Reference 30K Booster Operator`s Manual

Reference 30K Booster Operator`s Manual
Reference 30k Booster
Operator’s Manual
If You Have Problems
Please visit our service and support page at www.gamry.com/service-support/. This page contains
information on installation, software updates, and training. It also contains links to the latest
available documentation. If you are unable to locate the information you need from our website,
you can contact us via e-mail using the link provided on our website. Alternatively, you can
contact us one of the following ways:
Internet
www.gamry.com/service-support/
Telephone
(215) 682-9330 9:00 AM−5:00 PM US Eastern Standard Time
(877) 367-4267 Toll-free US & Canada Only
Please have your instrument model and serial numbers available, as well as any applicable
software and firmware revisions.
If you have problems in installation or use of a system containing a Reference 30k Booster, please
call from a telephone next to your computer, where you can type and read the screen while
talking to us.
We are happy to provide a reasonable level of free support for registered users of the Reference
30k Booster. Reasonable support includes telephone assistance covering the normal installation,
use, and simple customization of a computerized system containing a Reference 30k Booster
connected to a Windows®-compatible computer.
A service contract that extends both the hardware warranty and software-update period is
available at an additional charge. Software updates do not include software enhancements offered
to our customers at additional cost.
Enhancements to the Reference 30k Booster and Gamry’s standard applications software that
require significant engineering time on our part can be performed on a contract basis. Contact us
with your requirements.
i
Limited Warranty
Gamry Instruments, Inc. warrants to the original user of this product that it shall be free of defects
resulting from faulty manufacture of the product or its components for a period of two years from
the original shipment date of your purchase.
Gamry Instruments, Inc. makes no warranties regarding either the satisfactory performance of the
Reference 30k Booster including the software provided with this product or the fitness of the
product for any particular purpose. The remedy for breach of this Limited Warranty shall be
limited solely to repair or replacement, as determined by Gamry Instruments, Inc., and shall not
include other damages.
Gamry Instruments, Inc. reserves the right to make revisions to the system at any time without
incurring any obligation to install same on systems previously purchased. All system specifications
are subject to change without notice.
There are no warranties which extend beyond the description herein. This warranty is in lieu
of, and excludes any and all other warranties or representations, expressed, implied or
statutory, including merchantability and fitness, as well as any and all other obligations or
liabilities of Gamry Instruments, Inc; including but not limited to, special or consequential
damages.
This Limited Warranty gives you specific legal rights and you may have others which vary from
state to state. Some states do not allow for the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages.
No person, firm or corporation is authorized to assume for Gamry Instruments, Inc., any additional
obligation or liability not expressly provided herein except in writing duly executed by an officer
of Gamry Instruments, Inc.
ii
Disclaimers
Gamry Instruments, Inc. cannot guarantee that the Reference 30k Booster will work with all
computer systems, operating systems, and with older Reference 3000 Potentiostat systems.
The information in this manual has been carefully checked and is believed to be accurate as of the
time of printing. However, Gamry Instruments, Inc. assumes no responsibility for errors that might
appear.
Copyrights
Reference 30k Booster Operator's Manual, copyright © 1991−2015 Gamry Instruments, Inc.
Gamry Framework copyright © 1989−2015 Gamry Instruments, Inc.
Gamry Framework™, Reference 3000™, and Gamry™ are trademarks of Gamry Instruments, Inc.
No part of this document may be copied or reproduced in any form without the prior written
consent of Gamry Instruments, Inc.
Copyright © 1991−2015 Gamry Instruments, Inc.
Revision 1.5
December 16, 2015
988-00021
iii
Table of Contents
If You Have Problems ...........................................................................................................................................i
Limited Warranty ....................................................................................................................................................ii
Disclaimers ................................................................................................................................................................iii
Copyrights .................................................................................................................................................................iii
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................................iv
Chapter 1 -- Safety Considerations.................................................................................................................1-1
Inspection ........................................................................................................................................................1-1
Protective Grounding and Product Safety .........................................................................................1-1
Line Voltage and Fuses ..............................................................................................................................1-2
Replacing or Checking the AC Power Fuses ......................................................................................1-3
Ventilation .......................................................................................................................................................1-5
Defects and Abnormal Stresses..............................................................................................................1-5
Spill Hazard.....................................................................................................................................................1-5
Cleaning ...........................................................................................................................................................1-6
Service ..............................................................................................................................................................1-6
RFI Warning ....................................................................................................................................................1-6
Electrical Transient Sensitivity .................................................................................................................1-6
CE Compliance ..............................................................................................................................................1-7
Cell Fuses .........................................................................................................................................................1-7
Fuses in Reference 3000 Counter/Working Cable ..........................................................................1-9
Emergency Shutdown Switch ..................................................................................................................1-9
Shorting the Cell ...........................................................................................................................................1-10
Chapter 2 -- Introduction ...................................................................................................................................2-1
Compatibility with Older Reference 3000 Potentiostats ..............................................................2-1
Cable Connections from Reference 3000 to the Reference 30k Booster ..............................2-2
Theory of Operation ...................................................................................................................................2-2
Grounding .......................................................................................................................................................2-5
Operating Modes .........................................................................................................................................2-5
Operation with Gamry Instruments Software ...................................................................................2-6
Limitations.......................................................................................................................................................2-7
Reference 30k Booster Test and Cal Fixture ......................................................................................2-7
Chapter 3 -- Installation ......................................................................................................................................3-1
Initial Visual Inspection ..............................................................................................................................3-1
Included Parts ................................................................................................................................................3-1
Reference 3000 Compatibility .................................................................................................................3-2
Physical Location ..........................................................................................................................................3-2
Software Installation ...................................................................................................................................3-2
Normal Reference 3000 Installation .....................................................................................................3-3
Power Cord and Line Voltage Selection .............................................................................................3-3
Connections between Reference 3000 and Reference 30k Booster ........................................3-4
Installation of the Working/Counter Cable on the Booster ........................................................3-5
Cal Cell Connections ...................................................................................................................................3-5
Power-Up Test ...............................................................................................................................................3-7
Calibration .......................................................................................................................................................3-7
Optional 30A Test ........................................................................................................................................3-8
Chapter 4 -- Panel Indicators, Controls and Connectors .......................................................................4-1
iv
Front Panel Indicators ................................................................................................................................4-1
Power ......................................................................................................................................................4-1
Booster Active .....................................................................................................................................4-1
Cell On ....................................................................................................................................................4-1
Overload ................................................................................................................................................4-2
Over-Temp ............................................................................................................................................4-2
Emergency Shutdown Indictor .....................................................................................................4-3
Front Panel Fuses .........................................................................................................................................4-3
Front Panel Emergency Shutdown Control........................................................................................4-4
Front Panel Connectors .............................................................................................................................4-4
Working Terminal...............................................................................................................................4-5
Counter Terminal ...............................................................................................................................4-5
Reference 3000 Counter/Working Connector ........................................................................4-6
Rear Panel Connectors ...............................................................................................................................4-6
Power Input Connector....................................................................................................................4-7
Protective Ground and System Ground Binding Posts .......................................................4-7
Ref 3000 Expansion Interface ........................................................................................................4-8
Chapter 5 – Suggestions for Cell Connection.............................................................................................5-1
Avoid Short Circuits in Cell Connections ............................................................................................5-1
Voltage Errors Caused by Wire and Contact Resistance ..............................................................5-1
4-Terminal Cell Connections ...................................................................................................................5-1
Kelvin (4-terminal) Clips ............................................................................................................................5-3
General Suggestions for High Current Connections ......................................................................5-3
Large Diameter Threaded Connections ..............................................................................................5-4
Appendix A -- Reference 30k Booster Specifications ..............................................................................6-1
Appendix B – Grounds and Floating Operation.........................................................................................6-1
Ground Definitions ......................................................................................................................................6-1
Grounding in the Reference 30k Booster ...........................................................................................6-1
Grounding in the Reference 3000 Potentiostat ...............................................................................6-1
USB Ground ....................................................................................................................................................6-2
System Ground .............................................................................................................................................6-2
Connecting Earth and System Ground ................................................................................................6-2
Grounds and Additional Test Equipment ...........................................................................................6-5
Reference 30k Booster Use in Systems Isolated from Earth Ground.......................................6-5
Use in Systems Connected to Earth Ground .....................................................................................6-5
Limits on Ground Voltage.........................................................................................................................6-6
Appendix B: CE Certificate ..................................................................................................................................6-1
Declaration of Conformity ........................................................................................................................6-1
Certificate of Conformance ......................................................................................................................6-3
Index ..................................................................................................................................................................6-3
v
Cha
apter 1: Safety Consider
C
rations
The Reference
R
30k Booster is a high-power
h
electrical
e
devicce used to tesst electrochem
mical cells,
many of which can
n be dangerou
us when misused. The dang
gers can inclu
ude fire, explo
osion, and
emission of hazard
dous chemicalls, and can be
e severe enou
ugh to cause p
personal injurry or death.
Gamryy Instrumentss recommend
ds a careful stu
udy of potenttial hazards before you start any
experiments.
Your Reference
R
30k
k Booster hass been supplie
ed in a safe co
ondition. The Reference 30
0k Booster
includ
des safety feattures that can
n minimize so
ome possible h
hazards enco
ountered when
n testing high
hpower electrochem
mical devices.
This chapter
c
of the
e Reference 30
0k Booster’s Operator’s
O
Maanual contain
ns some inform
mation and
warnings that you must follow to
t insure conttinued safe op
peration of th
he Reference 3
30k Booster. IIt
starts with safety in
nformation ge
enerally applicable to AC-p
powered electtronics device
es, and then
discussses dangers specifically asssociated with
h testing enerrgy-storage d
devices.
Inspe
ection
When
n you receive your
y
Referencce 30k Booste
er, inspect it ffor evidence o
of shipping da
amage. If you
u
note any
a damage, please notify Gamry Instru
uments, Inc. an
nd the shipping carrier imm
mediately.
Save the
t shipping container
c
for possible insp
pection by thee carrier.
Wa
arning: A Reeference 30k Booster damaaged in shipm
ment can be a safety
haza
ard. Do not operate damag
ged apparatus until a qualiified service ttechnician hass verified its
safe
ety. Tag a dam
maged Referen
nce 30k Booster to indicatee that it could
d be a safety hazard.
Protective Grounding and Product Safety
As defined in IEC Publication
P
34
48, Safety Requirements forr Electronic M
Measuring App
paratus, the
Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster is a Classs I apparatus. Class I apparratus is only safe from electrical shock
hazards if the case of the appara
atus is connected to a prottective earth ground.
In the
e Reference 30
0k Booster, th
his protective ground conn
nection is mad
de via the gro
ound prong in
n
the AC
C line cord. When
W
you use the Referencce 30k Boosteer with an app
proved line co
ord, the
conne
ection to the protective earth ground is automaticallyy made prior to making an
ny power
conne
ections.
Caution: Do not negate thee protection oof this earth gground by anyy means. Do
not use the Referrence 30k Boo
oster with a tw
wo-wire exten
nsion cord, with an adapte
er that does
not provide for protective
p
grounding, or wiith an electriccal outlet that is not properrly wired
with
h a protective earth ground
d.
1-1
Warning:
W
Iff the protectivve ground is n
not properly cconnected, it creates a
safe
ety hazard, wh
hich could result in persona
al injury or deeath.
The Reference
R
30k Booster is supplied with a high-currentt line cord suiitable for use in the United
d
Statess. In other cou
untries, you may
m have to re
eplace the linee cord with one suitable fo
or your type o
of
electrical outlet. Yo
ou must alwayys use a line cord
c
with a CEEE 22 Standarrd V female co
onnector on
the in
nstrument end
d of the cable.
Only use
u line cordss rated to han
ndle at least 1.5 kW of pow
wer. The line cords supplied
d with
personal computerrs are generallly not rated for
f high-poweer application
ns.
Warning:
W
Iff you replace the line cord,, you must usse a line cord with the
sam
me polarity and
d power rating as that supplied with thee Reference 3
30k Booster. A
An improper
line cord can crea
ate a safety hazard, which could result i n personal injjury or death..
The wiring
w
polarityy of a properlyy wired conne
ector is shown
n in Table 1-1
1 for both US line cords and
d
Europ
pean line cord
ds that follow the “harmoniized” wiring cconvention.
Tablle 1-1 Line Co
ord Polaritie
es and Colorss
Lin
ne
Bla
ack
Bro
own
US
European
Neutral
White
Light Bllue
Earth Groun
nd
Green
Green/Yellow
w
If you have any doubts about th
he line cord fo
or use with yo
our Referencee 30k Booster,, please
contact a qualified electrician orr instrument service
s
techniician for assisttance. They can perform a
simple
e continuity check
c
to verifyy the connecttion of the Re ference 30k B
Booster chasssis to earth,
and check that the line cord is suitable for 1.5
5 kW power. TThese checks only verify th
he safety of
your Reference
R
30k
k Booster AC power conne
ections; they d
do not verify ssafety of the ssystem used
for a specific
s
appliccation.
Line Voltage an
nd Fuses
The Reference
R
30k Booster can be safely ope
erated at two nominal line power voltag
ges: 115 V AC
and 240 V AC. Table 1-2 shows the allowed range
r
of inputt voltage for eeach nominall line-voltage
setting. The AC pow
wer-line frequ
uency must be between 47
7 and 65 Hz.
Table 1-2
AC Voltag
ge Ranges forr Each Nomin
nal Line-Volttage Setting
Nominal Se
etting
115 V AC
240 V AC
Allow
wed Range
90 to 130 V AC
215 to
o 264 V AC
Fuse Rati ng
12.5 A at 250
0 V AC
6.3 A at 250 V AC
1-2
Schu
urter Time De
elay P/N
0034.3128
8
0034.3125
5
The in
nstrument auttomatically sw
witches to use
e any power-l ine voltage in
n these ranges. Safe, fullpower operation in
n each range requires different AC poweer-line fuses aas noted in Ta
able 1-2.
Gamryy Instrumentss attempts to ship your Refference 30k B
Booster config
gured for the power-line
voltag
ge in your are
ea. The fuses installed in the Reference 3
30k Booster should be the correct value
es
for the AC line-volttage prevalen
nt in your area
a. Spare fusess appropriate for your line voltage are
also in
ncluded. If an error was ma
ade in the fusse selection, p
please contactt Gamry Instru
uments or
your local sales rep
presentative to get the correct fuses.
Warning:
W
You
Y can dama
age a Referencce 30k Boosteer by attemptting to
operate it with in
ncorrect powe
er-line fuses. It is dangerou
us to plug a unit fused for o
operation at
100 V AC or 120 V AC into a higher
h
voltage
e such as 220 V AC. A poweer-supply fault under
thesse conditions could create a fire or shocck hazard.
Caution: Operrating a Reference 30k Boooster at high ooutput currennt with
inco
orrect power-line fuses can
n cause openin
ng of a fuse. Y
You may see this problem is seen
whe
en operating the
t instrumen
nt with 115 V AC power bu
ut with fuses aappropriate fo
or 240 V AC
operation. Any open fuses mu
ust be replaced before the instrument reesumes opera
ation.
The Reference
R
30k Booster depe
ends on fusess in the AC lin
ne input to preevent electriccal shock and
fire ha
azards in the unlikely case of a catastrop
phic failure off the power su
upplies. Two fuses are
used, one for each side of the AC
A line. The Re
eference 30k Booster uses “European Sttyle” 5 mm ×
20 mm
m cylindrical fuses.
f
Time-la
ag fuses that are
a designed to meet IEC P
Publication 60
0127-2 are
requirred. We recom
mmend Schurrter FST seriess fuses as rep lacements.
If you are uncertain
n which fuses are installed in your Referrence 30k Boo
oster, check th
he fuse rating
g
writte
en on the fuse
es. Step-by-ste
ep instruction
ns for checkin
ng or hanging
g the AC line ffuses in a
Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster are show
wn in the next section of th
his chapter.
Repllacing or Checking th
he AC Powe
er Fuses
This section of the Reference 30
0k Booster ma
anual gives st ep-by-step in
nstructions for checking orr
chang
ging the AC power fuses in
n your Referen
nce 30k Boostter. Please folllow these insstructions
carefu
ully. You need
d a small flat-b
blade screwdriver to perfo rm this proceedure.
1.
Unplug the AC
C power cord from
f
the back
k of the Referrence 30k Boo
oster. The fuses cannot be
ch
hanged with the
t AC line co
ord plugged into the Referrence 30k Boo
oster.
2.
Lo
ocate the AC input module
e on the lower left-hand co
orner of the R
Reference 30kk Booster’s rea
ar
panel. It can be
e identified byy the power cord
c
connecto
or built into itt.
3.
Fiind the small slot on the to
op of the AC input modulee. Use the blad
de of a small screwdriver to
o
pry open the door
d
on the AC input modu
ule.
1-3
4.
Th
he fuses are contained
c
insiide a fuse-holder. Use the blade of a sm
mall screwdrivver to pry the
fu
useholder outt of the AC inp
put module.
5.
Remove the old fuses by pryying them ou
ut of the fuse holders. Replace them with the correct
fu
uses which sim
mply pop into
o the fuse hold
ders. The fusee holder allow
ws both US- and Europeansttyle fuses. The
e European-sttyle 5 x 20 mm
m fuses suppllied with the iinstrument m
mount toward
th
he interior end
d of the fuse holder. Only one end of th
he fuse clips in
nto the fuse h
holder (see
Fiigure 1-1).
Th
he current-ratting of the fuses is written on the metall ends of the ffuse. Make su
ure that your
fu
uses are the appropriate va
alue for your AC
A power-linee voltage.
Figure 1-1
Photograph of Fuse-hold
der Removed
d from AC In
nput Module
6.
Replace the fuse(s) only with the correct value and typ
pe of fuse. See Table 1-2 and the text
fo
ollowing it forr values and descriptions
d
of
o the fuses.
7.
Replace the fuse holder (witth the correctt fuses) in the AC input mo
odule. The end
d with four
metal
m
contactss goes into the
e AC line-con
nnector first. B
Both orientations that fit w
work identically.
8.
Close the cove
er of the AC in
nput module. It should sna p into place.
Caution: The AC
A power fuse
es are importtant componeents for safe o
operation of
the Reference 30k Booster. Ne
ever replace the fuses with incorrect valu
ues or types, and never
circu
umvent the fu
use action. If your
y
Referencce 30k Boosteer routinely bllows the AC liine fuses, it
could indicate a serious
s
proble
em with the Reference
R
30kk Booster. Con
ntact Gamry IInstruments
or your
y
local sale
es representattive for repair information.
1-4
Venttilation
Your Reference
R
30k
k Booster wass designed to operate at am
mbient tempeeratures betw
ween 0°C and
40°C.
Caution: Be caareful when operating the Reference 30k Booster in aan enclosed
spacce (such as an
n enclosed rellay rack or NE
EMA enclosurre). The tempeerature within
n the
encllosure must not
n exceed 40
0°C. You may need
n
to proviide ventilation
n holes or eve
en forced-air
cooling for the en
nclosure if excessive tempe
erature-rise o
occurs.
Defe
ects and Ab
bnormal Sttresses
Treat your Reference 30k Booste
er as potentia
ally hazardouss if any of thee following is true of the
unit:
•
•
•
•
•
It shows visible damage
e.
It does nott operate properly.
It has been
n stored for a long period of
o time underr unfavorable conditions.
It has been
n dropped or subjected to severe transp
port stress.
It has been
n subjected to
o environmen
ntal stress (corrrosive atmossphere, fire, ettc.).
Do no
ot use your Re
eference 30k Booster or an
ny other appaaratus if you th
hink it could be hazardouss.
Have it checked byy qualified serrvice personne
el.
There
e are limit conditions on the
e storage, shipping and op
peration of th
his equipmentt. The
Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster has not been
b
designed for outdoo r use.
Storage
Ambientt temperature
e
Relative humidity
−20
0°C to 60°C
Maxximum 90% n
non-condensin
ng
Shipping
Same ass storage pluss
Accelera
ation
Maxximum 30 G
Operation
n
Ambientt temperature
e
Relative humidity
10°C
C to 40°C
Maxximum 90% n
non-condensin
ng
Spill Hazard
Coolin
ng of the Refe
erence 30k Bo
ooster require
es air flow thrrough the chaassis. The cove
er of the
instrument is perfo
orated to allow
w this air flow
w. The perforaations add to tthe danger off accidental
spills shorting the circuitry
c
inside the chassis..
Take extra
e
care when using chem
micals near th
he Reference 30k Booster. Spills into the
e case can
create
e hazardous conditions
c
and
d could dama
age the instru ment. Turning
g the instrum
ment off does
not co
ompletely elim
minate the hazard.
1-5
Warning:
W
Take
T
precautio
ons to preven
nt spillage of lliquids into th
he Reference
30k Booster’s cha
assis. Spills co
ould damage the
t instrumen
nt and may crreate hazardo
ous
If you do spill anything into the Reference 30
0k Booster chaassis, unplug it from AC po
ower
imme
ediately. Referr cleaning the instrument to
o a qualified sservice person, or contact Gamry
Instruments. Do no
ot replace the
e power until the
t instrumen
nt has been ceertified as saffe.
Cleaning
Disconnect the Refference 30k Booster from all
a power sou rces prior to ccleaning.
Clean the outside of
o the Referen
nce 30k Boostter enclosure with a rag daampened with
h either clean
waterr or water con
ntaining a mild
d detergent.
Caution: Do not use a wet rag or allow w
water to enterr the Referencce 30k
Boo
oster enclosure. Do not imm
merse the Refference 30k B ooster in anyy type of clean
ning fluid
(inclluding water). Do not use any
a abrasive cleaners.
c
Serv
vice
Your Reference
R
30k
k Booster hass no user-servviceable parts inside. Refer all service to a qualified
servicce technician.
Warning:
W
Never
N
operate
e the Referencce 30k Boosteer with any co
over or panel
on the
t chassis op
pen. Dangerou
us AC line volltages are preesent at severral points with
hin the
Refe
erence 30k Bo
ooster chassiss, including prrinted-circuit--board traces.. Always remo
ove the AC
pow
wer cord beforre opening th
he Reference 30k
3 Booster ccase.
RFI Warning
W
Your Reference
R
30k
k Booster gen
nerates, uses, and can radiaate radio-freq
quency energyy. The radiate
ed
levels are low enou
ugh that the Reference
R
30k
k Booster sho uld present n
no interferencce problem in
most industrial laboratory enviro
onments. The
e Reference 30
0k Booster co
ould possibly cause radiofreque
ency interfere
ence if operatted in a reside
ential environ ment.
Electtrical Transsient Sensitivity
Your Reference
R
30k
k Booster wass designed an
nd has been teested to offerr reasonable iimmunity from
m
electrical transientss. However, in
n severe casess, the Referen
nce 30k Boostter could malffunction or
even suffer
s
damage from electriical transientss. If you are haaving problem
ms with transients, the
follow
wing steps ma
ay help:
1-6
•
•
If the problem is static electricity (sparks are apparent when you touch the Reference 30k
Booster):
o
Placing your Reference 30k Booster on a static control work surface may help. Staticcontrol work surfaces are now generally available from computer-supply houses and
electronics tool-suppliers. An antistatic floor mat may also help, particularly if a carpet is
involved in generating the static electricity.
o
Air ionizers or even simple air humidifiers can reduce the voltage available in static
discharges.
If the problem is AC power-line transients (often from large electrical motors near the
Reference 30k Booster).
o
Try plugging your Reference 30k Booster into a different AC-power branch circuit.
o
Plug your Reference 30k Booster into a power-line surge suppressor. Inexpensive surge
suppressors are now generally available because of their use with computer equipment.
Contact Gamry Instruments, Inc. if these measures do not solve the problem.
CE Compliance
The European Community has instituted standards limiting radio-frequency interference from
electronic devices and mandating several safety requirements.
Gamry Instruments, Inc. has modified its instruments, including the Reference 30k Booster, to
comply with these standards.
The relevant CE regulations include EN55022 Class B and EN60950.
Cell Fuses
One of the safety features built into the Reference 30k Booster is fuses in the high-current cell
leads. These fuses open if currents in excess of the booster’s 30 A rating flow into or out of the
cell. The time required to open the fuses depends on the severity of the current overload.
Currents of 50 A or more open the fuses quickly.
The cell fuses are not vital for electrical safety. They can prevent hazardous
conditions within the cell attached to the Reference 30k Booster. They also prevent damage
to the instrument when it is improperly grounded.
Both the Counter and Working electrode leads are protected by 30 A blade-type fuses, accessible
from the front panel of the instrument.
1-7
Caution: The fuses
f
for the cell
c leads onlyy prevent currrent flow into
o or out of
the counter- and working-elecctrode termin
nals of the Refference 30k B
Booster. These
e fuses do
not protect again
nst excessive current
c
that does
d
not flow through the instrument. FFor example,
theyy do not prote
ect against sh
hort-circuits in
n the electrocchemical cell o
or in the high-current cell
The fu
uses protect the
t cell from excess
e
current from two po
ossible error cconditions:
•
Improper grounding,
g
an
nd
•
Electronicss failure in the
e booster.
The grounding con
nditions that create
c
the pro
oblem are dis cussed furtheer in Appendixx B.
The fu
uses used for this function are rated for 30 A and Fasst Blow operation. One suittable
replaccement fuse is the Littelfusse 0257030.PX
XPV. The fuse s are green. A portion of the plastic
housing of each fuse can be see
en near the middle
m
of the R
Reference 30kk Booster’s fro
ont panel.
Repla
ace the fuses using the fo
ollowing proccedure:
1.
Tu
urn off the Re
eference 30k Booster
B
Powe
er switch.
2.
Disconnect
D
the
e counter and
d working high
h-current cab
bles from all eelectrochemical cells.
3.
Grasp the porttion of each fu
use that protrrudes through
h the Reference 30k Booste
er’s front
panel.
4.
Pull the fuse ou
ut of the pane
el.
5.
In
n many cases, visual examin
nation of the fuse shows a discontinuityy in the metall element,
in
ndicating an open
o
fuse. However, this is not always th
he case. Moree accurately, tthe resistance
e
off the fuses can be measure
ed with an ohmmeter. Unb
blown fuse ressistance should be less tha
an
1 Ω. Blown fuses have very high resistancce.
6.
Re-insert good
d fuses by sim
mply pressing them into thee original fusee location.
7.
Th
he plastic porrtion of correcctly inserted fuses
f
should eextend 3 to 5 mm from the
e front panel.
Caution: The cell
c fuses are important co mponents forr safe operation of the
Refe
erence 30k Bo
ooster. Never replace the fu
uses with inco
orrect values or types, or in
n any way
circu
umvent the fu
use action. If your
y
Referencce 30k Boosteer routinely bllows the cell ffuses you
could have a grounding problem, or a serio
ous problem w
with the Reference 30k Boo
oster.
Con
nsult Gamry In
nstruments orr your local re
epresentative for assistancee.
An op
pen fuse may or may not create overload indications in the system
m, depending on the contro
ol
mode
e being used in
i the test.
A Refe
erence 30k Bo
ooster with on
ne or both fro
ont-panel celll fuses open ccan still allow current flow
into or
o out of the cell
c in “pass-th
hrough” mode. A differentt set of fuses iin the Referen
nce 3000
Countter/Working cable
c
preventt excessive current into thee Reference 30
000.
1-8
Fuse
es in Refere
ence 3000 Counter/W
C
Working Ca
able
There
e are also 3.15
5 A fuses in th
he Reference 3000
3
Counterr/Working cab
ble. They are located on a
small printed circuit board inside the hood on the Referen
nce 3000 end of the cable.
These
e fuses should
d never blow (open
(
circuit) during norm al operation o
of the system
m. They are
present to prevent damage to the Reference 3000 in two possible error conditions:
• Th
he first error condition
c
requires a boostter malfunctio
on. The malfun
nction must ccause one of
th
he two switches that enable pass-throug
gh to be set t o the wrong state or mustt cause a
sw
witch failure. In
I this conditiion, the cell’s Counter elecctrode lead is connected to
o the 30 A
booster, and th
he cell’s Work
king lead is in pass-through
h mode. As a consequence
e, currents as
high as 30 A co
ould flow into
o the Referencce 3000’s Wo rking lead. Th
he fuses in the
e Reference
30
000 Counter//Working cablle prevent damage to the R
Reference 300
00.
• Th
he second errror condition can occur wh
hen the system
m is improperrly grounded (earthed). In
th
his condition, the System Ground
G
and Ea
arth Ground aare connected
d, and a cell w
with an earth-ground connecction is opera
ated in pass-th
hrough modee. When this o
occurs, the ce
ell is shortciircuited throu
ugh the Refere
ence 3000. Th
he fuses in thee Reference 3
3000 Counter//Working
ca
able prevent damage
d
to Re
eference 3000
0 if the resultiing currents eexceed 3 A.
Conta
act Gamry Insttruments tech
hnical supporrt if the fuses in the Referen
nce 3000 Cou
unter/Working
g
consisstently show open
o
circuit. If
I you need ad
dditional fusees, their Gamrry P/N is 630--00021. The
manufacturer is Littelfuse, and they are from their Nanofu se series, partt number is 0
04513.15MRL.
EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN
N Switch
Anoth
her safety featture built into
o the Referencce 30k
Boostter is the EME
ERGENCY SHUTDOWN sw
witch. This
large red switch on
n the front panel of the Refference 30k
Boostter allows you
u to immediattely shut off all electrical
power flowing into
o or out of the
e cell from the
e Reference
30k Booster. Pressiing on this ve
ery visible swittch causes
the sw
witch to open. It remains open until you
u reset it.
A red LED indicator on the frontt panel of the Reference
30k Booster glows when the EM
MERGENCY SH
HUTDOWN
switch
h is in the trip
pped position.. The system does
d
not
run exxperiments un
ntil you reset the switch an
nd the indicat or LED is off.
Activa
ate the EMER
RGENCY SHUT
TDOWN whe
en you see a sserious probleem in your tesst cell, such as
boiling of the cell electrolyte,
e
ga
as evolution, swelling
s
of a ccell, or ventin
ng of a sealed cell.
Caution: The EMERGENCY
E
SHUTDOWN
N switch only prevents current flow
from
m the cell into
o or out of the
e Reference 30k Booster’s h
high-current cell leads. It d
does not
prottect against dangerous
d
cell conditions that do not invvolve currentt flow into the
e booster,
such
h as short circcuits within th
he cell
1-9
Do not use the EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN switch to shut down tests in nonemergency situations. You could lose data collected prior to the shutdown.
The Gamry Framework does not recognize a Reference
3000/Reference 30k Booster system when the Booster is
in its Emergency Shutdown state. The shut-down
instrument cannot be operated because the Windows®
Device Manager does not know the instrument is
connected.
Turn the
switch this
way to
Reset the EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN switch by turning
the switch’s red knob clockwise. If the Gamry
Framework is open, after a few seconds, the Booster
system reappears in the Framework window.
Shorting the Cell
By definition, batteries store energy. Fuel cells, super-capacitors, and electrolytic cells can also
contain stored energy. A short-circuit across the cell terminals can cause large currents and
hazardous conditions. The dangers can include fire, explosion and emission of hazardous
chemicals, and can be severe enough to cause personal injury or death. Operator error is a
common and very dangerous source of short-circuits.
Gamry has taken precautions against some forms of operator errors that can short the cell. For
example, the high-current terminals on the front of the instrument have a plastic barrier between
them. This barrier prevents a metal wrench bridging between the terminals.
You are responsible for your own safety. Gamry strongly recommends that you review all highenergy experiments with your organization’s safety officer.
1-10
Chapter 2: Introduction
About the Reference 30k Booster
The Reference 30k Booster was developed to extend high-quality electrochemical measurements
to high-current cells.
The Reference 30k Booster is always used in a system with a Gamry Instruments Reference 3000
Potentiostat/Gavanostat/ZRA.
The Reference 30k Booster cannot be used with other Gamry potentiostats or
instruments from other manufacturers.
An electrochemical test system consisting of a Reference 30k Booster and a Reference 3000
Potentiostat offers these impressive characteristics:
•
•
•
•
•
Currents up to 30 A
Potentials up to 20 V
Potentiostat, Galvanostat, and ZRA Operating Modes
2-, 3-, and 4-electrode modes.
A pass-through mode that allows current measurement with resolution as low as 1 µA
without moving any cables.
The system excels when used for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). It offers better
frequency response than all competing systems. EIS performance includes:
• Accurate measurement at frequencies from 10 µHz to 300 kHz
• Measurement in three control modes: potentiostatic, galvanostatic, and a unique hybrid
control mode
• Measurement of impedances from 10 µΩ to 10 kΩ without changing system connections
Applications for a system containing a Reference 30k Booster include research, quality control,
and production in these areas:
• Precision plating
• Electrochemical synthesis
• Fuel cells
• Batteries
• Super-capacitors
• Solar cells
Systems built using a Reference 3000 with its Auxiliary Electrometer (AE) option allow DC
Corrosion and EIS measurements on series-connected stacks of energy-storage and conversion
devices. EIS characterization of individual fuel cells in a stack has never been easier.
Compatibility with Older Reference 3000 Potentiostats
The Reference 3000 may be incompatible with some older Reference 3000 potentiostats. If your
Reference 30k Booster was purchased in a system with a Reference 3000 potentiostat, the two
instruments are definitely compatible.
See Chapter 3 for more-detailed Reference 3000 compatibility information.
2-1
Cable Connectiions from Reference 3000 to th
he Reference 30k Boo
oster
The Reference
R
30k Booster requ
uires a Referen
nce 3000 Poteentiostat/Galvvanostat/ZRA
A for its
opera
ation.
The Reference 30
0k Booster cannot be used
d with other G
Gamry potentiiostats or
instrruments from
m other manuffacturers.
Two cables
c
connecct the Referen
nce 30k Booster to the Refeerence 3000:
•
Th
he first cable is an analog cable
c
that con
nnects the W
Working/Coun
nter Connecto
or on the fron
nt
panel of the Re
eference 3000
0 to the Referrence 3000 W
Working/Coun
nter connecto
or on the fron
nt
panel of the Re
eference 30k Booster. It is a 15-pin conn
nector with a D-connector on each end.
Th
he connection
n must be ma
ade with a Ga
amry Cable, paart number 985-116.
Caution: Do
D not use an
ny cable otherr than Gamry P/N 985-116
6 to make
this connection. This cable
e has special grounding
g
an
nd shielding reequired for operation of
the system. Third-party
T
15
5-pin male-to-female cablees may physiccally connect the
instruments but will not offer
o
full perfo
ormance and could cause damage to th
he
•
Th
he second cable is a digital-control cable that connects the Expan
nsion Interface connectorr
on the rear pan
nel of the Refference 3000 to the Refere nce 3000 Exp
pansion Interrface
co
onnector on the
t rear panel of the Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster. This is a 25-pin cable
e with a Dco
onnector on each
e
end. The
e connection must
m
be mad
de with a Gam
mry Cable, parrt number 985
512
20.
Caution: Do
D not use an
ny cable otherr than Gamry P/N 985-120
0 to make
this connection. This cable
e uses special grounding to
o prevent gro
ound loops wiithin the
system. Third
d-party 25-pin
n male-to-fem
male cables m
may physically connect the instruments,
but will not offer
o
full perfo
ormance, and could cause damage to th
he instrumentts.
Theo
ory of Operation
Perha
aps the easiest way to think
k of the Reference 30k Boo
oster is: the Bo
ooster adds o
one additional
curren
nt range to th
he Reference 3000.
3
The hig
ghest measureeable current on the Refere
ence 3000 is 3
A full--scale. When the system is boosted with
h a Referencee 30k, the larg
gest measurea
able current
increa
ases to 30 A. Transparent
T
to the user, the ±30 A cell ccurrent is meaasured by the
e electronics in
n
the Re
eference 30k Booster, convverted to ±3 mA,
m and then sent to the R
Reference 300
00’s current
measu
urement circu
uit.
Of course, adding an
a additional measuremen
nt range is useeless if the syystem cannot control cell
voltag
ge or current. The Referencce 30k Booste
er also contain
ns a power am
mplifier that increases the
outpu
ut current of the
t system to 30 A. This po
ower amplifierr has an asym
mmetrical outp
put voltage
2-2
swing: it can control cell voltages as high as +20 V, but only as low as −2.5 V. The output current
is symmetrical at ±30 A.
Unlike many other boosted electrochemistry systems, the Reference 3000 and Reference 30k
Booster can operate using the lower-current instrument’s current ranges without disconnecting or
moving any cables. Switches in the Reference 30k Booster allow connection of the cell’s counter
and working electrodes to either the high-current (30 A) control amplifier and 30 A I/E converter
in the Booster, or the 3 A control amplifier and 3 A to 30 mA current range I/E converter in the
Reference 3000.
This latter mode is called pass-through mode.
Figure 2-1 is a simplified schematic of the Reference 30k Booster connected to a Reference 3000
Potentiostat. The diagram shows the connections for potentiostatic operation using half-cell
connections to a three-electrode cell.
2-3
Figure 2-1
Simplified Range-Switching Reference 30k Booster
The electrochemical cell under test is on the right side of the diagram. The cell has connections to
both the Reference 30k Booster and the Reference 3000 Potentiostat as follows:
The Reference 3000’s Reference lead and Working Sense lead connect directly to the cell. These
leads sense the voltage difference between two points in the cell. In three-electrode cells, this is
2-4
usually the voltage between the working electrode and a reference electrode. In two-electrode
cells, this is the voltage across the two available cell terminals.
The counter and working electrode connections can carry very high currents. The high-current
terminals on the Reference 30k Booster are usually connected to the cell using a heavy, largediameter cable.
Whenever possible, use the Reference 30K Booster with the high-current cell
cable shipped with the unit. This cable has been specially designed for low inductance. If you
use other cables, you may observe control-loop oscillation.
In Figure 2-1, note that the working and counter connections are switched within the Reference
30k Booster.
When the system is on the 30 A current range, a switch connects the counter electrode to the
output of the Reference 30k Booster’s 30 A power amplifier. The input voltage for this highcurrent amplifier comes from the voltage on the Reference 3000’s Counter-electrode lead. A
second switch connects the working electrode to the 30 A current-measurement circuit. The
output of this current-measurement circuit is converted into a ±3 mA current and connected to
the Reference 3000’s Working Lead.
On all other current ranges, the system operates in its pass-through mode. The switches
described above connect the high-current working- and counter-electrode terminals to the lowercurrent Reference 3000 cell leads.
While the system does treat the Reference 30k Booster as an additional current range, Gamry’s
software does not allow auto-ranging between the 30 A range and the lower ranges. The
transition between the boosted and non-boosted ranges can only be made when the cell is
turned off.
The high-current cable connecting the cell to the Reference 30k Booster is not shielded. This cable
is optimized for low inductance, not low capacitance. The lack of shielding generally allows
significant noise pick-up in the system, especially at the power-line frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. This
noise is usually large enough to preclude use of sensitive current-ranges in pass-through mode.
Gamry’s software presently does not allow pass-through mode to use ranges more sensitive than
30 mA full-scale.
Grounding
A Reference 30k Booster system can be operated floating (isolated) from earth ground. This
allows control current or voltage on electrochemical systems where one electrode or the system
plumbing is earth-grounded.
System grounding is discussed more fully in Appendix B. Please consult this Appendix if you need
to float your cell.
Operating Modes
As described above, the Reference 30k Booster can be thought of as an additional current range
added to the Reference 3000 instrument. This additional range is available in all three common
Reference 3000 control modes: potentiostatic, galvanostatic and ZRA.
2-5
Potentiostatic:
In this mode, the system controls the potential between two voltage-sensing
points. Some of Gamry’s control software allows variation in potentiostat mode
including: 2-electrode and 3-electrode operation and connection of a highvoltage electrometer.
Voltage sensing is always done using the leads in the Reference 3000’s sense
cable. In the standard (low-voltage) mode, the voltage is always measured
between the Reference (white) lead and the Working Sense (blue) lead. In highvoltage mode, the sensing is done between the Counter Sense (orange) lead
and the Working Sense (blue) lead.
Galvanostatic:
In this mode, the system controls the current flow through the cell. The current
can be measured directly by one of the Reference 3000’s current ranges or
measured on the Reference 30k Booster’s 30A range. In either case, the current
flows between the high-current terminals on the front panel of the Reference
30k Booster.
ZRA:
In this mode, the cell is kept with zero volts between the counter-sense
(orange) lead and the working-sense (blue) leads.
Operation with Gamry Instruments Software
Gamry’s Framework software was written to allow device-independent potentiostat operation.
Most tests will run using any Gamry Instruments’ Potentiostat. There is one obvious limitation:
Tests cannot exceed the specifications of the potentiostat in the system.
Some Framework Potentiostatic mode scripts normally only allow current range auto-ranging;
they do not allow user-selection of a current range. All Gamry DC Corrosion Scripts operate in this
way. A special provision in the Reference 30k Booster driver allows limited operation of these
scripts. Whenever the scripts attempt to set up current range auto-ranging, a dialog box appears
that allows you to enter a maximum expected current. A typical dialog box is seen in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2
Simplified Range Switching Reference 30k Booster
After you click the OK button, the entered current is used to set a current range in either boosted
or pass-through mode. The range is not changed during curve acquisition.
One place that auto-ranging is allowed is during acquisition of an EIS spectrum. The system turns
off the cell, changes the current range, and then re-activates the cell when EIS needs to change
the current range.
2-6
Similar limitations apply when the Reference 30k Booster is used with other Gamry Instruments
software or with user-written software that uses the Gamry Instruments Toolkit for experiment
control and data-acquisition.
Limitations
A system with a Reference 3000 potentiostat and a Reference 30k Booster does have limitations
compared to the non-boosted system. These limitations include:
• The maximum allowed frequency for EIS measurement is 300 kHz. The new limit applies in
both 30 A and pass-through modes.
• Current range auto-ranging is not allowed.
• The system does not operate on ranges more sensitive than 30 mA full-scale.
You can overcome all of these limitations if the cell current does not exceed 3 A.
In this case, you can disassemble the system and connect the cell directly to the Reference
3000 Cell Cables. Make sure to disconnect the Expansion cable connecting the rear panels of
the Reference 3000 and the Reference 30k Booster.
Reference 30k Booster Test and Calibration Fixture
Every Reference 30k Booster is shipped with a Reference 30k Test and Calibration Fixture, Gamry
part number 990-284. This fixture is a small printed-circuit board designed specifically for use
with the Booster. It has a Test side that is a 3 mΩ, 6 W resistor and a Calibration side that is a 200
mΩ, 1 W resistor. The nominal tolerance of the resistors is ±1%.
The Test side of the fixture can handle the full 30 A output of the Reference 30k Booster. While it
was wired for minimum inductance, resistances this low always suffer from errors caused by stray
inductance. EIS on the test side of the fixture shows an inductive impedance spectrum above 10
kHz.
The Cal side of the fixture can only handle 2 A. Higher currents will blow (open circuit) a 2 A fuse
on this side of the fixture. This fuse prevents damage to the fixture when higher currents are
applied. Spare fuses are provided with the fixture. If you need additional fuses, their Gamry part
number is 630-00027. The manufacturer is Littelfuse and the fuses are from their Nanofuse series,
part number 451002MRL.
2-7
Cha
apter 3: Installattion
This chapter
c
of the
e Gamry Instru
uments, Inc. Reference
R
30kk Booster Opeerator’s Manu
ual covers
norma
al installation of the Refere
ence 30k Booster in a systeem with a Refference 3000 potentiostat.
Initia
al Visual In
nspection
After you remove your
y
Referencce 30k Booste
er from its shi pping carton,, check it for a
any signs of
shipping damage. If you note an
ny damage, please
p
notify G
Gamry Instrum
ments, Inc. and the shippin
ng
carrier immediatelyy. Save the sh
hipping contaiiner for possi ble inspection
n by the carrie
er.
Wa
arning: A Reeference 30k Booster damaaged in shipm
ment can be a safety
haza
ard. Do not operate damag
ged apparatus until a qualiified service ttechnician hass verified its
safe
ety. Tag a dam
maged Referen
nce 30k Booster to indicatee that it could
d be a safety hazard.
Inclu
uded Parts
The fo
ollowing items are included
d with a Referrence 30k Boo
oster:
Item
Gamry P/N
N
Description
Notees
1
990-275
Reference 30k
3 Booster Ch
hassis
The B
Booster Box
2
985-122
Cable, Ref 30k
3 Counter
Working
High--current cable tto the cell, 90 ccm
3
988-21
Manual, Re
eference 30k Bo
ooster
This d
document
4
990-284
Reference 30k
3 Test and
Calibration Fixture
3 mΩ
Ω and 200 mΩ
5
985-116
Cable, Ref3
3000 to Ref30k
Working Co
ounter
15-piin D male-to-feemale
6
985-120
Cable, Ref3
3000 to Ref30k
Expansion Interface
I
25-piin D male-to-feemale
7
630-23
Fuse, Blade
e, 30 A, Green
Qty 2 - Spare fuses for Working an
nd Counter
8
630-27
Fuse, Nano
o2A
Qty 3 – Spare fuses for Test and Cal cell
9
821-1
Nut Driver, 9/16 inch
Red N
Nut Driver for FFront Panel Wo
orking and
Coun
nter Mounting S
Studs
10
821-2
Nut Driver, 13 mm
Blackk Nut Driver forr Test and Cal FFixture
In add
dition, shipme
ents to locatio
ons known to have 115 V A
AC power sho
ould include:
11
720-78
Line Cord, 115
1 V, 16 A
High current line co
ord
12
630-24
Fuse, 5 × 20
0 mm, 12.5 A
time-delay
Qty 22; Spare AC linee fuse
3-1
Shipm
ments to locattions known to have 240 V AC power sh
hould include::
11
630-26
Fuse, 5 × 20 mm, 6.3 A
time delay
Qtyy 2; Spare AC lin
ne fuse
Refe
erence 3000
0 Compatibility
The Reference
R
30k Booster is co
ompatible with
h all Referencce 3000 poten
ntiostats shipp
ped after
Decem
mber 28, 2010
0. Reference 3000
3
potentio
ostats manufaactured earlier than that da
ate are only
comp
patible with th
he Reference 30k
3 Booster after
a
an upgraade.
Incom
mpatible Referrence 3000 po
otentiostats can
c be upgrad
ded by replacing their pote
entiostat card
d.
This can
c only be do
one at Gamryy’s US facilitiess. This upgrad
de is covered under Gamryy’s two-year
warranty, if applica
able. Owners of
o out-of-warrranty systemss will be charg
ged for the upgrade.
Gamryy only provides an in-warranty upgrade
e with the purrchase of a Reeference 30k B
Booster.
If you are adding a Reference 30
0k Booster to an older exissting Referencce 3000 syste
em, note the
serial number of th
he Reference 3000
3
and con
ntact your locaal Gamry reprresentative orr email
techsu
[email protected]
mry.com for infformation on Booster com
mpatibility of tthat specific R
Reference 300
00
poten
ntiostat.
Physsical Locatiion
Place your Reference 30k Booste
er on a norma
al workbench
h surface. You need access to the rear off
the in
nstrument beccause some ca
able connections are madee from the reaar.
The Reference
R
30k Booster is ge
enerally restriccted to operaation in a horiizontal positio
on with the
instrument sitting on
o a flat surfa
ace. Operation
n in other possitions can result in restrictted airflow
and overheating
o
off the circuitry. We do not recommend
r
p
placing solid o
objects near the Reference
30k.
Caution: The Reference
R
30k
k Booster req uires unrestricted airflow e
entering the
perfforation in the
e instrument’ss chassis and exiting from the rear of th
he chassis. We
e
reco
ommend at le
east 10 cm cle
earance betwe
een the sides, top, and botttom of the Re
eference 30k
Boo
oster’s and anyy object that would
w
restrictt this airflow.
The Reference
R
30k Booster is on
nly useful whe
en connected in a system w
with a Referen
nce 3000
Poten
ntiostat. The Reference
R
300
00 can be loca
ated to either side of the R
Reference 30k, or can be
locate
ed on top of the
t Reference
e 30k chassis. The 10 cm reecommended clearance can
n be relaxed
when the Referencce 3000 is on top
t of the Reference 30k.
If the Reference 30
000 Potentiosttat and/or Reference 30k B
Booster are w
within an enclo
osure, you
must keep the enclosure temperature below the 40°C amb
bient temperaature limit of the Reference
30k Booster. This may
m be difficu
ult when the enclosure
e
inclu
udes an inert atmosphere, such as a
glove box. Consult an experiencced engineer for
f heat-exch
hanger solutio
ons if you musst operate the
e
Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster in an encclosed space.
Softw
ware Installation
As witth most Plug and Play Windows®-comp
patible devicess, install the ssoftware befo
ore you plug
the po
otentiostat US
SB cable into the host com
mputer.
3-2
When you are asked for Authorization Codes, enter the codes for your Reference 3000
potentiostat. No new authorization codes are needed for the Reference 30k Booster. You need
not install additional software applications to support the Reference 30k Booster.
If you are adding the Reference 30k Booster to an existing Reference 3000, update your
Framework software and Reference 3000 firmware. The Reference 30k Booster does not operate
with Framework versions below Revision 5.64.
Normal Reference 3000 Installation
Always install the Reference 3000 potentiostat as a stand-alone instrument before connecting the
Reference 30k Booster. After the Reference 3000 installation is complete, test the Reference 3000
system for nominal operation using a UDC dummy cell and the standard Reference 3000 Cell
Cables. Use the Reference 3000 Quick-start Guide to aid in the system installation.
Calibrate the Reference 3000-based system.
Gamry also recommends that you run a standard test from your favorite application software
using the UDC’s 2 kΩ calibration cell. Potentiostatic EIS and CV are popular choices. This step is
important: If the system with both the Reference 3000 and the Reference 30k Booster
malfunctions, Gamry’s support engineer generally asks you to test the less-complicated Reference
3000 system. If it works properly, any malfunctions are localized to the Reference 30k Booster and
the cables.
Power Cord and Line Voltage Selection
The Reference 30k Booster is a high-power device that draws significant currents from the AC line
(mains).
The Reference 30k Booster can be safely operated at two nominal line voltage: 115 V AV and 240
V AC. Table 3-1 shows the allowed range of input voltage for each nominal line-voltage setting.
The AC power-line frequency must be between 47 and 65 Hz.
Table 3-1
AC Voltage Ranges for Each Nominal Line-voltage Setting
Nominal Setting
Allowed Range
Fuse Rating
115
90 to 130 VAC
12.5 A at 250 V AC
240
215 to 264 VAC
6.3 A at 250 V AC
The instrument automatically switches to use any power-line voltage in these ranges: however,
safe, full-power operation in each range requires different AC power-line fuses as noted in Table
3-1.
Gamry Instruments attempts to ship your Reference 30k Booster configured for the power linevoltage in your area. The fuses installed in the Reference 30k Booster should be the correct values
for the AC line-voltage prevalent in your area. Spare fuses appropriate for your line voltage are
also included. If an error was made in the fuse selection, please contact Gamry Instruments or
your local sales representative to get the correct fuses.
3-3
Wa
arning: You can damage a Reference 330k Booster bby attemptingg to operate
it wiith incorrect power
p
line fusses. It is dang
gerous to plug
g a unit fused
d for operatio
on at 100 V
AC or
o 120 VAC in
nto a higher voltage
v
such as
a 220 V AC. A power-supply fault unde
er these
cond
ditions could create a fire or
o shock haza
ard.
Caution: Operrating a Reference 30 k Boooster at high output currennt with
inco
orrect power-line fuses can
n cause openin
ng of a fuse. TThis problem is seen when
n operating
the instrument with
w 115 V AC power and fu
uses appropriaate for 240 V AC operation
n. Any open
fuse
es must be rep
placed before
e the instrume
ent will resum
me operation.
Detailled instruction
ns for changin
ng the AC power fuse can be found in C
Chapter 1.
When
n the Referencce 30k Booste
er is shipped within
w
the US A, it includes a high-curren
nt line cord. In
other countries, yo
ou may have to replace the
e line cord witth one suitable for your typ
pe of electrica
al
outlett. Always use a line cord wiith a CEE 22 Standard
S
V fem
male connecttor on the instrument end
of the
e cable.
Only use
u line cordss rated to han
ndle at least 1.5 kW of pow
wer. The line cords supplied
d with
personal computerrs are generallly not rated for
f high-poweer application
ns.
Caution: Do not use a standdard computeer-grade line cord. Some 118 AWG
cord
ds provided with
w most com
mputers in the
e USA are onlyy rated for 10
0 A (1150 W). Use a cord
rate
ed for a minim
mum of 1500 W.
W One suitab
ble cord for u se in the USA
A is Gamry part number
Conn
nections be
etween Reference 30
000 and Re
eference 30
0k Booster
As described above
e, install yourr Reference 30
000 potentiosstat as a stand
d-alone system
m before
conne
ecting the Refference 30k Booster.
B
After you have thee stand-alone Reference 30
000 system
functional, turn offf the power sw
witch on the Reference
R
300
00 and the Reeference 30k B
Booster.
Disconnect the Refference 3000’s Working/Co
ounter cable. Replace it witth a Reference 3000 to
Refere
ence 30k Worrking/Counter cable. This cable,
c
Gamry part number 985-116, has a 15-pin Dconne
ector on both ends. Conne
ect the other end
e of this ca ble to the Refference 30k B
Booster’s front
panel Counter/Wo
orking input.
Caution: Do not use any caable other thaan Gamry partt number 985-116 to
mak
ke this connecction. This cab
ble has specia
al grounding aand shielding
g required for operation
of th
he system. Th
hird-party 15-pin male-to-ffemale cabless may physicaally connect th
he
instrruments, but do not offer full
f performan
nce, and coul d cause damaage.
3-4
Find a cable with a 25-pin D-con
nnector on bo
oth ends. Thiss is a digital ccontrol cable tthat connectss
the Ex
xpansion Inte
erface conne
ector on the re
ear panel of t he Reference 3000 to the Reference
3000 Expansion In
nterface conn
nector on the rear panel off the Referencce 30k Booste
er. The
conne
ection must be
b made with a Gamry Cab
ble, part numb
ber 985-120.
Caution: Do not use any caable other thaan Gamry partt number 985-120 to
mak
ke this connecction. This cab
ble has specia
al grounding aand shielding
g required for operation
of th
he system. Th
hird-party 25-pin male-to-ffemale cabless may physicaally connect th
he
instrruments, but do not offer full
f performan
nce, and coul d cause damaage.
Insta
allation of the Workin
ng/Counte
er Cable on
n the Boostter
The Reference
R
30k Working/Cou
unter cable is a heavy-dutyy cable with ring terminals on each end.
The Gamry
G
part number for this cable is 985--122. This cab
ble contains an EMI filter, w
which forms a
visible
e lump in the cable. Alwayss place this EM
MI filter neareest the boosteer.
1.
Lo
oosen the nutts on the Cou
unter and Wo
orking termin
nals on the Reeference 30k B
Booster’s fron
nt
panel. The red 9/16 inch nut-driver provided with you
ur system fits tthese nuts.
2.
Remove the nu
uts.
3.
Place the Work
king ring term
minal (the one
e with the greeen wires) on tthe bolt on th
he green
te
erminal.
4.
Place the Coun
nter ring term
minal (the one with the red wires) on the
e bolt on the rred terminal.
5.
Replace the nu
uts and tighte
en the connections with thee nut-driver.
Caution: Do
D not over-tighten the co
onnections. W
We do not reco
ommend
tightening th
he connection
ns with a high-torque wren
nch such as a ssocket wrench. The nutdriver minimizes the probability of shorts and preve nts over-tighttening the terminals.
6.
Double-check
D
the colors: grreen wires on green termin
nal and red wiires on red te
erminal.
Cal Cell
C Connecctions
Conne
ect the other end of the Working/Count
W
ter cable to th
he Cal (Calibrration) side off a Reference
30k Booster Test and Cal fixture
e. This Test and Cal fixture iis a small prin
nted-circuit bo
oard.
Caution: Do not use any caable other thaan Gamry partt number 985-116 to
mak
ke this connecction. This cab
ble has specia
al grounding aand shielding
g required for operation
of th
he system. Th
hird-party 15-pin male-to-ffemale cabless may physicaally connect th
he
instrruments, but do not offer full
f performan
nce, and coul d cause damaage.
3-5
Caution: The Cal
C side of the
e Test and Caalibration is a 200 mΩ, ±1%
% accurate
resisstor wired in a 4-terminal manner.
m
The resistor
r
is onlyy rated for 1 W of power d
dissipation.
Thiss side of the fiixture include
es a 2 A fuse that keeps thee resistor safee from over-cu
urrent
dam
mage. Operato
or error can easily open thiis fuse. If the system does not operate a
as described
belo
ow when it is run using the
e Cal Cell, have a service te chnician checck that the fusse is intact
A pho
oto of this boa
ard with conn
nections to the Cal side of the board can
n be seen in FFigure 3-1.
Figure
F
3-1
Connection
ns to the Cal Side of the T
Test and Cal Fixture
1.
Lo
oosen the nutts on the Cou
unter and Wo
orking termin
nals on the Ca
al side of the T
Test and Cal
fixxture. The bla
ack 13 mm nu
ut-driver provided with you
ur system fits these nuts.
2.
Remove the nu
ut and one off the two copp
per washers o
on each bolt.
3.
Place the Work
king ring term
minal (the one
e with the greeen wires) on tthe working e
electrode boltt
(la
abeled Green). Replace the
e washer and nut. The ring terminal end
ds up sandwicched between
n
tw
wo copper wa
ashers.
4.
Place the Coun
nter ring term
minal (the one with the red wires) on the
e Counter elecctrode bolt
(la
abeled Red). Replace the washer
w
and nu
ut. The ring teerminal ends up sandwiche
ed between
tw
wo copper wa
ashers.
5.
Tiighten the connections witth the nut drivver.
3-6
Caution: Do
D not over-tighten the co
onnections. W
We do not reco
ommend
tightening th
he connection
ns with a high-torque wren
nch such as a ssocket wrench. The nutdriver minimizes the probability of shorts and preve nts over-tighttening the terminals.
6.
Double-check
D
the colors: grreen wires on terminal labeeled Green an
nd red wires o
on the termina
al
la
abeled Red. Make
M
sure your connectionss are to the C
Cal side of the fixture.
The other three connections to the test cell come
c
from thee Reference 3
3000 Sense Ca
able. They are
e
the white Referencce, blue Workiing Sense and
d orange Cou
unter Sense leeads. They plu
ug into the
Test and
a Cal fixture
e in the spots labeled by co
olor.
Review
w the correct connections in Figure 3-1.
Power-Up Testt
Power the system. You may turn
n on the powe
er switches on
n the Referen
nce 3000 pote
entiostat and
the Re
eference 30k Booster in an
ny order.
After power is applied, the blue Power LED in
ndicators on both the Refeerence 3000 a
and the
Refere
ence 30k shou
uld light. If yo
our host comp
puter is poweered and conn
nected to the Reference
3000’s USB, the US
SB LED on the
e Reference 30
000 should bee green.
No otther LEDs should be illumin
nated. If eithe
er instrument has its red Ov
verload LED illuminated,
turn off
o the power and recheck all the connections. An op
pen fuse in thee Cal Cell could cause an
Overlo
oad condition
n.
Calib
bration
We arre now ready to calibrate the system. Ru
un the Gamryy Framework. IIn an earlier installation
step, the
t Reference
e 3000 was ru
unning, so it should alreadyy be installed as a Gamry D
Device. If you
get an
n error messa
age when the Framework ru
uns, contact G
Gamry Techniical Support.
If the Framework iss running, sele
ect Experime
ent>Utilities>
>Calibration on the Frame
ework menu. A
dialog
g box like the one shown in
n Figure 3-2 should
s
appea r.
3-7
Figure 3-2
Calibration Dialog Box
Select the device you want to calibrate. In the dialog box above, the Boosted system was labeled
Ref3000-15116, so that device should have been selected. Click the Both radio button to tell the
system you want to run both a DC calibration and an AC calibration. When you click the OK
button, the Framework opens a runner window and records current- and voltage-versus-time
curves under a number of conditions.
If the calibration fails, you see an Error Box appear. If a failure occurs, the usual cause is incorrect
cable connections. An open fuse in the Calibration Cell also causes calibration failures.
A service technician can use an ohmmeter to test for an open fuse in the Test
and Cal fixture. An open fuse in the Cal side of the Test and Cal fixture will always cause AC
Calibration failures.
Optional 30A Test
If you wish to further test your system, you can switch the cell cables to the Test side of the Test
and Calibration fixture. This side is a 3 mΩ 6 W resistor that develops 90 mV at 30 A of applied
current.
The connections are similar to the Cal-side connections described above. They are simply made
on the other side of the fixture. Remember to move both the Counter and Working connections
and the three Sense-cable connections.
3-8
Caution: Do not run this test on the Cal side of the off the Test andd Cal fixture.
You will blow (op
pen-circuit) th
he fuse.
Figure
e 3-3 shows the connections on the Tesst side of the Cal and Test Fixture.
Figure
F
3-3
Connections to the Testt Side of the Test and Cal Fixture
You can apply currrents by selectting Experim
ment>Utilitiess>et a Curren
nt on the Fram
mework menu
u.
In the
e dialog box that appears, enter
e
a curren
nt density of 3
3.0E4 mA/cm2 and an area
a of 1.0 cm2.
After you click the OK button, a runner windo
ow displays a current- and
d voltage-verssus-time curve
e
that lo
ooks similar to Figure 3-4.
3-9
Figure 3-4
Current versus Time Curve for 30 A Applied to the Test Cell
The voltage on the plot should be between 88 and 92 mV. The current should be between 29 and
31 A.
As a further check, you can repeat this test applying minus 30 A. The nominal voltage and
current values will be minus 90 mV and −30 A.
3-10
Chapter 4: Panel Indicators, Controls, and Connectors
Figure 4-1 shows the front panel of the Reference 30k Booster. Its indicator lights, controls, fuses,
and connectors will be discussed in detail in this Chapter.
Figure 4-1
Front Panel of the Reference 30k Booster
Front Panel Indicators
There are six indicator LEDs on the Reference 30k Booster’s front panel.
Power
This is a Blue LED. It illuminates when the Booster has AC power connected and the rear-panel
Power switch is turned ON. You can still run experiments at currents less than 3 A can when the
Booster is properly connected to a Reference 3000 potentiostat, even when it is not powered.
Booster Active
This is a yellow LED. It illimuminates when the system’s software requests Booster operation on
the 30 A current range. It is off when the software is operating on a lower current range.
Cell On
This is a yellow LED. It illuminates when the system’s software turns on the Booster’s Cell Switch.
When this indicator is off, cell current does not flow through the Counter lead in the Booster’s cell
cable.
4-1
Overload
This is a red LED. It illuminates when the Booster encounters an Overload condition. There are
three possible overload conditions:
• The control amplifier output current has exceeded its compliance limit of ± 30 A. In this
condition, the cell will remain ON, and the output current will be slightly higher than the
limit. The desired control variable (current or voltage) is not being achieved.
• The control amplifier output voltage has exceeded its compliance limits of -2.5V or +20 V.
In this condition, the cell will remain ON, and the Counter lead will output a voltage slightly
greater than the compliance limit. The desired control variable (current or voltage) is not
being achieved.
• The current measurement circuit is measuring a current in excess of ± 30 A.
This indicator may light momentarily during AC experiments and when voltage steps are applied
to capacitive cells. Momentary Overload indications generally do not imply a dangerous
condition.
If the Overload indicator light goes on and stays on, this can indicate a dangerous condition,
especially when the cell cannot handle high power.
Over-Temp
This is a red LED. It lights when the Booster heat-sink exceeds a temperature threshold. There are
two temperature limits for the system.
At the first, lower-temperature threshold, the Over-Temp light goes on. The system does not shut
down.
If the temperature reaches the higher limit, the system shuts down. In this state, the cell is turned
off and power is removed from the system’s control amplifier.
4-2
The Over-Temp indicator should never illuminate during normal operation of the system.
Possible causes for an Over-Temp condition include:
• Restricted airflow. The Booster needs 10 cm of airspace on all sides.
• An external environment above 40˚C, such as in a glove-box with inadequate cooling.
• A system failure, such as an inoperative cooling fan, a shorted transistor, or a damaged
temperature sensor.
EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN Indicator
This is a red LED located near the EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN switch. It is off during normal
system operation. It lights when the EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN switch has been activated. It
remains on until the switch is reset.
Front Panel Fuses
The cell-cable fuses are located on the Reference 30k Booster’s front panel just above the
Working and Counter terminals. Details concerning these fuses and instructions for replacing
them can be found in Chapter 1.
4-3
Fron
nt Panel EM
MERGENCY
Y SHUTDOW
WN Contro
ol
The EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN
S
N control is a big
b red butto n on the rightt side of the R
Reference 30kk
Boostter’s front pan
nel. It gives yo
ou an easy-to-operate conttrol that imm
mediately turnss off an
experiment.
It is in
ntended for use only when a test has go
one out of con
ntrol. Pressing
g the button:
• Turns
T
off the cell
c
• Removes
R
pow
wer from the control-amplif
c
fier power traansistors
• Shuts
S
down th
he Reference 3000 USB rem
moving the syystem from th
he Windows® Device
Manager.
M
• Turns
T
on the EMERGENCY
E
Y SHUTDOWN
N LED
Gamryy does not recommend using the EMER
RGENCY SHU
UTDOWN in n
non-emergen
ncy situations..
Any data
d
that have
e already been
n collected in an experime nt can be lostt.
The button has a mechanical
m
resset. It only ressets when you
u turn it one-half turn clocckwise. Reset
does not turn the cell
c switch bacck on. It turnss off the EME RGENCY SHU
UTDOWN LED and
repow
wers the contrrol amplifier.
Wa
arning: Emeergency Shutddown only preevents current flow from thhe cell into
the Reference 30k Booster. It does
d
not prevvent current fllow caused byy short circuitts within the
cell or in the cell cables. For th
his reason, it does
d
not replaace safety preecautions aga
ainst
expllosion, fire, orr chemical spiills in the cell.
Note that a Reference 3000/Refference 30k Bo
ooster system
m in Shutdown mode disap
ppears from
the Window’s
W
Device Manger. Itt therefore do
oes not appeaar as a device in Gamry’s Frramework.
When
n you reset the EMERGENC
CY SHUTDOW
WN control, t he device sho
ould reappearr in Windows®
after a few secondss.
Fron
nt-panel Co
onnectors
There
e are three con
nnectors on the front pane
el of the Referrence 30k Boo
oster.
4-4
Working Terminal
The Working terminal is a high-current connector that normally connects to the working
electrode of an electrochemical cell. It can handle current up to 30 A.
This terminal is a US 3/8” × 16 bolt. It is normally connected to the cell with a heavy-gauge, lowinductance cable. The standard-length cable is 90 cm long, and its Gamry part number is 985-122.
Gamry provides a nut-driver for easy connection to this terminal. It prevents over-tightening the
terminal and minimizes the probability of short-circuiting the cell.
The plastic partition between the two high-current terminals on the front panel
of the Reference 30k Booster is a vital safety feature. It prevents metal wrenches or other
metal tools bridging between the terminals and short-circuiting the cell.
Counter Terminal
The Counter terminal is a high-current connector that normally connects to the working
electrode of an electrochemical cell. It can handle current up to 30 A.
This terminal is a US 3/8” × 16 bolt. It is normally connected to the cell with a heavy-gauge, lowinductance cable. The standard length cable is 90 cm long, and its Gamry part number is 985-122.
Gamry provides a nut-driver for easy connection to this terminal. It prevents over-tightening the
terminal and minimizes the probability of short-circuiting the cell.
4-5
Referrence 3000 Counter/Work
king Connecttor
The Reference
R
3000 Counter/W
Working conn
nector conneccts two analog
g signals betw
ween the
boostter and the Re
eference 3000
0. The signals are the Referrence 3000’s W
Working elecctrode (a
curren
nt input) and the Counter electrode (a voltage
v
outpu
ut).
The ca
able normallyy used for thiss interconnectt is Gamry pa rt number 98
85-116. It has a 15-pin Dconne
ector on each end.
Caution: The Gamry
G
985-11
16 cable contaains special shielding and grounding.
Do not
n substitute
e third-party 15-pin-D-to-1
1
15-pin-D cablles for the Gaamry cable.
In passs-through mode, the Refe
erence 3000 Counter
C
and W
Working signaals are routed
d to the highcurren
nt terminals on
o the Referen
nce 30k Boostter.
In the
e boosted mode, the Refere
ence 3000 Co
ounter signal iis used as thee input signal to the highoutpu
ut current con
ntrol amplifierr in the Refere
ence 30k Boosster. In this m
mode, a 30 A-tto-3 mA
curren
nt converter is used to provide a current to the Referrence 3000’s W
Working Sign
nal.
Rearr-panel Con
nnectors
Figure
e 4-2 shows the rear panel of the Refere
ence 30k Boo ster.
4-6
Figure
F
4-2
Rear Panel of the Reference 30k Boosterr
Powe
er Input Conn
nector
The power input co
onnector is a three-functio
on module. It contains a lin
ne-cord conne
ector, a fuse
block,, and the pow
wer switch.
Fuses and fuse sele
ection are desscribed in Cha
apter 1. You m
must use fusees appropriate
e for the AC
line vo
oltage in your area. Selectiion of the line
e cord is also described in Chapter 1.
Wa
arning: You must use AC
C line fuses ap
ppropriate forr the line volta
age in your
labo
oratory. Incorrrect line fusess can limit sysstem performaance and mayy create hazardous
cond
ditions. You must
m
use a lin
ne cord rated for a minimu m of 1500 W
W.
Use th
he power swittch to turn on
n the electron
nics in the Refference 30k Bo
ooster. It controls AC
power into three AC-DC
A
convertters (power su
upplies) insid e the Referen
nce 30k Chasssis. The
instrument operate
es in pass-through mode even
e
with the power switch
h off.
Prote
ective Ground
d and System
m Ground Bin
nding Posts
Groun
nding is discussed in detaill in Appendix B.
4-7
The Protective
P
Gro
ound binding
g post is a con
nvenient acceess point to th
he protective (earth) groun
nd
in the
e Reference 30
0k Booster. It is connected to the third w
wire in the AC
C power cord and to the
Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster’s metal chassis.
c
This binding
b
post ccan be conneccted to an additional Earth
h
Groun
nd to form a redundant
r
pro
otective ground.
The System Groun
nd is the common voltage reference po int for the Reeference 30k B
Booster’s
circuittry. It floats with
w respect to
o the Protectiive Ground.
We prrovide a strap
p to connect the
t Protective
e and System
m Grounds. TTests on electtrochemical
cells isolated from Earth Ground
d may see low
wer noise wheen the ground
ds are connected.
Wa
arning: Do not
n connect Protective
P
Grround and Sy
ystem Ground
d if the
elecctrochemical system
s
you arre testing is earth-groundeed. Two earth-ground conn
nections in a
high
h-energy electrochemical system
s
can cre
eate hazardo us conditionss.
Leave
e the ground strap
s
on one of the binding
g posts when
n it is not bein
ng used. Pictures in
Appendix B show the
t strap in usse and rotated
d to a safe po
osition.
Ref 3000 Expansio
on Interface
The Ref
R 3000 Expa
ansion Interfface contains control and sstatus digital signals neede
ed for
Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster operation. Gamry doe
es not supporrt connection of this interfa
ace to any
instrument other th
han a Referen
nce 3000 Pote
entiostat.
In the
e Reference 30
000/Reference 30k Booster system, makke this connecction with a 2
25-pin D-to25-pin
n D cable, Gamry part num
mber 985-120..
4-8
Caution: The Gamry
G
985-12
20 cable contaains special shielding and grounding.
Do not
n substitute
e third-party 25-pin-D-to-1
2
15-pin-D cablles for the Gaamry cable.
4-9
Cha
apter 5: Suggesttions forr Cell Co
onnectio
on
This chapter
c
of the
e Gamry Instru
uments Inc. Re
eference 30k Booster Operator’s Manua
al contains
sugge
estions for ma
aking connecttions to an ele
ectrochemicaal cell. We assume a Refere
ence
3000//Reference 30
0k Booster sysstem using the standard caables unless o
otherwise note
ed.
Avoiid Short-circuits in Ce
ell Connecttions
When
n you are testiing a battery or other enerrgy-storage d evice, you mu
ust avoid short circuits
acrosss the cell term
minals. Alwayss be very careful when desiigning your eexperiment: m
make sure you
canno
ot short-circuiit the cell und
der all conditio
ons. Don’t forrget the possibility of short-circuits whe
en
you are connecting
g or disconnecting the devvice.
Wa
arning: Shorrt-circuits acrooss an electroochemical cell can create hhazardous
cond
ditions, includ
ding fire, explosion, and ch
hemical dischaarge. They maay destroy the
e device
under test and ca
an create dangerous conditions.
Volta
age Errors Caused by
y Wire and Contact R
Resistance
In electronics, the resistance
r
of a wire is often
n assumed to
o be zero. Thiss is usually a ssafe
assum
mption, because voltage error (iR-drop) caused by cu
urrent flow thrrough the wirre’s resistance
e
is sma
all compared to the voltages in the syste
em.
For exxample, 1 mA
A of current flo
ow through 1 meter of 20 A
AWG (0.8 mm
m diameter) so
olid copper
wire creates
c
an iR voltage
v
drop of 1 mA × 33
3 mΩ/m = 33 μV. This voltaage can safelyy be ignored in
most electrochemical tests.
Yet if the current iss much higherr, for example
e 5 A, the volttage drop thro
ough 1 meterr of 20 AWG
wire iss 165 mV. Thiis is a significa
ant error in an
ny electrocheemical test.
This problem
p
becomes very sign
nificant in EIS testing of en
nergy-storagee and -converssion devices.
Large high-discharrge-rate batte
eries often havve cell imped ance less than 1 mΩ. Test set-ups for
these devices require contact an
nd lead resista
ances less thaan 10 μΩ. Forttunately, you can often
emplo
oy a technique called 4-terrminal measurements to m
minimize errorrs caused by ccontact
resista
ance.
Fourr-terminal Cell Conne
ections
Accurrate measurem
ments of the current-voltag
c
ge characterisstics of high-ccurrent electrochemical
cells require
r
4-term
minal (also kno
own as Kelvin
n-type) conneections. In a 4-terminal con
nnection, the
four le
eads that con
nnect to the ce
ell under test are grouped into two pairrs:
•
One
O pair of lea
ads conducts the current between the ceell and Refereence 30k Booster. These
le
eads we call th
he “current-ca
arrying leads””.
•
A second pair of
o leads meassures the voltage across tw
wo points in th
he cell. These
e leads we call
th
he “sense lead
ds”.
In all Reference 300
00 or Referen
nce 30k Boostted systems, tthe Counter (R
Red) and Worrking (Green)
high-ccurrent cell co
onnections arre the current-carrying lead
ds.
5-1
In low-voltage systems, the sense leads are the Reference (White) and Working Sense (Blue) leads.
The voltage sensed by these leads is generally assumed to be a cell voltage, although other
voltages (such as a half-cell or multiple-cell voltage) can also be sensed. The maximum voltage on
either lead is limited to ±10 V. All standard Gamry Applications scripts, except those in the
Electrochemical Energy software, assume low-voltage-potential sensing.
In the Gamry Electrochemical Energy software, the Counter Sense (Orange) and Working Sense
(Blue) leads can act as high-voltage sensing leads. Select this method by choosing Stack Mode
on the setup window. The allowed voltage on the Counter Sense (Orange) lead is ±30 V. DC
accuracy of the voltage measurement is reduced in high-voltage mode.
When you are making 4-terminal measurements on a two-terminal device, one current-carrying
and one sense lead connect to each terminal on the device. Ideally, the sense lead contacts the
terminal independently of the current-carrying contact.
Connect the sense lead as close to the device as possible.
Figure 5-1 shows a half of a reasonably good 4-terminal connection with two alligator clips to a
battery terminal. Each clip contacts the terminal independently, and the sense clip is closest to the
battery. The sense lead “sees” voltage drop from current through the battery terminal. The copper
terminal’s resistance is quite low, so voltage errors are small
The resistance of this “good 4-terminal” battery contact was measured using a Gamry EIS system.
The measured resistance was 0.3 mΩ.
Figure 5-1
Good 4-Terminal Clip-placement on a Battery Terminal
Resistance = 0.3 mΩ
Battery
Sense
clip
Currentcarrying clip
Figure 5-2 shows half of a very poor 4-terminal connection with two alligator clips to the same
battery terminal. The sense lead “sees” voltage drop cause by the resistance both in the currentcarrying clip and the resistance of the clip-to-terminal contact.
5-2
Figure 5-2
Bad 4-Terminal Clip-placement on a Battery Terminal
Resistance = 3.4 mΩ
Battery
Sense
clip
Currentcarrying clip
Resistance was also measured for this “poor” connection. The measured resistance was 3.4 mΩ:
more than 3 mΩ higher than the better connection.
Kelvin (4-terminal) Clips
Commercial Kelvin clips that resemble an alligator clip with two isolated jaws are available. One
example is the Mueller Model BU-75k. Unfortunately, it is limited to currents of 10 A or less.
A higher-current alternative is the Mueller Model BU-102BK which is a large 400 A Kelvin clip. You
need to do some modification to the clip to get convenient access to the sense side of the clips.
General Suggestions for High-current Connections
Even with 4-terminal connections, do not ignore the quality of the current-carrying connections.
High-current connections to commercial batteries and super-capacitors are generally made using
large-diameter bolts, like those found on the Reference 30k Front Panel. This can lead to very
low-resistance contacts. Remember that copper is an excellent conductor, so copper washers,
bolts, and nuts are preferred. Steel’s bulk resistivity is more than six times higher than that of
copper.
Contact area is also important. Flat surfaces make better contact than uneven surfaces. Copper
has a second advantage over steel in this regard. Copper is softer than steel so it can deform to
make a contact with a larger surface area.
5-3
Wa
arning: Do not
n over-tightten the termin
nal bolts on ccommercial ba
atteries.
Ove
er-tightening can
c lead to ce
ell damage an
nd hazardous conditions. C
Cell manufacturers specify
maxximum allowe
ed torque allowed on the te
erminal bolts..
Small alligator clipss are a poor choice
c
for high-current con
ntacts. Standaard alligator cclips are
typica
ally rated for a maximum current of 5 A. The surface aarea of the co
ontact betwee
en the alligato
or
teeth and the cell terminal
t
is generally very small.
A non
n-conductive washer
w
betwe
een two ring terminals
t
on a bolt can forrm a very goo
od 4-terminal
conne
ection.
Large-diamete
er Threaded
d Connections
The diameter of the ring terminals on the Refference 30k B
Booster’s Counter/Working
g cable (985122) is 10.5 mm (0..42”). The maxximum bolt diameters thatt it can work w
with are 10 m
mm (metric)
and 3/8” (imperial).
Some
e batteries ma
ay have largerr-diameter terrminals. If you
u need to makke contact witth a larger
diame
eter terminal you
y can:
• Remove
R
the riing terminal of
o the 985-122 cable and r eplace it with
h a larger-diam
meter
terminal.
t
Thiss may require the services of
o a professio
onal electrician.
• Make
M
a small cut in the ring
g terminal on
n the cell end of a 985-122 cable and widen the hole..
• Construct
C
an adapter
a
from copper or so
ome other high-conductance metal.
• Contact
C
Gamrry for a specia
al cable with a larger-diameeter terminal..
If you need to mod
dify the Refere
ence 30k Boo
oster Counter//Working cab
ble, Gamry reccommends
that you
y start with a spare cable
e. Replacemen
nt cables are aavailable; con
ntact [email protected]
gamry.com and
ask fo
or part numbe
er 985-122.
5-4
Appendix A: Reference 30k Booster Specifications
Specifications apply at 25°C, 115 V AC power, and operation with Reference 3000 Potentiostat
unless otherwise noted.
Control Amplifier
Compliance voltage
+20 to −2.5
V
Compliance current
±30
A
Voltage gain
2
Unity gain bandwidth
500
kHz
Slew rate
>20
V/µs
Full-scale current
±30
amperes
Accuracy
±0.3%
% of range
30 A Current Range
System
(all with Reference 3000 Potentiostat)
Control modes
Potentiostatic, Galavanostatic, ZRA
Allowed current ranges
30 A, 3 A, 300 mA, 30 mA
Mechanical
Dimensions
38 cm × 46 cm × 23 cm(15” × 18” x 9”)
Weight
15.5 kg (34 lbs)
Power
Input voltage
90 to 263
V AC
Power
1200
W (maximum)
A potentiostat system with a Reference 30k Booster connected to a Reference 3000 Potentiostat
does not oscillate with any capacitive load as long as the Reference-electrode impedance is less
than 10 kΩ and the Control Amplifier’s bandwidth is Normal or slower.
A galvanostat system with a Reference 30k Booster connected to a Reference 3000 Potentiostat
does not oscillate with any resistive load less than 100 Ω as long as the Control Amplifier’s
bandwidth is Normal or slower. This is only guaranteed when the cell is connected using Gamry’s
part number 985-122 cable. Stability with inductive loads is not guaranteed.
A-1
Appendix B: Grounds and Floating Operation
Ground Definitions
Ground is an electronics term that is often misunderstood. In non-technical English, one meaning
of the word ground is the surface of the planet Earth on which we all live. In technical English, the
definition of ground usually involves a point with an electrical connection to Earth. In this section,
we call this type of ground earth ground or earth.
Knowledgeable electronics engineers use a somewhat different definition for the term ground.
Ground is a common point in a circuit. Voltages are referred to this ground point as though it
were at zero volts. A ground that functions as a reference point in a circuit, but is not connected
to earth, can be called a floating ground.
Grounding in the Reference 30k Booster
The metal case of the Reference 30k Booster is connected to earth ground via the ground plug in
the AC power cord. This connection is essential to the electrical safety of this instrument. As
defined in IEC Publication 348, Safety Requirements for Electronic Measuring Apparatus, the
Reference 30k Booster is a Class I apparatus. Class I apparatus is only safe from electrical-shock
hazards if the case of the apparatus is connected to a protective earth ground. In the Reference
30k Booster the protective ground is available on a binding post on the rear of the Reference 30k
Booster. This binding post is green and identified with the standard symbol for protective earth
ground:
The binding post is only provided as a convenient access point for the protective
earth ground. This binding post is connected to the instrument chassis, which, in turn, is
connected to the third wire in the power cord for the Booster. The instrument is electrically
safe with no connection to this point.
The internal circuitry of the Reference 30k Booster is not referenced to this protective ground.
Instead, voltages within the Reference 30k Booster’s chassis are measured with respect to a
floating ground, labeled System Ground. System Ground is used as the zero-volt reference point
for the Reference 30k’s power supplies and other circuitry. A black binding post on the Reference
30k Booster’s rear panel allows easy access to this (Floating) System Ground.
Grounding in the Reference 3000 Potentiostat
Unlike the Reference 30k Booster, the circuitry and the metal case of the Reference 3000
potentiostat are not connected to earth ground. The Reference 3000 is an IEC Publication 1010
Class II apparatus, in which contact with all hazardous voltages are prevented by means of
“reinforced insulation.”
Similar in operation of the Reference 30k Booster, voltages within the Reference 3000 chassis are
measured with respect to a floating ground, which is the zero-volt reference point for its power
B-1
supplies and other circuitry. Unlike the Boostter, the Refereence 3000 chaassis is conne
ected to the
floatin
ng ground.
A green binding po
ost on the rea
ar panel of the
e Reference 3
3000 allows eaasy access to the chassis
and hence to floatiing ground. The
T label on th
he binding po
ost is Chassis Ground.
The Reference 30
000 Chassis Ground
G
bindin
ng post is only provided as a
convvenient accesss point for th
he floating sysstem. This bin
nding post is cconnected to the
instrrument chassis but is not connected
c
to earth. The insstrument is ellectrically safe
e with no
USB Ground
The USB
U bus conne
ector includess a ground co
onnection thatt is directly or indirectly co
onnected to
the ho
ost computer controlling a Reference 30
000/Referenc e 30k Booster system. If th
he computer iis
earth--grounded—ttrue for all de
esktop compu
uters—the US B ground is aan earth groun
nd. In most
laptop
p computers, even with a charger
c
plugg
ged in, the USSB is not earth
h-grounded.
A USB
B processor within
w
the Refe
erence 3000 operates
o
using
g this USB gro
ound as its grround
refere
ence voltage. This USB proccessor receive
es and sends messages fro
om the USB bus and relays
them to the main processor
p
in the Reference 3000. All inteer-processor ccommunicatio
ons are via a
serial bus isolated using transformer-coupled
d digital isolattors. These iso
olators elimin
nate the USB
as a contributor to ground issue
es.
Syste
em Ground
d
The Exxpansion Inte
erface cable between the Reference
R
30000 and Referen
nce 30k Boosster connects
the Syystem Ground
ds of the two instruments. All control sig
gnals passing
g between the
e instruments
are re
eferenced to this shared ground. With th
his cable conn
nected, the syystem ground
d becomes on
ne
signall: a connection made to the ground of one
o instrumen
nt affects botth instrumentss.
The ca
able connectiions between the instrume
ents do not co
onnect the sysstem to earth
h ground.
Conn
necting Earrth and Sysstem Ground
If the system you are
a testing is isolated from earth ground
d, you can con
nnect earth and System
Groun
nds using the Ground Jumper provided with the systeem. This conn
nection may rreduce noise in
the syystem. This jumper goes be
etween the Prrotective Gro
ound and Sysstem Ground
d binding postts
on the
e rear panel of
o the Referen
nce 30k Boostter.
Wa
arning: Connection of an earth-groun ded cell to ann earth-grounnded
Refe
erence 30k Bo
ooster can sho
ort-circuit the
e cell. This can
n create excesssive current a
and
haza
ardous condittions. The 30 A Counter an
nd Working fu
uses provide o
only limited p
protection.
If the Counter and Working Fuse
es open when
n you hook up
p your cell, yo
ou probably h
have an earth
nd in your cell system and an earth-grou
unded test syystem. Disconnecting the ju
umper
groun
betwe
een System Ground
G
and Protective
P
Grround is likelyy to remedy this problem.
B-2
If the problem reoccurs with the Ground Jumper disconnected, make sure you don’t have
additional test equipment connected to the system. If it still occurs with all additional equipment
disconnected, contact Gamry’s technical support staff.
Figure B-1 shows the ground jumper in place.
B-3
Figure B-1
Jumper Connection between Protective Ground and System Ground
When you do not wish to earth-ground the System Ground, rotate the Ground Jumper out of the
way, but leave it attached to one of the binding posts (Figure B-2). This prevents it from getting
lost. If you lose the jumper, run a wire between the binding posts to earth the system.
Figure B-2
Storing Ground Jumper When Disconnected
B-4
Grou
unds and Additional
A
Test
T
Equip
pment
Most electronic tesst equipment,, including oscilloscopes, s ignal generattors, and data
a loggers, havve
an earth ground on
n their inputs and outputs.. Connection of sucn an insstrument in yyour system
earth--grounds the system. For example,
e
conn
nection of a b
bench oscillosscope to the R
Reference
3000’s Isig monitorr BNC connecctor earth-gro
ounds the systtem.
Do no
ot use additional electronicc test equipment connecteed to your Refference 3000 or Reference
30k Booster unlesss absolutely necessary. If yo
ou must use aadditional equ
uipment, makke sure that
your cell
c is isolated
d from earth ground.
g
Using the Refe
erence 30k Booster in
n Systems IIsolated fro
om Earth G
Ground
Most laboratory ele
ectrochemica
al cells are isolated from eaarth ground; a glass cell on
n a bench top
is an obvious
o
exam
mple. Commerrcial packaged
d batteries an
nd super-capaacitors are usu
ually tested
with the
t device isolated from ea
arth ground.
Be careful—earth connections
c
on
o a high-pow
wered system may not be o
obvious. Wate
er-cooled cellls
and syystems containing large AC
C power pum
mps may have earth connecctions. Earth cconnections
can allso occur in a fault conditio
on, such as a water leak or dielectric faillure.
In mo
ost cases, you can leave the
e System Gro
ound isolated from earth g
ground.
If you are testing a cell that is isolated from earth
e
ground, earth-ground
ding your instrument
system
m can reduce noise. The pa
air of ground terminals on the rear paneel of the Refe
erence 30k
Boostter is provided
d so you can easily
e
connecct System Gro
ound to Protective (Earth
h) Ground. A
shortiing bar suitab
ble for making
g this connecttion was provvided with thee system.
Wa
arning: Two connections to earth grouund in an elecctrochemical system can
crea
ate a hazardou
us condition. If your cell ha
as an earth-g round connecction, you mu
ust not
connect the syste
em ground to
o earth. One symptom of m
multiple earth connections is opening
of th
he Reference 30k Booster’ss front-panel fuses which p
protect the Co
ounter and W
Working
If the System Grou
und is conneccted to the Prrotective Gro
ound, it comp
promises a bo
oosted
system
m’s ability to make measurrements in ele
ectrochemicall cells that contain earth-grounded
metal. One promin
nent example is electrochem
mical cells in autoclaves, w
where the auto
oclave’s earth
hgroun
nded wall is generally used as the countter electrode o
of the cell.
Use in Systemss Connecte
ed to Earth Ground
The Reference
R
30k Booster can be used to make measurem
ments on systtems with one electrode
conne
ected to earth
h ground. High-temperaturre cells in an aautoclave, waater-cooled ce
ells, and
system
ms with AC-powered pump
ps may have earthed
e
metaal in the cell’s electrolyte.
The System Groun
nd must be isolated from earth
e
gound w
when you testt earth-groun
nded systems..
Disconnect the Gro
ound Jumper as described above.
B-5
Wa
arning: Two connections to earth grouund in an elecctrochemical system can
crea
ate a hazardou
us condition. If your cell ha
as an earth-g round connecction, you mu
ust not
connect the syste
em ground to
o earth. One symptom of m
multiple earth connections is opening
of th
he Reference 30k Booster’ss front-panel fuses which p
protect the Co
ounter and W
Working
When
n you use the a Reference 30k
3 Booster in
n a system wiith an earth-g
grounded elecctrode, the
Syste
em Ground de
evelops a volttage versus earth ground. The magnitud
de of the volttage dependss
on wh
hich electrode
e is earthed an
nd the cell vo
oltage. In all caases, the voltage is less tha
an 24 volts.
Limitts on Grou
und Voltage
The Reference
R
3000 contains TV
VS surge supp
pressors that llimit the voltaage difference
e between the
e
Refere
ence 3000’s chassis ground
d and the USB
B ground to aabout 40 voltss. These surge
e suppressorss
are no
ot part of the safety mecha
anisms in the Reference 30
000. Instead th
hey are prese
ent to limit the
e
possib
bility of impro
oper instrume
ent operation or instrumen
nt damage cau
used by electrostatic
discha
arge (static electricity) and other surge events
e
such aas lightning.
B-6
Appendix C: CE Certificate
Redefining Electrochemical Measurement
Declaration of Conformity
According to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and CEN/CENELEC EN 45014
Manufacturer's Name and Location:
Gamry Instruments
734 Louis Drive
Warminster, PA 18974
USA
This declaration is for the Gamry Instruments product models: Reference 30k Booster
The declaration is based upon compliance with the following directives:
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC as amended by 92/31/EEC and 93/68/EEC
Low Voltage Safety Directive 73/23/EEC as amended by 93/68/EEC
The declaration is based upon product compliance with the following standards as defined in
report number R0540-000 from Ergonomics, Inc. for safety analysis and report number R-1571P
from Radiation Sciences, Inc. for EMC test and analysis.
EMC Standards
EN 61000-4-2
EN 61326:2002-2
Title
EMC – Electrostatic discharge, Immunity
EMC – Radiated Emissions
Low Voltage Directive
Safety Standards
EN 61010-1:2001
EN 61010-2-081: 6/2003
Class/ Criteria
B
A
Title
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory
use, Part 1: General requirements.
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory
use, Part 2 Particular requirements for automatic and semiautomatic laboratory
equipment for analysis and other purposes
C-1
__
__
5
5/11/2011
Date
Signatture
Dr. Gregory
G
A. Martinchek,
M
, PhD
Title:: President
Formal sig
gned declaratio
on is on file at Gamry, Inc.
C-2
Certificate of Conformance
Index
C-3
4-terminal ................................................................... 1
AC line cord ............................................................... 1
calibrate ...................................................................... 7
CE Compliance ......................................................... 7
cell cable fuses ......................................................... 3
cell fuses ..................................................................... 7
compatibility with Reference 3000................... 2
contract engineering ...............................................i
Counter ....................................................................... 7
Counter terminal ..................................................... 5
Counter/Working connector .............................. 5
current carrying leads ............................................ 1
earth ground ............................................................. 1
electrical transients ................................................. 6
Emergency Shutdown switch ............................. 9
environmental stress .............................................. 5
Expansion Interface ................................................ 7
Floating Ground....................................................... 1
Framework ................................................................. 5
fuses .......................................................... 3, 7, 8, 3, 6
Ground ........................................................................ 1
installation.................................................................. 1
Kelvin clips ................................................................. 3
limitations................................................................... 6
operation .................................................................... 5
operator errors .......................................................10
Overload ..................................................................... 1
Over-Temp ................................................................. 2
power LED.................................................................. 1
power line transient ............................................... 7
Protective Ground .................................................. 1
protective grounding ............................................ 1
RFI radio frequency interference ...................... 6
safety............................................................................ 1
sense leads ................................................................ 2
service.......................................................................... 6
service contract.......................................................... i
shipping ...................................................................... 5
shipping damage .................................................... 1
short circuit ............................................................... 9
specifications ............................................................ 1
spills ............................................................................. 5
static electricity ........................................................ 6
storage ........................................................................ 5
support.......................................................................... i
System Ground ........................................................ 1
telephone assistance ............................................... i
Test and Calibration Fixture ................................ 6
upgrade ...................................................................... 2
USB2
ventilation .................................................................. 4
Visual Inspection ..................................................... 1
Warranty ...................................................................... ii
Working ...................................................................... 7
Working terminal .................................................... 4
Working/Counter cable ........................................ 5
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