.7.1.2.
• If the hardware lock and/or the Modbus lock has/have been engaged, the filter
cannot be started nor stopped. In order to see which lock(s) has/have been
engaged push
when the ‘start/stop’ menu is highlighted. A message will
appear to indicate which lock(s) has/have to be disengaged. If authorized,
disengage the relevant lock.
o
The hardware lock can be disengaged by pushing the blue button
present at the bottom rear of the PQF-Manager. More information on
the filter menu locking facilities is given in Section 7.4.
• The Modbus lock can be disengaged in the menu [/Welcome/Settings/Installation
set./Communication/Modbus/Modbus lock]. More information on the Modbus lock
is available in the document “2GCS212012A0050-RS-485 Installation and Startup guide”
When power is applied to the filter and it is started, the following startup sequence is
conducted:
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Operating instructions 133
Apply power to filter
auxiliaries
Controllers
and fan(s)
running,
DC
capacitors
charging
Start filter
DC capacitors
preload check,
3, 4- wire
connectivity
check
Close MC
Start-up sequence
Start IGBTs
Network
identification
Operation as
programmed
Figure 88: Filter start-up sequence when power is applied and the start command is given
In Figure 88 it may be seen that:
• The fan starts running and the DC capacitors charge as soon as the auxiliary
circuit power is switched on.
• The start-up sequence consists of the DC capacitors voltage check, the closure
of the filter main contactor and the starting of the IGBTs
• Network identification may be done after the start-up sequence has finished. This
network identification will always be done when harmonic components were
selected and the supply to the filter was removed before or when new harmonic
components have been selected. The network identification may also be done
automatically during normal filter operation if the filter controller has noted a big
change of network impedance.
• At the end of the start up procedure, the filter will work as programmed
Remark: Filter running at 100% load while RMS current rating is not attained.
Under exceptional conditions it is possible that the active filter is showing a 100% load
indication whereas its nominal RMS current rating is not yet attained. This is because the
filter has reached an operating limit other than the RMS current limit. Possible other limits
are:
• Temperature limit due to a too high ambient temperature or a failing cooling
system
• Peak current limit due to an a-typical peak current requirement of the load
• Peak voltage limit due to an a-typical DC-link voltage requirement of the load or
due to a high network voltage
Under all these conditions, the filter will run in limited mode and may not attain 100% of
its nominal current rating.
134 Operating instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
9.2.2
Stopping the filter with the PQF-Manager
In order to stop the filter with the PQF-Manager follows the instructions given below:
• Press
on the PQF-Manager repeatedly until the ‘Welcome’ screen is
displayed
• Highlight the filter ‘start/stop’ menu (‘PQF’ item in the list). In this menu, the
‘STOP’ indication should be present.
• Press
. The filter will ask confirmation and then it will stop. The main contactor
will open.
• The ‘STOP’ indication in the start/stop menu changes in a ‘START’ indication
once the filter is stopped
Remarks:
• If the ‘start/stop’ menu reads ‘ACK. FAULT’ (i.e. ‘acknowledge fault’), the filter
has encountered a fault. Refer to Section 9.7 and Chapter 11 for troubleshooting
the problem.
WARNING: In case the filter stops operating due to a fault, very high
voltages may be present on the DC capacitors for a long time. Do not touch
any live parts unless you have ascertained that no dangerous voltage
levels exist in the filter.
• If the filter when activating the stop menu displays a message to indicate that it is
remote control mode, the filter either has to be stopped by remote control or the
remote control mode has to be deactivated. More information about the remote
control functionality is given in Section 6.12.1. and Section 7.7.1.2.
• If the hardware lock and/or the Modbus lock has/have been engaged, the filter
cannot be started nor stopped neither by the local button nor by remote control.
In order to see which lock(s) has/have been engaged push
when the
‘start/stop’ menu is highlighted. A message will appear to indicate which lock(s)
has/have to be disengaged. If authorized, disengage the relevant lock.
o
The hardware lock can be disengaged by pushing the blue button
present at the bottom rear of the PQF-Manager. More information on
the filter menu locking facilities is given in Section 7.4.
o
The Modbus lock can be disengaged in the menu
[/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Communication/Modbus/Modbus
lock]. More information on the Modbus lock is available in the document
“2GCS212012A0050-RS-485 Installation and Start-up guide”.
The stop sequence conducted when a stop command is given can be derived from the
following flow chart.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Operating instructions 135
Apply power to filter
auxiliaries
Controllers
and fan(s)
running,
DC
capacitors
charging
Start filter
DC capacitors
preload check,
3, 4- wire
connectivity
check
Start-up sequence
Close MC
Start IGBTs
Network
identification
Operation as
programmed
Stop filter
Open MC
Figure 89: Filter operation sequence when no fault is present
The DC bus incorporates discharge resistors that can discharge the DC bus in 25
minutes.
9.3
Modifying the user requirements
Providing that the filter locks have not been engaged, the user can change the customer
settings to better suit his needs. These settings can be accessed in the PQF-Manager
menu [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set.].
The user requirements can be divided into the following categories:
• Setting up the filter mode, the harmonic requirements and the reactive power and
balancing requirements. Refer to Section 7.7.1.1 for detailed information on these
topics.
• Setting up alarms, warnings and digital I/O. The digital I/O allows configuration of
the filter to operate in remote control mode etc. Refer to Section 7.7.1.2 for
detailed information on these topics.
Advanced user requirements have to be set up in the ‘installation settings’ menu
([/Welcome/Settings/Installation set.]). These advanced functions include:
• the autorestart function (after power outage)
• the standby function to switch off the IGBTs when the load requirement is low
• the system clock setup
136 Operating instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• the external communication setup for Modbus
• the software lock activation and password setup for filter protection purposes
Refer to Section 7.7.3 for detailed information on these topics.
It is recommended that the advanced functions be set up by a skilled commissioning
engineer.
9.4
Changing the system temperature unit and PQF-Manager contrast
If desired the system temperature unit can be changed from °C to °F or vice versa. This is
done in [/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Temp unit].
In addition, the PQF-Manager contrast can be changed in
[/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Contrast].
In systems consisting of more than one master, this needs to be done in all the PQFManagers.
9.5
Consulting filter measurements
In order to consult the measurements done by the filter system, go to
[/Welcome/Measurements].
The complete list of measured items is discussed in Section 7.6.
9.6
Consulting filter statistics and manufacturer data
In order to consult the filter statistics, go to [/Welcome/PQF Monitoring]. This menu allows
to monitor the filter load and to get an idea of its operating point compared to the nominal
rating of the filter. In addition, logged warnings, faults and events can be retrieved for
troubleshooting the filter operation and any abnormal network conditions. Also, an
indication is given of fan running hours and filter running hours.
The ‘PQF Monitoring’ menu can also be used to verify the status of the individual units in
a multi-master filter system.
The ‘PQF Monitoring’ menu is discussed in depth in Section 7.8.
In order to obtain background manufacturer data on your PQF, go to [/Welcome/About
PQF]. This menu gives basic data on the filter. This data includes:
• Basic manufacturer settings such as filter type, maximum voltage rating and filter
serial number. These settings can be accessed in [/Welcome/About
PQF/Manufacturer set.]
• Firmware version numbers for the PQF-Manager, the µcontroller and the DSP
controller
When communicating with your ABB representative on a specific filter, please provide
always the data shown in the ‘About PQF’ menu.
9.7
Filter behavior on fault – retrieving error information
Under normal conditions the filter is either running or stopped and the PQF-item in the
PQF-Manager ‘Welcome’ screen shows the message ‘START’ or ’STOP’. In this case, if
the filter is stopped it can be started and if it is running it can be stopped. The start and
stop commands will be stored in the event log accessible in [/Welcome/PQF
Monitoring/Event logging].
All faults that occur are stored in the same event log. A fault can either be non-critical or
critical.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Operating instructions 137
• A non-critical fault is a transient fault (e.g. a voltage spike). When a non-critical
fault occurs the filter may stop the switching of the IGBTs momentarily (< 40 ms)
but they will automatically restart. The only way to pick up this type of fault is to
analyze the event log. Given the transient/random character of this type of fault,
the filter performance will hardly deteriorate when it occurs.
• A critical fault is a fault that after occurrence cannot be successfully automatically
cleared by the system within a reasonable time. The time frame considered
depends on the error type. If the fault is considered critical by the system, the
label ‘Critical’ will be shown in the event logging window. In addition, the PQFitem in the PQF-Manager ‘Welcome’ screen will show the label ‘ACK. FAULT’.
Note however that if the fault disappears fast, this label disappears too.
Depending on the type of critical fault and the number of occurrences, the filter,
when running, may either:
o
Stop (open the main contactor) and await user intervention. In this
condition the alarm contact of the PQF-Manager will switch on after a
programmable delay and the ‘Armed’ indicator will be OFF. The green
LED on the main controller board (Cf. Table 12 item 18, LED 2) will be
off and the red LED on (Cf. Table 12 item 18, LED 3). The user has to
acknowledge the fault (with the PQF-Manager via Modbus or via remote
control) before the filter can be restarted.
By default, the ‘Armed’ indicator is associated with the fourth digital
output contact (cf. Table 9 and Table 10) The digital output contact
monitor at the top of the PQF-Manager display (Cf. Figure 61 item 3)
can be used to check the status of the digital output. Alternatively, the
digital output considered can be wired to monitor the ‘Armed’ indicator
by distance (cf. Section 6.12.4).
o
Stop (open the main contactor) and restart automatically if the fault
disappears. If stopped, the alarm contact of the PQF-Manager will
switch on after a programmable delay and the ‘Armed’ indicator will be
ON. The green LED on the main controller board (Cf. Table 12 item 18,
LED 2) will be ON and the red LED will be OFF (Cf. Table 12 item 18,
LED 3). If it takes a long time before the fault disappears, the user may
decide to give a filter stop command. This is done by highlighting the
‘PQF ACK. FAULT’ item in the ‘Welcome’ menu and selecting
. After
this, the ‘Armed’ indicator will be OFF. The green and red LED on the
main controller board (Cf. Table 12 item 18, LEDs 2 and 3) will be OFF
too.
o
Stop briefly without opening the main contactor and continue filtering
when the error has disappeared. This is essentially the same case as
the one described above but the error phenomenon disappears faster
than the time required to generate a main contactor opening command.
If the filter is OFF and an external critical error occurs, these errors are
also reported in the event log. As long as a critical fault condition exists
(e.g. permanent undervoltage on one phase) the display will show the
message ‘ACK. FAULT’ and the filter will refuse to start; The ‘Armed’
indicator on the PQF-Manager will be OFF and both the green and red
main controller LEDs will be OFF too.
In general the occurrence of transient faults is no problem for the proper
operation of the active filter. Only when an error becomes ‘critical’, a
problem may exist.
138 Operating instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
If ‘ACK. FAULT’ is present on the PQF-Manager display, look at the ‘Armed’ indicator (By
th
default mapped to the 4 digital output of the PQF-Manager) to know whether the filter
will restart automatically after clearance of the problem or not.
- ‘Armed’ indicator ON: The filter waits for the problem to disappear and then restarts
automatically (unless the user acknowledges the fault).
- ‘Armed’ indicator OFF: The filter is permanently stopped and the customer has to solve
the problem, acknowledge the fault and restart the filter manually.
If the filter is in remote control operation and the message ‘ACK. FAULT’ is present on
the PQF-Manager, the fault can be acknowledged by sending a ‘STOP’ command by
remote control (low signal). Alternatively, the remote control functionality can be disabled
by disabling the corresponding digital input functionality. Then, the fault can be
acknowledged locally.
Refer to Chapter 11 for advanced troubleshooting of the filter.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Operating instructions 139
10 Maintenance instructions
10.1 What this chapter contains
This chapter contains the maintenance instructions for the active filter. Although your
PQF has been designed for minimum maintenance, the following procedure should be
carefully followed to ensure the longest possible lifetime of your investment.
WARNING: All maintenance work described in this chapter should only be
undertaken by a qualified electrician. The safety instructions presented in Chapter
2 of this manual must be strictly adhered to.
WARNING: High AC and DC voltages may be present in the filter panel. Do not
touch any filter parts unless you have ascertained that they do not carry dangerous
voltage levels.
WARNING: Under no circumstances close the main contactor manually. Failure to
adhere to this guideline may result in physical injury and/or in filter damage.
10.2 Maintenance intervals
Table 52 lists the routine maintenance intervals recommended by ABB. Depending on the
operating and ambient conditions, the intervals of Table 52 may have to be reduced.
Announced intervals assume that the equipment is operating under ABB approved
operating conditions (Cf. Chapter 12).
Table 52: Filter maintenance intervals recommended by ABB
Maintenance
Intervals
Instructions
Standard maintenance
procedure
Depending on the dustiness/dirtiness of the
environment, every 12 to 24 months.
Section 10.3
Cooling fan change
Every 4 years (35000 hours)
Section 10.4
DC capacitor change
Every 8 years when not using line to neutral
balancing option.
Section 10.5
Every 5.5 years when using full capacity for
line to neutral balancing.
Every 5.5 years for PQFS 100A in case of
rd
compensation of 3 harmonic in singlephase applications.
For convenience Section 10.7 presents a maintenance template that can be used by the
maintenance engineer.
10.3 Standard maintenance procedure
10.3.1
Step 1: Check the ambient temperature conditions
With the filter running, check the ambient temperature conditions and make sure that they
are similar to the conditions at the commissioning stage. If higher temperatures are
present, this may indicate a problem with the switch room cooling/ventilation system.
Ensure that the filter derating factor ([/Welcome/Settings/Installation set./Rating])
140 Maintenance instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
corresponds to the ambient conditions observed. If the ambient temperature is higher
than 40°C/104°F, the filter should be derated (Cf. Section 5.2).
10.3.2
Step 2: Record the filter operating status
• With the filter running, check and note the filter load graphs ([/Welcome/PQF
Monitoring/Filter load]). Pay special attention to the temperature graph. If this one
is around 100% and the other load indicators are relatively low, this could
indicate that the filter is limiting its output because it is experiencing a cooling
(fan) problem. If in doubt, assign the ‘T Limit’ indicator to a spare digital output
([/Welcome/Settings/Customer set./Digital Outputs]). This way, the digital output
monitor at the top of the PQF-Manager screen will be on if the filter is limiting its
output current due to temperature problems. By default, the ‘T Limit’ indicator is
assigned to digital output 6 of the PQF-Manager.
• Make a note of the PQF-operation hours ([/Welcome/PQF monitoring/PQF
operation]) and the fan-operation hours ([/Welcome/PQF Monitoring/Fan
operation]). For units up to 60A, if the fan operation indicator shows a multiple of
40000 hours, it is recommended that the fan be replaced. For units with higher
ratings than 60A, if the fan operation indicator shows a multiple of 35000 hours, it
is recommended that the fan be replaced (Cf. Section 10.4). Pay attention to any
noise that could indicate fan failure.
• Browse the ‘event logging’ menu ([/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Event logging]) to
spot any abnormal events that may have occurred
• Make a note of the total number of faults that the system has recorded over time
([/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Number of errors])
• Inspect the filter visually for any condition that could indicate an abnormal filter
stress (e.g. abnormal noises, abnormal appearance/colour or components and
cables)
Note: In filters consisting of more than one master, the above parameters can be
reviewed for the different units.
10.3.3
Step 3: Shut the filter down
• Switch the filter off and remove the power supply to the filter
• Wait at least 25 minutes to allow for the DC capacitors to discharge
• Remove the filter cover panel. Pay attention to the PQF-Manager connections.
• Open the auxiliary circuit fuse box
• Ensure that the DC capacitors have completely discharged before going to step 4
10.3.4
Step 4: Inspect and clean the filter
• Inspect the filter visually for any condition that could indicate an abnormal filter
stress (e.g. abnormal appearance/colour of components and wires)
• Remove all dust deposits in and around the filter. Pay special attention to the fan
and the heatsink. Indeed, the heatsink picks up dust from the cooling air and the
PQF might run into overtemperature faults if the heatsink is not cleaned regularly.
Pay special attention to this item if the filter has experienced shut downs due to
over temperature in the past.
• Ensure that no loose particles are left in the unit that could cause consequential
damage.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Maintenance instructions 141
• Ensure that the control cards are free of dust. If necessary remove dust from
them with a soft brush.
10.3.5
Step 5: Check the condition of the filter contactors and fuses
• Ensure that the main contactor can move freely.
• If bad fuses are found (upstream or in the unit), replace them. If the fuse in one
phase is bad, it is good practice to change the fuses of all phases. More
information on the fuses to use is given in Section 6.7 and in Chapter 12.
10.3.6
Step 6: Check the tightness of the electrical and mechanical connections
• Ensure that all electrical connections are properly fixed and that connectors are
properly plugged in. Remove oxidation traces of pin connectors if present. To this
effect a small stiff brush can be used.
• Check the mechanical fixation of all components and retighten if necessary.
10.3.7
Step 7: Correct any abnormal conditions found
If required, refer to Chapter 11 for advice on troubleshooting the filter.
10.3.8
Step 8: Restart the filter
• Reclose the auxiliary circuit fuse box.
• Refit the filter protective cover and reconnect the PQF-Manager if necessary.
• Reapply power to the filter upstream. Verify that the fan starts running and that
the PQF-Manager is booting.
• Restart the filter. If major servicing work has been done it is recommended to
follow the commissioning instructions (cf. Chapter 12) for restarting the filter.
• Verify the filter performance.
10.4 Fan replacement
The cooling fan lifespan is between 4 and 6 years typically, depending on the usage and
ambient temperature. Check the actual fan operating hours with the PQF-Manager
([/Welcome/PQF monitoring/Fan operation]).
Fan failure is often preceded by increasing noise from the bearings and rise of the
heatsink temperature despite cleaning. It is recommended to replace the fan once these
symptoms appear. Contact your ABB service provider for replacement fans for your
system.
In order to exchange the main IGBT cooling fan, follow the instructions below (Cf. Figure
90):
• Ensure that the power to the filter is switched off (upstream).
• Wait at least 25 minutes to allow for the DC capacitors to discharge.
• Open the filter front and disconnect the fan terminals (at the bottom of the filter
next to the IGBT bridge).
• Remove the 4 screws that fix the fan set to the filter enclosure (bottom left side of
the filter).
• Remove the fan assembly from the enclosure.
• Remove the fans from their holder and replace by new ones.
• Refit the assembly in the unit. Ensure proper fixation by the screws.
142 Maintenance instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
• Reconnect the fan wires to the terminal block.
• Reclose the filter cover.
3
1
2
Figure 90: Overview of IGBT cooling fan for units
The components description is given in Table 53.
Table 53: IGBT cooling fan related items description
Item
Description
1
Cooling fans
2
Fan assembly fixation holes
3
Fan electrical connections
10.5 DC capacitor change
The active filter DC link contains electrolytic DC capacitors. Their lifespan is up to 8 years
when the filter option ‘line to neutral balancing’ is not used and up to 5.5 years when the
full capacity of the filter is used for line to neutral balancing. This data assumes that the
filter is used within the ABB approved technical specifications (Cf. Chapter 12).
It is not possible to predict a capacitor failure. Contact your ABB service provider if
capacitor failure is suspected. Replacement kits are available from ABB. Do not use other
than ABB-specified spare parts.
10.6 DC capacitor reforming
If the filter has been non-operational for more than one year, the DC capacitors must be
reformed (re-aged) before use. Without reforming, the DC capacitors may be damaged at
start-up.
Stocked or non-operational filters should be reformed once a year. The method described
here assumes that the filter is stocked in a clean and dry environment.
To reform the capacitors,
• Switch on the power supply to the filter without starting the filter for about 2
hours. Verify with the PQF-Manager the DC capacitor voltage and ensure that it
is charges to a couple of hundred volts.
• Then, with all harmonics and reactive power and balancing functionality
deselected, start the active filter and leave it running for one hour
• The filter is now ready for normal operation
If the filter has been left more than 2 years without operation, please contact your ABB
service provider.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Maintenance instructions 143
10.7 Servicing report
The Servicing report is designed to help the person in charge of servicing.
The report can be used for each individual unit of a multi-unit filter.
144 Maintenance instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
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Issued by:
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Page 1 of 4
10.7.1 Filter identification
(a)
Active filter type
Maximum voltage (V)
(a)
Global ratings
Total current (A)
(a)
System serial number
Filter connection mode (3-W
or 4-W)
Unit ratings/serial number
(b)
Rating (A)
Serial number
(b)
Article code
Unit 1 (M)
Software version
(c)
Unit 2 (M/S)
(d)
Unit 3 (M/S)
(d)
Unit 4 (M/S)
(d)
PQF-Manager software
µcontroller software
DSP software
Installation location
Remarks:
(a)
Read from main identification tag located on the master enclosure.
(b)
Read on identification tag located at the outside of each enclosure.
(c)
After the filter has been commissioned, navigate with the PQF-Manager to [/Welcome/About PQF].
(d)
Select whether this unit is a master (M) or a slave (S) unit.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Maintenance instructions 145
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LV Active Filters PQF
Date:
Servicing report
10.7.2
Issued by:
Page 2 of 4
Standard maintenance procedure
Ambient conditions and derating condition (filter running)
•
Check the ambient temperature (< 40°C/104°F) (if > 40°C/104°F, derating is required)
•
Check the installation altitude (< 1000m/3300ft) (if > 1000m/3300ft, derating is required)
•
Check the ventilation (room and enclosure)
•
Ensure that no conductive dust is present in and around the filter enclosure
•
Rating factor (temperature > 40°C/104°F or altitude > 1000m/3300ft)
o Rating (%)
Filter operating status record (filter running)
•
Filter load graphs
o Vdc load (%)
o Ipeak load (%)
o Irms load (%)
o Temp (%)
•
Filter running in derated mode due to temperature limitation?
o Temp-load around 100% and other load indicators low? (Y/N)
o ‘T-Limit’ indicator on digital output monitor on? (digital output 6 by default) (Y/N)
If answer if ‘Y’ to any of the two questions above, check filter cooling.
•
PQF operation hours
•
Fan operation hours
•
If fan operation hours are multiple of 40000 hrs for units up to 60A and of 35000 hrs for units with
higher ratings, exchange fan.
•
Event logging window
o Abnormal events present? (Y/N)
If ‘Y’, describe them in the ‘comments’ section of this report.
•
Total number of faults recorded by the system
Describe them in the ‘comments’ section of this report.
Shut down the filter, remove supply to the unit
Wait 25 minutes for DC capacitors to discharge
Remove the filter protective cover and open the auxiliary fuse box
•
Ensure that components do not carry dangerous voltage levels anymore.
Inspect and clean the filter
•
All components/cabling looks OK? (Y/N)
IF ‘N’, describe the problems in the ‘comments’ section of this report.
•
Remove all dust deposits in and around the filter (fans, heatsinks, control board, …)
•
Remove loose components if present in enclosure
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Condition of filter main contactor and fuses
•
Main contactor can move freely? (Y/N)
•
Fuses are OK? (Y/N)
If ‘N’, describe the problems in the ‘comments’ section of this report.
Tightness of electrical and mechanical connections
•
Check tightness of all electrical connections
•
Check the mechanical fixation of all components
•
Retighten connections/fixations if necessary
Correct the outstanding problems
Reclose the auxiliary fuse box and refit the filter protective cover
Reclose the filter upstream protection
Restart the filter
•
PQF-Manager booting
•
Fan(s) start(s) running
•
DC capacitors charging
Start the filter
If major servicing work has been done, follow the commissioning instructions to start the filter.
10.7.3 Special service actions
Fan replacement
•
Fan operating hours?
DC capacitor replacement
•
Filter operating hours?
•
Ambient filter conditions?
•
Describe in the ‘comments’ section of this report.
DC capacitor reforming
•
Filter storage time?
•
Reforming time?
•
Describe in the ‘comments’ section of this report.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Maintenance instructions 147
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LV Active Filters PQF
Date:
Servicing report
10.7.4
Issued by:
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Comments
Service Engineer
Name
Signature
Date
148 Maintenance instructions  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Customer’s representative
11 Troubleshooting guide
11.1 What this chapter contains
This chapter presents the troubleshooting guide for the active filter. The filter fault
treatment procedure is described. Also, an overview of possible errors is given. Finally,
recommendations are made on how problems may be resolved.
WARNING: All troubleshooting and repair work described in this chapter should
only be undertaken by a qualified electrician. The safety instructions presented in
Chapter 2 of this manual must be strictly adhered to.
WARNING: High AC and DC voltages may be present in the filter enclosure. Do not
open the panel and touch any filter parts unless you have ascertained that they do
not carry dangerous voltage levels.
WARNING: Under no circumstances close the main contactor manually. Failure to
adhere to this guideline may result in physical injury and/or in filter damage.
WARNING: Some checks may have to be made with the supply on and the filter
protective cover removed. These tests must be carried out only by authorized and
qualified personnel, in accordance with the local regulations. Apply the safety
guidelines that are presented in Chapter 2. Failure to adhere with the safety
guidelines may result in lethal physical injury.
11.2 Fault treatment procedure
All faults that occur are stored in the filter event log and are analyzed by the filter
controller. The event log is of the circular type and can store up to 200 events. It can be
accessed through [/Welcome/PQF Monitoring/Event logging]. Background information on
the event logging display is given in Section 7.8.3.
A fault can either be non-critical or critical.
• A non-critical fault is a transient fault (e.g. a voltage spike). When a non-critical
fault occurs the filter may stop the switching of the IGBTs momentarily (< 40 ms)
but they will automatically restart. The only way to pick up this type of fault is to
analyze the event log. Given the transient/random character of this type of fault,
the filter performance will hardly deteriorate when it occurs.
• A critical fault is a fault that after occurrence cannot be successfully automatically
cleared by the system within a reasonable time. The time frame considered
depends on the error type. If the fault is considered critical by the system, the
label ‘Critical’ will be shown in the event logging window. In addition, the PQF
item in the PQF-Manager ‘Welcome’ screen will display the label ‘ACK. FAULT.
Note however that if the fault disappears fast, this label disappears too.
Depending on the type of critical fault and the number of occurrences, the filter, when
running, may either:
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 149
• Stop (open the main contactor) and await user intervention. In this condition the
alarm contact of the PQF-Manager will switch on after a programmable delay and
the ‘Armed’ indicator will be OFF. The user has to acknowledge the fault (with the
PQF-Manager, via Modbus or via remote control) before the filter can be
restarted.
By default, the ‘Armed’ indicator is associated with the fourth digital output
contact (cf. Table 9 and Table 10) The digital output contact monitor at the top of
the PQF-Manager display (Cf. Figure 61 item 3) can be used to check the status
of the digital output. Alternatively, the digital output considered can be wired to
monitor the ‘Armed’ indicator by distance (cf. Section 6.12.4)
• Stop (open the main contactor) and restart automatically if the fault disappears.
In this condition the alarm contact of the PQF-Manager will switch on after a
programmable delay and the ‘Armed’ indicator will be ON. If it takes a long time
before the fault disappears, the user may decide to give a filter stop command.
This is done by highlighting the ‘PQF ACK. FAULT’ item in the ‘Welcome’ menu
and selecting
. After this, the ‘Armed’ indicator will be OFF.
• Stop briefly without opening the main contactor and continue filtering when the
error has disappeared. This is essentially the same case as the one described
above but the error phenomenon disappears faster than the time required to
generate a main contactor opening command.
If the filter is OFF and a critical error occurs (e.g. network undervoltage), the errors will
also be reported in the event log. As long as a critical fault condition exists (e.g.
permanent undervoltage on one phase) the display will show the message ‘ACK. FAULT’
and the filter will refuse to start. The ‘Armed’ indicator on the PQF-Manager will be OFF.
When pressing ’ACK. FAULT’ the filter will display a message relevant to the problem. It
also shows a list of the most recent critical faults that have been recorded.
Remark: If the filter is in remote control operation and the message ‘ACK. FAULT’ is
present on the PQF-Manager, the fault can be acknowledged by sending a ‘STOP’
command by remote control (low signal). Alternatively, the remote control functionality
can be disabled by disabling the corresponding digital input functionality. Then, the fault
can be acknowledged locally.
Figure 91 shows the error treatment procedure in flowchart format.
150 Troubleshooting guide  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Figure 91: PQF error treatment procedure in flowchart format
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 151
In general the occurrence of transient faults is no problem for the proper operation of the
active filter. Only when an error becomes ‘critical’, a problem may exist.
If ‘ACK. FAULT’ is present on the PQF-Manager display, look at the ‘Armed’ indicator (By
th
default mapped to the 4 digital output of the PQF-Manager) to know whether the filter
will restart automatically after clearance of the problem or not.
‘Armed’ indicator ON: The filter waits for the problem to disappear and then restarts
automatically (unless the user acknowledges the fault).
‘Armed’ indicator OFF: The filter is permanently stopped and the customer has to solve
the problem, acknowledge the fault and restart the filter manually.
11.3 Spare part list for normal and dedicated filter servicing
A standard set of spare parts for the PQFS filter is shown in Table 54.
Table 54: Standard set of spare parts for normal and dedicated filter servicing
Ref.
Description
Order code
Recommended
quantity
1
Spare fuses for auxiliary circuit
2GCA100465A0420
3
3
Fan kit for units
2GCA291064A0075
1
4
PQF-Manager filter controller
2GCA291950A0075
1
5
PQF control board for master unit
2GCA292284A0075
1
6
PQF control board for slave unit
2GCA292285A0075
1
7
Kit flat cable
2GCA291951A0075
1
8
Power supply 24V 100W
2GCA109046A0530
1
11.4 Troubleshooting guide
11.4.1
Verification of the PQF-Manager status and the system LEDs
As a first phase of troubleshooting make a record of the information provided by the PQFManager:
• ‘ACK. FAULT’ message present of not
• Filter event log information messages
• Alarm horn on or not?
• Status of the digital output contact monitor
The most recent messages are shown first in the event log.
Refer to Table 57 and Table 58 for an overview of the possible messages and
the corresponding troubleshooting tips. Note that for troubleshooting it may be
necessary to remove the filter protective cover. Always remove power to the units
and allow time for the DC capacitors to discharge (min. 25 mins) before removing
the filter cover.
When the filter cover is removed and power is supplied again to the filter, the status of the
control card LEDs can be monitored.
• Main controller board LEDs:
Figure 19 (items 18 and 19) can be used to locate the main controller board
LEDs
Table 12 (items 18 and 19) explains the meaning of the LEDs and their status
for normal operation
152 Troubleshooting guide  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
WARNING: Only apply power to a filter without protective cover if there is no
physical damage in the filter panel. Failure to adhere to this guideline may result in
physical injury or death.
Provide the data provided by the PQF-Manager and the LED status information to the
ABB service provider when discussing a potential filter problem.
11.4.2
Fault tracing
Table 55: Power supply problems
Symptom
Cause
No display on PQF-Manager.
Fan(s) not running.
The active filter
(auxiliaries) is/ (are) not
energized or no power
supplied to the filter.
All the indicator LEDs on the
electronic cards (LEDs) remain
OFF.
No display on PQF-Manager.
Fans are running.
All the indicator LEDs on the
electronic cards (LEDs) are
functioning properly.
After applying the auxiliary power
to the system, the filter fans do
not run and the PQF-Manager
cannot finish the boot process.
What to do
The filter is wired for
operation at 400 V but is
supplied with 230 V.
The 24 Vdc power supply
feeding the controller
board has failed.
The controller board LEDs are
not functioning.
After applying auxiliary power to
the system, the fan is running,
the PQF-Manager shows the
message ‘Initializing
communication. Please wait…
none of the LEDs of the main
controller board is functioning.
No power supply to the
main controller board or
main controller board
faulty.
Check if the protection (fuses,
disconnector …) feeding the active
filter are OK.
Check if the auxiliary fuse box is
closed and the fuses are OK.
Check if the DC power supply fuse
is OK.
Check the mains and auxiliary
supply voltages.
Check that the filter is wired for
208-240 V operation.
Check the supply voltage to see
that it is within the tolerance range
of the nominal filter settings.
Check the 24 V power supply
feeding the control boards.
Check the feeding cable between
the main power and the 24 V
power supply.
Check the feeding cable between
the control boards and the 24 V
power supply.
Check the 24 V power supply
connection between the 24 V power
supply and the main controller board.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 153
Table 56: Abnormal states of the controller board LEDs (after auxiliary power is applied to the
system)
Symptom
Cause
What to do
The two green main controller
board LEDs are blinking but the
DSP controller LED (4) is
blinking twice as slow as the
µcontroller LED (1).
The filter parameters
entered by the
commissioning engineer
are not consistent with the
filter configuration
reported by the controller.
Check the commissioning parameters
and correct where necessary. (Cf.
Chapter 8).
The PQF-Manager shows ‘ACK.
FAULT’ and gives error message
‘Bad parameters’.
The red LED (3) on the main
controller board is on.
The filter is stopped due
to an unacceptably high
number of critical errors.
One of the two controller LEDs
(1-4) on the main controller
board is not blinking while the
other one is.
One of the controllers is
not starting up properly.
Eventually the red LED (3)
will switch on.
154 Troubleshooting guide  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Check the filter event log to
analyze the critical errors. Refer to
Table 57 to know what to do in
order to solve the problem
reported.
After resolving the problem, the
fault has to be acknowledged and
the filter has to be restarted
manually.
Check the filter event log to
analyze the critical errors. Refer to
Table 57 to know what to do in
order to solve the problem
reported. Most likely the controller
board has to be replaced.
After changing the main controller
board, the filter has to be
recommissioned.
Table 57: Fault messages reported by the DSP controller of the filter and troubleshooting tips
Fault message
Cause
What to do
Bad parameters
The filter parameters entered
by the commissioning engineer
are not consistent with the filter
configuration reported by the
controller.
Check the commissioning parameters and
correct where necessary. (Cf. Chapter 8)
Bad message sequence
Internal system error
Contact your ABB service provider. Most
likely the controller software has to be
upgraded or the main controller card
replaced.
Bad CT connection
The automatic CT detection
procedure has encountered a
problem during the CT
identification process.
DC overvoltage (SW)
The DC software overvoltage
protection has been triggered.
DC overvoltage (HW)
The DC hardware overvoltage
protection has been triggered.
DC undervoltage (SW)
The DC software undervoltage
protection has been triggered.
Check that the CTs are installed on the
supply side of the filter.
Check that the CTs are not shorted.
Check that the overall CT ratio
(including summing CTs) is smaller
than 20000/5.
Set up the CTs manually (Cf. Section
8.6)
Check the connection between the DC
voltage measurement connector (P6-5
and P6-7) and the DC capacitors.
Check flat cable connections between
the Control Board and the IGBT
module.
Analyze network voltage stability
(amplitude and phase).
Disable reactive power compensation
and balancing options to see if the
problem persists.
Deselect the high frequency
components to free DC bus resources
and to see if the problem persists.
Check the connection between the DC
voltage measurement connectors (P65 and P6-7) and the DC capacitors.
Check flat cable connections between
the Control Board and the IGBT
module.
Analyze network voltage stability
(amplitude and phase).
Disable reactive power compensation
and balancing options to see if the
problem persists.
Deselect the high frequency
components to free DC bus resources
and to see if the problem persists.
Check the connection between the DC
voltage measurement connectors (P65 and P6-7) and the DC capacitors.
Check flat cable connections between
the Control Board and the IGBT
module.
Analyze network voltage stability
(amplitude and phase).
Disable reactive power compensation
and balancing options to see if the
problem persists.
Check the main contactor and its
control signal.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 155
Fault message
Cause
What to do
IGBT check cooling
The software IGBT
temperature protection has
been triggered.
IGBT permanent
The IGBT module reports an
error that cannot be cleared by
the system. This error can be
due to peak overcurrent, too
low control voltage for the
IGBT drivers or IGBT module
failure.
IGBT temporary
The IGBT modules report a
transient error that could be
automatically cleared by the
system. This error can be due
to peak overcurrent or a too
low control voltage for the
IGBT drivers.
Check the cooling of the filter system
(fans and air flow, heatsink).
Check the cooling of the location
where the filter is installed (air
conditioning system etc.)
Ensure that the correct derating factor
is applied noting the ambient
temperature and altitude.
Identify unit for which the red LED (3)
is on.
Inspect the corresponding IGBT
module (bridge and DC capacitors) for
visual traces of damage. If they are
present, exchange the IGBT module.
Verify flat cable connection between
the Control board and the IGBTs.
Ensure that the Control board power
supply is around 24 V. If significantly
lower, check the 24 V power supply
and the wiring between this supply and
the Control board.
If the errors occur sporadically and the
system rides through, nothing has to be
done. If the system does not ride through
(too many transient errors in a short time):
Loss of phase
The system has detected a
loss of supply on at least one
phase.
Mismatch between units
Different units in a filter system
have different ratings or
different connections (e.g. 3wire and 4-wire).
156 Troubleshooting guide  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Verify that the filter CTs are properly
installed and are not shorted.
Verify that the unit current ratings and
order programmed at the
commissioning stage corresponds to
the rating and order physically present.
Verify the filter cooling system and
check the IGBT-temperature using the
PQF-Manager.
Desactivate harmonic and reactive
power requirements and see if the
problem persists.
Inspect the items discussed for the
‘IGBT permanent’ message.
Measure the three line voltages and
check if they are within limits.
Measure the line voltages (e.g.
voltmeter) and compare them with the
line voltages given by the filter (PQFManager or PQF-Link).
Check the AC voltage measurement
connectors (P6-1 to and P6-4) for
loose connections and component
damage.
Check the connections between the
auxiliary fuses and the AC voltage
measurement connectors (P6-1 to and
P6-4).
Check the filter parameters
(Cf.Chapter 8).
Recommission the filters
If recommissioning does not solve the
problem, contact your ABB service
provider.
Fault message
Cause
What to do
No synchronization
The system cannot
synchronize on to the network.
Measure the network frequency and its
variation, and check if they are within
limits.
Check the phase rotation (only in case
of modification at the installation).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured. Do the checks discussed
for the ‘Loss of phase’ fault.
Verify that the frequency set up at the
commissioning stage corresponds to
the frequency of the network. (Cf.
Chapter 8).
Reset the system by powering off and
on again.
Measure the network frequency and
check if it is within limits.
Check the phase rotation (only in case
of modification at the installation).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured. Do the checks discussed
for the ‘Loss of phase’ fault.
If the errors occur sporadically and the
system rides through, nothing has to be
done. If the system does not ride through
(too many transient errors in a short
time):
Measure the line voltages with a
device capable of measuring the peak
voltage (e.g. scopemeter) and verify
that this value is within acceptable
limits.
Measure the RMS value of the network
voltage and compare with the line
voltages given by the filter (PQFManager or PQF-Link).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured. Do the checks discussed
for the ‘Loss of phase’ fault.
Check the earthing of the unit.
Verify that the filter CTs are properly
installed and are not shorted.
Verify that the unit current ratings and
order programmed at the
commissioning stage corresponds to
the rating and order physically present.
Verify the filter cooling system and
check the IGBT temperature using the
PQF-Manager.
Deactivate harmonic and reactive
power requirements and see if the
problem persists.
Verify that the filter CTs are properly
installed and are not shorted.
Verify that the unit current ratings and
order programmed at the
commissioning stage corresponds to
the rating and order physically present.
Verify the filter cooling system and
check the IGBT temperature using the
PQF-Manager.
Deactivate harmonic and reactive
power requirements and see if the
problem persists.
Measure the three line voltages and
check if they are within limits.
Measure the line voltages (e.g.
voltmeter) and compare them with the
line voltages given by the filter (PQFManager or PQF-Link).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured.
The supply frequency has
changed too much or too fast.
No/low voltage measured
during filter initialization.
Wrong frequency set up
Out of mains freq. Limit
The system has detected that
the network frequency is out of
range.
Overvolt. Transient (SW)
The software transient network
overvoltage protection has
been triggered.
Overcurrent RMS
The system has detected RMS
overcurrent in the filter.
Overcurrent peak (SW)
The software peak current
protection has been triggered.
Overvoltage RMS
The RMS value of the supply
voltage measured with the AC
voltage measurement board is
higher than the acceptable
maximum value.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 157
Fault message
Cause
Preload problem
The DC capacitors could not
be preloaded at startup. The
voltage increase on the DC
capacitors during the preload
phase is not high enough.
Unbalanced supply
The supply network imbalance
is out of range.
Undervoltage RMS
The RMS value of the supply
voltage measured with the AC
voltage measurement board is
lower than the acceptable
maximum value.
Unstable mains frequ.
The network frequency is
varying too fast.
Wrong phase rotation
The supply network feeding
the filter has the wrong phase
rotation.
What to do
Measure the three line voltages and
check if they are within limits.
Verify the preload circuit and its
resistor R06.
Inspect the DC-bus for traces of
damage that may have caused a short
circuit on the DC side of the IGBT
module or on the DC voltage
measurement board.
Measure the three line voltages and
check if they are within limits including
the imbalance limit.
Measure the line voltages (e.g.
voltmeter) and compare them with the
line voltages given by the filter (PQFManager or PQF-Link).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured. Do the checks discussed
for the ‘Loss of phase’ fault.
Check the earth of the unit.
Measure the three line voltages and check
if they are within limits.
Measure the line voltages (e.g. voltmeter)
and compare them with the line voltages
given by the filter (PQF-Manager or PQFLink).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured. Do the checks discussed for
the ‘Loss of phase’ fault.
Measure the network frequency and its
variation, and check if they are within
limits.
Check the phase rotation (only in case of
modification at the installation).
Ensure that the AC voltage is properly
measured. Do the checks discussed for
the ‘Loss of phase’ fault.
Check the phase rotation of the filter
supply.
Measure the three line voltages and check
if they are within limits.
Measure the line voltages (e.g. voltmeter)
and compare them with the line voltages
given by the filter (PQF-Manager or PQFLink).
Check the AC voltage measurement
connectors (P6-1 to and P6-4) for loose
connections and component damage.
Check the connections between the
auxiliary fuses and the AC voltage
measurement connectors (P6-1 to and
P6-4).
Remark:
If the problem persists, contact your ABB service provider. Provide him with all the relevant information, i.e.
Filter serial number and type, status of the control LEDs, Error messages displayed and filter behavior.
158 Troubleshooting guide  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Table 58: Fault messages reported by the µcontroller of the filter and troubleshooting tips
Fault message
Cause
What to do
Com. Problem (RS-232)
Communication problem
between the main controller
board and the external PC
The system detected an
overtemperature of the main
controller board.
Ensure that the PQF-Link cable is
properly connected.
Contact your ABB service provider.
Verify the ambient temperature and the
cooling of the filter (dust filters, fans,
heatsinks, …)
If the ambient conditions and the filter
cooling are ok, the main control board is
suspect. Contact your ABB service
provider. The main control board may
have to be replaced.
Reset the filter by switching off and on the
power. If the problem persists, contact
your ABB representative. The controller
card must probably be replaced or the
controller software upgraded.
Reset the filter by switching off and on the
power. If the problem persists, contact
your ABB representative. The controller
card must probably be replaced.
Measure the three line voltages and check
if they are within limits.
Verify the preload circuit.
Inspect the DC-bus for traces of damage
that may have caused a short circuit on
the DC-side of the IGBT-module or on the
DC voltage measurement board.
Check the CAN_ID of the different units in
the set of filters: each unit has to have one
unique CAN_ID on the DIP switch S5-1 to
S5-3.
Reset the filter by switching off and on the
power. If the problem persists, contact
your ABB representative. The controller
card must probably be replaced.
Check the RJ-45 cables between
modules.
Check the termination for the CAN bus:
both (and only) the ends of the the bus
must have the DIP switch S5-4 in the “set”
status.
Reset the filter by switching off and on the
power. If the problem persists, contact
your ABB representative. The controller
card must probably be replaced.
Reset the filter by switching off and on the
power. If the problem persists, contact your
ABB representative. The controller card
must probably be replaced.
Ctrl overtemperature
DSP watchdog
SPI Timeout
Power supply fault
Internal system error
Internal system error
Preload time-out
The DC capacitors could not
be charged.
Several units same id
Two or more units in a filter
system have the same
CAN_ID.
Com. Problem (CAN Bus)
The communication through
the CAN bus between units is
not working properly.
Real time clock problem
Watchdog fault
Internal µC fault
Corrupted DSP code
Corrupted µC code
Different firmwares
Internal system error
Different units in a filter system
have different firmware version
(DSP or microcontroller)
Upgrade all the units with the same (most
recent) firmware.
Remark:
If the problem persists, contact your ABB service provider. Provide him with all the relevant information, i.e.
Filter serial number and type, status of the control LEDs, Error messages displayed and filter behavior.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 159
Table 59: Other filter indications and behavior with corresponding troubleshooting tips
Symptom
Cause / State
What to do
The filter is working at
100% of its nominal
capacity because the load
requirement is asking this.
The harmonic stress on the
network is still too high.
Install additional filter units to reduce
the stress further.
The harmonic stress on the
network is sufficiently low.
The filter can be kept running in this
condition.
The load requirement is only a
fraction of the filter size.
The filter is working at
100% of its nominal
capacity while the load is
only at a fraction of the
filter rating.
There is a problem in the CT
connections or a hardware
problem.
There is a software problem.
Check the CT installation (CT
location, CT shorts, …)
Check the connection between the
CT terminal block X21 and the main
controller terminals P5-1…P5-6.
Measure the line currents (e.g.
ammeter) and compare them with the
line currents given by the filter (PQFManager or PQF-Link).
Stop the filter, switch off the power of
the auxiliaries and switch it on again.
Restart the filter and see if the problem
is solved.
If the problem persists, contact your
ABB service provider.
The filter is running but it
is unstable (oscillating
behavior)
The filter has been asked to
generate static reactive power.
Verify the reactive power settings of the
filter.
There is a problem in the CT
connections or a hardware
problem
Check the CT installation (CT
location, CT shorts, …)
Check the connection between the
CT terminal block X21 and the main
controller terminals P5-1..P5-6.
Measure the line currents (e.g.
ammeter) and compare them with the
line currents given by the filter (PQFManager or PQF-Link).
Refer to Section 8.10 for precautions to
take when plain capacitors are present
in the network.
Presence of (detuned) power
capacitor banks or plain
capacitors (LV or MV).
The filter is installed on a very
weak network.
Two master units are fed from
the same CTs. The setup
guidelines for this installation
setup have not been
implemented.
160 Troubleshooting guide  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Make sure that the filter is operating
in Mode 3.
If the problem persists, contact your
ABB representative.
Interconnect the units with an RJ-45
cable. If this is not possible:
Select different harmonics on both
filters.
If not possible, ensure that one filter
is operating in Mode 1 and the other
filter is operating in Mode 3.
Symptom
Cause / State
What to do
The filter is running with
low load indication and the
load harmonics are not
filtered.
The harmonics are not selected,
the curve setting is very high or
the harmonics are put in standby
by the system.
(Re)select the harmonics, check the
curve levels and ensure that the correct
settings are active (Main/Auxiliary)
The line currents measured by
the filter via the CTs are lower
than the real load currents.
Check the CT cabling for problems
(CT-installation, CT-shorts, …)
Check the CT settings set up in the
PQF-Manager
Check the standby mode settings to
ensure that they represent realistic
values.
The filter is in standby-mode, the
IGBTs are not switching.
The filter (CTs) is/are not
installed in a central position and
therefore the filter does not
eliminate the harmonics of all the
loads.
Check that the CTs are installed at the
desired location.
When selecting a
harmonic, the filter
attempts to identify it but
after a while it is put in
standby. The letter ‘S’
appears in the harmonics
selection list. The
harmonic is not filtered.
The network conditions do not
allow for the harmonic to be
filtered at present or there is a
CT-problem.
Check the CT-setup.
Reselect the harmonic to see if the
problem persists.
Leave the harmonic in standby. The
filter will automatically restart
identifying/filtering it when another
harmonic component is successfully
(re)identified.
The ‘ ACK. FAULT’message is present on the
PQF-Manager. The alarm
contact switches on after
some delay.
The filter has stopped due to an
error.
Acknowledge the fault to see a list of
most recent critical errors.
Look in the filter event log for more
information on which errors have
occurred.
Refer to the Table 57 and Table 58
for more information on these errors
and for guidelines on how to
troubleshoot them.
Remark:
If the problems persist, contact your ABB service provider. Provide him with all the relevant information,
i.e. filter serial number and type, status of the control LEDs, error messages displayed and filter behavior.
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Troubleshooting guide 161
12 Technical specifications
12.1 What this chapter contains
This chapter contains the technical specifications of the active filter PQFS.
12.2 Technical specifications
The PQFS is an active filter for three phase networks with or without neutral for filtering of
non zero-sequence and zero-sequence harmonics and reactive power compensation
including balancing between phases.
Table 60: Technical Specifications
Installation location
Indoor installation on firm foundation mounted in a clean environment
Altitude
Nominal output at 0 to 1000m (3300ft) above sea level (for derating
refer to Table 13)
Minimum temperature
-10°C (23°F) non condensing
Maximum temperature
40°C (104°F) (for derating refer to Table 13)
Recommended maximum average
temperature (over 24 h)
35°C (95°F)
Relative humidity
Max. 95% non condensing during operation.
Max. 85% non condensing during storage.
Contamination levels (IEC 60721-3-3)
Chemical class 3C2 (for more information refer to Table 13)
Mechanical class 3S2 (for more information refer to Table 13)
Vibration (IEC 60068-2-6)
Max. 0.3mm (2-9Hz)
2
Max. 1m/s (9-200Hz)
Shock (IEC 60068-2-27)
Max. 40m/s² - 22ms
Filter installation information
Degree of protection
IP30
Dimensions per power unit enclosure (appr.)
W x D x H: 588 x 310 x 705 mm
Weight per power unit enclosure (unpacked)
120 kgs
Color
RAL 7035 (light gray).
Mechanical installation
Wall mounted (rail provided)
Cable entry method
Bottom cable entry
CT requirements
3 CTs are required (Class 1.0 or better)
Filter burden: 5 VA for upto 4 units
15 VA burden for up to 30 m of 2.5 mm² cable
5 A secondary rating
CTs must be installed in closed loop configuration
CTs must be installed in closed loop configuration CTs must be cabled
to master and slave units through daisy chain principle
Airflow requirements
A minimum of 600 m³/h cooling air has to be supplied to each cubicle.
Network characteristics
Network voltage ratings
208 V-240 V or 380 V-415 V between phases
Network voltage tolerance
+/- 10 %
Network frequency
50 Hz or 60 Hz
Network frequency tolerance
+/- 5 %
162 Technical specifications  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
Maximum rate of frequency variation
20%/s
Maximum phase jump of network voltage
30°
Network voltage distortion
Maximum 20% phase to phase
Minimum network fault level
1 MVA
Voltage notch limits
No voltage notches allowed.
Line voltage imbalance
Maximum 5% of phase to phase voltage
Insulation voltage (Ui)
690V
Auxiliary circuit voltage
230 Vrms
Neutral connection systems (if any)
IT, TT, TNC and TNS. Earth current protection type and sensitivity
must be chosen appropriately.
Environment class
2
Compliance with standards
General construction aspects
EN-60439-1 (1999)
EMC immunity
EN/IEC 61000-6-2, Industrial level
EMC emissions
EN/IEC 61000-6-4
Filter characteristics
RMS output current per power unit type
Current ratings
(a)
(50Hz or 60Hz network).
Unit type 1: 30 A
Unit type 2: 45 A
Unit type 3: 60 A
Unit type 4: 70 A
Unit type 5: 80 A
Unit type 6: 90 A
Unit type 7: 100 A
Neutral current ratings
Modularity
3 times the current ratings limited to 270A
Up to 4 power units/filter (power units must have same rating).
One power unit per enclosure.
Power units can be master or slave type
Redundancy
For full redundancy combine master units of same rating.
If any unit in a master-master filter system fails, the other units can
keep running.
For limited redundancy combine master with slave units of the same
rating.
If any slave unit in a master-slave filter system fails, the other units
can keep running.
If the master in a master-slave filter system fails, the complete system
stops running.
Harmonics that can be filtered
15 harmonics individually selectable in the range 2
order if the neutral is connected.
nd
– 50 harmonic
20 harmonics individually selectable in the range 2
order if the neutral is not connected.
nd
– 50 harmonic
Degree of filtering
Programmable per harmonic in absolute terms
Filtering efficiency
Better than 97% of filter rating typically
Response time
40 ms typically (10% - 90% filtering)
Reactive power
Static/dynamic
th
th
Power factor programmable from 0.6 (inductive) to 0.6 (capacitive)
Load balancing
Off
Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS  Technical specifications163
Phase to phase, phase to neutral (if neutral present), both (if neutral
present)
Setting possibilities
Main and auxiliary settings functionality.
Three possible filter modes that allow to set different priorities
Start and stop settings
Local/remote control functionality.
Filter standby functionality.
Auto restart after power outage functionality.
Digital inputs
2 multipurpose digital inputs on PQF-Manager.
Vlow: 0 Vdc, Vhigh: 15-24 Vdc, driving current: 13 [email protected] 24Vdc (Rint =
1.88 kΩ).
Can be used to implement remote control functionality, start/stop
buttons and switching between main and auxiliary settings.
Digital outputs
6 multipurpose (NO) digital outputs on PQF-Manager.
Maximum continuous ac rating: 440 Vac/1.5 A
Maximum continuous dc rating: 110 Vdc/0.3 A
Common rating: 9A/terminal, totaling 18 A
Can be used to monitor the filter state (e.g. filter on/off or specific filter
warnings/alarms) and the network state.
Alarm contact
1 universal alarm contact with two complimentary outputs (NO/NC) on
PQF-Manager. Triggered by any fault.
Maximum continuous rating: 250 Vac/1.5 A
Filter losses (maximum values)
Unit rating: 30 A
≤ 1.5 kW
Unit rating: 45 A
≤ 1.8 kW
Unit rating: 60 A
≤ 2.1 kW
Unit rating: 70 A
≤ 2.6 kW
Unit rating: 80 A
≤ 2.9 kW
Unit rating: 90 A
≤ 3.2 kW
Unit rating: 100 A
≤ 3.5 kW
Phase to earth resistance
1.44 MΩ/filter unit
Noise intensity
67 dBA typically
Communication
Through PQF-Manager display.
Through Modbus RTU (with optional adapter).
Through RS-232 port with dedicated optional software (PQF-Link).
Programming
Through PQF-Manager display.
Through RS-232 port with dedicated optional software (PQF-Link).
Fuse information
Main circuit fuses
Not included
Auxiliary circuit fuses:
French Ferrule 10 x 38 gG/gl, 6A, 500V, Isc ~120kA
Main options
PQF-Link software
RS 485 Modbus adapter
Easy connection box for power cables
Cable extension kit for PQF-Manager
Remark:
(a)
Under exceptional circumstances other limits may be reached before the RMS current limit (e.g. temperature limit,
peak current limit, peak voltage limit).
164 Technical specifications  Manual Power Quality Filter PQFS
ABB n.v.
Power Quality Products
Avenue Centrale 10
Zoning Industriel de Jumet
B-6040 Charleroi (Jumet), Belgium
Phone: +32(0) 71 250 811
Fax: +32 (0) 71 344 007
E-Mail:
Marketing: [email protected]
Service: [email protected]
www.abb.com/lowvoltage
© Copyright 2013 ABB.2GCS217018A0070 – March 2013
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