Teacher Guide - Hawaii Energy

Teacher Guide - Hawaii Energy
20
14
Learning and Conserving
-20
Teacher Guide
Students will explore energy consumption and conservation using the school as a learning laboratory. These handson activities require students to gather, record, and analyze energy consumption data while building an energy
management plan to follow in the school.
Grade Level:
Pri Int
OFF
Pri
Int
Intermediate
Ele
Sec
Secondary
Sec
Ele
Subject Areas:
Science
Social Studies
Math
Language Arts
Technology
15
NEED Mission Statement
Teacher Advisory Board
Shelly Baumann
Rockford, MI
Barbara Lazar
Albuquerque, NM
Constance Beatty
Kankakee, IL
Robert Lazar
Albuquerque, NM
Amy Constant
Raleigh, NC
Leslie Lively
Porters Falls, WV
Nina Corley
Galveston, TX
Jennifer Winterbottom
Pottstown, PA
Regina Donour
Whitesburg, KY
Mollie Mukhamedov
Port St. Lucie, FL
Linda Fonner
New Martinsville, WV
Don Pruett Jr.
Sumner, WA
Samantha Forbes
Vienna, VA
Josh Rubin
Palo Alto, CA
Robert Griegoliet
Naperville, IL
Joanne Spaziano
Cranston, RI
Michelle Garlick
Gina Spencer
Virginia Beach, VA
Viola Henry
Thaxton, VA
Tom Spencer
Chesapeake, VA
Bob Hodash
Jennifer Trochez
MacLean
Los Angeles, CA
DaNel Hogan
Tucson, AZ
Greg Holman
Paradise, CA
Linda Hutton
Kitty Hawk, NC
Matthew Inman
Spokane, WA
The mission of The NEED Project is to promote an energy
conscious and educated society by creating effective
networks of students, educators, business, government and
community leaders to design and deliver objective, multisided energy education programs.
Teacher Advisory Board Statement
In support of NEED, the national Teacher Advisory Board
(TAB) is dedicated to developing and promoting standardsbased energy curriculum and training.
Permission to Copy
NEED materials may be reproduced for non-commercial
educational purposes.
Energy Data Used in NEED Materials
NEED believes in providing the most recently reported energy
data available to our teachers and students. Most statistics
and data are derived from the U.S. Energy Information
Administration’s Annual Energy Review that is published
yearly. Working in partnership with EIA, NEED includes easy
to understand data in our curriculum materials. To do further
research, visit the EIA web site at www.eia.gov. EIA’s Energy
Kids site has great lessons and activities for students at www.eia.gov/kids.
Joanne Trombley
West Chester, PA
Jen Varrella
Fort Collins, CO
Carolyn Wuest
Pensacola, FL
Wayne Yonkelowitz
Fayetteville, WV
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
© 2014
Printed on Recycled Paper
2
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
Learning and Conserving
Teacher Guide
Table of Contents
Learning and Conserving Kit
ƒ1
ƒ Incandescent bulb
ƒ1
ƒ Compact fluorescent bulb
ƒ2
ƒ Kill A Watt™ monitors
ƒ1
ƒ Indoor/outdoor thermometer
ƒ1
ƒ Light meter
ƒ1
ƒ Flicker Checker
ƒ1
ƒ Waterproof digital thermometer
ƒ1
ƒ Digital humidity/temperature pen
ƒ30
ƒ Student Guides
ƒƒStandards Correlations Information
4
ƒƒMaterials5
ƒƒTeacher Guide
6
ƒƒAnswer Keys
7
ƒƒRubric for Assessment
8
ƒƒEnergy Efficiency Bingo Instructions
9
ƒƒConservation in the Round Instructions
11
ƒƒIntroducing the Unit
12
ƒƒReading Meters and Utility Bills
13
ƒƒFacts of Light
14
ƒƒLighting Investigations
15
ƒƒElectrical Devices and Their Impacts
16
ƒƒEnergyGuide Labels
17
ƒƒKill A Watt™ Investigations
18
ƒƒSchool Building Survey
19
ƒƒSchool Energy Consumption Survey
20
ƒƒEnergy Management Plan Project
22
ƒƒThe Light Meter
24
ƒƒKill A Watt™ Monitor
25
ƒƒHumidity/Temperature Pen
26
ƒƒDigital Thermometer
27
ƒƒEnergy Efficiency Bingo
28
ƒƒConservation in the Round
29
ƒƒEvaluation Form
33
OFF
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
3
Standards Correlation Information
www.NEED.org/curriculumcorrelations
Next Generation Science Standards
ƒƒ This guide effectively supports many Next Generation Science Standards. This material can satisfy performance expectations,
science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and cross cutting concepts within your required curriculum. For more
details on these correlations, please visit NEED’s curriculum correlations web site.
Common Core State Standards
ƒƒ This guide has been correlated to the Common Core State Standards in both language arts and mathematics. These correlations
are broken down by grade level and guide title, and can be downloaded as a spreadsheet from the NEED curriculum correlations
web site.
Individual State Science Standards
ƒƒ This guide has been correlated to each state’s individual science standards. These correlations are broken down by grade level
and guide title, and can be downloaded as a spreadsheet from the NEED web site.
4
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
Learning and Conserving Materials
OFF
ACTIVITY NAME
Lighting Investigations
MATERIALS INCLUDED IN KIT
ƒKill
ƒ A Watt™ monitor
ƒLight
ƒ
meter
ƒIncandescent
ƒ
bulb
ƒCompact
ƒ
fluorescent bulb
ƒFlicker
ƒ
Checker
Electrical Devices and Their Impacts
ƒLamps
ƒ
ƒTape
ƒ
ƒBooks
ƒ
ƒPluggable
ƒ
electrical devices
ƒCalculators
ƒ
Kill A Watt™ Investigations
ƒKill
ƒ A Watt™ monitor
School Energy Consumption Survey
ƒLight
ƒ
meter
ƒDigital
ƒ
waterproof thermometer
ƒIndoor/outdoor
ƒ
thermometer
ƒDigital
ƒ
humidity/temperature pen
ƒFlicker
ƒ
Checker
© 2014 The NEED Project
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS NEEDED
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
ƒPluggable
ƒ
electrical devices
www.NEED.org
5
OFF
Teacher Guide
These activities explore energy use and conservation using the school as a learning laboratory.
Grade Level
ƒIntermediate
ƒ
Grades 6-8
ƒSecondary
ƒ
Grades 9-12
Time
ƒ6-8
ƒ
45-minute class periods,
plus out-of-class research
and homework
 Additional Activities and Resources
ƒNEED’s
ƒ
Energy Expos, Energy
Conservation
Contract,
and School Energy Survey
activities
are
excellent
additional, or substitute,
culminating activities. They
are available for download at
www.NEED.org.
ƒThe
ƒ
data in this curriculum
is taken from the U.S.
Department of Energy’s
Office of Energy Efficiency
and
Renewable
Energy
(EERE) Energy Savers web
site at http://energy.gov/
energysaver/energy-saver.
This web site has additional
information, maps, and
statistics students can use.
The Energy Savers guide
may be ordered in bulk or
downloaded from the Energy
Savers web site.
6
&Background
Learning and Conserving is a hands-on unit that explores energy consumption and conservation using
the local school as a real–world laboratory. The activities encourage the development of cooperative
learning, math, science, public speaking, and critical thinking skills.
Learning and Conserving provides students with comprehensive information on energy consumption,
its economic and environmental effects, and energy conservation and efficiency through a series of
activities that involve hands-on learning, monitoring energy use, and changing behaviors.
2Preparation
ƒFamiliarize
ƒ
yourself with the Teacher Guide, the Student Guide, and the information for each activity.
ƒIf
ƒ you are using the Learning and Conserving Kit, familiarize yourself with the equipment in the kit
and gather any additional materials needed. A list of materials is provided on page 5.
ƒMake
ƒ
sure that you have a working knowledge of the information, definitions, and conversions, and
how to operate the equipment.
Science Notebooks
Throughout this curriculum, science notebooks are referenced. If you currently use science notebooks
or journals, you may have your students continue using these. A rubric to guide assessment of
student notebooks can be found on page 8 in the Teacher Guide.
In addition to science notebooks, student worksheets have been included in the Student Guide.
Depending on your students’ level of independence and familiarity with the scientific process, you
may choose to use these worksheets instead of science notebooks. Or, as appropriate, you may want
to make copies of worksheets and have your students glue or tape the copies into their notebooks.
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
e
Answer Keys
Reading an Electric Meter | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 12
1,050 kWh x $0.10/kWh = $105.00
Reading a Natural Gas Meter | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 13
1,337 CCF x $0.81/Ccf = $1,082.97
Reading Meters Worksheet | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 14
ƒƒ Electric Meter
1. How many kilowatt-hours of electricity were used during January? 97,421 kWh – 71,565 kWh = 25,856 kWh
2. If the cost of electricity is $0.10 per kWh, how much did the electricity cost for January? 25,856 kWh x $0.10/kWh = $2,585.60
3. What was the average cost of electricity per day during January? $2,585.60/31 = $83.41/day
ƒƒ Natural Gas Meter:
1. How many Ccf of natural gas were used during January? 4,750 Ccf – 3,077 Ccf = 1,673 Ccf
2. If the cost of natural gas is $0.81 per Ccf, what was the cost of natural gas during January?
1,673 Ccf x $0.81/Ccf = $1,355.13
3. What was the average cost of natural gas per week during January? $1,355.13/31 = $43.71/day x 7 = $305.97
Comparing Light Bulbs | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 19
INCANDESCENT BULB
Cost of bulbs for 25,000 hours of light
Total kWh Consumption
Cost of Electricity
Life Cycle Cost
Pounds of carbon dioxide produced
HALOGEN
COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL) LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)
$12.50
$24.90
1,500 kWh
1075 kWh
$150.00
$107.50
$162.50
$132.40
1,995 lbs carbon dioxide 1,430 lbs carbon dioxide
$7.50
325 kWh
$32.50
$40.00
432 lbs carbon dioxide
$20.00
300 kWh
$30.00
$50.00
399 lbs carbon dioxide
Comparing Appliances | STUDENT GUIDE PAGE 31
How many years will it take before you begin to save money? Four Years
How much money will you have saved after ten years? $230
Washing Machine 1: Purchase Price: $410.00
Washing Machine 2: Purchase Price: $530.00
WASHING MACHINE 1
Purchase Price
Year One
Year Two
Year Three
Year Four
Year Five
Year Six
Year Seven
Year Eight
Year Nine
Year Ten
© 2014 The NEED Project
EXPENSES
$410
$50
$50
$50
$50
$50
$50
$50
$50
$50
$50
COST TO DATE
$410
$460
$510
$560
$610
$660
$710
$760
$810
$860
$910
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
WASHING MACHINE 2
Purchase Price
Year One
Year Two
Year Three
Year Four
Year Five
Year Six
Year Seven
Year Eight
Year Nine
Year Ten
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
EXPENSES
$530
$15
$15
$15
$15
$15
$15
$15
$15
$15
$15
COST TO DATE
$530
$545
$560
$575
$590
$605
$620
$635
$650
$665
$680
7
Rubric For Assessment
Inquiry Explorations and Science Notebook Rubric
This is a sample rubric that can be used with inquiry investigations and science notebooks. You may choose to only assess one area at a time,
or look at an investigation as a whole. It is suggested that you share this rubric with students and discuss the different components.
8
SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS
SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
DATA/OBSERVATIONS
CONCLUSIONS
4
Written explanations illustrate
accurate and thorough
understanding of scientific
concepts.
The student independently
conducts investigations and
designs and carries out his
or her own investigations.
Comprehensive data is collected and thorough
observations are made. Diagrams, charts,
tables, and graphs are used and labeled
appropriately. Data and observations are
presented clearly and neatly with appropriate
labels.
The student clearly communicates what was learned
and uses strong evidence to support reasoning. The
conclusion includes application to real life situations.
3
Written explanations illustrate
an accurate understanding of
most scientific concepts.
The student follows
procedures accurately
to conduct given
investigations, begins
to design his or her own
investigations.
Necessary data is collected. Observations are
recorded. Diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs
are used appropriately most of the time. Data is
presented clearly, and neatly.
The student communicates what was learned and
uses some evidence to support reasoning.
2
Written explanations illustrate
a limited understanding of
scientific concepts.
The student may not
conduct an investigation
completely, parts of the
inquiry process are missing.
Some data is collected. The student may lean
more heavily on observations. Diagrams, charts,
tables, and graphs may be used inappropriately,
have some missing information, or are labeled
without 100% accuracy.
The student communicates what was learned but is
missing evidence to support reasoning.
1
Written explanations illustrate
an inaccurate understanding of
scientific concepts.
The student needs
significant support to
conduct an investigation.
Data and/or observations are missing or
inaccurate.
The conclusion is missing or inaccurate.
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
OFF
Energy Efficiency
BINGO
Instructions
Get Ready
Duplicate as many Energy Efficiency Bingo sheets (found on page 28) as needed for each person in
your group. In addition, decide now if you want to give the winner of your game a prize and what
the prize will be.
Get Set
Energy Effciency Bingo is a
great icebreaker for a NEED
workshop or conference. As
a classroom activity, it also
makes a great introduction to
an energy unit.
Pass out one Energy Efficiency Bingo sheet to each member of the group.
2Preparation
Go
ƒ5
ƒ minutes
Time
PART ONE: FILLING IN THE BINGO SHEETS
Give the group the following instructions to create bingo cards:
ƒ45
ƒ minutes
ƒThis
ƒ
bingo activity is very similar to regular bingo. However, there are a few things you’ll need to
know to play this game. First, please take a minute to look at your bingo sheet and read the 16
statements at the top of the page. Shortly, you’ll be going around the room trying to find 16 people
about whom the statements are true so you can write their names in one of the 16 boxes.
Bingos are available on
several different topics.
Check out these resources for
more bingo options!
ƒWhen
ƒ
I give you the signal, you’ll get up and ask a person if a statement at the top of your bingo
sheet is true for them. If the person gives what you believe is a correct response, write the person’s
name in the corresponding box on the lower part of the page. For example, if you ask a person
question “D” and he or she gives you what you think is a correct response, then go ahead and write
the person’s name in box D. A correct response is important because later on, if you get bingo,
that person will be asked to answer the question correctly in front of the group. If he or she can’t
answer the question correctly, then you lose bingo. So, if someone gives you an incorrect answer,
ask someone else! Don’t use your name for one of the boxes or use the same person’s name twice.
ƒBiomass
ƒ
Bingo—Energy Stories
and More
ƒTry
ƒ to fill all 16 boxes in the next 20 minutes. This will increase your chances of winning. After the 20
minutes are up, please sit down and I will begin asking players to stand up and give their names. Are
there any questions? You’ll now have 20 minutes. Go!
ƒDuring
ƒ
the next 20 minutes, move around the room to assist the players. Every five minutes or so
tell the players how many minutes are remaining in the game. Give the players a warning when just
a minute or two remains. When the 20 minutes are up, stop the players and ask them to be seated.
Give the class the following instructions to play the game:
ƒWhen
ƒ
I point to you, please stand up and in a LOUD and CLEAR voice give us your name. Now, if
anyone has the name of the person I call on, put a big “X” in the box with that person’s name. When
you get four names in a row—across, down, or diagonally—shout “Bingo!” Then I’ll ask you to come
up front to verify your results.
ƒLet’s
ƒ
start off with you (point to a player in the group). Please stand and give us your name. (Player
gives name. Let’s say the player’s name was “Joe.”) Okay, players, if any of you have Joe’s name in one
of your boxes, go ahead and put an “X” through that box.
ƒWhen
ƒ
the first player shouts “Bingo,” ask him (or her) to come to the front of the room. Ask him to
give his name. Then ask him to tell the group how his bingo run was made, e.g., down from A to M,
across from E to H, and so on.
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
ƒEnergy
ƒ
Bingo—Energy Games
and Icebreakers
ƒHydropower
ƒ
Bingo—
Hydropower guides
ƒHydrogen
ƒ
Bingo—H2 Educate
ƒMarine
ƒ
Renewable Energy
Bingo—Ocean Energy
ƒNuclear
ƒ
Energy Bingo—
Nuclear guides
ƒOffshore
ƒ
Oil and Gas Bingo—
Ocean Energy
PART TWO: PLAYING BINGO
© 2014 The NEED Project
ƒChange
ƒ
a Light Bingo—Energy
Conservation Contract
www.NEED.org
ƒOil
ƒ and Gas Bingo—Oil and
Gas guides
ƒScience
ƒ
of Energy Bingo—
Science of Energy
ƒSolar
ƒ
Bingo—Solar guides
ƒTransportation
ƒ
Bingo—
Transportation Fuels Infobooks
ƒWind
ƒ
Energy Bingo—Wind
guides
9
ƒNow
ƒ
you need to verify the bingo winner’s results. Ask the bingo winner to call out the first person’s name on his bingo run. That player
then stands and the bingo winner asks him the question which he previously answered during the 20-minute session. For example, if
the statement was “can name two renewable sources of energy,” the player must now name two sources. If he can answer the question
correctly, the bingo winner calls out the next person’s name on his bingo run. However, if he does not answer the question correctly, the
bingo winner does not have bingo after all and must sit down with the rest of the players. You should continue to point to players until
another person yells “Bingo.”
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
A. Can name two ways to increase a car’s MPG
B. Can name three ways to save energy at
home
C. Can name three ways to save energy at
school
D. Has at least one ENERGY STAR® appliance
at home
E. Knows the definition of energy efficiency
F. Knows the definition of energy conservation
A
G. Knows what an ENERGY STAR® label means
H. Knows what SEER is
I. Knows the type of bulb that uses one
quarter of the energy of incandescents
J. Knows where to find an EnergyGuide label
K. Can name two appliances that should be
run only when fully loaded
L. Uses day lighting in the classroom instead
of overhead lights
M. Sets this item differently at day and night
and for the season
N. Knows the number one use of energy in
the home
O. Has an energy conservation team at school
P. Knows whether energy is the first, second,
or third highest expenditure in a school
district (choose one)
B
C
Switch to CFLs, use a
programmable thermostat,
wash clothes in cold water, etc.
Turn off computers/lights/
appliances when not in use,
close doors and windows, etc.
E
F
G
Using technologies to continue
activities at the same level
while using less energy
Choosing to use less energy
through alternative behaviors
or actions
I
J
proper tire inflation, drive the
speed limit, slow acceleration
CFL
M
programmable thermostat
10
ANSWERS
BINGO
D
ask for location/description
H
The product meets energy
efficiency requirements
K
seasonal energy efficiency ratio
of cooling output by power
consumption
L
On appliances and products for
dishwasher and clothes washer
homes and business
N
O
heating/cooling
ask for details
P
ask for description/details
second, the first is personnel
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
e
Conservation in the Round
Get Ready
ƒCopy
ƒ
the Conservation in the Round cards on pages 29-31 onto card stock and cut into individual
cards.
ƒMake
ƒ
an additional copy to use as your answer key. This page does not need to be cut into cards.
ƒƒHave a class set of the Intermediate or Secondary Energy Infobooks available for quick reference.
Conservation in the Round is a
quick, entertaining game to
reinforce information about
energy sources, forms of energy,
and general energy information
from the Intermediate or
Secondary Energy Infobook.
Grades
Get Set
ƒDistribute
ƒ
one card to each student. If you have cards left over, give some students two cards so that
all of the cards are distributed.
ƒHave
ƒ
the students look at their bolded words at the top of the cards. Give them five minutes to
review the information about their words using the Infobooks.
Go
ƒChoose
ƒ
a student to begin the game and give the following instructions:
ƒRead
ƒ
the question on your card. The student with the correct answer will stand up and read the
bolded answer, “I have _____.”
ƒThat
ƒ
student will then read the question on his/her card, and the round will continue until the first
student stands up and answers a question, signaling the end of the round.
ƒIf
ƒ there is a disagreement about the correct answer, have the students listen to the question carefully
looking for key words (forms versus sources, for example) and discuss until a consensus is reached
about the correct answer.
Alternative Instructions
ƒGive
ƒ
each student or pair a set of cards.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will put the cards in order, taping or arranging each card so that the answer is directly under
the question.
ƒHave
ƒ
students connect the cards to fit in a circle or have them arrange them in a column.
ƒ5–8
ƒ
2 Preparation
ƒ5
ƒ minutes
 Time
ƒ20–30
ƒ
minutes
“In the Rounds” are available on
several different topics. Check
out these guides for more, fun
“In the Round” examples!
ƒHydrogen
ƒ
in the Round—H2
Educate
ƒOil
ƒ and Gas Industry in the
Round—Fossil Fuels to Products,
Exploring Oil and Gas
ƒEnergy
ƒ
in the Round—Energy
Games and Icebreakers
ƒForms
ƒ
of Energy in the Round—
Science of Energy guides
ƒUranium
ƒ
in the Round—Nuclear
guides
ƒSolar
ƒ
Energy in the Round—
Energy From the Sun
ƒTransportation
ƒ
Fuels in the
Round—Transportation Fuels
Infobooks
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
11
OFF
Introducing the Unit
2 Preparation
ƒAssign
ƒ
students to topic groups for the Energy Management Plan Project on page 22, as follows:
ƒThe
ƒ
Importance of Energy Management
ƒBuilding
ƒ
Envelope
ƒHVAC
ƒ
Systems
ƒLighting
ƒ
Systems
ƒAppliances
ƒ
and Plug Loads
ƒMake
ƒ
copies of student activities, the Efficiency vs. Conservation chart (page 11 of the Student Guide) and the Topic Group Organizer (page
39 of the Student Guide) as needed.
Procedure
1. Introduce the unit by asking the class to observe all of the ways energy is being used in the classroom. Make sure that heating/cooling/
ventilation, lighting, and powering electrical appliances are included in the discussion.
2. Discuss why everyone should be concerned about saving energy—conserving natural resources, economic impacts, and environmental
impacts.
3. Have students suggest how they think energy efficiency and conservation differ. Instruct students to read page 2 of the student
informational text and complete the Efficiency vs. Conservation chart as they read. Discuss the differences as a class and ask students to
explain how the two concepts must work together.
4. Ask students to point out ways that energy is wasted in the school. Create a list as a class.
5. Provide each student with a Student Guide and explain the objectives of the unit by reviewing the guide with the students. Explain that
the students will complete some of the activities as a class and will be divided into groups to complete other activities.
6. Review Energy Definitions and Conversions on page 10 of the Student Guide.
7. Explain the operation of the light meter, Kill A Watt™ monitor, digital thermometer, and humidity/temperature pen (pages 24-27 of the
Teacher Guide) and demonstrate their use.
8. Give students their topic group assignments. Explain that they can be answering their Topic Group Questions (page 38 of the Student
Guide) and completing the Topic Group Organizer (page 39 of the Student Guide) as they read the informational text and complete the
classroom activities.
9. Explain to the students that representatives of each topic group will be placed into Energy Management Plan Groups as the culminating
activity of the unit. These groups will complete an Energy Management Plan Project. Each group will design a project for a different
target audience, including the school board, school administration, maintenance staff, PTA, community members, classmates, or
younger students. Depending on the target audience assigned, the group will decide upon a project format that will most effectively
disseminate the information, such as a digital presentation, display board, video, brochure, newsletter, play, etc.
10.Direct the students to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Energy Savers web site
at http://energy.gov/energysaver/energy-saver.
12
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
OFF
Reading Meters and Utility Bills
t Overview
These classroom activities teach students how to read electric and natural gas meters, how electricity and natural gas are measured, how to
determine the cost of electricity and natural gas, and how to read utility bills.
& Background
Schools use a lot of energy to provide students with a comfortable and usable building in which to learn. Educational machines—such as
televisions, DVD players, copiers, and computers—use energy as well. The two major types of energy used by schools are electricity and
natural gas. Many different energy sources are used to generate electricity—both renewables and nonrenewables. Today, 37.4 percent of
the electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal-fired plants.
In schools, electricity is used to provide light, to operate the machines and appliances, to cool the building and, perhaps, for heating,
cooking, and hot water heating. Natural gas is used principally to heat buildings, heat water, and for cooking. It can also be used to generate
the electricity the school uses. Other fuels that schools might use are heating oil, propane, solar energy, and geothermal energy.
Electricity enters the school through a power line called a distribution line. This line first passes through a meter that measures the amount
of electricity consumed in kilowatt-hours.
Natural gas enters the school through a pipeline with a meter that measures the volume of natural gas consumed in hundreds of cubic feet,
or Ccf. The school is billed for the amount of thermal energy in the natural gas—the number of therms that are used—and a conversion
factor is recorded on the bill. In 2012, the U.S. average heat content of one Ccf of natural gas contained about 102,400 Btu or 1.024 therms
of heat energy. This figure varies depending on where the natural gas originates. Utility bills list the actual energy content conversion factor.
 Concepts
ƒWe
ƒ can measure and monitor the energy we use for lighting, heating, cooling, heating water, and operating appliances.
ƒUnderstanding
ƒ
how we use energy and how much we use can help us conserve.
 Objectives
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to read electric and natural gas meters.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to explain how electricity and natural gas are measured and calculate their costs, based on their consumption.
Procedure
1. Introduce the activity to the class, discussing the tasks that use electricity and natural gas at home and at school.
2. Have the students complete pages 12–14 of the Student Guide. Review with the class.
3. Review the Sample School Electric Bill and Sample School Natural Gas Bill on pages 15–16 of the Student Guide, using the Sample Bill
Explanation Key on page 17.
 Extension Activity: Monitoring School Electric Meters
Have the students monitor one or all of the school’s electric meters for a week and determine how much electricity is used on average each
day. Find out the electricity rate for the school and determine the average cost per day for electricity.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
13
Facts of Light
t Overview
This classroom activity teaches students how to compare the energy-related properties of different types of light bulbs. Students develop
an awareness and understanding of life cycle cost analysis.
& Background
We use a lot of energy in the form of electricity to make light so that we can see. About 30 percent of the electricity used by your school is
for lighting! Our homes use a lot of energy for lighting, too. About 13 percent of the electricity used in your home is for lighting. Changing
to energy efficient lighting is one of the quickest and easiest ways to decrease your electric bill. If your home uses inefficient incandescent
bulbs—the same technology developed in 1879 by Thomas Edison—you are wasting a lot of energy and money. These bulbs are surprisingly
inefficient, converting up to 90 percent of the electricity they consume into heat.
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 changed the standards for the efficiency of light bulbs used most often. By the end of
2014, most general use bulbs will need to be 30 percent more efficient than traditional, inefficient incandescent bulbs. What do the new
standards mean for consumers? The purpose of the new efficiency standards is to give people the same amount of light using less energy.
Most incandescent light bulbs are being phased out and some are no longer for sale.
There are several lighting choices on the market that already meet the new efficiency standards. Energy-saving incandescent, or halogen,
bulbs are different than traditional, inefficient incandescent bulbs because they have a capsule around the filament (the wire inside the
bulb) filled with halogen gas. This allows the bulbs to last three times longer and use 25 percent less energy.
Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) provide the same amount of light as incandescent bulbs, but use up to 75 percent less energy and
last ten times longer. CFLs produce very little heat. Using CFLs can help cut lighting costs and reduce environmental impacts. Today’s CFL
bulbs fit almost any socket, produce a warm glow and, unlike earlier models, no longer flicker and dim. CFLs have a small amount of mercury
inside and should always be recycled rather than thrown away. Many retailers recycle CFLs for free.
Light emitting diodes, better known as LEDs, are gaining in popularity. Once used mainly for exit signs and power on/off indicators, improved
technology and lower prices are enabling LEDs to be used in place of incandescents and CFLs. LEDs are one of the most energy-efficient
lighting choices available today. LEDs use 75 percent less energy than traditional incandescents, and have an average lifespan of at least
25,000 hours. Today, LEDs are expensive, but they use even less energy than CFLs, save more electricity, and produce fewer carbon dioxide
emissions. As the demand for LEDs increases, the cost will come down and become competitive with CFLs. The U.S. Department of Energy
estimates that widespread adoption of LED lighting by 2027 would reduce lighting electricity demand by 33 percent. This would avoid
construction of 40 new power plants.
 Concepts
ƒLighting
ƒ
consumes a significant amount of energy.
ƒNew
ƒ
technologies in lighting can reduce energy consumption.
ƒLife
ƒ
cycle costs should be considered in lighting decisions, not just purchase price.
 Objectives
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to compare the energy consumption of incandescent, halogen, compact fluorescent, and LED bulbs.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to explain how the life cycle of a product is important to its cost.
Procedure
1. Have the students read Facts of Light on page 18 of the Student Guide.
2. Have the students complete the Comparing Light Bulbs activity on page 19 of the Student Guide. Review with the students, emphasizing
the difference between purchase price and life cycle cost. Remind students that if this activity is completed at home as well, they should
adjust for the proper cost/kWh. The residential average cost/kWh is $0.12. Students can also research the current cost per kWh in their
schools and homes to complete the activity.
 Extension Activities
ƒHave
ƒ
the students develop a marketing plan to convince people to use energy efficient lighting. Students can make posters, flyers, radio
announcements, and television infomercials to explain the benefits of switching to new lighting technologies.
ƒHave
ƒ
the students investigate if there is a correlation between temperature and efficiency in various types of bulbs. Students can design
an experiment and test on their own.
14
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
Lighting Investigations
t Overview
In these activities, students compare incandescent and compact fluorescent bulbs and use a light meter and Flicker Checker to measure and
monitor the light levels in the school. Students in the Lighting Systems topic group conduct the activities for the class.
 Concepts
ƒLighting
ƒ
consumes a significant amount of energy.
ƒNew
ƒ
technologies in lighting can reduce energy consumption.
ƒLight
ƒ
bulbs produce heat as well as light.
ƒWe
ƒ can use technologies to measure the energy consumed and light output of light bulbs.
 Objectives
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to compare the heat and light output of incandescent and compact fluorescent light bulbs.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to compare the energy consumption of incandescent and compact fluorescent light bulbs.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to describe proper lighting levels needed to perform various tasks, and use the light meter to determine the levels
currently used in their building.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to determine the type of lighting in different areas of the school using a Flicker Checker.
 Materials
ƒ1
ƒ Kill A Watt™ monitor
ƒ1
ƒ Light meter
ƒ1
ƒ Incandescent bulb
ƒ1
ƒ Compact fluorescent bulb
ƒ1
ƒ Flicker Checker
ƒTape
ƒ
ƒBooks
ƒ
ƒLamps
ƒ
Procedure
1. Have the Lighting Systems topic group conduct the activities on pages 22-26 of the Student Guide as classroom demonstrations.
2. Have all students record the results on pages 22-26 or in their science notebooks.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
15
Electrical Devices and Their Impacts
t Overview
These classroom activities teach students how to read and interpret the energy information on the nameplates of electrical devices. Students
will determine the amount of electricity consumed by those devices over time, the cost of the electricity used, and the amount of carbon
dioxide produced by the energy use. Students will develop an awareness of school and personal electricity consumption and its effect on
the environment.
& Background
ƒƒ Electric Nameplates
Every appliance and machine in the United States that uses electricity has a nameplate with the voltage required and the wattage it uses.
Sometimes, the current is listed instead of the voltage. If any two of the three measurements are listed, the third can be determined using
the following formula: wattage = current x voltage.
Often, you will see the letters UL on the nameplate. The UL mark means that samples of the product have been tested to recognized safety
standards and have been found to be reasonably free from fire, electric shock, and related safety hazards.
Using the data on the nameplate, the amount of time the appliance is used, and the cost of electricity, you can determine the cost of
operating the appliance. To determine the cost to operate an appliance for one hour, use this formula:
cost per hour = wattage (kW) x cost/kWh.
ƒƒ Environmental Effects
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas. Human activities have dramatically increased its concentration in the atmosphere. Since the
Industrial Revolution, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased more than 40 percent. Generating electricity accounts for a large
portion of CO2 emissions in the U.S. Some electricity generation—such as hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, and nuclear—does not
produce carbon dioxide because no fuel is burned.
Much of the nation’s electricity (37.40 percent), however, comes from burning coal. Another 32.57 percent comes from burning natural gas,
petroleum, and biomass. There is a direct correlation between the amount of electricity we use and the amount of CO2 emitted into the
atmosphere. On average, generating a kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity from fossil fuels produces 1.33 pounds of CO2, which is emitted
into the atmosphere.
 Concepts
ƒThe
ƒ
electrical appliances and machines we use consume a lot of energy and affect the environment.
ƒWe
ƒ can determine the amount of electricity that appliances use, the cost of the electricity, and the amount of CO2 emitted.
 Objectives
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to calculate the cost of using electrical appliances using data from the device’s nameplate.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to qualitatively and quantitavely describe the environmental impact of using an electrical device.
 Materials
ƒElectrical
ƒ
devices
ƒCalculators
ƒ
Procedure
1. Have the students complete the activities on pages 27–29 of the Student Guide about using electrical devices and machines in the
classroom. Review with the class.
16
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
OFF
EnergyGuide Labels
t Overview
This classroom activity teaches students to read and compare the EnergyGuide labels required on most large appliances—such as
refrigerators, furnaces, water heaters, and air conditioners. Students develop an awareness of life cycle cost analysis, payback period, and
efficient technologies.
& Background
The Federal Government requires that appliance manufacturers provide information about the energy efficiency of their products to
consumers. This information allows consumers to compare the life cycle costs of the appliances, as well as the purchase price. The life cycle
cost of an appliance is the purchase price plus the operating cost over the projected life of the appliance.
The law requires that manufacturers place EnergyGuide labels on all new refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, dishwashers, clothes washers,
room air conditioners, central air conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, televisions, and boilers. The EnergyGuide labels list the manufacturer,
the model, the capacity, the features, the average amount of energy the appliance will use per year, its comparison with similar models, and
the estimated yearly energy cost.
For refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, dishwashers, televisions, and clothes washers, the labels compare energy consumption in
kWh/year or therms/year. For room air conditioners, central air conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, and boilers, the rating is not in terms of
energy consumption, but in energy efficiency ratings, as follows:
ƒEER–Energy
ƒ
Efficiency Rating (room air conditioners)
ƒSEER–Seasonal
ƒ
Energy Efficiency Rating (central air conditioners)
ƒHSPF–Heating
ƒ
Season Performance Factor (with SEER heat pumps)
ƒAFUE–Annual
ƒ
Fuel Utilization Efficiency (furnaces and boilers)
The estimated annual operating cost is based on recent national average prices of electricity and/or natural gas and assumes typical
operating behavior. For example, the cost for clothes washers assumes a typical washer would be used to wash eight loads of laundry per
week.
 Concepts
ƒSome
ƒ
appliances are more energy efficient than others.
ƒThe
ƒ
energy efficiency of major appliances can be quantified.
ƒThe
ƒ
Federal Government requires that most major appliances carry labels to inform consumers of their energy efficiency ratings.
ƒEfficient
ƒ
appliances are usually more expensive to buy than less efficient models, but the life cycle cost of efficient appliances is usually
much less than the less expensive appliances.
ƒA
ƒ payback period is the amount of operating time for an energy efficient appliance before the higher up-front (purchase) cost is recouped
by lower energy costs.
 Objectives
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to read and interpret the information on EnergyGuide labels.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to calculate and/or compare the life cycle costs and payback periods of two similar appliances using the information
on the EnergyGuide labels.
Procedure
1. Have the students read EnergyGuide Labels on page 30 of the Student Guide.
2. Have the students complete the Comparing Appliances activity on page 31 of the Student Guide. Review with the students, emphasizing
the payback period and energy savings in subsequent years.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
17
Kill A Watt™ Investigations
t Overview
These activities teach students how to use a Kill A Watt™ monitor to measure and monitor the electric power consumption of electrical
machines and devices in the school. Students in the Appliances and Plug Loads topic group conduct the activities for the class.
 Concepts
ƒThe
ƒ
electrical devices and machines we use consume energy.
ƒWe
ƒ can monitor the amount of electricity that machines use and calculate the cost of the electricity.
ƒSome
ƒ
machines use more electricity in active mode than in idle mode.
ƒWe
ƒ can monitor the difference in electricity usage between active and idle modes and calculate the cost.
ƒSome
ƒ
machines use electricity even when they are turned off.
ƒWe
ƒ can monitor the electricity usage of machines that are turned off and calculate the cost.
 Objective
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to gather electric consumption data from a variety of electrical devices in the school in varying modes and calculate
the cost of using them.
 Materials
ƒKill
ƒ A Watt™ monitor
ƒPluggable
ƒ
electrical devices
Procedure
1. Have students read Kill A Watt™ Monitor on page 32 of the Student Guide.
2. Have the Appliances and Plug Loads topic group conduct the activities on pages 33-35 of the Student Guide as classroom demonstrations.
3. Have all students record the results on pages 33-35 or in their science notebooks. Review with the class.
18
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
OFF
School Building Survey
t Overview
In this activity, students in their topic groups investigate the construction of their school, the fuels the school uses to meet its energy needs,
the amount of energy the school uses, and the ways that the school’s energy consumption is managed and controlled.
& Background
Schools use a lot of energy to create a safe, comfortable, and productive environment for students to learn. Schools use energy to maintain
comfortable temperatures, produce light, heat water, cook food, operate vehicles, and run hundreds of electrical machines and appliances–
televisions, public address systems, scoreboards, computers, alarm systems, exit signs, etc. Most of the energy consumed by schools is
supplied by electricity (45%) and natural gas (33%).
When an energy survey of a building is conducted, four main areas are included:
Building Envelope: The building envelope is the physical structure—the walls, windows, roof, doors, floor, stairwells, ceiling, and insulation.
The design and construction of the envelope is a major factor in heating, cooling, and lighting costs.
Heating/Cooling Systems: Heating and cooling the building is the largest single expense of the school. Most schools are heated with
natural gas, some with electricity or heating oil. Electricity is usually used for cooling. Maintenance and temperature control of these systems
make a significant impact on energy costs.
Water Heating: Water heaters provide hot water for classrooms, lavatories, showers, laboratories, snack bars, and kitchens. They are usually
fueled by natural gas or electricity. Insulation, maintenance, and control of temperature and water flow can reduce energy costs for the
school.
Lighting: Electricity is used to provide artificial lighting to classrooms, gyms, auditoriums, corridors, offices, sports fields, and parking areas.
Maximizing the use of natural light and installing efficient lighting systems can significantly reduce energy costs. Controlling light intensity,
turning off unnecessary lights, and proper system maintenance can also make an impact on lighting costs for the school.
 Concepts
ƒSchools
ƒ
use a lot of energy to produce a safe, comfortable learning environment.
ƒMany
ƒ
factors determine the amount of energy a school uses.
ƒSchools
ƒ
can reduce energy consumption by upgrading older systems with energy efficient technologies, instituting energy conservation
measures, and educating students, administrators, and staff.
ƒReducing
ƒ
energy use saves schools money that can be used for other programs and helps protect the environment.
 Objectives
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to conduct an energy survey of the school building.
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to analyze data and suggest recommendations to save energy in the school building.
Procedure
1. Assign The Importance of Energy Management topic group to explore the building and answer the General Information questions of the
School Building Survey (page 36 of the Student Guide).
2. Assign the Building Envelope topic group to investigate the building and answer the Building Envelope questions of the School Building
Survey (page 36 of the Student Guide).
3. Assign the HVAC Systems topic group to investigate the building and answer the Heating/Cooling Systems and Water Heating questions
of the School Building Survey (page 37 of the Student Guide).
4. Assign the Lighting Systems topic group to investigate the building and answer the Lighting questions of the School Building Survey
(page 37 of the Student Guide).
5. Have all groups give brief reports on their findings and have all students record the results in their science notebooks, or on a class list.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
19
OFF
School Energy Consumption Survey
t Overview
In this activity, students investigate the management of the energy consumed in their school. They measure and monitor the temperature
and light intensity levels in classrooms, hallways, and other rooms; the temperature of the hot water in different areas of the school; and
other controls, management, and behaviors that affect energy consumption.
& Background
Even if school buildings are well insulated and have the most modern, efficient energy systems, a significant amount of energy can be wasted
if these systems are not controlled and managed wisely. The best heating system in the world cannot operate efficiently if outside doors
or windows are left open, or if the temperature is not controlled. The same is true for cooling systems. Temperature control systems should
be set at 68°F (20°C) during the heating season and 78°F (25°C) during the cooling season during the day. In the evening, these systems
should be adjusted to 58°F (14°C) during heating season, and 85°F (29°C) during cooling season for optimum efficiency. Programmable
thermostats—with access limited to authorized personnel—are recommended. There should also be policies regarding the opening of
windows and doors during heating and cooling seasons.
If the temperature of rooms can be individually controlled, there should be policies on permissible temperature ranges. These ranges can
vary for different rooms. Gyms, for example, need not be heated to the same temperature as classrooms, when physical activity is scheduled.
Auditoriums, hallways, storage rooms, and other little-used rooms need not be heated and cooled to the same temperature as occupied
rooms.
Even the most efficient lighting system is not efficient if it is used indiscriminately. In most schools, more light is used than is necessary.
Maximum use of natural lighting should be encouraged, and dimmer switches should be used whenever possible. All lights that are not
necessary for safety or function should be turned off when rooms are not in use. The same is true for outside lights.
Water heaters should be equipped with timers and temperature settings regulated according to task. Washing hands does not require water
as hot as washing dishes. Most water heaters are set much higher than necessary for the task.
Plug loads consume a significant amount of energy in a typical school. Many machines are left on all the time. Other machines consume
energy even when they are turned off.
 Concept
ƒSchools
ƒ
can significantly reduce energy costs by using energy efficient technologies and monitoring and managing energy consumption
through behavioral changes.
 Objective
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to conduct a survey of the school’s energy consumption.
 Materials
ƒLight
ƒ
meter
ƒDigital
ƒ
waterproof thermometer
ƒIndoor/outdoor
ƒ
thermometer
20
ƒDigital
ƒ
humidity/temperature pen
ƒFlicker
ƒ
Checker
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
2 Preparation
1. Arrange for the school district’s energy manager or facilities manager to speak to the class about what is being done in the district to
conserve energy.
2. Obtain permission for the students to survey classrooms and non-class areas of the school building.
3. Choose several classrooms and non-class areas for the students to survey, including upstairs and downstairs rooms and rooms on different
sides of the building.
4. Install the indoor/outdoor thermometer in a classroom window.
5. Form new groups of students with at least one representative from the former topic groups. These new groups—the Plan Groups—will
compile the data on the recording forms, then work together to combine their knowledge and information into an energy management
plan in the culminating activity.
Procedure
1. Have the students read School Energy Consumption Survey on page 40 of the Student Guide and brainstorm a list of questions for the
energy manager or facilities manager.
2. Have the energy manager or facilities manager make a presentation to the students and answer their questions.
3. Explain to the students that they will be surveying areas of the school in groups. Their groups will include members from all of the topic
groups. Review Recording Form 1 and Recording Form 2 on pages 41-42 of the Student Guide to inform them of the information they will
be gathering and the tools they will be using.
4. Assign students to their groups and explain that each group will have 10-15 minutes to conduct its survey.
5. Assign each group to at least one classroom and one non-class area.
6. Demonstrate how to operate the digital waterproof thermometer and the digital humidity/temperature pen, if necessary.
Note: Only the digital waterproof thermometer can be used for measuring the temperature of water. The digital humidity/temperature
pen can only be used to measure air temperature, and should not get wet.
7. Allow each group 10-15 minutes to collect the data on their Recording Forms.
8. Have the students analyze the results and look for explanations of variations.
9. Have the students record the information gathered in their science notebooks, or on a class list.
10.Have the topic groups meet to compare and add information to their Topic Group Organizers on page 39 of the Student Guide.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
21
OFF
Energy Management Plan Project
t Overview
In this activity, student groups incorporate the information and data they have accumulated into an energy management plan to reduce
energy consumption in the school.
 Concepts
ƒSchools
ƒ
can significantly reduce energy costs by using energy efficient technologies and monitoring and managing energy consumption.
 Objective
ƒStudents
ƒ
will be able to develop a comprehensive energy management plan for the school.
2 Preparation
ƒDecide
ƒ
on acceptable formats for group presentations (PowerPoint, formal project, informative project for administrators, persuasive
project for fellow students, video, brochure, newsletter, action plan, etc.) and the time frame for completion of the projects.
Procedure
1. Explain to the students that they will work in their consumption survey groups to develop an energy management plan for the school
using the information and data they have gathered. Direct them to the Energy Management Plan and Plan Organizer on pages 43-44 of
the Student Guide for them to use to organize and prioritize their information.
2. Assign each topic group a target audience for its project, such as:
ƒSchool
ƒ
Board
ƒCommunity
ƒ
Members
ƒSchool
ƒ
Administration
ƒFamily
ƒ
Members
ƒMaintenance
ƒ
Staff
ƒYounger
ƒ
Students
ƒFellow
ƒ
Students
ƒPTA
ƒ
3. Provide the students with the presentation parameters and time frame. Emphasize that the presentations should include information
from all of the topic groups and be appropriate for the target audience. Share the grading rubric, if necessary.
4. Have the groups meet to formulate their action plans. If desired, have the groups present their action plans to you for approval before
proceeding.
5. Arrange for the groups to make their presentations to the class or to their target audiences, if possible.
6. Evaluate the projects using the Grading Rubric on the next page.
22
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
Grading Rubric: Energy Management Plan Presentation
GRADE
CONTENT
ORGANIZATION
ORIGINALITY
WORKLOAD
4
Project covers the topic
in-depth with many details
and examples. Subject
knowledge is excellent.
Content is very well
organized and presented in
a logical sequence.
Project shows much original
thought. Ideas are creative
and inventive.
The workload is divided
and shared equally by all
members of the group.
Content is logically
organized.
Project shows some original
thought. Work shows new
ideas and insights.
The workload is divided
and shared fairly equally
by all group members, but
workloads may vary.
Content is logically
organized with a few
confusing sections.
Project provides essential
information, but there is
little evidence of original
thinking.
The workload is divided, but
one person in the group is
viewed as not doing his/her
fair share of the work.
There is no clear
organizational structure, just
a compilation of facts.
Project provides some
The workload is not divided,
essential information, but no or several members are not
original thought.
doing their fair share of the
work.
Understanding of target
audience is excellent.
3
Project includes essential
information about the topic.
Subject knowledge is good.
Understanding of target
audience is good.
2
Project includes essential
information about the topic,
but there are 1-2 factual
errors.
Understanding of target
audience is fair.
1
Project includes minimal
information or there are
several factual errors.
Understanding of target
audience is poor.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
23
MASTER
The Light Meter
Operating Instructions
1. Insert the battery into the battery compartment in the back of
the meter.
2. Slide the ON/OFF Switch to the ON position.
LCD Display
3. Slide the Range Switch to the B position.
4. On the back of the meter, pull out the meter’s tilt stand and
place the meter on a flat surface in the area you plan to measure.
5. Hold the Light Sensor so that the white lens faces the light
source to be measured or place the Light Sensor on a flat surface
facing the direction of the light source.
ON/OFF Switch
Range Switch
6. Read the measurement on the LCD Display.
7. If the reading is less than 200 fc, slide the Range Switch to the A
position and measure again.
Light Sensor
Light Output or Luminous Flux
A lumen (lm) is a measure of the light output (or luminous flux) of
a light source (bulb or tube). Light sources are labeled with output
ratings in lumens. A T12 40-watt fluorescent tube light, for example,
may have a rating of 3050 lumens.
Light Level or Illuminance
A foot-candle (fc) is a measure of the quantity of light (illuminance)
that actually reaches the work plane on which the light meter is
placed. Foot-candles are work plane lumens per square foot. The
light meter can measure the quantity of light from 0 to 1000 fc.
Brightness or Luminance
Another measure of light is its brightness or luminance. Brightness
is a measure of the light that is reflected from a surface in a particular
direction. Brightness is measured in footlamberts (fL).
24
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
MASTER
Kill A Watt™ Monitor
Kill A WattTM Monitor
The Kill A Watt™ monitor allows users to measure and monitor the power consumption of any standard electrical
device. You can obtain instantaneous readings of voltage (volts), current (amps), line frequency (Hz), and electrical
power (watts) being used. You can also obtain the actual amount of power consumed in kilowatt-hours (kWh) by any
electrical device over a period of time from 1 minute to 9,999 hours. One kilowatt equals 1,000 watts.
Operating Instructions
1. Plug the Kill A Watt™ monitor into any standard grounded outlet or
extension cord.
2. Plug the electrical device or appliance to be tested into the AC
Power Outlet Receptacle of the Kill A Watt™ monitor.
3. The LCD displays all monitor readings. The unit will begin to
accumulate data and powered duration time as soon as the power
is applied.
4. Press the Volt button to display the voltage (volts) reading.
5. Press the Amp button to display the current (amps) reading.
6. The Watt and VA button is a toggle function key. Press the button
once to display the Watt reading; press the button again to display
the VA (volts x amps) reading. The Watt reading, not the VA reading,
is the value used to calculate kWh consumption.
7. The Hz and PF button is a toggle function key. Press the button
once to display the Frequency (Hz) reading; press the button again
to display the power factor (PF) reading.
8. The KWH and Hour button is a toggle function key. Press the button
once to display the cumulative energy consumption; press the
button again to display the cumulative time elapsed since power
was applied.
What is Power Factor (PF)?
The formula Volts x Amps = Watts is used to find the energy
consumption of an electrical device. Many AC devices, however, such
as motors and magnetic ballasts, do not use all of the power provided
to them. The power factor (PF) has a value equal to or less than one,
and is used to account for this phenomenon. To determine the actual
power consumed by a device, the following formula is used:
Volts x Amps x PF = Watts Consumed
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
25
MASTER
Humidity/Temperature Pen
Scientists measure the amount of water vapor
in the air in terms of relative humidity—the
amount of water vapor in the air relative to
(compared to) the maximum amount it can hold
at that temperature. Relative humidity changes
as air temperature changes. The warmer the air
is, the more water vapor it can hold.
Air acts like a sponge and absorbs water
through the process of evaporation. Warm air is
less dense and the molecules are further apart,
allowing more moisture between them. Cooler
air causes the air molecules to draw closer
together, limiting the amount of water the air
can hold.
It is important to control humidity in occupied
spaces. Humidity levels that are too high
can contribute to the growth and spread of
unhealthy biological pollutants. This can lead to
a variety of health effects, from common allergic
reactions to asthma attacks and other health
problems. Humidity levels that are too low can
contribute to irritated mucous membranes, dry
eyes, and sinus discomfort.
This digital humidity/temperature pen
measures relative humidity and temperature
and displays the readings on its face. It has a
battery for power. It can display the temperature
in Fahrenheit or Celsius. The reading shown on
the right is 68.5°F.
The hygrometer displays relative humidity in
terms of percentage. The hygrometer shown
reads 35%. This means that the air contains 35
percent of the water vapor it can hold at the
given air temperature. When the air contains a
lot of water vapor, the weather is described as
humid. If the air cannot carry any more water
vapor, the humidity is 100 percent. At this point,
the water vapor condenses into liquid water.
Maintaining relative humidity between 40 and
60 percent helps control mold. Maintaining
relative humidity levels within recommended
ranges is a way of ensuring that a building’s
occupants are both comfortable and healthy.
High humidity is uncomfortable for many
people. It is difficult for the body to cool down in
high humidity because sweat cannot evaporate
into the air.
26
Directions
ON/OFF KEY
Press the ON/OFF key to turn the power
on or off.
°C/°F
Press the °C/°F key to select the
temperature unit you want to use, Celsius
or Fahrenheit.
MAX/MIN
Press the MAX/MIN key once to display
the stored maximum readings for
temperature and humidity.
An up arrow will appear on the left side
of the display to indicate the unit is in the
maximum recording mode.
Press the MAX/MIN key a second time to
display the stored minimum readings for
temperature and humidity. A down arrow
will appear on the left side of the display
to indicate the unit is in the minimum
recording mode.
Press the MAX/MIN key a third time to
return to normal operation.
CLEAR
If an up or down arrow is displayed, press
the CLEAR key until - - - appears on the
display. The memory is cleared. New
maximum or minimum values will be
recorded within 3 seconds.
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
MASTER
Digital Thermometer
A digital thermometer measures the temperature of a substance
and displays the temperature reading on its face. It has a battery
for power. Sometimes they are waterproof for measuring the
temperature of a liquid.
This digital thermometer can measure the temperature in
Fahrenheit or Celsius. It shows the temperature range of the
thermometer. It can read temperatures from -40° to 392°F and
-40° to 200°C.
It has three buttons. The button on the bottom left is the ON/
OFF switch. If the thermometer is not used for a few minutes, it
turns itself off.
The C/F button on the bottom right switches from the Celsius
scale to the Fahrenheit scale. The face of the thermometer will
show a C or an F to indicate which scale is being used.
The mode button on the top holds the temperature reading
when it is pushed. If you need the exact temperature of a liquid,
you push the hold button while the thermometer is in the liquid,
then remove the thermometer to read it. This button will also
allow you to view the maximum and minimum temperatures
measured when pushed two or three times.
The metal stem of the thermometer can measure the
temperature of the air or the temperature of a liquid. The stem
should be placed about halfway into a liquid to measure the
temperature.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
27
ME
ME
E
NA
M
ME
NA
ME
P
ME
NA
ME
NA
L
O
NA
NA
ME
ME
NA
ME
E
NA
M
ME
N
NA
H
K
ME
J
M
28
G
NA
NA
I
D
NA
NA
NA
F
ME
E
M. Sets this item differently at day and night
and for the season
N. Knows the number one use of energy in the
home
O. Has an energy conservation team at school
P. Knows whether energy is the first, second,
or third highest expenditure in a school
district (choose one)
C
ME
B
ME
A
G. Knows what an ENERGY STAR® label means
H. Knows what SEER is
I. Knows the type of bulb that uses one
quarter of the energy of incandescents
J. Knows where to find an EnergyGuide label
K. Can name two appliances that should be
run only when fully loaded
L. Uses day lighting in the classroom instead
of overhead lights
NA
A. Can name two ways to increase a car’s MPG
B. Can name three ways to save energy at
home
C. Can name three ways to save energy at
school
D. Has at least one ENERGY STAR® appliance
at home
E. Knows the definition of energy efficiency
F. Knows the definition of energy conservation
BINGO
NA
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
OFF
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
IN THE ROUND
I have landscaping.
I have kilowatt-hour.
Who has a light bulb that produces more heat
than light?
Who has the most effective way for consumers
to reduce the amount of energy used by
industry?
I have reduce, reuse, recycle.
I have an incandescent.
Who has energy is neither created nor
destroyed?
Who has any behavior that results in using less
energy?
I have the Law of Conservation
of Energy.
I have conservation.
I have heating and cooling.
I have payback period.
Who has the label designating energy efficient
home appliances?
Who has the nation’s leading recycled
product?
I have ENERGY STAR®.
I have steel.
Who has a way to reduce energy use by
planting trees to block wind and provide shade?
Who has a material that resists the flow of
heat?
Who has the length of time you use an energy
Who has the number one use of energy in the efficient appliance before you begin to save
money?
home?
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
29
IN THE ROUND
I have insulation.
Who has a way to use gasoline more
efficiently?
Who has a digital meter installed in your home
that communicates with your utility company
to monitor and control energy usage?
I have keep tires properly
inflated.
I have Smart Meter.
Who has solar, hydropower, geothermal,
biomass, and wind?
30
I have energy efficiency.
Who has a way to learn how a building can use
energy more efficiently?
I have renewables.
I have energy audit.
Who has a light bulb that uses one-fourth the
energy of an incandescent bulb?
Who has the label that shows an appliance’s
annual energy use and operating cost?
I have a compact fluorescent.
I have EnergyGuide.
Who has the leading source of air pollution?
Who has the flow of electrons?
I have vehicle emissions.
I have electricity.
Who has using technology that needs less
energy to perform the same function?
Who has caulking, sealing, and weatherstripping cracks around doors and windows?
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
IN THE ROUND
I have ways to reduce air
infiltration.
Who has an alternative mode of
transportation?
I have take short showers.
Who has an energy intensive industry?
I have riding a bicycle.
I have petroleum refining.
Who has the concept that a society should
meet its energy needs without compromising Who has a device that allows you to control the
the needs of future generations?
temperature in your home?
I have energy sustainability.
Who has the sector of the economy that uses
the most petroleum?
I have transportation.
Who has the kitchen appliance that uses the
most energy?
I have programmable
thermostat.
Who has a renewable transportation fuel?
I have ethanol.
Who has the nonrenewable energy source
that is used to generate most of the nation’s
electricity?
I have refrigerator.
Who has a way to reduce the cost of heating
water?
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
I have coal.
Who has a measure of electricity consumption?
www.NEED.org
31
OFF
Learning and Conserving Kit
LEARNING AND CONSERVING AND KIT
Grades 9–12
In this activity, students explore energy consumption and conservation by reading utility meters and utility bills, comparing
EnergyGuide labels, and exploring electric nameplates. Students conduct comprehensive surveys of the school building and
school energy consumption—gathering, recording, and analyzing data, and monitoring energy usage. Students work in groups to
develop comprehensive energy management plans for the school that include suggestions for retrofits, systems management, and
conservation practices. The kit includes a Teacher Guide, class set of Student Guides, and the materials necessary to conduct the
activities.
Levels:
Intermediate, Secondary
Teacher and Student Guide $ 6.00
Learning and Conserving Kit $ 275.00
Class Set of 30 Student Guides
$ 50.00
Check out pages 21-23 of the 2014-2015 Resource Catalog for more information on our efficiency and conservation kits.
www.need.org/Files/curriculum/guides/2014-2015%20Catalog.pdf
OTHER EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION KITS
BUILDING SCIENCE
32
BUILDING BUDDIES
MONITORING AND MENTORING
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
NEED’s Online Resources
NEED’S SMUGMUG GALLERY
SOCIAL MEDIA
http://need-media.smugmug.com/
Stay up-to-date with NEED. “Like” us on Facebook! Search for
The NEED Project, and check out all we’ve got going on!
On NEED’s SmugMug page, you’ll find pictures of NEED students
learning and teaching about energy. You can also find pictures
from NEED workshops, and photos of energy from around the
country that were submitted for the Great American Energy Scavenger Hunt. Would you like to submit images or videos to
NEED’s gallery? E-mail [email protected] for more information.
Also use SmugMug to find these visual resources:
Follow us on Twitter. We share the latest energy news from
around the country, @NEED_Project.
Follow us on Instagram and check out the photos taken at
NEED events, instagram.com/theneedproject.
NEED ANNUAL REPORT
Videos
Need a refresher on how to use Science of Energy with your
students? Watch the Science of Energy videos. Also check out our
Energy Chants videos! Find videos produced by NEED students
teaching their peers and community members about energy.
Online Graphics Library
NEED’s Annual Report gives summaries of the best state and national
Youth Awards projects for 2013–2014, as well as information about
The NEED Project and our state programs. Download the report
online at www.NEED.org.
Would you like to use NEED’s graphics in your own classroom
presentations, or allow students to use them in their
presentations? Download graphics for easy use in
your classroom.
E-Publications
The NEED Project offers e-publication versions
of various guides for in-classroom use. Guides
that are currently available as an e-publication
will have a link next to the relevant guide title
on NEED’s curriculum resources page, www.NEED.org/curriculum.
Don’t see what you’re looking for?
Check back often, as new e-pubs will be
added throughout the year.
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
33
NEED Outstanding Energy Educators, Class of 2015
Calling all teachers…
NEED teachers are creative, intelligent, busy, fun, and loved by their students. NEED loves to recognize
teachers for their dedication to their students and energy education!
Are you a teacher who fits that description AND teaches energy using NEED materials? Tell us about it!
Nominate a fellow educator!
How to apply to be a member of the Class of 2015:
Submit a one-page, written description of the following:
�What energy topics were covered
�What activities were conducted
�What NEED resources were used
�How success was measured
Submit a lesson plan for an example activity (optional)
NEED will review submissions and all members of the Class of 2015 will be notified and recognized for their
efforts in the classroom and in energy education!
http://www.need.org/outstandingenergyeducator
34
Learning and Conserving Teacher Guide
Learning and Conserving
Evaluation Form
State: ___________
Grade Level: ___________
Number of Students: __________
1. Did you conduct the entire unit?

Yes

No
2. Were the instructions clear and easy to follow?

Yes

No
3. Did the activities meet your academic objectives?

Yes

No
4. Were the activities age appropriate?

Yes

No
5. Were the allotted times sufficient to conduct the activities?

Yes

No
6. Were the activities easy to use?

Yes

No
7. Was the preparation required acceptable for the activities?

Yes

No
8. Were the students interested and motivated?

Yes

No
9. Was the energy knowledge content age appropriate?

Yes

No
10.Would you teach this unit again?
Please explain any ‘no’ statement below.

Yes

No
How would you rate the unit overall?

excellent 
good

fair

poor
How would your students rate the unit overall?

excellent 
good

fair

poor
What would make the unit more useful to you?
Other Comments:
Please fax or mail to The NEED Project
© 2014 The NEED Project
P.O. Box 10101
Manassas, VA 20108
FAX: 1-800-847-1820
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
35
National Sponsors and Partners
American Electric Power
American Wind Energy Association
Arizona Public Service
Arizona Science Center
Arkansas Energy Office
Armstrong Energy Corporation
Association of Desk & Derrick Clubs
Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania
Barnstable County, Massachusetts
Robert L. Bayless, Producer, LLC
BP
Blue Grass Energy
Boulder Valley School District
Brady Trane
Cape Light Compact–Massachusetts
L.J. and Wilma Carr
Chevron
Chevron Energy Solutions
Columbia Gas of Massachusetts
ComEd
ConEdison Solutions
ConocoPhillips
Constellation
Daniel Math and Science Center
David Petroleum Corporation
Denver Public Schools
Desk and Derrick of Roswell, NM
Dominion
DonorsChoose
Duke Energy
East Kentucky Power
Eastern Kentucky University
Elba Liquifaction Company
El Paso Corporation
E.M.G. Oil Properties
Encana
Encana Cares Foundation
Energy Education for Michigan
Energy Training Solutions
First Roswell Company
FJ Management. Inc.
Foundation for Environmental Education
FPL
The Franklin Institute
Frontier Associates
Government of Thailand–Energy Ministry
Green Power EMC
Guam Energy Office
Guilford County Schools – North Carolina
Gulf Power
Gerald Harrington, Geologist
Harvard Petroleum
Hawaii Energy
Houston Museum of Natural Science
©2014 The NEED Project
Idaho National Laboratory
Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation
Independent Petroleum Association of
America
Independent Petroleum Association of New
Mexico
Indiana Michigan Power – An AEP Company
Interstate Renewable Energy Council
Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition
Kentucky Department of Education
Kentucky Department of Energy Development and Independence
Kentucky Power – An AEP Company
Kentucky River Properties LLC
Kentucky Utilities Company
Kinder Morgan
Leidos
Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative
Llano Land and Exploration
Louisiana State University Cooperative
Extension
Louisville Gas and Electric Company
Maine Energy Education Project
Maine Public Service Company
Marianas Islands Energy Office
Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources
Michigan Oil and Gas Producers Education
Foundation
Miller Energy
Mississippi Development Authority–Energy
Division
Mojave Environmental Education Consortium
Mojave Unified School District
Montana Energy Education Council
NASA
National Association of State Energy Officials
National Fuel
National Grid
National Hydropower Association
National Ocean Industries Association
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Nebraska Public Power District
New Mexico Oil Corporation
New Mexico Landman’s Association
NRG Energy, Inc.
NSTAR
OCI Enterprises
Offshore Energy Center
Offshore Technology Conference
Ohio Energy Project
Oxnard School District
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
Paxton Resources
P.O. Box 10101, Manassas, VA 20108
1.800.875.5029
www.NEED.org
PECO
Pecos Valley Energy Committee
Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association
Phillips 66
PNM
Read & Stevens, Inc.
Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources
River Parishes Community College
RiverQuest
Robert Armstrong
Roswell Geological Society
Sandia National Laboratory
Saudi Aramco
Science Museum of Virginia
C.T. Seaver Trust
Shell
Shell Chemicals
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Society of Petroleum Engineers – Middle
East, North Africa and South Asia
David Sorenson
Southern Company
Southern LNG
Space Sciences University–Laboratory of the
University of California Berkeley
Tennessee Department of Economic and
Community Development–Energy Division
Tioga Energy
Toyota
Tri-State Generation and Transmission
TXU Energy
United States Energy Association
United Way of Greater Philadelphia and
Southern New Jersey
University of Nevada–Las Vegas, NV
University of Tennessee
University of Texas - Austin
University of Texas - Tyler
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Energy–Hydrogen
Program
U.S. Department of Energy–Office of Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy
U.S. Department of Energy–Office of Fossil
Energy
U.S. Department of Energy–Wind for Schools
U.S. Department of the Interior–Bureau of
Land Management
U.S. Energy Information Administration
West Bay Exploration
Western Massachusetts Electric Company
W. Plack Carr Company
Yates Petroleum Corporation
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