Security Guide - SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12

Security Guide - SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12
Security Guide
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12
Security Guide
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12
Introduces basic concepts of system security, covering both local and network security as-
pects. Shows how to make use of the product inherent security software like AppArmor or the
auditing system that reliably collects information about any security-relevant events.
Publication date: February 19, 2015
SUSE Linux Products GmbH
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Copyright © 2006– 2015 SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.2 or (at your option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Section being this copyright notice and license.
A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
For SUSE and Novell trademarks, see the Novell Trademark and Service Mark list http://www.novell.com/company/legal/trademarks/tmlist.html
. All other third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. A trademark
symbol (®, ™ etc.) denotes a SUSE or Novell trademark; an asterisk (*) denotes a third party trademark.
All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee
complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, its affiliates, the authors nor the translators shall be held liable for possible
errors or the consequences thereof.
Contents
1
1.1
About This Guide xiv
Security and Confidentiality 1
Local Security and Network Security 1
Local Security 3 • Network Security 6
1.2
Some General Security Tips and Tricks 10
1.3
Using the Central Security Reporting Address 12
I
2
2.1
AUTHENTICATION 13
Authentication with PAM 14
What is PAM? 14
2.2
Structure of a PAM Configuration File 15
2.3
The PAM Configuration of sshd 17
2.4
Configuration of PAM Modules 20
pam_env.conf 20 • pam_mount.conf.xml 21 • limits.conf 21
2.5
Configuring PAM Using pam-config 22
2.6
Manually Configuring PAM 23
2.7
For More Information 23
3
3.1
Configuring NIS Servers 24
3.2
Configuring NIS Clients 24
4
4.1
iii
Using NIS 24
Authentication Server and Client 26
Configuring an Authentication Server 26
Security Guide
4.2
5
Configuring an Authentication Client with YaST (SSSD) 26
LDAP—A Directory Service 31
5.1
LDAP versus NIS 32
5.2
Structure of an LDAP Directory Tree 32
5.3
Configuring LDAP Users and Groups in YaST 35
5.4
For More Information 36
6
Active Directory Support 38
6.1
Integrating Linux and AD Environments 38
6.2
Background Information for Linux AD Support 39
Domain Join 41 • Domain Login and User Homes 42 • Offline Service and
Policy Support 44
6.3
Configuring a Linux Client for Active Directory 44
6.4
Logging In to an AD Domain 47
GDM 48 • Console Login 48
6.5
7
Changing Passwords 49
Network Authentication with Kerberos 51
7.1
Kerberos Terminology 51
7.2
How Kerberos Works 53
First Contact 53 • Requesting a Service 54 • Mutual Authentication 54 • Ticket Granting—Contacting All Servers 55 • Compatibility to
Windows 2000 56
iv
7.3
Users' View of Kerberos 56
7.4
For More Information 57
Security Guide
II
LOCAL SECURITY 58
8
Configuring Security Settings with YaST 59
8.1
Security Overview 59
8.2
Predefined Security Configurations 60
8.3
Password Settings 61
8.4
Boot Settings 62
8.5
Login Settings 62
8.6
User Addition 63
8.7
Miscellaneous Settings 63
9
9.1
Authorization with PolKit 65
Conceptual Overview 65
Available Authentication Agents 65 • Structure of PolKit 65 • Available
Commands 66 • Available Policies and Supported Applications 66
9.2
Authorization Types 68
Implicit Privileges 68 • Explicit Privileges 69 • Default Privileges 69
9.3
Querying Privileges 69
9.4
Modifying Configuration Files 70
Adding Action Rules 71 • Adding Authorization Rules 72 • Modifying Configuration Files for Implicit Privileges 73
9.5
Restoring the Default Privileges 74
10
Access Control Lists in Linux 76
10.1
Traditional File Permissions 76
The setuid Bit 76 • The setgid Bit 77 • The Sticky Bit 77
v
10.2
Advantages of ACLs 77
10.3
Definitions 78
Security Guide
10.4
Handling ACLs 79
ACL Entries and File Mode Permission Bits 80 • A Directory with an
ACL 81 • A Directory with a Default ACL 84 • The ACL Check Algorithm 87
10.5
ACL Support in Applications 87
10.6
For More Information 88
11
11.1
Encrypting Partitions and Files 89
Setting Up an Encrypted File System with YaST 90
Creating an Encrypted Partition during Installation 90 • Creating an Encrypted
Partition on a Running System 92 • Creating an Encrypted File as a Container 92 • Encrypting the Content of Removable Media 92
11.2
Using Encrypted Home Directories 93
11.3
Using vi to Encrypt Single ASCII Text Files 94
12
Certificate Store 95
12.1
Activating Certificate Store 95
12.2
Importing Certificates 95
13
Intrusion Detection with AIDE 97
13.1
Why Using AIDE? 97
13.2
Setting Up an AIDE Database 97
13.3
Local AIDE Checks 100
13.4
System Independent Checking 101
13.5
For More Information 103
III
14
14.1
NETWORK SECURITY 104
SSH: Secure Network Operations 105
ssh—Secure Shell 105
Starting X Applications on a Remote Host 106 • Agent Forwarding 106
vi
Security Guide
14.2
scp—Secure Copy 106
14.3
sftp—Secure File Transfer 107
Setting Permissions for File Uploads 108
14.4
The SSH Daemon (sshd) 109
14.5
SSH Authentication Mechanisms 110
Generating an SSH Key 111 • Copying an SSH Key 112 • Using the sshagent 112
14.6
Port Forwarding 113
14.7
Configuring An SSH Daemon with YaST 114
14.8
For More Information 115
15
Masquerading and Firewalls 117
15.1
Packet Filtering with iptables 117
15.2
Masquerading Basics 120
15.3
Firewalling Basics 121
15.4
SuSEFirewall2 122
Configuring the Firewall with YaST 123 • Configuring Manually 125
15.5
16
16.1
For More Information 127
Configuring a VPN Server 128
Conceptual Overview 128
Terminology 128 • VPN Scenarios 128
16.2
Setting Up a Simple Test Scenario 132
Configuring the VPN Server 132 • Configuring the VPN Client 133 • Testing
the VPN Example Scenario 134
16.3
Setting Up Your VPN Server Using Certificate Authority 134
Creating Certificates 135 • Configuring the Server 138 • Configuring the
Clients 140
16.4
vii
Changing Name Servers in VPN 141
Security Guide
16.5
The GNOME Applet 142
16.6
For More Information 143
17
17.1
Managing X.509 Certification 144
The Principles of Digital Certification 144
Key Authenticity 144 • X.509 Certificates 145 • Blocking X.509 Certificates 146 • Repository for Certificates and CRLs 147 • Proprietary
PKI 148
17.2
YaST Modules for CA Management 148
Creating a Root CA 148 • Changing Password 150 • Creating or Revoking a
Sub-CA 151 • Creating or Revoking User Certificates 152 • Changing Default
Values 154 • Creating Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) 155 • Exporting CA
Objects to LDAP 156 • Exporting CA Objects as a File 157 • Importing Common Server Certificates 158
IV
18
18.1
19
Introducing AppArmor 161
Background Information on AppArmor Profiling 162
Getting Started 163
19.1
Installing AppArmor 163
19.2
Enabling and Disabling AppArmor 164
19.3
Choosing Applications to Profile 165
19.4
Building and Modifying Profiles 166
19.5
Updating Your Profiles 167
20
viii
CONFINING PRIVILEGES WITH APPARMOR 160
Immunizing Programs 168
20.1
Introducing the AppArmor Framework 169
20.2
Determining Programs to Immunize 171
20.3
Immunizing cron Jobs 172
Security Guide
20.4
Immunizing Network Applications 172
Immunizing Web Applications 174 • Immunizing Network Agents 176
21
Profile Components and Syntax 178
21.1
Breaking an AppArmor Profile into Its Parts 179
21.2
Profile Types 182
Standard Profiles 182 • Unattached Profiles 182 • Local Profiles 183 • Hats 183 • Change rules 184
21.3
Include Statements 185
Abstractions 186 • Program Chunks 187 • Tunables 187
21.4
Capability Entries (POSIX.1e) 187
21.5
Network Access Control 187
21.6
Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and Globbing 188
Profile Flags 190 • Using Variables in Profiles 191 • Pattern Matching 192 • Namespaces 193 • Profile Naming and Attachment Specification 193 • Alias Rules 194
21.7
File Permission Access Modes 195
Read Mode (r) 195 • Write Mode (w) 195 • Append Mode (a) 195 • File
Locking Mode (k) 196 • Link Mode (l) 196 • Link Pair 196 • Optional allow and file Rules 197 • Owner Conditional Rules 198 • Deny Rules 199
21.8
Execute Modes 199
Discrete Profile Execute Mode (Px) 200 • Discrete Local Profile Execute
Mode (Cx) 200 • Unconfined Execute Mode (Ux) 200 • Unsafe Exec
Modes 201 • Inherit Execute Mode (ix) 201 • Allow Executable Mapping
(m) 201 • Named Profile Transitions 201 • Fall backs for Profile Transitions 202 • Variable Settings in Execution Modes 203 • safe and unsafe
Keywords 204
21.9
21.10
ix
Resource Limit Control 205
Auditing Rules 206
Security Guide
22
22.1
23
AppArmor Profile Repositories 208
Using the Local Repository 208
Building and Managing Profiles with YaST 209
23.1
Manually Adding a Profile 209
23.2
Editing Profiles 210
Adding an Entry 213 • Editing an Entry 216 • Deleting an Entry 216
23.3
Deleting a Profile 216
23.4
Managing AppArmor 216
Changing AppArmor Status 217 • Changing the Mode of Individual Profiles 218
24
Building Profiles from the Command Line 219
24.1
Checking the AppArmor Status 219
24.2
Building AppArmor Profiles 221
24.3
Adding or Creating an AppArmor Profile 221
24.4
Editing an AppArmor Profile 221
24.5
Deleting an AppArmor Profile 222
24.6
Two Methods of Profiling 222
Stand-Alone Profiling 223 • Systemic Profiling 223 • Summary of Profiling
Tools 225
24.7
25
25.1
Important File Names and Directories 246
Profiling Your Web Applications Using ChangeHat 248
Configuring Apache for mod_apparmor 249
Virtual Host Directives 250 • Location and Directory Directives 250
25.2
Managing ChangeHat-Aware Applications 251
Adding Hats and Entries to Hats in YaST 258
x
Security Guide
26
Confining Users with pam_apparmor 261
27
Managing Profiled Applications 262
27.1
Reacting to Security Event Rejections 262
27.2
Maintaining Your Security Profiles 262
Backing Up Your Security Profiles 262 • Changing Your Security Profiles 263 • Introducing New Software into Your Environment 263
28
Support 264
28.1
Updating AppArmor Online 264
28.2
Using the Man Pages 264
28.3
For More Information 266
28.4
Troubleshooting 266
How to React to odd Application Behavior? 266 • My Profiles do not Seem to
Work Anymore … 266 • Resolving Issues with Apache 270 • How to Exclude
Certain Profiles from the List of Profiles Used? 270 • Can I Manage Profiles for
Applications not Installed on my System? 270 • How to Spot and fix AppArmor
Syntax Errors? 271
28.5
29
V
30
30.1
Reporting Bugs for AppArmor 272
AppArmor Glossary 273
THE LINUX AUDIT FRAMEWORK 276
Understanding Linux Audit 277
Introducing the Components of Linux Audit 280
30.2
Configuring the Audit Daemon 281
30.3
Controlling the Audit System Using auditctl 288
30.4
Passing Parameters to the Audit System 290
30.5
Understanding the Audit Logs and Generating Reports 294
Understanding the Audit Logs 294 • Generating Custom Audit Reports 299
xi
Security Guide
30.6
Querying the Audit Daemon Logs with ausearch 307
30.7
Analyzing Processes with autrace 311
30.8
Visualizing Audit Data 311
30.9
Relaying Audit Event Notifications 314
31
31.1
Determining the Components to Audit 319
31.2
Configuring the Audit Daemon 319
31.3
Enabling Audit for System Calls 321
31.4
Setting Up Audit Rules 322
31.5
Configuring Audit Reports 324
31.6
Configuring Log Visualization 328
32
Introducing an Audit Rule Set 331
32.1
Adding Basic Audit Configuration Parameters 332
32.2
Adding Watches on Audit Log Files and Configuration Files 333
32.3
Monitoring File System Objects 334
32.4
Monitoring Security Configuration Files and Databases 335
32.5
Monitoring Miscellaneous System Calls 338
32.6
Filtering System Call Arguments 338
32.7
Managing Audit Event Records Using Keys 342
33
A
xii
Setting Up the Linux Audit Framework 318
Useful Resources 344
Documentation Updates 346
A.1
February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance Update) 346
A.2
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop
12) 347
Security Guide
B
B.1
xiii
GNU Licenses 351
GNU Free Documentation License 351
Security Guide
About This Guide
This manual introduces the basic concepts of system security on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop.
It covers extensive documentation about the authentication mechanisms available on Linux,
such as NIS or LDAP. It also deals with aspects of local security like access control lists, encryption and intrusion detection. In the network security part you learn how to secure your com-
puters with firewalls and masquerading, and how to set up virtual private networks (VPN). This
manual also shows you how to make use of the product's inherent security software like AppAr-
mor (which lets you specify per program which files the program may read, write, and execute)
or the auditing system that reliably collects information about any security-relevant events.
Many chapters in this manual contain links to additional documentation resources. These in-
clude additional documentation that is available on the system, as well as documentation available on the Internet.
For an overview of the documentation available for your product and the latest documentation
updates, refer to http://www.suse.com/doc
or to the following section.
1 Available Documentation
We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different languages. The following manuals
for users and administrators are available for this product:
Article “Installation Quick Start”
Lists the system requirements and guides you step-by-step through the installation of SUSE
Linux Enterprise Desktop from DVD, or from an ISO image.
Book “Deployment Guide”
Shows how to install single or multiple systems and how to exploit the product inherent
capabilities for a deployment infrastructure. Choose from various approaches, ranging
from a local installation or a network installation server to a mass deployment using a
remote-controlled, highly-customized, and automated installation technique.
Book “Administration Guide”
Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.
xiv
About This Guide
SLED 12
Security Guide
Introduces basic concepts of system security, covering both local and network security
aspects. Shows how to make use of the product inherent security software like AppArmor
or the auditing system that reliably collects information about any security-relevant events.
Book “System Analysis and Tuning Guide”
An administrator's guide for problem detection, resolution and optimization. Find how to
inspect and optimize your system by means of monitoring tools and how to efficiently
manage resources. Also contains an overview of common problems and solutions and of
additional help and documentation resources.
Book “GNOME User Guide”
Introduces the GNOME desktop of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. It guides you through
using and configuring the desktop and helps you perform key tasks. It is intended mainly
for end users who want to make efficient use of GNOME as their default desktop.
Find HTML versions of most product manuals in your installed system under /usr/share/doc/
manual or in the help centers of your desktop. Find the latest documentation updates at http://
www.suse.com/doc
product.
where you can download PDF or HTML versions of the manuals for your
2 Feedback
Several feedback channels are available:
Bugs and Enhancement Requests
For services and support options available for your product, refer to http://www.suse.com/
support/
.
To report bugs for a product component, go to http://www.suse.com/mysupport , log in,
and select Submit New SR.
User Comments
We want to hear your comments about and suggestions for this manual and the other
documentation included with this product. Use the User Comments feature at the bottom of
each page in the online documentation or go to http://www.suse.com/doc/feedback.html
and enter your comments there.
xv
Feedback
SLED 12
Mail
For feedback on the documentation of this product, you can also send a mail to doc-
[email protected] . Make sure to include the document title, the product version and the
publication date of the documentation. To report errors or suggest enhancements, provide
a concise description of the problem and refer to the respective section number and page
(or URL).
3 Documentation Conventions
The following typographical conventions are used in this manual:
/etc/passwd : directory names and file names
placeholder : replace placeholder with the actual value
PATH : the environment variable PATH
ls , --help : commands, options, and parameters
user : users or groups
Alt
,
Alt
– F1 : a key to press or a key combination; keys are shown in uppercase as on
a keyboard
File, File Save As: menu items, buttons
Dancing Penguins (Chapter Penguins, ↑Another Manual): This is a reference to a chapter in
another manual.
xvi
Documentation Conventions
SLED 12
1 Security and Confidentiality
One of the main characteristics of a Linux or Unix system is its ability to handle several users at
the same time (multiuser) and to allow these users to perform several tasks (multitasking) on
the same computer simultaneously. Moreover, the operating system is network transparent. The
users often do not know whether the data and applications they are using are provided locally
from their machine or made available over the network.
With the multiuser capability, the data of different users must be stored separately, and security
and privacy need to be guaranteed. Data security was already an important issue, even before
computers could be linked through networks. Like today, the most important concern was the
ability to keep data available in spite of a lost or otherwise damaged data medium (a hard disk
in most cases).
This section is primarily focused on confidentiality issues and on ways to protect the privacy
of users, but it cannot be stressed enough that a comprehensive security concept should always
include procedures to have a regularly updated, workable, and tested backup in place. Without
this, you could have a very hard time getting your data back—not only in the case of some
hardware defect, but also in the case that someone has gained unauthorized access and tampered
with files.
1.1 Local Security and Network Security
There are several ways of accessing data:
personal communication with people who have the desired information or access to the
data on a computer
directly through physical access from the console of a computer
over a serial line
using a network link
1
Security and Confidentiality
SLED 12
In all these cases, a user should be authenticated before accessing the resources or data in
question. A Web server might be less restrictive in this respect, but you still would not want it
to disclose your personal data to an anonymous user.
In the list above, the first case is the one where the highest amount of human interaction is
involved (such as when you are contacting a bank employee and are required to prove that you
are the person owning that bank account). Then, you are asked to provide a signature, a PIN, or
a password to prove that you are the person you claim to be. In some cases, it might be possible
to elicit some intelligence from an informed person by mentioning known bits and pieces to win
the confidence of that person. The victim could be led to reveal gradually more information,
maybe without even being aware of it. Among hackers, this is called social engineering. You can
only guard against this by educating people and by dealing with language and information in a
conscious way. Before breaking into computer systems, attackers often try to target receptionists,
service people working with the company, or even family members. In many cases, such an
attack based on social engineering is only discovered at a much later time.
A person wanting to obtain unauthorized access to your data could also use the traditional way
and try to get at your hardware directly. Therefore, the machine should be protected against any
tampering so that no one can remove, replace, or cripple its components. This also applies to
backups and even any network cables or power cords. Also secure the boot procedure, because
there are some well-known key combinations that might provoke unusual behavior. Protect
yourself against this by setting passwords for the BIOS and the boot loader.
Serial terminals connected to serial ports are still used in many places. Unlike network interfaces,
they do not rely on network protocols to communicate with the host. A simple cable or an
infrared port is used to send plain characters back and forth between the devices. The cable
itself is the weakest point of such a system: with an older printer connected to it, it is easy to
record any data being transferred that way. What can be achieved with a printer can also be
accomplished in other ways, depending on the effort that goes into the attack.
Reading a file locally on a host requires additional access rules than opening a network connection with a server on a different host. There is a distinction between local security and network
security. The line is drawn where data must be put into packets to be sent somewhere else.
2
Local Security and Network Security
SLED 12
1.1.1
Local Security
Local security starts with the physical environment at the location in which computer is running.
Set up your machine in a place where security is in line with your expectations and needs. The
main goal of local security is to keep users separate from each other, so no user can assume the
permissions or the identity of another. This is a general rule to be observed, but it is especially
true for the user root , who holds system administration privileges. root can take on the
identity of any other local user and read any locally-stored file without being prompted for the
password.
1.1.1.1
Passwords
On a Linux system, passwords are not stored as plain text and the entered text string is not
simply matched with the saved pattern. If this were the case, all accounts on your system would
be compromised as soon as someone got access to the corresponding file. Instead, the stored
password is encrypted and, each time it is entered, is encrypted again and the two encrypted
strings are compared. This only provides more security if the encrypted password cannot be
reverse-computed into the original text string.
This is actually achieved by a special kind of algorithm, also called trapdoor algorithm, because
it only works in one direction. An attacker who has obtained the encrypted string is not able to
get your password by simply applying the same algorithm again. Instead, it would be necessary
to test all the possible character combinations until a combination is found that looks like your
password when encrypted. With passwords eight characters long, there are quite a number of
possible combinations to calculate.
In the seventies, it was argued that this method would be more secure than others because of the
relative slowness of the algorithm used which took a few seconds to encrypt one password. In the
meantime, however, PCs have become powerful enough to do several hundred thousand or even
millions of encryptions per second. Because of this, encrypted passwords should not be visible
to regular users ( /etc/shadow cannot be read by normal users). It is even more important that
passwords are not easy to guess, in case the password file becomes visible because of an error.
Consequently, it is not really useful to “translate” a password like “tantalize” into “[email protected]@1lz3”.
Replacing some letters of a word with similar looking numbers (like writing the password “tan-
talize” as “[email protected]@1lz3”) is not sufficient. Password cracking programs that use dictionaries to
guess words also play with substitutions like that. A better way is to make up a word with no
common meaning, something that only makes sense to you personally, like the first letters of
3
Local Security
SLED 12
the words of a sentence or the title of a book, such as “The Name of the Rose” by Umberto
Eco. This would give the following safe password: “TNotRbUE9”. In contrast, passwords like
“beerbuddy” or “jasmine76” are easily guessed even by someone who has only some casual
knowledge about you.
1.1.1.2
The Boot Procedure
Configure your system so it cannot be booted from a removable device, either by removing the
drives entirely or by setting a BIOS password and configuring the BIOS to allow booting from
a hard disk only. Normally, a Linux system is started by a boot loader, allowing you to pass
additional options to the booted kernel. Prevent others from using such parameters during boot
by setting an additional password for the boot loader (see Book “Administration Guide” 13 “The
Boot Loader GRUB 2”13.2.6 “Setting a Boot Password” for instructions). This is crucial to your
system's security. Not only does the kernel itself run with root permissions, but it is also the
first authority to grant root permissions at system start-up.
1.1.1.3
File Permissions
As a general rule, always work with the most restrictive privileges possible for a given task. For
example, it is definitely not necessary to be root to read or write e-mail. If the mail program
has a bug, this bug could be exploited for an attack that acts with exactly the permissions of the
program when it was started. By following the above rule, minimize the possible damage.
The permissions of all files included in the SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop distribution are care-
fully chosen. A system administrator who installs additional software or other files should take
great care when doing so, especially when setting the permission bits. Experienced and security-conscious system administrators always use the -l option with the command ls to get an
extensive file list, which allows them to detect any incorrect file permissions immediately. An
incorrect file attribute does not only mean that files could be changed or deleted. These modified
files could be executed by root or, in the case of configuration files, programs could use such
files with the permissions of root . This significantly increases the possibilities of an attack.
Attacks like these are called cuckoo eggs, because the program (the egg) is executed (hatched)
by a different user (bird), similar to how a cuckoo tricks other birds into hatching its eggs.
An
SUSE®
Linux
Enterprise
Desktop
system
includes
the
files
permissions ,
permissions.easy , permissions.secure , and permissions.paranoid , all in the directo-
ry /etc . The purpose of these files is to define special permissions, such as world-writable di-
4
Local Security
SLED 12
rectories or, for files, the setuser ID bit (programs with the setuser ID bit set do not run with
the permissions of the user that has launched it, but with the permissions of the file owner,
in most cases root ). An administrator can use the file /etc/permissions.local to add his
own settings.
To define which of the above files is used by SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop's configuration
programs to set permissions, select Local Security in the Security and Users section of YaST. To
learn more about the topic, read the comments in /etc/permissions or consult the manual
page of chmod ( man chmod ).
1.1.1.4
Buffer Overflows and Format String Bugs
Special care must be taken whenever a program needs to process data that could be changed
by a user, but this is more of an issue for the programmer of an application than for regular
users. The programmer must make sure that his application interprets data in the correct way,
without writing it into memory areas that are too small to hold it. Also, the program should
hand over data in a consistent manner, using interfaces defined for that purpose.
A buffer overflow can happen if the actual size of a memory buffer is not taken into account
when writing to that buffer. There are cases where this data (as generated by the user) uses up
more space than what is available in the buffer. As a result, data is written beyond the end of
that buffer area, which, under certain circumstances, makes it possible for a program to execute
program sequences influenced by the user (and not by the programmer), rather than processing
user data only. A bug of this kind may have serious consequences, especially if the program is
being executed with special privileges (see Section 1.1.1.3, “File Permissions”).
Format string bugs work in a slightly different way, but again it is the user input that could
lead the program astray. In most cases, these programming errors are exploited with programs
executed with special permissions—setuid and setgid programs—which also means that you can
protect your data and your system from such bugs by removing the corresponding execution
privileges from programs. Again, the best way is to apply a policy of using the lowest possible
privileges (see Section 1.1.1.3, “File Permissions”).
Given that buffer overflows and format string bugs are bugs related to the handling of user data,
they are not only exploitable if access has been given to a local account. Many of the bugs that
have been reported can also be exploited over a network link. Accordingly, buffer overflows and
format string bugs should be classified as being relevant for both local and network security.
5
Local Security
SLED 12
1.1.1.5
Viruses
Contrary to popular opinion, there are viruses that run on Linux. However, the viruses that are
known were released by their authors as a proof of concept that the technique works as intended.
None of these viruses have been spotted in the wild so far.
Viruses cannot survive and spread without a host on which to live. In this case, the host would
be a program or an important storage area of the system, such as the master boot record, which
needs to be writable for the program code of the virus. Because of its multiuser capability,
Linux can restrict write access to certain files (this is especially important with system files).
Therefore, if you did your normal work with root permissions, you would increase the chance
of the system being infected by a virus. In contrast, if you follow the principle of using the lowest
possible privileges as mentioned above, chances of getting a virus are slim.
Apart from that, you should never rush into executing a program from some Internet site that
you do not really know. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop's RPM packages carry a cryptographic
signature, as a digital label that the necessary care was taken to build them. Viruses are a typical
sign that the administrator or the user lacks the required security awareness, putting at risk
even a system that should be highly secure by its very design.
Viruses should not be confused with worms, which belong entirely to the world of networks.
Worms do not need a host to spread.
1.1.2
Network Security
Network security is important for protecting from an attack that is started outside the network.
The typical login procedure requiring a user name and a password for user authentication is still
a local security issue. In the particular case of logging in over a network, differentiate between
the two security aspects. What happens until the actual authentication is network security and
anything that happens afterward is local security.
1.1.2.1
X Window System and X Authentication
As mentioned at the beginning, network transparency is one of the central characteristics of a
Unix system. X, the windowing system of Unix operating systems, can make use of this feature
in an impressive way. With X, it is no problem to log in to a remote host and start a graphical
program that is then sent over the network to be displayed on your computer.
6
Network Security
SLED 12
When an X client needs to be displayed remotely using an X server, the latter should protect the
resource managed by it (the display) from unauthorized access. In more concrete terms, certain
permissions must be given to the client program. With the X Window System, there are two
ways to do this, called host-based access control and cookie-based access control. The former
relies on the IP address of the host where the client should run. The program to control this is
xhost. xhost enters the IP address of a legitimate client into a database belonging to the X server.
However, relying on IP addresses for authentication is not very secure. For example, if there
were a second user working on the host sending the client program, that user would have access
to the X server as well—like someone stealing the IP address. Because of these shortcomings,
this authentication method is not described in more detail here, but you can learn about it with
man xhost .
In the case of cookie-based access control, a character string is generated that is only known
to the X server and to the legitimate user, like an ID card of some kind. This cookie is stored
on login in the file .Xauthority in the user's home directory and is available to any X client
wanting to use the X server to display a window. The file .Xauthority can be examined by
the user with the tool xauth . If you rename .Xauthority , or if you delete the file from your
home directory by accident, you would not be able to open any new windows or X clients.
SSH (secure shell) can be used to encrypt a network connection completely and forward it to
an X server transparently, without the encryption mechanism being perceived by the user. This
is also called X forwarding. X forwarding is achieved by simulating an X server on the server
side and setting a DISPLAY variable for the shell on the remote host. Further details about SSH
can be found in Chapter 14, SSH: Secure Network Operations.
Warning: X Forwarding Can Be Insecure
If you do not consider the host where you log in to be a secure host, do not use X for-
warding. If X forwarding is enabled, an attacker could authenticate via your SSH con-
nection. The attacker could then intrude on your X server and, for example, read your
keyboard input.
1.1.2.2
Buffer Overflows and Format String Bugs
As discussed in Section 1.1.1.4, “Buffer Overflows and Format String Bugs”, buffer overflows and for-
mat string bugs should be classified as issues applying to both local and network security. As
with the local variants of such bugs, buffer overflows in network programs, when successfully
7
Network Security
SLED 12
exploited, are mostly used to obtain root permissions. Even if that is not the case, an attacker
could use the bug to gain access to an unprivileged local account to exploit other vulnerabilities
that might exist on the system.
Buffer overflows and format string bugs exploitable over a network link are certainly the most
frequent form of remote attacks, in general. Exploits for these—programs to exploit these newly-found security holes—are often posted on security mailing lists. They can be used to target
the vulnerability without knowing the details of the code.
Experience has shown that the availability of exploit codes has contributed to more secure
operating systems, as they force operating system makers to fix problems in their software. With
free software, anyone has access to the source code (SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop comes with
complete source code) and anyone who finds a vulnerability and its exploit code can submit a
patch to fix the corresponding bug.
1.1.2.3
Denial of Service
The purpose of a denial of service (DoS) attack is to block a server program or even an entire
system, something that could be achieved by various means: overloading the server, keeping
it busy with garbage packets, or exploiting a remote buffer overflow. Often, a DoS attack is
made with the sole purpose of making the service disappear. However, when a given service
has become unavailable, communications could become vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks
(sniffing, TCP connection hijacking, spoofing) and DNS poisoning.
1.1.2.4
Man in the Middle: Sniffing, Hijacking, Spoofing
In general, any remote attack performed by an attacker who puts himself between the communicating hosts is called a man-in-the-middle attack. What almost all types of man-in-the-middle
attacks have in common is that the victim is usually not aware that there is something happening. There are many possible variants. For example, the attacker could pick up a connection
request and forward that to the target machine. Now the victim has unwittingly established a
connection with the wrong host, because the other end is posing as the legitimate destination
machine.
The simplest form of a man-in-the-middle attack is called sniffer (the attacker is “only” listening
to the network traffic passing by). As a more complex attack, the “man in the middle” could try
to take over an already established connection (hijacking). To do so, the attacker would need to
analyze the packets for some time to be able to predict the TCP sequence numbers belonging to
8
Network Security
SLED 12
the connection. When the attacker finally seizes the role of the target host, the victims notice this,
because they get an error message saying the connection was terminated because of a failure.
The fact that there are protocols not secured against hijacking through encryption (which only
perform a simple authentication procedure upon establishing the connection) makes it easier
for attackers.
Spoofing is an attack where packets are modified to contain counterfeit source data, usually the
IP address. Most active forms of attack rely on sending out such fake packets (something that,
on a Linux machine, can only be done by the superuser ( root )).
Many of the attacks mentioned are carried out in combination with a DoS. If an attacker sees
an opportunity to bring down a certain host abruptly, even if only for a short time, it makes
it easier for him to push the active attack, because the host will not be able to interfere with
the attack for some time.
1.1.2.5
DNS Poisoning
DNS poisoning means that the attacker corrupts the cache of a DNS server by replying to it
with spoofed DNS reply packets, trying to get the server to send certain data to a victim who is
requesting information from that server. Many servers maintain a trust relationship with other
hosts, based on IP addresses or host names. The attacker needs a good understanding of the
actual structure of the trust relationships among hosts to disguise itself as one of the trusted
hosts. Usually, the attacker analyzes some packets received from the server to get the necessary
information. The attacker often needs to target a well-timed DoS attack at the name server as
well. Protect yourself by using encrypted connections that are able to verify the identity of the
hosts to which to connect.
1.1.2.6
Worms
Worms are often confused with viruses, but there is a clear difference between the two. Unlike
viruses, worms do not need to infect a host program to live. Instead, they are specialized to
spread as quickly as possible on network structures. The worms that appeared in the past, such
as Ramen, Lion, or Adore, make use of well-known security holes in server programs like bind8.
Protection against worms is relatively easy. Given that some time elapses between the discovery
9
Network Security
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of a security hole and the moment the worm hits your server, there is a good chance that an
updated version of the affected program is available on time. That is only useful if the administrator actually installs the security updates on the systems in question.
1.2 Some General Security Tips and Tricks
To handle security competently, it is important to observe some recommendations. You may
find the following list of rules useful in dealing with basic security concerns:
Get and install the updated packages recommended by security announcements as quickly
as possible.
Stay informed about the latest security issues:
http://lists.opensuse.org/opensuse-security-announce/
is the SUSE mailing list for
security announcements. It is a first-hand source of information regarding updated packages and includes members of SUSE's security team among its active contributors. You can subscribe to this list on page http://en.opensuse.org/
openSUSE:Mailing_lists
.
Find SUSE security advisories at http://www.suse.com/support/update/ .
[email protected] is one of the best-known security mailing lists world-
wide. Reading this list, which receives between 15 and 20 postings per day, is recommended. More information can be found at http://www.securityfocus.com .
Discuss
any
security
issues
[email protected] .
of
interest
on
our
mailing
list
open-
According to the rule of using the most restrictive set of permissions possible for every
job, avoid doing your regular jobs as root . This reduces the risk of getting a cuckoo egg
or a virus and protects you from your own mistakes.
If possible, always try to use encrypted connections to work on a remote machine. Using
ssh (secure shell) to replace telnet , ftp , rsh , and rlogin should be standard practice.
Avoid using authentication methods based solely on IP addresses.
10
Some General Security Tips and Tricks
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Try to keep the most important network-related packages up-to-date and subscribe to the
corresponding mailing lists to receive announcements on new versions of such programs
( bind , postfix , ssh , etc.). The same should apply to software relevant to local security.
Change the /etc/permissions file to optimize the permissions of files crucial to your
system's security. If you remove the setuid bit from a program, it might well be that it
cannot do its job anymore in the intended way. On the other hand, consider that, in most
cases, the program will also have ceased to be a potential security risk. You might take a
similar approach with world-writable directories and files.
Disable any network services you do not absolutely require for your server to work prop-
erly. This makes your system safer. Open ports, with the socket state LISTEN, can be found
with the program netstat . As for the options, it is recommended to use netstat -ap
or netstat -anp . The -p option allows you to see which process is occupying a port
under which name.
Compare the netstat results with those of a thorough port scan done from outside your
host. An excellent program for this job is nmap , which not only checks out the ports of
your machine, but also draws some conclusions as to which services are waiting behind
them. However, port scanning may be interpreted as an aggressive act, so do not do this
on a host without the explicit approval of the administrator. Finally, remember that it is
important not only to scan TCP ports, but also UDP ports (options -sS and -sU ).
To monitor the integrity of the files of your system in a reliable way, use the program
AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment), available on SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop. Encrypt the database created by AIDE to prevent someone from tampering with
it. Furthermore, keep a backup of this database available outside your machine, stored on
an external data medium not connected to it by a network link.
Take proper care when installing any third-party software. There have been cases where
a hacker had built a Trojan horse into the TAR archive of a security software package,
which was fortunately discovered very quickly. If you install a binary package, have no
doubts about the site from which you downloaded it.
SUSE's RPM packages are gpg-signed. The key used by SUSE for signing is:
ID:9C800ACA 2000-10-19 SUSE Package Signing Key <[email protected]>
Key fingerprint = 79C1 79B2 E1C8 20C1 890F 9994 A84E DAE8 9C80 0ACA
11
Some General Security Tips and Tricks
SLED 12
The command rpm --checksig package.rpm shows whether the checksum and the sig-
nature of an uninstalled package are correct. Find the key on the first CD of the distribution
and on most key servers worldwide.
Check backups of user and system files regularly. Consider that if you do not test whether
the backup works, it might actually be worthless.
Check your log files. Whenever possible, write a small script to search for suspicious entries. Admittedly, this is not exactly a trivial task. In the end, only you can know which
entries are unusual and which are not.
Use tcp_wrapper to restrict access to the individual services running on your machine,
so you have explicit control over which IP addresses can connect to a service. For further
information regarding tcp_wrapper , consult the manual pages of tcpd and hosts_access
( man 8 tcpd , man hosts_access ).
Use SuSEfirewall to enhance the security provided by tcpd ( tcp_wrapper ).
Design your security measures to be redundant: a message seen twice is much better than
no message at all.
If you use suspend to disk, consider configuring the suspend image encryption using the
configure-suspend-encryption.sh script. The program creates the key, copies it to
/etc/suspend.key , and modifies /etc/suspend.conf to use encryption for suspend
images.
1.3 Using the Central Security Reporting Address
If you discover a security-related problem (check the available update packages first), write an
e-mail to [email protected] . Include a detailed description of the problem and the version
number of the package concerned. SUSE will try to send a reply as soon as possible. You are
encouraged to pgp-encrypt your e-mail messages. SUSE's PGP key is:
ID:3D25D3D9 1999-03-06 SUSE Security Team <[email protected]>
Key fingerprint = 73 5F 2E 99 DF DB 94 C4 8F 5A A3 AE AF 22 F2 D5
This
key
is
ty/contact.html
12
also
.
available
for
download
from
http://www.suse.com/support/securi-
Using the Central Security Reporting Address
SLED 12
I Authentication
2
Authentication with PAM 14
3
Using NIS 24
4
Authentication Server and Client 26
5
LDAP—A Directory Service 31
6
Active Directory Support 38
7
Network Authentication with Kerberos 51
2 Authentication with PAM
Linux uses PAM (pluggable authentication modules) in the authentication process as a layer
that mediates between user and application. PAM modules are available on a systemwide basis, so they can be requested by any application. This chapter describes how the modular authentication mechanism works and how it is configured.
2.1 What is PAM?
System administrators and programmers often want to restrict access to certain parts of the
system or to limit the use of certain functions of an application. Without PAM, applications must
be adapted every time a new authentication mechanism, such as LDAP, Samba, or Kerberos,
is introduced. This process, however, is rather time-consuming and error-prone. One way to
avoid these drawbacks is to separate applications from the authentication mechanism and del-
egate authentication to centrally managed modules. Whenever a newly required authentication
scheme is needed, it is sufficient to adapt or write a suitable PAM module for use by the program
in question.
The PAM concept consists of:
PAM modules, which are a set of shared libraries for a specific authentication mechanism.
A module stack with of one or more PAM modules.
A PAM-aware service which needs authentication by using a module stack or PAM modules.
Usually a service is a familiar name of the corresponding application, like login or su .
The service name other is a reserved word for default rules.
Module arguments, with which the execution of a single PAM module can be influenced.
A mechanism evaluating each result of a single PAM module execution. A positive value
executes the next PAM module. The way a negative value is dealt with, depends on the
configuration: “no influence, proceed” up to “terminate immediately” and anything in
between are valid options.
14
Authentication with PAM
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2.2 Structure of a PAM Configuration File
PAM can be configured in two ways:
File based configuration ( /etc/pam.conf )
The configuration of each service is stored in /etc/pam.conf . However, for maintenance
and usability reasons, this configuration scheme is not used in SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop.
Directory based configuration ( /etc/pam.d/ )
Every service (or program) that relies on the PAM mechanism has its own configuration
file in the /etc/pam.d/ directory. For example, the service for sshd can be found in the
/etc/pam.d/sshd file.
The files under /etc/pam.d/ define the PAM modules used for authentication. Each file consists
of lines, which define a service, and each line consists of a maximum of four components:
TYPE
CONTROL
MODULE_PATH
MODULE_ARGS
The components have the following meaning:
TYPE
Declares the type of the service. PAM modules are processed as stacks. Different types of
modules have different purposes. For example, one module checks the password, another
verifies the location from which the system is accessed, and yet another reads user-specific
settings. PAM knows about four different types of modules:
auth
Check the user's authenticity, traditionally by querying a password. However, this
can also be achieved with the help of a chip card or through biometrics (for example,
fingerprints or iris scan).
account
Modules of this type check if the user has general permission to use the requested
service. As an example, such a check should be performed to ensure that no one can
log in with the user name of an expired account.
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Structure of a PAM Configuration File
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password
The purpose of this type of module is to enable the change of an authentication token.
In most cases, this is a password.
session
Modules of this type are responsible for managing and configuring user sessions.
They are started before and after authentication to log login attempts and configure
the user's specific environment (mail accounts, home directory, system limits, etc.).
CONTROL
Indicates the behavior of a PAM module. Each module can have the following control flags:
required
A module with this flag must be successfully processed before the authentication may
proceed. After the failure of a module with the required flag, all other modules
with the same flag are processed before the user receives a message about the failure
of the authentication attempt.
requisite
Modules having this flag must also be processed successfully, in much the same way
as a module with the required flag. However, in case of failure a module with this
flag gives immediate feedback to the user and no further modules are processed. In
case of success, other modules are subsequently processed, like any modules with
the required flag. The requisite flag can be used as a basic filter checking for
the existence of certain conditions that are essential for a correct authentication.
sufficient
After a module with this flag has been successfully processed, the requesting appli-
cation receives an immediate message about the success and no further modules are
processed, provided there was no preceding failure of a module with the required
flag. The failure of a module with the sufficient flag has no direct consequences,
in the sense that any subsequent modules are processed in their respective order.
optional
The failure or success of a module with this flag does not have any direct conse-
quences. This can be useful for modules that are only intended to display a message
(for example, to tell the user that mail has arrived) without taking any further action.
include
If this flag is given, the file specified as argument is inserted at this place.
16
Structure of a PAM Configuration File
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MODULE_PATH
Contains a full file name of a PAM module. It does not need to be specified explicitly, as
long as the module is located in the default directory /lib/security (for all 64-bit platforms supported by SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop, the directory is /lib64/security ).
MODULE_ARGS
Contains a space-separated list of options to influence the behavior of a PAM module, such
as debug (enables debugging) or nullok (allows the use of empty passwords).
In addition, there are global configuration files for PAM modules under /etc/security , which
define the exact behavior of these modules (examples include pam_env.conf and time.conf ).
Every application that uses a PAM module actually calls a set of PAM functions, which then
process the information in the various configuration files and return the result to the requesting
application.
To simplify the creation and maintenance of PAM modules, common default configuration files
for the types auth , account , password , and session modules have been introduced. These
are retrieved from every application's PAM configuration. Updates to the global PAM configuration modules in common-* are thus propagated across all PAM configuration files without
requiring the administrator to update every single PAM configuration file.
The global PAM configuration files are maintained using the pam-config tool. This tool auto-
matically adds new modules to the configuration, changes the configuration of existing ones or
deletes modules (or options) from the configurations. Manual intervention in maintaining PAM
configurations is minimized or no longer required.
Note: 64-Bit and 32-Bit Mixed Installations
When using a 64-bit operating system, it is possible to also include a runtime environment
for 32-bit applications. In this case, make sure that you also install the 32-bit version of
the PAM modules.
2.3 The PAM Configuration of sshd
Consider the PAM configuration of sshd as an example:
EXAMPLE 2.1: PAM CONFIGURATION FOR SSHD (/etc/pam.d/sshd)
#%PAM-1.0
17
1
The PAM Configuration of sshd
SLED 12
auth
requisite
pam_nologin.so
2
auth
include
common-auth
3
account
requisite
pam_nologin.so
2
account
include
common-account
3
password include
common-password
3
session
required
pam_loginuid.so
4
session
include
common-session
3
session
optional
pam_lastlog.so
1
silent noupdate showfailed
5
Declares the version of this configuration file for PAM 1.0. This is merely a convention,
but could be used in the future to check the version.
2
Checks, if /etc/nologin exists. If it does, no user other than root may log in.
3
Refers to the configuration files of four module types: common-auth , common-account ,
common-password , and common-session . These four files hold the default configuration
for each module type.
4
Sets the login uid process attribute for the process that was authenticated.
5
Displays information about the last login of a user.
By including the configuration files instead of adding each module separately to the respective
PAM configuration, you automatically get an updated PAM configuration when an administrator changes the defaults. Formerly, you needed to adjust all configuration files manually for
all applications when changes to PAM occurred or a new application was installed. Now the
PAM configuration is made with central configuration files and all changes are automatically
inherited by the PAM configuration of each service.
The first include file ( common-auth ) calls three modules of the auth type: pam_env.so ,
pam_gnome_keyring.so and pam_unix.so . See Example 2.2, “Default Configuration for the auth
Section (common-auth)”.
EXAMPLE 2.2: DEFAULT CONFIGURATION FOR THE auth SECTION (common-auth)
auth
required
auth
optional pam_gnome_keyring.so
2
auth
required
3
1
pam_env.so
pam_unix.so
1
try_first_pass
pam_env.so loads /etc/security/pam_env.conf to set the environment variables as
specified in this file. It can be used to set the DISPLAY variable to the correct value, because
the pam_env module knows about the location from which the login is taking place.
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The PAM Configuration of sshd
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2
pam_gnome_keyring.so checks the user's login and password against the GNOME keyring
3
pam_unix checks the user's login and password against /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow .
The whole stack of auth modules is processed before sshd gets any feedback about whether
the login has succeeded. All modules of the stack having the required control flag must be
processed successfully before sshd receives a message about the positive result. If one of the
modules is not successful, the entire module stack is still processed and only then is sshd
notified about the negative result.
As soon as all modules of the auth type have been successfully processed, another include
statement is processed, in this case, that in Example 2.3, “Default Configuration for the account Section (common-account)”. common-account contains only one module, pam_unix . If pam_unix
returns the result that the user exists, sshd receives a message announcing this success and the
next stack of modules ( password ) is processed, shown in Example 2.4, “Default Configuration for
the password Section (common-password)”.
EXAMPLE 2.3: DEFAULT CONFIGURATION FOR THE account SECTION (common-account)
account
required
pam_unix.so
try_first_pass
EXAMPLE 2.4: DEFAULT CONFIGURATION FOR THE password SECTION (common-password)
password
requisite
pam_cracklib.so
password
optional
pam_gnome_keyring.so
password
required
pam_unix.so
use_authtok
use_authtok nullok shadow try_first_pass
Again, the PAM configuration of sshd involves only an include statement referring to the default configuration for password modules located in common-password . These modules must
successfully be completed (control flags requisite and required ) whenever the application
requests the change of an authentication token.
Changing a password or another authentication token requires a security check. This is achieved
with the pam_cracklib module. The pam_unix module used afterwards carries over any old
and new passwords from pam_cracklib , so the user does not need to authenticate again after
changing the password. This procedure makes it impossible to circumvent the checks carried
out by pam_cracklib . Whenever the account or the auth type are configured to complain
about expired passwords, the password modules should also be used.
EXAMPLE 2.5: DEFAULT CONFIGURATION FOR THE session SECTION (common-session)
session
19
required
pam_limits.so
The PAM Configuration of sshd
SLED 12
session
required
pam_unix.so try_first_pass
session
optional
pam_umask.so
session
optional
pam_systemd.so
session
optional
pam_gnome_keyring.so auto_start only_if=gdm,gdm-
password,lxdm,lightdm
session
optional
pam_env.so
As the final step, the modules of the session type (bundled in the common-session file)
are called to configure the session according to the settings for the user in question. The
pam_limits module loads the file /etc/security/limits.conf , which may define limits on
the use of certain system resources. The pam_unix module is processed again. The pam_umask
module can be used to set the file mode creation mask. Since this module carries the optional
flag, a failure of this module would not affect the successful completion of the entire session
module stack. The session modules are called a second time when the user logs out.
2.4 Configuration of PAM Modules
Some of the PAM modules are configurable. The configuration files are located in /etc/
security . This section briefly describes the configuration files relevant to the sshd exam-
ple— pam_env.conf and limits.conf .
2.4.1
pam_env.conf
pam_env.conf can be used to define a standardized environment for users that is set whenever
the pam_env module is called. With it, preset environment variables using the following syntax:
VARIABLE
[DEFAULT=value]
[OVERRIDE=value]
VARIABLE
Name of the environment variable to set.
[DEFAULT=<value>]
Default value the administrator wants to set.
[OVERRIDE=<value>]
Values that may be queried and set by pam_env , overriding the default value.
20
Configuration of PAM Modules
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A typical example of how pam_env can be used is the adaptation of the DISPLAY variable, which
is changed whenever a remote login takes place. This is shown in Example 2.6, “pam_env.conf”.
EXAMPLE 2.6: PAM_ENV.CONF
REMOTEHOST
DEFAULT=localhost
[email protected]{PAM_RHOST}
DISPLAY
DEFAULT=${REMOTEHOST}:0.0
OVERRIDE=${DISPLAY}
The first line sets the value of the REMOTEHOST variable to localhost , which is used whenever
pam_env cannot determine any other value. The DISPLAY variable in turn contains the value
of REMOTEHOST . Find more information in the comments in /etc/security/pam_env.conf .
2.4.2
pam_mount.conf.xml
The purpose of pam_mount is to mount user home directories during the login process, and to
unmount them during logout in an environment where a central file server keeps all the home
directories of users. With this method, it is not necessary to mount a complete /home directory
where all the user home directories would be accessible. Instead, only the home directory of
the user who is about to log in, is mounted.
After installing pam_mount , a template for pam_mount.conf.xml is available in /etc/security . The description of the various elements can be found in the manual page man 5
pam_mount.conf .
A basic configuration of this feature can be done with YaST. Select Network Settings Windows
Domain Membership Expert Settings to add the file server; see Book “Administration Guide” 23
“Samba”23.4 “Configuring Clients”.
2.4.3
limits.conf
System limits can be set on a user or group basis in limits.conf , which is read by the
pam_limits module. The file allows you to set hard limits, which may not be exceeded at all,
and soft limits, which may be exceeded temporarily. For more information about the syntax and
the options, see the comments in /etc/security/limits.conf .
21
pam_mount.conf.xml
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2.5 Configuring PAM Using pam-config
The pam-config tool helps you configure the global PAM configuration files ( /etc/pam.d/
common-* ) as well as several selected application configurations. For a list of supported mod-
ules, use the pam-config --list-modules command. Use the pam-config command to main-
tain your PAM configuration files. Add new modules to your PAM configurations, delete other
modules or modify options to these modules. When changing global PAM configuration files,
no manual tweaking of the PAM setup for individual applications is required.
A simple use case for pam-config involves the following:
1. Auto-generate a fresh Unix-style PAM configuration. Let pam-config create the simplest
possible setup which you can extend later on. The pam-config --create command
creates a simple Unix authentication configuration. Pre-existing configuration files not
maintained by pam-config are overwritten, but backup copies are kept as *.pam-config-backup .
2. Add a new authentication method. Adding a new authentication method (for example,
LDAP) to your stack of PAM modules comes down to a simple pam-config --add -ldap command. LDAP is added wherever appropriate across all common-*-pc PAM con-
figuration files.
3. Add debugging for test purposes. To make sure the new authentication procedure works
as planned, turn on debugging for all PAM-related operations. The pam-config --add
--ldap-debug turns on debugging for LDAP-related PAM operations. Find the debugging
output in the systemd journal (see Book “Administration Guide” 12 “journalctl: Query
the systemd Journal”).
4. Query your setup. Before you finally apply your new PAM setup, check if it contains all
the options you wanted to add. The pam-config --query --module lists both the type
and the options for the queried PAM module.
5. Remove the debug options. Finally, remove the debug option from your setup when you
are entirely satisfied with the performance of it. The pam-config --delete --ldap-
debug command turns off debugging for LDAP authentication. In case you had debugging
options added for other modules, use similar commands to turn these off.
For more information on the pam-config command and the options available, refer to the
manual page of pam-config(8) .
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Configuring PAM Using pam-config
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2.6 Manually Configuring PAM
If you prefer to manually create or maintain your PAM configuration files, make sure to disable
pam-config for these files.
When you create your PAM configuration files from scratch using the pam-config --create
command, it creates symbolic links from the common-* to the common-*-pc files. pam-config
only modifies the common-*-pc configuration files. Removing these symbolic links effectively
disables pam-config, because pam-config only operates on the common-*-pc files and these files
are not put into effect without the symbolic links.
2.7 For More Information
In the /usr/share/doc/packages/pam directory after installing the pam-doc package, find
the following additional documentation:
READMEs
In the top level of this directory, there is the modules subdirectory holding README files
about the available PAM modules.
The Linux-PAM System Administrators' Guide
This document comprises everything that the system administrator should know about
PAM. It discusses a range of topics, from the syntax of configuration files to the security
aspects of PAM.
The Linux-PAM Module Writers' Manual
This document summarizes the topic from the developer's point of view, with information
about how to write standard-compliant PAM modules.
The Linux-PAM Application Developers' Guide
This document comprises everything needed by an application developer who wants to
use the PAM libraries.
The PAM Manual Pages
PAM in general as well as the individual modules come with manual pages that provide a
good overview of the functionality of all the components.
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Manually Configuring PAM
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3 Using NIS
As soon as multiple Unix systems in a network access common resources, it becomes impera-
tive that all user and group identities are the same for all machines in that network. The net-
work should be transparent to users: their environments should not vary, regardless of which
machine they are actually using. This can be done by means of NIS and NFS services. NFS dis-
tributes file systems over a network and is discussed in Book “Administration Guide” 24 “Sharing File Systems with NFS”.
NIS (Network Information Service) can be described as a database-like service that provides
access to the contents of /etc/passwd , /etc/shadow , and /etc/group across networks.
NIS can also be used for other purposes (making the contents of files like /etc/hosts or /
etc/services available, for example), but this is beyond the scope of this introduction. Peo-
ple often refer to NIS as YP, because it works like the network's “yellow pages.”
3.1 Configuring NIS Servers
For configuring NIS servers, see the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
3.2 Configuring NIS Clients
To use NIS on a workstation, do the following:
1. Start YaST Network Services NIS Client.
2. Activate the Use NIS button.
3. Enter the NIS domain. This is usually a domain name given by your administrator or a
static IP address received by DHCP.
24
Using NIS
SLED 12
FIGURE 3.1: SETTING DOMAIN AND ADDRESS OF A NIS SERVER
4. Enter your NIS servers and separate their addresses by spaces. If you do not know your
NIS server, click Find to let YaST search for any NIS servers in your domain. Depending
on the size of your local network, this may be a time-consuming process. Broadcast asks
for a NIS server in the local network after the specified servers fail to respond.
5. Depending on your local installation, you may also want to activate the automounter. This
option also installs additional software if required.
6. If you do not want other hosts to be able to query which server your client is using, go to
the Expert settings and disable Answer Remote Hosts. By checking Broken Server, the client
is enabled to receive replies from a server communicating through an unprivileged port.
For further information, see man ypbind .
7. Click Finish to save them and return to the YaST control center. Your client is now con-
figured with NIS.
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Configuring NIS Clients
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4 Authentication Server and Client
The Authentication Server is based on LDAP and optionally Kerberos. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, you can configure it with a YaST wizard.
For more information about LDAP, see Chapter 5, LDAP—A Directory Service, and about Kerberos,
see Chapter 7, Network Authentication with Kerberos.
4.1 Configuring an Authentication Server
For configuring an Authentication Server, see the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server documentation.
4.2 Configuring an Authentication Client with
YaST (SSSD)
YaST includes the Authentication Client module that helps with defining authentication scenarios.
Start the module by selecting Network Services Authentication Client. The YaST Authentication
Client is a shell for configuring the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD). SSSD then can talk
to remote directory services that provide user data, and provide various authentication methods.
This way, the host can be both, an LDAP or an Active Directory (AD) client. SSSD can locally
cache these user data and then allow users to use of the data, even if the real directory service is
(temporarily) unreachable. An NSS (Name Service Switch) and PAM (Pluggable Authentication
Module) interface are also available.
26
Authentication Server and Client
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FIGURE 4.1: AUTHENTICATION CLIENT CONFIGURATION
First you must configure at least one authentication domain. A authentication domain is a database that contains user information. Click Add, and as the Name of the New Domain enter an
arbitrary name (alphanumeric ASCII characters, dashes, and underscores are allowed). Then
select one of the available identification providers and finally select the authentication provider
to be used for that domain. For example, if you want to access an LDAP directory with kerberos
authentication, select ldap as the identification provider and krb5 as the authentication provider
and leave Activate Domain enabled (see Figure 4.2, “Authentication Client: Adding New Domain (LDAP
and Kerberos)”).
27
Configuring an Authentication Client with YaST (SSSD)
SLED 12
FIGURE 4.2: AUTHENTICATION CLIENT: ADDING NEW DOMAIN (LDAP AND KERBEROS)
In the next step you see that id_provider and auth_provider are properly selected, must set
some mandatory parameters for these providers. In the LDAP/Kerberbos scenario for example, ldap://ldap.example.com as the ldap_uri, the IP address of the Kerberbos server
( 192.168.1.114 as krb5_server), and EXAMPLE.COM as krb5_realm (normally, your Kerberbos
realm is your domain name in uppercase letters). Then confirm.
For more information and additional configuration option you can set via the New button, see
the context Help and the SSSD man pages such as sssd.conf ( man sssd.conf ) and sssd-
ldap ( man sssd-ldap ). It is also possible to select later all parameters available for the selected
identification and authentication providers.
Note: TLS
If you use LDAP, TLS is mandatory. Do not select ldap_tls_reqcert , if an official certificate is not available.
28
Configuring an Authentication Client with YaST (SSSD)
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SSSD provides following identification providers:
proxy
Support a legacy NSS provider.
local
SSSD internal provider for local users.
ldap
ipa
ad
LDAP provider. See sssd-ldap(5) for more information on configuring LDAP.
FreeIPA and Red Hat Enterprise Identity Management provider.
Active Directory provider.
Supported authentication providers are:
ldap
krb5
ipa
ad
Native LDAP authentication.
Kerberos authentication.
FreeIPA and Red Hat Enterprise Identity Management provider.
Active Directory provider.
proxy
Relaying authentication to some other PAM target.
none
Disables authentication explicitly.
If you enter more then one authentication domain, SSSD will query one after the one in the order
they appear in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file. If a domain is rarely used and you
can to avoid waiting for the timeout, you can configure it as inactive by either unselecting the
Activate button at initial setup or by removing it later from the domains list of the sssd section.
Clicking one of the listed Services at the left side, allows you to edit sssd.conf sections such
as nss or pam.
29
Configuring an Authentication Client with YaST (SSSD)
SLED 12
If you click Finish in the main Authentication Client dialog, YaST will enable and start the SSSD
service. You can check it on the command line with:
systemctl status sssd.service
sssd.service - System Security Services Daemon
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sssd.service; enabled)
Active: active (running) since Thu 2014-09-25 10:46:43 CEST; 5s ago
...
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Configuring an Authentication Client with YaST (SSSD)
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5 LDAP—A Directory Service
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a set of protocols designed to access and
maintain information directories. LDAP can be used for user and group management, system
configuration management, address management, and more. This chapter provides a basic understanding of how OpenLDAP works.
In a network environment it is crucial to keep important information structured and to serve it
quickly. A directory service—like the common “yellow pages” keeps information available in
a well-structured and searchable form.
Ideally, a central server stores the data in a directory and distributes it to all clients using a
well-defined protocol. The structured data allow a wide range of applications to access them.
A central repository reduces the necessary administrative effort. The use of an open and stan-
dardized protocol like LDAP ensures that as many different client applications as possible can
access such information.
A directory in this context is a type of database optimized for quick and effective reading and
searching:
To make multiple concurrent reading accesses possible, the number of updates is usually
very low. The number of read and write accesses is often limited to a few users with
administrative privileges. In contrast, conventional databases are optimized for accepting
the largest possible data volume in a short time.
When static data is administered, updates of the existing data sets are very rare. When
working with dynamic data, especially when data sets like bank accounts or accounting
are concerned, the consistency of the data is of primary importance. If an amount should
be subtracted from one place to be added to another, both operations must happen concurrently, within one transaction, to ensure balance over the data stock. Traditional rela-
tional databases usually have a very strong focus on data consistency, such as the refer-
ential integrity support of transactions. Conversely, short-term inconsistencies are usually
acceptable in LDAP directories. LDAP directories often do not have the same strong consistency requirements as relational databases.
The design of a directory service like LDAP is not laid out to support complex update or query
mechanisms. All applications are guaranteed to access this service quickly and easily.
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LDAP—A Directory Service
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5.1 LDAP versus NIS
Unix system administrators traditionally use NIS (Network Information Service) for name resolution and data distribution in a network. The configuration data contained in the files group ,
hosts , mail , netgroup , networks , passwd , printcap , protocols , rpc , and services
in the /etc directory is distributed to clients all over the network. These files can be main-
tained without major effort because they are simple text files. The handling of larger amounts
of data, however, becomes increasingly difficult because of nonexistent structuring. NIS is only
designed for Unix platforms, and is not suitable as a centralized data administration tool in
heterogeneous networks.
Unlike NIS, the LDAP service is not restricted to pure Unix networks. Windows servers (from
2000) support LDAP as a directory service. The application tasks mentioned above are additionally supported in non-Unix systems.
The LDAP principle can be applied to any data structure that needs to be centrally administered.
A few application examples are:
Replacement for the NIS service
Mail routing (postfix)
Address books for mail clients, like Mozilla Thunderbird, Evolution, and Outlook
Administration of zone descriptions for a BIND 9 name server
User authentication with Samba in heterogeneous networks
This list can be extended because LDAP is extensible, unlike NIS. The clearly-defined hierarchical
structure of the data simplifies the administration of large amounts of data, as it can be searched
more easily.
5.2 Structure of an LDAP Directory Tree
To get background knowledge on how an LDAP server works and how the data is stored, it is
vital to understand the way the data is organized on the server and how this structure enables
LDAP to provide fast access to the data. To successfully operate an LDAP setup, you also need
to be familiar with some basic LDAP terminology. This section introduces the basic layout of
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LDAP versus NIS
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an LDAP directory tree and provides the basic terminology used with regard to LDAP. Skip this
introductory section if you already have some LDAP background knowledge and only want to
learn how to set up an LDAP environment in SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop.
An LDAP directory has a tree structure. All entries (called objects) of the directory have a defined
position within this hierarchy. This hierarchy is called the directory information tree (DIT). The
complete path to the desired entry, which unambiguously identifies it, is called the distinguished
name or DN. A single node along the path to this entry is called relative distinguished name or RDN.
The relations within an LDAP directory tree become more evident in the following example,
shown in Figure 5.1, “Structure of an LDAP Directory”.
dc=example, dc=com
ou=doc
ou=devel
cn=Tux
cn=Wilber
cn=Octocat
cn=Geeko
FIGURE 5.1: STRUCTURE OF AN LDAP DIRECTORY
The complete diagram is a fictional directory information tree. The entries on three levels are depicted. Each entry corresponds to one box in the image. The complete, valid
distinguished name for the fictional employee Geeko
Linux , in this case, is cn=Geeko
Linux,ou=doc,dc=example,dc=com . It is composed by adding the RDN cn=Geeko Linux to
the DN of the preceding entry ou=doc,dc=example,dc=com .
The types of objects that can be stored in the DIT are globally determined following a Schema.
The type of an object is determined by the object class. The object class determines what at-
tributes the relevant object must or can be assigned. The Schema, therefore, must contain def-
initions of all object classes and attributes used in the desired application scenario. There are
a few common Schemas (see RFC 2252 and 2256). The LDAP RFC defines a few commonly
used Schemas (see for example, RFC4519). Additionally, Schemas are available for many other
33
Structure of an LDAP Directory Tree
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use cases (for example, Samba or NIS replacement). It is, however, possible to create custom
Schemas or to use multiple Schemas complementing each other (if this is required by the environment in which the LDAP server should operate).
Table 5.1, “Commonly Used Object Classes and Attributes” offers a small overview of the object class-
es from core.schema and inetorgperson.schema used in the example, including required
attributes (Req. Attr.) and valid attribute values.
TABLE 5.1: COMMONLY USED OBJECT CLASSES AND ATTRIBUTES
Object Class
Meaning
Example
Req. Attr.
dcObject
domainComponent (name compo-
example
dc
organizationalUnit
organizationalUnit (organizational
doc
ou
inetOrgPerson
inetOrgPerson (person-related data
Geeko Linux
sn and cn
Entry
nents of the domain)
unit)
for the intranet or Internet)
Example 5.1, “Excerpt from schema.core” shows an excerpt from a Schema directive with explana-
tions.
EXAMPLE 5.1: EXCERPT FROM SCHEMA.CORE
attributetype (2.5.4.11 NAME ( 'ou' 'organizationalUnitName')
1
DESC 'RFC2256: organizational unit this object belongs to'
SUP name )
3
objectclass ( 2.5.6.5 NAME 'organizationalUnit'
DESC 'RFC2256: an organizational unit'
SUP top STRUCTURAL
MUST ou
2
4
5
6
7
MAY (userPassword $ searchGuide $ seeAlso $ businessCategory
8
$ x121Address $ registeredAddress $ destinationIndicator
$ preferredDeliveryMethod $ telexNumber
$ teletexTerminalIdentifier $ telephoneNumber
$ internationaliSDNNumber $ facsimileTelephoneNumber
$ street $ postOfficeBox $ postalCode $ postalAddress
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Structure of an LDAP Directory Tree
SLED 12
$ physicalDeliveryOfficeName
$ st $ l $ description) )
...
The attribute type organizationalUnitName and the corresponding object class organizationalUnit serve as an example here.
1
The name of the attribute, its unique OID (object identifier) (numerical), and the abbreviation of the attribute.
2
A brief description of the attribute with DESC . The corresponding RFC, on which the definition is based, is also mentioned here.
3
SUP indicates a superordinate attribute type to which this attribute belongs.
4
The definition of the object class organizationalUnit begins—the same as in the definition of the attribute—with an OID and the name of the object class.
5
A brief description of the object class.
6
The SUP top entry indicates that this object class is not subordinate to another object class.
7
With MUST list all attribute types that must be used in conjunction with an object of the
type organizationalUnit .
8
With MAY list all attribute types that are permitted in conjunction with this object class.
A very good introduction to the use of Schemas can be found in the OpenLDAP documentation
( openldap2-doc ). When installed, find it in /usr/share/doc/packages/openldap2/adminguide/guide.html .
5.3 Configuring LDAP Users and Groups in YaST
The actual registration of user and group data differs only slightly from the procedure when not
using LDAP. The following instructions relate to the administration of users. The procedure for
administering groups is analogous.
1. Access the YaST user administration with Security and Users User and Group Management.
2. Use Set Filter to limit the view of users to the LDAP users and enter the password for Root
DN.
3. Click Add to enter the user configuration. A dialog with four tabs opens:
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Configuring LDAP Users and Groups in YaST
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a. Specify the user's name, login name, and password in the User Data tab.
b. Check the Details tab for the group membership, login shell, and home directory of
the new user. If necessary, change the default to values that better suit your needs.
c. Modify or accept the default Password Settings.
d. Enter the Plug-Ins tab, select the LDAP plug-in, and click Launch to configure addi-
tional LDAP attributes assigned to the new user.
4. Click OK to apply your settings and leave the user configuration.
The initial input form of user administration offers LDAP Options. This allows you to apply LDAP
search filters to the set of available users. Alternatively open the module for configuring LDAP
users and groups by selecting LDAP User and Group Configuration.
5.4 For More Information
More complex subjects (like SASL configuration or establishment of a replicating LDAP server
that distributes the workload among multiple slaves) were omitted from this chapter. Find detailed information about both subjects in the OpenLDAP 2.4 Administrator's Guide—see at OpenLDAP 2.4 Administrator's Guide.
The Web site of the OpenLDAP project offers exhaustive documentation for beginner and advanced LDAP users:
OpenLDAP Faq-O-Matic
A detailed question and answer collection applying to the installation, configuration, and
use of OpenLDAP. Find it at http://www.openldap.org/faq/data/cache/1.html .
Quick Start Guide
Brief step-by-step instructions for installing your first LDAP server. Find it at http://
www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/quickstart.html
or on an installed system in Section 2 of
/usr/share/doc/packages/openldap2/guide/admin/guide.html .
OpenLDAP 2.4 Administrator's Guide
A detailed introduction to all important aspects of LDAP configuration, including access
controls and encryption. See http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/
or, on an installed
system, /usr/share/doc/packages/openldap2/guide/admin/guide.html .
36
For More Information
SLED 12
Understanding LDAP
A
detailed
general
introduction
to
the
basic
www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg244986.pdf
.
principles
of
LDAP:
http://
Printed literature about LDAP:
LDAP System Administration by Gerald Carter (ISBN 1-56592-491-6)
Understanding and Deploying LDAP Directory Services by Howes, Smith, and Good (ISBN
0-672-32316-8)
The ultimate reference material for the subject of LDAP are the corresponding RFCs (request
for comments), 2251 to 2256.
37
For More Information
SLED 12
6 Active Directory Support
Active Directory* (AD) is a directory-service based on LDAP, Kerberos, and other services that
is used by Microsoft Windows to manage resources, services, and people. In an MS Windows
network, AD provides information about these objects, restricts access to them, and enforces
policies. SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop lets you join existing AD domains and integrate your
Linux machine into a Windows environment.
6.1 Integrating Linux and AD Environments
With a Linux client (configured as an Active Directory client) that is joined to an existing Active
Directory domain, benefit from various features not available on a pure SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop Linux client:
Browsing Shared Files and Directories with SMB
Nautilus (the GNOME file manager) supports browsing shared resources through SMB.
Sharing Files and Directories with SMB
Nautilus supports sharing directories and files as in Windows.
Accessing and Manipulating User Data on the Windows Server
Through Nautilus, users are able to access their Windows user data and can edit, create,
and delete files and directories on the Windows server. Users can access their data without
having to enter their password multiple times.
Offline Authentication
Users are able to log in and access their local data on the Linux machine even if they are
offline or the AD server is unavailable for other reasons.
Windows Password Change
This port of AD support in Linux enforces corporate password policies stored in Active Di-
rectory. The display managers and console support password change messages and accept
your input. You can even use the Linux passwd command to set Windows passwords.
Single-Sign-On through Kerberized Applications
Many applications of both desktops are Kerberos-enabled (kerberized), which means they
can transparently handle authentication for the user without the need for password reentry
at Web servers, proxies, groupware applications, or other locations.
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A brief technical background for most of these features is given in the following section. For
directions for file and printer sharing, refer to the Book “GNOME User Guide” , where you can
learn more about AD enablement.
6.2 Background Information for Linux AD Support
Many system components need to interact flawlessly in order to integrate a Linux client into
an existing Windows Active Directory domain. Figure 6.1, “Active Directory Authentication Schema”
highlights the most prominent ones. The following sections focus on the underlying processes
of the key events in AD server and client interaction.
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Background Information for Linux AD Support
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PAM aware applications
kerberized
apps
(gdm, kdm, login)
NSS
PAM
Kerberos
Credential
pam_winbind
Cache
nscd
pam_unix2
nss_compat
nss_winbind
pam_mkhomedir
Kerberos
and various MS protocols
winbindd
LDAP, Kerberos
Offline Cache
Windows DC
(Active Directory)
FIGURE 6.1: ACTIVE DIRECTORY AUTHENTICATION SCHEMA
To communicate with the directory service, the client needs to share at least two protocols with
the server:
LDAP
LDAP is a protocol optimized for managing directory information. A Windows domain
controller with AD can use the LDAP protocol to exchange directory information with
the clients. To learn more about LDAP in general and about the open source port of it,
OpenLDAP, refer to Chapter 5, LDAP—A Directory Service.
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Background Information for Linux AD Support
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Kerberos
Kerberos is a third-party trusted authentication service. All its clients trust Kerberos' au-
thorization of another client's identity, enabling kerberized single-sign-on (SSO) solutions.
Windows supports a Kerberos implementation, making Kerberos SSO possible even with
Linux clients. To learn more about Kerberos in Linux, refer to Chapter 7, Network Authentication with Kerberos.
The following client components process account and authentication data:
Winbind
The most central part of this solution is the winbind daemon that is a part of the Samba
project and handles all communication with the AD server.
NSS (Name Service Switch)
NSS routines provide name service information. Naming service for both users and groups
is provided by nss_winbind . This module directly interacts with the winbind daemon.
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)
User authentication for AD users is done by the pam_winbind module. The creation of
user homes for the AD users on the Linux client is handled by pam_mkhomedir . The
pam_winbind module directly interacts with winbindd. To learn more about PAM in gen-
eral, refer to Chapter 2, Authentication with PAM.
Applications that are PAM-aware, like the login routines and the GNOME display manager,
interact with the PAM and NSS layer to authenticate against the Windows server. Applications
supporting Kerberos authentication (such as file managers, Web browsers, or e-mail clients) use
the Kerberos credential cache to access user's Kerberos tickets, making them part of the SSO
framework.
6.2.1
Domain Join
During domain join, the server and the client establish a secure relation. On the client, the
following tasks need to be performed to join the existing LDAP and Kerberos SSO environment
provided by the Window domain controller. The entire join process is handled by the YaST
Domain Membership module, which can be run during installation or in the installed system:
1. The Windows domain controller providing both LDAP and KDC (Key Distribution Center)
services is located.
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Domain Join
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2. A machine account for the joining client is created in the directory service.
3. An initial ticket granting ticket (TGT) is obtained for the client and stored in its local
Kerberos credential cache. The client needs this TGT to get further tickets allowing it to
contact other services, like contacting the directory server for LDAP queries.
4. NSS and PAM configurations are adjusted to enable the client to authenticate against the
domain controller.
During client boot, the winbind daemon is started and retrieves the initial Kerberos ticket for
the machine account. winbindd automatically refreshes the machine's ticket to keep it valid. To
keep track of the current account policies, winbindd periodically queries the domain controller.
6.2.2
Domain Login and User Homes
The login manager of GNOME (GDM) has been extended to allow the handling of AD domain
login. Users can choose to log in to the primary domain the machine has joined or to one of
the trusted domains with which the domain controller of the primary domain has established
a trust relationship.
User authentication is mediated by a number of PAM modules as described in Section 6.2, “Back-
ground Information for Linux AD Support”. The pam_winbind module used to authenticate clients
against Active Directory or NT4 domains is fully aware of Windows error conditions that might
prohibit a user's login. The Windows error codes are translated into appropriate user-readable
error messages that PAM gives at login through any of the supported methods (GDM, console,
and SSH):
Password has expired
The user sees a message stating that the password has expired and needs to be changed.
The system prompts for a new password and informs the user if the new password does
not comply with corporate password policies (for example the password is too short, too
simple, or already in the history). If a user's password change fails, the reason is shown
and a new password prompt is given.
Account disabled
The user sees an error message stating that the account has been disabled and to contact
the system administrator.
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Domain Login and User Homes
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Account locked out
The user sees an error message stating that the account has been locked and to contact
the system administrator.
Password has to be changed
The user can log in but receives a warning that the password needs to be changed soon.
This warning is sent three days before that password expires. After expiration, the user
cannot log in.
Invalid workstation
When a user is restricted to specific workstations and the current SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop machine is not among them, a message appears that this user cannot log in from
this workstation.
Invalid logon hours
When a user is only allowed to log in during working hours and tries to log in outside
working hours, a message informs the user that logging in is not possible at that time.
Account expired
An administrator can set an expiration time for a specific user account. If that user tries
to log in after expiration, the user gets a message that the account has expired and cannot
be used to log in.
During a successful authentication, pam_winbind acquires a ticket granting ticket (TGT) from
the Kerberos server of Active Directory and stores it in the user's credential cache. It also renews
the TGT in the background, requiring no user interaction.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop supports local home directories for AD users. If configured
through YaST as described in Section 6.3, “Configuring a Linux Client for Active Directory”, user homes
are created at the first login of a Windows (AD) user into the Linux client. These home directories
look and feel entirely the same as standard Linux user home directories and work independently
of the AD domain controller. Using a local user home, it is possible to access a user's data on
this machine (even when the AD server is disconnected) as long as the Linux client has been
configured to perform offline authentication.
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Domain Login and User Homes
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6.2.3
Offline Service and Policy Support
Users in a corporate environment must have the ability to become roaming users (for example,
to switch networks or even work disconnected for some time). To enable users to log in to a
disconnected machine, extensive caching was integrated into the winbind daemon. The winbind
daemon enforces password policies even in the offline state. It tracks the number of failed login
attempts and reacts according to the policies configured in Active Directory. Offline support is
disabled by default and must be explicitly enabled in the YaST Domain Membership module.
When the domain controller has become unavailable, the user can still access network resources
(other than the AD server itself) with valid Kerberos tickets that have been acquired before
losing the connection (as in Windows). Password changes cannot be processed unless the domain
controller is online. While disconnected from the AD server, a user cannot access any data stored
on this server. When a workstation has become disconnected from the network entirely and
connects to the corporate network again later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop acquires a new
Kerberos ticket as soon as the user has locked and unlocked the desktop (for example, using
a desktop screen saver).
6.3 Configuring a Linux Client for Active Directory
Before your client can join an AD domain, some adjustments must be made to your network
setup to ensure the flawless interaction of client and server.
DNS
Configure your client machine to use a DNS server that can forward DNS requests to the
AD DNS server. Alternatively, configure your machine to use the AD DNS server as the
name service data source.
NTP
To succeed with Kerberos authentication, the client must have its time set accurately. It is
highly recommended to use a central NTP time server for this purpose (this can be also the
NTP server running on your Active Directory domain controller). If the clock skew between
your Linux host and the domain controller exceeds a certain limit, Kerberos authentication
fails and the client is logged in using the weaker NTLM (NT LAN Manager) authentication.
For more details about using active directory for time synchronization, see Procedure 6.1,
“Joining an AD Domain”.
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Offline Service and Policy Support
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Firewall
To browse your network neighborhood, either disable the firewall entirely or mark the
interface used for browsing as part of the internal zone.
To change the firewall settings on your client, log in as root and start the YaST firewall
module. Select Interfaces. Select your network interface from the list of interfaces and click
Change. Select Internal Zone and apply your settings with OK. Leave the firewall settings
with Next Finish. To disable the firewall, check the Disable Firewall Automatic Starting
option, and leave the firewall module with Next Finish.
AD Account
You cannot log in to an AD domain unless the AD administrator has provided you with a
valid user account for that domain. Use the AD user name and password to log in to the
AD domain from your Linux client.
To join an AD domain, proceed as follows:
PROCEDURE 6.1: JOINING AN AD DOMAIN
1. Log in as root and start YaST.
2. Start Network Services Windows Domain Membership.
3. Enter the domain to join at Domain or Workgroup in the Windows Domain Membership
screen (see Figure 6.2, “Determining Windows Domain Membership”). If the DNS settings on
your host are properly integrated with the Windows DNS server, enter the AD domain
name in its DNS format ( mydomain.mycompany.com ). If you enter the short name of your
domain (also known as the pre–Windows 2000 domain name), YaST must rely on NetBIOS
name resolution instead of DNS to find the correct domain controller.
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Configuring a Linux Client for Active Directory
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FIGURE 6.2: DETERMINING WINDOWS DOMAIN MEMBERSHIP
4. Check Also Use SMB Information for Linux Authentication to use the SMB source for Linux
authentication.
5. Check Create Home Directory on Login to automatically create a local home directory for
your AD user on the Linux machine.
6. Check Offline Authentication to allow your domain users to log in even if the AD server is
temporarily unavailable, or if you do not have a network connection.
7. Select Expert Settings, if you want to change the UID and GID ranges for the Samba users
and groups. Let DHCP retrieve the WINS server only if you need it. This is the case when
some of your machines are resolved only by the WINS system.
8. Configure NTP time synchronization for your AD environment by selecting NTP Configu-
ration and entering an appropriate server name or IP address. This step is obsolete if you
have already entered the appropriate settings in the stand-alone YaST NTP configuration
module.
9. Click OK and confirm the domain join when prompted for it.
10. Provide the password for the Windows administrator on the AD server and click OK (see
Figure 6.3, “Providing Administrator Credentials”).
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Configuring a Linux Client for Active Directory
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FIGURE 6.3: PROVIDING ADMINISTRATOR CREDENTIALS
After you have joined the AD domain, you can log in to it from your workstation using the
display manager of your desktop or the console.
Important: Domain Name
Joining a domain may not succeed if the domain name ends with .local . Names ending
in .local cause conflicts with Multicast DNS (MDNS) where .local is reserved for
link-local host names.
Note
Currently only a domain administrator account, such as Administrator , can join SUSE
Linux Enterprise Desktop into Active Directory.
6.4 Logging In to an AD Domain
Provided your machine has been configured to authenticate against Active Directory and you
have a valid Windows user identity, you can log in to your machine using the AD credentials.
Login is supported for GNOME, the console, SSH, and any other PAM-aware application.
Important: Offline Authentication
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop supports offline authentication, allowing you to log in
to your client machine even when it is offline. See Section 6.2.3, “Offline Service and Policy
Support” for details.
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Logging In to an AD Domain
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6.4.1
GDM
To authenticate a GNOME client machine against an AD server, proceed as follows:
1. Enter
the
domain
name
and
the
Windows
user
name
in
Domain_Name \ Windows_User_Name in the User_Name field and press
2. Enter your Windows password and press
Enter
the
Enter
.
form
of
.
If configured to do so, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop creates a user home directory on the local
machine on the first login of each AD authenticated user. This allows you to benefit from the AD
support of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop while still having a fully functional Linux machine
at your disposal.
6.4.2
Console Login
Besides logging in to the AD client machine using a graphical front-end, you can log in using
the text-based console or even remotely using SSH.
To log in to your AD client from a console, enter DOMAIN\user at the login: prompt and
provide the password.
To remotely log in to your AD client machine using SSH, proceed as follows:
1. At the login prompt, enter:
ssh DOMAIN\\[email protected]_name
The \ domain and login delimiter is escaped with another \ sign.
2. Provide the user's password.
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GDM
SLED 12
6.5 Changing Passwords
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop has the ability to help a user choose a suitable new password that
meets the corporate security policy. The underlying PAM module retrieves the current password
policy settings from the domain controller, informing the user about the specific password qual-
ity requirements a user account typically has by means of a message on login. Like its Windows
counterpart, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop presents a message describing:
Password history settings
Minimum password length requirements
Minimum password age
Password complexity
The password change process cannot succeed unless all requirements have been successfully
met. Feedback about the password status is given both through the display managers and the
console.
GDM provides feedback about password expiration and the prompt for new passwords in an
interactive mode. To change passwords in the display managers, provide the password information when prompted.
To change your Windows password, you can use the standard Linux utility, passwd , instead
of having to manipulate this data on the server. To change your Windows password, proceed
as follows:
1. Log in at the console.
2. Enter passwd .
3. Enter your current password when prompted.
4. Enter the new password.
5. Reenter the new password for confirmation. If your new password does not comply with
the policies on the Windows server, this feedback is given to you and you are prompted
for another password.
To change your Windows password from the GNOME desktop, proceed as follows:
49
Changing Passwords
SLED 12
1. Click the Computer icon on the left edge of the panel.
2. Select Control Center.
3. From the Personal section, select About Me Change Password.
4. Enter your old password.
5. Enter and confirm the new password.
6. Leave the dialog with Close to apply your settings.
50
Changing Passwords
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7 Network Authentication with Kerberos
An open network provides no means of ensuring that a workstation can identify its users properly, except through the usual password mechanisms. In common installations, the user must enter
the password each time a service inside the network is accessed. Kerberos provides an authen-
tication method with which a user registers only once and is trusted in the complete network
for the rest of the session. To have a secure network, the following requirements must be met:
Have all users prove their identity for each desired service and make sure that no one can
take the identity of someone else.
Make sure that each network server also proves its identity. Otherwise an attacker might be
able to impersonate the server and obtain sensitive information transmitted to the server.
This concept is called mutual authentication, because the client authenticates to the server
and vice versa.
Kerberos helps you meet these requirements by providing strongly encrypted authentication.
Only the basic principles of Kerberos are discussed here. For detailed technical instruction, refer
to the Kerberos documentation.
7.1 Kerberos Terminology
The following glossary defines some Kerberos terminology.
credential
Users or clients need to present some kind of credentials that authorize them to request
services. Kerberos knows two kinds of credentials—tickets and authenticators.
ticket
A ticket is a per-server credential used by a client to authenticate at a server from which
it is requesting a service. It contains the name of the server, the client's name, the client's
Internet address, a time stamp, a lifetime, and a random session key. All this data is encrypted using the server's key.
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Network Authentication with Kerberos
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authenticator
Combined with the ticket, an authenticator is used to prove that the client presenting a
ticket is really the one it claims to be. An authenticator is built using the client's name, the
workstation's IP address, and the current workstation's time, all encrypted with the session
key known only to the client and the relevant server. An authenticator can only be used
once, unlike a ticket. A client can build an authenticator itself.
principal
A Kerberos principal is a unique entity (a user or service) to which it can assign a ticket.
A principal consists of the following components:
Primary—the first part of the principal, which can be the same as your user name
in the case of a user.
Instance—some optional information characterizing the primary. This string is separated from the primary by a / .
Realm—this specifies your Kerberos realm. Normally, your realm is your domain
name in uppercase letters.
mutual authentication
Kerberos ensures that both client and server can be sure of each other's identity. They
share a session key, which they can use to communicate securely.
session key
Session keys are temporary private keys generated by Kerberos. They are known to the
client and used to encrypt the communication between the client and the server for which
it requested and received a ticket.
replay
Almost all messages sent in a network can be eavesdropped, stolen, and resent. In the
Kerberos context, this would be most dangerous if an attacker manages to obtain your request for a service containing your ticket and authenticator. The attacker could then try to
resend it (replay) to impersonate you. However, Kerberos implements several mechanisms
to deal with this problem.
server or service
Service is used to refer to a specific action to perform. The process behind this action is
referred to as a server.
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Kerberos Terminology
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7.2 How Kerberos Works
Kerberos is often called a third-party trusted authentication service, which means all its clients
trust Kerberos's judgment of another client's identity. Kerberos keeps a database of all its users
and their private keys.
To ensure Kerberos is working correctly, run both the authentication and ticket-granting server
on a dedicated machine. Make sure that only the administrator can access this machine phys-
ically and over the network. Reduce the (networking) services running on it to the absolute
minimum—do not even run sshd .
7.2.1
First Contact
Your first contact with Kerberos is quite similar to any login procedure at a normal networking
system. Enter your user name. This piece of information and the name of the ticket-granting
service are sent to the authentication server (Kerberos). If the authentication server knows you,
it generates a random session key for further use between your client and the ticket-granting
server. Now the authentication server prepares a ticket for the ticket-granting server. The ticket
contains the following information—all encrypted with a session key only the authentication
server and the ticket-granting server know:
The names of both, the client and the ticket-granting server
The current time
A lifetime assigned to this ticket
The client's IP address
The newly-generated session key
This ticket is then sent back to the client together with the session key, again in encrypted form,
but this time the private key of the client is used. This private key is only known to Kerberos
and the client, because it is derived from your user password. Now that the client has received
this response, you are prompted for your password. This password is converted into the key that
can decrypt the package sent by the authentication server. The package is “unwrapped” and
password and key are erased from the workstation's memory. As long as the lifetime given to
the ticket used to obtain other tickets does not expire, your workstation can prove your identity.
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How Kerberos Works
SLED 12
7.2.2
Requesting a Service
To request a service from any server in the network, the client application needs to prove its
identity to the server. Therefore, the application generates an authenticator. An authenticator
consists of the following components:
The client's principal
The client's IP address
The current time
A checksum (chosen by the client)
All this information is encrypted using the session key that the client has already received for this
special server. The authenticator and the ticket for the server are sent to the server. The server
uses its copy of the session key to decrypt the authenticator, which gives it all the information
needed about the client requesting its service, to compare it to that contained in the ticket. The
server checks if the ticket and the authenticator originate from the same client.
Without any security measures implemented on the server side, this stage of the process would
be an ideal target for replay attacks. Someone could try to resend a request stolen off the net
some time before. To prevent this, the server does not accept any request with a time stamp and
ticket received previously. In addition to that, a request with a time stamp differing too much
from the time the request is received is ignored.
7.2.3
Mutual Authentication
Kerberos authentication can be used in both directions. It is not only a question of the client
being the one it claims to be. The server should also be able to authenticate itself to the client
requesting its service. Therefore, it sends an authenticator itself. It adds one to the checksum
it received in the client's authenticator and encrypts it with the session key, which is shared
between it and the client. The client takes this response as a proof of the server's authenticity
and they both start cooperating.
54
Requesting a Service
SLED 12
7.2.4
Ticket Granting—Contacting All Servers
Tickets are designed to be used for one server at a time. Therefore, you need to get a new ticket
each time you request another service. Kerberos implements a mechanism to obtain tickets
for individual servers. This service is called the “ticket-granting service”. The ticket-granting
service is a service (like any other service mentioned before) and uses the same access protocols
that have already been outlined. Any time an application needs a ticket that has not already
been requested, it contacts the ticket-granting server. This request consists of the following
components:
The requested principal
The ticket-granting ticket
An authenticator
Like any other server, the ticket-granting server now checks the ticket-granting ticket and the
authenticator. If they are considered valid, the ticket-granting server builds a new session key
to be used between the original client and the new server. Then the ticket for the new server
is built, containing the following information:
The client's principal
The server's principal
The current time
The client's IP address
The newly-generated session key
The new ticket has a lifetime, which is either the remaining lifetime of the ticket-granting ticket
or the default for the service. The lesser of both values is assigned. The client receives this ticket
and the session key, which are sent by the ticket-granting service, but this time the answer is
encrypted with the session key that came with the original ticket-granting ticket. The client can
decrypt the response without requiring the user's password when a new service is contacted.
Kerberos can thus acquire ticket after ticket for the client without bothering the user.
55
Ticket Granting—Contacting All Servers
SLED 12
7.2.5
Compatibility to Windows 2000
Windows 2000 contains a Microsoft implementation of Kerberos 5. SUSE® Linux Enterprise
Desktop uses the MIT implementation of Kerberos 5, find useful information and guidance in
the MIT documentation at Section 7.4, “For More Information”.
7.3 Users' View of Kerberos
Ideally, a user's one and only contact with Kerberos happens during login at the workstation.
The login process includes obtaining a ticket-granting ticket. At logout, a user's Kerberos tickets
are automatically destroyed, which makes it difficult for anyone else to impersonate this user.
The automatic expiration of tickets can lead to a somewhat awkward situation when a user's
login session lasts longer than the maximum lifespan given to the ticket-granting ticket (a rea-
sonable setting is 10 hours). However, the user can get a new ticket-granting ticket by running
kinit . Enter the password again and Kerberos obtains access to desired services without addi-
tional authentication. To get a list of all the tickets silently acquired for you by Kerberos, run
klist .
Here is a short list of applications that use Kerberos authentication. These applications can be
found under /usr/lib/mit/bin or /usr/lib/mit/sbin after installing the package krb5-
apps-clients . They all have the full functionality of their common Unix and Linux brothers
plus the additional bonus of transparent authentication managed by Kerberos:
telnet , telnetd
rlogin
rsh , rcp , rshd
ftp , ftpd
You no longer need to enter your password for using these applications because Kerberos has
already proven your identity. ssh , if compiled with Kerberos support, can even forward all
the tickets acquired for one workstation to another one. If you use ssh to log in to another
workstation, ssh makes sure that the encrypted contents of the tickets are adjusted to the new
situation. Simply copying tickets between workstations is not sufficient because the ticket contains workstation-specific information (the IP address). XDM and GDM offer Kerberos support,
too. Read more about the Kerberos network applications in Kerberos V5 UNIX User's Guide at
http://web.mit.edu/kerberos
56
.
Compatibility to Windows 2000
SLED 12
7.4 For More Information
The official site of the MIT Kerberos is http://web.mit.edu/kerberos . There, find links to any
other relevant resource concerning Kerberos, including Kerberos installation, user, and administration guides.
The paper at ftp://athena-dist.mit.edu/pub/kerberos/doc/usenix.PS
gives quite an extensive in-
sight to the basic principles of Kerberos, without being too difficult to read. It also provides a
lot of opportunities for further investigation and reading about Kerberos.
The book Kerberos—A Network Authentication System by Brian Tung (ISBN 0-201-37924-4) offers
extensive information.
57
For More Information
SLED 12
II Local Security
8
Configuring Security Settings with YaST 59
9
Authorization with PolKit 65
10
Access Control Lists in Linux 76
11
Encrypting Partitions and Files 89
12
Certificate Store 95
13
Intrusion Detection with AIDE 97
8 Configuring Security Settings with YaST
The YaST module Security Center and Hardening offers a central clearinghouse to configure security-related settings for SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. Use it to configure security aspects
such as settings for the login procedure and for password creation, for boot permissions, user
creation or for default file permissions. Launch it from the YaST Control Center by Security
and Users Security Center and Hardening. The Security Center dialog always starts with the Security Overview, and other configuration dialogs are available from the right pane.
8.1 Security Overview
The Security Overview displays a comprehensive list of the most important security settings for
your system. The security status of each entry in the list is clearly visible. A green check mark
indicates a secure setting while a red cross indicates an entry as being insecure. Click Help to
open an overview of the setting and information on how to make it secure. To change a setting,
click on the corresponding link in the Status column. Depending on the setting, the following
entries are available:
Enable/Disable
Click this entry to toggle the status of the setting to either enabled or disabled.
Configure
Click this entry to launch another YaST module for configuration. You will return to the
Security Overview when leaving the module.
Unknown
A setting's status is set to unknown when the associated service is not installed. Such a
setting does not represent a potential security risk.
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Configuring Security Settings with YaST
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FIGURE 8.1: YAST SECURITY CENTER AND HARDENING: SECURITY OVERVIEW
8.2 Predefined Security Configurations
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop comes with three Predefined Security Configurations. These con-
figurations affect all the settings available in the Security Center module. Each configuration can
be modified to your needs using the dialogs available from the right pane. Choose between the
following sets:
Home Workstation
This setting is designed for a computer that has no network connection at all (including
a connection to the Internet). It provides the least secure configuration of the predefined
settings.
Networked Workstation
A configuration for a workstation with any kind of network connection (including a connection to the Internet).
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Predefined Security Configurations
SLED 12
Network Server
Security settings designed for a machine providing network services such as a Web server,
file server, name server, etc. This set provides the most secure configuration of the predefined settings.
Custom Settings
A pre-selected Custom Settings (when opening the Predefined Security Configurations dialog)
indicates that one of the predefined sets has been modified. Actively choosing this option
does not change the current configuration—you will need to change it using the Security
Overview.
8.3 Password Settings
Passwords that are easy to guess are a major security issue. The Password Settings dialog provides
the means to ensure that only secure passwords can be used.
Check New Passwords
By activating this option, a warning will be issued if new passwords appear in a dictionary,
or if they are proper names (proper nouns).
Test for Complicated Passwords
When this option is checked, any new password is checked that it consists of a mixture
of characters, digits and special characters. If it fails to pass this test, a warning is issued
upon the entering of the new password.
Number of Passwords to Remember
When password expiration is activated (via Password Age), this setting stores the given
number of a user's previous passwords, preventing their reuse.
Password Encryption Method
Choose a password encryption algorithm. Normally there is no need to change the default
(Blowfish).
Minimum Acceptable Password Length
If the user chooses a password with a length shorter than specified here, a warning will
be issued.
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Password Settings
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Password Age
Activate password expiration by specifying a minimum and a maximum time limit (in
days). By setting the minimum age to a value greater than 0 days, you can prevent users
from immediately changing their passwords again (and in doing so circumventing the
password expiration). Use the values 0 and 99999 to deactivate password expiration.
Days Before Password Expires Warning
When a password expires, the user receives a warning in advance. Specify the number of
days prior to the expiration date that the warning should be issued.
8.4 Boot Settings
Configure which users will be able to shut down the machine via the graphical login manager
in this dialog. You can also specify how
Ctrl
– Alt – Del will be interpreted.
8.5 Login Settings
This dialog lets you configure security-related login settings:
Delay after Incorrect Login Attempt
In order to make it difficult to guess a user's password by repeatedly logging in, it is
recommended to delay the display of the login prompt that follows an incorrect login.
Specify the value in seconds. Make sure that users who have mistyped their passwords do
not need to wait too long.
Record Successful Login Attempts
With this option turned on, the last successful login attempt is recorded in /var/log/
lastlog and displayed when logging in. This data is also used by the command finger .
Note
Note that logging to /var/log/wtmp is not affected by this option. This file collects
login dates, login times and reboot dates. The content of /var/log/wtmp can be
displayed by using the command last .
62
Boot Settings
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Allow Remote Graphical Login
When checked, the graphical login manager (GDM) can be accessed from the network.
This is a potential security risk.
8.6 User Addition
Set minimum and maximum values for user and group IDs. These default settings would rarely
need to be changed.
8.7 Miscellaneous Settings
Other security settings that don't fit the above-mentioned categories are listed here:
File Permissions
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop comes with three predefined sets of file permissions for
system files. These permission sets define whether a regular user may read log files or
start certain programs. Easy file permissions are suitable for stand-alone machines. These
settings allow regular users to, for example, read most system files. See the file /etc/
permissions.easy for the complete configuration. The Secure file permissions are de-
signed for multiuser machines with network access. A thorough explanation of these settings can be found in /etc/permissions.secure . The Paranoid settings are the most restrictive ones and should be used with care. See /etc/permissions.paranoid for more
information.
User Launching updatedb
The program updatedb scans the system and creates a database of all file locations which
can be queried with the command locate . When updatedb is run as user nobody, only
world-readable files will be added to the database. When run as user root , almost all files
(except the ones root is not allowed to read) will be added.
Current Directory in root's Path / Current Directory in Path of Regular Users
Whenever a program is called without specifying the full path to the executable, the system
looks in the user's search path (defined by the variable $PATH ) for the executable. By
default the current directory is not added to the search path. This setting ensures that, for
example, /bin/ls and not the Trojan horse /current directory/ls is executed when
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User Addition
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entering ls . In order to start a program in the current directory the command must be
prefixed with ./ . When activating these options, the current directory ( . ) is appended
to the search path. It is recommended you not change the default.
Enable Magic SysRq Keys
The magic SysRq key is a key combination that enables you to have some control over the
system even when it has crashed. The complete documentation can be found at /usr/src/
linux/Documentation/sysrq.txt (requires installation of the kernel-source pack-
age).
64
Miscellaneous Settings
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9 Authorization with PolKit
PolKit (formerly known as PolicyKit) is an application framework that acts as a negotiator between the unprivileged user session and the privileged system context. Whenever a process
from the user session tries to carry out an action in the system context, PolKit is queried.
Based on its configuration—specified in a so-called “policy”—the answer could be “yes”, “no”,
or “needs authentication”. Unlike classical privilege authorization programs such as sudo,
PolKit does not grant root permissions to an entire session, but only to the action in question.
9.1 Conceptual Overview
PolKit works by limiting specific actions by users, by group, or by name. It then defines how
those users are allowed to perform this action—if at all.
9.1.1
Available Authentication Agents
When a user starts a session (using the graphical environment or on the console), each session is
comprised of the authority and an authentication agent. The authority is implemented as a service
on the system message bus, whereas the authentication agent is used to authenticate the current
user, which started the session. The current user needs to prove their authenticity, for example,
using a passphrase.
Each desktop environment has its own authentication agent. Usually it is started automatically,
whatever environment you choose.
9.1.2
Structure of PolKit
PolKit's configuration depends on actions and authorization rules:
Actions (file extension *.policy )
Written as XML files and located in /usr/share/polkit-1/actions . Each file defines one
or more actions, and each action contains descriptions and default permissions. Although
a system administrator can write their own rules, PolKit's files must not be edited.
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Authorization Rules (file extension *.rules )
Written as JavaScript files and located in two places: /usr/share/polkit-1/rules.d is
used for third party packages and /etc/polkit-1/rules.d for local configurations. Each
rule file refers to the action specified in the action file. A rule determines what restrictions
are allowed to a subset of users. For example, a rule file could overrule a restrictive permission and allow some users to allow it.
9.1.3
Available Commands
PolKit contains several commands for specific tasks (see also the specific man page for further
details):
pkaction
Get details about a defined action. See Section 9.3, “Querying Privileges” for more information.
pkcheck
Checks whether a process is authorized, specified by either --process or --system-busname .
pkexec
Allows an authorized user to execute the specific program as another user.
pkttyagent
Starts a textual authentication agent. This agent is used if a desktop environment does not
have its own authentication agent.
9.1.4
Available Policies and Supported Applications
At the moment, not all applications requiring privileges make use of PolKit. Find the most important policies available on SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop below, sorted into the categories
where they are used.
PulseAudio
Set scheduling priorities for the PulseAudio daemon
CUPS
Add, remove, edit, enable or disable printers
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Available Commands
SLED 12
Backup Manager
Modify schedule
GNOME
Modify system and mandatory values with GConf
Change the system time
NetworkManager
Apply and modify connections
PolKit
Read and change privileges for other users
Modify defaults
PackageKit
Update and remove packages
Change and refresh repositories
Install local files
Rollback
Import repository keys
Accepting EULAs
Setting the network proxy
System
Wake on LAN
Mount or unmount fixed, hotpluggable and encrypted devices
Eject and decrypt removable media
Enable or disable WLAN
Enable or disable Bluetooth
Device access
Stop, suspend, hibernate and restart the system
Undock a docking station
Change power-management settings
YaST
Register product
67
Available Policies and Supported Applications
SLED 12
Change the system time and language
9.2 Authorization Types
Every time a PolKit-enabled process carries out a privileged operation, PolKit is asked whether
this process is entitled to do so. PolKit answers according to the policy defined for this process.
The answers can be yes , no , or authentication needed . By default, a policy contains im-
plicit privileges, which automatically apply to all users. It is also possible to specify explicit privileges which apply to a specific user.
9.2.1
Implicit Privileges
Implicit privileges can be defined for any active and inactive sessions. An active session is the
one in which you are currently working. It becomes inactive when you switch to another console
for example. When setting implicit privileges to “no”, no user is authorized, whereas “yes”
authorizes all users. However, in most cases it is useful to demand authentication.
A user can either authorize by authenticating as root or by authenticating as self. Both authentication methods exist in four variants:
Authentication
The user always needs to authenticate.
One Shot Authentication
The authentication is bound to the instance of the program currently running. After the
program is restarted, the user is required to authenticate again.
Keep Session Authentication
The authentication dialog offers a check button Remember authorization for this session. If
checked, the authentication is valid until the user logs out.
Keep Indefinitely Authentication
The authentication dialog offers a check button Remember authorization. If checked, the
user needs to authenticate only once.
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9.2.2
Explicit Privileges
Explicit privileges can be granted to specific users. They can either be granted without limitations, or, when using constraints, limited to an active session and/or a local console.
It is not only possible to grant privileges to a user, a user can also be blocked. Blocked users
will not be able to carry out an action requiring authorization, even though the default implicit
policy allows authorization by authentication.
9.2.3
Default Privileges
Each application supporting PolKit comes with a default set of implicit policies defined by the
application's developers. Those policies are the so-called “upstream defaults”. The privileges
defined by the upstream defaults are not necessarily the ones that are activated by default on
SUSE systems. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop comes with a predefined set of privileges that
override the upstream defaults:
/etc/polkit-default-privs.standard
Defines privileges suitable for most desktop systems. It is active by default.
/etc/polkit-default-privs.restrictive
Designed for machines administrated centrally
To
switch
between
the
two
sets
of
default
privileges,
adjust
the
value
of
POLKIT_DEFAULT_PRIVS to either restrictive or standard in /etc/sysconfig/security .
Then run the command set_polkit_default_privs as root .
Do not modify the two files in the list above. In order to define your own custom set of privileges, use /etc/polkit-default-privs.local . For details, refer to Section 9.4.3, “Modifying
Configuration Files for Implicit Privileges”.
9.3 Querying Privileges
To query privileges use the command pkaction included in PolKit.
PolKit comes with command line tools for changing privileges and executing commands as
another user (see Section 9.1.3, “Available Commands” for a short overview). Each existing policy
has a speaking, unique name with which it can be identified. List all available policies with the
command pkaction .
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When invoked with no parameters, the command pkaction shows a list of all policies. By
adding the --show-overrides option, you can list all policies that differ from the default
values. To reset the privileges for a given action to the (upstream) defaults, use the option -reset-defaults ACTION . See man pkaction for more information.
If you want to display the needed authorization for a given policy (for example,
org.freedesktop.login1.reboot ) use pkaction as follows:
pkaction -v --action-id org.freedesktop.login1.reboot
org.freedesktop.login1.reboot:
description:
Reboot the system
message:
Authentication is required to allow rebooting the system
vendor:
The systemd Project
vendor_url:
http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd
icon:
implicit any:
auth_admin_keep
implicit inactive: auth_admin_keep
implicit active:
yes
The keyword auth_admin_keep means that users need to enter a passphrase.
Note: Restrictions of pkaction on SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop
pkaction always operates on the upstream defaults. Therefore it cannot be used to list
or restore the defaults shipped with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. To do so, refer to
Section 9.5, “Restoring the Default Privileges”.
9.4 Modifying Configuration Files
Adjusting privileges by modifying configuration files is useful when you want to deploy the
same set of policies to different machines, for example to the computers of a specific team. It is
possible to change implicit as well as explicit privileges by modifying configuration files.
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9.4.1
Adding Action Rules
The available actions depend on what additional packages you have installed on your system.
For a quick overview, use pkaction to list all defined rules.
To get an idea, the following example describes how the command gparted (“GNOME Partition
Editor”) is integrated into PolKit.
The file /usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.opensuse.policykit.gparted.policy contains the following content:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE policyconfig PUBLIC
"-//freedesktop//DTD PolicyKit Policy Configuration 1.0//EN"
"http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/PolicyKit/1.0/policyconfig.dtd">
<policyconfig>
1
<action id="org.opensuse.policykit.gparted">
2
<message>Authentication is required to run the GParted Partition Editor</
message>
<icon_name>gparted</icon_name>
<defaults>
3
<allow_any>auth_admin</allow_any>
<allow_inactive>auth_admin</allow_inactive>
< allow_active>auth_admin</allow_active>
</defaults>
<annotate
4
key="org.freedesktop.policykit.exec.path">/usr/sbin/gparted</annotate>
<annotate
4
key="org.freedesktop.policykit.exec.allow_gui">true</annotate>
</action>
</policyconfig>
1
Root element of the policy file.
2
Contains one single action.
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3
The defaults element contains several permissions used in remote sessions like SSH, VNC
(element allow_inactive ), when logged directly into the machine on a TTY or X display
(element allow_active ), or for both (element allow_any ). The value auth_admin indicates authentication is required as an administrative user.
4
The annotate element contains specific information regarding how PolKit performs an
action. In this case, it contains the path to the executable and states whether a GUI is
allowed to open a X display.
To add your own policy, create a .policy file with the structure above, add the appropriate
value into the id attribute, and define the default permissions.
9.4.2
Adding Authorization Rules
Your own authorization rules overrule the default settings. To add your own settings, store your
files under /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/ .
The files in this directory start with a two-digit number, followed by a descriptive name, and
end with .rules . Functions inside these files are executed in the order they have been sorted
in. For example, 00-foo.rules is sorted (and hence executed) before 60-bar.rules or even
90-default-privs.rules .
Inside the file, the script checks for the specified action ID, which is defined in the .policy
file. For example, if you want to allow the command gparted to be executed by any member
of the admin group, check for the action ID org.opensuse.policykit.gparted :
/* Allow users in admin group to run GParted without authentication */
polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
if (action.id == "org.opensuse.policykit.gparted" &&
subject.isInGroup("admin")) {
return polkit.Result.YES;
}
});
Find the description of all classes and methods of the functions in the PolKit API at http://
www.freedesktop.org/software/polkit/docs/latest/ref-api.html
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.
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9.4.3
Modifying Configuration Files for Implicit Privileges
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop ships with two sets of default authorizations, located in
/etc/polkit-default-privs.standard and /etc/polkit-default-privs.restrictive .
For more information, refer to Section 9.2.3, “Default Privileges”.
Custom privileges are defined in /etc/polkit-default-privs.local . Privileges defined here
will always take precedence over the ones defined in the other configuration files. In order to
define your custom set of privileges, do the following:
1. Open /etc/polkit-default-privs.local . To define a privilege, add a line for each
policy with the following format:
<privilege_identifier> <any session>:<inactive session>:<active session>
For example:
org.freedesktop.policykit.modify-defaults auth_admin_keep_always
The following values are valid for the session placeholders:
yes
no
grant privilege
block
auth_self
user needs to authenticate with own password every time the privilege is requested
auth_self_keep_session
user needs to authenticate with own password once per session, privilege is granted
for the whole session
auth_self_keep_always
user needs to authenticate with own password once, privilege is granted for the
current and for future sessions
auth_admin
user needs to authenticate with root password every time the privilege is requested
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Modifying Configuration Files for Implicit Privileges
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auth_admin_keep_session
user needs to authenticate with root password once per session, privilege is granted
for the whole session
auth_admin_keep_always
user needs to authenticate with root password once, privilege is granted for the
current and for future sessions
2. Run as root for changes to take effect:
# /sbin/set_polkit_default_privs
3. Optionally check the list of all privilege identifiers with the command pkaction .
9.5 Restoring the Default Privileges
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop comes with a predefined set of privileges that is activated by
default and thus overrides the upstream defaults. For details, refer to Section 9.2.3, “Default Privileges”.
Since the graphical PolKit tools and the command line tools always operate on the upstream defaults, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop includes an additional command-line tool,
set_polkit_default_privs . It resets privileges to the values defined in /etc/polkit-de-
fault-privs.* . However, the command set_polkit_default_privs will only reset policies
that are set to the upstream defaults.
PROCEDURE 9.1: RESTORING THE SUSE LINUX ENTERPRISE DESKTOP DEFAULTS
1. Make sure /etc/polkit-default-privs.local does not contain any overrides of the
default policies.
Important: Custom Policy Configuration
Policies defined in /etc/polkit-default-privs.local will be applied on top of
the defaults during the next step.
2. To reset all policies to the upstream defaults first and then apply the SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop defaults:
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Restoring the Default Privileges
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rm -f /var/lib/polkit/* && set_polkit_default_privs
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10 Access Control Lists in Linux
POSIX ACLs (access control lists) can be used as an expansion of the traditional permission
concept for file system objects. With ACLs, permissions can be defined more flexibly than with
the traditional permission concept.
The term POSIX ACL suggests that this is a true POSIX (portable operating system interface) stan-
dard. The respective draft standards POSIX 1003.1e and POSIX 1003.2c have been withdrawn
for several reasons. Nevertheless, ACLs (as found on many systems belonging to the Unix family) are based on these drafts and the implementation of file system ACLs (as described in this
chapter) follows these two standards, as well.
10.1 Traditional File Permissions
Find detailed information about the traditional file permissions in the GNU Coreutils Info page,
Node File permissions ( info coreutils "File permissions" ). More advanced features are
the setuid, setgid, and sticky bit.
10.1.1
The setuid Bit
In certain situations, the access permissions may be too restrictive. Therefore, Linux has additional settings that enable the temporary change of the current user and group identity for a
specific action. For example, the passwd program normally requires root permissions to access
/etc/passwd . This file contains some important information, like the home directories of users
and user and group IDs. Thus, a normal user would not be able to change passwd , because it
would be too dangerous to grant all users direct access to this file. A possible solution to this
problem is the setuid mechanism. setuid (set user ID) is a special file attribute that instructs the
system to execute programs marked accordingly under a specific user ID. Consider the passwd
command:
-rwsr-xr-x
1 root shadow 80036 2004-10-02 11:08 /usr/bin/passwd
You can see the s that denotes that the setuid bit is set for the user permission. By means of
the setuid bit, all users starting the passwd command execute it as root .
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10.1.2
The setgid Bit
The setuid bit applies to users. However, there is also an equivalent property for groups: the
setgid bit. A program for which this bit was set runs under the group ID under which it was saved,
no matter which user starts it. Therefore, in a directory with the setgid bit, all newly created
files and subdirectories are assigned to the group to which the directory belongs. Consider the
following example directory:
drwxrws--- 2 tux archive 48 Nov 19 17:12
backup
You can see the s that denotes that the setgid bit is set for the group permission. The owner
of the directory and members of the group archive may access this directory. Users that are
not members of this group are “mapped” to the respective group. The effective group ID of
all written files will be archive . For example, a backup program that runs with the group ID
archive is able to access this directory even without root privileges.
10.1.3
The Sticky Bit
There is also the sticky bit. It makes a difference whether it belongs to an executable program
or a directory. If it belongs to a program, a file marked in this way is loaded to RAM to avoid
needing to get it from the hard disk each time it is used. This attribute is used rarely, because
modern hard disks are fast enough. If this bit is assigned to a directory, it prevents users from
deleting each other's files. Typical examples include the /tmp and /var/tmp directories:
drwxrwxrwt 2 root root 1160 2002-11-19 17:15 /tmp
10.2 Advantages of ACLs
Traditionally, three permission sets are defined for each file object on a Linux system. These
sets include the read ( r ), write ( w ), and execute ( x ) permissions for each of three types of
users—the file owner, the group, and other users. In addition to that, it is possible to set the set
user id, the set group id, and the sticky bit. This lean concept is fully adequate for most practical
cases. However, for more complex scenarios or advanced applications, system administrators
formerly needed to use a number of workarounds to circumvent the limitations of the traditional
permission concept.
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ACLs can be used as an extension of the traditional file permission concept. They allow the
assignment of permissions to individual users or groups even if these do not correspond to the
original owner or the owning group. Access control lists are a feature of the Linux kernel and
are currently supported by ReiserFS, Ext2, Ext3, JFS, and XFS. Using ACLs, complex scenarios
can be realized without implementing complex permission models on the application level.
The advantages of ACLs are evident if you want to replace a Windows server with a Linux
server. Some of the connected workstations may continue to run under Windows even after the
migration. The Linux system offers file and print services to the Windows clients with Samba.
With Samba supporting access control lists, user permissions can be configured both on the
Linux server and in Windows with a graphical user interface (only Windows NT and later).
With winbindd , part of the Samba suite, it is even possible to assign permissions to users only
existing in the Windows domain without any account on the Linux server.
10.3 Definitions
User Class
The conventional POSIX permission concept uses three classes of users for assigning per-
missions in the file system: the owner, the owning group, and other users. Three permission bits can be set for each user class, giving permission to read ( r ), write ( w ), and
execute ( x ).
ACL
The user and group access permissions for all kinds of file system objects (files and directories) are determined by means of ACLs.
Default ACL
Default ACLs can only be applied to directories. They determine the permissions a file
system object inherits from its parent directory when it is created.
ACL Entry
Each ACL consists of a set of ACL entries. An ACL entry contains a type, a qualifier for the
user or group to which the entry refers, and a set of permissions. For some entry types,
the qualifier for the group or users is undefined.
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10.4 Handling ACLs
Table 10.1, “ACL Entry Types” summarizes the six possible types of ACL entries, each defining per-
missions for a user or a group of users. The owner entry defines the permissions of the user
owning the file or directory. The owning group entry defines the permissions of the file's owning
group. The superuser can change the owner or owning group with chown or chgrp , in which
case the owner and owning group entries refer to the new owner and owning group. Each named
user entry defines the permissions of the user specified in the entry's qualifier field. Each named
group entry defines the permissions of the group specified in the entry's qualifier field. Only the
named user and named group entries have a qualifier field that is not empty. The other entry
defines the permissions of all other users.
The mask entry further limits the permissions granted by named user, named group, and own-
ing group entries by defining which of the permissions in those entries are effective and which
are masked. If permissions exist in one of the mentioned entries as well as in the mask, they
are effective. Permissions contained only in the mask or only in the actual entry are not effec-
tive—meaning the permissions are not granted. All permissions defined in the owner and owning group entries are always effective. The example in Table 10.2, “Masking Access Permissions”
demonstrates this mechanism.
There are two basic classes of ACLs: A minimum ACL contains only the entries for the types
owner, owning group, and other, which correspond to the conventional permission bits for files
and directories. An extended ACL goes beyond this. It must contain a mask entry and may contain
several entries of the named user and named group types.
TABLE 10.1: ACL ENTRY TYPES
Type
Text Form
owner
user::rwx
named user
user:name:rwx
owning group
group::rwx
named group
group:name:rwx
mask
mask::rwx
other
other::rwx
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TABLE 10.2: MASKING ACCESS PERMISSIONS
Entry Type
Text Form
Permissions
named user
user:geeko:r-x
r-x
mask
mask::rw-
rw-
effective permissions:
r--
10.4.1
ACL Entries and File Mode Permission Bits
Figure 10.1, “Minimum ACL: ACL Entries Compared to Permission Bits” and Figure 10.2, “Extended ACL: ACL
Entries Compared to Permission Bits” illustrate the two cases of a minimum ACL and an extended
ACL. The figures are structured in three blocks—the left block shows the type specifications
of the ACL entries, the center block displays an example ACL, and the right block shows the
respective permission bits according to the conventional permission concept (for example, as
displayed by ls -l ). In both cases, the owner class permissions are mapped to the ACL entry
owner. Other class permissions are mapped to the respective ACL entry. However, the mapping
of the group class permissions is different in the two cases.
FIGURE 10.1: MINIMUM ACL: ACL ENTRIES COMPARED TO PERMISSION BITS
In the case of a minimum ACL—without mask—the group class permissions are mapped to the
ACL entry owning group. This is shown in Figure 10.1, “Minimum ACL: ACL Entries Compared to
Permission Bits”. In the case of an extended ACL—with mask—the group class permissions are
mapped to the mask entry. This is shown in Figure 10.2, “Extended ACL: ACL Entries Compared to
Permission Bits”.
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FIGURE 10.2: EXTENDED ACL: ACL ENTRIES COMPARED TO PERMISSION BITS
This mapping approach ensures the smooth interaction of applications, regardless of whether
they have ACL support. The access permissions that were assigned by means of the permission
bits represent the upper limit for all other “fine adjustments” made with an ACL. Changes made
to the permission bits are reflected by the ACL and vice versa.
10.4.2
A Directory with an ACL
With getfacl and setfacl on the command line, you can access ACLs. The usage of these
commands is demonstrated in the following example.
Before creating the directory, use the umask command to define which access permissions
should be masked each time a file object is created. The command umask 027 sets the default
permissions by giving the owner the full range of permissions ( 0 ), denying the group write
access ( 2 ), and giving other users no permissions at all ( 7 ). umask actually masks the corresponding permission bits or turns them off. For details, consult the umask man page.
mkdir mydir creates the mydir directory with the default permissions as set by umask . Use
ls -dl mydir to check whether all permissions were assigned correctly. The output for this
example is:
drwxr-x--- ... tux project3 ... mydir
With getfacl mydir , check the initial state of the ACL. This gives information like:
# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user::rwx
group::r-x
81
A Directory with an ACL
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other::---
The first three output lines display the name, owner, and owning group of the directory. The
next three lines contain the three ACL entries owner, owning group, and other. In fact, in the
case of this minimum ACL, the getfacl command does not produce any information you could
not have obtained with ls .
Modify the ACL to assign read, write, and execute permissions to an additional user geeko and
an additional group mascots with:
setfacl -m user:geeko:rwx,group:mascots:rwx mydir
The option -m prompts setfacl to modify the existing ACL. The following argument indicates
the ACL entries to modify (multiple entries are separated by commas). The final part specifies
the name of the directory to which these modifications should be applied. Use the getfacl
command to take a look at the resulting ACL.
# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user::rwx
user:geeko:rwx
group::r-x
group:mascots:rwx
mask::rwx
other::---
In addition to the entries initiated for the user geeko and the group mascots , a mask entry
has been generated. This mask entry is set automatically so that all permissions are effective.
setfacl automatically adapts existing mask entries to the settings modified, unless you deac-
tivate this feature with -n . The mask entry defines the maximum effective access permissions
for all entries in the group class. This includes named user, named group, and owning group.
The group class permission bits displayed by ls -dl mydir now correspond to the mask entry.
drwxrwx---+ ... tux project3 ... mydir
The first column of the output contains an additional + to indicate that there is an extended
ACL for this item.
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According to the output of the ls command, the permissions for the mask entry include write
access. Traditionally, such permission bits would mean that the owning group (here project3 )
also has write access to the directory mydir .
However, the effective access permissions for the owning group correspond to the overlapping
portion of the permissions defined for the owning group and for the mask—which is r-x in
our example (see Table 10.2, “Masking Access Permissions”). As far as the effective permissions of
the owning group in this example are concerned, nothing has changed even after the addition
of the ACL entries.
Edit the mask entry with setfacl or chmod . For example, use chmod g-w mydir . ls -dl
mydir then shows:
drwxr-x---+ ... tux project3 ... mydir
getfacl mydir provides the following output:
# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user::rwx
user:geeko:rwx
# effective: r-x
group::r-x
group:mascots:rwx
# effective: r-x
mask::r-x
other::---
After executing the chmod command to remove the write permission from the group class bits,
the output of the ls command is sufficient to see that the mask bits must have changed accordingly: write permission is again limited to the owner of mydir . The output of the getfacl
confirms this. This output includes a comment for all those entries in which the effective per-
mission bits do not correspond to the original permissions, because they are filtered according
to the mask entry. The original permissions can be restored at any time with chmod g+w mydir .
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10.4.3
A Directory with a Default ACL
Directories can have a default ACL, which is a special kind of ACL defining the access permissions that objects in the directory inherit when they are created. A default ACL affects both
subdirectories and files.
10.4.3.1
Effects of a Default ACL
There are two ways in which the permissions of a directory's default ACL are passed to the files
and subdirectories:
A subdirectory inherits the default ACL of the parent directory both as its default ACL and
as an ACL.
A file inherits the default ACL as its ACL.
All system calls that create file system objects use a mode parameter that defines the access
permissions for the newly created file system object. If the parent directory does not have a
default ACL, the permission bits as defined by the umask are subtracted from the permissions
as passed by the mode parameter, with the result being assigned to the new object. If a default
ACL exists for the parent directory, the permission bits assigned to the new object correspond
to the overlapping portion of the permissions of the mode parameter and those that are defined
in the default ACL. The umask is disregarded in this case.
10.4.3.2
Application of Default ACLs
The following three examples show the main operations for directories and default ACLs:
1. Add a default ACL to the existing directory mydir with:
setfacl -d -m group:mascots:r-x mydir
The option -d of the setfacl command prompts setfacl to perform the following
modifications (option -m ) in the default ACL.
Take a closer look at the result of this command:
getfacl mydir
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# file: mydir
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user::rwx
user:geeko:rwx
group::r-x
group:mascots:rwx
mask::rwx
other::--default:user::rwx
default:group::r-x
default:group:mascots:r-x
default:mask::r-x
default:other::---
getfacl returns both the ACL and the default ACL. The default ACL is formed by all lines
that start with default . Although you merely executed the setfacl command with an
entry for the mascots group for the default ACL, setfacl automatically copied all other
entries from the ACL to create a valid default ACL. Default ACLs do not have an immediate
effect on access permissions. They only come into play when file system objects are created.
These new objects inherit permissions only from the default ACL of their parent directory.
2. In the next example, use mkdir to create a subdirectory in mydir , which inherits the
default ACL.
mkdir mydir/mysubdir
getfacl mydir/mysubdir
# file: mydir/mysubdir
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user::rwx
group::r-x
group:mascots:r-x
mask::r-x
other::---
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default:user::rwx
default:group::r-x
default:group:mascots:r-x
default:mask::r-x
default:other::---
As expected, the newly-created subdirectory mysubdir has the permissions from the de-
fault ACL of the parent directory. The ACL of mysubdir is an exact reflection of the de-
fault ACL of mydir . The default ACL that this directory will hand down to its subordinate
objects is also the same.
3. Use touch to create a file in the mydir directory, for example, touch mydir/myfile .
ls -l mydir/myfile then shows:
-rw-r-----+ ... tux project3 ... mydir/myfile
The output of getfacl mydir/myfile is:
# file: mydir/myfile
# owner: tux
# group: project3
user::rwgroup::r-x
# effective:r--
group:mascots:r-x
# effective:r--
mask::r-other::---
touch uses a mode with the value 0666 when creating new files, which means that the
files are created with read and write permissions for all user classes, provided no other
restrictions exist in umask or in the default ACL (see Section 10.4.3.1, “Effects of a Default
ACL”). In effect, this means that all access permissions not contained in the mode value are
removed from the respective ACL entries. Although no permissions were removed from
the ACL entry of the group class, the mask entry was modified to mask permissions not
set in mode .
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This approach ensures the smooth interaction of applications (such as compilers) with
ACLs. You can create files with restricted access permissions and subsequently mark them
as executable. The mask mechanism guarantees that the right users and groups can execute
them as desired.
10.4.4
The ACL Check Algorithm
A check algorithm is applied before any process or application is granted access to an ACLprotected file system object. As a basic rule, the ACL entries are examined in the following
sequence: owner, named user, owning group or named group, and other. The access is handled
in accordance with the entry that best suits the process. Permissions do not accumulate.
Things are more complicated if a process belongs to more than one group and would potentially
suit several group entries. An entry is randomly selected from the suitable entries with the required permissions. It is irrelevant which of the entries triggers the final result “access granted”.
Likewise, if none of the suitable group entries contain the required permissions, a randomly
selected entry triggers the final result “access denied”.
10.5 ACL Support in Applications
ACLs can be used to implement very complex permission scenarios that meet the requirements of
modern applications. The traditional permission concept and ACLs can be combined in a smart
manner. The basic file commands ( cp , mv , ls , etc.) support ACLs, as do Samba and Nautilus.
Unfortunately, many editors and file managers still lack ACL support. When copying files with
Emacs, for instance, the ACLs of these files are lost. When modifying files with an editor, the
ACLs of files are sometimes preserved and sometimes not, depending on the backup mode of
the editor used. If the editor writes the changes to the original file, the ACL is preserved. If
the editor saves the updated contents to a new file that is subsequently renamed to the old file
name, the ACLs may be lost, unless the editor supports ACLs. Except for the star archiver,
there are currently no backup applications that preserve ACLs.
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10.6 For More Information
For more information about ACLs, see the man pages for getfacl(1) , acl(5) , and setfacl(1) .
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11 Encrypting Partitions and Files
Most users have some confidential data on their computer that third parties should not be able
to access. The more you rely on mobile computing and on working in different environments
and networks, the more carefully you should handle your data. The encryption of files or entire
partitions is recommended if others have network or physical access to your system. Laptops or
removable media, such as external hard disks or flash disks, are prone to being lost or stolen.
Thus, it is recommended to encrypt the parts of your file system that hold confidential data.
There are several ways to protect your data by means of encryption:
Encrypting a Hard Disk Partition
You can create an encrypted partition with YaST during installation or in an already installed system. Refer to Section 11.1.1, “Creating an Encrypted Partition during Installation” and
Section 11.1.2, “Creating an Encrypted Partition on a Running System” for details. This option can
also be used for removable media, such as external hard disks, as described in Section 11.1.4,
“Encrypting the Content of Removable Media”.
Creating an Encrypted File as Container
You can create an encrypted file on your hard disk or on a removable medium with YaST
at any time. The encrypted file can then be used to store other files or directories. For more
information, refer to Section 11.1.3, “Creating an Encrypted File as a Container”.
Encrypting Home Directories
With SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, you can also create encrypted user home directories.
When the user logs in to the system, the encrypted home directory is mounted and the
contents are made available to the user. Refer to Section 11.2, “Using Encrypted Home Directories” for more information.
Encrypting Single ASCII Text Files
If you only have a small number of ASCII text files that hold sensitive or confidential data,
you can encrypt them individually and protect them with a password using the vi editor.
Refer to Section 11.3, “Using vi to Encrypt Single ASCII Text Files” for more information.
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Warning: Encrypted Media Offers Limited Protection
The methods described in this chapter offer only a limited protection. You cannot protect
your running system from being compromised. After the encrypted medium is successful-
ly mounted, everybody with appropriate permissions has access to it. However, encrypt-
ed media are useful in case of loss or theft of your computer, or to prevent unauthorized
individuals from reading your confidential data.
11.1 Setting Up an Encrypted File System with
YaST
Use YaST to encrypt partitions or parts of your file system during installation or in an already
installed system. However, encrypting a partition in an already-installed system is more difficult, because you need to resize and change existing partitions. In such cases, it may be more
convenient to create an encrypted file of a defined size, in which to store other files or parts
of your file system. To encrypt an entire partition, dedicate a partition for encryption in the
partition layout. The standard partitioning proposal as suggested by YaST, does not include an
encrypted partition by default. Add it manually in the partitioning dialog.
11.1.1
Creating an Encrypted Partition during Installation
Warning: Password Input
Make sure to memorize the password for your encrypted partitions well. Without that
password, you cannot access or restore the encrypted data.
The YaST expert dialog for partitioning offers the options needed for creating an encrypted
partition. To create a new encrypted partition proceed as follows:
1. Run the YaST Expert Partitioner with System Partitioner.
2. Select a hard disk, click Add, and select a primary or an extended partition.
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3. Select the partition size or the region to use on the disk.
4. Select the file system, and mount point of this partition.
5. Activate the Encrypt device check box.
Note: Additional Software Required
After checking Encrypt device, a pop-up window asking for installing additional
software may appear. Confirm to install all the required packages to ensure that
the encrypted partition works well.
6. If the encrypted file system needs to be mounted only when necessary, enable Do not mount
partition in the Fstab Options. otherwise enable Mount partition and enter the mount point.
7. Click Next and enter a password which is used to encrypt this partition. This password is
not displayed. To prevent typing errors, you need to enter the password twice.
8. Complete the process by clicking Finish. The newly-encrypted partition is now created.
During the boot process, the operating system asks for the password before mounting any encrypted partition which is set to be auto-mounted in /etc/fstab . Such a partition is then
available to all users when it has been mounted.
To skip mounting the encrypted partition during start-up, press
Enter
when prompted for the
password. Then decline the offer to enter the password again. In this case, the encrypted file
system is not mounted and the operating system continues booting, blocking access to your data.
When you need to mount an encrypted partition which is not mounted during the boot process,
open a file manager and click the partition entry in the pane listing common places on your file
system. You will be prompted for a password and the partition will be mounted.
When you are installing your system on a machine where partitions already exist, you can also
decide to encrypt an existing partition during installation. In this case follow the description in
Section 11.1.2, “Creating an Encrypted Partition on a Running System” and be aware that this action
destroys all data on the existing partition.
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11.1.2
Creating an Encrypted Partition on a Running System
Warning: Activating Encryption on a Running System
It is also possible to create encrypted partitions on a running system. However, encrypting
an existing partition destroys all data on it, and requires resizing and restructuring of
existing partitions.
On a running system, select System Partitioner in the YaST Control Center. Click Yes to proceed.
In the Expert Partitioner, select the partition to encrypt and click Edit. The rest of the procedure
is the same as described in Section 11.1.1, “Creating an Encrypted Partition during Installation”.
11.1.3
Creating an Encrypted File as a Container
Instead of using a partition, it is possible to create an encrypted file, which can hold other files or
directories containing confidential data. Such container files are created from the YaST Expert
Partitioner dialog. Select Crypt Files Add Crypt File and enter the full path to the file and its
size. If YaST should create the container file, activate the check box Create Loop File. Accept or
change the proposed formatting settings and the file system type. Specify the mount point and
make sure that Encrypt Device is checked.
Click Next, enter your password for decrypting the file, and confirm with Finish.
The advantage of encrypted container files over encrypted partitions is that they can be added
without repartitioning the hard disk. They are mounted with the help of a loop device and
behave like normal partitions.
11.1.4
Encrypting the Content of Removable Media
YaST treats removable media (like external hard disks or flash disks) the same as any other hard
disk. Container files or partitions on such media can be encrypted as described above. Do not,
however, enable mounting at boot time, because removable media are usually only connected
while the system is running.
If you encrypted your removable device with YaST, the GNOME desktop automatically recog-
nizes the encrypted partition and prompt for the password when the device is detected. If you
plug in a FAT formatted removable device while running GNOME, the desktop user entering
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the password automatically becomes the owner of the device and can read and write files. For
devices with a file system other than FAT, change the ownership explicitly for users other than
root to enable these users to read or write files on the device.
11.2 Using Encrypted Home Directories
To protect data in home directories from being stolen and consequent unauthorized access, use
the YaST user management module to enable encryption of home directories. You can create
encrypted home directories for new or existing users. To encrypt or decrypt home directories of
already existing users, you need to know their login password. See Book “Deployment Guide” 9
“Managing Users with YaST”9.3.3 “Managing Encrypted Home Directories” for instructions.
Encrypted home partitions are created within a file container as described in Section 11.1.3,
“Creating an Encrypted File as a Container”. Two files are created under /home for each encrypted
home directory:
LOGIN.img
The image holding the directory
LOGIN.key
The image key, protected with the user's login password.
On login, the home directory automatically gets decrypted. Internally, it works through the
PAM module called pam_mount. If you need to add an additional login method that provides
encrypted home directories, you need to add this module to the respective configuration file in
/etc/pam.d/ . For more information, see Chapter 2, Authentication with PAM and the man page
of pam_mount .
Warning: Security Restrictions
Encrypting a user's home directory does not provide strong security from other users. If
strong security is required, the system should not be shared physically.
To enhance security, also encrypt the swap partition and the /tmp and /var/tmp di-
rectories, because these may contain temporary images of critical data. You can encrypt
swap , /tmp , and /var/tmp with the YaST partitioner as described in Section 11.1.1, “Cre-
ating an Encrypted Partition during Installation” or Section 11.1.3, “Creating an Encrypted File as
a Container”.
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11.3 Using vi to Encrypt Single ASCII Text Files
The disadvantage of using encrypted partitions is obvious: While the partition is mounted, at
least root can access the data. To prevent this, vi can be used in encrypted mode.
Use vi -x filename to edit a new file. vi prompts you to set a password, after which it
encrypts the content of the file. Whenever you access this file, vi requests the correct password.
For even more security, you can place the encrypted text file in an encrypted partition. This is
recommended because the encryption used in vi is not very strong.
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12 Certificate Store
Certificates play an important role in the authentication of companies and individuals. Usual-
ly certificates are administered by the application itself. In some cases, it makes sense to share
certificates between applications. The certificate store is a common ground for Firefox, Evolution, and NetworkManager. This chapter explains some details.
The certificate store is a common database for Firefox, Evolution, and NetworkManager at the
moment. Other applications that use certificates are not covered but may be in the future. If
you have such an application, you can continue to use its private, separate configuration.
12.1 Activating Certificate Store
The configuration is mostly done in the background. To activate it, proceed as follows:
1. Decide if you want to activate the certificate store globally (for every user on your system)
or specifically to a certain user:
For every user. Use the file /etc/profile.local
For a specific user. Use the file ~/.bashrc
2. Open the file from the previous step and insert the following line:
export NSS_USE_SHARED_DB=1
Save the file
3. Log out of and log in to your desktop.
All the certificates are stored under $HOME/.local/var/pki/nssdb/ .
12.2 Importing Certificates
To import a certificate into the certificate store, do the following:
1. Start Firefox.
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2. Open the dialog from Edit Preferences. Change to Advanced Encryption and click View
Certificates.
3. Import your certificate depending on your type: use Servers to import server certificate,
People to identify other, and Your Certificates to identify yourself.
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13 Intrusion Detection with AIDE
Securing your systems is a mandatory task for any mission-critical system administrator. Because it is impossible to always guarantee that the system is not compromised, it is very im-
portant to do extra checks regularly (for example with cron ) to ensure that the system is still
under your control. This is where AIDE, the Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment, comes
into play.
13.1 Why Using AIDE?
An easy check that often can reveal unwanted changes can be done by means of RPM. The
package manager has a built-in verify function that checks all the managed files in the system
for changes. To verify of all files, run the command rpm -Va . However, this command will also
display changes in configuration files and you will need to do some filtering to detect important
changes.
An additional problem to the method with RPM is that an intelligent attacker will modify rpm
itself to hide any changes that might have been done by some kind of rootkit which allows the
attacker to mask its intrusion and gain root privilege. To solve this, you should implement a
secondary check that can also be run completely independent of the installed system.
13.2 Setting Up an AIDE Database
Important: Initialize AIDE Database After Installation
Before you install your system, verify the checksum of your medium (see Book “Administration Guide” 30 “Common Problems and Their Solutions”30.2.1 “Checking Media”) to
make sure you do not use a compromised source. After you have installed the system,
initialize the AIDE database. To be really sure that all went well during and after the
installation, do an installation directly on the console, without any network attached to
the computer. Do not leave the computer unattended or connected to any network before
AIDE creates its database.
AIDE is not installed by default on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. To install it, either use
Computer Install Software, or enter zypper install aide on the command line as root .
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To tell AIDE which attributes of which files should be checked, use the /etc/aide.conf con-
figuration file. It must be modified to become the actual configuration. The first section handles
general parameters like the location of the AIDE database file. More relevant for local configurations are the Custom Rules and the Directories and Files sections. A typical rule looks
like the following:
Binlib
= p+i+n+u+g+s+b+m+c+md5+sha1
After defining the variable Binlib , the respective check boxes are used in the files section.
Important options include the following:
TABLE 13.1: IMPORTANT AIDE CHECK BOXES
Option
Description
p
Check for the file permissions of the selected
i
Check for the inode number. Every file name
files or directories.
has a unique inode number that should not
change.
n
Check for the number of links pointing to the
u
Check if the owner of the file has changed.
g
Check if the group of the file has changed.
s
Check if the file size has changed.
b
Check if the block count used by the file has
m
Check if the modification time of the file has
c
Check if the files access time has changed.
md5
Check if the md5 checksum of the file has
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relevant file.
changed.
changed.
changed.
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Option
Description
sha1
Check if the sha1 (160 Bit) checksum of the
file has changed.
This is a configuration that checks for all files in /sbin with the options defined in Binlib
but omits the /sbin/conf.d/ directory:
/sbin
Binlib
!/sbin/conf.d
To create the AIDE database, proceed as follows:
1. Open /etc/aide.conf .
2. Define which files should be checked with which check boxes. For a complete list of avail-
able check boxes, see /usr/share/doc/packages/aide/manual.html . The definition of
the file selection needs some knowledge about regular expressions. Save your modifications.
3. To check whether the configuration file is valid, run:
aide --config-check
Any output of this command is a hint that the configuration is not valid. For example, if
you get the following output:
aide --config-check
35:syntax error:!
35:Error while reading configuration:!
Configuration error
The error is to be expected in line 36 of /etc/aide.conf . Note that the error message
contains the last successfully read line of the configuration file.
4. Initialize the AIDE database. Run the command:
aide -i
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5. Copy the generated database to a save location like a CD-R or DVD-R, a remote server
or a flash disk for later use.
Important:
This step is essential as it avoids compromising your database. It is recommended
to use a medium which can be written only once to prevent the database being
modified. Never leave the database on the computer which you want to monitor.
13.3 Local AIDE Checks
To perform a file system check, proceed as follows:
1. Rename the database:
mv /var/lib/aide/aide.db.new /var/lib/aide/aide.db
2. After any configuration change, you always need to re-initialize the AIDE database and
subsequently move the newly generated database. It is also a good idea to make a backup
of this database. See Section 13.2, “Setting Up an AIDE Database” for more information.
3. Perform the check with the following command:
aide --check
If the output is empty, everything is fine. If AIDE found changes, it displays a summary of
changes, for example:
aide --check
AIDE found differences between database and filesystem!!
Summary:
Total number of files:
1992
Added files:
0
Removed files:
0
Changed files:
1
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To learn about the actual changes, increase the verbose level of the check with the parameter
-V . For the previous example, this could look like the following:
aide --check -V
AIDE found differences between database and filesystem!!
Start timestamp: 2009-02-18 15:14:10
Summary:
Total number of files:
1992
Added files:
0
Removed files:
0
Changed files:
1
--------------------------------------------------Changed files:
---------------------------------------------------
changed: /etc/passwd
-------------------------------------------------Detailed information about changes:
---------------------------------------------------
File: /etc/passwd
Mtime
: 2009-02-18 15:11:02
, 2009-02-18 15:11:47
Ctime
: 2009-02-18 15:11:02
, 2009-02-18 15:11:47
In this example, the file /etc/passwd was touched to demonstrate the effect.
13.4 System Independent Checking
To avoid risk, it is advisable to also run the AIDE binary from a trusted source. This excludes
the risk that some attacker also modified the aide binary to hide its traces.
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To accomplish this task, AIDE must be run from a rescue system that is independent of the
installed system. With SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop it is relatively easy to extend the rescue
system with arbitrary programs, and thus add the needed functionality.
Before you can start using the rescue system, you need to provide two packages to the system.
These are included with the same syntax as you would add a driver update disk to the system.
For a detailed description about the possibilities of linuxrc that are used for this purpose, see
http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:Linuxrc
is discussed.
. In the following, one possible way to accomplish this task
PROCEDURE 13.1: STARTING A RESCUE SYSTEM WITH AIDE
1. Provide an FTP server as a second machine.
2. Copy the packages aide and mhash to the FTP server directory, in our case /srv/ftp/ .
Replace the placeholders ARCH and VERSION with the corresponding values:
cp DVD1/suse/ARCH/aideVERSION.ARCH.rpm /srv/ftp
cp DVD1/suse/ARCH/mhashVERSION.ARCH.rpm /srv/ftp
3. Create an info file /srv/ftp/info.txt that provides the needed boot parameters for the
rescue system:
dud:ftp://ftp.example.com/aideVERSION.ARCH.rpm
dud:ftp://ftp.example.com/mhashVERSION.ARCH.rpm
Replace your FTP domain name, VERSION and ARCH with the values used on your system.
4. Restart the server that needs to go through an AIDE check with the Rescue system from
your DVD. Add the following string to the boot parameters:
info=ftp://ftp.example.com/info.txt
This parameter tells linuxrc to also read in all information from the info.txt file.
After the rescue system has booted, the AIDE program is ready for use.
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13.5 For More Information
Information about AIDE is available at the following places:
The home page of AIDE: http://aide.sourceforge.net
In the documented template configuration /etc/aide.conf .
In several files below /usr/share/doc/packages/aide after installing the aide package.
On the AIDE user mailing list at https://mailman.cs.tut.fi/mailman/listinfo/aide .
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III Network Security
14
SSH: Secure Network Operations 105
15
Masquerading and Firewalls 117
16
Configuring a VPN Server 128
17
Managing X.509 Certification 144
14 SSH: Secure Network Operations
In networked environments, it is often necessary to access hosts from a remote location. If a
user sends login and password strings for authentication purposes as plain text, they could
be intercepted and misused to gain access to that user account without the authorized user
knowing about it. This would open all the user's files to an attacker and the illegal account
could be used to obtain administrator or root access, or to penetrate other systems. In the
past, remote connections were established with telnet , rsh or rlogin , which offered no
guards against eavesdropping in the form of encryption or other security mechanisms. There
are other unprotected communication channels, like the traditional FTP protocol and some remote copying programs like rcp .
The SSH suite provides the necessary protection by encrypting the authentication strings (usually a login name and a password) and all the other data exchanged between the hosts. With
SSH, the data flow could still be recorded by a third party, but the contents are encrypted and
cannot be reverted to plain text unless the encryption key is known. So SSH enables secure
communication over insecure networks, such as the Internet. The SSH implementation coming
with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop is OpenSSH.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop installs the OpenSSH package by default providing the commands ssh , scp , and sftp . In the default configuration, remote access of a SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop system is only possible with the OpenSSH utilities, and only if the sshd is
running and the firewall permits access.
SSH on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop makes use of cryptographic hardware acceleration if
available. As a result, the transfer of large quantities of data through an SSH connection is
considerably faster than without cryptographic hardware. As an additional benefit, the CPU will
see a significant reduction in load.
14.1 ssh—Secure Shell
By using the ssh program, it is possible to log in to remote systems and to work interactively.
To log in to the host sun as user tux user one of the following commands:
ssh [email protected]
ssh -l tux sun
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If the user name is the same on both machines, you may omit it: ssh sun . The remote host
prompts for the remote user's password. After a successful authentication, you can work on the
remote command line or use interactive applications, such as YaST in text mode.
Furthermore, ssh offers the possibility to run non-interactive commands on remote systems
using ssh HOST COMMAND . COMMAND needs to be properly quoted. Multiple commands can be
concatenated as on a regular shell.
ssh [email protected] "dmesg -T | tail -n 25"
ssh [email protected] "cat /etc/issue && uptime"
14.1.1
Starting X Applications on a Remote Host
SSH also simplifies the use of remote X applications. If you run ssh with the -X option, the
DISPLAY variable is automatically set on the remote machine and all X output is exported to
the remote machine over the existing SSH connection. At the same time, X applications started
remotely cannot be intercepted by unauthorized individuals.
14.1.2
Agent Forwarding
By adding the -A option, the ssh-agent authentication mechanism is carried over to the next
machine. This way, you can work from different machines without having to enter a password,
but only if you have distributed your public key to the destination hosts and properly saved it
there. Refer to Section 14.5.2, “Copying an SSH Key” for details.
This mechanism is deactivated in the default settings, but can be permanently activated at any
time in the systemwide configuration file /etc/ssh/sshd_config by setting AllowAgentForwarding yes .
14.2 scp—Secure Copy
scp copies files to or from a remote machine. If the user name on jupiter is different than the
user name on sun, specify the latter using the [email protected] format. If the file should be
copied into a directory other then the remote user's home directory, specify it as sun: DIRECTORY .
The following examples show how to copy a file from a local to a remote machine and vice versa.
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# local -> remote
scp ~/MyLetter.tex [email protected]:/tmp
# remote -> local
scp [email protected]:/tmp/MyLetter.tex ~
Tip: The -l Option
With the ssh command, the option -l can be used to specify a remote user (as an
alternative to the [email protected] format). With scp the option -l is used to limit the
bandwidth consumed by scp .
After the correct password is entered, scp starts the data transfer. It displays a progress bar
and the time remaining for each file that is copied. Suppress all output with the -q option.
scp also provides a recursive copying feature for entire directories. The command
scp -r src/ sun:backup/
copies the entire contents of the directory src including all subdirectories to the ~/backup
directory on the host sun. If this subdirectory does not exist, it is created automatically.
The -p option tells scp to leave the time stamp of files unchanged. -C compresses the da-
ta transfer. This minimizes the data volume to transfer, but creates a heavier burden on the
processors of both machines.
14.3 sftp—Secure File Transfer
If you want to copy several files from and/or to different locations, sftp is a convenient al-
ternative to scp . It opens a shell with a set of commands similar to a regular FTP shell. Type
help at the sftp-prompt to get a list of available commands. More details are available from
the sftp (1) man page.
sftp sun
Enter passphrase for key '/home/tux/.ssh/id_rsa':
Connected to sun.
sftp> help
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Available commands:
bye
Quit sftp
cd path
Change remote directory to 'path'
[...]
14.3.1
Setting Permissions for File Uploads
As with a regular FTP server, a user can not only download, but also upload files to a remote
machine running an SFTP server by using the put command. By default the files will be up-
loaded to the remote host with the same permissions as on the local host. There are two options
to automatically alter these permissions:
Setting a umask
A umask works as a filter against the permissions of the original file on the local host. It
can only withdraw permissions:
TABLE 14.1: permissions original
umask
permissions uploaded
0666
0002
0664
0600
0002
0600
0775
0025
0750
To apply a umask on an SFTP server, edit the file /etc/ssh/sshd_configuration . Search
for the line beginning with Subsystem sftp and add the -u parameter with the desired
setting, for example:
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-server -u 0002
Explicitly Setting the Permissions
Explicitly setting the permissions sets the same permissions for all files uploaded via SFTP.
Specify a three-digit pattern such as 600 , 644 , or 755 with -u . When both -m and u are specified, -u is ignored.
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To apply explicit permissions for uploaded files on an SFTP server, edit the file /etc/ssh/
sshd_configuration . Search for the line beginning with Subsystem sftp and add the
-m parameter with the desired setting, for example:
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/ssh/sftp-server -m 600
14.4 The SSH Daemon (sshd)
To work with the SSH client programs ssh and scp , a server (the SSH daemon) must be running in the background, listening for connections on TCP/IP port 22 . The daemon generates
three key pairs when starting for the first time. Each key pair consists of a private and a public
key. Therefore, this procedure is referred to as public key-based. To guarantee the security of
the communication via SSH, access to the private key files must be restricted to the system administrator. The file permissions are set accordingly by the default installation. The private keys
are only required locally by the SSH daemon and must not be given to anyone else. The public
key components (recognizable by the name extension .pub ) are sent to the client requesting
the connection. They are readable for all users.
A connection is initiated by the SSH client. The waiting SSH daemon and the requesting SSH
client exchange identification data to compare the protocol and software versions, and to prevent connections through the wrong port. Because a child process of the original SSH daemon
replies to the request, several SSH connections can be made simultaneously.
For the communication between SSH server and SSH client, OpenSSH supports versions 1 and
2 of the SSH protocol. Version 2 of the SSH protocol is used by default. Override this to use
version 1 of protocol with the -1 option.
When using version 1 of SSH, the server sends its public host key and a server key, which is
regenerated by the SSH daemon every hour. Both allow the SSH client to encrypt a freely chosen
session key, which is sent to the SSH server. The SSH client also tells the server which encryption
method (cipher) to use. Version 2 of the SSH protocol does not require a server key. Both sides
use an algorithm according to Diffie-Hellman to exchange their keys.
The private host and server keys are absolutely required to decrypt the session key and cannot
be derived from the public parts. Only the contacted SSH daemon can decrypt the session key
using its private keys. This initial connection phase can be watched closely by turning on verbose
debugging using the -v option of the SSH client.
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It is recommended to back up the private and public keys stored in /etc/ssh/ in a secure,
external location. In this way, key modifications can be detected or the old ones can be used
again after having installed a new system.
Tip: Existing SSH Host Keys
If you install SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop on a machine with existing Linux installa-
tions, the installation routine automatically imports the SSH host key with the most recent access time from an existing installation.
When establishing a secure connection with a remote host for the first time, the client stores
all public host keys in ~/.ssh/known_hosts . This prevents any man-in-the-middle attacks—
attempts by foreign SSH servers to use spoofed names and IP addresses. Such attacks are detected
either by a host key that is not included in ~/.ssh/known_hosts , or by the server's inability
to decrypt the session key in the absence of an appropriate private counterpart.
In case the public keys of a host have really changed (something that needs to be verified before
attempting to connect to such a server), the offending keys can be removed with the command
ssh-keygen -r HOSTNAME
14.5 SSH Authentication Mechanisms
In its simplest form, authentication is done by entering the user's password just as if logging
in locally. However, having to memorize passwords of several users on remote machines is
inefficient. What's more, these passwords may change. On the other hand—when granting root
access—an administrator needs to be able to quickly revoke such a permission without having
to change the root password.
In order to accomplish a login that does not require to enter the remote user's password, SSH uses
another key pair, which needs to be generated by the user. It consists of a public ( id_rsa.pub
or id_dsa.pub ) and a private key ( id_rsa or id_dsa ).
In order to be able to log in without having to specify the remote user's password, the public key
of the “SSH user” must be present in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys . This approach also ensures
that the remote user has got full control: adding the key requires the remote user's password
and removing the key revokes the permission to log in from remote.
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For maximum security such a key should be protected by a passphrase which needs to be entered
every time you use ssh , scp , or sftp . Contrary to the simple authentication, this passphrase
is independent from the remote user and therefore always the same.
An alternative to the key-based authentication described above, SSH also offers a host-based
authentication. With host-based authentication, users on a trusted host can log in to another
host on which this feature is enabled using the same user name. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop
is set up for using key-based authentication, covering setting up host-based authentication on
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop is beyond the scope of this manual.
Note: File Permissions for Host-Based Authentication
If the host-based authentication is to be used, the file /usr/lib/ssh/ssh-keysign (32-
bit systems) or /usr/lib64/ssh/ssh-keysign (64-bit systems) should have the setuid
bit set, which is not the default setting in SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. In such case,
set the file permissions manually. You should use /etc/permissions.local for this
purpose, to make sure that the setuid bit is preserved after security updates of openssh.
14.5.1
Generating an SSH Key
1. To generate a key with default parameters (RSA, 2048 bits), enter the command sshkeygen .
2. Accept the default location to store the key ( ~/.ssh/id_rsa ) by pressing
Enter
recommended) or enter an alternative location.
(strongly
3. Enter a passphrase consisting of 10 to 30 characters. The same rules as for creating safe
passwords apply. It is strongly advised to refrain from specifying no passphrase.
You should make absolutely sure that the private key is not accessible by anyone other than
yourself (always set its permissions to 0600 ). The private key must never fall into the hands
of another person.
In order to change the password of an existing key pair, use the command ssh-keygen -p .
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14.5.2
Copying an SSH Key
To copy a public SSH key to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys of a user on a remote machine, use the
command ssh-copy-id . In order to copy your personal key stored under ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
you may use the short form. In order to copy DSA keys or keys of other users, you need to
specify the path:
# ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
ssh-copy-id -i [email protected]
# ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
[email protected]
# ~notme/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
ssh-copy-id -i ~notme/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
[email protected]
In order to successfully copy the key, you need to enter the remote user's password. To remove
an existing key, manually edit ~/.ssh/authorized_keys .
14.5.3
Using the ssh-agent
When doing lots of secure shell operations it is cumbersome to type the SSH passphrase for each
such operation. Therefore, the SSH package provides another tool, ssh-agent , which retains
the private keys for the duration of an X or terminal session. All other windows or programs
are started as clients to the ssh-agent . By starting the agent, a set of environment variables
is set, which will be used by ssh , scp , or sftp to locate the agent for automatic login. See
man 1 ssh-agent for details.
After the ssh-agent is started, you need to add your keys by using ssh-add . It will prompt
for the passphrase. After the password has been provided once, you can use the secure shell
commands within the running session without having to authenticate again.
14.5.3.1
Using ssh-agent in an X Session
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, the ssh-agent is automatically started by the GNOME
display manager. In order to also invoke ssh-add to add your keys to the agent at the beginning
of an X session, do the following:
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1. Log in as the desired user and check whether the file ~/.xinitrc exists.
2. If it does not exist, use an existing template or copy it from /etc/skel :
if [ -f ~/.xinitrc.template ]; then mv ~/.xinitrc.template ~/.xinitrc; \
else cp /etc/skel/.xinitrc.template ~/.xinitrc; fi
3. If you have copied the template, search for the following lines and uncomment them. If
~/.xinitrc already existed, add the following lines (without comment signs).
# if test -S "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" -a -x "$SSH_ASKPASS"; then
#
ssh-add < /dev/null
# fi
4. When starting a new X session, you will be prompted for your SSH passphrase.
14.5.3.2
Using ssh-agent in a Terminal Session
In a terminal session you need to manually start the ssh-agent and then call ssh-add after-
wards. There are two ways to start the agent. The first example given below starts a new Bash
shell on top of your existing shell. The second example starts the agent in the existing shell and
modifies the environment as needed.
ssh-agent -s /bin/bash
eval $(ssh-agent)
After the agent has been started, run ssh-add to provide the agent with your keys.
14.6 Port Forwarding
ssh can also be used to redirect TCP/IP connections. This feature, also called SSH tunneling ,
redirects TCP connections to a certain port to another machine via an encrypted channel.
With the following command, any connection directed to jupiter port 25 (SMTP) is redirected
to the SMTP port on sun. This is especially useful for those using SMTP servers without SMTPAUTH or POP-before-SMTP features. From any arbitrary location connected to a network, email can be transferred to the “home” mail server for delivery.
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ssh -L 25:sun:25 jupiter
Similarly, all POP3 requests (port 110) on jupiter can be forwarded to the POP3 port of sun
with this command:
ssh -L 110:sun:110 jupiter
Both commands must be executed as root , because the connection is made to privileged local
ports. E-mail is sent and retrieved by normal users in an existing SSH connection. The SMTP
and POP3 host must be set to localhost for this to work. Additional information can be found
in the manual pages for each of the programs described above and also in the OpenSSH package
documentation under /usr/share/doc/packages/openssh .
14.7 Configuring An SSH Daemon with YaST
The YaST SSHD Configuration module is not part of the default installation. To make it available,
install the package yast2-sshd .
To configure an sshd server with YaST run YaST and choose Network Services SSHD Configuration. Then proceed as follows:
1. On the General tab, select the ports sshd should listen on in the SSHD TCP Ports table.
The default port number is 22. Multiple ports are allowed. To add a new port, click Add,
enter the port number and click OK. To delete a port, select it in the table, click Delete
and confirm.
2. Select the features the sshd daemon should support. To disable TCP forwarding, deacti-
vate Allow TCP Forwarding. Disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless
users are also denied shell access, as they can always install their own forwarders. See
Section 14.6, “Port Forwarding” for more information about TCP forwarding.
To disable X forwarding, deactivate Allow X11 Forwarding. If this option is disabled, any
X11 forward requests by the client will return an error. However users can always install
their own forwarders. See Section 14.1, “ssh—Secure Shell” for more information about X
forwarding.
In Allow Compression determine, whether the connection between the server and clients
should be compressed. After setting these options, click Next.
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3. The Login Settings tab contains general login and authentication settings. In Print Message of
the Day After Login determine, whether sshd should print message from /etc/motd when
a user logs in interactively. If you want to disable connection of a user root , deactivate
Permit Root Login.
In Maximum Authentication Tries enter the maximum allowed number of authentication
attempts per connection. RSA Authentication specifies whether pure RSA authentication
is allowed. This option applies to SSH protocol version 1 only. Public Key Authentication
specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. This option applies to protocol
version 2 only.
4. On the Protocol and Ciphers tab, determine which versions of the SSH protocol should be
supported. You can choose to support version 1 only, version 2 only, or to support both
SSH version 2 and 1.
Under Supported Ciphers, all supported ciphers are listed. You can remove a cipher by
selecting it in the list and clicking Delete. To add a cipher to the list, select it from the
dropdown box and click Add.
5. Click Finish to save the configuration.
14.8 For More Information
http://www.openssh.com
The home page of OpenSSH
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/OpenSSH
The OpenSSH Wikibook
man sshd
The man page of the OpenSSH daemon
man ssh_config
The man page of the OpenSSH SSH client configuration files
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man scp ,
man sftp ,
man slogin ,
man ssh ,
man ssh-add ,
man ssh-agent ,
man ssh-copy-id ,
man ssh-keyconvert ,
man ssh-keygen ,
man ssh-keyscan
Man pages of several binary files to securely copy files ( scp , sftp ), to log in ( slogin ,
ssh ), and to manage keys.
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15 Masquerading and Firewalls
Whenever Linux is used in a network environment, you can use the kernel functions that allow
the manipulation of network packets to maintain a separation between internal and external
network areas. The Linux netfilter framework provides the means to establish an effective
firewall that keeps different networks apart. With the help of iptables—a generic table structure
for the definition of rule sets—precisely control the packets allowed to pass a network interface.
Such a packet filter can be set up quite easily with the help of SuSEFirewall2 and the corresponding YaST module.
15.1 Packet Filtering with iptables
The components netfilter and iptables are responsible for the filtering and manipulation
of network packets as well as for network address translation (NAT). The filtering criteria and
any actions associated with them are stored in chains, which must be matched one after another
by individual network packets as they arrive. The chains to match are stored in tables. The
iptables command allows you to alter these tables and rule sets.
The Linux kernel maintains three tables, each for a particular category of functions of the packet
filter:
filter
This table holds the bulk of the filter rules, because it implements the packet filtering mechanism in the stricter sense, which determines whether packets are let through ( ACCEPT )
or discarded ( DROP ), for example.
nat
This table defines any changes to the source and target addresses of packets. Using these
functions also allows you to implement masquerading, which is a special case of NAT used
to link a private network with the Internet.
mangle
The rules held in this table make it possible to manipulate values stored in IP headers
(such as the type of service).
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These tables contain several predefined chains to match packets:
PREROUTING
This chain is applied to incoming packets.
INPUT
This chain is applied to packets destined for the system's internal processes.
FORWARD
This chain is applied to packets that are only routed through the system.
OUTPUT
This chain is applied to packets originating from the system itself.
POSTROUTING
This chain is applied to all outgoing packets.
Figure 15.1, “iptables: A Packet's Possible Paths” illustrates the paths along which a network packet
may travel on a given system. For the sake of simplicity, the figure lists tables as parts of chains,
but in reality these chains are held within the tables themselves.
In the simplest case, an incoming packet destined for the system itself arrives at the eth0
interface. The packet is first referred to the PREROUTING chain of the mangle table then to the
PREROUTING chain of the nat table. The following step, concerning the routing of the packet,
determines that the actual target of the packet is a process of the system itself. After passing
the INPUT chains of the mangle and the filter table, the packet finally reaches its target,
provided that the rules of the filter table are actually matched.
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PREROUTING
incoming packet
mangle
nat
INPUT
mangle
Routing
filter
FORWARD
Processes
mangle
in the local
system
filter
OUTPUT
Routing
mangle
nat
filter
POSTROUTING
mangle
nat
outgoing packet
FIGURE 15.1: IPTABLES: A PACKET'S POSSIBLE PATHS
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15.2 Masquerading Basics
Masquerading is the Linux-specific form of NAT (network address translation). It can be used to
connect a small LAN (where hosts use IP addresses from the private range—see Book “Admin-
istration Guide” 20 “Basic Networking”20.1.2 “Netmasks and Routing”) with the Internet (where
official IP addresses are used). For the LAN hosts to be able to connect to the Internet, their
private addresses are translated to an official one. This is done on the router, which acts as
the gateway between the LAN and the Internet. The underlying principle is a simple one: The
router has more than one network interface, typically a network card and a separate interface
connecting with the Internet. While the latter links the router with the outside world, one or
several others link it with the LAN hosts. With these hosts in the local network connected to
the network card (such as eth0 ) of the router, they can send any packets not destined for the
local network to their default gateway or router.
Important: Using the Correct Network Mask
When configuring your network, make sure both the broadcast address and the netmask
are the same for all local hosts. Failing to do so prevents packets from being routed
properly.
As mentioned, whenever one of the LAN hosts sends a packet destined for an Internet address,
it goes to the default router. However, the router must be configured before it can forward such
packets. For security reasons, this is not enabled in a default installation. To enable it, set the
variable IP_FORWARD in the file /etc/sysconfig/sysctl to IP_FORWARD=yes .
The target host of the connection can see your router, but knows nothing about the host in your
internal network where the packets originated. This is why the technique is called masquerad-
ing. Because of the address translation, the router is the first destination of any reply packets.
The router must identify these incoming packets and translate their target addresses, so packets
can be forwarded to the correct host in the local network.
With the routing of inbound traffic depending on the masquerading table, there is no way to
open a connection to an internal host from the outside. For such a connection, there would be
no entry in the table. In addition, any connection already established has a status entry assigned
to it in the table, so the entry cannot be used by another connection.
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As a consequence of all this, you might experience some problems with a number of application
protocols, such as ICQ, cucme, IRC (DCC, CTCP), and FTP (in PORT mode). Web browsers, the
standard FTP program, and many other programs use the PASV mode. This passive mode is
much less problematic as far as packet filtering and masquerading are concerned.
15.3 Firewalling Basics
Firewall is probably the term most widely used to describe a mechanism that provides and man-
ages a link between networks while also controlling the data flow between them. Strictly speaking, the mechanism described in this section is called a packet filter. A packet filter regulates the
data flow according to certain criteria, such as protocols, ports, and IP addresses. This allows
you to block packets that, according to their addresses, are not supposed to reach your network.
To allow public access to your Web server, for example, explicitly open the corresponding port.
However, a packet filter does not scan the contents of packets with legitimate addresses, such
as those directed to your Web server. For example, if incoming packets were intended to compromise a CGI program on your Web server, the packet filter would still let them through.
A more effective but more complex mechanism is the combination of several types of systems,
such as a packet filter interacting with an application gateway or proxy. In this case, the packet
filter rejects any packets destined for disabled ports. Only packets directed to the application
gateway are accepted. This gateway or proxy pretends to be the actual client of the server. In
a sense, such a proxy could be considered a masquerading host on the protocol level used by
the application. One example for such a proxy is Squid, an HTTP and FTP proxy server. To use
Squid, the browser must be configured to communicate via the proxy. Any HTTP pages or FTP
files requested are served from the proxy cache and objects not found in the cache are fetched
from the Internet by the proxy.
The following section focuses on the packet filter that comes with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desk-
top. For further information about packet filtering and firewalling, read the Firewall HOWTO
included in the howto package. If this package is installed, read the HOWTO with
less /usr/share/doc/howto/en/txt/Firewall-HOWTO.gz
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15.4 SuSEFirewall2
SuSEFirewall2 is a script that reads the variables set in /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2 to
generate a set of iptables rules. It defines three security zones, although only the first and the
second one are considered in the following sample configuration:
External Zone
Given that there is no way to control what is happening on the external network, the host
needs to be protected from it. In most cases, the external network is the Internet, but it
could be another insecure network, such as a Wi-Fi.
Internal Zone
This refers to the private network, in most cases the LAN. If the hosts on this network use
IP addresses from the private range (see Book “Administration Guide” 20 “Basic Network-
ing”20.1.2 “Netmasks and Routing”), enable network address translation (NAT), so hosts on
the internal network can access the external one. All ports are open in the internal zone.
The main benefit of putting interfaces into the internal zone (rather than stopping the
firewall) is that the firewall still runs, so when you add new interfaces, they will be put into
the external zone by default. That way an interface is not accidentally “open” by default.
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
While hosts located in this zone can be reached both from the external and the internal
network, they cannot access the internal network themselves. This setup can be used to
put an additional line of defense in front of the internal network, because the DMZ systems
are isolated from the internal network.
Any kind of network traffic not explicitly allowed by the filtering rule set is suppressed by
iptables. Therefore, each of the interfaces with incoming traffic must be placed into one of the
three zones. For each of the zones, define the services or protocols allowed. The rule set is only
applied to packets originating from remote hosts. Locally generated packets are not captured
by the firewall.
The configuration can be performed with YaST (see Section 15.4.1, “Configuring the Firewall with
YaST”). It can also be made manually in the file /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2 , which is
well commented. Additionally, a number of example scenarios are available in /usr/share/
doc/packages/SuSEfirewall2/EXAMPLES .
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15.4.1
Configuring the Firewall with YaST
Important: Automatic Firewall Configuration
After the installation, YaST automatically starts a firewall on all configured interfaces.
If a server is configured and activated on the system, YaST can modify the automatically-generated firewall configuration with the options Open Ports on Selected Interface in
Firewall or Open Ports on Firewall in the server configuration modules. Some server module
dialogs include a Firewall Details button for activating additional services and ports. The
YaST firewall configuration module can be used to activate, deactivate, or reconfigure
the firewall.
The YaST dialogs for the graphical configuration can be accessed from the YaST Control Center.
Select Security and Users Firewall. The configuration is divided into seven sections that can be
accessed directly from the tree structure on the left side.
Start-Up
Set the start-up behavior in this dialog. In a default installation, SuSEFirewall2 is started
automatically. You can also start and stop the firewall here. To implement your new settings in a running firewall, use Save Settings and Restart Firewall Now.
Interfaces
All known network interfaces are listed here. To remove an interface from a zone, select
the interface, press Change, and choose No Zone Assigned. To add an interface to a zone,
select the interface, press Change and choose any of the available zones. You may also
create a special interface with your own settings by using Custom.
Allowed Services
You need this option to offer services from your system to a zone from which it is protected. By default, the system is only protected from external zones. Explicitly allow the services that should be available to external hosts. After selecting the desired zone in Allowed
Services for Selected Zone, activate the services from the list.
Masquerading
Masquerading hides your internal network from external networks (such as the Internet)
while enabling hosts in the internal network to access the external network transparently.
Requests from the external network to the internal one are blocked and requests from the
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internal network seem to be issued by the masquerading server when seen externally. If
special services of an internal machine need to be available to the external network, add
special redirect rules for the service.
Broadcast
In this dialog, configure the UDP ports that allow broadcasts. Add the required port numbers or services to the appropriate zone, separated by spaces. See also the file /etc/services .
The logging of broadcasts that are not accepted can be enabled here. This may be prob-
lematic, because Windows hosts use broadcasts to know about each other and so generate
many packets that are not accepted.
IPsec Support
Configure whether the IPsec service should be available to the external network in this
dialog. Configure which packets are trusted under Details.
There is another functionality under Details: IPsec packets are packed in an encrypted
format, so they need to be decrypted and you can configure the way the firewall will
handle the decrypted packets. If you select Internal Zone, the decrypted IPsec packets will
be trusted as if they came from the Internal Zone - although they could possibly come from
the external one. Choose Same Zone as Original Source Network to avoid this situation.
Logging Level
There are two rules for logging: accepted and not accepted packets. Packets that are not
accepted are DROPPED or REJECTED. Select from Log All, Log Only Critical, or Do Not
Log Any.
Custom Rules
Here, set special firewall rules that allow connections, matching specified criteria such
as source network, protocol, destination port, and source port. Configure such rules for
external, internal, and demilitarized zones.
When finished with the firewall configuration, exit this dialog with Next. A zone-oriented sum-
mary of your firewall configuration then opens. In it, check all settings. All services, ports, and
protocols that have been allowed and all custom rules are listed in this summary. To modify the
configuration, use Back. Press Finish to save your configuration.
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15.4.2
Configuring Manually
The following paragraphs provide step-by-step instructions for a successful configuration. Each
configuration item is marked as to whether it is relevant to firewalling or masquerading. Use port
range (for example, 500:510 ) whenever appropriate. Aspects related to the DMZ (demilitarized
zone) as mentioned in the configuration file are not covered here. They are applicable only to a
more complex network infrastructure found in larger organizations (corporate networks), which
require extensive configuration and in-depth knowledge about the subject.
To enable SuSEFirewall2, use sudo systemctl enable SuSEfirewall2.service or use the
YaST module Services Manager.
FW_DEV_EXT (firewall, masquerading)
The device linked to the Internet. For a modem connection, enter ppp0 . DSL connections
use dsl0 . Specify auto to use the interface that corresponds to the default route.
FW_DEV_INT (firewall, masquerading)
The device linked to the internal, private network (such as eth0 ). Leave this blank if there
is no internal network and the firewall protects only the host on which it runs.
FW_ROUTE (firewall, masquerading)
If you need the masquerading function, set this to yes . Your internal hosts will not be
visible to the outside, because their private network addresses (e.g., 192.168.x.x ) are
ignored by Internet routers.
For a firewall without masquerading, set this to yes if you want to allow access to the
internal network. Your internal hosts need to use officially registered IP addresses in this
case. Normally, however, you should not allow access to your internal network from the
outside.
FW_MASQUERADE (masquerading)
Set this to yes if you need the masquerading function. This provides a virtually direct
connection to the Internet for the internal hosts. It is more secure to have a proxy server
between the hosts of the internal network and the Internet. Masquerading is not needed
for services that a proxy server provides.
FW_MASQ_NETS (masquerading)
Specify the hosts or networks to masquerade, leaving a space between the individual entries. For example:
FW_MASQ_NETS="192.168.0.0/24 192.168.10.1"
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FW_PROTECT_FROM_INT (firewall)
Set this to yes to protect your firewall host from attacks originating in your internal
network. Services are only available to the internal network if explicitly enabled. Also see
FW_SERVICES_INT_TCP and FW_SERVICES_INT_UDP .
FW_SERVICES_EXT_TCP (firewall)
Enter the TCP ports that should be made available. Leave this blank for a normal workstation at home that should not offer any services.
FW_SERVICES_EXT_UDP (firewall)
Leave this blank unless you run a UDP service and want to make it available to the outside.
The services that use UDP include DNS servers, IPsec, TFTP, DHCP and others. In that
case, enter the UDP ports to use.
FW_SERVICES_ACCEPT_EXT (firewall)
List
ic
and
services
form
rated
more
list
of
to
the
specific
of
allow
from
the
FW_SERVICES_EXT_TCP
than
Internet.
and
FW_TRUSTED_NETS .
This
is
a
more
FW_SERVICES_EXT_UDP
The
net,protocol[,dport][,sport] ,
for
notation
example
is
a
gener-
settings,
space-sepa-
0/0,tcp,22
or
0/0,tcp,22,,hitcount=3,blockseconds=60,recentname=ssh , which means: allow a
maximum of three SSH connects per minute from one IP address.
FW_SERVICES_INT_TCP (firewall)
With this variable, define the services available for the internal network. The notation
is the same as for FW_SERVICES_EXT_TCP , but the settings are applied to the internal
network. The variable only needs to be set if FW_PROTECT_FROM_INT is set to yes .
FW_SERVICES_INT_UDP (firewall)
See FW_SERVICES_INT_TCP .
FW_SERVICES_ACCEPT_INT (firewall)
List services to allow from internal hosts. See FW_SERVICES_ACCEPT_EXT.
FW_SERVICES_ACCEPT_RELATED_* (firewall)
This is how the SuSEFirewall2 implementation considers packets RELATED by netfilter.
For
example,
to
allow
finer
grained
filtering
of
Samba
broadcast
pack-
ets, RELATED packets are not accepted unconditionally. Variables starting with
FW_SERVICES_ACCEPT_RELATED_ allow restricting RELATED packets handling to certain
networks, protocols and ports.
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This
to
means
that
adding
FW_LOAD_MODULES
connection
tracking
modules
(conntrack
modules)
does not automatically result in accepting the packets
tagged by those modules. Additionally, you must set variables starting with
FW_SERVICES_ACCEPT_RELATED_ to a suitable value.
FW_CUSTOMRULES (firewall)
Uncomment this variable to install custom rules. Find examples in /etc/sysconfig/scripts/SuSEfirewall2-custom .
After configuring the firewall, test your setup. The firewall rule sets are created by entering
systemctl start SuSEfirewall2.service as root . Then use telnet , for example, from an
external host to see whether the connection is actually denied. After that, review the output of
journalctl (see Book “Administration Guide” 12 “journalctl: Query the systemd Journal”),
where you should see something like this:
Mar 15 13:21:38 linux kernel: SFW2-INext-DROP-DEFLT IN=eth0
OUT= MAC=00:80:c8:94:c3:e7:00:a0:c9:4d:27:56:08:00 SRC=192.168.10.0
DST=192.168.10.1 LEN=60 TOS=0x10 PREC=0x00 TTL=64 ID=15330 DF PROTO=TCP
SPT=48091 DPT=23 WINDOW=5840 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0
OPT (020405B40402080A061AFEBC0000000001030300)
Other packages to test your firewall setup are Nmap (portscanner) or OpenVAS (Open Vulnerability Assessment System). The documentation of Nmap is found at /usr/share/doc/packages/nmap after installing the package and the documentation of openVAS resides at http://
www.openvas.org
.
15.5 For More Information
The most up-to-date information and other documentation about the SuSEFirewall2 package
is found in /usr/share/doc/packages/SuSEfirewall2 . The home page of the netfilter and
iptables project, http://www.netfilter.org , provides a large collection of documents in many
languages.
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16 Configuring a VPN Server
Nowadays, the Internet connection is cheap and available almost everywhere. It is important
that the connection is as secure as possible. Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a secure net-
work within a second, insecure network such as the Internet or Wi-Fi. It can be implemented in different ways and serves several purposes. In this chapter, we focus on the OpenVPN
(http://www.openvpn.net)
works (WANs).
implementation to link branch offices via secure wide area net-
16.1 Conceptual Overview
This section defines some terms regarding VPN and gives a brief overview of some scenarios.
16.1.1
Terminology
Endpoint
The two “ends” of a tunnel, the source or destination client.
Tap Device
A tap device simulates an Ethernet device (layer 2 packets in the OSI model such as IP
packets). A tap device is used for creating a network bridge. It works with Ethernet frames.
Tun Device
A tun device simulates a point-to-point network (layer 3 packets in the OSI model such as
Ethernet frames). A tun device is used with routing and works with IP frames.
Tunnel
Linking two locations through a primarily public network. From a more technical view-
point, it is a connection between the client's device and the server's device. Usually a tunnel is encrypted, but it does need to be by definition.
16.1.2
VPN Scenarios
Whenever you set up a VPN connection, your IP packets are transferred over a secured tunnel.
A tunnel can use a so-called tun or tap device. They are virtual network kernel drivers which
implement the transmission of Ethernet frames or IP frames/packets.
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Any userspace program OpenVPN can attach itself to a tun or tap device to receive packets sent
by your operating system. The program is also able to write packets to the device.
There are many solutions to set up and build a VPN connection. This section focuses on the
OpenVPN package. Compared to other VPN software, OpenVPN can be operated in two modes:
Routed VPN
Routing is an easy solution to set up. It is more efficient and scales better than bridged VPN.
Furthermore, it allows the user to tune MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) to raise efficiency.
However, in a heterogeneous environment NetBIOS broadcasts do not work if you do not
have a Samba server on the gateway. If you need IPv6, each tun drivers on both ends must
support this protocol explicitly. This scenario is depicted in Figure 16.1, “Routed VPN”.
FIGURE 16.1: ROUTED VPN
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Bridged VPN
Bridging is a more complex solution. It is recommended when you need to browse Windows
file shares across the VPN without setting up a Samba or WINS server. Bridged VPN is
also needed if you want to use non-IP protocols (such as IPX) or applications relying on
network broadcasts. However, it is less efficient than routed VPN. Another disadvantage
is that it does not scale well. This scenario is depicted in the following figures.
FIGURE 16.2: BRIDGED VPN - SCENARIO 1
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FIGURE 16.3: BRIDGED VPN - SCENARIO 2
FIGURE 16.4: BRIDGED VPN - SCENARIO 3
The major difference between bridging and routing is that a routed VPN cannot IP-broadcast
while a bridged VPN can.
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16.2 Setting Up a Simple Test Scenario
In the following example we will create a point-to-point VPN tunnel. The example demon-
strates how to create a VPN tunnel between one client and a server. It is assumed that your
VPN server will use private IP addresses like 192.168.1.120 and your client the IP address
192.168.2.110 . You can modify these private IP addresses to your needs but make sure you
select addresses which do not conflict with other IP addresses.
Warning: Use Only For Testing
This scenario is only useful for testing and is considered as an example to get familiar
with VPN. Do not use this as a real world scenario as it can compromise security and
safety of your IT infrastructure!
It is recommended to use configuration filenames as /etc/openvpn/XXX.conf . If you need to
store more files, create a configuration directory /etc/openvpn/XXX/ . This makes live a bit
easier as you know exactly which file belongs to which configuration file.
16.2.1
Configuring the VPN Server
To configure a VPN server, proceed as follows:
PROCEDURE 16.1: VPN SERVER CONFIGURATION
1. Install the package openvpn on the machine that will later become your VPN server.
2. Open a shell, become root and create the VPN secret key:
root # openvpn --genkey --secret /etc/openvpn/secret.key
3. Copy the secret key to your client:
root # scp /etc/openvpn/secret.key [email protected]:/etc/openvpn/
4. Create the file /etc/openvpn/server.conf with the following content:
dev tun
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ifconfig 192.168.1.120 192.168.2.110
secret secret.key
5. If you use a firewall, start YaST and open UDP port 1194 (Security and Users Firewall Al-
lowed Services).
6. Start the OpenVPN server service:
sudo systemctl start [email protected]
This notation points to the OpenVPN server configuration file, located at /etc/open-
vpn/server.conf . See /usr/share/doc/packages/openvpn/README.SUSE for details.
16.2.2
Configuring the VPN Client
To configure the VPN client, do the following:
PROCEDURE 16.2: VPN CLIENT CONFIGURATION
1. Install the package openvpn on your client VPN machine.
2. Create /etc/openvpn/client.conf with the following content:
remote IP_OF_SERVER
dev tun
ifconfig 192.168.2.110 192.168.1.120
secret secret.key
Replace the placeholder IP_OF_SERVER in the first line with either the domain name, or
the public IP address of your server.
3. If you use a firewall, start YaST and open UDP port 1194 as described in Step 5 of Procedure 16.1, “VPN Server Configuration”.
4. Start the OpenVPN service:
sudo systemctl start [email protected]
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16.2.3
Testing the VPN Example Scenario
After OpenVPN has successfully started, test the availability of the tun device with the following
command:
ip addr show tun0
To verify the VPN connection, use ping on both client and server side to see if they can reach
each other. Ping the server from the client:
ping -I tun0 192.168.1.120
Ping the client from the server:
ping -I tun0 192.168.2.110
16.3 Setting Up Your VPN Server Using Certificate
Authority
The example in Section 16.2 is useful for testing, but not for daily work. This section explains
how to build a VPN server that allows more than one connection at the same time. This is done
with a public key infrastructure (PKI). A PKI consists of a pair of public and private keys for
the server and each client, and a master certificate authority (CA), which is used to sign every
server and client certificate.
This setup involves the following basic steps:
1. Section 16.3.1, “Creating Certificates”
2. Section 16.3.2, “Configuring the Server”
3. Section 16.3.3, “Configuring the Clients”
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16.3.1
Creating Certificates
Before a VPN connection gets established, the client must authenticate the server certificate.
Conversely, the server must also authenticate the client certificate. This is called mutual authentication. To create such certificates, use the YaST CA module. See Chapter 17, Managing X.509
Certification for more details.
To create a VPN root, server, and client CA, proceed as follows:
PROCEDURE 16.3: CREATING A VPN SERVER CERTIFICATE
1. Prepare a common VPN Certificate Authority (CA):
a. Start the YaST CA module.
b. Click Create Root CA.
c. Enter a CA Name and a Common Name, for example VPN-Server-CA .
d. Fill out the other boxes like e-mail addresses, organization, etc. and proceed with
Next.
e. Enter your password twice and proceed with Next.
f. Review the summary. YaST displays the current settings for confirmation. Click Cre-
ate. The root CA is created and displayed in the overview.
2. Create a VPN server certificate:
a. Select the root CA you created in Step 1 and click Enter CA.
b. When prompted, enter the CA Password.
c. Click the Certificate tab and click Add Add Server Certificate.
d. Enter a Common Name, for example, openvpn.example.com and proceed with Next.
e. Enter your password twice and click Advanced options.
Switch to the Advanced Settings Key Usage list and check one of the following sets:
digitalSignature and keyEncipherment , or,
digitalSignature and keyAgreement
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Switch to the Advanced Settings extendedKeyUsage and type serverAuth for a server certificate.
When using the method remote-cert-tls server or remote-cert-tls client
to verify the certificates, then the certificates can only have a certain number
of key usages set. The reason for this is to prevent or at least mitigate the pos-
sibility of a man-in-the-middle attack. For further background information, see
. Fin-
http://openvpn.net/index.php/open-source/documentation/howto.html#mitm
ish with Ok. and proceed with Next.
f. Review the summary. YaST displays the current settings for confirmation. Click Cre-
ate. The VPN server certificate is created and displayed in the Certificates tab.
3. Create VPN client certificates:
a. Make sure you are on the Certificates tab.
b. Click Add Add Client Certificate.
c. Enter a Common Name, for example, client1.example.com .
d. Enter
the
e-mail
addresses
for
your
client,
[email protected] , and click Add. Proceed with Next.
for
example,
e. Enter your password twice and click Advanced options.
Switch to the Advanced Settings Key Usage list and check one of the following flags:
digitalSignature or,
keyAgreement or,
digitalSignature and keyAgreement .
Switch to the Advanced Settings extendedKeyUsage and type clientAuth for a server certificate.
f. Review the summary. YaST displays the current settings for confirmation. Click Cre-
ate. The VPN client certificate is created and is displayed in the Certificates tab.
g. Repeat Step 3 if you need certificates for more clients.
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After you have successfully finished Procedure 16.3, “Creating a VPN Server Certificate” you have a
VPN root CA, a VPN server CA, and one or more VPN client CAs. To finish the task, proceed
with the following procedure:
1. Choose the Certificates tab.
2. Export the VPN server certificate in two formats: PEM and unencrypted key in PEM.
a. Select your VPN server CA ( openvpn.example.com in our example) and choose
Export Export to File.
b. Select Only the Certificate in PEM Format, enter your VPN server certificate password
and save the file to /etc/openvpn/server_crt.pem .
c. Repeat Step 2.a and Step 2.b, but choose the format Only the Key Unencrypted in PEM
Format. Save the file to /etc/openvpn/server_key.pem .
3. Export the VPN client certificates and choose an export format, PEM or PKCS12 (pre-
ferred). For each client:
a. Select your VPN client certificate ( client1.example.com in our example) and
choose Export Export to File.
b. Select Like PKCS12 and Include the CA Chain, enter your VPN client certificate key
password and provide a PKCS12 password. Enter a File Name. For example, click
Browse and save the file to /etc/openvpn/client1.p12 .
4. Copy the files to your client (in our example, client1.example.com ).
5. Export the VPN CA (in our example VPN-Server-CA ):
a. Switch to the Description tab and select Export to File.
b. Select Advanced Export to File.
c. Mark Only the Certificate in PEM Format and save the file to /etc/openvpn/vpn_ca.pem .
If desired, the client PKCS12 file can be converted into the PEM format using this command:
openssl pkcs12 -in client1.p12 -out client1.pem
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Enter your client password to create the client1.pem file. The PEM file contains the client
certificate, client key, and the CA certificate. You can split this combined file using a text editor
and create three separate files. The file names can be used for the ca , cert , and key options
in the OpenVPN configuration file (see Example 16.1, “VPN Server Configuration File”).
16.3.2
Configuring the Server
For your configuration, copy to /etc/openvpn/ and modify the example configuration file that
is provided with /usr/share/doc/packages/openvpn/sample-config-files/server.conf .
You need to adjust some paths.
EXAMPLE 16.1: VPN SERVER CONFIGURATION FILE
# /etc/openvpn/server.conf
port 1194
1
proto udp
2
dev tun0
3
# Security
4
ca
vpn_ca.pem
cert
server_crt.pem
key
server_key.pem
# ns-cert-type server
remote-cert-tls client
5
dh
6
server/dh1024.pem
server 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0
7
ifconfig-pool-persist /var/run/openvpn/ipp.txt
# Privileges
8
9
user nobody
group nobody
# Other configuration
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10
Configuring the Server
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keepalive 10 120
comp-lzo
persist-key
persist-tun
# status
/var/log/openvpn-status.tun0.log
# log-append
/var/log/openvpn-server.log
11
12
verb 4
1
The TCP/UDP port which OpenVPN listens to. You need to open the port in the Firewall,
see Chapter 15, Masquerading and Firewalls. The standard port for VPN is 1194, so in most
cases you can leave that as it is.
2
The protocol, either UDP or TCP.
3
The tun or tap device, see Section 16.1.1, “Terminology” for the differences.
4
The following lines contain the relative or absolute path to the root server CA certificate
( ca ), the root CA key ( cert ), and the private server key ( key ). These were generated in
Section 16.3.1, “Creating Certificates”.
5
Require that peer certificate was signed with an explicit key usage and extended key usage
based on RFC3280 TLS rules. How to make a server use this explict key is described in
Procedure 16.3, “Creating a VPN Server Certificate”.
6
The Diffie-Hellman parameters. Create the needed file with the following command:
openssl dhparam -out /etc/openvpn/dh1024.pem 1024
7
Supplies a VPN subnet. The server can be reached by 192.168.1.1 .
8
Records a mapping of clients and its virtual IP address in the given file. Useful when the
server goes down and (after the restart) the clients get their previously assigned IP address.
9
For security reasons it is a good idea to run the OpenVPN daemon with reduced privileges.
For this reason the group and user nobody is used.
10
Several other configurations options, see the comment in the example configuration file,
/usr/share/doc/packages/openvpn/sample-config-files .
11
Enable this option, if you prefer a short status with statistical data (“operational status
dump”). By default, it is not set; all output is written to syslog. If you have more than one
configuration files (for example, one for home another for work), it is recommended to
include the device name into the filename. This avoids overwriting each others output files
accidentally. In this case it is tun0 , taken from the dev directive, see
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3
.
Configuring the Server
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12
By default, log messages go to syslog. Overwrite this behaviour by remove the hash character. In that case, all messages go to /var/log/openvpn-server.log . Do not forget to
configure a logrote service. See man 8 logrotate for further details.
After having completed this configuration, you can see log messages of your OpenVPN server
under /var/log/openvpn.log . After having started it for the first time, it should finish it with:
... Initialization Sequence Completed
If you do not see this message, check the log carefully for any hints of what is wrong in your
configuration file.
16.3.3
Configuring the Clients
For your configuration, copy and modify the example configuration file that is provided with
/usr/share/doc/packages/openvpn/sample-config-files/client.conf . You need to ad-
just some paths.
EXAMPLE 16.2: VPN CLIENT CONFIGURATION FILE
# /etc/openvpn/client.conf
client
dev tun
1
2
proto udp
3
remote IP_OR_HOST_NAME 1194
4
resolv-retry infinite
nobind
remote-cert-tls server
# Privileges
5
6
user nobody
group nobody
# Try to preserve some state across restarts.
persist-key
persist-tun
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# Security
7
pkcs12 client1.p12
comp-lzo
8
1
You need to specify that this machine is a client.
2
The network device. Both clients and server must use the same device.
3
The protocol. Use the same settings as on the server.
5
This is a useful security option for clients, to ensure that the host they connect to is a
designated server.
4
Replace the placeholder IP_OR_HOST_NAME with the respective host name or IP address
of your VPN server. After the host name, the port of the server is given. You can have
multiple lines of remote entries pointing to different VPN servers. This is useful for load
balancing between different VPN servers.
6
For security reasons it is a good idea to run the OpenVPN daemon with reduced privileges.
For this reason the group and user nobody is used.
7
Contains the client files. For security reasons, it is better to have a separate file pair for
each client.
8
Turns compression on. Use only when the server has this parameter switched on as well.
16.4 Changing Name Servers in VPN
If you need to change name servers before or during a VPN session, use netconfig .
Important: Differences between SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
The following procedure is for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server only without NetworkManager (with ifup ). SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop installations use NetworkManager and
must install the NetworkManager-openvpn plug-in.
Use the following procedure to change a name server:
PROCEDURE 16.4: CHANGING NAME SERVERS
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1. Copy the following scripts and make them executable:
cp /usr/share/doc/packages/openvpn/sample-scripts/client-netconfig.* \
/etc/openvpn/
chmod +x /etc/openvpn/client-netconfig.*
2. Add the following lines to /etc/openvpn/client.conf :
pull dhcp-options
up
/etc/openvpn/client-netconfig.up
down /etc/openvpn/client-netconfig.down
If you need to specify a ranking list of fallback services, use the NETCONFIG_DNS_RANKING
variable in /etc/sysconfig/network/config . The default value is auto which resolves to
(documented in man 8 netconfig ):
+/vpn/ -/auto/ +strongswan +openswan +racoon -avahi
Preferred service names have the + prefix, fallback services the - prefix.
16.5 The GNOME Applet
The following sections describe the setup of OpenVPN connections with the GNOME tool.
1. Make sure the package NetworkManager-openvpn-gnome is installed and all dependen-
cies have been resolved.
2. Press
Alt
– F2 and enter nm-connection-editor into the text box to start the Network
Connection Editor. A new window appears.
3. Select the VPN tab and click Add.
4. Choose the VPN connection type, in this case OpenVPN.
5. Choose the Authentication type. Depending on the setup of your OpenVPN server, choose
between Certificates (TLS) or Password with Certificates (TLS).
6. Insert the necessary values into the respective text boxes. For our example configuration,
these are:
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Username
The user (only available when you have
Password
The password for the user (only available
selected Password with Certificates (TLS))
when you have selected Password with
Certificates (TLS))
User Certificate
/etc/openvpn/client1.crt
CA Certificate
/etc/openvpn/ca.crt
Private Key
/etc/openvpn/client1.key
7. Finish with Apply and Close.
8. Enable the connection with your Network Manager applet.
16.6 For More Information
For more information about VPN, see:
http://www.openvpn.net
: the OpenVPN home page
man openvpn
/usr/share/doc/packages/openvpn/sample-config-files/ : Example configuration
files for different scenarios.
/usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/tuntap.txt ,
nel-source package.
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install
the
For More Information
ker-
SLED 12
17 Managing X.509 Certification
An increasing number of authentication mechanisms are based on cryptographic procedures.
Digital certificates that assign cryptographic keys to their owners play an important role in
this context. These certificates are used for communication and can also be found, for exam-
ple, on company ID cards. The generation and administration of certificates is mostly handled
by official institutions that offer this as a commercial service. In some cases, however, it may
make sense to carry out these tasks yourself. For example, if a company does not want to pass
personal data to third parties.
YaST provides two modules for certification, which offer basic management functions for digital X.509 certificates. The following sections explain the basics of digital certification and how
to use YaST to create and administer certificates of this type.
17.1 The Principles of Digital Certification
Digital certification uses cryptographic processes to encrypt and protect data from access by
unauthorized people. The user data is encrypted using a second data record, or key. The key is
applied to the user data in a mathematical process, producing an altered data record in which
the original content can no longer be identified. Asymmetrical encryption is now in general use
(public key method). Keys always occur in pairs:
Private Key
The private key must be kept safely by the key owner. Accidental publication of the private
key compromises the key pair and renders it useless.
Public Key
The key owner circulates the public key for use by third parties.
17.1.1
Key Authenticity
Because the public key process is in widespread use, there are many public keys in circulation.
Successful use of this system requires that every user be sure that a public key actually belongs
to the assumed owner. The assignment of users to public keys is confirmed by trustworthy
organizations with public key certificates. Such certificates contain the name of the key owner,
the corresponding public key, and the electronic signature of the person issuing the certificate.
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Managing X.509 Certification
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Trustworthy organizations that issue and sign public key certificates are usually part of a certification infrastructure that is also responsible for the other aspects of certificate management,
such as publication, withdrawal, and renewal of certificates. An infrastructure of this kind is
generally referred to as a public key infrastructure or PKI. One familiar PKI is the OpenPGP stan-
dard in which users publish their certificates themselves without central authorization points.
These certificates become trustworthy when signed by other parties in the “web of trust.”
The X.509 Public Key Infrastructure (PKIX) is an alternative model defined by the IETF (Internet
Engineering Task Force) that serves as a model for almost all publicly-used PKIs today. In this
model, authentication is made by certificate authorities (CA) in a hierarchical tree structure. The
root of the tree is the root CA, which certifies all sub-CAs. The lowest level of sub-CAs issue
user certificates. The user certificates are trustworthy by certification that can be traced to the
root CA.
The security of such a PKI depends on the trustworthiness of the CA certificates. To make certification practices clear to PKI customers, the PKI operator defines a certification practice state-
ment (CPS) that defines the procedures for certificate management. This should ensure that the
PKI only issues trustworthy certificates.
17.1.2
X.509 Certificates
An X.509 certificate is a data structure with several fixed fields and, optionally, additional ex-
tensions. The fixed fields mainly contain the name of the key owner, the public key, and the data
relating to the issuing CA (name and signature). For security reasons, a certificate should only
have a limited period of validity, so a field is also provided for this date. The CA guarantees the
validity of the certificate in the specified period. The CPS usually requires the PKI (the issuing
CA) to create and distribute a new certificate before expiration.
The extensions can contain any additional information. An application is only required to be
able to evaluate an extension if it is identified as critical. If an application does not recognize
a critical extension, it must reject the certificate. Some extensions are only useful for a specific
application, such as signature or encryption.
Table 17.1 shows the fields of a basic X.509 certificate in version 3.
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TABLE 17.1: X.509V3 CERTIFICATE
Field
Content
Version
The version of the certificate, for example,
Serial Number
Unique certificate ID (an integer)
Signature
The ID of the algorithm used to sign the cer-
Issuer
Unique name (DN) of the issuing authority
Validity
Period of validity
Subject
Unique name (DN) of the owner
Subject Public Key Info
Public key of the owner and the ID of the al-
Issuer Unique ID
Unique ID of the issuing CA (optional)
Subject Unique ID
Unique ID of the owner (optional)
Extensions
Optional additional information, such as
17.1.3
v3
tificate
(CA)
gorithm
“KeyUsage” or “BasicConstraints”
Blocking X.509 Certificates
If a certificate becomes untrustworthy before it has expired, it must be blocked immediately.
This can become necessary if, for example, the private key has accidentally been made public.
Blocking certificates is especially important if the private key belongs to a CA rather than a
user certificate. In this case, all user certificates issued by the relevant CA must be blocked
immediately. If a certificate is blocked, the PKI (the responsible CA) must make this information
available to all those involved using a certificate revocation list (CRL).
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Blocking X.509 Certificates
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These lists are supplied by the CA to public CRL distribution points (CDPs) at regular intervals.
The CDP can optionally be named as an extension in the certificate, so a checker can fetch a
current CRL for validation purposes. One way to do this is the online certificate status protocol
(OCSP). The authenticity of the CRLs is ensured with the signature of the issuing CA. Table 17.2
shows the basic parts of a X.509 CRL.
TABLE 17.2: X.509 CERTIFICATE REVOCATION LIST (CRL)
Field
Content
Version
The version of the CRL, such as v2
Signature
The ID of the algorithm used to sign the CRL
Issuer
Unique name (DN) of the publisher of the
This Update
Time of publication (date, time) of this CRL
Next Update
Time of publication (date, time) of the next
List of revoked certificates
Every entry contains the serial number of the
CRL (usually the issuing CA)
CRL
certificate, the time of revocation, and optional extensions (CRL entry extensions)
Extensions
17.1.4
Optional CRL extensions
Repository for Certificates and CRLs
The certificates and CRLs for a CA must be made publicly accessible using a repository. Because
the signature protects the certificates and CRLs from being forged, the repository itself does
not need to be secured in a special way. Instead, it tries to grant the simplest and fastest access possible. For this reason, certificates are often provided on an LDAP or HTTP server. Find
explanations about LDAP in Chapter 5, LDAP—A Directory Service. contains information about the
HTTP server.
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Repository for Certificates and CRLs
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17.1.5
Proprietary PKI
YaST contains modules for the basic management of X.509 certificates. This mainly involves
the creation of CAs, sub-CAs, and their certificates. The services of a PKI go far beyond sim-
ply creating and distributing certificates and CRLs. The operation of a PKI requires a well-conceived administrative infrastructure allowing continuous update of certificates and CRLs. This
infrastructure is provided by commercial PKI products and can also be partly automated. YaST
provides tools for creating and distributing CAs and certificates, but cannot currently offer this
background infrastructure. To set up a small PKI, you can use the available YaST modules.
However, you should use commercial products to set up an “official” or commercial PKI.
17.2 YaST Modules for CA Management
YaST provides two modules for basic CA management. The primary management tasks with
these modules are explained here.
17.2.1
Creating a Root CA
The first step when setting up a PKI is to create a root CA. Do the following:
1. Start YaST and go to Security and Users CA Management.
2. Click Create Root CA.
3. Enter the basic data for the CA in the first dialog, shown in Figure 17.1. The text boxes
have the following meanings:
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Proprietary PKI
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FIGURE 17.1: YAST CA MODULE—BASIC DATA FOR A ROOT CA
CA Name
Enter the technical name of the CA. Directory names, among other things, are derived
from this name, which is why only the characters listed in the help can be used. The
technical name is also displayed in the overview when the module is started.
Common Name
Enter the name for use in referring to the CA.
E-Mail Addresses
Several e-mail addresses can be entered that can be seen by the CA user. This can
be helpful for inquiries.
Country
Select the country where the CA is operated.
Organization, Organizational Unit, Locality, State
Optional values
Proceed with Next.
4. Enter a password in the second dialog. This password is always required when using the
CA—when creating a sub-CA or generating certificates. The text boxes have the following
meaning:
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Key Length
Key Length contains a meaningful default and does not generally need to be changed
unless an application cannot deal with this key length. The higher the number the
more secure your password is.
Valid Period (days)
The Valid Period in the case of a CA defaults to 3650 days (roughly ten years). This
long period makes sense because the replacement of a deleted CA involves an enormous administrative effort.
Clicking Advanced Options opens a dialog for setting different attributes from the X.509
extensions (Figure 17.4, “YaST CA Module—Extended Settings”). These values have rational de-
fault settings and should only be changed if you are really sure of what you are doing.
Proceed with Next.
5. Review the summary. YaST displays the current settings for confirmation. Click Create.
The root CA is created then appears in the overview.
Tip
In general, it is best not to allow user certificates to be issued by the root CA. It is better
to create at least one sub-CA and create the user certificates from there. This has the
advantage that the root CA can be kept isolated and secure, for example, on an isolated
computer on secure premises. This makes it very difficult to attack the root CA.
17.2.2
Changing Password
If you need to change your password for your CA, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST and open the CA module.
2. Select the required root CA and click Enter CA.
3. Enter the password if you entered a CA the first time. YaST displays the CA key information
in the Description tab (see Figure 17.2).
4. Click Advanced and select Change CA Password. A dialog opens.
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5. Enter the old and the new password.
6. Finish with OK
17.2.3
Creating or Revoking a Sub-CA
A sub-CA is created in exactly the same way as a root CA.
Note
The validity period for a sub-CA must be fully within the validity period of the “parent”
CA. A sub-CA is always created after the “parent” CA, therefore, the default value leads
to an error message. To avoid this, enter a permissible value for the period of validity.
Do the following:
1. Start YaST and open the CA module.
2. Select the required root CA and click Enter CA.
3. Enter the password if you are entering a CA for the first time. YaST displays the CA key
information in the tab Description (see Figure 17.2).
FIGURE 17.2: YAST CA MODULE—USING A CA
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4. Click Advanced and select Create SubCA. This opens the same dialog as for creating a root
CA.
5. Proceed as described in Section 17.2.1, “Creating a Root CA”.
It is possible to use one password for all your CAs. Enable Use CA Password as Certificate
Password to give your sub-CAs the same password as your root CA. This helps to reduce
the amount of passwords for your CAs.
Note: Check your Valid Period
Take into account that the valid period must be lower than the valid period in the
root CA.
6. Select the Certificates tab. Reset compromised or otherwise unwanted sub-CAs here, using
Revoke. Revocation alone is not enough to deactivate a sub-CA. You must also publish
revoked sub-CAs in a CRL. The creation of CRLs is described in Section 17.2.6, “Creating
Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)”.
7. Finish with OK
17.2.4
Creating or Revoking User Certificates
Creating client and server certificates is very similar to creating CAs in Section 17.2.1, “Creating a
Root CA”. The same principles apply here. In certificates intended for e-mail signature, the e-mail
address of the sender (the private key owner) should be contained in the certificate to enable
the e-mail program to assign the correct certificate.
For certificate assignment during encryption, it is necessary for the e-mail address of the recipient (the public key owner) to be included in the certificate. In the case of server and client
certificates, the host name of the server must be entered in the Common Name field. The default
validity period for certificates is 365 days.
To create client and server certificates, do the following:
1. Start YaST and open the CA module.
2. Select the required root CA and click Enter CA.
3. Enter the password if you are entering a CA for the first time. YaST displays the CA key
information in the Description tab.
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4. Click Certificates (see Figure 17.3).
FIGURE 17.3: CERTIFICATES OF A CA
5. Click Add Add Server Certificate and create a server certificate.
6. Click Add Add Client Certificate and create a client certificate. Do not forget to enter an
e-mail address.
7. Finish with OK
To revoke compromised or otherwise unwanted certificates, do the following:
1. Start YaST and open the CA module.
2. Select the required root CA and click Enter CA.
3. Enter the password if you are entering a CA for the first time. YaST displays the CA key
information in the Description tab.
4. Click Certificates (see Section 17.2.3, “Creating or Revoking a Sub-CA”).
5. Select the certificate to revoke and click Revoke.
6. Choose a reason to revoke this certificate.
7. Finish with OK.
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Note
Revocation alone is not enough to deactivate a certificate. Also publish revoked certificates in a CRL. Section 17.2.6, “Creating Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)” explains how to
create CRLs. Revoked certificates can be completely removed after publication in a CRL
with Delete.
17.2.5
Changing Default Values
The previous sections explained how to create sub-CAs, client certificates, and server certificates.
Special settings are used in the extensions of the X.509 certificate. These settings have been given
rational defaults for every certificate type and do not normally need to be changed. However, it
may be that you have special requirements for these extensions. In this case, it may make sense
to adjust the defaults. Otherwise, start from scratch every time you create a certificate.
1. Start YaST and open the CA module.
2. Enter the required root CA, as described in Section 17.2.3, “Creating or Revoking a Sub-CA”.
3. Click Advanced Edit Default.
4. Choose type of certificate to change and proceed with Next.
5. The dialog for changing the defaults as shown in Figure 17.4, “YaST CA Module—Extended
Settings” opens.
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FIGURE 17.4: YAST CA MODULE—EXTENDED SETTINGS
6. Change the associated value on the right side and set or delete the critical setting with
critical.
7. Click Next to see a short summary.
8. Finish your changes with Save.
Note
All changes to the defaults only affect objects created after this point. Already-existing
CAs and certificates remain unchanged.
17.2.6
Creating Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)
If compromised or otherwise unwanted certificates need to be excluded from further use, they
must first be revoked. The procedure for this is explained in Section 17.2.3, “Creating or Revoking
a Sub-CA” (for sub-CAs) and Section 17.2.4, “Creating or Revoking User Certificates” (for user certifi-
cates). After this, a CRL must be created and published with this information.
The system maintains only one CRL for each CA. To create or update this CRL, do the following:
1. Start YaST and open the CA module.
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2. Enter the required CA, as described in Section 17.2.3, “Creating or Revoking a Sub-CA”.
3. Click CRL. The dialog that opens displays a summary of the last CRL of this CA.
4. Create a new CRL with Generate CRL if you have revoked new sub-CAs or certificates since
its creation.
5. Specify the period of validity for the new CRL (default: 30 days).
6. Click OK to create and display the CRL. Afterward, you must publish this CRL.
Note
Applications that evaluate CRLs reject every certificate if the CRL is not available or
has expired. As a PKI provider, it is your duty always to create and publish a new CRL
before the current CRL expires (period of validity). YaST does not provide a function for
automating this procedure.
17.2.7
Exporting CA Objects to LDAP
The executing computer should be configured with the YaST LDAP client for LDAP export. This
provides LDAP server information at runtime that can be used when completing dialog fields.
Otherwise (although export may be possible), all LDAP data must be entered manually. You
must always enter several passwords (see Table 17.3, “Passwords during LDAP Export”).
TABLE 17.3: PASSWORDS DURING LDAP EXPORT
Password
Meaning
LDAP Password
Authorizes the user to make entries in the
Certificate Password
Authorizes the user to export the certificate.
New Certificate Password
The PKCS12 format is used during LDAP ex-
LDAP tree.
port. This format forces the assignment of a
new password for the exported certificate.
Certificates, CAs, and CRLs can be exported to LDAP.
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Exporting a CA to LDAP
To export a CA, enter the CA as described in Section 17.2.3, “Creating or Revoking a Sub-
CA”. Select Extended Export to LDAP in the subsequent dialog, which opens the dialog for
entering LDAP data. If your system has been configured with the YaST LDAP client, the
fields are already partly completed. Otherwise, enter all the data manually. Entries are
made in LDAP in a separate tree with the attribute “caCertificate”.
Exporting a Certificate to LDAP
Enter the CA containing the certificate to export then select Certificates. Select the required
certificate from the certificate list in the upper part of the dialog and select Export Export
to LDAP. The LDAP data is entered here in the same way as for CAs. The certificate is saved
with the corresponding user object in the LDAP tree with the attributes “userCertificate”
(PEM format) and “userPKCS12” (PKCS12 format).
Exporting a CRL to LDAP
Enter the CA containing the CRL to export and select CRL. If desired, create a new CRL
and click Export. The dialog that opens displays the export parameters. You can export the
CRL for this CA either once or in periodical time intervals. Activate the export by selecting
Export to LDAP and enter the respective LDAP data. To do this at regular intervals, select
the Repeated Recreation and Export radio button and change the interval, if appropriate.
17.2.8
Exporting CA Objects as a File
If you have set up a repository on the computer for administering CAs, you can use this option
to create the CA objects directly as a file at the correct location. Different output formats are
available, such as PEM, DER, and PKCS12. In the case of PEM, it is also possible to choose
whether a certificate should be exported with or without key and whether the key should be
encrypted. In the case of PKCS12, it is also possible to export the certification path.
Export a file in the same way for certificates, CAs as with LDAP, described in Section 17.2.7, “Exporting CA Objects to LDAP”, except you should select Export as File instead of Export to LDAP. This
then takes you to a dialog for selecting the required output format and entering the password
and file name. The certificate is stored at the required location after clicking OK.
For CRLs click Export, select Export to file, choose the export format (PEM or DER) and enter the
path. Proceed with OK to save it to the respective location.
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Tip
You can select any storage location in the file system. This option can also be used to save
CA objects on a transport medium, such as a flash disk. The /media directory generally
holds any type of drive except the hard disk of your system.
17.2.9
Importing Common Server Certificates
If you have exported a server certificate with YaST to your media on an isolated CA management
computer, you can import this certificate on a server as a common server certificate. Do this during
installation or at a later point with YaST.
Note
You need one of the PKCS12 formats to import your certificate successfully.
The general server certificate is stored in /etc/ssl/servercerts and can be used there by
any CA-supported service. When this certificate expires, it can easily be replaced using the same
mechanisms. To get things functioning with the replaced certificate, restart the participating
services.
Tip
If you select Import here, you can select the source in the file system. This option can also
be used to import certificates from removable media, such as a flash disk.
To import a common server certificate, do the following:
1. Start YaST and open Common Server Certificate under Security and Users
2. View the data for the current certificate in the description field after YaST has been started.
3. Select Import and the certificate file.
4. Enter the password and click Next. The certificate is imported then displayed in the de-
scription field.
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5. Close YaST with Finish.
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IV Confining Privileges with
AppArmor
18
Introducing AppArmor 161
19
Getting Started 163
20
Immunizing Programs 168
21
Profile Components and Syntax 178
22
AppArmor Profile Repositories 208
23
Building and Managing Profiles with YaST 209
24
Building Profiles from the Command Line 219
25
Profiling Your Web Applications Using ChangeHat 248
26
Confining Users with pam_apparmor 261
27
Managing Profiled Applications 262
28
Support 264
29
AppArmor Glossary 273
18 Introducing AppArmor
Many security vulnerabilities result from bugs in trusted programs. A trusted program runs with
privileges that attackers want to possess. The program fails to keep that trust if there is a bug
in the program that allows the attacker to acquire said privilege.
AppArmor® is an application security solution designed specifically to apply privilege confinement to suspect programs. AppArmor allows the administrator to specify the domain of activities
the program can perform by developing a security profile for that application (a listing of files
that the program may access and the operations the program may perform). AppArmor secures
applications by enforcing good application behavior without relying on attack signatures, so it
can prevent attacks even if previously unknown vulnerabilities are being exploited.
AppArmor consists of:
A library of AppArmor profiles for common Linux* applications, describing what files the
program needs to access.
A library of AppArmor profile foundation classes (profile building blocks) needed for common application activities, such as DNS lookup and user authentication.
A tool suite for developing and enhancing AppArmor profiles, so that you can change the
existing profiles to suit your needs and create new profiles for your own local and custom
applications.
Several specially modified applications that are AppArmor enabled to provide enhanced
security in the form of unique subprocess confinement (including Apache).
The AppArmor-related kernel code and associated control scripts to enforce AppArmor
policies on your SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop system.
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18.1 Background Information on AppArmor Profiling
For more information about the science and security of AppArmor, refer to the following papers:
SubDomain: Parsimonious Server Security by Crispin Cowan, Steve Beattie, Greg Kroah-Hartman,
Calton Pu, Perry Wagle, and Virgil Gligor
Describes the initial design and implementation of AppArmor. Published in the proceed-
ings of the USENIX LISA Conference, December 2000, New Orleans, LA. This paper is now
out of date, describing syntax and features that are different from the current AppArmor
product. This paper should be used only for background, and not for technical documentation.
Defcon Capture the Flag: Defending Vulnerable Code from Intense Attack by Crispin Cowan, Seth
Arnold, Steve Beattie, Chris Wright, and John Viega
A good guide to strategic and tactical use of AppArmor to solve severe security problems
in a very short period of time. Published in the Proceedings of the DARPA Information
Survivability Conference and Expo (DISCEX III), April 2003, Washington, DC.
AppArmor for Geeks by Seth Arnold
This document tries to convey a better understanding of the technical details of AppArmor.
It is available at http://en.opensuse.org/SDB:AppArmor_geeks .
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19 Getting Started
Prepare a successful deployment of AppArmor on your system by carefully considering the
following items:
1. Determine the applications to profile. Read more on this in Section 19.3, “Choosing Applications to Profile”.
2. Build the needed profiles as roughly outlined in Section 19.4, “Building and Modifying Profiles”.
Check the results and adjust the profiles when necessary.
3. Update your profiles whenever your environment changes or you need to react to securi-
ty events logged by the reporting tool of AppArmor. Refer to Section 19.5, “Updating Your
Profiles”.
19.1 Installing AppArmor
AppArmor is installed and running on any installation of SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop by
default, regardless of what patterns are installed. The packages listed below are needed for a
fully-functional instance of AppArmor:
apparmor-docs
apparmor-parser
apparmor-profiles
apparmor-utils
audit
libapparmor1
perl-libapparmor
yast2-apparmor
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Tip
If AppArmor is not installed on your system, install the pattern apparmor for a complete
AppArmor installation. Either use the YaST Software Management module for installation, or use Zypper on the command line:
zypper in -t pattern apparmor
19.2 Enabling and Disabling AppArmor
AppArmor is configured to run by default on any fresh installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise
Desktop. There are two ways of toggling the status of AppArmor:
Using YaST Services Manager
Disable or enable AppArmor by removing or adding its boot script to the sequence of
scripts executed on system boot. Status changes are applied on reboot.
Using AppArmor Configuration Window
Toggle the status of AppArmor in a running system by switching it off or on using the YaST
AppArmor Control Panel. Changes made here are applied instantaneously. The Control
Panel triggers a stop or start event for AppArmor and removes or adds its boot script in
the system's boot sequence.
To disable AppArmor permanently (by removing it from the sequence of scripts executed on
system boot) proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST.
2. Select System Services Manager.
3. Mark apparmor by clicking its row in the list of services, then click Enable/Disable in the
lower part of the window. Check that Enabled changed to Disabled in the apparmor row.
4. Confirm with OK.
AppArmor will not be initialized on reboot, and stays inactive until you re-enable it. Re-enabling
a service using the YaST Services Manager tool is similar to disabling it.
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Toggle the status of AppArmor in a running system by using the AppArmor Configuration win-
dow. These changes take effect as soon as you apply them and survive a reboot of the system.
To toggle the status of AppArmor, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Settings in the main window.
2. Enable AppArmor by checking Enable AppArmor or disable AppArmor by deselecting it.
3. Click Done in the AppArmor Configuration window.
19.3 Choosing Applications to Profile
You only need to protect the programs that are exposed to attacks in your particular setup, so
only use profiles for those applications you actually run. Use the following list to determine the
most likely candidates:
Network Agents
Web Applications
Cron Jobs
To find out which processes are currently running with open network ports and might need a
profile to confine them, run aa-unconfined as root .
EXAMPLE 19.1: OUTPUT OF aa-unconfined
19848 /usr/sbin/cupsd not confined
19887 /usr/sbin/sshd not confined
19947 /usr/lib/postfix/master not confined
1328 /usr/sbin/ntpd confined by '/usr/sbin/ntpd (enforce)'
Each of the processes in the above example labeled not confined might need a custom profile
to confine it. Those labeled confined by are already protected by AppArmor.
Tip: For More Information
For more information about choosing the right applications to profile, refer to Section 20.2,
“Determining Programs to Immunize”.
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19.4 Building and Modifying Profiles
AppArmor on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop ships with a preconfigured set of profiles for the
most important applications. In addition, you can use AppArmor to create your own profiles
for any application you want.
There are two ways of managing profiles. One is to use the graphical front-end provided by
the YaST AppArmor modules and the other is to use the command line tools provided by the
AppArmor suite itself. The main difference is that YaST supports only basic functionality for
AppArmor profiles, while the command line tools let you update/tune the profiles in a more
fine-grained way.
For each application, perform the following steps to create a profile:
1. As root , let AppArmor create a rough outline of the application's profile by running aagenprof programname .
or
Outline the basic profile by running YaST Security and Users AppArmor Configura-
tion Manually Add Profile and specifying the complete path to the application you want
to profile.
A new basic profile is outlined and put into learning mode, which means that it logs any
activity of the program you are executing, but does not yet restrict it.
2. Run the full range of the application's actions to let AppArmor get a very specific picture
of its activities.
3. Let AppArmor analyze the log files generated in Step 2 by typing
S
in aa-genprof.
AppArmor scans the logs it recorded during the application's run and asks you to set the
access rights for each event that was logged. Either set them for each file or use globbing.
4. Depending on the complexity of your application, it might be necessary to repeat Step 2
and Step 3. Confine the application, exercise it under the confined conditions, and process
any new log events. To properly confine the full range of an application's capabilities, you
might be required to repeat this procedure often.
5. When you finish aa-genprof , your profile is set to enforce mode. The profile is applied
and AppArmor restricts the application according to it.
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If you started aa-genprof on an application that had an existing profile that was in com-
plain mode, this profile remains in learning mode upon exit of this learning cycle. For more
information about changing the mode of a profile, refer to Section 24.6.3.2, “aa-complain—
Entering Complain or Learning Mode” and Section 24.6.3.6, “aa-enforce—Entering Enforce Mode”.
Test your profile settings by performing every task you need with the application you confined.
Normally, the confined program runs smoothly and you do not notice AppArmor activities at
all. However, if you notice certain misbehavior with your application, check the system logs
and see if AppArmor is too tightly confining your application. Depending on the log mechanism
used on your system, there are several places to look for AppArmor log entries:
/var/log/audit/audit.log
The command journalctl | grep -i apparmor
The command dmesg -T
To adjust the profile, analyze the log messages relating to this application again as described in
Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log”. Determine the access rights or restrictions
when prompted.
Tip: For More Information
For more information about profile building and modification, refer to Chapter 21, Profile
Components and Syntax, Chapter 23, Building and Managing Profiles with YaST, and Chapter 24,
Building Profiles from the Command Line.
19.5 Updating Your Profiles
Software and system configurations change over time. As a result, your profile setup for Ap-
pArmor might need some fine-tuning from time to time. AppArmor checks your system log for
policy violations or other AppArmor events and lets you adjust your profile set accordingly. Any
application behavior that is outside of any profile definition can be addressed by aa-logprof .
For more information, see Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log”.
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20 Immunizing Programs
Effective hardening of a computer system requires minimizing the number of programs that
mediate privilege, then securing the programs as much as possible. With AppArmor, you only
need to profile the programs that are exposed to attack in your environment, which drastically
reduces the amount of work required to harden your computer. AppArmor profiles enforce
policies to make sure that programs do what they are supposed to do, but nothing else.
AppArmor provides immunization technologies that protect applications from the inherent vulnerabilities they possess. After installing AppArmor, setting up AppArmor profiles, and rebooting the computer, your system becomes immunized because it begins to enforce the AppArmor
security policies. Protecting programs with AppArmor is referred to as immunizing.
Administrators need only concern themselves with the applications that are vulnerable to attacks, and generate profiles for these. Hardening a system thus comes down to building and
maintaining the AppArmor profile set and monitoring any policy violations or exceptions logged
by AppArmor's reporting facility.
Users should not notice AppArmor at all. It runs “behind the scenes” and does not require
any user interaction. Performance is not noticeably affected by AppArmor. If some activity of
the application is not covered by an AppArmor profile or if some activity of the application
is prevented by AppArmor, the administrator needs to adjust the profile of this application to
cover this kind of behavior.
AppArmor sets up a collection of default application profiles to protect standard Linux services.
To protect other applications, use the AppArmor tools to create profiles for the applications that
you want protected. This chapter introduces the philosophy of immunizing programs. Proceed
to Chapter 21, Profile Components and Syntax, Chapter 23, Building and Managing Profiles with YaST, or
Chapter 24, Building Profiles from the Command Line if you are ready to build and manage AppArmor
profiles.
AppArmor provides streamlined access control for network services by specifying which files
each program is allowed to read, write, and execute, and which type of network it is allowed
to access. This ensures that each program does what it is supposed to do, and nothing else.
AppArmor quarantines programs to protect the rest of the system from being damaged by a
compromised process.
AppArmor is a host intrusion prevention or mandatory access control scheme. Previously, access
control schemes were centered around users because they were built for large timeshare systems.
Alternatively, modern network servers largely do not permit users to log in, but instead provide
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a variety of network services for users (such as Web, mail, file, and print servers). AppArmor
controls the access given to network services and other programs to prevent weaknesses from
being exploited.
Tip: Background Information for AppArmor
To get a more in-depth overview of AppArmor and the overall concept behind it, refer to
Section 18.1, “Background Information on AppArmor Profiling”.
20.1 Introducing the AppArmor Framework
This section provides a very basic understanding of what is happening “behind the scenes” (and
under the hood of the YaST interface) when you run AppArmor.
An AppArmor profile is a plain text file containing path entries and access permissions. See
Section 21.1, “Breaking an AppArmor Profile into Its Parts” for a detailed reference profile. The direc-
tives contained in this text file are then enforced by the AppArmor routines to quarantine the
process or program.
The following tools interact in the building and enforcement of AppArmor profiles and policies:
aa-status
aa-status reports various aspects of the current state of the running AppArmor confine-
ment.
aa-unconfined
aa-unconfined detects any application running on your system that listens for network
connections and is not protected by an AppArmor profile. Refer to Section 24.6.3.12, “aaunconfined—Identifying Unprotected Processes” for detailed information about this tool.
aa-autodep
aa-autodep creates a basic framework of a profile that needs to be fleshed out before it
is put to use in production. The resulting profile is loaded and put into complain mode,
reporting any behavior of the application that is not (yet) covered by AppArmor rules.
Refer to Section 24.6.3.1, “aa-autodep—Creating Approximate Profiles” for detailed information
about this tool.
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aa-genprof
aa-genprof generates a basic profile and asks you to refine this profile by executing the
application and generating log events that need to be taken care of by AppArmor policies.
You are guided through a series of questions to deal with the log events that have been
triggered during the application's execution. After the profile has been generated, it is
loaded and put into enforce mode. Refer to Section 24.6.3.8, “aa-genprof—Generating Profiles”
for detailed information about this tool.
aa-logprof
aa-logprof interactively scans and reviews the log entries generated by an application
that is confined by an AppArmor profile in both complain and enforced modes. It assists
you in generating new entries in the profile concerned. Refer to Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—
Scanning the System Log” for detailed information about this tool.
aa-easyprof
aa-easyprof provides an easy-to-use interface for AppArmor profile generation. aa-
easyprof supports the use of templates and policy groups to quickly profile an application.
Note that while this tool can help with policy generation, its utility is dependent on the
quality of the templates, policy groups and abstractions used. aa-easyprof may create a
profile that is less restricted than creating the profile with aa-genprof and aa-logprof .
aa-complain
aa-complain toggles the mode of an AppArmor profile from enforce to complain. Vi-
olations to rules set in a profile are logged, but the profile is not enforced. Refer to
Section 24.6.3.2, “aa-complain—Entering Complain or Learning Mode” for detailed information
about this tool.
aa-enforce
aa-enforce toggles the mode of an AppArmor profile from complain to enforce. Viola-
tions to rules set in a profile are logged and not permitted—the profile is enforced. Refer to
Section 24.6.3.6, “aa-enforce—Entering Enforce Mode” for detailed information about this tool.
aa-disable
aa-disable disables the enforcement mode for one or more AppArmor profiles. This
command will unload the profile from the kernel and prevent it from being loaded on
AppArmor start-up. The aa-enforce and aa-complain utilities may be used to change
this behavior.
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aa-exec
aa-exec launches a program confined by the specified AppArmor profile and/or name-
space. If both a profile and namespace are specified, the command will be confined by the
profile in the new policy namespace. If only a namespace is specified, the profile name of
the current confinement will be used. If neither a profile or namespace is specified, the
command will be run using standard profile attachment—as if run without aa-exec .
aa-notify
aa-notify is a handy utility that displays AppArmor notifications in your desktop envi-
ronment. You can also configure it to display a summary of notifications for the specified
number of recent days. For more information, see Section 24.6.3.13, “aa-notify”.
20.2 Determining Programs to Immunize
Now that you have familiarized yourself with AppArmor, start selecting the applications for
which to build profiles. Programs that need profiling are those that mediate privilege. The
following programs have access to resources that the person using the program does not have,
so they grant the privilege to the user when used:
cron Jobs
Programs that are run periodically by cron . Such programs read input from a variety of
sources and can run with special privileges, sometimes with as much as root privilege.
For example, cron can run /usr/sbin/logrotate daily to rotate, compress, or even
mail system logs. For instructions for finding these types of programs, refer to Section 20.3,
“Immunizing cron Jobs”.
Web Applications
Programs that can be invoked through a Web browser, including CGI Perl scripts, PHP
pages, and more complex Web applications. For instructions for finding these types of
programs, refer to Section 20.4.1, “Immunizing Web Applications”.
Network Agents
Programs (servers and clients) that have open network ports. User clients, such as mail
clients and Web browsers mediate privilege. These programs run with the privilege to
write to the user's home directory and they process input from potentially hostile remote
sources, such as hostile Web sites and e-mailed malicious code. For instructions for finding
these types of programs, refer to Section 20.4.2, “Immunizing Network Agents”.
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Conversely, unprivileged programs do not need to be profiled. For instance, a shell script might
invoke the cp program to copy a file. Because cp does not by default have its own profile or
subprofile, it inherits the profile of the parent shell script, so can copy any files that the parent
shell script's profile can read and write.
20.3 Immunizing cron Jobs
To find programs that are run by cron , inspect your local cron configuration. Unfortunately,
cron configuration is rather complex, so there are numerous files to inspect. Periodic cron
jobs are run from these files:
/etc/crontab
/etc/cron.d/*
/etc/cron.daily/*
/etc/cron.hourly/*
/etc/cron.monthly/*
/etc/cron.weekly/*
The crontab command lists/edits the current user's crontab. To manipulate root 's cron jobs,
first become root , and then edit the tasks with crontab -e or list them with crontab -l .
20.4 Immunizing Network Applications
An automated method for finding network server daemons that should be profiled is to use the
aa-unconfined tool.
The aa-unconfined tool uses the command netstat -nlp to inspect open ports from inside
your computer, detect the programs associated with those ports, and inspect the set of AppAr-
mor profiles that you have loaded. aa-unconfined then reports these programs along with
the AppArmor profile associated with each program, or reports “none” (if the program is not
confined).
Note
If you create a new profile, you must restart the program that has been profiled to have
it be effectively confined by AppArmor.
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Below is a sample aa-unconfined output:
3702
/usr/sbin/sshd
2
confined
by '/usr/sbin/sshd
3
(enforce)'
1
4040 /usr/sbin/ntpd confined by '/usr/sbin/ntpd (enforce)'
4373 /usr/lib/postfix/master confined by '/usr/lib/postfix/master (enforce)'
4505 /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork confined by '/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork (enforce)'
646 /usr/lib/wicked/bin/wickedd-dhcp4 not confined
647 /usr/lib/wicked/bin/wickedd-dhcp6 not confined
5592 /usr/bin/ssh not confined
7146 /usr/sbin/cupsd confined by '/usr/sbin/cupsd (complain)'
1
The first portion is a number. This number is the process ID number (PID) of the listening
program.
2
The second portion is a string that represents the absolute path of the listening program
3
The final portion indicates the profile confining the program, if any.
Note
aa-unconfined requires root privileges and should not be run from a shell that is
confined by an AppArmor profile.
aa-unconfined does not distinguish between one network interface and another, so it reports
all unconfined processes, even those that might be listening to an internal LAN interface.
Finding user network client applications is dependent on your user preferences. The aa-un-
confined tool detects and reports network ports opened by client applications, but only those
client applications that are running at the time the aa-unconfined analysis is performed. This
is a problem because network services tend to be running all the time, while network client
applications tend only to be running when the user is interested in them.
Applying AppArmor profiles to user network client applications is also dependent on user pref-
erences. Therefore, we leave the profiling of user network client applications as an exercise for
the user.
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To aggressively confine desktop applications, the aa-unconfined command supports a --
paranoid option, which reports all processes running and the corresponding AppArmor profiles
that might or might not be associated with each process. The user can then decide whether each
of these programs needs an AppArmor profile.
If you have new or modified profiles, you can submit them to the [email protected]
mailing list along with a use case for the application behavior that you exercised. The AppAr-
mor team reviews and may submit the work into SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop. We cannot
guarantee that every profile will be included, but we make a sincere effort to include as much
as possible so that end users can contribute to the security profiles that ship in SUSE Linux
Enterprise Desktop.
20.4.1
Immunizing Web Applications
To find Web applications, investigate your Web server configuration. The Apache Web server
is highly configurable and Web applications can be stored in many directories, depending on
your local configuration. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, by default, stores Web applications
in /srv/www/cgi-bin/ . To the maximum extent possible, each Web application should have
an AppArmor profile.
Once you find these programs, you can use the aa-genprof and aa-logprof tools to create
or update their AppArmor profiles.
Because CGI programs are executed by the Apache Web server, the profile for Apache itself,
usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork for Apache2 on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, must be modified
to add execute permissions to each of these programs. For instance, adding the line /srv/
www/cgi-bin/my_hit_counter.pl rPx grants Apache permission to execute the Perl script
my_hit_counter.pl and requires that there be a dedicated profile for my_hit_counter.pl .
If my_hit_counter.pl does not have a dedicated profile associated with it, the rule should
say /srv/www/cgi-bin/my_hit_counter.pl rix to cause my_hit_counter.pl to inherit the
usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork profile.
Some users might find it inconvenient to specify execute permission for every CGI script that
Apache might invoke. Instead, the administrator can grant controlled access to collections of CGI
scripts. For instance, adding the line /srv/www/cgi-bin/*.{pl,py,pyc} rix allows Apache to
execute all files in /srv/www/cgi-bin/ ending in .pl (Perl scripts) and .py or .pyc (Python
scripts). As above, the ix part of the rule causes Python scripts to inherit the Apache profile,
which is appropriate if you do not want to write individual profiles for each CGI script.
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Note
If you want the subprocess confinement module ( apache2-mod-apparmor ) functionality when Web applications handle Apache modules ( mod_perl and mod_php ), use the
ChangeHat features when you add a profile in YaST or at the command line. To take
advantage of the subprocess confinement, refer to Section 25.2, “Managing ChangeHat-Aware
Applications”.
Profiling Web applications that use mod_perl and mod_php requires slightly different handling.
In this case, the “program” is a script interpreted directly by the module within the Apache
process, so no exec happens. Instead, the AppArmor version of Apache calls change_hat()
using a subprofile (a “hat”) corresponding to the name of the URI requested.
Note
The name presented for the script to execute might not be the URI, depending on how
Apache has been configured for where to look for module scripts. If you have configured
your Apache to place scripts in a different place, the different names appear in the log
file when AppArmor complains about access violations. See Chapter 27, Managing Profiled
Applications.
For mod_perl and mod_php scripts, this is the name of the Perl script or the PHP page requested.
For example, adding this subprofile allows the localtime.php page to execute and access to
the local system time and locale files:
/usr/bin/httpd2-prefork {
# ...
^/cgi-bin/localtime.php {
/etc/localtime
r,
/srv/www/cgi-bin/localtime.php
r,
/usr/lib/locale/**
r,
}
}
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If no subprofile has been defined, the AppArmor version of Apache applies the DEFAULT_URI
hat. This subprofile is sufficient to display a Web page. The DEFAULT_URI hat that AppArmor
provides by default is the following:
^DEFAULT_URI {
/usr/sbin/suexec2
mixr,
/var/log/apache2/**
rwl,
@{HOME}/public_html
r,
@{HOME}/public_html/**
r,
/srv/www/htdocs
r,
/srv/www/htdocs/**
r,
/srv/www/icons/*.{gif,jpg,png}
r,
/srv/www/vhosts
r,
/srv/www/vhosts/**
r,
/usr/share/apache2/**
r,
/var/lib/php/sess_*
rwl
}
To use a single AppArmor profile for all Web pages and CGI scripts served by Apache, a good
approach is to edit the DEFAULT_URI subprofile. For more information on confining Web applications with Apache, see Chapter 25, Profiling Your Web Applications Using ChangeHat.
20.4.2
Immunizing Network Agents
To find network server daemons and network clients (such as fetchmail or Firefox) that need
to be profiled, you should inspect the open ports on your machine, consider the programs that
are answering on those ports, and provide profiles for as many of those programs as possible.
If you provide profiles for all programs with open network ports, an attacker cannot get to the
file system on your machine without passing through an AppArmor profile policy.
Scan your server for open network ports manually from outside the machine using a scanner
(such as nmap), or from inside the machine using the netstat --inet -n -p command as
root . Then, inspect the machine to determine which programs are answering on the discovered
open ports.
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Tip
Refer to the man page of the netstat command for a detailed reference of all possible
options.
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21 Profile Components and Syntax
Building AppArmor profiles to confine an application is very straightforward and intuitive. Ap-
pArmor ships with several tools that assist in profile creation. It does not require you to do
any programming or script handling. The only task that is required of the administrator is to
determine a policy of strictest access and execute permissions for each application that needs
to be hardened.
Updates or modifications to the application profiles are only required if the software configuration or the desired range of activities changes. AppArmor offers intuitive tools to handle profile
updates and modifications.
You are ready to build AppArmor profiles after you select the programs to profile. To do so, it
is important to understand the components and syntax of profiles. AppArmor profiles contain
several building blocks that help build simple and reusable profile code:
Include Files
Include statements are used to pull in parts of other AppArmor profiles to simplify the
structure of new profiles.
Abstractions
Abstractions are include statements grouped by common application tasks.
Program Chunks
Program chunks are include statements that contain chunks of profiles that are specific
to program suites.
Capability Entries
Capability entries are profile entries for any of the POSIX.1e http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POSIX#POSIX.1
Linux capabilities allowing a fine-grained control over what a confined
process is allowed to do through system calls that require privileges.
Network Access Control Entries
Network Access Control Entries mediate network access based on the address type and
family.
Local Variable Definitions
Local variables define shortcuts for paths.
File Access Control Entries
File Access Control Entries specify the set of files an application can access.
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rlimit Entries
rlimit entries set and control an application's resource limits.
For help determining the programs to profile, refer to Section 20.2, “Determining Programs to Immunize”. To start building AppArmor profiles with YaST, proceed to Chapter 23, Building and Man-
aging Profiles with YaST. To build profiles using the AppArmor command line interface, proceed
to Chapter 24, Building Profiles from the Command Line.
21.1 Breaking an AppArmor Profile into Its Parts
The easiest way of explaining what a profile consists of and how to create one is to show the
details of a sample profile, in this case for a hypothetical application called /usr/bin/foo :
#include <tunables/global>
1
# a comment naming the application to confine
/usr/bin/foo
{
2
3
#include <abstractions/base>
capability setgid
network inet tcp
5
6
4
,
,
link /etc/sysconfig/foo -> /etc/foo.conf,
/bin/mount
/dev/{,u}
8
ux,
random
r,
/etc/foo/*
r,
/lib/ld-*.so*
mr,
/lib/lib*.so*
mr,
/proc/[0-9]**
r,
/usr/lib/**
mr,
/tmp/
r,
/tmp/foo.pid
wr,
/tmp/foo.*
lrw,
10
/.foo_file
/@{HOME}/.foo_lock
179
r,
/etc/ld.so.cache
/@{HOME}
7
9
rw,
kw,
Breaking an AppArmor Profile into Its Parts
SLED 12
owner
11
/shared/foo/** rw,
/usr/bin/foobar
Cx,
/bin/**
Px -> bin_generic,
12
13
# a comment about foo's local (children) profile for /usr/bin/foobar.
profile /usr/bin/foobar
14
/bin/bash
rmix,
/bin/cat
rmix,
/bin/more
rmix,
/var/log/foobar*
rwl,
/etc/foobar
r,
{
}
# foo's hat, bar.
^bar
15
{
/lib/ld-*.so*
mr,
/usr/bin/bar
px,
/var/spool/*
rwl,
}
}
1
This loads a file containing variable definitions.
2
The normalized path to the program that is confined.
3
The curly braces ( {} ) serve as a container for include statements, subprofiles, path entries,
capability entries, and network entries.
4
This directive pulls in components of AppArmor profiles to simplify profiles.
5
Capability entry statements enable each of the 29 POSIX.1e draft capabilities.
6
A directive determining the kind of network access allowed to the application. For details,
refer to Section 21.5, “Network Access Control”.
7
A link pair rule specifying the source and the target of a link. See Section 21.7.6, “Link Pair”
for more information.
8
The curly braces ( {} ) here allow for each of the listed possibilities, one of which is the
empty string.
180
Breaking an AppArmor Profile into Its Parts
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9
A path entry specifying what areas of the file system the program can access. The first part
of a path entry specifies the absolute path of a file (including regular expression globbing)
and the second part indicates permissible access modes (for example r for read, w for
write, and x for execute). A whitespace of any kind (spaces or tabs) can precede the path
name, but must separate the path name and the mode specifier. Spaces between the access
mode and the trailing comma are optional. Find a comprehensive overview of the available
access modes in Section 21.7, “File Permission Access Modes”.
10
This variable expands to a value that can be changed without changing the entire profile.
11
An owner conditional rule, granting read and write permission on files owned by the user.
Refer to Section 21.7.8, “Owner Conditional Rules” for more information.
12
This entry defines a transition to the local profile /usr/bin/foobar . Find a comprehensive
overview of the available execute modes in Section 21.8, “Execute Modes”.
13
A named profile transition to the profile bin_generic located in the global scope. See Section 21.8.7, “Named Profile Transitions” for details.
14
The local profile /usr/bin/foobar is defined in this section.
15
This section references a “hat” subprofile of the application. For more details on
AppArmor's ChangeHat feature, refer to Chapter 25, Profiling Your Web Applications Using
ChangeHat.
When a profile is created for a program, the program can access only the files, modes, and
POSIX capabilities specified in the profile. These restrictions are in addition to the native Linux
access controls.
Example: To gain the capability CAP_CHOWN , the program must have both access to CAP_CHOWN
under conventional Linux access controls (typically, be a root -owned process) and have the
capability chown in its profile. Similarly, to be able to write to the file /foo/bar the program
must have both the correct user ID and mode bits set in the files attributes (see the chmod and
chown man pages) and have /foo/bar w in its profile.
Attempts to violate AppArmor rules are recorded in /var/log/audit/audit.log if the audit
package is installed, or in /var/log/messages , or only in journalctl if no traditional syslog
is installed. In many cases, AppArmor rules prevent an attack from working because necessary
files are not accessible and, in all cases, AppArmor confinement restricts the damage that the
attacker can do to the set of files permitted by AppArmor.
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21.2 Profile Types
AppArmor knows four different types of profiles: standard profiles, unattached profiles, local
profiles and hats. Standard and unattached profiles are stand-alone profiles, each stored in a file
under /etc/apparmor.d/ . Local profiles and hats are children profiles embedded inside of a
parent profile used to provide tighter or alternate confinement for a subtask of an application.
21.2.1
Standard Profiles
The default AppArmor profile is attached to a program by its name, so a profile name must
match the path to the application it is to confine.
/usr/bin/foo {
...
}
This profile will be automatically used whenever an unconfined process executes /usr/bin/
foo .
21.2.2
Unattached Profiles
Unattached profiles do not reside in the file system namespace and therefore are not automatically attached to an application. The name of an unattached profile is preceded by the keyword
profile . You can freely choose a profile name, except for the following limitations: the name
must not begin with a : or . character. If it contains a whitespace, it must be quoted. If the
name begins with a / , the profile is considered to be a standard profile, so the following two
profiles are identical:
profile /usr/bin/foo {
...
}
/usr/bin/foo {
...
}
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Profile Types
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Unattached profiles are never used automatically, nor can they be transitioned to through a
Px rule. They need to be attached to a program by either using a named profile transition (see
Section 21.8.7, “Named Profile Transitions”) or with the change_profile rule (see Section 21.2.5,
“Change rules”).
Unattached profiles are useful for specialized profiles for system utilities that generally should
not be confined by a system-wide profile (for example, /bin/bash ). They can also be used to
set up roles or to confine a user.
21.2.3
Local Profiles
Local profiles provide a convenient way to provide specialized confinement for utility programs
launched by a confined application. They are specified like standard profiles, except that they
are embedded in a parent profile and begin with the profile keyword:
/parent/profile {
...
profile /local/profile {
...
}
}
To transition to a local profile, either use a cx rule (see Section 21.8.2, “Discrete Local Profile Execute
Mode (Cx)”) or a named profile transition (see Section 21.8.7, “Named Profile Transitions”).
21.2.4
Hats
AppArmor "hats" are a local profiles with some additional restrictions and an implicit rule allowing for change_hat to be used to transition to them. Refer to Chapter 25, Profiling Your Web
Applications Using ChangeHat for a detailed description.
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21.2.5
Change rules
AppArmor provides change_hat and change_profile rules that control domain transitioning.
change_hat are specified by defining hats in a profile, while change_profile rules refer to
another profile and start with the keyword change_profile :
change_profile -> /usr/bin/foobar,
Both change_hat and change_profile provide for an application directed profile transition,
without having to launch a separate application. change_profile provides a generic one way
transition between any of the loaded profiles. change_hat provides for a returnable parent
child transition where an application can switch from the parent profile to the hat profile and
if it provides the correct secret key return to the parent profile at a later time.
change_profile is best used in situations where an application goes through a trusted setup
phase and then can lower its privilege level. Any resources mapped or opened during the startup phase may still be accessible after the profile change, but the new profile will restrict the
opening of new resources, and will even limit some of the resources opened before the switch.
Specifically, memory resources will still be available while capability and file resources (as long
as they are not memory mapped) can be limited.
change_hat is best used in situations where an application runs a virtual machine or an inter-
preter that does not provide direct access to the applications resources (for example Apache's
mod_php ). Since change_hat stores the return secret key in the application's memory the phase
of reduced privilege should not have direct access to memory. It is also important that file access
is properly separated, since the hat can restrict accesses to a file handle but does not close it. If
an application does buffering and provides access to the open files with buffering, the accesses
to these files might not be seen by the kernel and hence not restricted by the new profile.
Warning: Safety of Domain Transitions
The change_hat and change_profile domain transitions are less secure than a domain
transition done through an exec because they do not affect a process's memory mappings,
nor do they close resources that have already been opened.
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21.3 Include Statements
Include statements are directives that pull in components of other AppArmor profiles to simplify
profiles. Include files retrieve access permissions for programs. By using an include, you can
give the program access to directory paths or files that are also required by other programs.
Using includes can reduce the size of a profile.
Include statements normally begin with a hash ( # ) sign. This is confusing because the same
hash sign is used for comments inside profile files. Because of this, #include is treated as an
include only if there is no preceding # ( ##include is a comment) and there is no whitespace
between # and include ( # include is a comment).
You can also use include without the leading # .
include "/etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/foo"
is the same as using
#include "/etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/foo"
Note: No Trailing ','
Note that because includes follow the C pre-processor syntax, they do not have a trailing
',' like most AppArmor rules.
By slight changes in syntax, you can modify the behavior of include . If you use "" around
the including path, you instruct the parser to do an absolute or relative path lookup.
include "/etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/foo"
include "abstractions/foo"
# absolute path
# relative path to the directory of current file
Note that when using relative path includes, when the file is included, it is considered the new
current file for its includes. For example, suppose you are in the /etc/apparmor.d/bar file,
then
include "abstractions/foo"
includes the file /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/foo . If then there is
185
Include Statements
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include "example"
inside the /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/foo file, it includes /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/example .
The use of <> specifies to try the include path (specified by -I , defaults to the /etc/
apparmor.d directory) in an ordered way. So assuming the include path is
-I /etc/apparmor.d/ -I /usr/share/apparmor/
then the include statement
include <abstractions/foo>
will try /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/foo , and if that file does not exist, the next try is /
usr/share/apparmor/abstractions/foo .
Tip
The default include path can be overridden manually by passing -I to the
apparmor_parser , or by setting the include paths in /etc/apparmor/parser.conf :
Include /usr/share/apparmor/
Include /etc/apparmor.d/
Multiple entries are allowed, and they are taken in the same order as when they are when
using -I or --Include from the apparmor_parser command line.
If an include ends with '/', this is considered a directory include, and all files within the directory
are included.
To assist you in profiling your applications, AppArmor provides three classes of includes: abstractions, program chunks and tunables.
21.3.1
Abstractions
Abstractions are includes that are grouped by common application tasks. These tasks include
access to authentication mechanisms, access to name service routines, common graphics requirements, and system accounting. Files listed in these abstractions are specific to the named
186
Abstractions
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task. Programs that require one of these files usually require some of the other files listed in the
abstraction file (depending on the local configuration as well as the specific requirements of the
program). Find abstractions in /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions .
21.3.2
Program Chunks
The program-chunks directory ( /etc/apparmor.d/program-chunks ) contains some chunks of
profiles that are specific to program suites and not generally useful outside of the suite, thus
are never suggested for use in profiles by the profile wizards ( aa-logprof and aa-genprof ).
Currently, program chunks are only available for the postfix program suite.
21.3.3
Tunables
The tunables directory ( /etc/apparmor.d/tunables ) contains global variable definitions.
When used in a profile, these variables expand to a value that can be changed without changing
the entire profile. Add all the tunables definitions that should be available to every profile to
/etc/apparmor.d/tunables/global .
21.4 Capability Entries (POSIX.1e)
Capability rules are simply the word capability followed by the name of the POSIX.1e ca-
pability as defined in the capabilities(7) man page. You can list multiple capabilities in a
single rule, or grant all implemented capabilities with the bare keyword capability .
capability dac_override sys_admin,
# multiple capabilities
capability,
# grant all capabilities
21.5 Network Access Control
AppArmor allows mediation of network access based on the address type and family. The following illustrates the network access rule syntax:
network [[<domain>
187
1
][<type
2
>][<protocol
3
>]]
Program Chunks
SLED 12
1
Supported domains: inet , ax25 , ipx , appletalk , netrom , bridge , x25 , inet6 ,
rose , netbeui , security , key , packet , ash , econet , atmsvc , sna , irda , pppox ,
wanpipe , bluetooth , unix , atmpvc , netlink , llc , can , tipc , iucv , rxrpc , isdn ,
phonet , ieee802154 , caif , alg , nfc , vsock
2
Supported types: stream , dgram , seqpacket , rdm , raw , packet
3
Supported protocols: tcp , udp , icmp
The AppArmor tools support only family and type specification. The AppArmor module emits
only network domain type in “access denied” messages. And only these are output by the
profile generation tools, both YaST and command line.
The following examples illustrate possible network-related rules to be used in AppArmor profiles. Note that the syntax of the last two are not currently supported by the AppArmor tools.
network
1
,
network inet
,
2
network inet6
3
,
network inet stream
network inet tcp
network tcp
6
5
4
,
,
,
1
Allow all networking. No restrictions applied with regard to domain, type, or protocol.
2
Allow general use of IPv4 networking.
3
Allow general use of IPv6 networking.
4
Allow the use of IPv4 TCP networking.
5
Allow the use of IPv4 TCP networking, paraphrasing the rule above.
6
Allow the use of both IPv4 and IPv6 TCP networking.
21.6 Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and Globbing
A profile is usually attached to a program by specifying a full path to the program's executable.
For example in the case of a standard profile (see Section 21.2.1, “Standard Profiles”), the profile
is defined by
/usr/bin/foo { ... }
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The following sections describe several useful techniques that can be applied when naming a
profile or putting a profile in the context of other existing ones, or specifying file paths.
AppArmor explicitly distinguishes directory path names from file path names. Use a trailing /
for any directory path that needs to be explicitly distinguished:
/some/random/example/* r
Allow read access to files in the /some/random/example directory.
/some/random/example/ r
Allow read access to the directory only.
/some/**/ r
Give read access to any directories below /some (but not /some/ itself).
/some/random/example/** r
Give read access to files and directories under /some/random/example (but not /some/
random/example/ itself).
/some/random/example/**[^/] r
Give read access to files under /some/random/example . Explicitly exclude directories
( [^/] ).
Globbing (or regular expression matching) is when you modify the directory path using wild
cards to include a group of files or subdirectories. File resources can be specified with a globbing
syntax similar to that used by popular shells, such as csh, Bash, and zsh.
*
Substitutes for any number of any characters, except / .
Example: An arbitrary number of file path elements.
**
Substitutes for any number of characters, including / .
Example: An arbitrary number of path elements, including entire directories.
?
189
Substitutes for any single character, except
/.
Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and Globbing
SLED 12
Substitutes for the single character a , b , or
[abc]
c.
Example: a rule that matches /home[01]/
*/.plan allows a program to access .plan
files for users in both /home0 and /home1 .
[a-c]
Substitutes for the single character a , b , or
{ab,cd}
Expands to one rule to match ab and one
c.
rule to match cd .
Example: a rule that matches /{usr,www}/
pages/** grants access to Web pages in
both /usr/pages and /www/pages .
Substitutes for any character except a .
[^a]
21.6.1
Profile Flags
Profile flags control the behavior of the related profile. You can add profile flags to the profile
definition by editing it manually, see the following syntax:
/path/to/profiled/binary flags=(list_of_flags) {
[...]
}
You can use multiple flags separated by a comma ',' or space ' '. There are three basic types of
profile flags: mode, relative, and attach flags.
Mode flag is complain (illegal accesses are allowed and logged). If it is omitted, the profile is
in enforce mode (enforces the policy).
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Tip
A more flexible way of setting the whole profile into complain mode is to create a symbolic link from the profile file inside the /etc/apparmor.d/force-complain/ directory.
ln -s /etc/apparmor.d/bin.ping /etc/apparmor.d/force-complain/bin.ping
Relative flags are chroot_relative (states that the profile is relative to the chroot instead of
namespace) or namespace_relative (the default, with the path being relative to outside the
chroot). They are mutually exclusive.
Attach flags consist of two pairs of mutually exclusive flags: attach_disconnected or
no_attach_disconnected (determine if path names resolved to be outside of the name-
space are attached to the root, which means they have the '/' character prepended), and
chroot_attach or chroot_no_attach (controls path name generation when in a chroot en-
vironment while a file is accessed that is external to the chroot but within the namespace).
21.6.2
Using Variables in Profiles
AppArmor allows to use variables holding paths in profiles. Use global variables to make your
profiles portable and local variables to create shortcuts for paths.
A typical example of when global variables come in handy are network scenarios in which
user home directories are mounted in different locations. Instead of rewriting paths to home
directories in all affected profiles, you only need to change the value of a variable. Global
variables are defined under /etc/apparmor.d/tunables and need to be made available via an
include statement. Find the variable definitions for this use case ( @{HOME} and @{HOMEDIRS} )
in the /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/home file.
Local variables are defined at the head of a profile. This is useful to provide the base of for a
chrooted path, for example:
@{CHROOT_BASE}=/tmp/foo
/sbin/rsyslogd {
...
# chrooted applications
@{CHROOT_BASE}/var/lib/*/dev/log w,
@{CHROOT_BASE}/var/log/** w,
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...
}
In the following example, while @{HOMEDIRS} lists where all the user home directories are
stored, @{HOME} is a space-separated list of home directories. Later on, @{HOMEDIRS} is
expanded by two new specific places where user home directories are stored.
@{HOMEDIRS}=/home/
@{HOME}[email protected]{HOMEDIRS}/*/ /root/
[...]
@{HOMEDIRS}+=/srv/nfs/home/ /mnt/home/
Note
With the current AppArmor tools, variables can only be used when manually editing and
maintaining a profile.
21.6.3
Pattern Matching
Profile names can contain globbing expressions allowing the profile to match against multiple
binaries.
The following example is valid for systems where the foo binary resides either in /usr/bin
or /bin .
/{usr/,}bin/foo { ... }
In the following example, when matching against the executable /bin/foo , the /bin/foo
profile is an exact match so it is chosen. For the executable /bin/fat , the profile /bin/foo
does not match, and because the /bin/f* profile is more specific (less general) than /bin/
** , the /bin/f* profile is chosen.
/bin/foo { ... }
/bin/f*
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{ ... }
Pattern Matching
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/bin/**
{ ... }
For more information on profile name globbing examples, see the man page of AppArmor, man
5 apparmor.d, , section Globbing .
21.6.4
Namespaces
Namespaces are used to provide different profiles sets. Say one for the system, another for a
chroot environment or container. Namespaces are hierarchical—a namespace can see its children but a child cannot see its parent. Namespace names start with a colon : followed by an
alphanumeric string, a trailing colon : and an optional double slash // , such as
:childNameSpace://
Profiles loaded to a child namespace will be prefixed with their namespace name (viewed from
a parent's perspective):
:childNameSpace://apache
Namespaces can be entered via the change_profile API, or named profile transitions:
/path/to/executable px -> :childNameSpace://apache
21.6.5
Profile Naming and Attachment Specification
Profiles can have a name, and an attachment specification. This allows for profiles with a logical
name that can be more meaningful to users/administrators than a profile name that contains
pattern matching (see Section 21.6.3, “Pattern Matching”). For example, the default profile
/** { ... }
can be named
profile default /** { ... }
Also, a profile with pattern matching can be named. For example:
/usr/lib/firefox-3.*/firefox-*bin { ... }
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can be named
profile firefox /usr/lib/firefox-3.*/firefox-*bin { ... }
21.6.6
Alias Rules
Alias rules provide an alternative way to manipulate profile path mappings to site specific layouts. They are an alternative form of path rewriting to using variables, and are done post vari-
able resolution. The alias rule says to treat rules that have the same source prefix as if the rules
are at target prefix.
alias /home/ -> /usr/home/
All the rules that have a prefix match to /home/ will provide access to /usr/home/ . For example
/home/username/** r,
allows as well access to
/usr/home/username/** r,
Aliases provide a quick way of remapping rules without the need to rewrite them. They keep
the source path still accessible—in our example, the alias rule keeps the paths under /home/
still accessible.
With the alias rule, you can point to multiple targets at the same time.
alias /home/ -> /usr/home/
alias /home/ -> /mnt/home/
Note
With the current AppArmor tools, alias rules can only be used when manually editing
and maintaining a profile.
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Tip
Insert global alias definitions in the file /etc/apparmor.d/tunables/alias .
21.7 File Permission Access Modes
File permission access modes consist of combinations of the following modes:
r
Read mode
w
Write mode (mutually exclusive to a )
a
Append mode (mutually exclusive to w )
k
File locking mode
l
Link mode
link file -> target
Link pair rule (cannot be combined with oth-
21.7.1
er access modes)
Read Mode (r)
Allows the program to have read access to the resource. Read access is required for shell scripts
and other interpreted content and determines if an executing process can core dump.
21.7.2
Write Mode (w)
Allows the program to have write access to the resource. Files must have this permission if they
are to be unlinked (removed).
21.7.3
Append Mode (a)
Allows a program to write to the end of a file. In contrast to the w mode, the append mode does
not include the ability to overwrite data, to rename, or to remove a file. The append permission
is typically used with applications who need to be able to write to log files, but which should
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not be able to manipulate any existing data in the log files. As the append permission is a subset
of the permissions associated with the write mode, the w and a permission flags cannot be
used together and are mutually exclusive.
21.7.4
File Locking Mode (k)
The application can take file locks. Former versions of AppArmor allowed files to be locked if
an application had access to them. By using a separate file locking mode, AppArmor makes sure
locking is restricted only to those files which need file locking and tightens security as locking
can be used in several denial of service attack scenarios.
21.7.5
Link Mode (l)
The link mode mediates access to hard links. When a link is created, the target file must have
the same access permissions as the link created (with the exception that the destination does
not need link access).
21.7.6
Link Pair
The link mode grants permission to link to arbitrary files, provided the link has a subset of the
permissions granted by the target (subset permission test).
/srv/www/htdocs/index.html rl,
By specifying origin and destination, the link pair rule provides greater control over how hard
links are created. Link pair rules by default do not enforce the link subset permission test that
the standard rules link permission requires.
link /srv/www/htdocs/index.html -> /var/www/index.html
To force the rule to require the test, the subset keyword is used. The following rules are
equivalent:
/var/www/index.html l,
link subset /var/www/index.html -> /**,
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Note
Currently link pair rules are not supported by YaST and the command line tools. Manually
edit your profiles to use them. Updating such profiles using the tools is safe, because the
link pair entries will not be touched.
21.7.7
Optional allow and file Rules
The allow prefix is optional, and it is idiomatically implied if not specified and the deny (see
Section 21.7.9, “Deny Rules”) keyword is not used.
allow file /example r,
allow /example r,
allow network,
You can also use the optional file keyword. If you omit it and there are no other rule types
that start with a keyword, such as network or mount , it is automatically implied.
file /example/rule r,
is equivalent to
/example/rule r,
The following rule grants access to all files:
file,
which is equal to
/** rwmlk,
File rules can use leading or trailing permissions. The permissions should not be specified as a
trailing permission, but rather used at the start of the rule. This is important in that it makes
file rules behave like any other rule types.
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/path rw,
# old style
rw /path,
# leading permission
file rw /path,
# with explicit 'file' keyword
allow file rw /path, # optional 'allow' keyword added
21.7.8
Owner Conditional Rules
The file rules can be extended so that they can be conditional upon the user being the owner
of the file (the fsuid needs to match the file's uid). For this purpose the owner keyword is
prepended to the rule. Owner conditional rules accumulate like regular file rules do.
owner /home/*/** rw
When using file ownership conditions with link rules the ownership test is done against the
target file so the user must own the file to be able to link to it.
Note: Precedence of Regular File Rules
Owner conditional rules are considered a subset of regular file rules. If a regular file rule
overlaps with an owner conditional file rule, the rules are merged. Consider the following
example.
/foo r,
owner /foo rw,
# or w,
The rules are merged—it results in r for everybody, and w for the owner only.
Tip
To address everybody but the owner of the file, use the keyword other .
owner /foo rw,
other /foo r,
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21.7.9
Deny Rules
Deny rules can be used to annotate or quiet known rejects. The profile generating tools will
not ask about a known reject treated with a deny rule. Such a reject will also not show up in
the audit logs when denied, keeping the log files lean. If this is not desired, prepend the deny
entry with the keyword audit .
It is also possible to use deny rules in combination with allow rules. This allows you to specify
a broad allow rule, and then subtract a few known files that should not be allowed. Deny rules
can also be combined with owner rules, to deny files owned by the user. The following example
allows read/write access to everything in a users directory except write access to the .ssh/ files:
deny /home/*/.ssh/** w,
owner /home/*/** rw,
The extensive use of deny rules is generally not encouraged, because it makes it much harder
to understand what a profile does. However a judicious use of deny rules can simplify profiles.
Therefore the tools only generate profiles denying specific files and will not make use of globbing
in deny rules. Manually edit your profiles to add deny rules using globbing. Updating such
profiles using the tools is safe, because the deny entries will not be touched.
21.8 Execute Modes
Execute modes, also named profile transitions, consist of the following modes:
Px
Discrete profile execute mode
Cx
Discrete local profile execute mode
Ux
Unconfined execute mode
ix
Inherit execute mode
m
Allow PROT_EXEC with mmap(2) calls
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21.8.1
Discrete Profile Execute Mode (Px)
This mode requires that a discrete security profile is defined for a resource executed at an
AppArmor domain transition. If there is no profile defined, the access is denied.
Incompatible with Ux , ux , px , and ix .
21.8.2
Discrete Local Profile Execute Mode (Cx)
As Px , but instead of searching the global profile set, Cx only searches the local profiles of
the current profile. This profile transition provides a way for an application to have alternate
profiles for helper applications.
Note: Limitations of the Discrete Local Profile Execute Mode
(Cx)
Currently, Cx transitions are limited to top level profiles and cannot be used in hats and
children profiles. This restriction will be removed in the future.
Incompatible with Ux , ux , Px , px , cx , and ix .
21.8.3
Unconfined Execute Mode (Ux)
Allows the program to execute the resource without any AppArmor profile applied to the exe-
cuted resource. This mode is useful when a confined program needs to be able to perform a
privileged operation, such as rebooting the machine. By placing the privileged section in another executable and granting unconfined execution rights, it is possible to bypass the mandatory
constraints imposed on all confined processes. Allowing a root process to go unconfined means
it can change AppArmor policy itself. For more information about what is constrained, see the
apparmor(7) man page.
This mode is incompatible with ux , px , Px , and ix .
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21.8.4
Unsafe Exec Modes
Use the lowercase versions of exec modes— px , cx , ux —only in very special cases. They do
not scrub the environment of variables such as LD_PRELOAD . As a result, the calling domain
may have an undue amount of influence over the called resource. Use these modes only if the
child absolutely must be run unconfined and LD_PRELOAD must be used. Any profile using such
modes provides negligible security. Use at your own risk.
21.8.5
Inherit Execute Mode (ix)
ix prevents the normal AppArmor domain transition on execve(2) when the profiled program
executes the named program. Instead, the executed resource inherits the current profile.
This mode is useful when a confined program needs to call another confined program without
gaining the permissions of the target's profile or losing the permissions of the current profile.
There is no version to scrub the environment because ix executions do not change privileges.
Incompatible with cx , ux , and px . Implies m .
21.8.6
Allow Executable Mapping (m)
This mode allows a file to be mapped into memory using mmap(2) 's PROT_EXEC flag. This flag
marks the pages executable. It is used on some architectures to provide non executable data
pages, which can complicate exploit attempts. AppArmor uses this mode to limit which files a
well-behaved program (or all programs on architectures that enforce non executable memory
access controls) may use as libraries, to limit the effect of invalid -L flags given to ld(1) and
LD_PRELOAD , LD_LIBRARY_PATH , given to ld.so(8) .
21.8.7
Named Profile Transitions
By default, the px and cx (and their clean exec variants, too) transition to a profile who's name
matches the executable name. With named profile transitions, you can specify a profile to be
transitioned to. This is useful if multiple binaries need to share a single profile, or if they need
to use a different profile than their name would specify. Named profile transitions can be used
in conjunction with cx , Cx , px and Px . Currently there is a limit of twelve named profile
transitions per profile.
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Named profile transitions use -> to indicate the name of the profile that needs to be transitioned
to:
/usr/bin/foo
{
/bin/** px -> shared_profile,
...
/usr/*bash cx -> local_profile,
...
profile local_profile
{
...
}
}
Note: Difference Between Normal and Named Transitions
When used with globbing, normal transitions provide a “one to many” relationship— /
bin/** px will transition to /bin/ping , /bin/cat , etc, depending on the program
being run.
Named transitions provide a “many to one” relationship—all programs that match the
rule regardless of their name will transition to the specified profile.
Named profile transitions show up in the log as having the mode Nx . The name of the
profile to be changed to is listed in the name2 field.
21.8.8
Fall backs for Profile Transitions
The px and cx transitions specify a hard dependency—if the specified profile does not exist, the
exec will fail. With the inheritance fallback, the execution will succeed but inherit the current
profile. To specify inheritance fallback, ix is combined with cx , Cx , px and Px into the
modes cix , Cix , pix and Pix .
/path Cix -> profile_name,
or
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Fall backs for Profile Transitions
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Cix /path -> profile_name,
where -> profile_name is optional.
The same applies if you add the unconfined ux mode, where the resulting modes are cux ,
CUx , pux and PUx . These modes allow falling back to “unconfined” when the specified profile
is not found.
/path PUx -> profile_name,
or
PUx /path -> profile_name,
where -> profile_name is optional.
The fallback modes can be used with named profile transitions, too.
21.8.9
Variable Settings in Execution Modes
When choosing one of the Px, Cx or Ux execution modes, take into account that the following
environment variables are removed from the environment before the child process inherits it. As
a consequence, applications or processes relying on any of these variables do not work anymore
if the profile applied to them carries Px, Cx or Ux flags:
GCONV_PATH
GETCONF_DIR
HOSTALIASES
LD_AUDIT
LD_DEBUG
LD_DEBUG_OUTPUT
LD_DYNAMIC_WEAK
LD_LIBRARY_PATH
LD_ORIGIN_PATH
LD_PRELOAD
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Variable Settings in Execution Modes
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LD_PROFILE
LD_SHOW_AUXV
LD_USE_LOAD_BIAS
LOCALDOMAIN
LOCPATH
MALLOC_TRACE
NLSPATH
RESOLV_HOST_CONF
RES_OPTIONS
TMPDIR
TZDIR
21.8.10
safe and unsafe Keywords
You can use the safe and unsafe keywords for rules instead of using the case modifier of
execution modes. For example
/example_rule Px,
is the same as any of the following
safe /example_rule px,
safe /example_rule Px,
safe px /example_rule,
safe Px /example_rule,
and the rule
/example_rule px,
is the same as any of
unsafe /example_rule px,
unsafe /example_rule Px,
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unsafe px /example_rule,
unsafe Px /example_rule,
The safe / unsafe keywords are mutually exclusive and can be used in a file rule after the
owner keyword, so the order of rule keywords is
[audit] [deny] [owner] [safe|unsafe] file_rule
21.9 Resource Limit Control
AppArmor provides the ability to set and control an application's resource limits (rlimits, also
known as ulimits). By default AppArmor does not control applications rlimits, and it will only
control those limits specified in the confining profile. For more information about resource
limits, refer to the setrlimit(2) , ulimit(1) , or ulimit(3) man pages.
AppArmor leverages the system's rlimits and as such does not provide an additional auditing
that would normally occur. It also cannot raise rlimits set by the system, AppArmor rlimits can
only reduce an application's current resource limits.
The values will be inherited by the children of a process and will remain even if a new profile
is transitioned to or the application becomes unconfined. So when an application transitions to
a new profile, that profile has the ability to further reduce the applications rlimits.
AppArmor's rlimit rules will also provide mediation of setting an application's hard limits, should
it try to raise them. The application will not be able to raise its hard limits any further than
specified in the profile. The mediation of raising hard limits is not inherited as the set value is,
so that when the application transitions to a new profile it is free to raise its limits as specified
in the profile.
AppArmor's rlimit control does not affect an application's soft limits beyond ensuring that they
are less than or equal to the application's hard limits.
AppArmor's hard limit rules have the general form of:
set rlimit resource <= value,
where resource and value are to be replaced with the following values:
cpu
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CPU time limit in seconds.
Resource Limit Control
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fsize , data , stack , core , rss , as , memlock , msgqueue
a number in bytes, or a number with a suffix where the suffix can be K/KB (kilobytes), M/
MB (megabytes), G/GB (gigabytes), for example
rlimit data <= 100M,
*
fsize , nofile , locks , sigpending , nproc , rtprio
a number greater or equal to 0
nice
a value between -20 and 19
*
The nproc rlimit is handled different than all the other rlimits. Instead of indicating the standard
process rlimit it controls the maximum number of processes that can be running under the
profile at any given time. When the limit is exceeded the creation of new processes under the
profile will fail until the number of currently running processes is reduced.
Note
Currently the tools cannot be used to add rlimit rules to profiles. The only way to add
rlimit controls to a profile is to manually edit the profile with a text editor. The tools will
still work with profiles containing rlimit rules and will not remove them, so it is safe to
use the tools to update profiles containing them.
21.10 Auditing Rules
AppArmor provides the ability to audit given rules so that when they are matched an audit
message will appear in the audit log. To enable audit messages for a given rule, the audit
keyword is prepended to the rule:
audit /etc/foo/*
rw,
If it is desirable to audit only a given permission the rule can be split into two rules. The following
example will result in audit messages when files are opened for writing, but not when they are
opened for reading:
audit /etc/foo/*
206
w,
Auditing Rules
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/etc/foo/*
r,
Note
Audit messages are not generated for every read or write of a file but only when a file
is opened for reading or writing.
Audit control can be combined with owner / other conditional file rules to provide auditing
when users access files they own/do not own:
audit owner /home/*/.ssh/**
rw,
audit other /home/*/.ssh/**
r,
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22 AppArmor Profile Repositories
AppArmor ships with a set of profiles enabled by default. These are created by the AppArmor
developers, and are stored in /etc/apparmor.d . In addition to these profiles, SUSE Linux En-
terprise Desktop ships profiles for individual applications together with the relevant application.
These profiles are not enabled by default, and reside under another directory than the standard
AppArmor profiles, /etc/apparmor/profiles/extras .
22.1 Using the Local Repository
The AppArmor tools (YaST, aa-genprof and aa-logprof ) support the use of a local repository.
Whenever you start to create a new profile from scratch, and there already is an inactive profile
in your local repository, you are asked whether you want to use the existing inactive one from
/etc/apparmor/profiles/extras and whether you want to base your efforts on it. If you
decide to use this profile, it gets copied over to the directory of profiles enabled by default ( /
etc/apparmor.d ) and loaded whenever AppArmor is started. Any further adjustments will be
done to the active profile under /etc/apparmor.d .
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23 Building and Managing Profiles with YaST
YaST provides a basic way to build profiles and manage AppArmor® profiles. It provides two in-
terfaces: a graphical one and a text-based one. The text-based interface consumes less resources
and bandwidth, making it a better choice for remote administration, or for times when a lo-
cal graphical environment is inconvenient. Although the interfaces have differing appearances,
they offer the same functionality in similar ways. Another alternative is to use AppArmor com-
mands, which can control AppArmor from a terminal window or through remote connections.
The command line tools are described in Chapter 24, Building Profiles from the Command Line.
Start YaST from the main menu and enter your root password when prompted for it. Alternatively, start YaST by opening a terminal window, logging in as root , and entering yast2 for
the graphical mode or yast for the text-based mode.
In the Security and Users section, there is an AppArmor Configuration icon. Click it to launch the
AppArmor YaST module.
23.1 Manually Adding a Profile
AppArmor enables you to create an AppArmor profile by manually adding entries into the profile. Select the application for which to create a profile, then add entries.
1. Start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Manually Add Profile in the main
window.
2. Browse your system to find the application for which to create a profile.
3. When you find the application, select it and click Open. A basic, empty profile appears in
the AppArmor Profile Dialog window.
4. In AppArmor Profile Dialog, add, edit, or delete AppArmor profile entries by clicking the
corresponding buttons and referring to Section 23.2.1, “Adding an Entry”, Section 23.2.2, “Editing
an Entry”, or Section 23.2.3, “Deleting an Entry”.
5. When finished, click Done.
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Building and Managing Profiles with YaST
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23.2 Editing Profiles
Tip
Although YaST offers basic manipulation for AppArmor profiles, such as creating or editing, the most straightforward way to edit an AppArmor profile is to open a console as
root , and use a text editor (such as vi ) to open and edit it:
# vi /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork
Tip
The vi editor also includes nice syntax (error) highlighting and syntax error highlighting,
which visually warns you when the syntax of the edited AppArmor profile is wrong.
AppArmor enables you to edit AppArmor profiles manually by adding, editing, or deleting entries. To edit a profile, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Manage Existing Profiles in the main
window.
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2. From the list of profiled applications, select the profile to edit.
3. Click Edit. The AppArmor Profile Dialog window displays the profile.
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4. In the AppArmor Profile Dialog window, add, edit, or delete AppArmor profile entries by
clicking the corresponding buttons and referring to Section 23.2.1, “Adding an Entry”, Section 23.2.2, “Editing an Entry”, or Section 23.2.3, “Deleting an Entry”.
5. When you are finished, click Done.
6. In the pop-up that appears, click Yes to confirm your changes to the profile and reload
the AppArmor profile set.
Tip: Syntax Checking in AppArmor
AppArmor contains a syntax check that notifies you of any syntax errors in profiles you are
trying to process with the YaST AppArmor tools. If an error occurs, edit the profile manually as root and reload the profile set with systemctl reload apparmor.service .
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23.2.1
Adding an Entry
The Add Entry button in the AppArmor Profile Window shows a list of types of entries you can
add to the AppArmor profile.
From the list, select one of the following:
File
In the pop-up window, specify the absolute path of a file, including the type of access
permitted. When finished, click OK.
You can use globbing if necessary. For globbing information, refer to Section 21.6, “Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and Globbing”. For file access permission information, refer to Section 21.7, “File Permission Access Modes”.
Directory
In the pop-up window, specify the absolute path of a directory, including the type of access
permitted. You can use globbing if necessary. When finished, click OK.
For globbing information, refer to Section 21.6, “Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and Globbing”. For
file access permission information, refer to Section 21.7, “File Permission Access Modes”.
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Network Rule
In the pop-up window, select the appropriate network family and the socket type. For
more information, refer to Section 21.5, “Network Access Control”.
Capability
In the pop-up window, select the appropriate capabilities. These are statements that enable
each of the 32 POSIX.1e capabilities. Refer to Section 21.4, “Capability Entries (POSIX.1e)” for
more information about capabilities. When finished making your selections, click OK.
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Include File
In the pop-up window, browse to the files to use as includes. Includes are directives that
pull in components of other AppArmor profiles to simplify profiles. For more information,
refer to Section 21.3, “Include Statements”.
Hat
In the pop-up window, specify the name of the subprofile (hat) to add to your current
profile and click Create Hat. For more information, refer to Chapter 25, Profiling Your Web
Applications Using ChangeHat.
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23.2.2
Editing an Entry
When you select Edit Entry, a pop-up window opens. From here, edit the selected entry.
In the pop-up window, edit the entry you need to modify. You can use globbing if necessary.
When finished, click OK.
For globbing information, refer to Section 21.6, “Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and Globbing”. For access
permission information, refer to Section 21.7, “File Permission Access Modes”.
23.2.3
Deleting an Entry
To delete an entry in a given profile, select Delete Entry. AppArmor removes the selected profile
entry.
23.3 Deleting a Profile
AppArmor enables you to delete an AppArmor profile manually. Simply select the application
for which to delete a profile then delete it as follows:
1. Start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Manage Existing Profiles in the main
window.
2. Select the profile to delete.
3. Click Delete.
4. In the pop-up that opens, click Yes to delete the profile and reload the AppArmor profile
set.
23.4 Managing AppArmor
You can change the status of AppArmor by enabling or disabling it. Enabling AppArmor protects
your system from potential program exploitation. Disabling AppArmor, even if your profiles
have been set up, removes protection from your system. To change the status of AppArmor,
start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Settings in the main window.
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To change the status of AppArmor, continue as described in Section 23.4.1, “Changing AppArmor
Status”. To change the mode of individual profiles, continue as described in Section 23.4.2, “Changing the Mode of Individual Profiles”.
23.4.1
Changing AppArmor Status
When you change the status of AppArmor, set it to enabled or disabled. When AppArmor is
enabled, it is installed, running, and enforcing the AppArmor security policies.
1. Start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Settings in the main window.
2. Enable AppArmor by checking Enable AppArmor or disable AppArmor by deselecting it.
3. Click Done in the AppArmor Configuration window.
Tip
You always need to restart running programs to apply the profiles to them.
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23.4.2
Changing the Mode of Individual Profiles
AppArmor can apply profiles in two different modes. In complain mode, violations of AppArmor
profile rules, such as the profiled program accessing files not permitted by the profile, are detected. The violations are permitted, but also logged. This mode is convenient for developing
profiles and is used by the AppArmor tools for generating profiles. Loading a profile in enforce
mode enforces the policy defined in the profile, and reports policy violation attempts to rsyslogd (or auditd or journalctl , depending on system configuration).
The Profile Mode Configuration dialog allows you to view and edit the mode of currently loaded
AppArmor profiles. This feature is useful for determining the status of your system during profile
development. During the course of systemic profiling (see Section 24.6.2, “Systemic Profiling”), you
can use this tool to adjust and monitor the scope of the profiles for which you are learning
behavior.
To edit an application's profile mode, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST, select AppArmor Configuration, and click Settings in the main window.
2. In the Configure Profile Modes section, select Configure.
3. Select the profile for which to change the mode.
4. Select Toggle Mode to set this profile to complain mode or to enforce mode.
5. Apply your settings and leave YaST with Done.
To change the mode of all profiles, use Set All to Enforce or Set All to Complain.
Tip: Listing the Profiles Available
By default, only active profiles are listed (any profile that has a matching application
installed on your system). To set up a profile before installing the respective application,
click Show All Profiles and select the profile to configure from the list that appears.
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24 Building Profiles from the Command Line
AppArmor® provides the user the ability to use a command line interface rather than a graphical
interface to manage and configure the system security. Track the status of AppArmor and create,
delete, or modify AppArmor profiles using the AppArmor command line tools.
Tip: Background Information
Before starting to manage your profiles using the AppArmor command line tools, check
out the general introduction to AppArmor given in Chapter 20, Immunizing Programs and
Chapter 21, Profile Components and Syntax.
24.1 Checking the AppArmor Status
AppArmor can be in any one of three states:
Unloaded
AppArmor is not activated in the kernel.
Running
AppArmor is activated in the kernel and is enforcing AppArmor program policies.
Stopped
AppArmor is activated in the kernel, but no policies are enforced.
Detect the state of AppArmor by inspecting /sys/kernel/security/apparmor/profiles . If
cat /sys/kernel/security/apparmor/profiles reports a list of profiles, AppArmor is run-
ning. If it is empty and returns nothing, AppArmor is stopped. If the file does not exist, AppArmor is unloaded.
Manage AppArmor with systemctl . It lets you perform the following operations:
sudo systemctl start apparmor.service
Behavior depends on the state of AppArmor. If it is not activated, start activates and
starts it, putting it in the running state. If it is stopped, start causes the re-scan of Ap-
pArmor profiles usually found in /etc/apparmor.d and puts AppArmor in the running
state. If AppArmor is already running, start reports a warning and takes no action.
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Note: Already Running Processes
Already running processes need to be restarted to apply the AppArmor profiles on
them.
sudo systemctl stop apparmor.service
Stops AppArmor if it is running by removing all profiles from kernel memory, effectively
disabling all access controls, and putting AppArmor into the stopped state. If the AppArmor
is already stopped, stop tries to unload the profiles again, but nothing happens.
sudo systemctl reload apparmor.service
Causes the AppArmor module to rescan the profiles in /etc/apparmor.d without uncon-
fining running processes. Freshly created profiles are enforced and recently deleted ones
are removed from the /etc/apparmor.d directory.
rcapparmor kill
Unconditionally removes the AppArmor module from the kernel. However, unloading
modules from the Linux kernel is unsafe. This command is provided only for debugging
and emergencies (when the module might need to be removed).
Warning: Do Not Lock Yourself Out
AppArmor is a powerful access control system and it is possible to lock yourself
out of your own machine to the point where you must boot the machine from a
rescue medium (such as the first medium of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop) to
regain control.
To prevent such a problem, always ensure that you have a running, unconfined,
root login on the machine being configured when you restart the AppArmor mod-
ule. If you damage your system to the point where logins are no longer possible
(for example, by breaking the profile associated with the SSH daemon), you can
repair the damage using your running root prompt then restarting the AppArmor
module.
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24.2 Building AppArmor Profiles
The AppArmor module profile definitions are stored in the /etc/apparmor.d directory as plain
text files. For a detailed description of the syntax of these files, refer to Chapter 21, Profile Components and Syntax.
All files in the /etc/apparmor.d directory are interpreted as profiles and are loaded as such.
Renaming files in that directory is not an effective way of preventing profiles from being loaded.
You must remove profiles from this directory to prevent them from being read and evaluated
effectively, or call aa-disable on the profile, which will create a symbolic link in /etc/
apparmor.d/disabled/ .
You can use a text editor, such as vi , to access and make changes to these profiles. The following
sections contain detailed steps for building profiles:
Adding or Creating AppArmor Profiles
Refer to Section 24.3, “Adding or Creating an AppArmor Profile”
Editing AppArmor Profiles
Refer to Section 24.4, “Editing an AppArmor Profile”
Deleting AppArmor Profiles
Refer to Section 24.5, “Deleting an AppArmor Profile”
24.3 Adding or Creating an AppArmor Profile
To add or create an AppArmor profile for an application, you can use a systemic or stand-
alone profiling method, depending on your needs. Learn more about these two approaches in
Section 24.6, “Two Methods of Profiling”.
24.4 Editing an AppArmor Profile
The following steps describe the procedure for editing an AppArmor profile:
1. If you are not currently logged in as root , enter su in a terminal window.
2. Enter the root password when prompted.
3. Go to the profile directory with cd /etc/apparmor.d/ .
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4. Enter ls to view all profiles currently installed.
5. Open the profile to edit in a text editor, such as vim.
6. Make the necessary changes, then save the profile.
7. Restart AppArmor by entering systemctl reload apparmor.service in a terminal
window.
24.5 Deleting an AppArmor Profile
The following steps describe the procedure for deleting an AppArmor profile.
1. If you are not currently logged in as root , enter su in a terminal window.
2. Enter the root password when prompted.
3. Go to the AppArmor directory with cd /etc/apparmor.d/ .
4. Enter ls to view all the AppArmor profiles that are currently installed.
5. Delete the profile with rm profilename .
6. Restart AppArmor by entering systemctl reload apparmor.service in a terminal
window.
24.6 Two Methods of Profiling
Given the syntax for AppArmor profiles in Chapter 21, Profile Components and Syntax, you could
create profiles without using the tools. However, the effort involved would be substantial. To
avoid such a situation, use the AppArmor tools to automate the creation and refinement of
profiles.
There are two ways to approach AppArmor profile creation. Tools are available for both methods.
Stand-Alone Profiling
A method suitable for profiling small applications that have a finite runtime, such as user
client applications like mail clients. For more information, refer to Section 24.6.1, “StandAlone Profiling”.
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Systemic Profiling
A method suitable for profiling large numbers of programs all at once and for profiling
applications that may run for days, weeks, or continuously across reboots, such as network
server applications like Web servers and mail servers. For more information, refer to Section 24.6.2, “Systemic Profiling”.
Automated profile development becomes more manageable with the AppArmor tools:
1. Decide which profiling method suits your needs.
2. Perform a static analysis. Run either aa-genprof or aa-autodep , depending on the pro-
filing method chosen.
3. Enable dynamic learning. Activate learning mode for all profiled programs.
24.6.1
Stand-Alone Profiling
Stand-alone profile generation and improvement is managed by a program called aa-genprof .
This method is easy because aa-genprof takes care of everything, but is limited because it
requires aa-genprof to run for the entire duration of the test run of your program (you cannot
reboot the machine while you are still developing your profile).
To use aa-genprof for the stand-alone method of profiling, refer to Section 24.6.3.8, “aa-genprof—
Generating Profiles”.
24.6.2
Systemic Profiling
This method is called systemic profiling because it updates all of the profiles on the system at
once, rather than focusing on the one or few targeted by aa-genprof or stand-alone profiling.
With systemic profiling, profile construction and improvement are somewhat less automated,
but more flexible. This method is suitable for profiling long-running applications whose behavior
continues after rebooting, or a large number of programs all at once.
Build an AppArmor profile for a group of applications as follows:
1. Create profiles for the individual programs that make up your application.
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Although this approach is systemic, AppArmor only monitors those programs with profiles
and their children. To get AppArmor to consider a program, you must at least have aa-
autodep create an approximate profile for it. To create this approximate profile, refer to
Section 24.6.3.1, “aa-autodep—Creating Approximate Profiles”.
2. Put relevant profiles into learning or complain mode.
Activate learning or complain mode for all profiled programs by entering
aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/*
in a terminal window while logged in as root . This functionality is also available through
the YaST Profile Mode module, described in Section 23.4.2, “Changing the Mode of Individual
Profiles”.
When in learning mode, access requests are not blocked, even if the profile dictates that
they should be. This enables you to run through several tests (as shown in Step 3) and
learn the access needs of the program so it runs properly. With this information, you can
decide how secure to make the profile.
Refer to Section 24.6.3.2, “aa-complain—Entering Complain or Learning Mode” for more detailed
instructions for using learning or complain mode.
3. Exercise your application.
Run your application and exercise its functionality. How much to exercise the program
is up to you, but you need the program to access each file representing its access needs.
Because the execution is not being supervised by aa-genprof , this step can go on for
days or weeks and can span complete system reboots.
4. Analyze the log.
In systemic profiling, run aa-logprof directly instead of letting aa-genprof run it (as
in stand-alone profiling). The general form of aa-logprof is:
aa-logprof [ -d /path/to/profiles ] [ -f /path/to/logfile ]
Refer to Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log” for more information about
using aa-logprof .
5. Repeat Step 3 and Step 4.
This generates optimal profiles. An iterative approach captures smaller data sets that can
be trained and reloaded into the policy engine. Subsequent iterations generate fewer messages and run faster.
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6. Edit the profiles.
You might want to review the profiles that have been generated. You can open and edit
the profiles in /etc/apparmor.d/ using a text editor.
7. Return to enforce mode.
This is when the system goes back to enforcing the rules of the profiles, not only logging
information. This can be done manually by removing the flags=(complain) text from
the profiles or automatically by using the aa-enforce command, which works identically
to the aa-complain command, except it sets the profiles to enforce mode. This functionality is also available through the YaST Profile Mode module, described in Section 23.4.2,
“Changing the Mode of Individual Profiles”.
To ensure that all profiles are taken out of complain mode and put into enforce mode,
enter aa-enforce /etc/apparmor.d/* .
8. Re-scan all profiles.
To have AppArmor re-scan all of the profiles and change the enforcement mode in the
kernel, enter systemctl reload apparmor.service .
24.6.3
Summary of Profiling Tools
All of the AppArmor profiling utilities are provided by the apparmor-utils RPM package and
are stored in /usr/sbin . Each tool has a different purpose.
24.6.3.1
aa-autodep—Creating Approximate Profiles
This creates an approximate profile for the program or application selected. You can generate
approximate profiles for binary executables and interpreted script programs. The resulting profile is called “approximate” because it does not necessarily contain all of the profile entries that
the program needs to be properly confined by AppArmor. The minimum aa-autodep approx-
imate profile has, at minimum, a base include directive, which contains basic profile entries
needed by most programs. For certain types of programs, aa-autodep generates a more ex-
panded profile. The profile is generated by recursively calling ldd(1) on the executables listed
on the command line.
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To generate an approximate profile, use the aa-autodep program. The program argument can
be either the simple name of the program, which aa-autodep finds by searching your shell's
path variable, or it can be a fully qualified path. The program itself can be of any type (ELF
binary, shell script, Perl script, etc.). aa-autodep generates an approximate profile to improve
through the dynamic profiling that follows.
The resulting approximate profile is written to the /etc/apparmor.d directory using the Ap-
pArmor profile naming convention of naming the profile after the absolute path of the program,
replacing the forward slash ( / ) characters in the path with period ( . ) characters. The general
syntax of aa-autodep is to enter the following in a terminal window when logged in as root :
aa-autodep [ -d /path/to/profiles ] [program1 program2...]
If you do not enter the program name or names, you are prompted for them. /path/to/pro-
files overrides the default location of /etc/apparmor.d , should you keep profiles in a loca-
tion other than the default.
To begin profiling, you must create profiles for each main executable service that is part of your
application (anything that might start without being a child of another program that already has
a profile). Finding all such programs depends on the application in question. Here are several
strategies for finding such programs:
Directories
If all the programs to profile are in one directory and there are no other programs in that
directory, the simple command aa-autodep /path/to/your/programs/* creates basic
profiles for all programs in that directory.
pstree -p
You can run your application and use the standard Linux pstree command to find all
processes running. Then manually hunt down the location of these programs and run the
aa-autodep for each one. If the programs are in your path, aa-autodep finds them for
you. If they are not in your path, the standard Linux command find might be helpful in
finding your programs. Execute find / -name 'my_application' -print to determine
an application's path ( my_application being an example application). You may use wild
cards if appropriate.
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24.6.3.2
aa-complain—Entering Complain or Learning Mode
The complain or learning mode tool ( aa-complain ) detects violations of AppArmor profile
rules, such as the profiled program accessing files not permitted by the profile. The violations
are permitted, but also logged. To improve the profile, turn complain mode on, run the program
through a suite of tests to generate log events that characterize the program's access needs, then
postprocess the log with the AppArmor tools to transform log events into improved profiles.
Manually activating complain mode (using the command line) adds a flag to the top of the
profile so that /bin/foo becomes /bin/foo flags=(complain) . To use complain mode, open
a terminal window and enter one of the following lines as root :
If the example program ( program1 ) is in your path, use:
aa-complain [program1 program2 ...]
If the program is not in your path, specify the entire path as follows:
aa-complain /sbin/program1
If the profiles are not in /etc/apparmor.d , use the following to override the default
location:
aa-complain /path/to/profiles/program1
Specify the profile for /sbin/program1 as follows:
aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/sbin.program1
Each of the above commands activates the complain mode for the profiles or programs listed.
If the program name does not include its entire path, aa-complain searches $PATH for the
program. For instance, aa-complain /usr/sbin/* finds profiles associated with all of the
programs in /usr/sbin and puts them into complain mode. aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/
* puts all of the profiles in /etc/apparmor.d into complain mode.
Tip: Toggling Profile Mode with YaST
YaST offers a graphical front-end for toggling complain and enforce mode. See Section 23.4.2, “Changing the Mode of Individual Profiles” for information.
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24.6.3.3
Files
aa-decode—Decoding Hex-encoded Strings in AppArmor Log
aa-decode will decode hex-encoded strings in the AppArmor log output. It can also process
the audit log on standard input, convert any hex-encoded AppArmor log entries, and display
them on standard output.
24.6.3.4
aa-disable—Disabling an AppArmor Security Profile
Use aa-disable to disable the enforcement mode for one or more AppArmor profiles. This
command will unload the profile from the kernel, and prevent the profile from being loaded on
AppArmor start-up. Use aa-enforce or aa-complain utilities to change this behavior.
24.6.3.5
aa-easyprof—Easy Profile Generation
aa-easyprof provides an easy-to-use interface for AppArmor profile generation. aa-easyprof
supports the use of templates and profile groups to quickly profile an application. While aa-
easyprof can help with profile generation, its utility is dependent on the quality of the tem-
plates, profile groups and abstractions used. Also, this tool may create a profile that is less restricted than when creating a profile manually or with aa-genprof and aa-logprof .
For more information, see the man page of aa-easyprof (8).
24.6.3.6
aa-enforce—Entering Enforce Mode
The enforce mode detects violations of AppArmor profile rules, such as the profiled program
accessing files not permitted by the profile. The violations are logged and not permitted. The
default is for enforce mode to be enabled. To log the violations only, but still permit them, use
complain mode.
Manually activating enforce mode (using the command line) removes the complain flag from
the top of the profile so that /bin/foo flags=(complain) becomes /bin/foo . To use enforce
mode, open a terminal window and enter one of the following lines as root .
If the example program ( program1 ) is in your path, use:
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aa-enforce [program1 program2 ...]
If the program is not in your path, specify the entire path, as follows:
aa-enforce /sbin/program1
If the profiles are not in /etc/apparmor.d , use the following to override the default
location:
aa-enforce -d /path/to/profiles/
program1
Specify the profile for /sbin/program1 as follows:
aa-enforce /etc/apparmor.d/sbin.program1
Each of the above commands activates the enforce mode for the profiles and programs listed.
If you do not enter the program or profile names, you are prompted to enter one. /path/to/
profiles overrides the default location of /etc/apparmor.d .
The argument can be either a list of programs or a list of profiles. If the program name does not
include its entire path, aa-enforce searches $PATH for the program.
Tip: Toggling Profile Mode with YaST
YaST offers a graphical front-end for toggling complain and enforce mode. See Section 23.4.2, “Changing the Mode of Individual Profiles” for information.
24.6.3.7
aa-exec—Confining a Program with the Specified Profile
Use aa-exec to launch a program confined by a specified profile and/or profile namespace.
If both a profile and namespace are specified, the program will be confined by the profile in
the new namespace. If only a profile namespace is specified, the profile name of the current
confinement will be used. If neither a profile nor namespace is specified, the command will be
run using the standard profile attachment—as if you did not use the aa-exec command.
For more information on the command's options, see its manual page man 8 aa-exec .
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24.6.3.8
aa-genprof—Generating Profiles
aa-genprof is AppArmor's profile generating utility. It runs aa-autodep on the specified pro-
gram, creating an approximate profile (if a profile does not already exist for it), sets it to complain mode, reloads it into AppArmor, marks the log, and prompts the user to execute the program and exercise its functionality. Its syntax is as follows:
aa-genprof [ -d /path/to/profiles ]
program
To create a profile for the Apache Web server program httpd2-prefork, do the following as root :
1. Enter systemctl stop apache2.service .
2. Next, enter aa-genprof httpd2-prefork .
Now aa-genprof does the following:
1. Resolves the full path of httpd2-prefork using your shell's path variables. You can
also specify a full path. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, the default full path is
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork .
2. Checks to see if there is an existing profile for httpd2-prefork. If there is one, it
updates it. If not, it creates one using the aa-autodep as described in Section 24.6.3,
“Summary of Profiling Tools”.
3. Puts the profile for this program into learning or complain mode so that profile
violations are logged, but are permitted to proceed. A log event looks like this (see
/var/log/audit/audit.log ):
type=APPARMOR_ALLOWED msg=audit(1189682639.184:20816): \
apparmor="DENIED" operation="file_mmap" parent=2692 \
profile="/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT" \
name="/var/log/apache2/access_log-20140116" pid=28730 comm="httpd2prefork" \
requested_mask="::r" denied_mask="::r" fsuid=30 ouid=0
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If you are not running the audit daemon, the AppArmor events are logged directly
to systemd journal (see Book “Administration Guide” 12 “journalctl: Query the
systemd Journal”):
Sep 13 13:20:30 K23 kernel: audit(1189682430.672:20810): \
apparmor="DENIED" operation="file_mmap" parent=2692 \
profile="/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT" \
name="/var/log/apache2/access_log-20140116" pid=28730 comm="httpd2prefork" \
requested_mask="::r" denied_mask="::r" fsuid=30 ouid=0
They also can be viewed using the dmesg command:
audit(1189682430.672:20810): apparmor="DENIED" \
operation="file_mmap" parent=2692 \
profile="/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT" \
name="/var/log/apache2/access_log-20140116" pid=28730 comm="httpd2prefork" \
requested_mask="::r" denied_mask="::r" fsuid=30 ouid=0
4. Marks the log with a beginning marker of log events to consider. For example:
Sep 13 17:48:52 figwit root: GenProf: e2ff78636296f16d0b5301209a04430d
3. When prompted by the tool, run the application to profile in another terminal window and
perform as many of the application functions as possible. Thus, the learning mode can log
the files and directories to which the program requires access in order to function properly.
For example, in a new terminal window, enter systemctl start apache2.service .
4. Select from the following options that are available in the aa-genprof terminal window
after you have executed the program function:
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S
runs aa-genprof on the system log from where it was marked when aa-gen-
prof was started and reloads the profile. If system events exist in the log, AppArmor
parses the learning mode log files. This generates a series of questions that you must
answer to guide aa-genprof in generating the security profile.
F
exits the tool.
Note
If requests to add hats appear, proceed to Chapter 25, Profiling Your Web Applications
Using ChangeHat.
5. Answer two types of questions:
A resource is requested by a profiled program that is not in the profile (see Example 24.1, “Learning Mode Exception: Controlling Access to Specific Resources”).
A program is executed by the profiled program and the security domain transition
has not been defined (see Example 24.2, “Learning Mode Exception: Defining Permissions
for an Entry”).
Each of these categories results in a series of questions that you must answer to add the
resource or program to the profile. Example 24.1, “Learning Mode Exception: Controlling Access
to Specific Resources” and Example 24.2, “Learning Mode Exception: Defining Permissions for an
Entry” provide examples of each one. Subsequent steps describe your options in answering
these questions.
Dealing with execute accesses is complex. You must decide how to proceed with this
entry regarding which execute permission type to grant to this entry:
EXAMPLE 24.1: LEARNING MODE EXCEPTION: CONTROLLING ACCESS TO SPECIFIC RESOURCES
Reading log entries from /var/log/audit/audit.log.
Updating AppArmor profiles in /etc/apparmor.d.
Profile:
/usr/sbin/xinetd
Program:
xinetd
Execute:
/usr/lib/cups/daemon/cups-lpd
Severity: unknown
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(I)nherit / (P)rofile / (C)hild / (N)ame / (U)nconfined / (X)ix / (D)eny /
Abo(r)t / (F)inish
Inherit (ix)
The child inherits the parent's profile, running with the same access controls as
the parent. This mode is useful when a confined program needs to call another
confined program without gaining the permissions of the target's profile or
losing the permissions of the current profile. This mode is often used when the
child program is a helper application, such as the /usr/bin/mail client using
less as a pager.
Profile (px/Px)
The child runs using its own profile, which must be loaded into the kernel. If
the profile is not present, attempts to execute the child fail with permission
denied. This is most useful if the parent program is invoking a global service,
such as DNS lookups or sending mail with your system's MTA.
Choose the profile with clean exec (Px) option to scrub the environment of en-
vironment variables that could modify execution behavior when passed to the
child process.
Child (cx/Cx)
Sets up a transition to a subprofile. It is like px/Px transition, except to a child
profile.
Choose the profile with clean exec (Cx) option to scrub the environment of en-
vironment variables that could modify execution behavior when passed to the
child process.
Unconfined (ux/Ux)
The child runs completely unconfined without any AppArmor profile applied
to the executed resource.
Choose the unconfined with clean exec (Ux) option to scrub the environment of
environment variables that could modify execution behavior when passed to
the child process. Note that running unconfined profiles introduces a security
vulnerability that could be used to evade AppArmor. Only use it as a last resort.
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mmap (m)
This permission denotes that the program running under the profile can access
the resource using the mmap system call with the flag PROT_EXEC . This means
that the data mapped in it can be executed. You are prompted to include this
permission if it is requested during a profiling run.
Deny
Adds a deny rule to the profile, and permanently prevents the program from
accessing the specified directory path entries. AppArmor then continues to the
next event.
Abort
Aborts aa-logprof , losing all rule changes entered so far and leaving all profiles unmodified.
Finish
Closes aa-logprof , saving all rule changes entered so far and modifying all
profiles.
Example 24.2, “Learning Mode Exception: Defining Permissions for an Entry” shows AppAr-
mor suggest allowing a globbing pattern /var/run/nscd/* for reading, then using
an abstraction to cover common Apache-related access rules.
EXAMPLE 24.2: LEARNING MODE EXCEPTION: DEFINING PERMISSIONS FOR AN ENTRY
Profile:
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork
Path:
/var/run/nscd/dbSz9CTr
Mode:
r
Severity: 3
1 - /var/run/nscd/dbSz9CTr
[2 - /var/run/nscd/*]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (G)lob / Glob w/(E)xt / (N)ew / Abo(r)t / (F)inish /
(O)pts
Adding /var/run/nscd/* r to profile.
Profile:
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Path:
/proc/11769/attr/current
Mode:
w
Severity: 9
[1 - #include <abstractions/apache2-common>]
2 - /proc/11769/attr/current
3 - /proc/*/attr/current
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (G)lob / Glob w/(E)xt / (N)ew / Abo(r)t / (F)inish /
(O)pts
Adding #include <abstractions/apache2-common> to profile.
AppArmor provides one or more paths or includes. By entering the option number,
select the desired options then proceed to the next step.
Note
Not all of these options are always presented in the AppArmor menu.
#include
This is the section of an AppArmor profile that refers to an include file, which
procures access permissions for programs. By using an include, you can give
the program access to directory paths or files that are also required by other
programs. Using includes can reduce the size of a profile. It is good practice
to select includes when suggested.
Globbed Version
This is accessed by selecting Glob as described in the next step. For informa-
tion about globbing syntax, refer to Section 21.6, “Profile Names, Flags, Paths, and
Globbing”.
Actual Path
This is the literal path to which the program needs access so that it can run
properly.
After you select the path or include, process it as an entry into the AppArmor profile
by selecting Allow or Deny. If you are not satisfied with the directory path entry as
it is displayed, you can also Glob it.
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The following options are available to process the learning mode entries and build
the profile:
Select
Enter
Allows access to the selected directory path.
Allow
Allows access to the specified directory path entries. AppArmor suggests file
permission access. For more information, refer to Section 21.7, “File Permission
Access Modes”.
Deny
Prevents the program from accessing the specified directory path entries. AppArmor then continues to the next event.
New
Prompts you to enter your own rule for this event, allowing you to specify a
regular expression. If the expression does not actually satisfy the event that
prompted the question in the first place, AppArmor asks for confirmation and
lets you reenter the expression.
Glob
Select a specific path or create a general rule using wild cards that match a
broader set of paths. To select any of the offered paths, enter the number that is
printed in front of the path then decide how to proceed with the selected item.
For more information about globbing syntax, refer to Section 21.6, “Profile Names,
Flags, Paths, and Globbing”.
Glob w/Ext
This modifies the original directory path while retaining the file name extension. For example, /etc/apache2/file.ext becomes /etc/apache2/*.ext ,
adding the wild card (asterisk) in place of the file name. This allows the program to access all files in the suggested directory that end with the .ext extension.
Abort
Aborts aa-logprof , losing all rule changes entered so far and leaving all profiles unmodified.
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Finish
Closes aa-logprof , saving all rule changes entered so far and modifying all
profiles.
6. To view and edit your profile using vi , enter vi /etc/apparmor.d/profilename in
a terminal window. To enable syntax highlighting when editing an AppArmor profile in
vim, use the commands :syntax on then :set syntax=apparmor . For more information
about vim and syntax highlighting, refer to Section 24.6.3.14, “apparmor.vim”.
7. Restart AppArmor and reload the profile set including the newly created one using the
systemctl reload apparmor.service command.
Like the graphical front-end for building AppArmor profiles, the YaST Add Profile Wizard,
aa-genprof also supports the use of the local profile repository under /etc/apparmor/pro-
files/extras and the remote AppArmor profile repository.
To use a profile from the local repository, proceed as follows:
1. Start aa-genprof as described above.
If aa-genprof finds an inactive local profile, the following lines appear on your terminal
window:
Profile: /usr/bin/opera
[1 - Inactive local profile for /usr/bin/opera]
[(V)iew Profile] / (U)se Profile / (C)reate New Profile / Abo(r)t / (F)inish
2. If you want to use this profile, press
procedure outlined above.
U
(Use Profile) and follow the profile generation
If you want to examine the profile before activating it, press
If you want to ignore the existing profile, press
C
V
(View Profile).
(Create New Profile) and follow the
profile generation procedure outlined above to create the profile from scratch.
3. Leave aa-genprof by pressing
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24.6.3.9
aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log
aa-logprof is an interactive tool used to review the complain and enforce mode events found
in the log entries in /var/log/audit/audit.log , or directly in the systemd journal (see
Book “Administration Guide” 12 “journalctl: Query the systemd Journal”), and generate new
entries in AppArmor security profiles.
When you run aa-logprof , it begins to scan the log files produced in complain and enforce
mode and, if there are new security events that are not covered by the existing profile set,
it gives suggestions for modifying the profile. aa-logprof uses this information to observe
program behavior.
If a confined program forks and executes another program, aa-logprof sees this and asks the
user which execution mode should be used when launching the child process. The execution
modes ix, px, Px, ux, Ux, cx, Cx, and named profiles, are options for starting the child process.
If a separate profile exists for the child process, the default selection is Px. If one does not exist,
the profile defaults to ix. Child processes with separate profiles have aa-autodep run on them
and are loaded into AppArmor, if it is running.
When aa-logprof exits, profiles are updated with the changes. If AppArmor is active, the
updated profiles are reloaded and, if any processes that generated security events are still running in the null-XXXX profiles (unique profiles temporarily created in complain mode), those
processes are set to run under their proper profiles.
To run aa-logprof , enter aa-logprof into a terminal window while logged in as root . The
following options can be used for aa-logprof :
aa-logprof -d /path/to/profile/directory/
Specifies the full path to the location of the profiles if the profiles are not located in the
standard directory, /etc/apparmor.d/ .
aa-logprof -f /path/to/logfile/
Specifies the full path to the location of the log file if the log file is not located in the
default directory or /var/log/audit/audit.log .
aa-logprof -m "string marker in logfile"
Marks the starting point for aa-logprof to look in the system log. aa-logprof ignores
all events in the system log before the specified mark. If the mark contains spaces, it must
be surrounded by quotes to work correctly. For example:
aa-logprof -m "17:04:21"
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or
aa-logprof -m e2ff78636296f16d0b5301209a04430d
aa-logprof scans the log, asking you how to handle each logged event. Each question presents
a numbered list of AppArmor rules that can be added by pressing the number of the item on
the list.
By default, aa-logprof looks for profiles in /etc/apparmor.d/ . In many cases, running aa-
logprof as root is enough to update the profile. However, there might be times when you
need to search archived log files, such as if the program exercise period exceeds the log rotation
window (when the log file is archived and a new log file is started). If this is the case, you can
enter zcat -f `ls -1tr /path/to/logfile*` | aa-logprof -f - .
24.6.3.10
aa-logprof Example 1
The following is an example of how aa-logprof addresses httpd2-prefork accessing the file /
etc/group . [] indicates the default option.
In this example, the access to /etc/group is part of httpd2-prefork accessing name services.
The appropriate response is 1 , which includes a predefined set of AppArmor rules. Selecting 1
to #include the name service package resolves all of the future questions pertaining to DNS
lookups and also makes the profile less brittle in that any changes to DNS configuration and
the associated name service profile package can be made once, rather than needing to revise
many profiles.
Profile:
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork
Path:
/etc/group
New Mode: r
[1 - #include <abstractions/nameservice>]
2 - /etc/group
[(A)llow] / (D)eny / (N)ew / (G)lob / Glob w/(E)xt / Abo(r)t / (F)inish
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Select one of the following responses:
Select
Enter
Triggers the default action, which is, in this example, allowing access to the specified
directory path entry.
Allow
Allows access to the specified directory path entries. AppArmor suggests file permission
access. For more information about this, refer to Section 21.7, “File Permission Access Modes”.
Deny
Permanently prevents the program from accessing the specified directory path entries.
AppArmor then continues to the next event.
New
Prompts you to enter your own rule for this event, allowing you to specify whatever form
of regular expression you want. If the expression entered does not actually satisfy the event
that prompted the question in the first place, AppArmor asks for confirmation and lets
you reenter the expression.
Glob
Select either a specific path or create a general rule using wild cards that matches on a
broader set of paths. To select any of the offered paths, enter the number that is printed
in front of the paths then decide how to proceed with the selected item.
For more information about globbing syntax, refer to Section 21.6, “Profile Names, Flags, Paths,
and Globbing”.
Glob w/Ext
This modifies the original directory path while retaining the file name extension. For example, /etc/apache2/file.ext becomes /etc/apache2/*.ext , adding the wild card
(asterisk) in place of the file name. This allows the program to access all files in the suggested directory that end with the .ext extension.
Abort
Aborts aa-logprof , losing all rule changes entered so far and leaving all profiles unmodified.
Finish
Closes aa-logprof , saving all rule changes entered so far and modifying all profiles.
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24.6.3.11
aa-logprof Example 2
For example, when profiling vsftpd, see this question:
Profile:
/usr/sbin/vsftpd
Path:
/y2k.jpg
New Mode: r
[1 - /y2k.jpg]
(A)llow / [(D)eny] / (N)ew / (G)lob / Glob w/(E)xt / Abo(r)t / (F)inish
Several items of interest appear in this question. First, note that vsftpd is asking for a path entry
at the top of the tree, even though vsftpd on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop serves FTP files
from /srv/ftp by default. This is because vsftpd uses chroot and, for the portion of the code
inside the chroot jail, AppArmor sees file accesses in terms of the chroot environment rather
than the global absolute path.
The second item of interest is that you might want to grant FTP read access to all JPEG files
in the directory, so you could use Glob w/Ext and use the suggested path of /*.jpg . Doing so
collapses all previous rules granting access to individual .jpg files and forestalls any future
questions pertaining to access to .jpg files.
Finally, you might want to grant more general access to FTP files. If you select Glob in the last
entry, aa-logprof replaces the suggested path of /y2k.jpg with /* . Alternatively, you might
want to grant even more access to the entire directory tree, in which case you could use the
New path option and enter /**.jpg (which would grant access to all .jpg files in the entire
directory tree) or /** (which would grant access to all files in the directory tree).
These items deal with read accesses. Write accesses are similar, except that it is good policy to
be more conservative in your use of regular expressions for write accesses. Dealing with execute
accesses is more complex. Find an example in Example 24.1, “Learning Mode Exception: Controlling
Access to Specific Resources”.
In the following example, the /usr/bin/mail mail client is being profiled and aa-logprof
has discovered that /usr/bin/mail executes /usr/bin/less as a helper application to “page”
long mail messages. Consequently, it presents this prompt:
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/usr/bin/nail -> /usr/bin/less
(I)nherit / (P)rofile / (C)hild / (N)ame / (U)nconfined / (X)ix / (D)eny
Note
The actual executable file for /usr/bin/mail turns out to be /usr/bin/nail , which
is not a typographical error.
The program /usr/bin/less appears to be a simple one for scrolling through text that is more
than one screen long and that is in fact what /usr/bin/mail is using it for. However, less is
actually a large and powerful program that makes use of many other helper applications, such
as tar and rpm .
Tip
Run less on a tar file or an RPM file and it shows you the inventory of these containers.
You do not want to run rpm automatically when reading mail messages (that leads directly
to a Microsoft* Outlook–style virus attack, because RPM has the power to install and modify
system programs), so, in this case, the best choice is to use Inherit. This results in the less program executed from this context running under the profile for /usr/bin/mail . This has two
consequences:
You need to add all of the basic file accesses for /usr/bin/less to the profile for /usr/
bin/mail .
You can avoid adding the helper applications, such as tar and rpm , to the /usr/bin/
mail profile so that when /usr/bin/mail runs /usr/bin/less in this context, the less
program is far less dangerous than it would be without AppArmor protection. Another
option is to use the Cx execute modes. For more information on execute modes, see Section 21.8, “Execute Modes”.
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In other circumstances, you might instead want to use the Profile option. This has the following
effects on aa-logprof :
The rule written into the profile uses px/Px, which forces the transition to the child's own
profile.
aa-logprof constructs a profile for the child and starts building it, in the same way that
it built the parent profile, by assigning events for the child process to the child's profile
and asking the aa-logprof user questions. The profile will also be applied if you run the
child as a stand-alone program.
If a confined program forks and executes another program, aa-logprof sees this and asks the
user which execution mode should be used when launching the child process. The execution
modes of inherit, profile, unconfined, child, named profile, or an option to deny the execution
are presented.
If a separate profile exists for the child process, the default selection is profile. If a profile
does not exist, the default is inherit. The inherit option, or ix , is described in Section 21.7, “File
Permission Access Modes”.
The profile option indicates that the child program should run in its own profile. A secondary
question asks whether to sanitize the environment that the child program inherits from the
parent. If you choose to sanitize the environment, this places the execution modifier Px in your
AppArmor profile. If you select not to sanitize, px is placed in the profile and no environment
sanitizing occurs. The default for the execution mode is Px if you select profile execution mode.
The unconfined execution mode is not recommended and should only be used in cases where
there is no other option to generate a profile for a program reliably. Selecting unconfined opens
a warning dialog asking for confirmation of the choice. If you are sure and choose Yes, a second
dialog ask whether to sanitize the environment. To use the execution mode Ux in your profile,
select Yes. To use the execution mode ux in your profile instead, select No. The default value
selected is Ux for unconfined execution mode.
Important: Running Unconfined
Selecting ux or Ux is very dangerous and provides no enforcement of policy (from a
security perspective) of the resulting execution behavior of the child program.
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24.6.3.12
aa-unconfined—Identifying Unprotected Processes
The aa-unconfined command examines open network ports on your system, compares that
to the set of profiles loaded on your system, and reports network services that do not have
AppArmor profiles. It requires root privileges and that it not be confined by an AppArmor
profile.
aa-unconfined must be run as root to retrieve the process executable link from the /proc
file system. This program is susceptible to the following race conditions:
An unlinked executable is mishandled
A process that dies between netstat(8) and further checks is mishandled
Note
This program lists processes using TCP and UDP only. In short, this program is unsuit-
able for forensics use and is provided only as an aid to profiling all network-accessible
processes in the lab.
24.6.3.13
aa-notify
aa-notify is a handy utility that displays AppArmor notifications in your desktop environ-
ment. This is very convenient if you do not want to inspect the AppArmor log file, but rather
let the desktop inform you about events that violate the policy. To enable AppArmor desktop
notifications, run aa-notify :
sudo aa-notify -p -u username --display display_number
where username is your user name under which you are logged in, and display_number is
the X Window display number you are currently using, such as :0 . The process is run in the
background, and shows a notification each time a deny event happens.
Tip
The active X Window display number is saved in the $DISPLAY variable, so you can use
--display $DISPLAY to avoid finding out the current display number.
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FIGURE 24.1: aa-notify Message in GNOME
With the -s days option, you can also configure aa-notify to display a summary of notifications for the specified number of past days. For more information on aa-notify , see its man
page man 8 aa-notify .
24.6.3.14
apparmor.vim
A syntax highlighting file for the vim text editor highlights various features of an AppArmor
profile with colors. Using vim and the AppArmor syntax mode for vim, you can see the semantic
implications of your profiles with color highlighting. Use vim to view and edit your profile by
typing vim at a terminal window.
To enable the syntax coloring when you edit an AppArmor profile in vim, use the commands
:syntax on then :set syntax=apparmor . To make sure vim recognizes the edited file type
correctly as an AppArmor profile, add
# vim:ft=apparmor
at the end of the profile.
Tip
vim comes with AppArmor highlighting automatically enabled for files in /etc/
apparmor.d/.
When you enable this feature, vim colors the lines of the profile for you:
Blue
Comments
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White
Ordinary read access lines
Brown
Capability statements and complain flags
Yellow
Lines that grant write access
Green
Lines that grant execute permission (either ix or px)
Red
Lines that grant unconfined access (ux)
Red background
Syntax errors that will not load properly into the AppArmor modules
Use the apparmor.vim and vim man pages and the :help syntax from within the vim editor
for further vim help about syntax highlighting. The AppArmor syntax is stored in /usr/share/
vim/current/syntax/apparmor.vim.
24.7 Important File Names and Directories
The following list contains the most important files and directories used by the AppArmor frame-
work. If you intend to manage and troubleshoot your profiles manually, make sure that you
know about these files and directories:
/sys/kernel/security/apparmor/profiles
Virtualized file representing the currently loaded set of profiles.
/etc/apparmor/
Location of AppArmor configuration files.
/etc/apparmor/profiles/extras/
A local repository of profiles shipped with AppArmor, but not enabled by default.
/etc/apparmor.d/
Location of profiles, named with the convention of replacing the / in paths with . (not
for the root / ) so profiles are easier to manage. For example, the profile for the program
/usr/sbin/ntpd is named usr.sbin.ntpd .
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/etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/
Location of abstractions.
/etc/apparmor.d/program-chunks/
Location of program chunks.
/proc/*/attr/current
Check this file to review the confinement status of a process and the profile that is used to
confine the process. The ps auxZ command retrieves this information automatically.
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25 Profiling Your Web Applications Using
ChangeHat
An AppArmor® profile represents the security policy for an individual program instance or
process. It applies to an executable program, but if a portion of the program needs different
access permissions than other portions, the program can “change hats” to use a different security
context, distinctive from the access of the main program. This is known as a hat or subprofile.
ChangeHat enables programs to change to or from a hat within an AppArmor profile. It enables
you to define security at a finer level than the process. This feature requires that each application be made “ChangeHat-aware”, meaning that it is modified to make a request to the AppAr-
mor module to switch security domains at specific times during the application execution. One
example of a ChangeHat-aware application is the Apache Web server.
A profile can have an arbitrary number of subprofiles, but there are only two levels: a subprofile
cannot have further child profiles. A subprofile is written as a separate profile. Its name consists
of the name of the containing profile followed by the subprofile name, separated by a ^ .
Subprofiles are either stored in the same file as the parent profile, or in a separate file. The
latter case is recommended on sites with a large number of hats—it allows the policy caching
to handle changes at the per hat level. If all the hats are in the same file as the parent profile,
then the parent profile and all hats must be recompiled.
An external subprofile that is going to be used as a hat, must begin with the word hat or the
^ character.
The following two subprofiles cannot be used as a hat:
/foo//bar { }
or
profile /foo//bar { }
While the following two are treated as hats:
^/foo//bar { }
or
hat /foo//bar { } # this syntax is not highlighted in vim
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Note that the security of hats is considerably weaker than that of full profiles. Using certain types
of bugs in a program, an attacker may be able to escape from a hat into the containing profile.
This is because the security of hats is determined by a secret key handled by the containing
process, and the code running in the hat must not have access to the key. Thus, change_hat
is most useful in conjunction with application servers, where a language interpreter (such as
PERL, PHP, or Java) is isolating pieces of code such that they do not have direct access to the
memory of the containing process.
The rest of this chapter describes using change_hat in conjunction with Apache, to contain Web
server components run using mod_perl and mod_php. Similar approaches can be used with any
application server by providing an application module similar to the mod_apparmor described
next in Section 25.1.2, “Location and Directory Directives”.
Tip: For More Information
For more information, see the change_hat man page.
25.1 Configuring Apache for mod_apparmor
AppArmor provides a mod_apparmor module (package apache2-mod-apparmor ) for the
Apache program (only included in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server). This module makes the
Apache Web server ChangeHat aware. Install it along with Apache.
When Apache is ChangeHat-aware, it checks for the following customized AppArmor security
profiles in the order given for every URI request that it receives.
URI-specific
hat.
For
example,
^www_app_name/templates/classic/im-
ages/bar_left.gif
DEFAULT_URI
HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT
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Note: Apache Configuration
If you install apache2-mod-apparmor , make sure the module is enabled, and then restart
Apache by executing the following command:
a2enmod apparmor && sudo systemctl reload apache2.service
Apache is configured by placing directives in plain text configuration files. The main configuration file is usually /etc/apache2/httpd.conf . When you compile Apache, you can indicate
the location of this file. Directives can be placed in any of these configuration files to alter the
way Apache behaves. When you make changes to the main configuration files, you need to reload Apache with sudo systemctl reload apache2.service , so the changes are recognized.
25.1.1
Virtual Host Directives
<VirtualHost> and </VirtualHost> directives are used to enclose a group of directives that
will apply only to a particular virtual host. For more information on Apache virtual host directives, refer to http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/en/mod/core.html#virtualhost .
The ChangeHat-specific configuration keyword is AADefaultHatName . It is used similarly to
AAHatName , for example, AADefaultHatName My_Funky_Default_Hat .
It allows you to specify a default hat to be used for virtual hosts and other Apache server di-
rectives, so that you can have different defaults for different virtual hosts. This can be overridden by the AAHatName directive and is checked for only if there is not a matching AAHatName
or hat named by the URI. If the AADefaultHatName hat does not exist, it falls back to the
DEFAULT_URI hat if it exists/
If none of those are matched, it goes back to the “parent” Apache hat.
25.1.2
Location and Directory Directives
Location and directory directives specify hat names in the program configuration file so the
Apache calls the hat regarding its security. For Apache, you can find documentation about the
location and directory directives at http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/en/sections.html .
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The location directive example below specifies that, for a given location, mod_apparmor should
use a specific hat:
<Location /foo/>
AAHatName MY_HAT_NAME
</Location>
This tries to use MY_HAT_NAME for any URI beginning with /foo/ ( /foo/ , /foo/bar , /foo/
cgi/path/blah_blah/blah , etc.).
The directory directive works similarly to the location directive, except it refers to a path in the
file system as in the following example:
<Directory "/srv/www/www.example.org/docs">
# Note lack of trailing slash
AAHatName example.org
</Directory>
25.2 Managing ChangeHat-Aware Applications
In the previous section you learned about mod_apparmor and the way it helps you to secure
a specific Web application. This section walks you through a real-life example of creating a
hat for a Web application, and making use of AppArmor's change_hat feature to secure it. Note
that this chapter focuses on AppArmor's command line tools, as YaST's AppArmor module has
limited functionality.
For illustration purposes, let us choose the Web application called Adminer (http://
www.adminer.org/en/
). It is a full-featured SQL database management tool written in PHP, yet
consisting of a single PHP file. For Adminer to work, you need to set up an Apache Web server,
PHP and its Apache module, and one of the database drivers available for PHP—MariaDB in
this example. You can install the required packages with
zypper in apache2 apache2-mod_apparmor apache2-mod_php5 php5 php5-mysql
To set up the Web environment for running Adminer, follow these steps:
PROCEDURE 25.1: SETTING UP A WEB SERVER ENVIRONMENT
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1. Make sure apparmor and php5 modules are enabled for Apache. To enable the modules
in any case, use:
a2enmod apparmor php5
and then restart Apache with
sudo systemctl restart apache2.service
2. Make sure MariaDB is running. If unsure, restart it with
sudo systemctl restart mysql.service
3. Download Adminer from http://www.adminer.org
, copy it to /srv/www/htdocs/admin-
er/ , and rename it to adminer.php , so that its full path is /srv/www/htdocs/adminer/adminer.php .
4. Test
Adminer in your Web browser by entering
http://localhost/admin-
er/adminer.php in its URI address field. If you installed Adminer to a remote server,
replace localhost with the real host name of the server.
FIGURE 25.1: ADMINER LOG IN PAGE
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Tip
If you encounter problems viewing the Adminer log in page, try to look for help
in the Apache error log /var/log/apache2/error.log . Another reason why you
may not access the Web page may be the fact that your Apache is already under
AppArmor control and its AppArmor profile is too tight to permit viewing Adminer.
Check it with aa-status , and if needed, set Apache temporarily in complain mode
with
aa-complain usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork
After the Web environment for Adminer is ready, you need to configure Apache's mod_apparmor,
so that AppArmor can detect accesses to Adminer and change to the specific “hat”.
PROCEDURE 25.2: CONFIGURING MOD_APPARMOR
1. Apache has several configuration files under /etc/apache2/ and /etc/apache2/
conf.d/ . Choose your preferred one and open it in a text editor. In this example, the vim
editor is used to create a new configuration file /etc/apache2/conf.d/apparmor.conf .
vim /etc/apache2/conf.d/apparmor.conf
2. Copy the following snippet into the edited file.
<Directory /srv/www/htdocs/adminer>
AAHatName adminer
</Directory>
It tells Apache to let AppArmor know about a change_hat event when the Web user ac-
cesses the directory /adminer (and any file/directory inside) in Apache's document root.
Remember, we placed the adminer.php application there.
3. Save the file, close the editor, and restart Apache with
sudo systemctl restart apache2.service
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Apache now knows about our Adminer and changing a “hat” for it. It is time to create the related
hat for Adminer in the AppArmor configuration. If you do not have an AppArmor profile yet, create one before proceeding. Remember that if your Apache's main binary is /usr/sbin/httpd2prefork , then the related profile is named /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork .
PROCEDURE 25.3: CREATING A HAT FOR ADMINER
1. Open (or create one if it does not exist) the file /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.httpd2prefork in a text editor. Its contents should be similar to the following:
#include <tunables/global>
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork {
#include <abstractions/apache2-common>
#include <abstractions/base>
#include <abstractions/php5>
capability kill,
capability setgid,
capability setuid,
/etc/apache2/** r,
/run/httpd.pid rw,
/usr/lib{,32,64}/apache2*/** mr,
/var/log/apache2/** rw,
^DEFAULT_URI {
#include <abstractions/apache2-common>
/var/log/apache2/** rw,
}
^HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT {
#include <abstractions/apache2-common>
/var/log/apache2/** w,
}
}
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2. Before the last closing curly bracket ( } ), insert the following section:
^adminer flags=(complain) {
}
Note the (complain) addition after the hat name—it tells AppArmor to leave the ad-
miner hat in complain mode. That is because we need to learn the hat profile by accessing
Adminer later on.
3. Save the file, and then restart AppArmor, then Apache.
systemctl reload apparmor.service apache2.service
4. Check if the adminer hat really is in complain mode.
# aa-status
apparmor module is loaded.
39 profiles are loaded.
37 profiles are in enforce mode.
[...]
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//DEFAULT_URI
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT
[...]
2 profiles are in complain mode.
/usr/bin/getopt
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//adminer
[...]
As we can see, the httpd2-prefork//adminer is loaded in complain mode.
Our last task is to find out the right set of rules for the adminer hat. That is why we set the
adminer hat into complain mode—the logging facility collects useful information about the
access requirements of adminer.php as we use it via the Web browser. aa-logprof then helps
us with creating the hat's profile.
PROCEDURE 25.4: GENERATING RULES FOR THE adminer HAT
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1. Open Adminer in the Web browser. If you installed it locally, then the URI is http://
localhost/adminer/adminer.php .
2. Choose the database engine you want to use (MariaDB in our case), and log in to Admin-
er using the existing database user name and password. You do not need to specify the
database name as you can do so after logging in. Perform any operations with Adminer
you like—create a new database, create a new table for it, set user privileges, and so on.
3. After the short testing of Adminer's user interface, switch back to console and examine
the log for collected data.
# aa-logprof
Reading log entries from /var/log/messages.
Updating AppArmor profiles in /etc/apparmor.d.
Complain-mode changes:
Profile:
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork^adminer
Path:
/dev/urandom
Mode:
r
Severity: 3
1 - #include <abstractions/apache2-common>
[...]
[8 - /dev/urandom]
[(A)llow] / (D)eny / (G)lob / Glob w/(E)xt / (N)ew / Abo(r)t / (F)inish /
(O)pts
From the aa-logprof message, it is clear that our new adminer hat was correctly detected:
Profile:
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork^adminer
The aa-logprof command will ask you to pick the right rule for each discovered AppAr-
mor event. Specify the one you want to use, and confirm with Allow. For more information on working with the aa-genprof and aa-logprof interface, see Section 24.6.3.8, “aagenprof—Generating Profiles”.
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Tip
aa-logprof usually offers several valid rules for the examined event. Some of
them are abstractions—predefined sets of rules affecting a specific common group
of targets. Sometimes it is useful to include such an abstraction instead of a direct
URI rule:
1 - #include <abstractions/php5>
[2 - /var/lib/php5/sess_3jdmii9cacj1e3jnahbtopajl7p064ai242]
In the example above, it is recommended hitting 1 and confirming with A to allow
the abstraction.
4. After the last change, you will be asked to save the changed profile.
The following local profiles were changed. Would you like to save them?
[1 - /usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork]
(S)ave Changes / [(V)iew Changes] / Abo(r)t
Hit S to save the changes.
5. Set the profile to enforce mode with aa-enforce
aa-enforce usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork
and check its status with aa-status
# aa-status
apparmor module is loaded.
39 profiles are loaded.
38 profiles are in enforce mode.
[...]
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//DEFAULT_URI
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//HANDLING_UNTRUSTED_INPUT
/usr/sbin/httpd2-prefork//adminer
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[...]
As you can see, the //adminer hat jumped from complain to enforce mode.
6. Try to run Adminer in the Web browser, and if you encounter problems running it, switch
it to the complain mode, repeat the steps that previously did not work well, and update
the profile with aa-logprof until you are satisfied with the application's functionality.
Note: Hat and Parent Profile Relationship
The profile ^adminer is only available in the context of a process running under the
parent profile usr.sbin.httpd2-prefork .
25.2.1
Adding Hats and Entries to Hats in YaST
When you use the Edit Profile dialog (for instructions, refer to Section 23.2, “Editing Profiles”) or
when you add a new profile using Manually Add Profile (for instructions, refer to Section 23.1,
“Manually Adding a Profile”), you are given the option of adding hats (subprofiles) to your AppAr-
mor profiles. Add a ChangeHat subprofile from the AppArmor Profile Dialog window as in the
following.
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1. From the AppArmor Profile Dialog window, click Add Entry then select Hat. The Enter Hat
Name dialog opens:
2. Enter the name of the hat to add to the AppArmor profile. The name is the URI that, when
accessed, receives the permissions set in the hat.
3. Click Create Hat. You are returned to the AppArmor Profile Dialog screen.
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4. After adding the new hat, click Done.
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26 Confining Users with pam_apparmor
An AppArmor profile applies to an executable program; if a portion of the program needs differ-
ent access permissions than other portions need, the program can change hats via change_hat to
a different role, also known as a subprofile. The pam_apparmor PAM module allows applications
to confine authenticated users into subprofiles based on group names, user names, or a default
profile. To accomplish this, pam_apparmor needs to be registered as a PAM session module.
The package pam_apparmor is not installed by default, you can install it using YaST or zypper .
Details about how to set up and configure pam_apparmor can be found in /usr/share/doc/
packages/pam_apparmor/README after the package has been installed. For details on PAM,
refer to Chapter 2, Authentication with PAM.
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27 Managing Profiled Applications
After creating profiles and immunizing your applications, SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop be-
comes more efficient and better protected as long as you perform AppArmor® profile mainte-
nance (which involves analyzing log files, refining your profiles, backing up your set of profiles
and keeping it up-to-date). You can deal with these issues before they become a problem by
setting up event notification by e-mail, updating profiles from system log entries by running the
aa-logprof tool, and dealing with maintenance issues.
27.1 Reacting to Security Event Rejections
When you receive a security event rejection, examine the access violation and determine if that
event indicated a threat or was part of normal application behavior. Application-specific knowledge is required to make the determination. If the rejected action is part of normal application
behavior, run aa-logprof at the command line.
If the rejected action is not part of normal application behavior, this access should be considered
a possible intrusion attempt (that was prevented) and this notification should be passed to the
person responsible for security within your organization.
27.2 Maintaining Your Security Profiles
In a production environment, you should plan on maintaining profiles for all of the deployed
applications. The security policies are an integral part of your deployment. You should plan on
taking steps to back up and restore security policy files, plan for software changes, and allow
any needed modification of security policies that your environment dictates.
27.2.1
Backing Up Your Security Profiles
Backing up profiles might save you from having to re-profile all your programs after a disk crash.
Also, if profiles are changed, you can easily restore previous settings by using the backed up files.
Back up profiles by copying the profile files to a specified directory.
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1. You should first archive the files into one file. To do this, open a terminal window and
enter the following as root :
tar zclpf profiles.tgz /etc/apparmor.d
The simplest method to ensure that your security policy files are regularly backed up is to
include the directory /etc/apparmor.d in the list of directories that your backup system
archives.
2. You can also use scp or a file manager like Nautilus to store the files on some kind of
storage media, the network, or another computer.
27.2.2
Changing Your Security Profiles
Maintenance of security profiles includes changing them if you decide that your system requires
more or less security for its applications. To change your profiles in AppArmor, refer to Section 23.2, “Editing Profiles”.
27.2.3
Introducing New Software into Your Environment
When you add a new application version or patch to your system, you should always update
the profile to fit your needs. You have several options, depending on your company's software
deployment strategy. You can deploy your patches and upgrades into a test or production environment. The following explains how to do this with each method.
If you intend to deploy a patch or upgrade in a test environment, the best method for updating
your profiles is to run aa-logprof in a terminal as root . For detailed instructions, refer to
Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log”.
If you intend to deploy a patch or upgrade directly into a production environment, the best
method for updating your profiles is to monitor the system frequently to determine if any new
rejections should be added to the profile and update as needed using aa-logprof . For detailed
instructions, refer to Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log”.
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28 Support
This chapter outlines maintenance-related tasks. Learn how to update AppArmor® and get a
list of available man pages providing basic help for using the command line tools provided by
AppArmor. Use the troubleshooting section to learn about some common problems encountered
with AppArmor and their solutions. Report defects or enhancement requests for AppArmor following the instructions in this chapter.
28.1 Updating AppArmor Online
Updates for AppArmor packages are provided in the same way as any other update for SUSE
Linux Enterprise Desktop. Retrieve and apply them exactly like for any other package that ships
as part of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop.
28.2 Using the Man Pages
There are man pages available for your use. In a terminal, enter man apparmor to open the
AppArmor man page. Man pages are distributed in sections numbered 1 through 8. Each section
is specific to a category of documentation:
TABLE 28.1: MAN PAGES: SECTIONS AND CATEGORIES
Section
Category
1
User commands
2
System calls
3
Library functions
4
Device driver information
5
Configuration file formats
6
Games
7
High level concepts
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Section
Category
8
Administrator commands
The section numbers are used to distinguish man pages from each other. For example, exit(2)
describes the exit system call, while exit(3) describes the exit C library function.
The AppArmor man pages are:
aa-audit(8)
aa-autodep(8)
aa-complain(8)
aa-decode(8)
aa-disable(8)
aa-easyprof(8)
aa-enforce(8)
aa-enxec(8)
aa-genprof(8)
aa-logprof(8)
aa-notify(8)
aa-status(8)
aa-unconfined(8)
aa_change_hat(8)
logprof.conf(5)
apparmor.d(5)
apparmor.vim(5)
apparmor(7)
apparmor_parser(8)
apparmor_status(8)
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28.3 For More Information
Find more information about the AppArmor product at: http://wiki.apparmor.net . Find the
product documentation for AppArmor in the installed system at /usr/share/doc/manual .
There is a mailing list for AppArmor that users can post to or join to communicate with developers. See https://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/apparmor
for details.
28.4 Troubleshooting
This section lists the most common problems and error messages that may occur using AppArmor.
28.4.1
How to React to odd Application Behavior?
If you notice odd application behavior or any other type of application problem, you should
first check the reject messages in the log files to see if AppArmor is too closely constricting your
application. If you detect reject messages that indicate that your application or service is too
closely restricted by AppArmor, update your profile to properly handle your use case of the
application. Do this with aa-logprof (Section 24.6.3.9, “aa-logprof—Scanning the System Log”).
If you decide to run your application or service without AppArmor protection, remove the
application's profile from /etc/apparmor.d or move it to another location.
28.4.2
My Profiles do not Seem to Work Anymore …
If you have been using previous versions of AppArmor and have updated your system (but kept
your old set of profiles) you might notice some applications which seemed to work perfectly
before you updated behaving strangely, or not working at all.
This version of AppArmor introduces a set of new features to the profile syntax and the AppAr-
mor tools that might cause trouble with older versions of the AppArmor profiles. Those features
are:
File Locking
Network Access Control
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The SYS_PTRACE Capability
Directory Path Access
The current version of AppArmor mediates file locking and introduces a new permission mode
( k ) for this. Applications requesting file locking permission might misbehave or fail altogether
if confined by older profiles which do not explicitly contain permissions to lock files. If you
suspect this being the case, check the log file under /var/log/audit/audit.log for entries
like the following:
type=AVC msg=audit(1389862802.727:13939): apparmor="DENIED" \
operation="file_lock" parent=2692 profile="/usr/bin/opera" \
name="/home/tux/.qt/.qtrc.lock" pid=28730 comm="httpd2-prefork" \
requested_mask="::k" denied_mask="::k" fsuid=30 ouid=0
Update the profile using the aa-logprof command as outlined below.
The new network access control syntax based on the network family and type specification,
described in Section 21.5, “Network Access Control”, might cause application misbehavior or even
stop applications from working. If you notice a network-related application behaving strangely,
check the log file under /var/log/audit/audit.log for entries like the following:
type=AVC msg=audit(1389864332.233:13947): apparmor="DENIED" \
operation="socket_create" family="inet" parent=29985 profile="/bin/ping" \
sock_type="raw" pid=30251 comm="ping"
This log entry means that our example application, /bin/ping in this case, failed to get
AppArmor's permission to open a network connection. This permission needs to be explicitly
stated to make sure that an application has network access. To update the profile to the new
syntax, use the aa-logprof command as outlined below.
The current kernel requires the SYS_PTRACE capability, if a process tries to access files in /
proc/pid/fd/* . New profiles need an entry for the file and the capability, where old profiles
only needed the file entry. For example:
/proc/*/fd/**
rw,
in the old syntax would translate to the following rules in the new syntax:
capability SYS_PTRACE,
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/proc/*/fd/**
rw,
To update the profile to the new syntax, use the YaST Update Profile Wizard or the aa-logprof
command as outlined below.
With this version of AppArmor, a few changes have been made to the profile rule syntax to better
distinguish directory from file access. Therefore, some rules matching both file and directory
paths in the previous version might now match a file path only. This could lead to AppArmor not
being able to access a crucial directory at all, and thus trigger misbehavior of your application
and various log messages. The following examples highlight the most important changes to the
path syntax.
Using the old syntax, the following rule would allow access to files and directories in /proc/
net . It would allow directory access only to read the entries in the directory, but not give access
to files or directories under the directory, e.g. /proc/net/dir/foo would be matched by the
asterisk (*), but as foo is a file or directory under dir , it cannot be accessed.
/proc/net/*
r,
To get the same behavior using the new syntax, you need two rules instead of one. The first
allows access to the file under /proc/net and the second allows access to directories under
/proc/net . Directory access can only be used for listing the contents, not actually accessing
files or directories underneath the directory.
/proc/net/*
/proc/net/*/
r,
r,
The following rule works similarly both under the old and the new syntax, and allows access to
both files and directories under /proc/net (but does not allow a directory listing of /proc/
net/ itself):
/proc/net/**
r,
To distinguish file access from directory access using the above expression in the new syntax,
use the following two rules. The first one only allows to recursively access directories under /
proc/net while the second one explicitly allows for recursive file access only.
/proc/net/**/
r,
/proc/net/**[^/]
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r,
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The following rule works similarly both under the old and the new syntax and allows access to
both files and directories beginning with foo under /proc/net :
/proc/net/foo**
r,
To distinguish file access from directory access in the new syntax and use the ** globbing
pattern, use the following two rules. The first one would have matched both files and directories
in the old syntax, but only matches files in the new syntax because of the missing trailing slash.
The second rule matched neither file nor directory in the old syntax, but matches directories
only in the new syntax:
/proc/net/**foo
r,
/proc/net/**foo/
r,
The following rules illustrate how the use of the ? globbing pattern has changed. In the old
syntax, the first rule would have matched both files and directories (four characters, last char-
acter could be any but a slash). In the new syntax, it matches only files (trailing slash is missing).
The second rule would match nothing in the old profile syntax, but matches directories only in
the new syntax. The last rule matches explicitly matches a file called bar under /proc/net/
foo? . Using the old syntax, this rule would have applied to both files and directories:
/proc/net/foo?
/proc/net/foo?/
r,
r,
/proc/net/foo?/bar
r,
To find and resolve issues related to syntax changes, take some time after the update to check the
profiles you want to keep and proceed as follows for each application you kept the profile for:
1. Put the application's profile into complain mode:
aa-complain /path/to/application
Log entries are made for any actions violating the current profile, but the profile is not
enforced and the application's behavior not restricted.
2. Run the application covering all the tasks you need this application to be able to perform.
3. Update the profile according to the log entries made while running the application:
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aa-logprof /path/to/application
4. Put the resulting profile back into enforce mode:
aa-enforce /path/to/application
28.4.3
Resolving Issues with Apache
After installing additional Apache modules (like apache2-mod_apparmor ) or making configu-
ration changes to Apache, profile Apache again to find out if additional rules need to be added
to the profile. If you do not profile Apache again, it could be unable to start properly or be
unable to serve Web pages.
28.4.4 How to Exclude Certain Profiles from the List of Profiles Used?
Run aa-disable PROGRAMNAME to disable the profile for PROGRAMNAME . This command creates
a symbolic link to the profile in /etc/apparmor.d/disable/ . In order to reactivate the profile,
delete the link, and run systemctl reload apparmor.service .
28.4.5 Can I Manage Profiles for Applications not Installed on
my System?
Managing profiles with AppArmor requires you to have access to the log of the system on which
the application is running. So you do not need to run the application on your profile build host as
long as you have access to the machine that runs the application. You can run the application on
one system, transfer the logs ( /var/log/audit.log or, if audit is not installed, journalctl
| grep -i apparmor > path_to_logfile ) to your profile build host and run aa-logprof
-f path_to_logfile .
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28.4.6
How to Spot and fix AppArmor Syntax Errors?
Manually editing AppArmor profiles can introduce syntax errors. If you attempt to start or restart
AppArmor with syntax errors in your profiles, error results are shown. This example shows the
syntax of the entire parser error.
localhost:~ # rcapparmor start
Loading AppArmor profiles AppArmor parser error in /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.squid at
line 410: syntax error, unexpected TOK_ID, expecting TOK_MODE
Profile /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.squid failed to load
Using the AppArmor YaST tools, a graphical error message indicates which profile contained
the error and requests you to fix it.
To fix a syntax error, log in to a terminal window as root , open the profile, and correct the
syntax. Reload the profile set with systemctl reload apparmor.service .
Tip: AppArmor Syntax Highlighting in vi
The editor vi on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop supports syntax highlighting for Ap-
pArmor profiles. Lines containing syntax errors will be displayed with a red background.
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28.5 Reporting Bugs for AppArmor
The developers of AppArmor are eager to deliver products of the highest quality. Your feedback
and your bug reports help us keep the quality high. Whenever you encounter a bug in AppArmor,
file a bug report against this product:
1. Use your Web browser to go to http://bugzilla.suse.com/index.cgi
.
2. Enter the account data of your Novell account and click Login
or
Create a new Novell account as follows:
a. Click Create New Account on the Login to Continue page.
b. Provide a user name and password and additional address data and click Create Login
to immediately proceed with the login creation.
or
Provide data on other Novell accounts you maintain to synchronize all these to one
account.
3. Check whether a problem similar to yours has already been reported by clicking Search
Reports. Use a quick search against a given product and keyword or use the Advanced
Search.
4. If your problem has already been reported, check this bug report and add extra information
to it, if necessary.
5. If your problem has not been reported yet, select New from the top navigation bar and
proceed to the Enter Bug page.
6. Select the product against which to file the bug. In your case, this would be your product's
release. Click Submit.
7. Select the product version, component (AppArmor in this case), hardware platform, and
severity.
8. Enter a brief headline describing your problem and add a more elaborate description
including log files. You may create attachments to your bug report for screenshots, log
files, or test cases.
9. Click Submit after you have entered all the details to send your report to the developers.
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29 AppArmor Glossary
Abstraction
See profile foundation classes below.
Apache
Apache is a freely-available Unix-based Web server. It is currently the most commonly
used Web server on the Internet. Find more information about Apache at the Apache Web
site at http://www.apache.org .
application firewalling
AppArmor confines applications and limits the actions they are permitted to take. It uses
privilege confinement to prevent attackers from using malicious programs on the protected
server and even using trusted applications in unintended ways.
attack signature
Pattern in system or network activity that alerts of a possible virus or hacker attack. Intrusion detection systems might use attack signatures to distinguish between legitimate
and potentially malicious activity.
By not relying on attack signatures, AppArmor provides "proactive" instead of "reactive"
defense from attacks. This is better because there is no window of vulnerability where
the attack signature must be defined for AppArmor as it does for products using attack
signatures.
GUI
Graphical user interface. Refers to a software front-end meant to provide an attractive
and easy-to-use interface between a computer user and application. Its elements include
windows, icons, buttons, cursors, and scrollbars.
globbing
File name substitution. Instead of specifying explicit file name paths, you can use helper
characters * (substitutes any number of characters except special ones such as / or ? )
and ? (substitutes exactly one character) to address multiple files/directories at once. **
is a special substitution that matches any file or directory below the current directory.
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HIP
Host intrusion prevention. Works with the operating system kernel to block abnormal
application behavior in the expectation that the abnormal behavior represents an unknown
attack. Blocks malicious packets on the host at the network level before they can “hurt”
the application they target.
mandatory access control
A means of restricting access to objects that is based on fixed security attributes assigned
to users, files, and other objects. The controls are mandatory in the sense that they cannot
be modified by users or their programs.
profile
AppArmor profile completely defines what system resources an individual application can
access, and with what privileges.
profile foundation classes
Profile building blocks needed for common application activities, such as DNS lookup and
user authentication.
RPM
The RPM Package Manager. An open packaging system available for anyone to use. It
works on Red Hat Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and other Linux and Unix sys-
tems. It is capable of installing, uninstalling, verifying, querying, and updating computer
software packages. See http://www.rpm.org/
for more information.
SSH
Secure Shell. A service that allows you to access your server from a remote computer and
issue text commands through a secure connection.
streamlined access control
AppArmor provides streamlined access control for network services by specifying which
files each program is allowed to read, write, and execute. This ensures that each program
does what it is supposed to do and nothing else.
URI
Universal resource identifier. The generic term for all types of names and addresses that
refer to objects on the World Wide Web. A URL is one kind of URI.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator. The global address of documents and other resources on the
Web.
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The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use and the second part specifies
the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located.
For example, when you visit http://www.suse.com , you are using the HTTP protocol,
as the beginning of the URL indicates.
vulnerabilities
An aspect of a system or network that leaves it open to attack. Characteristics of computer
systems that allow an individual to keep it from correctly operating or that allows unau-
thorized users to take control of the system. Design, administrative, or implementation
weaknesses or flaws in hardware, firmware, or software. If exploited, a vulnerability could
lead to an unacceptable impact in the form of unauthorized access to information or the
disruption of critical processing.
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V The Linux Audit Framework
30
Understanding Linux Audit 277
31
Setting Up the Linux Audit Framework 318
32
Introducing an Audit Rule Set 331
33
Useful Resources 344
30 Understanding Linux Audit
The Linux audit framework as shipped with this version of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop
provides a CAPP-compliant (Controlled Access Protection Profiles) auditing system that reliably collects information about any security-relevant event. The audit records can be exam-
ined to determine whether any violation of the security policies has been committed, and by
whom.
Providing an audit framework is an important requirement for a CC-CAPP/EAL (Common Cri-
teria-Controlled Access Protection Profiles/Evaluation Assurance Level) certification. Common
Criteria (CC) for Information Technology Security Information is an international standard for
independent security evaluations. Common Criteria helps customers judge the security level
of any IT product they intend to deploy in mission-critical setups.
Common Criteria security evaluations have two sets of evaluation requirements, functional
and assurance requirements. Functional requirements describe the security attributes of the
product under evaluation and are summarized under the Controlled Access Protection Profiles
(CAPP). Assurance requirements are summarized under the Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL).
EAL describes any activities that must take place for the evaluators to be confident that secu-
rity attributes are present, effective, and implemented. Examples for activities of this kind include documenting the developers' search for security vulnerabilities, the patch process, and
testing.
This guide provides a basic understanding of how audit works and how it can be set up. For
more information about Common Criteria itself, refer to the Common Criteria Web site (http://
www.commoncriteriaportal.org/)
.
Linux audit helps make your system more secure by providing you with a means to analyze what
is happening on your system in great detail. It does not, however, provide additional security
itself—it does not protect your system from code malfunctions or any kind of exploits. Instead,
audit is useful for tracking these issues and helps you take additional security measures, like
AppArmor, to prevent them.
Audit consists of several components, each contributing crucial functionality to the overall
framework. The audit kernel module intercepts the system calls and records the relevant events.
The auditd daemon writes the audit reports to disk. Various command line utilities take care
of displaying, querying, and archiving the audit trail.
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Audit enables you to do the following:
Associate Users with Processes
Audit maps processes to the user ID that started them. This makes it possible for the ad-
ministrator or security officer to exactly trace which user owns which process and is potentially doing malicious operations on the system.
Important: Renaming User IDs
Audit does not handle the renaming of UIDs. Therefore avoid renaming UIDs (for
example, changing tux from uid=1001 to uid=2000 ) and obsolete UIDs rather
than renaming them. Otherwise you would need to change auditctl data (audit
rules) and would have problems retrieving old data correctly.
Review the Audit Trail
Linux audit provides tools that write the audit reports to disk and translate them into
human readable format.
Review Particular Audit Events
Audit provides a utility that allows you to filter the audit reports for certain events of
interest. You can filter for:
User
Group
Audit ID
Remote Host Name
Remote Host Address
System Call
System Call Arguments
File
File Operations
Success or Failure
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Apply a Selective Audit
Audit provides the means to filter the audit reports for events of interest and also to tune
audit to record only selected events. You can create your own set of rules and have the
audit daemon record only those of interest to you.
Guarantee the Availability of the Report Data
Audit reports are owned by root and therefore only removable by root . Unauthorized
users cannot remove the audit logs.
Prevent Audit Data Loss
If the kernel runs out of memory, the audit daemon's backlog is exceeded, or its rate limit is
exceeded, audit can trigger a shutdown of the system to keep events from escaping audit's
control. This shutdown would be an immediate halt of the system triggered by the audit
kernel component without synchronizing the latest logs to disk. The default configuration
is to log a warning to syslog rather than to halt the system.
If the system runs out of disk space when logging, the audit system can be configured to
perform clean shutdown. The default configuration tells the audit daemon to stop logging
when it runs out of disk space.
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30.1 Introducing the Components of Linux Audit
The following figure illustrates how the various components of audit interact with each other:
auditd.conf
audit.rules
auditctl
audispd
aureport
auditd
audit.log
application
autrace
ausearch
audit
kernel
FIGURE 30.1: INTRODUCING THE COMPONENTS OF LINUX AUDIT
Straight arrows represent the data flow between components while dashed arrows represent
lines of control between components.
auditd
The audit daemon is responsible for writing the audit messages that were generated
through the audit kernel interface and triggered by application and system activity to disk.
The way the audit daemon is started is controlled by systemd . The audit system functions
(when started) are controlled by /etc/audit/auditd.conf . For more information about
auditd and its configuration, refer to Section 30.2, “Configuring the Audit Daemon”.
auditctl
The auditctl utility controls the audit system. It controls the log generation parameters
and kernel settings of the audit interface as well as the rule sets that determine which
events are tracked. For more information about auditctl , refer to Section 30.3, “Controlling
the Audit System Using auditctl”.
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audit rules
The file /etc/audit/audit.rules contains a sequence of auditctl commands that
are loaded at system boot time immediately after the audit daemon is started. For more
information about audit rules, refer to Section 30.4, “Passing Parameters to the Audit System”.
aureport
The aureport utility allows you to create custom reports from the audit event log. This
report generation can easily be scripted, and the output can be used by various other
applications, for example, to plot these results. For more information about aureport ,
refer to Section 30.5, “Understanding the Audit Logs and Generating Reports”.
ausearch
The ausearch utility can search the audit log file for certain events using various keys or
other characteristics of the logged format. For more information about ausearch , refer
to Section 30.6, “Querying the Audit Daemon Logs with ausearch”.
audispd
The audit dispatcher daemon ( audispd ) can be used to relay event notifications to other
applications instead of (or in addition to) writing them to disk in the audit log. For more
information about audispd , refer to Section 30.9, “Relaying Audit Event Notifications”.
autrace
The autrace utility traces individual processes in a fashion similar to strace . The output
of autrace is logged to the audit log. For more information about autrace , refer to
Section 30.7, “Analyzing Processes with autrace”.
aulast
Prints a list of the last logged-in users, similarly to last . aulast searches back through
the audit logs (or the given audit log file) and displays a list of all users logged in and out
based on the range of time in the audit logs.
aulastlog
Prints the last login for all users of a machine similar to the way lastlog does. The login
name, port, and last login time will be printed.
30.2 Configuring the Audit Daemon
Before you can actually start generating audit logs and processing them, configure the audit
daemon itself. Configure how the Audit system functions in /etc/audit/auditd.conf .
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The most important configuration parameters in /etc/sysconfig/auditd are:
AUDITD_LANG="en_US"
AUDITD_DISABLE_CONTEXTS="no"
AUDITD_LANG
The locale information used by audit. The default setting is en_US . Setting it to none
would remove all locale information from audit's environment.
AUDITD_DISABLE_CONTEXTS
Disable system call auditing by default. Set to no for full audit functionality including file
and directory watches and system call auditing.
The /etc/audit/auditd.conf configuration file determines how the audit system functions
when the daemon has been started. For most use cases, the default settings shipped with SUSE
Linux Enterprise Desktop should suffice. For CAPP environments, most of these parameters need
tweaking. The following list briefly introduces the parameters available:
log_file = /var/log/audit/audit.log
log_format = RAW
log_group = root
priority_boost = 4
flush = INCREMENTAL
freq = 20
num_logs = 5
disp_qos = lossy
dispatcher = /sbin/audispd
name_format = NONE
##name = mydomain
max_log_file = 6
max_log_file_action = ROTATE
space_left = 75
space_left_action = SYSLOG
action_mail_acct = root
admin_space_left = 50
admin_space_left_action = SUSPEND
disk_full_action = SUSPEND
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disk_error_action = SUSPEND
##tcp_listen_port =
tcp_listen_queue = 5
tcp_max_per_addr = 1
##tcp_client_ports = 1024-65535
tcp_client_max_idle = 0
cp_client_max_idle = 0
Depending on whether you want your environment to satisfy the requirements of CAPP, you
need to be extra restrictive when configuring the audit daemon. Where you need to use particular settings to meet the CAPP requirements, a “CAPP Environment” note tells you how to
adjust the configuration.
log_file , log_format and log_group
log_file specifies the location where the audit logs should be stored. log_format de-
termines how the audit information is written to disk and log_group defines the group
that owns the log files. Possible values for log_format are raw (messages are stored
exactly as the kernel sends them) or nolog (messages are discarded and not written to
disk). The data sent to the audit dispatcher is not affected if you use the nolog mode.
The default setting is raw and you should keep it if you want to be able to create reports
and queries against the audit logs using the aureport and ausearch tools. The value for
log_group can either be specified literally or using the group's ID.
Note: CAPP Environment
In a CAPP environment, have the audit log reside on its own partition. By doing so,
you can be sure that the space detection of the audit daemon is accurate and that
you do not have other processes consuming this space.
priority_boost
Determine how much of a priority boost the audit daemon should get. Possible values are
0 to 20. The resulting nice value calculates like this: 0 - priority_boost
flush and freq
Specifies whether, how, and how often the audit logs should be written to disk. Valid
values for flush are none , incremental , data , and sync . none tells the audit daemon
not to make any special effort to write the audit data to disk. incremental tells the audit
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daemon to explicitly flush the data to disk. A frequency must be specified if incremental
is used. A freq value of 20 tells the audit daemon to request that the kernel flush the
data to disk after every 20 records. The data option keeps the data portion of the disk file
synchronized at all times while the sync option takes care of both metadata and data.
Note: CAPP Environment
In a CAPP environment, make sure that the audit trail is always fully up to date and
complete. Therefore, use sync or data with the flush parameter.
num_logs
Specify the number of log files to keep if you have given
rotate
as the
max_log_file_action . Possible values range from 0 to 99 . A value less than 2 means
that the log files are not rotated at all. As you increase the number of files to rotate, you
increase the amount of work required of the audit daemon. While doing this rotation,
auditd cannot always service new data that is arriving from the kernel as quickly, which
can result in a backlog condition (triggering auditd to react according to the failure flag,
described in Section 30.3, “Controlling the Audit System Using auditctl”). In this situation, increasing the backlog limit is recommended. Do so by changing the value of the -b parameter in the /etc/audit/audit.rules file.
disp_qos and dispatcher
The dispatcher is started by the audit daemon during its start. The audit daemon relays
the audit messages to the application specified in dispatcher . This application must be
a highly trusted one, because it needs to run as root . disp_qos determines whether
you allow for lossy or lossless communication between the audit daemon and the
dispatcher.
If you select lossy , the audit daemon might discard some audit messages when the message queue is full. These events still get written to disk if log_format is set to raw , but
they might not get through to the dispatcher. If you select lossless the audit logging
to disk is blocked until there is an empty spot in the message queue. The default value
is lossy .
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name_format and name
name_format controls how computer names are resolved. Possible values are none (no
name will be used), hostname (value returned by gethostname), fqd (fully qualified host
name as received through a DNS lookup), numeric (IP address) and user . user is a
custom string that needs to be defined with the name parameter.
max_log_file and max_log_file_action
max_log_file takes a numerical value that specifies the maximum file size in megabytes
that the log file can reach before a configurable action is triggered. The action to be taken is specified in max_log_file_action . Possible values for max_log_file_action are
ignore , syslog , suspend , rotate , and keep_logs . ignore tells the audit daemon
to do nothing when the size limit is reached, syslog tells it to issue a warning and send
it to syslog, and suspend causes the audit daemon to stop writing logs to disk, leaving
the daemon itself still alive. rotate triggers log rotation using the num_logs setting.
keep_logs also triggers log rotation, but does not use the num_log setting, so always
keeps all logs.
Note: CAPP Environment
To keep a complete audit trail in CAPP environments, the keep_logs option should
be used. If using a separate partition to hold your audit logs, adjust max_log_file
and num_logs to use the entire space available on that partition. Note that the more
files that need to be rotated, the longer it takes to get back to receiving audit events.
space_left and space_left_action
space_left takes a numerical value in megabytes of remaining disk space that triggers a
configurable action by the audit daemon. The action is specified in space_left_action .
Possible values for this parameter are ignore , syslog , email , exec , suspend , single ,
and halt . ignore tells the audit daemon to ignore the warning and do nothing, syslog
has it issue a warning to syslog, and email sends an e-mail to the account specified under
action_mail_acct . exec plus a path to a script executes the given script. Note that it
is not possible to pass parameters to the script. suspend tells the audit daemon to stop
writing to disk but remain alive while single triggers the system to be brought down to
single user mode. halt triggers a full shutdown of the system.
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Note: CAPP Environment
Make sure that space_left is set to a value that gives the administrator enough
time to react to the alert and allows it to free enough disk space for the audit
daemon to continue to work. Freeing disk space would involve calling aureport
-t and archiving the oldest logs on a separate archiving partition or resource.
The actual value for space_left depends on the size of your deployment. Set
space_left_action to email .
action_mail_acct
Specify an e-mail address or alias to which any alert messages should be sent. The default
setting is root , but you can enter any local or remote account as long as e-mail and the
network are properly configured on your system and /usr/lib/sendmail exists.
admin_space_left and admin_space_left_action
admin_space_left takes a numerical value in megabytes of remaining disk space. The
system is already running low on disk space when this limit is reached and the adminis-
trator has one last chance to react to this alert and free disk space for the audit logs. The
value of admin_space_left should be lower than the value for space_left . The possible values for admin_space_left_action are the same as for space_left_action .
Note: CAPP Environment
Set admin_space_left to a value that would allow the administrator's actions to
be recorded. The action should be set to single .
disk_full_action
Specify which action to take when the system runs out of disk space for the audit logs. The
possible values are the same as for space_left_action .
Note: CAPP Environment
As the disk_full_action is triggered when there is absolutely no more room for
any audit logs, you should bring the system down to single-user mode ( single ) or
shut it down completely ( halt ).
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disk_error_action
Specify which action to take when the audit daemon encounters any kind of disk error
while writing the logs to disk or rotating the logs. The possible value are the same as for
space_left_action .
Note: CAPP Environment
Use syslog , single , or halt depending on your site's policies regarding the handling of any kind of hardware failure.
tcp_listen_port , tcp_listen_queue , tcp_client_ports , tcp_client_max_idle , and
tcp_max_per_addr
The audit daemon can receive audit events from other audit daemons. The tcp parameters let you control incoming connections. Specify a port between 1 and 65535 with
tcp_listen_port on which the auditd will listen. tcp_listen_queue lets you config-
ure a maximum value for pending connections. Make sure not to set a value too small,
since the number of pending connections may be high under certain circumstances, such
as after a power outage. tcp_client_ports defines which client ports are allowed. Ei-
ther specify a single port or a port range with numbers separated by a dash (for example
1-1023 for all privileged ports).
Specifying a single allowed client port may make it difficult for the client to restart their
audit subsystem, as it will be unable to re-create a connection with the same host addresses
and ports until the connection closure TIME_WAIT state times out. If a client does not
respond anymore, auditd complains. Specify the number of seconds after which this will
happen with tcp_client_max_idle . Keep in mind that this setting is valid for all clients
and therefore should be higher than any individual client heartbeat setting, preferably by
a factor of two. tcp_max_per_addr is a numeric value representing how many concurrent
connections from one IP address are allowed.
Tip
We recommend using privileged ports for client and server to prevent non-root
(CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE) programs from binding to those ports.
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When the daemon configuration in /etc/audit/auditd.conf is complete, the next step is to
focus on controlling the amount of auditing the daemon does, and to assign sufficient resources
and limits to the daemon so it can operate smoothly.
30.3 Controlling the Audit System Using auditctl
auditctl is responsible for controlling the status and some basic system parameters of the
audit daemon. It controls the amount of auditing performed on the system. Using audit rules,
auditctl controls which components of your system are subjected to the audit and to what
extent they are audited. Audit rules can be passed to the audit daemon on the auditctl com-
mand line as well as by composing a rule set and instructing the audit daemon to process this
file. By default, the auditd daemon is configured to check for audit rules under /etc/au-
dit/audit.rules . For more details on audit rules, refer to Section 30.4, “Passing Parameters to
the Audit System”.
The main auditctl commands to control basic audit system parameters are:
auditctl -e to enable or disable audit
auditctl -f to control the failure flag
auditctl -r to control the rate limit for audit messages
auditctl -b to control the backlog limit
auditctl -s to query the current status of the audit daemon
Tip
Before running auditctl -S on your system, add -F arch=b64 to prevent the
architecture mismatch warning.
The -e , -f , -r , and -b options can also be specified in the audit.rules file to avoid having
to enter them each time the audit daemon is started.
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Any time you query the status of the audit daemon with auditctl -s or change the status
flag with auditctl -eflag , a status message (including information on each of the above-
mentioned parameters) is printed. The following example highlights the typical audit status
message.
EXAMPLE 30.1: EXAMPLE OUTPUT OF auditctl -s
AUDIT_STATUS: enabled=1 flag=2 pid=3105 rate_limit=0 backlog_limit=8192 lost=0
backlog=0
TABLE 30.1: AUDIT STATUS FLAGS
Flag
Meaning [Possible Values]
Command
enabled
Set the enable flag. [0..2]
auditctl -e [0|1|2]
0=disable, 1=enable,
2=enable and lock down the
configuration
flag
Set the failure flag. [0..2]
0=silent, 1=printk, 2=pan-
auditctl -f [0|1|2]
ic (immediate halt without
synchronizing pending data
to disk)
pid
Process ID under which au-
—
rate_limit
Set a limit in messages per
auditctl -r rate
ditd is running.
second. If the rate is not zero
and is exceeded, the action
specified in the failure flag is
triggered.
backlog_limit
Specify the maximum number of outstanding audit
auditctl -b backlog
buffers allowed. If all buffers
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Flag
Meaning [Possible Values]
Command
are full, the action speci-
fied in the failure flag is triggered.
lost
Count the current number of
—
backlog
Count the current number of
—
lost audit messages.
outstanding audit buffers.
30.4 Passing Parameters to the Audit System
Commands to control the audit system can be invoked individually from the shell using au-
ditctl or batch read from a file using auditctl -R . This latter method is used by the init
scripts to load rules from the file /etc/audit/audit.rules after the audit daemon has been
started. The rules are executed in order from top to bottom. Each of these rules would expand
to a separate auditctl command. The syntax used in the rules file is the same as that used
for the auditctl command.
Changes made to the running audit system by executing auditctl on the command line
are not persistent across system restarts. For changes to persist, add them to the /etc/au-
dit/audit.rules file and, if they are not currently loaded into audit, restart the audit system
to load the modified rule set by using the systemctl restart auditd.service command.
EXAMPLE 30.2: EXAMPLE AUDIT RULES—AUDIT SYSTEM PARAMETERS
-b 1000
-f 1
2
-r 10
-e 1
1
1
3
4
Specify the maximum number of outstanding audit buffers. Depending on the level of logging activity, you might need to adjust the number of buffers to avoid causing too heavy
an audit load on your system.
2
290
Specify the failure flag to use. See Table 30.1, “Audit Status Flags” for possible values.
Passing Parameters to the Audit System
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3
Specify the maximum number of messages per second that may be issued by the kernel.
See Table 30.1, “Audit Status Flags” for details.
4
Enable or disable the audit subsystem.
Using audit, you can track any kind of file system access to important files, configurations
or resources. You can add watches on these and assign keys to each kind of watch for better
identification in the logs.
EXAMPLE 30.3: EXAMPLE AUDIT RULES—FILE SYSTEM AUDITING
-w /etc/shadow
-w /etc -p rx
1
2
-w /etc/passwd -k fk_passwd -p rwxa
1
3
The -w option tells audit to add a watch to the file specified, in this case /etc/shadow .
All system calls requesting access permissions to this file are analyzed.
2
This rule adds a watch to the /etc directory and applies permission filtering for read
and execute access to this directory ( -p rx ). Any system call requesting any of these two
permissions is analyzed. Only the creation of new files and the deletion of existing ones are
logged as directory-related events. To get more specific events for files located under this
particular directory, you should add a separate rule for each file. A file must exist before
you add a rule containing a watch on it. Auditing files as they are created is not supported.
3
This rule adds a file watch to /etc/passwd . Permission filtering is applied for read, write,
execute, and attribute change permissions. The -k option allows you to specify a key to
use to filter the audit logs for this particular event later (for example with ausearch ). You
may use the same key on different rules in order to be able to group rules when searching
for them. It is also possible to apply multiple keys to a rule.
System call auditing lets you track your system's behavior on a level even below the application
level. When designing these rules, consider that auditing a great many system calls may increase
your system load and cause you to run out of disk space. Consider carefully which events need
tracking and how they can be filtered to be even more specific.
EXAMPLE 30.4: EXAMPLE AUDIT RULES—SYSTEM CALL AUDITING
-a exit,always -S mkdir
1
-a exit,always -S access -F a1=4
-a exit,always -S ipc -F a0=2
2
3
-a exit,always -S open -F success!=0
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-a task,always -F auid=0
5
-a task,always -F uid=0 -F auid=501 -F gid=wheel
6
This rule activates auditing for the mkdir system call. The -a option adds system call rules.
1
This rule triggers an event whenever the mkdir system call is entered ( exit , always ).
The -S option specifies the system call to which this rule should be applied.
This rule adds auditing to the access system call, but only if the second argument of the
2
system call ( mode ) is 4 ( R_OK ). exit,always tells audit to add an audit context to this
system call when entering it, and to write out a report as soon as it gets audited.
This rule adds an audit context to the IPC multiplexed system call. The specific ipc
3
system call is passed as the first syscall argument and can be selected using -F
a0=ipc_call_number .
4
This rule audits failed attempts to call open.
5
This rule is an example of a task rule (keyword: task ). It is different from the other rules
above in that it applies to processes that are forked or cloned. To filter these kind of events,
you can only use fields that are known at fork time, such as UID, GID, and AUID. This
example rule filters for all tasks carrying an audit ID of 0 .
This last rule makes heavy use of filters. All filter options are combined with a logical AND
6
operator, meaning that this rule applies to all tasks that carry the audit ID of 501 , run as
root , and have wheel as the group. A process is given an audit ID on user login. This ID
is then handed down to any child process started by the initial process of the user. Even
if the user changes his identity, the audit ID stays the same and allows tracing actions to
the original user.
Tip: Filtering System Call Arguments
For more details on filtering system call arguments, refer to Section 32.6, “Filtering System
Call Arguments”.
You cannot only add rules to the audit system, but also remove them. There are different methods for deleting the entire rule set at once or for deleting system call rules or file and directory
watches:
EXAMPLE 30.5: DELETING AUDIT RULES AND EVENTS
-D
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1
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-d exit,always -S mkdir
-W /etc
1
2
3
Clear the queue of audit rules and delete any preexisting rules. This rule is used as the first
rule in /etc/audit/audit.rules files to make sure that the rules that are about to be
added do not clash with any preexisting ones. The auditctl -D command is also used
before doing an autrace to avoid having the trace rules clash with any rules present in
the audit.rules file.
2
This rule deletes a system call rule. The -d option must precede any system call rule that
needs to be deleted from the rule queue, and must match exactly.
3
This rule tells audit to discard the rule with the directory watch on /etc from the rules
queue. This rule deletes any rule containing a directory watch on /etc , regardless of any
permission filtering or key options.
To get an overview of which rules are currently in use in your audit setup, run auditctl -l .
This command displays all rules with one rule per line.
EXAMPLE 30.6: LISTING RULES WITH auditctl -l
exit,always watch=/etc perm=rx
exit,always watch=/etc/passwd perm=rwxa key=fk_passwd
exit,always watch=/etc/shadow perm=rwxa
exit,always syscall=mkdir
exit,always a1=4 (0x4) syscall=access
exit,always a0=2 (0x2) syscall=ipc
exit,always success!=0 syscall=open
Note: Creating Filter Rules
You can build very sophisticated audit rules by using the various filter options. Refer to
the auditctl(8) man page for more information about the options available for building
audit filter rules, and audit rules in general.
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30.5 Understanding the Audit Logs and Generating Reports
To understand what the aureport utility does, it is vital to know how the logs generated by
the audit daemon are structured, and what exactly is recorded for an event. Only then can you
decide which report types are most appropriate for your needs.
30.5.1
Understanding the Audit Logs
The following examples highlight two typical events that are logged by audit and how their
trails in the audit log are read. The audit log or logs (if log rotation is enabled) are stored in the
/var/log/audit directory. The first example is a simple less command. The second example
covers a great deal of PAM activity in the logs when a user tries to remotely log in to a machine
running audit.
EXAMPLE 30.7: A SIMPLE AUDIT EVENT—VIEWING THE AUDIT LOG
type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1234874638.599:5207): arch=c000003e syscall=2 success=yes
exit=4 a0=62fb60 a1=0 a2=31 a3=0 items=1 ppid=25400 pid
=25616 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0 fsgid=0 tty=pts1
ses=1164 comm="less" exe="/usr/bin/less" key="doc_log"
type=CWD msg=audit(1234874638.599:5207):
cwd="/root"
type=PATH msg=audit(1234874638.599:5207): item=0 name="/var/log/audit/audit.log"
inode=1219041 dev=08:06 mode=0100644 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
The above event, a simple less /var/log/audit/audit.log , wrote three messages to the log.
All of them are closely linked together and you would not be able to make sense of one of them
without the others. The first message reveals the following information:
type
The type of event recorded. In this case, it assigns the SYSCALL type to an event triggered
by a system call. The CWD event was recorded to record the current working directory at
the time of the syscall. A PATH event is generated for each path passed to the system call.
The open system call takes only one path argument, so only generates one PATH event.
It is important to understand that the PATH event reports the path name string argument
without any further interpretation, so a relative path requires manual combination with
the path reported by the CWD event to determine the object accessed.
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msg
A message ID enclosed in brackets. The ID splits into two parts. All characters before the
: represent a Unix epoch time stamp. The number after the colon represents the actual
event ID. All events that are logged from one application's system call have the same event
ID. If the application makes a second system call, it gets another event ID.
arch
References the CPU architecture of the system call. Decode this information using the -i
option on any of your ausearch commands when searching the logs.
syscall
The type of system call as it would have been printed by an strace on this particular system
call. This data is taken from the list of system calls under /usr/include/asm/unistd.h
and may vary depending on the architecture. In this case, syscall=2 refers to the open
system call (see man open(2) ) invoked by the less application.
success
Whether the system call succeeded or failed.
exit
The exit value returned by the system call. For the open system call used in this example,
this is the file descriptor number. This varies by system call.
a0 to a3
The first four arguments to the system call in numeric form. The values of these are system
call dependent. In this example (an open system call), the following are used:
a0=62fb60 a1=8000 a2=31 a3=0
a0 is the start address of the passed path name. a1 is the flags. 8000 in hex notation
translates to 100000 in octal notation, which in turn translates to O_LARGEFILE . a2 is
the mode, which, because O_CREAT was not specified, is unused. a3 is not passed by the
open system call. Check the manual page of the relevant system call to find out which
arguments are used with it.
items
The number of strings passed to the application.
ppid
295
The process ID of the parent of the process analyzed.
Understanding the Audit Logs
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pid
auid
The process ID of the process analyzed.
The audit ID. A process is given an audit ID on user login. This ID is then handed down
to any child process started by the initial process of the user. Even if the user changes his
identity (for example, becomes root ), the audit ID stays the same. Thus you can always
trace actions to the original user who logged in.
uid
gid
The user ID of the user who started the process. In this case, 0 for root .
The group ID of the user who started the process. In this case, 0 for root .
euid , suid , fsuid
Effective user ID, set user ID, and file system user ID of the user that started the process.
egid , sgid , fsgid
Effective group ID, set group ID, and file system group ID of the user that started the
process.
tty
The terminal from which the application was started. In this case, a pseudo-terminal used
in an SSH session.
ses
The login session ID. This process attribute is set when a user logs in and can tie any
process to a particular user login.
comm
exe
subj
The application name under which it appears in the task list.
The resolved path name to the binary program.
auditd records whether the process is subject to any security context, such as AppArmor.
unconstrained , as in this case, means that the process is not confined with AppArmor.
If the process had been confined, the binary path name plus the AppArmor profile mode
would have been logged.
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key
If you are auditing a large number of directories or files, assign key strings to each of
these watches. You can use these keys with ausearch to search the logs for events of
this type only.
The second message triggered by the example less call does not reveal anything apart from
the current working directory when the less command was executed.
The third message reveals the following (the type and message flags have already been introduced):
item
In this example, item references the a0 argument—a path—that is associated with the
original SYSCALL message. Had the original call had more than one path argument (such
as a cp or mv command), an additional PATH event would have been logged for the
second path argument.
name
Refers to the path name passed as an argument to the open system call.
inode
Refers to the inode number corresponding to name .
dev
Specifies the device on which the file is stored. In this case, 08:06 , which stands for /
dev/sda1 or “first partition on the first IDE device.”
mode
Numerical representation of the file's access permissions. In this case, root has read and
write permissions and his group ( root ) has read access while the entire rest of the world
cannot access the file.
ouid and ogid
Refer to the UID and GID of the inode itself.
rdev
Not applicable for this example. The rdev entry only applies to block or character devices,
not to files.
Example 30.8, “An Advanced Audit Event—Login via SSH” highlights the audit events triggered by
an incoming SSH connection. Most of the messages are related to the PAM stack and reflect
the different stages of the SSH PAM process. Several of the audit messages carry nested PAM
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messages in them that signify that a particular stage of the PAM process has been reached.
Although the PAM messages are logged by audit, audit assigns its own message type to each
event:
EXAMPLE 30.8: AN ADVANCED AUDIT EVENT—LOGIN VIA SSH
type=USER_AUTH msg=audit(1234877011.791:7731): user pid=26127 uid=0
1
auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:authentication acct="root" exe="/usr/
sbin/sshd"
(hostname=jupiter.example.com, addr=192.168.2.100, terminal=ssh res=success)'
type=USER_ACCT msg=audit(1234877011.795:7732): user pid=26127 uid=0
2
auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:accounting acct="root" exe="/usr/sbin/
sshd"
(hostname=jupiter.example.com, addr=192.168.2.100, terminal=ssh res=success)'
type=CRED_ACQ msg=audit(1234877011.799:7733): user pid=26125 uid=0
3
auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:setcred acct="root" exe="/usr/sbin/sshd"
(hostname=jupiter.example.com, addr=192.168.2.100, terminal=/dev/pts/0 res=success)'
type=LOGIN msg=audit(1234877011.799:7734): login pid=26125 uid=0
old auid=4294967295 new auid=0 old ses=4294967295 new ses=1172
type=USER_START msg=audit(1234877011.799:7735): user pid=26125 uid=0
4
auid=0 ses=1172 msg='op=PAM:session_open acct="root" exe="/usr/sbin/sshd"
(hostname=jupiter.example.com, addr=192.168.2.100, terminal=/dev/pts/0 res=success)'
type=USER_LOGIN msg=audit(1234877011.823:7736): user pid=26128 uid=0
5
auid=0 ses=1172 msg='uid=0: exe="/usr/sbin/sshd"
(hostname=jupiter.example.com, addr=192.168.2.100, terminal=/dev/pts/0 res=success)'
type=CRED_REFR msg=audit(1234877011.828:7737): user pid=26128 uid=0
6
auid=0 ses=1172 msg='op=PAM:setcred acct="root" exe="/usr/sbin/sshd"
(hostname=jupiter.example.com, addr=192.168.2.100, terminal=/dev/pts/0 res=success)'
1
PAM reports that is has successfully requested user authentication for root from a remote
host (jupiter.example.com, 192.168.2.100). The terminal where this is happening is ssh .
2
PAM reports that it has successfully determined whether the user is authorized to log in.
3
PAM reports that the appropriate credentials to log in have been acquired and that the
terminal changed to a normal terminal ( /dev/pts0 ).
4
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PAM reports that it has successfully opened a session for root .
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5
The user has successfully logged in. This event is the one used by aureport -l to report
about user logins.
6
PAM reports that the credentials have been successfully reacquired.
30.5.2
Generating Custom Audit Reports
The raw audit reports stored in the /var/log/audit directory tend to become very bulky and
hard to understand. To more easily find relevant messages, use the aureport utility and create
custom reports.
The following use cases highlight a few of the possible report types that you can generate with
aureport :
Read Audit Logs from Another File
When the audit logs have moved to another machine or when you want to analyze the logs
of a number of machines on your local machine without wanting to connect to each of
these individually, move the logs to a local file and have aureport analyze them locally:
aureport -if myfile
Summary Report
======================
Range of time in logs: 03/02/09 14:13:38.225 - 17/02/09 14:52:27.971
Selected time for report: 03/02/09 14:13:38 - 17/02/09 14:52:27.971
Number of changes in configuration: 13
Number of changes to accounts, groups, or roles: 0
Number of logins: 6
Number of failed logins: 13
Number of authentications: 7
Number of failed authentications: 573
Number of users: 1
Number of terminals: 9
Number of host names: 4
Number of executables: 17
Number of files: 279
Number of AVC's: 0
Number of MAC events: 0
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Number of failed syscalls: 994
Number of anomaly events: 0
Number of responses to anomaly events: 0
Number of crypto events: 0
Number of keys: 2
Number of process IDs: 1211
Number of events: 5320
The above command, aureport without any arguments, provides only the standard general summary report generated from the logs contained in myfile . To create more de-
tailed reports, combine the -if option with any of the options below. For example, generate a login report that is limited to a certain time frame:
aureport -l -ts 14:00 -te 15:00 -if myfile
Login Report
============================================
# date time auid host term exe success event
============================================
1. 17/02/09 14:21:09 root: 192.168.2.100 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd no 7718
2. 17/02/09 14:21:15 0 jupiter /dev/pts/3 /usr/sbin/sshd yes 7724
Convert Numeric Entities to Text
Some information, such as user IDs, are printed in numeric form. To convert these into a
human-readable text format, add the -i option to your aureport command.
Create a Rough Summary Report
If you are interested in the current audit statistics (events, logins, processes, etc.), run
aureport without any other option.
Create a Summary Report of Failed Events
If you want to break down the overall statistics of plain aureport to the statistics of failed
events, use aureport --failed :
aureport --failed
Failed Summary Report
======================
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Range of time in logs: 03/02/09 14:13:38.225 - 17/02/09 14:57:35.183
Selected time for report: 03/02/09 14:13:38 - 17/02/09 14:57:35.183
Number of changes in configuration: 0
Number of changes to accounts, groups, or roles: 0
Number of logins: 0
Number of failed logins: 13
Number of authentications: 0
Number of failed authentications: 574
Number of users: 1
Number of terminals: 5
Number of host names: 4
Number of executables: 11
Number of files: 77
Number of AVC's: 0
Number of MAC events: 0
Number of failed syscalls: 994
Number of anomaly events: 0
Number of responses to anomaly events: 0
Number of crypto events: 0
Number of keys: 2
Number of process IDs: 708
Number of events: 1583
Create a Summary Report of Successful Events
If you want to break down the overall statistics of a plain aureport to the statistics of
successful events, use aureport --success :
aureport --success
Success Summary Report
======================
Range of time in logs: 03/02/09 14:13:38.225 - 17/02/09 15:00:01.535
Selected time for report: 03/02/09 14:13:38 - 17/02/09 15:00:01.535
Number of changes in configuration: 13
Number of changes to accounts, groups, or roles: 0
Number of logins: 6
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Number of failed logins: 0
Number of authentications: 7
Number of failed authentications: 0
Number of users: 1
Number of terminals: 7
Number of host names: 3
Number of executables: 16
Number of files: 215
Number of AVC's: 0
Number of MAC events: 0
Number of failed syscalls: 0
Number of anomaly events: 0
Number of responses to anomaly events: 0
Number of crypto events: 0
Number of keys: 2
Number of process IDs: 558
Number of events: 3739
Create Summary Reports
In addition to the dedicated summary reports (main summary and failed and success summary), use the --summary option with most of the other options to create summary re-
ports for a particular area of interest only. Not all reports support this option, however.
This example creates a summary report for user login events:
aureport -u -i --summary
User Summary Report
===========================
total
auid
===========================
5640
13
3
302
root
tux
wilber
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Create a Report of Events
To get an overview of the events logged by audit, use the aureport -e command. This
command generates a numbered list of all events including date, time, event number, event
type, and audit ID.
aureport -e -ts 14:00 -te 14:21
Event Report
===================================
# date time event type auid success
===================================
1. 17/02/09 14:20:27 7462 DAEMON_START 0 yes
2. 17/02/09 14:20:27 7715 CONFIG_CHANGE 0 yes
3. 17/02/09 14:20:57 7716 USER_END 0 yes
4. 17/02/09 14:20:57 7717 CRED_DISP 0 yes
5. 17/02/09 14:21:09 7718 USER_LOGIN -1 no
6. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7719 USER_AUTH -1 yes
7. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7720 USER_ACCT -1 yes
8. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7721 CRED_ACQ -1 yes
9. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7722 LOGIN 0 yes
10. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7723 USER_START 0 yes
11. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7724 USER_LOGIN 0 yes
12. 17/02/09 14:21:15 7725 CRED_REFR 0 yes
Create a Report from All Process Events
To analyze the log from a process's point of view, use the aureport -p command. This
command generates a numbered list of all process events including date, time, process ID,
name of the executable, system call, audit ID, and event number.
aureport -p
Process ID Report
======================================
# date time pid exe syscall auid event
======================================
1. 13/02/09 15:30:01 32742 /usr/sbin/cron 0 0 35
2. 13/02/09 15:30:01 32742 /usr/sbin/cron 0 0 36
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3. 13/02/09 15:38:34 32734 /usr/lib/gdm/gdm-session-worker 0 -1 37
Create a Report from All System Call Events
To analyze the audit log from a system call's point of view, use the aureport -s command.
This command generates a numbered list of all system call events including date, time,
number of the system call, process ID, name of the command that used this call, audit ID,
and event number.
aureport -s
Syscall Report
=======================================
# date time syscall pid comm auid event
=======================================
1. 16/02/09 17:45:01 2 20343 cron -1 2279
2. 16/02/09 17:45:02 83 20350 mktemp 0 2284
3. 16/02/09 17:45:02 83 20351 mkdir 0 2285
Create a Report from All Executable Events
To analyze the audit log from an executable's point of view, use the aureport -x com-
mand. This command generates a numbered list of all executable events including date,
time, name of the executable, the terminal it is run in, the host executing it, the audit ID,
and event number.
aureport -x
Executable Report
====================================
# date time exe term host auid event
====================================
1. 13/02/09 15:08:26 /usr/sbin/sshd sshd 192.168.2.100 -1 12
2. 13/02/09 15:08:28 /usr/lib/gdm/gdm-session-worker :0 ? -1 13
3. 13/02/09 15:08:28 /usr/sbin/sshd ssh 192.168.2.100 -1 14
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Create a Report about Files
To generate a report from the audit log that focuses on file access, use the aureport -
f command. This command generates a numbered list of all file-related events including
date, time, name of the accessed file, number of the system call accessing it, success or
failure of the command, the executable accessing the file, audit ID, and event number.
aureport -f
File Report
===============================================
# date time file syscall success exe auid event
===============================================
1. 16/02/09 17:45:01 /etc/shadow 2 yes /usr/sbin/cron -1 2279
2. 16/02/09 17:45:02 /tmp/ 83 yes /bin/mktemp 0 2284
3. 16/02/09 17:45:02 /var 83 no /bin/mkdir 0 2285
Create a Report about Users
To generate a report from the audit log that illustrates which users are running what
executables on your system, use the aureport -u command. This command generates a
numbered list of all user-related events including date, time, audit ID, terminal used, host,
name of the executable, and an event ID.
aureport -u
User ID Report
====================================
# date time auid term host exe event
====================================
1. 13/02/09 15:08:26 -1 sshd 192.168.2.100 /usr/sbin/sshd 12
2. 13/02/09 15:08:28 -1 :0 ? /usr/lib/gdm/gdm-session-worker 13
3. 14/02/09 08:25:39 -1 ssh 192.168.2.101 /usr/sbin/sshd 14
Create a Report about Logins
To create a report that focuses on login attempts to your machine, run the aureport -l
command. This command generates a numbered list of all login-related events including
date, time, audit ID, host and terminal used, name of the executable, success or failure of
the attempt, and an event ID.
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aureport -l -i
Login Report
============================================
# date time auid host term exe success event
============================================
1. 13/02/09 15:08:31 tux: 192.168.2.100 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd no 19
2. 16/02/09 12:39:05 root: 192.168.2.101 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd no 2108
3. 17/02/09 15:29:07 geeko: ? tty3 /bin/login yes 7809
Limit a Report to a Certain Time Frame
To analyze the logs for a particular time frame, such as only the working hours of Feb 16,
2009, first find out whether this data is contained in the current audit.log or whether
the logs have been rotated in by running aureport -t :
aureport -t
Log Time Range Report
=====================
/var/log/audit/audit.log: 03/02/09 14:13:38.225 - 17/02/09 15:30:01.636
The current audit.log contains all the desired data. Otherwise, use the -if option to
point the aureport commands to the log file that contains the needed data.
Then, specify the start date and time and the end date and time of the desired time frame
and combine it with the report option needed. This example focuses on login attempts:
aureport -ts 02/16/09 8:00 -te 02/16/09 18:00 -l
Login Report
============================================
# date time auid host term exe success event
============================================
1. 16/02/09 12:39:05 root: 192.168.2.100 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd no 2108
2. 16/02/09 12:39:12 0 192.168.2.100 /dev/pts/1 /usr/sbin/sshd yes 2114
3. 16/02/09 13:09:28 root: 192.168.2.100 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd no 2131
4. 16/02/09 13:09:32 root: 192.168.2.100 sshd /usr/sbin/sshd no 2133
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5. 16/02/09 13:09:37 0 192.168.2.100 /dev/pts/2 /usr/sbin/sshd yes 2139
The start date and time are specified with the -ts option. Any event that has a time
stamp equal to or after your given start time appears in the report. If you omit the date,
aureport assumes that you meant today. If you omit the time, it assumes that the start
time should be midnight of the date specified. Use the 24 clock notation rather than the 12
hour one and adjust the date format to your locale (specified in /etc/sysconfig/audit
under AUDITD_LANG , default is en_US ).
Specify the end date and time with the -te option. Any event that has a time stamp equal
to or before your given event time appears in the report. If you omit the date, aureport
assumes that you meant today. If you omit the time, it assumes that the end time should
be now. Use the same format for the date and time as for -ts .
All reports except the summary ones are printed in column format and sent to STDOUT, which
means that this data can be piped to other commands very easily. The visualization scripts
introduced in Section 30.8, “Visualizing Audit Data” are examples of how to further process the data
generated by audit.
30.6 Querying the Audit Daemon Logs with
ausearch
The aureport tool helps you to create overall summaries of what is happening on the system,
but if you are interested in the details of a particular event, ausearch is the tool to use.
ausearch allows you to search the audit logs using special keys and search phrases that relate
to most of the flags that appear in event messages in /var/log/audit/audit.log . Not all
record types contain the same search phrases. There are no hostname or uid entries in a PATH
record, for example.
When searching, make sure that you choose appropriate search criteria to catch all records you
need. On the other hand, you could be searching for a specific type of record and still get various
other related records along with it. This is caused by different parts of the kernel contributing
additional records for events that are related to the one to find. For example, you would always
get a PATH record along with the SYSCALL record for an open system call.
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Tip: Using Multiple Search Options
Any of the command line options can be combined with logical AND operators to narrow
down your search.
Read Audit Logs from Another File
When the audit logs have moved to another machine or when you want to analyze the
logs of a number of machines on your local machine without wanting to connect to each
of these individually, move the logs to a local file and have ausearch search them locally:
ausearch -option -if myfile
Convert Numeric Results into Text
Some information, such as user IDs are printed in numeric form. To convert these into
human readable text format, add the -i option to your ausearch command.
Search by Audit Event ID
If you have previously run an audit report or done an autrace , you might want to analyze
the trail of a particular event in the log. Most of the report types described in Section 30.5,
“Understanding the Audit Logs and Generating Reports” include audit event IDs in their output.
An audit event ID is the second part of an audit message ID, which consists of a Unix epoch
time stamp and the audit event ID separated by a colon. All events that are logged from
one application's system call have the same event ID. Use this event ID with ausearch
to retrieve this event's trail from the log.
Use a command similar to the following:
ausearch -a 5207
---time->Tue Feb 17 13:43:58 2009
type=PATH msg=audit(1234874638.599:5207): item=0 name="/var/log/audit/
audit.log" inode=1219041 dev=08:06 mode=0100644 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
type=CWD msg=audit(1234874638.599:5207):
cwd="/root"
type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1234874638.599:5207): arch=c000003e syscall=2
success=yes exit=4 a0=62fb60 a1=0 a2=31 a3=0 items=1 ppid=25400 pid=25616
auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0 fsgid=0 tty=pts1
ses=1164 comm="less" exe="/usr/bin/less" key="doc_log"
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The ausearch -a command grabs all records in the logs that are related to the audit
event ID provided and displays them. This option can be combined with any other option.
Search by Message Type
To search for audit records of a particular message type, use the ausearch
-m
message_type command. Examples of valid message types include PATH , SYSCALL , and
USER_LOGIN . Running ausearch -m without a message type displays a list of all message
types.
Search by Login ID
To view records associated with a particular login user ID, use the ausearch -ul com-
mand. It displays any records related to the user login ID specified provided that user had
been able to log in successfully.
Search by User ID
View records related to any of the user IDs (both user ID and effective user ID) with
ausearch -ua . View reports related to a particular user ID with ausearch -ui uid .
Search for records related to a particular effective user ID, use the ausearch -ue euid .
Searching for a user ID means the user ID of the user creating a process. Searching for an
effective user ID means the user ID and privileges that are required to run this process.
Search by Group ID
View records related to any of the group IDs (both group ID and effective group ID) with
the ausearch -ga command. View reports related to a particular user ID with ausearch
-gi gid . Search for records related to a particular effective group ID, use ausearch ge egid .
Search by Command Line Name
View records related to a certain command, using the ausearch -c comm_name command,
for example, ausearch -c less for all records related to the less command.
Search by Executable Name
View records related to a certain executable with the ausearch -x exe command, for
example ausearch -x /usr/bin/less for all records related to the /usr/bin/less
executable.
Search by System Call Name
View records related to a certain system call with the ausearch -sc syscall command,
for example, ausearch -sc open for all records related to the open system call.
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Search by Process ID
View records related to a certain process ID with the ausearch -p pid command, for
example ausearch -p 13368 for all records related to this process ID.
Search by Event or System Call Success Value
View records containing a certain system call success value with ausearch
success_value , for example, ausearch -sv yes for all successful system calls.
-sv
Search by File Name
View records containing a certain file name with ausearch -f file_name , for example,
ausearch -f /foo/bar for all records related to the /foo/bar file. Using the file name
alone would work as well, but using relative paths does not work.
Search by Terminal
View records of events related to a certain terminal only with ausearch -tm term , for
example, ausearch -tm ssh to view all records related to events on the SSH terminal
and ausearch -tm tty to view all events related to the console.
Search by Host Name
View records related to a certain remote host name with ausearch -hn host_name , for
example, ausearch -hn jupiter.example.com . You can use a host name, fully qualified
domain name, or numeric network address.
Search by Key Field
View records that contain a certain key assigned in the audit rule set to identify events of
a particular type. Use the ausearch -k key_field , for example, ausearch -k CFG_etc
to display any records containing the CFG_etc key.
Search by Word
View records that contain a certain string assigned in the audit rule set to identify events of
a particular type. The whole string will be matched on file name, host name, and terminal.
Use the ausearch -w word .
Limit a Search to a Certain Time Frame
Use -ts and -te to limit the scope of your searches to a certain time frame. The -ts
option is used to specify the start date and time and the -te option is used to specify the
end date and time. These options can be combined with any of the above. The use of these
options is similar to use with aureport .
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30.7 Analyzing Processes with autrace
In addition to monitoring your system using the rules you set up, you can also perform dedicated
audits of individual processes using the autrace command. autrace works similarly to the
strace command, but gathers slightly different information. The output of autrace is written
to /var/log/audit/audit.log and does not look any different from the standard audit log
entries.
When performing an autrace on a process, make sure that any audit rules are purged from the
queue to avoid these rules clashing with the ones autrace adds itself. Delete the audit rules
with the auditctl -D command. This stops all normal auditing.
auditctl -D
No rules
autrace /usr/bin/less /etc/sysconfig/auditd
Waiting to execute: /usr/bin/less
Cleaning up...
No rules
Trace complete. You can locate the records with 'ausearch -i -p 7642'
Always use the full path to the executable to track with autrace . After the trace is complete,
autrace provides the event ID of the trace, so you can analyze the entire data trail with ause-
arch . To restore the audit system to use the audit rule set again, restart the audit daemon with
systemctl restart auditd.service .
30.8 Visualizing Audit Data
Neither the data trail in /var/log/audit/audit.log nor the different report types generated
by aureport , described in Section 30.5.2, “Generating Custom Audit Reports”, provide an intuitive
reading experience to the user. The aureport output is formatted in columns and thus easily
available to any sed, Perl, or awk scripts that users might connect to the audit framework to
visualize the audit data.
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The visualization scripts (see Section 31.6, “Configuring Log Visualization”) are one example of how
to use standard Linux tools available with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop or any other Linux
distribution to create easy-to-read audit output. The following examples help you understand
how the plain audit reports can be transformed into human readable graphics.
The first example illustrates the relationship of programs and system calls. To get to this kind
of data, you need to determine the appropriate aureport command that delivers the source
data from which to generate the final graphic:
aureport -s -i
Syscall Report
=======================================
# date time syscall pid comm auid event
=======================================
1. 16/02/09 17:45:01 open 20343 cron unset 2279
2. 16/02/09 17:45:02 mkdir 20350 mktemp root 2284
3. 16/02/09 17:45:02 mkdir 20351 mkdir root 2285
...
The first thing that the visualization script needs to do on this report is to extract only those
columns that are of interest, in this example, the syscall and the comm columns. The output
is sorted and duplicates removed then the final output is piped into the visualization program
itself:
LC_ALL=C aureport -s -i | awk '/^[0-9]/ { print $6" "$4 }' | sort | uniq | mkgraph
Note: Adjusting the Locale
Depending on your choice of locale in /etc/sysconfig/auditd , your aureport output
might contain an additional data column for AM/PM on time stamps. To avoid having
this confuse your scripts, precede your script calls with LC_ALL=C to reset the locale and
use the 24 hour time format.
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FIGURE 30.2: FLOW GRAPH—PROGRAM VERSUS SYSTEM CALL RELATIONSHIP
The second example illustrates the different types of events and how many of each type have
been logged. The appropriate aureport command to extract this kind of information is aureport -e :
aureport -e -i --summary
Event Summary Report
======================
total
type
======================
2434
SYSCALL
816
USER_START
816
USER_ACCT
814
CRED_ACQ
810
LOGIN
806
CRED_DISP
779
USER_END
99
CONFIG_CHANGE
52
USER_LOGIN
Because this type of report already contains a two column output, it is only fed into the visualization script and transformed into a bar chart.
aureport -e -i --summary
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FIGURE 30.3: BAR CHART—COMMON EVENT TYPES
For background information about the visualization of audit data, refer to the Web site of the
audit project at http://people.redhat.com/sgrubb/audit/visualize/index.html .
30.9 Relaying Audit Event Notifications
The auditing system also allows external applications to access and make use of the auditd
daemon in real time. This feature is provided by so called audit dispatcher which allows, for
example, intrusion detection systems to use auditd to receive enhanced detection information.
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audispd is a daemon which controls the audit dispatcher. It is normally started by auditd .
audispd takes audit events and distributes them to the programs which want to analyze them
in real time. Configuration of auditd is stored in /etc/audisp/audispd.conf . The file has
the following options:
q_depth
Specifies the size of the event dispatcher internal queue. If syslog complains about audit
events getting dropped, increase this value. Default is 80.
overflow_action
Specifies the way the audit daemon will react to the internal queue overflow. Possible
values are ignore (nothing happens), syslog (issues a warning to syslog), suspend
(audispd will stop processing events), single (the computer system will be put in single
user mode), or halt (shuts the system down).
priority_boost
Specifies the priority for the audit event dispatcher (in addition to the audit daemon priority itself). Default is 4 which means no change in priority.
name_format
Specifies the way the computer node name is inserted into the audit event. Possible values
are none (no computer name is inserted), hostname (name returned by the gethostname
system call), fqd (fully qualified domain name of the machine), numeric (IP address of
the machine), or user (user defined string from the name option). Default is none .
name
Specifies a user defined string which identifies the machine. The name_format option
must be set to user , otherwise this option is ignored.
max_restarts
A non-negative number that tells the audit event dispatcher how many times it can try to
restart a crashed plug-in. The default is 10.
EXAMPLE 30.9: EXAMPLE /ETC/AUDISP/AUDISPD.CONF
q_depth = 80
overflow_action = SYSLOG
priority_boost = 4
name_format = HOSTNAME
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#name = mydomain
The plug-in programs install their configuration files in a special directory dedicated to audispd
plug-ins. It is /etc/audisp/plugins.d by default. The plug-in configuration files have the
following options:
active
Specifies if the program will make use of audispd . Possible values are yes or no .
direction
Specifies the way the plug-in was designed to communicate with audit. It informs the event
dispatcher in which directions the events flow. Possible values are in or out .
path
Specifies the absolute path to the plug-in executable. In case of internal plug-ins, this
option specifies the plug-in name.
type
Specifies the way the plug-in is to be run. Possible values are builtin or always . Use
builtin for internal plug-ins ( af_unix and syslog ) and always for most (if not all)
other plug-ins. Default is always .
args
Specifies the argument that is passed to the plug-in program. Normally, plug-in programs
read their arguments from their configuration file and do not need to receive any arguments. There is a limit of 2 arguments.
format
Specifies the format of data that the audit dispatcher passes to the plug-in program. Valid
options are binary or string . binary passes the data exactly as the event dispatcher
receives them from the audit daemon. string instructs the dispatcher to change the event
into a string that is parsable by the audit parsing library. Default is string .
EXAMPLE 30.10: EXAMPLE /ETC/AUDISP/PLUGINS.D/SYSLOG.CONF
active = no
direction = out
path = builtin_syslog
type = builtin
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args = LOG_INFO
format = string
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31 Setting Up the Linux Audit Framework
This chapter shows how to set up a simple audit scenario. Every step involved in configuring
and enabling audit is explained in detail. After you have learned to set up audit, consider a
real-world example scenario in Chapter 32, Introducing an Audit Rule Set.
To set up audit on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, you need to complete the following steps:
PROCEDURE 31.1: SETTING UP THE LINUX AUDIT FRAMEWORK
1. Make sure that all required packages are installed: audit , audit-libs , and optionally
audit-libs-python . To use the log visualization as described in Section 31.6, “Configuring
Log Visualization”, install gnuplot and graphviz from the SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop
media.
2. Determine the components to audit. Refer to Section 31.1, “Determining the Components to
Audit” for details.
3. Check or modify the basic audit daemon configuration. Refer to Section 31.2, “Configuring
the Audit Daemon” for details.
4. Enable auditing for system calls. Refer to Section 31.3, “Enabling Audit for System Calls” for
details.
5. Compose audit rules to suit your scenario. Refer to Section 31.4, “Setting Up Audit Rules” for
details.
6. Generate logs and configure tailor-made reports. Refer to Section 31.5, “Configuring Audit
Reports” for details.
7. Configure optional log visualization. Refer to Section 31.6, “Configuring Log Visualization” for
details.
Important: Controlling the Audit Daemon
Before configuring any of the components of the audit system, make sure that the audit
daemon is not running by entering systemctl status auditd.service as root . On
a default SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop system, audit is started on boot, so you need
to turn it off by entering systemctl stop auditd.service . Start the daemon after
configuring it with systemctl start auditd.service .
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31.1 Determining the Components to Audit
Before starting to create your own audit configuration, determine to which degree you want to
use it. Check the following general rules to determine which use case best applies to you and
your requirements:
If you require a full security audit for CAPP/EAL certification, enable full audit for system
calls and configure watches on various configuration files and directories, similar to the
rule set featured in Chapter 32, Introducing an Audit Rule Set.
If you need to trace a process based on the audit rules, use autrace .
If you require file and directory watches to track access to important or security-sensitive data, create a rule set matching these requirements. Enable audit as described in Section 31.3, “Enabling Audit for System Calls” and proceed to Section 31.4, “Setting Up Audit Rules”.
31.2 Configuring the Audit Daemon
The basic setup of the audit daemon is done by editing /etc/audit/auditd.conf . You may
also use YaST to configure the basic settings by calling YaST Security and Users Linux Audit
Framework (LAF). Use the tabs Log File and Disk Space for configuration.
log_file = /var/log/audit/audit.log
log_format = RAW
log_group = root
priority_boost = 4
flush = INCREMENTAL
freq = 20
num_logs = 5
disp_qos = lossy
dispatcher = /sbin/audispd
name_format = NONE
##name = mydomain
max_log_file = 6
max_log_file_action = ROTATE
space_left = 75
space_left_action = SYSLOG
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action_mail_acct = root
admin_space_left = 50
admin_space_left_action = SUSPEND
disk_full_action = SUSPEND
disk_error_action = SUSPEND
##tcp_listen_port =
tcp_listen_queue = 5
tcp_max_per_addr = 1
##tcp_client_ports = 1024-65535
tcp_client_max_idle = 0
cp_client_max_idle = 0
The default settings work reasonably well for many setups. Some values, such as num_logs ,
max_log_file , space_left , and admin_space_left depend on the size of your deployment.
If disk space is limited, you might want to reduce the number of log files to keep if they are
rotated and you might want get an earlier warning if disk space is running out. For a CAPP-compliant setup, adjust the values for log_file , flush , max_log_file , max_log_file_action ,
space_left ,
space_left_action ,
admin_space_left ,
admin_space_left_action ,
disk_full_action , and disk_error_action , as described in Section 30.2, “Configuring the Au-
dit Daemon”. An example CAPP-compliant configuration looks like this:
log_file = path_to_separate_partition/audit.log
log_format = RAW
priority_boost = 4
flush = SYNC
### or DATA
freq = 20
num_logs = 4
dispatcher = /sbin/audispd
disp_qos = lossy
max_log_file = 5
max_log_file_action = KEEP_LOGS
space_left = 75
space_left_action = EMAIL
action_mail_acct = root
admin_space_left = 50
admin_space_left_action = SINGLE
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### or HALT
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disk_full_action = SUSPEND
### or HALT
disk_error_action = SUSPEND
### or HALT
The ### precedes comments where you can choose from several options. Do not add the comments to your actual configuration files.
Tip: For More Information
Refer to Section 30.2, “Configuring the Audit Daemon” for detailed background information
about the auditd.conf configuration parameters.
31.3 Enabling Audit for System Calls
If the audit framework is not installed, install the audit package. A standard SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop system does not have auditd running by default. Enable it with:
systemctl enable auditd.service
There are different levels of auditing activity available:
Basic Logging
Out of the box (without any further configuration) auditd logs only events concerning its
own configuration changes to /var/log/audit/audit.log . No events (file access, system call, etc.) are generated by the kernel audit component until requested by auditctl .
However, other kernel components and modules may log audit events outside of the control of auditctl and these appear in the audit log. By default, the only module that generates audit events is AppArmor.
Advanced Logging with System Call Auditing
To audit system calls and get meaningful file watches, you need to enable audit contexts
for system calls.
As you need system call auditing capabilities even when you are configuring plain file or directory watches, you need to enable audit contexts for system calls. To enable audit contexts
for the duration of the current session only, execute auditctl -e 1 as root . To disable this
feature, execute auditctl -e 0 as root .
The audit contexts are enabled by default. To turn this feature off temporarily, use auditctl
-e 0 .
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31.4 Setting Up Audit Rules
Using audit rules, determine which aspects of the system should be analyzed by audit. Normally
this includes important databases and security-relevant configuration files. You may also ana-
lyze various system calls in detail if a broad analysis of your system is required. A very detailed
example configuration that includes most of the rules that are needed in a CAPP compliant
environment is available in Chapter 32, Introducing an Audit Rule Set.
Audit rules can be passed to the audit daemon on the auditctl command line as well as by
composing a rule set in /etc/audit/audit.rules which is processed whenever the audit daemon is started. To customize /etc/audit/audit.rules either edit it directly, or use YaST:
Security and Users Linux Audit Framework (LAF) Rules for 'auditctl'. Rules passed on the command line are not persistent and need to be re-entered when the audit daemon is restarted.
A simple rule set for very basic auditing on a few important files and directories could look
like this:
# basic audit system parameters
-D
-b 8192
-f 1
-e 1
# some file and directory watches with keys
-w /var/log/audit/ -k LOG_audit
-w /etc/audit/auditd.conf -k CFG_audit_conf -p rxwa
-w /etc/audit/audit.rules -k CFG_audit_rules -p rxwa
-w /etc/passwd -k CFG_passwd -p rwxa
-w /etc/sysconfig/ -k CFG_sysconfig
# an example system call rule
-a entry,always -S umask
### add your own rules
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When configuring the basic audit system parameters (such as the backlog parameter -b ) test
these settings with your intended audit rule set to determine whether the backlog size is appropriate for the level of logging activity caused by your audit rule set. If your chosen backlog size
is too small, your system might not be able to handle the audit load and consult the failure flag
( -f ) when the backlog limit is exceeded.
Important: Choosing the Failure Flag
When choosing the failure flag, note that -f 2 tells your system to perform an immediate
shutdown without flushing any pending data to disk when the limits of your audit system
are exceeded. Because this shutdown is not a clean shutdown, restrict the use of -f 2
to only the most security-conscious environments and use -f 1 (system continues to
run, issues a warning and audit stops) for any other setup to avoid loss of data or data
corruption.
Directory watches produce less verbose output than separate file watches for the files under
these directories. To get detailed logging for your system configuration in /etc/sysconfig , for
example, add watches for each individual file. Audit does not support globbing, which means
you cannot create a rule that says -w /etc/* and watches all files and directories below /etc .
For better identification in the log file, a key has been added to each of the file and directory
watches. Using the key, it is easier to comb the logs for events related to a certain rule. When
creating keys, distinguish between mere log file watches and configuration file watches by using
an appropriate prefix with the key, in this case LOG for a log file watch and CFG for a config-
uration file watch. Using the file name as part of the key also makes it easier for you to identify
events of this type in the log file.
Another thing to bear in mind when creating file and directory watches is that audit cannot deal
with files that do not exist when the rules are created. Any file that is added to your system while
audit is already running is not watched unless you extend the rule set to watch this new file.
For more information about creating custom rules, refer to Section 30.4, “Passing Parameters to
the Audit System”.
Important: Changing Audit Rules
After you change audit rules, always restart the audit daemon with systemctl restart
auditd.service to reread the changed rules.
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31.5 Configuring Audit Reports
To avoid having to dig through the raw audit logs to get an impression of what your system is
currently doing, run custom audit reports at certain intervals. Custom audit reports enable you
to focus on areas of interest and get meaningful statistics on the nature and frequency of the
events you are monitoring. To analyze individual events in detail, use the ausearch tool.
Before setting up audit reporting, consider the following:
What types of events do you want to monitor by generating regular reports? Select the
appropriate aureport command lines as described in Section 30.5.2, “Generating Custom Audit
Reports”.
What do you want to do with the audit reports? Decide whether to create graphical charts
from the data accumulated or whether it should be transferred into any sort of spreadsheet or database. Set up the aureport command line and further processing similar to
the examples shown in Section 31.6, “Configuring Log Visualization” if you want to visualize
your reports.
When and at which intervals should the reports run? Set up appropriate automated reporting using cron.
For this example, assume that you are interested in finding out about any attempts to access
your audit, PAM, and system configuration. Proceed as follows to find out about file events on
your system:
1. Generate a full summary report of all events and check for any anomalies in the summary
report, for example, have a look at the “failed syscalls” record, because these might have
failed because of insufficient permissions to access a file or a file not being there at all:
aureport
Summary Report
======================
Range of time in logs: 03/02/09 14:13:38.225 - 17/02/09 16:30:10.352
Selected time for report: 03/02/09 14:13:38 - 17/02/09 16:30:10.352
Number of changes in configuration: 24
Number of changes to accounts, groups, or roles: 0
Number of logins: 9
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Number of failed logins: 15
Number of authentications: 19
Number of failed authentications: 578
Number of users: 3
Number of terminals: 15
Number of host names: 4
Number of executables: 20
Number of files: 279
Number of AVC's: 0
Number of MAC events: 0
Number of failed syscalls: 994
Number of anomaly events: 0
Number of responses to anomaly events: 0
Number of crypto events: 0
Number of keys: 2
Number of process IDs: 1238
Number of events: 5435
2. Run a summary report for failed events and check the “files” record for the number of
failed file access events:
aureport --failed
Failed Summary Report
======================
Range of time in logs: 03/02/09 14:13:38.225 - 17/02/09 16:30:10.352
Selected time for report: 03/02/09 14:13:38 - 17/02/09 16:30:10.352
Number of changes in configuration: 0
Number of changes to accounts, groups, or roles: 0
Number of logins: 0
Number of failed logins: 15
Number of authentications: 0
Number of failed authentications: 578
Number of users: 1
Number of terminals: 7
Number of host names: 4
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Number of executables: 12
Number of files: 77
Number of AVC's: 0
Number of MAC events: 0
Number of failed syscalls: 994
Number of anomaly events: 0
Number of responses to anomaly events: 0
Number of crypto events: 0
Number of keys: 2
Number of process IDs: 713
Number of events: 1589
3. To list the files that could not be accessed, run a summary report of failed file events:
aureport -f -i --failed --summary
Failed File Summary Report
===========================
total
file
===========================
326
80
/var
80
spool
80
cron
80
lastrun
46
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_CTYPE
45
/usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_IDENTIFICATION
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_MEASUREMENT
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_TELEPHONE
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_ADDRESS
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_NAME
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_PAPER
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_MESSAGES
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_MONETARY
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_COLLATE
38
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_TIME
Configuring Audit Reports
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38
8
/usr/lib/locale/en_GB.UTF-8/LC_NUMERIC
/etc/magic.mgc
...
To focus this summary report on a few files or directories of interest only, such as /etc/
audit/auditd.conf , /etc/pam.d , and /etc/sysconfig , use a command similar to the
following:
aureport -f -i --failed --summary |grep -e "/etc/audit/auditd.conf" -e "/etc/
pam.d/" -e "/etc/sysconfig"
1
/etc/sysconfig/displaymanager
4. From the summary report, then proceed to isolate these items of interest from the log and
find out their event IDs for further analysis:
aureport -f -i --failed |grep -e "/etc/audit/auditd.conf" -e "/etc/pam.d/" -e
"/etc/sysconfig"
993. 17/02/09 16:47:34 /etc/sysconfig/displaymanager readlink no /bin/vimnormal root 7887
994. 17/02/09 16:48:23 /etc/sysconfig/displaymanager getxattr no /bin/vimnormal root 7889
5. Use the event ID to get a detailed record for each item of interest:
ausearch -a 7887 -i
---time->Tue Feb 17 16:48:23 2009
type=PATH msg=audit(1234885703.090:7889): item=0 name="/etc/sysconfig/
displaymanager" inode=369282 dev=08:06 mode=0100644 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
type=CWD msg=audit(1234885703.090:7889):
cwd="/root"
type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1234885703.090:7889): arch=c000003e syscall=191
success=no exit=-61 a0=7e1e20 a1=7f90e4cf9187 a2=7fffed5b57d0 a3=84 items=1
ppid=25548 pid=23045 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0
fsgid=0 tty=pts2 ses=1166 comm="vim" exe="/bin/vim-normal" key=(null)
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Tip: Focusing on a Certain Time Frame
If you are interested in events during a particular period of time, trim down the reports
by using start and end dates and times with your aureport commands ( -ts and -te ).
For more information, refer to Section 30.5.2, “Generating Custom Audit Reports”.
All steps (except for the last one) can be run automatically and would easily be scriptable and
configured as cron jobs. Any of the --failed --summary reports could be transformed easily
into a bar chart that plots files versus failed access attempts. For more information about visualizing audit report data, refer to Section 31.6, “Configuring Log Visualization”.
31.6 Configuring Log Visualization
Using the scripts mkbar and mkgraph you can illustrate your audit statistics with various graphs
and charts. As with any other aureport command, the plotting commands are scriptable and
can easily be configured to run as cron jobs.
mkbar and mkgraph were created by Steve Grubb at Red Hat. They are available from http://
people.redhat.com/sgrubb/audit/visualize/
. Because the current version of audit in SUSE Linux
Enterprise Desktop does not ship with these scripts, proceed as follows to make them available
on your system:
Warning
Use mkbar and mkgraph at your own risk. Any content downloaded from the Web can
be potentially dangerous to your system, even more when run under root privileges.
1. Download the scripts to root 's ~/bin directory:
wget http://people.redhat.com/sgrubb/audit/visualize/mkbar -O ~/bin/mkbar
wget http://people.redhat.com/sgrubb/audit/visualize/mkgraph -O ~/bin/mkgraph
2. Adjust the file permissions to read, write, and execute for root :
chmod 744 ~/bin/mk{bar,graph}
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To plot summary reports, such as the ones discussed in Section 31.5, “Configuring Audit Reports”,
use the script mkbar . Some example commands could look like the following:
Create a Summary of Events
aureport -e -i --summary | mkbar events
Create a Summary of File Events
aureport -f -i --summary | mkbar files
Create a Summary of Login Events
aureport -l -i --summary | mkbar login
Create a Summary of User Events
aureport -u -i --summary | mkbar users
Create a Summary of System Call Events
aureport -s -i --summary | mkbar syscalls
To create a summary chart of failed events of any of the above event types, add the --failed
option to the respective aureport command. To cover a certain period of time only, use the -
ts and -te options on aureport. Any of these commands can be tweaked further by narrowing
down its scope using grep or egrep and regular expressions. See the comments in the mkbar
script for an example. Any of the above commands produces a PNG file containing a bar chart
of the requested data.
To illustrate the relationship between different kinds of audit objects, such as users and system
calls, use the script mkgraph . Some example commands could look like the following:
Users versus Executables
LC_ALL=C aureport -u -i | awk '/^[0-9]/ { print $4" "$7 }' | sort | uniq |
mkgraph users_vs_exec
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Users versus Files
LC_ALL=C aureport -f -i | awk '/^[0-9]/ { print $8" "$4 }' | sort | uniq |
mkgraph users_vs_files
System Calls versus Commands
LC_ALL=C aureport -s -i | awk '/^[0-9]/ { print $4" "$6 }' | sort | uniq |
mkgraph syscall_vs_com
System Calls versus Files
LC_ALL=C aureport -s -i | awk '/^[0-9]/ { print $5" "$4 }' | sort | uniq |
mkgraph | syscall_vs_file
Graphs can also be combined to illustrate complex relationships. See the comments in the mk-
graph script for further information and an example. The graphs produced by this script are
created in PostScript format by default, but you can change the output format by changing the
EXT variable in the script from ps to png or jpg .
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32 Introducing an Audit Rule Set
The following example configuration illustrates how audit can be used to monitor your system.
It highlights the most important items that need to be audited to cover the list of auditable
events specified by Controlled Access Protection Profile (CAPP).
The example rule set is divided into the following sections:
Basic audit configuration (see Section 32.1, “Adding Basic Audit Configuration Parameters”)
Watches on audit log files and configuration files (see Section 32.2, “Adding Watches on Audit
Log Files and Configuration Files”)
Monitoring operations on file system objects (see Section 32.3, “Monitoring File System Objects”)
Monitoring security databases (see Section 32.4, “Monitoring Security Configuration Files and
Databases”)
Monitoring miscellaneous system calls (Section 32.5, “Monitoring Miscellaneous System Calls”)
Filtering system call arguments (see Section 32.6, “Filtering System Call Arguments”)
To transform this example into a configuration file to use in your live setup, proceed as follows:
1. Choose the appropriate settings for your setup and adjust them.
2. Adjust the file /etc/audit/audit.rules by adding rules from the examples below or
by modifying existing rules.
Note: Adjusting the Level of Audit Logging
Do not copy the example below into your audit setup without adjusting it to your needs.
Determine what and to what extent to audit.
The entire audit.rules is a collection of auditctl commands. Every line in this file expands
to a full auditctl command line. The syntax used in the rule set is the same as that of the
auditctl command.
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32.1 Adding Basic Audit Configuration Parameters
-D
1
-b 8192
-f 2
2
3
1
Delete any preexisting rules before starting to define new ones.
2
Set the number of buffers to take the audit messages. Depending on the level of audit
logging on your system, increase or decrease this figure.
3
Set the failure flag to use when the kernel needs to handle critical errors. Possible values
are 0 (silent), 1 (printk, print a failure message), and 2 (panic, halt the system).
By emptying the rule queue with the -D option, you make sure that audit does not use any
other rule set than what you are offering it by means of this file. Choosing an appropriate buffer
number ( -b ) is vital to avoid having your system fail because of too high an audit load. Choosing
the panic failure flag -f 2 ensures that your audit records are complete even if the system is
encountering critical errors. By shutting down the system on a critical error, audit makes sure
that no process escapes from its control as it otherwise might if level 1 ( printk ) were chosen.
Important: Choosing the Failure Flag
Before using your audit rule set on a live system, make sure that the setup has been
thoroughly evaluated on test systems using the worst case production workload. It is even
more critical that you do this when specifying the -f 2 flag, because this instructs
the kernel to panic (perform an immediate halt without flushing pending data to disk)
if any thresholds are exceeded. Consider the use of the -f 2 flag for only the most
security-conscious environments.
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32.2 Adding Watches on Audit Log Files and Configuration Files
Adding watches on your audit configuration files and the log files themselves ensures that you
can track any attempt to tamper with the configuration files or detect any attempted accesses
to the log files.
Note: Creating Directory and File Watches
Creating watches on a directory is not necessarily sufficient if you need events for file
access. Events on directory access are only triggered when the directory's inode is updated
with metadata changes. To trigger events on file access, add watches for each individual
file to monitor.
-w /var/log/audit/
1
-w /var/log/audit/audit.log
-w /var/log/audit/audit_log.1
-w /var/log/audit/audit_log.2
-w /var/log/audit/audit_log.3
-w /var/log/audit/audit_log.4
-w /etc/audit/auditd.conf -p wa
2
-w /etc/audit/audit.rules -p wa
-w /etc/libaudit.conf -p wa
1
Set a watch on the directory where the audit log is located. Trigger an event for any type of
access attempt to this directory. If you are using log rotation, add watches for the rotated
logs as well.
2
Set a watch on an audit configuration file. Log all write and attribute change attempts to
this file.
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32.3 Monitoring File System Objects
Auditing system calls helps track your system's activity well beyond the application level. By
tracking file system–related system calls, get an idea of how your applications are using these
system calls and determine whether that use is appropriate. By tracking mount and unmount
operations, track the use of external resources (removable media, remote file systems, etc.).
Important: Auditing System Calls
Auditing system calls results in a high logging activity. This activity, in turn, puts a heavy
load on the kernel. With a kernel less responsive than usual, the system's backlog and
rate limits might be exceeded. Carefully evaluate which system calls to include in your
audit rule set and adjust the log settings accordingly. See Section 30.2, “Configuring the Audit
Daemon” for details on how to tweak the relevant settings.
-a entry,always -S chmod -S fchmod -S chown -S chown32 -S fchown -S fchown32 -S
lchown -S lchown32
1
-a entry,always -S creat -S open -S truncate -S truncate64 -S ftruncate -S
ftruncate64
2
-a entry,always -S mkdir -S rmdir
3
-a entry,always -S unlink -S rename -S link -S symlink
-a entry,always -S setxattr
4
5
-a entry,always -S lsetxattr
-a entry,always -S fsetxattr
-a entry,always -S removexattr
-a entry,always -S lremovexattr
-a entry,always -S fremovexattr
-a entry,always -S mknod
6
-a entry,always -S mount -S umount -S umount2
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1
Enable an audit context for system calls related to changing file ownership and permissions.
Depending on the hardware architecture of your system, enable or disable the *32 rules.
64-bit systems, like x86_64 and ia64, require the *32 rules to be removed.
2
Enable an audit context for system calls related to file content modification. Depending on
the hardware architecture of your system, enable or disable the *64 rules. 64-bit systems,
like x86_64 and ia64, require the *64 rules to be removed.
3
Enable an audit context for any directory operation, like creating or removing a directory.
4
Enable an audit context for any linking operation, such as creating a symbolic link, creating
a link, unlinking, or renaming.
5
Enable an audit context for any operation related to extended file system attributes.
6
Enable an audit context for the mknod system call, which creates special (device) files.
7
Enable an audit context for any mount or umount operation. For the x64_64 architecture,
disable the umount rule. For the ia64 architecture, disable the umount2 rule.
32.4 Monitoring Security Configuration Files and
Databases
To make sure that your system is not made to do undesired things, track any attempts to change
the cron and at configurations or the lists of scheduled jobs. Tracking any write access to
the user, group, password and login databases and logs helps you identify any attempts to
manipulate your system's user database.
Tracking changes to your system configuration (kernel, services, time, etc.) helps you spot any
attempts of others to manipulate essential functionality of your system. Changes to the PAM
configuration should also be monitored in a secure environment, because changes in the authentication stack should not be made by anyone other than the administrator, and it should
be logged which applications are using PAM and how it is used. The same applies to any other
configuration files related to secure authentication and communication.
1
-w /var/spool/atspool
-w /etc/at.allow
-w /etc/at.deny
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-w /etc/cron.allow -p wa
-w /etc/cron.deny -p wa
-w /etc/cron.d/ -p wa
-w /etc/cron.daily/ -p wa
-w /etc/cron.hourly/ -p wa
-w /etc/cron.monthly/ -p wa
-w /etc/cron.weekly/ -p wa
-w /etc/crontab -p wa
-w /var/spool/cron/root
2
-w /etc/group -p wa
-w /etc/passwd -p wa
-w /etc/shadow
-w /etc/login.defs -p wa
-w /etc/securetty
-w /var/log/lastlog
3
-w /etc/hosts -p wa
-w /etc/sysconfig/
w /etc/init.d/
w /etc/ld.so.conf -p wa
w /etc/localtime -p wa
w /etc/sysctl.conf -p wa
w /etc/modprobe.d/
w /etc/modprobe.conf.local -p wa
w /etc/modprobe.conf -p wa
4
w /etc/pam.d/
5
-w /etc/aliases -p wa
-w /etc/postfix/ -p wa
6
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-w /etc/ssh/sshd_config
-w /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf
-w /etc/stunnel/stunnel.pem
-w /etc/vsftpd.ftpusers
-w /etc/vsftpd.conf
7
-a exit,always -S sethostname
-w /etc/issue -p wa
-w /etc/issue.net -p wa
1
Set watches on the at and cron configuration and the scheduled jobs and assign labels
to these events.
2
Set watches on the user, group, password, and login databases and logs and set labels to
better identify any login-related events, such as failed login attempts.
3
Set a watch and a label on the static host name configuration in /etc/hosts . Track
changes to the system configuration directory, /etc/sysconfig . Enable per-file watch-
es if you are interested in file events. Set watches and labels for changes to the boot
configuration in the /etc/init.d directory. Enable per-file watches if you are interest-
ed in file events. Set watches and labels for any changes to the linker configuration in
/etc/ld.so.conf . Set watches and a label for /etc/localtime . Set watches and la-
bels for the kernel configuration files /etc/sysctl.conf , /etc/modprobe.d/ , /etc/
modprobe.conf.local , and /etc/modprobe.conf .
4
Set watches on the PAM configuration directory. If you are interested in particular files
below the directory level, add explicit watches to these files as well.
5
Set watches to the postfix configuration to log any write attempt or attribute change and
use labels for better tracking in the logs.
6
Set watches and labels on the SSH , stunnel , and vsftpd configuration files.
7
Perform an audit of the sethostname system call and set watches and labels on the system
identification configuration in /etc/issue and /etc/issue.net .
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32.5 Monitoring Miscellaneous System Calls
As well as auditing file system related system calls, as described in Section 32.3, “Monitoring File
System Objects”, you can also track various other system calls. Tracking task creation helps you
understand your applications' behavior. Auditing the umask system call lets you track how
processes modify creation mask. Tracking any attempts to change the system time helps you
identify anyone or any process trying to manipulate the system time.
1
-a entry,always -S clone -S fork -S vfork
## For ia64 architecture, disable fork and vfork rules above, and
## enable the following:
#-a entry,always -S clone2
2
-a entry,always -S umask
3
-a entry,always -S adjtimex -S settimeofday
1
Track task creation. To enable task tracking on the ia64 architecture, comment the first
rule and enable the second one.
2
Add an audit context to the umask system call.
3
Track attempts to change the system time. adjtimex can be used to skew the time. settimeofday sets the absolute time.
32.6 Filtering System Call Arguments
In addition to the system call auditing introduced in Section 32.3, “Monitoring File System Objects”
and Section 32.5, “Monitoring Miscellaneous System Calls”, you can track application behavior to an
even higher degree. Applying filters helps you focus audit on areas of primary interest to you.
This section introduces filtering system call arguments for non-multiplexed system calls like
access and for multiplexed ones like socketcall or ipc. Whether system calls are multiplexed
depends on the hardware architecture used. Both socketcall and ipc are not multiplexed on 64bit architectures, such as x86_64 and ia64.
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Important: Auditing System Calls
Auditing system calls results in high logging activity, which in turn puts a heavy load
on the kernel. With a kernel less responsive than usual, the system's backlog and rate
limits might well be exceeded. Carefully evaluate which system calls to include in your
audit rule set and adjust the log settings accordingly. See Section 30.2, “Configuring the Audit
Daemon” for details on how to tweak the relevant settings.
The access system call checks whether a process would be allowed to read, write or test for the
existence of a file or file system object. Using the -F filter flag, build rules matching specific
access calls in the format -F a1=access_mode . Check /usr/include/fcntl.h for a list of
possible arguments to the access system call.
-a entry,always -S access -F a1=4
1
-a entry,always -S access -F a1=6
2
-a entry,always -S access -F a1=7
3
1
Audit the access system call, but only if the second argument of the system call ( mode ) is
4 ( R_OK ). This rule filters for all access calls testing for sufficient read permissions to a
file or file system object accessed by a user or process.
2
Audit the access system call, but only if the second argument of the system call ( mode ) is
6 , meaning 4 OR 2 , which translates to R_OK OR W_OK . This rule filters for access calls
testing for sufficient read and write permissions.
3
Audit the access system call, but only if the second argument of the system call ( mode ) is
7 , meaning 4 OR 2 OR 1 , which translates to R_OK OR W_OK OR X_OK . This rule filters
for access calls testing for sufficient read, write, and execute permissions.
The socketcall system call is a multiplexed system call. Multiplexed means that there is only
one system call for all possible calls and that libc passes the actual system call to use as the first
argument ( a0 ). Check the manual page of socketcall for possible system calls and refer to /
usr/src/linux/include/linux/net.h for a list of possible argument values and system call
names. Audit supports filtering for specific system calls using a -F a0=syscall_number .
-a entry,always -S socketcall -F a0=1 -F a1=10
1
## Use this line on x86_64, ia64 instead
#-a entry,always -S socket -F a0=10
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-a entry,always -S socketcall -F a0=5
2
## Use this line on x86_64, ia64 instead
#-a entry, always -S accept
1
Audit the socket(PF_INET6) system call. The -F a0=1 filter matches all socket system calls
and the -F a1=10 filter narrows the matches down to socket system calls carrying the
IPv6 protocol family domain parameter (PF_INET6). Check /usr/include/linux/net.h
for the first argument ( a0 ) and /usr/src/linux/include/linux/socket.h for the sec-
ond parameter ( a1 ). 64-bit platforms, like x86_64 and ia64, do not use multiplexing on
socketcall system calls. For these platforms, comment the rule and add the plain system
call rules with a filter on PF_INET6.
2
Audit the socketcall system call. The filter flag is set to filter for a0=5 as the first argument
to socketcall, which translates to the accept system call if you check /usr/include/lin-
ux/net.h . 64-bit platforms, like x86_64 and ia64, do not use multiplexing on socketcall
system calls. For these platforms, comment the rule and add the plain system call rule
without argument filtering.
The ipc system call is another example of multiplexed system calls. The actual call to invoke
is determined by the first argument passed to the ipc system call. Filtering for these arguments
helps you focus on those IPC calls of interest to you. Check /usr/include/linux/ipc.h for
possible argument values.
1
## msgctl
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=14
## msgget
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=13
## Use these lines on x86_64, ia64 instead
#-a entry,always -S msgctl
#-a entry,always -S msgget
2
## semctl
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=3
## semget
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=2
## semop
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-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=1
## semtimedop
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=4
## Use these lines on x86_64, ia64 instead
#-a entry,always -S semctl
#-a entry,always -S semget
#-a entry,always -S semop
#-a entry,always -S semtimedop
3
## shmctl
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=24
## shmget
-a entry,always -S ipc -F a0=23
## Use these lines on x86_64, ia64 instead
#-a entry,always -S shmctl
#-a entry,always -S shmget
1
Audit system calls related to IPC SYSV message queues. In this case, the a0 values specify
that auditing is added for the msgctl and msgget system calls ( 14 and 13 ). 64-bit platforms,
like x86_64 and ia64, do not use multiplexing on ipc system calls. For these platforms,
comment the first two rules and add the plain system call rules without argument filtering.
2
Audit system calls related to IPC SYSV message semaphores. In this case, the a0 values
specify that auditing is added for the semctl, semget, semop, and semtimedop system calls
( 3 , 2 , 1 , and 4 ). 64-bit platforms, like x86_64 and ia64, do not use multiplexing on ipc
system calls. For these platforms, comment the first four rules and add the plain system
call rules without argument filtering.
3
Audit system calls related to IPC SYSV shared memory. In this case, the a0 values specify
that auditing is added for the shmctl and shmget system calls ( 24 , 23 ). 64-bit platforms,
like x86_64 and ia64, do not use multiplexing on ipc system calls. For these platforms,
comment the first two rules and add the plain system call rules without argument filtering.
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32.7 Managing Audit Event Records Using Keys
After configuring a few rules generating events and populating the logs, you need to find a
way to tell one event from the other. Using the ausearch command, you can filter the logs
for various criteria. Using ausearch -m message_type , you can at least filter for events of a
certain type. However, to be able to filter for events related to a particular rule, you need to
add a key to this rule in the /etc/audit/audit.rules file. This key is then added to the event
record every time the rule logs an event. To retrieve these log entries, simply run ausearch k your_key to get a list of records related to the rule carrying this particular key.
As an example, assume you have added the following rule to your rule file:
-w /etc/audit/audit.rules -p wa
Without a key assigned to it, you would probably need to filter for SYSCALL or PATH events
then use grep or similar tools to isolate any events related to the above rule. Now, add a key
to the above rule, using the -k option:
-w /etc/audit/audit.rules -p wa -k CFG_audit.rules
You can specify any text string as key. Distinguish watches related to different types of files
(configuration files or log files) from one another using different key prefixes ( CFG , LOG , etc.)
followed by the file name. Finding any records related to the above rule now comes down to
the following:
ausearch -k CFG_audit.rules
---time->Thu Feb 19 09:09:54 2009
type=PATH msg=audit(1235030994.032:8649): item=3 name="audit.rules~" inode=370603
dev=08:06 mode=0100640 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
type=PATH msg=audit(1235030994.032:8649): item=2 name="audit.rules" inode=370603
dev=08:06 mode=0100640 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
type=PATH msg=audit(1235030994.032:8649): item=1
name="/etc/audit" inode=368599
dev=08:06 mode=040750 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
type=PATH msg=audit(1235030994.032:8649): item=0
name="/etc/audit" inode=368599
dev=08:06 mode=040750 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00
type=CWD msg=audit(1235030994.032:8649):
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type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1235030994.032:8649): arch=c000003e syscall=82 success=yes
exit=0 a0=7deeb0 a1=883b30 a2=2 a3=ffffffffffffffff items=4 ppid=25400 pid=32619
auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0 fsgid=0 tty=pts1 ses=1164
comm="vim" exe="/bin/vim-normal" key="CFG_audit.rules"
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33 Useful Resources
There are other resources available containing valuable information about the Linux audit
framework:
The Audit Manual Pages
There are several man pages installed along with the audit tools that provide valuable and
very detailed information:
auditd(8)
The Linux audit daemon
auditd.conf(5)
The Linux audit daemon configuration file
auditctl(8)
A utility to assist controlling the kernel's audit system
autrace(8)
A program similar to strace
ausearch(8)
A tool to query audit daemon logs
aureport(8)
A tool that produces summary reports of audit daemon logs
audispd.conf(5)
The audit event dispatcher configuration file
audispd(8)
The audit event dispatcher daemon talking to plug-in programs.
http://people.redhat.com/sgrubb/audit/index.html
The home page of the Linux audit project. This site contains several specifications relating
to different aspects of Linux audit, as well as a short FAQ.
/usr/share/doc/packages/audit
The audit package itself contains a README with basic design information and sample
.rules
files for different scenarios:
capp.rules : Controlled Access Protection Profile (CAPP)
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lspp.rules : Labeled Security Protection Profile (LSPP)
nispom.rules : National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual Chapter
8(NISPOM)
stig.rules : Secure Technical Implementation Guide (STIG)
http://www.commoncriteriaportal.org/
The official Web site of the Common Criteria project. Learn all about the Common Criteria
security certification initiative and which role audit plays in this framework.
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A Documentation Updates
This chapter lists content changes for this document since the release of SUSE® Linux Enterprise
Desktop 11 SP3.
This manual was updated on the following dates:
Section A.1, “February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance Update)”
Section A.2, “October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12)”
A.1 February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance
Update)
Bugfixes
Removed part on SELinux (https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=913640 ).
Numerous small fixes for Chapter 16, Configuring a VPN Server:
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=909494
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=910121
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=910132
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=910133
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=910137
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=910142
https://bugzilla.novell.com/show_bug.cgi?id=910148
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A.2 October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux
Enterprise Desktop 12)
General
Removed all KDE documentation and references because KDE is no longer shipped.
Removed all references to SuSEconfig, which is no longer supported (Fate#100011).
Move from System V init to systemd (Fate#310421). Updated affected parts of the
documentation.
YaST Runlevel Editor has changed to Services Manager (Fate#312568). Updated
affected parts of the documentation.
Removed all references to ISDN support, as ISDN support has been removed
(Fate#314594).
Removed all references to the YaST DSL module as it is no longer shipped
(Fate#316264).
Removed all references to the YaST Modem module as it is no longer shipped
(Fate#316264).
Btrfs has become the default file system for the root partition (Fate#315901). Updated affected parts of the documentation.
The dmesg now provides human-readable time stamps in ctime() -like format
(Fate#316056). Updated affected parts of the documentation.
syslog and syslog-ng have been replaced by rsyslog (Fate#316175). Updated affected
parts of the documentation.
MariaDB is now shipped as the relational database instead of MySQL (Fate#313595).
Updated affected parts of the documentation.
SUSE-related products are no longer available from http://download.novell.com
from http://download.suse.com . Adjusted links accordingly.
but
Novell Customer Center has been replaced with SUSE Customer Center. Updated
affected parts of the documentation.
347
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/var/run is mounted as tmpfs (Fate#303793). Updated affected parts of the doc-
umentation.
The following architectures are no longer supported: Itanium and x86. Updated affected parts of the documentation.
The traditional method for setting up the network with ifconfig has been replaced
by wicked . Updated affected parts of the documentation.
A lot of networking commands are deprecated and have been replaced by newer
commands ( ip in most cases). Updated affected parts of the documentation.
arp : ip neighbor
ifconfig : ip addr , ip link
iptunnel : ip tunnel
iwconfig : iw
nameif : ip link , ifrename
netstat : ss , ip route , ip -s link , ip maddr
route : ip route
Numerous small fixes and additions to the documentation, based on technical feedback.
Chapter 2, Authentication with PAM
The pam_pwcheck module has been replaced with pam_cracklib and pam_pwhistory .
Updated chapter to reflect this change.
Chapter 4, Authentication Server and Client
Added a chapter about the new YaST authentication module for Kerberos and LDAP (Fate
#316349). The chapter consists of two parts: Section 4.1, “Configuring an Authentication Server”
and Section 4.2, “Configuring an Authentication Client with YaST (SSSD)” (Fate #308902).
Chapter 5, LDAP—A Directory Service
Updated chapter to reflect the changes in YaST regarding authentication setup (Fate
#316349).
Chapter 7, Network Authentication with Kerberos
Updated chapter to reflect the changes in YaST regarding authentication setup (Fate
#316349).
Chapter 9, Authorization with PolKit
Updated chapter to reflect major software updates.
348
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Chapter 14, SSH: Secure Network Operations
Mentioned that SSH on SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop makes use of cryptographic
hardware acceleration if available (Fate#308239).
New section Section 14.3.1, “Setting Permissions for File Uploads” (Fate#312774).
Chapter 17, Managing X.509 Certification
The YaST CA module now allows to export key and certificate into different files. See
Section 17.2.5, “Changing Default Values” (Fate#305490).
Part IV, “Confining Privileges with AppArmor”
Added short description of supported AppArmor profile flags in Section 21.6.1, “Profile
Flags”.
Thoroughly explained the syntax and subtle differences in meaning for AppArmor
include statements in Section 21.3, “Include Statements”.
Introduced extended ways to map a profile: Added Section 21.6.3, “Pattern Matching”,
Section 21.6.4, “Namespaces” and updated Section 21.6.6, “Alias Rules”.
Added description for new optional allow and file keywords for AppArmor profiles in Section 21.7.7, “Optional allow and file Rules”.
Added description for new safe and unsafe keywords for AppArmor profiles to
Section 21.8.10, “safe and unsafe Keywords”.
New PUx/pux and CUx/cux profile transitions added in Section 21.8.8, “Fall backs for
Profile Transitions”.
Added new section Section 21.6.3, “Pattern Matching”.
Restructured and completely rewrote Chapter 25, Profiling Your Web Applications Using
ChangeHat.
Removed old content describing the YaST method.
Introduced a command line example on creating a hat for the Adminer application.
Part V, “The Linux Audit Framework”
Numerous small fixes and additions, based on technical feedback.
349
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12)
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Obsolete Content
Section Adding a Profile Using the Wizard has been removed from Chapter 23, Building
and Managing Profiles with YaST (Fate#308684).
Section Updating Profiles from Log Entries has been removed from Chapter 23, Building
and Managing Profiles with YaST (Fate#308683).
Chapter Using the Fingerprint Reader has been removed from Part I, “Authentication”
(Fate#313128).
Bugfixes
Updated the AppArmor documentation to version 2.8 AppArmor (http://
bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=722915
350
).
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12)
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B GNU Licenses
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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
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