pdf version - IRIS

pdf version - IRIS
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval,
Reduction & Analysis
Release 1.0
Tiago M. D. Pereira, Scott W. McIntosh, Bart De Pontieu,
Viggo Hansteen, Mats Carlsson, Paul Boerner
February 24, 2015
CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
Introduction
1.1 About this Guide . . . . . . . .
1.2 IRIS instrumentation . . . . . .
1.3 IRIS Data Level Definitions . .
1.4 Sample IRIS data . . . . . . . .
1.5 IRIS IDL routines in SSW . . .
1.6 IRIS Operations . . . . . . . .
1.7 IRIS Documentation and Links
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1
1
1
4
5
7
8
10
Quickstart
2.1 IRIS overview . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Getting the data . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Reading the data in IDL . . . .
2.4 Data calibration . . . . . . . .
2.5 Data analysis and visualisation .
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13
13
13
14
14
15
IRIS Level 2 Data
3.1 What Are IRIS Level 2 FITS Files? . . . . .
3.2 Searching and Downloading . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
3.4 Reading Level 2 Data in IDL . . . . . . . .
3.5 NUV Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 FUV Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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17
17
17
22
32
35
38
IRIS Level 3 Data
4.1 Level 3 Data Structure . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Creating Level 3 Data in IDL . . . . .
4.3 Reading Level 3 Data in IDL . . . . .
4.4 Browsing Level 3 Data with crispex
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39
39
39
42
42
IRIS Level 1 Data
5.1 Searching and Downloading . . . . . . . .
5.2 Reading Level 1 Data in IDL . . . . . . .
5.3 Creating Level 1.5 Data with iris_prep
5.4 Creating Level 2 Data from Level 1.5 Data
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47
47
48
49
50
Calibration of IRIS Observations
6.1 Wavelength Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Radiometric Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Background in FUV data . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Coalignment between channels and SJI/spectra
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53
53
53
53
53
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i
7
8
9
ii
IRIS data notes
7.1 Cosmic rays . . . . . . .
7.2 Particles on slitjaw images
7.3 CCD camera readout noise
7.4 Flagging of saturated data
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57
57
57
57
57
Tutorials
8.1 IRIS xfiles and CRISPEX . . . . .
8.2 Mg II Dopplergrams . . . . . . . .
8.3 Mg II spectral feature identification
8.4 Time series analysis . . . . . . . .
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59
59
62
66
69
Useful codes
9.1 IDL Routines for Level 2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
77
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CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 About this Guide
This guide is written as a “cookbook” to help novice IRIS users through the steps of how to acquire data, reduce it,
and perform some data analysis. It provides an overview of the instrumental capabilities, how the data is organised
and calibrated, and how to read and interact with it.
If you are in a hurry or pressed for time, we suggest you go straight to Quickstart. You can then go through the other
chapters to get more detail of a particular topic.
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the instrument, data products, operations, and where to find technical
documentation. After familiarising themselves with the instrument, we encourage all IRIS new users to start with the
Level 2 chapter.
This guide is evolving and is frequently updated. It is a collaborative effort and is currently maintained by Tiago
Pereira. Much of this guide comes from the tireless work of Scott McIntosh, who steered the guide from the early days
of IRIS when the tools and data calibration were changing quickly. Please email [email protected] (reverse
user/domain) with corrections or questions, and we will respond as soon as possible.
This cookbook is a guide for browsing IRIS data before further analysis - a “quicklook” guide. The codes/tools
discussed for data analysis will be black boxes to the non-expert user, but those codes are simple in structure and we
encourage the user to study them and use them to analyze the IRIS data that they have downloaded. Please keep in
mind that there are always assumptions and simplifications made in applying a priori physics to line spectra analysis,
e.g., is an optically thin emission line profile best represented by a Gaussian?
1.2 IRIS instrumentation
IRIS is the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph small explorer (NASA Small Explorer- SMEX). The IRIS investigation combines advanced numerical modeling with a high resolution, high throughput multi-channel UV imaging
spectrograph fed by a 20 cm UV telescope. The main science goal of IRIS is to understand how the solar atmosphere
is energized. IRIS obtains UV spectra and images in two main passbands around 1400Å and 2800Å at high resolution
in space (0.33-0.4”), time (1s) and spectrally (~26 and ~52 mÅ respectively) that are focused on the chromosphere
and transition region including some coverage in the corona.
The IRIS telescope feeds light from three passbands into the spectrograph box:
• Far Ultraviolet (FUV1): 1331.56–1358.40 Å
• Far Ultraviolet (FUV2): 1390.00–1406.79 Å
• Near Ultraviolet (NUV): 2782.56–2833.89 Å
In the spectrograph, the light follows several paths (see spectrograph schematic), either:
1
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
Figure 1.1: Schematic view of IRIS showing the 20 cm UV telescope, with and without solar panels (for clarity). Light
from the Cassegrain telescope (green) is fed into the spectrograph box (light blue).
2
Chapter 1. Introduction
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
Figure 1.2: Schematic diagram of path taken by light in the FUV spectrograph (dark blue), NUV spectrograph (orange), FUV slit-jaw (light blue) and NUV slit-jaw (purple) path.
• Spectrograph (SG): passing through a slit that is 0.33 arcsec wide and 175 arcsec long, onto a grating that is
sensitive in both FUV and NUV passbands, then onto 3 CCDs to produce spectra in three passbands (FUV1,
FUV2, NUV; Table 1)
• Slit-Jaw Imager (SJI): reflected off the reflective area around the slit (“slit-jaw”), passing through or reflected
off broadband filters on a filterwheel, then onto 1 CCD to produce an image of the scene around the slit (slit-jaw
= SJI) in 6 different filters (2 for calibration, 4 for solar images, Table 2)
Exposure times are controlled by 3 different shutters (FUV, NUV and SJI). Light is collected onto 4 CCDs which are
read out by 2 cameras (see Section 3 for details) and which cover 3 different spectral bands and the slit-jaw images
(Table 1, 2). The IRIS spectral lines cover temperatures from 4,500 K to 10 MK, with the images covering temperatures
from 4,500 K to 65,000 K (and possibly 10 MK under flaring conditions). See IRIS Technical Note 1 for more details
on IRIS. Table 1 Overview of spectrograph (SG) channels. These are imaged onto 3 identical 1096x2072 pixel2
CCDs and can all be simultaneously read using two different camera electronics boards (CEB). Ranges, dispersion
and effective area are current best estimates based on pre-launch measurements. Spatial pixel size is 0.166”, and the
maximum spatial extent is 175”.
Band
FUV 1
FUV 2
NUV
Wavelength (Å)
1331.7–1358.4
1389.0–1407.0
2782.7–2851.1
Dispersion (mÅ/pix)
12.98
12.72
25.46
Effective area (cm2 )
1.6
2.2
0.2
Temperature (log T)
3.7–7.0
3.7–5.2
3.7–4.2
Table 2. Overview of slit-jaw (SJI) channels. Slit-jaw passbands are chosen using a filterwheel. The light is imaged
onto one 2072x1096 pixel CCD with only one passband exposed/read-out at one time. Read-out is done with the same
CEB as NUV SG. Ranges, full width half max (FWHM), and effective areas of the passbands are best estimates based
on pre-launch measurements. SJI passband types are either mirrors (M) or transmission filter (T). Spatial pixel size is
0.166”, and the spatial range is 175”x175”.
1.2. IRIS instrumentation
3
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
SJI Passband
Glass
C II
Si IV
Mg II h/k
Mg II wing
Broad-band
Type
T
M
M
T
T
M
Wavelength (Å)
5000
1330
1400
2796
2832
1600
FWHM (Å)
2000
40
40
4
4
400
Effective area (cm2 )
–
0.5
0.6
0.005
0.004
–
log T
–
3.7–7.0
3.7–5.2
3.7–4.2
3.7–3.8
–
Table 3. IRIS data level descriptions.
Level
TLM
0
Processing
Capture
Depacketized
1
Reorient images to common axes:
• North up (0° roll),
• increasing wavevelength to
right
1.5
1.6
2
3
HCR
• Dark current and offsets removed
• Flag bad pixels and spikes pixels
• Flat-field correction
• Geometric and wavelength calibration
Physical units (exposure and photon
conversion)
Recast as rasters and SJI time series
Recast as 4D cubes for NUV/FUV
spectra
Description of observing sequences
Notes
Raw telemetry
Raw images with housekeeping and
overscans.
Lowest distributed level
Transitory data product for level 2
production. Not distributed, for internal use only.
Not distributed.
Standard science product. Scaled
and stored as 16-bit images
CRISPEX format
Ingested by HCR at LMSAL. To be
searched by VSO, etc.
1.3 IRIS Data Level Definitions
The convention on IRIS Data Levels is shown in the table above and at length in IRIS Technical Note 11. Raw
spacecraft telemetry is converted into Level 0 image files. Level 1 images are reoriented so that wavelength increases
left to right.This constitutes the lowest level of scientifically-useful data, however since it is uncalibrated, Level 2 is
the correct data product for most analyses.
The type of processing for data Levels beyond 1 is dependent on whether the data is from the slit-jaw imager or spectrographs. Darks and pedestal offsets are removed, and flat-fielding corrections for telescope and
CCD properties are applied to generate Level 1.5 data. The data at Level 1.5 has had the geometric and wavelength corrections applied and the images are mapped to a common spatial plate scale. Spectral images are
remapped to align with an equal-sized array where wavelength and spatial coordinates align with the grid. An
array mapping the wavelength axis to physical wavelength is created in this process. As with AIA, equivalent
procedures to those used internally to transform level 1 to level 1.5 are distributed via SolarSoft as iris_prep.pro
[http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/solarsoft/iris/idl/lmsal/calibration/iris_prep.pro]. The application of iris_prep is
discussed here.
Levels 2 and 3 are generated from Level 1 or Level 1.5 data and are reorganized so that they can be analyzed using tools
4
Chapter 1. Introduction
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
adapted from Hinode/EIS and SST/CRISP. Level 2 data consists of sets of 3D image extensions of each wavelength
band stored as (x,y,𝜆) assembled from rasters of NUV and FUV Level 1.5 data. Level 3 data exist only for spectral
rasters, and are 4D datacubes stored as (x,y,𝜆,t) We will describe some of those tools below.
Note: Level 1 vs. level 2 data: This guide is written with the general solar physics community in mind. In
the following sections we will discuss IRIS data retrieval and analysis. The spectral data of IRIS is distinct from
many contemporary observatories like SDO. IRIS Level 2 data for is the equivalent to Level 1 data products of those
other observatories. The Level 2 data are fully reduced, calibrated, etc. and packaged such that they are “shovel
ready” for further analysis. On the other hand IRIS Level 1 data MUST be passed through the calibration routines
iris_prep.pro by the expert user to reach only level 1.5. The transition from level 1.5 to level 2 is a a non-trivial
exercise in packaging the data and while the code is available, it is currently not being supported for general use.
Therefore, we strongly recommend that the non-expert or casual IRIS user use the Level 2 data products.
1.4 Sample IRIS data
1.4.1 Sample Spectra and the NUV/FUV Lines
These sample spectra taken by IRIS show the number of counts per pixel per second in a 15 second exposure in
several solar regions (plage, sunspot, and network). You can see the strong lines in each spectral range and their
relative strength in regions with different degrees of activity. Using the very narrow photospheric lines in each channel
we estimated that the spectral resolution (2 x the Nyquist sampling of the spectrograph) of the FUV spectra is 25mÅ
and 60mÅ for the NUV. Indeed, those narrow photospheric lines, because they typically display very small intrinsic
velocities and broadening (~1km/s in each), are used for wavelength calibration and the geometric correction steps in
the spectrographic data. IRIS Technical Note 20 and IRIS Technical Note 19 cover these processes in detail.
Figure 1.3: Quiet Sun “FUV” Sample Spectra
1.4.2 Sample Slit-jaw Images
These sample images taken by IRIS on August 20, 2013 show four of the wavelengths available with the SJI filter
selection. Clockwise from the top left is the continuum image in the far red wing of the Mg II k line (“SJI_2832”) and
1.4. Sample IRIS data
5
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
Figure 1.4: Quiet Sun “NUV” Sample Spectra
it provides high-contrast photospheric imaging, the Mg II k line (“SJI_2796”) which images the upper chromosphere,
the S IV transition region filter (“SJI_1400”), and C II transition region filter (“SJI_1330”). On each of the images note
the position of the IRIS SG slit (the dark vertical line) this helps us know that, at that particular time, where the SG slit
was placed on the Sun. A preliminary study of the IRIS SJI point spread function (PSF) in the transition region filters
indicates that IRIS records the highest resolution images ever taken in the transition region. The SJI images should
be flat-fielded to remove small residual CCD artifacts and in the future it will also become possible to deconvolve the
point spread function to make the images sharper still (see IRIS Technical Note 29 for further details).
6
Chapter 1. Introduction
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
1.5 IRIS IDL routines in SSW
The bulk of the data calibration and analysis routines is written in IDL. Therefore, we recommend that users have a
solar soft IDL installation (SSW; http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/) to follow this guide. The IRIS branch of the IDL
solar soft tree is supported by the mission science team and contains most of the tools you need to handle the data
from the instrument FITS files through to manipulating the reduced spectra.
If you have IDL SSW already installed then type the following command upon entering your SSW session to obtain
the IRIS package:
IDL> ssw_upgrade, /spawn, /passive, /verb, /iris [, /gen]
Then, to load the IRIS routines into your path you’ll need to modify the SSW_INSTR environment variable to include
1.5. IRIS IDL routines in SSW
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A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
them, on UNIX/Mac systems this can usually be found in your .cshrc or .login file:
setenv SSW_INSTR ’iris hessi xrt aia eit mdi secchi sot eis’
On a windows OS this can be modified in your IDL-DE settings/preferences pane.
1.6 IRIS Operations
The observations of IRIS are planned typically one day (weekdays) or a few days (weekends/holidays) before. In
coordination with the science team, a planner decides on the targets and observing sequences; the resulting work is
called a timeline, a list of commands and observing sequences that are run onboard the observatory.
The timeline allows you to see a brief description of each observation along with its “OBS ID” or observing program,
the time over which it ran, how many repeats of the sequence were taken, etc. Further information about interpreting
the timeline can be found in IRIS Technical Note 3, the manual for the Timeline Tool. The archive of IRIS timelines
can be found online here:
http://iris.lmsal.com/health-safety/timeline/
The timelines are available in 3 formats:
TIM, SCI, and GIF. If you choose to download the TIM/SCI file for August 20 2013 and wish to read it, then you can go to the
folder
http://iris.lmsal.com/health-safety/timeline/iris_tim_archive/2013/08/20/,
download
the
timeline file IRIS_science_timeline_20130820.V00.txt and use the IRIS/SSW routine
iris_timeline2struct:
IDL> tl = iris_timeline2struct(’IRIS_science_timeline_20130820.V00.txt’)
The output of this routine is an array of structures. Each element of the array is a structure describing a single IRIS
observing sequence that was run in that time interval:
IDL> help, tl
TL
STRUCT
= -> <Anonymous> Array[23]
IDL> help, tl[5], /str
** Structure <381a378>, 7 tags, length=64, data length=62, refs=2:
DATE_OBS
STRING
’2013-08-20T04:10:21.000’
DATE_END
STRING
’2013-08-20T04:11:21.000’
OBSID
ULONG
3800
REPEATS
INT
10
DURATION
FLOAT
6.00000
SIZE
FLOAT
9.00000
DESCRIPTION
STRING
’4 limb coalignment sequence’
The GIF version of the timeline (below) shows graphically how the instrument activities are laid out during the day,
the telemetry load, station passes, orbital anomalies (South Atlantic Anomaly – SSA, eclipses, etc). This document
provides a detailed legend for the timeline gifs. The timeline GIF for August 20, 2013 is shown below where we can
see the characteristics of our sample observation.
Alternately, if you want to query the timeline from your IRIS/SSW command line you can use iris_time2timeline, for
example:
IDL> t0 = ’2013-08-20 00:00:00’ & t1 = ’2013-08-21 00:00:00’
IDL> tl = iris_time2timeline(t0,t1)
IDL> print, n_elements(tl)
24
IDL> info = get_infox(tl,tag_names(tl),/more)
; Gives a complete report of the observations with the header given by the
; tags of the timeline structure.
IDL> help, tl[8]
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Chapter 1. Introduction
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
Figure 1.5: Sample IRIS timeline for August 20, 2013
1.6. IRIS Operations
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A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
** Structure <3954f18>, 7 tags, length=64, data length=62, refs=2:
DATE_OBS
STRING ’2013-08-20T10:59:49.000’
DATE_END
STRING ’2013-08-20T11:33:12.000’
OBSID
ULONG
4180256145
REPEATS
INT
1
DURATION
FLOAT
2003.70
SIZE
FLOAT
13679.0
DESCRIPTION STRING ’Very large dense raster 132"x175" 400s C II Si IV Mg II h/k Mg II w s....’
Further, the SSW command struct_where will allow you to search for strings in the description tag which can be
useful for finding particular observations:
IDL> ss=struct_where(tl,search=[’DESCRIPTION=*coarse*’], program_count)
IDL> help, program_count
PROGRAM_COUNT
LONG
=
5
IDL> print, tl[ss[0]].description
Large coarse raster 126"x120" 64s C II Si IV Mg II h/k Mg II w s Deep x 15 SJI cadence 0.5x
If you are interested in a particular IRIS sequence run over an extended period you can search the timeline structures
by OBSID, e.g., If we want to identify the number of times the IRIS throughput test sequence (OBSID = 4182010156)
was run in August of 2013 then:
IDL> t0 = ’2013-08-01 00:00:00’ & t1 = ’2013-08-30 00:00:00’
IDL> tl = iris_time2timeline(t0,t1)
IDL> through = where(tl.obsid eq 4182010156, count)
IDL> help, count
COUNT
LONG
=
27
1.7 IRIS Documentation and Links
For an in-depth view of the many aspects of the mission, a repository of technical notes built by the science and
engineering teams is made available at http://iris.lmsal.com/documents.html. These technical notes (of which the
current guide is a part) encompass the areas of Operations, Data Flow, Calibration, Data Analysis, and Numerical
Modelling. A list of the different notes can be found below.
Operations/Planning
ITN 1
ITN 2
ITN 3
ITN 4
ITN 5
ITN 6
ITN 7
ITN 8
ITN 9
Data Flow
ITN 10
ITN 11
ITN 12
ITN 13
Calibration
ITN 14
ITN 15
IRIS Operations Overview
Manual for Table Creator
Manual for Timeline Tool
Manual for Synthetic Observations Tool
Operations Under Roll Conditions
AEC Operations
Compression Approach
Checklist for IRIS planner
Periodic Calibration Activities
General Approach to Data Flow and Archiving
Definition of Data Levels
Definition of Keywords
VSO and IRIS
Dark Current/Offset
Despiking
Continued on next page
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A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
Table 1.1 – continued from previous page
ITN 16
Flat-field
ITN 19
Geometric Calibration
ITN 20
Wavelength Calibration
ITN 21
Recasting into Level 2/3 Data
ITN 22
Co-alignment, Plate Scale Analysis
ITN 23
MTF/PSF Determination
ITN 24
Stellar Calibration
ITN 25
Gain Determination
Data Analysis
ITN 26
User Guide To Data Analysis (this document)
ITN 27
Quicklook Tools Manual
ITN 28
IRIS IDL Data Structure
ITN 29
Deconvolution Approach
ITN 30
60 Day Observing Plan
ITN 31
IRIS science planning: tables, linelists, targets
Numerical Modelling
ITN 33
General Overview of Numerical Simulations
ITN 34
Numerical Simulations Quicklook Tools
ITN 35
Numerical Simulations Synthetic Observables
ITN 36
RH 1.5 D Manual
ITN 37
How to Derive Physical Information from Mg II h/k
In addition to the documentation, below are a few more useful links related to IRIS.
IRIS Health & Safety Webpage
IRIS Timelines
IRIS Technical Note Repository
IRIS Recent Observations
UiO IRIS/Hinode Scientific Data
Center
SUMER UV Spectral Atlas
SDO Context Information
Hinode Operations
Hinode Quicklook Movies
Hinode/SOT Operations
Hinode/XRT Operations
1.7. IRIS Documentation and Links
http://iris.lmsal.com/health-safety
http://iris.lmsal.com/health-safety/timeline/
http://iris.lmsal.com/documents.html
http://www.lmsal.com/hek/hcr?cmd=view-recentevents&instrument=iris
http://sdc.uio.no/sdc/
http://www.mps.mpg.de/projects/soho/sumer/FILE/Atlas.html
http://sdowww.lmsal.com/
http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/home/solar/hinode_op/
http://solar-b.nao.ac.jp/QLmovies/
http://sot.lmsal.com/Operations.html
http://xrt.cfa.harvard.edu/index.php
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12
Chapter 1. Introduction
CHAPTER
TWO
QUICKSTART
Who has time to read lengthy manuals these days? This chapter provides a condensed quick guide to let you jump
straight into action using IDL. Be sure to visit the rest of this guide for a more in-depth view of the IRIS data analysis.
This chapter assumes the user has a SSW IDL installation with a recent IRIS package. This can be installed by:
IDL> ssw_upgrade, /spawn, /passive, /verb, /iris [, /gen]
And making sure iris is added in SSW_INSTR:
setenv SSW_INSTR ’iris hessi xrt aia eit mdi secchi sot eis’
2.1 IRIS overview
IRIS is a UV slit-spectrograph that also takes slit-jaw images. It obtains spectra in two FUV bands (1331.56–1358.40
Å, 1390.00–1406.79 Å) and one NUV band (2782.56–2833.89 Å), all exposed simultaneously. In addition, slit-jaw
images in the bands of 1330, 1400, 2796, and 2832 Å can also be taken (only one exposure a time). The spatial
resolution is 0.33” in the FUV and 0.4” in the NUV. The spectral resolution is 26 mÅ in the FUV and 56 mÅ in the
NUV. The slit is 0.33” wide and 175” long. The observatory can operate on a fixed target mode (“sit-and-stare”) or by
scanning a region by moving the spacecraft (“rasters”) with various numbers of steps possible (2-400) and different
step increments (0.3”, 1”, 2”). There are about 50 basic observing modes, which are encoded in a unique identifier
called OBSID.
2.2 Getting the data
IRIS data are available in different degrees of calibration. Level 2 represents fully calibrated data and is the recommended data product. The IRIS data search webpage provides a powerful search engine and can be used to download
the data and browse quicklook movies and plots. One can also search for and download data inside SSW IDL:
IDL> t0 = ’18:50:00 10-nov-2014’
IDL> t1 = ’19:00:00 10-nov-2014’
IDL> files = iris_time2files(t0, t1, level=2, drms, /urls)
This list of files can then be downloaded to the current directory with:
IDL> sock_copy, files, dir=’./’
Level 2 data have two types of files: slit-jaw images (“SJI” in filename) or spectral rasters (“raster” in filename). Each
SJI file contains all the frames for a given filter for the total duration of an observation. Each raster file contains all the
spectra for a given sequence; when an observation consists of multiple raster sequences there is one file per raster. In
the special case of sit-and-stare observations, only one raster file exists.
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2.3 Reading the data in IDL
The most convenient way to load the data in IDL is to use the object interface:
IDL> d = iris_load(myfile)
IDL> header = d->gethdr(/struct)
IDL> print, header.DATE_OBS
2014-02-19T18:07:46.930
IDL> data = d->getvar()
; for a slit-jaw image
Most observations do not expose the full detector. Instead, spectral windows around the lines of interest are used, and
those windows are saved in the raster files. When loading spectral data one must select which window to load, and
there are helper functions for that:
IDL> d = iris_load(my_spec_file)
IDL> d->show_lines
Spectral regions(windows)
0
1335.71
C II 1336
1
1355.60
O I 1356
2
1393.78
Si IV 1394
3
1402.77
Si IV 1403
4
2832.79
2832
5
2814.51
2814
6
2796.20
Mg II k 2796
Loaded Slit Jaw images
0
SJI_1330
1
SJI_1400
3
SJI_2832
IDL> data = d->getvar(6, /load)
; Gets Mg II window
IDL> help, data
DATA
FLOAT
= Array[751, 766, 360]
Other quantities such as the wavelength scale and observation times can also be obtained:
IDL> wavelength = d->getlam(6)
IDL> times = d->ti2utc()
IDL> print, times[0]
2014-02-19T18:07:47
2.4 Data calibration
The level 2 data are dark subtracted, flat fielded, corrected for geometrical distortion (spectra) and wavelength calibrated.
There is no absolute wavelength calibration. Instead, the positions of known spectral lines are measured to calibrate
for wavelength. As of May 2014 the wavelength calibration corrects for the orbital velocity and the thermal drifts of
the spectrograph. However, in some cases it may be necessary to apply further corrections. The O I 1355.5977 Å line
is the recommended reference for the FUV, and the Ni I 2799.474 Å for the NUV. More details in ITN 20.
The level 2 data are spatially coaligned both within channels and between slit-jaws and spectra. This procedure
is automatic and should be checked by verifying the position of fiducial marks (they show up as as dark bands on
spectrograms and as bright spots on the slit in slit-jaw images). To coalign IRIS data with SDO we suggest crosscorrelating the IRIS 1400 SJI with AIA 1700, and the IRIS 2832 with the HMI continuum. More details in ITN
22.
Radiometric calibration.
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2.5 Data analysis and visualisation
Several graphical tools are available for quick look and detailed analysis. iris_xfiles is a tool to search for, quickly
visualise and calculate several quantities of level 2 data. CRISPEX is a powerful tool for visualising multi-dimensional
spectral data (up to 4D: x, y, wavelength, time), and it has been adapted to work with IRIS level 3 files.
IRIS level 3 files are a reorganisation of level 2 raster files. Multiple rasters are combined in a single file (plus a
transposed version). They are not distributed, but can be produced by the user, e.g.:
IDL> f = iris_files(’./*raster*.fits’)
; get all raster files
IDL> windows = [0, 6]
; which wavelength windows to include
IDL> iris_make_fits_level3, f, windows, /sp, wdir=’my_output_dir’
2.5. Data analysis and visualisation
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16
Chapter 2. Quickstart
CHAPTER
THREE
IRIS LEVEL 2 DATA
IRIS Level 2 data can be retrieved from the mission web page [http://iris.lmsal.com/search] or through the European
Hinode/IRIS Science Data Center [http://sdc.uio.no]. The IRIS Level 2 files are designed to allow the user to easily
read and access the data and keywords contained in IRIS Level 2 FITS files.
The IRIS Level 2 data files have been designed to allow easy access to the data using the IRIS QL software, e.g., the
widgets called iris_xfiles and CRISPEX.
3.1 What Are IRIS Level 2 FITS Files?
IRIS Level 2 data are the combination of individual frames for the duration of a given observing sequence (defined by
an OBSID number). For a given sequence, there are two kinds of FITS files, grouped by observable:
1. SJI FITS - files of the 1330, 1400, 2796, or 2832 slit-jaw filters
2. Spectrograph FITS - FITS files containing the FUV1/2 and NUV spectrograph images
In each case the FITS files have binary tables corresponding to each frame and/or raster step. Therefore, the IRIS
Level 2 data are arranged as:
• SJI = FITS [Spatial X, Spatial Y, Time]
• SG = FITS [[NUV, FUV1, FUV2](𝜆), Spatial Y, Spatial X OR Time]
The typical mode is a raster, where IRIS has been commanded to scan across a solar region, the third dimension is a
spatial one (depending on the roll angle of the spacecraft). Naturally, because the spectrograph takes time to compose
a raster image the third dimension also reflects some temporal evolution.
For IRIS “sit-n-stare” observations (where IRIS slit is pointed at one solar location taking continuous data) the third
dimension contains each exposure arranged by time in the FITS file.
For repeated IRIS rasters of the same region (observations that have the same OBSID) the spectrograph FITS files of
each raster in the sequence form an ordered series. These repeated raster Level 2 FITS files are amenable to analysis
by CRISPEX, the IRIS Level 3 data manipulation tool (see below).
3.2 Searching and Downloading
3.2.1 Using the IRIS Data Search Webpage
The IRIS data search webpage (http://iris.lmsal.com/search) is designed to quickly guide researchers to IRIS datasets
appropriate for their research. It consists of five graphical elements and three steps to the data:
1. IRIS Banner
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2. Selection widgets
3. Graphical display of search results on a solar image
4. Tabular display of search results
5. Dataset browser/inspector with links to download the data sets
The IRIS data search tool is optimized for use on landscaped displays of at least 1280x768 pixels. The banner and the
solar image can be hidden (displayed) by clicking on the red (green) buttons in their upper left corners to accommodate
smaller screens. The tool has been tested with recent versions Firefox, Safari and Chrome browsers. If you have
difficulty with the tool, you might first try one of these.
Figure 3.1: IRIS search sample screenshot
Selection widgets: There are six widgets available for customized, dynamic, data searches. At the most basic this
search consists of specifying the start and end of a time range of interest. When first loaded these default to select
the a week surrounding the current date. The start and end times can be moved forward and back a day or a week
by using the single and double arrow buttons. Specific dates can be entered directly into the text boxes or by using
the calendars that popup when one clicks on them. The total count of datasets available within the time range appears
at the bottom left of this selection area. By default, only datasets that are completely processed are displayed. If you
wish to include ones that are still processing, uncheck the only Obs with data box below count (not shown in figure).
The remaining widgets are used to filter the selections within the specified time range. The count of available data
sets updates dynamically to reflect the effects of your selections.
Raster: Limit results to datasets with rasters within a (min, max) range of: fields of view in arcseconds; number
of repeats (count); and of the cadence in seconds and with raster steps within a range of number (count); size in
arcseconds and cadence in seconds.
Slit Jaw Imager (SJI): Limit results to datasets with slitijaw images within a range of fields of view and cadences for
each wavelength band.
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Figure 3.2: IRIS search selection widgets
3.2. Searching and Downloading
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Exposure time: Limit results to datasets within a range of minimum exposure and mean exposure times based on all
images within the dataset.
Target: Limit results to a range of target positions relative to disk center in arcseconds either as an bounding box
(xcen, ycen) or an annulus between radii. Limit sets to specific IRIS Observation IDs or target. The colors of these
last two change to indicate the presence (green) or absence (red) of matching datasets based upon other selections.
When all selections are made, clicking the search button refreshes the results in the display area. Note that the
display does not update while you are constructing a search. A range of background SDO/AIA images of the sun
corresponding to the start time of query can be selected for the display. All filters (other than dates) and displays are
cleared by clicking the reset button.
Figure 3.3: IRIS search display widget
Display Widget: The results of a search are displayed on a co-temporal AIA image that is selectable from the search
widget. The default setting displays the bounding boxes for the slit jaw (raster) image as green (red) rectangles on
an 193 Å AIA image. Unchecking the boxes button in the search widget displays IRIS logos instead of bounding
boxes. A sortable list of IRIS observations on the right presents details of the dataset including the time interval, short
descriptions, pointing, fields of view, cadences and observation IDs. Clicking on an entry in either widget, highlights
the selection in the table (and in the image when logos are displayed) along with a detailed description in the inspection
widget.
Figure 3.4: IRIS search inspection widget
Inspection Widget: The inspection widget shows more details of the dataset, including a thumbnail slitjaw image,
pointing information and links to and sizes of the data products (when they become available). Clicking on the image
or title will bring up a separate details page with summary movies, paths to the data and links to the AIA cutout service.
Clicking on the data links will immediately download the corresponding gzipped dataset.
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Chapter 3. IRIS Level 2 Data
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3.2.2 Using SSW IDL
IRIS Level 2 data can be accessed via the SSW command line using a simple extension of the IDL/SSW timeline
queries used above. So, our earlier example:
IDL> t0 = ’2013-08-20 00:00:00’ & t1 = ’2013-08-21 00:00:00’
IDL> tl = iris_time2timeline(t0,t1)
IDL> info = get_infox(tl, tag_names(tl), /more)
returns the details of all IRIS observations taken on August 20, 2013. If we want to browse those sequences with
OBSID = 4182010156 then we can use the following command to return the internet folders where the IRIS Level 2
data reside for each relevant sequence:
IDL> l2_folder = iris_ssw_l2_query(t0, t1, obsid = 4182010156)
IDL> print, l2_folder
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/irisa/data/level2_prelim03/2013/08/20/20130820_150507_4182010156/
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/irisa/data/level2_prelim03/2013/08/20/20130820_185222_4182010156/
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/irisa/data/level2_prelim03/2013/08/20/20130820_194022_4182010156/
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/irisa/data/level2_prelim03/2013/08/20/20130820_201022_4182010156/
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/irisa/data/level2_prelim03/2013/08/20/20130820_211522_4182010156/
The www subfolder in each example contains a collection of browsable movies of the slit-jaw and spectrograph image
sequences taken during the observation like that shown below. These movies can be used to view the data before
downloading the (large) Level 2 FITS files.
Figure 3.5: Browsable movies from data webpage.
Extending this example to a more specific case let’s pick the first of these OBSID = 4182010156 observations and
recover the URLs for the IRIS Level 2 FITS files from the command line:
IDL> tmp = where(tl.obsid eq 4182010156)
IDL> tl = tl[tmp[0]]
IDL> l2_fits = iris_ssw_l2_query(tl.DATE_OBS, t1.DATE_END, /fits)
IDL> help, l2_fits
L2_FITS
STRING
= Array[5]
IDL> print, l2_fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/(...)/iris_l2_20130820_150507_4182010156_SJI_1330_t000.fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/(...)/iris_l2_20130820_150507_4182010156_SJI_1400_t000.fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/(...)/iris_l2_20130820_150507_4182010156_SJI_2796_t000.fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/(...)/iris_l2_20130820_150507_4182010156_SJI_2832_t000.fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/(...)/iris_l2_20130820_150507_4182010156_raster_t000_r00000.fits
Naturally these files could have been viewed by opening the web folder found earlier. These L2 FITS files can be
downloaded to your local folder using a web browser or by using the SSW command:
3.2. Searching and Downloading
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IDL> sock_copy, l2_fits, dir=’./’
Once the files are finished downloading you are ready for the next step - read them or use our tools to dig a little
deeper.
3.3 Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
One way to browse and manipulate Level 2 IRIS data is to use the widget routine iris_xfiles. This routine is run
from the IDL command line as follows:
IDL> iris_xfiles
The iris_xfiles interface appears as below. The search directory window will let you browse your IRIS data
directory tree. But in this case it is better to remove the file search filter so that you can see where you are navigating.
When navigating double click on a directory name in order to enter the directory.
If the user is downloading Level 2 FITS files on a locally mounted drive (like the example we show here) then the user
should edit the “search pattern” tab (below) to the folder in which the IRIS Level 2 FITS files are contained. Click on
the edit button to change the configuration.
Level 2 FITS files of two types can be picked from the file picker: iris_l2*SJI*.fits &
iris_l2*_raster_*.fits which, as we have discussed above, contain the slit jaw images in a given filter
taken during an observing sequence, or the spectral images of an observing sequence, respectively.
Selecting one of the slit-jaw raster FITS files - by clicking on Confirm Selection, or just double-clicking the file
- will bring up the widget called iris_ximovie. iris_ximovie (which can also be used individually on FITS
data loaded at the command line) allows the user to view the slit jaw sequence as a movie. It contains a number of
options for playback speed, change of magnification, zooming, blinking, and the generation of postscript, jpeg or gif
output as well as MPEG movies through the “file/save_as menu”.
iris_xfiles can multi-task so you can have multiple analysis/movie/widget windows open simultaneously while
you study your data. So, selecting the raster FITS file you will see the following X11 window pop up, the
iris_xcontrol widget. In this case the requested raster is read, as are the available slit jaw images that were
taken during this particular raster.
iris_xcontrol (above) is the main control widget for the IRIS L2 quicklook software. It launches an array of
other QL widget programs.
An overview of the raster is given in the middle top window that includes the OBSID, the number of raster positions,
the number of spectral (line) windows, their wavelength and pixel ranges on the IRIS CCDs as well as their name - the
names are usually associated with the principal spectral line in the window.
Many of the other quicklook widgets driven by iris_xcontrol require a line list given by this selectable list. The
“Generate Level 3 files” button of iris_xcontrol will generate a set of Level 3 files for analysis like CRISPEX.
The left of the iris_xcontrol widget is an SDO/AIA 171Å image of the Sun taken closest in time to the start of
the observation. The location of the IRIS scan or sit-and-stare observation on the Sun is shown as a box or a vertical
line respectively. The image, if found, should be current in the sense that it is taken on the same day as the raster. Right
clicking on the solar image will toggle between various AIA images. Left clicking will bring up a widget containing
a magnified copy of the image including the raster pointing.
The lower middle window of iris_xcontrol show the layouts of the spectral windows (or regions) on the NUV
(top) and FUV (bottom) CCDs. The lower window shows the combined FUV1 and FUV2 CCDs (see the introduction
for further information). Clicking on these windows will start the “Detector” quicklook widget (below) which shows
the layout of the spectral windows on the CCDs with options to cycle through the exposures of the raster, plot/print
pixel values, change the color table, etc. This widget can also be started by clicking on the “Detector” button. The
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Figure 3.6: IRIS_xfiles main interface.
3.3. Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
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Figure 3.7: IRIS_xfiles file picker.
Figure 3.8: iris_ximovie widget.
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Figure 3.9: iris_xcontrol main interface.
3.3. Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
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Figure 3.10: iris_xdetector widget.
“Create Animation” button often provides a very interesting movie of the spectral evolution during the observation particularly for sit-n-stare observations.
The right column of iris_xcontrol shows up to four slit jaw images taken during the raster. Clicking on any of
these will bring up a widget (iris_sji_image; see below) containing a magnified image of the slit jaw, sliders
to cycle through the slit jaws taken during the raster, and the option to plot the location of the raster exposures taken
(compare with iris_ximovie). An instance of ximovie can be started for the SJI sequence by clicking on the
button.
Below the “Detector” button on iris_xcontrol - in the center of left column - are the buttons for starting the
“Browser”, the “Spectroheliogram”, “Whisker” and “Intensity Map” widgets.
Browser: The “Browser” is similar to the Hinode/EIS quicklook browser tool (above), and has recently been modified
for IRIS. We note that the browser routine (iris_raster_browser) can run independently of iris_xfiles by calling:
IDL> iris_raster_browser, l2f
; where l2f can be an IRIS data object or a Level 2 FITS file
Spectroheliogram: Selecting one or more line windows in the upper left panel of iris_xcontrol and clicking the
“Spectroheliogram” button will bring up a widget that contains images of the spectral windows taken during the raster
(see below). The spectral movie strips are arranged vertically according to line window and horizontally according to
exposure number. Options in the spectroheliogram widget include setting the spectra on pixel or Å wavelength scales
and/or pixel or arcsec.
Whisker: Select one (or more) spectral windows in order to view the windows arranged according to raster position
(or exposure number) at a given slit position. This is a widget that presumably is best used for “sit and stare” type
observations where one can follow the time evolution of a given location on the sun in a specific spectral line.
Intensity: The new “Intensity Map” function of iris_xfiles is very powerful and will integrate the selected
spectral windows over a given range of wavelengths and display the result as an image (see below). This is an
excellent tool for examining the wing behavior, or the properties of the complex Mg II h &k (below and left) lines or
the C II 1330Å lines.
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Figure 3.11: iris_sji_image widget.
3.3. Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
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Figure 3.12: iris_xfiles browser.
Figure 3.13: iris_xfiles spectroheliogram.
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Figure 3.14: iris_xfiles intensity map.
3.3. Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
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By default “Intensity” will integrate over the entire spectral window chosen. However, by clicking on the “Define
Line” button parts of the spectral line (or the continuum) can be chosen for integration and presentation in the image
window. When “Define Line” is pressed a small widget is brought up (see below) where one can define properties
such as the “line start” and “line stop” locations. The integration of the line intensity is done between these locations.
Further, when the “Continuum Start” and “Continuum Stop” sliders are used “Intensity” will compute an average
intensity of the continuum that is then subtracted from the line intensity integral. The example shown above (for the
Mg II h line) shows an image of the integrated core reversal wing minus a small continuum patch in the red wing.
Figure 3.15: Define line dialong for intensity map or profile moments.
As with the other tools there are options to zoom in on the images, plot pixel values, change color tables and gamma
factors in the images, vary between pixel and arcsec spatial scales, etc.
The “Line Fit” gadget: The Line Fit gadget on the iris_xcontrol interface can perform rudimentary spectral
analysis of the optically thin FUV lines. It can also be used to inspect the optically thick Mg II and C II lines, but
the analysis required for these lines is significantly more complex than this tool permits (see chapter on IRIS Level 3
Data).
The “Profile moments” pull down menu will do simple calculations of line moments (see below), either directly or via
Gaussian fits to the selected lines. The results of these calculations will be displayed with the Intensity map tool, now
with the possibility of choosing whether to view intensities, velocities, widths, or continuum intensities.
Running with “moments” is relatively straightforward. This will compute the zeroth (intensity), first (doppler velocity),
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Figure 3.16: Profile moments dialog.
3.3. Browsing Level 2 Data with iris_xfiles
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and second (line width) moments of the intensity profile. First, the “define line” window will pop up, once for each
line checked off in the “select line” pane. Thereafter, the “intensity map” tool will pop up with some extra options
for displaying the intensity, velocity, or line width of the various lines chosen. The image can be resized, with or
without the aspect ratio being retained. The height of this image is the same as that produced by the slit jaw viewer
(“xsji_image”) so the images should be directly comparable.
3.4 Reading Level 2 Data in IDL
3.4.1 Using The IRIS Level 2 Data Object
If you wish to look a little deeper and have grabbed some Level 2 IRIS FITS files lets read a set. The IRIS level 2
software is designed to allow the user to easily read and access the data and keywords contained in IRIS level 2 fits
files. It is also designed to be used by the IRIS QL software, i.e. those widgets called by iris_xfiles. The software
is built up of several objects; iris_data, iris_aux, iris_sji, iris_cal, iris_moment, etc, the most important of which is
by far the iris_data object. The casual user does not have to worry too much about this, at least not initially. Let us
instead look at some simple examples that show how to read the fits file header, load an IRIS raster window (region)
into memory, as well as locate important auxiliary information.
To construct an iris_data object one first need to find a set of iris files. Go to a directory that contains such, or
make a text variable “path” that contains the path to iris files. The function iris_files has been constructed to aid in
that:
IDL> f = iris_files(path=path)
returns the list of fits files in the directory path (default ’./’) and prints this list on the screen. Then, assuming that
f[X] is a level 2 iris raster file:
IDL> d = iris_load(f[X])
This populates the data object with the fits header, auxiliary information, and (pointers to) the data itself. To retrieve
the fits header type:
IDL> hdr = d->gethdr(iext, struct=struct)
The function gethdr takes a parameter iext (default 0) which gives the extension to be displayed (remember that
the level 2 fits files have a main header “0” and one header for each line window or region). There is one keyword,
/struct which when set, return the header as a IDL structure instead of a string array. Or if one wants to look at a
specific keyword tag:
IDL> print, d->getinfo(’tag’)
will produce it. In addition to tag this function takes another parameter iext (default 0) and a keyword sji such
that /sji will return the value of the keyword tag in slit jaw header iext.
A very useful procedure at this point is:
IDL> d->show_lines
Spectral regions(windows)
0
1335.71
C II 1336
1
1349.43
Fe XII 1349
2
1351.17
1351
3
1355.60
O I 1356
4
1393.78
Si IV 1394
5
1402.77
Si IV 1403
6
2786.52
2786
7
2796.20
Mg II k 2796
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8
2831.33
2831
Loaded Slit Jaw images
0
SJI_1330
1
SJI_1400
2
SJI_2796
which gives an overview of the line(s) and SJI windows loaded into the object. This function only works on raster
FITS files, not SJI FITS files.
To actually look at the data, use:
IDL> win = d->getvar(iwin, load=load)
to get data for window number iwin. The win variable now contains a three dimensional array win[lambda,
ypos, xpos and/or exposure nr]. The data is by default returned as a pointer to a location in the fits file
and that access to the data therefore is through the IDL assoc mechanism. That is:
IDL> dum = win[*,*,12]
or:
IDL> dum = (d->getvar(iwin))[*,*,12]
will contain the 12th exposure (raster position) of window iwin.
If one requires the entire window to be read into memory instead of looking at one exposure at a time, a /load option
should be passed to getvar:
IDL> win = d->getvar(iwin, /load)
Note that the /load option will also descale the data (using the descale_array method). At this point you may
decide that you have had enough of objects. “Just give me the data”:
IDL> s = d->getdata()
Will return a structure that contains the “entire” object, along with various auxilary information. Note that IRIS level
2 files can be quite large, so do not use this method uncritically. Note that reading in data to the structure may take
some time (for reasons that are a bit obscure to this author).
For those sticking with objects, the wavelength lambda for window iwin is given by:
IDL> lambda = d->getlam(iwin)
where iwin can be either the window number or the approximate wavelength of the window (the software will find
the window if the wavelength given lies inside the wavelength range of the spectral window).
The slit position (y) is given by:
IDL> y = d->getypos()
The method getypos takes an iwin argument, but all windows share the same y-scale so it is not necessary to
specify it. The raster (x) and/or time (t) coordinate are found via:
IDL> x = d->getxpos(iwin=iwin)
IDL> t = d->gettime()
The time returned is relative to STARTOBS, note that you can also get the absolute time via:
IDL> tai=d->ti2tai()
IDL> tutc=d->ti2utc()
; Atomic time in seconds
; UT
3.4. Reading Level 2 Data in IDL
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Here is a simple IDL script that shows how this can be done avoiding the sight of objects all together (the script can
be found in the “utils” directory of the SSW distribution):
iris_readheader,f,struct=struct,extension=extension
if n_elements(extension) eq 0 then extension=0
d = iris_obj(f)
hdr = d->gethdr(extension,struct=struct)
obj_destroy, d
return, hdr
end
The gethdr method by default will return the main (extension=0) fits header, but since the various IRIS line
windows (regions) are stored as extensions 1, ..., NWIN, there is a small header associated with each which may be
useful. Using the struct keyword will return the header as an idl structure instead of as a string array. In the latter
case header tags (keywords) can be accessed with the usual SSW fxpar(hdr, tag) routines. Note that since the
main header is contained in extension=0, the window headers are accessed as extension=window nr + 1.
In general, this should be the recipe for writing small “one-liners”:
• open and load the object, viz d = iris_obj()
• call the methods needed to do what you want to do
• manipulate and make the output available
• destroy the object
Other examples (of many, see below) are:
IDL> exp = d->getexp(iexp, iwin=iwin)
or:
IDL> xpos = d->getxpos(indx, iwin=iwin)
to get the exposure time for exposure number iexp or spatial index indx in window number iwin. These functions
return an array of exposure times or spatial positions if no parameter iexp or indx is given, and default to the default
window (the first one read) if no iwin keyword is given.
Another couple of useful methods for checking the data integrity and ancestry return structures containing the data
contained in the latter two fits file extensions after the window data:
IDL> s = d->aux_info() ; extension nwin+1
IDL> s = d->obs_info() ; extension nwin+2
return structures containing these data:
IDL> help, s ; will show their content.
There are a number of objects that are detailed in IRIS Technical Note 28 as are a list of other methods that can be
applied to the data. However, if you only want to read the SJI data you can shortcut this with:
IDL> d = iris_sji([{SJI}])
IDL> sji = d->getvar(lwin)
Where the latter command fills the variable sji with the Level 2 slit jaw images contained window lwin.
3.4.2 Using read_iris_l2.pro
IRIS Level 2 FITS files can be read into memory using the read_iris_l2 procedure:
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read_iris_l2, l2files, index, data, _extra=_extra, keep_null=keep_null, $
append=append, silent=silent, wave=wave, remove_bad=remove_bad
where l2files can be an array of Level 2 FITS files. The wave keyword can be used to select a specific wavelength
window (e.g., wave = ’Si IV 14’) for a raster FITS file. The option has no impact on SJI FITS files. An example
call to read_iris_l2 to read an SJI Level 2 FITS file:
IDL> sjifile = ’iris_l2_20131025_050530_3880013447_SJI_1400_t000.fits’
IDL> read_iris_l2,sjifile, index, data
IDL> help, index, data
INDEX
STRUCT
= -> <Anonymous> Array[48]
DATA
FLOAT
= Array[1214, 1092, 48]
IDL> rastfile = ’iris_l2_20131025_050530_3880013447_raster_t000_r00000.fits’
; define the object (see below) - convenient way to show spectral windows
IDL> d = iris_obj(rastfile)
IDL> d->show_lines
Spectral regions(windows)
0
1335.71
C II 1336
1
1393.78
Si IV 1394
2
2796.20
Mg II k 2796
IDL> read_iris_l2,rastfile,index,data, WAVE= ’C II’ ; default C II
; other WAVE options in this IRIS line list would be ’Si IV’, or ’Mg II’
; NOTE: often there is more than one Si IV and one can extend to the
; string to make it unique
; ’Si IV 13’ or ’Si IV 14’
IDL> help, index, data
INDEX
STRUCT
= -> <Anonymous> Array[96]
DATA
FLOAT
= Array[2062, 1092, 96]
where, naturally index and data are arrays that contain the header information for each raster step and the corresponding spectrograph data.
3.5 NUV Data Analysis
3.5.1 Mg II Diagnostics
In the following sub-sections we’ll document a couple of methods to extract physical information from the IRS
NUV spectra. These optically thick lines are typically tough to interpret but the IRIS team has done some exploratory work to help the community get as much from the data as possible. The singly ionized Mg II h&k lines
(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SoPh..172..109U) provide information that spans from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere (and possibly as high as the transition region).
The image below shows a comparison synthetic and observed Mg II spectra adapter from the paper by Pereira et al.
(2013) The h and k emission cores are typically double-peaked - and can be characterized on the violet ‘V’ or red ‘R’
side of the rest wavelength - see the inset.
3.5. NUV Data Analysis
35
Intensity (nW m−2 Hz−1 sr−1 )
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
Mean synthetic spectrum
Observations (RASOLBA)
Observations (HRTS-9)
279.60 nm slit-jaw filter
2.0
1.5
Ti II
Cr II
Cr II
1.0
Fe I
Fe I Fe I
Mn I
k2V
k1V
Fe I
Ni I
Mn I
Fe I
Ni I
k2R
k3
279.6
Cr II
Mn I
Ni I
Fe I
k1R
279.7
Ni I
Fe I Fe I Fe I
Fe I
CI
Fe I
0.5
0.0
278.50
278.75
279.00
279.25
279.50
279.75
280.00
280.25
Wavelength (nm)
280.50
280.75
281.00
281.25
281.50
IRIS Technical Note 37, as well as the three IRIS diagnostic papers from the ITA/UiO team:
• http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...772...89L
• http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...772...90L
• http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...778..143P
provide a comprehensive review of how these parameters can be interpreted in terms of the Bifrost simulations (see
IRIS Technical Note 33). The interested IRIS user should consult these papers before studying FUV data in detail.
The table below gives a summary of the basic physical properties that can be extracted from the Mg II h&k lines, the
bonus being that having two lines that there is some level of comfort in getting consistent measures.
Spectral observable
∆𝑣𝑘3 or ∆𝑣ℎ3
∆𝑣𝑘2 or ∆𝑣ℎ2
∆𝑣𝑘3 − ∆𝑣ℎ3
𝑘 or 𝑘 peak separation
𝑘2 or ℎ2 peak intensities
(𝐼𝑘2𝑣 − 𝐼𝑘2𝑟 )/(𝐼𝑘2𝑣 + 𝐼𝑘2𝑟 )
Atmospheric property
upper chomospheric velocity
mid chromospheric velocity
upper chromospheric velocity gradient
mid chromospheric velocity gradient
chromospheric temperature
sign of velocity above 𝑧(𝜏 = 1) of 𝑘2
Note: The above table shows a simplified view, and all the correlations have scatter.
The codes discussed below provide measures of these properties and a few others.
3.5.2 Mg II Line Peak Information Extraction
Tiago Pereira (ITA/UiO) has developed a piece of IDL software which will permit IRIS users to extract properties of
the Mg II h&k lines in the NUV spectra. The code, when given an IRIS Level 2 data file, will return the properties of
the red peak, blue peak and central reversals of the Mg II h&k line spectra based on a relatively straightforward peak
finding algorithm.
The code, iris_get_mg_features_lev2 is executed in the following way:
IDL> myfile = ’iris_l2_20131013_090250_3821104045_raster_t000_r00000.fits’
IDL> d = iris_obj(myfile)
; Find the index of the Mg II window:
IDL> d->show_lines
Spectral regions(windows)
0
1335.71
C II 1336
1
1349.43
Fe XII 1349
2
1355.60
O I 1356
3
1393.78
Si IV 1394
4
1402.77
Si IV 1403
5
2832.75
2832
6
2814.47
2814
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7
2796.20
Mg II k 2796
IDL> vr = [-40, 40] ; Velocity Range about line center to search for features
IDL> iris_get_mg_features_lev2, myfile, 7, vr, lc, rp, bp
Figure 3.17: Sample Mg II h/k velocities obtained with iris_get_mg_features_lev2.
In this example the results are stored in the lc, rp, bp arrays corresponding to the central reversal, red and blue peaks
respectively. Each of these arrays is organized [line, feature, slit position, raster position]. The line index corresponds
to Mg II k [0] and Mg II h [1]. The feature index corresponds to Doppler shift [0] and intensity [1]. Bad values are
marked with NaN. There are also keyword options for calculating these properties for the Mg II h line (/onlyh) or Mg
II k line (/onlyk) only. The images below show the h3 and k3 shift from iris_get_mg_features_lev2 and
are largely although there are differences which, as indicated in the table, provide information about the line-of-sight
component of velocity gradient in the upper chromosphere.
Some of the current limitations of iris_get_mg_features_lev2:
• Single-peaked profiles off-limb don’t work well - the algorithm was designed for double peaked or strongly
shifted single peak (i.e., not for the optically thin regime). See the following sub-section for a possible alternative
method.
• There are many instances where noisy line profiles can represent many peaks in the spectra. In short exposure
observations, or complex regions, this presents the biggest problem to the approach. The IRIS team strongly
suggests that the user explore different noise filtering to approaches to avoid these issues and identify robust
features in the spectra.
• The line centre properties (k3, h3) are set to NaN when the result is believed to be unreliable. The same setting
is used for the peak properties, but it is considerably harder to verify when the peak properties are not reliable,
so more ‘dark noise’ will appear in the peak properties.
The ITA/UiO team welcome users to explore, modify and re-share the code given their experiences with it.
3.5. NUV Data Analysis
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3.5.3 Mg II Line Variable Component Fitting
Coming Soon: Document application of the Mg II line fitting approach.
3.6 FUV Data Analysis
3.6.1 “moment” Fitting
Coming Soon: Document application of the moment fitting approach.
3.6.2 Single Gaussian Fitting
Coming Soon: Document application of the SGF fitting approach.
3.6.3 “Red-Blue” Asymmetry Analysis
Coming Soon: Document application of the RB analysis approach.
3.6.4 Double Gaussian Fitting
Coming Soon: Document application of the DGF fitting approach.
38
Chapter 3. IRIS Level 2 Data
CHAPTER
FOUR
IRIS LEVEL 3 DATA
IRIS Level 3 data permits the user to explore the connection between the slit-jaw imagers and the spectral data in
one (time-)sequenced FITS file. The primary tool to navigate the Level 3 FITS files is called CRISPEX (the CRIsp
SPectral EXplorer - developed for the CRISP instrument on the Swedish 1m Solar Telescope on La Palma by Gregal
Vissers from the University of Oslo; http://folk.uio.no/gregal/crispex/). The current version is included in the IRIS
IDL/SSW distribution so please take time to ensure that all of the Level 3 tools in your path are up to date.
4.1 Level 3 Data Structure
Level 3 data can exist in a variety of configurations. For a given observation, it combines multiple level 2 raster files
into one or two level 3 files. The user can decide which spectral line windows to include in the level 3 file (e.g. include
all the lines, only the NUV lines, or a selection), and so multiple level 3 files can be created from the same level 2 files.
There are two types of level 3 files: im and sp. They contain the same data, but one is the transpose of the other (this
is to speed up access for visualization). The files are standard FITS files and the data is written in the primary HDU.
The im files have the dimensions of (nx, ny, nwave, ntime), while the sp files have the dimensions of (nwave,
ntime, nx, ny). Here ny is the number of pixels along the slit, and nx the number of steps in the raster; when
rotation is used these are not aligned with solar (x, y) coordinates. For rasters with only one repeat (ntime = 1) the
sp files are unnecessary and therefore not created. The different spectral windows of level 2 files are merged into the
nwave dimension of the level 3 files.
Besides the primary HDU, level 3 files have three extensions, see below:
Ext. No.
Primary
1
2
3
Contents
Main data
Wavelength scale (vacuum units)
Time of each exp. since DATE_OBS
Location of slit in SJI image
Units
DN
Å
Seconds
Pixels
Dimensions
(nx, ny, nwave, ntime)
(nwave)
(nx, ntime)
(2, ntime, nx)
4.2 Creating Level 3 Data in IDL
IRIS Level 3 FITS files (documented in IRIS Technical Note 21) can be created in two ways (plus through two
wrappers):
• Via iris_xfiles
• Via iris_make_fits_level3.pro - power user option.
iris_obsl223.pro - create level3 files for a given obs
Can also be called through the wrapper
Let’s look at an example of each.
Choose a raster file from iris_xfiles. You then get a window like this:
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Figure 4.1: IRIS xfiles main interface.
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In the upper left corner you can choose which lines to include in the level3 file, which SJI cube to use for reference.
In Options you can choose the directory for the level3 files. The progress is shown in the terminal window where
iris_xfiles was started. The usage of the command-line iris_make_fits_level3:
IDL> cd, getenv(’IRIS_DATA’) + ’/level2/2013/10/07/20131007_054001_3800259115’
; where the environment variable IRIS_DATA should be the path to your IRIS data
IDL> f = iris_files(’/*raster*.fits’)
; the variable f is an array of raster files for that observation
; iris_files prints the file-names of all the raster files
; list the SJI files in the same folder
IDL> s = iris_files(‘*SJI*.fits’)
; list the spectral windows possible, wdir is the directory where the level3
; files will be written, current directory is the default.
IDL> iris_make_fits_level3, wdir=wdir
0 C II 1336
1 O I 1356
2 Si IV 1394
3 Si IV 1403
4 2832
5 2814
6 Mg II k 2796
; we choose C II, Si IV 1403, and Mg II k. You can choose all lines
; with keyword /all instead of the array with window indices
IDL> iris_make_fits_level3, f, [0, 3, 6], /sp, sjifile=s[0], $
wdir=wdir, tmp_size=30
The second argument is the spectral window list that you want to study, in this example we’ve chosen [0, 3, 6], or C
II, Si IV, Mg II h&k. The user should employ the tmp_size keyword, which sets the max temporary memory size,
if a lot more memory than the default tmp_size of 12 GB is available. The unit is GB. The raster files go in the first
argument, the desired spectral window(s) in the second - use the /all keyword instead of the second argument to get
all windows, and the reference slit jaw image in sjifile (note that currently only one channel at a time is allowed).
The /sp option produces a (lambda, time, x, y) cube in addition to the default (x, y, lambda, time) cube. This is only
done if there is more than one raster file or if it is a sit-and-stare series. The routine will write the Level 3 data to
directory wdir, default is the current working directory.
There is another optional argument to iris_make_fits_level3, called yshift. This can be used to correct
for situations when the spectra and slit-jaws are not correctly aligned (e.g. issues with the automatic alignment). For
more details on this calibration, see Coalignment between channels and SJI/spectra.
Looking in the working directory you now have:
IDL> f3=iris_files(‘*{im,sp}*fits’)
0 iris_l3_20131007_054001_3800259115_t000_CII1336_SiIV1403_MgIIk2796_im.fits
1 iris_l3_20131007_054001_3800259115_t000_CII1336_SiIV1403_MgIIk2796_sp.fits
1 GB
1 GB
Note: These two Level 3 files are arranged differently but contain the same information. The im fits file is arranged
by (X, Y, lambda, t) while the sp file, that is used by CRISPEX in the next section, is ordered (lambda, t, X, Y).
If one is working with many datasets, it may be advantageous to organize the level 3 files in a tree-structure similar
to the level 2 files. This is easy to accomplish with the wrapper iris_obsl223. The example from above is then
achieved with the call:
IDL> iris_obsl223, ’20131007_054001_ 3800259115’, iwin=[0, 3, 6], $
/sp, rootl2=getenv(’IRIS_DATA’)+’/level2’
By default iris_obsl223 uses the 1400 SJI as reference slit-jaw cube. The level 3 root can be specified with
the rootl3 keyword. The default is the same as rootl2 with the first string level2 replaced by level3.
iris_obsl223 will create the directories necessary and will create symbolic links for the SJI images (with the
4.2. Creating Level 3 Data in IDL
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iris_xfiles and iris_make_fits_level3 methods this has to be done manually).
4.3 Reading Level 3 Data in IDL
The level 3 files can be read in IDL with a regular FITS reader. For example, using readfits:
IDL> data = readfits(’iris_l3_20140305_110951_3830113696_t000_all_im.fits’, header)
% READFITS: Now reading 400 by 548 by 1410 by 1 array
IDL> help, data
DATA
FLOAT
= Array[400, 548, 1410]
IDL> wave = readfits(’iris_l3_20140305_110951_3830113696_t000_all_im.fits’, ext=1)
% READFITS: Reading FITS extension of type IMAGE
% READFITS: Now reading 1410 element vector
IDL> times = readfits(’iris_l3_20140305_110951_3830113696_t000_all_im.fits’, ext=2)
% READFITS: Reading FITS extension of type IMAGE
% READFITS: Now reading 400 element vector
IDL> help, times
TIMES
FLOAT
= Array[400]
In this example the level 3 file is from a single repeat raster, so the time dimension is collapsed when reading the data.
Note that the main headers were read into the variable header. While one can also read the extension headers, most
of the relevant information is in the main header.
4.4 Browsing Level 3 Data with crispex
crispex (http://folk.uio.no/gregal/crispex/) is called with an imcube, spcube (if there are more than one raster or
a sit-and-stare series, it is always possible to call crispex with only imcube) and (optionally) a slit-jaw cube:
CRISPEX, imcube, spcube, sjifile=sjifile
If you are in the above example level 3 directory and have linked in the slit-jaw cubes (either manually or through
running iris_obsl223):
; Exclude raster files if same directory contains any of those:
IDL> f=iris_files(‘*{im,sp,SJI}*fits’)
IDL> f=iris_files()
; enough if only level3 files in directory
0 iris_l2_20131007_054001_3800259115_SJI_1330_t000.fits
57 MB
1 iris_l2_20131007_054001_3800259115_SJI_1400_t000.fits
57 MB
2 iris_l2_20131007_054001_3800259115_SJI_2796_t000.fits
57 MB
3 iris_l3_20131007_054001_3800259115_t000_CII1336_SiIV1403_MgIIk2796_im.fits
4 iris_l3_20131007_054001_3800259115_t000_CII1336_SiIV1403_MgIIk2796_sp.fits
;It is then possible to start crispex using the f array
IDL> crispex, f[3], f[4], sji=f[1]
1 GB
1 GB
You will be greeted by a drop screen giving messages about the progress of the initialization. Then the crispex
control panel, main detailed spectrum plot, spectral-T slice and the slit-jaw image will appear (window names written
in blue here). The raster FOV for a given timestep and a given spectral position is shown in the control panel. This
example dataset is a 4-step raster so it is very narrow and tall. There are eight tabs for the control of the behavior.
The lower part in the control panel stays the same for all tabs. The timestep can be changed with the Frame
number slider, the spectral position with the Main spectral position slider.Change the Main spectral
position to 866 to get the spectroheliogram in the core of the MgII k-line. Note that a vertical line shows the spectral position in both the detailed spectrum window and in the Spectral T-slice window. When the Frame number is
changed, a horizontal line in the Spectral T-slice window shows the position in time. When using the play buttons,
the frame number is stepped. When the cursor is moved around in the raster in the control panel, the Detailed spectrum
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Figure 4.2: crispex main view with a 400-step IRIS raster.
4.4. Browsing Level 3 Data with crispex
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shows the spectrum at that position at the time given by Frame number. The Spectral T-slice gives the temporal
behavior of the spectrum at that position. It is possible to lock and unlock the position with the buttons in the control
panel. The field below the lock and unlock buttons give values at the cursor position in different units.
Figure 4.3: crispex main view with a 8-step IRIS raster.
Temporal-tab. The slit-jaw image is updated to be the closest in time to the time of the raster-step given with the slider
Raster timing offset. It is possible to change the master time from Main (described so far) to SJI with the
buttons above the Raster timing offset slider. In that case it is the slit-jaw frame number that is stepped by
the play buttons and the raster closest in time to the slit-jaw is shown. To increase the speed of the movie in cases
where there are many frames, one may change the speed with the Animation speed slider or increase the Frame
increment with its slider. It is also possible to restrict the time-range with the boxes at the top of the temporal tab.
Overlays-tab. The slit-jaw image has an overlay showing the position of the raster. This may be switched on and off
(and color set etc) from the Overlays tab.
Displays-tab. Here one can switch on and off the various display windows and change the appearance of the Detailed
spectrum plot (set the lower and upper y-value). Switching on the Spectral-Phi display will show the spectrum along
a slit shown in the raster in the control panel. The length of the slit and its orientation can be set in the spectral tab.
Spectral-tab. Here it is possible to set the slit angle, slit length, slowly step the slit and set up a blink between two
spectral positions (set the “spectral position to blink against” first and then the “main spectral position”. If there is
only one line selected when producing the level3 file, it is possible to restrict the spectral indices in the top boxes.
Diagnostics-tab is used to select which of the lines to show in the various windows (default is all of them).
Scaling-tab is used to set the scaling of all the image windows (min, max, gamma) and relative scaling of the various
detailed spectrum plots. All line-windows are set separately so only the window where the main spectral position is is
affected. The window to control is set in the top drop-down box.
Spatial-tab can be used instead of the cursor to set the (x,y) position within the raster. There is also an option to zoom
the raster window.
Analysis-tab is used for some limited analysis like calculating space-time diagrams along a path. Has not yet been
optimized for IRIS use.
This section will be expanded upon to provide the user more detail on:
• movie making,
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• space-time plot construction,
• etc.
By far the best way to learn about crispex is by exploring, so try it. You can find detailed documentation for
crispex at http://folk.uio.no/gregal/crispex/documentation.html
4.4. Browsing Level 3 Data with crispex
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46
Chapter 4. IRIS Level 3 Data
CHAPTER
FIVE
IRIS LEVEL 1 DATA
The IRIS Level 1 Data have a minimal amount of calibration and processing. They are not generally recommended to
the novice user, but expert users may have the need to perform a particular calibration and work with the data before
it goes through the usual processing pipeline.
5.1 Searching and Downloading
The IRIS Level 1 data is hosted at Stanford’s Joint Scientific Operations Center (JSOC). If one needs to get it for
further analysis, it can be downloaded in the following ways:
1. Using JSOC’s data export web interface at http://jsoc.stanford.edu/ajax/lookdata.html
2. From SSWIDL, by making data queries to the Stanford/LMSAL Joint Scientific Operations Center (JSOC) from
the interactive prompt. These steps result in IRIS header and data being loaded directly into memory.
3. Using SSWIDL commands to recover a list of FITS files from the JSOC which can then be downloaded by the
user and manipulated.
4. Directly from LMSAL’s website, although no search interface currently exists (need to download files manually).
This is also the only way to download the special NRT series (near real time), which are quickly processed as
soon as the telemetry is received (and as a consequence do not have the most accurate calibration or position
keywords).
If you are gathering your IRIS Level 1 FITS files from the internet sites then please go directly to Reading Level 1
Data in IDL, the following sections provide example IRIS/SSW commands to collect data.
5.1.1 JSOC / SolarSoft Level 1 Data Access
IRIS data hosted at the Stanford/LMSAL JSOC can be accessed through the SSW routine ssw_jsoc_time2data:
IDL> ssw_jsoc_time2data, start_time, end_time, drms, ds=ds, /jsoc2
where start_time and end_time are strings in a format recognizable by anytim.pro (see above), drms is a vector
of structures containing the metadata of the observations in that time period, ds is a string specifying the JSOC data
series to be queried, and the jsoc2 keyword is activated to allow your IDL session direct access to the JSOC. For
example, iris.lev1_prelim02 is one of the pre-release iris data series and so this particular example may not
be available to the general user. The routine iris_jsoc_ds will return all of the available IRIS data series in the
JSOC:
IDL> res = iris_jsoc_ds(/refresh, /jsoc2)
IDL> more, res
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To first retrieve the metadata for the IRIS Level 1 images for the throughput test sequence taken on 2013 August 20,
extracting the times from one of the means above:
IDL> t0 = ’2013-08-20 15:05:07’ & t1 = ’2013-08-20T15:22:13’
IDL> ssw_jsoc_time2data, t0, t1, drms, ds=’iris.lev1’
IDL> umodes = ssw_uniq_modes(drms,’instrume,exptime,SUMSPAT,SUMSPTRL,img_path’, $
mc=mc)
IDL> more, umodes + string(mc)
FUV
15.00
1
1
FUV
60
NUV
15.00
1
1
NUV
60
SJI
15.00
1
1
SJI_1330
15
SJI
15.00
1
1
SJI_1400
14
SJI
15.00
1
1
SJI_2796
15
SJI
15.00
1
1
SJI_2832
4
Note that it is also possible to form this query based on the frame (or image) serial number (FSN) rather than time
using the /fsn keyword in the call to ssw_jsoc_time2data.
Warning: The code below does not work and needs to be updated. Gives an error “There are no files in this
RecordSet”.
For example, a subset of the above data containing only the FUV 1400Å slit-jaw images could be returned as follows:
IDL> ss = struct_where(drms,search=[’img_path=SJI_14*’, ’exptime=1.~25.’])
IDL> ssw_jsoc_time2data, drms[SS].FSN, dummy, index, data, ds=’iris.lev1’, $
/FSN, /uncomp_delete,/use_shared, /noshell
Note: By setting the FSN keyword and inputing a vector of FSNs, the second parameter (normally the end of the time
interval) is ignored and the full image data are retrieved for the specified images:
IDL> help, index, data
INDEX
STRUCT
DATA
INT
= -> <Anonymous> Array[14]
= Array[2072, 1096, 14]
The Level 1 data and index arrays should now to be passed to iris_prep so that the appropriate calibration steps
can be performed, so skip to the iris_prep section of this guide.
5.1.2 Obtaining a List of Level 1 Files
Once you know the start and end times of the particular IRIS observations you are interested in:
IDL> fl = iris_time2files(t0, t1, drms, /url)
will return a complete URL list for the files. Once you have the list of IRIS FITS files that you need, then they can be
downloaded to your current directory within your IDL session using the following command:
IDL> sock_copy, fl, out_dir = ’./’
5.2 Reading Level 1 Data in IDL
If you downloaded your IRIS FITS files using the method in the previous section IRIS FITS files can be read into
memory of your current IDL session using the simple command:
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IDL> read_iris, <irisfits>, index ,data ,/noshell, /use_shared
where:
• <irisfits> - is a list of IRIS FITS files
• index - is an array of structures containing the header information for each FITS file
• data - is the output data array
• noshell and use_shared are designed to minimize memory load and their use is recommended.
The keywords to the read_iris call are clearly outlined in the SSW code.
Example: Find an list of IRIS Level 1 FITS file URLs for the NUV observations in our previous example and read the
data into memory:
IDL> t0 = ’2013-08-20 15:05:07’ & t1 = ’2013-08-20 15:22:13’
IDL> nuv_fl = iris_time2files(t0,t1,drms,/nuv,/url)
IDL> help, nuv_fl & more,[nuv_fl[0:1],’...’,last_nelem(nuv_fl,2)]
NUV_FL
STRING
= Array[60]
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft//irisa/data/level1/2013/08/20/H1500/iris20130820_15051506_nuv.fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft//irisa/data/level1/2013/08/20/H1500/iris20130820_15053110_nuv.fits
...
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft//irisa/data/level1/2013/08/20/H1500/iris20130820_15214783_nuv.fits
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft//irisa/data/level1/2013/08/20/H1500/iris20130820_15220403_nuv.fits
; download the files to your local directory:
IDL> sock_copy, nuv_fl, out_dir = ’./’
Read the first 5 FITS files into index, and data arrays:
IDL> local_nuv_files = file_search(’./*_nuv.fits’)
IDL> read_iris, local_nuv_files[0:4], index, data, /uncomp_delete, /use_shared
IDL> help,index,data
INDEX
STRUCT = -> <Anonymous> Array[5]
DATA
INT
= Array[2072, 1096, 5]
Now that you have the data in memory we have to apply corrections to the detector images using the iris_prep
routine - this will create “Level 1.5” IRIS data and we again refer the reader to the discussion above about IRIS
data levels.
5.3 Creating Level 1.5 Data with iris_prep
We can create Level 1.5 FITS files for a set of Level 1 FITS files. iris_prep, the Level 1.5 FITS generator performs
the following steps:
• Dark/pedestal removal and flat-fielding
• Replacement of spikes/bad pixels
• Geometric correction (rotation, translation, distortion, platescale)
• Wavelength correction (dispersion/shift)
• Update header keywords to reflect the above actions
Missing header of iris_prep
The interested (power-)user can find extensive information on iris_prep and the action of the various keywords in the
appropriate IRIS Technical Notes 14 through 25 in the document library (http://iris.lmsal.com/documents.html).
5.3. Creating Level 1.5 Data with iris_prep
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An example run of iris_prep for one of the examples above is as follows:
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
t0 = ’2013-08-20 15:05:07’ & t1 = ’2013-08-20T15:22:13’
nuv_fl = iris_time2files(t0, t1, /nuv, /url, /jsoc2)
sock_copy, nuv_fl, out_dir=’./’
; puts files in current directory
f = file_search(’./*_nuv.fits’, nfits)
; gets local file listing
read_iris, f, index, data
; read those FITS files
iris_prep, index, data, oindex, odata
; run iris_prep
now, you can leave this here and the prepped IRIS data is in the (multi-dimensional) odata array and oindex array
of structures contains the header information.
If you want to go to the next step (creating a Level 2 IRIS FITS file) you can write the Level 1.5 files into a new
sub-directory (here we call it ’./level1.5/’) for each Level 1 FITS file:
IDL> spawn, ’mkdir ./level1.5/’
IDL> for kk =0,nfits-1 do begin &
read_iris, f[kk], index, data
iris_prep, index, data, oindex, odata &
hdr = struct2fitshead(oindex) &
writefits, ’./level1.5/’+file[kk], odata, hdr &
endfor
These Level 1.5 FITS files are ready to be analyzed as is, or can be passed through the code in the following section
to create a Level 2 FITS file.
Figure 5.1: Uncorrected Level 1 NUV spectrograph detector image (left) and the corrected version of the detector
image (right) following application of the iris_prep algorithm with default settings (as shown in code above).
5.4 Creating Level 2 Data from Level 1.5 Data
IRIS Level 2 data can be created using the iris_level1to2 procedure. The data sent to iris_level1to2 can
either be corrected to Level 1 or Level 1.5 (by iris_prep, see above). The header of iris_level1to2 looks
like this:
PRO IRIS_level1to2, level1files, outputfolder, xmlparentfolder=xmlparentfolder, $
l1to2log=l1to2log,_extra=_extra, OBSid=OBSid, debug=debug,$
maxdeviation=maxdeviation, scaled=scaled
At a very basic level iris_level1to2 creates a small number of Level 2 files from the larger number of Level 1
files where the slit-jaw image and spectrograph data are separated and stored sequentially in a FITS file by wavelength
and time.
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Figure 5.2: Uncorrected Level 1 FUV spectrograph detector image (left) and the corrected version of the detector
image (right) following application of the iris_prep algorithm with default settings (as shown in code above).
The IRIS SJI Level 2 files are straightforward in structure. Using the header information to identify the Level 1 frames
belonging to each SJI filter, the corresponding Level 2 FITS file is a time-series of the images taken over the duration
of the raster or sit-n-stare observation for that filter organized by dimension [Spatial X, Spatial Y, Time].
The raster type of IRIS Level 2 files are organized by dimension [lambda, Spatial Y, Spatial X/time]. When being
ordered the list of Level 1.5 (or Level 1 files) are separated using the header information with two counters that appear
in the raster file name: rastertype (t***) and rastertype repetition (r*****):
iris_l2_20130829_060935_4000005156_raster_t000_r00000.fits
iris_l2_20130829_060935_4000005156_raster_t000_r00001.fits
iris_l2_20130829_060935_4000005156_raster_t000_r00002.fits
rastertype is defined as an observation which have the following pieces of header information in common:
• OBSID
• The Number of steps
• dX (X is the horizontal part of the Telescope PZT values, not necessarily solar X)
• Position X
• Number of Spectral Windows (the line list)
• The spectral regions MUST be identical regions
• Exposure Time
Note that the following header values can vary from exposure to exposure and between NUV and FUV spectrographs:
* Summing * Exposure Time * Compression Scheme Used (“N” or “K”) * LUT ID * Max and Min Exposure time (if
Automatic Exposure Control is On)
Note: If a Level 1 (or 1.5) file is missing, the respective image, or slice in the corresponding Level 2 will be blank.
The code is designed such that the y-range of all windows is made to be exactly the same. More precisely, we find the
median of the frame start row (TSRn) values of all of the frames in the sequence, and use the minimum TSR (which
is not less than the median minus 30 pixels) as the start row for all windows. The end points are established in exactly
the same way using the frame end row (TERn), the maximum TER (which is not more than the median plus 30 pixels).
Note: 30 pixels is the default value (used by the mission team), but can be overwritten by the caller of the
iris_level1to2 procedure, using the keyword maxdeviation.
5.4. Creating Level 2 Data from Level 1.5 Data
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An example execution of iris_level1to2 is as follows (taking approximately 10 minutes end to end depending
on your network speed):
IDL> t0 = ’2013-08-20 15:05:07’ & t1 = ’2013-08-20T15:22:13’
IDL> fl = iris_time2files(t0, t1, /url)
IDL> spawn, ’mkdir ./level1/’
; puts files in current directory
IDL> sock_copy, fl, out_dir = ’./level1/’
; gets local file listing
IDL> f = file_search(’./level1/*.fits’, count=nfits)
IDL> spawn, ’mkdir ./level1.5/’
IDL> for kk =0,nfits-1 do begin &
read_iris, f[kk], index, data &
iris_prep, index, data, oindex, odata &
hdr = struct2fitshead(oindex) &
file = str_sep(f[kk],’ /’) &
file = file[n_elements(file) - 1] &
writefits, ’./level1.5/’ + file, odata, hdr &
endfor
IDL> l15files = file_search(’./level1.5/*.fits’, count=nfits)
IDL> spawn, ’mkdir ./level2/’
IDL> IRIS_level1to2, l15files, ’./level2/’
IDL> $ls -al
iris_l2_20130820_002000_4182010156.log
iris_l2_20130820_002000_4182010156_SJI_1330_t000.fits
iris_l2_20130820_002000_4182010156_SJI_1400_t000.fits
iris_l2_20130820_002000_4182010156_SJI_2796_t000.fits
iris_l2_20130820_002000_4182010156_SJI_2832_t000.fits
iris_l2_20130820_002000_4182010156_raster_t000_r00000.fits
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Chapter 5. IRIS Level 1 Data
CHAPTER
SIX
CALIBRATION OF IRIS OBSERVATIONS
6.1 Wavelength Calibration
The wavelength calibration is automatically performed to the best of current knowledge. This is accurate to only a few
pixels, and should be manually checked. There are several photospheric spectral lines that can be used for accurate
wavelength calibration, most notably the Ni I 279.9474 nm line in the NUV and the O I 135.560 nm line in the FUV.
A detailed discussion of the wavelength calibration steps for IRIS and how to use them on data can be found in IRIS
Technical Note 20.
6.2 Radiometric Calibration
A detailed discussion of the radiometric calibration steps for IRIS and how to use them on data can be found in IRIS
Technical Note 24.
6.3 Background in FUV data
FUV spectra with longer exposure times show a faint background most likely caused by a light leak from wavelengths
significantly longer than the FUV. This means that the light leak is absorbed at a different CCD depth than the FUV
light and thus does not show the same CCD flat-field (which for the FUV is quite prominent and dominated by the
CCD annealing pattern). The light leak effectively acts as an extra “dark current” although it appears to have varying
intensity levels for different pointings on the Sun. This background has been characterized and is automatically
removed by iris_prep, and therefore subtracted in level 1.5 and level 2 data.
6.4 Coalignment between channels and SJI/spectra
In level 2 data the slit-jaw images from different filters and detectors are automatically co-aligned. This automatic
approach is not failsafe, and for precise analysis one should always check if they match. There are two spectral marks
on the slit that are called fiducials and block the light from entering. They are used for calibration, and their position
should match between slit-jaw images. With smaller fields of view only one of the fiducials is visible.
Note: The position of the slit in different slit-jaw channels is not necessarily the same. Depending on the observing
program, different slit-jaw filters may be exposed at different parts of a raster. This is particularly true for two or four
step rasters. In such cases the alignment should have in mind the header coordinates from CRPIX and CRVAL.
As in the slit-jaw images, so too the NUV and FUV spectrograms are co-aligned in level 2 data. These too should be
checked for the alignment, both between FUV, NUV and slit-jaws. In spectrograms the fiducial marks appear as solid
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Figure 6.1: Position of fiducial marks on a slit-jaw image.
black lines along the wavelength direction, and they should appear in the same exact spatial position for the NUV and
FUV channels.
Any misalignment can be corrected for when using option yshift in iris_make_fits_level3. This option
can be set to a 3-element array with the shift to be applied in the y direction to the raster files, where yshift=[fuv1,
fuv2, nuv] e.g.:
IDL> iris_make_fits_level3, f, [0, 3, 6], yshift=[2, 2, 1]
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Figure 6.2: Position of fiducial marks on an NUV spectrogram.
6.4. Coalignment between channels and SJI/spectra
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Chapter 6. Calibration of IRIS Observations
CHAPTER
SEVEN
IRIS DATA NOTES
7.1 Cosmic rays
IRIS passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) on a regular basis. The impact of energetic particles on
the CCD camera causes bright hits/pixels. These can be removed with any of the multitude of cosmic ray removal procedures available in solarsoft (e.g., array_despike.pro, tracedespike.pro, nospike.pro,
despike.pro, eis_despike.pro, etc...). Cosmic rays are not removed from the IRIS data during normal
calibration/pipeline processing to avoid introducing artifacts.
7.2 Particles on slitjaw images
The slit-jaw CCD contains some particles that cause dark regions of order up to a few arcseconds in size in the slit.
These features are marked as bad pixels and set to zero values (0) in iris_prep so they can be easily recognized
during data analysis. The particles are stable in position and do not let any light through - they are completely dark.
They are most prominent in the FUV images (1400Å and 1330Å) and much less visible in the NUV images (2796Å
and 2830Å). For SJI timeseries in which the SJI were taken at various positions in a raster a solarsoft routine is being
developed to use data values from a previous image to fill in the dark spots.
7.3 CCD camera readout noise
When both spectrograph cameras are read out simultaneously, a read interference noise pattern is superimposed on
the resulting data, which can impact the weakest lines in the FUV. The readout noise is only present when the last
two digits of the OBSID are less than 50 (for the OBSID generations starting with 38 and 40 numbers). This can be
avoided altogether by reading the cameras sequentially, and most of the data is now observed using the sequential read
(last two digits in OBSID larger than 50).
7.4 Flagging of saturated data
Some observations show strong solar activity and resulting saturation either on the CCD or (especially in OBS sequences where data is summed) in the A/D converter. Saturated pixels are flagged as Inf so they can be clearly
identified.
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CHAPTER
EIGHT
TUTORIALS
8.1 IRIS xfiles and CRISPEX
This tutorial will guide you step-by-step into some features of iris_xfiles and CRISPEX.
Start by downloading an IRIS dataset from 2013 December 26: follow this link and download the three slit-jaw
files and the raster file (about 900 Mb in total). Download them to a directory of your choice (here we’ll call it
~/iris_data/). Unzip all the files, e.g. on a UNIX system:
% gunzip *fits.gz
% tar zxvf *.tar.gz
Start a solarsoft IDL session, and then launch iris_xfiles:
% sswidl
(...)
IDL> iris_xfiles
On the middle panel, next to Search Directory: press Change. Then navigate to the directory ~/iris_data, press
OK when this directory is selected. Notice that Search Pattern changed to free search.
Now press Start Search, and on the middle panel you will see a row with a summary of the observations, and a
list of files on the bottom panel.
If you double click on the slit-jaw files, you can see a movie with Ximovie. In this case the observations are a
400-step raster of an active region. Because the slit-jaw images have been aligned to fixed coordinates on the Sun,
the images are moving from left to right and black bars appear in the regions which are not exposed (the images are
enlarged to fit the maximum extent of the observing sequence). With Ximovie you can adjust the display limits and
also apply a gamma to the images.
If you double click on the raster file, an iris_xcontrol window will appear. This has a lot of information about
the particular observing sequence, and displays some sample spectra and slit-jaw images. The middle spectral panel is
split in the NUV (green-white) and FUV (red-white) spectrograms. You can also identify which spectral regions were
observed. Clicking on either spectrogram will let you inspect individual spectrograms for all the steps in the sequence.
You can also do the same with the SJI images.
Now we’ll use the profile moments tool. On the top left panel select the Mg II k 2796 line and under Line fit select
Profile Moments. On the Moments Prep Tool window adjust the reference wavelength so that it matches the k3 core,
and set the line start and stop so that it is about 5 pixels wide around k3. Set the continuum to be about 5 pixels wide
on the right side of the plot, in a region with no absorption line, like the figure below.
Press Finished. It will take a while to calculate the moments statistics in the region defined, and a new window opens.
The result for intensity should look like the figure below.
This looks very much like the Mg II k3 intensity, because we selected a very narrow window around it. On the bottom
left side of the iris_xmap window you can also change Select data to show the first moment (centroid) velocity,
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Figure 8.1: How the wavelength selection iris_xfiles moment tool should look like.
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Figure 8.2: How the intensity from the k3 first moment should look like.
8.1. IRIS xfiles and CRISPEX
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but in this case this is not so reliable because we chose a small wavelength window.
Now to the same in Profile moments but select the k2v feature instead of k3. The result for intensity should look like
the image below.
You can also experiment with the many other options of iris_xfiles as a quick way to explore the data.
Now we are going to create level 3 files from this set to use with CRISPEX. Go back to the IRIS_Xcontrol
window of the raster file. Select the Si IV 1403 and Mg II k 2796 lines and press Generate level3 files. In the next
dialog to not select anything and just press OK. We will use this level 3 file next with CRISPEX. Note that only one
file will be created, as the time domain is missing.
Now start CRISPEX and use the name of the file you just created as an argument. Assuming you are in the same
directory as the file, do:
IDL> crispex, ’iris_l3_20131226_171752_3840007146_t000_SiIV1403_MgIIk2796_im.fits’
It will take a while to start as CRISPEX calculates mean spectra and scaling factors. If everything went well you can
start exploring the data. The main window will look black. This is because CRISPEX takes the first wavelength of the
first line, in this case a wavelength in the continuum region of the Si IV 1403 line. The intensity here is mostly noise,
so it appears as black. You can see the spectral windows in the other two windows: detailed spectrum and Spectral
phi-slice.
Change the Main spectral position slider to around position 205. You can see on the spectra phi-slice that a vertical
gray line moves. This indicates the current position in the spectrogram. Now you see more structure in the main
image, but it is still a little dark. You can change the scaling in the Scaling tab: set the Histogram optimisation to
0.01 (this means that the scaling will be set from the 1% to 99% percentiles), or change the gamma to a lower value.
On the Detailed spectrum window you still see only a vague outline of spectral lines. You can change this scaling in
the Displays tab: set Lower y-value to -0.01 and the Upper y-value to 0.1. Now you should see the Mg II k line well,
but the Si IV line is only visible for the brightest points.
When you move the mouse the windows update with the spectrum at the mouse pointer location. The Spectral phislice window shows a spectrogram with y being the position along a slit (the vertical white line that moves with the
mouse cursor). If you click with the left button on a point it locks it. To unlock it you need to select the option Unlock
from position on the middle of the main panel. Below it you can also see some properties of the current position:
coordinates, wavelength being show, time, data values, etc.
You can change the parameters of the slit made to construct the Spectral phi-slice window. On the Spectral tab, middle
part, there are controls named Slit controls. There you can adjust the angle and length of the slit, and see how the
window changes.
8.2 Mg II Dopplergrams
In this tutorial we are going to produce a Dopplergram for the Mg II k line from an IRIS 400-step raster. The
Dopplergram is obtained by subtracting the intensities at symmetrical velocity shifts from the line core (e.g. ±50
km/s). For this kind of analysis we need a consistent wavelength calibration for each step of the raster.
Start by downloading an IRIS dataset from 2014 July 8: follow this link and download the raster file (726 Mb).
Download it to a directory of your choice. Untar it, e.g. on a UNIX system:
% tar zxvf iris_l2_20140708_114109_3824262996_raster.tar.gz
Feel free to examine these data in iris_xfiles. This very large dense raster took about one hour to complete the
400 scans, which means that the orbital velocity and thermal drifts were changed during the one hour observations.
This means that any precise wavelength calibration will need to correct for those shifts.
First lets start sswidl and load the data using the IDL object interface:
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Figure 8.3: How the intensity from the k2v first moment should look like.
8.2. Mg II Dopplergrams
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% sswidl
(...)
IDL> filename = ’iris_l2_20140708_114109_3824262996_raster_t000_r00000.fits’
IDL> d = iris_obj(filename)
Let us see the spectral windows that are saved in this raster:
IDL> d->show_lines
Spectral regions(windows)
0
1335.71
C II 1336
1
1349.43
Fe XII 1349
2
1355.60
O I 1356
3
1393.78
Si IV 1394
4
1402.77
Si IV 1403
5
2832.70
2832
6
2814.43
2814
7
2796.20
Mg II k 2796
Let us load the Mg II lines into memory:
IDL> wave = d->getlam(7)
IDL> data = d->getvar(7, /load)
We can see how the the spatially averaged spectrum looks like:
IDL> mspec = total(total(data, 2), 2)
IDL> plot, wave, mspec
IDL> plot, wave, mspec, xrange=[2794, 2799], /xst
To better understand the orbital velocity problem let us look at how the line intensity varies for a strong Ni I at around
279.9 nm, in between the Mg II k and h lines. For this dataset, the line core of this line falls around index 350. To plot
it in the correct orientation we will make use of IDL’s rotate, and the procedure pih (available in the IRIS tree of
solarsoft) to make the plot:
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(data[350,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=200, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
The result should look like this:
You can see a regular bright-dark pattern along the x axis, and indication that its intensities are not taken at the same
position in the line because of wavelength shifts.
To calculate the wavelength shifts from the orbital velocity and thermal drifts we do the following:
IDL> iris_orbitvar_corr_l2, filename, corr_fuv, corr_nuv
IDL> loadct, 0
; change back to B-W colour scale
This saves the shifts (in Ångström) into the variables corr_fuv and corr_nuv (respectively, for FUV and NUV
spectra). To look at intensities at any given scan we only need to subtract this shift from the wavelength scale, but
to look at the whole image at a given wavelength we must interpolate the original data to take this shift into account.
Here is a way to do it (note that array dimensions apply to this specific set only!):
IDL> new_data = fltarr(536, 1092, 400, /n)
IDL> .r
for i=0, 399 do begin
for j=0, 1091 do begin
new_data[*, j, i] = interpol(data[*, j, i], wave - corr_nuv[i], wave)
endfor
endfor
end
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Figure 8.4: Intensity at Ni I 279.9 nm line when orbital velocity and thermal drifts are not accounted for.
8.2. Mg II Dopplergrams
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Figure 8.5: Fit to the orbital velocity/thermal shifts from iris_orbitvar_corr_l2.
(This double loop may take a while to complete.)
Once you have the calibrated data, we can compare again how it looks at the Ni I line wavelength:
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(new_data[350,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=200, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
And now we can see that the intensity map is uniform along the solar disk:
We can use this calibrated data for example to calculate dopplergrams. A dopplergram is the difference between the
intensities at two wavelength positions at the same (and opposite) distance from the line core. For example, at +/- 50
km/s from the Mg II k3 core. To do this, let us first calculate a velocity scale for the h line and find the indices of the
-50 and +50 km/s velocity positions:
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
k_centre = 2796.32
; mean position of k3
vel = (k_centre - wave) * 3e5 / k_centre
tmp = min(abs(vel - 50), i50p) ; find index of -50 and 50 km/s
tmp = min(abs(vel + 50), i50m)
Now get the Dopplergram and plot it:
IDL> doppgr = rotate(reform(new_data[i50m, *, *] - new_data[i50p, *, *]), 1)
IDL> pih, doppgr, min=-100, max=100, scale=[0.35, 0.1667]
8.3 Mg II spectral feature identification
In this tutorial we will measure the intensities and velocity shifts of the Mg II k3 and k2 features. We will make use of
the iris_get_mg_features_lev2 procedure, which is included in the IRIS SSW package.
Here we will use the same dataset as for the tutorial IRIS xfiles and CRISPEX above. If you haven’t done so, start
by downloading an IRIS dataset from 2013 December 26: follow this link and download the raster file (491 Mb).
Download it to a directory of your choice. Unzip it, e.g. on a UNIX system:
% tar zxvf iris_l2_20131226_171752_3840007146_raster.tar.gz
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Figure 8.6: Intensity at Ni I 279.9 nm line when orbital velocity and thermal drifts are accounted for.
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Figure 8.7: Dopplergram for Mg II k at +/- 50 km/s.
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We can calculate the properties of the Mg II k line in the following manner:
IDL> filename = ’iris_l2_20131226_171752_3840007146_raster_t000_r00000.fits’
IDL> iris_get_mg_features_lev2, filename, 3, [-40, 40], lc, rp, bp, /onlyk
(This will take a while.)
The output is saved in the arrays lc (line centre), rp (red peak), and bp (blue peak). To save time, we calculated only
for the k line. We can then visualise both the derived velocities and intensities. For the intensities:
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(lc[0,1,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=500, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(bp[0,1,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=750, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(rp[0,1,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=750, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
and for the velocities:
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(lc[0,0,*,*]), 1), min=-15, max=15, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(rp[0,0,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=30, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(bp[0,0,*,*]), 1), min=-30, max=0, scale=[0.35,0.1667]
As you can see, the code is not perfect at finding the positions of the spectral features in all pixels (see obvious black
and white isolated pixels). Instead, it provides a reasonable estimate when the line profiles are well behaved, and a
starting point to further analysis.
8.4 Time series analysis
In this tutorial we are going to work with spectra and slit-jaw images to study dynamical phenomena. The subject of
this example is umbral flashes.
Start by downloading this IRIS dataset from 2013 September 2. Download the three slit-jaw files and the raster file
(about 1 Gb in total) to a directory of your choice. Unzip all the files, e.g. on a UNIX system:
% gunzip *fits.gz
% tar zxvf *.tar.gz
Start sswidl and use the iris_files function to get a list of all the IRIS FITS files:
IDL> f = iris_files(’./*’)
0 iris_l2_20130902_163935_4000255147_SJI_1330_t000.fits
123
1 iris_l2_20130902_163935_4000255147_SJI_1400_t000.fits
123
2 iris_l2_20130902_163935_4000255147_SJI_2796_t000.fits
123
3 iris_l2_20130902_163935_4000255147_raster_t000_r00000.fits 1
MB
MB
MB
GB
You can now start an iris_obj with this list of files, but it must be reversed because iris_obj expects the spectral
raster first:
IDL> d = iris_obj(reverse(f))
IDL> d->show_lines
Spectral regions(windows)
0
1335.71
C II 1336
1
1349.43
Fe XII 1349
2
1351.66
Cl I 1352
3
1355.60
O I 1356
4
1393.78
Si IV 1394
5
1402.77
Si IV 1403
6
2786.14
2786
7
2796.20
Mg II k 2796
8
2830.93
2830
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Figure 8.8: Intensity for the k3 peak from iris_get_mg_features.
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Figure 8.9: Velocity shifts for the k3 peak from iris_get_mg_features.
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Loaded Slit Jaw images
0
SJI_1330
1
SJI_1400
2
SJI_2796
We can now get the data and wavelength for the Mg II and C II windows, and the array of times (since the start of the
observations):
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
IDL>
data_c = d->getvar(0, /load)
wave_c = d->getlam(0)
data_mg = d->getvar(7, /load)
wave_mg = d->getlam(7)
times = d->gettime()
For this dataset the spectral cadence is about 3 seconds. The Mg II k3 core is located around wavelength pixel 103.
We can use this information to make a space-time image of the Mg II k3 wavelength:
IDL> pih, rotate(reform(data[103,*,*]), 1), min=0, max=200, scale=[3./60.,0.1667]
The result can be seen below, with the x axis in minutes and the y axis in arcsec.
The middle section between 30”-40” is on the umbra of a sunspot, even though it is not obvious from this image. One
can see very clearly the umbral oscillations, with a clear regular pattern of dark/bright streaks. Let us now load the
1400 slit-jaw and plot it for context:
IDL> sji = d->getsji(1)
IDL> pih, sji[*,*,0], min=0, max=200, scale=[0.1667,0.1667]
The slit pixel 220 is a location on the sunspot’s umbra. We will use it to get some plots. For example, let’s plot the
k3 intensity (spectral pixel 103 of data_mg) and the core of the brightest C II line (spectral pixel 90 of data_c) vs.
time in minutes (showing first 10 minutes only):
IDL> plot, times/60., data_mg[103, 220, *], xrange=[0, 10], yrange=[0, 80], $
/xst, /yst
IDL> oplot, times/60., data_c[90, 220, *] * 2, linestyle=1
In the above we are multiplying the C II data by two to get the two lines closer. Image now you wanted to compare
these oscillations with the intensity on the slit-jaw. How to do it? The slit-jaws are tipically taken at a different
cadence, so you will need to load the corresponding time array for the 1400 slit-jaw:
IDL> times_sji = d->gettime_sji(1)
IDL> help, times_sji
TIMES_SJI
DOUBLE
= Array[400]
This is the time in seconds since the start of the observations, so comparable to the array times, which holds the
same quantity for the spectra. Armed with this, we can now plot the SJI intensity for a pixel close to the slit at the
same y position (index 220):
IDL> oplot, times_sji/60., sji[220, 190, *], linestyle=2
The resulting plot can be found below. You are now ready to explore all the correlations, anti-correlations, and phase
differences.
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Figure 8.10: Space-time diagram of the intensity at around the Mg II k3 core.
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Figure 8.11: First SJI 1400 image of the observing sequence.
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Figure 8.12: Intensity vs. time in minutes for an umbral flash oscilation, for Mg II k3 (solid), C II 1335 core (dotted)
and 1400 slit-jaw (dashed).
8.4. Time series analysis
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CHAPTER
NINE
USEFUL CODES
In this chapter we list a series of utility codes developed by the IRIS team that may serve as a basis for further
investigations. The user is encouraged to use and study them, being aware of any assumptions and simplifications.
9.1 IDL Routines for Level 2 Analysis
These codes are available in the IRIS SSW tree. They work with level 2 data.
pro iris_ne
Purpose: Derive the electron density from line pair intensity ratio and plot the result.
Required: The theoretical density-ratio files can be generated using CHIANTI:
density_ratios, ’o_4’, 1398., 1402., 7., 13., den, rat, desc
d = interpol(alog10(den), 200, /spline)
r = interpol(rat,200,/spline)
save, filename=’o4_1399to1401_den.sav’, d, r
Usage:
int1 = [116., 56., 40.]
; three intensities of O IV 1399Å
err1 = [17., 4., 5.]
; the corresponding measurement error
int2 = [482., 155., 200.] ; three intensities of O IV 1401Å
err2 = [25., 12., 10.]
; the corresponding measurement error
den_file = ’o4_1399to1401_den.sav’
iris_ne, int1, err1, int2, err2, den_file, rat, rat_err, den, den1, den2
pro iris_ne_oiv
Purpose: Derive the electron density from the O IV 1401Å and 1399Å line pair.
Required: The theoretical density-ratio data is included in the code. So users do not need to retrieve this data
from CHIANTI.
Usage:
int1 = [116., 56., 40.]
; three intensities of O IV 1399Å
err1 = [17., 4., 5.]
; the corresponding measurement error
int2 = [482., 155., 200.] ; three intensities of O IV 1401Å
err2 = [25., 12., 10.]
; the corresponding measurement error
iris_ne_oiv, int1, err1, int2, err2, rat, rat_err, den, den1, den2
pro iris_te
Purpose: Derive the electron temperature from line pair intensity ratio and plot the result. Joint observation
between IRIS and EIS can be used to diagnose the electron temperature. Note that O IV 279.93Å/1401.16Å
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has little density sensitivity. Fe XII 195.12Å/1349.40Å has some density sensitivity but the density can be
determined from EIS Fe XII line pairs.
Required: The theoretical density-ratio files can be generated using CHIANTI. For O IV:
temperature_ratios, ’o_4’, 279, 1402, 4.5, 6.0, temp, rat, desc
t=interpol(alog10(temp), 250,/ spline)
r=interpol(rat, 250, /spline)
save, filename=’o4_279to1401_temp.sav’, t, r
For Fe XII (need to specify the density):
temperature_ratios, ’fe_12’, 195, 1350, 5.5, 7.0, temp, rat, desc, density=10^8.5
t = interpol(alog10(temp), 250, /spline)
r = interpol(rat, 250, /spline)
save, filename=’fe12_195to1349_temp_n8.5.sav’, t, r
Usage:
int1 = [100., 200.] ; two intensities of Fe XII 195Å
err1 = [12., 7.]
; the corresponding measurement error
int2 = [1., 2.]
; two intensities of Fe XII 1349Å
err2 = [0.05, 0.12] ; the corresponding measurement error
temp_file = ’./NeTe/fe12_195to1349_temp_n8.5.sav’
iris_te, int1, err1, int2, err2, temp_file, rat, rat_err, temp, temp1, temp2
pro sgf_rbp_1l, wvl, lp, ee
Parameters
• wvl – wavelength vector
• lp – line profile
• ee – error vector
Purpose: Perform a single Gaussian fit to an optically thin emission line profile and derive an “RBp” profile as a
function of velocity (this is a modified version of the “RB” line profile asymmetry analysis originally developed
by De Pontieu et al. (2009, ApJ, 701, L1, ADS link) See the definition in Section 2 of Tian et al. (2011, ApJ,
738, 18, ADS link).
pro dgf_1lp, wvl, lp, ee, ini, range0, range1
Parameters
• wvl – wavelength vector
• lp – line profile
• ee – error vector
• ini – initial guess
• range0 – allowed ranges of first component
• range1 – allowed ranges of second component
Purpose: Perform a double Gaussian fit to an optically thin emission line profile by supplying the initial guess
of intensity ratio, 2nd component speed and width as well as the allowed ranges of the parameters for the two
components.
Usage:
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ini = [0.2, -50, 30]
range0 = [0.5, 2, 1]
range1 = [0.8, 2, 1]
dgf_1lp, wvl, lp, ee, ini, range0, range1
pro dgf_rb_1lp, wvl, lp, ee
Parameters
• wvl – wavelength vector
• lp – line profile
• ee – error vector
Purpose: Perform RB and RBp-guided double Gaussian fit (see RBs in De Pontieu et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, L1,
ADS link; see RBs, RBp, and RBd in Section 2 of Tian et al. 2011, ApJ, 738, 18, ADS link) for a single optically
thin emission line profile.
function gen_rb_profile_err, v, profile, err, steps, dv
Parameters
• v – vector of velocity from line centroid
• profile – line profile
• err – vector of measurement error at different spectral positions
• steps – velocity steps, e.g., [10, 20, 30, 40, ...]
• dv – size of velocity bin, e.g., 20 km/s
Purpose: Get red wing and blue wing intensities of an optically thin emission profile as a function of velocity
(spectral distance from line centroid). The result will be used to build an RB asymmetry profile.
pro tgf_1lp, wvl, lp, ee, ini, range0, range1, range2
Parameters
• wvl – wavelength vector
• lp – line profile
• ee – error vector
• ini – initial guess
• range0 – allowed ranges of first component
• range1 – allowed ranges of second component
• range2 – allowed ranges of third component
Purpose: Do triple Gaussian fit to an optically thin emission line profile by supplying the initial guess of
2nd/core intensity ratio, 2nd component speed and width, 3rd/core intensity ratio, 3rd component speed and
width, as well as the allowed ranges of the parameters for the 3 components.
Usage:
ini = [0.2, -50, 30, 0.05, 80, 20]
range0 = [0.5, 2, 1]
range1 = [0.8, 2, 1]
range2 = [0.8, 2, 1]
tgf_1lp, wvl, lp, ee, ini, range0, range1, range2
9.1. IDL Routines for Level 2 Analysis
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pro iris_nonthermalwidth
Purpose: Compute thermal and nonthermal widths in the unit of km/s.
Usage:
Wobs_v = 28.0
; observed (1/e) line width in km/s
instr_fwhm = 0.0318 ; instrumental FWHM in Å
Wnt_v = iris_nonthermalwidth(’Si’, ’IV’, 1402.77, Wobs_v, instr_fwhm, ti_max=ti_max, Wt_v=Wt_v)
Notes: According to pre-flight measurements, the instrumental width (FWHM) is about 2.5 pixels for the FUV
long and about 2.2 for the FUV short. Using 12.72 mÅ/pixel for the FUV long and 12.98 mÅ/pixel for the FUV
short, we get a FWHM of 31.8mÅ for FUV long and 28.6 mÅ for FUV short.
pro iris_orbitvar_corr_l2, file, dw_orb_fuv, dw_orb_nuv, date_obs, (...)
Parameters
• file – Level 2 file name
• dw_orb_fuv – the correction vector for orbital variation in FUV. Both the thermal and S/C
velocity components are included. The unit is Ångström. (output)
• dw_orb_nuv – the correction vector for orbital variation in NUV. Both the thermal and S/C
velocity components are included. The unit is Ångström. (output)
• date_obs – the vector of observation times
• dw_th – the thermal component of the orbital variation derived by using the Ni I 2799.474
(vacuum wavelength) line. The unit is unsummed wavelength pixel (about 0.0256 Ångström
for NUV, 0.013 Ångström for FUV) (output)
• dw_sc – the spacecraft velocity (along the Sun-IRIS line) component of the orbital variation,
positive value means the Sun is moving away from IRIS. The unit is km/s. (output)
• abswvl_nuv – the amount (unit Ångström) that has to be subtracted from the wavelengths
if you want to do absolute wavelength calibration for NUV. (output)
Purpose: Purpose: Make corrections to the FUV/NUV spectral images for the spacecraft orbital variation of
the spectral line positions using the Ni I 2799.474Å line for IRIS Level 2 FITS files. The input is a Level 2
spectrograph FITS file name. The iris_orbitvar_corr_l2s deals with a list of files.
Notes: dw_orb_fuv, dw_orb_nuv & date_obs saved into the file of datetime+’_orbitvar.genx’,
can
be
loaded
using
restgen, dw_orb_fuv, dw_orb_nuv, date_obs,
file=datetime+’_orbitvar.genx’.
Note: The orbital variation (both the thermal component and the spacecraft velocity component) has been subtracted in the level 2 data generated from the May 2014 pipeline. The thermal component was evaluated using an
empirical relationship between roll, temperature and line positions. In principle no further orbital variation correction is needed and the users can just use the level 2 data downloaded from the IRIS data website. The routine
iris_orbitvar_corr_l2 can be used to correct for any data that has eventually not been properly calibrated.
pro iris_obs2hcr
Purpose: This function maps from IRIS OBSIDs, timelines and/or time range to create IRIS Heliophysics
Coverage Registry (HCR) records http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/ssw/iris/idl/lmsal/util/iris_obs2hcr.pro (e.g.,
this is a wrapper for the general purpose ssw_hcr_query.pro suite of SSW codes). See the above URL for
the doc-header for calling options and the ssw_hcr_query context example.
pro iris_obs2ssw_cutout
Purpose: A procedure to call the above - pulls IRIS-coordinated SDO images. Using IRIS HCR info, sets up and
calls the SSW cutout service - http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/ssw/iris/idl/lmsal/util/iris_obs2ssw_cutout.pro
Usage:
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Chapter 9. Useful codes
A User’s Guide to IRIS Data Retrieval, Reduction & Analysis, Release 1.0
IDL> iris_obs2ssw_cutout, ’20140610_072252_3820011653’, fov_expand=60, $
minute_window=5, blend_waves=’304,193,171’, $
description=’IRIS_Vortex_SST’, max_frames=500, $
max_movie_frames=500, email=’[email protected]’
This calls iris_obs2hcr.pro to get IRIS time/pointing specifics, then calls the aia/sdo ssw cutout service
(ssw_cutout_service.pro) using those windows, optionally expanded (+/-60” & +/- 5 minutes in
above example) - cutout service inherits any keywords (max_frames, blend_waves, etc) as described in
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/ssw_servic/ssw_service_track_fov_api.html
Output of the above:
Job Summary (service parameters per call, job/size summary)
http://www.lmsal.com/solarsoft/ssw_service/queue/finished/ssw_service_140618_113133_38871.html
-> WWW/movie summary (via link in above summary)
http://sdowww.lmsal.com/sdomedia/ssw/media/ssw/ssw_client/data/ssw_service_140618_113133_38871/w
Retrieve the AIA/HMI FITS cutout data from above -> local (see get data cut & paste line in Job Summary)
- optionally, specify output directory and WAVES list (default=Current and All, resp.) - here I ask for
SDO/AIA 193Å and SDO/HMI Blos only - cut & paste this into IDL session:
(...)
IDL> ssw_service_get_data, "ssw_service_140618_113133_38871", /loud, waves=’193,blos’
9.1. IDL Routines for Level 2 Analysis
81
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