User guide | Virtualization Guide - SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

Virtualization Guide - SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
Virtualization Guide
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
Virtualization Guide
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
Describes virtualization technology in general, and introduces libvirt—the unified interface to
virtualization—as well as detailed information on specific hypervisors.
Publication date: February 19, 2015
SUSE Linux Products GmbH
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Copyright © 2006– 2015 SUSE LLC and contributors. All rights reserved.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
License, Version 1.2 or (at your option) version 1.3; with the Invariant Section being this copyright notice and license.
A copy of the license version 1.2 is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.
For SUSE and Novell trademarks, see the Novell Trademark and Service Mark list http://www.novell.com/company/legal/trademarks/tmlist.html
. All other third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners. A trademark
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All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail. However, this does not guarantee
complete accuracy. Neither SUSE LLC, its affiliates, the authors nor the translators shall be held liable for possible
errors or the consequences thereof.
Contents
About This Manual xiv
I
1
1.1
Virtualization Technology 2
Overview 2
1.2
Virtualization Capabilities 3
1.3
Virtualization Benefits 3
1.4
Understanding Virtualization Modes 4
1.5
I/O Virtualization 5
2
Introduction to Xen Virtualization 7
2.1
Basic Components 7
2.2
Xen Virtualization Architecture 8
3
Introduction to KVM Virtualization 10
3.1
Basic Components 10
3.2
KVM Virtualization Architecture 10
4
4.1
iii
INTRODUCTION 1
Introduction to Linux Containers 12
Overview 12
5
Virtualization Tools 13
5.1
Virtualization Console Tools 13
5.2
Virtualization GUI Tools 13
Virtualization Guide
6
Installation of Virtualization Components 15
6.1
Installing KVM 15
6.2
Installing Xen 15
6.3
Installing Containers 16
6.4
Patterns 16
7
7.1
Supported Guests, Hosts and Features 17
Supported VM Guests 17
Availability of Paravirtualized Drivers 20
7.2
Supported VM Hosts 20
7.3
KVM Hardware Requirements 21
7.4
Feature Support 22
Host (Dom0) 22 • Paravirtualized Guest 23 • Fully Virtualized
Guest 25
II
MANAGING VIRTUAL MACHINES WITH libvirt 27
8
Overview 28
9
Guest Installation 32
9.1
GUI-Based Guest Installation 32
9.2
Installing from the Command Line with virt-install 34
9.3
Advanced Guest Installation Scenarios 36
Memory Ballooning with Windows Guests 37 • Including Add-On Products in
the Installation 37
10
10.1
Basic VM Guest Management 39
Listing VM Guests 39
Listing VM Guests with Virtual Machine Manager 39 • Listing VM Guests with
virsh 40
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Virtualization Guide
10.2
Opening a Graphical Console 40
Opening a Graphical Console with Virtual Machine Manager 41 • Opening a
Graphical Console with virt-viewer 41
10.3
Changing a VM Guest's State: Start, Stop, Pause 42
Changing a VM Guest's State with Virtual Machine Manager 43 • Changing a
VM Guest's State with virsh 44
10.4
Saving and Restoring the State of a VM Guest 45
Saving / Restoring with Virtual Machine Manager 46 • Saving / Restoring with
virsh 46
10.5
Creating and Managing Snapshots 47
Creating and Managing Snapshots with Virtual Machine Manager 48 • Creating and Managing Snapshots with virsh 49
10.6
Deleting a VM Guest 52
Deleting a VM Guest with Virtual Machine Manager 52 • Deleting a VM Guest
with virsh 52
11
11.1
Connecting and Authorizing 53
Authentication 53
libvirtd Authentication 54 • VNC Authentication 58
11.2
Connecting to a VM Host Server 62
“system” Access for Non-Privileged Users 64 • Managing Connections with Virtual Machine Manager 65
11.3
Configuring Remote Connections 66
Remote Tunnel over SSH (qemu+ssh or xen+ssh) 66 • Remote TLS/SSL Connection with x509 Certificate (qemu+tls or xen+tls) 67
12
12.1
Managing Storage 75
Managing Storage with Virtual Machine Manager 77
Adding a Storage Pool 78 • Managing Storage Pools 81
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Virtualization Guide
12.2
Managing Storage with virsh 83
Listing Pools and Volumes 83 • Starting, Stopping and Deleting
Pools 85 • Adding Volumes to a Storage Pool 86 • Deleting Volumes from
a Storage Pool 87
12.3
Locking Disk Files and Block Devices with virtlockd 87
Enable Locking 88 • Configure Locking 88
12.4
13
Online Resizing of Guest Block Devices 90
Configuring Virtual Machines 92
13.1
Enabling Seamless and Synchronized Cursor Movement 92
13.2
Adding a CD/DVD-ROM Device with Virtual Machine Manager 93
13.3
Adding a Floppy Device with Virtual Machine Manager 94
13.4
Ejecting and Changing Floppy or CD/DVD-ROM Media with Virtual
Machine Manager 95
13.5
Change the Machine Type with virsh 96
13.6
Adding a PCI Device with Virtual Machine Manager 97
13.7
Adding a PCI Device with virsh 97
13.8
Adding SR-IOV Devices 101
Requirements 101 • Loading and Configuring the SR-IOV Host Drivers 102 • Adding a VF Network Device to an Existing VM Guest 104 • Dynamic Allocation of VFs from a Pool 107
14
14.1
Administrating VM Guests 109
Migrating VM Guests 109
Migration Requirements 109 • Migrating with virt-manager 110 • Migrating with virsh 111 • Step-by-Step Example 112
14.2
Monitoring 116
Monitoring with Virtual Machine Manager 116 • Monitoring with
kvm_stat 117
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Virtualization Guide
15
Save and Restore of Virtual Machines 119
15.1
Saving Virtual Machines 119
15.2
Restoring Virtual Machines 120
III
16
16.1
COMMON TASKS 121
VM Guest Clock Settings 122
KVM: Using kvm_clock 122
Other Timekeeping Methods 123
16.2
17
17.1
Xen Virtual Machine Clock Settings 123
libguestfs 126
VM Guest Manipulation Overview 126
VM Guest Manipulation Risk 126 • libguestfs Design 127
17.2
Package Installation 127
17.3
Guestfs Tools 128
Modifying Virtual Machines 128 • Supported File Systems and Disk
Images 128 • virt-rescue 129 • virt-resize 130 • Other virt-*
Tools 131 • guestfish 133
17.4
Troubleshooting 134
Environment 135 • libguestfs-test-tool 135
17.5
IV
18
18.1
18.2
External References 135
MANAGING VIRTUAL MACHINES WITH XEN 136
Setting Up a Virtual Machine Host 137
Best Practices and Suggestions 137
Managing Dom0 Memory 138
Setting a Maximum Amount of Memory 138
vii
18.3
Network Card in Fully Virtualized Guests 139
18.4
Starting the Virtual Machine Host 140
Virtualization Guide
18.5
PCI Pass-Through 141
Configuring the Hypervisor for PCI Pass-Through 142 • Assigning PCI Devices to VM Guest Systems 143 • VGA Pass-Through 144 • Troubleshooting 144 • For More Information 145
19
Virtual Networking 146
19.1
Virtual Bridges 146
19.2
Network Devices for Guest Systems 147
19.3
Host-Based Routing in Xen 149
19.4
Creating a Masqueraded Network Setup 152
19.5
Special Configurations 154
Bandwidth Throttling in Virtual Networks 154 • Monitoring the Network Traffic 155 • Using VLAN Interfaces 155
20
20.1
Managing a Virtualization Environment 157
XL—Xen Management Tool 157
Guest Domain Configuration File 158
20.2
Automatic Start of Guest Domains 159
20.3
Event Actions 160
20.4
Saving Virtual Machines 161
20.5
Restoring Virtual Machines 161
20.6
Virtual Machine States 161
21
viii
Block Devices in Xen 163
21.1
Mapping Physical Storage to Virtual Disks 163
21.2
File-Backed Virtual Disks and Loopback Devices 164
21.3
Resizing Block Devices 165
Virtualization Guide
22
22.1
Virtualization: Configuration Options and Settings 166
Virtual CD Readers 166
Virtual CD Readers on Paravirtual Machines 166 • Virtual CD Readers on Fully
Virtual Machines 166 • Adding Virtual CD Readers 167 • Removing Virtual
CD Readers 168
22.2
Remote Access Methods 168
22.3
VNC Viewer 169
Assigning VNC Viewer Port Numbers to Virtual Machines 170 • Using SDL instead of a VNC Viewer 170
22.4
Virtual Keyboards 171
22.5
Dedicating CPU Resources 171
Dom0 171 • VM Guests 172
22.6
HVM Features 173
Specify Boot Device on Boot 173 • Changing CPUIDs for Guests 174 • Increasing the Number of PCI-IRQs 175
23
Administration Tasks 176
23.1
The Boot Loader Program 176
23.2
Sparse Image Files and Disk Space 177
23.3
Migrating Xen VM Guest Systems 178
Preparing Block Devices for Migrations 179 • Migrating VM Guest Systems 180
23.4
Monitoring Xen 180
Monitor Xen with xentop 180 • More Helpful Tools 181
23.5
24
24.1
ix
Providing Host Information for VM Guest Systems 182
XenStore: Configuration Database Shared between Domains 184
Introduction 184
Virtualization Guide
24.2
File System Interface 184
XenStore Commands 185 • /vm 186 • /local/domain/<domid> 188
25
Xen as a High-Availability Virtualization Host 190
25.1
Xen HA with Remote Storage 190
25.2
Xen HA with Local Storage 191
25.3
Xen HA and Private Bridges 192
V
MANAGING VIRTUAL MACHINES WITH QEMU 193
26
QEMU Overview 194
27
Guest Installation 195
27.1
Basic Installation with qemu-system-ARCH 195
27.2
Managing Disk Images with qemu-img 197
General Information on qemu-img Invocation 197 • Creating, Converting and
Checking Disk Images 198 • Managing Snapshots of Virtual Machines with qemu-img 202 • Manipulate Disk Images Effectively 205
28
Running Virtual Machines with qemu-system-ARCH 210
28.1
Basic qemu-system-ARCH Invocation 210
28.2
General qemu-system-ARCH Options 210
Basic Virtual Hardware 211 • Storing and Reading Configuration of Virtual Devices 215 • Guest Real-Time Clock 216
28.3
Using Devices in QEMU 216
Block Devices 217 • Graphic Devices and Display Options 221 • USB Devices 223 • PCI Pass-Through 225 • VFIO: Secure Direct Access to Devices 227 • Character Devices 229
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Virtualization Guide
28.4
Networking in QEMU 232
Defining a Network Interface Card 232 • User-Mode Networking 233 • Bridged Networking 235 • Accelerated Networking with vhostnet 238 • Scaling Network Performance with Multiqueue virtio-net 239
28.5
Viewing a VM Guest with VNC 240
Secure VNC Connections 243
28.6
VirtFS: Sharing Folders between Host and Guests 246
Implementation 247
28.7
29
KVM Disk Cache Modes 249
29.1
Disk Interface Cache Modes 249
29.2
Description of Cache Modes 249
29.3
Data Integrity Implications of Cache Modes 251
29.4
Performance Implications of Cache Modes 252
29.5
Effect of Cache Modes on Live Migration 252
30
xi
KSM: Sharing Memory Pages between Guests 248
Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor 253
30.1
Accessing Monitor Console 253
30.2
Getting Information about the Guest System 253
30.3
Changing VNC Password 256
30.4
Managing Devices 256
30.5
Controlling Keyboard and Mouse 258
30.6
Changing Available Memory 259
30.7
Dumping Virtual Machine Memory 259
30.8
Managing Virtual Machine Snapshots 260
30.9
Suspending and Resuming Virtual Machine Execution 261
Virtualization Guide
30.10
Live Migration 262
30.11
QMP - QEMU Machine Protocol 263
Access QMP via Standard Input/Output 263 • Access QMP via Telnet 265 • Access QMP via Unix Socket 266 • Access QMP via libvirt's
virsh Command 266
VI
31
31.1
MANAGING VIRTUAL MACHINES WITH LXC 268
Linux Containers 269
Setting Up LXC Distribution Containers 269
31.2
Setting Up LXC Application Containers 270
31.3
Securing a Container Using AppArmor 271
31.4
Differences Between the libvirt LXC Driver and LXC 272
31.5
For More Information 273
32
Migration from LXC to libvirt-lxc 274
32.1
Host Migration 274
32.2
Container Migration 275
32.3
Starting the Container 276
Glossary 277
A
Virtual Machine Drivers 288
B
Appendix 289
B.1
Installing Paravirtualized Drivers 289
Installing virtio Drivers for Microsoft Windows* 289
B.2
xii
Generating x509 Client/Server Certificates 289
Virtualization Guide
C
C.1
XM, XL Toolstacks and Libvirt framework 291
Xen Toolstacks 291
Upgrading from xend/xm to xl/libxl 291 • XL design 292 • Checklist before
Upgrade 292
C.2
Import Xen Domain Configuration into libvirt 293
C.3
Differences between the xm and xl applications 295
Notation Conventions 296 • New Global Options 296 • Unchanged Options 296 • Removed Options 301 • Changed Options 304 • New Options 318
C.4
External links 320
C.5
Saving a Xen Guest Configuration in an xm Compatible Format 321
D
D.1
February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance Update) 322
D.2
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
12) 322
E
E.1
xiii
Documentation Updates 322
GNU Licenses 326
GNU Free Documentation License 326
Virtualization Guide
About This Manual
This manual offers an introduction to setting up and managing virtualization with KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine), Xen, and Linux Containers (LXC) on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
The first part introduces the different virtualization solutions by describing their requirements,
their installations and SUSE's support status. The second part deals with managing VM Guests
and VM Host Servers with libvirt . The following parts describe various administration tasks
and practices and the last three parts deal with hypervisor-specific topics.
Many chapters in this manual contain links to additional documentation resources. This includes
additional documentation that is available on the system as well as documentation available
on the Internet.
For an overview of the documentation available for your product and the latest documentation
updates, refer to http://www.suse.com/doc .
1 Available Documentation
We provide HTML and PDF versions of our books in different languages. The following manuals
for users and administrators are available for this product:
Article “Installation Quick Start”
Lists the system requirements and guides you step-by-step through the installation of SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server from DVD, or from an ISO image.
Book “Deployment Guide”
Shows how to install single or multiple systems and how to exploit the product inherent
capabilities for a deployment infrastructure. Choose from various approaches, ranging
from a local installation or a network installation server to a mass deployment using a
remote-controlled, highly-customized, and automated installation technique.
Book “Administration Guide”
Covers system administration tasks like maintaining, monitoring and customizing an initially installed system.
Virtualization Guide
Describes virtualization technology in general, and introduces libvirt—the unified interface to virtualization—as well as detailed information on specific hypervisors.
xiv
About This Manual
SLES 12
Book “Storage Administration Guide”
Provides information about how to manage storage devices on a SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server.
Book “AutoYaST”
AutoYaST is a system for installing one or more SUSE Linux Enterprise systems automatically and without user intervention, using an AutoYaST profile that contains installation
and configuration data. The manual guides you through the basic steps of auto-installation: preparation, installation, and configuration.
Book “Security Guide”
Introduces basic concepts of system security, covering both local and network security
aspects. Shows how to make use of the product inherent security software like AppArmor
or the auditing system that reliably collects information about any security-relevant events.
Book “Security and Hardening Guide”
Deals with the particulars of installing and setting up a secure SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server, and additional post-installation processes required to further secure and harden
that installation. Supports the administrator with security-related choices and decisions.
Book “System Analysis and Tuning Guide”
An administrator's guide for problem detection, resolution and optimization. Find how to
inspect and optimize your system by means of monitoring tools and how to efficiently
manage resources. Also contains an overview of common problems and solutions and of
additional help and documentation resources.
Book “GNOME User Guide”
Introduces the GNOME desktop of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. It guides you through
using and configuring the desktop and helps you perform key tasks. It is intended mainly
for end users who want to make efficient use of GNOME as their default desktop.
Find HTML versions of most product manuals in your installed system under /usr/share/doc/
manual or in the help centers of your desktop. Find the latest documentation updates at http://
www.suse.com/doc
product.
xv
where you can download PDF or HTML versions of the manuals for your
Available Documentation
SLES 12
2 Feedback
Several feedback channels are available:
Bugs and Enhancement Requests
For services and support options available for your product, refer to http://www.suse.com/
support/
.
To report bugs for a product component, go to http://www.suse.com/mysupport , log in,
and select Submit New SR.
User Comments
We want to hear your comments about and suggestions for this manual and the other
documentation included with this product. Use the User Comments feature at the bottom of
each page in the online documentation or go to http://www.suse.com/doc/feedback.html
and enter your comments there.
Mail
For feedback on the documentation of this product, you can also send a mail to doc-
team@suse.de . Make sure to include the document title, the product version and the
publication date of the documentation. To report errors or suggest enhancements, provide
a concise description of the problem and refer to the respective section number and page
(or URL).
3 Documentation Conventions
The following typographical conventions are used in this manual:
/etc/passwd : directory names and file names
placeholder : replace placeholder with the actual value
PATH : the environment variable PATH
ls , --help : commands, options, and parameters
user : users or groups
Alt
,
Alt
– F1 : a key to press or a key combination; keys are shown in uppercase as on
a keyboard
xvi
Feedback
SLES 12
File, File Save As: menu items, buttons
This paragraph is only relevant for the x86_64 architecture. The arrows mark the beginning
and the end of the text block.
Dancing Penguins (Chapter Penguins, ↑Another Manual): This is a reference to a chapter in
another manual.
xvii
Documentation Conventions
SLES 12
I Introduction
1
Virtualization Technology 2
2
Introduction to Xen Virtualization 7
3
Introduction to KVM Virtualization 10
4
Introduction to Linux Containers 12
5
Virtualization Tools 13
6
Installation of Virtualization Components 15
7
Supported Guests, Hosts and Features 17
1 Virtualization Technology
Virtualization is a technology that provides a way for a machine (Host) to run another operating
system (guest virtual machines) on top of the host operating system.
1.1 Overview
Included with SUSE Linux Enterprise are the latest open-source virtualization technologies, Xen
and KVM. With these Hypervisors SUSE Linux Enterprise can be used to provision, de-provision,
install, monitor and manage multiple virtual machines (VM Guests) on a single physical system.
Out of the box, SUSE Linux Enterprise can create virtual machines running both modified, highly
tuned, paravirtualized operating systems and fully virtualized unmodified operating systems.
Full virtualization allows the guest OS to run unmodified and requires the presence of either
Intel* Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) or AMD* Virtualization (AMD-V).
The primary component of the operating system that enables virtualization is a Hypervisor (or
virtual machine manager), which is a layer of software that runs directly on server hardware.
It controls platform resources, sharing them among multiple VM Guests and their operating
systems by presenting virtualized hardware interfaces to each VM Guest.
SUSE Linux Enterprise is an enterprise-class Linux server operating system that offers two types
of Hypervisors: Xen and KVM. Both Hypervisors support virtualization on 64-bit x86-based hard-
ware architectures. Both Xen and KVM support full virtualization mode. In addition, Xen sup-
ports paravirtualized mode. SUSE Linux Enterprise with Xen or KVM acts as a virtualization
host server (VHS) that supports VM Guests with its own guest operating systems. The SUSE VM
Guest architecture consists of a Hypervisor and management components that constitute the VHS,
which runs many application-hosting VM Guests.
In Xen, the management components run in a privileged VM Guest often referred to as Dom0. In
KVM, where the Linux kernel acts as the hypervisor, the management components run directly
on the VHS.
2
Virtualization Technology
SLES 12
1.2 Virtualization Capabilities
Virtualization design provides a large number of capabilities to your organization. Virtualiza-
tion of operating systems is used in many different computing areas. For example, it finds its
applications in:
Server consolidation: Many servers can be replaced by one big physical server, so hardware
is consolidated, and Guest Operating Systems are converted to virtual machine. It provides
the ability to run older software on new hardware.
Isolation: guest operating system can be fully isolated from the Host running it. So if the
virtual machine is corrupted, the Host system is not harmed.
Migration: A process to move a running virtual machine to another physical machine. Live
migration is an extended feature that allows this move without disconnection of the client
or the application.
Disaster recovery: Virtualized guests are less dependent on the hardware, and the Host
server provides snapshot features to be able to restore a known running system without
any corruption.
Dynamic load balancing: A migration feature that brings a simple way to load-balance
your service across your infrastructure.
1.3 Virtualization Benefits
Virtualization brings a lot of advantages while providing the same service as a hardware server.
First, it reduces the cost of your infrastructure. Servers are mainly used to provide a service to
a customer, and a virtualized operating system can provide the same service, with:
Less hardware: You can run several operating system on one host, so all hardware maintenance will be reduced.
Less power/cooling: Less hardware means you don't need to invest more in electric power,
backup power, and cooling if you need more service.
Save space: Your data center space will be saved because you don't need more hardware
servers (less servers than service running).
3
Virtualization Capabilities
SLES 12
Less management: Using a VM Guest simplifies the administration of your infrastructure.
Agility and productivity: Virtualization provides migration capabilities, live migration and
snapshots. These features reduce downtime, and bring an easy way to move your service
from one place to another without any service interruption.
1.4 Understanding Virtualization Modes
Guest operating systems are hosted on virtual machines in either full virtualization (FV) mode
or paravirtual (PV) mode. Each virtualization mode has advantages and disadvantages.
Full virtualization mode lets virtual machines run unmodified operating systems, such
as Windows* Server 2003, but requires the computer running as the VM Host Server to
support hardware-assisted virtualization technology, such as AMD* Virtualization or Intel*
Virtualization Technology.
Some guest operating systems hosted in full virtualization mode can be configured to run
the Novell* Virtual Machine Drivers instead of drivers originating from the operating system. Running virtual machine drivers improves performance dramatically on guest operating systems, such as Windows Server 2003. For more information, see Appendix A, Virtual
Machine Drivers.
Paravirtual mode does not require the host computer to support hardware-assisted virtual-
ization technology, but does require the guest operating system to be modified for the virtualization environment. Typically, operating systems running in paravirtual mode enjoy
better performance than those requiring full virtualization mode.
Operating systems currently modified to run in paravirtual mode are referred to as paravir-
tualized operating systems and include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and NetWare® 6.5 SP8.
4
Understanding Virtualization Modes
SLES 12
1.5 I/O Virtualization
VM Guests not only share CPU and memory resources of the host system, but also the I/O sub-
system. Because software I/O virtualization techniques deliver less performance than bare metal, hardware solutions that deliver almost “native” performance have been developed recently.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server supports the following I/O virtualization techniques:
Full Virtualization
Fully Virtualized (FV) drivers emulate widely supported real devices, which can be used
with an existing driver in the VM Guest. Since the physical device on the VM Host Server
may differ from the emulated one, the hypervisor needs to process all I/O operations before
handing them over to the physical device. Therefore all I/O operations need to traverse
two software layers, a process that not only significantly impacts I/O performance, but
also consumes CPU time.
Paravirtualization
Paravirtualization (PV) allows direct communication between the hypervisor and the VM
Guest. With less overhead involved, performance is much better than with full virtualiza-
tion. However, paravirtualization requires either the guest operating system to be modified
to support the paravirtualization API or paravirtualized drivers. See Section 7.1.1, “Availabil-
ity of Paravirtualized Drivers” for a list of guest operating systems supporting paravirtualiza-
tion.
PCI-Passthrough
Directly assigning a PCI device to a VM Guest (PCI pass-through) avoids performance issues
caused by avoiding any emulation in peformance critical paths. With PCI pass-through,
a VM Guest can directly access the real hardware using a native driver, getting almost
native performance. This method does not allow to share devices—each device can only
be assigned to a single VM Guest. PCI-Passthrough needs to be supported by the VM Host
Server CPU, chipset and the BIOS/EFI. The VM Guest needs to be equipped with drivers for
the device. See Section 13.6, “Adding a PCI Device with Virtual Machine Manager” or Section 13.7,
“Adding a PCI Device with virsh” for setup instructions.
SR-IOV
The latest I/O virtualization technique, Single Root I/O Virtualization SR-IOV combines
the benefits of the aforementioned techniques—performance and the ability to share a device with several VM Guests. SR-IOV requires special I/O devices, that are capable of replicating resources so they appear as multiple separate devices. Each such “pseudo” device
5
I/O Virtualization
SLES 12
can be directly used by a single guest. However, for network cards for example the number
of concurrent queues that can be used is reduced, potentially reducing performance for
the VM Guest compared to paravirtualized drivers. On the VM Host Server, SR-IOV must
be supported by the I/O device, the CPU and chipset, the BIOS/EFI and the hypervisor—
see Section 13.8, “Adding SR-IOV Devices” for setup instructions.
VFIO
VFIO stands for Virtual Function I/O. It allows safe, non-privileged user space drivers. The
VFIO driver is a device-agnostic framework to expose direct device access in a protected
environment. Its primary purpose is to replace the KVM PCI-specific device assignment.
For more information, see Section 28.3.5, “VFIO: Secure Direct Access to Devices”.
6
I/O Virtualization
SLES 12
2 Introduction to Xen Virtualization
This chapter introduces and explains the components and technologies you need to understand
to set up and manage a Xen-based virtualization environment.
2.1 Basic Components
The basic components of a Xen-based virtualization environment are the Xen hypervisor, the
Dom0, any number of other VM Guests, and the tools, commands, and configuration files that let
you manage virtualization. Collectively, the physical computer running all these components is
referred to as a VM Host Server because together these components form a platform for hosting
virtual machines.
The Xen Hypervisor
The Xen hypervisor, sometimes referred to generically as a virtual machine monitor, is an
open-source software program that coordinates the low-level interaction between virtual
machines and physical hardware.
The Dom0
The virtual machine host environment, also referred to as Dom0 or controlling domain, is
composed of several components, such as:
The SUSE Linux operating system, which gives the administrator a graphical and
command line environment to manage the virtual machine host components and its
virtual machines.
Note
The term “Dom0” refers to a special domain that provides the management
environment. This may be run either in graphical or in command line mode.
The xl toolstack based on the xenlight library (libxl). Use it to manage Xen guest
domains.
A modified version of QEMU, which is an open-source software program that emu-
lates a full computer system, including a processor and various peripherals. It provides the ability to host operating systems in full virtualization mode.
7
Introduction to Xen Virtualization
SLES 12
Xen-Based Virtual Machines
A Xen-based virtual machine, also referred to as a VM Guest or DomU , consists of the
following components:
At least one virtual disk that contains a bootable operating system. The virtual disk
can be based on a file, partition, volume, or other type of block device.
A configuration file for each guest domain. It is a text file following the syntax described in the manual page man 5 xl.conf .
A number of network devices, connected to the virtual network provided by the
controlling domain.
Management Tools, Commands, and Configuration Files
There is a combination of GUI tools, commands, and configuration files to help you manage
and customize your virtualization environment.
2.2 Xen Virtualization Architecture
The following graphic depicts a virtual machine host with four virtual machines. The Xen hy-
pervisor is shown as running directly on the physical hardware platform. Note that the controlling domain is also a virtual machine, although it has several additional management tasks
compared to all the other virtual machines.
8
Xen Virtualization Architecture
SLES 12
FIGURE 2.1: XEN VIRTUALIZATION ARCHITECTURE
On the left, the virtual machine host’s Dom0 is shown running the SUSE Linux operating system.
The two virtual machines shown in the middle are running paravirtualized operating systems.
The virtual machine on the right shows a fully virtual machine running an unmodified operating
system, such as the latest version of Microsoft Windows/Server.
9
Xen Virtualization Architecture
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3 Introduction to KVM Virtualization
3.1 Basic Components
KVM is a full virtualization solution for the x86_64 and the System z architectures supporting
hardware virtualization.
VM Guests (virtual machines), virtual storage, and virtual networks can be managed with QEMU
tools directly, or with the libvirt -based stack. The QEMU tools include qemu-system-ARCH ,
the QEMU monitor, qemu-img , and qemu-ndb . A libvirt -based stack includes libvirt itself, along with libvirt -based applications such as virsh , virt-manager , virt-install ,
and virt-viewer .
3.2 KVM Virtualization Architecture
This full virtualization solution consists of two main components: a set of Kernel modules
( kvm.ko , kvm-intel.ko , and kvm-amd.ko ) providing the core virtualization infrastructure
and processor-specific drivers, and a userspace program ( qemu-system-ARCH ) that provides
emulation for virtual devices and control mechanisms to manage VM Guests (virtual machines).
The term KVM more properly refers to the Kernel level virtualization functionality, but is in
practice more commonly used to reference the userspace component.
10
Introduction to KVM Virtualization
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FIGURE 3.1: KVM VIRTUALIZATION ARCHITECTURE
Note: Hyper-v emulation support
QEMU is able to provide certain Hyper-V hypercalls for Windows* guests to partly emulate a Hyper-V environment. This can be used to achieve better behavior for Windows*
guests which are Hyper-V enabled.
11
KVM Virtualization Architecture
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4 Introduction to Linux Containers
Linux container is a lightweight virtualization method to run multiple virtual units (containers,
similar to the chroot environment) simultaneously on a single host. Containers are isolated with
kernel Control Groups (cgroups) and kernel Namespaces.
Container provides an operating system level virtualization where the kernel controls the isolated
containers. With other full virtualization solutions like Xen or KVM the processor simulates a
complete hardware environment and controls its Virtual Machines.
4.1 Overview
Conceptually, container can be seen as an improved chroot technique. The difference is that a
chroot environment separates only the file system, whereas container goes further and provides
resource management and control via cgroups.
BENEFITS OF CONTAINER
Isolating applications and operating systems through containers.
Providing nearly native performance as container manages allocation of resources in real-time.
Controlling network interfaces and applying resources inside containers through cgroups.
LIMITATIONS OF CONTAINER
All containers run inside the host system's kernel and not with a different kernel.
Only allows Linux “guest” operating systems.
Security depends on the host system. Container is not secure. If you need a secure system,
you can confine it using an AppArmor or SELinux profile .
12
Introduction to Linux Containers
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5 Virtualization Tools
5.1 Virtualization Console Tools
Using the libvirt -based tools is the recommended way of managing VM Guests. Interoperability between libvirt and libvirt -based applications such as virt-install has been
tested and is an essential part of SUSE's support stance. All tools are provided by packages carrying the tool's name.
libvirt : A toolkit that provides management of VM Guests, virtual networks, and stor-
age. libvirt provides an API, a daemon, and a shell ( virsh ).
virt-install : For defining a VM Guest and installing its operating system.
vm-install : Another tool to define a VM Guest and install its operating system (depre-
cated).
5.2 Virtualization GUI Tools
virt-manager (Virtual Machine Manager): A graphical management tool for VM Guests.
virt-viewer : An X viewer client for VM Guests which supports TLS/SSL encryption of
x509 certificate authentication and SASL authentication.
yast2 vm : A YaST tool that simplifies the installation of virtualization tools and can set
up a network bridge:
13
Virtualization Tools
SLES 12
14
Virtualization GUI Tools
SLES 12
6 Installation of Virtualization Components
None of the virtualization tools is installed by default.
6.1 Installing KVM
To install KVM and KVM tools, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST and choose Virtualization Installing Hypervisor and Tools.
2. Select KVM server for a minimal installation of QEMU tools. Select KVM tools if a libvirt -
based management stack is also desired. Confirm with Accept.
3. In order to enable normal networking for the VM Guest, using a network bridge is recom-
mended. YaST offers to automatically configure a bridge on the VM Host Server. Agree
to do so by choosing Yes, otherwise choose No.
4. After the setup has been finished, you can start setting up VM Guests. Rebooting the VM
Host Server is not required.
6.2 Installing Xen
To install Xen and Xen tools, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST and choose Virtualization Installing Hypervisor and Tools.
2. Select Xen server for a minimal installation of Xen tools. Select Xen tools if a libvirt -
based management stack is also desired. Confirm with Accept.
3. In order to enable normal networking for the VM Guest, using a network bridge is recom-
mended. YaST offers to automatically configure a bridge on the VM Host Server. Agree
to do so by choosing Yes, otherwise choose No.
4. After the setup has been finished, you need to reboot the machine with the Xen kernel.
15
Installation of Virtualization Components
SLES 12
6.3 Installing Containers
To install containers, proceed as follows:
1. Start YaST and choose Virtualization Installing Hypervisor and Tools.
2. Select libvirt lxc daemon and confirm with Accept.
6.4 Patterns
It is possible using zypper and patterns to install virtualization packages. Run the command
zypper in -t pattern PATTERN . Available patterns are:
KVM
kvm_server : sets up the KVM VM Host Server with QEMU tools for management
kvm_tools : installs the libvirt tools for managing and monitoring VM Guests
Xen
xen_server : sets up the Xen VM Host Server with Xen tools for management
xen_tools : installs the libvirt tools for managing and monitoring VM Guests
Containers
There is no pattern for containers; just install the libvirt-daemon-lxc package.
16
Installing Containers
SLES 12
7 Supported Guests, Hosts and Features
Supported virtualization limits for XEN and KVM are available in the Release Notes (http://
www.suse.com/releasenotes/)
.
7.1 Supported VM Guests
This section lists the support status for various guest operating systems virtualized on top of
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12. All guest operating systems are supported both fully-virtualized and paravirtualized with two exceptions: Windows, which is only supported fully-virtual-
ized, and OES and NetWare operating systems, which are only supported on Xen paravirtualized. All guest operating systems are supported both in 32-bit and 64-bit flavors, unless stated
otherwise (see NetWare).
TABLE 7.1: PARAVIRTUALIZED OS SUPPORT
Operating System
Xen
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
Yes
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3
Yes
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4
Yes
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP4
Yes
Open Enterprise Server 11 SP1
Yes
Open Enterprise Server 11 SP2
Yes
Novell Netware 6.5 SP8
Yes (32-bit only)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.10+
Yes (Best Effort)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5+
Yes (Best Effort)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7+
Yes (Best Effort)
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Supported Guests, Hosts and Features
SLES 12
Note: Netware and OES Installation Requirements
You need a static IP address for each virtual machine running NetWare or OES. Open
Enterprise Server (OES) 2 Linux can only be installed from a network installation source.
TABLE 7.2: FULLY VIRTUALIZED OS SUPPORT
Operating System
Xen
KVM
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Yes
Yes
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Yes
Yes
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Yes
Yes
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2012+
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2+
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 SP2+
Yes
Yes
Windows Server 2008 R2
Yes
Yes
Windows 2003 SP2+
Yes
Yes
Windows Vista SP2+
Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
Windows 7 SP1+
Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
Windows 8+
Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
Windows 8.1+
Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
12
11 SP3
10 SP4
9 SP4
SP1+
18
Supported VM Guests
SLES 12
Operating System
Xen
KVM
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7+ Yes (Best Effort)
Yes (Best Effort)
5.10+
6.5+
Note: Red Hat Guest
The Red Hat* guest Operating Systems will be fully supported if the customer has purchased Expanded Support, otherwise they will be supported on a best-effort basis (fixes
if reasonable).
TABLE 7.3: TECHNOLOGY PREVIEW OS SUPPORT
Operating System
Xen
KVM
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desk-
Yes (fixes if reasonable)
Yes (fixes if reasonable)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desk-
Yes (fixes if reasonable)
Yes (fixes if reasonable)
top 11 SP3
top 12
Note: Technology Preview
The operating system listed above has been tested to install and run successfully. Bugs
can be reported to and will be tracked by SUSE Technical Services, but no support com-
mitments or service level agreements apply. Potential fixes and patches will be evaluated
for future inclusion.
19
Supported VM Guests
SLES 12
7.1.1
Availability of Paravirtualized Drivers
To improve the performance of the guest operating system, paravirtualized drivers are provided
when available. Although they are not required, it is strongly recommended to use them. The
paravirtualized drivers are available as follows:
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12
included in Kernel
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1 / SP2 / SP3
included in Kernel
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4
included in Kernel
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP4
not available
RedHat
available in RedHat Enterprise Linux 5.4 and newer
Windows
SUSE has developed virtio-based drivers for Windows, which are available in the Virtual Machine Driver Pack (VMDP). See http://www.suse.com/products/vmdriverpack/
more information.
for
7.2 Supported VM Hosts
This section lists the support status of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 running as a guest on
top of various virtualization hosts (Hypervisor). Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions are supported.
There is full support for SUSE host operating (for both guest and host). There is full support for
third party host operating (for guest).
The following SUSE host operating systems are supported:
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3 (Xen)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3 (KVM)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 (Xen)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 (KVM)
20
Availability of Paravirtualized Drivers
SLES 12
The following third party host operating systems are supported:
VMware ESX 5.1
VMware ESXi 5.1
Windows 2008 SP2+
Windows 2008 R2 SP1+
Windows 2012+
Windows 2012 R2+
Citrix XenServer 6.5
Oracle VM 3.2
The following SUSE and 3rd party host operating systems will be supported when released:
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1 (Xen)
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1 (KVM)
VMware ESX 5.2
VMware ESXi 5.2
Citrix XenServer future releases
Microsoft Windows Server OS future releases and service packs
Oracle VM 3.2
7.3 KVM Hardware Requirements
Currently, SUSE only supports KVM full virtualization on x86_64 hosts and on System z (only
as Technology Preview). On the x86_64 architecture, KVM is designed around hardware virtu-
alization features included in AMD* (AMD-V) and Intel* (VT-x) CPUs. It supports virtualization
features of chipsets, and PCI devices, such as an I/O Memory Mapping Unit (IOMMU) and Single
Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV).
21
KVM Hardware Requirements
SLES 12
On the x86_64 architecture, you can test whether your CPU supports hardware virtualization
with the following command:
egrep '(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo
If this command returns no output, your processor either does not support hardware virtualization, or this feature has been disabled in the BIOS or Firmware.
The following Web sites identify x86_64 processors that support hardware virtualization: http://ark.intel.com/Products/VirtualizationTechnology
products.amd.com/
(for AMD CPUs).
(for Intel CPUs), and http://
Note: KVM Kernel Modules Not Loading
The KVM kernel modules only load if the CPU hardware virtualization features are available.
The general minimum hardware requirements for the VM Host Server are the same as outlined
in Book “Deployment Guide” 2 “Installation on AMD64 and Intel 64”2.2 “System Requirements
for Operating Linux”. However, additional RAM for each virtualized guest is needed. It should
at least be the same amount that is needed for a physical installation. It is also strongly recommended to have at least one processor core or hyper-thread for each running guest.
7.4 Feature Support
7.4.1
Host (Dom0)
TABLE 7.4: FEATURE SUPPORT - HOST (DOM0)
Features
Xen
Network and Block Device hotplugging
Yes
Physical CPU hot-plugging
No
Virtual CPU hot-plugging
Yes
22
Feature Support
SLES 12
Features
Xen
Virtual CPU pinning
Yes
Virtual CPU capping
Yes
Intel* VT-x2: FlexPriority, FlexMigrate (Migration constraints apply to dis-
Yes
similar CPU architectures)
Intel* VT-d2 (DMA remapping with Interrupt filtering and Queued Invalida- Yes
tion)
AMD* IOMMU (I/O Page Table with Guest to Host Physical Address transla- Yes
tion)
The supported features for KVM are the same as the supported features for SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 12.
Note
The addition or removal of physical CPUs at runtime is not supported, however virtual
CPUs can be added or removed for each VM Guest.
7.4.2
Paravirtualized Guest
TABLE 7.5: FEATURE SUPPORT - PARAVIRTUALIZED GUEST
Features
Xen
Virtual Network and Virtual Block Device
Yes
Virtual CPU hot-plugging
Yes
Virtual CPU over-commitment
Yes
Dynamic Virtual Memory Resize
Yes
hotplugging
23
Paravirtualized Guest
SLES 12
Features
Xen
VM Save and Restore
Yes (Excludes SLES 9 SP4 in Multiprocessor
VM Live Migration
Yes Between like virtual host systems with
mode)
similar resources (Excludes SLES 9SP4 in
Multiprocessor mode)
Advanced Debugging with GDBC
Yes
Dom0 metrics visible to VM
Yes
Memory Ballooning
Yes
PCI Pass Through
Yes (Guests excluded are Netware and SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server 9 SP4)
For live migration, both source and target system architectures need to match; that is, the processors (AMD* or Intel*) must be the same. Unless CPU ID masking is used --such as Intel's FlexMi-
gration -- the target should feature the same processor revision or a more recent processor revi-
sion than the source. If VMs are moved among different systems, the same rules apply for each
move. To avoid failing optimized code at runtime or application startup, source and target CPUs
need to expose the same processor extensions. Xen exposes the physical CPU extensions to the
VMs transparently. To summarize, guests can be 32- or 64-bit, but the VHS must be identical.
Note: Intel* FlexMigration
For machines that have Intel* FlexMigration, CPU-ID masking and faulting allow more
flexibility in cross-CPU migration
24
Paravirtualized Guest
SLES 12
7.4.3
Fully Virtualized Guest
TABLE 7.6: FEATURE SUPPORT - PARAVIRTUALIZED GUEST
Features
Xen
KVM
Virtual Network and Virtual
Yes
Yes
Virtual CPU hot-plugging
No
No
Virtual CPU over-commitment
Yes
Yes
Dynamic Virtual Memory Re- Yes
Yes
VM Save and Restore
Yes
Yes
VM Live Migration
Yes Between like virtual
Yes
Block Device hotplugging
size
host systems with similar resources (i.e., from 32-bit to
32-bit, 64-bit to 64-bit)
VM snapshot
Yes
Yes
Advanced Debugging with
Yes
Yes
Dom0 metrics visible to VM
Yes
Yes
PCI Pass Through
Yes
Yes
GDBC
Note: PCI Pass Through
IOMMU is needed for PCI Pass Through, which requires underlying support from the hard-
ware (e.g Intel* VT-d extensions or AMD* IOMMU extensions).
25
Fully Virtualized Guest
SLES 12
Note: Windows Guest
Virtual Network and Virtual block device hotplugging, and Dynamic virtual memory re-
size, shrinking and restoring, are supported in Xen and KVM only if PV drivers are being
used (VMDP).
For KVM, a detailed description of supported limits, features, recommended settings and scenarios and other useful information is maintained in the kvm-supported.txt document, avail-
able as a part of the KVM package, and located at /usr/share/doc/packages/kvm path on an
installed SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12.
26
Fully Virtualized Guest
SLES 12
II Managing Virtual Machines with
libvirt
8
Overview 28
9
Guest Installation 32
10
Basic VM Guest Management 39
11
Connecting and Authorizing 53
12
Managing Storage 75
13
Configuring Virtual Machines 92
14
Administrating VM Guests 109
15
Save and Restore of Virtual Machines 119
8 Overview
libvirt is a library that provides a common API for managing popular virtualization solutions,
among them KVM, LXC, and Xen. The library provides a normalized management API for these
virtualization solutions, allowing a stable, cross-hypervisor interface for higher-level management tools. The library also provides APIs for management of virtual networks and storage on
the VM Host Server. The configuration of each VM Guest is stored in an XML file.
With libvirt you can also manage your VM Guests remotely. It supports TLS encryption and
x509 certificates as well as authentication with SASL.
The communication between the virtualization solutions (KVM, Xen, LXC) and the libvirt API
is managed by the daemon libvirtd , which needs to run on the VM Host Server. libvirt client
applications such as virt-manager, possibly running on a remote machine, communicate with
libvirtd running on the VM Host Server, which services the requestusing native hypervisor
APIs. Use the following commands to start and stop libvirtd or check its status:
# systemctl start libvirtd.service
# systemctl status libvirtd.service
libvirtd.service - Virtualization daemon
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/libvirtd.service; enabled)
Active: active (running) since Mon 2014-05-12 08:49:40 EDT; 2s ago
[...]
# systemctl stop libvirtd.service
# systemctl status libvirtd.service
[...]
Active: inactive (dead) since Mon 2014-05-12 08:51:11 EDT; 4s ago
[...]
To automatically start libvirtd at boot time, either activate it using the YaST Services Manager
module or by entering the following command:
systemctl enable libvirtd.service
28
Overview
SLES 12
The following libvirt -based tools are available on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. They do
not need to be run on the VM Host Server, allowing management of VM Host Servers and VM
Guests via remote connections. This enables managing VM Host Servers centrally from a single
workstation, alleviating the need to access each VM Host Server individually.
Virtual Machine Manager ( virt-manager )
The Virtual Machine Manager is a desktop tool for managing VM Guests. It provides the
ability to control the life cycle of existing machines (start/shutdown, pause/resume, save/
restore) and create new VM Guests. It allows managing various types of storage and virtual
networks. It provides access the graphical console of VM Guests with a built-in VNC viewer
and can be used to view performance statistics. virt-manager supports connecting to a
local libvirtd , managing a local VM Host Server, or a remote libvirtd managing a
remote VM Host Server.
To start the Virtual Machine Manager, enter virt-manager at the command prompt.
virt-viewer
A viewer for the graphical console of a VM Guest. It uses SPICE (configured by default on
the VM Guest) or VNC protocols and supports TLS and x509 certificates. VM Guests can be
accessed by name, ID, or UUID. If the guest is not already running, the viewer can be told
to wait until the guest starts, before attempting to connect to the console. virt-viewer
is not installed by default and is available after installing the package virt-viewer .
29
Overview
SLES 12
virt-install
A command line tool for creating new VM Guests using the libvirt library. It supports
graphical installations via VNC or SPICE protocols. Given suitable command line arguments,
virt-install can run completely unattended. This allows for easy automation of guest
installs. virt-install is the default installation tool used by the Virtual Machine Manager.
vm-install
A tool to set up a VM Guest, configure its devices and start the operating system installation. Starts a GUI wizard when called from a graphical user interface. When invoked on
a terminal, starts the wizard in command-line mode. vm-install can be selected as the
installation tool when creating a new virtual machine in the Virtual Machine Manager.
virsh
A command line tool to manage VM Guests with similar functionality as the Virtual Ma-
chine Manager. Allows you to change a VM Guest's status (start, stop, pause, etc.) to set up
new guests and devices and to edit existing configurations. virsh is also useful to script
VM Guest management operations.
virsh works like Subversion's svn command or zypper : it takes the first arguments as
a command and further arguments as options to this command:
virsh [-c URI] commanddomain-id [OPTIONS]
30
Overview
SLES 12
Just like zypper , virsh can also be called without a command. In this case it starts a
shell waiting for your commands. This mode is useful when having to run subsequent
commands:
~> virsh -c qemu+ssh://wilber@mercury.example.com/system
Enter passphrase for key '/home/wilber/.ssh/id_rsa':
Welcome to virsh, the virtualization interactive terminal.
Type:
'help' for help with commands
'quit' to quit
virsh # hostname
mercury.example.com
31
Overview
SLES 12
9 Guest Installation
A VM Guest is comprised of an image containing an operating system and data files and a
configuration file describing the VM Guest's virtual hardware resources. VM Guests are hosted
on and controlled by the VM Host Server. This section provides generalized instructions for
installing a VM Guest.
Virtual machines have few if any requirements above those required to run the operating sys-
tem. If the operating system has not been optimized for the virtual machine host environment,
the unmodified OS can run only on hardware-assisted virtualization computer hardware, in full
virtualization mode, and requires specific device drivers to be loaded. The hardware that is
presented to the VM Guest depends on the configuration of the host.
Note: Virtual Machine Architectures
The virtual machine host runs only on AMD64 and Intel 64. Additionally, KVM for System
z is included on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server as a technology preview. It does not run on
other system architectures such as POWER. A 64-bit virtual machine host can, however,
run both 32-bit and 64-bit VM Guests.
You should be aware of any licensing issues related to running a single licensed copy of an
operating system on multiple virtual machines. Consult the operating system license agreement
for more information.
9.1 GUI-Based Guest Installation
The New VM wizard helps you through the steps required to create a virtual machine and install
its operating system. There are two ways to start it: Within Virtual Machine Manager either
click the Create New Virtual Machine icon or choose File New Virtual Machine. Alternatively,
start YaST and choose Virtualization Create Virtual Machines for Xen and KVM.
1. Start the New VM wizard either from YaST or Virtual Machine Manager.
2. Choose an installation source - either a locally available media or a network installation
source. If you would like to set up your VM Guest from an existing image, choose import
existing disk image.
32
Guest Installation
SLES 12
On a VM Host Server running the Xen hypervisor, you can choose whether to install a
paravirtualized or a fully virtualized guest. The respective option is available under Ar-
chitecture Options. Depending on this choice, not all installation options may be available.
3. Depending on your choice in the previous step, you need to provide the following data:
Local Installation Media
Specify the path on the VM Host Server to an iso image containing the installation
data. If it is available as a volume in a libvirt storage pool, you can also select it
via the Browse button (see Chapter 12, Managing Storage for more information). Alter-
natively, choose a physical CDROM or DVD inserted in the optical drive of the VM
Host Server.
Network Installation
Provide the URL pointing to the installation source. Valid URL prefixes are, for example, ftp:// , http:// , https:// , and nfs:// . Under URL Options you may
provide a path to an auto-installation file (AutoYaST or Kickstart, for example) and
Kernel parameters. Having provided a URL, the operating system should be automatically be detected correctly. If this is not the case, deselect Automatically Detect
Operating System Based on Install-Media and manually select the OS Type and Version.
Network Boot (PXE)
When booting via PXE, you only need to provide the OS Type and the Version.
Import an Existing Image
To set up the VM Guest from an existing image, you need to specify the path on
the VM Host Server to the image. If it is available as a volume in a libvirt storage
pool, you can also select it via the Browse button (see Chapter 12, Managing Storage
for more information).
4. Choose the memory size and number of CPUs for the new virtual machine.
5. This step is omitted if having chosen Import an Existing Image in the first step.
Set up a virtual hard disk for the VM Guest. Either create a new disk image or choose
an existing one from a storage pool (see Chapter 12, Managing Storage for more information). If you choose to create a disk, a qcow2 image will be created under /var/lib/
libvirt/(images .
Setting up a disk is optional. In case you are running a live system directly from CD or DVD,
for example, you can omit this step by deselecting Enable Storage for this Virtual Machine.
33
GUI-Based Guest Installation
SLES 12
6. The last screen of the wizard lets you specify the name for the virtual machine. Options
to specify the network device and the MAC address can be found under Advanced Options.
If you need to customize the configuration in detail before the installation, activate the
relevant check box. Exit the wizard with Finish. Depending on your choice, this will either
start the installation or open the VM Guest configuration screen.
Tip: Passing Key Combinations to Virtual Machines
The installation starts in a Virtual Machine Manager console window. Some key combinations, such as
Ctrl
– Alt – F1 , are recognized by the VM Host Server but are not passed
to the virtual machine. To bypass the VM Host Server, Virtual Machine Manager provides
the “sticky key” functionality. Pressing
Ctrl
,
Alt
, or
Shift
three times makes the
key sticky, then you can press the remaining keys to pass the combination to the virtual
machine.
For example, to pass
then press
Alt
Ctrl
– Alt – F2 to a Linux virtual machine, press
– F2 . You can also press
Alt
three times, then press
Ctrl
Ctrl
three times,
– F2 .
The sticky key functionality is available in the Virtual Machine Manager during and after
installing a VM Guest.
9.2 Installing from the Command Line with
virt-install
virt-install is a command line tool that helps you create new virtual machines using the
libvirt library. It is useful if you cannot use the graphical user interface, or need to automatize
the process of creating virtual machines.
virt-install is a complex script with a lot of command line switches. The following are
required. For more information, see the man page of virt-install (1).
34
Installing from the Command Line with virt-install
SLES 12
General Options
--name vm_guest_name : Specify the name of the new virtual machine. The name
must be unique across all guests known to the hypervisor on the same connection.
It is used to create and name the guest’s configuration file and you will be able to
access the guest with this name from virsh . Alphanumeric and _-.:+ characters
are allowed.
--memory required_memory : Specify the amount of memory to allocate for the new
virtual machine in megabytes.
--vcpus number_of_cpus : Specify the number of virtual CPUs. For best perfor-
mance, the number of virtual processors should be less than or equal to the number
of physical processors.
Virtualization Type
--paravirt : Set up a paravirtualized guest. This is the default if the VM Host Server
supports paravirtualization and full virtualization.
--hvm : Set up a fully guest.
--virt-type hypervisor : Specify the hypervisor. Supported values are kvm , xen ,
or lxc .
Guest Storage
Specify one of --disk , --filesystem or --nodisks the type of the storage for the new
virtual machine. For example, --disk size=10 creates 10 GB disk in the default image
location for the hypervisor and uses it for the VM Guest. --filesystem /export/path/
on/vmhost specifies the directory on the VM Host Server to be exported to the guest. And
--nodisks sets up a VM Guest without a local storage (good for Live CDs).
Installation Method
Specify the installation method using one of --location , --cdrom , --pxe , --import ,
or --boot .
Accessing the Installation
Use the --graphics value option to specify how to access the installation. SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server supports the values vnc or none .
35
Installing from the Command Line with virt-install
SLES 12
If using vnc virt-install tries to launch virt-viewer . If it is not installed or can-
not be run, connect to the VM Guest manually with you preferred viewer. To explicitly prevent virt-install from launching the viewer use --noautoconsole . To de-
fine a password for accessing the VNC session, use the following syntax: --graphics
vnc,password=PASSWORD .
In case you are using --graphics none , you can access the VM Guest through operating
system supported services, such as SSH or VNC. Refer to the operating system installation
manual on how to set up these services in the installation system.
EXAMPLE 9.1: EXAMPLE OF A virt-install COMMAND LINE
The following command line example creates a new SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12
virtual machine with a virtio accelerated disk and network card. It creates a new 10 GB
qcow2 disk image as a storage, the source installation media being the host CD-ROM drive.
It will use VNC graphics, and it will auto-launch the graphical client.
KVM
virt-install --connect qemu:///system --virt-type kvm
--name sled12 \
--memory 1024 --disk size=10 --cdrom /dev/cdrom --graphics vnc \
--os-variant sled12
Xen
virt-install --connect xen:// --virt-type xen
--name sled12 \
--memory 1024 --disk size=10 --cdrom /dev/cdrom --graphics vnc \
--os-variant sled12
9.3 Advanced Guest Installation Scenarios
This section provides instructions for operations exceeding the scope of a normal installation,
such as including add-on packages.
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9.3.1
Memory Ballooning with Windows Guests
Memory ballooning is a method to change the amount of memory used by VM Guest at runtime.
Both the KVM and Xen hypervisors provide this method, but it has to be supported by the guest
as well.
While openSUSE and SLE-based guests support memory ballooning, Windows guests need the
Virtual Machine Driver Pack (VMDP) (http://www.suse.com/products/vmdriverpack/)
to provide
ballooning. To set the maximum memory greater than the initial memory configured for Windows guests, follow these steps:
1. Install the Windows guest with the maximum memory equal or less than the initial value.
2. Install the Virtual Machine Driver Pack in the Windows guest to provide required drivers.
3. Shut down the Windows guest.
4. Reset the maximum memory of the Windows guest to the required value.
5. Start the Windows guest again.
9.3.2
Including Add-On Products in the Installation
Some operating systems such as SUSE Linux Enterprise Server offer to include add-on products in
the installation process. In case the add-on product installation source is provided via network,
no special VM Guest configuration is needed. If it is provided via CD/DVD or ISO image, it
is necessary to provide the VM Guest installation system with both, the standard installation
medium and an image for the add-on product.
In case you are using the GUI-based installation, select Customize Configuration Before Install in
the last step of the wizard and add the add-on product iso image via Add Hardware Storage.
Specify the path to the image and set the Device Type to CD-ROM.
If installing from the command line, you need to set up the virtual CD/DVD drives with the --
disk parameter rather than with --cdrom . The device that is specified first is used for booting.
The following example will install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 plus SDK:
virt-install --name sles12+sdk --memory 1024 --disk size=10 \
--disk /virt/iso/SLES12.iso,device=cdrom \
--disk /virt/iso/SLES12_SDK.iso,device=cdrom \
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--graphics vnc --os-variant sles12
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10 Basic VM Guest Management
Most management tasks, such as starting or stopping a VM Guest, can either be done using the
graphical application Virtual Machine Manager or on the command line using virsh . Connecting to the graphical console via VNC is only possible from a graphical user interface.
Note: Managing VM Guests on a Remote VM Host Server
If started on a VM Host Server the libvirt tools Virtual Machine Manager virsh and
virt-viewer can be used to manage VM Guests on the host. However, it is also possible
to manage VM Guests on a remote VM Host Server. This requires to configure remote
access for libvirt on the host. See Chapter 11, Connecting and Authorizing for instructions.
In order to connect to such a remote host with Virtual Machine Manager, you need to set
up a connection as explained in Section 11.2.2, “Managing Connections with Virtual Machine
Manager”. If connecting to a remote host using virsh or virt-viewer , you need to
specify a connection URI with the parameter -c (for example virsh -c qemu+tls://
saturn.example.com/system or virsh -c xen+ssh:// ). The form of connection URI
depends on the connection type and the hypervisor—see Section 11.2, “Connecting to a VM
Host Server” for details.
Examples in this chapter are all listed without a connection URI.
10.1 Listing VM Guests
The VM Guest listing shows all VM Guests managed by libvirt on a VM Host Server.
10.1.1
Listing VM Guests with Virtual Machine Manager
The main window of the Virtual Machine Manager shows a list of all VM Guests for each VM
Host Server it is connected to. Each VM Guest entry contains the machine's name, its status
(Running, Paused, or Shutoff) displayed as icon and literally, and a CPU usage bar.
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10.1.2
Listing VM Guests with virsh
Use the command virsh list to get a list of VM Guests:
List all running guests
virsh list
List all running and inactive guests
virsh --all
For more information and further options, see virsh help list or man 1 virsh .
10.2 Opening a Graphical Console
Opening a Graphical Console to a VM Guest lets you interact with the machine like a physical
host via a VNC connection. If accessing the VNC server requires authentication, you are prompted to enter a user name (if applicable) and a password.
Once you click into the VNC console, the cursor is “grabbed” and cannot be used outside the
console anymore. To release it, press
Alt
– Ctrl .
Tip: Seamless (Absolute) Cursor Movement
In order to prevent the console from grabbing the cursor and to enable seamless cursor
movement, add a tablet input device to the VM Guest. See Section 13.1, “Enabling Seamless
and Synchronized Cursor Movement” for more information.
Certain key combinations such as
Ctrl
– Alt – Del are interpreted by the host system and are
not passed to the VM Guest. To pass such key combinations to a VM Guest, open the Send
Key menu from the VNC window and choose the desired key combination entry. The Send Key
menu is only available when using Virtual Machine Manager and virt-viewer . With Virtual
Machine Manager you can alternatively use the “sticky key” feature as explained in Tip: Passing
Key Combinations to Virtual Machines.
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Note: Supported VNC Viewer
Principally all VNC viewers are able to connect to the console of a VM Guest. However,
if you are using SASL authentication and/or TLS/SSL connection to access the guest, the
options become limited. Common VNC viewers such as tigervnc support neither SASL
authentication nor TSL/SSL. The only supported alternative to Virtual Machine Manager
and virt-viewer is vinagre .
10.2.1 Opening a Graphical Console with Virtual Machine
Manager
1. In the Virtual Machine Manager, right-click a VM Guest entry.
2. Choose Open from the pop-up menu.
10.2.2
Opening a Graphical Console with virt-viewer
virt-viewer is a simple VNC viewer with added functionality for displaying VM Guest con-
soles. It can, for example, be started in “wait” mode, where it waits for a VM Guest to start
before it connects. It also supports automatically reconnecting to a VM Guest that is rebooted.
virt-viewer addresses VM Guests by name, by ID or by UUID. Use virsh list --all to
get this data.
To connect to a guest that is running or paused, use either the ID, UUID, or name. VM Guests
that are shut off do not have an ID—you can only connect by UUID or name.
Connect to guest with the ID 8
virt-viewer 8
Connect to the inactive guest named sles12 ; the connection window will open once the guest
starts
virt-viewer --wait sles12
With the --wait option, the connection will be upheld even if the VM Guest is not running
at the moment. Once the guest starts, the viewer will be launched.
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For more information, see virt-viewer --help or man 1 virt-viewer .
Note: Password Input on Remote connections with SSH
When using virt-viewer to open a connection to a remote host via SSH, the SSH password needs to be entered twice. The first time for authenticating with libvirt , the
second time for authenticating with the VNC server. The second password needs to be
provided on the command line where virt-viewer was started.
10.3 Changing a VM Guest's State: Start, Stop,
Pause
Starting, stopping or pausing a VM Guest can be done with either Virtual Machine Manager
or virsh . You can also configure a VM Guest to be automatically started when booting the
VM Host Server.
When shutting down a VM Guest, you may either shut it down gracefully, or force the shutdown.
The latter is equivalent to pulling the power plug on a physical host and is only recommended
if there are no alternatives. Forcing a shutdown may cause file system corruption and loss of
data on the VM Guest.
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Tip: Graceful Shutdown
In order to be able to perform a graceful shutdown, the VM Guest must be configured to
support ACPI. If you have created the guest with vm-install or with Virtual Machine
Manager, ACPI should be available. Use the following procedure in Virtual Machine Manager to check:
Double-click the VM Guest entry in Virtual Machine Manager. Choose View Details and
then Overview Machine Settings. ACPI should be checked.
Depending on the guest operating system, enabling ACPI may not be sufficient. It is strong-
ly recommended to test shutting down and rebooting a guest before releasing it to pro-
duction. openSUSE or SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, for example, may require PolKit
authorization for shutdown and reboot. Make sure this policy is turned off on all VM
Guests.
If ACPI was enabled during a Windows XP/Server 2003 guest installation, turning it on
in the VM Guest configuration alone is not sufficient. See the following articles for more
information:
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314088/EN-US/
http://support.microsoft.com/?kbid=309283
A graceful shutdown is of course always possible from within the guest operating system,
regardless of the VM Guest's configuration.
10.3.1 Changing a VM Guest's State with Virtual Machine
Manager
Changing a VM Guest's state can be done either from Virtual Machine Manager's main window,
or from a VNC window.
PROCEDURE 10.1: STATE CHANGE FROM THE VIRTUAL MACHINE MANAGER WINDOW
1. Right-click a VM Guest entry.
2. Choose Run, Pause, or one of the Shutdown options from the pop-up menu.
PROCEDURE 10.2: STATE CHANGE FROM THE VNC WINDOW
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1. Open a VNC Window as described in Section 10.2.1, “Opening a Graphical Console with Virtual
Machine Manager”.
2. Choose Run, Pause, or one of the Shut Down options either from the toolbar or from the
Virtual Machine menu.
10.3.1.1
Autostarting a VM Guest
Automatically starting a guest when the VM Host Server boots is not enabled by default. This
feature needs to be turned on for each VM Guest individually. There is no way to activate it
globally.
1. Double-click the VM Guest entry in Virtual Machine Manager to open its console.
2. Choose View Details to open the VM Guest configuration window.
3. Choose Boot Options and check Start virtual machine on host boot up.
4. Save the new configuration with Apply.
10.3.2
Changing a VM Guest's State with virsh
In the following examples the state of a VM Guest named “sles12” is changed.
Start
virsh start sles12
Pause
virsh suspend sles12
Reboot
virsh reboot sles12
Graceful shutdown
virsh shutdown sles12
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Force shutdown
virsh
destroy sles12
Turn on autostart
virsh autostart sles12
Turn off autostart
virsh autostart --disable sles12
10.4 Saving and Restoring the State of a VM
Guest
Saving a VM Guest preserves the exact state of the guest’s memory. The operation is slightly
similar to hibernating a computer. A saved VM Guest can be quickly restored to its previously
saved running condition.
When saved, the VM Guest is paused, its current memory state is saved to disk, and then the
guest is stopped. The operation does not make a copy of any portion of the VM Guest’s virtual
disk. The amount of time taken to save the virtual machine depends on the amount of memory
allocated. When saved, a VM Guest’s memory is returned to the pool of memory available on
the VM Host Server.
The restore operation loads a VM Guest’s previously saved memory state file and starts it. The
guest is not booted but rather resumes at the point where it was previously saved. The operation
is slightly similar to coming out of hibernation.
The VM Guest is saved to a state file. Make sure there is enough space on the partition you are
going to save to. Issue the following command on the guest to get a rough estimation of the
file size in megabytes to be expected:
free -m | awk '/^Mem:/ {print $3}'
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Warning
After using the save operation, do not boot or start the saved VM Guest. Doing so would
cause the machine's virtual disk and the saved memory state to get out of sync and can
result in critical errors when restoring the guest. The only "proper" way to use a saved
VM Guest is using the restore operation.
10.4.1
Saving / Restoring with Virtual Machine Manager
PROCEDURE 10.3: SAVING A VM GUEST
1. Open a VNC connection window to a VM Guest. Make sure the guest is running.
2. Choose Virtual Machine Save
3. Choose a location and a file name.
4. Click Save. Saving the guest's state may take some time. After the operation has finished,
the VM Guest will automatically shut down.
PROCEDURE 10.4: RESTORING A VM GUEST
1. Start the Virtual Machine Manager.
2. Type
Alt
– R or choose File Restore Saved Machine.
3. Choose the file you want to restore and proceed with Open. Once the file has been suc-
cessfully loaded, the VM Guest is up and running.
10.4.2
Saving / Restoring with virsh
Save a running VM Guest with the command virsh save and specify the file to where it is
saved.
Save the guest named opensuse13
virsh save opensuse13 /virtual/saves/opensuse13.vmsav
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Save the guest with the ID 37
virsh save 37 /virtual/saves/opensuse13.vmsave
To restore it, use virsh restore :
virsh restore /virtual/saves/opensuse13.vmsave
10.5 Creating and Managing Snapshots
VM Guest snapshots are snapshots of the complete virtual machine including the state of CPU,
RAM, and the content of all writable disks. To use virtual machine snapshots, you must have at
least one non-removable and writable block device using the qcow2 disk image format.
Note
Snapshots are supported on KVM VM Host Servers only.
Snapshots let you restore the state of the machine at a particular point in time. This is for
example useful to undo a faulty configuration or the installation of a lot of packages. It's also
helpful for testing purposes, since it allows you to go back to a defined state at any time.
Snapshots can be taken either from running guests or from a guest currently not running. Taking
a screenshot from a guest that is shut down ensures data integrity. In case you want to create a
snapshot from a running system, be aware of the fact that the snapshot only captures the state
of the disk(s), not the state of the memory. Therefore you need to ensure that:
all running programs have written their data to the disk. If unsure, terminate the application and/or stop the respective service.
buffers have been written to disc. This can be achieved by running the command sync
on the VM Guest.
Starting a snapshot reverts the machine back to the state it was in when the snapshot was taken.
Any changes written to the disk after that point in time will get lost when starting the snapshot.
Also note that starting a snapshot will restore the state (shut off or running) the machine was
in when having taken the snapshot. If starting a snapshot of the state Shutoff , you will have
to start the VM Guest afterwards.
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10.5.1 Creating and Managing Snapshots with Virtual Machine Manager
To open the snapshot management view in Virtual Machine Manager, open the VNC window as
described in Section 10.2.1, “Opening a Graphical Console with Virtual Machine Manager”. Now either
choose View Snapshots or click the snapshot icon in the toolbar.
The list of existing snapshots for the chosen VM Guest is displayed in the left-hand part of the
window. The snapshot that was last started is marked with a green tick. The right-hand part of
the window shows details of the snapshot currently marked in the list. These details include the
snapshot's title and time stamp, the state of the VM Guest at the time the snapshot was taken
and a description. Snapshots from running guests also include a screenshot. The Description can
be changed or added directly in this view; the other snapshot data cannot be changed.
10.5.1.1
Creating a Snapshot
To take a new snapshot of a VM Guest, proceed as follows:
1. Shut down the VM Guest in case you want to create a snapshot from a guest that is not
running.
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2. Click the plus symbol in the bottom left corner of the VNC window to open the Create
Snapshot window.
3. Provide a Name and, optionally, a description. The name cannot be changed once the
snapshot has been taken. It is recommended to use a “speaking name”, since it makes it
easier to identify the snapshot.
4. Once all data is entered, choose Finish.
10.5.1.2
Deleting a Snapshot
To delete a snapshot of a VM Guest proceed as follows:
1. Click the symbol with the red circle in the bottom left corner of the VNC window.
2. Confirm the deletion with Yes.
10.5.1.3
Starting a Snapshot
To start a snapshot, proceed as follows:
1. Click the “play” symbol in the bottom left corner of the VNC window.
2. Confirm the start with Yes.
10.5.2
Creating and Managing Snapshots with virsh
To list all existing snapshots for a domain ( admin_server in the following), run the snapshot-list command:
tux > virsh snapshot-list
Name
Creation Time
State
-----------------------------------------------------------Basic installation incl. SMT finished 2013-09-18 09:45:29 +0200 shutoff
Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD3 2013-12-11 15:11:05 +0100 shutoff
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Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD3-HA 2014-03-24 13:44:03 +0100 shutoff
Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD4 2014-07-07 11:27:47 +0200 shutoff
Beta1 Running
2013-07-12 12:27:28 +0200 shutoff
Beta2 prepared
2013-07-12 17:00:44 +0200 shutoff
Beta2 running
2013-07-29 12:14:11 +0200 shutoff
Beta3 admin node deployed 2013-07-30 16:50:40 +0200 shutoff
Beta3 prepared
2013-07-30 17:07:35 +0200 shutoff
Beta3 running
2013-09-02 16:13:25 +0200 shutoff
Cloud2 GM running
2013-12-10 15:44:58 +0100 shutoff
CLOUD3 RC prepared
2013-12-20 15:30:19 +0100 shutoff
CLOUD3-HA Build 680 prepared 2014-03-24 14:20:37 +0100 shutoff
CLOUD3-HA Build 796 installed (zypper up) 2014-04-14 16:45:18 +0200 shutoff
GMC2 post Cloud install 2013-09-18 10:53:03 +0200 shutoff
GMC2 pre Cloud install 2013-09-18 10:31:17 +0200 shutoff
GMC2 prepared (incl. Add-On Installation) 2013-09-17 16:22:37 +0200 shutoff
GMC_pre prepared
2013-09-03 13:30:38 +0200 shutoff
OS + SMT + eth[01]
2013-06-14 16:17:24 +0200 shutoff
OS + SMT + Mirror + eth[01] 2013-07-30 15:50:16 +0200 shutoff
The snapshot that was last started is shown with the snapshot-current command:
tux > virsh snapshot-current --name admin_server
Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD4
Details about a particular snapshot can be obtained by running the snapshot-info command:
tux > virsh snapshot-info sles "Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD4"
Name:
Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD4
Domain:
admin_server
Current:
yes
State:
shutoff
Location:
internal
Parent:
Basic installation incl. SMT for CLOUD3-HA
Children:
0
Descendants:
0
Metadata:
yes
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10.5.2.1
Creating a Snapshot
To take a new snapshot of a VM Guest currently not running, use the snapshot-create-as
command as follows:
virsh snapshot-screate-as --domain admin_server
--description "First snapshot"
1
--name "Snapshot 1"
2
\
3
1
Domain name. Mandatory.
2
Name of the snapshot. It is recommended to use a “speaking name”, since it makes it easier
to identify the snapshot. Mandatory.
Description for the snapshot. Optional.
3
To take a snapshot of a running VM Guest, you need to specify the --live parameter:
virsh snapshot-screate-as --domain admin_server --name "Snapshot 2" \
--description "First live snapshot" --live
Refer to the SNAPSHOT COMMANDS section in man 1 virsh for more details.
10.5.2.2
Deleting a Snapshot
To delete a snapshot of a VM Guest, use the snapshot-delete command:
virsh snapshot-delete --domain admin_server --snapshotname "Snapshot 2"
10.5.2.3
Starting a Snapshot
To start a snapshot, use the snapshot-revert command:
virsh snapshot-revert --domain admin_server --snapshotname "Snapshot 1"
To start the current snapshot (the one the VM Guest was started off), it is sufficient to use -current rather than specifying the snapshot name:
virsh snapshot-revert --domain admin_server --current
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10.6 Deleting a VM Guest
Deleting a VM Guest removes its XML configuration by default. Since the attached storage is
not deleted by default, you will be able to use it with another VM Guest. With Virtual Machine
Manager you may also delete a guest's storage files as well—this will completely erase the guest.
In order to delete a VM Guest, it has to be shut down first (refer to Section 10.3, “Changing a VM
Guest's State: Start, Stop, Pause” for instructions). It is not possible to delete a running guest.
10.6.1
Deleting a VM Guest with Virtual Machine Manager
1. In the Virtual Machine Manager, right-click a VM Guest entry.
2. Choose Delete from the pop-up menu.
3. A confirmation window opens. Clicking Delete will permanently erase the VM Guest. The
deletion is not recoverable.
You may also choose to permanently delete the guest's virtual disk by ticking Delete Associated Storage Files. The deletion is not recoverable either.
10.6.2
Deleting a VM Guest with virsh
To delete a VM Guest with virsh , run virsh undefine VM_NAME .
virsh undefine sles12
There is no option to automatically delete the attached storage files. If they are managed by
libvirt, delete them as described in Section 12.2.4, “Deleting Volumes from a Storage Pool”.
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11 Connecting and Authorizing
Having to manage several VM Host Servers, each hosting a couple of VM Guests, quickly becomes difficult to handle. One of the major benefits of libvirt is the ability to connect to
several VM Host Servers at once, providing a single interface to manage all VM Guests and to
connect to their graphical console.
In order to ensure only authorized users can connect, libvirt offers several connection types
(via TLS, SSH, Unix sockets, and TCP) that can be combined with different authorization mechanisms (socket, PolKit, SASL and Kerberos).
11.1 Authentication
The power to manage VM Guests and to access their graphical console obviously is something
that should be restricted to a well defined circle of persons. In order to achieve this goal, you
can use the following authentication techniques on the VM Host Server:
Access control for UNIX sockets with permissions and group ownership. This method is
available for libvirtd connections only.
Access control for UNIX sockets with PolKit. This method is available for local libvirtd
connections only.
User name and password authentication with SASL (Simple Authentication and Security
Layer). This method is available for both, libvirtd and VNC connections. Using SASL
does not require real user accounts on the server, since it uses its own database to store
user names and passwords. Connections authenticated with SASL are encrypted.
Kerberos authentication. This method, available for libvirtd connections only, is not
covered in this manual. Please refer to http://libvirt.org/auth.html#ACL_server_kerberos
for details.
Single password authentication. This method is available for VNC connections only.
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Important: Authentication for libvirtd and VNC need to be
configured separately
Access to the VM Guest's management functions (via libvirtd ) on the one hand, and to
its graphical console on the other hand, always needs to be configured separately. When
restricting access to the management tools, these restrictions do not automatically apply
to VNC connections!
When accessing VM Guests from remote via TLS/SSL connections, access can be indirectly controlled on each client by restricting read permissions to the certificate's key file to a certain
group. See Section 11.3.2.5, “Restricting Access (Security Considerations)” for details.
11.1.1
libvirtd Authentication
libvirtd authentication is configured in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf . The configuration
made here applies to all libvirt tools such as the Virtual Machine Manager or virsh .
libvirt offers two sockets: a read-only socket for monitoring purposes and a read-write socket
to be used for management operations. Access to both sockets can be configured independently.
By default, both sockets are owned by root.root . Default access permissions on the read-write
socket are restricted to the user root ( 0700 ) and fully open on the read-only socket ( 0777 ).
In the following instructions you will learn how to configure access permissions for the read-
write socket. The same instructions also apply to the read-only socket. All configuration steps
have to be carried out on the VM Host Server.
Note: Default Authentication Settings on SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server
The default authentication method on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is access control for
UNIX sockets. Only the user root may authenticate. When accessing the libvirt tools
as a non-root user directly on the VM Host Server, you need to provide the root password
through PolKit once and are granted access for the current and for future sessions.
Alternatively you can configure libvirt to allow “system” access to non-privileged
users. See Section 11.2.1, ““system” Access for Non-Privileged Users” for details.
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RECOMMENDED AUTHORIZATION METHODS
Local Connections
Section 11.1.1.2, “Local Access Control for UNIX Sockets with PolKit”
Section 11.1.1.1, “Access Control for UNIX Sockets with Permissions and Group Ownership”
Remote Tunnel over SSH
Section 11.1.1.1, “Access Control for UNIX Sockets with Permissions and Group Ownership”
Remote TLS/SSL Connection
Section 11.1.1.3, “User name and Password Authentication with SASL”
none (access controlled on the client side by restricting access to the certificates)
11.1.1.1 Access Control for UNIX Sockets with Permissions and Group
Ownership
In order to grant access for non- root accounts, configure the sockets to be owned and accessible
by a certain group ( libvirt in the following example). This authentication method can be
used for local and remote SSH connections.
1. In case it does not exist, create the group that should own the socket:
groupadd libvirt
Important: Group Needs to Exist
The group must exist prior to restarting libvirtd . If not, the restart will fail.
2. Add the desired users to the group:
usermod -A libvirt tux
3. Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf as follows:
55
unix_sock_group = "libvirt"
1
unix_sock_rw_perms = "0770"
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auth_unix_rw = "none"
3
1
Group ownership will be set to group libvirt .
2
Sets the access permissions for the socket ( srwxrwx--- ).
3
Disables other authentication methods (PolKit or SASL). Access is solely controlled
by the socket permissions.
4. Restart libvirtd :
systemctl start libvirtd.service
11.1.1.2
Local Access Control for UNIX Sockets with PolKit
Access control for UNIX sockets with PolKit is the default authentication method on SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server for non-remote connections. Therefore, no libvirt configuration changes
are needed. With PolKit authorization enabled, permissions on both sockets default to 0777
and each application trying to access a socket needs to authenticate via PolKit.
Important: PolKit Authentication for Local Connections Only
Authentication with PolKit can only be used for local connections on the VM Host Server
itself, since PolKit does not handle remote authentication.
Two policies for accessing libvirt 's sockets exist:
org.libvirt.unix.monitor: accessing the read-only socket
org.libvirt.unix.manage: accessing the read-write socket
By default, the policy for accessing the read-write socket is to authenticate with the root password once and grant the privilege for the current and for future sessions.
In order to grant users access to a socket without having to provide the root password, you need
to create a rule in /etc/polkit-1/rules.d . Create the file /etc/polkit-1/rules.d/10-
grant-libvirt with the following content to grant access to the read-write socket to all mem-
bers of the group libvirt :
polkit.addRule(function(action, subject) {
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if (action.id == "org.libvirt.unix.manage" && subject.isInGroup("libvirt")) {
return polkit.Result.YES;
}
});
11.1.1.3
User name and Password Authentication with SASL
SASL provides user name and password authentication as well as data encryption (digest-md5,
by default). Since SASL maintains its own user database, the users do not need to exist on the
VM Host Server. SASL is required by TCP connections and on top of TLS/SSL connections.
Important: Plain TCP and SASL with digest-md5 Encryption
Using digest-md5 encryption on an otherwise unencrypted TCP connection does not provide enough security for production environments. It is recommended to only use it in
testing environments.
Tip: SASL Authentication on Top of TLS/SSL
Access from remote TLS/SSL connections can be indirectly controlled on the client side
by restricting access to the certificate's key file. However, this might prove error-prone
when dealing with a large number of clients. Utilizing SASL with TLS adds security by
additionally controlling access on the server side.
To configure SASL authentication, proceed as follows:
1. Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf as follows:
a. To enable SASL for TCP connections:
auth_tcp = "sasl"
b. To enable SASL for TLS/SSL connections:
auth_tls = "sasl"
2. Restart libvirtd :
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systemctl restart libvirtd.service
3. The libvirt SASL configuration file is located at /etc/sasl2/libvirtd.conf . Normally,
there is no need to change the defaults. However, if using SASL on top of TLS, you may
turn off session encryption to avoid additional overhead (TLS connections are already
encrypted) by commenting the line setting the mech_list paramter. Only do this for
TSL/SASL, for TCP connections this parameter must be set to digest-md5.
#mech_list: digest-md5
4. By default, no SASL users are configured, so no logins are possible. Use the following
commands to manage users:
Add the user tux
saslpasswd2 -a libvirt tux
Delete the user tux
saslpasswd2 -a libvirt -d tux
List existing users
sasldblistusers2 -f /etc/libvirt/passwd.db
Tip: virsh and SASL Authentication
When using SASL authentication you will be prompted for a user name and password
every time you issue a virsh command. Avoid this by using virsh in shell mode.
11.1.2
VNC Authentication
Since access to the graphical console of a VM Guest is not controlled by libvirt , but rather
by the specific hypervisor, it is always necessary to additionally configure VNC authentication.
The main configuration file is /etc/libvirt/<hypervisor>.conf . This section describes the
QEMU/KVM hypervisor, so the target configuration file is /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf .
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Note: VNC Authentication for Xen
In contrast to KVM and LXC, Xen does not yet offer more sophisticated VNC authentication than setting a password on a per VM basis. See the <graphics type='vnc'...
libvirt configuration option below.
Two authentication types are available: SASL and single password authentication. If you are
using SASL for libvirt authentication, it is strongly recommended to use it for VNC authentication as well—it is possible to share the same database.
A third method to restrict access to the VM Guest is to enable the use of TLS encryption on
the VNC server. This requires the VNC clients to have access to x509 client certificates. By
restricting access to these certificates, access can indirectly be controlled on the client side.
Refer to Section 11.3.2.4.2, “VNC over TLS/SSL: Client Configuration” for details.
11.1.2.1
User name and Password Authentication with SASL
SASL provides user name and password authentication as well as data encryption. Since SASL
maintains its own user database, the users do not need to exist on the VM Host Server. As
with SASL authentication for libvirt , you may use SASL on top of TLS/SSL connections.
Refer to Section 11.3.2.4.2, “VNC over TLS/SSL: Client Configuration” for details on configuring these
connections.
To configure SASL authentication for VNC, proceed as follows:
1. Create a SASL configuration file. It is recommended to use the existing libvirt file. If
you have already configured SASL for libvirt and are planning to use the same settings
including the same userame/password database, a simple link is suitable:
ln -s /etc/sasl2/libvirt.conf /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf
In case you are setting up SASL for VNC only or planning to use a different configuration
than for libvirt , copy the existing file to use as a template and edit it according to
your needs:
cp /etc/sasl2/libvirt.conf /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf
2. Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf as follows:
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vnc_listen = "0.0.0.0"
vnc_sasl = 1
sasldb_path: /etc/libvirt/qemu_passwd.db
The first parameter enables VNC to listen on all public interfaces (rather than to the local
host only), and the second parameter enables SASL authentication.
3. By default, no SASL users are configured, so no logins are possible. Use the following
commands to manage users:
Add the user tux
saslpasswd2 -f /etc/libvirt/qemu_passwd.db -a qemu tux
Delete the user tux
saslpasswd2 -f /etc/libvirt/qemu_passwd.db -a qemu -d tux
List existing users
sasldblistusers2 -f /etc/libvirt/qemu_passwd.db
4. Restart libvirtd :
systemctl restart libvirtd.service
5. Restart all VM Guests that have been running prior to changing the configuration. VM
Guests that have not been restarted will not use SASL authentication for VNC connects.
Note: Supported VNC Viewers
Currently only the same VNC viewers that also support TLS/SSL connections, support
SASL authentication, namely Virtual Machine Manager, and virt-viewer .
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11.1.2.2
Single Password Authentication
Access to the VNC server may also be controlled by setting a VNC password. You can either
set a global password for all VM Guests or set individual passwords for each guest. The latter
requires to edit the VM Guest's configuration files.
Note: Always Set a Global Password
If you are using single password authentication, it is good practice to set a global password
even if setting passwords for each VM Guest. This will always leave your virtual machines
protected with a “fallback” password if you forget to set a per-machine password. The
global password will only be used if no other password is set for the machine.
PROCEDURE 11.1: SETTING A GLOBAL VNC PASSWORD
1. Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf as follows:
vnc_listen = "0.0.0.0"
vnc_password = "PASSWORD"
The first parameter enables VNC to listen on all public interfaces (rather than to the local
host only), and the second parameter sets the password. The maximum length of the
password is eight characters.
2. Restart libvirtd :
root # systemctl restart libvirtd.service
3. Restart all VM Guests that have been running prior to changing the configuration. VM
Guests that have not been restarted will not use password authentication for VNC connects.
PROCEDURE 11.2: SETTING A VM GUEST SPECIFIC VNC PASSWORD
1. Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf as follows to enable VNC to listen
on all public interfaces (rather than to the local host only).
vnc_listen = "0.0.0.0"
2. Open the VM Guest's XML configuration file in an editor. Replace VM NAME in the following
example with the name of the VM Guest. The editor that is used defaults to $EDITOR . If
that variable is not set, vi is used.
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virsh edit VM NAME
3. Search for the element <graphics> with the attribute type='vnc' , for example:
<graphics type='vnc' port='-1' autoport='yes'/>
4. Add the passwd=PASSWORD attribute, save the file and exit the editor. The maximum
length of the password is eight characters.
<graphics type='vnc' port='-1' autoport='yes' passwd='PASSWORD'/>
5. Restart libvirtd :
root # systemctl restart libvirtd.service
6. Restart all VM Guests that have been running prior to changing the configuration. VM
Guests that have not been restarted will not use password authentication for VNC connects.
Warning: Security
The VNC protocol is not considered to be safe. Although the password is sent encrypted,
it might be vulnerable when an attacker is able to sniff both the encrypted password and
the encryption key. Therefore, it is recommended to use VNC with TLS/SSL or tunneled
over SSH. virt-viewer , as well as the Virtual Machine Manager and vinagre from
version 2.30 on, support both methods.
11.2 Connecting to a VM Host Server
In order to connect to a hypervisor with libvirt , you need to specify a uniform resource identifier (URI). This URI is needed with virsh and virt-viewer (except when working as root
on the VM Host Server) and is optional for the Virtual Machine Manager. Although the latter
can be called with a connection parameter (for example, virt-manager -c qemu:///system ),
it also offers a graphical interface to create connection URIs. See Section 11.2.2, “Managing Connections with Virtual Machine Manager” for details.
HYPERVISOR
62
1
+PROTOCOL
2
://USER@REMOTE
3
/CONNECTION_TYPE
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1
Specify the hypervisor. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server currently supports the following hypervisors: test (dummy for testing), qemu (KVM), and xen (Xen). This parameter is
mandatory.
2
When connecting to a remote host, specify the protocol here. It can be one of: ssh (connection via SSH tunnel), tcp (TCP connection with SASL/Kerberos authentication), tls
(TLS/SSL encrypted connection with authentication via x509 certificates).
3
When connecting to a remote host, specify the user and the remote host name. If no user
is specified, the user name that has called the command ( $USER ) is used. Please see below
for more information. For TLS connections the host name has to be specified exactly as
in the x509 certificate.
4
When connecting to the QEMU/KVM hypervisor, two connection types are accepted: sys-
tem for full access rights, or session for restricted access. Since session access is not
supported on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, this documentation focuses on system access.
EXAMPLE HYPERVISOR CONNECTION URIS
test:///default
Connect to the local dummy hypervisor. Useful for testing.
qemu:///system or xen:///system
Connect to the QEMU/Xen hypervisor on the local host having full access (type system).
qemu+ssh://tux@mercury.example.com/system
or
xen+ssh://
tux@mercury.example.com/system
Connect to the QEMU/Xen hypervisor on the remote host mercury.example.com. The connection is established via an SSH tunnel.
qemu+tls://saturn.example.com/system or xen+tls://saturn.example.com/system
Connect to the QEMU/Xen hypervisor on the remote host mercury.example.com. The connection is established using TLS/SSL.
For more details and examples, refer to the libvirt documentation at http://libvirt.org/
uri.html
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Note: User Names in URIs
A user name needs to be specified when using Unix socket authentication (regardless of
whether using the user/password authentication scheme or PolKit). This applies to all
SSH and local connections.
There is no need to specify a user name when using SASL authentication (for TCP or TLS
connections) or when doing no additional server-side authentication for TLS connections.
With SASL the user name will not be evaluated—you will be prompted for an SASL user/
password combination in any case.
11.2.1
“system” Access for Non-Privileged Users
As mentioned above, a connection to the QEMU hypervisor can be established using two different protocols: session and system . A “session” connection is spawned with the same privi-
leges as the client program. Such a connection is intended for desktop virtualization, since it
is restricted (for example no USB/PCI device assignments, no virtual network setup, limited
remote access to libvirtd ).
The “system” connection intended for server virtualization has no functional restrictions but
is, by default, only accessible by root . However, with the addition of the DAC (Discretionary
Access Control) driver to libvirt it is now possible to grant non-privileged users “system”
access. To grant “system” access to the user tux , proceed as follows:
PROCEDURE 11.3: GRANTING “SYSTEM” ACCESS TO A REGULAR USER
1. Enable access via UNIX sockets as described in Section 11.1.1.1, “Access Control for UNIX Sock-
ets with Permissions and Group Ownership”. In that example access to libvirt is granted to all
members of the group libvirt and tux is made a member of this group. This ensures
that tux can connect using virsh or Virtual Machine Manager.
2. Edit /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf and change the configuration as follows:
user = "tux"
group = "libvirt"
dynamic_ownership = 1
This ensures that the VM Guests are started by tux and that resources bound to the guest
(for example virtual disks) can be accessed and modified by tux .
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3. Make tux a member of the group kvm :
usermod -A kvm tux
This step is needed to grant access to /dev/kvm , which is required to start VM Guests.
4. Restart libvirtd :
root # systemctl restart libvirtd.service
11.2.2
Managing Connections with Virtual Machine Manager
The Virtual Machine Manager uses a Connection for every VM Host Server it manages. Each
connection contains all VM Guests on the respective host. By default, a connection to the local
host is already configured and connected.
All configured connections are displayed in the Virtual Machine Manager main window. Active
connections are marked with a small triangle, which you can click in order to fold or unfold
the list of VM Guests for this connection.
Inactive connections are listed gray and are marked with Not Connected . Either double-click
or right-click it and choose Connect from the context menu. You can also Delete an existing
connection from this menu.
Note: Editing Existing Connections
It is not possible to edit an existing connection. In order to change a connection, create
a new one with the desired parameters and delete the “old” one.
To add a new connection in the Virtual Machine Manager, proceed as follows:
1. Choose File Add Connection
2. Choose the host's Hypervisor (Xen or QEMU/KVM)
3. Choose a Connection type—either Local for connecting to the host the Virtual Machine
Manager was started on, or one of the remote connections (see Section 11.3, “Configuring
Remote Connections” for more information).
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4. In case of a remote connection, enter the Hostname of the remote machine as
USERNAME@REMOTE_HOST . User names must be specified for local connections as well as
for SSH.
Important: Specifying a User Name
There is no need to specify a user name for TCP and TLS connections; it will not be
evaluated anyway. A user name must be specified for local connections as well as
for SSH connections—if not, the default user root will be used.
5. If you do not want the connection to be automatically activated when starting the Virtual
Machine Manager, remove the tick from Autoconnect.
6. Finish the configuration by clicking Connect.
11.3 Configuring Remote Connections
A major benefit of libvirt is the ability to manage VM Guests on different remote hosts from
a central location. This section gives detailed instructions on how to configure server and client
to allow remote connections.
11.3.1
Remote Tunnel over SSH (qemu+ssh or xen+ssh)
Enabling a remote connection that is tunneled over SSH on the VM Host Server only requires the
ability to accept SSH connections. Make sure the SSH daemon is started ( systemctl status
sshd.service ) and that the ports for service SSH are opened in the firewall.
User authentication for SSH connections can be done using traditional file user/group ownership
and permissions as described in Section 11.1.1.1, “Access Control for UNIX Sockets with Permissions and
Group Ownership”. Connecting as user tux ( qemu+ssh://tuxsIVname;/system or xen+ssh://
tuxsIVname;/system ) works out of the box and does not require additional configuration on
the libvirt side.
When connecting via SSH qemu+ssh://USER@SYSTEM or xen+ssh://USER@SYSTEM you need to
provide the password for USER . This can be avoided by copying your public key to ~USER/.ssh/
authorized_keys on the VM Host Server as explained in Book “Security Guide” 14 “SSH: Secure
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Network Operations”14.5.2 “Copying an SSH Key”. Using an ssh-agent on the machine from which
you are connecting adds even more convenience—see Book “Security Guide” 14 “SSH: Secure
Network Operations”14.5.3 “Using the ssh-agent” for instructions.
11.3.2 Remote TLS/SSL Connection with x509 Certificate (qemu+tls or xen+tls)
Using TCP connections with TLS/SSL encryption and authentication via x509 certificates is
much more complicated to set up than SSH, but it is a lot more scalable. Use this method if you
have to manage several VM Host Servers with a varying number of administrators.
11.3.2.1
Basic concept
TLS (Transport Layer Security) encrypts the communication between two computers by using
certificates. The computer starting the connection is always considered the “client”, using a
“client certificate”, while the receiving computer is always considered the “server”, using a
“server certificate”. This scenario applies, for example, if you manage your VM Host Servers
from a central desktop.
If connections are initiated from both computers, each needs to have a client and a server certificate. This is the case, for example, if you migrate a VM Guest from one host to another.
Each x509 certificate has a matching private key file. Only the combination of certificate and
private key file is able to identify itself correctly. In order to assure that a certificate was issued
by the assumed owner, it is signed and issued by a central certificate called certificate authority
(CA). Both the client and the server certificates must be issued by the same CA.
Important: User Authentication
Using a remote TLS/SSL connection only ensures that two computers are allowed to
communicate in a certain direction. Restricting access to certain users can indirectly be
achieved on the client side by restricting access to the certificates. Refer to Section 11.3.2.5,
“Restricting Access (Security Considerations)” for details. libvirt also supports user authen-
tication on the server with SASL. Read more in Section 11.3.2.6, “Central User Authentication
with SASL for TLS Sockets”.
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11.3.2.2
Configuring the VM Host Server
The VM Host Server is the machine receiving connections. Therefore, the server certificates have
to be installed. The CA certificate needs to be installed, as well. Once the certificates are in
place, TLS support can be turned on for libvirt .
1. Create the server certificate and export it together with the CA certificate as described in
Section B.2, “Generating x509 Client/Server Certificates”.
2. Create the following directories on the VM Host Server:
mkdir -p /etc/pki/CA/ /etc/pki/libvirt/private/
Install the certificates as follows:
/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt/servercert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt/private/serverkey.pem
Important: Restrict Access to Certificates
Make sure to restrict access to certificates as explained in Section 11.3.2.5, “Restricting
Access (Security Considerations)”.
3. Enable TLS support by editing /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf and setting listen_tls
= 1 . Restart libvirtd :
root # systemctl restart libvirtd.service
4. By default, libvirt uses the TCP port 16514 for accepting secure TLS connections. Open
this port in the firewall.
Important: Restarting libvirtd with TLS enabled
If you enable TLS for libvirt , the server certificates need to be in place, otherwise
restarting libvirtd will fail. You also need to restart libvirtd in case you change the
certificates.
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11.3.2.3
Configuring the Client and Testing the Setup
The client is the machine initiating connections. Therefore the client certificates have to be
installed. The CA certificate needs to be installed, as well.
1. Create the client certificate and export it together with the CA certificate as described in
Section B.2, “Generating x509 Client/Server Certificates”.
2. Create the following directories on the client:
mkdir -p /etc/pki/CA/ /etc/pki/libvirt/private/
Install the certificates as follows:
/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt/clientcert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt/private/clientkey.pem
Important: Restrict Access to Certificates
Make sure to restrict access to certificates as explained in Section 11.3.2.5, “Restricting
Access (Security Considerations)”.
3. Test
the
client/server
setup
by
issuing
the
following
command.
Replace
mercury.example.com with the name of your VM Host Server. Specify the same full
qualified host name as used when creating the server certificate.
#QEMU/KVM
virsh -c qemu+tls://mercury.example.com/system list --all
#Xen
virsh -c xen+tls://mercury.example.com/system list --all
If your setup is correct, you will see a list of all VM Guests registered with libvirt on
the VM Host Server.
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11.3.2.4
Enabling VNC for TLS/SSL connections
Currently, VNC communication over TLS is only supported by a few tools. The widespread
tightvnc or tigervnc viewer, for example, do not support TLS. Known to work are the Virtual
Machine Manager ( virt-manager ), virt-viewer and the GNOME VNC viewer vinagre .
11.3.2.4.1
VNC over TLS/SSL: VM Host Server Configuration
In order to access the graphical console via VNC over TLS/SSL, you need to configure the VM
Host Server as follows:
1. Open ports for the service VNC in your firewall.
2. Create a directory /etc/pki/libvirt-vnc and link the certificates into this directory
as follows:
mkdir -p /etc/pki/libvirt-vnc && cd /etc/pki/libvirt-vnc
ln -s /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem ca-cert.pem
ln -s /etc/pki/libvirt/servercert.pem server-cert.pem
ln -s /etc/pki/libvirt/private/serverkey.pem server-key.pem
3. Edit /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf and set the following parameters:
vnc_listen = "0.0.0.0"
vnc_tls = 1
vnc_tls_x509_verify = 1
4. Restart the libvirtd :
root # systemctl restart libvirtd.service
Important: VM Guests Need to be Restarted
The VNC TLS setting is only set when starting a VM Guest. Therefore, you need
to restart all machines that have been running prior to making the configuration
change.
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11.3.2.4.2
VNC over TLS/SSL: Client Configuration
The only action needed on the client side is to place the x509 client certificates in a location
recognized by the client of choice. Unfortunately, each supported client—Virtual Machine Manager, virt-viewer , and vinagre —expects the certificates in a different location. However,
Virtual Machine Manager and vinagre can either read from a system-wide location applying
to all users, or from a per-user location.
Virtual Machine Manager ( virt-manager )
In order to connect to the remote host, Virtual Machine Manager requires the setup explained in Section 11.3.2.3, “Configuring the Client and Testing the Setup”. In order to be able to
connect via VNC the client certificates also need to be placed in the following locations:
System-wide location
/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/clientcert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/private/clientkey.pem
Per-user location
/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
~/.pki/libvirt-vnc/clientcert.pem
~/.pki/libvirt-vnc/private/clientkey.pem
virt-viewer
virt-viewer only accepts certificates from a system-wide location:
/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/clientcert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/private/clientkey.pem
Important: Restrict Access to Certificates
Make sure to restrict access to certificates as explained in Section 11.3.2.5, “Restricting Access
(Security Considerations)”.
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11.3.2.5
Restricting Access (Security Considerations)
Each x509 certificate consists of two pieces: the public certificate and a private key. A client
can only authenticate using both pieces. Therefore, any user that has read access to the client
certificate and its private key can access your VM Host Server. On the other hand, an arbitrary
machine equipped with the full server certificate can pretend to be the VM Host Server. Since
this is probably not desirable, access to at least the private key files needs to be restricted as
much as possible. The easiest way to control access to a key file is to use access permissions.
Server Certificates
Server certificates need to be readable for QEMU processes. On SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server QEMU processes started from libvirt tools are owned by root , so it is sufficient
if root is able to read them certificates:
chmod 700 /etc/pki/libvirt/private/
chmod 600 /etc/pki/libvirt/private/serverkey.pem
If you change the ownership for QEMU processes in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf , you also
need to adjust the ownership of the key file.
System Wide Client Certificates
To control access to a key file that is available system-wide, restrict read access to a certain
group, so that only members of that group can read the key file. In the following example,
a group libvirt is created, and group ownership of the clientkey.pem file and its
parent directory is set to libvirt . Afterwards, the access permissions are restricted to
owner and group. Finally the user tux is added to the group libvirt , and thus will be
able to access the key file.
CERTPATH="/etc/pki/libvirt/"
# create group libvirt
groupadd libvirt
# change ownership to user root and group libvirt
chown root.libvirt $CERTPATH/private $CERTPATH/clientkey.pem
# restrict permissions
chmod 750 $CERTPATH/private
chmod 640 $CERTPATH/private/clientkey.pem
# add user tux to group libvirt
usermod -A libvirt tux
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Per-User Certificates
User-specific client certificates for accessing the graphical console of a VM Guest via VNC
need to be placed in the user's home directory in ~/.pki . Contrary to SSH, for example,
the VNC viewer using these certificates do not check the access permissions of the private
key file. Therefore, it is solely the user's responsibility to make sure the key file is not
readable by others.
11.3.2.5.1
Restricting Access from the Server Side
By default, every client that is equipped with appropriate client certificates may connect to a
VM Host Server accepting TLS connections. Therefore, it is possible to use additional server-side
authentication with SASL as described in Section 11.1.1.3, “User name and Password Authentication
with SASL”.
It is also possible to restrict access with a whitelist of DNs (distinguished names), so only clients
with a certificate matching a DN from the list can connect.
Add a list of allowed DNs to tls_allowed_dn_list in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf . This
list may contain wild cards. Do not specify an empty list, since that would result in refusing
all connections.
tls_allowed_dn_list = [
"C=US,L=Provo,O=SUSE Linux Products GmbH,OU=*,CN=venus.example.com,EMAIL=*",
"C=DE,L=Nuremberg,O=SUSE Linux Products GmbH,OU=Documentation,CN=*"]
Get the distinguished name of a certificate with the following command:
certtool -i --infile /etc/pki/libvirt/clientcert.pem | grep "Subject:"
Restart libvirtd after having changed the configuration:
root # systemctl restart libvirtd.service
11.3.2.6
Central User Authentication with SASL for TLS Sockets
A direct user authentication via TLS is not possible—this is handled indirectly on each client via
the read permissions for the certificates as explained in Section 11.3.2.5, “Restricting Access (Security
Considerations)”. However, if a central, server-based user authentication is needed, libvirt also
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allows to use SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer) on top of TLS for direct user
authentication. See Section 11.1.1.3, “User name and Password Authentication with SASL” for configuration details.
11.3.2.7
Troubleshooting
11.3.2.7.1
Virtual Machine Manager/virsh Cannot Connect to Server
Check the following in the given order:
Is it a firewall issue (TCP port 16514 needs to be open on the server)?
Is the client certificate (certificate and key) readable by the user that has started Virtual Machine
Manager/ virsh ?
Has the same full qualified host name as in the server certificate been specified with the connection?
Is TLS enabled on the server ( listen_tls = 1 )?
Has libvirtd been restarted on the server?
11.3.2.7.2
VNC Connection fails
Ensure that you can connect to the remote server using Virtual Machine Manager. If so, check
whether the virtual machine on the server has been started with TLS support. The virtual
machine's name in the following example is “sles”.
ps ax | grep qemu | grep "\-name sles" | awk -F" -vnc " '{ print FS $2 }'
If the output does not begin with a string similar to the following, the machine has not been
started with TLS support and must be restarted.
-vnc 0.0.0.0:0,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/libvirt
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12 Managing Storage
When managing a VM Guest on the VM Host Server itself, it is possible to access the complete file
system of the VM Host Server in order to attach or create virtual hard disks or to attach existing
images to the VM Guest. However, this is not possible when managing VM Guests from a remote
host. For this reason, libvirt supports so called “Storage Pools”, which can be accessed from
remote machines.
Tip: CD/DVD ISO images
In order to be able to access CD/DVD ISO images on the VM Host Server from remote,
they also need to be placed in a storage pool.
libvirt knows two different types of storage: volumes and pools.
Storage Volume
A storage volume is a storage device that can be assigned to a guest—a virtual disk or
a CD/DVD/floppy image. Physically (on the VM Host Server) it can be a block device (a
partition, a logical volume, etc.) or a file.
Storage Pool
A storage pool is a storage resource on the VM Host Server that can be used for storing
volumes, similar to network storage for a desktop machine. Physically it can be one of
the following types:
File System Directory (dir)
A directory for hosting image files. The files can be either one of the supported disk
formats (raw, qcow2, or qed), or ISO images.
Physical Disk Device (disk)
Use a complete physical disk as storage. A partition is created for each volume that
is added to the pool.
Pre-Formatted Block Device (fs)
Specify a partition to be used in the same way as a file system directory pool (a
directory for hosting image files). The only difference to using a file system directory
is the fact that libvirt takes care of mounting the device.
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iSCSI Target (iscsi)
Set up a pool on an iSCSI target. You need to have been logged into the volume once
before, in order to use it with libvirt (use the YaST iSCSI Initiator to detect and
log in to a volume, see Book “Storage Administration Guide” for details). Volume
creation on iSCSI pools is not supported, instead each existing Logical Unit Number
(LUN) represents a volume. Each volume/LUN also needs a valid (empty) partition
table or disk label before you can use it. If missing, use fdisk to add it:
~ # fdisk -cu /dev/disk/by-path/ip-192.168.2.100:3260-iscsiiqn.2010-10.com.example:[...]-lun-2
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI
or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xc15cdc4e.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by
w(rite)
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
LVM Volume Group (logical)
Use an LVM volume group as a pool. You may either use a predefined volume group,
or create a group by specifying the devices to use. Storage volumes are created as
partitions on the volume.
Warning: Deleting the LVM-Based Pool
When the LVM-based pool is deleted in the Storage Manager, the volume group
is deleted as well. This results in a non-recoverable loss of all data stored on
the pool!
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Multipath Devices (mpath)
At the moment, multipathing support is limited to assigning existing devices to the
guests. Volume creation or configuring multipathing from within libvirt is not
supported.
Network Exported Directory (netfs)
Specify a network directory to be used in the same way as a file system directory
pool (a directory for hosting image files). The only difference to using a file system
directory is the fact that libvirt takes care of mounting the directory. Supported
protocols are NFS and glusterfs.
SCSI Host Adapter (scsi)
Use an SCSI host adapter in almost the same way as an iSCSI target. It is recommended
to use a device name from /dev/disk/by-* rather than the simple /dev/sdX , since
the latter may change (for example when adding or removing hard disks). Volume
creation on iSCSI pools is not supported; instead, each existing LUN (Logical Unit
Number) represents a volume.
Warning: Security Considerations
In order to avoid data loss or data corruption, do not attempt to use resources such as
LVM volume groups, iSCSI targets, etc. that are used to build storage pools on the VM
Host Server, as well. There is no need to connect to these resources from the VM Host
Server or to mount them on the VM Host Server— libvirt takes care of this.
Do not mount partitions on the VM Host Server by label. Under certain circumstances
it is possible that a partition is labeled from within a VM Guest with a name already
existing on the VM Host Server.
12.1 Managing Storage with Virtual Machine
Manager
The Virtual Machine Manager provides a graphical interface—the Storage Manager— to manage
storage volumes and pools. To access it, either right-click a connection and choose Details, or
highlight a connection and choose Edit Connection Details. Select the Storage tab.
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12.1.1
Adding a Storage Pool
To add a storage pool, proceed as follows:
1. Click the plus symbol in the bottom left corner to open the Add a New Storage Pool Window.
2. Provide a Name for the pool (consisting of alphanumeric characters plus _-.) and select a
Type. Proceed with Forward.
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3. Specify the required details in the following window. The data that needs to be entered
depends on the type of pool you are creating:
Typedir:
Target Path: Specify an existing directory.
Typedisk:
Target Path: The directory that hosts the devices. The default value /dev should
fit in most cases.
Format: Format of the device's partition table. Using auto should work in most
cases. If not, get the required format by running the command parted -l on
the VM Host Server.
Source Path: Path to the device. It is recommended to use a device name from /
dev/disk/by-* rather than the simple /dev/sdX , since the latter may change
(for example when adding or removing hard disks). You need to specify the
path that resembles the whole disk, not a partition on the disk (if existing).
Build Pool: Activating this option formats the device. Use with care—all data
on the device will be lost!
Typefs:
Target Path: Mount point on the VM Host Server file system.
Format: File system format of the device. The default value auto should work.
Source Path: Path to the device file. It is recommended to use a device name
from /dev/disk/by-* rather than the simple /dev/sdX , since the latter may
change (for example when adding or removing hard disks).
Typeiscsi:
Get the necessary data by running the following command on the VM Host Server:
iscsiadm --mode node
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It will return a list of iSCSI volumes with the following format. The elements highlighted with a bold font are the ones needed:
IP_ADDRESS:PORT,TPGT TARGET_NAME_(IQN)
Target Path: The directory containing the device file. Use /dev/disk/by-path
(default) or /dev/disk/by-id .
Host Name: Host name or IP address of the iSCSI server.
Source Path: The iSCSI target name (IQN).
Typelogical:
Target Path: In case you use an existing volume group, specify the existing
device path. In case of building a new LVM volume group, specify a device
name in the /dev directory that does not already exist.
Source Path: Leave empty when using an existing volume group. When creating
a new one, specify its devices here.
Build Pool: Only activate when creating a new volume group.
Typempath:
Target Path: Support of multipathing is currently limited to making all multi-
path devices available. Therefore you may enter an arbitrary string here (required, otherwise the XML parser will fail); it will be ignored anyway.
Typenetfs:
target Path: Mount point on the VM Host Server file system.
Format: Network file system protocol.
Host Name: IP address or hostname of the server exporting the network file
system.
Source Path: Directory on the server that is being exported.
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Typescsi:
Target Path: The directory containing the device file. Use /dev/disk/by-path
(default) or /dev/disk/by-id .
Source Path: Name of the SCSI adapter.
Note: File Browsing
Using the file browser by clicking on Browse is not possible when operating from
remote.
4. Click Finish to add the storage pool.
12.1.2
Managing Storage Pools
Virtual Machine Manager's Storage Manager lets you create or delete volumes in a pool. You
may also temporarily deactivate or permanently delete existing storage pools. Changing the
basic configuration of a pool is currently not supported by SUSE.
12.1.2.1
Starting, Stopping and Deleting Pools
The purpose of storage pools is to provide block devices located on the VM Host Server that can
be added to a VM Guest when managing it from remote. In order to make a pool temporarily
inaccessible from remote, you may Stop it by clicking on the stop symbol in the bottom left
corner of the Storage Manager. Stopped pools are marked with State: Inactive and are grayed
out in the list pane. By default, a newly created pool will be automatically started On Boot of
the VM Host Server.
To Start an inactive pool and make it available from remote again click the play symbol in the
bottom left corner of the Storage Manager.
Note: A Pool's State Does not Affect Attached Volumes
Volumes from a pool attached to VM Guests are always available, regardless of the pool's
state (Active (stopped) or Inactive (started)). The state of the pool solely affects the ability
to attach volumes to a VM Guest via remote management.
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To permanently make a pool inaccessible, you can Delete it by clicking on the shredder symbol
in the bottom left corner of the Storage Manager. You may only delete inactive pools. Deleting a
pool does not physically erase its contents on VM Host Server—it only deletes the pool configuration. However, you need to be extra careful when deleting pools, especially when deleting
LVM volume group-based tools:
Warning: Deleting Storage Pools
Deleting storage pools based on local file system directories, local partitions or disks has
no effect on the availability of volumes from these pools currently attached to VM Guests.
Volumes located in pools of type iSCSI, SCSI, LVM group or Network Exported Directory
will become inaccessible from the VM Guest if the pool is deleted. Although the volumes
themselves will not be deleted, the VM Host Server will no longer have access to the
resources.
Volumes on iSCSI/SCSI targets or Network Exported Directory will become accessible
again when creating an adequate new pool or when mounting/accessing these resources
directly from the host system.
When deleting an LVM group-based storage pool, the LVM group definition will be erased
and the LVM group will no longer exist on the host system. The configuration is not
recoverable and all volumes from this pool are lost.
12.1.2.2
Adding Volumes to a Storage Pool
Virtual Machine Manager lets you create volumes in all storage pools, except in pools of types
Multipath, iSCSI, or SCSI. A volume in these pools is equivalent to a LUN and cannot be changed
from within libvirt .
1. A new volume can either be created using the Storage Manager or while adding a new
storage device to a VM Guest. In both cases, select a Storage Pool and then click New
Volume.
2. Specify a Name for the image and choose an image format (note that SUSE currently only
supports raw , qcow2 , or qed images). The latter option is not available on LVM groupbased pools.
Specify a Max Capacity and the amount of space that should initially be allocated. If both
values differ, a sparse image file, growing on demand, will be created.
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3. Start the volume creation by clicking Finish.
12.1.2.3
Deleting Volumes From a Storage Pool
Deleting a volume can only be done from the Storage Manager, by selecting a volume and
clicking Delete Volume. Confirm with Yes. Use this function with extreme care!
Warning: No Checks Upon Volume Deletion
A volume will be deleted in any case, regardless of whether it is currently used in an
active or inactive VM Guest. There is no way to recover a deleted volume.
Whether a volume is used by a VM Guest is indicated in the Used By column in the Storage
Manager.
12.2 Managing Storage with virsh
Managing storage from the command line is also possible by using virsh . However, creating
storage pools is currently not supported by SUSE. Therefore this section is restricted to document
functions like starting, stopping and deleting pools and volume management.
A list of all virsh subcommands for managing pools and volumes is available by running virsh
help pool and virsh help volume , respectively.
12.2.1
Listing Pools and Volumes
List all pools currently active by executing the following command. To also list inactive pools,
add the option --all :
virsh pool-list --details
Details about a specific pool can be obtained with the pool-info subcommand:
virsh pool-info POOL
Volumes can only be listed per pool by default. To list all volumes from a pool, enter the following command.
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virsh vol-list --details POOL
At the moment virsh offers no tools to show whether a volume is used by a guest or not. The
following procedure describes a way to list volumes from all pools that are currently used by
a VM Guest.
PROCEDURE 12.1: LISTING ALL STORAGE VOLUMES CURRENTLY USED ON A VM HOST SERVER
1. Create an XSLT style sheet by saving the following content to a file, for example, ~/
libvirt/guest_storage_list.xsl:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0"
xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
<xsl:output method="text"/>
<xsl:template match="text()"/>
<xsl:strip-space elements="*"/>
<xsl:template match="disk">
<xsl:text>
</xsl:text>
<xsl:value-of select="(source/@file|source/@dev|source/@dir)[1]"/>
<xsl:text>&#10;</xsl:text>
</xsl:template>
</xsl:stylesheet>
2. Run the following commands in a shell. It is assumed that the guest's XML definitions are
all stored in the default location ( /etc/libvirt/qemu ). xsltproc is provided by the
package libxslt .
SSHEET="$HOME/libvirt/guest_storage_list.xsl"
cd /etc/libvirt/qemu
for FILE in *.xml; do
basename $FILE .xml
xsltproc $SSHEET $FILE
done
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12.2.2
Starting, Stopping and Deleting Pools
Use the virsh pool subcommands to start, stop or delete a pool. Replace POOL with the pool's
name or its UUID in the following examples:
Stopping a Pool
virsh pool-destroy POOL
Note: A Pool's State Does not Affect Attached Volumes
Volumes from a pool attached to VM Guests are always available, regardless of the
pool's state (Active (stopped) or Inactive (started)). The state of the pool solely affects
the ability to attach volumes to a VM Guest via remote management.
Deleting a Pool
virsh pool-delete POOL
Warning: Deleting Storage Pools
See Warning: Deleting Storage Pools
Starting a Pool
virsh pool-start POOL
Enable Autostarting a Pool
virsh pool-autostart POOL
Only pools that are marked to autostart will automatically be started if the VM Host Server
reboots.
Disable Autostarting a Pool
virsh pool-autostart POOL --disable
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12.2.3
Adding Volumes to a Storage Pool
virsh offers two ways to create storage pools: either from an XML definition with vol-create
and vol-create-from or via command line arguments with vol-create-as . The first two
methods are currently not supported by SUSE, therefore this section focuses on the subcommand
vol-create-as .
To add a volume to an existing pool, enter the following command:
virsh vol-create-as POOL
1
NAME
2
12G --format
3
raw|qcow2|qed
4
--allocation 4G
5
1
Name of the pool to which the volume should be added
2
Name of the volume
3
Size of the image, in this example 12 gigabytes. Use the suffixes k, M, G, T for kilobyte,
megabyte, gigabyte, and terabyte, respectively.
4
Format of the volume. SUSE currently supports raw , qcow2 , and qed .
5
Optional parameter. By default virsh creates a sparse image file that grows on demand.
Specify the amount of space that should be allocated with this parameter (4 gigabytes in
this example). Use the suffixes k, M, G, T for kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, and terabyte,
respectively.
When not specifying this parameter, a sparse image file with no allocation will be gener-
ated. If you want to create a non-sparse volume, specify the whole image size with this
parameter (would be 12G in this example).
12.2.3.1
Cloning Existing Volumes
Another way to add volumes to a pool is to clone an existing volume. The new instance is always
created in the same pool as the original.
virsh vol-clone NAME_EXISTING_VOLUME
1
NAME_NEW_VOLUME
2
--pool POOL
3
1
Name of the existing volume that should be cloned
2
Name of the new volume
3
Optional parameter. libvirt tries to locate the existing volume automatically. If that
fails, specify this parameter.
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12.2.4
Deleting Volumes from a Storage Pool
To permanently delete a volume from a pool, use the subcommand vol-delete :
virsh vol-delete NAME --pool POOL
--pool is optional. libvirt tries to locate the volume automatically. If that fails, specify this
parameter.
Warning: No Checks Upon Volume Deletion
A volume will be deleted in any case, regardless of whether it is currently used in an
active or inactive VM Guest. There is no way to recover a deleted volume.
Whether a volume is used by a VM Guest can only be detected by using by the method
described in Procedure 12.1, “Listing all Storage Volumes Currently Used on a VM Host Server”.
12.3 Locking Disk Files and Block Devices with
virtlockd
Locking block devices and disk files prevents concurrent writes to these resources from different
VM Guests. It provides protection against starting the same VM Guest twice, or adding the same
disk to two different virtual machines. This will reduce the risk of a virtual machine's disk image
becoming corrupted as a result of a wrong configuration.
The locking is controlled by a daemon called virtlockd . Since it operates independently from
the libvirtd daemon, locks will endure a crash or a restart of libvirtd . Locks will even
persist in the case of an update of the virtlockd itself, since it has the ability to re-execute
itself. This ensures that VM Guests do not have to be restarted upon a virtlockd update.
Note
virtlockd integration is only supported on a KVM VM Host Server.
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12.3.1
Enable Locking
Locking virtual disks is not enabled by default on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. To enable and
automatically start it upon rebooting, perform the following steps:
1. Edit /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf and set
lock_manager = "lockd"
2. Start the virtlockd daemon with the following command:
systemctl start virtlockd.service
3. Restart the libvirtd daemon with:
systemctl restart libvirtd.service
4. Make sure virtlockd is automatically started when booting the system:
systemctl enable virtlockd.service
12.3.2
Configure Locking
By default virtlockd is configured to automatically lock all disks configured for your VM
Guests. The default setting uses a "direct" lockspace, where the locks are acquired against the
actual file paths associated with the VM Guest <disk> devices. For example, flock(2) will
be called directly on /var/lib/libvirt/images/my-server/disk0.raw when the VM Guest
contains the following <disk> device:
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
<driver name='qemu' type='raw'/>
<source file='/var/lib/libvirt/images/my-server/disk0.raw'/>
<target dev='vda' bus='virtio'/>
</disk>
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The virtlockd configuration can be changed by editing the file /etc/libvirt/qe-
mu-lockd.conf . It also contains detailed comments with further information. Make sure to ac-
tivate configuration changes by reloading virtlockd :
systemctl reload virtlockd.service
Note: Locking Currently Only Available for All Disks
As of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 locking can only be activated globally, so that all
virtual disks are locked. Support for locking selected disks is planned for future releases.
12.3.2.1
Enabling an Indirect Lockspace
virtlockd 's default configuration uses a “direct” lockspace, where the locks are acquired
against the actual file paths associated with the <disk> devices. If the disk file paths are not
accessible to all hosts, virtlockd can be configured to allow an “indirect” lockspace, where a
hash of the disk file path is used to create a file in the indirect lockspace directory. The locks
are then held on these hash files instead of the actual disk file paths. Indirect lockspace is also
useful if the file system containing the disk files does not support fcntl() locks. An indirect
lockspace is specified with the file_lockspace_dir setting:
file_lockspace_dir = "/MY_LOCKSPACE_DIRECTORY"
12.3.2.2
Enable Locking on LVM or iSCSI Volumes
When wanting to lock virtual disks placed on LVM or iSCSI volumes shared by several hosts,
locking needs to be done by UUID rather than by path (which is used by default). Furthermore,
the lockspace directory needs to be placed on a shared file system accessible by all hosts sharing
the volume. Set the following options for LVM and/or iSCSI:
lvm_lockspace_dir = "/MY_LOCKSPACE_DIRECTORY"
iscsi_lockspace_dir = "/MY_LOCKSPACE_DIRECTORY"
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12.4 Online Resizing of Guest Block Devices
Sometimes you need to change—extend or shrink—the size of the block device used by your
guest system. For example, when the disk space originally allocated is no longer enough, it is
time to increase its size. If the guest disk resides on a logical volume, you can resize it while the
guest system is running. This is a big advantage over an offline disk resizing (see the virt-
resize command from the Section 17.3, “Guestfs Tools” package) as the service provided by the
guest is not interrupted by the resizing process. To resize a VM Guest disk, follow these steps:
PROCEDURE 12.2: ONLINE RESIZING OF GUEST DISK
1. Inside the guest system, check the current size of the disk (for example /dev/vda ).
root # fdisk -l /dev/vda
Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes, 312581808 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
2. On the host, resize the logical volume holding the /dev/vda disk of the guest to the
required size, for example 200 GB.
root # lvresize -L 2048M /dev/mapper/vg00-home
Extending logical volume home to 2.00 GiB
Logical volume home successfully resized
3. On the host, resize the block device related to the disk /dev/mapper/vg00-home of the
guest. Note that you can find the domain_id with virsh list .
root # virsh blockresize
--path /dev/vg00/home --size 2048M domain_id
Block device '/dev/vg00/home' is resized
4. Check that the new disk size is accepted by the guest.
root # fdisk -l /dev/vda
Disk /dev/sda: 200.0 GB, 200052357120 bytes, 390727260 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
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13 Configuring Virtual Machines
Virtual Machine Manager's Details view offers in-depth information about the VM Guest's complete configuration and hardware equipment. Using this view, you can also change the guest
configuration or add and modify virtual hardware. To access this view, open the guest's con-
sole in Virtual Machine Manager and either choose View Details from the menu, or click the
bulb icon in the toolbar.
FIGURE 13.1: DETAILS VIEW OF A VM GUEST
13.1 Enabling Seamless and Synchronized Cursor Movement
When you click within a VM Guest's console with the mouse, the cursor is captured by the console window and cannot be used outside the console unless it is explicitly released (by pressing
Alt
– Ctrl ). To prevent the console from grabbing the key and to enable seamless cursor
movement between host and guest instead, add a tablet to the VM Guest.
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Adding a tablet has the additional advantage of synchronizing the cursor movement between
VM Host Server and VM Guest when using a graphical environment on the guest. With no tablet
configured on the guest, you will often see two cursor symbols with one dragging behind the
other.
1. Double-click a VM Guest entry in the Virtual Machine Manager to open its console and
switch to the Details view with View Details.
2. Click Add Hardware and choose Input and then EvTouch USB Graphics Tablet in the pop-
up window. Proceed with Finish.
3. If you try to add the tablet while the guest is still running, you will be asked whether to
enable the tablet after the next reboot. Confirm with Yes.
4. Once you (re)start the VM Guest, the tablet is available in the VM Guest.
13.2 Adding a CD/DVD-ROM Device with Virtual
Machine Manager
KVM supports CD or DVD-ROMs in VM Guest either by directly accessing a physical drive on
the VM Host Server or by accessing ISO images. To create an ISO image from an existing CD
or DVD, use dd :
dd if=/dev/cd_dvd_device of=my_distro.iso bs=2048
To add a CD/DVD-ROM device to your VM Guest, proceed as follows:
1. Double-click a VM Guest entry in the Virtual Machine Manager to open its console and
switch to the Details view with View Details.
2. Click Add Hardware and choose Storage in the pop-up window. Proceed with Forward.
3. Change the Device Type to IDE CDROM.
4. Select Select Managed or Other Existing Storage.
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a. To assign the device to a physical medium, enter the path to the VM Host Server's
CD/DVD-ROM device (for example, /dev/cdrom ) next to the Browse button. Alternatively you may use the Browse button to open a file browser and then click Browse
Local to select the device. Assigning the device to a physical medium is only possible
when the Virtual Machine Manager was started on the VM Host Server.
b. To assign the device to an existing image, click Browse to choose an image from a
storage pool. If the Virtual Machine Manager was started on the VM Host Server,
you may alternatively choose an image from another location on the file system by
clicking Browse Local. Select an image and close the file browser with Choose Volume.
5. Proceed with Forward to review the settings. Apply them with Finish, Yes, and Apply.
6. Reboot the VM Guest to make the new device available. For further information also see
Section 13.4, “Ejecting and Changing Floppy or CD/DVD-ROM Media with Virtual Machine Manager”.
13.3 Adding a Floppy Device with Virtual Machine
Manager
Currently KVM only supports the use of floppy disk images—using a physical floppy drive is not
supported. Create a floppy disk image from an existing floppy using dd :
dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/var/lib/libvirt/images/floppy.img
To create an empty floppy disk image use one of the following commands:
Raw Image
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/lib/libvirt/images/floppy.img bs=512 count=2880
FAT Formatted Image
mkfs.msdos -C /var/lib/libvirt/images/floppy.img 1440
To add a floppy device to your VM Guest, proceed as follows:
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1. Double-click a VM Guest entry in the Virtual Machine Manager to open its console and
switch to the Details view with View Details.
2. Click Add Hardware and choose Storage in the pop-up window. Proceed with Forward.
3. Change the Device Type to Floppy Disk.
4. Choose Select Managed or Other Existing Storage and click Browse to choose an existing
image from a storage pool. If Virtual Machine Manager was started on the VM Host Server,
you may alternatively choose an image from another location on the file system by clicking
Browse Local. Select an image and close the file browser with Choose Volume.
5. Proceed with Forward to review the settings. Apply them with Finish, Yes, and Apply.
6. Reboot the VM Guest to make the new device available. For further information also see
Section 13.4, “Ejecting and Changing Floppy or CD/DVD-ROM Media with Virtual Machine Manager”.
13.4 Ejecting and Changing Floppy or CD/DVDROM Media with Virtual Machine Manager
Regardless of whether you are using the VM Host Server's physical CD/DVD-ROM device or an
ISO/floppy image, before you can change the media or image of an existing device in the VM
Guest, you first need to disconnect the media from the guest.
1. Double-click a VM Guest entry in the Virtual Machine Manager to open its console and
switch to the Details view with View Details.
2. Choose the Floppy or CD/DVD-ROM device and “eject” the media by clicking Disconnect.
3. To “insert” a new media, click Connect.
a. If using the VM Host Server's physical CD/DVD-ROM device, first change the media
in the device (this may require unmounting it on the VM Host Server before it can be
ejected). Then choose CD-ROM or DVD and select the device from the drop-down list.
b. If using an ISO image, choose ISO image Location and select an image by clicking
Browse. When connecting from a remote host, you may only choose images from
existing storage pools.
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4. Click OK to finish. The new media can now be accessed in the VM Guest.
13.5 Change the Machine Type with virsh
By default, when installing with virt-install or vm-install tools, the machine type for VM
Guest is pc-i440fx. The machine type is stored in the libvirt 's xml configuration file between
the <type> tag. You should have something like this in your configuration:
<type arch='x86_64' machine='pc-i440fx-2.0'>hvm</type>
Let's change this value to the new supported q35 machine type. q35 is an Intel* chipset. It
includes PCIe. q35 supports up to 12 USB ports, and has SATA and IOMMU support. IRQ routing
has also been improved.
1. Check that your VM Guest is inactive:
virsh list --inactive
Id
Name
State
----------------------------------------------------
sles11
shut off
2. Edit the configuration for this VM Guest:
virsh edit sles11
3. Change the value between the <type> </type> tag pair:
<type arch='x86_64' machine='pc-q35-2.0'>hvm</type>
4. Now you can restart the VM Guest.
virsh start sles11
5. Now check that the machine type has changed. Log into the VM Guest as root and run
the following command:
root # dmidecode | grep Product
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Change the Machine Type with virsh
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Product Name: Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
13.6 Adding a PCI Device with Virtual Machine
Manager
You can add PCI devices to guests using the graphical virt-manager tool. Once the PCI device
is assigned to one VM Guest, it cannot be used by another one unless re-assigned. The following
procedure adds a USB controller to a virtualized guest.
1. Double-click a VM Guest entry in the Virtual Machine Manager to open its console and
switch to the Details view with View Details.
2. Click Add Hardware and choose the PCI Host Device category in the left pane. A list of host
PCI devices appears in the right part of the window.
3. From the list of available PCI devices, choose the USB controller to assign to the VM Guest.
It may read for example USB2 Enhanced Host Controller . Confirm with Finish.
Tip
You cannot assign a PCI device live to a running VM Guest. If you are trying to add
a PCI device to a running machine, the Virtual Machine Manager will ask if you
want to assign the PCI device after the next VM Guest shutdown. Confirm with Yes,
and after you reboot the VM Guest, the device assignment will be finished.
13.7 Adding a PCI Device with virsh
To dedicate and assign a PCI device to VM Guest with virsh , follow these steps:
1. Identify the PCI device.
Use the virsh nodedev-list or lspci -n commands to identify the PCI device designated for pass-through to VM Guest.
The following command lists available PCI devices only:
virsh nodedev-list | grep pci
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Adding a PCI Device with Virtual Machine Manager
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Note that PCI devices are identified by a string in the following format ( 8086 is a vari-
able that represents Intel architecture, and **** stands for a four-digit hexadecimal code
specific to each device):
pci_8086_****
Remember the PCI device number—you will need it in future steps.
2. Gather the information about the domain, bus, and function:
tux >
virsh nodedev-dumpxml pci_8086_1d26
<device>
<name>pci_8086_1d26</name>
<parent>computer</parent>
<driver>
<name>ehci_hcd</name>
</driver>
<capability type='pci'>
<domain>0</domain>
<bus>0</bus>
<slot>29</slot>
<function>0</function>
<product id='0x1d26'>Patsburg USB2 Enhanced Host Controller #1</product>
<vendor id='0x8086'>Intel Corporation</vendor>
<capability type='virt_functions'>
</capability>
</capability>
</device>
3. Detach the device from the host system prior to attaching it to VM Guest.
tux > virsh nodedev-detach pci_8086_1d26
Device pci_8086_1d26 detached
4. Convert the bus, slot, and function value from decimal to hexadecimal, and prepend '0x'
to tell the system that the value is hexadecimal. In our example, bus = 0, slot = 29, and
function = 0. Their hexadecimal values are:
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Adding a PCI Device with virsh
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tux > printf %x 0
0
tux > printf %x 29
1d
Bus and function hexadecimal numbers are '0x00', while slot number is '0x1d'.
5. Run virsh edit on your domain, and add the following device entry in the <devices>
section.
<hostdev mode='subsystem' type='pci' managed='no'>
<source>
<address domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x1d' function='0x00'/>
</source>
</hostdev>
Tip: 'managed' vs. 'unmanaged'
libvirt recognizes two modes for handling PCI devices: they can be either 'man-
aged' or 'unmanaged'. In the managed case, libvirt will handle all the details of
unbinding the device from the existing driver if needed, resetting the device, binding it to pci-stub before starting the domain, etc. When the domain is terminated
or the device is removed from the domain, libvirt will unbind from pci-stub
and rebind to the original driver in the case of a managed device. If the device
is unmanaged, the user must take care to ensure all of these management aspects
of the device are done before assigning it to a domain, and after the device is no
longer used by the domain.
In our example, the managed='no' option means that the device is 'unmanaged',
and we need to take care of the related driver with the virsh nodedev-detach
and virsh nodedev-attach commands. To switch the device mode to 'managed',
replace the snippet with managed='yes' , and skip the remaining steps (apart from
starting the guest).
6. Once the VM Guest system is ready to use the PCI device, tell the host to stop using it.
First check what driver the host system is using for the PCI device.
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Adding a PCI Device with virsh
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tux > readlink /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000\:00\:1d.0/driver
../../../bus/pci/drivers/pci-stub
7. In our case, the pci-stub driver is loaded, so you can start the virtual machine. It will
be able to use the PCI device automatically.
virsh start sles
Tip
When using a multi-function PCI device that does not support FLR (function level
reset) or PM (power management) reset, you need to detach all its functions from
the VM Host Server. The device must be reset for security reasons, and without FLR
or PM reset, you must reset the whole device. libvirt will refuse to do this if a
function of the device is still in use by the VM Host Server or another VM Guest.
You can safely detach a device function from the VM Guest with the virsh nodedev-detach command.
Tip
If your PCI device is not 'managed', and the driver controlling the PCI device is not
pci-stub , you have to detach it from the device first:
virsh nodedev-detach pci_8086_1d26
Tip
If you are running SELinux on your host, you need to disable it for now with
setsebool -P virt_use_sysfs 1
and then start the virtual machine.
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13.8 Adding SR-IOV Devices
Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) capable PCIe devices are able to replicate their resources,
so they appear to be multiple devices. Each of these "pseudo-devices" can be assigned to a VM
Guest.
SR-IOV is an industry specification that was created by the Peripheral Component Interconnect
Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG) consortium. It introduces physical functions (PF) and virtual
functions (VF). PFs are full PCIe functions used to manage and configure the device. PFs also
have the ability to move data. VFs lack the configuration and management part—they only have
the ability to move data and a reduced set of configuration functions. Since VFs do not have all
PCIe functions, the host operating system or the Hypervisor must support SR-IOV in order to be able
to access and initialize VFs. The theoretical maximum for VFs is 256 per device (consequently
the maximum for a dual-port Ethernet card would be 512). In practice this maximum is much
lower, since each VF consumes resources.
13.8.1
Requirements
The following requirements must be met in order to be able to use SR-IOV:
An SR-IOV-capable network card (as of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, only network
cards support SR-IOV)
An x86_64 host supporting hardware virtualization (AMD-V or Intel VT-x), see Section 7.3,
“KVM Hardware Requirements” for more information
a chipset that supports device assignment (AMD-Vi or Intel VT-d)
libvirt-0.9.10 or better
SR-IOV drivers must be loaded and configured on the host system
iommu enabled in the Hypervisor (e.g. intel_iommu=on on the linux command line of the
host)
a list of the PCI addresses of the VF(s) that will be assigned to VM Guests
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Tip: Checking if a Device is SR-IOV-Capable
The information whether a device is SR-IOV-capable can be obtained from its PCI descriptor by running lspci . A device that supports SR-IOV reports a capability similar to
the following:
Capabilities: [160 v1] Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)
13.8.2
Loading and Configuring the SR-IOV Host Drivers
In order to be able to access and initialize VFs, an SR-IOV-capable driver has to be loaded on
the host system.
1. Before loading the driver, make sure the card is properly detected by running lspci . The
following example shows the lspci output for the dual-port Intel 82576NS network card:
tux > sudo /sbin/lspci | grep 82576
01:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
01:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
04:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
04:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
In case the card is not detected, it is likely that the hardware virtualization support in the
BIOS/EFI has not been enabled.
2. Check whether the SR-IOV driver is already loaded by running lsmod . In the following
example a check for the igb driver (for the Intel 82576NS network card) returns a result.
That means the driver is already loaded. If the command returns nothing, the driver is
not loaded.
tux > sudo /sbin/lsmod | egrep "^igb "
igb
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Loading and Configuring the SR-IOV Host Drivers
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3. Skip this step if the driver is already loaded.
If the SR-IOV driver is not yet loaded, the non-SR-IOV driver needs to be removed first, before
loading the new driver. Use rmmod to unload a driver. The following example unloads
the non-SR-IOV driver for the Intel 82576NS network card:
sudo /sbin/rmmod igbvf
Load the SR-IOV driver subsequently using the modprobe command:
sudo /sbin/modprobe igb
4. Re-run the lspci command from the first step of this procedure. If the SR-IOV driver was
loaded successfully you should see additional lines for the VFs:
01:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
01:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
01:10.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
01:10.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
01:10.2 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
[...]
04:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
04:00.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576NS Gigabit Network
Connection (rev 01)
04:10.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
04:10.1 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
04:10.2 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
[...]
5. Configure the driver by adding the number of VFs you would like to make available and
—if necessary—by blacklisting the non-SR-IOV driver:
sudo echo -e "options igb max_vfs=8\nblacklist igbvf" >> /etc/modprobe.d/50igb/
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Make sure to replace the example values igb , igbvf and 50-igb by values appropriate
for your driver.
6. Now make sure the driver is loaded on boot. Create the file /etc/modules-load.d/
igb.conf with the following content:
# Load igb.ko at boot
igb
Make sure to replace the example value igb by a value appropriate for your driver.
7. Reboot the machine and check if the SR-IOV driver is loaded.
13.8.3
Adding a VF Network Device to an Existing VM Guest
Once the SR-IOV hardware is properly set up on the VM Host Server, you can add VFs to VM
Guests. In order to do so, you need to collect some data first.
Note: The following procedure is using example data. Make sure to replace it by appropriate data from your setup.
1. Use the virsh nodedev-list command to get the PCI address of the VF you want
to assign and its corresponding PF. Numerical values from the lspci output shown in
Section 13.8.2, “Loading and Configuring the SR-IOV Host Drivers” (for example 01:00.0 or
04:00.1 ) are transformed by adding the prefix "pci_0000_" and by replacing colons and
dots with underscores. So a PCI ID listed as "04:00.0" by lspci is listed as "pci_0000_04_00_0"
by virsh. The following example lists the PCI IDs for the second port of the Intel 82576NS
network card:
tux > sudo virsh nodedev-list | grep 0000_04_
pci_0000_04_00_0
pci_0000_04_00_1
pci_0000_04_10_0
pci_0000_04_10_1
pci_0000_04_10_2
pci_0000_04_10_3
pci_0000_04_10_4
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pci_0000_04_10_5
pci_0000_04_10_6
pci_0000_04_10_7
pci_0000_04_11_0
pci_0000_04_11_1
pci_0000_04_11_2
pci_0000_04_11_3
pci_0000_04_11_4
pci_0000_04_11_5
The first two entries represent the PFs, whereas the other entries represent the VFs.
2. Get more data that will be needed by running the command virsh nodedev-dumpxml
on the PCI ID of the VF you want to add:
tux > sudo virsh nodedev-dumpxml pci_0000_04_10_0
<device>
<name>pci_0000_04_10_0</name>
<parent>pci_0000_00_02_0</parent>
<capability type='pci'>
<domain>0</domain>
<bus>4</bus>
<slot>16</slot>
<function>0</function>
<product id='0x10ca'>82576 Virtual Function</product>
<vendor id='0x8086'>Intel Corporation</vendor>
<capability type='phys_function'>
<address domain='0x0000' bus='0x04' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
</capability>
</capability>
</device>
The following data is needed for the next step:
<domain>0</domain>
<bus>4</bus>
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<slot>16</slot>
<function>0</function>
3. Create a temporary XML file (for example /tmp/vf-interface.xml containing the data
necessary to add a VF network device to an existing VM Guest. The minimal content of
the file needs to look like the following:
<interface type='hostdev'>
1
<source>
<address type='pci' domain='0' bus='11' slot='16' function='0'2/>
2
</source>
</interface>
1
VFs do not get a fixed MAC address; it changes every time the host reboots. When
adding network devices the “traditional” way with <hostdev>, it would require to
reconfigure the VM Guest's network device after each reboot of the host, because
of the MAC address change. To avoid this kind of problem, libvirt introduced the
“interface type='hostdev'” directive, which sets up network-specific data before assigning the device.
2
Specify the data you acquired in the previous step here.
4. Last, add the VF interface to an existing VM Guest:
virsh attach-device GUEST /tmp/vf-interface.xml --OPTION
GUEST needs to be replaced by the domain name, id or uuid of the VM Guest and -- OPTION
can be one of the following:
--persistent
This option will always add the device to the domain's persistent XML. In addition,
if the domain is running, it will be hotplugged.
--config
This option will only affect the persistent XML, even if the domain is running. The
device will only show up in the guest on next boot.
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--live
This option will only affect a running domain. If the domain is inactive, the operation
will fail. The device is not persisted in the XML and won't be available in the guest
on next boot.
--current
This option affects the current state of the domain. If the domain is inactive, the
device is added to the persistent XML and will be available on next boot. If the
domain is active, the device is hotplugged but not added to the persistent XML.
To detach a VF interface, use the virsh detach-device command, which also takes the
options listed above.
13.8.4
Dynamic Allocation of VFs from a Pool
If you define the PCI address of a VF into a guest's configuration statically as described in
Section 13.8.3, “Adding a VF Network Device to an Existing VM Guest”, it is hard to migrate such guest
to another host. The host must have exactly the same hardware in the same location on the PCI
bus, or the guest configuration must be modified prior to each start.
Another approach is to create a libvirt network with a device pool that contains all the VFs
of an SR-IOV device. The guest then references this network, and each time it is started, a single
VF is dynamically allocated to it. When the guest is stopped, the VF is returned to the pool,
available for another guest.
13.8.4.1
Defining Network with Pool of VFs on VM Host Server
The following example of network definition creates a pool of all VFs for the SR-IOV device with
its physical function (PF) at the network interface eth0 on the host:
<network>
<name>passthrough</name>
<forward mode='hostdev' managed='yes'>
<pf dev='eth0'/>
</forward>
</network>
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To use this network on the host, save the above code to a file, for example /tmp/
passthrough.xml , and execute the following commands. Remember to replace eth0 with the
real network interface name of your SR-IOV device's PF:
virsh net-define /tmp/passthrough.xml
virsh net-autostart passthrough
virsh net-start passthrough
13.8.4.2
Configuring VM Guest to Use VF from the Pool
The following example of guest device interface definition makes use of a VF of the SR-IOV
device from the pool created in Section 13.8.4.1, “Defining Network with Pool of VFs on VM Host Server”.
libvirt automatically derives the list of all VFs associated with that PF the first time the guest
is started.
<interface type='network'>
<source network='passthrough'>
</interface>
To verify the list of associated VFs, run virsh net-dumpxml passthrough on the host after
the first guest that uses the network with the pool of VFs starts.
<network connections='1'>
<name>passthrough</name>
<uuid>a6a26429-d483-d4ed-3465-4436ac786437</uuid>
<forward mode='hostdev' managed='yes'>
<pf dev='eth0'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x10' function='0x1'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x10' function='0x3'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x10' function='0x5'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x10' function='0x7'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x11' function='0x1'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x11' function='0x3'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x11' function='0x5'/>
</forward>
</network>
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14 Administrating VM Guests
14.1 Migrating VM Guests
One of the major advantages of virtualization is the fact that VM Guests are portable. When a
VM Host Server needs to go down for maintenance, or when the host gets overloaded, the guests
can easily be moved to another VM Host Server. KVM and Xen even support “live” migrations
during which the VM Guest is constantly available.
14.1.1
Migration Requirements
In order to successfully migrate a VM Guest to another VM Host Server, the following requirements need to be met:
It is recommended that the source and destination systems have the same architecture,
however it is possible to migrate between hosts with AMD* and Intel* architectures.
Storage devices must be accessible from both machines (for example, via NFS or iSCSI) and
must be configured as a storage pool on both machines (see Chapter 12, Managing Storage
for more information). This is also true for CD-ROM or floppy images that are connected
during the move (however, you may disconnect them prior to the move as described in
Section 13.4, “Ejecting and Changing Floppy or CD/DVD-ROM Media with Virtual Machine Manager”).
libvirtd needs to run on both VM Host Servers and you must be able to open a remote
libvirt connection between the target and the source host (or vice versa). Refer to Sec-
tion 11.3, “Configuring Remote Connections” for details.
If a firewall is running on the target host, ports need to be opened to allow the migration.
If you do not specify a port during the migration process, libvirt chooses one from the
range 49152:49215. Make sure that either this range (recommended) or a dedicated port
of your choice is opened in the firewall on the target host.
Host and target machine should be in the same subnet on the network, otherwise networking will not work after the migration.
No running or paused VM Guest with the same name must exist on the target host. If a
shut down machine with the same name exists, its configuration will be overwritten.
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All CPU models except host cpu model are supported when migrating VM Guests.
SATA disk device type is not migratable.
File system pass-through feature is incompatible with migration.
The VM Host Server and VM Guest need to have proper timekeeping installed. See Chapter 16, VM Guest Clock Settings.
Section 28.3.1.2, “virtio-blk-data-plane” is not supported for migration.
No physical devices can be passed from host to guest. Live migration is currently not supported when using devices with PCI passthrough or SR-IOV. In case live migration needs
to be supported, you need to use software virtualization (paravirtualization or full virtualization).
Cache mode setting is an important setting for migration. See: Section 29.5, “Effect of Cache
Modes on Live Migration”.
Backward migration is not supported (migration from SP3 to SP2 or SP1 or GA).
The image directory should be located in the same path on both hosts.
14.1.2
Migrating with virt-manager
When using the Virtual Machine Manager to migrate VM Guests, it does not matter on which
machine it is started. You can start Virtual Machine Manager on the source or the target host
or even on a third host. In the latter case you need to be able to open remote connections to
both the target and the source host.
1. Start Virtual Machine Manager and establish a connection to the target or the source host.
If the Virtual Machine Manager was started neither on the target nor the source host,
connections to both hosts need to be opened.
2. Right-click the VM Guest that is to be migrated and choose Migrate. Make sure the guest
is running or paused—it is not possible to migrate guests that are shut down.
3. Choose a New Host for the VM Guest. If the desired target host does not show up, make
sure a connection to this host has been established.
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By default, a “live” migration is performed. If you prefer an “offline” migration where the
VM Guest is paused during the migration, tick Migrate offline.
4. Click Migrate to start a migration with the default port and bandwidth. In order to change
these defaults, make the advanced options available by clicking the triangle at Advanced
Options. Here you can enter the target host's Address (IP address or hostname), a Port and
the Bandwidth in megabits per second (Mbps). If you specify a Port, you must also specify
an Address; the Bandwidth is optional.
5. Once the migration is complete, the Migrate window closes and the VM Guest is now listed
on the new host in the Virtual Machine Manager window. The original VM Guest will still
be available on the target host (in shut down state).
14.1.3
Migrating with virsh
To migrate a VM Guest with virsh migrate , you need to have direct or remote shell access to
the VM Host Server, because the command needs to be run on the host. The migration command
looks like this:
virsh migrate [OPTIONS] VM_ID_or_NAMECONNECTION URI [--migrateuri
tcp://REMOTE_HOST:PORT]
The most important options are listed below. See virsh help migrate for a full list.
--live
Does a live migration. If not specified, an offline migration—where the VM Guest is paused
during the migration—will be performed.
--suspend
Does an offline migration and does not restart the VM Guest on the target host.
--persistent
By default a migrated VM Guest will be migrated transient, so its configuration is auto-
matically deleted on the target host if it is shut down. Use this switch to make the migration persistent.
--undefinesource
When specified, the VM Guest definition on the source host will be deleted after a successful migration (however, virtual disks attached to this guest will not be deleted).
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The
following
examples
use
mercury.example.com
as
the
source
system
and
jupiter.example.com as the target system; the VM Guest's name is opensuse131 with Id 37 .
Offline migration with default parameters
virsh migrate 37 qemu+ssh://tux@jupiter.example.com/system
Transient live migration with default parameters
virsh migrate --live opensuse131 qemu+ssh://tux@jupiter.example.com/system
Persistent live migration; delete VM definition on source
virsh migrate --live --persistent --undefinesource 37 \
qemu+tls://tux@jupiter.example.com/system
Offline migration using port 49152
virsh migrate opensuse131 qemu+ssh://tux@jupiter.example.com/system \
--migrateuri tcp://@jupiter.example.com:49152
Note: Transient vs. Persistent Migrations
By default virsh migrate creates a temporary (transient) copy of the VM Guest on the
target host. A shut down version of the original guest description remains on the source
host. A transient copy will be deleted from the server once it is shut down.
In order to create a permanent copy of a guest on the target host, use the switch --
persistent . A shut down version of the original guest description remains on the source
host, too. Use the option --undefinesource together with --persistent for a “real”
move where a permanent copy is created on the target host and the version on the source
host is deleted.
It is not recommended to use --undefinesource without the --persistent option,
since this will result in the loss of both VM Guest definitions when the guest is shut down
on the target host.
14.1.4
112
Step-by-Step Example
Step-by-Step Example
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14.1.4.1
Exporting the Storage
First you need to export the storage, to share the Guest image between host. This can be done
by an NFS server. In the following example we want to share the /volume1/VM directory for all
machines that are on the network 10.0.1.0/24. We will use a SUSE Linux Enterprise NFS server.
As root user, edit the /etc/exports file and add:
/volume1/VM 10.0.1.0/24
(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
You need to restart the NFS server:
root # systemctl restart nfsserver
root # exportfs
/volume1/VM
14.1.4.2
10.0.1.0/24
Defining the Pool on the Target Hosts
On each host where you want to migrate the VM Guest, the pool must be defined to be able
to access the volume (that contains the Guest image). Our NFS server IP address is 10.0.1.99,
its share is the /volume1/VM directory, and we want to get it mounted in the /var/lib/libvirt/images/VM directory. The pool name will be VM. To define this pool, create a VM.xml
file with the following content:
<pool type='netfs'>
<name>VM</name>name>
<source>
<host name='10.0.1.99'/>>
<dir path='/volume1/VM'/>>
<format type='auto'/>>
</source>source>
<target>
<path>/var/lib/libvirt/images/VM</path>path>
<permissions>
<mode>0755</mode>mode>
<owner>-1</owner>owner>
<group>-1</group>group>
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Step-by-Step Example
SLES 12
</permissions>permissions>
</target>target>
</pool>pool>
Then load it into libvirt using the pool-define command:
root # virsh pool-define VM.xml
An alternative way to define this pool is to use the virsh command:
root # virsh pool-define-as VM --type netfs --source-host 10.0.1.99 \
--source-path /volume1/VM --target /var/lib/libvirt/images/VM
Pool VM created
Then the pool can be set to start automatically at host boot (autostart option):
virsh # pool-autostart VM
Pool VM marked as autostarted
If you want to disable the autostart:
virsh # pool-autostart VM --disable
Pool VM unmarked as autostarted
Check if the pool is present:
virsh # pool-list --all
Name
State
Autostart
------------------------------------------default
active
yes
VM
active
yes
virsh # pool-info VM
Name:
VM
UUID:
42efe1b3-7eaa-4e24-a06a-ba7c9ee29741
State:
running
Persistent:
yes
Autostart:
yes
114
Step-by-Step Example
SLES 12
Capacity:
2,68 TiB
Allocation:
2,38 TiB
Available:
306,05 GiB
Warning
Remember: this pool must be defined on each host where you want to be able to migrate
your VM Guest.
14.1.4.3
Creating the Volume
The pool has been defined—now we need a volume which will contain the disk image:
virsh # vol-create-as VM sled12.qcow12 8G --format qcow2
Vol sled12.qcow12 created
The volume names shown will be used later to install the guest with virt-install.
14.1.4.4
Creating the VM Guest
Let's create a SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop VM Guest with the virt-install command. The
VM pool will be specified with the --disk option, cache=none is recommended if you don't
want to use the --unsafe option while doing the migration.
root # virt-install --connect qemu:///system --virt-type kvm --name \
sled12 --memory 1024 --disk vol=VM/sled12.qcow2,cache=none --cdrom \
/mnt/install/ISO/SLE-12-Desktop-DVD-x86_64-Build0327-Media1.iso --graphics \
vnc --os-variant sled12
Starting install...
Creating domain...
14.1.4.5
Migrate the VM Guest
Everything is ready to do the migration now. Just run the migrate command on the VM Host
Server that is currently hosting the VM Guest, and choose the destination.
115
Step-by-Step Example
SLES 12
virsh # migrate --live sled12 --verbose qemu+ssh://IP/Hostname/system
Password:
Migration: [ 12 %]
14.2 Monitoring
14.2.1
Monitoring with Virtual Machine Manager
After starting Virtual Machine Manager and connecting to the VM Host Server, a CPU usage
graph of all the running guests is displayed.
It is also possible to get information about disk and network usage with this tool, however, you
must first activate this in Preferences:
1. Run virt-manager .
2. Select Edit Preferences.
3. Change the tab from General to Stats.
4. Activate the check boxes for Disk I/O and Network I/O.
5. If desired, also change the update interval or the number of samples that are kept in the
history.
6. Close the Preferences dialog.
7. Activate the graphs that should be displayed under View Graph.
Afterwards, the disk and network statistics are also displayed in the main window of the Virtual
Machine Manager.
More precise data is available from the VNC window. Open a VNC window as described in
Section 10.2, “Opening a Graphical Console”. Choose Details from the toolbar or the View menu. The
statistics are displayed from the Performance entry of the left-hand tree menu.
116
Monitoring
SLES 12
14.2.2
Monitoring with kvm_stat
kvm_stat can be used to trace KVM performance events. It monitors /sys/kernel/de-
bug/kvm , so it needs the debugfs to be mounted. On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server it should be
mounted by default. In case it is not mounted, use the following command:
mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
kvm_stat can be used in three different modes:
kvm_stat
# update in 1 second intervals
kvm_stat -1
# 1 second snapshot
kvm_stat -l > kvmstats.log
# update in 1 second intervals in log format
# can be imported to a spreadsheet
EXAMPLE 14.1: TYPICAL OUTPUT OF kvm_stat
kvm statistics
efer_reload
0
0
11378946
218130
fpu_reload
62144
152
halt_exits
414866
100
halt_wakeup
260358
50
host_state_reload
539650
249
0
0
6227331
173067
0
0
invlpg
227281
47
io_exits
113148
18
irq_exits
168474
127
irq_injections
482804
123
irq_window
51270
18
largepages
0
0
mmio_exits
6925
0
mmu_cache_miss
71820
19
mmu_flooded
35420
9
mmu_pde_zapped
64763
20
exits
hypercalls
insn_emulation
insn_emulation_fail
117
Monitoring with kvm_stat
SLES 12
mmu_pte_updated
0
0
213782
29
0
0
128690
17
46
-1
nmi_injections
0
0
nmi_window
0
0
pf_fixed
1553821
857
pf_guest
1018832
562
174007
37
request_irq
0
0
signal_exits
0
0
394182
148
mmu_pte_write
mmu_recycled
mmu_shadow_zapped
mmu_unsync
remote_tlb_flush
tlb_flush
See http://clalance.blogspot.com/2009/01/kvm-performance-tools.html
on how to interpret these values.
118
for further information
Monitoring with kvm_stat
SLES 12
15 Save and Restore of Virtual Machines
15.1 Saving Virtual Machines
The save operation preserves the exact state of the virtual machine’s memory. The operation
is slightly similar to hibernating a computer. The virtual machine is off, but it can be quickly
restored to its previously saved running condition. The operation does not make a copy of any
portion of the virtual machine’s virtual disk.
When saved, the virtual machine is paused, its current memory state saved to a location you
specify, and then the virtual machine is stopped. The amount of time taken to save the virtual
machine depends on the amount of memory allocated. When saved, a virtual machine’s memory
is returned to the pool of memory available on the host.
The restore operation is used to return a saved virtual machine to its original running state.
Important
After using the save operation, do not boot, start, or run a virtual machine that you intend
to restore. If the virtual machine is at any time restarted before it is restored, the saved
memory state file becomes invalid and should not be used to restore.
PROCEDURE 15.1: SAVE A VIRTUAL MACHINE’S CURRENT STATE (VIRTUAL MACHINE MANAGER)
1. Make sure the virtual machine to be saved is running.
2. Select the virtual machine.
3. Click Open to view the virtual machine console, then Details to view virtual machine in-
formation.
4. Select Virtual Machine Shut Down Save from the menu.
5. Name and save the file.
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Save and Restore of Virtual Machines
SLES 12
15.2 Restoring Virtual Machines
The restore operation loads a virtual machine’s previously saved memory state file and starts
the virtual machine. The virtual machine does not boot the operating system but resumes at
the point where it was previously saved. The operation is slightly similar to coming out of
hibernation.
Important
After using the save operation, do not boot, start, or run the virtual machine you intend
to restore. If the virtual machine is at any time restarted before it is restored, the saved
memory state file becomes invalid and should not be used to restore.
PROCEDURE 15.2: RESTORE A VIRTUAL MACHINE’S CURRENT STATE (VIRTUAL MACHINE MANAGER)
1. Make sure the virtual machine to be restored has not been started since you ran the save
operation.
2. Run the Virtual Machine Manager.
3. Select the hypervisor and connection used to restore the virtual machine. On the local
machine, this is localhost . Right-click it and choose Details from the context menu.
4. In the Connection Details window, choose File Restore Saved Machine from the drop-down
box.
5. Specify the previously saved file.
6. Click Open.
The virtual machine and the guest operating system are restored to the previously saved
state.
120
Restoring Virtual Machines
SLES 12
III Common Tasks
16
VM Guest Clock Settings 122
17
libguestfs 126
16 VM Guest Clock Settings
Keeping the correct time in a VM Guest is one of the more difficult aspects of virtualization.
Keeping the correct time is especially important for network applications and is also a prerequisite to do a live migration of a VM Guest.
Tip: Timekeeping on the VM Host Server
It is strongly recommended to ensure the VM Host Server keeps the correct time as well,
for example, by utilizing NTP (see Book “Administration Guide” 21 “Time Synchronization
with NTP” for more information).
16.1 KVM: Using kvm_clock
KVM provides a paravirtualized clock which is currently supported by SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 10 SP3 and newer and RedHat Enterprise Linux 5.4 and newer via the kvm_clock driver.
It is strongly recommended to use kvm_clock when available.
Use the following command inside a VM Guest running Linux to check whether the driver
kvm_clock has been loaded:
tux > sudo dmesg | grep kvm-clock
[
0.000000] kvm-clock: cpu 0, msr 0:7d3a81, boot clock
[
0.000000] kvm-clock: cpu 0, msr 0:1206a81, primary cpu clock
[
0.012000] kvm-clock: cpu 1, msr 0:1306a81, secondary cpu clock
[
0.160082] Switching to clocksource kvm-clock
To check which clock source is currently used, run the following command in the VM Guest.
It should output kvm-clock :
cat /sys/devices/system/clocksource/clocksource0/current_clocksource
Important: kvm-clock and NTP
When using kvm-clock , it is not recommended to use NTP in the VM Guest, as well.
Using NTP on the VM Host Server, however, is still recommended.
122
VM Guest Clock Settings
SLES 12
16.1.1
Other Timekeeping Methods
The paravirtualized kvm-clock is currently not for Windows* operating systems. For Windows*, use the Windows
Time
Service
Tools for time synchronization (see http://
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc773263%28WS.10%29.aspx
for more information).
16.2 Xen Virtual Machine Clock Settings
When booting, virtual machines get their initial clock time from their host. After getting their
initial clock time, fully virtual machines manage their time independently from the host. Par-
avirtual machines manage clock time according to their independent wallclock setting. If the
independent wallclock is enabled, the virtual machine manages its time independently and does
not synchronize with the host. If the independent wallclock is disabled, the virtual machine
periodically synchronizes its time with the host clock.
Note
OES 2 NetWare virtual machines manage clock time independently after booting. They
do not synchronize with the host clock time.
If a guest operating system is configured for NTP and the virtual machine's independent wallclock setting is disabled, it will still periodically synchronize its time with the host time. This
dual type of configuration can result in time drift between virtual machines that need to be
synchronized. To effectively use an external time source, such as NTP, for time synchronization
on a virtual machine, the virtual machine's independent wallclock setting must be enabled (set
to 1 ). Otherwise, it will continue to synchronize its time with its host.
PROCEDURE 16.1: VIEWING THE INDEPENDENT WALLCLOCK SETTING
1. Log in to the virtual machine’s operating system as root .
2. In the virtual machine environment, enter
cat /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock
123
Other Timekeeping Methods
SLES 12
0 means that the virtual machine is getting its time from the host and is not using
independent wallclock.
1 means that the virtual machine is using independent wallclock and managing its
time independently from the host.
PROCEDURE 16.2: PERMANENTLY CHANGING THE INDEPENDENT WALLCLOCK SETTING
1. Log in to the virtual machine environment as root .
2. Edit the virtual machine’s /etc/sysctl.conf file.
3. Add or change the following entry:
xen.independent_wallclock=1
Enter 1 to enable or 0 to disable the wallclock setting.
4. Save the file and reboot the virtual machine operating system.
While booting, a virtual machine gets its initial clock time from the host. Then, if the
wallclock setting is set to 1 in the sysctl.conf file, it manages its clock time independently and does not synchronize with the host clock time.
PROCEDURE 16.3: TEMPORARILY CHANGING THE INDEPENDENT WALLCLOCK SETTING
1. Log in to the virtual machine environment as root .
2. Enter the following command:
echo "1" > /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock
Enter 1 to enable or 0 to disable the wallclock setting.
3. Add or change the following entry:
xen.independent_wallclock=1
Enter 1 to enable or 0 to disable the wallclock setting.
124
Xen Virtual Machine Clock Settings
SLES 12
Although the current status of the independent wallclock changes immediately, its clock
time might not be immediately synchronized. The setting persists until the virtual machine
reboots. Then, it gets its initial clock time from the host and uses the independent wallclock
according to the setting specified in the sysctl.conf file.
125
Xen Virtual Machine Clock Settings
SLES 12
17 libguestfs
Virtual Machines consist of disk images and definition files. Manually accessing and manipulat-
ing these guest components (outside of normal hypervisor processes) is possible, but inherently dangerous and risks compromising data integrity. libguestfs is a C library and corresponding set of tools designed for safely accessing and modifying Virtual Machine disk images - outside of normal hypervisor processes, but without the risk normally associated with manual
editing.
17.1 VM Guest Manipulation Overview
17.1.1
VM Guest Manipulation Risk
As disk images and definition files are simply another type of file in a Linux environment, it is
possible to use many different tools to access, edit and write to these files. When used correctly,
such tools can be an important part of guest adminitration. However, even correct usage of
these tools is not without risk. Some of the risks that should be considered when manually
manipulating guest disk images include:
Data Corruption: Concurrently accessing images, by the host machine or another node in a
cluster, can cause changes to be lost or data corruption to occur if virtualization protection
layers are bypassed.
Security: Mounting disk images as loop devices requires root access. While an image is loop
mounted, other users and processes can potentially access the disk contents.
Administrator Error: Bypassing virtualization layers correctly requires advanced under-
standing of virtual components and tools. Failing to isolate the images or failing to clean
up properly after changes have been made can lead to further problems once back in virtualization control.
126
libguestfs
SLES 12
17.1.2
libguestfs Design
libguestfs C library has been designed to safely and securely create, access and modify virtual
machine (VM Guest) disk images. It also provides additional language bindings: for Perl (http://
libguestfs.org/guestfs-perl.3.html)
, Python (http://libguestfs.org/guestfs-python.3.html) , PHP
(only for 64-bit machines), and Ruby (http://libguestfs.org/guestfs-ruby.3.html) . libguestfs can
access VM Guest disk images without needing root and with multiple layers of defense against
rogue disk images.
libguestfs provides many different tools designed for accessing and modifying VM Guest disk
images and contents. These tools provide such capabilities as: viewing and editing files inside
guests, scripting changes to VM Guests, monitoring disk used/free statistics, creating guests,
doing V2V migrations, performing backups, cloning VM Guests, formatting disks, and resizing
disks.
Warning: Best Practices
You must not use libguestfs tools on live virtual machines. Doing so will probably result
in disk corruption in the VM Guest. libguestfs tools try to stop you from doing this, but
cannot catch all cases.
However most command have the --ro (read only) option. With this option, you can
attach a command to a live virtual machine. The results might be strange or inconsistent
at times but you will not risk disk corruption.
17.2 Package Installation
libguestfs is shipped through 3 packages:
libguestfs0: which provides the main C library
guestfs-data: which contains the kernel and initrd used when launching images (stored in
/usr/lib64/guestfs )
guestfs-tools: the core guestfs tools, man pages, and the /etc/libguestfs-tools.conf
configuration file.
127
libguestfs Design
SLES 12
To install guestfs tools on your system run:
zypper in guestfs-tools
17.3 Guestfs Tools
17.3.1
Modifying Virtual Machines
The set of tools found within the guestfs-tools package is used for accessing and modifying
virtual machine disk images. This functionality is provided through a familiar shell interface
with built-in safeguards which ensure image integrity. Guestfs tools shells expose all capabilities
of the guestfs API, and use the kernel and initrd found in /usr/lib4/guestfs .
17.3.2
Supported File Systems and Disk Images
Guestfs tools support various file systems including:
Ext2, Ext3, Ext4
Xfs
Brtfs
Multiple disk image formats are also supported:
raw
qcow2
Warning: Unsupported File System
Guestfs may also support Windows* file systems (VFAT, NTFS), BSD* and Apple* file
systems, and other disk image formats (VMDK, VHDX...). However, these file systems and
disk image formats are unsupported on SUSE Linux Enterprise.
128
Guestfs Tools
SLES 12
17.3.3
virt-rescue
virt-rescue is similar to a rescue CD, but for virtual machines, and without the need for a
CD. virt-rescue presents users with a rescue shell and some simple recovery tools which can be
used to examine and correct problems within a virtual machine or disk image.
tux >
virt-rescue -a sles.qcow2
Welcome to virt-rescue, the libguestfs rescue shell.
Note: The contents of / are the rescue appliance.
You have to mount the guest's partitions under /sysroot
before you can examine them. A helper script for that exists:
mount-rootfs-and-do-chroot.sh /dev/sda2
><rescue>
[
67.194384] EXT4-fs (sda1): mounting ext3 file system
using the ext4 subsystem
[
67.199292] EXT4-fs (sda1): mounted filesystem with ordered data
mode. Opts: (null)
mount: /dev/sda1 mounted on /sysroot.
mount: /dev bound on /sysroot/dev.
mount: /dev/pts bound on /sysroot/dev/pts.
mount: /proc bound on /sysroot/proc.
mount: /sys bound on /sysroot/sys.
Directory: /root
Thu Jun
5 13:20:51 UTC 2014
(none):~ #
You are now running the VM Guest in rescue mode:
(none):~ # cat /etc/fstab
devpts
/dev/pts
devpts
mode=0620,gid=5 0 0
proc
/proc
proc
defaults
0 0
sysfs
/sys
sysfs
noauto
0 0
debugfs /sys/kernel/debug debugfs noauto
0 0
usbfs
0 0
129
/proc/bus/usb
usbfs
noauto
virt-rescue
SLES 12
tmpfs
/run
tmpfs
noauto
0 0
/dev/disk/by-id/ata-QEMU_HARDDISK_QM00001-part1 / ext3 defaults 1 1
17.3.4
virt-resize
virt-resize is used to resize a virtual machine disk, making it larger or smaller overall, and
resizing or deleting any partitions contained within.
PROCEDURE 17.1: EXPANDING A DISK
Full step-by-step example: How to expand a virtual machine disk
1. First, with virtual machine powered off, determine the size of the partitions available on
this virtual machine:
tux >
virt-filesystems --long --parts --blkdevs -h -a sles.qcow2
Name
Type
MBR
Size
Parent
/dev/sda1
partition
83
16G
/dev/sda
/dev/sda
device
-
16G
-
2. virt-resize cannot do in-place disk modifications—there must be sufficient space to
store the resized output disk. Use the truncate command to create a file of suitable size:
tux >
truncate -s 32G outdisk.img
3. Use virt-resize to resize the disk image. virt-resize requires two mandatory para-
meters for the input and output images:
tux >
virt-resize --expand /dev/sda1 sles.qcow2 outdisk.img
Examining sles.qcow2 ...
**********
Summary of changes:
/dev/sda1: This partition will be resized from 16,0G to 32,0G.
The
filesystem ext3 on /dev/sda1 will be expanded using the 'resize2fs'
method.
**********
130
virt-resize
SLES 12
Setting up initial partition table on outdisk.img ...
Copying /dev/sda1 ...
◐ 84%
⟦▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒▒════════⟧
00:03
Expanding /dev/sda1 using the 'resize2fs' method ...
Resize operation completed with no errors.
Before deleting the old
disk, carefully check that the resized disk boots and works correctly.
4. Confirm the image was resized properly:
tux >
virt-filesystems --long --parts --blkdevs -h -a outdisk.img
Name
Type
MBR
Size
Parent
/dev/sda1
partition
83
32G
/dev/sda
/dev/sda
device
-
32G
-
5. Bring up the VM Guest using the new disk image and confirm correct operation before
deleting the old image.
17.3.5
Other virt-* Tools
Various other guestfs tools exist to ease administrative tasks—such as viewing and editing files,
or obtaining information on the virtual machine.
17.3.5.1
virt-filesystems
This tool is used to report information regarding file systems, partitions, and logical volumes
in a disk image or virtual machine.
tux >
virt-filesystems -l -a sles.qcow2
Name
Type
VFS
Label
Size
Parent
/dev/sda1
filesystem
ext3
-
17178820608
-
131
Other virt-* Tools
SLES 12
17.3.5.2
virt-ls
virt-ls lists file names, file sizes, checksums, extended attributes and more from a virtual
machine or disk image. Multiple directory names can be given, in which case the output from
each is concatenated. To list directories from a libvirt guest, use the -d option to specify the
name of the guest. For a disk image, use the -a option.
tux >
virt-ls -h -lR -a sles.qcow2 /var/log/
d 0755
4,0K /var/log/
d 0700
4,0K /var/log//YaST2
- 0644
1,9K /var/log//YaST2/mkinitrd.log
- 0644
496 /var/log//YaST2/perl-BL-standalone-log
- 0600
3,2K /var/log//faillog
d 0700
4,0K /var/log//krb5
- 0644
29K /var/log//lastlog
- 0644
496 /var/log//pbl.log
- 0664
0 /var/log//wtmp
d 0755
4,0K /var/log//zypp
17.3.5.3
virt-cat
virt-cat is a command line tool to display the contents of a file that exists in the named virtual
machine (or disk image). Multiple file names can be given, in which case they are concatenated
together. Each file name must be a full path, starting at the root directory (starting with '/').
tux >
virt-cat -a sles.qcow2 /etc/fstab
devpts /dev/pts devpts mode=0620,gid=5 0 0
proc
/proc
17.3.5.4
proc
defaults
0 0
virt-df
virt-df is a command line tool to display free space on virtual machine file systems. Unlike
other tools, it doesn't just display the size of disk allocated to a virtual machine, but can look
inside disk images to show how much space is actually being used.
tux >
132
virt-df -a sles.qcow2
Other virt-* Tools
SLES 12
Filesystem
sles.qcow2:/dev/sda1
17.3.5.5
1K-blocks
Used
Available
16381864
520564
15022492
Use%
4%
virt-edit
virt-edit is a command line tool capable of editing files that reside in the named virtual
machine (or disk image).
17.3.5.6
virt-tar-in/out
virt-tar-in unpacks an uncompressed tarball into a virtual machine disk image or named
libvirt domain. virt-tar-out packs a virtual machine disk image directory into a tarball.
tux >
virt-tar-out -a sles.qcow2 /home homes.tar
17.3.5.7
virt-copy-in/out
virt-copy-in copies files and directories from the local disk into a virtual machine disk image
or named libvirt domain. virt-copy-out copies files and directories out of a virtual machine
disk image or named libvirt domain.
tux >
virt-copy-in -a sles.qcow2 data.tar /tmp/
virt-ls -a sles.qcow2 /tmp/
.ICE-unix
.X11-unix
data.tar
17.3.6
guestfish
guestfish is a shell and command line tool for examining and modifying virtual machine file
systems. It uses libguestfs and exposes all of the functionality of the guestfs API.
Examples of usage:
tux >
133
guestfish -a disk.img <<EOF
guestfish
SLES 12
run
list-filesystems
EOF
guestfish
Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for
editing virtual machine filesystems and disk images.
Type: 'help' for help on commands
'man' to read the manual
'quit' to quit the shell
><fs> add sles.qcow2
><fs> run
><fs> list-filesystems
/dev/sda1: ext3
><fs> mount /dev/sda1 /
cat /etc/fstab
devpts
/dev/pts
devpts
mode=0620,gid=5 0 0
proc
/proc
proc
defaults
0 0
sysfs
/sys
sysfs
noauto
0 0
debugfs /sys/kernel/debug debugfs noauto
0 0
usbfs
/proc/bus/usb
usbfs
noauto
0 0
tmpfs
/run
tmpfs
noauto
0 0
/dev/disk/by-id/ata-QEMU_HARDDISK_QM00001-part1 / ext3 defaults 1 1
17.4 Troubleshooting
134
Troubleshooting
SLES 12
17.4.1
Environment
When troubleshooting problems within a libguestfs appliance, the environment variable
LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 can be used to enable debug messages. To output each command/API
call in a format that is similar to guestfish commands, use the environment variable
LIBGUESTFS_TRACE=1.
17.4.2
libguestfs-test-tool
libguestfs-test-tool is a test program that checks if basic libguestfs functionality is work-
ing. It will print a large amount of diagnostic messages and details of the guestfs environment,
then create a test image and try to start it. If it runs to completion successfully, the following
message should be seen near the end:
===== TEST FINISHED OK =====
17.5 External References
libguestfs.org (http://libguestfs.org)
libguestfs FAQ (http://libguestfs.org/guestfs-faq.1.html)
135
Environment
SLES 12
IV Managing Virtual Machines with
Xen
18
Setting Up a Virtual Machine Host 137
19
Virtual Networking 146
20
Managing a Virtualization Environment 157
21
Block Devices in Xen 163
22
Virtualization: Configuration Options and Settings 166
23
Administration Tasks 176
24
XenStore: Configuration Database Shared between Domains 184
25
Xen as a High-Availability Virtualization Host 190
18 Setting Up a Virtual Machine Host
This section documents how to set up and use SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 as a virtual
machine host.
In most cases, the hardware requirements for the Dom0 are the same as those for the SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server operating system, but additional CPU, disk, memory, and network resources
should be added to accommodate the resource demands of all planned VM Guest systems.
Tip
Remember that VM Guest systems, like physical machines, perform better when they run
on faster processors and have access to more system memory.
Xen virtualization technology is available in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server products based on
code path 10 and later. Code path 10 products include Open Enterprise Server 2 Linux, SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server 10, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10, and openSUSE 10.x.
The virtual machine host requires a number of software packages and their dependencies to
be installed. To install all necessary packages, run YaST Software Management, select View Pat-
terns and choose Xen Virtual Machine Host Server for installation. The installation can also be
performed with YaST using the module Virtualization Install Hypervisor and Tools.
After the Xen software is installed, restart the computer and, on the boot screen, choose the
newly added option with the Xen kernel.
Updates are available through your update channel. To be sure to have the latest updates installed, run YaST Online Update after the installation has finished.
18.1 Best Practices and Suggestions
When installing and configuring the SUSE Linux Enterprise operating system on the host, be
aware of the following best practices and suggestions:
If the host should always run as Xen host, run YaST System Boot Loader and activate the
Xen boot entry as default boot section.
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In YaST, click System > Boot Loader.
Change the default boot to the Xen label, then click Set as Default.
Click Finish.
For best performance, only the applications and processes required for virtualization
should be installed on the virtual machine host.
When using both iSCSI and OCFS2 to host Xen images, the latency required for OCFS2 de-
fault timeouts in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 may not be met. To reconfigure this timeout, run systemctl configure o2cb.service
in the system configuration.
or edit O2CB_HEARTBEAT_THRESHOLD
Note: Hardware Monitoring
The Dom0 Kernel is running virtualized, so tools like irqbalance or lscpu will not
reflect the real hardware characteristics.
18.2 Managing Dom0 Memory
When the host is set up, a percentage of system memory is reserved for the hypervisor, and all
remaining memory is automatically allocated to Dom0.
A better solution is to set a default amount of memory for Dom0, so the memory can be allocated
appropriately to the hypervisor. An adequate amount would be 20 percent of the total system
memory up to 2 GiB. A recommended minimum amount would be 512 MiB
Warning: Minimum amount of Memory
The minimum amount of memory heavily depends on how many VM Guest(s) the host
should handle. So be sure you have enough memory to support all your VM Guests.
18.2.1
Setting a Maximum Amount of Memory
1. Determine the amount of memory to set for Dom0.
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2. At Dom0, type xl info to view the amount of memory that is available on the machine.
The memory that is currently allocated by Dom0 can be determined with the command
xl list .
3. Run YaST Boot Loader.
4. Select the Xen section.
5. In Additional Xen Hypervisor Parameters, add dom0_mem=mem_amount where mem_amount
is the maximum amount of memory to allocate to Dom0. Add K , M , or G , to specify the
size, for example, dom0_mem=768M .
6. Restart the computer to apply the changes.
Warning: Xen Dom0 Memory
When using the XL toolstack and the dom0_mem= option for the Xen hypervisor in GRUB 2 you need to disable xl autoballoon in etc/xen/xl.conf , oth-
erwise launching VMs will fail with errors about not being able to balloon
down Dom0. So add autoballoon=0 to xl.conf if you have the dom0_mem=
option specified for Xen. Also see Xen dom0 memory (http://wiki.xen.org/wiki/Xen_Best_Practices#Xen_dom0_dedicated_memory_and_preventing_dom0_memory_ballooning)
18.3 Network Card in Fully Virtualized Guests
In a fully virtualized guest, the default network card is an emulated Realtek network card.
However, it also possible to use the split network driver to run the communication between
Dom0 and a VM Guest. By default, both interfaces are presented to the VM Guest, because the
drivers of some operating systems require both to be present.
When using SUSE Linux Enterprise, only the paravirtualized network cards are available for the
VM Guest by default. The following network options are available:
emulated
To use an emulated network interface like an emulated Realtek card, specify type=ioemu
in the vif device section of the domain xl configuration. An example configuration would
look like:
vif = [ 'type=ioemu,mac=00:16:3e:5f:48:e4,bridge=br0' ]
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Find more details about the xl configuration in the xl.conf manual page man 5 xl.conf .
paravirtualized
When you specify type=vif and do not specify a model or type, the paravirtualized network interface is used:
vif = [ 'type=vif,mac=00:16:3e:5f:48:e4,bridge=br0,backen=0' ]
emulated and paravirtualized
If the administrator should be offered both options, simply specify both type and model.
The xl configuration would look like:
vif = [ 'type=ioemu,mac=00:16:3e:5f:48:e4,model=rtl8139,bridge=br0' ]
In this case, one of the network interfaces should be disabled on the VM Guest.
18.4 Starting the Virtual Machine Host
If virtualization software is correctly installed, the computer boots to display the GRUB 2 boot
loader with a Xen option on the menu. Select this option to start the virtual machine host.
Note: Xen and Kdump
In Xen, the hypervisor manages the memory resource. If you need to reserve system
memory for a recovery kernel in Dom0, this memory has to be reserved by the hypervisor.
Thus, it is necessary to add the parameter crashkernel=size@offset to the kernel
line instead of using the line with the other boot options.
If the Xen option is not on the GRUB 2 menu, review the steps for installation and verify that
the GRUB 2 boot loader has been updated. If the installation has been done without selecting
the Xen pattern, run the YaST Software Management, select the filter Patterns and choose Xen
Virtual Machine Host Server for installation.
After booting the hypervisor, the Dom0 virtual machine starts and displays its graphical desktop
environment. If you did not install a graphical desktop, the command line environment appears.
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Tip: Graphics Problems
Sometimes it may happen that the graphics system does not work properly. In this
case, add vga=ask to the boot parameters. To activate permanent settings, use
vga=mode-0x??? where ??? is calculated as 0x100 + VESA mode from http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VESA_BIOS_Extensions
, e.g. vga=mode-0x361 .
Before starting to install virtual guests, make sure that the system time is correct. To do this,
configure NTP (Network Time Protocol) on the controlling domain:
1. In YaST select Network Services NTP Configuration.
2. Select the option to automatically start the NTP daemon during boot. Provide the IP ad-
dress of an existing NTP time server, then click Finish.
Note: Time Services on Virtual Guests
Hardware clocks commonly are not very precise. All modern operating systems try to
correct the system time compared to the hardware time by means of an additional time
source. To get the correct time on all VM Guest systems, also activate the network time
services on each respective guest or make sure that the guest uses the system time of the
host. For more about Independent Wallclocks in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server see
Section 16.2, “Xen Virtual Machine Clock Settings”.
For more information about managing virtual machines, see Chapter 20, Managing a Virtualization
Environment.
18.5 PCI Pass-Through
To take full advantage of VM Guest systems, it is sometimes necessary to assign specific PCI
devices to a dedicated domain. When using fully virtualized guests, this functionality is only
available if the chipset of the system supports this feature, and if it is activated from the BIOS.
This feature is available from both AMD* and Intel*. For AMD machines, the feature is called
IOMMU; in Intel speak, this is VT-d. Note that Intel-VT technology is not sufficient to use this
feature for fully virtualized guests. To make sure that your computer supports this feature, ask
your supplier specifically to deliver a system that supports PCI Pass-Through.
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LIMITATIONS
Some graphics drivers use highly optimized ways to access DMA. This is not supported,
and thus using graphics cards may be difficult.
When accessing PCI devices behind a PCIe bridge, all of the PCI devices must be assigned
to a single guest. This limitation does not apply to PCIe devices.
Guests with dedicated PCI devices cannot be migrated live to a different host.
The configuration of PCI Pass-Through is twofold. First, the hypervisor must be informed at
boot time that a PCI device should be available for reassigning. Second, the PCI device must
be assigned to the VM Guest.
18.5.1
Configuring the Hypervisor for PCI Pass-Through
1. Select a device to reassign to a VM Guest. To do this, run lspci and read the device
number. For example, if lspci contains the following line:
06:01.0 Ethernet controller: Digital Equipment Corporation DECchip 21142/43
(rev 41)
In this case, the PCI number is (06:01.0) .
2. Run YaST System Boot Loader.
3. Select the Xen section and press Edit.
4. Add the PCI number to the Optional Kernel Command Line Parameter line:
pciback.hide=(06:01.0)
5. Press OK and exit YaST.
6. Reboot the system.
7. Check if the device is in the list of assignable devices with the command
xl pci-assignable-list
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18.5.1.1
Dynamic Assignment with xl
If you want to avoid restarting the host system, you can use dynamic assignment with xl to use
PCI Pass-Through.
Begin by making sure that dom0 has the pciback module loaded:
modprobe pciback
Then make a device assignable by using xl pci-assignable-add . For example, if you wanted
to make the device 06:01.0 available for guests, you should type the following:
xl pci-assignable-add 06:01.0
18.5.2
Assigning PCI Devices to VM Guest Systems
There are several possibilities to dedicate a PCI device to a VM Guest:
Adding the device while installing:
During installation, add the pci line to the configuration file:
pci=['06:01.0']
Hotplugging PCI devices to VM Guest systems
The command xl can be used to add or remove PCI devices on the fly. To add the device
with number 06:01.0 to a guest with name sles12 use:
xl pci-attach sles12 06:01.0
Adding the PCI device to Xend
To add the device to the guest permanently, add the following snippet to the guest configuration file:
pci = [ '06:01.0,power_mgmt=1,permissive=1' ]
After assigning the PCI device to the VM Guest, the guest system must care for the configuration
and device drivers for this device.
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18.5.3
VGA Pass-Through
Xen 4.0 and newer supports VGA graphics adapter pass-through on fully virtualized VM Guests.
The guest can take full control of the graphics adapter with high-performance full 3D and video
acceleration.
LIMITATIONS
VGA Pass-Through functionality is similar to PCI Pass-Through and as such also requires
IOMMU (or Intel VT-d) support from the motherboard chipset and BIOS.
Only the primary graphics adapter (the one that is used when you power on the computer)
can be used with VGA Pass-Through.
VGA Pass-Through is supported only for fully virtualized guests. Paravirtual guests (PV)
are not supported.
The graphics card cannot be shared between multiple VM Guests using VGA Pass-Through
— you can dedicate it to one guest only.
To enable VGA Pass-Through, add the following settings to your fully virtualized guest configuration file:
gfx_passthru=1
pci=['yy:zz.n']
where yy:zz.n is the PCI controller ID of the VGA graphics adapter as found with lspci v on Dom0.
18.5.4
Troubleshooting
In some circumstances, problems may occur during the installation of the VM Guest. This section
describes some known problems and their solutions.
During boot, the system hangs
The software I/O translation buffer allocates a large chunk of low memory early in the
bootstrap process. If the requests for memory exceed the size of the buffer it usually results
in a hung boot process. To check if this is the case, switch to console 10 and check the
output there for a message similar to
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kernel: PCI-DMA: Out of SW-IOMMU space for 32768 bytes at device 000:01:02.0
In this case you need to increase the size of the
swiotlb literal>.
Add
“swiotlb=128”quote> on the Dom0 cmdline. Note that the number can be adjusted up
or down to find the optimal size for the machine.
Note: swiotlb an PV guest
The "swiotlb=force" kernel parameter is required for DMA access to work for pci devices
on a PV guest. For more information about IOMMU and swiotlb option see the bootoptions.txt in the kernel-source package.
18.5.5
For More Information
There are several resources on the Internet that provide interesting information about PCI PassThrough:
http://wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/VTdHowTo
http://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-virtualization-technology-for-directed-io-vt-denhancing-intel-platforms-for-efficient-virtualization-of-io-devices/
http://support.amd.com/TechDocs/34434-IOMMU-Rev_1.26_2-11-09.pdf
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19 Virtual Networking
A VM Guest system needs some means to communicate either with other VM Guest systems or
with a local network. The network interface to the VM Guest system is made of a split device
driver, which means that any virtual Ethernet device has a corresponding network interface in
Dom0. This interface is set up to access a virtual network that is run in Dom0. The bridged
virtual network is fully integrated into the system configuration of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
and can be configured with YaST.
When installing a Xen VM Host Server, a bridged network configuration will be proposed during
normal network configuration. The user can choose to change the configuration during the
installation and customize it to the local needs.
If desired, Xen VM Host Server can be installed after performing a default Physical Server installation using the Install Hypervisor and Tools module in YaST. This module will prepare
the system for hosting virtual machines, including invocation of the default bridge networking
proposal.
In case the necessary packages for a Xen VM Host Server are installed manually with rpm or
zypper , the remaining system configuration has to be done by the administrator manually or
with the help of YaST.
The network scripts that are provided by Xen are not used by default in SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server. They are only delivered for reference but disabled. The network configuration that is
used in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is done by means of the YaST system configuration similar
to the configuration of network interfaces in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
19.1 Virtual Bridges
When using SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, the system configures one bridge for each physical
network device by default. For each virtual bridge, a physical Ethernet device is enslaved, and
the IP address assigned to the bridge.
To add a new bridge, for example after installing an additional Ethernet device, or to create a
bridge that is not connected to a real network, proceed as follows:
1. Start yast2 Network Devices Network Settings.
2. Click the tab Overview and press Add.
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3. Select Device Type Bridge. The parameter Configuration Name will be set to the next free
number. Click Next.
4. Either use Dynamic Address (DHCP) as selected by default, or assign a static IP address
to the bridge. Using Dynamic Address is only useful when also assigning a device to the
bridge that is connected to some DHCP server.
If you intend to create a virtual bridge that has no connection to a real Ethernet device,
use Statically assigned IP Address. In this case, it is a good idea to use addresses from the
private IP address ranges, for example, 192.168.x.x or 10.x.x.x .
To create a bridge that should only serve as a connection between the different guests
without connection to the host system, set the IP address to 0.0.0.0 and the netmask to
255.255.255.255 . The network scripts handle this special address as an unset IP address.
After the bridge is created, it may be used by any of the Xen VM Guest systems. A purely virtual
bridge without connection to a real network device is good to provide fast network connections
between different VM Guest systems. If you provide a DHCP server on Dom0 that also defines
routing information to the respective guest for the bridge, the network setup of the respective
VM Guest is simplified.
19.2 Network Devices for Guest Systems
The Xen hypervisor is able to provide different types of network interfaces to the VM Guest
systems. The preferred network device should be a paravirtualized network interface. This yields
the highest transfer rates with the lowest system requirements. Up to eight network interfaces
may be provided for each VM Guest.
Systems that are not aware of paravirtualized hardware may not have this option. To connect
systems to a network that can only run fully virtualized, several emulated network interfaces
are available. The following emulations are at your disposal:
Realtek 8139 (PCI). This is the default emulated network card.
AMD PCnet32 (PCI)
NE2000 (PCI)
NE2000 (ISA)
Intel e100 (PCI)
Intel e1000 (PCI)
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All these network interfaces are software interfaces. Because every network interface must have
a unique MAC address, an address range has been assigned to Xensource that can be used by
these interfaces.
Tip: Virtual Network Interfaces and MAC Addresses
The default configuration of MAC addresses in virtualized environments creates a random
MAC address that looks like 00:16:3E:xx:xx:xx. Normally, the amount of available MAC
addresses should be big enough to get only unique addresses. However, if you have a
very big installation, or if you want to make sure that no problems arise from random
MAC address assignment, you can also manually assign these addresses.
For debugging or system management purposes, it may be useful to know which virtual in-
terface in Dom0 is connected to which Ethernet device in a running guest. This information
may be read from the device naming in Dom0. All virtual devices follow the rule vif<domain
number>.<interface_number> .
For example, if you want to know the device name for the third interface (eth2) of the VM Guest
with id 5, the device in Dom0 would be vif5.2 . To obtain a list of all available interfaces,
run the command ip a .
The device naming does not contain any information about which bridge this interface is connected to. However, this information is available in Dom0. To get an overview about which
interface is connected to which bridge, run the command brctl show . The output may look
like the following:
# brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br0
8000.001cc0309083
no
eth0
vif2.1
br1
8000.000476f060cc
no
eth1
vif2.0
br2
8000.000000000000
no
In this example, there are three configured bridges: br0, br1 and br2. Currently, br0 and br1
each have a real Ethernet device added: eth0 and eth1, respectively. There is one VM Guest
running with the id 2 that has two Ethernet devices available. eth0 on the VM Guest is bridged
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with eth1 on the VM Host Server and eth1 on the VM Guest is connected to eth0 on the VM
Host Server. At this time, the third bridge with the name br2 is not connected to any VM Guest
nor any real Ethernet device.
19.3 Host-Based Routing in Xen
Xen can be set up to use host-based routing in the controlling Dom0. Unfortunately, this is not
yet well supported from YaST and requires quite an amount of manual editing of configuration
files. Thus, this is a task that requires an advanced administrator.
The following configuration will only work when using fixed IP addresses. Using DHCP is not
practicable with this procedure, because the IP address must be known to both, the VM Guest
and the VM Host Server system.
The easiest way to create a routed guest is to change the networking from a bridged to a routed
network. As a requirement to the following procedures, a VM Guest with a bridged network setup must be installed. For example, the VM Host Server is named earth with the IP 192.168.1.20,
and the VM Guest has the name alice with the IP 192.168.1.21.
PROCEDURE 19.1: CONFIGURING A ROUTED IPV4 VM GUEST
1. Make sure that alice is shut down. Use xl commands to shut Tell thedown and check.
2. Prepare the network configuration on the VM Host Server earth:
a. Create a hotplug interface that will be used to route the traffic. To accomplish this,
create a file named /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-alice.0 with the following
content:
NAME="Xen guest alice"
BOOTPROTO="static"
STARTMODE="hotplug"
b. Edit the file /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2 and add the following configura-
tions:
Add alice.0 to the devices in FW_DEV_EXT:
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FW_DEV_EXT="br0 alice.0"
Switch on the routing in the firewall:
FW_ROUTE="yes"
Tell the firewall which address should be forwarded:
FW_FORWARD="192.168.1.21/32,0/0"
Finally, restart the firewall with the command:
sudo systemctl restart SuSEfirewall2.service
c. Add a static route to the interface of alice. To accomplish this, add the following line
to the end of /etc/sysconfig/network/routes :
192.168.1.21
-
-
alice.0
d. To make sure that the switches and routers that the VM Host Server is connected to
know about the routed interface, activate proxy_arp on earth. Add the following
lines to /etc/sysctl.conf :
net.ipv4.conf.default.proxy_arp = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.proxy_arp = 1
e. Activate all changes with the commands:
sudo systemctl restart systemd-sysctl.service wicked.service
3. Proceed with configuring the Xen configuration of the VM Guest.
a. Change the vif interface configuration for alice as described in Section 20.1, “XL—Xen
Management Tool”.
b. Remove the snippet
bridge=br0
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c. And add the following one:
vifname=vifalice.0
or
vifname=vifalice.0=emu
for a fully virtualized domain.
d. Change the script that is used to set up the interface to the following:
script=/etc/xen/scripts/vif-route-ifup
e. Activate the new configuration and start the VM Guest.
4. The remaining configuration tasks must be accomplished from inside the VM Guest.
a. Open a console to the VM Guest with xl console domain and log in.
b. Check that the guest IP is set to 192.168.1.21.
c. Provide VM Guest with a host route and a default gateway to the VM Host Server.
Do this by adding the following lines to /etc/sysconfig/network/routes :
192.168.1.20 - - eth0
default 192.168.1.20 - -
5. Finally, test the network connection from the VM Guest to the world outside as well as
from the network to your VM Guest.
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19.4 Creating a Masqueraded Network Setup
Creating a masqueraded network setup is quite similar to the routed setup. However, there is
no proxy_arp needed, and some firewall rules are different. To create a masqueraded network
to a guest dolly with the IP address 192.168.100.1 where the host has its external interface on
br0 , proceed as follows. For easier configuration, only the already installed guest is modified
to use a masqueraded network:
PROCEDURE 19.2: CONFIGURING A MASQUERADED IPV4 VM GUEST
1. Shut down the VM Guest system with xl shutdown domain .
2. Prepare the network configuration on the VM Host Server:
a. Create a hotplug interface that will be used to route the traffic. To accomplish this,
create a file named /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-dolly.0 with the following
content:
NAME="Xen guest dolly"
BOOTPROTO="static"
STARTMODE="hotplug"
b. Edit the file /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2 and add the following configura-
tions:
Add dolly.0 to the devices in FW_DEV_DMZ:
FW_DEV_DMZ="dolly.0"
Switch on the routing in the firewall:
FW_ROUTE="yes"
Switch on masquerading in the firewall:
FW_MASQUERADE="yes"
Tell the firewall which network should be masqueraded:
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FW_MASQ_NETS="192.168.100.1/32"
Remove the networks from the masquerading exceptions:
FW_NOMASQ_NETS=""
Finally, restart the firewall with the command:
sudo systemctl restart SuSEfirewall2.service
c. Add a static route to the interface of dolly. To accomplish this, add the following
line to the end of /etc/sysconfig/network/routes :
192.168.100.1 - - dolly.0
d. Activate all changes with the command:
sudo systemctl restart wicked.service
3. Proceed with configuring the Xen configuration of the VM Guest.
a. Change the vif interface configuration for dolly as described in Section 20.1, “XL—Xen
Management Tool”.
b. Remove the entry:
bridge=br0
c. And add the following one:
vifname=vifdolly.0
d. Change the script that is used to set up the interface to the following:
script=/etc/xen/scripts/vif-route-ifup
e. Activate the new configuration and start the VM Guest.
4. The remaining configuration tasks have to be accomplished from inside the VM Guest.
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a. Open a console to the VM Guest with xl console domain and log in.
b. Check whether the guest IP is set to 192.168.100.1.
c. Provide VM Guest with a host route and a default gateway to the VM Host Server.
Do this by adding the following lines to /etc/sysconfig/network/routes :
192.168.1.20 - - eth0
default 192.168.1.20 - -
5. Finally, test the network connection from the VM Guest to the outside world.
19.5 Special Configurations
There are many network configuration possibilities available to Xen. The following configurations are not activated by default:
19.5.1
Bandwidth Throttling in Virtual Networks
With Xen, you may limit the network transfer rate a virtual guest may use to access a bridge. To
configure this, you will have to modify the VM Guest configuration as described in Section 20.1,
“XL—Xen Management Tool”.
In the configuration file, first search for the device that is connected to the virtual bridge. The
configuration looks like the following:
vif = [ 'mac=00:16:3e:4f:94:a9,bridge=br0' ]
To add a maximum transfer rate, add a parameter rate to this configuration as in:
vif = [ 'mac=00:16:3e:4f:94:a9,bridge=br0,rate=100Mb/s' ]
Note that the rate is either Mb/s (megabits per second) or MB/s (megabytes per second). In the
above example, the maximum transfer rate of the virtual interface is 100 megabits. By default,
there is no limitation to the bandwidth of a guest to the virtual bridge.
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It is even possible to fine-tune the behavior by specifying the time window that is used to define
the granularity of the credit replenishment:
vif = [ 'mac=00:16:3e:4f:94:a9,bridge=br0,rate=100Mb/s@20ms' ]
19.5.2
Monitoring the Network Traffic
To monitor the traffic on a specific interface, the little application iftop is a nice program that
displays the current network traffic in a terminal.
When running a Xen VM Host Server, you have to define the interface that is monitored. The
interface that Dom0 uses to get access to the physical network is the bridge device, for example
br0 . This, however, may vary on your system. To monitor all traffic to the physical interface,
run a terminal as root and use the command:
iftop -i br0
To monitor the network traffic of a special network interface of a specific VM Guest, supply
the correct virtual interface. For example, to monitor the first Ethernet device of the domain
with id 5, use the command:
ftop -i vif5.0
To quit iftop , press the key
page man 8 iftop .
19.5.3
Q
. More options and possibilities are available in the manual
Using VLAN Interfaces
Sometimes, it is necessary to create a private connection either between two Xen hosts or between a number of VM Guest systems. For example, if you want to migrate VM Guest to hosts
in a different network segment, or if you want to create a private bridge that only VM Guest
systems may connect to, even when running on different VM Host Server systems. An easy way
to build such connections is to set up VLAN networks.
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VLAN interfaces are commonly set up on the VM Host Server and either interconnect the dif-
ferent VM Host Server systems, or they may be set up as a physical interface to an otherwise
virtual-only bridge. It is even possible to create a bridge with a VLAN as a physical interface
that has no IP address in the VM Host Server. That way, the guest systems have no possibility
to access Dom0 over this network.
Run the YaST module Network Devices Network Settings. Follow this procedure to actually set
up the VLAN device:
PROCEDURE 19.3: SETTING UP VLAN INTERFACES WITH YAST
1. Press Add to create a new network interface.
2. In the Hardware Dialog, select Device Type VLAN.
3. Change the value of Configuration Name to the ID of your VLAN. Note that VLAN ID 1 is
commonly used for management purposes.
4. Press Next.
5. Select the interface that the VLAN device should connect to below Real Interface for VLAN.
If the desired interface does not appear in the list, first set up this interface without an
IP Address.
6. Select the desired method for assigning an IP address to the VLAN device.
7. Press Next to finish the configuration.
It is also possible to use the VLAN interface as a physical interface of a bridge. This makes it
possible to connect several VM Host Server-only networks and allows to live-migrate VM Guest
systems that are connected to such a network.
YaST does not always allow to set no IP address. However, this may be a desired feature especially if VM Host Server-only networks should be connected. In this case, use the special address 0.0.0.0 with netmask 255.255.255.255 . The system scripts handle this address as no
IP address set.
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20 Managing a Virtualization Environment
Apart from using the recommended libvirt library (Part II, “Managing Virtual Machines with
libvirt”), you can manage Xen guest domains with the xl tool from the command line.
20.1 XL—Xen Management Tool
The xl program is a tool for managing Xen guest domains. It is based on the LibXenlight library,
and can be used for general domain management, such as domain creation, listing, pausing, or
shutting down. In most cases, you need to be root to execute xl commands.
Note
xl can only manage running guest domains specified by their configuration file. If a
guest domain is not running, you cannot manage it with xl .
Tip
To allow users to continue to have managed guest domains in the way the obsolete xm
command allowed, we now recommend using libvirt 's virsh and virt-manager
tools. For more information, see Part II, “Managing Virtual Machines with libvirt”.
xl operations rely upon xenstored and xenconsoled services. Make sure you start
systemctl start xencommons.service
at boot time to initialize all the daemons required by xl .
Tip: Set up a xenbr0 Network Bridge in the Host Domain
In the most common network configuration, you need to set up a bridge in the host
domain named xenbr0 in order to have a working network for the guest domains.
The basic structure of every xl command is:
xl <subcommand> [options] domain_id
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where <subcommand> is the xl command to run, domain_id is the ID number assigned to
a domain or the name of the virtual machine, and OPTIONS indicates subcommand-specific
options.
For a complete list of the available xl subcommands, run xl help . For each command, there
is a more detailed help available that is obtained with the extra parameter --help . More information about the respective subcommands is available in the manual page of xl .
For example, the xl list --help displays all options that are available to the list command.
As an example, the xl list command displays the status of all virtual machines.
# xl list
Name
ID
Mem VCPUs
State
Time(s)
Domain-0
0
457
2
r-----
2712.9
sles12
7
512
1
-b----
16.3
512
1
opensuse
12.9
The State information indicates if a machine is running, and in which state it is. The most
common flags are r (running) and b (blocked) where blocked means it is either waiting for IO,
or sleeping because there is nothing to do. For more details about the state flags, see man 1 xl .
Other useful xl commands include:
xl create creates a virtual machine from a given configuration file.
xl reboot reboots a virtual machine.
xl destroy immediately terminates a virtual machine.
xl block-list displays all virtual block devices attached to a virtual machine.
20.1.1
Guest Domain Configuration File
When operating domains, xl requires a domain configuration file for each domain. The typical
directory to store such configuration files is /etc/xen/ .
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A domain configuration file is a plain text file. It consists of several key=value pairs. Some
keys are mandatory, some are general and apply to any guest, and some apply only to a specific
guest type (para or fully virtualized). A value can either be a "string" surrounded by single
or double quotes, a number, a boolean value, or a list of several values enclosed in brackets
[ value1, value2, ... ] .
EXAMPLE 20.1: GUEST DOMAIN CONFIGURATION FILE
# less /etc/xen/sled12.cfg
name= "sled12"
builder = "hvm"
vncviewer = 1
memory = 512
disk = [ '/var/lib/xen/images/sled12.raw,,hda', '/dev/cdrom,,hdc,cdrom' ]
vif = [ 'mac=00:16:3e:5f:48:e4,model=rtl8139,bridge=br0' ]
boot = "n"
To start such domain, run xl create /etc/xen/sled12.cfg .
20.2 Automatic Start of Guest Domains
To make a guest domain start automatically after the host system boots, follow these steps:
1. Create the domain configuration file if it does not exist, and save it in the /etc/xen/
directory, for example /etc/xen/domain_name.cfg .
2. Make a symbolic link of the guest domain configuration file in the auto/ subdirectory.
ln -s /etc/xen/domain_name.cfg /etc/xen/auto/domain_name.cfg
3. On the next system boot, the guest domain defined in domain_name.cfg will be started.
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20.3 Event Actions
In the guest domain configuration file, you can define actions to be performed on a predefined
set of events. For example, to tell the domain to restart itself after it is powered off, include the
following line in its configuration file:
on_poweroff="restart"
A list of predefined events for a guest domain follows:
LIST OF EVENTS
on_poweroff
Specifies what should be done with the domain if it shuts itself down.
on_reboot
Action to take if the domain shuts down with a reason code requesting a reboot.
on_watchdog
Action to take if the domain shuts down due to a Xen watchdog timeout.
on_crash
Action to take if the domain crashes.
For these events, you can define one of the following actions:
LIST OF RELATED ACTIONS
destroy
Destroy the domain.
restart
Destroy the domain and immediately create a new domain with the same configuration.
rename-restart
Rename the domain that terminated, and then immediately create a new domain with the
same configuration as the original.
preserve
Keep the domain. It can be examined, and later destroyed with xl destroy .
coredump-destroy
Write a core dump of the domain to /var/xen/dump/NAME and then destroy the domain.
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coredump-restart
Write a core dump of the domain to /var/xen/dump/NAME and then restart the domain.
20.4 Saving Virtual Machines
PROCEDURE 20.1: SAVE A VIRTUAL MACHINE’S CURRENT STATE
1. Make sure the virtual machine to be saved is running.
2. In the host environment, enter
xl save ID state-file
where ID is the virtual machine ID you want to save, and state-file is the name you
specify for the memory state file. By default, the domain will no longer be running after
you create its snapshot. Use -c to keep it running even after you create the snapshot.
20.5 Restoring Virtual Machines
PROCEDURE 20.2: RESTORE A VIRTUAL MACHINE’S CURRENT STATE
1. Make sure the virtual machine to be restored has not been started since you ran the save
operation.
2. In the host environment, enter
xl restore state-file
where state-file is the previously saved memory state file. By default, the domain will
be running after it is restored. To pause it after the restore, use -p .
20.6 Virtual Machine States
A virtual machine’s state can be displayed by viewing the results of the xl list command,
which abbreviates the state using a single character.
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r - running - The virtual machine is currently running and consuming allocated resources.
b - blocked - The virtual machine’s processor is not running and not able to run. It is either
waiting for I/O or has stopped working.
p - paused - The virtual machine is paused. It does not interact with the hypervisor but
still maintains its allocated resources, such as memory.
s - shutdown - The guest operating system is in the process of being shut down, rebooted,
or suspended, and the virtual machine is being stopped.
c - crashed - The virtual machine has crashed and is not running.
d - dying - The virtual machine is in the process of shutting down or crashing.
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21 Block Devices in Xen
21.1 Mapping Physical Storage to Virtual Disks
The disk(s) specification for a Xen domain in the domain configuration file is as straightforward
as the following example:
disk = [ 'format=raw,vdev=hdc,access=ro,devtype=cdrom,target=/root/image.iso' ]
It defines a disk block device based on the /root/image.iso disk image file. The disk will be
seen as hdc by the guest, with read-only ( ro ) access. The type of the device is cdrom with
raw format.
The following example defines exactly the same device, but using simplified positional syntax:
disk = [ '/root/image.iso,raw,hdc,ro,cdrom' ]
You can include more disk definitions in the same line, each one separated by a comma. If a
parameter is not specified, then its default value is taken:
disk = [ '/root/image.iso,raw,hdc,ro,cdrom','/dev/vg/guest-volume,,hda','...' ]
LIST OF PARAMETERS
target
Source block device or disk image file path.
format
The format of the image file. Default is raw .
vdev
Virtual device as seen by the guest. Supported values are hd[x], xvd[x], sd[x] etc. Please
see /usr/share/doc/packages/xen/html/misc/vbd-interface.txt for more details.
This parameter is mandatory.
access
Whether or not the block device is provided to the guest in read-only or read-write mode.
Supported values are ro or r for read-only, and rw or w for read/write access. Default
is ro for devtype=cdrom , and rw for other device types.
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devtype
Qualifies virtual device type. Supported value is cdrom .
backendtype
The backend implementation to use. Supported values are phy , tap , and qdisk . Nor-
mally this option should not be specified as the backend type is automatically determined.
script
Specifies that target is not a normal host path, but rather information to be interpreted by the executable program. The specified script file is looked for in /etc/xen/
scripts if it does not point to an absolute path. These scripts are normally called block<script_name> .
For more information on virtual disk specification see /usr/share/doc/packages/xen/html/
misc/xl-disk-configuration.txt .
21.2 File-Backed Virtual Disks and Loopback Devices
When a virtual machine is running, each of its file-backed virtual disks consumes a loopback
device on the host. By default, the host allows up to 64 loopback devices to be consumed.
To simultaneously run more file-backed virtual disks on a host, you can increase the number of available loopback devices by adding the following option to the host’s /etc/
modprobe.conf.local file.
options loop max_loop=x
where x is the maximum number of loopback devices to create.
Changes take effect after the module is reloaded.
Tip
Enter rmmod loop and modprobe loop to unload and reload the module. In case rmmod
does not work, unmount all existing loop devices or reboot the computer.
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21.3 Resizing Block Devices
While it is always possible to add new block devices to a VM Guest system, it is sometimes more
desirable to increase the size of an existing block device. In case such a system modification is
already planned during deployment of the VM Guest, some basic considerations should be done:
Use a block device that may be increased in size. LVM devices and file system images are
commonly used.
Do not partition the device inside the VM Guest, but use the main device directly to apply
the file system. For example, use /dev/xvdb directly instead of adding partitions to /
dev/xvdb .
Make sure that the file system to be used can be resized. Sometimes, for example with
ext3, some features must be switched off to be able to resize the file system. A file system
that can be resized online and mounted is XFS . Use the command xfs_growfs to resize
that file system after the underlying block device has been increased in size. For more
information about XFS , see man 8 xfs_growfs .
When resizing a LVM device that is assigned to a VM Guest, the new size is automatically known
to the VM Guest. No further action is needed to inform the VM Guest about the new size of
the block device.
When using file system images, a loop device is used to attach the image file to the guest. For
more information about resizing that image and refreshing the size information for the VM
Guest, see Section 23.2, “Sparse Image Files and Disk Space”.
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22 Virtualization: Configuration Options and Settings
The documentation in this section, describes advanced management tasks and configuration
options that might help technology innovators implement leading-edge virtualization solutions.
It is provided as a courtesy and does not imply that all documented options and tasks are supported by Novell, Inc.
22.1 Virtual CD Readers
Virtual CD readers can be set up when a virtual machine is created or added to an existing virtual
machine. A virtual CD reader can be based on a physical CD/DVD, or based on an ISO image.
Virtual CD readers work differently depending on whether they are paravirtual or fully virtual.
22.1.1
Virtual CD Readers on Paravirtual Machines
A paravirtual machine can have up to 100 block devices composed of virtual CD readers and
virtual disks. On paravirtual machines, virtual CD readers present the CD as a virtual disk with
read-only access. Virtual CD readers cannot be used to write data to a CD.
After you have finished accessing a CD on a paravirtual machine, it is recommended that you
remove the virtual CD reader from the virtual machine.
Paravirtualized guests can use the device type devtype=cdrom . This partly emulates the be-
havior of a real CD reader, and allows CDs to be changed. It is even possible to use the eject
command to open the tray of the CD reader.
22.1.2
Virtual CD Readers on Fully Virtual Machines
A fully virtual machine can have up to four block devices composed of virtual CD readers and
virtual disks. A virtual CD reader on a fully virtual machine interacts with an inserted CD in
the way you would expect a physical CD reader to interact. For example, in a Windows* XP*
virtual machine, the inserted CD appears in the Devices with Removable Storage section
of My Computer .
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When a CD is inserted in the physical CD reader on the host computer, all virtual machines with
virtual CD readers based on the physical CD reader, such as /dev/cdrom/ , are able to read
the inserted CD. Assuming the operating system has automount functionality, the CD should
automatically appear in the file system. Virtual CD readers cannot be used to write data to a
CD. They are configured as read-only devices.
22.1.3
Adding Virtual CD Readers
Virtual CD readers can be based on a CD inserted into the CD reader or on an ISO image file.
1. Make sure that the virtual machine is running and the operating system has finished boot-
ing.
2. Insert the desired CD into the physical CD reader or copy the desired ISO image to a
location available to Dom0.
3. Select a new, unused block device in your VM Guest, such as /dev/xvdb .
4. Choose the CD reader or ISO image that you want to assign to the guest.
5. When using a real CD reader, use the following command to assign the CD reader to your
VM Guest. In this example, the name of the guest is alice:
xl block-attach alice target=/dev/sr0,vdev=xvdb,access=ro
6. When assigning an image file, use the following command:
xl block-attach alice target=/path/to/file.iso,vdev=xvdb,access=ro
7. A new block device, such as /dev/xvdb , is added to the virtual machine.
8. If the virtual machine is running Linux, complete the following:
a. Open a terminal in the virtual machine and enter fdisk -l to verify that the device
was properly added. You can also enter ls /sys/block to see all disks available
to the virtual machine.
The CD is recognized by the virtual machine as a virtual disk with a drive designation, for example:
/dev/xvdb
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b. Enter the command to mount the CD or ISO image using its drive designation. For
example,
mount -o ro /dev/xvdb /mnt
mounts the CD to a mount point named /mnt .
The CD or ISO image file should be available to the virtual machine at the specified
mount point.
9. If the virtual machine is running Windows, reboot the virtual machine.
Verify that the virtual CD reader appears in its My Computer section.
22.1.4
Removing Virtual CD Readers
1. Make sure that the virtual machine is running and the operating system has finished boot-
ing.
2. If the virtual CD reader is mounted, unmount it from within the virtual machine.
3. Enter xl block-list alice on the host view of the guest block devices.
4. Enter xl block-detach alice block_dev_id to remove the virtual device from the
guest. If that fails, try to add -f to force the removal.
5. Press the hardware eject button to eject the CD.
22.2 Remote Access Methods
Some configurations, such as those that include rack-mounted servers, require a computer to
run without a video monitor, keyboard, or mouse. This type of configuration is often referred
to as headless and requires the use of remote administration technologies.
Typical configuration scenarios and technologies include:
Graphical Desktop with X Window Server
If a graphical desktop, such as GNOME, is installed on the virtual machine host, you can
use a remote viewer, such as a VNC viewer. On a remote computer, log in and manage the
remote guest environment by using graphical tools, such as tigervnc or virt-viewer .
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Text Only
You can use the ssh command from a remote computer to log in to a virtual machine
host and access its text-based console. You can then use the xl command to manage
virtual machines and the virt-install or vm-install commands to create new virtual
machines.
22.3 VNC Viewer
VNC viewer is used to view the environment of the running guest system in a graphical way.
You can use it from Dom0 (known as local access or on-box access), or from a remote computer.
You can use the IP address of a VM Host Server and a VNC viewer to view the display of this
VM Guest. When a virtual machine is running, the VNC server on the host assigns the virtual
machine a port number to be used for VNC viewer connections. The assigned port number is the
lowest port number available when the virtual machine starts. The number is only available for
the virtual machine while it is running. After shutting down, the port number might be assigned
to other virtual machines.
For example, if ports 1 and 2 and 4 and 5 are assigned to the running virtual machines, the VNC
viewer assigns the lowest available port number, 3. If port number 3 is still in use the next time
the virtual machine starts, the VNC server assigns a different port number to the virtual machine.
To use the VNC viewer from a remote computer, the firewall must permit access to as many
ports as VM Guest systems run from. This means from port 5900 and up. For example, if you
want to run 10 VM Guest systems, you will have to open the TCP ports 5900:5910.
To access the virtual machine from the local console running a VNC viewer client, enter one
of the following commands:
vncviewer ::590#
vncviewer :#
# is the VNC viewer port number assigned to the virtual machine.
When accessing the VM Guest from a machine other than Dom0, use the following syntax:
vncviewer 192.168.1.20::590#
In this case, the IP address of Dom0 is 192.168.1.20.
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22.3.1 Assigning VNC Viewer Port Numbers to Virtual Machines
Although the default behavior of VNC viewer is to assign the first available port number, you
might want to assign a specific VNC viewer port number to a specific virtual machine.
To assign a specific port number on a VM Guest, edit the xl setting of the virtual machine
and change the vnclisten to the desired value. Note that for example for port number 5902,
specify 2 only, as 5900 is added automatically:
vfb = [ 'vnc=1,vnclisten="localhost:2"' ]
For more information regarding editing the xl settings of a guest domain, see Section 20.1, “XL
—Xen Management Tool”.
Tip
Assign higher port numbers to avoid conflict with port numbers assigned by the VNC
viewer, which uses the lowest available port number.
22.3.2
Using SDL instead of a VNC Viewer
If you access a virtual machine's display from the virtual machine host console (known as local
or on-box access), you might want to use SDL instead of VNC viewer. VNC viewer is faster for
viewing desktops over a network, but SDL is faster for viewing desktops from the same computer.
To set the default to use SDL instead of VNC, change the virtual machine's configuration information to the following. For instructions, see Section 20.1, “XL—Xen Management Tool”.
vfb = [ 'sdl=1' ]
Remember that, unlike a VNC viewer window, closing an SDL window terminates the virtual
machine.
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22.4 Virtual Keyboards
When a virtual machine is started, the host creates a virtual keyboard that matches the keymap
entry according to the virtual machine's settings. If there is no keymap entry specified, the
virtual machine's keyboard defaults to English (US).
To view a virtual machine's current keymap entry, enter the following command on the Dom0:
xl list -l vm_name | grep keymap
To configure a virtual keyboard for a guest, use the following snippet:
vfb = [ 'keymap="de"' ]
For a complete list of supported keyboard layouts, see the Keymaps section of the xl.cfg
manual page man 5 xl.cfg .
22.5 Dedicating CPU Resources
In Xen it is possible to specify how many and which CPU cores the Dom0 or VM Guest should
use to retain its performance. The performance of Dom0 is important for the overall system,
as the disk and network drivers are running on it. Also I/O intensive guests' workloads may
consume lots of Dom0s' CPU cycles. On the other hand, the performance of VM Guests is also
important, to be able to accomplish the task they were set up for.
22.5.1
Dom0
Dedicating CPU resources to Dom0 results in a better overall performance of the virtualized
environment because Dom0 has free CPU time to process I/O requests from VM Guests. Failing
to dedicate exclusive CPU resources to Dom0 usually results in a poor performance and can
cause the VM Guests to function incorrectly.
Dedicating CPU resources involves three basic steps: modifying Xen boot line, binding Dom0's
VCPUs to a physical processor, and configuring CPU-related options on VM Guests:
1. First you need to append the dom0_max_vcpus=X to the Xen boot line. Do so by adding
the following line to /etc/default/grub :
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GRUB_CMDLINE_XEN="dom0_max_vcpus=X"
If /etc/default/grub already contains a line setting GRUB_CMDLINE_XEN , rather append
dom0_max_vcpus=X to this line.
X needs to be replaced by the number of VCPUs dedicated to Dom0.
2. Update the GRUB 2 configuration file by running the following command:
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
3. Reboot for the change to take effect.
4. The next step is to bind (or “pin”) each Dom0's VCPU to a physical processor.
xl vcpu-pin Domain-0 0 0
xl vcpu-pin Domain-0 1 1
The first line binds Dom0's VCPU number 0 to the physical processor number 0, while the
second line binds Dom0's VCPU number 1 to the physical processor number 1.
5. Lastly, you need to make sure no VM Guest uses the physical processors dedicated to
VCPUs of Dom0. Assuming you are running an 8-CPU system, you need to add
cpus="2-8"
to the configuration file of the relevant VM Guest.
22.5.2
VM Guests
It is often necessary to dedicate specific CPU resources to a virtual machine. By default, a virtual
machine uses any available CPU core. Its performance can be improved by assigning a reason-
able number of physical processors to it as other VM Guests are not allowed to make use of
them after that. Assuming a machine with 8 CPU cores while a virtual machine needs to use 2
of them, change its configuration file as follows:
vcpus=2
cpus="2,3"
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The above example dedicates 2 processors to the VM Guest, and these being the 3rd and 4th
one, ( 2 and 3 counted from zero). If you need to assign more physical processors, use the
cpus="2-8" syntax.
If you need to change the CPU assignment for a guest named “alice” in a hotplug manner, do
the following on the related Dom0:
xl vcpu-set alice 2
xl vcpu-pin alice 0 2
xl vcpu-pin alice 1 3
The example will dedicate 2 physical processors to the guest, and bind its VCPU 0 to physical
processor 2 and VCPU 1 to physical processor 3. Now check the assignment:
xl vcpu-list alice
Name
ID VCPUs
CPU State
Time(s) CPU Affinity
alice
4
0
2
-b-
1.9 2-3
alice
4
1
3
-b-
2.8 2-3
22.6 HVM Features
In Xen some features are only available for fully virtualized domains. They are not very often
used, but still may be interesting in some environments.
22.6.1
Specify Boot Device on Boot
Just as with physical hardware, it is sometimes desirable to boot a VM Guest from a different
device than its own boot device. For fully virtual machines, it is possible to select a boot device
with the boot parameter in a domain xl configuration file:
boot = boot_device
boot_device can be one of c for hard disk, d for CD-ROM, or n for Network/PXE. You can
specify multiple options, and they will be attempted in the given order. For example,
boot = dc
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boots from CD-ROM, and falls back to the hard disk if CD-ROM is not bootable.
22.6.2
Changing CPUIDs for Guests
To be able to migrate a VM Guest from one VM Host Server to a different VM Host Server,
it is mandatory, that the VM Guest system only uses CPU features that are available on both
VM Host Server systems. If the actual CPUs are different on both hosts, it may be necessary to
hide some of the features before the VM Guest is started in order to maintain the possibility to
migrate the VM Guest between both hosts. For fully virtualized guests, this can be achieved by
configuring the cpuid that is available to the guest.
To gain an overview of the current CPU, have a look at /proc/cpuinfo . This contains all the
important information that defines the current CPU.
To redefine a CPU, first have a look at the respective cpuid definitions of the CPU vendor. These
are available from:
Intel
http://www.intel.com/Assets/PDF/appnote/241618.pdf
cpuid = "host,tm=0,sse3=0"
The syntax is a comma-separated list of key=value pairs, preceded by the word "host". A few
keys take a numerical value, while all others take a single character which describes what to do
with the feature bit. See man 5 xl.cfg for a complete list of cpuid keys. The respective bits
may be changed by using the following values:
1
Force the corresponding bit to 1
0
Force the corresponding bit to 0
x
Use the values of the default policy
k
Use the values defined by the host
s
Like k , but preserve the value over migrations
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Note that counting bits is done from right to left, starting with bit 0 .
22.6.3
Increasing the Number of PCI-IRQs
In case you need to increase the default number of PCI-IRQs available to Dom0 and/or
VM Guest, you can do so by modifying the Xen kernel command line. Use the command
extra_guest_irqs=domu_irgs,dom0_irgs . The optional first number domu_irgs is common
for all VM Guests, while the optional second number dom0_irgs (preceded by a comma) is for
Dom0. Changing the setting for VM Guest has no impact on Dom0 and vice versa. For example
to change Dom0 without changing VM Guest, use
extra_guest_irqs=,512
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23 Administration Tasks
23.1 The Boot Loader Program
The boot loader controls how the virtualization software boots and runs. You can modify the
boot loader properties by using YaST, or by directly editing the boot loader configuration file.
The YaST boot loader program is located at YaST System Boot Loader. Click the Bootloader
Options tab and select the line containing the Xen kernel as the Default Boot Section.
FIGURE 23.1: BOOT LOADER SETTINGS
Confirm with OK. Next time you boot the host, it will be ready to provide the Xen virtualization
environment.
You can use the Boot Loader program to specify functionality, such as:
Pass kernel command line parameters.
Specify the kernel image and initial RAM disk.
Select a specific hypervisor.
Pass additional parameters to the hypervisor. See http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/misc/xen-command-line.html
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You can customize your virtualization environment by editing the /etc/default/grub file.
Add the following line to this file: GRUB_CMDLINE_XEN="<boot_parameters>" . Do not forget
to run grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg after editing the file.
23.2 Sparse Image Files and Disk Space
If the host’s physical disk reaches a state where it has no available space, a virtual machine
using a virtual disk based on a sparse image file is unable to write to its disk. Consequently,
it reports I/O errors.
The Reiser file system, perceiving a corrupt disk environment, automatically sets the file system
to read-only. If this situation happens, you should free up available space on the physical disk,
remount the virtual machine’s file system, and set the file system back to read-write.
To check the actual disk requirements of a sparse image file, use the command du -h <image
file> .
To increase the available space of a sparse image file, first increase the file size and then the
file system.
Warning: Back Up Before Resizing
Touching the sizes of partitions or sparse files always bears the risk of data failure. Do
not work without a backup.
The resizing of the image file can be done online, while the VM Guest is running. Increase the
size of a sparse image file with:
dd if=/dev/zero of=<image file> count=0 bs=1M seek=<new size in MB>
For example, to increase the file /var/lib/xen/images/sles/disk0 to a size of 16GB, use
the command:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/lib/xen/images/sles/disk0 count=0 bs=1M seek=16000
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Note: Increasing Non-Sparse Images
It is also possible to increase the image files of devices that are not sparse files. However,
you must know exactly where the previous image ends. Use the seek parameter to point
to the end of the image file and use a command similar to the following:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/lib/xen/images/sles/disk0 seek=8000 bs=1M count=2000
Be sure to use the right seek, else data loss may happen.
If the VM Guest is running during the resize operation, also resize the loop device that provides
the image file to the VM Guest. First detect the correct loop device with the command:
losetup -j /var/lib/xen/images/sles/disk0
Then resize the loop device, for example /dev/loop0 , with the following command:
losetup -c /dev/loop0
Finally check the size of the block device inside the guest system with the command fdisk l /dev/xvdb . The device name depends on the actually increased device.
The resizing of the file system inside the sparse file involves tools that are depending on the
actual file system. This is described in detail in the Book “Storage Administration Guide” .
23.3 Migrating Xen VM Guest Systems
With Xen it is possible to migrate a VM Guest system from one VM Host Server to another with
almost no service interruption. This could be used for example to move a busy VM Guest to a
VM Host Server that has stronger hardware or is not yet loaded. Or, if a service of a VM Host
Server is required, all VM Guest systems running on this machine can be migrated to other
machines in order to avoid interruption of service. These are only two examples—many more
reasons may apply to your personal situation.
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Before starting, some preliminary considerations regarding the VM Host Server should be taken
into account:
All VM Host Server systems should use a similar CPU. The frequency is not so important,
but they should be using the same CPU family. To get more information about the used
CPU, see cat /proc/cpuinfo .
All resources that are used by a specific guest system must be available on all involved VM
Host Server systems. This means the network bridges must be in the same subnet, and all
used block devices must exist on both VM Host Server systems.
Using special features like PCI Pass-Through may be problematic. Do not implement
these when deploying for an environment that should migrate VM Guest systems between
different VM Host Server systems.
For fast migrations, a fast network is mandatory. If possible, use GB Ethernet and fast
switches. Deploying VLAN might also help avoid collisions.
23.3.1
Preparing Block Devices for Migrations
The block devices needed by the VM Guest system must be available on all involved VM Host
Server systems. This is done by implementing some kind of shared storage that serves as container for the root file system of the migrated VM Guest system. Common possibilities include:
iSCSI can be set up to give access to the same block devices from different systems at the
same time. For more information about iSCSI, see Book “Storage Administration Guide”
13 “Mass Storage over IP Networks: iSCSI”.
NFS is a widely used root file system that can easily be accessed from different locations.
For more information, see Book “Administration Guide” 26 “Sharing File Systems with NFS”.
DRBD can be used if only two VM Host Server systems are involved. This gives some ex-
tra data security, because the used data is mirrored over the network. For more information, see the SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 12 documentation at http://
www.suse.com/doc/
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.
Preparing Block Devices for Migrations
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SCSI can also be used if the available hardware permits shared access to the same disks.
NPIV is a special mode to use fibre channel disks. However, in this case all migration hosts
must be attached to the same fibre channel switch. For more information about NPIV,
see Section 21.1, “Mapping Physical Storage to Virtual Disks”. Commonly, this works if the fibre
channel environment supports 4 Gbit or faster connections.
23.3.2
Migrating VM Guest Systems
The actual migration of the VM Guest system is done with the command:
xl migrate <domain_name> <host>
The speed of the migration depends on how fast the memory print can be saved to disk, sent
to the new VM Host Server and loaded there. This means that small VM Guest systems can be
migrated faster than big systems with a lot of memory.
23.4 Monitoring Xen
For a regular operation of many virtual guests, having a possibility to check the sanity of all the
different VM Guest systems is indispensable. Xen offers several tools besides the system tools
to gather information about the system.
Tip: Monitoring the VM Host Server
Basic monitoring of the VM Host Server (I/O and CPU) is available via the Virtual Machine
Manager. Refer to Section 14.2.1, “Monitoring with Virtual Machine Manager” for details.
23.4.1
Monitor Xen with xentop
The preferred terminal application to gather information about Xen virtual environment is xen-
top . Unfortunately, this tool needs a rather broad terminal, else it inserts line breaks into the
display.
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xentop has several command keys that can give you more information about the system that
is monitored. Some of the more important are:
D
Change the delay between the refreshes of the screen.
N
Also display network statistics. Note, that only standard configurations will be displayed. If
you use a special configuration like a routed network, no network will be displayed at all.
B
Display the respective block devices and their cumulated usage count.
For more information about xentop see the manual page man 1 xentop .
23.4.2
More Helpful Tools
There are many different system tools that also help monitoring or debugging a running SUSE
Linux Enterprise system. Many of these are covered in the official SUSE Linux Enterprise documentation. Especially useful for monitoring a virtualization environment are the following tools:
ip
The command line utility ip may be used to monitor arbitrary network interfaces. This
is especially useful if you have set up a network that is routed or applied a masqueraded network. To monitor a network interface with the name alice.0 , run the following
command:
watch ip -s link show alice.0
brctl
In a standard setup, all the Xen VM Guest systems are attached to a virtual network bridge.
brctl allows you to determine the connection between the bridge and the virtual network
adapter in the VM Guest system. For example, the output of brctl show may look like
the following:
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br0
8000.000476f060cc
no
eth0
vif1.0
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br1
8000.00001cb5a9e7
no
vlan22
This shows that there are two virtual bridges defined on the system. One is connected to the
physical Ethernet device eth0 , the other one is connected to a VLAN interface vlan22 .
There is only one guest interface active in this setup, vif1.0 . This means that the guest
with ID 1 has an Ethernet interface eth0 assigned, that is connected to br0 in the VM
Host Server.
iptables-save
Especially when using masquerade networks, or if several Ethernet interfaces are set up
together with a firewall setup, it may be helpful to check the current firewall rules.
The command iptables may be used to check all the different firewall settings. To list
all the rules of a chain, or even of the complete setup, you may use the commands iptables-save or iptables -S .
23.5 Providing Host Information for VM Guest
Systems
In a standard Xen environment, the VM Guest systems have only very limited information about
the VM Host Server system they are running on. If a guest should know more about the VM
Host Server it runs on, vhostmd can provide more information to selected guests. To set up
your system to run vhostmd , proceed as follows:
1. Install the package vhostmd on the VM Host Server.
2. Edit the file /etc/vhostmd/vhostmd.conf if you want to add or remove metric sections
from the configuration. However, the default works well.
3. Check the validity of the vhostmd.conf configuration file with the command:
cd /etc/vhostmd
xmllint --postvalid --noout vhostmd.conf
4. Start
the
vhostmd
vhostmd.service .
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daemon
with
the
command
sudo
systemctl
Providing Host Information for VM Guest Systems
start
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If vhostmd should be started automatically during start-up of the system, run the command:
sudo systemctl enable vhostmd.service
5. Attach the image file /dev/shm/vhostmd0 to the VM Guest system named alice with the
command:
xl block-attach opensuse /dev/shm/vhostmd0,,xvdb,ro
6. Log on the VM Guest system.
7. Install the client package vm-dump-metrics .
8. Run the command vm-dump-metrics . If you would like to have the result in a file, use
the option -d <filename> .
The result of the vm-dump-metrics is an XML output. The respective metric entries follow the
DTD /etc/vhostmd/metric.dtd .
For more information, see the manual pages man 8 vhostmd and /usr/share/doc/vhost-
md/README on the VM Host Server system. On the guest, see the manual page man 1 vm-dumpmetrics .
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24 XenStore: Configuration Database Shared between Domains
This section introduces basic information about XenStore, its role in the Xen environment, the
directory structure of files used by XenStore, and the description of XenStore's commands.
24.1 Introduction
XenStore is a database of configuration and status information shared between VM Guests and
the management tools running in Dom0. VM Guests and the management tools read and write to
XenStore to convey configuration information, status updates, and state changes. The XenStore
database is managed by Dom0 and supports simple operations such as reading and writing a
key. VM Guests and management tools can be notified of any changes in XenStore by watching
entries of interest. Note that the xenstored daemon is managed by the xencommons service.
XenStore is located on Dom0 in a single database file /var/lib/xenstored/tdb ( tdb represents tree database).
24.2 File System Interface
XenStore database content is represented by a virtual file system similar to /proc (for more
information on /proc , see Book “System Analysis and Tuning Guide” 2 “System Monitoring
Utilities”2.6 “The /proc File System”). The tree has three main paths: /vm , /local/domain ,
and /tool .
/vm - stores information about the VM Guest configuration.
/local/domain - stores information about VM Guest on the local node.
/tool - stores general information about various tools.
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Tip
Each VM Guest has two different ID numbers. The universal unique identifier (UUID) re-
mains the same even if the VM Guest is migrated to another machine. The domain iden-
tifier (DOMID) is an identification number that represents a particular running instance.
It typically changes when the VM Guest is migrated to another machine.
24.2.1
XenStore Commands
The file system structure of the XenStore database can be operated with the following commands:
xenstore-ls
Displays the full dump of the XenStore database.
xenstore-read path_to_xenstore_entry
Displays the value of the specified XenStore entry.
xenstore-exists xenstore_path
Reports whether the specified XenStore path exists.
xenstore-list xenstore_path
Displays all the children entries of the specified XenStore path.
xenstore-write path_to_xenstore_entry
Updates the value of the specified XenStore entry.
xenstore-rm xenstore_path
Removes the specified XenStore entry or directory.
xenstore-chmod xenstore_pathmode
Updates the read/write permission on the specified XenStore path.
xenstore-control
Sends a command to the xenstored back-end, such as triggering an integrity check.
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24.2.2
/vm
The /vm path is indexed by the UUID of each VM Guest, and stores configuration information
such as the number of virtual CPUs and the amount of allocated memory. There is a /vm/
<uuid> directory for each VM Guest. To list the directory content, use xenstore-list .
# xenstore-list /vm
00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
9b30841b-43bc-2af9-2ed3-5a649f466d79-1
The first line of the output belongs to Dom0, and the second one to a running VM Guest. The
following command lists all the entries related to the VM Guest:
# xenstore-list /vm/9b30841b-43bc-2af9-2ed3-5a649f466d79-1
image
rtc
device
pool_name
shadow_memory
uuid
on_reboot
start_time
on_poweroff
bootloader_args
on_crash
vcpus
vcpu_avail
bootloader
name
To read a value of an entry, for example the number of virtual CPUs dedicated to the VM Guest,
use xenstore-read :
# xenstore-read /vm/9b30841b-43bc-2af9-2ed3-5a649f466d79-1/vcpus
1
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A list of some of the /vm/<uuid> entries follows:
uuid
UUID of the VM Guest. It does not change during the migration process.
on_reboot
Specifies whether to destroy or restart the VM Guest in response to a reboot request.
on_poweroff
Specifies whether to destroy or restart the VM Guest in response to a halt request.
on_crash
Specifies whether to destroy or restart the VM Guest in response to a crash.
vcpus
Number of virtual CPUs allocated to the VM Guest.
vcpu_avail
Bitmask of active virtual CPUs for the VM Guest. The bitmask has a number of bits equal
to the value of vcpus , with a bit set for each online virtual CPU.
name
The name of the VM Guest.
Regular VM Guests (not Dom0) make use of the /vm/<uuid>/image path:
# xenstore-list /vm/9b30841b-43bc-2af9-2ed3-5a649f466d79-1/image
ostype
kernel
cmdline
ramdisk
dmargs
device-model
display
An explanation of the used entries follows:
ostype
The OS type of the VM Guest.
kernel
The path on Dom0 to the kernel for the VM Guest.
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cmdline
The kernel command line for the VM Guest used when booting.
ramdisk
The path on Dom0 to the ramdisk for the VM Guest.
dmargs
Shows arguments passed to the QEMU process. If you look at the QEMU process with ps ,
you should see the same arguments as in /vm/<uuid>/image/dmargs .
24.2.3
/local/domain/<domid>
This path is indexed by the running domain (VM Guest) ID, and contains information about
the running VM Guest. Remember that the domain ID changes during VM Guest migration. The
following entries are available:
vm
The path of the /vm directory for this VM Guest.
on_reboot, on_poweroff, on_crash, name
See identical options in Section 24.2.2, “/vm”
domid
Domain identifier for the VM Guest.
cpu
The current CPU to which the VM Guest is pinned.
cpu_weight
The weight assigned to the VM Guest for scheduling purposes. Higher weights use the
physical CPUs more often.
Apart from the individual entries described above, there are also several subdirectories under /
local/domain/<domid> , containing specific entries. To see all entries available, refer to XenS-
tore Reference (http://wiki.xen.org/wiki/XenStore_Reference)
.
/local/domain/<domid>/memory
Contains memory information. /local/domain/<domid>/memory/target contains target memory size for the VM Guest (in kilobytes).
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/local/domain/<domid>/console
Contains information about a console used by the VM Guest.
/local/domain/<domid>/backend
Contains information about all back-end devices used by the VM Guest. The path has
subdirectories of its own.
/local/domain/<domid>/device
Contains information about the front-end devices for the VM Guest.
/local/domain/<domid>/device-misc
Contains miscellaneous information about devices.
/local/domain/<domid>/store
Contains information about the VM Guest's store.
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25 Xen as a High-Availability Virtualization Host
Setting up two Xen hosts as a failover system has several advantages compared to a setup where
every server runs on dedicated hardware.
Failure of a single server does not cause major interruption of the service.
A single big machine is normally way cheaper than multiple smaller machines.
Adding new servers as needed is a trivial task.
The utilization of the server is improved, which has positive effects on the power consumption of the system.
The setup of migration for Xen hosts is described in Section 23.3, “Migrating Xen VM Guest Systems”.
In the following, several typical scenarios are described.
25.1 Xen HA with Remote Storage
Xen can directly provide a number of remote block devices to the respective Xen guest systems.
These include iSCSI, NPIV, and NBD. All of these may be used to do live migrations. When a
storage system is already in place, first try to use the same device type you already used in
the network.
If the storage system cannot be used directly but provides a possibility to offer the needed space
over NFS, it is also possible to create image files on NFS. If the NFS file system is available on
all Xen host systems, this method also allows live migrations of Xen guests.
When setting up a new system, one of the main considerations is whther a dedicated storage
area network should be implemented. The following possibilities are available:
TABLE 25.1: XEN REMOTE STORAGE
Method
Complexity
Comments
Ethernet
low
Note that all block device
traffic goes over the same
Ethernet interface as the network traffic. This may be
limiting the performance of
the guest.
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Method
Complexity
Comments
Ethernet dedicated to stor-
medium
Running the storage traffic
age.
over a dedicated Ethernet interface may eliminate a bottleneck on the server side.
However, planning your own
network with your own IP
address range and possibly
a VLAN dedicated to storage
requires numerous considerations.
NPIV
high
NPIV is a method to virtu-
alize fibre channel connec-
tions. This is available with
adapters that support a data
rate of at least 4 Gbit/s and
allows the setup of complex
storage systems.
Typically, a 1 Gbit/s Ethernet device will be able to fully use a typical hard disk or storage
system. When using very fast storage systems, such an Ethernet device will probably limit the
speed of the system.
25.2 Xen HA with Local Storage
For space or budget reasons, it may be necessary to rely on storage that is local to the Xen
host systems. To still maintain the possibility of live migrations, it is necessary to build block
devices that are mirrored to both Xen hosts. The software that allows this is called Distributed
Replicated Block Device (DRBD).
If a system that uses DRBD to mirror the block devices or files between two Xen hosts should be
set up, both hosts should use the identical hardware. If one of the hosts has slower hard disks,
both hosts will suffer from this limitation.
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Xen HA with Local Storage
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During the setup, each of the required block devices should use its own DRBD device. The setup
of such a system is quite a complex task.
25.3 Xen HA and Private Bridges
When using several guest systems that need to communicate between each other, it is possible
to do this over the regular interface. However, for security reasons it may be advisable to create
a bridge that is only connected to guest systems.
In a HA environment that also should support live migrations, such a private bridge must be
connected to the other Xen hosts. This is possible by using dedicated physical Ethernet devices,
and also using a dedicated network.
A different implementation method is using VLAN interfaces. In that case, all the traffic goes
over the regular Ethernet interface. However, the VLAN interface does not get the regular traffic,
because only the VLAN packets that are tagged for the correct VLAN are forwarded.
For more information about the setup of a VLAN interface see Section 19.5.3, “Using VLAN Interfaces”.
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V Managing Virtual Machines with
QEMU
26
QEMU Overview 194
27
Guest Installation 195
28
Running Virtual Machines with qemu-system-ARCH 210
29
KVM Disk Cache Modes 249
30
Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor 253
26 QEMU Overview
QEMU is a fast, cross-platform open-source machine emulator which can emulate a huge number
of hardware architectures for you. QEMU lets you run a complete unmodified operating system
(VM Guest) on top of your existing system (VM Host Server).
You can also use QEMU for debugging purposes—you can easily stop your running virtual machine, inspect its state and save and restore it later.
QEMU consists of the following parts:
processor emulator (x86, s390x, PowerPC, Sparc)
emulated devices (graphic card, network card, hard drives, mice)
generic devices used to connect the emulated devices to the related host devices
descriptions of the emulated machines (PC, Power Mac)
debugger
user interface used to interact with the emulator
QEMU is central to KVM and Xen Virtualization, where it provides the general machine emulation. Xen's usage of QEMU is somewhat hidden from the user, while KVM's usage exposes most
QEMU features transparently. If the VM Guest hardware architecture is the same as the VM Host
Server's architecture, QEMU can take advantage of the KVM acceleration (SUSE only supports
QEMU with the KVM acceleration loaded).
Apart from providing a core virtualization infrastructure and processor-specific drivers, QEMU
also provides an architecture-specific userspace program for managing VM Guests. Depending
on the architecture this program is one of:
qemu-system-i386
qemu-system-s390x
qemu-system-x86_64
In the following this command is referred to as qemu-system-ARCH ; in examples the qemu-system-x86_64 command is used.
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27 Guest Installation
The libvirt -based tools such as virt-manager , virt-install, or vm-install offer con-
venient interfaces to set up and manage virtual machines. They act as a kind of wrapper for the
qemu-system-ARCH command. However, it is also possible to use qemu-system-ARCH directly
without using libvirt -based tools at all.
Warning
Virtual Machines created with qemu-system-ARCH are not "visible" for the libvirt -based
tools.
27.1 Basic Installation with qemu-system-ARCH
In the following example, a virtual machine for a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 installation
is created. For detailed information on the commands, refer to the respective man pages.
If you do not already have an image of a system that you want to run in a virtualized environ-
ment, you need to create one from the installation media. In such case, you need to prepare a
hard disk image, and obtain an image of the installation media or the media itself.
Create a hard disk with qemu-img .
qemu-img create
-f raw
1
2
/images/sles/hda
3
8G
4
1
The subcommand create tells qemu-img to create a new image.
2
Specify the disk's format with the -f parameter.
3
The full path to the image file.
4
The size of the image—8 GB in this case. The image is created as a Sparse image file file
that grows when the disk is filled with data. The specified size defines the maximum size
to which the image file can grow.
After at least one hard disk image is created, you can set up a virtual machine with qemu-system-ARCH that will boot into the installation system:
qemu-system-ARCH -name "sles"
-smp 2
195
4
-boot d
5
1
-machine accel=kvm -M pc
2
-m 768
3
\
\
Guest Installation
SLES 12
-drive file=/images/sles/hda,if=virtio,index=0,media=disk,format=raw
6
\
-drive file=/isos/SLES-11-SP3-DVD-x86_64-GM-DVD1.iso,index=1,media=cdrom
-net nic,model=virtio,macaddr=52:54:00:05:11:11
-vga cirrus
1
9
-balloon virtio
8
7
\
-net user\
10
Name of the virtual machine that will be displayed in the window caption and also used
for the VNC server. This name must be unique.
2
Specifies the machine type. Use qemu-system-ARCH -M ? to display a list of valid parameters. pc is the default Standard PC.
3
Maximum amount of memory for the virtual machine.
4
Defines an SMP system with two processors.
5
Specifies the boot order. Valid values are a , b (floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d
(first CD-ROM), or n to p (Ether-boot from network adapter 1-3). Defaults to c .
6
Defines the first ( index=0 ) hard disk. It will be accessed as a paravirtualized ( if=virtio )
drive in raw format.
7
The second ( index=1 ) image drive will act as a CD-ROM.
8
Defines a paravirtualized ( model=virtio ) network adapter with the MAC address
52:54:00:05:11:11 . Be sure to specify a unique MAC address, otherwise a network con-
flict may occur.
9
Specifies the graphic card. If you specify none , the graphic card will be disabled.
10
Defines the paravirtualized balloon device that allows to dynamically change the amount
of memory (up to the maximum value specified with the parameter -m ).
After the installation of the guest operating system finishes, you can easily start the related
virtual machine without the need to specify the CD-ROM device:
qemu-system-ARCH -name "sles" -machine type=pc,accel=kvm -m 768 \
-smp 2 -boot c \
-drive file=/images/sles/hda,if=virtio,index=0,media=disk,format=raw \
-net nic,model=virtio,macaddr=52:54:00:05:11:11 \
-vga cirrus -balloon virtio
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27.2 Managing Disk Images with qemu-img
In the previous section (see Section 27.1, “Basic Installation with qemu-system-ARCH”), we used the
qemu-img command to create an image of a hard disk. You can, however, use qemu-img for
general disk image manipulation. This section introduces useful qemu-img subcommands to
help manage the disk images flexibly.
27.2.1
General Information on qemu-img Invocation
qemu-img uses subcommands (like zypper does) to do specific tasks. Each subcommand un-
derstands a different set of options. Some of these options are general and used by more of these
subcommands, while some of them are unique to the related subcommand. See the qemu-img
manual page ( man 1 qemu-img ) for a complete list of all supported options. qemu-img uses
the following general syntax:
qemu-img subcommand [options]
and supports the following subcommands:
create
Creates a new disk image on the file system.
check
Checks an existing disk image for errors.
compare
Check if two images have the same content.
map
Dumps the metadata of the image file name and its backing file chain.
amend
Amends the image format specific options for the image file name.
convert
Converts an existing disk image to a new one in a different format.
info
197
Displays information about the relevant disk image.
Managing Disk Images with qemu-img
SLES 12
snapshot
Manages snapshots of existing disk images.
commit
Applies changes made to an existing disk image.
rebase
Creates a new base image based on an existing image.
resize
Increases or decreases the size of an existing image.
27.2.2
Creating, Converting and Checking Disk Images
This section describes how to create disk images, check their condition, convert a disk image
from one format to another, and get detailed information about a particular disk image.
27.2.2.1
qemu-img create
Use qemu-img create to create a new disk image for your VM Guest operating system. The
command uses the following syntax:
qemu-img create -f fmt
1
-o options
2
fname
3
size
4
1
The format of the target image. Supported formats are qed , qcow2 , and raw .
2
Some of the image formats support additional options to be passed on the command line.
You can specify them here with the -o option. The raw image format supports only the
size option, so it is possible to insert -o size=8G instead of adding the size option at
the end of the command.
3
Path to the target disk image to be created.
4
Size of the target disk image (if not already specified with the -o size=<image_size>
option. Optional suffixes for the image size are K (kilobyte), M (megabyte), G (gigabyte),
or T (terabyte).
To create a new disk image sles.raw in the directory /images growing up to a maximum
size of 4 GB, run the following command:
tux > qemu-img create -f raw -o size=4G /images/sles.raw
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Formatting '/images/sles.raw', fmt=raw size=4294967296
tux > ls -l /images/sles.raw
-rw-r--r-- 1 tux users 4294967296 Nov 15 15:56 /images/sles.raw
tux > qemu-img info /images/sles.raw
image: /images/sles11.raw
file format: raw
virtual size: 4.0G (4294967296 bytes)
disk size: 0
As you can see, the virtual size of the newly created image is 4 GB, but the actual reported disk
size is 0 as no data has been written to the image yet.
Tip: VM Guest Images on the Btrfs File System
If you need to create a disk image on the Btrfs file system, you can make use of the
nocow=on to reduce the performance overhead caused by the copy-on-write feature of
Btrfs:
qemu-img create -o nocow=on test.img 8G
If you, however, want to make use of copy-on-write (for example for creating snapshots or
sharing them across virtual machines), then leave the command line without the nocow
option.
27.2.2.2
qemu-img convert
Use qemu-img convert to convert disk images to another format. To get a complete list of
image formats supported by QEMU, run qemu-img -h and look at the last line of the output.
The command uses the following syntax:
qemu-img convert -c
1
1
-f fmt
2
-O out_fmt
3
-o options
4
fname
5
out_fname
6
Applies compression on the target disk image. Only qcow and qcow2 formats support
compression.
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2
The format of the source disk image. It is autodetected in most cases and can therefore
be omitted.
3
The format of the target disk image.
4
Specify additional options relevant for the target image format. Use -o ? to view the list
of options supported by the target image format.
5
Path to the source disk image to be converted.
6
Path to the converted target disk image.
tux > qemu-img convert -O vmdk /images/sles.raw \
/images/sles.vmdk
tux > ls -l /images/
-rw-r--r-- 1 tux users 4294967296 16. lis 10.50 sles.raw
-rw-r--r-- 1 tux users 2574450688 16. lis 14.18 sles.vmdk
To see a list of options relevant for the selected target image format, run the following command
(replace vmdk with your image format):
tux > qemu-img convert -O vmdk /images/sles.raw \
/images/sles.vmdk -o ?
Supported options:
size
Virtual disk size
backing_file
File name of a base image
compat6
VMDK version 6 image
subformat
VMDK flat extent format, can be one of {monolithicSparse \
(default) | monolithicFlat | twoGbMaxExtentSparse | twoGbMaxExtentFlat}
scsi
27.2.2.3
SCSI image
qemu-img check
Use qemu-img check to check the existing disk image for errors. Not all disk image formats
support this feature. The command uses the following syntax:
qemu-img check -f fmt
200
1
fname
2
Creating, Converting and Checking Disk Images
SLES 12
1
The format of the source disk image. It is autodetected in most cases and can therefore
be omitted.
2
Path to the source disk image to be checked.
If no error is found, the command returns no output. Otherwise, the type and number of errors
found is shown.
tux > qemu-img check -f qcow2 /images/sles.qcow2
ERROR: invalid cluster offset=0x2af0000
[...]
ERROR: invalid cluster offset=0x34ab0000
378 errors were found on the image.
27.2.2.4
Increasing the Size of an Existing Disk Image
When creating a new image, you must specify its maximum size before the image is created
(see Section 27.2.2.1, “qemu-img create”). After you have installed and been running VM Guest for
some time, the initial size of the image may no longer be sufficient and you may need to add
more space to it.
To increase the size of an existing disk image by 2 gigabytes, use:
qemu-img resize /images/sles.raw +2GB
Note
You can resize the raw, qcow2 and qed disk image's format. To resize other image
formats, convert it to a supported format with qemu-img convert first.
The image now contains an empty space of 2 GB after the final partition. You can resize the
existing partitions or add new ones.
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FIGURE 27.1: NEW 2GB PARTITION IN GUEST YAST PARTITIONER
27.2.3 Managing Snapshots of Virtual Machines with qemu-img
Virtual Machine snapshots are snapshots of the complete environment in which a VM Guest is
running. The snapshot includes the state of the processor (CPU), memory (RAM), devices, and
all writable disks.
Snapshots are helpful when you need to save your virtual machine in a particular state. For
example, after you configured network services on a virtualized server and want to quickly
start the virtual machine in the same state you last saved it. Or you can create a snapshot after
the virtual machine has been powered off to create a backup state before you try something
experimental and possibly make VM Guest unstable. This section introduces the latter case,
while the former is described in Chapter 30, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor.
To use snapshots, your VM Guest must contain at least one writable hard disk image in qcow2
format. This device is usually the first virtual hard disk.
Virtual Machine snapshots are created with the savevm command in the interactive QEMU mon-
itor. You can assign a 'tag' to each snapshot, which makes its identification easier. For more
information on QEMU monitor, see Chapter 30, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor.
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Once your qcow2 disk image contains saved snapshots, you can inspect them with the qemu-img
snapshot command.
Warning
Do not create or delete virtual machine snapshots with the qemu-img snapshot com-
mand while the virtual machine is running. Otherwise, you may damage the disk image
with the state of the virtual machine saved.
27.2.3.1
Listing Existing Snapshots
Use qemu-img snapshot -l disk_image to view a list of all existing snapshots saved in the
disk_image image. You can get the list even while the VM Guest is running.
tux > qemu-img snapshot -l /images/sles.qcow2
Snapshot list:
ID
TAG
1
2
VM SIZE
3
DATE
VM CLOCK
4
1
booting
4.4M 2013-11-22 10:51:10
00:00:20.476
2
booted
184M 2013-11-22 10:53:03
00:02:05.394
3
logged_in
273M 2013-11-22 11:00:25
00:04:34.843
4
ff_and_term_running
372M 2013-11-22 11:12:27
00:08:44.965
5
1
Unique identification number of the snapshot. Usually auto-incremented.
2
Unique description string of the snapshot. It is meant as a human-readable version of the ID.
3
The disk space occupied by the snapshot. Note that the more memory is consumed by
running applications, the bigger the snapshot is.
4
Time and date the snapshot was created.
5
The current state of the virtual machine's clock.
27.2.3.2
Creating Snapshots of a Powered-Off Virtual Machine
Use qemu-img snapshot -c snapshot_title disk_image to create a snapshot of the current
state of a virtual machine that was previously powered off.
tux > qemu-img snapshot -c backup_snapshot /images/sles.qcow2
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tux > qemu-img snapshot -l /images/sles.qcow2
Snapshot list:
ID
TAG
1
VM SIZE
DATE
VM CLOCK
booting
4.4M 2013-11-22 10:51:10
00:00:20.476
2
booted
184M 2013-11-22 10:53:03
00:02:05.394
3
logged_in
273M 2013-11-22 11:00:25
00:04:34.843
4
ff_and_term_running
372M 2013-11-22 11:12:27
00:08:44.965
5
backup_snapshot
0 2013-11-22 14:14:00
00:00:00.000
If something breaks in your VM Guest and you need to restore the state of the saved snapshot
(ID 5 in our example), power off your VM Guest and execute the following command:
tux > qemu-img snapshot -a 5 /images/sles.qcow2
Next time you run the virtual machine with qemu-system-ARCH , it will be in the state of snapshot number 5.
Note
The qemu-img snapshot -c command is not related to the savevm command of QEMU
monitor (see Chapter 30, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor). For example,
you cannot apply a snapshot with qemu-img snapshot -a on a snapshot created with
savevm in QEMU's monitor.
27.2.3.3
Deleting Snapshots
Use qemu-img snapshot -d snapshot_id disk_image to delete old or unneeded snapshots
of a virtual machine. This saves some disk space inside the qcow2 disk image as the space
occupied by the snapshot data is restored:
tux > qemu-img snapshot -d 2 /images/sles.qcow2
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27.2.4
Manipulate Disk Images Effectively
Imagine the following real-life situation: you are a server administrator who runs and manages
a number of virtualized operating systems. One group of these systems is based on one specific
distribution, while another group (or groups) is based on different versions of the distribution or
even on a different (and maybe non-Unix) platform. And to make the case even more complex,
individual virtual guest systems based on the same distribution usually differ according to the
department and deployment: a file server typically uses a different setup and services than a
Web server does, while both may still be based on SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server.
With QEMU it is possible to create “base” disk images. You can use them as template virtual
machines. These base images will save you plenty of time because you will never need to install
the same operating system more than once.
27.2.4.1
Base and Derived Images
First, build a disk image as usual and install the target system on it. For more information, see
Section 27.1, “Basic Installation with qemu-system-ARCH” and Section 27.2.2, “Creating, Converting and
Checking Disk Images”. Then build a new image while using the first one as a base image. The base
image is also called a 'backing' file. After your new 'derived' image is built, never boot the base
image again, but boot the derived image instead. Several derived images may depend on one
base image at the same time. Therefore, changing the base image can damage the dependencies.
While using your derived image, QEMU writes changes to it and uses the base image only for
reading.
It is a good practice to create a base image from a freshly installed (and, if needed, registered)
operating system with no patches applied and no additional applications installed or removed.
Later on, you can create another base image with the latest patches applied and based on the
original base image.
27.2.4.2
Creating Derived Images
Note
While you can use the raw format for base images, you cannot use it for derived images
because the raw format does not support the backing_file option. Use for example
the qcow2 format for the derived images.
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For example, /images/sles_base.raw is the base image holding a freshly installed system.
tux > qemu-img info /images/sles_base.raw
image: /images/sles_base.raw
file format: raw
virtual size: 4.0G (4294967296 bytes)
disk size: 2.4G
The image's reserved size is 4 GB, the actual size is 2.4 GB, and its format is raw . Create an
image derived from the /images/sles_base.raw base image with:
tux > qemu-img create -f qcow2 /images/sles_derived.qcow2 \
-o backing_file=/images/sles_base.raw
Formatting '/images/sles_derived.qcow2', fmt=qcow2 size=4294967296 \
backing_file='/images/sles_base.raw' encryption=off cluster_size=0
Look at the derived image details:
tux > qemu-img info /images/sles_derived.qcow2
image: /images/sles_derived.qcow2
file format: qcow2
virtual size: 4.0G (4294967296 bytes)
disk size: 140K
cluster_size: 65536
backing file: /images/sles_base.raw \
(actual path: /images/sles_base.raw)
Although the reserved size of the derived image is the same as the size of the base image (4
GB), the actual size is 140 KB only. The reason is that only changes made to the system inside
the derived image are saved. Run the derived virtual machine, register it, if needed, and apply
the latest patches. Do any other changes in the system such as removing unneeded or installing
new software packages. Then shut the VM Guest down and examine its details once more:
tux > qemu-img info /images/sles_derived.qcow2
image: /images/sles_derived.qcow2
file format: qcow2
virtual size: 4.0G (4294967296 bytes)
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disk size: 1.1G
cluster_size: 65536
backing file: /images/sles_base.raw \
(actual path: /images/sles_base.raw)
The disk size value has grown to 1.1 GB, which is the disk space occupied by the changes
on the file system compared to the base image.
27.2.4.3
Rebasing Derived Images
After you have modified the derived image (apply patches, install specific applications, or
change the environment settings, etc.) into a satisfactory shape, at some point you probably
want to create a new base image 'merged' from the base image and the derived one. Your first
base image ( /images/sles_base.raw ) holds a freshly installed system and can be a template
for new modified base images, while the new one can contain the same system as the first one
plus all security and update patches applied, for example. After you have created this new base
image, you can use it as a template for more specialized derived images as well. The new base
image becomes independent of the original one. The process of creating base images from derived ones is called 'rebasing':
tux > qemu-img convert /images/sles_derived.qcow2 \
-O raw /images/sles_base2.raw
This command created the new base image /images/sles_base2.raw using the raw format.
tux > qemu-img info /images/sles_base2.raw
image: /images/sles11_base2.raw
file format: raw
virtual size: 4.0G (4294967296 bytes)
disk size: 2.8G
The new image is 0.4 gigabytes bigger than the original base image. It uses no backing file, and
you can easily create new derived images based upon it. This lets you create a sophisticated
hierarchy of virtual disk images for your organization, saving a lot of time and work.
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27.2.4.4
Mounting an Image on a VM Host Server
Sometimes it is useful to mount a virtual disk image under the host system. It is strongly recommended to read Chapter 17, libguestfs and use dedicated tools to access an virtual machine
image. But if for some reason you need to do it manually, just follow this guide.
Linux systems can mount an internal partition of a raw disk image using a 'loopback' device.
The first example procedure is more complex but more illustrative, while the second one is
straightforward:
PROCEDURE 27.1: MOUNTING DISK IMAGE BY CALCULATING PARTITION OFFSET
1. Set a loop device on the disk image whose partition you want to mount.
tux > losetup /dev/loop0 /images/sles_base.raw
2. Find the sector size and the starting sector number of the partition you want to mount.
tux > fdisk -lu /dev/loop0
Disk /dev/loop0: 4294 MB, 4294967296 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 522 cylinders, total 8388608 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512
1
bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000ceca8
Device Boot
Start
/dev/loop0p1
/dev/loop0p2
63
*
1542240
End
1542239
2
8385929
1
The disk sector size.
2
The starting sector of the partition.
Blocks
771088+
3421845
Id
82
System
Linux swap
83
Linux
3. Calculate the partition start offset:
sector_size * sector_start = 512 * 1542240 = 789626880
4. Delete the loop and mount the partition inside the disk image with the calculated offset
on a prepared directory.
tux > losetup -d /dev/loop0
tux > mount -o loop,offset=789626880 \
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Manipulate Disk Images Effectively
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/images/sles_base.raw /mnt/sles/
tux > ls -l /mnt/sles/
total 112
drwxr-xr-x
2 root root
4096 Nov 16 10:02 bin
drwxr-xr-x
3 root root
4096 Nov 16 10:27 boot
drwxr-xr-x
5 root root
4096 Nov 16 09:11 dev
drwxrwxrwt
14 root root
4096 Nov 24 09:50 tmp
drwxr-xr-x
12 root root
4096 Nov 16 09:16 usr
drwxr-xr-x
15 root root
4096 Nov 16 09:22 var
[...]
5. Copy one or more files onto the mounted partition and unmount it when finished.
tux > cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /mnt/sles/root/tmp
tux > ls -l /mnt/sles/root/tmp
tux > umount /mnt/sles/
Warning
Never mount a partition of an image of a running virtual machine in a read-write
mode. This could corrupt the partition and break the whole VM Guest.
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28 Running Virtual Machines with qemu-system-ARCH
Once you have a virtual disk image ready (for more information on disk images, see Section 27.2,
“Managing Disk Images with qemu-img”), it is time to start the related virtual machine. Section 27.1,
“Basic Installation with qemu-system-ARCH” introduced simple commands to install and run a VM
Guest. This chapter focuses on a more detailed explanation of qemu-system-ARCH usage, and
shows solutions for more specific tasks. For a complete list of qemu-system-ARCH 's options, see
its manual page ( man 1 qemu ).
28.1 Basic qemu-system-ARCH Invocation
The qemu-system-ARCH command uses the following syntax:
qemu-system-ARCH options
1
1
disk_img
2
qemu-system-ARCH understands a large number of options. Most of them define parame-
ters of the emulated hardware, while others affect more general emulator behavior. If you
do not supply any options, default values are used, and you need to supply the path to a
disk image to be run.
2
Path to the disk image holding the guest system you want to virtualize. qemu-system-ARCH
supports a large number of image formats. Use qemu-img --help to list them. If you do
not supply the path to a disk image as a separate argument, you have to use the -drive
file= option.
28.2 General qemu-system-ARCH Options
This section introduces general qemu-system-ARCH options and options related to the basic
emulated hardware, such as the virtual machine's processor, memory, model type, or time processing methods.
-name name_of_guest
Specifies the name of the running guest system. The name is displayed in the window
caption and also used for the VNC server.
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-boot options
Specifies the order in which the defined drives will be booted. Drives are represented by
letters, where 'a' and 'b' stands for the floppy drives 1 and 2, 'c' stands for the first hard disk,
'd' stands for the first CD-ROM drive, and 'n' to 'p' stand for Ether-boot network adapters.
For example, qemu-system-ARCH [...] -boot order=ndc first tries to boot from network, then from the first CD-ROM drive, and finally from the first hard disk.
-pidfile fname
Stores the QEMU's process identification number (PID) in a file. This is useful if you run
QEMU from a script.
-nodefaults
By default QEMU creates basic virtual devices even if you do not specify them on the
command line. This option turns this feature off, and you must specify every single device
manually, including graphical and network cards, parallel or serial ports, or virtual consoles. Even QEMU monitor is not attached by default.
-daemonize
'Daemonizes' the QEMU process after it is started. QEMU will detach from the standard
input and standard output after it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
Note: Seabios Bios
Seabios is the default Bios used. You can boot USB devices, any drive (CDROM, Flop-
py, or an hard drive disk). It has USB mouse and keyboard support and support multiple VGA cards. For more information about Seabios refer to Seabios Website (http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SeaBIOS)
28.2.1
28.2.1.1
.
Basic Virtual Hardware
Machine Type
You can specifies the type of the emulated machine. Run qemu-system-ARCH -M help to view
a list of supported machine types.
tux > qemu-system-x86_64 -M help
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Supported machines are:
pc-0.13
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996) (alias of pc-i440fx-2.0)
pc-i440fx-2.0
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996) (default)
pc-1.0
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-q35-1.7
Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
pc-1.1
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
q35
Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009) (alias of pc-q35-2.0)
pc-q35-2.0
Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
pc-i440fx-1.4
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-i440fx-1.5
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-0.14
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-0.15
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
xenfv
Xen Fully-virtualized PC
pc-q35-1.4
Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
isapc
ISA-only PC
pc-0.10
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-1.2
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-0.11
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-i440fx-1.7
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-i440fx-1.6
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
none
empty machine
xenpv
Xen Para-virtualized PC
pc-q35-1.5
Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
pc-q35-1.6
Standard PC (Q35 + ICH9, 2009)
pc-0.12
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
pc-1.3
Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996)
Note: ISA-PC
isapc ISA-ony-PC is an unsupported machine type.
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28.2.1.2
CPU Model
To specify the type of the processor (CPU) model, run qemu-system-ARCH -cpu MODEL . Use
qemu-system-ARCH -cpu help to view a list of supported CPU models.
tux > qemu-system-x86_64 -cpu help
x86
qemu64
QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.0.0
x86
phenom
AMD Phenom(tm) 9550 Quad-Core Processor
x86
core2duo
x86
kvm64
x86
qemu32
x86
kvm32
x86
coreduo
x86
486
x86
pentium
x86
pentium2
x86
pentium3
x86
athlon
x86
n270
x86
Conroe
Intel Celeron_4x0 (Conroe/Merom Class Core 2)
x86
Penryn
Intel Core 2 Duo P9xxx (Penryn Class Core 2)
x86
Nehalem
x86
Westmere
x86
SandyBridge
x86
Haswell
x86
Opteron_G1
AMD Opteron 240 (Gen 1 Class Opteron)
x86
Opteron_G2
AMD Opteron 22xx (Gen 2 Class Opteron)
x86
Opteron_G3
AMD Opteron 23xx (Gen 3 Class Opteron)
x86
Opteron_G4
AMD Opteron 62xx class CPU
x86
Opteron_G5
AMD Opteron 63xx class CPU
x86
host
Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU
T7700
@ 2.40GHz
T2600
@ 2.16GHz
Common KVM processor
QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.0.0
Common 32-bit KVM processor
Genuine Intel(R) CPU
QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.0.0
Intel(R) Atom(TM) CPU N270
@ 1.60GHz
Intel Core i7 9xx (Nehalem Class Core i7)
Westmere E56xx/L56xx/X56xx (Nehalem-C)
Intel Xeon E312xx (Sandy Bridge)
Intel Core Processor (Haswell)
KVM processor with all supported host features (only
available in KVM mode)
Recognized CPUID flags:
pbe ia64 tm ht ss sse2 sse fxsr mmx acpi ds clflush pn pse36 pat cmov mca
pge mtrr sep apic cx8 mce pae msr tsc pse de vme fpu
hypervisor rdrand f16c avx osxsave xsave aes tsc-deadline popcnt movbe
x2apic sse4.2|sse4_2 sse4.1|sse4_1 dca pcid pdcm xtpr cx16 fma cid ssse3
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Basic Virtual Hardware
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tm2 est smx vmx ds_cpl monitor dtes64 pclmulqdq|pclmuldq pni|sse3
smap adx rdseed rtm invpcid erms bmi2 smep avx2 hle bmi1 fsgsbase
3dnow 3dnowext lm|i64 rdtscp pdpe1gb fxsr_opt|ffxsr mmxext nx|xd syscall
perfctr_nb perfctr_core topoext tbm nodeid_msr tce fma4 lwp wdt skinit xop
ibs osvw 3dnowprefetch misalignsse sse4a abm cr8legacy extapic svm
cmp_legacy lahf_lm
pmm-en pmm phe-en phe ace2-en ace2 xcrypt-en xcrypt xstore-en xstore
kvm_pv_unhalt kvm_pv_eoi kvm_steal_time kvm_asyncpf kvmclock kvm_mmu
kvm_nopiodelay kvmclock
pfthreshold pause_filter decodeassists flushbyasid vmcb_clean tsc_scale
nrip_save svm_lock lbrv npt
CPU flags information can be found at CPUID wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPUID) .
28.2.1.3
Other Basics Options
The following is a list of most commonly used options while launching qemu from command
line. To see all options available please refer to qemu-doc manpage.
-m megabytes
Specifies how many megabytes are used for the virtual RAM size.
-balloon virtio
Specifies a paravirtualized device to dynamically change the amount of virtual RAM memory assigned to VM Guest. The top limit is the amount of memory specified with -m .
-smp number_of_cpus
Specifies how many CPUs will be emulated. QEMU supports up to 255 CPUs on the PC
platform (up to 64 with KVM acceleration used). This option also takes other CPU-related
parameters, such as number of sockets, number of cores per socket, or number of threads
per core.
The following is an example of a working qemu-system-ARCH command line:
qemu-system-x86_64 -name "SLES 11 SP3" -M pc-i440fx-2.0 -m 512 -machine accel=kvm \
-cpu kvm64 -smp 2 /images/sles.raw
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FIGURE 28.1: QEMU WINDOW WITH SLES 11 SP3 AS VM GUEST
-no-acpi
Disables ACPI support.
-S
QEMU starts with CPU stopped. To start CPU, enter c in QEMU monitor. For more information, see Chapter 30, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor.
28.2.2
Storing and Reading Configuration of Virtual Devices
-readconfig cfg_file
Instead of entering the devices configuration options on the command line each time you
want to run VM Guest, qemu-system-ARCH can read it from a file that was either previously saved with -writeconfig or edited manually.
-writeconfig cfg_file
Dumps the current virtual machine's devices configuration to a text file. It can be consequently re-used with the -readconfig option.
tux >
qemu-system-ARCH -name "SLES 11 SP3" -machine accel=kvm -M pc-i440fx-2.0
-m 512 -cpu kvm64 \
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Storing and Reading Configuration of Virtual Devices
SLES 12
-smp 2 /images/sles.raw -writeconfig /images/sles.cfg
(exited)
tux >
more /images/sles.cfg
# qemu config file
[drive]
index = "0"
media = "disk"
file = "/images/sles_base.raw"
This way you can effectively manage the configuration of your virtual machines' devices
in a well-arranged way.
28.2.3
Guest Real-Time Clock
-rtc options
Specifies the way the RTC is handled inside a VM Guest. By default, the clock of the guest
is derived from that of the host system. Therefore, it is recommended that the host system
clock is synchronized with an accurate external clock (for example, via NTP service).
If you need to isolate the VM Guest clock from the host one, specify clock=vm instead
of the default clock=host .
You can also specify a 'starting point' for VM Guest clock with the base option:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -rtc clock=vm,base=2010-12-03T01:02:00
Instead of a timestamp, you can specify utc or localtime . The former instructs VM Guest
to start at the current UTC value (Coordinated Universal Time, see http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/UTC
), while the latter applies the local time setting.
28.3 Using Devices in QEMU
QEMU virtual machines emulate all devices needed to run a VM Guest. QEMU supports, for example, several types of network cards, block devices (hard and removable drives), USB devices,
character devices (serial and parallel ports), or multimedia devices (graphic and sound cards).
This section introduces options to configure various types of supported devices.
216
Guest Real-Time Clock
SLES 12
Tip
If your device, such as -drive , needs a special driver and driver properties to be set,
specify them with the -device option, and identify with drive= suboption. For example:
qemu [...] -drive if=none,id=drive0,format=raw \
-device virtio-blk-pci,drive=drive0,scsi=off ...
To get help on available drivers and their properties, use -device ? and -device driver,? .
28.3.1
Block Devices
Block devices are vital for virtual machines. In general, these are fixed or removable storage
media usually referred to as 'drives'. One of the connected hard drives typically holds the guest
operating system to be virtualized.
Virtual Machine drives are defined with -drive . This option uses many suboptions, some of
which are described in this section. For their complete list, see the manual page ( man 1 qemu ).
SUB-OPTIONS FOR THE -drive OPTION
file=image_fname
Specifies the path to the disk image that will be used with this drive. If not specified, an
empty (removable) drive is assumed.
if=drive_interface
Specifies the type of interface to which the drive is connected. Currently only floppy ,
scsi , ide , or virtio are supported by SUSE. virtio defines a paravirtualized disk
driver. Default is ide .
index=index_of_connector
Specifies the index number of a connector on the disk interface (see the if option) where
the drive is connected. If not specified, the index is automatically incremented.
media=type
Specifies the type of media. Can be disk for hard disks, or cdrom for removable CDROM drives.
217
Block Devices
SLES 12
format=img_fmt
Specifies the format of the connected disk image. If not specified, the format is autodetected. Currently, SUSE supports qcow2 , qed and raw formats.
cache=method
Specifies the caching method for the drive. Possible values are unsafe , writethrough ,
writeback , directsync , or none . For the qcow2 image format, choose writeback if
you care about performance. none disables the host page cache and, therefore, is the
safest option. Default for image files is writeback . For more information, see Chapter 29,
KVM Disk Cache Modes.
Tip
To simplify defining of block devices, QEMU understands several shortcuts which you
may find handy when entering the qemu-system-ARCH command line.
You can use
qemu-system-ARCH -cdrom /images/cdrom.iso
instead of
qemu-system-ARCH -drive file=/images/cdrom.iso,index=2,media=cdrom
and
qemu-system-ARCH -hda /images/imagei1.raw -hdb /images/image2.raw -hdc \
/images/image3.raw -hdd /images/image4.raw
instead of
qemu-system-ARCH -drive file=/images/image1.raw,index=0,media=disk \
-drive file=/images/image2.raw,index=1,media=disk \
-drive file=/images/image3.raw,index=2,media=disk \
-drive file=/images/image4.raw,index=3,media=disk
218
Block Devices
SLES 12
Tip: Using Host Drives Instead of Images
As an alternative to using disk images (see Section 27.2, “Managing Disk Images with qe-
mu-img”) you can also use existing VM Host Server disks, connect them as drives, and
access them from VM Guest. Use the host disk device directly instead of disk image file
names.
To access the host CD-ROM drive, use
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -drive file=/dev/cdrom,media=cdrom
To access the host hard disk, use
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -drive file=/dev/hdb,media=disk
A host drive used by a VM Guest must not be accessed concurrently by the VM Host
Server or another VM Guest.
28.3.1.1
Freeing Unused Guest Disk Space
A Sparse image file is a type of disk image file that grows in size as the user adds data to it, taking
up only as much disk space as is stored in it. For example, if you copy 1 GB of data inside the
sparse disk image, its size grows by 1 GB. If you then delete for example 500 MB of the data,
the image size does not by default decrease as expected.
That is why the discard=on option is introduced on the KVM command line. It tells the hy-
pervisor to automatically free the 'holes' after deleting data from the sparse guest image. Note
that this option is valid only for the if=scsi drive interface:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -drive file=/path/to/file.img,if=scsi,discard=on
Warning
if=scsi is not supported. This interface doesn't map to virtio-scsi, but rather to the lsi
scsi adapter.
219
Block Devices
SLES 12
28.3.1.2
virtio-blk-data-plane
The virtio-blk-data-plane is a new performance feature for KVM. It enables a high-performance
code path for I/O requests coming from VM Guests. More specifically, this feature introduces
dedicated threads (one per virtual block device) to process I/O requests going through the vir-
tio-blk driver. It makes use of Linux AIO (asynchronous I/O interface) support in the VM Host
Server Kernel directly—without the need to go through the QEMU block layer. Therefore it can
sustain very high I/O rates on storage setups.
The virtio-blk-data-plane feature can be enabled or disabled by the x-data-plane=on|off
option on the qemu command line when starting the VM Guest:
qemu [...] -drive if=none,id=drive0,cache=none,aio=native,\
format=raw,file=filename -device virtio-blk-pci,drive=drive0,scsi=off,\
config-wce=off,x-data-plane=on [...]
As of now, the virtio-blk-data-plane has the following limitations:
Only raw image format is supported.
No support for live migration.
Block jobs and hot unplug operations fail with -EBUSY.
I/O throttling limits are ignored.
Only Linux VM Host Servers are supported because of the Linux AIO usage, but non-Linux
VM Guests are supported.
Important
The virtio-blk-data-plane feature is not yet supported in SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
It is released as a technical preview only.
28.3.1.3
Bio-Based I/O Path for virtio-blk
For better performance of I/O-intensive applications, a new I/O path was introduced for the
virtio-blk interface in kernel version 3.7. This bio-based block device driver skips the I/O scheduler, and thus shortens the I/O path in guest and has lower latency. It is especially useful for
high-speed storage devices, such as SSD disks.
220
Block Devices
SLES 12
The driver is disabled by default. To use it, do the following:
1. Append virtio_blk.use_bio=1 to the kernel command line on the guest. You can do
so via YaST System Boot Loader.
You can do it also by editing /etc/default/grub , searching for the line that contains
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT=, and adding the kernel parameter at the end. Then
run grub2-mkconfig >/boot/grub2/grub.cfg to update the grub2 boot menu.
2. Reboot the guest with the new kernel command line active.
Tip: Bio-Based Driver on Slow Devices
The bio-based virtio-blk driver does not help on slow devices such as spin hard disks. The
reason is that the benefit of scheduling is larger than what the shortened bio path offers.
Do not use the bio-based driver on slow devices.
28.3.2
Graphic Devices and Display Options
This section describes QEMU options affecting the type of the emulated video card and the way
VM Guest graphical output is displayed.
28.3.2.1
Defining Video Cards
QEMU uses -vga to define a video card used to display VM Guest graphical output. The -vga
option understands the following values:
none
Disables video cards on VM Guest (no video card is emulated). You can still access the
running VM Guest via the serial console.
std
Emulates a standard VESA 2.0 VBE video card. Use it if you intend to use high display
resolution on VM Guest.
221
Graphic Devices and Display Options
SLES 12
cirrus
Emulates Cirrus Logic GD5446 video card. Good choice if you insist on high compatibility
of the emulated video hardware. Most operating systems (even Windows 95) recognize
this type of card.
Tip
For best video performance with the cirrus type, use 16-bit color depth both on
VM Guest and VM Host Server.
28.3.2.2
Display Options
The following options affect the way VM Guest graphical output is displayed.
-display gtk
Display video output in a GTK window. This interface provides drop-down menus and
other UI elements to configure and control the VM during runtime.
-display sdl
Display video output via SDL (usually in a separate graphics window; see the SDL documentation for other possibilities).
-spice option[,option[,...]]
Enables the spice remote desktop protocol.
-display vnc
Refer to Section 28.5, “Viewing a VM Guest with VNC” for more information.
-nographic
Disables QEMU's graphical output. The emulated serial port is redirected to the console.
After starting the virtual machine with -nographic , press
Ctrl
–A
H
in the virtual
console to view the list of other useful shortcuts, for example, to toggle between the console
and the QEMU monitor.
tux >
222
qemu-system-ARCH -hda /images/sles_base.raw -nographic
C-a h
print this help
C-a x
exit emulator
Graphic Devices and Display Options
SLES 12
C-a s
save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)
C-a t
toggle console timestamps
C-a b
send break (magic sysrq)
C-a c
switch between console and monitor
C-a C-a
sends C-a
(pressed C-a c)
QEMU 2.0.0 monitor - type 'help' for more information
(qemu)
-no-frame
Disables decorations for the QEMU window. Convenient for dedicated desktop workspace.
-full-screen
Starts QEMU graphical output in full screen mode.
-no-quit
Disables the 'close' button of QEMU window and prevents it from being closed by force.
-alt-grab, -ctrl-grab
By default QEMU window releases the 'captured' mouse after
can change the key combination to either
( -ctrl-grab ).
28.3.3
Ctrl
Ctrl
– Alt is pressed. You
– Alt – Shift ( -alt-grab ), or
Right Ctrl
USB Devices
There are two ways to create USB devices usable by the VM Guest in KVM: you can either
emulate new USB devices inside a VM Guest, or assign an existing host USB device to a VM
Guest. To use USB devices in QEMU you first need to enable the generic USB driver with the usb option. Then you can specify individual devices with the -usbdevice option.
28.3.3.1
Emulating USB Devices in VM Guest
SUSE currently supports the following types of USB devices: disk , host , serial , braille ,
net mouse and tablet .
223
USB Devices
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TYPES OF USB DEVICES FOR THE -usbdevice OPTION
disk
Emulates a mass storage device based on file. The optional format option is used rather
than detecting the format.
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -usbdevice
disk:format=raw:/virt/usb_disk.raw
host
Pass through the host device (identified by bus.addr).
serial
Serial converter to a host character device.
braille
Emulates a braille device using BrlAPI to display the braille output.
net
Emulates a network adapter that supports CDC Ethernet and RNDIS protocols.
mouse
Emulates a virtual USB mouse. This option overrides the default PS/2 mouse emulation.
The following example shows the hardware status of a mouse on VM Guest started with
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -usbdevice mouse :
tux >
sudo hwinfo --mouse
20: USB 00.0: 10503 USB Mouse
[Created at usb.122]
UDI: /org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/usb_device_627_1_1_if0
[...]
Hardware Class: mouse
Model: "Adomax QEMU USB Mouse"
Hotplug: USB
Vendor: usb 0x0627 "Adomax Technology Co., Ltd"
Device: usb 0x0001 "QEMU USB Mouse"
[...]
224
USB Devices
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tablet
Emulates a pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (such as touchscreen). This option
overrides the default PS/2 mouse emulation. The tablet device is useful if you are viewing
VM Guest via the VNC protocol. See Section 28.5, “Viewing a VM Guest with VNC” for more
information.
28.3.3.2
USB Pass-Through
To assign an existing host USB device to a VM Guest, you need to find out its host bus and
device ID.
tux@vmhost:~> lsusb
[...]
Bus 002 Device 005: ID 12d1:1406 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. E1750
[...]
In the above example, we want to assign a USB stick connected to the host's USB bus number 2
with device number 5. Now run the VM Guest with the following additional options:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -usb -device usb-host,hostbus=2,hostaddr=5
After the guest is booted, check that the assigned USB device is present on it.
tux@vmguest:~> lsusb
[...]
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 12d1:1406 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. E1750
[...]
Note
The guest operating system must take care of mounting the assigned USB device so that
it is accessible for the user.
28.3.4
PCI Pass-Through
PCI Pass-Through is a technique to give your VM Guest exclusive access to a PCI device.
225
PCI Pass-Through
SLES 12
Note: Prereqisites
To make use of PCI Pass-Through, your motherboard chipset, BIOS, and CPU must have
support for IOMMU (AMD) or VT-d (Intel) virtualization technology. To make sure that
your computer supports this feature, ask your supplier specifically to deliver a system
that supports PCI Pass-Through.
Assigning graphics cards is not supported by SUSE.
Note: Consider Using libvirt for Setting Up PCI Pass-Through
There are some factors affecting successful PCI Pass-Through that are best handled pro-
grammatically. If you encounter problems, consider instead relying on libvirt to manage
guests that use PCI Pass-Through devices. Refer to Section 13.7, “Adding a PCI Device with
virsh” or Section 13.6, “Adding a PCI Device with Virtual Machine Manager” for details.
PROCEDURE 28.1: CONFIGURING PCI PASS-THROUGH
1. Check whether IOMMU is actively enabled and recognized on the host. Run sudo dmesg |
grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU on Intel machines, or sudo dmesg | grep AMD-Vi on AMD ma-
chines. If you get no output, edit your boot loader configuration and add intel_iommu=on
(Intel machines) or iommu=pt iommu=1 (AMD machines). Then reboot the host machine.
Also make sure that IOMMU (VT-d) has been enabled in the BIOS/firmware.
2. Identify the host PCI device to assign to the guest.
tux@vmhost:~> sudo lspci -nn
[...] 00:1b.0 Audio device [0403]: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) \
HD Audio Controller [8086:284b] (rev 02) [...]
Note down the device ( 00:1b.0 ) and vendor ( 8086:284b ) ID.
3. Unbind the device from host Kernel driver and bind it to the PCI stub driver.
tux@vmhost:~> sudo modprobe pci_stub
tux@vmhost:~> sudo echo "8086 284b" > /sys/bus/pci/drivers/pci-stub/new_id
tux@vmhost:~> sudo echo "0000:00:1b.0" > /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:1b.0/
driver/unbind
tux@vmhost:~> sudo echo "0000:00:1b.0" > /sys/bus/pci/drivers/pci-stub/bind
226
PCI Pass-Through
SLES 12
4. Now run the VM Guest with the PCI device assigned.
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -device pci-assign,host=00:1b.0
Note
If the PCI device shares IRQ with other devices, it cannot be assigned to a VM Guest.
KVM also supports PCI device hotplugging to a VM Guest. To achieve this, you need to switch
to a QEMU monitor (see Chapter 30, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor for more
information) and issue the following commands:
hot-add:
device_add pci-assign,host=00:1b.0,id=new_pci_device
hot-remove:
device_del new_pci_device
28.3.5
VFIO: Secure Direct Access to Devices
VFIO stands for Virtual Function I/O and is a new user-level driver framework for Linux. It is
meant to replace the traditional PCI device assignment. The VFIO driver exposes direct device
access to userspace in a secure memory (IOMMU) protected environment.
Compared to KVM PCI device assignment, VFIO interface has the following advantages:
Resource access is compatible with secure boot.
Device is isolated and its memory access protected.
Offers user space device driver with more flexible device ownership model.
Is independent of KVM technology, and not bound to x86 architecture only.
227
VFIO: Secure Direct Access to Devices
SLES 12
28.3.5.1
IOMMU Groups
The IOMMU (input/output memory management unit that connects a direct memory access-capable I/O bus to the main memory) API supports the notion of groups. A group is a set of de-
vices that can be isolated from all other devices in the system. Groups are therefore the unit
of ownership used by VFIO.
To find the IOMMU group for your PCI device, you first need to identify it. Use hwinfo or lspci
to find its bus ID. Suppose you want to find an IOMMU group for the following device:
01:10.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82576 Virtual Function (rev 01)
Run the following to find the group:
# readlink /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:01:10.0/iommu_group
../../../../kernel/iommu_groups/15
The IOMMU group number is 15. Now you can check the devices belonging to the same IOMMU
group:
ls -l /sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:01:10.0/iommu_group/devices/0000:01:10.0
[...] 0000:00:1e.0 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0
[...] 0000:01:10.0 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:01:10.0
[...] 0000:01:10.1 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1e.0/0000:01:10.1
28.3.5.2
Device Assignment
To assign a device to VFIO driver, follow these steps:
1. Unbind the device from the device driver:
# echo 0000:01:10.0 | sudo tee \
/sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:01:10.0/driver/unbind
2. Find the vendor and device ID of the PCI device you want to assign to VFIO:
# lspci -n -s 01:10.0
228
VFIO: Secure Direct Access to Devices
SLES 12
01:10.0 0200: 8086:10ca (rev 01)
3. Load the vfio-pci driver:
# modprobe vfio-pci
4. Now bind the device to the vfio-pci driver:
# echo 8086 10ca | sudo tee \
/sys/bus/pci/drivers/vfio-pci/new_id
5. After the assignment is done, check the vfio device belongs to IOMMU group 15:
# ls /dev/vfio
15 vfio
28.3.5.3
Starting qemu-system-ARCH with vfio-pci
After you assigned the PCI device to the vfio-pci driver, you can include it in the qemu-system-ARCH command line:
# sudo qemu-system-ARCH [...] -device vfio-pci,host=01:10.0,id=net0
28.3.5.4
For More Information
You can find more detailed information on the VFIO driver in the /usr/src/linux/Documentation/vfio.txt file (package kernel-source has to be installed).
You can find a useful (but slightly outdated) presentation at http://www.linux-kvm.org/wiki/images/b/b4/2012-forum-VFIO.pdf
28.3.6
.
Character Devices
Use -chardev to create a new character device. The option uses the following general syntax:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -chardev backend_type,id=id_string
229
Character Devices
SLES 12
where backend_type can be one of null , socket , udp , msmouse , vc , file , pipe , con-
sole , serial , pty , stdio , braille , tty , or parport . All character devices must have a
unique identification string up to 127 characters long. It is used to identify the device in other
related directives. For the complete description of all back-end's suboptions, see the manual
page ( man 1 qemu ). A brief description of the available back-ends follows:
null
Creates an empty device that outputs no data and drops any data it receives.
stdio
Connects to QEMU's process standard input and standard output.
socket
Creates a two-way stream socket. If path is specified, a Unix socket is created:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -chardev \
socket,id=unix_socket1,path=/tmp/unix_socket1,server
The server suboption specifies that the socket is a listening socket.
If port is specified, a TCP socket is created:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -chardev \
socket,id=tcp_socket1,host=localhost,port=7777,server,nowait
The command creates a local listening ( server ) TCP socket on port 7777. QEMU will not
block waiting for a client to connect to the listening port ( nowait ).
udp
Sends all network traffic from VM Guest to a remote host over the UDP protocol.
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -chardev
udp,id=udp_fwd,host=mercury.example.com,port=7777
The command binds port 7777 on the remote host mercury.example.com and sends VM
Guest network traffic there.
vc
Creates a new QEMU text console. You can optionally specify the dimensions of the virtual
console:
230
Character Devices
SLES 12
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -chardev vc,id=vc1,width=640,height=480 -mon chardev=vc1
The command creates a new virtual console called vc1 of the specified size, and connects
the QEMU monitor to it.
file
Logs all traffic from VM Guest to a file on VM Host Server. The path is required and will
be created if it does not exist.
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -chardev file,id=qemu_log1,path=/var/log/qemu/guest1.log
By default QEMU creates a set of character devices for serial and parallel ports, and a special
console for QEMU monitor. You can, however, create your own character devices and use them
for the just mentioned purposes. The following options will help you:
-serial char_dev
Redirects the VM Guest's virtual serial port to a character device char_dev on VM Host
Server. By default, it is a virtual console ( vc ) in graphical mode, and stdio in nongraphical mode. The -serial understands many suboptions. See the manual page man
1 qemu for a complete list of them.
You can emulate up to 4 serial ports. Use -serial none to disable all serial ports.
-parallel device
Redirects the VM Guest's parallel port to a device . This option supports the same devices
as -serial .
Tip
With SUSE Linux Enterprise Server as a VM Host Server, you can directly use the
hardware parallel port devices /dev/parportN where N is the number of the port.
You can emulate up to 3 parallel ports. Use -parallel none to disable all parallel ports.
-monitor char_dev
Redirects the QEMU monitor to a character device char_dev on VM Host Server. This
option supports the same devices as -serial . By default, it is a virtual console ( vc ) in
a graphical mode, and stdio in non-graphical mode.
For a complete list of available character devices back-ends, see the man page ( man 1 qemu ).
231
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28.4 Networking in QEMU
Use the -net option to define a network interface and a specific type of networking for your
VM Guest. Currently, SUSE supports the following options: none , nic , user , bridge , and
tap . For a complete list of -net suboptions, see the manual page ( man 1 qemu ).
SUPPORTED -net SUBOPTIONS
bridge
Uses a specified network helper to configure the TAP interface and attach it to a specified
bridge. For more information, see Section 28.4.3, “Bridged Networking”.
nic
Creates a new Network Interface Card (NIC) and connects it to a specified Virtual Local
Area Network (VLAN). For more information, see Section 28.4.1, “Defining a Network Interface
Card”.
user
Specifies user-mode networking. For more information, see Section 28.4.2, “User-Mode Networking”.
tap
Specifies bridged or routed networking. For more information, see Section 28.4.3, “Bridged
Networking”.
28.4.1
Defining a Network Interface Card
Use -net nic to add a new emulated network card:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net nic,vlan=1
model=virtio
1
3
,name=ncard1
4
1
,macaddr=00:16:35:AF:94:4B
2
,\
-net user
Connects the network interface to VLAN number 1. You can specify your own number,—
it is mainly useful for identification purpose. If you omit this suboption, QEMU uses the
default 0.
2
Specifies the Media Access Control (MAC) address for the network card. It is a unique
identifier and you are advised to always specify it. If not, QEMU supplies its own default
MAC address and creates a possible MAC address conflict within the related VLAN.
232
Networking in QEMU
SLES 12
3
Specifies the model of the network card. Use -net nic,model=? to get the list of all
network card models supported by QEMU on your platform:
Currently, SUSE supports the models rtl8139 , e1000 and virtio .
28.4.2
User-Mode Networking
The -net user option instructs QEMU to use user-mode networking. This is the default if no
networking mode is selected. Therefore, these command lines are equivalent:
qemu-system-ARCH -hda /images/sles_base.raw
qemu-system-ARCH -hda /images/sles_base.raw -net nic -net user
This mode is useful if you want to allow the VM Guest to access the external network resources,
such as the Internet. By default, no incoming traffic is permitted and therefore, the VM Guest is
not visible to other machines on the network. No administrator privileges are required in this
networking mode. The user-mode is also useful for doing a 'network-booting' on your VM Guest
from a local directory on VM Host Server.
The VM Guest allocates an IP address from a virtual DHCP server. VM Host Server (the DHCP
server) is reachable at 10.0.2.2, while the IP address range for allocation starts from 10.0.2.15.
You can use ssh to connect to VM Host Server at 10.0.2.2, and scp to copy files back and forth.
28.4.2.1
Command Line Examples
This section shows several examples on how to set up user-mode networking with QEMU.
EXAMPLE 28.1: RESTRICTED USER-MODE NETWORKING
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net user
1
,vlan=1
2
,name=user_net1
3
,restrict=yes
4
1
Specifies user-mode networking.
2
Connects to VLAN number 1. If omitted, defaults to 0.
3
Specifies a human-readable name of the network stack. Useful when identifying it in the
QEMU monitor.
4
Isolates VM Guest. It will not be able to communicate with VM Host Server and no network
packets will be routed to the external network.
233
User-Mode Networking
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EXAMPLE 28.2: USER-MODE NETWORKING WITH CUSTOM IP RANGE
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net
user,net=10.2.0.0/8
1
hostname=tux_kvm_guest
1
,host=10.2.0.6
2
,dhcpstart=10.2.0.20
3
,\
4
Specifies the IP address of the network that VM Guest sees and optionally the netmask.
Default is 10.0.2.0/8.
2
Specifies the VM Host Server IP address that VM Guest sees. Default is 10.0.2.2.
3
Specifies the first of the 16 IP addresses that the built-in DHCP server can assign to VM
Guest. Default is 10.0.2.15.
4
Specifies the host name that the built-in DHCP server will assign to VM Guest.
EXAMPLE 28.3: USER-MODE NETWORKING WITH NETWORK-BOOT AND TFTP
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net user,tftp=/images/tftp_dir
pxelinux.0
1
1
,bootfile=/images/boot/
2
Activates a built-in TFTP (a file transfer protocol with the functionality of a very basic
FTP) server. The files in the specified directory will be visible to a VM Guest as the root
of a TFTP server.
2
Broadcasts the specified file as a BOOTP (a network protocol that offers an IP address and
a network location of a boot image, often used in diskless workstations) file. When used
together with tftp , the VM Guest can boot from network from the local directory on the
host.
EXAMPLE 28.4: USER-MODE NETWORKING WITH HOST PORT FORWARDING
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net user,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22
Forwards incoming TCP connections to the port 2222 on the host to the port 22 ( SSH ) on
VM Guest. If sshd is running on VM Guest, enter
ssh qemu_host -p 2222
where qemu_host is the host name or IP address of the host system, to get a SSH prompt
from VM Guest.
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28.4.3
Bridged Networking
With the -net tap option, QEMU creates a network bridge by connecting the host TAP network
device to a specified VLAN of VM Guest. Its network interface is then visible to the rest of the
network. This method does not work by default and has to be explicitly specified.
First, create a network bridge and add a VM Host Server physical network interface (usually
eth0 ) to it:
1. Start YaST Control Center and select Network Devices Network Settings.
2. Click Add and select Bridge from the Device Type drop-down list in the Hardware Dialog
window. Click Next.
3. Choose whether you need a dynamically or statically assigned IP address, and fill the
related network settings if applicable.
4. In the Bridged Devices pane, select the Ethernet device to add to the bridge.
FIGURE 28.2: CONFIGURING NETWORK BRIDGE WITH YAST
Click Next. When asked about adapting an already configured device, click Continue.
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5. Click OK to apply the changes. Check if the bridge is created:
tux >
brctl show
bridge name bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br0
no
eth0
8000.001676d670e4
28.4.3.1
Connecting to a Bridge Manually
Use the following example script to connect VM Guest to the newly created bridge interface
br0 . Several commands in the script are run via the sudo mechanism because they require
root privileges.
Note
Make sure the tunctl and bridge-utils packages are installed on the VM Host Server.
If not, install them with zypper in tunctl bridge-utils .
#!/bin/bash
bridge=br0
1
tap=$(sudo tunctl -u $(whoami) -b)
sudo ip link set $tap up
sleep 1s
2
3
4
sudo brctl addif $bridge $tap
5
qemu-system-ARCH -machine accel=kvm -m 512 -hda /images/sles_base.raw \
-net nic,vlan=0,model=virtio,macaddr=00:16:35:AF:94:4B \
-net tap,vlan=0,ifname=$tap
6
sudo brctl delif $bridge $tap
sudo ip link set $tap down
sudo tunctl -d $tap
,script=no
7
,downscript=no
8
9
10
1
Name of the bridge device.
2
Prepare a new TAP device and assign it to the user who runs the script. TAP devices are
virtual network devices often used for virtualization and emulation setups.
3
236
Bring up the newly created TAP network interface.
Bridged Networking
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4
Make a 1-second pause to make sure the new TAP network interface is really up.
5
Add the new TAP device to the network bridge br0 .
6
The ifname= suboption specifies the name of the TAP network interface used for bridging.
7
Before qemu-system-ARCH connects to a network bridge, it checks the script and down-
script values. If it finds the specified scripts on the VM Host Server file system, it runs
the script before it connects to the network bridge and downscript after it exits the
network environment. You can use these scripts to first set up and bring up the bridged
network devices, and then to deconfigure them. By default, /etc/qemu-ifup and /etc/
qemu-ifdown are examined. If script=no and downscript=no are specified, the script
execution is disabled and you have to take care of it manually.
8
Deletes the TAP interface from a network bridge br0 .
9
Sets the state of the TAP device to 'down'.
10
Deconfigures the TAP device.
28.4.3.2
Connecting to a Bridge with qemu-bridge-helper
Another way to connect VM Guest to a network through a network bridge is by means of the
qemu-bridge-helper helper program. It configures the TAP interface for you, and attaches it
to the specified bridge. The default helper executable is /usr/lib/qemu-bridge-helper . The
helper executable is setuid root, which is only executable by the members of the virtualization
group ( kvm ). Therefore the qemu-system-ARCH command itself does not have to be run under
root privileges.
You can call the helper the following way:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net nic,vlan=0,model=virtio -net bridge,vlan=0,br=br0
You can specify your own custom helper script that will take care of the TAP device
(de)configuration, with the helper=/path/to/your/helper option:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -net bridge,vlan=0,br=br1,helper=/path/to/bridge-helper
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Tip
To define access privileges to
qemu-bridge-helper ,
mu/bridge.conf file. For example the following directive
inspect the
/etc/qe-
allow br0
allows the qemu-system-ARCH command to connect its VM Guest to the network bridge
br0 .
28.4.4
Accelerated Networking with vhost-net
The vhost-net module is used to accelerate KVM's paravirtualized network drivers. It provides
better latency and greater throughput for network.
To make use of the module, verify that the host's running Kernel has CONFIG_VHOST_NET turned
on or enabled as a module:
grep CONFIG_VHOST_NET /boot/config-`uname -r`
Also verify that the guest's running Kernel has CONFIG_PCI_MSI enabled:
grep CONFIG_PCI_MSI /boot/config-`uname -r`
If both conditions are met, use the vhost-net driver by starting the guest with the following
example command line:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -netdev tap,id=guest0,vhost=on,script=no
-net nic,model=virtio,netdev=guest0,macaddr=00:16:35:AF:94:4B
Note that guest0 is an identification string of the vhost-driven device.
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28.4.5 Scaling Network Performance with Multiqueue virtio-net
As the number of virtual CPUs increases in VM Guests, QEMU offers a way of improving the
network performance using multiqueue. Multiqueue virtio-net scales the network performance by
allowing VM Guest virtual CPUs to transfer packets in parallel. Multiqueue support is required
on both VM Host Server and VM Guest side.
Tip: Performance Benefit
The Multiqueue virtio-net solution is most beneficial in the following cases:
Network traffic packets are large.
VM Guest has more connections active at the same time, mainly between the guest
systems, or between the guest and the host, or between the guest and an external
system.
The number of active queues is equal to the number of virtual CPUs in the VM Guest.
Note
While multiqueue virtio-net increases the total network throughput, it increases CPU
consumption as it makes use of the virtual CPU's power.
PROCEDURE 28.2: HOW TO ENABLE MULTIQUEUE VIRTIO-NET
The following procedure lists important steps to enable the multiqueue feature with qe-
mu-system-ARCH . It assumes that a tap network device with multiqueue capability (sup-
ported since kernel version 3.8) is set up on the VM Host Server.
1. In qemu-system-ARCH , enable multiqueue for the tap device:
-netdev tap,vhost=on,queues=N
where N stands for the number of queue pairs.
2. In qemu-system-ARCH , enable multiqueue and specify MSI-X (Message Signaled Inter-
rupt) vectors for the virtio-net-pci device:
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-device virtio-net-pci,mq=on,vectors=2*N+2
where the formula for the number of MSI-X vectors results from: N vectors for TX (transmit) queues, N for RX (receive) queues, one for configuration purposes, and one for possible VQ (vector quantization) control.
3. In VM Guest, enable multiqueue on the relevant network interface ( eth0 in this example):
ethtool -L eth0 combined 2*N
The resulting qemu-system-ARCH command line will look similar to the following example:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -netdev tap,id=guest0,queues=4,vhost=on \
-device virtio-net-pci,netdev=guest0,mq=on,vectors=10
Note that the id of the network device ( guest0 ) needs to be identical for both options.
Inside the running VM Guest, specify the following command as root :
ethtool -L eth0 combined 8
Now the guest system networking makes use of the multiqueue support from the qemu-system-ARCH hypervisor.
28.5 Viewing a VM Guest with VNC
By default QEMU uses a GTK (a cross-platform toolkit library) window to display the graphical
output of a VM Guest. With the -vnc option specified, you can make QEMU listen on a specified
VNC display and redirect its graphical output to the VNC session.
Tip
When working with QEMU's virtual machine via VNC session, it is useful to work with
the -usbdevice tablet option.
Moreover, if you need to use another keyboard layout than the default en-us , specify
it with the -k option.
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The first suboption of -vnc must be a display value. The -vnc option understands the following
display specifications:
host:display
Only connections from host on the display number display will be accepted. The TCP
port on which the VNC session is then running is normally a 5900 + display number.
If you do not specify host , connections will be accepted from any host.
unix:path
The VNC server listens for connections on Unix domain sockets. The path option specifies
the location of the related Unix socket.
none
The VNC server functionality is initialized, but the server itself is not started. You can
start the VNC server later with the QEMU monitor. For more information, see Chapter 30,
Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor.
Following the display value there may be one or more option flags separated by commas. Valid
options are:
reverse
Connect to a listening VNC client via a reverse connection.
websocket
Opens an additional TCP listening port dedicated to VNC Websocket connections. By definition the Websocket port is 5700+display.
password
Require that password-based authentication is used for client connections.
tls
Require that clients use TLS when communicating with the VNC server.
x509=/path/to/certificate/dir
Valid if TLS is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating the TLS
session.
x509verify=/path/to/certificate/dir
Valid if TLS is specified. Require that x509 credentials are used for negotiating the TLS
session.
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sasl
acl
Require that the client uses SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.
Turn on access control lists for checking of the x509 client certificate and SASL party.
lossy
Enable lossy compression methods (gradient, JPEG, ...).
non-adaptive
Disable adaptive encodings. Adaptive encodings are enabled by default.
share=[allow-exclusive|force-shared|ignore]
Set display sharing policy.
Note
For more details about the display options, see the qemu-doc man page.
An example VNC usage:
tux >
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -vnc :5
(on the client:)
wilber > :~> vinagre venus:5905 &
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FIGURE 28.3: QEMU VNC SESSION
28.5.1
Secure VNC Connections
The default VNC server setup does not use any form of authentication. In the previous example,
any user can connect and view the QEMU VNC session from any host on the network.
There are several levels of security that you can apply to your VNC client/server connection.
You can either protect your connection with a password, use x509 certificates, use SASL authentication, or even combine some of these authentication methods in one QEMU command.
See Section B.2, “Generating x509 Client/Server Certificates” for more information about the x509
certificates generation. For more information about configuring x509 certificates on a VM Host
Server and the client, see Section 11.3.2, “Remote TLS/SSL Connection with x509 Certificate (qemu+tls
or xen+tls)” and Section 11.3.2.3, “Configuring the Client and Testing the Setup”.
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The Vinagre VNC viewer supports advanced authentication mechanisms. Therefore, it will be
used to view the graphical output of VM Guest in the following examples. For this example,
let us assume that the server x509 certificates ca-cert.pem , server-cert.pem , and serv-
er-key.pem are located in the /etc/pki/qemu directory on the host, while the client's certifi-
cates are distributed in the following locations on the client:
/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/clientcert.pem
/etc/pki/libvirt-vnc/private/clientkey.pem
EXAMPLE 28.5: PASSWORD AUTHENTICATION
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -vnc :5,password -monitor stdio
Starts the VM Guest graphical output on VNC display number 5 (usually port 5905). The
password suboption initializes a simple password-based authentication method. There
is no password set by default and you have to set one with the change vnc password
command in QEMU monitor:
QEMU 2.0.0 monitor - type 'help' for more information
(qemu) change vnc password
Password: ****
You need the -monitor stdio option here, because you would not be able to manage
the QEMU monitor without redirecting its input/output.
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FIGURE 28.4: AUTHENTICATION DIALOG IN VINAGRE
EXAMPLE 28.6: X509 CERTIFICATE AUTHENTICATION
The QEMU VNC server can use TLS encryption for the session and x509 certificates for
authentication. The server asks the client for a certificate and validates it against the CA
certificate. Use this authentication type if your company provides an internal certificate
authority.
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -vnc :5,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu
EXAMPLE 28.7: X509 CERTIFICATE AND PASSWORD AUTHENTICATION
You can combine the password authentication with TLS encryption and x509 certificate
authentication to create a two-layer authentication model for clients. Remember to set
the password in the QEMU monitor after you run the following command:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -vnc :5,password,tls,x509verify=/etc/pki/qemu -monitor
stdio
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EXAMPLE 28.8: SASL AUTHENTICATION
Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) is a framework for authentication and
data security in Internet protocols. It integrates several authentication mechanisms, like
PAM, Kerberos, LDAP and more. SASL keeps its own user database, so the connecting user
accounts do not need to exist on VM Host Server.
For security reasons, you are advised to combine SASL authentication with TLS encryption
and x509 certificates:
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -vnc :5,tls,x509,sasl -monitor stdio
28.6 VirtFS: Sharing Folders between Host and
Guests
VM Guests usually run in a separate computing space—they are provided their own memory
range, dedicated CPUs, and file system space. The ability to share parts of the VM Host Server's
file system makes the virtualization environment more flexible by simplifying mutual data ex-
change. Network file systems, such as CIFS and NFS, have been the traditional way of sharing
folders. But as they are not specifically designed for virtualization purposes, they suffer from
major performance and feature issues.
KVM introduces a new optimized method called VirtFS (sometimes referred to as a “file system
pass-through”). VirtFS uses a paravirtual file system driver, which avoids converting the guest
application file system operations into block device operations, and then again into host file
system operations.
You typically use VirtFS for the following situations:
To access a shared folder from several guests, or to provide guest-to-guest file system
access.
To replace the virtual disk as the root file system to which the guest's ramdisk connects
during the guest boot process.
To provide storage services to different customers from a single host file system in a cloud
environment.
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28.6.1
Implementation
In QEMU, the implementation of VirtFS is facilitated by defining two types of devices:
virtio-9p-pci device which transports protocol messages and data between the host
and the guest.
fsdev device which defines the export file system properties, such as file system type
and security model.
EXAMPLE 28.9: EXPORTING HOST'S FILE SYSTEM WITH VIRTFS
qemu-system-ARCH [...] -fsdev local,id=exp1
tmp/
2
,security_model=mapped
1
,path=/
3
-device virtio-9p-pci,fsdev=exp1
4
,mount_tag=v_tmp
5
1
Identification of the file system to be exported.
2
File system path on the host to be exported.
3
Security model to be used— mapped keeps the guest file system modes and permissions isolated from the host, while none invokes a “pass-through” security model in
which permission changes on the guest's files are reflected on the host as well.
4
The exported file system ID defined before with -fsdev id= .
5
Mount tag used later on the guest to mount the exported file system.
Such an exported file system can be mounted on the guest like this
sudo mount -t 9p -o trans=virtio v_tmp /mnt
where v_tmp is the mount tag defined earlier with -device mount_tag= and /mnt is
the mount point where you want to mount the exported file system.
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28.7 KSM: Sharing Memory Pages between
Guests
Kernel SamePage Merging (KSM) is a Linux Kernel feature that merges identical memory pages
from multiple running processes into one memory region. Because KVM guests run as processes
under Linux, KSM provides the memory overcommit feature to hypervisors for more efficient
use of memory. Therefore, if you need to run multiple virtual machines on a host with limited
memory, KSM may be helpful to you.
For more information on the meaning of the /sys/kernel/mm/ksm/* files, see /usr/src/
linux/Documentation/vm/ksm.txt (package kernel-source ).
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29 KVM Disk Cache Modes
29.1 Disk Interface Cache Modes
qemu-system-ARCH allows for various storage caching strategies to be specified when configur-
ing a KVM guest. Each guest disk interface can have one of the following cache modes specified:
writethrough, writeback, none, directsync, or unsafe. If no cache mode is specified, qemu-sys-
tem-ARCH uses an appropriate default cache mode. These cache modes influence how host-
based storage is accessed, as follows:
Read/write data may be cached in the host page cache.
The guest's storage controller is informed whether a write cache is present, allowing for
the use of a flush command.
Synchronous write mode may be used, in which write requests are reported complete only
when committed to the storage device.
Flush commands (generated by the guest storage controller) may be ignored for performance reasons.
In the event of a disorderly disconnection between the guest and its storage, the cache mode
in use will affect whether data loss occurs. The cache mode can also affect disk performance
significantly. Additionally, some cache modes are incompatible with live migration, depending
on a number of factors. There are no simple rules about what combination of cache mode, disk
image format, image placement, or storage sub-system is best. The user should plan each guest's
configuration carefully and experiment with various configurations to determine the optimal
performance.
29.2 Description of Cache Modes
cache mode unspecified
In qemu-system-ARCH versions older than v1.2 (e.g. SLES11 SP2), not specifying a cache
mode meant that writethrough would be used as the default. Since that version, the various qemu-system-ARCH guest storage interfaces have been fixed to handle writeback
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or writethrough semantics more correctly, allowing for the default caching mode to be
switched to writeback. The guest driver for each of ide , scsi , and virtio have within
their power to disable the write back cache, causing the caching mode used to revert to
writethrough. The typical guest's storage drivers will maintain the default caching mode
as writeback, however.
cache = writethrough
This mode causes qemu-system-ARCH to interact with the disk image file or block device
with O_DSYNC semantics, where writes are reported as completed only when the data has
been committed to the storage device. The host page cache is used in what can be termed
a writethrough caching mode. The guest's virtual storage adapter is informed that there is
no writeback cache, so the guest would not need to send down flush commands to manage
data integrity. The storage behaves as if there is a writethrough cache.
cache = writeback
This mode causes qemu-system-ARCH to interact with the disk image file or block device
with neither O_DSYNC nor O_DIRECT semantics, so the host page cache is used and writes
are reported to the guest as completed when placed in the host page cache, and the normal
page cache management will handle commitment to the storage device. Additionally, the
guest's virtual storage adapter is informed of the writeback cache, so the guest would be
expected to send down flush commands as needed to manage data integrity. Analogous
to a raid controller with RAM cache.
cache = none
This mode causes qemu-system-ARCH to interact with the disk image file or block device
with O_DIRECT semantics, so the host page cache is bypassed and I/O happens directly
between the qemu-system-ARCH userspace buffers and the storage device. Because the
actual storage device may report a write as completed when placed in its write queue only,
the guest's virtual storage adapter is informed that there is a writeback cache, so the guest
would be expected to send down flush commands as needed to manage data integrity.
Performance-wise, it is equivalent to direct access to your host's disk.
cache = unsafe
This mode is similar to the cache=writeback mode discussed above. The key aspect of
this “unsafe” mode, is that all flush commands from the guests are ignored. Using this
mode implies that the user has accepted the trade-off of performance over risk of data loss
in the event of a host failure. Useful, for example, during guest installation, but not for
production workloads.
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cache = directsync
This mode causes qemu-system-ARCH to interact with the disk image file or block device
with both O_DSYNC and O_DIRECT semantics, where writes are reported as completed
only when the data has been committed to the storage device, and when it is also desirable
to bypass the host page cache. Like cache = writethrough, it is helpful to guests that do
not send flushes when needed. It was the last cache mode added, completing the possible
combinations of caching and direct access semantics.
29.3 Data Integrity Implications of Cache Modes
cache = writethrough, cache = none, cache=directsync
These are the safest modes, and considered equally safe, given that the guest operating
system is “modern and well behaved”, which means that it uses flushes as needed. If you
have a suspect guest, use writethough, or directsync. Note that some file systems are not
compatible with cache=none or cache=directsync , as they do not support O_DIRECT,
which these cache modes rely on.
cache = writeback
This mode informs the guest of the presence of a write cache, and relies on the guest to
send flush commands as needed to maintain data integrity within its disk image. This is
a common storage design which is completely accounted for within modern file systems.
But it should be noted that because there is a window of time between the time a write is
reported as completed, and that write being committed to the storage device, this mode
exposes the guest to data loss in the unlikely event of a host failure.
cache = unsafe
This mode is similar to writeback caching except the guest flush commands are ignored,
nullifying the data integrity control of these flush commands, and resulting in a higher risk
of data loss due to host failure. The name “unsafe” should serve as a warning that there
is a much higher potential for data loss due to a host failure than with the other modes.
Note that as the guest terminates, the cached data is flushed at that time.
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29.4 Performance Implications of Cache Modes
The choice to make full use of the page cache, or to write through it, or to bypass it altogether can
have dramatic performance implications. Other factors that influence disk performance include
the capabilities of the actual storage system, what disk image format is used, the potential size
of the page cache and the IO scheduler used. Additionally, not flushing the write cache increases
performance, but with risk, as noted above. As a general rule, high-end systems typically perform
best with cache = none , because of the reduced data copying that occurs. The potential benefit
of having multiple guests share the common host page cache, the ratio of reads to writes, and
the use of aio = native (see below) should also be considered.
29.5 Effect of Cache Modes on Live Migration
The caching of storage data and meta-data restricts the configurations that support live migration. Currently, only raw , qcow2 and qed image formats can be used for live migration. If a
clustered file system is used, all cache modes support live migration. Otherwise the only cache
mode that supports live migration on read/write shared storage is cache = none .
The libvirt management layer includes checks for migration compatibility based on a num-
ber of factors. If the guest storage is hosted on a clustered file system, is read-only or is marked
sharable, then the cache mode is ignored when determining if migration can be allowed. Otherwise libvirt will not allow migration unless the cache mode is set to none . However, this
restriction can be overridden with the “unsafe” option to the migration APIs, which is also supported by virsh , as for example in
virsh migrate --live --unsafe
Tip
cache = none is required for the IO mode setting aio = native . If another cache mode
is used, then the IO mode will silently be switched back to the default aio = threads .
qemu-system-ARCH implements the guest flush within the host by using fdatasync() .
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30 Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU
Monitor
When QEMU is running, a monitor console is provided for performing interaction with the
user. Using the commands available in the monitor console, it is possible to inspect the running
operating system, change removable media, take screen shots or audio grabs and control several
other aspects of the virtual machine.
Note
The following sections list selected useful QEMU monitor commands and their purpose.
To get the full list, enter help in the QEMU monitor command line.
30.1 Accessing Monitor Console
You can access the monitor console from QEMU window either by a keyboard shortcut—press
Ctrl
– Alt – 2 (to return to QEMU, press
Ctrl
– Alt – 1 )—or alternatively by clicking View in
the QEMU GUI window, then compatmonitor0. The most convenient way is to show the QEMU
window tabs with View Show Tabs. Then you can easily switch between the guest screen, monitor screen, and also the output of the serial and parallel console.
To get help while using the console, use help or ? . To get help for a specific command, use
help command .
30.2 Getting Information about the Guest System
To get information about the guest system, use the info option command. If used without
any option, the list of possible options is printed. Options determine which part of the system
will be analyzed:
info version
Shows the version of QEMU.
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info commands
Lists available QMP commands.
info network
Shows the network state.
info chardev
Shows the character devices.
info block
Information about block devices, such as hard drives, floppy drives, or CD-ROMs.
info blockstats
Read and write statistics on block devices.
info registers
Shows the CPU registers.
info cpus
Shows information about available CPUs.
info history
Shows the command line history.
info irq
Shows the interrupt statistics.
info pic
Shows the i8259 (PIC) state.
info pci
Shows the PCI information.
info tlb
Shows virtual to physical memory mappings.
info mem
Shows the active virtual memory mappings.
info jit
Shows dynamic compiler information.
info kvm
Shows the KVM information.
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info numa
Shows the NUMA information.
info usb
Shows the guest USB devices.
info usbhost
Shows the host USB devices.
info profile
Shows the profiling information.
info capture
Shows the capture (audio grab) information.
info snapshots
Shows the currently saved virtual machine snapshots.
info status
Shows the current virtual machine status.
info pcmcia
Shows the guest PCMCIA status.
info mice
Shows which guest mice are receiving events.
info vnc
Shows the VNC server status.
info name
Shows the current virtual machine name.
info uuid
Shows the current virtual machine UUID.
info usernet
Shows the user network stack connection states.
info migrate
Shows the migration status.
info balloon
Shows the balloon device information.
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info qtree
Shows the device tree.
info qdm
Shows the qdev device model list.
info roms
Shows the ROMs.
info migrate_cache_sizes
Shows the current migration xbzrle (=Xor Based Zero Run Length Encoding) cache size.
info migrate_capabilities
Shows the status of the various migration capabilities, such as xbzrle compression.
info mtree
Shows the VM Guest memory hierarchy.
info trace-events
Shows available trace-events and their status.
30.3 Changing VNC Password
To change the VNC password, use the change vnc password command and enter the new
password:
(qemu) change vnc password
Password: ********
(qemu)
30.4 Managing Devices
To add a new disk while the guest is running (hotplug), use the drive_add and device_add
commands. First define a new drive to be added as a device to bus 0:
(qemu) drive_add 0 if=none,file=/tmp/test.img,format=raw,if=disk1
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OK
You can confirm your new device by querying the block subsystem:
(qemu) info block
[...]
disk1: removable=1 locked=0 tray-open=0 file=/tmp/test.img ro=0 drv=raw \
encrypted=0 bps=0 bps_rd=0 bps_wr=0 iops=0 iops_rd=0 iops_wr=0
After the new drive is defined, it needs to be connected to a device so that the guest can see it.
The typical device would be a virtio-blk-pci or scsi-disk . To get the full list of available
driver values, run:
(qemu) device_add ?
name "VGA", bus PCI
name "usb-storage", bus usb-bus
[...]
name "virtio-blk-pci", bus virtio-bus
Now add the device
(qemu) device_add virtio-blk-pci,drive=disk1,id=myvirtio1
and confirm with
(qemu) info pci
[...]
Bus
0, device
4, function 0:
SCSI controller: PCI device 1af4:1001
IRQ 0.
BAR0: I/O at 0xffffffffffffffff [0x003e].
BAR1: 32 bit memory at 0xffffffffffffffff [0x00000ffe].
id "myvirtio1"
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Tip
Devices added with the device_add command can be removed from the guest with
device_del . Enter help device_del on the QEMU monitor command line for more
information.
To release the device or file connected to the removable media device, use the eject device
command. Use the optional -f to force ejection.
To change removable media (like CD-ROMs), use the change device command. The name of
the removable media can be determined using the info block command:
(qemu) info block
ide1-cd0: type=cdrom removable=1 locked=0 file=/dev/sr0 ro=1 drv=host_device
(qemu) change ide1-cd0 /path/to/image
30.5 Controlling Keyboard and Mouse
It is possible to use the monitor console to emulate keyboard and mouse input if necessary. For
example, if your graphical user interface intercepts some key combinations at low level (such
as
Ctrl
– Alt – F1 in X Window), you can still enter them using the sendkey keys :
sendkey ctrl-alt-f1
To list the key names used in the keys option, enter sendkey and press
Tab
.
To control the mouse, the following commands can be used:
mouse_move dxdy [dz]
Move the active mouse pointer to the specified coordinates dx, dy with the optional scroll
axis dz.
mouse_button val
Change the state of the mouse buttons (1=left, 2=middle, 4=right).
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mouse_set index
Set which mouse device receives events. Device index numbers can be obtained with the
info mice command.
30.6 Changing Available Memory
If the virtual machine was started with the -balloon virtio option and the paravirtualized
balloon device that allows to dynamically change the amount of memory available is therefore
enabled, it is possible to change the available memory dynamically. For more information about
enabling the balloon device, see Section 27.1, “Basic Installation with qemu-system-ARCH”.
To get information about the balloon device in the monitor console and to determine whether
the device is enabled, use the info balloon command:
(qemu) info balloon
If the balloon device is enabled, use the balloon memory_in_MB command to set the requested
amount of memory:
(qemu) balloon 400
30.7 Dumping Virtual Machine Memory
To save the content of the virtual machine memory to a disk or console output, use the following
commands:
memsave addrsizefilename
Saves virtual memory dump starting at addr of size size to file filename
pmemsave addrsizefilename
Saves physical memory dump starting at addr of size size to file filename -
x / fmt addr
Makes a virtual memory dump starting at address addr and formatted according to the
fmt string. The fmt string consists of three parameters countformatsize :
The count parameter is the number of items to be dumped.
The format can be x (hex), d (signed decimal), u (unsigned decimal), o (octal), c
(char) or i (assembly instruction).
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The size parameter can be b (8 bits), h (16 bits), w (32 bits) or g (64 bits). On x86, h
or w can be specified with the i format to respectively select 16 or 32-bit code instruction
size.
xp / fmt addr
Makes a physical memory dump starting at address addr and formatted according to the
fmt string. The fmt string consists of three parameters countformatsize :
The count parameter is the number of the items to be dumped.
The format can be x (hex), d (signed decimal), u (unsigned decimal), o (octal), c
(char) or i (asm instruction).
The size parameter can be b (8 bits), h (16 bits), w (32 bits) or g (64 bits). On x86, h
or w can be specified with the i format to respectively select 16 or 32-bit code instruction
size.
30.8 Managing Virtual Machine Snapshots
Managing snapshots in QEMU monitor is not officially supported by SUSE yet. The information
found in this section may be helpful in specific cases.
Virtual Machine snapshots are snapshots of the complete virtual machine including the state of
CPU, RAM, and the content of all writable disks. To use virtual machine snapshots, you must
have at least one non-removable and writable block device using the qcow2 disk image format.
Snapshots are helpful when you need to save your virtual machine in a particular state. For
example, after you have configured network services on a virtualized server and want to quickly
start the virtual machine in the same state that was saved last. You can also create a snapshot
after the virtual machine has been powered off to create a backup state before you try some-
thing experimental and possibly make VM Guest unstable. This section introduces the former
case, while the latter is described in Section 27.2.3, “Managing Snapshots of Virtual Machines with
qemu-img”.
The following commands are available for managing snapshots in QEMU monitor:
savevm name
Creates a new virtual machine snapshot under the tag name or replaces an existing snapshot.
loadvm name
Loads a virtual machine snapshot tagged name .
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delvm
Deletes a virtual machine snapshot.
info snapshots
Prints information about available snapshots.
(qemu) info snapshots
Snapshot list:
ID
TAG
1
VM SIZE
2
3
DATE
4
VM CLOCK
1
booting
4.4M 2013-11-22 10:51:10
00:00:20.476
2
booted
184M 2013-11-22 10:53:03
00:02:05.394
3
logged_in
273M 2013-11-22 11:00:25
00:04:34.843
4
ff_and_term_running
372M 2013-11-22 11:12:27
00:08:44.965
5
1
Unique identification number of the snapshot. Usually auto-incremented.
2
Unique description string of the snapshot. It is meant as a human readable version
of the ID.
3
The disk space occupied by the snapshot. Note that the more memory is consumed
by running applications, the bigger the snapshot is.
4
Time and date the snapshot was created.
5
The current state of the virtual machine's clock.
30.9 Suspending and Resuming Virtual Machine
Execution
The following commands are available for suspending and resuming virtual machines:
stop
cont
Suspends the execution of the virtual machine.
Resumes the execution of the virtual machine.
system_reset
Resets the virtual machine. The effect is similar to the reset button on a physical machine.
This may leave the file system in an unclean state.
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system_powerdown
Sends an ACPI shutdown request to the machine. The effect is similar to the power button
on a physical machine.
q or quit
Terminates QEMU immediately.
30.10 Live Migration
The live migration process allows to transmit any virtual machine from one host system to an-
other host system without any interruption in availability. It is possible to change hosts permanently or just during maintenance.
The requirements for live migration:
All requirements from Section 14.1.1, “Migration Requirements” are applicable.
Live migration is only possible between VM Host Servers with the same CPU features.
AHCI interface, VirtFS feature, and the -mem-path command line option are not compatible
with migration.
The guest on the source and destination hosts must be started in the same way.
-snapshot qemu command line option should not be used for migration (and this qemu
command line option is not supported).
More recommendations can be found at the following Web site: http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/
Migration
The live migration process has the following steps:
1. The virtual machine instance is running on the source host.
2. The virtual machine is started on the destination host in the frozen listening mode. The
parameters used are the same as on the source host plus the -incoming tcp:ip:port
parameter, where ip specifies the IP address and port specifies the port for listening
to the incoming migration. If 0 is set as IP address, the virtual machine listens on all
interfaces.
3. On the source host, switch to the monitor console and use the migrate
tcp:destination_ip:port command to initiate the migration.
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4. To determine the state of the migration, use the info migrate command in the monitor
console on the source host.
5. To cancel the migration, use the migrate_cancel command in the monitor console on
the source host.
6. To set the maximum tolerable downtime for migration in seconds, use the
migrate_set_downtime number_of_seconds command.
7. To set the maximum speed for migration in bytes per second, use the migrate_set_speed
bytes_per_second command.
30.11 QMP - QEMU Machine Protocol
QMP is a JSON-based protocol that allows applications—such as libvirt —to communicate
with a running QEMU instance. There are several ways you can access the QEMU monitor using
QMP commands.
30.11.1
Access QMP via Standard Input/Output
The most flexible way to use QMP is by specifying the -mon option. The following example
creates a QMP instance making use of standard input/output. Note that in the following examples, -> marks lines with commands sent from client to the running QEMU instance, while <marks lines with the output returned from QEMU.
# qemu-system-ARCH [...] \
-chardev stdio,id=mon0 \
-mon chardev=mon0,mode=control,pretty=on
<- {
"QMP": {
"version": {
"qemu": {
"micro": 0,
"minor": 0,
"major": 2
},
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"package": ""
},
"capabilities": [
]
}
}
When a new QMP connection is established, QMP sends its greeting message and enters capabilities negotiation mode. In this mode, only the qmp_capabilities command works. To exit
capabilities negotiation mode and enter command mode, the qmp_capabilities command
must be issued first:
-> { "execute": "qmp_capabilities" }
<- {
"return": {
}
}
Note that "return": {} is a QMP's success response.
QMP's commands can have arguments. For example to eject a CD-ROM drive, enter the following:
->{ "execute": "eject", "arguments": { "device": "ide1-cd0" } }
<- {
"timestamp": {
"seconds": 1410353381,
"microseconds": 763480
},
"event": "DEVICE_TRAY_MOVED",
"data": {
"device": "ide1-cd0",
"tray-open": true
}
}
{
"return": {
}
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}
30.11.2
Access QMP via Telnet
Instead of the standard input/output, you can connect the QMP interface to a network socket
and communicate with it via a specified port:
# qemu-system-ARCH [...] \
-chardev socket,id=mon0,host=localhost,port=4444,server,nowait \
-mon chardev=mon0,mode=control,pretty=on
And then run telnet to connect to port 4444:
# telnet localhost 4444
Trying ::1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
<- {
"QMP": {
"version": {
"qemu": {
"micro": 0,
"minor": 0,
"major": 2
},
"package": ""
},
"capabilities": [
]
}
}
You can create several monitor interfaces at the same time. The following example creates one
HMP instance—human monitor which understands 'normal' QEMU monitor's commands—on
the standard input/output, and one QMP instance on localhost port 4444:
# qemu-system-ARCH [...] \
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-chardev stdio,id=mon0 -mon chardev=mon0,mode=readline \
-chardev socket,id=mon1,host=localhost,port=4444,server,nowait \
-mon chardev=mon1,mode=control,pretty=on
30.11.3
Access QMP via Unix Socket
Invoke QEMU using the -qmp option, and create a unix socket:
# qemu-system-ARCH [...] \
-qmp unix:/tmp/qmp-sock,server --monitor stdio
QEMU waiting for connection on: unix:./qmp-sock,server
To communicate with the QEMU instance via the /tmp/qmp-sock socket, use nc (see man 1
nc for more information) from another terminal on the same host:
# nc -U /tmp/qmp-sock
<- {"QMP": {"version": {"qemu": {"micro": 0, "minor": 0, "major": 2} [...]
30.11.4
Access QMP via libvirt's virsh Command
If you run your virtual machines under libvirt (see Part II, “Managing Virtual Machines with
libvirt”), you can communicate with its running guests by running the virsh qemu-monitor-command :
# virsh qemu-monitor-command vm_guest1 \
--pretty '{"execute":"query-kvm"}'
<- {
"return": {
"enabled": true,
"present": true
},
"id": "libvirt-8"
}
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In the above example, we ran the simple command query-kvm which checks if the host is
capable of running KVM and if KVM is enabled.
Tip
If you want to use the standard 'human readable' way of QEMU commands instead of the
JSON format, use the --hmp option:
# virsh qemu-monitor-command vm_guest1 --hmp "query-kvm"
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VI Managing Virtual Machines with
LXC
31
Linux Containers 269
32
Migration from LXC to libvirt-lxc 274
31 Linux Containers
31.1 Setting Up LXC Distribution Containers
A container is a kind of “virtual machine” that can be started, stopped, frozen, or cloned (to
name but a few tasks). To set up an LXC container, you first need to create a root file system
containing the guest distribution:
PROCEDURE 31.1: CREATING A ROOT FILE SYSTEM
There is currently no GUI to create a root file system. You will thus need to open a terminal and use virt-create-rootfs as root to populate the new root file system. In the
following steps, the new root file system will be created in /path/to/rootfs .
Note that virt-create-rootfs needs a registration code to set up a SLE-12 root file
system.
1. Run the virt-create-rootfs command:
virt-create-rootfs --root /path/to/rootfs --distro SLES-12.0 -c registration
code
2. Change the root path to the root file system with the chroot command:
chroot /path/to/rootfs
3. Change the password for user root with passwd .
4. Create an operator user without root privileges:
useradd -m operator
5. Change the operator's password:
passwd operator
6. Leave the chroot environment with exit .
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PROCEDURE 31.2: DEFINING THE CONTAINER USING YAST
1. Open YaST and go to the Virtual Machine Manager module.
2. If not already present, add the LXC connection by clicking on File, Add Connection menu.
Select LXC (Linux Containers) as hypervisor and click the Connect button.
3. Select the localhost (LXC) connection and click File New Virtual Machine menu.
Select the Operating system container option and click the Forward button.
4. Type the path to the root file system from Procedure 31.1, “Creating a Root File System” and
click the Forward button.
5. Choose the maximum amount of memory and CPUs to allocate to the container. Then
click the Forward button.
6. Type in a name for the container. This name will be used for all virsh commands on
the container.
Click Advanced options. Select the network to connect the container to and click the Finish
button: the container will then be created and started. A console will also be automatically
opened.
Warning
To configure the container network, edit the /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-* files.
Make sure not to change the IPv6 setting: this would lead to errors while starting the
network.
31.2 Setting Up LXC Application Containers
Libvirt also allows to run single applications instead of full blown Linux distributions in containers. In this example, bash will be started in its own container.
PROCEDURE 31.3: DEFINING AN APPLICATION CONTAINER USING YAST
1. Open YaST and go to the Virtual Machine Manager module.
2. If not already present, add the LXC connection by clicking File, Add Connection menu.
Select LXC (Linux Containers) as hypervisor and click Connect.
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3. Select the localhost (LXC) connection and click File New Virtual Machine.
Select the Application container option and click Forward.
Set the patch to the application to be launched. As an example, the field is filled with /
bin/sh , which is fine to create a first container. Click Forward.
4. Choose the maximum amount of memory and CPUs to allocate to the container. Click
Forward.
5. Type in a name for the container. This name will be used for all virsh commands on
the container.
Click Advanced options. Select the network to connect the container to and click Finish.
The container will be created and started. A console will be opened automatically.
Note that the container will be destroyed after the application has finished running.
31.3 Securing a Container Using AppArmor
By default, containers are not secured using AppArmor or SELinux. There is no graphical user
interface to change the security model for a libvirt domain, but virsh will help.
1. Edit the container XML configuration using virsh:
virsh -c lxc:/// edit mycontainer
2. Add the following to the XML configuration, save it and exit the editor.
<domain>
...
<seclabel type="dynamic" model="apparmor"/>
...
</domain>
3. With this configuration, an AppArmor profile for the container will be created in the /
etc/apparmor.d/libvirt folder. The default profile only allows the minimum applica-
tions to run in the container. This can be changed by modifying the libvirt-container-uuid file: this file is not overwritten by libvirt.
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31.4 Differences Between the libvirt LXC Driver
and LXC
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3 was shipping LXC, while SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
12 comes with the libvirt LXC driver, sometimes named libvirt-lxc to avoid confusion. The con-
tainers are not managed or configured in the same way in these tools. Here is a non-exhaustive
list of differences.
The main difference comes from the fact that domain configuration in libvirt is an XML file,
while LXC configuration is a properties file. Most of the LXC properties can be mapped to the
domain XML. The properties that cannot be migrated are:
lxc.network.script.up: this script can be implemented using the /etc/libvirt/hooks/network libvirt hook, though the script will need to be adapted.
lxc.network.ipv*: libvirt cannot set the container network configuration from the domain
configuration.
lxc.network.name: libvirt cannot set the container network card name.
lxc.devttydir: libvirt does not allow changing the location of the console devices.
lxc.console: there is currently no way to log the output of the console into a file on the
host for libvirt LXC containers.
lxc.pivotdir: libvirt does not allow to fine-tune the folder used for the pivot_root . /.olroot is used.
lxc.rootfs.mount: libvirt does not allow to fine-tune this.
LXC VLAN networks automatically create the VLAN interface on the host and then move it into
the guest namespace. libvirt-lxc configuration can mention a VLAN tag ID only for openvSwitch
tap devices or PCI pass-through of SRIOV VF. The conversion tool actually needs the user to
manually create the vlan interface on the host side.
LXC rootfs can also be an image file, but LXC brute-forces the mount to try to detect the proper
file system format. libvirt-lxc can mount image files of several formats, but the 'auto' value for
the format parameter is explicitly not supported. This means that the generated configuration
will need to be tweaked by the user to get a proper match in that case.
LXC can support any cgroup configuration, even future ones, while libvirt domain configuration,
needs to map each of them.
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LXC can mount block devices in the rootfs, but it is not able to mount raw partition files: the
file needs to be manually attached to a loop device. On the other hand libvirt-lxc can mount
block devices, but also partition files of any format.
31.5 For More Information
LXC Container Driver
http://libvirt.org/drvlxc.html
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32 Migration from LXC to libvirt-lxc
Since SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, LXC is integrated into libvirt library. This decision
has several advantages over using LXC as a separate solution—such as a unified approach with
other virtualization solutions or independence on the kernel used. This chapter describes steps
needed to migrate an existing LXC environment for use with the libvirt library.
32.1 Host Migration
The migration itself has two phases. You first need to migrate the host, then the LXC containers. After that, you will be able to run the original containers as VM Guests in the libvirt
environment.
PROCEDURE 32.1: HOST MIGRATION
1. Upgrade the host to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 using the official DVD media.
2. After the upgrade, install the libvirt-daemon-lxc and libvirt-daemon-config-network packages.
3. Create a libvirt XML configuration lxc_container.xml from the existing container
lxc_container :
# virt-lxc-convert /etc/lxc/lxc_container/config > lxc_container.xml
4. Check if the network configuration on the host is the same as in the container configuration
file, and fix it if needed.
5. Check the lxc_container.xml file for any weird or missing configuration. Note that
some of the LXC configuration cannot be mapped to libvirt configuration. Although the
conversion should be fine in most cases, check Section 31.4, “Differences Between the libvirt
LXC Driver and LXC” for more details.
6. Define the container in libvirt based on the created XML definition:
# virsh -c lxc:/// define lxc_container.xml
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32.2 Container Migration
After the host is migrated, the LXC container in libvirt will not boot. It needs to be migrated
to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 as well in order to get everything working.
PROCEDURE 32.2: CONTAINER MIGRATION
1. The baseproduct file is missing (and zypper keeps complaining about it). Create the
relevant symbolic link:
# ROOTFS=/var/lib/lxc/lxc_container/rootfs
# ln -s $ROOTFS/etc/products.d/SUSE_SLES.prod $ROOTFS/etc/products.d/
baseproduct
2. Add the DVD repository. Note that you need to replace the DVD device with the one
attached to your container:
# zypper --root $ROOTFS ar \
cd:///?devices=/dev/dvd SLES12-12
3. Disable or remove previous repositories:
# zypper --root $ROOTFS lr
| Alias
| Name
| Enabled |
Refresh
--+-----------------------------+------------------------------+--------+-------1 | SLES12-12
| SLES12-12
| Yes
| No
2 | SUSE-[...]-Server-11-SP3 38 | SUSE-[...]-Server-11-SP3 138 | Yes
| No
# zypper --root $ROOTFS rr 2
4. Upgrade the container:
# zypper --root $ROOTFS dup
5. Install the Minimal pattern to make sure everything required is installed:
# zypper --root $ROOTFS in -t pattern Minimal
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32.3 Starting the Container
After the host and container migration is complete, the container can be started:
# virsh -c lxc:/// start lxc_container
If you need to get a console to view the logging messages produced by the container, run:
# virsh -c lxc:/// console lxc_container
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Glossary
General
Create Virtual Machine Wizard
A software program available in YaST and Virtual Machine Manager that provides a graphical interface to guide you through the steps to create virtual machines. It can also be run
in text mode by entering virt-install at a command prompt in the host environment.
Dom0
The term is used in Xen environments, and refers to a virtual machine. The host operating
system is actually a virtual machine running in a privileged domain and can be referred to
as Dom0. All other virtual machines on the host run in unprivileged domains and can be
referred to as domain U's.
hardware-assisted
Intel* and AMD* provide virtualization hardware-assisted technology. This reduces frequency of VM IN/OUT (fewer VM traps), because software is a major source of overhead, and
increases the efficiency (the execution is done by the hardware). Moreover this reduces the
memory footprint, provides better resource control, and allows secure assignment of specific
I/O devices.
Host Environment
The desktop or command line environment that allows interaction with the host computer's
environment. It provides a command line environment and can also include a graphical
desktop, such as GNOME or IceWM. The host environment runs as a special type of virtual
machine that has privileges to control and manage other virtual machines. Other commonly
used terms include Dom0, privileged domain, and host operating system.
Hypervisor
The software that coordinates the low-level interaction between virtual machines and the
underlying physical computer hardware.
KVM
See Chapter 3, Introduction to KVM Virtualization
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Paravirtualized Frame Buffer
The video output device that drives a video display from a memory buffer containing a
complete frame of data for virtual machine displays running in paravirtual mode.
VHS
Virtualization Host Server
The physical computer running a SUSE virtualization platform software. The virtualization
environment consists of the hypervisor, the host environment, virtual machines, and associated tools, commands, and configuration files. Other commonly used terms include host,
Host Computer, Host Machine (HM), Virtual Server (VS), Virtual Machine Host (VMH), and
VM Host Server (VHS).
VirtFS
VirtFS is a new paravirtualized file system interface designed for improving pass-through
technologies in the KVM environment. It is based on the VirtIO framework.
Virtual Machine
A virtualized PC environment (VM) capable of hosting a guest operating system and associated applications. Could be also called a VM Guest.
Virtual Machine Manager
A software program that provides a graphical user interface for creating and managing virtual machines.
Virtualized
A guest operating system or application running on a virtual machine.
Xen
See Chapter 2, Introduction to Xen Virtualization
xl
A set of commands for Xen that lets administrators manage virtual machines from a command prompt on the host computer. It replaced the deprecated xm toolstack.
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General
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CPU
CPU capping
Virtual CPU capping allows you to set vCPU capacity to 1–100 percent of the physical CPU
capacity
CPU hot-plugging
CPU hot-plugging is used to describe the functions of replacing/adding/removing a CPU
without shutting down the system.
CPU over-commitment
Virtual CPU over-commitment is the ability to assign more virtual CPUs to VMs than the
actual number of physical CPUs present in the physical system. This procedure does not
increase the overall performance of the system, but might be useful for testing purposes.
CPU pinning
Processor affinity, or CPU pinning enables the binding and unbinding of a process or a thread
to a central processing unit (CPU) or a range of CPUs.
Network
Bridged Networking
A type of network connection that lets a virtual machine be identified on an external network
as a unique identity that is separate from and unrelated to its host computer.
Empty Bridge
A type of network bridge that has no physical network device or virtual network device
provided by the host. This lets virtual machines communicate with other virtual machines
on the same host but not with the host or on an external network.
External Network
The network outside a host's internal network environment.
Internal Network
A type of network configuration that restricts virtual machines to their host environment.
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CPU
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Local Bridge
A type of network bridge that has a virtual network device but no physical network device
provided by the host. This lets virtual machines communicate with the host and other virtual
machines on the host. Virtual machines can communicate on an external network through
the host.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
A type of network connection that lets a virtual machine use the IP address and MAC address
of the host.
No Host Bridge
A type of network bridge that has a physical network device but no virtual network device
provided by the host. This lets virtual machines communicate on an external network but
not with the host. This lets you separate virtual machine network communications from the
host environment.
Traditional Bridge
A type of network bridge that has both a physical network device and a virtual network
device provided by the host.
Storage
AHCI
The Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) is a technical standard defined by Intel*
that specifies the operation of Serial ATA (SATA) host bus adapters in a non-implementation-specific manner.
Block Device
Data storage devices, such as CD-ROM drives or disk drives, that move data in the form of
blocks. Partitions and volumes are also considered block devices.
File-Backed Virtual Disk
A virtual disk based on a file, also called a disk image file.
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Storage
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Raw Disk
A method of accessing data on a disk at the individual byte level instead of through its file
system.
Sparse image file
A disk image file that does not reserve its entire amount of disk space but expands as data
is written to it.
xvda
The drive designation given to the first virtual disk on a paravirtual machine.
Linux Containers
cgroups
Kernel Control Groups (commonly referred to as just “cgroups”) are a Kernel feature that
allows aggregating or partitioning tasks (processes) and all their children into hierarchical
organized groups to isolate resources.
See also Book “System Analysis and Tuning Guide” 8 “Kernel Control Groups”
chroot
A change root (chroot, or change root jail) is a section in the file system that is isolated from
the rest of the file system. For this purpose, the chroot or pivot_root command is used to
change the root of the file system. A program that is executed in such a “chroot jail” cannot
access files outside the designated directory tree.
container
Can be seen as a kind of “virtual machine” on the host server that can run any Linux system,
for example openSUSE, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
The main difference with a normal virtual machine is that the container shares its kernel
with the host it runs on.
Kernel namespaces
A Kernel feature to isolate some resources like network, users, and others for a group of
processes.
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Linux Containers
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Acronyms
ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification provides an open standard
for device configuration and power management by the operating system.
AER
Advanced Error Reporting
AER is a capability provided by the PCI Express specification which allows for reporting of
PCI errors and recovery from some of those errors.
APIC
Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) is a family of interrupt controllers.
BDF
Bus:Device:Function
Notation used to succinctly describe PCI and PCIe devices.
CG
Control Groups
Feature to limit, account and isolate resource usage (CPU, memory, disk I/O, etc.)
EDF
Earliest Deadline First
This scheduler provides weighted CPU sharing in an intuitive way and uses realtime-algorithms to ensure time guarantees.
EPT
Extended Page Tables
Performance in a virtualized environment is close to that in a native environment. Virtualization does create some overheads, however. These come from the virtualization of the
CPU, the MMU, and the I/O devices. In some of their recent x86 processors AMD and Intel
have begun to provide hardware extensions to help bridge this performance gap. In 2006,
both vendors introduced their first generation hardware support for x86 virtualization with
AMD-VirtualizationTM (AMD-VTM) and Intel® VT-x technologies. Recently Intel introduced
its second generation of hardware support that incorporates MMU-virtualization, called Extended Page Tables (EPT). EPT-enabled systems can improve performance compared to us-
282
Acronyms
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ing shadow paging for MMU virtualization. EPT increases memory access latencies for a few
workloads. This cost can be reduced by effectively using large pages in the guest and the
hypervisor.
FLASK
Flux Advanced Security Kernel
Xen implements a type of mandatory access control via a security architecture called FLASK
using a module of the same name.
HAP
High Assurance Platform
HAP combines hardware and software technologies to improve workstation and network
security.
HVM
Hardware Virtual Machine (commonly called like this by Xen).
IOMMU
Input/Output Memory Management Unit
IOMMU (AMD* technology) is a memory management unit (MMU) that connects a direct
memory access-capable (DMA-capable) I/O bus to the main memory.
KSM
Kernel Samepage Merging
KSM allows for automatic sharing of identical memory pages between guests to save host
memory. KVM is optimized to use KSM if enabled on the VM Host Server.
MMU
Memory Management Unit
is a computer hardware component responsible for handling accesses to memory requested
by the CPU. Its functions include translation of virtual addresses to physical addresses (i.e.,
virtual memory management), memory protection, cache control, bus arbitration and in
simpler computer architectures (especially 8-bit systems) bank switching.
PAE
Physical Address Extension
283
Acronyms
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32-bit x86 operating systems use Physical Address Extension (PAE) mode to enable addressing of more than 4 GB of physical memory. In PAE mode, page table entries (PTEs) are 64
bits in size.
PCID
Process-context identifiers
These are a facility by which a logical processor may cache information for multiple linear-address spaces so that the processor may retain cached information when software
switches to a different linear address space. INVPCID instruction is used for fine-grained TLB
flush, which is benefit for kernel.
PCIe
Peripheral Component Interconnect Express
PCIe was designed to replace older PCI, PCI-X and AGP bus standards. PCIe has numerous
improvements including a higher maximum system bus throughput, a lower I/O pin count
and smaller physical footprint. Moreover it also has a more detailed error detection and
reporting mechanism (AER), and a native hot-plug functionality. It is also backward compatible with PCI.
PSE and PSE36
Page Size Extended
PSE refers to a feature of x86 processors that allows for pages larger than the traditional 4
KiB size. PSE-36 capability offers 4 more bits, in addition to the normal 10 bits, which are
used inside a page directory entry pointing to a large page. This allows a large page to be
located in 36-bit address space.
PT
Page Table
A page table is the data structure used by a virtual memory system in a computer operat-
ing system to store the mapping between virtual addresses and physical addresses. Virtual
addresses are those unique to the accessing process. Physical addresses are those unique to
the hardware (RAM).
QXL
QXL is a cirrus VGA framebuffer (8M) driver for virtualized environment.
RVI or NPT
Rapid Virtualization Indexing, Nested Page Tables
284
Acronyms
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An AMD second generation hardware-assisted virtualization technology for the processor
memory management unit (MMU).
SATA
Serial ATA
SATA is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices
such as hard disk drives and optical drives.
Seccomp2-based sandboxing
Sandboxed environment where only predetermined system calls are permitted for added
protection against malicious behavior.
SMEP
Supervisor Mode Execution Protection
This prevents the execution of user-mode pages by the Xen hypervisor, making many application-to-hypervisor exploits much harder.
SPICE
Simple Protocol for Independent Computing Environments
SXP
An SXP file is a Xen Configuration File.
TCG
Tiny Code Generator
Instructions are emulated rather than executed by the CPU.
THP
Transparent Huge Pages
This allows CPUs to address memory using pages larger than the default 4 KB. This helps
reduce memory consumption and CPU cache usage. KVM is optimized to use THP (via madvise and opportunistic methods) if enabled on the VM Host Server.
TLB
Translation Lookaside Buffer
TLB is a cache that memory management hardware uses to improve virtual address translation speed. All current desktop, notebook, and server processors use a TLB to map virtual
and physical address spaces, and it is nearly always present in any hardware that utilizes
virtual memory.
285
Acronyms
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VCPU
A scheduling entity, containing each state for virtualized CPU.
VDI
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
VFIO
Since kernel v3.6; a new method of accessing PCI devices from userspace called VFIO.
VHS
Virtualization Host Server
VM root
VMM will run in VMX root operation and guest software will run in VMX non-root operation.
Transitions between VMX root operation and VMX non-root operation are called VMX transitions.
VMCS
Virtual Machine Control Structure
VMX non-root operation and VMX transitions are controlled by a data structure called a
virtual-machine control structure (VMCS). Access to the VMCS is managed through a com-
ponent of processor state called the VMCS pointer (one per logical processor). The value
of the VMCS pointer is the 64-bit address of the VMCS. The VMCS pointer is read and written using the instructions VMPTRST and VMPTRLD. The VMM configures a VMCS using the
VMREAD, VMWRITE, and VMCLEAR instructions. A VMM could use a different VMCS for
each virtual machine that it supports. For a virtual machine with multiple logical processors
(virtual processors), the VMM could use a different VMCS for each virtual processor.
VMDq
Virtual Machine Device Queue
Multi-queue network adapters exist which support multiple VMs at the hardware level, having separate packet queues associated to the different hosted VMs (by means of the IP addresses of the VMs).
VMM
Virtual Machine Monitor (Hypervisor)
286
Acronyms
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When the processor encounters an instruction or event of interest to the Hypervisor (VMM),
it exits from guest mode back to the VMM. The VMM emulates the instruction or other
event, at a fraction of native speed, and then returns to guest mode. The transitions from
guest mode to the VMM and back again are high-latency operations, during which guest
execution is completely stalled.
VMX
Virtual Machine eXtensions
VPID
New support for software control of TLB (VPID improves TLB performance with small VMM
development effort).
VT-d
Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O
Like IOMMU for Intel* (https://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-virtualization-technology-for-directed-io-vt-d-enhancing-intel-platforms-for-efficient-virtualization-of-io-devices)
.
vTPM
Component to establish end-to-end integrity for guests via Trusted Computing.
287
Acronyms
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A Virtual Machine Drivers
Virtualization allows the consolidation of workloads on newer, more powerful, energy-efficient
hardware. Paravirtualized operating systems such as SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server and other
Linux distributions are aware of the underlying virtualization platform, and can therefore interact efficiently with it. Unmodified operating systems such as Microsoft Windows* are unaware
of the virtualization platform and expect to interact directly with the hardware. Because this is
not possible when consolidating servers, the hardware must be emulated for the operating system. Emulation can be slow, but it is especially troubling for high-throughput disk and network
subsystems. Most performance loss occurs in this area.
The SUSE Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack (VMDP) contains 32-bit and 64-bit
paravirtualized network, bus and block drivers for a number of Microsoft Windows operating
systems. These drivers bring many of the performance advantages of paravirtualized operating
systems to unmodified operating systems because only the paravirtualized device driver (not
the rest of the operating system) is aware of the virtualization platform. For example, a paravirtualized disk device driver appears as a normal, physical disk to the operating system. However,
the device driver interacts directly with the virtualization platform (with no emulation) to efficiently deliver disk access, allowing the disk and network subsystems to operate at near native
speeds in a virtualized environment, without requiring changes to existing operating systems.
The SUSE® Linux Enterprise Virtual Machine Driver Pack is available as an add-on product
for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. For detailed information please refer to http://www.suse.com/
products/vmdriverpack/
.
Please refer to the Official VMDP Installation Guide at https://www.suse.com/documentation/slevmdp-22/
288
for more information.
Virtual Machine Drivers
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B Appendix
B.1 Installing Paravirtualized Drivers
B.1.1
Installing virtio Drivers for Microsoft Windows*
SUSE has developed virtio-based drivers for Windows, which are available in the Virtual Machine Driver Pack (VMDP). See http://www.suse.com/products/vmdriverpack/
for more infor-
mation on the VMDP. Installation instructions are now available in a dedicated official documentation.
B.2 Generating x509 Client/Server Certificates
In order to be able to create x509 client and server certificates you need to issue them by a
Certificate Authority (CA). It is recommended to set up an independent CA that only issues
certificates for libvirt .
1. Set up a CA as described in Book “Security Guide” 17 “Managing X.509 Certification”17.2.1
“Creating a Root CA”.
2. Create a server and a client certificate as described in Book “Security Guide” 17 “Managing
X.509 Certification”17.2.4 “Creating or Revoking User Certificates”. The Common Name (CN)
for the server certificate must be the full qualified host name, while the Common Name
for the client certificate can be freely chosen. For all other fields stick with the defaults
suggested by YaST.
Export the client and server certificates to a temporary location (for example, /tmp/
x509/ ) by performing the following steps:
a. Select the certificate on the certificates tab.
b. Choose Export Export to File Certificate and the Key Unencrypted in PEM Format,
provide the Certificate Password and the full path and the file name under File Name,
for example, /tmp/x509/server.pem or /tmp/x509/client.pem .
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Appendix
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c. Open a terminal and change to the directory where you have saved the certificate
and issue the following commands to split it into certificate and key (this example
splits the server key):
csplit -z -f s_ server.pem '/-----BEGIN/' '{1}'
mv s_00 servercert.pem
mv s_01 serverkey.pem
d. Repeat the procedure for each client and server certificate you would like to export.
3. Finally export the CA certificate by performing the following steps:
a. Switch to the Description tab.
b. Choose Advanced Export to File Only the Certificate in PEM Format and enter the
full path and the file name under File Name, for example, /tmp/x509/cacert.pem .
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C XM, XL Toolstacks and Libvirt framework
C.1 Xen Toolstacks
Since the early Xen 2.x releases, xend has been the defacto toolstack for managing Xen instal-
lations. In Xen 4.1, a new toolstack called libxenlight (also known as libxl) was introduced with
technology preview status. libxl is a small, low-level library written in C. It has been designed to
provide a simple API for all client toolstacks ( (XAPI (http://wiki.xen.org/wiki/XAPI) , libvirt ,
xl). In Xen 4.2, libxl was promoted to officially supported status and xend was marked depre-
cated. xend has been included in the Xen 4.3 and 4.4 series to give users ample time to convert
their tooling to libxl, but it has been removed from the upstream Xen project and will no longer
be provided starting with the Xen 4.5 series.
Although SLES11 SP3 contains Xen 4.2, SUSE retained the xend toolstack since making such an
invasive change in a service pack would be too disruptive for SUSE Linux Enterprise customers.
However, SLES12 provides a suitable opportunity to move to the new libxl toolstack and remove
the deprecated, unmaintained xend stack.
One of the major differences between xend and libxl is that the former is stateful, while the
latter is stateless. With xend , all client applications such as xm and libvirt see the same
system state. xend is responsible for maintaining state for the entire Xen host. In libxl, client
applications such as xl or libvirt must maintain state. Thus domains created with xl or not
visible or known to other libxl applications such as libvirt . Generally, it is discouraged to mix
and match libxl applications and is preferred that a single libxl application be used to manage
a Xen host. In SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 , it is recommended to use libvirt to manage Xen
hosts, allowing management of the Xen system through libvirt applications such as virt-
manager , virt-install , vm-install , virt-viewer , libguestfs, etc. If xl is used to manage
the Xen host, any virtual machines under it's management will not be accessible to libvirt ,
and hence not accessible to any of the libvirt applications.
C.1.1
Upgrading from xend/xm to xl/libxl
The xl application, along with its configuration format (see man xl.cfg ), was designed to be
backwards-compatible with the xm application and its configuration format (see man xm.cfg ).
Existing xm configuration should be usable with xl . Since libxl is stateless, and xl does not
support the notion of managed domains, SUSE recommends using libvirt to manage SLES12
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XM, XL Toolstacks and Libvirt framework
SLES 12
Xen hosts. SUSE has provided a tool called xen2libvirt , which provides a simple mechanism
to import domains previously managed by xend into libvirt . See Section C.2, “Import Xen Domain Configuration into libvirt” for more information on xen2libvirt .
C.1.2
XL design
The basic structure of every xl command is:
xl subcommand OPTIONS DOMAIN
DOMAIN is the numeric domain id, or the domain name (which will be internally translated to
domain id), and OPTIONS are subcommand specific options.
Although xl/libxl was designed to be backward-compatible with xm/xend, there are a few differences that should be noted:
Managed or persistent domains. libvirt now provides this functionality.
xl/libxl does not support Python code in the domain configuration files.
xl/libxl does not support creating domains from SXP format configuration files ( xm create
-F ).
xl/libxl does not support sharing storage across DomU's via w! in domain configuration
files.
xl/libxl is relatively new and under heavy development, hence a few features are still missing
with respect to the xm/xend toolstack:
SCSI LUN/Host pass-through (PVSCSI)
USB passthrough (PVUSB)
Support Direct Kernel Boot for fully virtualized Linux guests for Xen does not work anymore
C.1.3
Checklist before Upgrade
Before upgrading a SLES11 SP3 Xen host to SLES12
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XL design
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You must remove any Python code from your xm domain configuration files.
It is recommended to capture the libvirt domain XML from all existing virtual machines
using virsh dumpxml DOMAIN_NAME DOMAIN_NAME.xml .
It is recommended to do a backup of /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp and /boot/grub/
menu.lst files to keep references of previous parameters used for Xen.
Note
Currently, live migrating virtual machines running on a SLES11 SP3 Xen host to a SLES12
Xen host is not supported. The xend and libxl toolstacks are not runtime-compatible.
Virtual machine downtime will be required to move the virtual machines from SLES11
SP3 to a SLES12 host.
C.2 Import Xen Domain Configuration into libvirt
xen2libvirt is a command line tool to import legacy Xen domain configuration into the lib-
virt virtualization library (see The Virtualization book for more information on libvirt ).
xen2libvirt provides an easy way to import domains managed by the deprecated xm /xend tool-
stack into the new libvirt /libxl toolstack. Several domains can be imported at once using its
--recursive mode
xen2libvirt is included in the xen-tools package. If needed, install it with
zypper install xen-tools
xen2libvirt general syntax is
xen2libvirt <options> /path/to/domain/config
where options can be:
-h , --help
Prints short information about xen2libvirt usage.
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Import Xen Domain Configuration into libvirt
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-c , --convert-only
Converts the domain configuration to the libvirt XML format, but does not do the import
to libvirt .
-r , --recursive
Converts and/or imports all domains configuration recursively, starting at the specified
path.
-f , --format
Specifies the format of the source domain configuration. Can be either xm , or sexpr (Sexpression format).
-v , --verbose
Prints more detailed information about the import process.
EXAMPLE C.1: CONVERTING XEN DOMAIN CONFIGURATION TO libvirt
Suppose you have a Xen domain managed with xm with the following configuration saved
in /etc/xen/sle12.xm :
kernel = "/boot/vmlinuz-2.6-xenU"
memory = 128
name = "SLE12"
root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
disk = [ "file:/var/xen/sle12.img,hda1,w" ]
Convert it to libvirt XML without importing it, and look at its content:
# xen2libvirt -f xm -c /etc/xen/sle12.xm > /etc/libvirt/qemu/sles12.xml
# cat /etc/libvirt/qemu/sles12.xml
<domain type='xen'>
<name>SLE12</name>
<uuid>43e1863c-8116-469c-a253-83d8be09aa1d</uuid>
<memory unit='KiB'>131072</memory>
<currentMemory unit='KiB'>131072</currentMemory>
<vcpu placement='static'>1</vcpu>
<os>
<type arch='x86_64' machine='xenpv'>linux</type>
<kernel>/boot/vmlinuz-2.6-xenU</kernel>
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Import Xen Domain Configuration into libvirt
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</os>
<clock offset='utc' adjustment='reset'/>
<on_poweroff>destroy</on_poweroff>
<on_reboot>restart</on_reboot>
<on_crash>restart</on_crash>
<devices>
<disk type='file' device='disk'>
<driver name='file'/>
<source file='/var/xen/sle12.img'/>
<target dev='hda1' bus='xen'/>
</disk>
<console type='pty'>
<target type='xen' port='0'/>
</console>
</devices>
</domain>
To import the domain into libvirt , you can either run the same xen2libvirt command
without the -c option, or use the exported file /etc/libvirt/qemu/sles12.xml and
define a new Xen domain using virsh :
# sudo virsh define /etc/libvirt/qemu/sles12.xml
C.3 Differences between the xm and xl applications
The purpose of this chapter is to list all differences between xm and xl applications. Generally,
xl is designed to be compatible with xm and in most cases simply replaceing xm with xl in
custom scripts or tools is sufficient.
You can also use the the libvirt framework using the virsh command. In this documentation
only the first OPTION for virsh will be shown. To get more help on this option just do a:
virsh help OPTION
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Differences between the xm and xl applications
SLES 12
C.3.1
Notation Conventions
To easily understand the difference between xl and xm commands, we will use the following
notation conventions:
TABLE C.1: NOTATION CONVENTIONS
Notation
Signification
(-) minus
option exists in xm , but xl doesn't include it
(+) plus
option exists in xl , but xm doesn't include it
C.3.2
New Global Options
TABLE C.2: NEW GLOBAL OPTIONS
Options
Task
(+) -v
Verbose, increase the verbosity of the output
(+) -N
Dry run, do not actually execute the com-
(+) -f
Force execution. xl will refuse to run some
mand
commands if it detects that xend is also running, this option will force the execution of
those commands, even though it is unsafe
C.3.3
Unchanged Options
List of common options between xl and xm commands, and libvirt equivalence.
TABLE C.3: COMMON OPTIONS
Options
Task
libvirt equivalence
destroy DOMAIN
Immediately terminate the
virsh destroy
296
domain
Notation Conventions
SLES 12
Options
Task
libvirt equivalence
domid DOMAIN_NAME
Converts a domain name to a
virsh domid
DOMAIN_ID
domname DOMAIN_ID
Converts a DOMAIN_ID to a
virsh domname
DOMAIN_NAME
help
Displays the short help message (i.e. common com-
virsh help
mands)
pause DOMAIN_ID
Pause a domain. When in a
paused state the domain will
virsh suspend
still consume allocated re-
sources such as memory, but
will not be eligible for scheduling by the Xen hypervisor
unpause DOMAIN_ID
Moves a domain out of the
paused state. This will allow
virsh resume
a previously paused domain
to now be eligible for scheduling by the Xen hypervisor
rename DOMAIN_ID
NEW_DOMAIN_NAME
Change the domain
name of DOMAIN_ID to
NEW_DOMAIN_NAME
1. virsh
dumpxml DOMAINNAME
>
DOMXML
2. modify the domain's
name in DOMXML
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Unchanged Options
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Options
Task
libvirt equivalence
3. virsh
undefine DOMAINNAME
4. virsh
define DOMAINNAME
sysrq DOMAIN <letter>
Send a Magic System Re-
quest to the domain, each
type of request is represent-
virsh send-keys can send
Magic Sys Req only for KVM
ed by a different letter. It can
be used to send SysRq re-
quests to Linux guests, see
sysrq.txt in your Linux
Kernel sources for more in-
formation. It requires PV drivers to be installed in your
guest OS
vncviewer OPTIONS DOMAIN
Attach to domain's VNC
server, forking a vncviewer
process
vcpu-set DOMAIN_ID <vCPUs>
Enables the vcpu-count vir-
tual CPUs for the domain in
virt-view DOMAIN_ID
virsh vncdisplay
virsh setvcpus
question. Like mem-set , this
command can only allocate
up to the maximum virtu-
al CPU count configured at
boot for the domain
vcpu-list DOMAIN_ID
Lists VCPU information for
a specific domain. If no do-
virsh vcpuinfo
main is specified, VCPU information for all domains
will be provided
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Unchanged Options
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Options
Task
libvirt equivalence
vcpu-pin DOMAIN_ID
Pins the VCPU to only run on
virsh vcpupin
<VCPU|all> <CPUs|all>
the specific CPUs. The key-
word all can be used to apply
the cpus list to all VCPUs in
the domain
dmesg [-c]
Reads the Xen message
buffer, similar to dmesg on
a Linux system. The buffer
contains informational,
warning, and error messages
created during Xen's boot
process
top
Executes the xentop command, which provides real
time monitoring of domains.
virsh nodecpustats
virsh nodememstats
Xentop is a curses interface,
and reasonably self explanatory
uptime [-s] DOMAIN
Prints the current uptime of
the domains running. With
xl command the DOMAIN
argument is now mandatory
debug-keys KEYS
Send debug keys to Xen. It is
the same as pressing the Xen
conswitch (Ctrl-A by default)
three times and then pressing
"keys"
cpupool-migrate DOMAIN
CPU_POOL
299
Moves a domain specified by
DOMAIN_ID or DOMAIN into
a CPU_POOL
Unchanged Options
SLES 12
Options
Task
cpupool-destroy CPU_POOL
Deactivates a cpu pool. This
libvirt equivalence
is possible only if no domain
is active in the cpu-pool
block-detach DOMAIN_ID
DevId
Detach a domain's virtual
block device. devid may be
virsh detach-disk
the symbolic name or the numeric device id given to the
device by Dom0. You will
need to run xl block-list
to determine that number
network-attach DOMAIN_ID
NETWORK_DEVICE
Creates a new network de-
vice in the domain specified
by DOMAIN_ID . network-de-
virsh attach-interface
virsh attach-device
vice describes the device to
attach, using the same format as the vif string in the
domain config file
pci-attach DOMAIN <BDF>
[Virtual Slot]
Hot-plug a new pass-through
pci device to the specified
virsh attach-device
domain. BDF is the PCI Bus/
Device/Function of the physical device to pass-throug
pci-list DOMAIN_ID
List pass-through pci devices
getenforce
Determine if the FLASK secu-
for a domain
rity module is loaded and enforcing its policy
setenforce <1|0|Enforcing|Permissive>
300
Enable or disable enforcing
of the FLASK access controls.
The default is permissive and
Unchanged Options
SLES 12
Options
Task
libvirt equivalence
can be changed using the
flask_enforcing option on the
hypervisor's command line
C.3.4
Removed Options
List of xm options which are no more available with the XL toolstack and a replacement
solution if available.
C.3.4.1
Domain Management
The list of Domain management removed command and their replacement.
TABLE C.4: DOMAIN MANAGEMENT REMOVED OPTIONS
Domain Management Removed Options
Options
Task
Equivalence
(-) log
Print out the xend log.
This log file can be found in
/var/log/xend.log
(-) delete
Remove a domain from Xend
domain management. The
virsh undefine
list option shows the do-
main names
(-) new
Adds a domain to Xend do-
virsh define
(-) start
Start a Xend managed do-
virsh start
main management
main that was added using
the xm new command
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Removed Options
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Domain Management Removed Options
Options
Task
Equivalence
(-) dryrun
Dry run - prints the resulting
xl -N
configuration in SXP but does
not create the domain
(-) reset
Reset a domain
virsh reset
(-) domstate
Show domain state
virsh domstate
(-) serve
Proxy Xend XMLRPC over
(-) resume DOMAIN OP-
Moves a domain out of the
stdio
TIONS
suspended state and back in-
(-) suspend DOMAIN
Suspend a domain to a state
virsh resume
to memory
file so that it can be later
resumed using the resume
virsh managedsave
virsh suspend
subcommand. Similar to
the save subcommand al-
though the state file may not
be specified
C.3.4.2
USB Devices
USB options are not available with xl/libxl toolstack. virsh has the
detach-device options but it doesn't work yet with USB .
attach-device and
TABLE C.5: USB DEVICES MANAGEMENT REMOVED OPTIONS
USB Devices Management Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) usb-add
Add a new USB physical bus to a domain
302
Removed Options
SLES 12
USB Devices Management Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) usb-del
Del an USB physical bus from a domain
(-) usb-attach
Attach a new USB physical bus to domain's
(-) usb-detach
Detach a USB physical bus from domain's
(-) usb-list
List domain's attachment state of all virtual
(-) usb-list-assignable-devices
List all the assignable usb devices
(-) usb-hc-create
Create a domain's new virtual USB host con-
(-) usb-hc-destroy
Destroy a domain's virtual USB host con-
C.3.4.3
virtual port
virtual port
port
troller
troller
CPU Management
CPU management options has changed. New options are available, see: Section C.3.5.10, “xl
cpupool-*”
TABLE C.6: CPU MANAGEMENT REMOVED OPTIONS
CPU Management Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) cpupool-new
Adds a CPU pool to Xend CPU pool manage-
(-) cpupool-start
Starts a Xend CPU pool
303
ment
Removed Options
SLES 12
CPU Management Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) cpupool-delete
Removes a CPU pool from Xend manage-
C.3.4.4
ment
Others
TABLE C.7: OTHER OPTIONS
Other Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) shell
Launch an interactive shell
(-) change-vnc-passwd
Change vnc password
(-) vtpm-list
List virtual TPM devices
(-) block-configure
Change block device configuration
C.3.5
C.3.5.1
Changed Options
create
xl create CONFIG_FILE OPTIONS
VARS
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh create
304
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.8: XL create CHANGED
create Changed Options
Options
Task
(*) -f= FILE , --defconfig= FILE
Use the given configuration file
TABLE C.9: XM create REMOVED OPTIONS
create Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -s , --skipdtd
Skip DTD checking - skips checks on XML be-
(-) -x , --xmldryrun
XML dry run
(-) -F=FILE, --config=FILE
Use the given SXP formatted configuration
(-) --path
Search path for configuration scripts
(-) --help_config
Print the available configuration variables
(-) -n , --dryrun
Dry run — prints the configuration in SXP
(-) -c , --console_autoconnect
Connect to the console after the domain is
(-) -q , --quiet
Quiet mode
(-) -p , --paused
Leave the domain paused after it is created
305
fore creating
script
(vars) for the configuration script
but does not create the domain
created
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.10: XL create ADDED OPTIONS
create Added Options
Options
Task
(+) -V , --vncviewer
Attach to domain's VNC server, forking a
(+) -A , --vncviewer-autopass
Pass VNC password to vncviewer via stdin
C.3.5.2
vncviewer process
console
xl console OPTIONS DOMAIN
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh console
TABLE C.11: XL console ADDED OPTION
console Added Option
Option
Task
(+) -t [pv|serial]
Connect to a PV console or connect to an
emulated serial console. PV consoles are the
only consoles available for PV domains while
HVM domains can have both
C.3.5.3
info
xl info
306
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.12: XM info REMOVED OPTIONS
info Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -n , --numa
Numa info
(-) -c , --config
List Xend configuration parameters
C.3.5.4
dump-core
xl dump-core DOMAIN FILENAME
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh dump
TABLE C.13: XM dump-core REMOVED OPTIONS
dump-core Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -L , --live
Dump core without pausing the domain
(-) -C , --crash
Crash domain after dumping core
(-) -R , --reset
Reset domain after dumping core
C.3.5.5
list
xl list options DOMAIN
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh list --all
307
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.14: XM list REMOVED OPTIONS
list Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -l , --long
The output for xm list presents the data in
(-) --state==STATE
Output information for VMs in the specified
SXP format
state
TABLE C.15: XL list ADDED OPTIONS
list Added Options
Options
Task
(+) -Z , --context
Also prints the security labels
(+) -v , --verbose
Also prints the domain UUIDs, the shutdown
C.3.5.6
reason and security labels
mem-*
Note: libvirt equivalence
virsh setmem
virsh setmaxmem
TABLE C.16: XL mem-* CHANGED OPTIONS
mem-* Changed Options
Options
Task
mem-max DOMAIN_ID MEM
Appending t for terabytes, g for gigabytes,
m for megabytes, k for kilobytes and b
for bytes. Specify the maximum amount of
memory the domain is able to use.
308
Changed Options
SLES 12
mem-* Changed Options
Options
Task
mem-set DOMAIN_ID MEM
Set the domain's used memory using the bal-
C.3.5.7
loon driver
migrate
xl migrate OPTIONS DOMAIN HOST
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh migrate --live hvm-sles11-qcow2 xen+CONNECTOR://USER@IP_ADDRESS/
TABLE C.17: XM migrate REMOVED OPTIONS
migrate Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -l , --live
Use live migration. This will migrate the domain between hosts without shutting down
the domain
(-) -r , --resource Mbs
Set maximum Mbs allowed for migrating the
(-) -c , --change_home_server
Change home server for managed domains
(-) --max_iters= MAX_ITERS
Number of iterations before final suspend
(-) --max_factor= MAX_FACTOR
Max amount of memory to transfer before fi-
(-) --min_remaining= MIN_REMAINING
Number of dirty pages before final suspend
309
domain
(default:30)
nal suspend (default: 3*RAM).
(default:50)
Changed Options
SLES 12
migrate Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) --abort_if_busy
Abort migration instead of doing final sus-
(-) --log_progress
Log progress of migration to xend.log
(-) -s , --ssl
Use ssl connection for migration
pend
TABLE C.18: XL migrate ADDED OPTIONS
migrate Added Options
Options
Task
(+) -s SSHCOMMAND
Use <sshcommand> instead of ssh
(+) -e
On the new host, do not wait in the back-
ground (on <host>) for the death of the domain
(+) -C config
C.3.5.8
Send <config> instead of config file from
creation
Domain management
xl reboot OPTIONS DOMAIN
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh reboot
TABLE C.19: XM reboot REMOVED OPTIONS
reboot Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -a , --all
Reboot all domains
310
Changed Options
SLES 12
reboot Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -w , --wait
Wait for reboot to complete before returning.
This may take a while, as all services in the
domain will have to be shut down cleanly
TABLE C.20: XL reboot ADDED OPTION
reboot Added Option
Option
Task
(+) -F
Fallback to ACPI reset event for HVM guests
with no PV drivers
xl save OPTIONS DOMAIN CHECK_POINT_FILE CONFIG_FILE
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh save
TABLE C.21: XL save ADDED OPTION
save Added Option
Option
Task
(+) -c
Leave domain running after creating the
snapshot
xl restore OPTIONS CONFIG_FILE CHECK_POINT_FILE
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh restore
311
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.22: XL restore ADDED OPTIONS
restore Added Options
Options
Task
(+) -p
Do not unpause domain after restoring it
(+) -e
Do not wait in the background for the death
(+) -d
Enable debug messages
(+) -V , --vncviewer
Attach to domain's VNC server, forking a
(+) -A , --vncviewer-autopass
Pass VNC password to vncviewer via stdin
of the domain on the new host
vncviewer process
xl shutdown OPTIONS DOMAIN
Note: libvirt equivalence:
virsh shutdown
TABLE C.23: XM shutdown REMOVED OPTIONS
shutdown Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -w , --wait
Wait for the domain to complete shutdown
(-) -a
Shutdown all guest domains
before returning
(-) -R
(-) -H
312
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.24: XL shutdown ADDED OPTION
shutdown Added Option
Option
Task
(+) -F
If the guest does not support PV shutdown
control then fallback to sending an ACPI
power event
TABLE C.25: XL trigger CHANGED OPTION
trigger Changed Option
Option
Task
trigger DOMAIN <nmi|reset|init|power|sleep|s3resume> VCPU
C.3.5.9
Send a trigger to a domain. Only available
for HVM domains
xl sched-*
xl sched-credit OPTIONS
Note: libvirt equivalence
virsh schedinfo
TABLE C.26: XM sched-credit REMOVED OPTIONS
sched-credit Removed Options
Options
Task
-d DOMAIN , --domain= DOMAIN
Domain
-w WEIGHT , --weight= WEIGHT
A domain with a weight of 512 will get
twice as much CPU as a domain with a
weight of 256 on a contended host. Legal
weights range from 1 to 65535 and the default is 256
313
Changed Options
SLES 12
sched-credit Removed Options
Options
Task
-c CAP , --cap= CAP
The CAP optionally fixes the maximum
amount of CPU a domain will be able to consume
TABLE C.27: XL sched-credit ADDED OPTIONS
sched-credit Added Options
Options
Task
(+) -p CPUPOOL , --cpupool= CPUPOOL
Restrict output to domains in the specified
(+) -s , --schedparam
Specify to list or set pool-wide scheduler pa-
(+) -t TSLICE , --tslice_ms= TSLICE
Timeslice tells the scheduler how long to al-
(+) -r RLIMIT , --ratelimit_us= RLIMIT
Ratelimit attempts to limit the number of
cpupool
rameters
low VMs to run before pre-empting
schedules per second
xl sched-credit2 OPTIONS
Note: libvirt status
virsh only supports credit scheduler, not credit2 scheduler
TABLE C.28: XM sched-credit2 REMOVED OPTIONS
sched-credit2 Removed Options
Options
Task
-d DOMAIN , --domain= DOMAIN
Domain
314
Changed Options
SLES 12
sched-credit2 Removed Options
Options
Task
-w WEIGHT , --weight= WEIGHT
Legal weights range from 1 to 65535 and the
default is 256
TABLE C.29: XL sched-credit2 ADDED OPTION
sched-credit2 Added Option
Option
Task
(+) -p CPUPOOL , --cpupool= CPUPOOL
Restrict output to domains in the specified
cpupool
xl sched-sedf OPTIONS
TABLE C.30: XM sched-sedf REMOVED OPTIONS
sched-sedf Removed Options
Options
Task
-p PERIOD , --period= PERIOD
The normal EDF scheduling usage in millisec-
-s SLICE , --slice= SLICE
The normal EDF scheduling usage in millisec-
-l LATENCY , --latency= LATENCY
Scaled period if domain is doing heavy I/O
-e EXTRA , --extra= EXTRA
Flag for allowing domain to run in extra
-w WEIGHT , --weight= WEIGHT
Another way of setting CPU slice
315
onds
onds
time (0 or 1)
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.31: XL sched-sedf ADDED OPTIONS
sched-sedf Added Options
Options
Task
(+) -c CPUPOOL , --cpupool= CPUPOOL
Restrict output to domains in the specified
(+) -d DOMAIN , --domain= DOMAIN
Domain
C.3.5.10
cpupool
xl cpupool-*
xl cpupool-cpu-remove CPU_POOL <CPU nr>|node:<node nr>
xl cpupool-list [-c|--cpus] CPU_POOL
TABLE C.32: XM cpupool-list REMOVED OPTION
cpupool-* Removed Option
Option
Task
(-) -l , --long
Output all CPU pool details in SXP format
xl cpupool-cpu-add CPU_POOL cpu-nr|node:node-nr
xl cpupool-create OPTIONS CONFIG_FILE [Variable=Value ...]
TABLE C.33: XM cpupool-create REMOVED OPTIONS
cpupool-create Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) -f FILE , --defconfig= FILE
Use the given Python configuration script.
The configuration script is loaded after arguments have been processed
(-) -n , --dryrun
316
Dry run - prints the resulting configuration
in SXP but does not create the CPU pool
Changed Options
SLES 12
cpupool-create Removed Options
Options
Task
(-) --help_config
Print the available configuration variables
(-) --path= PATH
Search path for configuration scripts. The
(vars) for the configuration script
value of PATH is a colon-separated directory
list
(-) -F= FILE , --config= FILE
C.3.5.11
CPU pool configuration to use (SXP)
pci and block
xl pci-detach [-f] DOMAIN_ID <BDF>
Note: libvirt equivalence
virsh detach-device
TABLE C.34: XL pci-detach ADDED OPTION
pci-detach Added Option
Option
Task
(+) -f
If -f is specified, xl is going to forcefully
remove the device even without guest's collaboration
TABLE C.35: XM block-list REMOVED OPTION
block-list Removed Option
Option
Task
(-) -l , --long
List virtual block devices for a domain
317
Changed Options
SLES 12
TABLE C.36: OTHER OPTIONS
Option
libvirt equivalence
xl block-attach DOMAIN <disk-spec-
virsh attach-disk/attach-device
component(s)>
xl block-list DOMAIN_ID
C.3.5.12
virsh domblklist
Network
TABLE C.37: NETWORK OPTIONS
Option
libvirt equivalence
xl network-list DOMAIN(s)
virsh domiflist
xl network-detach DOMAIN_ID dev-
virsh detach-interface
id|mac
xl network-attach DOMAIN(s)
virsh attach-interface/attach-device
TABLE C.38: XL network-attach REMOVED OPTION
Removed Option
Option
Task
(-) -l , --long
C.3.6
New Options
TABLE C.39: NEW OPTIONS
Options
Task
config-update DOMAIN CONFIG_FILE OP-
Update the saved configuration for a run-
TIONS VARS
318
ning domain. This has no immediate effect
but will be applied when the guest is next
New Options
SLES 12
Options
Task
restarted. This command is useful to ensure
that runtime modifications made to the guest
will be preserved when the guest is restarted
migrate-receive
sharing DOMAIN
List count of shared pages.List specifically
for that domain. Otherwise, list for all domains
vm-list
Prints information about guests. This list ex-
cludes information about service or auxiliary
domains such as Dom0 and stubdoms
cpupool-rename CPU_POOL NEWNAME
Renames a cpu-pool to newname
cpupool-numa-split
Splits up the machine into one cpu-pool per
cd-insert DOMAIN <VirtualDevice>
Insert a cdrom into a guest domain's exist-
<type:path>
numa node
ing virtial cd drive. The virtual drive must
already exist but can be current empty
cd-eject DOMAIN <VirtualDevice>
Eject a cdrom from a guest's virtual cd drive.
pci-assignable-list
List all the assignable PCI devices. These
Only works with HVM domains
are devices in the system which are config-
ured to be available for pass-through and are
bound to a suitable PCI backend driver in
Dom0 rather than a real driver
pci-assignable-add <BDF>
Make the device at PCI Bus/Device/Function
BDF assignable to guests.This will bind the
device to the pciback driver
319
New Options
SLES 12
Options
Task
pci-assignable-remove OPTIONS
Make the device at PCI Bus/Device/Function
<BDF>
loadpolicy POLICY_FILE
BDF assignable to guests. This will at least
unbind the device from pciback
Load FLASK policy from the given policy file.
The initial policy is provided to the hyper-
visor as a multiboot module; this command
allows runtime updates to the policy. Loading new security policy will reset runtime
changes to device labels
C.4 External links
For more information on Xen toolstacks refer to the following online resources:
XL in Xen
XL in Xen 4.2 (http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/XL_in_Xen_4.2)
xl command
XL (http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/man/xl.1.html)
command line.
xl.cfg
xl.cfg (http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/man/xl.cfg.5.html)
syntax.
domain configuration file
xl disk
configuration
xl disk (http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/misc/xl-disk-configuration.txt)
option.
XL vs Xend
XL vs Xend (http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/XL_vs_Xend_Feature_Comparison)
parison.
feature com-
XM
Xen management (http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/man/xm.1.html)
320
user interface.
External links
SLES 12
XM domain
file
XM domain config (http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/man/xmdomain.cfg.5.html)
format.
Xend config
xend config (http://xenbits.xen.org/docs/unstable/man/xend-config.sxp.5.html)
.
BDF doc
BDF documentation (http://wiki.xen.org/wiki/Bus:Device.Function_%28BDF%29_Notation)
.
libvirt
virsh (http://libvirt.org/virshcmdref.html)
command.
C.5 Saving a Xen Guest Configuration in an xm
Compatible Format
Although xl is now the current toolkit for managing Xen guests (apart from the preferred
libvirt ), you may need to export the guest configuration to the previously used xm format.
To do this, follow these steps:
1. First export the guest configuration to a file:
virsh dumpxml guest_id > guest_cfg.xml
2. Then convert the configuration to the xm format:
virsh domxml-to-native xen-xm guest_cfg.xml > guest_xm_cfg
321
Saving a Xen Guest Configuration in an xm Compatible Format
SLES 12
D Documentation Updates
This chapter lists content changes for this document since the release of SUSE® Linux Enterprise
Server 11 SP3.
This manual was updated on the following dates:
Section D.1, “February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance Update)”
Section D.2, “October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12)”
D.1 February 2015 (Documentation Maintenance
Update)
Bugfixes
FIPS: starting of openvn client on SLES 12 fails... (https://bugzilla.suse.com/
show_bug.cgi?id=911390
).
Misleading Information Related to Supported Virtualization Host (CitrixXen Server)
(https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=912700 ).
qemu-bridge-helper Location (https://bugzilla.suse.com/show_bug.cgi?id=912882 ).
Virtualization Support Statement of OES 11 SP2 (https://bugzilla.suse.com/
show_bug.cgi?id=914727
).
D.2 October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 12)
General
Removed all KDE documentation and references because KDE is no longer shipped.
Removed all references to SuSEconfig, which is no longer supported (Fate#100011).
322
Documentation Updates
SLES 12
Move from System V init to systemd (Fate#310421). Updated affected parts of the
documentation.
YaST Runlevel Editor has changed to Services Manager (Fate#312568). Updated
affected parts of the documentation.
Removed all references to ISDN support, as ISDN support has been removed
(Fate#314594).
Removed all references to the YaST DSL module as it is no longer shipped
(Fate#316264).
Removed all references to the YaST Modem module as it is no longer shipped
(Fate#316264).
Btrfs has become the default file system for the root partition (Fate#315901). Updated affected parts of the documentation.
The dmesg now provides human-readable time stamps in ctime() -like format
(Fate#316056). Updated affected parts of the documentation.
syslog and syslog-ng have been replaced by rsyslog (Fate#316175). Updated affected
parts of the documentation.
MariaDB is now shipped as the relational database instead of MySQL (Fate#313595).
Updated affected parts of the documentation.
SUSE-related products are no longer available from http://download.novell.com
from http://download.suse.com . Adjusted links accordingly.
but
Novell Customer Center has been replaced with SUSE Customer Center. Updated
affected parts of the documentation.
/var/run is mounted as tmpfs (Fate#303793). Updated affected parts of the doc-
umentation.
The following architectures are no longer supported: Itanium and x86. Updated affected parts of the documentation.
The traditional method for setting up the network with ifconfig has been replaced
by wicked . Updated affected parts of the documentation.
A lot of networking commands are deprecated and have been replaced by newer
commands ( ip in most cases). Updated affected parts of the documentation.
323
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12)
SLES 12
arp : ip neighbor
ifconfig : ip addr , ip link
iptunnel : ip tunnel
iwconfig : iw
nameif : ip link , ifrename
netstat : ss , ip route , ip -s link , ip maddr
route : ip route
Numerous small fixes and additions to the documentation, based on technical feedback.
Part I, “Introduction”
Added Chapter 7, Supported Guests, Hosts and Features.
Updated Section 7.1, “Supported VM Guests”.
Updated Section 7.2, “Supported VM Hosts”.
Chapter 8, Overview
Added introductory paragraph on virt-install .
Chapter 9, Guest Installation
Updated Section 9.1, “GUI-Based Guest Installation” to match SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 state.
Added Section 9.2, “Installing from the Command Line with virt-install”.
324
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12)
SLES 12
Chapter 12, Managing Storage
Added Section 12.4, “Online Resizing of Guest Block Devices”.
Chapter 13, Configuring Virtual Machines
Added Section 13.8.4, “Dynamic Allocation of VFs from a Pool”.
Chapter 10, Basic VM Guest Management
Added tip in Section 10.4.2, “Saving / Restoring with virsh”.
Part IV, “Managing Virtual Machines with Xen”
Migrated from Xend/xm toolkit to xl.
Chapter 22, Virtualization: Configuration Options and Settings
Added Section 22.6.3, “Increasing the Number of PCI-IRQs”.
Chapter 27, Guest Installation
Added a tip on nocow option in Section 27.2.2, “Creating, Converting and Checking Disk
Images”.
Chapter 28, Running Virtual Machines with qemu-system-ARCH
Added Section 28.3.1.3, “Bio-Based I/O Path for virtio-blk”.
Added Section 28.4.5, “Scaling Network Performance with Multiqueue virtio-net”.
Added Section 28.3.1.1, “Freeing Unused Guest Disk Space”.
Chapter 30, Administrating Virtual Machines with QEMU Monitor
Added device_add and device_del commands.
Added Section 30.11, “QMP - QEMU Machine Protocol”.
Part VI, “Managing Virtual Machines with LXC”
Added Chapter 32, Migration from LXC to libvirt-lxc.
Bugfixes
325
October 2014 (Initial Release of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12)
SLES 12
E GNU Licenses
This appendix contains the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.2.
GNU Free Documentation License
Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth
Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute
verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0. PREAMBLE
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useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective free-
dom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or
noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a
way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document
must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public
License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because
free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals
providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to
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whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for
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A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or
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326
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produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following
pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the
title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page"
means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the
beginning of the body of the text.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either
is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in
another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such
as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the
Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section
"Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that
this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to
be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties:
any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no
effect on the meaning of this License.
2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or
noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license
notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and
that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not
use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the
copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange
for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the
conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed cov-
ers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice
requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and
legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover
Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words
of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers
in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the
title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying
in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put
the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the
rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than
100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each
Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
GNU Licenses
SLES 12
which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard
N.
network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added ma-
flict in title with any Invariant Section.
terial. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
O.
begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy
will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last
time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well
before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide
you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the condi-
tions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under
precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses
a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
A.
B.
peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up
to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified
Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement
to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission
List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities respon-
State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the
other copyright notices.
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the
public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required
Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an
item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing
the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These
may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location
for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself,
or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the
Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you
include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license
notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical
Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant
Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section
unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or
publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various
original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sec-
tions Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must
delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various
documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you
follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted
document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying
of that document.
Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
in.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text
an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given there-
and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered
part of the section titles.
M.
dorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of
gives permission.
E.
L.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but en-
added the old one.
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
K.
titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version
D.
J.
titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These
you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that
as the publisher.
I.
your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their
were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use
requirement.
H.
as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at
made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but
cipal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this
G.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify
the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there
with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its prin-
F.
Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of
sible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together
C.
Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to con-
Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be in-
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called
legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When
the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other
works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
cluded in the Modified Version.
327
GNU Licenses
SLES 12
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Docu-
ment, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's
Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate,
or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise
they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the
“with...Texts.” line with this:
8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of
the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with trans-
lations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of
these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
LIST.
license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you
also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and
the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "His-
tory", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require
changing the actual title.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the
three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend re-
leasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as
the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.
9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly
provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or
distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in
full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free
Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit
to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/ .
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document
specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" ap-
plies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by
the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU
Free Documentation License”.
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GNU Licenses
SLES 12
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