Consolidated (unofficial) AMC&GM to Annex VI - EASA

Consolidated (unofficial) AMC&GM to Annex VI - EASA
Consolidated unofficial AMC/GM to Annex VI (Part-NCC)
European Aviation Safety Agency
Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC)
and Guidance Material (GM)
to
Annex VI – Part-NCC
Consolidated version including Amendment 21
20 February 2015
1
For the date of entry into force of this amendment, refer to Decision 2015/003/R in the Official
Publication of the Agency.
Page 1
Consolidated unofficial AMC/GM to Annex VI (Part-NCC)
Disclaimer
This consolidated document containing AMC/GM to Annex VI (Part-NCC) to Commission Regulation
(EU) No 965/2012 on air operations includes the initial issue of and all subsequent amendments to
the AMC/GM associated with this Annex.
It is an unofficial courtesy document, intended for the easy use of stakeholders, and is meant purely
as a documentation tool. The Agency does not assume any liability for its contents.
The official documents can be found at http://www.easa.europa.eu/document-library/officialpublication.
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUMMARY OF AMENDMENTS
Summary of amendments
Chapter
Action
AMC1 NCC.GEN.119
New
GM1 NCC.GEN.120
New
GM1 NCC.GEN.106(d)
Editorial
GM2 NCC.GEN.130
Editorial
GM1 NCC.GEN.145(a)
Editorial
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.232 – order changed with
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.235
Editorial
AMC1 NCC.GEN.130
Replaced
AMC2 NCC.GEN.130
New
GM1 NCC.GEN.130
Amended
GM2 NCC.GEN.130
Replaced
GM3 NCC.GEN.130
Replaced
Issue No/
Amdt. No
Amended by Regulation / ED Decision
Amdt. 2
Reg. (EU) 2015/140 on Sterile Flight
deck procedure;
ED Decision 2015/003/R
Amdt. 1
ED Decision 2014/030/R on PED II
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
Subpart A — General requirements ............................................................................................. 13
GM1 NCC.GEN.105(e)(2) Crew responsibilities ......................................................................................... 13
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 13
AMC1 NCC.GEN.105(g) Crew responsibilities ........................................................................................... 13
OCCURRENCE REPORTING .................................................................................................................... 13
GM1 NCC.GEN.106 Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority ...................................................... 13
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 13
GM1 NCC.GEN.106(b) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority.................................................. 14
AUTHORITY TO REFUSE CARRIAGE OR DISEMBARK .............................................................................. 14
AMC1 NCC.GEN.106(c) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority ................................................ 14
REPORTING OF HAZARDOUS FLIGHT CONDITIONS ............................................................................... 14
AMC1 NCC.GEN.106(d) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority ................................................ 14
MITIGATING MEASURES — FATIGUE .................................................................................................... 14
GM1 NCC.GEN.106(d) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority.................................................. 14
MITIGATING MEASURES — FATIGUE — CONTROLLED REST IN THE FLIGHT CREW
COMPARTMENT .................................................................................................................................... 14
AMC1 NCC.GEN.106 (e) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority ............................................... 16
VIOLATION REPORTING ......................................................................................................................... 16
AMC1 NCC.GEN.119 Taxiing of aircraft ..................................................................................................... 16
PROCEDURES FOR TAXIING ................................................................................................................... 16
GM1 NCC.GEN.120 Taxiing of aeroplanes................................................................................................. 17
SAFETY-CRITICAL ACTIVITY .................................................................................................................... 17
GM1 NCC.GEN.120(b)(4) Taxiing of aeroplanes ........................................................................................ 17
SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE ...................................................................................................................... 17
GM1 NCC.GEN.125 Rotor engagement ..................................................................................................... 17
INTENT OF THE RULE ............................................................................................................................. 17
AMC1 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices ..................................................................................... 18
TECHNICAL PREREQUISITES FOR THE USE OF PEDS .............................................................................. 18
AMC2 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices ..................................................................................... 22
PROCEDURES FOR THE USE OF PEDS .................................................................................................... 22
GM1 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices ....................................................................................... 24
DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 24
GM2 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices ....................................................................................... 25
GM3 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices ....................................................................................... 26
AMC1 NCC.GEN.135 Information on emergency and survival equipment carried ................................... 26
CONTENT OF INFORMATION................................................................................................................. 26
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(3) Documents, manuals and information to be carried ...................................... 27
CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS ......................................................................................................... 27
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(11) Documents, manuals and information to be carried .................................... 27
CURRENT AND SUITABLE AERONAUTICAL CHARTS ............................................................................... 27
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(12) Documents, manuals and information to be carried .................................... 27
PROCEDURES AND VISUAL SIGNALS FOR USE BY INTERCEPTING AND INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT ......... 27
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140 Documents, manuals and information to be carried............................................... 27
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 27
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(1) Documents, manuals and information to be carried ........................................ 28
AFM OR EQUIVALENT DOCUMENT ....................................................................................................... 28
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(9) Documents, manuals and information to be carried ........................................ 28
JOURNEY LOG OR EQUIVALENT ............................................................................................................ 28
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(13) Documents, manuals and information to be carried ...................................... 28
SEARCH AND RESCUE INFORMATION ................................................................................................... 28
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(19) Documents, manuals and information to be carried ...................................... 28
DOCUMENTS THAT MAY BE PERTINENT TO THE FLIGHT ...................................................................... 28
STATES CONCERNED WITH THE FLIGHT ................................................................................................ 28
GM1 NCC.GEN.145(a) Preservation, production and use of flight recorder recordings ........................... 28
REMOVAL OF RECORDERS AFTER A REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE ......................................................... 28
AMC1 NCC.GEN.145(b) Preservation, production and use of flight recorder recordings ......................... 28
OPERATIONAL CHECKS .......................................................................................................................... 28
GM1 NCC.GEN.145(b) Preservation, production and use of flight recorder recordings........................... 29
INSPECTION OF THE FLIGHT RECORDERS RECORDING ......................................................................... 29
AMC1 NCC.GEN.150(e) Transport of dangerous goods ............................................................................ 30
DANGEROUS GOODS ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT REPORTING ............................................................... 30
GM1 NCC.GEN.150 Transport of dangerous goods .................................................................................. 33
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 33
Subpart B — Operational procedures ........................................................................................... 35
AMC1 NCC.OP.100 Use of aerodromes and operating sites ..................................................................... 35
USE OF OPERATING SITES ..................................................................................................................... 35
GM1 NCC.OP.100 Use of aerodromes and operating sites ....................................................................... 35
PUBLICATIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 35
AMC1 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 35
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE INFORMATION ......................................................................................... 35
AMC2 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 36
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 36
AMC3 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 36
TAKE-OFF OPERATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 36
AMC4 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 38
CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING RVR/CMV................................................................................................ 38
AMC5 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 39
DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV/VIS MINIMA FOR NPA, APV, CAT I - AEROPLANES ............................. 39
AMC6 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 43
DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV/VIS MINIMA FOR NPA, CAT I — HELICOPTERS ................................... 43
AMC7 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 45
VISUAL APPROACH OPERATIONS .......................................................................................................... 45
AMC8 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general .................................................................. 45
CONVERSION OF REPORTED METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY TO RVR/CMV ........................................... 45
AMC9 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general ................................................................... 46
EFFECT ON LANDING MINIMA OF TEMPORARILY FAILED OR DOWNGRADED GROUND
EQUIPMENT .......................................................................................................................................... 46
GM1 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general.................................................................... 48
AIRCRAFT CATEGORIES ......................................................................................................................... 48
GM2 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general.................................................................... 48
CONTINUOUS DESCENT FINAL APPROACH (CDFA) — AEROPLANES..................................................... 48
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
GM3 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general.................................................................... 50
TAKE-OFF MINIMA — HELICOPTERS ..................................................................................................... 50
AMC1 NCC.OP.111 Aerodrome operating minima — NPA, APV, CAT I operations .................................. 50
NPA FLOWN WITH THE CDFA TECHNIQUE ............................................................................................ 50
GM1 NCC.OP.112 Aerodrome operating minima — circling operations with aeroplanes ....................... 50
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION ............................................................................................................ 50
AMC1 NCC.OP.120 Noise abatement procedures .................................................................................... 53
NADP DESIGN ........................................................................................................................................ 53
GM1 NCC.OP.120 Noise abatement procedures ...................................................................................... 53
TERMINOLOGY ...................................................................................................................................... 53
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 53
EXAMPLE ............................................................................................................................................... 53
AMC1 NCC.OP.125 Minimum obstacle clearance altitudes — IFR flights ................................................. 54
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 54
AMC1 NCC.OP.140 Passenger briefing ...................................................................................................... 54
TRAINING PROGRAMME ....................................................................................................................... 54
GM1 NCC.OP.145(b) Flight preparation .................................................................................................... 54
OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN.................................................................................................................. 54
AMC1 NCC.OP.152 Destination alternate aerodromes — helicopters ..................................................... 55
OFFSHORE ALTERNATE AERODROMES ................................................................................................. 55
AMC1 NCC.OP.155 Refuelling with passengers embarking, on board or disembarking ........................... 55
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES — GENERAL ............................................................................................ 55
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES — AEROPLANES ...................................................................................... 56
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES — HELICOPTERS...................................................................................... 56
GM1 NCC.OP.155 Refuelling with passengers embarking, on board or disembarking ............................. 57
AIRCRAFT REFUELLING PROVISIONS AND GUIDANCE ON SAFE REFUELLING PRACTICES ..................... 57
AMC1 NCC.OP.165 Carriage of passengers ............................................................................................... 57
SEATS THAT PERMIT DIRECT ACCESS TO EMERGENCY EXITS ................................................................ 57
GM1 NCC.OP.165 Carriage of passengers ................................................................................................. 57
MEANING OF DIRECT ACCESS ............................................................................................................... 57
AMC1 NCC.OP.180 Meteorological conditions ......................................................................................... 57
EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................... 57
GM1 NCC.OP.180 Meteorological conditions ........................................................................................... 57
CONTINUATION OF A FLIGHT ................................................................................................................ 57
GM1 NCC.OP.185 Ice and other contaminants — ground procedures..................................................... 57
TERMINOLOGY ...................................................................................................................................... 57
ANTI-ICING CODES ................................................................................................................................ 59
GM2 NCC.OP.185 Ice and other contaminants — ground procedures..................................................... 59
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING — PROCEDURES ................................................................................................. 59
GM3 NCC.OP.185 Ice and other contaminants — ground procedures..................................................... 63
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING — BACKGROUND INFORMATION ...................................................................... 63
AMC1 NCC.OP.190 Ice and other contaminants — flight procedures ...................................................... 65
FLIGHT IN EXPECTED OR ACTUAL ICING CONDITIONS .......................................................................... 65
GM1 NCC.OP.215 Ground proximity detection ........................................................................................ 66
GUIDANCE MATERIAL FOR TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING SYSTEM (TAWS) FLIGHT CREW
TRAINING PROGRAMMES ..................................................................................................................... 66
GM1 NCC.OP.220 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) ............................................................... 73
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GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 73
ACAS FLIGHT CREW TRAINING .............................................................................................................. 73
AMC1 NCC.OP.225 Approach and landing conditions .............................................................................. 82
LANDING DISTANCE/FATO SUITABILITY ................................................................................................ 82
AMC1 NCC.OP.230 Commencement and continuation of approach ........................................................ 82
VISUAL REFERENCES FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS....................................................... 82
Subpart C — Aircraft performance and operating limitations ........................................................ 85
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(a) Mass and balance, loading ................................................................................... 85
CENTRE OF GRAVITY LIMITS — OPERATIONAL CG ENVELOPE AND IN-FLIGHT CG ............................... 85
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(b) Mass and balance, loading................................................................................... 86
WEIGHING OF AN AIRCRAFT ................................................................................................................. 86
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(c) Mass and balance, loading ................................................................................... 86
DRY OPERATING MASS .......................................................................................................................... 86
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(d) Mass and balance, loading................................................................................... 87
MASS VALUES FOR PASSENGERS AND BAGGAGE ................................................................................. 87
GM1 NCC.POL.105(d) Mass and balance, loading .................................................................................... 88
ADJUSTMENT OF STANDARD MASSES .................................................................................................. 88
GM1 NCC.POL.105(e) Mass and balance, loading..................................................................................... 88
TYPE OF FLIGHTS ................................................................................................................................... 88
GM1 NCC.POL.105(g) Mass and balance, loading ..................................................................................... 89
FUEL DENSITY ........................................................................................................................................ 89
AMC1 NCC.POL.110(a) Mass and balance data and documentation ........................................................ 90
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................. 90
AMC2 NCC.POL.110(b) Mass and balance data and documentation ....................................................... 90
INTEGRITY.............................................................................................................................................. 90
AMC1 NCC.POL.110(c) Mass and balance data and documentation ........................................................ 90
SIGNATURE OR EQUIVALENT ................................................................................................................ 90
AMC2 NCC.POL.110(c) Mass and balance data and documentation ........................................................ 90
MASS AND BALANCE DOCUMENTATION SENT VIA DATA LINK............................................................. 90
GM1 NCC.POL.110(b) Mass and balance data and documentation ......................................................... 90
ON-BOARD INTEGRATED MASS AND BALANCE COMPUTER SYSTEM ................................................... 90
GM2 NCC.POL.110(b) Mass and balance data and documentation ......................................................... 91
STAND-ALONE COMPUTERISED MASS AND BALANCE SYSTEM ............................................................ 91
AMC1 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes ............................................................................................. 91
TAKE-OFF MASS..................................................................................................................................... 91
AMC2 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes ............................................................................................. 91
CONTAMINATED RUNWAY PERFORMANCE DATA ................................................................................ 91
AMC3 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes ............................................................................................. 91
ADEQUATE MARGIN .............................................................................................................................. 91
GM1 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes ............................................................................................... 91
RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION ............................................................................................................ 91
GM2 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes ............................................................................................... 92
ADEQUATE MARGIN .............................................................................................................................. 92
AMC1 NCC.POL.135 Landing — aeroplanes .............................................................................................. 92
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 92
AMC2 NCC.POL.135 Landing — aeroplanes .............................................................................................. 92
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ALLOWANCES ........................................................................................................................................ 92
Subpart D — Instruments, data and equipment ........................................................................... 93
Section 1 — Aeroplanes ............................................................................................................ 93
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.100(a) Instruments and equipment — general .............................................................. 93
APPLICABLE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................... 93
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.100(b)&(c) Instruments and equipment — general ....................................................... 93
INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED ........................................... 93
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.100(d) Instruments and equipment — general .............................................................. 94
POSITIONING OF INSTRUMENTS ........................................................................................................... 94
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.110 Spare electrical fuses ............................................................................................... 94
FUSES..................................................................................................................................................... 94
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120&NCC.IDE.A.125 Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight
and navigational instruments and associated equipment .......................................................................... 94
INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................................................. 94
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.120 Operations under VFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ................................................................................................................................. 94
LOCAL FLIGHTS ...................................................................................................................................... 94
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(1)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(1) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ............................................................ 94
MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING ......................................................... 94
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(2)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(2) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ............................................................ 95
MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME ........................................................................... 95
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(3)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(3) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ............................................................ 95
CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS FOR MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE .................... 95
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(3) Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ................................................................................................................................. 95
ALTIMETERS — IFR OR NIGHT OPERATIONS ......................................................................................... 95
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(4)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(4) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ............................................................ 95
CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED ................................................................ 95
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(c)&NCC.IDE.A.125(c) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment................................................................. 95
MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS - DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................... 95
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(9) Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ................................................................................................................................. 95
MEANS OF DISPLAYING OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE .......................................................................... 95
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.125(d) Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ................................................................................................................................. 96
MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING ..................................... 96
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.125(f) Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ................................................................................................................................. 96
CHART HOLDER ..................................................................................................................................... 96
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.135 Terrain awareness warning system (TAWS) .......................................................... 96
EXCESSIVE DOWNWARDS GLIDESLOPE DEVIATION WARNING FOR CLASS A TAWS ............................ 96
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.135 Terrain awareness warning system (TAWS) ............................................................ 96
ACCEPTABLE STANDARD FOR TAWS ..................................................................................................... 96
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.145 Airborne weather detecting equipment ................................................................ 96
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GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 96
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.155 Flight crew interphone system .............................................................................. 96
TYPE OF FLIGHT CREW INTERPHONE .................................................................................................... 96
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.160 Cockpit voice recorder ........................................................................................... 97
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 97
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.165 Flight data recorder ............................................................................................... 97
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................. 97
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.170 Data link recording ...............................................................................................103
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................103
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.170 Data link recording .................................................................................................106
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................106
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.175 Flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder ...........................................108
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................108
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.175 Flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder .............................................108
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................108
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices ................108
CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICES (CRDS) ......................................................................................................108
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices ................110
UPPER TORSO RESTRAINT SYSTEM .....................................................................................................110
SAFETY BELT ........................................................................................................................................110
AMC3 NCC.IDE.A.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices ................110
SEATS FOR MINIMUM REQUIRED CABIN CREW ..................................................................................110
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.190 First-aid kit ...........................................................................................................110
CONTENT OF FIRST-AID KITS ...............................................................................................................110
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.190 First-aid kit ...........................................................................................................111
MAINTENANCE OF FIRST-AID KITS ......................................................................................................111
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.195 Supplemental oxygen — pressurised aeroplanes ................................................112
DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN .............................................................................................................112
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.195(c)(2) Supplemental oxygen – pressurised aeroplanes ...........................................112
QUICK DONNING MASKS .....................................................................................................................112
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.200 Supplemental oxygen — non-pressurised aeroplanes ........................................112
DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN .............................................................................................................112
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.205 Hand fire extinguishers ........................................................................................113
NUMBER, LOCATION AND TYPE ..........................................................................................................113
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.210 Marking of break-in points ..................................................................................113
MARKINGS – COLOUR AND CORNERS .................................................................................................113
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) ...................................................................113
ELT BATTERIES .....................................................................................................................................113
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) ...................................................................114
TYPES OF ELT AND GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................114
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.220 Flight over water ..................................................................................................114
ACCESSIBILITY OF LIFE-JACKETS ..........................................................................................................114
ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION OF LIFE-JACKETS .........................................................................................114
RISK ASSESSMENT ...............................................................................................................................114
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.220 Flight over water ..................................................................................................115
LIFE–RAFTS AND EQUIPMENT FOR MAKING DISTRESS SIGNALS ........................................................115
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.220 Flight over water ....................................................................................................115
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SEAT CUSHIONS ...................................................................................................................................115
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.230(a)(2) Survival equipment .....................................................................................115
SURVIVAL ELT ......................................................................................................................................115
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.230(a)(3) Survival equipment .....................................................................................115
ADDITIONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................115
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.230(b)(2) Survival equipment .....................................................................................116
APPLICABLE AIRWORTHINESS STANDARD ..........................................................................................116
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.230 Survival equipment ................................................................................................116
SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................................116
GM2 NCC.IDE.A.230 Survival equipment ................................................................................................116
AREAS IN WHICH SEARCH AND RESCUE WOULD BE ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT ......................................116
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.240 Headset ................................................................................................................116
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................116
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.240 Headset ..................................................................................................................117
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................117
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.245 Radio communication equipment .........................................................................117
APPLICABLE AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS ..............................................................................................117
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.255 Transponder .........................................................................................................117
SSR TRANSPONDER .............................................................................................................................117
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.260 Electronic navigation data management .............................................................117
ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION DATA PRODUCTS ......................................................................................117
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.260 Electronic navigation data management ...............................................................117
LETTERS OF ACCEPTANCE AND STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION DATA PRODUCTS ........117
Section 2 — Helicopters .......................................................................................................... 119
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.100(a) Instruments and equipment — general ............................................................119
APPLICABLE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................119
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.100(b)&(c) Instruments and equipment — general .....................................................119
INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED .........................................119
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.100(d) Instruments and equipment — general ............................................................119
POSITIONING OF INSTRUMENTS .........................................................................................................119
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.115 Operating lights ...................................................................................................119
LANDING LIGHT ...................................................................................................................................119
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120&NCC.IDE.H.125 Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight
and navigational instruments and associated equipment ........................................................................120
INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS ...............................................................................................................120
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(1)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(1) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ..........................................................120
MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING .......................................................120
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(2)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(2) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ..........................................................120
MEANS FOR MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME .......................................................................120
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(3)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(3) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ..........................................................120
CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS FOR MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE ..................120
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(4)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(4) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ..........................................................120
CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED ..............................................................120
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(b)(1)(iii)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(8) Operations under VFR & operations under
IFR — flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment ....................................................121
STABILISED HEADING ..........................................................................................................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(9) Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ...............................................................................................................................121
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE ...............................................................................................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(c)&NCC.IDE.H.125(c) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment...............................................................121
MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS — DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS..................................................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.125(d) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight and navigational
instruments and associated equipment ...................................................................................................121
MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING ...................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.125(f) Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
associated equipment ...............................................................................................................................121
CHART HOLDER ...................................................................................................................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.145 Airborne weather detecting equipment ..............................................................121
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.155 Flight crew interphone system ............................................................................121
TYPE OF FLIGHT CREW INTERPHONE ..................................................................................................121
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.160 Cockpit voice recorder .........................................................................................122
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................122
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.165 Flight data recorder .............................................................................................122
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................122
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.170 Data link recording...............................................................................................126
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................126
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.170 Data link recording ................................................................................................128
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................128
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.175 Flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder .............................................130
COMBINATION RECORDERS ................................................................................................................130
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices .................130
CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICES (CRDS) ......................................................................................................130
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices ................132
UPPER TORSO RESTRAINT SYSTEM .....................................................................................................132
SAFETY BELT ........................................................................................................................................132
AMC3 NCC.IDE.H.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices ................132
SEATS FOR MINIMUM REQUIRED CABIN CREW ..................................................................................132
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.190 First-aid kit ...........................................................................................................133
CONTENT OF FIRST-AID KIT .................................................................................................................133
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.190 First-aid kit ...........................................................................................................134
MAINTENANCE OF FIRST-AID KITS ......................................................................................................134
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.200 Supplemental oxygen — non-pressurised helicopters ........................................134
DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN .............................................................................................................134
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.205 Hand fire extinguishers ........................................................................................134
NUMBER, LOCATION AND TYPE ..........................................................................................................134
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.210 Marking of break-in points ..................................................................................135
MARKINGS – COLOUR AND CORNERS .................................................................................................135
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) ...................................................................135
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ELT BATTERIES .....................................................................................................................................135
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) ...................................................................135
TYPES OF ELT AND GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................135
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.225(a) Life-jackets.......................................................................................................136
ACCESSIBILITY ......................................................................................................................................136
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.225(b) Life-jackets ......................................................................................................136
ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION ....................................................................................................................136
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.225 Life-jackets .............................................................................................................136
SEAT CUSHIONS ...................................................................................................................................136
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.226 Crew survival suits .................................................................................................136
ESTIMATING SURVIVAL TIME ..............................................................................................................136
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.227 Life-rafts, survival ELTs and survival equipment on extended overwater
flights ........................................................................................................................................................138
LIFE-RAFTS AND EQUIPMENT FOR MAKING DISTRESS SIGNALS .........................................................138
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment ..............................................................................................139
ADDITIONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................139
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment ..............................................................................................140
SURVIVAL ELT ......................................................................................................................................140
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment ................................................................................................140
SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................................140
GM2 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment ................................................................................................140
AREAS IN WHICH SEARCH AND RESCUE WOULD BE ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT ......................................140
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.231 Additional requirements for helicopters conducting offshore operations in
a hostile sea area ......................................................................................................................................140
INSTALLATION OF THE LIFE-RAFT ........................................................................................................140
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.232 Helicopters certificated for operating on water — Miscellaneous equipment .....141
INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA .............................................141
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.235 All helicopters on flight over water - ditching .....................................................141
The same considerations of AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.231 should apply in respect of emergency flotation
equipment.AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.240 Headset .............................................................................................141
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................141
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.240 Headset ..................................................................................................................141
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................141
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.245 Radio communication equipment .........................................................................141
APPLICABLE AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS ..............................................................................................141
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.255 Transponder ........................................................................................................142
SSR TRANSPONDER .............................................................................................................................142
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Part-NCC — AMC/GM
Subpart A — General requirements
GM1 NCC.GEN.105(e)(2) Crew responsibilities
GENERAL
In accordance with 7.g. of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 216/20082 (essential requirements for air
operations), a crew member must not perform duties on board an aircraft when under the influence
of psychoactive substances or alcohol or when unfit due to injury, fatigue, medication, sickness or
other similar causes. This should be understood as including the following:
(a)
effects of deep water diving and blood donation, and allowing for a certain time period
between these activities and returning to flying; and
(b)
without prejudice to more restrictive national regulations, the consumption of alcohol while
on duty or less than 8 hours prior to the commencement of duties, and commencing a flight
duty period with a blood alcohol level in excess of 0.2 per thousand.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.105(g) Crew responsibilities
OCCURRENCE REPORTING
Whenever a crew member makes use of the applicable reporting systems, a copy of the report
should be communicated to the pilot-in-command.
GM1 NCC.GEN.106 Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority
GENERAL
In accordance with 1.c. of Annex IV to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 (Essential Requirements for air
operations), the pilot-in-command is responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft and for
the safety of all crew members, passengers and cargo on board. This would normally be from the
time that he/she assumes responsibility for the aircraft and passengers prior to a flight until the
passengers are deplaned and escorted out of the operational area of the aerodrome or operating site
and he/she relinquishes responsibility for the aircraft at the end of a flight or series of flights. The
pilot-in-command’s responsibilities and authority should be understood as including at least the
following:
(a)
the safety of all crew members, passengers and cargo on board, as soon as he/she arrives on
board, until he/she leaves the aircraft at the end of the flight; and
(b)
the operation and safety of the aircraft:
2
Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 February 2008 on common rules in the field of
civil aviation and establishing a European Aviation Safety Agency, and repealing Council Directive 91/670/EEC, Regulation (EC) No
1592/2002 and Directive 2004/36/EC (OJ L 79, 19.3.2008, p. 1). Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 1108/2009 of
the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 (OJ L 309, 24.11.2009, p. 51).
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(1)
for aeroplanes, from the moment it is first ready to move for the purpose of taxiing prior
to take-off, until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the engine(s)
used as primary propulsion unit(s) is/are shut down; or
(2)
for helicopters, from the moment the engine(s) are started until the helicopter comes to
rest at the end of the flight with the engine(s) shut down and the rotor blades stopped.
GM1 NCC.GEN.106(b) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority
AUTHORITY TO REFUSE CARRIAGE OR DISEMBARK
This may include:
(a)
passengers who have special needs that cannot be provided on the aircraft; or
(b)
persons that appear to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.106(c) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority
REPORTING OF HAZARDOUS FLIGHT CONDITIONS
(a)
These reports should include any detail which may be pertinent to the safety of other aircraft.
(b)
Such reports should be made whenever any of the following conditions are encountered or
observed:
(c)
(1)
severe turbulence;
(2)
severe icing;
(3)
severe mountain wave;
(4)
thunderstorms, with or without hail, that are obscured, embedded, widespread or in
squall lines;
(5)
heavy dust storm or heavy sandstorm;
(6)
volcanic ash cloud; and
(7)
unusual and/or increasing volcanic activity or a volcanic eruption.
When other meteorological conditions not listed above, e.g. wind shear, are encountered that,
in the opinion of the pilot-in-command, may affect the safety or the efficiency of other aircraft
operations, the pilot-in-command should advise the appropriate air traffic services (ATS) unit
as soon as practicable.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.106(d) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority
MITIGATING MEASURES — FATIGUE
The use of additional crew members and/or controlled rest during flight as described in GM1
NCC.GEN.106(d) may be considered as appropriate fatigue mitigating measures.
GM1 NCC.GEN.106(d) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority
MITIGATING MEASURES — FATIGUE — CONTROLLED REST IN THE FLIGHT CREW COMPARTMENT
(a)
This Guidance Material (GM) addresses controlled rest taken by the minimum certified flight
crew. It is not related to planned in-flight rest by members of an augmented crew.
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(b)
Although flight crew members should stay alert at all times during flight, unexpected fatigue
can occur as a result of sleep disturbance and circadian disruption. To cater for this
unexpected fatigue, and to regain a high level of alertness, a controlled rest procedure in the
flight crew compartment, organised by the pilot-in-command, may be used, if workload
permits. ‘Controlled rest’ means a period of time ‘off task’ that may include actual sleep. The
use of controlled rest has been shown to significantly increase the levels of alertness during
the later phases of flight, particularly after the top of descent, and is considered to be good
use of crew resource management (CRM) principles. Controlled rest should be used in
conjunction with other on board fatigue management countermeasures such as physical
exercise, bright flight crew compartment illumination at appropriate times, balanced eating
and drinking and intellectual activity.
(c)
Controlled rest taken in this way should not be considered to be part of a rest period for the
purposes of calculating flight time limitations, nor used to justify any duty period extension.
Controlled rest may be used to manage both sudden unexpected fatigue and fatigue that is
expected to become more severe during higher workload periods later in the flight. Controlled
rest is not related to fatigue management, which is planned before flight.
(d)
Controlled rest periods should be agreed according to individual needs and the accepted
principles of CRM; where the involvement of the cabin crew is required, consideration should
be given to their workload.
(e)
When applying controlled rest procedures, the pilot-in-command should ensure that:
(f)
(1)
the other flight crew member(s) is(are) adequately briefed to carry out the duties of the
resting flight crew member;
(2)
one flight crew member is fully able to exercise control of the aircraft at all times; and
(3)
any system intervention that would normally require a cross-check according to multicrew principles is avoided until the resting flight crew member resumes his/her duties.
Controlled rest procedures should satisfy the following criteria:
(1)
only one flight crew member at a time should take rest at his/her station; the harness
should be used and the seat positioned to minimise unintentional interference with the
controls;
(2)
the rest period should be no longer than 45 minutes (in order to limit any actual sleep to
approximately 30 minutes) so as to limit deep sleep and associated long recovery time
(sleep inertia);
(3)
after this 45-minute period, there should be a recovery period of 20 minutes during
which sole control of the aircraft should not be entrusted to the flight crew member
taking controlled rest;
(4)
in the case of two-crew operations, means should be established to ensure that the nonresting flight crew member remains alert. This may include:
(i)
appropriate alarm systems;
(ii)
on board systems to monitor flight crew activity; and
(iii)
where cabin crew are on board the aircraft, frequent cabin crew checks. In this
case, the pilot-in-command should inform the cabin crew member of the
intention of the flight crew member to take controlled rest, and of the time of the
end of that rest; frequent contact should be established between the non-resting
flight crew member and the cabin crew by communication means, and the cabin
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
crew should check that the resting flight crew member is alert at the end of the
period;
(5)
there should be a minimum of 20 minutes between two sequential controlled rest
periods in order to overcome the effects of sleep inertia and allow for adequate briefing;
(6)
if necessary, a flight crew member may take more than one rest period, if time permits,
on longer sectors, subject to the restrictions above; and
(7)
controlled rest periods should terminate at least 30 minutes before the top of descent.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.106 (e) Pilot-in-command responsibilities and authority
VIOLATION REPORTING
If required by the State in which the incident occurs, the pilot-in-command should submit a report on
any such violation to the appropriate authority of such State; in that event, the pilot-in-command
should also submit a copy of it to the competent authority. Such reports should be submitted as soon
as possible and normally within 10 days.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.119 Taxiing of aircraft
PROCEDURES FOR TAXIING
Procedures for taxiing should include at least the following:
(a)
application of the sterile flight crew compartment procedures;
(b)
use of standard radio-telephony (RTF) phraseology;
(c)
use of lights;
(d)
measures to enhance the situational awareness of the minimum required flight crew
members. The following list of typical items should be adapted by the operator to take into
account its operational environment:
(1)
each flight crew member should have the necessary aerodrome layout charts available;
(2)
the pilot taxiing the aircraft should announce in advance his/her intentions to the pilot
monitoring;
(3)
all taxi clearances should be heard, and should be understood by each flight crew
member;
(4)
all taxi clearances should be cross-checked against the aerodrome chart and aerodrome
surface markings, signs, and lights;
(5)
an aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area should stop and hold at all lighted stop bars,
and may proceed further when an explicit clearance to enter or cross the runway has
been issued by the aerodrome control tower, and when the stop bar lights are switched
off;
(6)
if the pilot taxiing the aircraft is unsure of his/her position, he/she should stop the
aircraft and contact air traffic control;
(7)
the pilot monitoring should monitor the taxi progress and adherence to the clearances,
and should assist the pilot taxiing;
(8)
any action which may disturb the flight crew from the taxi activity should be avoided or
done with the parking brake set (e.g. announcements by public address);
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(e)
subparagraphs (d)(2) and (d)(7) are not applicable to single-pilot operations.
GM1 NCC.GEN.120 Taxiing of aeroplanes
SAFETY-CRITICAL ACTIVITY
(a)
Taxiing should be treated as a safety-critical activity due to the risks related to the movement
of the aeroplane and the potential for a catastrophic event on the ground.
(b)
Taxiing is a high-workload phase of flight that requires the full attention of the flight crew.
GM1 NCC.GEN.120(b)(4) Taxiing of aeroplanes
SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE
The person designated by the operator to taxi an aeroplane should possess the following skills and
knowledge:
(a)
Positioning of the aeroplane to ensure safety when starting engine;
(b)
Getting ATIS reports and taxi clearance, where applicable;
(c)
Interpretation of airfield markings/lights/signals/indicators;
(d)
Interpretation of marshalling signals, where applicable;
(e)
Identification of suitable parking area;
(f)
Maintaining lookout and right-of-way rules and complying with ATC or marshalling instructions
when applicable;
(g)
Avoidance of adverse effect of propeller slipstream or jet wash on other aeroplanes,
aerodrome facilities and personnel;
(h)
Inspection of taxi path when surface conditions are obscured;
(i)
Communication with others when controlling an aeroplane on the ground;
(j)
Interpretation of operational instructions;
(k)
Reporting of any problem that may occur while taxiing an aeroplane; and
(l)
Adapting the taxi speed in accordance with prevailing aerodrome, traffic, surface and weather
conditions.
GM1 NCC.GEN.125 Rotor engagement
INTENT OF THE RULE
(a)
(b)
The following two situations where it is allowed to turn the rotor under power should be
distinguished:
(1)
for the purpose of flight, as described in the Implementing Rule;
(2)
for maintenance purposes.
Rotor engagement for the purpose of flight: it should be noted that the pilot should not leave
the control when the rotors are turning. For example, the pilot is not allowed to get out of the
aircraft in order to welcome passengers and adjust their seat belts with the rotors turning.
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(c)
Rotor engagement for the purpose of maintenance: the Implementing Rule, however, should
not prevent ground runs being conducted by qualified personnel other than pilots for
maintenance purposes.
The following conditions should be applied:
(1)
The operator should ensure that the qualification of personnel, other than pilots, who
are authorised to conduct maintenance runs, is described in the appropriate manual.
(2)
Ground runs should not include taxiing the helicopter.
(3)
There should be no passengers on board.
(4)
Maintenance runs should not include collective increase or autopilot engagement (risk
of ground resonance).
AMC1 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices
TECHNICAL PREREQUISITES FOR THE USE OF PEDS
(a)
Scope
This AMC describes the technical prerequisites under which any kind of portable electronic device
(PED) may be used on board the aircraft without adversely affecting the performance of the
aircraft’s systems and equipment.
(b)
(c)
Prerequisites concerning the aircraft configuration
(1)
Before an operator may permit the use of any kind of PED on-board, it should ensure
that PEDs have no impact on the safe operation of the aircraft. The operator should
demonstrate that PEDs do not interfere with on-board electronic systems and
equipment, especially with the aircraft’s navigation and communication systems.
(2)
The assessment of PED tolerance may be tailored to the different aircraft zones for
which the use of PEDs is considered, i.e. may address separately:
(i)
the passenger compartment;
(ii)
the flight crew compartment; and
(iii)
areas not accessible during the flight.
Scenarios for permitting the use of PEDs
(1)
Possible scenarios, under which the operator may permit the use of PEDs, should be as
documented in Table 1. The scenarios in Table 1 are listed in a descending order with
the least permitting scenario at the bottom.
(2)
Restrictions arising from the corresponding aircraft certification, as documented in the
aircraft flight manual (AFM) or equivalent document(s), should stay in force. They may
be linked to different aircraft zones, or to particular transmitting technologies covered.
(3)
For Scenarios Nos. 3 to 8 in Table 1 the use of C-PEDs and cargo tracking devices may be
further expanded, when the EMI assessment has demonstrated that there is no impact
on safety as follows:
(i)
for C-PEDs by using the method described in (d)(2); and
(ii)
for cargo tracking devices by using the method described in (d)(3).
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SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Table 1 – Scenarios for permitting the use of PEDs by the operator
No.
Technical condition
Non-intentional
transmitters
T-PEDs
1
The aircraft is certified as T-PED tolerant, i.e. it has
been demonstrated during the aircraft
certification process that front door and back door
coupling have no impact on the safe operation of
the aircraft
All phases of flight
All phases of flight
2
A complete electromagnetic interference (EMI)
assessment for all technologies, using the method
described in (d)(1), has been performed and has
demonstrated the T-PED tolerance
All phases of flight
All phases of flight
3
The aircraft is certified for the use of T-PEDs using
particular technologies (e.g. WLAN or mobile
phone)
All phases of flight
All phases of flight,
restricted to those
particular technologies
4
The EMI assessment, using the method described
in (d)(1), has demonstrated that:
All phases of flight
All phases of flight,
restricted to those
particular technologies
(a)
the front door coupling has no impact on
safety; and
(b)
the back door coupling has no impact on
safety when using particular technologies
(e.g. WLAN or mobile phone)
5
The EMI assessment, using the method described
in (d)(1)(i), has demonstrated that the front door
coupling has no impact on safety caused by nonintentional transmitters
All phases of flight
Not permitted
6
The EMI assessment, using the method described
in (d)(1)(ii), has demonstrated that the back door
coupling has no impact on safety when using
particular technologies (e.g. WLAN or mobile
phone)
All phases of flight except low visibility
approach operation
All phases of flight except low visibility
approach operation,
restricted to those
particular technologies
7
An EMI assessment has not been performed
All phases of flight except low visibility
approach operation
Not permitted
8
Notwithstanding Scenarios Nos. 3 to 7
(a)
before taxi-out;
(b)
during taxi-in after the end of landing roll;
and
(c)
the pilot-in-command may permit the use
during prolonged departure delays, provided
that sufficient time is available to check the
passenger compartment before the flight
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
No.
Technical condition
Non-intentional
transmitters
T-PEDs
proceeds
(d)
Demonstration of electromagnetic compatibility
(1)
EMI assessment at aircraft level
The means to demonstrate that the radio frequency (RF) emissions (intentional or nonintentional) are tolerated by aircraft systems should be as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(2)
to address front door coupling susceptibility for any kind of PEDs:
(A)
RTCA, ‘Guidance on allowing transmitting portable, electronic devices (TPEDs) on aircraft’, DO-294C (or later revisions), Appendix 5C; or
(B)
RTCA, ‘Aircraft design and certification for portable electronic device (PED)
tolerance’, DO-307 (including Change 1 or later revisions), Section 4; and
to address back door coupling susceptibility for T-PEDs:
(A)
EUROCAE, ‘Guidance for the use of portable electronic devices (PEDs) on
board aircraft’, ED-130 (or later revisions), Annex 6;
(B)
RTCA DO-294C (or later revisions), Appendix 6D; or
(C)
RTCA DO-307 (including Change 1 or later revisions), Section 3.
Alternative EMI assessment of C-PEDs
(i)
For front door coupling:
(A)
(B)
(ii)
(3)
C-PEDs should comply with the levels as defined by:
(a)
EUROCAE/RTCA, ‘Environmental conditions and test procedures for
airborne equipment’, ED-14D/DO-160D (or later revisions), Section
21, Category M, for operation in the passenger compartment and the
flight crew compartment; and
(b)
EUROCAE ED-14E/RTCA DO-160E (or later revisions), Section 21,
Category H, for operation in areas not accessible during the flight.
If the C-PEDs are electronic flight bags used in the flight crew compartment,
an alternative compliance method described in EASA, ‘General acceptable
means of compliance for airworthiness of products, part and appliances’,
AMC-20, AMC 20-25 (‘Airworthiness and operational considerations for
electronic flight bags’), may be used.
For back door coupling the EMI assessment described in (1)(ii) should be
performed.
Alternative EMI assessment of cargo tracking devices
In case a transmitting function is automatically deactivated in a cargo tracking device
(being a T-PED), the unit should be qualified for safe operation on board the aircraft.
One of the following methods should be considered acceptable as evidence for safe
operation:
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(i)
A type-specific safety assessment, including failure mode and effects analysis, has
been performed at aircraft level. The main purpose of the assessment should be
to determine the worst hazards and to demonstrate an adequate design
assurance level of the relevant hardware and software components of the cargo
tracking device.
(ii)
The high intensity radiated field (HIRF) certification of the aircraft has been
performed, i.e. the aircraft type has been certified after 1987 and meets the
appropriate special condition. In such a case, the operator should observe the
following:
(A)
(iii)
(e)
The tracking device:
(a)
features an automated and prolonged radio suspension in flight using
multiple modes of redundancy; and
(b)
has been verified in the aircraft environment to ensure deactivation
of the transmitting function in flight.
(B)
The transmissions of the tracking device are limited per design to short
periods of time (less than 1 second per 1 000 seconds) and cannot be
continuous.
(C)
The tracking devices should comply with the levels as defined by EUROCAE
ED-14E/RTCA DO-160E (or later revisions), Section 21, Category H.
(D)
In order to provide assurance on the tracking device design and production,
the following documents are retained as part of the evaluation package:
(a)
operational description, technical specifications, product label and
images of the tracking device and any peripheral attachments;
(b)
failure mode and effects analysis report of the tracking device and
any peripheral attachments;
(c)
declaration of stringent design and production controls in place
during the tracking device manufacturing;
(d)
declaration of conformity and technical documentation showing
compliance to the European Norms (EN), regulating the transmitter
characteristic of the tracking device or its transmission module; and
(e)
an EMI assessment report documenting the emission levels.
The tracking device interference levels during transmission are below those
considered acceptable for the specific aircraft environment.
Operational conditions of C-PEDS and cargo tracking devices
The operator should ensure that C-PEDs and cargo tracking devices are maintained in good and
safe condition, having in mind that:
(f)
(1)
damage may modify their emissions characteristics; and
(2)
damage to the battery may create a fire hazard.
Batteries in C-PEDs and cargo tracking devices
Lithium-type batteries in C-PEDs and cargo tracking devices should meet:
(1)
United Nations (UN) Transportation Regulations, ‘Recommendations on the transport of
dangerous goods - manual of tests and criteria’, UN ST/SG/AC.10/11; and
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(2)
one of the following standards:
(i)
Underwriters Laboratory, ‘Lithium batteries’, UL 1642;
(ii)
Underwriters Laboratory, ‘Household and commercial batteries’, UL 2054;
(iii)
Underwriters Laboratory, ‘Information technology equipment – safety’, UL 609501;
(iv)
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), ‘Secondary cells and batteries
containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - safety requirements for
portable sealed secondary cells, and for batteries made from them, for use in
portable applications’, IEC 62133;
(v)
RTCA, ‘Minimum operational performance standards for rechargeable lithium
battery systems’, DO-311. RTCA DO-311 may be used to address concerns
regarding overcharging, over-discharging, and the flammability of cell
components. The standard is intended to test permanently installed equipment;
however, these tests are applicable and sufficient to test electronic flight bags
rechargeable lithium-type batteries; or
(vi)
European Technical Standard Order (ETSO), ‘Non-rechargeable lithium cells and
batteries’, ETSO C142a.
AMC2 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices
PROCEDURES FOR THE USE OF PEDS
(a)
Scope
This AMC describes the procedures under which any kind of portable electronic device (PED) may be
used on board the aircraft without adversely affecting the performance of the aircraft’s
systems and equipment. This AMC addresses the operation of PEDs in the different aircraft
zones — passenger compartment, flight compartment, and areas inaccessible during the flight.
(b)
Prerequisites
Before permitting the use of any kind of PEDs the operator should ensure compliance with (c) of
AMC1 NCC.GEN.130.
(c)
Hazard identification and risk assessment
The operator should identify the safety hazards and manage the associated risks following the
management system implemented in accordance with ORO.GEN.200. The risk assessment
should include hazards associated with:
(1)
PEDs in different aircraft zones;
(2)
PED use during various phases of flight;
(3)
PED use during turbulence;
(4)
improperly stowed PEDs;
(5)
impeded or slowed evacuations;
(6)
passenger non-compliance, e.g. not deactivating transmitting functions, not switching
off PEDs or not stowing PEDs properly;
(7)
disruptive passengers; and
(8)
battery fire.
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(d)
Use of PEDs in the passenger compartment
(1)
Procedures and training
If an operator permits passengers to use PEDs on board its aircraft, procedures should
be in place to control their use. These procedures should include provisions for
passenger briefing, passenger handling and for the stowage of PEDs. The operator
should ensure that all crew members and ground personnel are trained to enforce
possible restrictions concerning the use of PEDs, in line with these procedures.
(2)
(3)
Provisions for use
(i)
The use of PEDs in the passenger compartment may be granted under the
responsibility of the operator, i.e. the operator decides which PED may be used
during which phases of the flight.
(ii)
Notwithstanding (b), medical equipment necessary to support physiological
functions may be used at all times and does not need to be switched-off.
Stowage, passenger information and passenger briefing of PEDs
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(4)
In accordance with NCC.OP.135 the operator should establish procedures
concerning the stowage of PEDs. The operator should:
(A)
identify the phases of flight in which PEDs are to be stowed; and
(B)
determine suitable stowage locations, taking into account the PEDs’ size
and weight.
The operator should provide general information on the use of PEDs to the
passengers before the flight. This information should specify at least:
(A)
which PEDs can be used during which phases of the flight;
(B)
when and where PEDs are to be stowed; and
(C)
that the instructions of the crew are to be followed at all times.
The use of PEDs should be part of the passenger briefings. The operator should
remind passengers to pay attention and to avoid distraction during such briefings.
In-seat electrical power supplies
Where in-seat electrical power supplies are available for passenger use, the following
should apply:
(5)
(i)
information giving safety instructions should be provided to the passengers;
(ii)
PEDs should be disconnected from any in-seat electrical power supply during
taxiing, take-off, approach, landing, and during abnormal or emergency
conditions; and
(iii)
flight crew and cabin crew should be aware of the proper means to switch-off inseat power supplies used for PEDs.
Operator’s safety measures during boarding and any phase of flight
(i)
Appropriate coordination between flight crew and cabin crew should be
established to deal with interference or other safety problems associated with
PEDs.
(ii)
Suspect equipment should be switched off.
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(6)
(iii)
Particular attention should be given to passenger misuse of equipment.
(iv)
Thermal runaways of batteries, in particular lithium batteries, and potential
resulting fire, should be handled properly.
(v)
The pilot-in-command may, for any reason and during any phase of flight, require
deactivation and stowage of PEDs.
(vi)
When the operator restricts the use of PEDs, consideration should be given to
handle special requests to operate a T-PED during any phase of the flight for
specific reasons (e.g. for security measures).
Reporting
Occurrences of suspected or confirmed interference should be reported to the
competent authority. Where possible, to assist follow-up and technical investigation,
reports should describe the suspected device, identify the brand name and model
number, its location in the aircraft at the time of the occurrence, interference
symptoms, the device user’s contact details and the results of actions taken by the crew.
(e)
Use of PEDs in the flight crew compartment
In the flight crew compartment the operator may permit the use of PEDs, e.g. to assist the flight crew
in their duties, when procedures are in place to ensure the following:
(f)
(1)
The conditions for the use of PEDs in-flight are specified in the operations manual.
(2)
The PEDs do not pose a loose item risk or other hazard.
(3)
These provisions should not preclude use of a T-PED (specifically a mobile phone) by the
flight crew to deal with an emergency. However, reliance should not be predicated on a
T-PED for this purpose.
PEDs not accessible during the flight
PEDs should be switched off, when not accessible for deactivation during flight. This should apply
especially to PEDs contained in baggage or transported as part of the cargo. The operator may
permit deviation for PEDs for which safe operation has been demonstrated in accordance with
AMC1 NCC.GEN.130. Other precautions, such as transporting in shielded metal boxes, may also
be used to mitigate associated risks.
GM1 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices
DEFINITIONS
(a)
Definition and categories of PEDs
PEDs are any kind of electronic device, typically but not limited to consumer electronics,
brought on board the aircraft by crew members, passengers, or as part of the cargo and that
are not included in the approved aircraft configuration. All equipment that is able to consume
electrical energy falls under this definition. The electrical energy can be provided from internal
sources as batteries (chargeable or non-rechargeable) or the devices may also be connected to
specific aircraft power sources.
PEDs include the following two categories:
(1)
Non-intentional transmitters can non-intentionally radiate RF transmissions, sometimes
referred to as spurious emissions. This category includes, but is not limited to,
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calculators, cameras, radio receivers, audio and video players, electronic games and toys;
when these devices are not equipped with a transmitting function.
(2)
(b)
Intentional transmitters radiate RF transmissions on specific frequencies as part of their
intended function. In addition, they may radiate non-intentional transmissions like any
PED. The term ‘transmitting PED’ (T-PED) is used to identify the transmitting capability of
the PED. Intentional transmitters are transmitting devices such as RF-based remote
control equipment, which may include some toys, two-way radios (sometimes referred
to as private mobile radio), mobile phones of any type, satellite phones, computers with
mobile phone data connection, wireless local area network (WLAN) or Bluetooth
capability. After deactivation of the transmitting capability, e.g. by activating the socalled ‘flight mode’ or ‘flight safety mode’, the T-PED remains a PED having nonintentional emissions.
Controlled PEDs (C-PEDs)
A controlled PED (C-PED) is a PED subject to administrative control by the operator using it.
This will include, inter alia, tracking the allocation of the devices to specific aircraft or persons
and ensuring that no unauthorised changes are made to the hardware, software or databases.
C-PEDs can be assigned to the category of non-intentional transmitters or T-PEDs.
(c)
Cargo tracking device
A cargo tracking device is a PED attached to or included in airfreight (e.g. in or on containers,
pallets, parcels or baggage). Cargo tracking devices can be assigned to the category of nonintentional transmitters or T-PEDs. If the device is a T-PED, it complies with the European
Norms (EN) for transmissions.
(d)
Definition of the switched-off status
Many PEDs are not completely disconnected from the internal power source when switched
off. The switching function may leave some remaining functionality, e.g. data storage, timer,
clock, etc. These devices can be considered switched off when in the deactivated status. The
same applies for devices having no transmitting capability and are operated by coin cells
without further deactivation capability, e.g. wrist watches.
(e)
Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
The two classes of EMI to be addressed can be described as follows:
(1)
Front door coupling is the possible disturbance to an aircraft system as received by the
antenna of the system and mainly in the frequency band used by the system. Any PED
internal oscillation has the potential to radiate low level signals in the aviation frequency
bands. Through this disturbance especially the instrument landing system (ILS) and the
VHF omni range (VOR) navigation system may indicate erroneous information.
(2)
Back door coupling is the possible disturbance of aircraft systems by electromagnetic
fields generated by transmitters at a level which could exceed on short distance (i.e.
within the aircraft) the electromagnetic field level used for the aircraft system
certification. This disturbance may then lead to system malfunction.
GM2 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices
CREW REST COMPARTMENT, NAVIGATION, TEST ENTITIES AND FIRE CAUSED BY PEDS
(a)
When the aircraft is equipped with a crew rest compartment, it is considered being part of the
passenger compartment.
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(b)
Front door coupling may influence the VOR navigation system. Therefore, the flight crew
monitors other navigation sensors to detect potential disturbances by PEDs, especially during
low visibility departure operation based on VOR guidance.
(c)
Specific equipment, knowledge and experience are required, when the industry standards for
evaluating technical prerequisites for the use of PEDs are applied. In order to ensure
conformity with the industry standards, the operator is encouraged to cooperate with an
appropriately qualified and experienced entity, as necessary. For this entity an aviation
background is not required, but is considered to be beneficial.
(d)
Guidance to follow in case of fire caused by PEDs is provided by the International Civil Aviation
Organisation, ‘Emergency response guidance for aircraft incidents involving dangerous goods’,
ICAO Doc 9481-AN/928.
GM3 NCC.GEN.130 Portable electronic devices
CARGO TRACKING DEVICES EVALUATION
(a)
Safety assessment
Further guidance on performing a safety assessment can be found in:
(b)
(1)
EASA, ‘Certification specifications and acceptable means of compliance for large
aeroplanes’, CS-25, Book 2, AMC-Subpart F, AMC 25.1309;
(2)
EUROCAE/SAE, ‘Guidelines for development of civil aircraft and systems’, ED-79/ARP
4754 (or later revisions); and
(3)
SAE, ‘Guidelines and methods for conducting the safety assessment process on civil
airborne systems and equipment’, ARP 4761 (or later revisions).
HIRF certification
The type certificate data sheet (TCDS), available on the EASA website for each aircraft model having
EASA certification, lists whether the HIRF certification has been performed through a special
condition. The operator may contact the type certification holder to gain the necessary
information.
(c)
Failure mode and effects analysis
Further guidance on performing a failure mode and effects analysis can be found in:
(1)
SAE ARP 4761 (or later revisions); and
(2)
U.S. Department of Defense, ‘Procedures for performing a failure mode, effects and
criticality analysis’, Military Standard MIL-STD-1629A (or later revisions).
AMC1 NCC.GEN.135 Information on emergency and survival equipment carried
CONTENT OF INFORMATION
The information, compiled in a list, should include, as applicable:
(a)
the number, colour and type of life-rafts and pyrotechnics;
(b)
details of emergency medical supplies and water supplies; and
(c)
the type and frequencies of the emergency portable radio equipment.
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AMC1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(3) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS
The certificate of airworthiness should be a normal certificate of airworthiness, a restricted
certificate of airworthiness or a permit to fly issued in accordance with the applicable airworthiness
requirements.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(11) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
CURRENT AND SUITABLE AERONAUTICAL CHARTS
(a)
The aeronautical charts carried should contain data appropriate to the applicable air traffic
regulations, rules of the air, flight altitudes, area/route and nature of the operation. Due
consideration should be given to carriage of textual and graphic representations of:
(1)
(2)
aeronautical data including, as appropriate for the nature of the operation:
(i)
airspace structure;
(ii)
significant points, navigation aids (navaids) and air traffic services (ATS) routes;
(iii)
navigation and communication frequencies;
(iv)
prohibited, restricted and danger areas; and
(v)
sites of other relevant activities that may hazard the flight; and
topographical data, including terrain and obstacle data.
(b)
A combination of different charts and textual data may be used to provide adequate and
current data.
(c)
The aeronautical data should be appropriate for the current aeronautical information
regulation and control (AIRAC) cycle.
(d)
The topographical data should be reasonably recent, having regard to the nature of the
planned operation.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(12) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
PROCEDURES AND VISUAL SIGNALS FOR USE BY INTERCEPTING AND INTERCEPTED AIRCRAFT
The procedures and the visual signals information for use by intercepting and intercepted aircraft
should reflect those contained in the International Civil Aviation Organisation’s (ICAO) Annex 2. This
may be part of the operations manual.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.140 Documents, manuals and information to be carried
GENERAL
The documents, manuals and information may be available in a form other than on printed paper. An
electronic storage medium is acceptable if accessibility, usability and reliability can be assured.
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GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(1) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
AFM OR EQUIVALENT DOCUMENT
‘Aircraft flight manual (AFM), or equivalent document’ means the flight manual for the aircraft or
other documents containing information required for the operation of the aircraft within the terms
of its certificate of airworthiness, unless these data are available in the parts of the operations
manual carried on board.
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(9) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
JOURNEY LOG OR EQUIVALENT
‘Journey log or equivalent’ means in this context that the required information may be recorded in
documentation other than a log book, such as the operational flight plan or the aircraft technical log.
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(13) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
SEARCH AND RESCUE INFORMATION
This information is usually found in the State’s aeronautical information publication.
GM1 NCC.GEN.140(a)(19) Documents, manuals and information to be carried
DOCUMENTS THAT MAY BE PERTINENT TO THE FLIGHT
Any other documents that may be pertinent to the flight or required by the States concerned with
the flight may include, for example, forms to comply with reporting requirements.
STATES CONCERNED WITH THE FLIGHT
The States concerned are those of origin, transit, overflight and destination of the flight.
GM1 NCC.GEN.145(a) Preservation, production and use of flight recorder recordings
REMOVAL OF RECORDERS AFTER A REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE
The need for removal of the recorders from the aircraft is determined by the investigating authority
with due regard to the seriousness of an occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on
the operation.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.145(b) Preservation, production and use of flight recorder recordings
OPERATIONAL CHECKS
Whenever a recorder is required to be carried, the operator should:
(a)
perform an annual inspection of flight data recorder (FDR) recording and cockpit voice
recorder (CVR) recording, unless one or more of the following applies:
(1)
Where two solid-state FDRs both fitted with internal built-in-test equipment sufficient to
monitor reception and recording of data share the same acquisition unit, a
comprehensive recording inspection need only be performed for one FDR. For the
second FDR, checking its internal built-in-test equipment is sufficient. The inspection
should be performed alternately such that each FDR is inspected once every other year.
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(2)
(3)
Where the following conditions are met, the FDR recording inspection is not needed:
(i)
the aircraft flight data are collected in the frame of a flight data monitoring
(FDM) programme;
(ii)
the data acquisition of mandatory flight parameters is the same for the FDR and
for the recorder used for the FDM programme;
(iii)
the integrity of all mandatory flight parameters is verified by the FDM
programme; and
(iv)
the FDR is solid-state and is fitted with internal built-in-test equipment sufficient
to monitor reception and recording of data.
Where two solid-state CVRs are fitted both with internal built-in-test equipment
sufficient to monitor reception and recording of data, a comprehensive recording
inspection need only to be performed for one CVR. For the second CVR, checking its
internal built-in-test equipment is sufficient. The inspection should be performed
alternately such that each CVR is inspected once every other year.
(b)
perform every 5 years an inspection of the data link recording.
(c)
check every 5 years, or in accordance with the recommendations of the sensor manufacturer,
that the parameters dedicated to the FDR and not monitored by other means are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances and that there is no discrepancy in the engineering
conversion routines for these parameters.
GM1 NCC.GEN.145(b) Preservation, production and use of flight recorder recordings
INSPECTION OF THE FLIGHT RECORDERS RECORDING
(a)
The inspection of the FDR recording usually consists of the following:
(1)
Making a copy of the complete recording file.
(2)
Examining a whole flight in engineering units to evaluate the validity of all mandatory
parameters - this could reveal defects or noise in the measuring and processing chains
and indicate necessary maintenance actions. The following should be considered:
(3)
(i)
when applicable, each parameter should be expressed in engineering units and
checked for different values of its operational range - for this purpose, some
parameters may need to be inspected at different flight phases; and
(ii)
if the parameter is delivered by a digital data bus and the same data are utilised
for the operation of the aircraft, then a reasonableness check may be sufficient;
otherwise a correlation check may need to be performed;
(A)
a reasonableness check is understood in this context as a subjective,
qualitative evaluation, requiring technical judgement, of the recordings
from a complete flight; and
(B)
a correlation check is understood in this context as the process of
comparing data recorded by the flight data recorder against the
corresponding data derived from flight instruments, indicators or the
expected values obtained during specified portion(s) of a flight profile or
during ground checks that are conducted for that purpose.
Retaining the most recent copy of the complete recording file and the corresponding
recording inspection report.
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(b)
(c)
The inspection of the CVR recording usually consists of:
(1)
checking that the CVR operates correctly for the nominal duration of the recording;
(2)
examining, where practicable and subject to prior approval by the flight crew, a sample
of in-flight recording of the CVR for evidence that the signal is acceptable on each
channel; and
(3)
preparing and retaining an inspection report.
The inspection of the DLR recording usually consists of:
(1)
Checking the consistency of the data link recording with other recordings for example,
during a designated flight, the flight crew speaks out a few data link messages sent and
received. After the flight, the data link recording and the CVR recording are compared for
consistency.
(2)
Retaining the most recent copy of the complete recording and the corresponding
inspection report.
AMC1 NCC.GEN.150(e) Transport of dangerous goods
DANGEROUS GOODS ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT REPORTING
(a)
Any type of dangerous goods accident or incident, or the finding of:
(1)
undeclared or misdeclared dangerous goods in cargo;
(2)
forbidden dangerous goods in mail; or
(3)
forbidden dangerous goods in passenger or crew baggage, or on the person of a
passenger or a crew member
should be reported. For this purpose, the Technical Instructions consider that reporting of
undeclared and misdeclared dangerous goods found in cargo also applies to items of
operators’ stores that are classified as dangerous goods.
(b)
The first report should be dispatched within 72 hours of the event. It may be sent by any
means, including e-mail, telephone or fax. This report should include the details that are
known at that time, under the headings identified in (c). If necessary, a subsequent report
should be made as soon as possible giving all the details that were not known at the time the
first report was sent. If a report has been made verbally, written confirmation should be sent
as soon as possible.
(c)
The first and any subsequent report should be as precise as possible and contain the following
data, where relevant:
(1)
date of the incident or accident or the finding of undeclared or misdeclared dangerous
goods;
(2)
location and date of flight;
(3)
description of the goods and the reference number of the air waybill, pouch, baggage
tag, ticket, etc.;
(4)
proper shipping name (including the technical name, if appropriate) and United Nations
(UN)/identification (ID) number, when known;
(5)
class or division and any subsidiary risk;
(6)
type of packaging, and the packaging specification marking on it;
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(7)
quantity;
(8)
name and address of the passenger, etc.;
(9)
any other relevant details;
(10) suspected cause of the incident or accident;
(11) action taken;
(12) any other reporting action taken; and
(13) name, title, address and telephone number of the person making the report.
(d)
Copies of relevant documents and any photographs taken should be attached to the report.
(e)
A dangerous goods accident or incident may also constitute an aircraft accident, serious
incident or incident. The criteria for reporting both types of occurrence should be met.
(f)
The following dangerous goods reporting form should be used, but other forms, including
electronic transfer of data, may be used provided that at least the minimum information of
this AMC is supplied:
DANGEROUS GOODS OCCURRENCE REPORT
DGOR No:
1. Operator:
3. Local time of occurrence:
2. Date of Occurrence:
4. Flight date:
5. Departure aerodrome:
6. Destination aerodrome:
7. Aircraft type:
8. Aircraft registration:
9. Location of occurrence:
10. Origin of the goods:
11. Description of the occurrence, including details of injury, damage, etc.
(if necessary continue on the reverse of this form):
12. Proper shipping name (including the technical name):
13. UN/ID No (when
known):
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14.Class/Division
(when known):
15. Subsidiary risk(s):
16. Packing group:
17. Category
(Class 7 only):
18. Type of packaging:
19.Packaging
specification marking:
20. No of packages:
21. Quantity
(or transport index, if
applicable):
22. Name and address of passenger, etc.:
23. Other relevant information (including suspected cause, any action taken):
24. Name and title of person making report:
25. Telephone No:
26. Company:
27. Reporters ref:
28. Address:
29. Signature:
30. Date:
Description of the occurrence (continuation)
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Notes for completion of the form:
1.
A dangerous goods accident is as defined in Annex I. For this purpose serious injury is as
defined in Regulation (EU) No 996/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council3.
2.
The initial report should be dispatched unless exceptional circumstances prevent this. This
occurrence report form, duly completed, should be sent as soon as possible, even if all the
information is not available.
3.
Copies of all relevant documents and any photographs should be attached to this report.
4.
Any further information, or any information not included in the initial report, should be sent as
soon as possible to the authorities identified in NCC.GEN.150(e).
5.
Providing it is safe to do so, all dangerous goods, packagings, documents, etc. relating to the
occurrence should be retained until after the initial report has been sent to the authorities
identified in NCC.GEN.150(e), and they have indicated whether or not these should continue to
be retained.
GM1 NCC.GEN.150 Transport of dangerous goods
GENERAL
(a)
The requirement to transport dangerous goods by air in accordance with the Technical
Instructions is irrespective of whether:
(1)
the flight is wholly or partly within or wholly outside the territory of a State; or
(2)
an approval to carry dangerous goods in accordance with Annex V (Part-SPA), Subpart G
is held.
(b)
The Technical Instructions provide that in certain circumstances dangerous goods, which are
normally forbidden on an aircraft, may be carried. These circumstances include cases of
extreme urgency or when other forms of transport are inappropriate or when full compliance
with the prescribed requirements is contrary to the public interest. In these circumstances all
the States concerned may grant exemptions from the provisions of the Technical Instructions
provided that an overall level of safety that is at least equivalent to that provided by the
Technical Instructions is achieved. Although exemptions are most likely to be granted for the
carriage of dangerous goods that are not permitted in normal circumstances, they may also be
granted in other circumstances, such as when the packaging to be used is not provided for by
the appropriate packing method or the quantity in the packaging is greater than that
permitted. The Technical Instructions also make provision for some dangerous goods to be
carried when an approval has been granted only by the State of Origin and the competent
authority.
3
OJ L 295, 12.11.2010, p. 35.
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(c)
When an exemption is required, the States concerned are those of origin, transit, overflight
and destination of the consignment and that of the operator. For the State of overflight, if
none of the criteria for granting an exemption are relevant, an exemption may be granted
based solely on whether it is believed that an equivalent level of safety in air transport has
been achieved.
(d)
The Technical Instructions provide that exemptions and approvals are granted by the
‘appropriate national authority’, which is intended to be the authority responsible for the
particular aspect against which the exemption or approval is being sought. The operator
should ensure that all relevant conditions on an exemption or approval are met.
(e)
The exemption or approval referred to in (b) to (d) is in addition to the approval required by
Annex V (Part SPA), Subpart G.
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SUBPART B – OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
Subpart B — Operational procedures
AMC1 NCC.OP.100 Use of aerodromes and operating sites
USE OF OPERATING SITES
(a)
(b)
The pilot-in-command should have available from a pre-survey or other publication, for each
operating site to be used, diagrams or ground and aerial photographs, depiction (pictorial) and
description of:
(1)
the overall dimensions of the operating site;
(2)
location and height of relevant obstacles to approach and take-off profiles and in the
manoeuvring area;
(3)
approach and take-off flight paths;
(4)
surface condition (blowing dust/snow/sand);
(5)
provision of control of third parties on the ground (if applicable);
(6)
lighting, if applicable;
(7)
procedure for activating the operating site in accordance with national regulations, if
applicable;
(8)
other useful information, for example details of the appropriate ATS agency and
frequency; and
(9)
site suitability with reference to available aircraft performance.
Where the operator specifically permits operation from sites that are not pre-surveyed, the
pilot-in-command should make, from the air, a judgement on the suitability of a site. At least
(a)(1) to (a)(6) inclusive and (a)(9) should be considered.
GM1 NCC.OP.100 Use of aerodromes and operating sites
PUBLICATIONS
‘Other publication’ mentioned in AMC1 NCC.OP.100 refers to publication means, such as:
(a)
civil as well as military aeronautical information publication;
(b)
visual flight rules (VFR) guides;
(c)
commercially available aeronautical publications; and
(d)
non-commercially available publications.
AMC1 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE INFORMATION
An acceptable method of specifying aerodrome operating minima is through the use of commercially
available information.
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AMC2 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
GENERAL
(a)
The aerodrome operating minima should not be lower than the values given in NCC.OP.111 or
AMC3 NCC.OP.110 (c).
(b)
Whenever practical approaches should be flown as stabilised approaches (SAps). Different
procedures may be used for a particular approach to a particular runway.
(c)
Whenever practical, non-precision approaches should be flown using the continuous descent
final approach (CDFA) technique. Different procedures may be used for a particular approach
to a particular runway.
(d)
For approaches not flown using the CDFA technique: when calculating the minima in
accordance with NCC.OP.111, the applicable minimum runway visual range (RVR) should be
increased by 200 m for Category A and B aeroplanes and by 400 m for Category C and D
aeroplanes, provided the resulting RVR/converted meteorological visibility (CMV) value does
not exceed 5 000 m. SAp or CDFA should be used as soon as facilities are improved to allow
these techniques.
AMC3 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
TAKE-OFF OPERATIONS
(a)
(b)
(c)
General:
(1)
Take-off minima should be expressed as visibility (VIS) or RVR limits, taking into account
all relevant factors for each aerodrome planned to be used and aircraft characteristics.
Where there is a specific need to see and avoid obstacles on departure and/or for a
forced landing, additional conditions, e.g. ceiling, should be specified.
(2)
The pilot-in-command should not commence take-off unless the weather conditions at
the aerodrome of departure are equal to or better than applicable minima for landing at
that aerodrome, unless a weather-permissible take-off alternate aerodrome is available.
(3)
When the reported meteorological visibility is below that required for take-off and RVR
is not reported, a take-off should only be commenced if the pilot-in-command can
determine that the visibility along the take-off runway/area is equal to or better than
the required minimum.
(4)
When no reported meteorological visibility or RVR is available, a take-off should only be
commenced if the pilot-in-command can determine that the RVR/VIS along the take-off
runway/area is equal to or better than the required minimum.
Visual reference:
(1)
The take-off minima should be selected to ensure sufficient guidance to control the
aircraft in the event of both a rejected take-off in adverse circumstances and a
continued take-off after failure of the critical engine.
(2)
For night operations, ground lights should be available to illuminate the runway/final
approach and take-off area (FATO) and any obstacles.
Required RVR/visibility:
(1)
Aeroplanes:
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(2)
(i)
For aeroplanes, the take-off minima specified by the operator should be
expressed as RVR/VIS values not lower than those specified in Table 1.A.
(ii)
When reported RVR or meteorological visibility is not available, the pilot-incommand should not commence take-off unless he/she can determine that the
actual conditions satisfy the applicable take-off minima.
Helicopters:
(i)
For helicopters having a mass where it is possible to reject the take-off and land
on the FATO in case of the critical engine failure being recognised at or before the
take-off decision point (TDP), the operator should specify an RVR/VIS as take-off
minima in accordance with Table 1.H.
(ii)
For all other cases, the pilot-in-command should operate to take-off minima of
800 m RVR/VIS and remain clear of cloud during the take-off manoeuvre until
reaching the performance capabilities of (c)(2)(i).
(iii)
Table 5 for converting reported meteorological visibility to RVR should not be
used for calculating take-off minima.
Table 1.A: Take-off — aeroplanes
(without low visibility take-off (LVTO) approval)
RVR/VIS
Facilities
RVR/VIS (m)*
Day only: Nil**
500
Day: at least runway edge lights or runway centreline 400
markings
Night: at least runway edge lights or runway centreline
lights and runway end lights
*:
The reported RVR/VIS value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be
replaced by pilot assessment.
**:
The pilot is able to continuously identify the take-off surface and maintain directional
control.
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Table 1.H: Take-off — helicopters
(without LVTO approval)
RVR/Visibility
Onshore aerodromes with instrument flight rules
(IFR) departure procedures
RVR/VIS (m)
No light and no markings (day only)
400 or the rejected take-off
distance, whichever is the
greater
No markings (night)
800
Runway edge/FATO light and centreline marking
400
Runway edge/FATO light, centreline marking and 400
relevant RVR information
Offshore helideck *
Two-pilot operations
400
Single-pilot operations
500
*:
The take-off flight path to be free of obstacles.
AMC4 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING RVR/CMV
(a)
In order to qualify for the lowest allowable values of RVR/CMV specified in Table 4.A, the
instrument approach should meet at least the following facility requirements and associated
conditions:
(1)
Instrument approaches with designated vertical profile up to and including 4.5° for
Category A and B aeroplanes, or 3.77° for Category C and D aeroplanes, where the
facilities are:
(i)
instrument landing system (ILS)/microwave landing system (MLS)/GBAS landing
system (GLS)/precision approach radar (PAR); or
(ii)
approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV); and
where the final approach track is offset by not more than 15° for Category A and B
aeroplanes or by not more than 5° for Category C and D aeroplanes.
(2)
Instrument approach operations flown using the CDFA technique with a nominal vertical
profile, up to and including 4.5° for Category A and B aeroplanes, or 3.77° for Category C
and D aeroplanes, where the facilities are non-directional beacon (NDB), NDB/distance
measuring equipment (DME), VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR), VOR/DME,
localiser (LOC), LOC/DME, VHF direction finder (VDF), surveillance radar approach (SRA)
or global navigation satellite system (GNSS)/lateral navigation (LNAV), with a final
approach segment of at least 3 NM, which also fulfil the following criteria:
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(3)
(b)
(i)
the final approach track is offset by not more than 15° for Category A and B
aeroplanes or by not more than 5° for Category C and D aeroplanes;
(ii)
the final approach fix (FAF) or another appropriate fix where descent is initiated is
available, or distance to threshold (THR) is available by flight management system
(FMS)/area navigation (NDB/DME) or DME; and
(iii)
the missed approach point (MAPt) is determined by timing, the distance from FAF
to THR is ≤ 8 NM.
Instrument approaches where the facilities are NDB, NDB/DME, VOR, VOR/DME, LOC,
LOC/DME, VDF, SRA or GNSS/LNAV, not fulfilling the criteria in (a)(2), or with an
minimum descent height (MDH) ≥ 1 200 ft.
The missed approach operation, after an approach operation has been flown using the CDFA
technique, should be executed when reaching the decision height/altitude (DH/A) or the
MAPt, whichever occurs first. The lateral part of the missed approach procedure should be
flown via the MAPt unless otherwise stated on the approach chart.
AMC5 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV/VIS MINIMA FOR NPA, APV, CAT I - AEROPLANES
(a)
The minimum RVR/CMV/VIS should be the highest of the values specified in Table 3 and
Table 4.A but not greater than the maximum values specified in Table 4.A, where applicable.
(b)
The values in Table 3 should be derived from the formula below:
required RVR/VIS (m) = [(DH/MDH (ft) x 0.3048) / tanα] – length of approach lights (m);
where α is the calculation angle, being a default value of 3.00° increasing in steps of
0.10° for each line in Table 3 up to 3.77° and then remaining constant.
(c)
If the approach is flown with a level flight segment at or above MDA/H, 200 m should be added
for Category A and B aeroplanes and 400 m for Category C and D aeroplanes to the minimum
RVR/CMV/VIS value resulting from the application of Table 3 and Table 4.A.
(d)
An RVR of less than 750 m as indicated in Table 3 may be used:
(1)
for CAT I operations to runways with full approach lighting system (FALS), runway
touchdown zone lights (RTZL) and runway centreline lights (RCLL);
(2)
for CAT I operations to runways without RTZL and RCLL when using an approved headup guidance landing system (HUDLS), or equivalent approved system, or when
conducting a coupled approach or flight-director-flown approach to a DH. The ILS should
not be published as a restricted facility; and
(3)
for APV operations to runways with FALS, RTZL and RCLL when using an approved headup display (HUD).
(e)
Lower values than those specified in Table 3 may be used for HUDLS and auto-land operations
if approved in accordance with Annex V (Part SPA), Subpart E.
(f)
The visual aids should comprise standard runway day markings and approach and runway
lights as specified in Table 2. The competent authority may approve that RVR values relevant
to a basic approach lighting system (BALS) are used on runways where the approach lights are
restricted in length below 210 m due to terrain or water, but where at least one cross-bar is
available.
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(g)
For night operations or for any operation where credit for runway and approach lights is
required, the lights should be on and serviceable, except as provided for in Table 6.
(h)
For single-pilot operations, the minimum RVR/VIS should be calculated in accordance with the
following additional criteria:
(1)
an RVR of less than 800 m as indicated in Table 3 may be used for CAT I approaches
provided any of the following is used at least down to the applicable DH:
(i)
a suitable autopilot, coupled to an ILS, MLS or GLS that is not published as
restricted; or
(ii)
an approved HUDLS, including, where appropriate, enhanced vision system (EVS),
or equivalent approved system;
(2)
where RTZL and/or RCLL are not available, the minimum RVR/CMV should not be less
than 600 m; and
(3)
an RVR of less than 800 m as indicated in Table 3 may be used for APV operations to
runways with FALS, RTZL and RCLL when using an approved HUDLS, or equivalent
approved system, or when conducting a coupled approach to a DH equal to or greater
than 250 ft.
Table 2: Approach lighting systems
Class of lighting facility
Length, configuration and intensity of approach lights
FALS
CAT I lighting system (HIALS ≥ 720 m) distance coded centreline,
Barrette centreline
IALS
Simple approach lighting system (HIALS 420 – 719 m) single
source, Barrette
BALS
Any other approach lighting system (HIALS, MIALS or ALS 210 –
419 m)
NALS
Any other approach lighting system (HIALS, MIALS or ALS < 210
m) or no approach lights
Note: HIALS: high intensity approach lighting system;
MIALS: medium intensity approach lighting system;
ALS: approach lighting system.
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Table 3: RVR/CMV vs. DH/MDH
DH or MDH
Class of lighting facility
FALS
IALS
BALS
NALS
See (d), (e), (h) above for RVR < 750/800 m
ft
RVR/CMV (m)
200
-
210
550
750
1 000
1 200
211
-
220
550
800
1 000
1 200
221
-
230
550
800
1 000
1 200
231
-
240
550
800
1 000
1 200
241
-
250
550
800
1 000
1 300
251
-
260
600
800
1 100
1 300
261
-
280
600
900
1 100
1 300
281
-
300
650
900
1 200
1 400
301
-
320
700
1 000
1 200
1 400
321
-
340
800
1 100
1 300
1 500
341
-
360
900
1 200
1 400
1 600
361
-
380
1 000
1 300
1 500
1 700
381
-
400
1 100
1 400
1 600
1 800
401
-
420
1 200
1 500
1 700
1 900
421
-
440
1 300
1 600
1 800
2 000
441
-
460
1 400
1 700
1 900
2 100
461
-
480
1 500
1 800
2 000
2 200
500
1 500
1 800
2 100
2 300
481
501
-
520
1 600
1 900
2 100
2 400
521
-
540
1 700
2 000
2 200
2 400
541
-
560
1 800
2 100
2 300
2 500
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DH or MDH
Class of lighting facility
FALS
IALS
BALS
NALS
See (d), (e), (h) above for RVR < 750/800 m
ft
RVR/CMV (m)
561
-
580
1 900
2 200
2 400
2 600
581
-
600
2 000
2 300
2 500
2 700
601
-
620
2 100
2 400
2 600
2 800
621
-
640
2 200
2 500
2 700
2 900
641
-
660
2 300
2 600
2 800
3 000
661
-
680
2 400
2 700
2 900
3 100
681
-
700
2 500
2 800
3 000
3 200
701
-
720
2 600
2 900
3 100
3 300
721
-
740
2 700
3 000
3 200
3 400
741
-
760
2 700
3 000
3 300
3 500
761
-
800
2 900
3 200
3 400
3 600
801
-
850
3 100
3 400
3 600
3 800
851
-
900
3 300
3 600
3 800
4 000
901
-
950
3 600
3 900
4 100
4 300
951
-
1 000
3 800
4 100
4 300
4 500
1 001
-
1 100
4 100
4 400
4 600
4 900
1 101
-
1 200
4 600
4 900
5 000
5 000
5 000
5 000
5 000
5 000
1 201 and above
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Table 4.A: CAT I, APV, NPA - aeroplanes
Minimum and maximum applicable RVR/CMV (lower and upper cut-off limits)
Facility/conditions
RVR/CMV
(m)
Aeroplane category
A
ILS, MLS, GLS, PAR,
GNSS/SBAS, GNSS/VNAV
B
C
D
Min
According to Table 3
Max
1 500
1 500
2 400
2 400
NDB, NDB/DME, VOR,
VOR/DME, LOC, LOC/DME,
VDF, SRA, GNSS/LNAV with a
procedure that fulfils the
criteria in AMC4 NCC.OP.110
(a)(2).
Min
750
750
750
750
Max
1 500
1 500
2 400
2 400
For NDB, NDB/DME, VOR,
VOR/DME, LOC, LOC/DME,
VDF, SRA, GNSS/LNAV:
Min
1 000
1 000
1 200
1 200
Max
According to Table 3 if flown using the CDFA
technique, otherwise an add-on of 200/400 m
applies to the values in Table 3 but not to
result in a value exceeding 5 000 m.
—
not
fulfilling
the
criteria
in
AMC4
NCC.OP.110 (a)(2)., or
—
with a DH or MDH ≥ 1
200 ft
AMC6 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
DETERMINATION OF RVR/CMV/VIS MINIMA FOR NPA, CAT I — HELICOPTERS
(a)
(b)
For non-precision approach (NPA) operations the minima specified in Table 4.1.H should apply:
(1)
where the missed approach point is within ½ NM of the landing threshold, the approach
minima specified for FALS may be used regardless of the length of approach lights
available. However, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights, end lights and
FATO/runway markings are still required;
(2)
for night operations, ground lights should be available to illuminate the FATO/runway
and any obstacles; and
(3)
for single-pilot operations, the minimum RVR is 800 m or the minima in Table 4.2.H,
whichever is higher.
For CAT I operations, the minima specified in Table 4.2.H should apply:
(1)
for night operations, ground light should be available to illuminate the FATO/runway
and any obstacles;
(2)
for single-pilot operations, the minimum RVR/VIS should be calculated in accordance
with the following additional criteria:
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(i)
an RVR of less than 800 m should not be used except when using a suitable
autopilot coupled to an ILS, MLS or GLS, in which case normal minima
apply; and
(ii)
the DH applied should not be less than 1.25 times the minimum use height
for the autopilot.
Table 4.1.H : Onshore NPA minima
MDH (ft) *
Facilities vs. RVR/CMV (m) **, ***
FALS
IALS
BALS
NALS
250 – 299
600
800
1 000
1 000
300 – 449
800
1 000
1 000
1 000
450 and above
1 000
1 000
1 000
1 000
*:
The MDH refers to the initial calculation of MDH. When selecting the associated RVR,
there is no need to take account of a rounding up to the nearest 10 ft, which may be
done for operational purposes, e.g. conversion to MDA.
**:
The tables are only applicable to conventional approaches with a nominal descent
slope of not greater than 4°. Greater descent slopes will usually require that visual
glide slope guidance (e.g. precision path approach indicator (PAPI)) is also visible at the
MDH.
***: FALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 720 m or more of high intensity/medium
intensity (HI/MI) approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and
FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.
IALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 420 – 719 m of HI/MI approach lights,
FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be
on.
BALS comprise FATO/runway markings, < 420 m of HI/MI approach lights, any length of
low intensity (LI) approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and
FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be on.
NALs comprise FATO/runway markings, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights,
FATO/runway end lights or no lights at all.
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Table 4.2.H: Onshore CAT I minima
DH (ft) *
Facilities vs. RVR/CMV (m) **, ***
FALS
IALS
BALS
NALS
200
500
600
700
1 000
201 – 250
550
650
750
1 000
251 – 300
600
700
800
1 000
301 and above
750
800
900
1 000
*:
The DH refers to the initial calculation of DH. When selecting the associated RVR, there
is no need to take account of a rounding up to the nearest 10 ft, which may be done
for operational purposes, e.g. conversion to DA.
**:
The table is applicable to conventional approaches with a glide slope up to and
including 4°.
***: FALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 720 m or more of HI/MI approach lights,
FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be
on.
IALS comprise FATO/runway markings, 420 – 719 m of HI/MI approach lights,
FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end lights. Lights to be
on.
BALS comprise FATO/runway markings, < 420 m of HI/MI approach lights, any length of
LI approach lights, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights and FATO/runway end
lights. Lights to be on.
NALS comprise FATO/runway markings, FATO/runway edge lights, threshold lights,
FATO/runway end lights or no lights at all.
AMC7 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
VISUAL APPROACH OPERATIONS
For a visual approach operation the RVR should not be less than 800 m.
AMC8 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
CONVERSION OF REPORTED METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY TO RVR/CMV
(a)
(b)
A conversion from meteorological visibility to RVR/CMV should not be used:
(1)
when reported RVR is available;
(2)
for calculating take-off minima; and
(3)
for other RVR minima less than 800 m.
If the RVR is reported as being above the maximum value assessed by the aerodrome
operator, e.g. ‘RVR more than 1 500 m’, it should not be considered as a reported value for
(a)(1).
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(c)
When converting meteorological visibility to RVR in circumstances other than those in (a), the
conversion factors specified in Table 5 should be used.
Table 5 : Conversion of reported meteorological visibility to RVR/CMV
RVR/CMV = reported meteorological
visibility x
Light elements in operation
Day
Night
HI approach and runway lights
1.5
2.0
Any type of light installation other
than above
1.0
1.5
No lights
1.0
not applicable
AMC9 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
EFFECT ON LANDING MINIMA OF TEMPORARILY FAILED OR DOWNGRADED GROUND EQUIPMENT
(a)
General
These instructions are intended for both pre-flight and in-flight use. It is, however, not
expected that the pilot-in-command would consult such instructions after passing 1 000 ft
above the aerodrome. If failures of ground aids are announced at such a late stage, the
approach could be continued at the pilot-in-command’s discretion. If failures are announced
before such a late stage in the approach, their effect on the approach should be considered as
described in Table 6 and, if considered necessary, the approach should be abandoned.
(b)
Conditions applicable to Table 6:
(1)
multiple failures of runway/FATO lights other than indicated in Table 6 should not be
acceptable;
(2)
deficiencies of approach and runway/FATO lights are treated separately; and
(3)
failures other than ILS, MLS affect RVR only and not DH.
Table 6 : Failed or downgraded equipment — effect on landing minima
Failed or downgraded
equipment
Effect on landing minima
CAT I
ILS/MLS standby
transmitter
No effect
Outer marker
No effect if
replaced by
height check at
APV, NPA
APV — not applicable
NPA with FAF: no effect unless used as
FAF
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Failed or downgraded
equipment
Effect on landing minima
CAT I
1 000 ft
APV, NPA
If the FAF cannot be identified (e.g. no
method available for timing of descent),
non-precision operations cannot be
conducted
Middle marker
No effect
RVR Assessment Systems
No effect
Approach lights
Minima as for NALS
Approach lights except
the last 210 m
Minima as for BALS
Approach lights except
the last 420 m
Minima as for IALS
Standby power for
approach lights
No effect
Edge lights, threshold
lights and runway end
lights
Day — no effect
Night — not allowed
Centreline lights
No effect if flight
director (F/D),
HUDLS or autoland;
No effect unless used as MAPt
No effect
otherwise RVR
750 m
Centreline lights spacing
increased to 30 m
No effect
Touchdown zone lights
No effect if F/D,
HUDLS or autoland;
otherwise RVR
750 m
Taxiway lighting system
No effect
No effect
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GM1 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
AIRCRAFT CATEGORIES
(a)
Aircraft categories should be based on the indicated airspeed at threshold (VAT), which is equal
to the stalling speed (VSO) multiplied by 1.3 or where published 1-g (gravity) stall speed (VS1g)
multiplied by 1.23 in the landing configuration at the maximum certified landing mass. If both
VSO and VS1g are available, the higher resulting VAT should be used.
(b)
The aircraft categories specified in the following table should be used.
Table 1: Aircraft categories corresponding to VAT values
Aircraft
category
VAT
A
Less than 91 kt
B
from 91 to 120 kt
C
from 121 to 140 kt
D
from 141 to 165 kt
E
from 166 to 210 kt
GM2 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
CONTINUOUS DESCENT FINAL APPROACH (CDFA) — AEROPLANES
(a)
Introduction
(1)
Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a major hazard in aviation. Most CFIT accidents
occur in the final approach segment of non-precision approaches; the use of stabilisedapproach criteria on a continuous descent with a constant, predetermined vertical path
is seen as a major improvement in safety during the conduct of such approaches.
Operators should ensure that the following techniques are adopted as widely as
possible, for all approaches.
(2)
The elimination of level flight segments at MDA close to the ground during approaches,
and the avoidance of major changes in attitude and power/thrust close to the runway
that can destabilise approaches, are seen as ways to reduce operational risks
significantly.
(3)
The term CDFA has been selected to cover a flight technique for any type of NPA
operation.
(4)
The advantages of CDFA are as follows:
(i)
the technique enhances safe approach operations by the utilisation of standard
operating practices;
(ii)
the technique is similar to that used when flying an ILS approach, including when
executing the missed approach and the associated missed approach procedure
manoeuvre;
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(iii)
the aeroplane attitude may enable better acquisition of visual cues;
(iv)
the technique may reduce pilot workload;
(v)
the approach profile is fuel-efficient;
(vi)
the approach profile affords reduced noise levels;
(vii)
the technique affords procedural integration with APV operations; and
(viii) when used and the approach is flown in a stabilised manner, CDFA is the safest
approach technique for all NPA operations.
(b)
CDFA
(1)
Continuous descent final approach is defined in Annex I to the Regulation on Air
Operations.
(2)
An approach is only suitable for application of a CDFA technique when it is flown along a
nominal vertical profile; a nominal vertical profile is not forming part of the approach
procedure design, but can be flown as a continuous descent. The nominal vertical profile
information may be published or displayed on the approach chart to the pilot by
depicting the nominal slope or range/distance vs. height. Approaches with a nominal
vertical profile are considered to be:
(3)
(i)
NDB, NDB/DME (non-directional beacon/distance measuring equipment);
(ii)
VOR (VHF omnidirectional radio range), VOR/DME;
(iii)
LOC (localiser), LOC/DME;
(iv)
VDF (VHF direction finder), SRA (surveillance radar approach); or
(v)
GNSS/LNAV (global navigation satellite system/lateral navigation);
Stabilised approach (SAp) is defined in Annex I to the Regulation on Air Operations.
(i)
The control of the descent path is not the only consideration when using the CDFA
technique. Control of the aeroplane’s configuration and energy is also vital to the
safe conduct of an approach.
(ii)
The control of the flight path, described above as one of the requirements for
conducting an SAp, should not be confused with the path requirements for using
the CDFA technique. The predetermined path requirements for conducting an SAp
are established by the operator and published in the operations manual part B.
(iii)
The predetermined approach slope requirements for applying the CDFA technique
are established by the following:
(A)
the published ‘nominal’ slope information when the approach has a
nominal vertical profile; and
(B)
the designated final approach segment minimum of 3 NM, and maximum,
when using timing techniques, of 8 NM.
(iv)
An SAp will never have any level segment of flight at DA/H or MDA/H, as
applicable. This enhances safety by mandating a prompt missed approach
procedure manoeuvre at DA/H or MDA/H.
(v)
An approach using the CDFA technique will always be flown as an SAp, since this is
a requirement for applying CDFA. However, an SAp does not have to be flown
using the CDFA technique, for example a visual approach.
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GM3 NCC.OP.110 Aerodrome operating minima — general
TAKE-OFF MINIMA — HELICOPTERS
To ensure sufficient control of the helicopter in IMC, the speed, before entering in IMC, should be
above the minimum authorised speed in IMC, Vmini. This is a limitation in the AFM. Therefore, the
lowest speed before entering in IMC is the highest of Vtoss (take-off safety speed) and Vmini.
As example, Vtoss is 45 kt and Vmini 60 kt. In that case, the take–off minima have to include the
distance to accelerate to 60 kt. The take-off distance should be increased accordingly.
AMC1 NCC.OP.111 Aerodrome operating minima — NPA, APV, CAT I operations
NPA FLOWN WITH THE CDFA TECHNIQUE
The DA/DH used should take into account any add-on to the published minima as identified by the
operator’s management system and specified in the operations manual (aerodrome operating
minima).
GM1 NCC.OP.112 Aerodrome operating minima — circling operations with aeroplanes
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
(a)
The purpose of this Guidance Material is to provide operators with supplemental information
regarding the application of aerodrome operating minima in relation to circling approaches.
(b)
Conduct of flight — general:
(c)
(1)
the MDH and obstacle clearance height (OCH) included in the procedure are referenced
to aerodrome elevation;
(2)
the MDA is referenced to mean sea level;
(3)
for these procedures, the applicable visibility is the meteorological visibility; and
(4)
operators should provide tabular guidance of the relationship between height above
threshold and the in-flight visibility required to obtain and sustain visual contact during
the circling manoeuvre.
Instrument approach followed by visual manoeuvring (circling) without prescribed tracks:
(1)
When the aeroplane is on the initial instrument approach, before visual reference is
stabilised, but not below MDA/H — the aeroplane should follow the corresponding
instrument approach procedure until the appropriate instrument MAPt is reached.
(2)
At the beginning of the level flight phase at or above the MDA/H, the instrument
approach track determined by the radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP, ILS, MLS or GLS
should be maintained until the pilot:
(i)
estimates that, in all probability, visual contact with the runway of intended
landing or the runway environment will be maintained during the entire circling
procedure;
(ii)
estimates that the aeroplane is within the circling area before commencing
circling; and
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(iii)
(d)
is able to determine the aeroplane’s position in relation to the runway of intended
landing with the aid of the appropriate external references.
(3)
When reaching the published instrument MAPt and the conditions stipulated in (c)(2)
are unable to be established by the pilot, a missed approach should be carried out in
accordance with that instrument approach procedure.
(4)
After the aeroplane has left the track of the initial instrument approach, the flight phase
outbound from the runway should be limited to an appropriate distance, which is
required to align the aeroplane onto the final approach. Such manoeuvres should be
conducted to enable the aeroplane:
(i)
to attain a controlled and stable descent path to the intended landing runway;
and
(ii)
to remain within the circling area and in a such way that visual contact with the
runway of intended landing or runway environment is maintained at all times.
(5)
Flight manoeuvres should be carried out at an altitude/height that is not less than the
circling MDA/H.
(6)
Descent below MDA/H should not be initiated until the threshold of the runway to be
used has been appropriately identified. The aeroplane should be in a position to
continue with a normal rate of descent and land within the touchdown zone.
Instrument approach followed by a visual manoeuvring (circling) with prescribed track.
(1)
The aeroplane should remain on the initial instrument approach procedure until one of
the following is reached:
(i)
the prescribed divergence point to commence circling on the prescribed track; or
(ii)
the MAPt.
(2)
The aeroplane should be established on the instrument approach track determined by
the radio navigation aids, RNAV, RNP, ILS, MLS or GLS in level flight at or above the
MDA/H at or by the circling manoeuvre divergence point.
(3)
If the divergence point is reached before the required visual reference is acquired, a
missed approach should be initiated not later than the MAPt and completed in
accordance with the initial instrument approach procedure.
(4)
When commencing the prescribed circling manoeuvre at the published divergence
point, the subsequent manoeuvres should be conducted to comply with the published
routing and published heights/altitudes.
(5)
Unless otherwise specified, once the aeroplane is established on the prescribed track(s),
the published visual reference does not need to be maintained unless:
(i)
required by the State of the aerodrome; or
(ii)
the circling MAPt (if published) is reached.
(6)
If the prescribed circling manoeuvre has a published MAPt and the required visual
reference has not been obtained by that point, a missed approach should be executed in
accordance with (e)(2) and (e)(3).
(7)
Subsequent further descent below MDA/H should only commence when the required
visual reference has been obtained.
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(8)
(e)
Unless otherwise specified in the procedure, final descent should not be commenced
from MDA/H until the threshold of the intended landing runway has been identified and
the aeroplane is in a position to continue with a normal rate of descent to land within
the touchdown zone.
Missed approach
(1)
Missed approach during the instrument procedure prior to circling:
(i)
if the missed approach procedure is required to be flown when the aeroplane is
positioned on the instrument approach track defined by radio navigation aids;
RNAV, RNP, ILS, MLS or GLS, and before commencing the circling manoeuvre, the
published missed approach for the instrument approach should be followed; or
(ii)
if the instrument approach procedure is carried out with the aid of an ILS, MLS or
a stabilised approach (SAp), the MAPt associated with an ILS or MLS procedure
without glide path (GP-out procedure) or the SAp, where applicable, should be
used.
(2)
If a prescribed missed approach is published for the circling manoeuvre, this overrides
the manoeuvres prescribed below.
(3)
If visual reference is lost while circling to land after the aeroplane has departed from the
initial instrument approach track, the missed approach specified for that particular
instrument approach should be followed. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial
climbing turn toward the intended landing runway to a position overhead of the
aerodrome where the pilot will establish the aeroplane in a climb on the instrument
missed approach segment.
(4)
The aeroplane should not leave the visual manoeuvring (circling) area, which is obstacle
protected, unless:
(5)
(i)
established on the appropriate missed approach procedure; or
(ii)
at minimum sector altitude (MSA).
All turns should be made in the same direction and the aeroplane should remain within
the circling protected area while climbing either:
(i)
to the altitude assigned to any published circling missed approach manoeuvre if
applicable;
(ii)
to the altitude assigned to the missed approach of the initial instrument
approach;
(iii)
to the MSA;
(iv)
to the minimum holding altitude (MHA) applicable for transition to a holding
facility or fix, or continue to climb to an MSA; or
(v)
as directed by ATS.
When the missed approach procedure is commenced on the ‘downwind’ leg of the
circling manoeuvre, an ‘S’ turn may be undertaken to align the aeroplane on the initial
instrument approach missed approach path, provided the aeroplane remains within the
protected circling area.
The pilot-in-command should be responsible for ensuring adequate terrain clearance
during the above-stipulated manoeuvres, particularly during the execution of a missed
approach initiated by ATS.
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(6)
Because the circling manoeuvre may be accomplished in more than one direction,
different patterns will be required to establish the aeroplane on the prescribed missed
approach course depending on its position at the time visual reference is lost. In
particular, all turns are to be in the prescribed direction if this is restricted, e.g. to the
west/east (left or right hand) to remain within the protected circling area.
(7)
If a missed approach procedure is published for a particular runway onto which the
aeroplane is conducting a circling approach and the aeroplane has commenced a
manoeuvre to align with the runway, the missed approach for this direction may be
accomplished. The ATS unit should be informed of the intention to fly the published
missed approach procedure for that particular runway.
(8)
The pilot-in-command should advise ATS when any missed approach procedure has
been commenced, the height/altitude the aeroplane is climbing to and the position the
aeroplane is proceeding towards and/or heading the aeroplane is established on.
AMC1 NCC.OP.120 Noise abatement procedures
NADP DESIGN
(a)
(b)
For each aeroplane type two departure procedures should be defined, in accordance with
ICAO Doc. 8168 (Procedures for Air Navigation Services, ‘PANS-OPS’), Volume I:
(1)
noise abatement departure procedure one (NADP 1), designed to meet the close-in
noise abatement objective; and
(2)
noise abatement departure procedure two (NADP 2), designed to meet the distant noise
abatement objective.
For each type of NADP (1 and 2), a single climb profile should be specified for use at all
aerodromes, which is associated with a single sequence of actions. The NADP 1 and NADP 2
profiles may be identical.
GM1 NCC.OP.120 Noise abatement procedures
TERMINOLOGY
(a)
‘Climb profile’ means in this context the vertical path of the NADP as it results from the pilot’s
actions (engine power reduction, acceleration, slats/flaps retraction).
(b)
‘Sequence of actions’ means the order in which these pilot’s actions are done and their timing.
GENERAL
(c)
The rule addresses only the vertical profile of the departure procedure. Lateral track has to
comply with the standard instrument departure (SID).
EXAMPLE
(d)
For a given aeroplane type, when establishing the distant NADP, the operator should choose
either to reduce power first and then accelerate, or to accelerate first and then wait until
slats/flaps are retracted before reducing power. The two methods constitute two different
sequences of actions.
(e)
For an aeroplane type, each of the two departure climb profiles may be defined by one
sequence of actions (one for close-in, one for distant) and two above aerodrome level (AAL)
altitudes/heights. These are:
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(1)
the altitude of the first pilot’s action (generally power reduction with or without
acceleration). This altitude should not be less than 800 ft AAL; or
(2)
the altitude of the end of the noise abatement procedure. This altitude should usually
not be more than 3 000 ft AAL.
These two altitudes may be runway specific when the aeroplane flight management system
(FMS) has the relevant function that permits the crew to change thrust reduction and/or
acceleration altitude/height. If the aeroplane is not FMS equipped or the FMS is not fitted with
the relevant function, two fixed heights should be defined and used for each of the two
NADPs.
AMC1 NCC.OP.125 Minimum obstacle clearance altitudes — IFR flights
GENERAL
Commercially available information specifying minimum obstacle clearance altitudes may be used.
AMC1 NCC.OP.140 Passenger briefing
TRAINING PROGRAMME
(a)
The operator may replace the briefing/demonstration with a passenger training programme
covering all safety and emergency procedures for a given type of aircraft.
(b)
Only passengers who have been trained according to this programme and have flown on the
aircraft type within the last 90 days may be carried on board without receiving a
briefing/demonstration.
GM1 NCC.OP.145(b) Flight preparation
OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLAN
(a)
Dependent on the length and complexity of the planned flight, an operational flight plan may
be completed based on considerations of aircraft performance, other operating limitations and
relevant expected conditions on the route to be followed and at the aerodromes/operating
sites concerned.
(b)
The operational flight plan used and the entries made during flight may contain the following
items:
(1)
aircraft registration;
(2)
aircraft type and variant;
(3)
date of flight;
(4)
flight identification;
(5)
names of flight crew members;
(6)
duty assignment of flight crew members;
(7)
place of departure;
(8)
time of departure (actual off-block time, take-off time);
(9)
place of arrival (planned and actual);
(10) time of arrival (actual landing and on-block time);
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(11) type of operation (VFR, ferry flight, etc.);
(12) route and route segments with checkpoints/waypoints, distances, time and tracks;
(13) planned cruising speed and flying times between check-points/waypoints (estimated
and actual times overhead);
(14) safe altitudes and minimum levels;
(15) planned altitudes and flight levels;
(16) fuel calculations (records of in-flight fuel checks);
(17) fuel on board when starting engines;
(18) alternate(s) for destination and, where applicable, take-off and en-route;
(19) initial ATS flight plan clearance and subsequent reclearance;
(20) in-flight replanning calculations; and
(21) relevant meteorological information.
AMC1 NCC.OP.152 Destination alternate aerodromes — helicopters
OFFSHORE ALTERNATE AERODROMES
(a)
Weather-permissible offshore alternate aerodromes may be selected and specified subject to
the following:
(1)
the offshore alternate aerodrome should only be used after passing a point of no return
(PNR). Prior to a PNR, onshore alternate aerodromes should be used;
(2)
mechanical reliability of critical control systems and critical components should be
considered and taken into account when determining the suitability of the alternate
aerodrome;
(3)
one-engine-inoperative (OEI) performance capability should be attainable prior to arrival
at the alternate;
(4)
to the extent possible, deck availability should be guaranteed; and
(5)
weather information should be reliable and accurate.
(b)
Offshore alternate aerodromes should not be used when it is possible to carry enough fuel to
have an onshore alternate aerodrome. Offshore alternate aerodromes should not be used in a
hostile environment.
(c)
The landing technique specified in the AFM following control system failure may preclude the
nomination of certain helidecks as alternate aerodromes.
AMC1 NCC.OP.155 Refuelling with passengers embarking, on board or disembarking
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES — GENERAL
(a)
If passengers are on board when refuelling with:
(1)
other than aviation gasoline (AVGAS); or
(2)
wide-cut type fuel; or
(3)
a mixture of these types of fuel,
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ground servicing activities and work inside the aeroplane, such as catering and cleaning, should be
conducted in such a manner that they do not create a hazard and allow emergency evacuation
to take place through those aisles and exits intended for emergency evacuation.
(b)
The deployment of integral aircraft stairs or the opening of emergency exits as a prerequisite
to refuelling is not necessarily required.
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES — AEROPLANES
(c)
Operational procedures should specify that at least the following precautions are taken:
(1)
one qualified person should remain at a specified location during fuelling operations
with passengers on board. This qualified person should be capable of handling
emergency procedures concerning fire protection and fire-fighting, handling
communications and initiating and directing an evacuation;
(2)
two-way communication should be established and should remain available by the
aeroplane’s inter-communication system or other suitable means between the ground
crew supervising the refuelling and the qualified personnel on board the aeroplane; the
involved personnel should remain within easy reach of the system of communication;
(3)
crew members, personnel and passengers should be warned that refuelling will take
place;
(4)
‘fasten seat belts’ signs should be off;
(5)
‘no smoking’ signs should be on, together with interior lighting to enable emergency
exits to be identified;
(6)
passengers should be instructed to unfasten their seat belts and refrain from smoking;
(7)
the minimum required number of cabin crew should be on board and be prepared for an
immediate emergency evacuation;
(8)
if the presence of fuel vapour is detected inside the aeroplane, or any other hazard
arises during refuelling, fuelling should be stopped immediately;
(9)
the ground area beneath the exits intended for emergency evacuation and slide
deployment areas, if applicable, should be kept clear at doors where stairs are not in
position for use in the event of evacuation; and
(10) provision should be made for a safe and rapid evacuation.
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES — HELICOPTERS
(d)
Operational procedures should specify that at least the following precautions are taken:
(1)
door(s) on the refuelling side of the helicopter remain closed;
(2)
door(s) on the non-refuelling side of the helicopter remain open, weather permitting;
(3)
fire fighting facilities of the appropriate scale be positioned so as to be immediately
available in the event of a fire;
(4)
sufficient personnel should be immediately available to move passengers clear of the
helicopter in the event of a fire;
(5)
sufficient qualified personnel be on board and be prepared for an immediate emergency
evacuation;
(6)
if the presence of fuel vapour is detected inside the helicopter, or any other hazard
arises during refuelling, fuelling should be stopped immediately;
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(7)
the ground area beneath the exits intended for emergency evacuation be kept clear;
and
(8)
provision should be made for a safe and rapid evacuation.
GM1 NCC.OP.155 Refuelling with passengers embarking, on board or disembarking
AIRCRAFT REFUELLING PROVISIONS AND GUIDANCE ON SAFE REFUELLING PRACTICES
Provisions concerning aircraft refuelling are contained in Volume I (Aerodrome Design and
Operations) of ICAO Annex 14 (Aerodromes), and guidance on safe refuelling practices is contained in
Parts 1 and 8 of the ICAO Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137).
AMC1 NCC.OP.165 Carriage of passengers
SEATS THAT PERMIT DIRECT ACCESS TO EMERGENCY EXITS
Passengers who occupy seats that permit direct access to emergency exits should appear to be
reasonably fit, strong and able to assist the rapid evacuation of the aircraft in an emergency after an
appropriate briefing by the crew.
GM1 NCC.OP.165 Carriage of passengers
MEANING OF DIRECT ACCESS
‘Direct access’ means a seat from which a passenger can proceed directly to the exit without entering
an aisle or passing around an obstruction.
AMC1 NCC.OP.180 Meteorological conditions
EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Pilots should carefully evaluate the available meteorological information relevant to the proposed
flight, such as applicable surface observations, winds and temperatures aloft, terminal and area
forecasts, air meteorological information reports (AIRMETs), significant meteorological information
(SIGMET) and pilot reports. The ultimate decision whether, when, and where to make the flight rests
with the pilot-in-command. Pilots should continue to re-evaluate changing weather conditions.
GM1 NCC.OP.180 Meteorological conditions
CONTINUATION OF A FLIGHT
In the case of in-flight re-planning, continuation of a flight refers to the point from which a revised
flight plan applies.
GM1 NCC.OP.185 Ice and other contaminants — ground procedures
TERMINOLOGY
Terms used in the context of de-icing/anti-icing have the meaning defined in the following
subparagraphs.
(a)
‘Anti-icing fluid’ includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(1)
Type I fluid if heated to min 60 °C at the nozzle;
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(2)
mixture of water and Type I fluid if heated to min 60 °C at the nozzle;
(3)
Type II fluid;
(4)
mixture of water and Type II fluid;
(5)
Type III fluid;
(6)
mixture of water and Type III fluid;
(7)
Type IV fluid;
(8)
mixture of water and Type IV fluid.
On uncontaminated aircraft surfaces Type II, III and IV anti-icing fluids are normally applied
unheated.
(b)
‘Clear ice’: a coating of ice, generally clear and smooth, but with some air pockets. It forms on
exposed objects, the temperatures of which are at, below or slightly above the freezing
temperature, by the freezing of super-cooled drizzle, droplets or raindrops.
(c)
‘Conditions conducive to aircraft icing on the ground’ (e.g. freezing fog, freezing precipitation,
frost, rain or high humidity (on cold soaked wings), snow or mixed rain and snow).
(d)
‘Contamination’, in this context, is understood as being all forms of frozen or semi-frozen
moisture, such as frost, snow, slush or ice.
(e)
‘Contamination check’: a check of aircraft for contamination to establish the need for de-icing.
(f)
‘De-icing fluid’: such fluid includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(1)
heated water;
(2)
Type I fluid;
(3)
mixture of water and Type I fluid;
(4)
Type II fluid;
(5)
mixture of water and Type II fluid;
(6)
Type III fluid;
(7)
mixture of water and Type III fluid;
(8)
Type IV fluid;
(9)
mixture of water and Type IV fluid.
De-icing fluid is normally applied heated to ensure maximum efficiency.
(g)
‘De-icing/anti-icing’: this is the combination of de-icing and anti-icing performed in either one
or two steps.
(h)
‘Ground ice detection system (GIDS)’: system used during aircraft ground operations to inform
the personnel involved in the operation and/or the flight crew about the presence of frost, ice,
snow or slush on the aircraft surfaces.
(i)
‘Lowest operational use temperature (LOUT)’: the lowest temperature at which a fluid has
been tested and certified as acceptable in accordance with the appropriate aerodynamic
acceptance test whilst still maintaining a freezing point buffer of not less than:
(1)
10 °C for a Type I de-icing/anti-icing fluid; or
(2)
7 °C for Type II, III or IV de-icing/anti-icing fluids.
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(j)
‘Post-treatment check’: an external check of the aircraft after de-icing and/or anti-icing
treatment accomplished from suitably elevated observation points (e.g. from the de-icing/antiicing equipment itself or other elevated equipment) to ensure that the aircraft is free from any
frost, ice, snow or slush.
(k)
‘Pre-take-off check’: an assessment normally performed by the flight crew, to validate the
applied hold-over time (HoT).
(l)
‘Pre-take-off contamination check’: a check of the treated surfaces for contamination,
performed when the HoT has been exceeded or if any doubt exists regarding the continued
effectiveness of the applied anti-icing treatment. It is normally accomplished externally, just
before commencement of the take-off run.
ANTI-ICING CODES
(m)
(n)
The following are examples of anti-icing codes:
(1)
‘Type I’ at (start time) — to be used if anti-icing treatment has been performed with a
Type I fluid;
(2)
‘Type II/100’ at (start time) — to be used if anti-icing treatment has been performed
with undiluted Type II fluid;
(3)
‘Type II/75’ at (start time) — to be used if anti-icing treatment has been performed with
a mixture of 75 % Type II fluid and 25 % water; and
(4)
‘Type IV/50’ at (start time) — to be used if anti-icing treatment has been performed with
a mixture of 50 % Type IV fluid and 50 % water.
When a two-step de-icing/anti-icing operation has been carried out, the anti-icing code should
be determined by the second step fluid. Fluid brand names may be included, if desired.
GM2 NCC.OP.185 Ice and other contaminants — ground procedures
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING — PROCEDURES
(a)
(b)
De-icing and/or anti-icing procedures should take into account
recommendations, including those that are type-specific, and should cover:
manufacturer’s
(1)
contamination checks, including detection of clear ice and under-wing frost; limits on
the thickness/area of contamination published in the AFM or other manufacturers’
documentation should be followed;
(2)
procedures to be followed if de-icing and/or anti-icing procedures are interrupted or
unsuccessful;
(3)
post-treatment checks;
(4)
pre-take-off checks;
(5)
pre-take-off contamination checks;
(6)
the recording of any incidents relating to de-icing and/or anti-icing; and
(7)
the responsibilities of all personnel involved in de-icing and/or anti-icing.
The operator’s procedures should ensure the following:
(1)
When aircraft surfaces are contaminated by ice, frost, slush or snow, they are de-iced
prior to take-off, according to the prevailing conditions. Removal of contaminants may
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be performed with mechanical tools, fluids (including hot water), infrared heat or forced
air, taking account of aircraft type-specific provisions.
(2)
Account is taken of the wing skin temperature versus outside air temperature (OAT), as
this may affect:
(i)
the need to carry out aircraft de-icing and/or anti-icing; and/or
(ii)
the performance of the de-icing/anti-icing fluids.
(3)
When freezing precipitation occurs or there is a risk of freezing precipitation occurring
that would contaminate the surfaces at the time of take-off, aircraft surfaces should be
anti-iced. If both de-icing and anti-icing are required, the procedure may be performed
in a one or two-step process, depending upon weather conditions, available equipment,
available fluids and the desired hold-over time (HoT). One-step de-icing/anti-icing means
that de-icing and anti-icing are carried out at the same time, using a mixture of deicing/anti-icing fluid and water. Two-step de-icing/anti-icing means that de-icing and
anti-icing are carried out in two separate steps. The aircraft is first de-iced using heated
water only or a heated mixture of de-icing/anti-icing fluid and water. After completion
of the de-icing operation a layer of a mixture of de-icing/anti-icing fluid and water, or of
de-icing/anti-icing fluid only, is sprayed over the aircraft surfaces. The second step will
be applied before the first-step fluid freezes, typically within three minutes and, if
necessary, area by area.
(4)
When an aircraft is anti-iced and a longer HoT is needed/desired, the use of a less
diluted Type II or Type IV fluid should be considered.
(5)
All restrictions relative to OAT and fluid application (including, but not necessarily
limited to, temperature and pressure) published by the fluid manufacturer and/or
aircraft manufacturer, are followed and procedures, limitations and recommendations
to prevent the formation of fluid residues are followed.
(6)
During conditions conducive to aircraft icing on the ground or after de-icing and/or antiicing, an aircraft is not dispatched for departure unless it has been given a
contamination check or a post-treatment check by a trained and qualified person. This
check should cover all treated surfaces of the aircraft and be performed from points
offering sufficient accessibility to these parts. To ensure that there is no clear ice on
suspect areas, it may be necessary to make a physical check (e.g. tactile).
(7)
The required entry is made in the technical log.
(8)
The pilot-in-command continually monitors the environmental situation after the
performed treatment. Prior to take-off he/she performs a pre-take-off check, which is
an assessment of whether the applied HoT is still appropriate. This pre-take-off check
includes, but is not limited to, factors such as precipitation, wind and OAT.
(9)
If any doubt exists as to whether a deposit may adversely affect the aircraft’s
performance and/or controllability characteristics, the pilot-in-command should arrange
for a pre-take-off contamination check to be performed in order to verify that the
aircraft’s surfaces are free of contamination. Special methods and/or equipment may be
necessary to perform this check, especially at night time or in extremely adverse
weather conditions. If this check cannot be performed just before take-off, re-treatment
should be applied.
(10) When retreatment is necessary, any residue of the previous treatment should be
removed and a completely new de-icing/anti-icing treatment should be applied.
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(11) When a ground ice detection system (GIDS) is used to perform an aircraft surfaces check
prior to and/or after a treatment, the use of GIDS by suitably trained personnel should
be part of the procedure.
(c)
(d)
(e)
Special operational considerations
(1)
When using thickened de-icing/anti-icing fluids, the operator should consider a two-step
de-icing/anti-icing procedure, the first step preferably with hot water and/or unthickened fluids.
(2)
The use of de-icing/anti-icing fluids should be in accordance with the aircraft
manufacturer’s documentation. This is particularly important for thickened fluids to
assure sufficient flow-off during take-off.
(3)
The operator should comply with any type-specific operational requirement(s), such as
an aircraft mass decrease and/or a take-off speed increase associated with a fluid
application.
(4)
The operator should take into account any flight handling procedures (stick force,
rotation speed and rate, take-off speed, aircraft attitude, etc.) laid down by the aircraft
manufacturer when associated with a fluid application.
(5)
The limitations or handling procedures resulting from (c)(3) and/or (c)(4) should be part
of the flight crew pre-take-off briefing.
Communications
(1)
Before aircraft treatment. When the aircraft is to be treated with the flight crew on
board, the flight and personnel involved in the operation should confirm the fluid to be
used, the extent of treatment required and any aircraft type-specific procedure(s) to be
used. Any other information needed to apply the HoT tables should be exchanged.
(2)
Anti-icing code. The operator’s procedures should include an anti-icing code, which
indicates the treatment the aircraft has received. This code provides the flight crew with
the minimum details necessary to estimate an HoT and confirms that the aircraft is free
of contamination.
(3)
After treatment. Before reconfiguring or moving the aircraft, the flight crew should
receive a confirmation from the personnel involved in the operation that all de-icing
and/or anti-icing operations are complete and that all personnel and equipment are
clear of the aircraft.
Hold-over protection
The operator should publish in the operations manual, when required, the HoTs in the form of
a table or a diagram, to account for the various types of ground icing conditions and the
different types and concentrations of fluids used. However, the times of protection shown in
these tables are to be used as guidelines only and are normally used in conjunction with the
pre-take-off check.
(f)
Training
The operator’s initial and recurrent de-icing and/or anti-icing training programmes (including
communication training) for flight crew and those of its personnel involved in the operation
who are involved in de-icing and/or anti-icing should include additional training if any of the
following is introduced:
(1)
a new method, procedure and/or technique;
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(g)
(2)
a new type of fluid and/or equipment; or
(3)
a new type of aircraft.
Contracting
When the operator contracts training on de-icing/anti-icing, the operator should ensure that
the contractor complies with the operator’s training/qualification procedures, together with
any specific procedures in respect of:
(h)
(1)
de-icing and/or anti-icing methods and procedures;
(2)
fluids to be used, including precautions for storage and preparation for use;
(3)
specific aircraft requirements (e.g. no-spray areas, propeller/engine de-icing, auxiliary
power unit (APU) operation etc.); and
(4)
checking and communications procedures.
Special maintenance considerations
(1)
General
The operator should take proper account of the possible side effects of fluid use. Such
effects may include, but are not necessarily limited to, dried and/or re-hydrated
residues, corrosion and the removal of lubricants.
(2)
Special considerations regarding residues of dried fluids
The operator should establish procedures to prevent or detect and remove residues of
dried fluid. If necessary, the operator should establish appropriate inspection intervals
based on the recommendations of the airframe manufacturers and/or the operator’s
own experience:
(i)
Dried fluid residues
Dried fluid residues could occur when surfaces have been treated and the aircraft
has not subsequently been flown and has not been subject to precipitation. The
fluid may then have dried on the surfaces.
(ii)
Re-hydrated fluid residues
Repetitive application of thickened de-icing/anti-icing fluids may lead to the
subsequent formation/build-up of a dried residue in aerodynamically quiet areas,
such as cavities and gaps. This residue may re-hydrate if exposed to high humidity
conditions, precipitation, washing, etc., and increase to many times its original
size/volume. This residue will freeze if exposed to conditions at or below 0 °C. This
may cause moving parts, such as elevators, ailerons, and flap actuating
mechanisms to stiffen or jam in-flight. Re-hydrated residues may also form on
exterior surfaces, which can reduce lift, increase drag and stall speed. Re-hydrated
residues may also collect inside control surface structures and cause clogging of
drain holes or imbalances to flight controls. Residues may also collect in hidden
areas, such as around flight control hinges, pulleys, grommets, on cables and in
gaps.
(iii)
Operators are strongly recommended to obtain information about the fluid dryout and re-hydration characteristics from the fluid manufacturers and to select
products with optimised characteristics.
(iv)
Additional information should be obtained from fluid manufacturers for handling,
storage, application and testing of their products.
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GM3 NCC.OP.185 Ice and other contaminants — ground procedures
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING — BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Further guidance material on this issue is given in the ICAO Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Antiicing Operations (Doc 9640) (hereinafter referred to as the ICAO Manual of Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-icing Operations).
(a)
General
(1)
Any deposit of frost, ice, snow or slush on the external surfaces of an aircraft may
drastically affect its flying qualities because of reduced aerodynamic lift, increased drag,
modified stability and control characteristics. Furthermore, freezing deposits may cause
moving parts, such as elevators, ailerons, flap actuating mechanism, etc., to jam and
create a potentially hazardous condition. Propeller/engine/APU/systems performance
may deteriorate due to the presence of frozen contaminants on blades, intakes and
components. Also, engine operation may be seriously affected by the ingestion of snow
or ice, thereby causing engine stall or compressor damage. In addition, ice/frost may
form on certain external surfaces (e.g. wing upper and lower surfaces, etc.) due to the
effects of cold fuel/structures, even in ambient temperatures well above 0 °C.
(2)
Procedures established by the operator for de-icing and/or anti-icing are intended to
ensure that the aircraft is clear of contamination so that degradation of aerodynamic
characteristics or mechanical interference will not occur and, following anti-icing, to
maintain the airframe in that condition during the appropriate HoT.
(3)
Under certain meteorological conditions, de-icing and/or anti-icing procedures may be
ineffective in providing sufficient protection for continued operations. Examples of these
conditions are freezing rain, ice pellets and hail, heavy snow, high wind velocity, fast
dropping OAT or any time when freezing precipitation with high water content is
present. No HoT guidelines exist for these conditions.
(4)
Material for establishing operational procedures can be found, for example, in:
(i)
ICAO Annex 3, Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation;
(ii)
ICAO Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations;
(iii)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 11075 Aircraft — Deicing/anti-icing fluids — ISO type I;
(iv)
ISO 11076 Aircraft — De-icing/anti-icing methods with fluids;
(v)
ISO 11077 Aerospace — Self-propelled de-icing/anti-icing vehicles — Functional
requirements;
(vi)
ISO 11078 Aircraft — De-icing/anti-icing fluids — ISO types II, III and IV;
(vii)
Association of European Airlines (AEA) ‘Recommendations for de-icing/anti-icing
of aircraft on the ground’;
(viii) AEA ‘Training recommendations and background information for de-icing/antiicing of aircraft on the ground’;
(ix)
EUROCAE ED-104A Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Ground
Ice Detection Systems;
(x)
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) AS5681 Minimum Operational
Performance Specification for Remote On-Ground Ice Detection Systems;
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(xi)
SAE ARP4737 Aircraft — De-icing/anti-icing methods;
(xii)
SAE AMS1424 De-icing/anti-Icing Fluid, Aircraft, SAE Type I;
(xiii) SAE AMS1428 Fluid, Aircraft De-icing/anti-icing, Non-Newtonian, (Pseudoplastic),
SAE Types II, III, and IV;
(xiv) SAE ARP1971 Aircraft De-icing Vehicle — Self-Propelled, Large and Small Capacity;
(xv)
SAE ARP5149 Training Programme Guidelines for De-icing/anti-icing of Aircraft on
Ground; and
(xvi) SAE ARP5646 Quality Program Guidelines for De-icing/anti-icing of Aircraft on the
Ground.
(b)
(c)
Fluids
(1)
Type I fluid: Due to its properties, Type I fluid forms a thin, liquid-wetting film on
surfaces to which it is applied which, under certain weather conditions, gives a very
limited HoT. With this type of fluid, increasing the concentration of fluid in the
fluid/water mix does not provide any extension in HoT.
(2)
Type II and Type IV fluids contain thickeners that enable the fluid to form a thicker
liquid-wetting film on surfaces to which it is applied. Generally, this fluid provides a
longer HoT than Type I fluids in similar conditions. With this type of fluid, the HoT can be
extended by increasing the ratio of fluid in the fluid/water mix.
(3)
Type III fluid is a thickened fluid especially intended for use on aircraft with low rotation
speeds.
(4)
Fluids used for de-icing and/or anti-icing should be acceptable to the operator and the
aircraft manufacturer. These fluids normally conform to specifications such as SAE
AMS1424, SAE AMS1428 or equivalent. Use of non-conforming fluids is not
recommended due to their characteristics being unknown. The anti-icing and
aerodynamic properties of thickened fluids may be seriously degraded by, for example,
inappropriate storage, treatment, application, application equipment and age.
Hold-over protection
(1)
(2)
Hold-over protection is achieved by a layer of anti-icing fluid remaining on and
protecting aircraft surfaces for a period of time. With a one-step de-icing/anti-icing
procedure, the HoT begins at the commencement of de-icing/anti-icing. With a two-step
procedure, the HoT begins at the commencement of the second (anti-icing) step. The
hold-over protection runs out:
(i)
at the commencement of the take-off roll (due to aerodynamic shedding of fluid);
or
(ii)
when frozen deposits start to form or accumulate on treated aircraft surfaces,
thereby indicating the loss of effectiveness of the fluid.
The duration of hold-over protection may vary depending on the influence of factors
other than those specified in the HoT tables. Guidance should be provided by the
operator to take account of such factors, which may include:
(i)
atmospheric conditions, e.g. exact type and rate of precipitation, wind direction
and velocity, relative humidity and solar radiation; and
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(ii)
the aircraft and its surroundings, such as aircraft component inclination angle,
contour and surface roughness, surface temperature, operation in close proximity
to other aircraft (jet or propeller blast) and ground equipment and structures.
(3)
HoTs are not meant to imply that flight is safe in the prevailing conditions if the specified
HoT has not been exceeded. Certain meteorological conditions, such as freezing drizzle
or freezing rain, may be beyond the certification envelope of the aircraft.
(4)
References to usable HoT tables may be found in the AEA ‘Recommendations for deicing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground’.
AMC1 NCC.OP.190 Ice and other contaminants — flight procedures
FLIGHT IN EXPECTED OR ACTUAL ICING CONDITIONS
(a)
The procedures to be established by the operator should take account of the design, the
equipment, the configuration of the aircraft and the necessary training. For these reasons,
different aircraft types operated by the same company may require the development of
different procedures. In every case, the relevant limitations are those that are defined in the
AFM and other documents produced by the manufacturer.
(b)
The operator should ensure that the procedures take account of the following:
(c)
(1)
the equipment and instruments that should be serviceable for flight in icing conditions;
(2)
the limitations on flight in icing conditions for each phase of flight. These limitations may
be imposed by the aircraft’s de-icing or anti-icing equipment or the necessary
performance corrections that have to be made;
(3)
the criteria the flight crew should use to assess the effect of icing on the performance
and/or controllability of the aircraft;
(4)
the means by which the flight crew detects, by visual cues or the use of the aircraft’s ice
detection system, that the flight is entering icing conditions; and
(5)
the action to be taken by the flight crew in a deteriorating situation (which may develop
rapidly) resulting in an adverse effect on the performance and/or controllability of the
aircraft, due to:
(i)
the failure of the aircraft’s anti-icing or de-icing equipment to control a build-up of
ice; and/or
(ii)
ice build-up on unprotected areas.
Training for dispatch and flight in expected or actual icing conditions. The content of the
operations manual should reflect the training, both conversion and recurrent, that flight crew,
cabin crew and all other relevant operational personnel require in order to comply with the
procedures for dispatch and flight in icing conditions:
(1)
For the flight crew, the training should include:
(i)
instruction on how to recognise, from weather reports or forecasts that are
available before flight commences or during flight, the risks of encountering icing
conditions along the planned route and on how to modify, as necessary, the
departure and in-flight routes or profiles;
(ii)
instruction on the operational and performance limitations or margins;
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(2)
(iii)
the use of in-flight ice detection, anti-icing and de-icing systems in both normal
and abnormal operation; and
(iv)
instruction on the differing intensities and forms of ice accretion and the
consequent action which should be taken.
For the cabin crew, the training should include:
(i)
awareness of the conditions likely to produce surface contamination; and
(ii)
the need to inform the flight crew of significant ice accretion.
GM1 NCC.OP.215 Ground proximity detection
GUIDANCE MATERIAL FOR TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING SYSTEM (TAWS) FLIGHT CREW
TRAINING PROGRAMMES
(a)
(b)
(c)
Introduction
(1)
This GM contains performance-based training objectives for TAWS flight crew training.
(2)
The training objectives cover five areas: theory of operation; pre-flight operations;
general in-flight operations; response to TAWS cautions; response to TAWS warnings.
(3)
The term ‘TAWS’ in this GM means a ground proximity warning system (GPWS)
enhanced by a forward-looking terrain avoidance function. Alerts include both cautions
and warnings.
(4)
The content of this GM is intended to assist operators who are producing training
programmes. The information it contains has not been tailored to any specific aircraft or
TAWS equipment, but highlights features that are typically available where such systems
are installed. It is the responsibility of the individual operator to determine the
applicability of the content of this Guidance Material to each aircraft and TAWS
equipment installed and their operation. Operators should refer to the AFM and/or
aircraft/flight crew operating manual (A/FCOM), or similar documents, for information
applicable to specific configurations. If there should be any conflict between the content
of this Guidance Material and that published in the other documents described above,
then the information contained in the AFM or A/FCOM will take precedence.
Scope
(1)
The scope of this GM is designed to identify training objectives in the areas of: academic
training; manoeuvre training; initial evaluation; recurrent qualification. Under each of
these four areas, the training material has been separated into those items that are
considered essential training items and those that are considered to be desirable. In
each area, objectives and acceptable performance criteria are defined.
(2)
No attempt is made to define how the training programme should be implemented.
Instead, objectives are established to define the knowledge that a pilot operating a
TAWS is expected to possess and the performance expected from a pilot who has
completed TAWS training. However, the guidelines do indicate those areas in which the
pilot receiving the training should demonstrate his/her understanding, or performance,
using a real time interactive training device, i.e. a flight simulator. Where appropriate,
notes are included within the performance criteria that amplify or clarify the material
addressed by the training objective.
Performance-based training objectives
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(1)
TAWS academic training
(i)
This training is typically conducted in a classroom environment. The knowledge
demonstrations specified in this section may be completed through the successful
completion of written tests or by providing correct responses to non-real-time
computer-based training (CBT) questions.
(ii)
Theory of operation. The pilot should demonstrate an understanding of TAWS
operation and the criteria used for issuing cautions and warnings. This training
should address system operation. Objective: to demonstrate knowledge of how a
TAWS functions. Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate an understanding of the
following functions:
(A)
Surveillance
(a)
The GPWS computer processes data supplied from an air data
computer, a radio altimeter, an instrument landing system
(ILS)/microwave landing system (MLS)/multi-mode (MM) receiver, a
roll attitude sensor, and actual position of the surfaces and of the
landing gear.
(b)
The forward-looking terrain avoidance function utilises an accurate
source of known aircraft position, such as that which may be
provided by a flight management system (FMS) or global positioning
system (GPS), or an electronic terrain database. The source and
scope of the terrain, obstacle and airport data, and features such as
the terrain clearance floor, the runway picker, and geometric altitude
(where provided), should all be described.
(c)
Displays required to deliver TAWS outputs include a loudspeaker for
voice announcements, visual alerts (typically amber and red lights)
and a terrain awareness display (that may be combined with other
displays). In addition, means should be provided for indicating the
status of the TAWS and any partial or total failures that may occur.
(B)
Terrain avoidance. Outputs from the TAWS computer provide visual and
audio synthetic voice cautions and warnings to alert the flight crew about
potential conflicts with terrain and obstacles.
(C)
Alert thresholds. Objective: to demonstrate knowledge of the criteria for
issuing cautions and warnings. Criteria: the pilot should be able to
demonstrate an understanding of the methodology used by a TAWS to
issue cautions and alerts and the general criteria for the issuance of these
alerts, including:
(a)
basic GPWS alerting modes specified in the ICAO standard:
Mode 1: excessive sink rate;
Mode 2: excessive terrain closure rate;
Mode 3: descent after take-off or missed approach;
Mode 4: unsafe proximity to terrain; and
Mode 5: descent below ILS glide slope (caution only);
(b)
an additional, optional alert mode:
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Mode 6: radio altitude call-out (information only); and
(c)
(D)
(E)
TAWS cautions and warnings that alert the flight crew to obstacles
and terrain ahead of the aircraft in line with or adjacent to its
projected flight path (forward-looking terrain avoidance (FLTA) and
premature descent alert (PDA) functions).
TAWS limitations. Objective: to verify that the pilot is aware of the
limitations of TAWS. Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate knowledge and
an understanding of TAWS limitations identified by the manufacturer for
the equipment model installed, such as:
(a)
navigation should not be predicated on the use of the terrain display;
(b)
unless geometric altitude data is provided, use of predictive TAWS
functions is prohibited when altimeter subscale settings display ‘QFE’
(atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation/runway threshold);
(c)
nuisance alerts can be issued if the aerodrome of intended landing is
not included in the TAWS airport database;
(d)
in cold weather operations, corrective procedures should be
implemented by the pilot unless the TAWS has in-built
compensation, such as geometric altitude data;
(e)
loss of input data to the TAWS computer could result in partial or
total loss of functionality. Where means exist to inform the flight
crew that functionality has been degraded, this should be known and
the consequences understood;
(f)
radio signals not associated with the intended flight profile (e.g. ILS
glide path transmissions from an adjacent runway) may cause false
alerts;
(g)
inaccurate or low accuracy aircraft position data could lead to false or
non-annunciation of terrain or obstacles ahead of the aircraft; and
(h)
minimum equipment list (MEL) restrictions should be applied in the
event of the TAWS becoming partially or completely unserviceable.
(It should be noted that basic GPWS has no forward-looking
capability.)
TAWS inhibits. Objective: to verify that the pilot is aware of the conditions
under which certain functions of a TAWS are inhibited. Criteria: the pilot
should demonstrate knowledge and an understanding of the various TAWS
inhibits, including the following means of:
(a)
silencing voice alerts;
(b)
inhibiting ILS glide path signals (as may be required when executing
an ILS back beam approach);
(c)
inhibiting flap position sensors (as may be required when executing
an approach with the flaps not in a normal position for landing);
(d)
inhibiting the FLTA and PDA functions; and
(e)
selecting or deselecting the display of terrain information, together
with appropriate annunciation of the status of each selection.
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(2)
Operating procedures. The pilot should demonstrate the knowledge required to operate
TAWS avionics and to interpret the information presented by a TAWS. This training
should address the following topics:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Use of controls. Objective: to verify that the pilot can properly operate all TAWS
controls and inhibits. Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate the proper use of
controls, including the following means by which:
(A)
before flight, any equipment self-test functions can be initiated;
(B)
TAWS information can be selected for display; and
(C)
all TAWS inhibits can be operated and what the consequent annunciations
mean with regard to loss of functionality.
Display interpretation. Objective: to verify that the pilot understands the meaning
of all information that can be annunciated or displayed by a TAWS. Criteria: the
pilot should demonstrate the ability to properly interpret information
annunciated or displayed by a TAWS, including the following:
(A)
knowledge of all visual and aural indications that may be seen or heard;
(B)
response required on receipt of a caution;
(C)
response required on receipt of a warning; and
(D)
response required on receipt of a notification that partial or total failure of
the TAWS has occurred (including annunciation that the present aircraft
position is of low accuracy).
Use of basic GPWS or use of the FLTA function only. Objective: to verify that the
pilot understands what functionality will remain following loss of the GPWS or of
the FLTA function. Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate knowledge of how to
recognise the following:
(A)
un-commanded loss of the GPWS function, or how to isolate this function
and how to recognise the level of the remaining controlled flight into
terrain (CFIT) protection (essentially, this is the FLTA function); and
(B)
un-commanded loss of the FLTA function, or how to isolate this function
and how to recognise the level of the remaining CFIT protection
(essentially, this is the basic GPWS).
Crew coordination. Objective: to verify that the pilot adequately briefs other flight
crew members on how TAWS alerts will be handled. Criteria: the pilot should
demonstrate that the pre-flight briefing addresses procedures that will be used in
preparation for responding to TAWS cautions and warnings, including the
following:
(A)
the action to be taken, and by whom, in the event that a TAWS caution
and/or warning is issued; and
(B)
how multi-function displays will be used to depict TAWS information at
take-off, in the cruise and for the descent, approach, landing (and any
missed approach). This will be in accordance with procedures specified by
the operator, who will recognise that it may be more desirable that other
data is displayed at certain phases of flight and that the terrain display has
an automatic ‘pop-up’ mode in the event that an alert is issued.
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(v)
(vi)
(3)
Reporting rules. Objective: to verify that the pilot is aware of the rules for
reporting alerts to the controller and other authorities. Criteria: the pilot should
demonstrate knowledge of the following:
(A)
when, following recovery from a TAWS alert or caution, a transmission of
information should be made to the appropriate ATC unit; and
(B)
the type of written report that is required, how it is to be compiled and
whether any cross-reference should be made in the aircraft technical log
and/or voyage report (in accordance with procedures specified by the
operator), following a flight in which the aircraft flight path has been
modified in response to a TAWS alert, or if any part of the equipment
appears not to have functioned correctly.
Alert thresholds. Objective: to demonstrate knowledge of the criteria for issuing
cautions and warnings. Criteria: the pilot should be able to demonstrate an
understanding of the methodology used by a TAWS to issue cautions and
warnings and the general criteria for the issuance of these alerts, including
awareness of the following:
(A)
modes associated with basic GPWS, including the input data associated
with each; and
(B)
visual and aural annunciations that can be issued by TAWS and how to
identify which are cautions and which are warnings.
TAWS manoeuvre training. The pilot should demonstrate the knowledge required to
respond correctly to TAWS cautions and warnings. This training should address the
following topics:
(i)
Response to cautions:
(A)
(B)
Objective: to verify that the pilot properly interprets and responds to
cautions. Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate an understanding of the
need, without delay:
(a)
to initiate action required to correct the condition that has caused
the TAWS to issue the caution and to be prepared to respond to a
warning, if this should follow; and
(b)
if a warning does not follow the caution, to notify the controller of
the new position, heading and/or altitude/flight level of the aircraft,
and what the pilot-in-command intends to do next.
The correct response to a caution might require the pilot to:
(a)
reduce a rate of descent and/or to initiate a climb;
(b)
regain an ILS glide path from below, or to inhibit a glide path signal if
an ILS is not being flown;
(c)
select more flap, or to inhibit a flap sensor if the landing is being
conducted with the intent that the normal flap setting will not be
used;
(d)
select gear down; and/or
(e)
initiate a turn away from the terrain or obstacle ahead and towards
an area free of such obstructions if a forward-looking terrain display
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indicates that this would be a good solution and the entire
manoeuvre can be carried out in clear visual conditions.
(ii)
(4)
Response to warnings. Objective: to verify that the pilot properly interprets and
responds to warnings. Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate an understanding of
the following:
(A)
The need, without delay, to initiate a climb in the manner specified by the
operator.
(B)
The need, without delay, to maintain the climb until visual verification can
be made that the aircraft will clear the terrain or obstacle ahead or until
above the appropriate sector safe altitude (if certain about the location of
the aircraft with respect to terrain) even if the TAWS warning stops. If,
subsequently, the aircraft climbs up through the sector safe altitude, but
the visibility does not allow the flight crew to confirm that the terrain
hazard has ended, checks should be made to verify the location of the
aircraft and to confirm that the altimeter subscale settings are correct.
(C)
When workload permits, that the flight crew should notify the air traffic
controller of the new position and altitude/flight level and what the pilotin-command intends to do next.
(D)
That the manner in which the climb is made should reflect the type of
aircraft and the method specified by the aircraft manufacturer (which
should be reflected in the operations manual) for performing the escape
manoeuvre. Essential aspects will include the need for an increase in pitch
attitude, selection of maximum thrust, confirmation that external sources
of drag (e.g. spoilers/speed brakes) are retracted and respect of the stick
shaker or other indication of eroded stall margin.
(E)
That TAWS warnings should never be ignored. However, the pilot’s
response may be limited to that which is appropriate for a caution, only if:
(a)
the aircraft is being operated by day in clear, visual conditions; and
(b)
it is immediately clear to the pilot that the aircraft is in no danger in
respect of its configuration, proximity to terrain or current flight
path.
TAWS initial evaluation:
(i)
The flight crew member’s understanding of the academic training items should be
assessed by means of a written test.
(ii)
The flight crew member’s understanding of the manoeuvre training items should
be assessed in a flight simulation training device (FSTD) equipped with TAWS
visual and aural displays and inhibit selectors similar in appearance and operation
to those in the aircraft that the pilot will fly. The results should be assessed by a
flight simulation training instructor, synthetic flight examiner, type rating
instructor or type rating examiner.
(iii)
The range of scenarios should be designed to give confidence that proper and
timely responses to TAWS cautions and warnings will result in the aircraft
avoiding a CFIT accident. To achieve this objective, the pilot should demonstrate
taking the correct action to prevent a caution developing into a warning and,
separately, the escape manoeuvre needed in response to a warning. These
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demonstrations should take place when the external visibility is zero, though
there is much to be learnt if, initially, the training is given in ‘mountainous’ or
‘hilly’ terrain with clear visibility. This training should comprise a sequence of
scenarios, rather than be included in line orientated flight training (LOFT).
(iv)
(5)
(6)
A record should be made, after the pilot has demonstrated competence, of the
scenarios that were practised.
TAWS recurrent training:
(i)
TAWS recurrent training ensures that pilots maintain the appropriate TAWS
knowledge and skills. In particular, it reminds pilots of the need to act promptly in
response to cautions and warnings and of the unusual attitude associated with
flying the escape manoeuvre.
(ii)
An essential item of recurrent training is the discussion of any significant issues
and operational concerns that have been identified by the operator. Recurrent
training should also address changes to TAWS logic, parameters or procedures
and to any unique TAWS characteristics of which pilots should be aware.
Reporting procedures:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Verbal reports. Verbal reports should be made promptly to the appropriate ATC
unit:
(A)
whenever any manoeuvre has caused the aircraft to deviate from an air
traffic clearance;
(B)
when, following a manoeuvre that has caused the aircraft to deviate from
an air traffic clearance, the aircraft has returned to a flight path that
complies with the clearance; and/or
(C)
when an air traffic control unit issues instructions that, if followed, would
cause the pilot to manoeuvre the aircraft towards terrain or obstacle or it
would appear from the display that a potential CFIT occurrence is likely to
result.
Written reports. Written reports should be submitted in accordance with the
operator's occurrence reporting scheme and they also should be recorded in the
aircraft technical log:
(A)
whenever the aircraft flight path has been modified in response to a TAWS
alert (false, nuisance or genuine);
(B)
whenever a TAWS alert has been issued and is believed to have been false;
and/or
(C)
if it is believed that a TAWS alert should have been issued, but was not.
Within this GM, and with regard to reports:
(A)
the term 'false' means that the TAWS issued an alert that could not possibly
be justified by the position of the aircraft in respect to terrain and it is
probable that a fault or failure in the system (equipment and/or input data)
was the cause;
(B)
the term 'nuisance' means that the TAWS issued an alert that was
appropriate, but was not needed because the flight crew could determine
by independent means that the flight path was, at that time, safe;
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(C)
the term 'genuine' means that the TAWS issued an alert that was both
appropriate and necessary;
(D)
the report terms described in (c)(6)(iii) are only meant to be assessed after
the occurrence is over, to facilitate subsequent analysis, the adequacy of
the equipment and the programmes it contains. The intention is not for the
flight crew to attempt to classify an alert into any of these three categories
when visual and/or aural cautions or warnings are annunciated.
GM1 NCC.OP.220 Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS)
GENERAL
(a)
(b)
The ACAS operational procedures and training programmes established by the operator should
take into account this Guidance Material. It incorporates advice contained in:
(1)
ICAO Annex 10, Volume IV;
(2)
ICAO PANS-OPS, Volume 1;
(3)
ICAO PANS-ATM; and
(4)
ICAO guidance material ‘ACAS Performance-Based Training Objectives’ (published under
Attachment E of State Letter AN 7/1.3.7.2-97/77).
Additional guidance material on ACAS may be referred to, including information available from
such sources as EUROCONTROL.
ACAS FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
(c)
During the implementation of ACAS, several operational issues were identified that had been
attributed to deficiencies in flight crew training programmes. As a result, the issue of flight
crew training has been discussed within the ICAO, which has developed guidelines for
operators to use when designing training programmes.
(d)
This Guidance Material contains performance-based training objectives for ACAS II flight crew
training. Information contained here related to traffic advisories (TAs) is also applicable to
ACAS I and ACAS II users. The training objectives cover five areas: theory of operation; preflight operations; general in-flight operations; response to TAs; and response to resolution
advisories (RAs).
(e)
The information provided is valid for version 7 and 7.1 (ACAS II). Where differences arise, these
are identified.
(f)
The performance-based training objectives are further divided into the areas of: academic
training; manoeuvre training; initial evaluation and recurrent qualification. Under each of
these four areas, the training material has been separated into those items which are
considered essential training items and those which are considered desirable. In each area,
objectives and acceptable performance criteria are defined.
(g)
ACAS academic training
(1)
This training is typically conducted in a classroom environment. The knowledge
demonstrations specified in this section may be completed through the successful
completion of written tests or through providing correct responses to non-real-time
computer-based training (CBT) questions.
(2)
Essential items
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(i)
Theory of operation. The flight crew member should demonstrate an
understanding of ACAS II operation and the criteria used for issuing TAs and RAs.
This training should address the following topics:
(A)
System operation
Objective: to demonstrate knowledge of how ACAS functions.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate an understanding of
the following functions:
(a)
(b)
(B)
Surveillance
(1)
ACAS interrogates other transponder-equipped aircraft
within a nominal range of 14 NM.
(2)
ACAS surveillance range can be reduced in geographic areas
with a large number of ground interrogators and/or ACAS IIequipped aircraft.
(3)
If the operator's ACAS implementation provides for the use
of the Mode S extended squitter, the normal surveillance
range may be increased beyond the nominal 14 NM.
However, this information is not used for collision
avoidance purposes.
Collision avoidance
(1)
TAs can be issued against any transponder-equipped
aircraft that responds to the ICAO Mode C interrogations,
even if the aircraft does not have altitude reporting
capability.
(2)
RAs can be issued only against aircraft that are reporting
altitude and in the vertical plane only.
(3)
RAs issued against an ACAS-equipped intruder are coordinated to ensure complementary RAs are issued.
(4)
Failure to respond to an RA deprives own aircraft of the
collision protection provided by own ACAS.
(5)
Additionally, in ACAS-ACAS encounters, failure to respond
to an RA also restricts the choices available to the other
aircraft's ACAS and thus renders the other aircraft's ACAS
less effective than if own aircraft were not ACAS equipped.
Advisory thresholds
Objective: to demonstrate knowledge of the criteria for issuing TAs and
RAs.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate an understanding of
the methodology used by ACAS to issue TAs and RAs and the general
criteria for the issuance of these advisories, including the following:
(a)
ACAS advisories are based on time to closest point of approach (CPA)
rather than distance. The time should be short and vertical
separation should be small, or projected to be small, before an
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advisory can be issued. The separation standards provided by ATS are
different from the miss distances against which ACAS issues alerts.
(C)
(b)
Thresholds for issuing a TA or an RA vary with altitude. The
thresholds are larger at higher altitudes.
(c)
A TA occurs from 15 to 48 seconds and an RA from 15 to 35 seconds
before the projected CPA.
(d)
RAs are chosen to provide the desired vertical miss distance at CPA.
As a result, RAs can instruct a climb or descent through the intruder
aircraft's altitude.
ACAS limitations
Objective: to verify that the flight crew member is aware of the limitations
of ACAS.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate knowledge and
understanding of ACAS limitations, including the following:
(a)
ACAS will neither track nor display non-transponder-equipped
aircraft, nor aircraft not responding to ACAS Mode C interrogations.
(b)
ACAS will automatically fail if the input from the aircraft’s barometric
altimeter, radio altimeter or transponder is lost.
(1)
In some installations, the loss of information from other on
board systems such as an inertial reference system (IRS) or
attitude heading reference system (AHRS) may result in an
ACAS failure. Individual operators should ensure that their
flight crews are aware of the types of failure which will result
in an ACAS failure.
(2)
ACAS may react in an improper manner when false altitude
information is provided to own ACAS or transmitted by
another aircraft. Individual operators should ensure that their
flight crew are aware of the types of unsafe conditions which
can arise. Flight crew members should ensure that when they
are advised, if their own aircraft is transmitting false altitude
reports, an alternative altitude reporting source is selected, or
altitude reporting is switched off.
(c)
Some aeroplanes within 380 ft above ground level (AGL) (nominal
value) are deemed to be ‘on ground’ and will not be displayed. If
ACAS is able to determine an aircraft below this altitude is airborne, it
will be displayed.
(d)
ACAS may not display all proximate transponder-equipped aircraft in
areas of high density traffic.
(e)
The bearing displayed by ACAS is not sufficiently accurate to support
the initiation of horizontal manoeuvres based solely on the traffic
display.
(f)
ACAS will neither track nor display intruders with a vertical speed in
excess of 10 000 ft/min. In addition, the design implementation may
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result in some short-term errors in the tracked vertical speed of an
intruder during periods of high vertical acceleration by the intruder.
(g)
(D)
Ground proximity warning systems/ground collision avoidance
systems (GPWSs/GCASs) warnings and wind shear warnings take
precedence over ACAS advisories. When either a GPWS/GCAS or
wind shear warning is active, ACAS aural annunciations will be
inhibited and ACAS will automatically switch to the 'TA only' mode of
operation.
ACAS inhibits
Objective: to verify that the flight crew member is aware of the conditions
under which certain functions of ACAS are inhibited.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate knowledge and
understanding of the various ACAS inhibits, including the following:
(ii)
(a)
‘Increase Descent’ RAs are inhibited below 1 450 ft AGL.
(b)
‘Descend’ RAs are inhibited below 1 100 ft AGL.
(c)
All RAs are inhibited below 1 000 ft AGL.
(d)
All TA aural annunciations are inhibited below 500 ft AGL.
(e)
Altitude and configuration under which ‘Climb’ and ‘Increase
Climb’ RAs are inhibited. ACAS can still issue ‘Climb’ and ‘Increase
Climb’ RAs when operating at the aeroplane's certified ceiling. (In
some aircraft types, ‘Climb’ or ‘Increase Climb’ RAs are never
inhibited.)
Operating procedures
The flight crew member should demonstrate the knowledge required to operate
the ACAS avionics and interpret the information presented by ACAS. This training
should address the following:
(A)
Use of controls
Objective: to verify that the pilot can properly operate all ACAS and display
controls.
Criteria: demonstrate the proper use of controls, including the following:
(a)
Aircraft configuration required to initiate a self-test.
(b)
Steps required to initiate a self-test.
(c)
Recognising when the self-test was successful and when it was
unsuccessful. When the self-test is unsuccessful, recognising the
reason for the failure and, if possible, correcting the problem.
(d)
Recommended usage of range selection. Low ranges are used in
the terminal area and the higher display ranges are used in the
en-route environment and in the transition between the terminal
and en-route environment.
(e)
Recognising that the configuration of the display does not affect
the ACAS surveillance volume.
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(B)
(f)
Selection of lower ranges when an advisory is issued, to increase
display resolution.
(g)
Proper configuration to display the appropriate ACAS information
without eliminating the display of other needed information.
(h)
If available, recommended usage of the above/below mode
selector. The above mode should be used during climb and the
below mode should be used during descent.
(i)
If available, proper selection of the display of absolute or relative
altitude and the limitations of using this display if a barometric
correction is not provided to ACAS.
Display interpretation
Objective: to verify that the flight crew member understands the meaning
of all information that can be displayed by ACAS. The wide variety of display
implementations require the tailoring of some criteria. When the training
programme is developed, these criteria should be expanded to cover details
for the operator's specific display implementation.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate the ability to properly
interpret information displayed by ACAS, including the following:
(C)
(a)
Other traffic, i.e. traffic within the selected display range that is
not proximate traffic, or causing a TA or RA to be issued.
(b)
Proximate traffic, i.e. traffic that is within 6 NM and ± 1 200 ft.
(c)
Non-altitude reporting traffic.
(d)
No bearing TAs and RAs.
(e)
Off-scale TAs and RAs: the selected range should be changed to
ensure that all available information on the intruder is displayed.
(f)
TAs: the minimum available display range that allows the traffic to
be displayed should be selected, to provide the maximum display
resolution.
(g)
RAs (traffic display): the minimum available display range of the
traffic display that allows the traffic to be displayed should be
selected, to provide the maximum display resolution.
(h)
RAs (RA display): flight crew members should demonstrate
knowledge of the meaning of the red and green areas or the
meaning of pitch or flight path angle cues displayed on the RA
display. Flight crew members should also demonstrate an
understanding of the RA display limitations, i.e. if a vertical speed
tape is used and the range of the tape is less than 2 500 ft/min, an
increase rate RA cannot be properly displayed.
(i)
If appropriate, awareness that navigation displays oriented on
‘Track-Up’ may require a flight crew member to make a mental
adjustment for drift angle when assessing the bearing of
proximate traffic.
Use of the TA only mode
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Objective: to verify that a flight crew member understands the appropriate
times to select the TA only mode of operation and the limitations
associated with using this mode.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate the following:
(D)
(a)
Knowledge of the operator's guidance for the use of TA only.
(b)
Reasons for using this mode. If TA only is not selected when an
airport is conducting simultaneous operations from parallel
runways separated by less than 1 200 ft, and to some intersecting
runways, RAs can be expected. If, for any reason, TA only is not
selected and an RA is received in these situations, the response
should comply with the operator's approved procedures.
(c)
All TA aural annunciations are inhibited below 500 ft AGL. As a
result, TAs issued below 500 ft AGL may not be noticed unless the
TA display is included in the routine instrument scan.
Crew coordination
Objective: to verify that the flight crew member understands how ACAS
advisories will be handled.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate knowledge of the
crew procedures that should be used when responding to TAs and RAs,
including the following:
(E)
(a)
task sharing between the pilot flying and the pilot monitoring;
(b)
expected call-outs; and
(c)
communications with ATC.
Phraseology rules
Objective: to verify that the flight crew member is aware of the rules for
reporting RAs to the controller.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate the following:
(F)
(a)
the use of the phraseology contained in ICAO PANS-OPS;
(b)
an understanding of the procedures contained in ICAO PANS-ATM
and ICAO Annex 2; and
(c)
the understanding that verbal reports should be made promptly
to the appropriate ATC unit:
(1)
whenever any manoeuvre has caused the aeroplane to
deviate from an air traffic clearance;
(2)
when, subsequent to a manoeuvre that has caused the
aeroplane to deviate from an air traffic clearance, the
aeroplane has returned to a flight path that complies with
the clearance; and/or
(3)
when air traffic issue instructions that, if followed, would
cause the crew to manoeuvre the aircraft contrary to an RA
with which they are complying.
Reporting rules
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Objective: to verify that the flight crew member is aware of the rules for
reporting RAs to the operator.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate knowledge of where
information can be obtained regarding the need for making written reports
to various States when an RA is issued. Various States have different
reporting rules and the material available to the flight crew member should
be tailored to the operator’s operating environment. This responsibility is
satisfied by the flight crew member reporting to the operator according to
the applicable reporting rules.
(3)
Non-essential items: advisory thresholds
Objective: to demonstrate knowledge of the criteria for issuing TAs and RAs.
Criteria: the flight crew member should demonstrate an understanding of the
methodology used by ACAS to issue TAs and RAs and the general criteria for the
issuance of these advisories, including the following:
(h)
(i)
The minimum and maximum altitudes below/above which TAs will not be issued.
(ii)
When the vertical separation at CPA is projected to be less than the ACAS-desired
separation, a corrective RA that requires a change to the existing vertical speed
will be issued. This separation varies from 300 ft at low altitude to a maximum of
700 ft at high altitude.
(iii)
When the vertical separation at CPA is projected to be just outside the ACASdesired separation, a preventive RA that does not require a change to the existing
vertical speed will be issued. This separation varies from 600 to 800 ft.
(iv)
RA fixed range thresholds vary between 0.2 and 1.1 NM.
ACAS manoeuvre training
(1)
Demonstration of the flight crew member’s ability to use ACAS displayed information to
properly respond to TAs and RAs should be carried out in a full flight simulator equipped
with an ACAS display and controls similar in appearance and operation to those in the
aircraft. If a full flight simulator is utilised, crew resource management (CRM) should be
practised during this training.
(2)
Alternatively, the required demonstrations can be carried out by means of an interactive
CBT with an ACAS display and controls similar in appearance and operation to those in
the aircraft. This interactive CBT should depict scenarios in which real-time responses
should be made. The flight crew member should be informed whether or not the
responses made were correct. If the response was incorrect or inappropriate, the CBT
should show what the correct response should be.
(3)
The scenarios included in the manoeuvre training should include: corrective RAs; initial
preventive RAs; maintain rate RAs; altitude crossing RAs; increase rate RAs; RA reversals;
weakening RAs; and multi-aircraft encounters. The consequences of failure to respond
correctly should be demonstrated by reference to actual incidents such as those
publicised in EUROCONTROL ACAS II Bulletins (available on the EUROCONTROL website).
(i)
TA responses
Objective: to verify that the pilot properly interprets and responds to TAs.
Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate the following:
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(ii)
(A)
Proper division of responsibilities between the pilot flying and the pilot
monitoring. The pilot flying should fly the aircraft using any type-specific
procedures and be prepared to respond to any RA that might follow. For
aircraft without an RA pitch display, the pilot flying should consider the
likely magnitude of an appropriate pitch change. The pilot monitoring
should provide updates on the traffic location shown on the ACAS display,
using this information to help visually acquire the intruder.
(B)
Proper interpretation of the displayed information. Flight crew members
should confirm that the aircraft they have visually acquired is that which
has caused the TA to be issued. Use should be made of all information
shown on the display, note being taken of the bearing and range of the
intruder (amber circle), whether it is above or below (data tag), and its
vertical speed direction (trend arrow).
(C)
Other available information should be used to assist in visual acquisition,
including ATC ‘party-line’ information, traffic flow in use, etc.
(D)
Because of the limitations described, the pilot flying should not manoeuvre
the aircraft based solely on the information shown on the ACAS display. No
attempt should be made to adjust the current flight path in anticipation of
what an RA would advise, except that if own aircraft is approaching its
cleared level at a high vertical rate with a TA present, vertical rate should be
reduced to less than 1 500 ft/min.
(E)
When visual acquisition is attained, and as long as no RA is received, normal
right of way rules should be used to maintain or attain safe separation. No
unnecessary manoeuvres should be initiated. The limitations of making
manoeuvres based solely on visual acquisition, especially at high altitude or
at night, or without a definite horizon should be demonstrated as being
understood.
RA responses
Objective: to verify that the pilot properly interprets and responds to RAs.
Criteria: the pilot should demonstrate the following:
(A)
Proper response to the RA, even if it is in conflict with an ATC instruction
and even if the pilot believes that there is no threat present.
(B)
Proper task sharing between the pilot flying and the pilot monitoring. The
pilot flying should respond to a corrective RA with appropriate control
inputs. The pilot monitoring should monitor the response to the RA and
should provide updates on the traffic location by checking the traffic
display. Proper CRM should be used.
(C)
Proper interpretation of the displayed information. The pilot should
recognise the intruder causing the RA to be issued (red square on display).
The pilot should respond appropriately.
(D)
For corrective RAs, the response should be initiated in the proper direction
within 5 seconds of the RA being displayed. The change in vertical speed
should be accomplished with an acceleration of approximately ¼ g
(gravitational acceleration of 9.81 m/sec²).
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(E)
Recognition of the initially displayed RA being modified. Response to the
modified RA should be properly accomplished, as follows:
(a)
For increase rate RAs, the vertical speed change should be started
within 2½ seconds of the RA being displayed. The change in
vertical speed should be accomplished with an acceleration of
approximately ⅓ g.
(b)
For RA reversals, the vertical speed reversal should be started
within 2½ seconds of the RA being displayed. The change in
vertical speed should be accomplished with an acceleration of
approximately ⅓ g.
(c)
For RA weakenings, the vertical speed should be modified to
initiate a return towards the original clearance.
(d)
An acceleration of approximately ¼ g will be achieved if the
change in pitch attitude corresponding to a change in vertical
speed of 1 500 ft/min is accomplished in approximately 5 seconds,
and of ⅓ g if the change is accomplished in approximately 3
seconds. The change in pitch attitude required to establish a rate
of climb or descent of 1 500 ft/min from level flight will be
approximately 6 when the true airspeed (TAS) is 150 kt, 4 at
250 kt, and 2 at 500 kt. (These angles are derived from the
formula: 1 000 divided by TAS.).
(F)
Recognition of altitude crossing encounters and the proper response to
these RAs.
(G)
For preventive RAs, the vertical speed needle or pitch attitude indication
should remain outside the red area on the RA display.
(H)
For maintain rate RAs, the vertical speed should not be reduced. Pilots
should recognise that a maintain rate RA may result in crossing through the
intruder's altitude.
(I)
When the RA weakens, or when the green 'fly to' indicator changes
position, the pilot should initiate a return towards the original clearance,
and when ‘clear of conflict’ is annunciated, the pilot should complete the
return to the original clearance.
(J)
The controller should be informed of the RA as soon as time and workload
permit, using the standard phraseology.
(K)
When possible, an ATC clearance should be complied with while responding
to an RA. For example, if the aircraft can level at the assigned altitude while
responding to RA (an ‘adjust vertical speed’ RA (version 7) or ‘level off’
(version 7.1)), it should be done; the horizontal (turn) element of an ATC
instruction should be followed.
(L)
Knowledge of the ACAS multi-aircraft logic and its limitations, and that
ACAS can optimise separations from two aircraft by climbing or descending
towards one of them. For example, ACAS only considers intruders that it
considers to be a threat when selecting an RA. As such, it is possible for
ACAS to issue an RA against one intruder that results in a manoeuvre
towards another intruder that is not classified as a threat. If the second
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intruder becomes a threat, the RA will be modified to provide separation
from that intruder.
(i)
(j)
ACAS initial evaluation
(1)
The flight crew member’s understanding of the academic training items should be
assessed by means of a written test or interactive CBT that records correct and incorrect
responses to phrased questions.
(2)
The flight crew member’s understanding of the manoeuvre training items should be
assessed in a full flight simulator equipped with an ACAS display and controls similar in
appearance and operation to those in the aircraft the flight crew member will fly, and
the results assessed by a qualified instructor, inspector, or check airman. The range of
scenarios should include: corrective RAs; initial preventive RAs; maintain rate RAs;
altitude crossing RAs; increase rate RAs; RA reversals; weakening RAs; and multi-threat
encounters. The scenarios should also include demonstrations of the consequences of
not responding to RAs, slow or late responses, and manoeuvring opposite to the
direction called for by the displayed RA.
(3)
Alternatively, exposure to these scenarios can be conducted by means of an interactive
CBT with an ACAS display and controls similar in appearance and operation to those in
the aircraft the pilot will fly. This interactive CBT should depict scenarios in which realtime responses should be made and a record made of whether or not each response
was correct.
ACAS recurrent training
(1)
ACAS recurrent training ensures that flight crew members maintain the appropriate
ACAS knowledge and skills. ACAS recurrent training should be integrated into and/or
conducted in conjunction with other established recurrent training programmes. An
essential item of recurrent training is the discussion of any significant issues and
operational concerns that have been identified by the operator. Recurrent training
should also address changes to ACAS logic, parameters or procedures and to any unique
ACAS characteristics which flight crew members should be made aware of.
(2)
It is recommended that operator's recurrent training programmes using full flight
simulators include encounters with conflicting traffic when these simulators are
equipped with ACAS. The full range of likely scenarios may be spread over a 2 year
period. If a full flight simulator, as described above, is not available, use should be made
of an interactive CBT that is capable of presenting scenarios to which pilot responses
should be made in real-time.
AMC1 NCC.OP.225 Approach and landing conditions
LANDING DISTANCE/FATO SUITABILITY
The in-flight determination of the landing distance/FATO suitability should be based on the latest
available meteorological report.
AMC1 NCC.OP.230 Commencement and continuation of approach
VISUAL REFERENCES FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS
(a)
NPA, APV and CAT I operations
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At DH or MDH, at least one of the visual references specified below should be distinctly visible
and identifiable to the pilot:
(1)
elements of the approach lighting system;
(2)
the threshold;
(3)
the threshold markings;
(4)
the threshold lights;
(5)
the threshold identification lights;
(6)
the visual glide slope indicator;
(7)
the touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings;
(8)
the touchdown zone lights;
(9)
FATO/runway edge lights; or
(10) other visual references specified in the operations manual.
(b)
Lower than standard category I (LTS CAT I) operations
At DH, the visual references specified below should be distinctly visible and identifiable to the
pilot:
(c)
(1)
a segment of at least three consecutive lights, being the centreline of the approach
lights, or touchdown zone lights, or runway centreline lights, or runway edge lights, or a
combination of these; and
(2)
this visual reference should include a lateral element of the ground pattern, such as an
approach light crossbar or the landing threshold or a barrette of the touchdown zone
light unless the operation is conducted utilising an approved HUDLS usable to at least
150 ft.
CAT II or OTS CAT II operations
At DH, the visual references specified below should be distinctly visible and identifiable to the
pilot:
(d)
(1)
a segment of at least three consecutive lights, being the centreline of the approach
lights, or touchdown zone lights, or runway centreline lights, or runway edge lights, or a
combination of these; and
(2)
this visual reference should include a lateral element of the ground pattern, such as an
approach light crossbar or the landing threshold or a barrette of the touchdown zone
light unless the operation is conducted utilising an approved HUDLS to touchdown.
CAT III operations
(1)
For CAT IIIA operations and for CAT IIIB operations conducted either with fail-passive
flight control systems or with the use of an approved HUDLS: at DH, a segment of at
least three consecutive lights, being the centreline of the approach lights, or touchdown
zone lights, or runway centreline lights, or runway edge lights, or a combination of these
is attained and can be maintained by the pilot.
(2)
For CAT IIIB operations conducted either with fail-operational flight control systems or
with a fail-operational hybrid landing system using a DH: at DH, at least one centreline
light is attained and can be maintained by the pilot.
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SUBPART B – OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
(3)
(e)
Approach operations utilising EVS – CAT I operations
(1)
(2)
(f)
For CAT IIIB operations with no DH there is no requirement for visual reference with the
runway prior to touchdown.
At DH or MDH, the following visual references should be displayed and identifiable to
the pilot on the EVS:
(i)
elements of the approach light; or
(ii)
the runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following:
(A)
the beginning of the runway landing surface,
(B)
the threshold lights, the threshold identification lights; or
(C)
the touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following: the
runway touchdown zone landing surface, the touchdown zone lights, the
touchdown zone markings or the runway lights.
At 100 ft above runway threshold elevation at least one of the visual references
specified below should be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot without reliance
on the EVS:
(i)
the lights or markings of the threshold; or
(ii)
the lights or markings of the touchdown zone.
Approach operations utilising EVS – APV and NPA operations flown with the CDFA technique
(1)
At DH/MDH, visual references should be displayed and identifiable to the pilot on the
EVS image as specified under (a).
(2)
At 200 ft above runway threshold elevation, at least one of the visual references
specified under (a) should be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot without
reliance on the EVS.
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
Subpart C — Aircraft performance and operating limitations
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(a) Mass and balance, loading
CENTRE OF GRAVITY LIMITS — OPERATIONAL CG ENVELOPE AND IN-FLIGHT CG
In the Certificate Limitations section of the AFM, forward and aft CG limits are specified. These limits
ensure that the certification stability and control criteria are met throughout the whole flight and
allow the proper trim setting for take-off. The operator should ensure that these limits are respected
by:
(a)
(b)
Defining and applying operational margins to the certified CG envelope in order to compensate
for the following deviations and errors:
(1)
Deviations of actual CG at empty or operating mass from published values due, for
example, to weighing errors, unaccounted modifications and/or equipment variations.
(2)
Deviations in fuel distribution in tanks from the applicable schedule.
(3)
Deviations in the distribution of baggage and cargo in the various compartments as
compared with the assumed load distribution as well as inaccuracies in the actual mass
of baggage and cargo.
(4)
Deviations in actual passenger seating from the seating distribution assumed when
preparing the mass and balance documentation. Large CG errors may occur when ‘free
seating’, i.e. freedom of passengers to select any seat when entering the aircraft, is
permitted. Although in most cases reasonably even longitudinal passenger seating can
be expected, there is a risk of an extreme forward or aft seat selection causing very large
and unacceptable CG errors, assuming that the balance calculation is done on the basis
of an assumed even distribution. The largest errors may occur at a load factor of
approximately 50 % if all passengers are seated in either the forward or aft half of the
cabin. Statistical analysis indicates that the risk of such extreme seating adversely
affecting the CG is greatest on small aircraft.
(5)
Deviations of the actual CG of cargo and passenger load within individual cargo
compartments or cabin sections from the normally assumed mid position.
(6)
Deviations of the CG caused by gear and flap positions and by application of the
prescribed fuel usage procedure, unless already covered by the certified limits.
(7)
Deviations caused by in-flight movement of cabin crew, galley equipment and
passengers.
Defining and applying operational procedures in order to:
(1)
ensure an even distribution of passengers in the cabin;
(2)
take into account any significant CG travel during flight caused by passenger/crew
movement; and
(3)
take into account any significant CG travel during flight caused by fuel
consumption/transfer.
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SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(b) Mass and balance, loading
WEIGHING OF AN AIRCRAFT
(a)
New aircraft that have been weighed at the factory may be placed into operation without
reweighing if the mass and balance records have been adjusted for alterations or modifications
to the aircraft. Aircraft transferred from one EU operator to another EU operator do not have
to be weighed prior to use by the receiving operator, unless the mass and balance cannot be
accurately established by calculation.
(b)
The mass and centre of gravity (CG) position of an aircraft should be revised whenever the
cumulative changes to the dry operating mass exceed ±0.5 % of the maximum landing mass or
for aeroplanes the cumulative change in CG position exceeds 0.5 % of the mean aerodynamic
chord. This should be done either by weighing the aircraft or by calculation.
(c)
When weighing an aircraft, normal precautions should be taken, which are consistent with
good practices such as:
(d)
(1)
checking for completeness of the aircraft and equipment;
(2)
determining that fluids are properly accounted for;
(3)
ensuring that the aircraft is clean; and
(4)
ensuring that weighing is accomplished in an enclosed building.
Any equipment used for weighing should be properly calibrated, zeroed and used in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Each scale should be calibrated either by the
manufacturer, by a civil department of weights and measures or by an appropriately
authorised organisation within 2 years or within a time period defined by the manufacturer of
the weighing equipment, whichever is less. The equipment should enable the mass of the
aircraft to be established accurately. One single accuracy criterion for weighing equipment
cannot be given. However, the weighing accuracy is considered satisfactory if the accuracy
criteria in Table 1 are met by the individual scales/cells of the weighing equipment used:
Table 1: Accuracy criteria for weighing equipment
For a scale/cell load
An accuracy of
below 2 000 kg
±1%
from 2 000 kg to 20 000 kg
± 20 kg
above 20 000 kg
± 0.1 %
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(c) Mass and balance, loading
DRY OPERATING MASS
(a)
The dry operating mass should include:
(1)
crew and crew baggage;
(2)
catering and removable passenger service equipment; and
(3)
tank water and lavatory chemicals.
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SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
(b)
The operator should correct the dry operating mass to account for any additional crew
baggage. The position of this additional baggage should be accounted for when establishing
the centre of gravity of the aircraft.
(c)
The operator should establish a procedure in the operations manual to determine when to
select actual or standard masses for crew members.
(d)
When determining the actual mass by weighing, crew members’ personal belongings and hand
baggage should be included. Such weighing should be conducted immediately prior to
boarding the aircraft.
AMC1 NCC.POL.105(d) Mass and balance, loading
MASS VALUES FOR PASSENGERS AND BAGGAGE
(a)
The predetermined mass for hand baggage and clothing should be established by the operator
on the basis of studies relevant to its particular operation. In any case, it should not be less
than:
(1)
4 kg for clothing; and
(2)
6 kg for hand baggage.
The passengers’ stated mass and the mass of passengers’ clothing and hand baggage should be
checked prior to boarding and adjusted, if necessary. The operator should establish a
procedure in the operations manual when to select actual or standard masses and the
procedure to be followed when using verbal statements.
(b)
When determining the actual mass by weighing, passengers’ personal belongings and hand
baggage should be included. Such weighing should be conducted immediately prior to
boarding the aircraft.
(c)
When determining the mass of passengers by using standard mass values, provided in Tables 1
and 2 of NCC.POL.105(e), infants occupying separate passenger seats should be considered as
children for the purpose of this AMC. When the total number of passenger seats available on
an aircraft is 20 or more, the standard masses for males and females in Table 1 of
NCC.POL.105(e) should be used. As an alternative, in cases where the total number of
passenger seats available is 30 or more, the ‘All Adult’ mass values in Table 1 of
NCC.POL.105(e) may be used.
On aeroplane flights with 19 passenger seats or less and all helicopter flights where no hand
baggage is carried in the cabin or where hand baggage is accounted for separately, 6 kg may be
deducted from male and female masses in Table 2 of NCC.POL.105(e). Articles such as an
overcoat, an umbrella, a small handbag or purse, reading material or a small camera are not
considered as hand baggage.
For helicopter operations in which a survival suit is provided to passengers, 3 kg should be
added to the passenger mass value.
(d)
Mass values for baggage.
The mass of checked baggage should be checked prior to loading and increased, if necessary.
(e)
On any flight identified as carrying a significant number of passengers whose masses, including
hand baggage, are expected to significantly deviate from the standard passenger mass, the
operator should determine the actual mass of such passengers by weighing or by adding an
adequate mass increment.
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SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
(f)
If standard mass values for checked baggage are used and a significant number of passengers’
checked baggage is expected to significantly deviate from the standard baggage mass, the
operator should determine the actual mass of such baggage by weighing or by adding an
adequate mass increment.
GM1 NCC.POL.105(d) Mass and balance, loading
ADJUSTMENT OF STANDARD MASSES
When standard mass values are used, item (e) of AMC1 NCC.POL.105(d) states that the operator
should identify and adjust the passenger and checked baggage masses in cases where significant
numbers of passengers or quantities of baggage are suspected of significantly deviating from the
standard values. Therefore, the operations manual should contain instructions to ensure that:
(a)
check-in, operations and loading personnel as well as cabin and flight crew report or take
appropriate action when a flight is identified as carrying a significant number of passengers
whose masses, including hand baggage, are expected to significantly deviate from the
standard passenger mass, and/or groups of passengers carrying exceptionally heavy baggage;
and
(b)
on small aircraft, where the risks of overload and/or CG errors are the greatest, pilots pay
special attention to the load and its distribution and make proper adjustments.
GM1 NCC.POL.105(e) Mass and balance, loading
TYPE OF FLIGHTS
(a)
(b)
For the purpose of Table 3 of NCC.POL.105(e):
(1)
domestic flight means a flight with origin and destination within the borders of one
State.
(2)
flights within the European region means flights, other than domestic flights, whose
origin and destination are within the area specified in item (b).
(3)
Intercontinental flight means flights beyond the European region with origin and
destination in different continents.
Flights within the European region are flights conducted within the following area:
–
N7200
E04500
–
N4000
E04500
–
N3500
E03700
–
N3000
E03700
–
N3000
W00600
–
N2700
W00900
–
N2700
W03000
–
N6700
W03000
–
N7200
W01000
–
N7200
E04500
as depicted in Figure 1: European region.
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
Figure 1: European region
GM1 NCC.POL.105(g) Mass and balance, loading
FUEL DENSITY
(a)
If the actual fuel density is not known, the operator may use standard fuel density values for
determining the mass of the fuel load. Such standard values should be based on current fuel
density measurements for the airports or areas concerned.
(b)
Typical fuel density values are:
(1)
Gasoline (reciprocating engine fuel)–
0.71
(2)
JET A1 (Jet fuel JP 1)
–
(3)
JET B (Jet fuel JP 4)
–
0.76
(4)
Oil
–
0.88
0.79
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
AMC1 NCC.POL.110(a) Mass and balance data and documentation
CONTENTS
The mass and balance documentation should include advice to the pilot-in-command whenever a
non-standard method has been used for determining the mass of the load.
AMC2 NCC.POL.110(b) Mass and balance data and documentation
INTEGRITY
The operator should verify the integrity of mass and balance data and documentation generated by a
computerised mass and balance system, at intervals not exceeding 6 months. The operator should
establish a system to check that amendments of its input data are incorporated properly in the
system and that the system is operating correctly on a continuous basis.
AMC1 NCC.POL.110(c) Mass and balance data and documentation
SIGNATURE OR EQUIVALENT
Where a signature by hand is impracticable or it is desirable to arrange the equivalent verification by
electronic means, the following conditions should be applied in order to make an electronic signature
the equivalent of a conventional hand-written signature:
(a)
electronic ‘signing’ by entering a personal identification number (PIN) code with appropriate
security, etc.;
(b)
entering the PIN code generates a print-out of the individual’s name and professional capacity
on the relevant document(s) in such a way that it is evident, to anyone having a need for that
information, who has signed the document;
(c)
the computer system logs information to indicate when and where each PIN code has been
entered;
(d)
the use of the PIN code is, from a legal and responsibility point of view, considered to be fully
equivalent to signature by hand;
(e)
the requirements for record keeping remain unchanged; and
(f)
all personnel concerned are made aware of the conditions associated with electronic signature
and this is documented.
AMC2 NCC.POL.110(c) Mass and balance data and documentation
MASS AND BALANCE DOCUMENTATION SENT VIA DATA LINK
Whenever the mass and balance documentation is sent to the aircraft via data link, a copy of the
final mass and balance documentation as accepted by the pilot-in-command should be available on
the ground.
GM1 NCC.POL.110(b) Mass and balance data and documentation
ON-BOARD INTEGRATED MASS AND BALANCE COMPUTER SYSTEM
An on-board integrated mass and balance computer system may be an aircraft installed system
capable of receiving input data either from other aircraft systems or from a mass and balance system
on the ground, in order to generate mass and balance data as an output.
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SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
GM2 NCC.POL.110(b) Mass and balance data and documentation
STAND-ALONE COMPUTERISED MASS AND BALANCE SYSTEM
A stand-alone computerised mass and balance system may be a computer, either as part of an
electronic flight bag (EFB) system or solely dedicated to mass and balance purposes, requiring input
from the user, in order to generate mass and balance data as an output.
AMC1 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes
TAKE-OFF MASS
The following should be considered for determining the maximum take-off mass:
(a)
the pressure altitude at the aerodrome;
(b)
the ambient temperature at the aerodrome;
(c)
the runway surface condition and the type of runway surface;
(d)
the runway slope in the direction of take-off;
(e)
not more than 50 % of the reported head-wind component or not less than 150 % of the
reported tailwind component; and
(f)
the loss, if any, of runway length due to alignment of the aeroplane prior to take-off.
AMC2 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes
CONTAMINATED RUNWAY PERFORMANCE DATA
Wet and contaminated runway performance data, if made available by the manufacturer, should be
taken into account. If such data is not made available, the operator should account for wet and
contaminated runway conditions by using the best information available.
AMC3 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes
ADEQUATE MARGIN
The adequate margin should be defined in the operations manual.
GM1 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes
RUNWAY SURFACE CONDITION
Operation on runways contaminated with water, slush, snow or ice implies uncertainties with regard
to runway friction and contaminant drag and therefore to the achievable performance and control of
the aeroplane during take-off or landing, since the actual conditions may not completely match the
assumptions on which the performance information is based. In the case of a contaminated runway,
the first option for the pilot-in-command is to wait until the runway is cleared. If this is impracticable,
he/she may consider a take-off or landing, provided that he/she has applied the applicable
performance adjustments, and any further safety measures he/she considers justified under the
prevailing conditions. The excess runway length available including the criticality of the overrun area
should also be considered.
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SUBPART C – AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
GM2 NCC.POL.125 Take-off — aeroplanes
ADEQUATE MARGIN
‘An adequate margin’ is illustrated by the appropriate examples included in Attachment C to ICAO
Annex 6, Part I.
AMC1 NCC.POL.135 Landing — aeroplanes
GENERAL
The following should be considered to ensure that an aeroplane is able to land and stop, or a
seaplane to come to a satisfactorily low speed, within the landing distance available:
(a)
the pressure altitude at the aerodrome;
(b)
the runway surface condition and the type of runway surface;
(C)
the runway slope in the direction of landing;
(d)
not more than 50 % of the reported head-wind component or not less than 150 % of the
reported tailwind component; and
(e)
use of the most favourable runway, in still air;
(f)
use of the runway most likely to be assigned considering the probable wind speed and
direction and the ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane, and considering other
conditions such as landing aids and terrain.
AMC2 NCC.POL.135 Landing — aeroplanes
ALLOWANCES
The allowances should be stated in the operations manual.
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART D – INSTRUMENTS, DATA AND EQUIPMENT
Subpart D — Instruments, data and equipment
Section 1 — Aeroplanes
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.100(a) Instruments and equipment — general
APPLICABLE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS
The applicable airworthiness requirements for approval of instruments and equipment required by
this Part are the following:
(a)
(b)
Regulation (EC) 748/20124 for:
(1)
aeroplanes registered in the EU; and
(2)
aeroplanes registered outside the EU but manufactured or designed by an EU
organisation.
Airworthiness requirements of the state of registry for aeroplanes registered, designed and
manufactured outside the EU.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.100(b)&(c) Instruments and equipment — general
INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED
(a)
The provision of this paragraph does not exempt the item of equipment from complying with
the applicable airworthiness requirements if the instrument or equipment is installed in the
aeroplane. In this case, the installation should be approved as required in the applicable
airworthiness requirements and should comply with the applicable Certification Specifications.
(b)
The functionality of non-installed instruments and equipment required by this Part that do not
need an equipment approval should be checked against recognised industry standards
appropriate for the intended purpose. The operator is responsible for ensuring the
maintenance of these instruments and equipment.
(c)
The failure of additional non-installed instruments or equipment not required by this Part or
by the applicable airworthiness requirements or any applicable airspace requirements should
not adversely affect the airworthiness and/or the safe operation of the aircraft. Examples are
the following:
4
(1)
instruments supplying additional flight information (e.g. stand-alone global positioning
system (GPS));
(2)
mission dedicated equipment (e.g. radios); and
(3)
non-installed passenger entertainment equipment.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 of 3 August 2012 laying down implementing rules for the airworthiness and
environmental certification of aircraft and related products, parts and appliances, as well as for the certification of design and
production organisations (OJ L 224, 21.8.2012, p. 1).
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AMC/GM TO ANNEX VI (PART-NCC)
SUBPART D – INSTRUMENTS, DATA AND EQUIPMENT
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.100(d) Instruments and equipment — general
POSITIONING OF INSTRUMENTS
This requirement implies that whenever a single instrument is required in an aeroplane operated in a
multi-crew environment, the instrument needs to be visible from each flight crew station.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.110 Spare electrical fuses
FUSES
A spare electrical fuse means a replaceable fuse in the flight crew compartment, not an automatic
circuit breaker or circuit breakers in the electric compartments.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120&NCC.IDE.A.125 Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight and
navigational instruments and associated equipment
INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS
(a)
Individual equipment requirements may be met by combinations of instruments, by integrated
flight systems or by a combination of parameters on electronic displays. The information so
available to each required pilot should not be less than that required in the applicable
operational requirements, and the equivalent safety of the installation should be approved
during type certification of the aeroplane for the intended type of operation.
(b)
The means of measuring and indicating turn and slip, aeroplane attitude and stabilised
aeroplane heading may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight director
systems, provided that the safeguards against total failure, inherent in the three separate
instruments, are retained.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.120 Operations under VFR — flight and navigational instruments and associated
equipment
LOCAL FLIGHTS
For flights that do not exceed 60 minutes’ duration, that take off and land at the same aerodrome
and that remain within 50 NM of that aerodrome, an equivalent means of complying with
NCC.IDE.A.120 (a)(5) & (b)(1)(i) may be:
(a)
a turn and slip indicator;
(b)
a turn coordinator; or
(c)
both an attitude indicator and a slip indicator.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(1)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(1) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING
The means of measuring and displaying magnetic heading should be a magnetic compass or
equivalent.
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SUBPART D – INSTRUMENTS, DATA AND EQUIPMENT
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(2)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(2) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME
An acceptable means of compliance is a clock displaying hours, minutes and seconds, with a sweepsecond pointer or digital presentation.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(3)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(3) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS FOR MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE
The instrument measuring and displaying pressure altitude should be of a sensitive type calibrated in
feet (ft), with a sub-scale setting, calibrated in hectopascals/millibars, adjustable for any barometric
pressure likely to be set during flight.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(3)
associated equipment
Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
ALTIMETERS — IFR OR NIGHT OPERATIONS
Except for unpressurised aeroplanes operating below 10 000 ft, the altimeters of aeroplanes
operating under IFR or at night should have counter drum-pointer or equivalent presentation.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(a)(4)&NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(4) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED
The instrument indicating airspeed should be calibrated in knots (kt).
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.120(c)&NCC.IDE.A.125(c) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight
and navigational instruments and associated equipment
MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS - DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS
Duplicate instruments include separate displays for each pilot and separate selectors or other
associated equipment where appropriate.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.125(a)(9)
associated equipment
Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
MEANS OF DISPLAYING OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE
(a)
The means of displaying outside air temperature should be calibrated in degrees Celsius.
(b)
The means of displaying outside air temperature may be an air temperature indicator that
provides indications that are convertible to outside air temperature.
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SUBPART D – INSTRUMENTS, DATA AND EQUIPMENT
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.125(d)
associated equipment
Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING
The means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing of the airspeed indicating
system should be a heated pitot tube or equivalent.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.125(f)
associated equipment
Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
CHART HOLDER
An acceptable means of compliance with the chart holder requirement is to display a pre-composed
chart on an electronic flight bag (EFB).
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.135 Terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)
EXCESSIVE DOWNWARDS GLIDESLOPE DEVIATION WARNING FOR CLASS A TAWS
The requirement for a Class A TAWS to provide a warning to the flight crew for excessive downwards
glideslope deviation should apply to all final approach glideslopes with angular vertical navigation
(VNAV) guidance, whether provided by the instrument landing system (ILS), microwave landing
system (MLS), satellite-based augmentation system approach procedure with vertical guidance (SBAS
APV (localiser performance with vertical guidance approach LPV)), ground-based augmentation
system (GBAS (GPS landing system, GLS)) or any other systems providing similar guidance. The same
requirement should not apply to systems providing vertical guidance based on barometric VNAV.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.135 Terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)
ACCEPTABLE STANDARD FOR TAWS
An acceptable standard for Class A and Class B TAWS may be the applicable European technical
standards order (ETSO) issued by the Agency or equivalent.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.145 Airborne weather detecting equipment
GENERAL
The airborne weather detecting equipment should be an airborne weather radar, except for
propeller-driven pressurised aeroplanes with an MCTOM not more than 5 700 kg and an MOPSC of
not more than nine, for which other equipment capable of detecting thunderstorms and other
potentially hazardous weather conditions, regarded as detectable with airborne weather radar
equipment, are also acceptable.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.155 Flight crew interphone system
TYPE OF FLIGHT CREW INTERPHONE
The flight crew interphone system should not be of a handheld type.
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SUBPART D – INSTRUMENTS, DATA AND EQUIPMENT
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.160 Cockpit voice recorder
GENERAL
The operational performance requirements for cockpit voice recorders (CVRs) should be those laid
down in the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) Document ED-112
(Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems),
dated March 2003, including amendments n°1 and 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by
EUROCAE.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.165 Flight data recorder
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
(a)
The operational performance requirements for flight data recorders (FDRs) should be those
laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for
Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including amendments n°1
and n°2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.
(b)
The flight data recorder should record, with reference to a timescale, the list of parameters in
Table 1 and Table 2, as applicable.
(c)
The parameters to be recorded should meet the performance specifications (designated
ranges, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and minimum resolution in read-out) as defined in
the relevant tables of EUROCAE Document ED-112, dated March 2003, including amendments
n°1 and 2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.
Table 1: All Aeroplanes
No*
Parameter
1a
Time; or
1b
Relative time count
1c
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) time synchronisation
2
Pressure altitude
3
Indicated airspeed; or calibrated airspeed
4
Heading (primary flight crew reference) - when true or magnetic heading can be
selected, the primary heading reference, a discrete indicating selection, should be
recorded
5
Normal acceleration
6
Pitch attitude
7
Roll attitude
8
Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR synchronisation reference.
9
Engine thrust/power:
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No*
Parameter
9a
Parameters required to determine propulsive thrust/power on each engine
9b
Flight crew compartment thrust/power lever position (for aeroplanes with nonmechanically linked flight crew compartment — engine controls)
14
Total or outside air temperature
16
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
17
Lateral acceleration
18
Primary flight control surface and primary flight control pilot input (for multiple or
split surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable instead of recording
each surface separately. For aeroplanes that have a flight control break-away
capability that allows either pilot to operate the controls independently, record
both inputs):
18a
Pitch axis
18b
Roll axis
18c
Yaw axis
19
Pitch trim surface position
23
Marker beacon passage
24
Warnings — in addition to the master warning each ‘red’ warning (including smoke
warnings from other compartments) should be recorded when the warning
condition cannot be determined from other parameters or from the CVR
25
Each navigation receiver frequency selection
27
Air-ground status (and a sensor of each landing gear if installed)
75
All flight control input forces (for fly-by-wire flight control systems, where control
surface position is a function of the displacement of the control input device only, it
is not necessary to record this parameter):
75a
Control wheel
75b
Control column
75c
Rudder pedal
*
The number in the left hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE
ED-112.
Table 2:
No*
Aeroplanes for which the data source for the parameter is either used by
aeroplane systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by the flight
crew to operate the aeroplane
Parameter
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No*
Parameter
10
Flaps
10a
Trailing edge flap position
10b
Flight crew compartment control selection
11
Slats
11a
Leading edge flap (slat) position
11b
Flight crew compartment control selection
12
Thrust reverse status
13
Ground spoiler and speed brake:
13a
Ground spoiler position
13b
Ground spoiler selection
13c
Speed brake position
13d
Speed brake selection
15
Autopilot, autothrottle, automatic flight control system (AFCS) mode and
engagement status
20
Radio altitude. For auto-land/Category III operations, each radio altimeter should
be recorded.
21
Vertical deviation — (the approach aid in use should be recorded. For autoland/CAT III operations, each system should be recorded.):
ILS/GPS/GLS glide path
21a
21b
MLS elevation
GNSS approach path/integrated area navigation (IRNAV) vertical deviation
21c
22
Horizontal deviation — (the approach aid in use should be recorded. For autoland/CAT III operations, each system should be recorded. It is acceptable to arrange
them so that at least one is recorded every second):
22a
ILS/GPS/GLS localiser
22b
MLS azimuth
22c
GNSS approach path/IRNAV lateral deviation
26
Distance measuring equipment (DME) 1 and 2 distances:
26a
Distance to runway threshold (GLS)
Distance to missed approach -
26b
Point (IRNAV/IAN)
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No*
Parameter
28
Ground proximity warning system (GPWS)/TAWS/ground collision avoidance
system (GCAS) status:
28a
28b
28c
Selection of terrain display mode, including pop-up display status
Terrain alerts, including cautions and warnings and advisories
On/off switch position
29
Angle of attack
30
Low pressure warning (each system):
30a
Hydraulic pressure
30b
Pneumatic pressure
31
Ground speed
32
Landing gear:
32a
Landing gear
32b
Gear selector position
33
Navigation data:
33a
Drift angle
33b
Wind speed
33c
Wind direction
33d
Latitude
33e
Longitude
33f
GNSS augmentation in use
34
Brakes:
34a
Left and right brake pressure
34b
Left and right brake pedal position
35
Additional engine parameters (if not already recorded in parameter 9 of Table 1 of
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.165 and if the aeroplane is equipped with a suitable data source):
Engine pressure ratio (EPR)
35a
35b
35c
35d
35e
N1
Indicated vibration level
N2
Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
Fuel flow
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No*
Parameter
35f
Fuel cut-off lever position
35g
N3
35h
36
36a
36b
36c
36d
36e
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)/ACAS — a suitable combination
of discretes should be recorded to determine the status of the system:
Combined control
Vertical control
Up advisory
Down advisory
Sensitivity level
37
Wind shear warning
38
Selected barometric setting:
38a
Pilot
38b
Co-pilot
39
Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the
aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically
40
Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the
aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically
41
Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the
aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically
42
Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded
for the aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically
43
Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for the
aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically
44
Selected flight path (All pilot selectable modes of operation) - to be recorded for the
aeroplane where the parameter is displayed electronically:
44a
44b
44c
45
Course/desired track (DSTRK)
Path angle
Coordinates of final approach path (IRNAV/IAN)
Selected decision height - to be recorded for the aeroplane where the parameter is
displayed electronically
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No*
Parameter
46
Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) display format:
46a
Pilot
46b
Co-pilot
47
Multi-function/engine/alerts display format
48
AC electrical bus status — each bus
49
DC electrical bus status — each bus
50
Engine bleed valve position
51
Auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed valve position
52
Computer failure (all critical flight and engine control systems)
53
Engine thrust command
54
Engine thrust target
55
Computed centre of gravity (CG)
56
Fuel quantity or fuel quantity in CG trim tank
57
Head-up display in use
58
Para visual display on
59
Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher activation
60
Primary navigation system reference:
60a
GNSS
60b
Inertial navigational system (INS)
60c
VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR)/DME
60d
MLS
60e
Loran C
60f
ILS
61
Ice detection
62
Engine warning — each engine vibration
63
Engine warning — each engine over temperature
64
Engine warning — each engine oil pressure low
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No*
Parameter
65
Engine warning — each engine over speed
66
Yaw trim surface position
67
Roll trim surface position
68
Yaw or sideslip angle
69
De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection
70
Hydraulic pressure — each system
71
Loss of cabin pressure
72
Flight crew compartment trim control input position pitch — when mechanical
means for control inputs are not available, cockpit display trim positions or trim
command should be recorded
73
Flight crew compartment trim control input position roll — when mechanical
means for control inputs are not available, cockpit display trim positions or trim
command should be recorded
74
Flight crew compartment trim control input position yaw — when mechanical
means for control inputs are not available, cockpit display trim positions or trim
command should be recorded
76
Event marker
77
Date
78
Actual navigation performance (ANP) or estimate of position error (EPE) or estimate
of position uncertainty (EPU)
*
The number in the left hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE ED112.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.170 Data link recording
GENERAL
(a)
As a means of compliance with NCC.IDE.A.170 (a) the recorder on which the data link
messages are recorded may be:
(1)
the CVR;
(2)
the FDR;
(3)
a combination recorder when NCC.IDE.A.175 is applicable; or
(4)
a dedicated flight recorder. In that case, the operational performance requirements for
this recorder should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum
Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems),
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dated March 2003, including amendments No 1 and 2, or any later equivalent standard
produced by EUROCAE.
(b)
As a means of compliance with NCC.IDE.A.170 (a)(2) the operator should enable correlation by
providing information that allows an accident investigator to understand what data was
provided to the aircraft and, when the provider identification is contained in the message, by
which provider.
(c)
The timing information associated with the data link communications messages required to be
recorded by NCC.IDE.A.170 (a)(3) should be capable of being determined from the airbornebased recordings. This timing information should include at least the following:
(1)
the time each message was generated;
(2)
the time any message was available to be displayed by the flight crew;
(3)
the time each message was actually displayed or recalled from a queue; and
(4)
the time of each status change.
(d)
The message priority should be recorded when it is defined by the protocol of the data link
communication message being recorded.
(e)
The expression ‘taking into account the system’s architecture’, in NCC.IDE.A.170 (a)(3), means
that the recording of the specified information may be omitted if the existing source systems
involved would require a major upgrade. The following should be considered:
(1)
the extent of the modification required;
(2)
the down-time period; and
(3)
equipment software development.
(f)
Data link communications messages that support the applications in Table 1 below should be
recorded.
(g)
Further details on the recording requirements can be found in the recording requirement
matrix in Appendix D.2 of EUROCAE Document ED-93 (Minimum Aviation System Performance
Specification for CNS/ATM Recorder Systems), dated November 1998.
Table 1: Data link recording
Item
No.
Application Type
Application Description
Required
Recording
Content
1
Data link initiation
This includes any application used to log on to, or C
initiate, a data link service. In future air
navigation system (FANS)-1/A and air traffic
navigation (ATN), these are ATS facilities
notification (AFN) and context management
(CM), respectively.
2
Controller/pilot
communication
This includes any application used to exchange C
requests, clearances, instructions and reports
between the flight crew and controllers on the
ground. In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the
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Item
No.
Application Type
Application Description
Required
Recording
Content
controller pilot data link communications (CPDLC)
application.
It also includes applications used for the
exchange of oceanic clearances (OCL) and
departure clearances (DCL), as well as data link
delivery of taxi clearances.
3
Addressed
surveillance
This includes any surveillance application in C, F2
which the ground sets up contracts for delivery of
surveillance data.
In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the automatic
dependent
surveillance-contract
(ADS-C)
application.
4
Flight information
This includes any application used for delivery of C
flight information data to specific aeroplanes.
This includes for example digital automatic
terminal information service (D ATIS), data link
operational terminal information service (D OTIS),
digital weather information services (data linkmeteorological aerodrome or aeronautical report
(D-METAR) or terminal weather information for
pilots (TWIP)), data link flight information service
(D-FIS), and Notice to Airmen (electronic NOTAM)
delivery.
5
Broadcast
surveillance
This includes elementary and enhanced M*,
surveillance systems, as well as automatic
F2
dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) output
data.
6
Aeronautical
This includes any application transmitting or M*
operational control receiving data used for AOC purposes (in
(AOC) data
accordance with the ICAO definition of AOC).
Such systems may also process aeronautical
administrative communication (AAC) messages,
but there is no requirement to record AAC
messages
7
Graphics
This includes any application receiving graphical M*
data to be used for operational purposes (i.e.
F1
excluding applications that are receiving such
things as updates to manuals).
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GM1 NCC.IDE.A.170 Data link recording
GENERAL
(a)
(b)
The letters and expressions in Table 1 of AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.170 have the following meaning:
(1)
C: complete contents recorded.
(2)
M: information that enables correlation with any associated records stored separately
from the aeroplane.
(3)
*: applications that are to be recorded only as far as is practicable, given the
architecture of the system.
(4)
F1: graphics applications may be considered as AOC messages when they are part of a
data link communications application service run on an individual basis by the operator
itself in the framework of the operational control.
(5)
F2: where parametric data sent by the aeroplane, such as Mode S, is reported within the
message, it should be recorded unless data from the same source is recorded on the
FDR.
The definitions of the applications type in Table 1 of AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.170 are described in
Table 1 below.
Table 1: Definitions of the applications type
Item
No.
Application
Type
Messages
Comments
1
CM
CM is an ATN service
2
AFN
AFN is a FANS 1/A service
3
CPDLC
All implemented up and
messages to be recorded
4
ADS-C
downlink
ADS-C reports
All contract requests and reports recorded
Position
reports
Only used within FANS 1/A. Mainly used in
oceanic and remote areas.
Surveillance
data
Information that enables correlation with
any associated records stored separately
from the aeroplane.
5
ADS-B
6
D-FIS
7
TWIP
TWIP messages
Terminal weather information for pilots
8
D-ATIS
ATIS messages
Refer to EUROCAE ED-89A, dated
December 2003: Data Link Application
System Document (DLASD) for the ‘ATIS’
D-FIS is an ATN service. All implemented
up and downlink messages to be recorded
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Item
No.
Application
Type
Messages
Comments
data link service
9
OCL
OCL messages
Refer to EUROCAE ED-106A, dated March
2004: Data Link Application System
Document (DLASD) for ‘Oceanic Clearance’
(OCL) data link service
10
DCL
DCL messages
Refer to EUROCAE ED-85A, dated
December 2005: Data Link Application
System Document (DLASD) for ‘Departure
Clearance’ data link service
11
Graphics
Weather maps Graphics exchanged in the framework of
&
other procedures within the operational control,
graphics
as specified in Part-ORO.
Information that enables correlation with
any associated records stored separately
from the aeroplane.
12
AOC
13
AAC
Surveillance
Aeronautical
operational
control
messages
Messages exchanged in the framework of
procedures within the operational control,
as specified in Part-ORO.
Downlinked
aircraft
parameters
(DAP)
As defined in ICAO Annex 10 Volume IV
(Surveillance systems and ACAS).
Information that enables correlation with
any associated records stored separately
from the aeroplane. Definition in
EUROCAE ED-112, dated March 2003.
aeronautical administrative communications
ADS-B automatic dependent surveillance - broadcast
ADS-C automatic dependent surveillance – contract
AFN
aircraft flight notification
AOC
aeronautical operational control
ATIS
automatic terminal information service
ATSC
air traffic service communication
CAP
controller access parameters
CPDLC controller pilot data link communications
CM
configuration/context management
D-ATIS digital ATIS
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D-FIS
data link flight information service
D-METAR
data link meteorological airport report
DCL
departure clearance
FANS
Future Air Navigation System
FLIPCY flight plan consistency
OCL
oceanic clearance
SAP
system access parameters
TWIP
terminal weather information for pilots
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.175 Flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder
GENERAL
When two flight data and cockpit voice combination recorders are installed, one should be located
near the flight crew compartment in order to minimise the risk of data loss due to a failure of the
wiring that gathers data to the recorder. The other should be located at the rear section of the
aeroplane in order to minimise the risk of data loss due to recorder damage in the case of a crash.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.175 Flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder
GENERAL
(a)
A flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder is a flight recorder that records:
(1)
all voice communications and the aural environment required by NCC.IDE.A.160; and
(2)
all parameters required by NCC.IDE.A.165,
with the same specifications required by NCC.IDE.A.160 and NCC.IDE.A.165.
(b)
In addition, a flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder may record data link
communication messages and related information required by NCC.IDE.A.170.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices
CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICES (CRDS)
(a)
(b)
A CRD is considered to be acceptable if:
(1)
it is a ‘supplementary loop’ belt manufactured with the same techniques and the same
materials as the approved safety belts; or
(2)
it complies with (b).
Provided the CRD can be installed properly on the respective aircraft seat, the following CRDs
are considered acceptable:
(1)
CRDs approved for use in aircraft by a competent authority on the basis of a technical
standard and marked accordingly.
(2)
CRDs approved for use in motor vehicles according to the UN standard ECE R 44, -03 or
later series of amendments.
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(c)
(d)
(3)
CRDs approved for use in motor vehicles and aircraft according to Canadian CMVSS
213/213.1.
(4)
CRDs approved for use in motor vehicles and aircraft according to US FMVSS No 213 and
manufactured to these standards on or after February 26, 1985. US approved CRDs
manufactured after this date should bear the following labels in red letters:
(i)
‘THIS CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM CONFORMS TO ALL APPLICABLE FEDERAL MOTOR
VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS’; and
(ii)
‘THIS RESTRAINT IS CERTIFIED FOR USE IN MOTOR VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT’;
(5)
CRDs qualified for use in aircraft according to the German ‘Qualification Procedure for
Child Restraint Systems for Use in Aircraft’ (TÜV Doc. TÜV/958-01/2001); and
(6)
Devices approved for use in cars, manufactured and tested to standards equivalent to
those listed above. The device should be marked with an associated qualification sign,
which shows the name of the qualification organisation and a specific identification
number, related to the associated qualification project. The qualifying organisation
should be a competent and independent organisation that is acceptable to the
competent authority.
Location
(1)
Forward facing CRDs may be installed on both forward and rearward facing passenger
seats but only when fitted in the same direction as the passenger seat on which they are
positioned. Rearward facing CRDs should only be installed on forward facing passenger
seats. A CRD may not be installed within the radius of action of an airbag, unless it is
obvious that the airbag is de-activated or it can be demonstrated that there is no
negative impact from the airbag.
(2)
An infant in a CRD should be located as near to a floor level exit as feasible.
(3)
An infant in a CRD should not hinder evacuation for any passenger.
(4)
An infant in a CRD should neither be located in the row (where rows are existing) leading
to an emergency exit nor located in a row immediately forward or aft of an emergency
exit. A window passenger seat is the preferred location. An aisle passenger seat or a
cross aisle passenger seat that forms part of the evacuation route to exits is not
recommended. Other locations may be acceptable provided the access of neighbour
passengers to the nearest aisle is not obstructed by the CRD.
(5)
In general, only one CRD per row segment is recommended. More than one CRD per row
segment is allowed if the infants are from the same family or travelling group provided
the infants are accompanied by a responsible adult sitting next to them.
(6)
A row segment is the fraction of a row separated by two aisles or by one aisle and the
aeroplane fuselage.
Installation
(1)
CRDs should only be installed on a suitable aircraft seat with the type of connecting
device they are approved or qualified for. E.g., CRDs to be connected by a three point
harness only (most rearward facing baby CRDs currently available) should not be
attached to an aeroplane seat with a lap belt only; a CRD designed to be attached to a
vehicle seat by means of rigid bar lower anchorages (ISO-FIX or US equivalent) only,
should only be used on aeroplane seats that are equipped with such connecting devices
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and should not be attached by the aeroplane seat lap belt. The method of connecting
should be the one shown in the manufacturer’s instructions provided with each CRD.
(e)
(2)
All safety and installation instructions should be followed carefully by the responsible
adult accompanying the infant. Crew members should prohibit the use of any
inadequately installed CRD or not qualified seat.
(3)
If a forward facing CRD with a rigid backrest is to be fastened by a lap belt, the restraint
device should be fastened when the backrest of the passenger seat on which it rests is in
a reclined position. Thereafter, the backrest is to be positioned upright. This procedure
ensures better tightening of the CRD on the aircraft seat if the aircraft seat is reclinable.
(4)
The buckle of the adult safety belt should be easily accessible for both opening and
closing, and should be in line with the seat belt halves (not canted) after tightening.
(5)
Forward facing restraint devices with an integral harness must not be installed such that
the adult safety belt is secured over the infant.
Operation
(1)
Each CRD should remain secured to a passenger seat during all phases of flight, unless it
is properly stowed when not in use.
(2)
Where a CRD is adjustable in recline, it should be in an upright position for all occasions
when passenger restraint devices are required.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices
UPPER TORSO RESTRAINT SYSTEM
An upper torso restraint system having three straps is deemed to be compliant with the requirement
for restraint systems with two shoulder straps.
SAFETY BELT
A safety belt with diagonal shoulder strap (three anchorage points) is deemed to be compliant with
the requirement for safety belts (two anchorage points).
AMC3 NCC.IDE.A.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices
SEATS FOR MINIMUM REQUIRED CABIN CREW
(a)
Seats for the minimum required cabin crew members should be located near required floor
level emergency exits, except if the emergency evacuation of passengers would be enhanced
by seating cabin crew members elsewhere. In this case, other locations are acceptable.
(b)
Such seats should be forward or rearward facing within 15 of the longitudinal axis of the
aeroplane.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.190 First-aid kit
CONTENT OF FIRST-AID KITS
(a)
First-aid kits should be equipped with appropriate and sufficient medications and
instrumentation. However, these kits should be amended by the operator according to the
characteristics of the operation (scope of operation, flight duration, number and demographics
of passengers, etc.).
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(b)
The following should be included in the FAKs:
(1)
Equipment:
(i)
bandages (assorted sizes);
(ii)
burns dressings (unspecified);
(iii)
wound dressings (large and small);
(iv)
adhesive dressings (assorted sizes);
(v)
adhesive tape;
(vi)
adhesive wound closures;
(vii)
safety pins;
(viii) safety scissors;
(ix)
antiseptic wound cleaner;
(x)
disposable resuscitation aid;
(xi)
disposable gloves;
(xii)
tweezers: splinter; and
(xiii) thermometers (non-mercury).
(2)
(3)
(4)
Medications:
(i)
simple analgesic (may include liquid form);
(ii)
antiemetic;
(iii)
nasal decongestant;
(iv)
gastrointestinal antacid, in the case of aeroplanes carrying more than nine
passengers;
(v)
anti-diarrhoeal medication, in the case of aeroplanes carrying more than nine
passengers; and
(vi)
antihistamine.
Other:
(i)
a list of contents in at least two languages (English and one other). This should
include information on the effects and side effects of medications carried;
(ii)
first-aid handbook, current edition;
(iii)
medical incident report form; and
(iv)
biohazard disposal bags.
An eye irrigator, although not required to be carried in the FAK, should, where possible,
be available for use on the ground.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.190 First-aid kit
MAINTENANCE OF FIRST-AID KITS
To be kept up to date first-aid kits should be:
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(a)
inspected periodically to confirm, to the extent possible, that contents are maintained in the
condition necessary for their intended use;
(b)
replenished at regular intervals, in accordance with instructions contained on their labels, or as
circumstances warrant; and
(c)
replenished after use in-flight at the first opportunity where replacement items are available.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.195 Supplemental oxygen — pressurised aeroplanes
DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN
(a)
In the determination of the amount of oxygen required for the routes to be flown, it is
assumed that the aeroplane will descend in accordance with the emergency procedures
specified in the operations manual, without exceeding its operating limitations, to a flight
altitude that will allow the flight to be completed safely (i.e. flight altitudes ensuring adequate
terrain clearance, navigational accuracy, hazardous weather avoidance, etc.).
(b)
The amount of oxygen should be determined on the basis of cabin pressure altitude and flight
duration, and on the assumption that a cabin pressurisation failure will occur at the pressure
altitude or point of flight that is most critical from the standpoint of oxygen need.
(c)
Following a cabin pressurisation failure, the cabin pressure altitude should be considered to be
the same as the aeroplane pressure altitude, unless it can be demonstrated to the competent
authority that no probable failure of the cabin or pressurisation system will result in a cabin
pressure altitude equal to the aeroplane pressure altitude. Under these circumstances, the
demonstrated maximum cabin pressure altitude may be used as a basis for determination of
oxygen supply.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.195(c)(2) Supplemental oxygen – pressurised aeroplanes
QUICK DONNING MASKS
A quick donning mask is a type of mask that:
(a)
can be placed on the face from its ready position, properly secured, sealed and supplying
oxygen upon demand, with one hand and within 5 seconds and will thereafter remain in
position, both hands being free;
(b)
can be donned without disturbing eye glasses and without delaying the flight crew member
from proceeding with assigned emergency duties;
(c)
once donned, does not prevent immediate communication between the flight crew members
and other crew members over the aircraft intercommunication system; and
(d)
does not inhibit radio communications.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.200 Supplemental oxygen — non-pressurised aeroplanes
DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN
(a)
On routes where the oxygen is necessary to be carried for 10 % of the passengers for the flight
time between 10 000 ft and 13 000 ft, the oxygen may be provided by:
(1)
a plug-in or drop-out oxygen system with sufficient outlets and dispensing units
uniformly distributed throughout the cabin so as to provide oxygen to each passenger at
his/her own discretion when seated on his/her assigned seat; or
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(2)
(b)
portable bottles, when a cabin crew member is required for the flight.
The amount of supplemental oxygen for sustenance for a particular operation should be
determined on the basis of flight altitudes and flight duration, consistent with the operating
procedures, including emergency procedures, established for each operation and the routes to
be flown, as specified in the operations manual.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.205 Hand fire extinguishers
NUMBER, LOCATION AND TYPE
(a)
The number and location of hand fire extinguishers should be such as to provide adequate
availability for use, account being taken of the number and size of the passenger
compartments, the need to minimise the hazard of toxic gas concentrations and the location
of toilets, galleys, etc. These considerations may result in the number of fire extinguishers
being greater than the minimum required.
(b)
There should be at least one hand fire extinguisher installed in the flight crew compartment
and this should be suitable for fighting both flammable fluid and electrical equipment fires.
Additional hand fire extinguishers may be required for the protection of other compartments
accessible to the crew in flight. Dry chemical fire extinguishers should not be used in the flight
crew compartment, or in any compartment not separated by a partition from the flight crew
compartment, because of the adverse effect on vision during discharge and, if conductive,
interference with electrical contacts by the chemical residues.
(c)
Where only one hand fire extinguisher is required in the passenger compartments, it should be
located near the cabin crew member’s station, where provided.
(d)
Where two or more hand fire extinguishers are required in the passenger compartments and
their location is not otherwise dictated by consideration of (a), an extinguisher should be
located near each end of the cabin with the remainder distributed throughout the cabin as
evenly as is practicable.
(e)
Unless an extinguisher is clearly visible, its location should be indicated by a placard or sign.
Appropriate symbols may also be used to supplement such a placard or sign.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.210 Marking of break-in points
MARKINGS – COLOUR AND CORNERS
(a)
The colour of the markings should be red or yellow and, if necessary, should be outlined in
white to contrast with the background.
(b)
If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart, intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm should be
inserted so that there is no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
ELT BATTERIES
Batteries used in the ELTs should be replaced (or recharged, if the battery is rechargeable) when the
equipment has been in use for more than 1 cumulative hour, and also when 50 % of their useful life
(or for rechargeable, 50 % of their useful life of charge), as established by the equipment
manufacturer, has expired. The new expiry date for the replacement (or recharged) battery should
be legibly marked on the outside of the equipment. The battery useful life (or useful life of charge)
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requirements of this paragraph do not apply to batteries (such as water-activated batteries) that are
essentially unaffected during probable storage intervals.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
TYPES OF ELT AND GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(a)
The ELT required by this provision should be one of the following:
(1)
Automatic fixed (ELT(AF)). An automatically activated ELT that is permanently attached
to an aircraft and is designed to aid search and rescue (SAR) teams in locating the crash
site.
(2)
Automatic portable (ELT(AP)). An automatically activated ELT that is rigidly attached to
an aircraft before a crash, but is readily removable from the aircraft after a crash. It
functions as an ELT during the crash sequence. If the ELT does not employ an integral
antenna, the aircraft-mounted antenna may be disconnected and an auxiliary antenna
(stored on the ELT case) attached to the ELT. The ELT can be tethered to a survivor or a
life-raft. This type of ELT is intended to aid SAR teams in locating the crash site or
survivor(s).
(3)
Automatic deployable (ELT(AD)). An ELT that is rigidly attached to the aircraft before the
crash and that is automatically ejected, deployed and activated by an impact, and, in
some cases, also by hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also provided. This type
of ELT should float in water and is intended to aid SAR teams in locating the crash site.
(4)
Survival ELT (ELT(S)). An ELT that is removable from an aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate
its ready use in an emergency and manually activated by a survivor. An ELT(S) may be
activated manually or automatically (e.g. by water activation). It should be designed
either to be tethered to a life-raft or a survivor.
(b)
To minimise the possibility of damage in the event of crash impact, the automatic ELT should
be rigidly fixed to the aircraft structure, as far aft as is practicable, with its antenna and
connections arranged so as to maximise the probability of the signal being transmitted after a
crash.
(c)
Any ELT carried should operate in accordance with the relevant provisions of ICAO Annex 10,
Volume III and should be registered with the national agency responsible for initiating search
and rescue or other nominated agency.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.220 Flight over water
ACCESSIBILITY OF LIFE-JACKETS
The life-jacket should be accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose use it is provided,
with a safety belt or restraint system fastened.
ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION OF LIFE-JACKETS
The means of electric illumination should be a survivor locator light as defined in the applicable ETSO
issued by the Agency or equivalent.
RISK ASSESSMENT
(a)
When conducting the risk assessment, the pilot-in-command should base his/her decision, as
far as is practicable, on the Implementing Rules and AMCs applicable to the operation of the
aeroplane.
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(b)
The pilot-in-command should, for determining the risk, take the following operating
environment and conditions into account:
(1)
sea state;
(2)
sea and air temperatures;
(3)
the distance from land suitable for making an emergency landing; and
(4)
the availability of search and rescue facilities.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.A.220 Flight over water
LIFE–RAFTS AND EQUIPMENT FOR MAKING DISTRESS SIGNALS
(a)
The following should be readily available with each life-raft:
(1)
means for maintaining buoyancy;
(2)
a sea anchor;
(3)
life-lines and means of attaching one life-raft to another;
(4)
paddles for life-rafts with a capacity of six or less;
(5)
means of protecting the occupants from the elements;
(6)
a water-resistant torch;
(7)
signalling equipment to make the pyrotechnic distress signals described in ICAO Annex
2, Rules of the Air;
(8)
100 g of glucose tablets for each four, or fraction of four, persons that the life-raft is
designed to carry:
(9)
at least 2 litres of drinkable water provided in durable containers or means of making
sea water drinkable or a combination of both; and
(10) first-aid equipment.
(b)
As far as practicable, items listed in (a) should be contained in a pack.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.220 Flight over water
SEAT CUSHIONS
Seat cushions are not considered to be flotation devices.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.230(a)(2) Survival equipment
SURVIVAL ELT
An ELT(AP) may be used to replace one required ELT(S) provided that it meets the ELT(S)
requirements. A water-activated ELT(S) is not an ELT(AP).
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.230(a)(3) Survival equipment
ADDITIONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
(a)
The following additional survival equipment should be carried when required:
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(b)
(c)
(1)
500 ml of water for each four, or fraction of four, persons on board;
(2)
one knife;
(3)
first-aid equipment; and
(4)
one set of air/ground codes.
In addition, when polar conditions are expected, the following should be carried:
(1)
a means of melting snow;
(2)
one snow shovel and one ice saw;
(3)
sleeping bags for use by 1/3 of all persons on board and space blankets for the
remainder or space blankets for all passengers on board; and
(4)
one arctic/polar suit for each crew member carried.
If any item of equipment contained in the above list is already carried on board the aircraft in
accordance with another requirement, there is no need for this to be duplicated.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.230(b)(2) Survival equipment
APPLICABLE AIRWORTHINESS STANDARD
The applicable airworthiness standard should be CS-25 or equivalent.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.230 Survival equipment
SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT
The signalling equipment for making distress signals is described in ICAO Annex 2, Rules of the Air.
GM2 NCC.IDE.A.230 Survival equipment
AREAS IN WHICH SEARCH AND RESCUE WOULD BE ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT
The expression ‘areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult’ should be interpreted,
in this context, as meaning:
(a)
areas so designated by the competent authority responsible for managing search and rescue;
or
(b)
areas that are largely uninhabited and where:
(1)
the authority referred to in (a) has not published any information to confirm whether
search and rescue would be or would not be especially difficult; and
(2)
the authority referred to in (a) does not, as a matter of policy, designate areas as being
especially difficult for search and rescue.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.240 Headset
GENERAL
(a)
A headset consists of a communication device that includes two earphones to receive and a
microphone to transmit audio signals to the aeroplane’s communication system. To comply
with the minimum performance requirements, the earphones and microphone should match
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the communication system’s characteristics and the flight crew compartment environment.
The headset should be adequately adjustable in order to fit the flight crew’s head. Headset
boom microphones should be of the noise cancelling type.
(b)
If the intention is to utilise noise cancelling earphones, the operator should ensure that the
earphones do not attenuate any aural warnings or sounds necessary for alerting the flight crew
on matters related to the safe operation of the aeroplane.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.240 Headset
GENERAL
The term ‘headset’ includes any aviation helmet incorporating headphones and microphone worn by
a flight crew member.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.245 Radio communication equipment
APPLICABLE AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS
For aeroplanes being operated under European air traffic control, the applicable airspace
requirements include the Single European Sky legislation.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.255 Transponder
SSR TRANSPONDER
(a)
The secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponders of aeroplanes being operated under
European air traffic control should comply with any applicable Single European Sky legislation.
(b)
If the Single European Sky legislation is not applicable, the SSR transponders should operate in
accordance with the relevant provisions of Volume IV of ICAO Annex 10.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.A.260 Electronic navigation data management
ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION DATA PRODUCTS
(a)
When the operator of a complex motor-powered aeroplane uses a navigation database that
supports an airborne navigation application as a primary means of navigation, the navigation
database supplier should hold a Type 2 letter of acceptance (LoA), or equivalent.
(b)
If this airborne navigation application is needed for an operation requiring a specific approval
in accordance with Annex V (Part-SPA), the operator’s procedures should be based upon the
Type 2 LoA acceptance process.
GM1 NCC.IDE.A.260 Electronic navigation data management
LETTERS OF ACCEPTANCE AND STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION DATA PRODUCTS
(a)
A Type 2 LoA is issued by the Agency in accordance with the Agency’s Opinion No 01/2005 on
The Acceptance of Navigation Database Suppliers (hereinafter referred to as the Agency’s
Opinion No 01/2005). The definitions of navigation database, navigation database supplier,
data application integrator, Type 1 LoA and Type 2 LoA can be found in the Agency’s Opinion
No 01/2005.
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(b)
Equivalent to a Type 2 LoA is the FAA Type 2 LoA, issued in accordance with the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular AC 20-153 or AC 20-153A, and the Transport
Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) ‘Acknowledgement Letter of an Aeronautical Data Process’, which
uses the same basis.
(c)
EUROCAE ED-76/Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-200A Standards for
Processing Aeronautical Data contains guidance relating to the processes which the supplier
may follow.
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Section 2 — Helicopters
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.100(a) Instruments and equipment — general
APPLICABLE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS
The applicable airworthiness requirements for approval of instruments and equipment required by
this Part are the following:
(a)
(b)
Regulation (EC) 748/2012 for:
(1)
helicopters registered in the EU; and
(2)
helicopters registered outside the EU but manufactured or designed by an EU
organisation.
Airworthiness requirements of the state of registry for helicopters registered, designed and
manufactured outside the EU.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.100(b)&(c) Instruments and equipment — general
INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT THAT DO NOT NEED TO BE APPROVED
(a)
The provision of this paragraph does not exempt the item of equipment from complying with
the applicable airworthiness requirements if the instrument or equipment is installed in the
helicopter. In this case, the installation should be approved as required in the applicable
airworthiness requirements and should comply with the applicable Certification Specifications.
(b)
The functionality of non-installed instruments and equipment required by this Part that do not
need an equipment approval should be checked against recognised industry standards
appropriate for the intended purpose. The operator is responsible for ensuring the
maintenance of these instruments and equipment.
(c)
The failure of additional non-installed instruments or equipment not required by this Part or
by the applicable airworthiness requirements or any applicable airspace requirements should
not adversely affect the airworthiness and/or the safe operation of the aircraft. Examples are
the following:
(1)
instruments supplying additional flight information (e.g. stand-alone global positioning
system (GPS));
(2)
some aerial work equipment (e.g. some mission dedicated radios, wire cutters); and
(3)
non-installed passenger entertainment equipment.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.100(d) Instruments and equipment — general
POSITIONING OF INSTRUMENTS
This requirement implies that whenever a single instrument is required in a helicopter operated in a
multi-crew environment, the instrument needs to be visible from each flight crew station.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.115 Operating lights
LANDING LIGHT
The landing light should be trainable, at least in the vertical plane.
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120&NCC.IDE.H.125 Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight and
navigational instruments and associated equipment
INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS
(a)
Individual equipment requirements may be met by combinations of instruments or by
integrated flight systems or by a combination of parameters on electronic displays. The
information so available to each required pilot should not be less than that required in the
applicable operational requirements, and the equivalent safety of the installation should be
approved during type certification of the helicopter for the intended type of operation.
(b)
The means of measuring and indicating slip, helicopter attitude and stabilised helicopter
heading may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight director systems,
provided that the safeguards against total failure, inherent in the three separate instruments,
are retained.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(1)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(1) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
MEANS OF MEASURING AND DISPLAYING MAGNETIC HEADING
The means of measuring and displaying magnetic heading should be a magnetic compass or
equivalent.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(2)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(2) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
MEANS FOR MEASURING AND DISPLAYING THE TIME
An acceptable means of compliance is be a clock displaying hours, minutes and seconds, with a
sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(3)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(3) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
CALIBRATION OF THE MEANS FOR MEASURING AND DISPLAYING PRESSURE ALTITUDE
The instrument measuring and displaying pressure altitude should be of a sensitive type calibrated in
feet (ft), with a sub-scale setting, calibrated in hectopascals/millibars, adjustable for any barometric
pressure likely to be set during flight.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(a)(4)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(4) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR —
flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
CALIBRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT INDICATING AIRSPEED
The instrument indicating airspeed should be calibrated in knots (kt).
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(b)(1)(iii)&NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(8) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR
— flight and navigational instruments and associated equipment
STABILISED HEADING
Stabilised heading should be achieved for VFR flights by a gyroscopic heading indicator, whereas for
IFR flights this should be achieved through a magnetic gyroscopic heading indicator.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.125(a)(9)
associated equipment
Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE
(a)
The means of displaying outside air temperature should be calibrated in degrees Celsius.
(b)
The means of displaying outside air temperature may be an air temperature indicator that
provides indications that are convertible to outside air temperature.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.120(c)&NCC.IDE.H.125(c) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight
and navigational instruments and associated equipment
MULTI-PILOT OPERATIONS — DUPLICATE INSTRUMENTS
Duplicate instruments include separate displays for each pilot and separate selectors or other
associated equipment where appropriate.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.125(d) Operations under VFR & operations under IFR — flight and navigational
instruments and associated equipment
MEANS OF PREVENTING MALFUNCTION DUE TO CONDENSATION OR ICING
The means of preventing malfunction due to either condensation or icing of the airspeed indicating
system should be a heated pitot tube or equivalent.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.125(f)
associated equipment
Operations under IFR — flight and navigational instruments and
CHART HOLDER
An acceptable means of compliance with the chart holder requirement is to display a pre-composed
chart on an electronic flight bag (EFB).
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.145 Airborne weather detecting equipment
GENERAL
The airborne weather detecting equipment should be an airborne weather radar.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.155 Flight crew interphone system
TYPE OF FLIGHT CREW INTERPHONE
The flight crew interphone system should not be of a handheld type.
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.160 Cockpit voice recorder
GENERAL
The operational performance requirements for CVRs should be those laid down in EUROCAE
Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne
Recorder Systems), dated March 2003, including amendments n°1 and 2, or any later equivalent
standard produced by EUROCAE.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.165 Flight data recorder
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
(a)
The operational performance requirements for flight data recorders (FDRs) should be those
laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum Operational Performance Specification for
Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems) dated March 2003, including amendments n°1
and n°2, or any later equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.
(b)
The FDR should record, with reference to a timescale, the list of parameters in Table 1 and
Table 2, as applicable.
(c)
The parameters recorded by the FDR should meet, as far as practicable, the performance
specifications (designated ranges, sampling intervals, accuracy limits and minimum resolution
in read-out) defined in EUROCAE ED-112, including amendments n°1 and n°2, or any later
equivalent standard produced by EUROCAE.
(d)
FDR systems for which some recorded parameters do not meet the performance specifications
of EUROCAE Document ED-112 may be acceptable to the Agency.
Table 1: FDR parameters — All helicopters
No*
Parameter
1
Time or relative time count
2
Pressure altitude
3
Indicated airspeed
4
Heading
5
Normal acceleration
6
Pitch attitude
7
Roll attitude
8
Manual radio transmission keying CVR/FDR synchronisation reference
9
Power on each engine:
9a
Free power turbine speed (NF)
9b
Engine torque
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*
No*
Parameter
9c
Engine gas generator speed (NG)
9d
Flight crew compartment power control position
9e
Other parameters to enable engine power to be determined
10a
Main rotor speed
10b
Rotor brake (if installed)
11
Primary flight controls — Pilot input and/or control output position (if applicable):
11a
Collective pitch
11b
Longitudinal cyclic pitch
11c
Lateral cyclic pitch
11d
Tail rotor pedal
11e
Controllable stabilator (if applicable)
11f
Hydraulic selection
12
Hydraulics low pressure (each system should be recorded.)
13
Outside air temperature
18
Yaw rate or yaw acceleration
20
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
21
Lateral acceleration
25
Marker beacon passage
26
Warnings — a discrete should be recorded for the master warning, gearbox low
oil pressure and stability augmentation system as failure. Other ‘red’ warnings
should be recorded where the warning condition cannot be determined from
other parameters or from the cockpit voice recorder.
27
Each navigation receiver frequency selection
37
Engine control modes
The number in the left hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE ED112.
Table 2: FDR parameters — Helicopters for which the data source for the parameter is either
used by helicopter systems or is available on the instrument panel for use by
the flight crew to operate the helicopter.
No*
Parameter
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No*
Parameter
14
AFCS mode and engagement status
15
Stability augmentation system engagement (each system should be recorded)
16
Main gear box oil pressure
17
Gear box oil temperature:
17a
Main gear box oil temperature
17b
Intermediate gear box oil temperature
17c
Tail rotor gear box oil temperature
19
Indicated sling load force (if signals readily available)
22
Radio altitude
23
Vertical deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded:
23a
ILS glide path
23b
MLS elevation
23c
GNSS approach path
24
Horizontal deviation — the approach aid in use should be recorded:
24a
ILS localiser
24b
MLS azimuth
24c
GNSS approach path
28
DME 1 & 2 distances
29
Navigation data:
29a
Drift angle
29b
Wind speed
29c
Wind direction
29d
Latitude
29e
Longitude
29f
Ground speed
30
Landing gear or gear selector position
31
Engine exhaust gas temperature (T4)
32
Turbine inlet temperature (TIT/ITT)
33
Fuel contents
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No*
Parameter
34
Altitude rate (vertical speed) — only necessary when available from cockpit
instruments
35
Ice detection
36
Helicopter health and usage monitor system (HUMS):
Engine data
36a
36b
36c
36d
Chip detector
Track timing
Exceedance discretes
Broadband average engine vibration
36e
*
38
Selected barometric setting — to be recorded for helicopters where the
parameter is displayed electronically:
38a
Pilot
38b
Co-pilot
39
Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for
the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically
40
Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for
the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically
41
Not used (selected Mach)
42
Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be
recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically
43
Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded for
the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically
44
Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be recorded
for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically
45
Selected decision height (all pilot selectable modes of operation) — to be
recorded for the helicopters where the parameter is displayed electronically
46
EFIS display format
47
Multi-function/engine/alerts display format
48
Event marker
The number in the left hand column reflects the serial number depicted in EUROCAE ED112.
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.170 Data link recording
GENERAL
(a)
As a means of compliance with NCC.IDE.H.170, the recorder on which the data link messages
are recorded should be:
(1)
the CVR;
(2)
the FDR;
(3)
a combination recorder when NCC.IDE.H.175 is applicable; or
(4)
a dedicated flight recorder. In such a case, the operational performance requirements
for this recorder should be those laid down in EUROCAE Document ED-112 (Minimum
Operational Performance Specification for Crash Protected Airborne Recorder Systems),
dated March 2003, including amendments n°1 and n°2, or any later equivalent standard
produced by EUROCAE.
(b)
As a means of compliance with NCC.IDE.H.170 (a)(2), the operator should enable correlation
by providing information that allows an accident investigator to understand what data was
provided to the aircraft and, when the provider identification is contained in the message, by
which provider.
(c)
The timing information associated with the data link communications messages required to be
recorded by NCC.IDE.H.170(a)(3) should be capable of being determined from the airbornebased recordings. This timing information should include at least the following:
(1)
the time each message was generated;
(2)
the time any message was available to be displayed by the flight crew;
(3)
the time each message was actually displayed or recalled from a queue; and
(4)
the time of each status change.
(d)
The message priority should be recorded when it is defined by the protocol of the data link
communication message being recorded.
(e)
The expression ‘taking into account the system’s architecture’, in NCC.IDE.H.170 (a)(3), means
that the recording of the specified information may be omitted if the existing source systems
involved would require a major upgrade. The following should be considered:
(1)
the extent of the modification required;
(2)
the down-time period; and
(3)
equipment software development.
(f)
Data link communications messages that support the applications in Table 1 should be
recorded.
(g)
Further details on the recording requirements can be found in the recording requirement
matrix in Appendix D.2 of EUROCAE Document ED-93 (Minimum Aviation System Performance
Specification for CNS/ATM Recorder Systems), dated November 1998.
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Table 1: Data link recording
Item
No
Application Type
Application Description
Required
Recording
Content
1
Data link initiation
This includes any application used to log on to, or C
initiate, a data link service. In future air
navigation system (FANS)-1/A and air traffic
navigation (ATN), these are ATS facilities
notification (AFN) and context management
(CM), respectively.
2
Controller/pilot
communication
This includes any application used to exchange C
requests, clearances, instructions and reports
between the flight crew and controllers on the
ground. In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the
controller pilot data link communications (CPDLC)
application.
It also includes applications used for the
exchange of oceanic clearances (OCL) and
departure clearances (DCL), as well as data link
delivery of taxi clearances.
3
Addressed
surveillance
This includes any surveillance application in C, F2
which the ground sets up contracts for delivery of
surveillance data.
In FANS-1/A and ATN, this includes the automatic
dependent
surveillance-contract
(ADS-C)
application.
4
Flight information
This includes any application used for delivery of C
flight information data to specific helicopters.
This includes for example digital automatic
terminal information service (D-ATIS), data link
operational terminal information service (DOTIS), digital weather information services (DMETAR or TWIP), data link-flight information
service (D-FIS) and Notice to Airmen (electronic
NOTAM) delivery.
5
Broadcast
surveillance
This includes elementary and enhanced M*,
surveillance systems, as well as automatic
F2
dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) output
data.
6
AOC data
This includes any application transmitting or M*
receiving data used for AOC purposes (in
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Item
No
Application Type
Application Description
Required
Recording
Content
accordance with the ICAO definition of AOC).
Such systems may also process AAC messages,
but there is no requirement to record AAC
messages
7
This includes any application receiving graphical M*
data to be used for operational purposes (i.e.
F1
excluding applications that are receiving such
things as updates to manuals).
Graphics
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.170 Data link recording
GENERAL
(a)
(b)
The letters and expressions in Table 1 of AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.170 have the following meaning:
(1)
C: complete contents recorded.
(2)
M: information that enables correlation with any associated records stored separately
from the helicopter.
(3)
*: applications that are to be recorded only as far as is practicable, given the
architecture of the system.
(4)
F1: graphics applications may be considered as AOC messages when they are part of a
data link communications application service run on an individual basis by the operator
itself in the framework of the operational control.
(5)
F2: where parametric data sent by the helicopter, such as Mode S, is reported within the
message, it should be recorded unless data from the same source is recorded on the
FDR.
The definitions of the applications type in Table 1 of AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.170 are described in
Table 1 below.
Table 1: Definitions of the applications type
Item No
Application
Type
Messages
Comments
1
CM
CM is an ATN service
2
AFN
AFN is a FANS 1/A service
3
CPDLC
All implemented up and downlink messages to be
recorded
4
ADS-C
ADS-C reports
All contract requests and reports recorded
Position
Only used within FANS 1/A. Mainly used in
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Item No
Application
Type
Messages
Comments
reports
oceanic and remote areas.
Surveillance
data
Information that enables correlation with any
associated records stored separately from the
helicopter.
5
ADS-B
6
D-FIS
7
TWIP
TWIP messages
Terminal weather information for pilots
8
D ATIS
ATIS messages
Refer to EUROCAE ED-89A, dated December
2003: Data Link Application System Document
(DLASD) for the ‘ATIS’ data link service
9
OCL
OCL messages
Refer to EUROCAE ED-106A, dated March 2004:
Data Link Application System Document (DLASD)
for ‘Oceanic Clearance’ (OCL) data link service
10
DCL
DCL messages
Refer to EUROCAE ED-85A, dated March 2003:
Data Link Application System Document (DLASD)
for ‘Departure Clearance’ data link service
11
Graphics
Weather maps Graphics exchanged in the framework of
&
other procedures within the operational control, as
graphics
specified in Part-ORO.
D-FIS is an ATN service. All implemented up and
downlink messages to be recorded
Information that enables correlation with any
associated records stored separately from the
helicopter.
12
13
AAC
AOC
Surveillance
Aeronautical
operational
control
messages
Messages exchanged in the framework of
procedures within the operational control, as
specified in Part-ORO.
Downlinked
Aircraft
Parameters
(DAP)
As defined in ICAO Annex 10 Volume IV
(Surveillance systems and ACAS).
Information that enables correlation with any
associated records stored separately from the
helicopter. Definition in EUROCAE ED-112, dated
March 2003.
aeronautical administrative communications
ADS-B automatic dependent surveillance - broadcast
ADS-C automatic dependent surveillance – contract
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SUBPART D – INSTRUMENTS, DATA AND EQUIPMENT
AFN
aircraft flight notification
AOC
aeronautical operational control
ATIS
automatic terminal information service
ATSC
air traffic service communication
CAP
controller access parameters
CPDLC controller pilot data link communications
CM
configuration/context management
D-ATIS digital ATIS
D-FIS
data link flight information service
D-METAR
data link meteorological airport report
DCL
departure clearance
FANS
Future Air Navigation System
FLIPCY flight plan consistency
OCL
oceanic clearance
SAP
system access parameters
TWIP
terminal weather information for pilots
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.175 Flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder
COMBINATION RECORDERS
(a)
A flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder is a flight recorder that records:
(1)
all voice communications and the aural environment required by NCC.IDE.H.160; and
(2)
all parameters required by NCC.IDE.H.165,
with the same specifications required by NCC.IDE.H.160 and NCC.IDE.H.165.
(b)
In addition, a flight data and cockpit voice combination recorder may record data link
communication messages and related information required by the NCC.IDE.H.170.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices
CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICES (CRDS)
(a)
(b)
A CRD is considered to be acceptable if:
(1)
it is a supplementary loop belt manufactured with the same techniques and the same
materials of the approved safety belts; or
(2)
it complies with (b).
Provided the CRD can be installed properly on the respective helicopter seat, the following
CRDs are considered acceptable:
(1)
CRDs approved for use in aircraft by a competent authority on the basis of a technical
standard and marked accordingly.
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(c)
(d)
(2)
CRDs approved for use in motor vehicles according to the UN standard ECE R 44, -03 or
later series of amendments.
(3)
CRDs approved for use in motor vehicles and aircraft according to Canadian CMVSS
213/213.1.
(4)
CRDs approved for use in motor vehicles and aircraft according to US FMVSS No 213 and
manufactured to these standards on or after February 26, 1985. US approved CRDs
manufactured after this date should bear the following labels in red letters:
(i)
‘THIS CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM CONFORMS TO ALL APPLICABLE FEDERAL MOTOR
VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS’; and
(ii)
‘THIS RESTRAINT IS CERTIFIED FOR USE IN MOTOR VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT’;
(5)
CRDs qualified for use in aircraft according to the German ‘Qualification Procedure for
Child Restraint Systems for Use in Aircraft’ (TÜV Doc.: TÜV/958-01/2001); and
(6)
Devices approved for use in cars, manufactured and tested to standards equivalent to
those listed above. The device should be marked with an associated qualification sign,
which shows the name of the qualification organisation and a specific identification
number, related to the associated qualification project. The qualifying organisation
should be a competent and independent organisation that is acceptable to the
competent authority.
Location
(1)
Forward facing CRDs may be installed on both forward and rearward facing passenger
seats but only when fitted in the same direction as the passenger seat on which they are
positioned. Rearward facing CRDs should only be installed on forward facing passenger
seats. A CRD may not be installed within the radius of action of an airbag, unless it is
obvious that the airbag is de-activated or it can be demonstrated that there is no
negative impact from the airbag.
(2)
An infant in a CRD should be located as near to a floor level exit as feasible.
(3)
An infant in a CRD should not hinder evacuation for any passenger.
(4)
An infant in a CRD should neither be located in the row (where rows are existing) leading
to an emergency exit nor located in a row immediately forward or aft of an emergency
exit. A window passenger seat is the preferred location. An aisle passenger seat or a
cross aisle passenger seat that forms part of the evacuation route to exits is not
recommended. Other locations may be acceptable provided the access of neighbour
passengers to the nearest aisle is not obstructed by the CRD.
(5)
In general, only one CRD per row segment is recommended. More than one CRD per row
segment is allowed if the infants are from the same family or travelling group provided
the infants are accompanied by a responsible adult sitting next to them.
(6)
A row segment is the fraction of a row separated by two aisles or by one aisle and the
helicopter fuselage.
Installation
(1)
CRDs should only be installed on a suitable helicopter seat with the type of connecting
device they are approved or qualified for. E.g., CRDs to be connected by a three point
harness only (most rearward facing baby CRDs currently available) should not be
attached to a helicopter seat with a lap belt only; a CRD designed to be attached to a
vehicle seat by means of rigid bar lower anchorages (ISO-FIX or US equivalent) only,
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should only be used on helicopter seats that are equipped with such connecting devices
and should not be attached by the helicopter seat lap belt. The method of connecting
should be the one shown in the manufacturer’s instructions provided with each CRD.
(e)
(2)
All safety and installation instructions should be followed carefully by the responsible
person accompanying the infant. Cabin crew should prohibit the use of any inadequately
installed CRD or not qualified seat.
(3)
If a forward facing CRD with a rigid backrest is to be fastened by a lap belt, the restraint
device should be fastened when the backrest of the passenger seat on which it rests is in
a reclined position. Thereafter, the backrest is to be positioned upright. This procedure
ensures better tightening of the CRD on the aircraft seat if the aircraft seat is reclinable.
(4)
The buckle of the adult safety belt should be easily accessible for both opening and
closing, and should be in line with the seat belt halves (not canted) after tightening.
(5)
Forward facing restraint devices with an integral harness should not be installed such
that the adult safety belt is secured over the infant.
Operation
(1)
Each CRD should remain secured to a passenger seat during all phases of flight, unless it
is properly stowed when not in use.
(2)
Where a CRD is adjustable in recline, it should be in an upright position for all occasions
when passenger restraint devices are required.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices
UPPER TORSO RESTRAINT SYSTEM
An upper torso restraint system having three straps is deemed to be compliant with the requirement
for restraint systems with two shoulder straps.
SAFETY BELT
A safety belt with a diagonal shoulder strap (three anchorage points) is deemed to be compliant with
the requirement for safety belts (two anchorage points).
AMC3 NCC.IDE.H.180 Seats, seat safety belts, restraint systems and child restraint devices
SEATS FOR MINIMUM REQUIRED CABIN CREW
(a)
Seats for the minimum required cabin crew members should be located near required floor
level emergency exits, except if the emergency evacuation of passengers would be enhanced
by seating the cabin crew members elsewhere. In this case other locations are acceptable. This
criterion should also apply if the number of required cabin crew members exceeds the number
of floor level emergency exits.
(b)
Seats for cabin crew member(s) should be forward or rearward facing within 15° of the
longitudinal axis of the helicopter.
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.190 First-aid kit
CONTENT OF FIRST-AID KIT
(a)
First-aid kits should be equipped with appropriate and sufficient medications and
instrumentation. However, these kits should be amended by the operator according to the
characteristics of the operation (scope of operation, flight duration, number and demographics
of passengers, etc.).
(b)
The following should be included in the FAKs:
(1)
Equipment:
(i)
bandages (assorted sizes);
(ii)
burns dressings (unspecified);
(iii)
wound dressings (large and small);
(iv)
adhesive dressings (assorted sizes);
(v)
adhesive tape;
(vi)
adhesive wound closures;
(vii)
safety pins;
(viii) safety scissors;
(ix)
antiseptic wound cleaner;
(x)
disposable resuscitation aid;
(xi)
disposable gloves;
(xii)
tweezers: splinter; and
(xiii) thermometers (non-mercury).
(2)
(3)
Medications:
(i)
simple analgesic (may include liquid form);
(ii)
antiemetic;
(iii)
nasal decongestant;
(iv)
gastrointestinal antacid, in the case of helicopters carrying more than nine
passengers;
(v)
anti-diarrhoeal medication in the case of helicopters carrying more than nine
passengers; and
(vi)
antihistamine.
Other:
(i)
a list of contents in at least two languages (English and one other). This should
include information on the effects and side effects of medications carried;
(ii)
first-aid handbook;
(iii)
medical incident report form; and
(iv)
biohazard disposal bags.
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(4)
An eye irrigator, although not required to be carried in the FAK, should, where possible,
be available for use on the ground.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.190 First-aid kit
MAINTENANCE OF FIRST-AID KITS
To be kept up to date, first-aid kits should be:
(a)
inspected periodically to confirm, to the extent possible, that contents are maintained in the
condition necessary for their intended use;
(b)
replenished at regular intervals, in accordance with instructions contained on their labels, or as
circumstances warrant; and
(c)
replenished after use in-flight at the first opportunity where replacement items are available.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.200 Supplemental oxygen — non-pressurised helicopters
DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN
The amount of supplemental oxygen required for a particular operation should be determined on the
basis of flight altitudes and flight duration, consistent with the operating procedures, including
emergency procedures, established for each operation and the routes to be flown as specified in the
operations manual.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.205 Hand fire extinguishers
NUMBER, LOCATION AND TYPE
(a)
The number and location of hand fire extinguishers should be such as to provide adequate
availability for use, account being taken of the number and size of the passenger
compartments, the need to minimise the hazard of toxic gas concentrations and the location
of toilets, galleys, etc. These considerations may result in the number of fire extinguishers
being greater than the minimum required.
(b)
There should be at least one hand fire extinguisher installed in the flight crew compartment
and this should be suitable for fighting both flammable fluid and electrical equipment fires.
Additional hand fire extinguishers may be required for the protection of other compartments
accessible to the crew in flight. Dry chemical fire extinguishers should not be used in the flight
crew compartment, or in any compartment not separated by a partition from the flight crew
compartment, because of the adverse effect on vision during discharge and, if conductive,
interference with electrical contacts by the chemical residues.
(c)
Where only one hand fire extinguisher is required in the passenger compartments, it should be
located near the cabin crew member’s station, where provided.
(d)
Where two or more hand fire extinguishers are required in the passenger compartments and
their location is not otherwise dictated by consideration of (a), an extinguisher should be
located near each end of the cabin with the remainder distributed throughout the cabin as
evenly as is practicable.
(e)
Unless an extinguisher is clearly visible, its location should be indicated by a placard or sign.
Appropriate symbols may also be used to supplement such a placard or sign.
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.210 Marking of break-in points
MARKINGS – COLOUR AND CORNERS
(a)
The colour of the markings should be red or yellow and, if necessary, should be outlined in
white to contrast with the background.
(b)
If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart, intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm should be
inserted so that there is no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
ELT BATTERIES
Batteries used in the ELTs should be replaced (or recharged, if the battery is rechargeable) when the
equipment has been in use for more than 1 cumulative hour, and also when 50% of their useful life
(or for rechargeable, 50% of their useful life of charge), as established by the equipment
manufacturer, has expired. The new expiry date for the replacement (or recharged) battery should
be legibly marked on the outside of the equipment. The battery useful life (or useful life of charge)
requirements of this paragraph do not apply to batteries (such as water-activated batteries) that are
essentially unaffected during probable storage intervals.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.215 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
TYPES OF ELT AND GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(a)
(b)
The ELT required by this provision should be one of the following:
(1)
Automatic fixed (ELT(AF)). An automatically activated ELT that is permanently attached
to an aircraft and is designed to aid SAR teams in locating the crash site.
(2)
Automatic portable (ELT(AP)). An automatically activated ELT that is rigidly attached to
an aircraft before a crash, but is readily removable from the aircraft after a crash. It
functions as an ELT during the crash sequence. If the ELT does not employ an integral
antenna, the aircraft-mounted antenna may be disconnected and an auxiliary antenna
(stored on the ELT case) attached to the ELT. The ELT can be tethered to a survivor or a
life-raft. This type of ELT is intended to aid SAR teams in locating the crash site or
survivor(s).
(3)
Automatic deployable (ELT(AD)). An ELT that is rigidly attached to the aircraft before the
crash and that is automatically ejected, deployed and activated by an impact, and, in
some cases, also by hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also provided. This type
of ELT should float in water and is intended to aid SAR teams in locating the crash site.
(4)
Survival ELT (ELT(S)). An ELT that is removable from an aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate
its ready use in an emergency, and manually activated by a survivor. An ELT(S) may be
activated manually or automatically (e.g. by water activation). It should be designed
either to be tethered to a life-raft or a survivor.
To minimise the possibility of damage in the event of crash impact, the automatic ELT should
be rigidly fixed to the aircraft structure, as far aft as is practicable, with its antenna and
connections arranged so as to maximise the probability of the signal being transmitted after a
crash.
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(c)
Any ELT carried should operate in accordance with the relevant provisions of ICAO Annex 10,
Volume III and should be registered with the national agency responsible for initiating search
and rescue or other nominated agency.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.225(a) Life-jackets
ACCESSIBILITY
The life-jacket should be accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose use it is provided,
with a safety belt or restraint system fastened.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.225(b) Life-jackets
ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION
The means of electric illumination should be a survivor locator light as defined in the applicable ETSO
issued by the Agency or equivalent.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.225 Life-jackets
SEAT CUSHIONS
Seat cushions are not considered to be flotation devices.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.226 Crew survival suits
ESTIMATING SURVIVAL TIME
(a)
(b)
Introduction
(1)
A person accidentally immersed in cold seas (typically offshore Northern Europe) will
have a better chance of survival if he/she is wearing an effective survival suit in addition
to a life-jacket. By wearing the survival suit, he/she can slow down the rate which
his/her body temperature falls and, consequently, protect himself/herself from the
greater risk of drowning brought about by incapacitation due to hypothermia.
(2)
The complete survival suit system — suit, life-jacket and clothes worn under the suit —
should be able to keep the wearer alive long enough for the rescue services to find and
recover him/her. In practice the limit is about 3 hours. If a group of persons in the water
cannot be rescued within this time, they are likely to have become so scattered and
separated that location will be extremely difficult, especially in the rough water typical
of Northern European sea areas. If it is expected that in water protection could be
required for periods greater than 3 hours, improvements should, rather, be sought in
the search and rescue procedures than in the immersion suit protection.
Survival times
(1)
The aim should be to ensure that a person in the water can survive long enough to be
rescued, i.e. the survival time should be greater than the likely rescue time. The factors
affecting both times are shown in Figure 1. The figure emphasises that survival time is
influenced by many factors, physical and human. Some of the factors are relevant to
survival in cold water and some are relevant in water at any temperature.
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Figure 1: The survival equation
(2)
Broad estimates of likely survival times for the thin individual offshore are given in Table
1 below. As survival time is significantly affected by the prevailing weather conditions at
the time of immersion, the Beaufort wind scale has been used as an indicator of these
surface conditions.
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Table 1: Timescale within which the most vulnerable individuals are likely to succumb to the
prevailing conditions.
Clothing assembly
Working clothes
(no immersion suit)
Beaufort wind
force
Times within which the most vulnerable individuals
are likely to drown
(water temp 5 °C)
(water temp 13 °C)
0–2
Within ¾ hour
Within 1 ¼ hours
3–4
Within ½ hour
Within ½ hour
5 and above
Significantly less than ½ Significantly less than ½
hour
hour
Immersion suit worn 0 – 2
over working clothes
(with leakage inside
3–4
suit)
5 and above
May well exceed 3 hours
May well
hours
exceed
3
Within 2 ¾ hours
May well
hours
exceed
3
Significantly less than 2 ¾ May well
hours. May well exceed 1 hours
hour
exceed
3
(3)
Consideration should also be given to escaping from the helicopter itself should it
submerge or invert in the water. In this case, escape time is limited to the length of time
the occupants can hold their breath. The breath holding time can be greatly reduced by
the effect of cold shock. Cold shock is caused by the sudden drop in skin temperature on
immersion, and is characterised by a gasp reflex and uncontrolled breathing. The urge to
breath rapidly becomes overwhelming and, if still submerged, the individual will inhale
water resulting in drowning. Delaying the onset of cold shock by wearing an immersion
suit will extend the available escape time from a submerged helicopter.
(4)
The effects of water leakage and hydrostatic compression on the insulation quality of
clothing are well recognised. In a nominally dry system the insulation is provided by still
air trapped within the clothing fibres and between the layers of suit and clothes. It has
been observed that many systems lose some of their insulating capacity either because
the clothes under the 'waterproof' survival suit get wet to some extent or because of
hydrostatic compression of the whole assembly. As a result of water leakage and
compression, survival times will be shortened. The wearing of warm clothing under the
suit is recommended.
(5)
Whatever type of survival suit and other clothing is provided, it should not be forgotten
that significant heat loss can occur from the head.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.227
flights
Life-rafts, survival ELTs and survival equipment on extended overwater
LIFE-RAFTS AND EQUIPMENT FOR MAKING DISTRESS SIGNALS
(a)
Each required life-raft should conform to the following specifications:
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(b)
(1)
be of an approved design and stowed so as to facilitate their ready use in an emergency;
(2)
be radar conspicuous to standard airborne radar equipment;
(3)
when carrying more than one life-raft on board, at least 50 % of the rafts should be able
to be deployed by the crew while seated at their normal station, where necessary by
remote control; and
(4)
life-rafts that are not deployable by remote control or by the crew should be of such
weight as to permit handling by one person. 40 kg should be considered a maximum
weight.
Each required life-raft should contain at least the following:
(1)
one approved survivor locator light;
(2)
one approved visual signalling device;
(3)
one canopy (for use as a sail, sunshade or rain catcher) or other means to protect
occupants from the elements;
(4)
one radar reflector;
(5)
one 20 m retaining line designed to hold the life-raft near the helicopter but to release it
if the helicopter becomes totally submerged;
(6)
one sea anchor; and
(7)
one survival kit, appropriately equipped for the route to be flown, which should contain
at least the following:
(i)
one life-raft repair kit;
(ii)
one bailing bucket;
(iii)
one signalling mirror;
(iv)
one police whistle;
(v)
one buoyant raft knife;
(vi)
one supplementary means of inflation;
(vii)
sea sickness tablets;
(viii) one first-aid kit;
(ix)
one portable means of illumination;
(x)
500 ml of pure water and one sea water desalting kit; and
(xi)
one comprehensive illustrated survival booklet in an appropriate language.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment
ADDITIONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
(a)
The following additional survival equipment should be carried when required:
(1)
500 ml of water for each four, or fraction of four, persons on board;
(2)
one knife;
(3)
first-aid equipment; and
(4)
one set of air/ground codes.
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(b)
(c)
In addition, when polar conditions are expected, the following should be carried:
(1)
a means of melting snow;
(2)
one snow shovel and one ice saw;
(3)
sleeping bags for use by 1/3 of all persons on board and space blankets for the
remainder or space blankets for all passengers on board; and
(4)
one arctic/polar suit for each crew member carried.
If any item of equipment contained in the above list is already carried on board the aircraft in
accordance with another requirement, there is no need for this to be duplicated.
AMC2 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment
SURVIVAL ELT
An ELT(AP) may be used to replace one required ELT(S) provided that it meets the ELT(S)
requirements. A water-activated ELT(S) is not an ELT(AP).
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment
SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT
The signalling equipment for making distress signals is described in ICAO Annex 2, Rules of the Air.
GM2 NCC.IDE.H.230 Survival equipment
AREAS IN WHICH SEARCH AND RESCUE WOULD BE ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT
The expression ‘areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult’ should be interpreted,
in this context, as meaning:
(a)
areas so designated by the competent authority responsible for managing search and rescue;
or
(b)
areas that are largely uninhabited and where:
(1)
the authority referred to in (a) has not published any information to confirm whether
search and rescue would be or would not be especially difficult; and
(2)
the authority referred to in (a) does not, as a matter of policy, designate areas as being
especially difficult for search and rescue.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.231 Additional requirements for helicopters conducting offshore operations in a
hostile sea area
INSTALLATION OF THE LIFE-RAFT
(a)
Projections on the exterior surface of the helicopter that are located in a zone delineated by
boundaries that are 1.22 m (4 ft) above and 0.61 m (2 ft) below the established static water
line could cause damage to a deployed life-raft. Examples of projections which need to be
considered are aerials, overboard vents, unprotected split-pin tails, guttering and any
projection sharper than a three dimensional right angled corner.
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(b)
While the boundaries specified in (a) are intended as a guide, the total area that should be
considered should also take into account the likely behaviour of the life-raft after deployment
in all sea states up to the maximum in which the helicopter is capable of remaining upright.
(c)
Wherever a modification or alteration is made to a helicopter within the boundaries specified,
the need to prevent the modification or alteration from causing damage to a deployed life-raft
should be taken into account in the design.
(d)
Particular care should also be taken during routine maintenance to ensure that additional
hazards are not introduced by, for example, leaving inspection panels with sharp corners
proud of the surrounding fuselage surface, or allowing door sills to deteriorate to a point
where sharp edges become a hazard.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.232 Helicopters certificated for operating on water — Miscellaneous equipment
INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea are those that were published by the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in 1972.
AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.235 All helicopters on flight over water - ditching
The same considerations of AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.231 should apply in respect of emergency flotation
equipment.AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.240 Headset
GENERAL
(a)
A headset consists of a communication device that includes two earphones to receive and a
microphone to transmit audio signals to the helicopter’s communication system. To comply
with the minimum performance requirements, the earphones and microphone should match
the communication system’s characteristics and the flight crew compartment environment.
The headset should be adequately adjustable in order to fit the flight crew’s head. Headset
boom microphones should be of the noise cancelling type.
(b)
If the intention is to utilise noise cancelling earphones, the operator should ensure that the
earphones do not attenuate any aural warnings or sounds necessary for alerting the flight crew
on matters related to the safe operation of the helicopter.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.240 Headset
GENERAL
The term ‘headset’ includes any aviation helmet incorporating headphones and microphone worn by
a flight crew member.
GM1 NCC.IDE.H.245 Radio communication equipment
APPLICABLE AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS
For helicopters being operated under European air traffic control, the applicable airspace
requirements include the Single European Sky legislation.
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AMC1 NCC.IDE.H.255 Transponder
SSR TRANSPONDER
(a)
The secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponders of helicopters being operated under
European air traffic control should comply with any applicable Single European Sky legislation.
(b)
If the Single European Sky legislation is not applicable, the SSR transponders should operate in
accordance with the relevant provisions of Volume IV of ICAO Annex 10.
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