EIA/EMP & RA/DMP Report - Environmental Clearances

EIA/EMP & RA/DMP Report - Environmental Clearances
EIA/EMP & RA/DMP Report: for Bulk
Drug Manufacturing Unit, Dhanuka
Laboratories Ltd., RIICO Industrial
Area, Keshwana Rajpoot, Tehsil
Kotputli, District Jaipur,
September, 2014
Submitted by:
M/s Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Consultant:
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD. INDIA
304-305, 3rd Floor, Plot No. 16, Rishabh Corporate Tower,
Community Centre, Karkardooma, Delhi – 110092
Phone: 011-30003200, 30003219; Fax: 011-22374775
Website: www.eqmsindia.com ; E-mail – [email protected]
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .........................................................................................................................15
Chapter 1.
Introduction and Background.....................................................................................15
1.1.
Introduction .......................................................................................................................15
1.2.
Proposed Products and Project Location ..........................................................................15
1.3.
Salient Features of the Project ..........................................................................................17
1.4.
Purpose of the Study and Report ......................................................................................18
1.5.
Need of the Proposed Project ...........................................................................................18
1.6.
Environmental Regulatory Applicability .............................................................................18
1.7.
Scope and Methodology of the Study ...............................................................................19
1.8.
Structure of the Report ......................................................................................................21
1.9.
Compliance to approved TOR ...........................................................................................22
Chapter 2.
Project Description ....................................................................................................29
2.1.
The Site ............................................................................................................................29
2.2.
Justification of Project Location .........................................................................................29
2.3.
Land allocation within plant ...............................................................................................31
2.4.
Process Description ..........................................................................................................33
2.4.1. 7- Amino-3-Chloro Cephalosporanic (7-ACCA) Manufacturing Process: ....................... 33
2.4.2. Sertraline Hydrochloride Manufacturing Process........................................................... 42
2.4.3. Clopidogrel Bisulphate Manufacturing Process ............................................................. 50
2.4.4. Cefaclor Manufacturing Process ................................................................................... 58
2.4.5. Cefpodoxime Proxetil Manufacturing Process ............................................................... 62
2.4.6. Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous Manufacturing Process .................................................. 68
2.4.7. Gabapentin Manufacturing Process .............................................................................. 74
2.4.8. Pregabaline Manufacturing Process.............................................................................. 81
2.4.9. Ceftibuten Manufacturing Process ................................................................................ 88
2.4.10. Cefdinir Manufacturing Process .................................................................................... 93
2.4.11. Ondansetron Manufacturing Process ............................................................................ 99
2.4.12. Cefditoren Pivoxil Manufacturing Process ................................................................... 107
2.4.13. Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl Manufacturing Process ..................................................... 117
2.4.14. Cefixime Manufacturing Process ................................................................................. 125
2.4.15. Cefprozil Manufacturing Process ................................................................................ 131
2.5.
Solvents Used in the Manufacturing Process .................................................................. 138
2.5.2. Solvent Recovery System ........................................................................................... 138
2.6.
Raw Material for APIs Manufacturing .............................................................................. 139
2.6.2. Water Requirement ..................................................................................................... 146
2.6.3. Fuel............................................................................................................................. 149
2.6.4. Power ......................................................................................................................... 149
2.6.5. Employement .............................................................................................................. 149
2.7.
Generation of Pollutants ................................................................................................. 150
2.7.1. Sewage Treatment ..................................................................................................... 150
2.7.2. Effluent Treatment Plant ............................................................................................. 150
2.7.3. Multiple Effect Evaporator ........................................................................................... 151
2.7.4. Hazardous Wastes and Management ......................................................................... 154
2.7.5. Solid waste management ............................................................................................ 155
2.7.6. Air Emissions .............................................................................................................. 155
2.8.
OHS System ................................................................................................................... 156
2.9.
Project Cost and Cost towards Environmental Protection ............................................... 157
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Chapter 3.
Description of the Environment ............................................................................... 158
3.1.
Prelude ........................................................................................................................... 158
3.2.
Site Location and its surroundings .................................................................................. 159
3.3.
State of the Environment (Regional) ............................................................................... 159
3.3.1. Geology ...................................................................................................................... 159
3.3.2. Topography................................................................................................................. 159
3.3.3. Climate & Rainfall ....................................................................................................... 163
3.3.4. Seismic Considerations............................................................................................... 163
3.3.5. Hydrogeology .............................................................................................................. 164
3.3.6. Groundwater Resources ............................................................................................. 165
3.3.7. Drainage System ........................................................................................................ 168
3.3.8. Land Use .................................................................................................................... 169
3.3.9. Micro-Meteorology ...................................................................................................... 173
3.4.2. Noise Environment ...................................................................................................... 183
3.4.3. Damage risk criteria for hearing loss, Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) regulations.............................................................................. 185
3.4.4. Water Environment ..................................................................................................... 185
3.4.5. Soil Environment ......................................................................................................... 194
3.4.6. Biological Environment................................................................................................ 199
3.5.
National Parks/wildlife Sanctuary / Reserve Forest ......................................................... 205
3.6.
Socio-Economic Conditions ............................................................................................ 205
3.6.1. Demographic Profile of Study Area ............................................................................. 205
Chapter 4.
Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures .................................. 219
4.1.
Prelude ........................................................................................................................... 219
4.2.
Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures during construction phase ........................... 219
4.2.1. Air Environment .......................................................................................................... 220
4.2.2. Noise Environment ...................................................................................................... 221
4.2.3. Water Environment ..................................................................................................... 223
4.2.4. Land Environment ....................................................................................................... 223
Materials (Chemicals, Input material) and Waste ( Solid and Hazardous)
Management .............................................................................................................. 224
4.2.5. Impact: ........................................................................................................................ 224
4.2.6. Socio-Economic Environment ..................................................................................... 225
4.2.7. Occupational Health and Safety Management ........................................................... 226
4.3.
Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures during Project Operation .............................. 226
4.3.1. Air Environment .......................................................................................................... 227
4.3.2. Foul Odour Problem .................................................................................................... 241
4.3.3. Noise Environment ...................................................................................................... 242
4.3.4. Water Environment ..................................................................................................... 242
4.3.5. Storm Water Management .......................................................................................... 243
4.3.6. Land Environment ....................................................................................................... 244
4.3.7. Soil Environment ......................................................................................................... 245
4.3.8. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management during operation phase ............................. 245
4.3.9. Socio-Economic Environment ..................................................................................... 246
4.3.10. Ecology and Biodiversity ............................................................................................. 247
4.3.11. Energy Conservation................................................................................................... 247
4.3.12. Safety Provisions ........................................................................................................ 247
Chapter 5.
Environmental Management Plan ........................................................................... 248
5.1.
Prelude ........................................................................................................................... 248
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
5.2.
The EMP......................................................................................................................... 248
5.3.
Environmental, Health and Safety Management System ................................................ 249
5.4.
Construction Phase......................................................................................................... 250
5.5.
Operation Phase ............................................................................................................. 250
5.5.1. Air Environment .......................................................................................................... 250
5.5.2. Water Environment ..................................................................................................... 252
5.5.3. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management .................................................................. 253
5.5.4. Noise Environment ...................................................................................................... 254
5.5.5. Occupational Health Programme ................................................................................ 254
5.5.6. Hazard Communication and Chemical Safety ............................................................. 255
5.5.7. Environmental Audit .................................................................................................... 255
5.5.8. Manpower for Environmental Health and Safety Management .................................... 256
5.6.
CREP Compliance .......................................................................................................... 256
5.7.
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT CELL ......................................................................... 258
5.8.
EMP BUDGET ................................................................................................................ 259
5.9.
Environmental Monitoing Programme ............................................................................. 259
Chapter 6.
Hazard Identification and hazard assessment ......................................................... 263
6.1.
Hazard Identification ....................................................................................................... 263
6.1.1. Hazard Associated with Process Industry ................................................................... 263
6.1.2. Planning ...................................................................................................................... 263
6.1.3. Consequences of Overpressure .................................................................................. 265
6.1.4. Consequences of Toxic Release ................................................................................. 266
6.1.5. Meteorology ................................................................................................................ 267
6.1.6. Consequences Analysis .............................................................................................. 268
6.1.7. Maximum Credible Risk Scenario (MCLS) .................................................................. 269
6.1.8. Estimation of Risk in Terms of Fatality Probability and its Comparison with
Accepted Risk Criteria................................................................................................. 270
6.1.9. Internationally Recognized Yardsticks for Measuring Risk .......................................... 271
6.2.
Consequences of Containment Failure and Release of Material into
Environment ............................................................................................................................... 271
6.2.1. Release of Methanol into Environment ........................................................................ 271
6.2.2. Release of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) into Environment ................................................... 273
6.2.3. Release of Toluene into Environment ......................................................................... 274
6.2.4. Release of Acetic Acid into Environment ..................................................................... 276
6.2.5. Release of Acetone into Environment ......................................................................... 277
6.2.6. Release of Dimethyl Formamide (DMF) into the Environment ..................................... 279
6.2.7. Release of Ethanol into Environment .......................................................................... 282
6.2.8. Release of Xylene into the Environment...................................................................... 283
6.2.9. Release of MIBK into Environment.............................................................................. 284
6.2.10. Release of Cyclohexane into the Environment ........................................................... 285
6.2.11. Release of Iso Propyl Alcohol into the Environment .................................................... 286
6.2.12. Release of Hexane into Environment .......................................................................... 288
6.3.
Component Wise Environment Risk Assessment and Mitigation..................................... 289
6.4.
Consequence Analysis Summary ................................................................................... 289
6.4.1. Treatment and Control Actions .................................................................................... 291
Chapter 7.
Disaster management plan ..................................................................................... 293
7.1.
Disaster Management Plan: Structure ............................................................................ 293
7.2.
Policy .............................................................................................................................. 293
7.2.1. Identification and Prevention of Possible Emergency Situations ................................. 293
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
7.2.2. Identification and Compliance with Legislative Requirements: .................................... 295
7.2.3. Identification of and communication with relevant Stakeholders .................................. 297
7.2.4. Formation of Emergency Plan Objectives ................................................................... 298
7.3.
Implementation ............................................................................................................... 298
7.3.1. Allocation of Resources .............................................................................................. 298
7.3.2. Emergency Structure and Responsibility ..................................................................... 299
7.3.3. Setting up of Emergency Infrastructure ....................................................................... 303
7.3.4. Awareness, Training, and Competence ...................................................................... 305
7.3.5. Communication ........................................................................................................... 306
7.3.6. Emergency Documentation and Document Control ..................................................... 308
7.3.7. Emergency Control ..................................................................................................... 309
7.4.
Checking and Corrective Action ...................................................................................... 312
7.4.1. Monitoring and Measurement...................................................................................... 312
7.4.2. Records ...................................................................................................................... 312
7.4.3. EP Audit, Non Conformance and Corrective Action and Preventive Action ................. 312
7.5.
Review of Emergency Performance ................................................................................ 313
7.6.
The Contingency Plan..................................................................................................... 313
7.6.1. Contents of the Contingency Plan ............................................................................... 313
7.7.
Emergency Organization ................................................................................................ 314
7.8.
Site Layout Plan with Escape Routes and Assembly Points............................................ 316
7.8.1. Safe Assembly Points ................................................................................................. 316
7.9.
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) Plan .................................................................. 316
7.9.1. Escape ........................................................................................................................ 316
7.9.2. Evacuation .................................................................................................................. 316
7.9.3. Rescue ....................................................................................................................... 317
7.10. Credible Loss Scenarios ................................................................................................. 317
7.10.1. Atmospheric Stability Class Prevalence (ASCLAP) for nearest Observatory ............... 317
7.11. Mutual Aid Organizations ................................................................................................ 317
7.12. Mock Drill and Review Procedure ................................................................................... 317
7.13. Offsite Plan Components ................................................................................................ 318
7.14. Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 318
7.14.1. Storage of Hazardous Chemicals in Bulk .................................................................... 318
7.14.2. Storage of Hazardous Chemicals in Drums and other Containers ............................... 319
7.14.3. Unloading of Tank Trucks ........................................................................................... 319
7.14.4. Hazardous Waste Transport ....................................................................................... 320
7.15. General Safety Practices ................................................................................................ 321
7.15.1. Work Permit System ................................................................................................... 321
7.15.2. Contractor Safety ........................................................................................................ 322
7.15.3. Static Electricity........................................................................................................... 323
7.15.4. Lightning Protection .................................................................................................... 324
7.16. Personnel Safety ............................................................................................................ 325
7.16.1. Personnel Protective Equipment ................................................................................. 325
7.16.2. Training ....................................................................................................................... 326
7.17. Safety of Plant Equipment............................................................................................... 327
7.17.1. Thermal Insulation ...................................................................................................... 327
7.17.2. Electrical Equipment ................................................................................................... 327
7.17.3. Reactors ..................................................................................................................... 328
7.17.4. Equipment Safety........................................................................................................ 329
7.18. Tank Farm Safety ........................................................................................................... 335
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
7.18.1. Inspection of Flammable Solvent Storage Tanks ........................................................ 335
7.19. Emergency Management ................................................................................................ 335
7.19.1. Emergency Prevention ................................................................................................ 335
7.19.2. Emergency Response ................................................................................................. 335
7.19.3. Inspection of Fire Fighting Equipment and Systems .................................................... 337
7.19.4. Recommendations on Individual Accident Risks ......................................................... 337
Chapter 8.
Summary and Conclusion ....................................................................................... 339
8.1.
Prelude ........................................................................................................................... 339
8.2.
Regulatory Compliance ................................................................................................... 339
8.3.
Baseline Conditions ........................................................................................................ 339
8.4.
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures ............................................................ 340
8.5.
Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 340
Chapter 9.
Disclosure of Consultants........................................................................................ 341
9.1.
Declaration by Experts Contributing to this Report .......................................................... 341
List of Tables
Table 1.1 : List of APIs and their Production Capacity ................................................................. 15
Table 1.2 : Salient features of the project and site ....................................................................... 17
Table 1.1 : Compliance with the Terms of Reference .................................................................. 22
Table 2.1 : Connectivity and Surrounding Area Profile ................................................................ 29
Table 2.2 : Land Distribution at Site............................................................................................. 31
Table 2.3 List of Solvents used in Manufacturing Process ......................................................... 138
Table 2.4 Details of distillation system. ...................................................................................... 138
Table 2.5 Raw Material Requirement ........................................................................................ 139
Table 2.6 Raw Material and Finished Good Storage Area and its Specifications. ...................... 145
Table 2.7 Water Consumption for Various Activities during Operation Phase .................................... 146
Table 2.8 : Fuel quantity and source ......................................................................................... 149
Table 2.9 : Manpower Requirement during Construction Phase ................................................ 149
Table 2.10 Manpower Requirement during Operation Phase .................................................... 149
Table 2.11 MEE Collection Tank ............................................................................................... 151
Table 2.12 MEE Transfer Pump ................................................................................................ 151
Table 2.13 Triple Effect Thermal Vapour Compressor Evaporator............................................. 151
Table 2.14 Sludge Collection System ........................................................................................ 151
Table 2.15 Membrane Filter Press ............................................................................................ 152
Table 2.16 Waste Sludge Generation ........................................................................................ 152
Table 2.17 : Quantity of Hazardous Waste to be Generated. ..................................................... 154
Table 2.18 Waste Characteristics .............................................................................................. 154
Table 2.19 Operating Conditions ............................................................................................... 154
Table 2.20 Incinerators.............................................................................................................. 154
Table 2.21 Scrubbing System ................................................................................................... 155
Table 2.22 : Type and Quantity of Solid Waste to be Generated in the Construction and
Operation Phases .............................................................................................................. 155
Table 2.23 Details of Air Emissions ........................................................................................... 155
Table 2.24 : Project cost ............................................................................................................ 157
Table 3.1 : Five-Year Rainfall (in mm) from 2008 to 2012 in Jaipur District ............................... 163
Table 3.2 Water table (Fluctuation and Decline) ........................................................................ 167
Table 3.3 : Land use category in the Study Area ....................................................................... 170
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.4 Monitoring Methodology of Meteorological Data ........................................................ 173
Table 3.5 :Predominant Wind Direction ( Blowing from) ............................................................ 173
Table 3.6 : Summary of Micrometeorological Data of Summer Season (15 Mar- 15
Jun‟14) ............................................................................................................................... 174
Table 3.7 : Sampling sites ......................................................................................................... 178
Table 3.8 Methodology of Ambient Air Monitoring ..................................................................... 179
Table 3.9 : Ambient Air Quality Status in the Study Area ........................................................... 180
Noise readings were taken at six different locations within the study area near-by
sensitive locations. The average noise level are presented vide Table 3.12. ...................... 183
Table 3.10 : Noise Monitoring Results ....................................................................................... 183
Table 3.11 : Standard of Ambient Noise Level as per CPCB Guidelines ................................... 184
Table 3.12 : Damage risk criteria for hearing loss, Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) regulations ..................................................................................... 185
Table 3.13 : Monitoring Methodology of water ........................................................................... 186
Table 3.14 : Ground Water Quality in the Study Area ................................................................ 188
Table 3.15 : Surface Water Quality in the Study Area................................................................ 193
Table 3.16 : List of Tree and Shrub Flora Recorded in the Study Area ...................................... 201
Table 3.17 : List of Mammalian Fauna Present in the study area .............................................. 202
Table 3.18 :List of Avi- Fauna Present in the study area ........................................................... 203
Table 3.19 List of Herpetofauna Present in the study area ........................................................ 203
Table 3.20 List of Plant species to be planted under greenbelt development pogramme ........... 204
Table 3.21 : Districts and their Habitations under the Study Area .............................................. 206
Table 3.22 Summary of Demographic Profile of Revenue Villages under the Study Area ......... 208
Table 3.23 List of SC/ST Population (District-wise) ................................................................... 212
Table 3.24 Male and Female Literates/Illiterates (District-wise) ................................................. 212
Table 4.1 : Typical Noise Sources during Construction Phase .................................................. 222
Table 4.2 : Stack Details ........................................................................................................... 228
Table 4.3 : Summary of Maximum 24-hour GLC due to the proposed Project ........................... 229
Table 4.4 : Summary of Maximum GLC at Monitoring Locations due to Proposed Project ........ 230
Table 4.5 : Impact Scoring of Air Environment........................................................................... 239
Table 5.1 : Design Features for Minimization of Fugitive Emissions .......................................... 252
Table 5.2 : Quantity of Solid Waste to be Generated during the Construction and
Operation Phases .............................................................................................................. 253
The authorized quantity of hazardous waste and its disposal method is tabulated .................... 253
Table 5.3 Quantity of Hazardous Wastes, its Disposal Method by authorized dealer................. 254
Table 5.4 CREP Compliance..................................................................................................... 257
Table 5.5 : Environmental management cell .............................................................................. 258
Table 5.6 : Environmental budget .............................................................................................. 259
Table 5.7 : Matrix of Environmental Monitoring Plan.................................................................. 260
Table 6.1 : Event Classification ................................................................................................. 263
Table 6.2 : Damage due to Radiation Intensity .......................................................................... 264
Table 6.3 : Overpressure Damage ............................................................................................ 265
Table 6.4 MCAS‟ and Worst Case Scenario .............................................................................. 269
Table 6.5 Failure Frequencies for Storage Tanks ...................................................................... 270
Table 6.6 Broadly Accepted Frequency ..................................................................................... 271
Table 6.7 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of Methanol ............................ 272
Table 6.8 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of Methanol .................................... 272
Table 6.9 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of Methanol ..................... 273
Table 6.10 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of THF ................................. 273
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 6.11 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Release Due to THF............................... 274
Table 6.12 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of Toluene ........................... 274
Table 6.13 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of Toluene .................................... 275
Table 6.14 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Release Due to Toluene ......................... 276
Table 6.15 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of Acetic Acid ....................... 276
Table 6.16 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of Acetic Acid ................ 276
Table 6.17 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of Acetic Acid ............................... 277
Table 6.18 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of Acetone ........................... 277
Table 6.19 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of Acetone .................................... 279
Table 6.20 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of DMF ................................. 279
Table 6.21 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of DMF ......................................... 280
Table 6.22 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of DMF .......................... 281
Table 6.23 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of Ethanol ............................ 282
Table 6.24 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of Ethanol ...................... 283
Table 6.25 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of Xylene ............................. 283
Table 6.26 Radiation Level and Effective Distance Due to Release of MIBK ............................. 284
Table 6.27 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release of MIBK ................................ 284
Table 6.28 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of Cyclohexane ............................ 285
Table 6.29 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of Cyclohexane ............. 286
Table 6.30 Radiation Level and Effect Distance Due to Release of IPA .................................... 286
Table 6.31 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of IPA ............................ 287
Table 6.32 Radiation Level and Effect Distance Due to Release of Hexane .............................. 288
Table 6.33 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to Release of Hexane ..................... 288
Table 6.34 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of Hexane..................................... 288
Table 7.1 : Applicable EHS regulatory requirements – Dhanuka Laboratories Limited .............. 296
Table 7.2 : Emergency Organization ......................................................................................... 314
Table 7.3 : Safe Assembly Points for the Site ............................................................................ 316
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 : Location of the Project..................................................................................................... 16
Figure 1.2 Map Showing Road Connectivity ......................................................................................... 17
Figure 1.3 : Methodology of EIA Study ........................................................................................ 20
Figure 2.1 : Location Map ............................................................................................................ 30
Figure 2.2 : Site Layout Map (Source : DLL) ............................................................................... 32
Figure 2.3 : Chemical reaction of 7- Amino-3-Chloro Cephalosporanic (7-ACCA) ...................... 35
Figure 2.4 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for 7-ACCA .......................................................... 36
Figure 2.5 Flow chart for the 7-ACCA production along with mass balance................................. 37
Figure 2.6 : Chemical reaction for Sertraline Hydrochloride ......................................................... 44
Figure 2.7 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Sertraline Hydrochloride ................................. 45
Figure 2.8 : Mass Balance for the Sertraline Hydrochloride Production Process ......................... 46
Figure 2.9 : Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Clopidogrel Bisulphate ................................. 52
Figure 2.10 Mass Balance for the Clopidogrel Bisulphate Production Process ............................ 53
Figure 2.11 : Chemical reaction of Cefaclor ................................................................................. 59
Figure 2.12 : Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefaclor...................................................... 60
Figure 2.13 Mass Balance for the Cefaclor Production Process .................................................. 61
Figure 2.14 : Chemical reaction of Cefpodoxime Proxetil ............................................................ 64
Figure 2.15 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefpodoxime Proxetil ................................... 64
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.16 Mass Balance for the Cefpodoxime Proxetil Production Process .............................. 65
Figure 2.17 : Chemical reaction of Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous ............................................... 70
Figure 2.18 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous ...................... 71
Figure 2.19 Mass Balance for the Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous Production Process................. 72
Figure 2.20 : Chemical reaction of Gabapentin............................................................................ 76
Figure 2.21 : Chemical reaction of Pregablin ............................................................................... 83
Figure 2.22 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Pregabaline .................................................. 84
Figure 2.23 : Mass Balance for the Pregabaline Production Process .......................................... 85
Figure 2.24 : Chemical rection of Ceftibuten ................................................................................ 90
Figure 2.25 : Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Ceftibuten ................................................... 91
Figure 2.26 : Mass Balance for the Ceftibuten Production Process ............................................. 92
Figure 2.27 : Chemical reaction of Cefdinir .................................................................................. 95
Figure 2.28 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefdinir......................................................... 96
Figure 2.29 Mass Balance for the Cefdinir Production Process ................................................... 97
Figure 2.30 : Chemical reaction of Ondansetron ....................................................................... 100
Figure 2.31 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Ondansetron .............................................. 101
Figure 2.32 Mass Balance for the Ondansetron Production Process ......................................... 102
Figure 2.33 : Chemical reaction of cefditoren Pivoxil ................................................................. 110
Figure 2.34 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefditoren Pivoxil ....................................... 111
Figure 2.35 Mass Balance for the Cefditoren Pivoxil Production Process .................................. 112
Figure 2.36 : Chemical reaction of Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl .................................................. 119
Figure 2.37 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl ......................... 120
Figure 2.38 Mass Balance for the Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl Production Process .................... 121
Figure 2.39 : Chemical reaction for Cefixime ............................................................................. 127
Figure 2.40 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefixime ..................................................... 128
Figure 2.41 Mass Balance for the Cefixime Production Process................................................ 129
Figure 2.42 : Chemical reaction of Cefprozil .............................................................................. 133
Figure 2.43 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefprozil ..................................................... 134
Figure 2.44 Mass Balance for the Cefprozil Production Process ............................................... 135
Figure 2.45 Water Balance Diagram ......................................................................................... 148
Figure 2.46 Flow Diagram for Zero Effluent Discharge Plant ..................................................... 153
Figure 3.1 : Contour Map of Study Area .................................................................................... 161
Figure 3.2 : DEM Map of Study Area ......................................................................................... 162
Figure 3.3 : Seismic Zoning Map & Hazard Zoning Map of India ............................................... 164
Figure 3.4 Hydrogeological map ................................................................................................ 165
Figure 3.5 Water Level Trends of the district. ............................................................................ 166
Figure 3.6 Drainage Pattern ...................................................................................................... 169
Figure 3.7 : Land use statistics of the proposed site .................................................................. 171
Figure 3.8 : Land use/ Land cover statistics of the proposed site............................................... 172
Figure 3.9 : Windrose diagram for the study area ...................................................................... 175
Figure 3.10 : Wind Class Frequency Distribution ....................................................................... 176
Figure 3.11 : Sampling Locations in the Study Area .................................................................. 177
Figure 3.12 Graphical representation of PM10in the Study Area ................................................ 181
Figure 3.13 Graphical representation of PM 2.5 in the Study Area .............................................. 181
Figure 3.14 Graphical representation of SO2 in the Study Area ................................................. 182
Figure 3.15 Graphical representation of NOx in the Study Area ................................................ 182
Figure 3.16 : Leq Day and Night of the study area .................................................................... 184
Figure 3.17 : National Parks and Sanctuaries in Rajasthan ....................................................... 205
Figure 3.18 Habitations within the Study Area ........................................................................... 206
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 3.19 District-wise Male Female Population of the Study Area......................................... 211
Figure 3.20 District-wise Child Population (age group 0-6 years) Male Female of the
Study Area ......................................................................................................................... 211
Figure 3.21 District -wise SC/ ST Population in Study Area ....................................................... 212
Figure 3.22 Gender - wise Distribution of Illiteracy in Study Area .............................................. 213
Figure 3.23 Workers Scenario of the Area................................................................................. 214
Figure 3.24 Distribution of Main Workers................................................................................... 214
Figure 3.25 Distribution of Marginal Workers ............................................................................. 215
Figure 4.1 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of SOx ....................................................... 231
Figure 4.2 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of NOx ....................................................... 232
Figure 4.3 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of PM10 ...................................................... 233
Figure 4.4 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of PM2.5 ..................................................... 234
Figure 4.5 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of CO ........................................................ 235
Figure 4.6 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of NH3(Source: EQMS) ................................ 236
Figure 4.6 (Source: EQMS) .......................................................................................................... 237
Figure 4.7 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of Ozone ................................................... 237
Figure 4.8 Diagrammatic Representation of the Scrubber System for the Proposed Plant ........ 239
Figure 4.9 Schematic diagram of Rainwater Harvesting ........................................................... 244
Figure 7.1 : Composition of Offsite Crisis Group........................................................................ 311
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
List of Annexures
Annexure I: Approved TOR letter
Annexure II: Land Allotment by RIICO
Annexure III: ETP detail
Annexure IV: MET data
Annexure V: Material Safty Data Sheet
Annexure VI: Certificate of TSDF
Annexure VII: Detail of Rain water harvesting
Annexure VIII: Acknowledment of CGWA application
Annexure IX: 30 years climatological data
Annexure X: Site Photograph
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Abbreviation
PNBBr
A Acid
H2O2
KBr
CF
ML
MeOH
H2O
SRP
H2SO4
DMF
MEE
Rxn
ETP
HTDS
LTDS
TMP
O3
EA
TMPO
MDC
PtSCl
PTC
4M
NH4OH
TPP
Cl2
MEG
DMA
PCl5
TPPO
Hydro
HCl
7ACCA
HMDS
TMCS
EDTA
D. salt
HMDSO
NMM
ECF
C Acid
CFC
NaBr
HCHO
TFA
Para nitro benzyl bromide
Acetic acid
Hydrogen peroxide
Potassium bromide
Centrifuge
Mother liquor
Methanol
Water
Solvent recovery plant
Sulphuric acid
Dimethylformamide
Multiple effect evaporators
Reaction
Effluent treatment plant
High Total dissolve solid
Low Total dissolved solid
Trimethyl phosphite
Ozone
Ethyl acetate
Trimethoxy phosphine oxide
Methylene chloride
Para toluene Sulphonyl Chloride
Phase transfer catalyst
Mor haline
Ammonium hydroxide
Triphenyl phosphite
Chlorine
Ethylene glycol
Dimethyl aniline
Phosphorus pentachloride
Triphenoxy phosphine oxide
Sodium dithionite
Hydrochloric acid
7Amino3chlorocephalosporanic acid
Hexamethyldisilazane
Trimethylchlorosilane
Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid
Dane salt
Hexamethyldisiloxane
NMethyl morphaline
Ethylchlroformate
Methane sulphonic acid
Cefaclor
Sodium bromide
Formaldehyde
Tri-fluroacetic acid
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
NBA
NaCl
Na2CO3
SBC
7AVCA
NaOH
THF
TEA
DMAc
CSI
CFU Acid
AEB
NaI
SMBS
IPA
HWTDF
Thio
DBU
So.succinate
CIIPC
Cat
Na2SO4
Org.Layer
Aq.Layer
CHCl3
K2S2O5
PA or NPA
BA
NaEHA
TBAB
Iodo
N-butyl acetate
Sodium chloride
Sodium carbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid
Sodium hydroxide
Tetra-hydrofuran
Tri-ethyl amine
Di-methylacetamide
Chlorosulphonyl-isocynate
Cefuroxime acid
1-Acetoxyethylbromide
sodium iodide
Sodium metabisulphite
Propanol
Hazardous waste treatment & disposal facility
Sodium thio - sulphate
1,8- Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-undec7ene
Sodium succinate
1-Chlorethyl isopropyl carbonate
Crown ether
Sodium sulphate
Organic layer
Aqueous layer
Chloroform
Potassium metabisulphite
N-Propanol
Butyl acetate
Sodium hexanoate
tetrabutylammonium bromide
Iodomethyl pivalate
CMP
MSC
ACN
DIPA
STS
MIBK
BF3
POCl3
ECNA
DNPA
DEM
EtOH
Br2
A carbon
Abs -alcohal
Chloromethyl pivalate
methane sulphonyl chloride
Acetonitrile
Diisopropylamine
Sodium thio sulphate
methylisobutyl ketone
Boron trofluoride
Phosphorus oxy chloride
Ethyl cynoacetate
Di – n - propylamine
Di- ethyl malonate
ethanol
Bromine
Activated carbon
Ethyl alcohal
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
K2HPO4
RCVD
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate
Rotacone Vaccum Drier
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 1.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
This chapter provides background information of the project i.e. project proponent, project
justification, regulatory framework location of the proposed project, the scope of EIA study,
methodology adopted for EIA study and structure of the report, and compliance to the TOR
issued by MoEF.
1.1.
Introduction
Dhanuka Laboratories Limited (DLL), the project proponent, was incorporated in 1993
and is engaged in manufacturing of bulk drug intermediates (Active Pharmaceutical
Ingredients - API) at Gurgaon. DLL is proposing to set up another unit, a green field
project, in Rajasthan.
1.2.
Proposed Products and Project Location
DLL proposes to establish a bulk drug intermediates (APIs) manufacturing unit of 50.425
MT/ month capacity. The different APIs proposed to be manufactured are given in Table
1.1.
Table 1.1 : List of APIs and their Production Capacity
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Name of API
7-ACCA
Cefaclor
Cefixime
Cefdinir
Cefuroxime Axetil
Cefprozil
Cefpodoxime Proxetil
Cefditoren Pivoxil
Cefcapene Pivoxil Hydrochloride
Ceftibuten
Pregabaline
Sertraline Hydrochloride
Ondansetron
Clopidogrel Bisulphate
Gabapentin
R & D trail production
Total
Production Capacity
(MT/month)
3
3
12
1
4
1
4
1
0.225
0.200
3
2
2
5
4
5
50.425
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The proposed project is to be established at RIICO industrial area, Keshwana Rajpoot,
Tehsil Kotputli, District Jaipur, Rajasthan (Refer figure 1.1 and 1.2 for location map and
road connectivity respectively).
(Source: Google earth imagery)
Figure 1.1 : Location of the Project
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: Google earth imagery)
Figure 1.2 Map Showing Road Connectivity
1.3.
Salient Features of the Project
The salient features of the project and site is summarised below at Table 1.2.
Table 1.2 : Salient features of the project and site
Items
Details
Project
Green field Bulk Drug intermediate Manufacturing Unit
Location
RIICO Industrial Area, Keshwana Rajpoot, Tehsil Kotputli,
District Jaipur, Rajasthan
Coordinates
Latitude: 27° 48‟ 25.94” N Longitude: 76° 13‟ 26.84” E
Project area
32,800 m2
Production Capacity
50.425 MT/month of APIs
Location features
Highways- NH 8 – about 2.4 km
Railways- Alwar Railway Station – about 47 km
Airport - Jaipur airport - 128 km
Power requirement &
source
Construction Phase: 125 kVA (125 x 1, DG set)
Operation Phase: 3000 kVA( 500 x 6, DG set – for
backup)
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Source: Jaipur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited
Water requirement &
source
Construction Phase: 24 KLD
Operation Phase: 150 KLD
Source: Bore wells (2 No.)
ETP Facility
ETP Capacity : 150 KLD
STP Facility
STP Capacity : 10 KLD
Project Cost
INR 70 Cr.
1.4.
Purpose of the Study and Report
Initially EIA study has been carried out by M/s Asian Consultant Engineering Pvt. Ltd.
Since M/s Asian consultant Engineering Pvt. Ltd did not have NABET accreditation for
Synthetic organic chemical industry at present, DLL has requested EQMS to carry out
validation of the further work. EQMS has followed the MoEF issued Term of reference
(TOR) videfile no. J-11011/8/2013-IAII(I)dated 11th March 2014 for validating the EIA
report. EQMS has supplemented the existing baseline data collection with three month
15th March to 15th June, 2014 and prepared/revalidated the EIA report.
1.5.
Need of the Proposed Project
India ranks third with respect to the production capacity of pharmaceuticals in the world,
whereas in terms of value, India is in 14th place. The total turnover of pharmaceutical
industry in 2010 was US $ 20 billion, which is 20 times when compared with the turnover
in 1990 (Indian Pharmaceutical Industry, 2010). All major therapeutic groups of drugs
are manufactured in India. In terms of generics production India ranks 4th, but in terms
of export value India ranks 17th. The need of APIs is increasing every year due to
continual growth of pharmecutical industry. This project is expected to contribute in
partially fulfil the dmand of APIs of pharmecutical industries.
1.6.
Environmental Regulatory Applicability
The proposed project falls under under Sl.No. 5(f) of the schedule I of Environmental
Impact Assessment Notification S.O. 1533 dated 14thSeptember, 2006 and as amended
thereof. Project classified as Category 'A' due to its location within 3 km of Rajasthan –
Haryana. Mandating it to it requires prior environmental clearance from the Ministry of
Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India, New Delhi.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
MoEF has granted preliminary clearance for setting up this project and approved TOR
for carrying out EIA study vide its letter dated 11th March 2014.( enclosed as Annexure
I)
The project also requires consents and authorisation under Air ( Prevention and
Controlof Pollution) act 1981, Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1974 and
The Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules
2008 amended to date.
1.7.
Scope and Methodology of the Study
The scope of the EIA study is based on the generic structure of environmental
impact assessment document as stated in the Appendix III of the EIA Notification
2006 (S.O. 1533), Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
The scope of the study includes a detailed Environmental impact assessment of the
proposed project on valued environmental components. The proposed project is
currently in the design preparation stage. For the purpose of environmental
assessment, areas within 10 km radius of the project have been studied and the
following steps shall be followed:
o
Generation of baseline data for valued environmental components as per the
EIA guidelines & approved TOR
o
Identification and quantification of significant environmental impacts due to
the project and its associated activities.
o
identification of mitigation measures eliminate or minimize the impacts
o
Preparation
of
appropriate
Environmental
Management
Plan
(EMP)
encompassing plan for minimizing identified adverse impacts along with
budgetary provisions to be made by the project authorities for implementation
of mitigation measures.
o
Delineation of post Environmental Quality Monitoring Programme (EQMP)
along with organizational setup required for monitoring the effectiveness of
mitigation measures.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 1.3 : Methodology of EIA Study
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
1.8.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Structure of the Report
The EIA report contains project detail, baseline environmental setup, assessment of
environmental impacts, and formulation of mitigation measures, environmental
management and monitoring plan with risk & disaster management plan.
The report includes 9 Chapters as follows:
Executive Summary
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter provides background information on need of project, need of EIA study and
brief of the project. The scope and EIA methodology adopted in preparation of EIA report
have also been described in this Chapter. It also covers the identification of project &
project proponent, brief description of nature, size, location of the project and its
importance to the country and the region. Scope of the study details about the regulatory
scoping carried out as per the generic structure given in the EIA Notification, 2006.
Chapter 2: Project Description
This chapter deals with the project details of the proposed Drugs Manufacturing Plant,
with type of project, need for the project, location, size & magnitude of operation
including associated activities required by and for the project, proposed schedule for
approval and implementation, including technical details of raw material, quality and
quantity etc.
Chapter 3: Description of the Environment
This chapter presents the existing environmental status of the study area around the
proposed project including topography, drainage pattern, water environment, geological,
climate, transport system, land use, flora & fauna, socio-economic aspects, basic
amenities etc. Environmental assessment of the proposed project site in regard to its
capability to receive the proposed new development is also discussed in this Chapter.
Chapter 4: Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
This chapter describes the overall impacts of the proposed project activities and
underscores the areas of concern, which need mitigation measures. It predicts the
overall impact of the proposed project on different components of the environment viz.
air, water, land, noise, biological, and socio-economic during construction & operation
stages.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
This chapter details the inferences drawn from the environmental impact assessment
exercise. It also provides mitigation and control measures for environmental
management plan (EMP) for minimizing the negative environmental impacts and to
strengthening the positive environmental impacts of the proposed project. Technical
aspects of monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation measures
Chapter 6: Risk Assessment & Disaster Management Plan
This chapter deals with the risk assessment carried out for the proposed API
manufacturing plant and disaster management plan.
Chapter 7: Summary & Conclusion
This chapter provides the summary and conclusions of the EIA study of the proposed
project with overall justification for implementation of the project and also explanation of
how, adverse effects will be mitigated. This chapter also includes the conclusions of the
Public Hearing.
Chapter 8: Disclosure of Consultants Engaged
This chapter provides the disclosure of consultants engaged to carryout the EIA study
along with other additional studies.
1.9.
Compliance to approved TOR
The EIA study has been conducted in-line with the approved ToR by MoEF and taking
into consideration the structure of the report given in the EIA Notification 2006. The
compliance to the approved ToR is given in Table 1.7.
Table 1.1 : Compliance with the Terms of Reference
S.No TOR Points
1. Executive summary of the project
2. Justification of the project
3. Promoters and their background
Compliance
Included
The project is expected to
contribute
in
partially
fulfilling the demand of APIs
of
pharmaceutical
industries. The justification
of project is given in
Section 2.2
Detail
of
proposed
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
4. Regulatory framework
5.
A map indicating location of the project and
distance from severely polluted area.
6. Project location and Plant layout
7. Infrastructure facility including power sources
Total cost of the project along-with total capital
8. cost and recurring cost/annum for environmental
pollution control measures.
Present landuse based on satellite imagery for the
study area of 10 km radius area and site details
9.
providing various industries, surface water bodies,
forests etc.
Present landuse based on satellite imagery for the
10. study area of 10 km radius. Details land availability
for the project alongwith supporting documents.
11.
Location of National Park/ Wildlife Sanctuary/
Reserve forest within 10 km radius of the project.
Permission from the State forest Department
12. regarding the impact of the proposed plant on the
surrounding reserve forests.
13.
Details of the total land and breakup of the land
use for greenbelt and other uses.
proponent given in Section
1.1.
Environmental
regularity
framework is given Section
1.6
Location map of the study
is given in figure 2.1 and
there
is
no
severely
polluted area exist in study
area
Detail of project location is
given in Section 1.5,anf
plant layout given in figure
1.3, 1.4
Utilities of project site is
given in Section 2.7
Total cost of the project
along-with total capital cost
and recurring cost/annum
for environmental pollution
control measures is given
at Section 2.9
Present land use based on
satellite imagery for the
study area of 10 km radius
area given at Section 3.3.8
Satellite imagery for the
study area of 10 km radius
is given Section 3.3.8
No National Park/Wild life
sanctuary/Reserve
forest
within 10 km radius of the
project. The location map
given in figure 2.1
Not Applicable as the
proposed project site is
located
within
RIICO
industrial area and there is
no reserved forest area
within 10 km study area.
Land distribution of the
proposed project given in
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
14.
List of products alongwith the production
capacities
15.
Detailed list of raw material required and source,
mode of storage.
16.
Manufacturing process details along with the
chemical reactions and process flowchart.
17.
Action plan for the transportation of raw material
and products
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Site specific micrometeorological data using
18. temperature, relative humidity, hourly wind speed
and direction and rainfall is necessary.
Ambient air quality monitoring at 6 locations within
the study area of 5 km., aerial coverage from
19. project site as per NAAQES on 16th September,
2009. Location of one AAQMS in downwind
direction.
One season site-specific micrometeorological data
using temperature, relative humidity, hourly wind
speed and direction and rainfall and AAQ data
(except monsoon) for PM10, SO2, NOx, CO, NH3
20. including VOCs shall be collected. The monitoring
stations shall take into account the predominant
direction, population zone and sensitive receptors
including reserved forests. Data for water and
noise monitoring shall also be incuded.
Air pollution control measures proposed for the
21.
effective control of gaseous/process emissions
Table 2.2 and plant layout
with green belt given in
section 2.3
Products alongwith the
production capacities is
given at Section 2.4 & 2.5
List of raw material required
and source, mode of
storage given at Section 2.6
and table 2.5
Manufacturing process with
the chemical reactions and
flowchart and mass balance
given in section 2.4.
Details of transportation of
raw material and products
with mode of transportation
and storage. Section 2.6
and table 2.5
Micrometeorological of the
study
area
with
temperature,
relative
humidity, hourly wind speed
and direction and rainfall
are shown in Section 3.4.1,
table 3.3, Table 3.5.
Air monitoring at 6 locations
within the study area is
given in Section 3.4.1.and
shown at figure
3.12
through figure 3.15.
Section 3.4.1. provide the
details of ambient air
monitoring results and one
season met data attached
as annexure III
Air
pollution
control
measures
and effective
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
within permissible limits.
22.
Name of all the solvents to be used in the process
and details of solvent recovery systems.
23.
Design details of ETP, incinerator, if any alongwith
boiler, scrubbers/bags filters etc.
24.
Details of water and air pollution and its mitigation
plan.
An action plan prepared by SPCB to control and
25. monitor secondary fugitive emissions from all
sources.
Determination of atmospheric inversion level at the
project site and assessment of ground level
26. concentration of pollutants from the stacks
emission based on site-specific meteorological
features. Air quality modeling for proposed plant.
Permission from CGWA/SGWA for the drawl of
ground water. Water balance chart for the
27. proposed project including quantity of effluent
generated recycled and reused and effluent to
meet the standard.
28.
Attempt to be made for reduction for usage of
water.
Complete scheme of effluent treatment.
29. Characteristics of untreated and treated effluent to
meet the standard.
30. Zero discharge effluent concepts to be adopted.
control
for
proposed
project,
the
schematic
diagram of the scrubber
system for proposed project
given in figure 2.9
Details of solvent recovery
systems given in Section
2.6
Details of ETP, incinerator,
, scrubbers, MEE given in
Section 2.7.
Mitigation plan Section
4.3.1 and section 4.4.7
Proposed project has been
complied with the action
plan and follow the norms
as per CPCB and RSPCB.
Atmospheric inversion level
at the project site and
assessment of ground level
concentration of pollutants
given in section 4.4.2 and
the isoplethe of GLC for
various pollutants given in
Figure 4.2 through 4.13
During opertation phase
150 kld water required. The
application so permission
from CGWA/SGWA for
drawl of ground water
should be taken.
Proposed
project
zero
discharge concepts. The
detail water balance of the
proposed project given in
Figure 2.45
Effluent treatment. Details
given in section 2.7 and
Characteristics of untreated
and
treated
effluent
attached as annexureIV
Zero discharge effluent
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ground water quality monitoring at 6 locations
shall be carried out. Geological features and Geo31.
hydrological status of the study area and
ecological status (terrestrial and Aquatic).
The details of solid and hazardous waste
generations, storage, utilization and disposal
particularly related to the hazardous waste calorific
32. value of hazardous waste and detailed
characteristics of the hazardous waste. Action plan
for the disposal of fly ash generated from the boiler
shall be included.
Precautions to be taken during storage and
33. transportation of hazardous chemicals shall be
clearly mentioned and incorporated.
34.
Material Safety Data Sheet for all the Chemicals
are being used/will be used.
35.
Authorization/Membership for the disposal of
solid/hazardous waste in TSDF.
Risk assessment for storage for
36. chemicals/solvents. Action plan for handling &
safety system.
37.
An action plan to develop green belt in 33 % area.
Layout plan for green belt shall be provided.
Action plan for rainwater harvesting measures at
plant site shall be included to harvest rainwater
38.
from the roof tops and storm water drains to
recharge the ground water.
concepts figure 2.45
The Ground water quality
monitoring at 6 locations
given in section 3.4.3 and
table 3.14
Details
of
solid
and
hazardous
waste
generations,
storage,
utilization and disposal
particularly related to the
hazardous waste calorific
value of hazardous waste
given in Section 2.14
through section 2.19
Precautions to be taken
during
storage
and
transportation of hazardous
chemicals given in Section
2.10.2
Material Safety Data Sheet
for Chemicals attached as
Annexure V
The disposal of hazardous
waste through authorized
dealer.
The
Authorization/Membership
for
the
disposal
of
solid/hazardous
waste
attached as Annexure VI.
Detailed
consequence
analysis
and
Risk
assessment for storage for
chemicals/solvents given in
section 7.1.6
Green belt of 10824 m2 i.e.
33 % area and Layout plan
with green belt given in
figure 2.2.
Rainwater harvesting at
plant site given in Section
4.4.2.1 and figure 4.1.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Details of occupational health programme.
i) To which chemicals, workers are exposed
directly or indirectly.
ii) Whether these chemicals are within Thresh
Limit Values (TLV)/ Permissible Exposure Levels
as per ACGIH recommendation.
iii) What measures company have taken to keep
these chemicals within PELITLV.
39. iv) How the workers are evaluated concerning their
exposure to chemicals during preplacement and
periodical medical monitoring.
v) What are onsite and offsite emergency plan
during chemical disaster.
vi) Liver function tests (LFT) during pre-placement
and periodical examination.
vii) Details of occupational health surveillance
programme.
Socio-economic development activities shall be in
40.
place.
41.
Note on compliance to the recommendations
mentioned in the CREP guidelines.
Detailed Environment management Plan (EMP)
with specific reference to details of air pollution
control system, water & wastewater management,
42.
monitoring frequency, responsibility and time
bound implementation plan for mitigation measure
shall be provided.
EMP shall include the concept of wasteminimization, recycle / reuse / recover techniques,
43.
Energy conservation, and natural resource
conservation
Details of occupational
health programme by DLL
is given in Section 2.8
Section 2.13
Compliance of
CREP
guidelines given in section
5.6 and Table 5.4
Environment management
Plan (EMP) with specific
reference of air pollution
control system Table 5.5.
Energy conservation, and
natural
resource
conservation given Section
5.2 &5.3 and Section 4.4.12
Total capital cost and
recurring cost/annum is
Total capital cost and recurring cost/annum for
44.
given in Table 2.24 and
environmental pollution control measures
environmental budget given
in table 5.6
Corporate Environmental Responsibility
Corporate
environmental
(a) Does the company have a well laid down responsibility and the detail
45. Environment Policy approved by its Board of of
environmental
Directors? If so, it may be detailed in the EIA management cell given in
report.
section 5.7 and Table 5.5
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(b) Does the Environmental Policy prescribe for
standard operating process/procedures to bring
into focus any infringement / deviation / violation of
the environmental or forest norms / conditions? If
so, it may be detailed in the EIA report
(c) What is the hierarchical system or
Administrative order of the company to deal with
the environmental issues and for ensuring
compliance with the EC conditions. Details of this
system may be given.
(d) Does the company have a system of reporting
of non compliance / violations of environmental
norms to the Board of Directors of the company
and / or shareholders or stakeholders at large?
This reporting mechanism should be detailed in
the EIA report.
Any litigation pending against the project and/or
46. any direction/order passed by any Court of Law
against the project, if so, details thereof.
A tabular chart with index for point wise
47.
compliance of above TORs
The detailed EMP budget
given in table 5.6
NO
Complied
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 2.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
This chapter deals with the brief details of the establishment of new proposed bulk drug
project; Location Consideration, Technology Description, Raw material Requirement and
its source, Process flow diagram, Environmental aspects etc.
2.1.
The Site
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd proposed API project is located at latitude 27°48' 25.94” N
and longitude 76°13'26.84” E. within RIICO Industrial Area, Keshwana Rajpoot, Tehsil
Kotputli, District Jaipur, Rajasthan.
The project will not change the land use, land cover pattern, being located within RIICO
industrial area. Table 2.1 provide brief location aspects. The layout map of the proposed
unit is given at Figure 2.1.
Table 2.1 : Connectivity and Surrounding Area Profile
Description
Tehsil
District
Nearest Highway
State
Nearest railway station
Interstate Boundary
Nearest Air Port
Nearest town, city, District headquarters
along with distance in Kms
2.2.
Name
Kotputli
Jaipur
NH-8 (2.4 km)
Rajasthan
Alwar railway station is 47 km away from
project site (aerial distance).
Rajasthan- Haryana boundary at a
distance of 3 km
Jaipur airport is approx. 128 km away from
project site (aerial distance).
Kotputli is approx. 11 km away (aerial
distance) from project site towards south
direction. Behror is approx. 10.50 km away
(aerial distance) from project site towards
north direction.
Justification of Project Location
Need of APIs is increasing every year due to continual growth of pharmaceutical
industry. This project is expected to contribute in partially fulfilling the demand of
APIs of pharmaceutical industries within Rajasthan, Gujarat & rest of India. The
proposed project will be located inside the RIICO Industrial Area. The RIICO
Industrial Area has well developed roads, and is located near the NH 8 (within
2.4 km – South East direction), which is advantageous in terms of transportation
of raw materials as well as finished goods. This justifies the proposed site
location. The location map shown in Figure 2.1.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.1 : Location Map
(Source: Google Earth)
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Land allocation within plant
The land allocation at the site is presented in Table 2.2, corresponding to plant layout
shown in figure 2.2
Table 2.2 : Land Distribution at Site
S. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Description
Total Plot Area
Proposed Ground Coverage
Manufacturing:
Biotic Formulation
Biotic API (I & II)
Boiler Shed
Non-biotic API (I&II)
Non-biotic formulation
Allied Services
Utilities
Admin. block
Security & Time Office
Storage (Warehouse)
Proposed FAR
Manufacturing:
Biotic Formulation
Biotic API (I & II)
Boiler Shed
Non-biotic API (I&II)
Non-biotic formulation
Admin. block
Storage (Warehouse)
Services
Utilities
Security & Time Office
Basement Area
Built-up Area
(Source: DLL)
Area (sq m)
7412
5580
1200
1200
780
1200
1200
1132
600
500
32
700
18280
15180
3600
3600
780
3600
3600
1000
2100
632
600
32
5500
24412
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.2 : Site Layout Map (Source : DLL)
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Process Description
The manufacturing of bulk drugs and bulk drug intermediates involves several unit
operations and processes. It involves several stages of reactions in which different
functional groups are attached to the starting key raw materials. The product formed
after each stages of reaction are called as intermediates. In most of the cases the
downstream processing of the reaction mixture such as filtration, distillation etc. is also
conducted prior to the next reaction step. The final reaction mixture goes through
multiple steps of downstream processing to produce the desired active product. These
steps include filtration, distillation, precipitation, crystallization etc. A brief process
description along with chemical reaction of all products is as listed below with different
stages.
2.4.1.
7- Amino-3-Chloro Cephalosporanic (7-ACCA) Manufacturing Process:
7- ACCA is a key raw material for the manufacture of Cefaclore antibiotics. It consist of
six steps comprises oxidation, ring expansion, ozonation, cyclisation, chlorination and
deprotection.
Stage-I (CFC-2)
PenG potassium is protected with p-nitrobenzyl bromide in DMF at low
temperature.
KBr formed as by-product is removed by filtration.
Oxidation is carried out with per acetic acid.
Product is isolated by adding water.
Filtered, washed with water and dried at 45-50 C till m/c <0.5%.
Stage-2 (CFC-3)
Ring opening of CFC-2 is carried out with trimethyl phosphite (TMP) in
presence of toluene at reflux temperature.
After completion, toluene is removed under high vacuum.
Product is isolated by adding methanol.
Filtered, washed with methanol and dried at 45-50°C.
Stage-3 (CFC-4)
CFC-3 is subjected to ozonolysis in presence of TMP, acetic acid and
ethyl acetate as solvent.
Ethyl acetate is distilled out under high vacuum.
Product is isolated by adding methanol.
CFC-4 is centrifuged, washed with methanol and dried at 45-50 oC.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage-4 (CFC-8)
CFC-4 is tosylated with p-toluene sulphonyl chloride (p-TSCl) in
methylene chloride / water mixture at low temperature in basic medium.
It is protected with morpholin under basic condition.
Bromination is done with liquid bromine at low temperature.
Deprotection is done by adding HCl / methanol mixture.
Product is isolated by distilling methylene chloride / methanol mixture
under vacuum.
Product is centrifuged, washed with methanol and dried at 45 oC.
Stage-5 (CFC-9)
Triphenyl phosphite (TPP) / chlorine complex is made by purging chlorine
gas in a mixture of TPP / pyridine and MDC.
CFC-5 is added into the above mixture followed by dimethylamine
addition.
Deprotection at 7-position is carried out by adding phosphourous penta
chloride (PCl5) followed by isobutyl alcohol (IBA).
Cool to 0 oC, product is centrifuged, washed with chilled MDC and taken
as such for next step.
Stage -6 (7-ACCA)
Removal of p-nitrobenzyl group at 4th position is carried out by adding
sodium dithionite (hydro) at pH 3.0. Product is isolated by adjusting its
pH with HCl to 4.0.
7-ACCA crude is centrifuged, washed with water and taken as such for
purification.
Wet material is dissolved in DM water at 8.0 pH.
Clear solution is treated with activated carbon. Carbon is removed by
filtration with sparkler filter. Pure 7-ACCA is isolated by adjusting its pH
with dilute HCl to 4.0.
Centrifuged, washed with water and dried at 45 oC.
The chemical reaction, flow chart and mass balance diagram for the 7-ACCA
production given in Figure 2.3through Figure 2.5.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.3 : Chemical reaction of 7- Amino-3-Chloro Cephalosporanic (7-ACCA)
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.4 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for 7-ACCA
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.5 Flow chart for the 7-ACCA production along with mass balance
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.2.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Sertraline Hydrochloride Manufacturing Process
Setrealine HCl is antidepresessant drug prescribed for major depressive
disorder it is manufactured in four steps consisting of Methylation reduction
resolution and salt formation
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage-1
4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-napthalene-1-one(tetralone) is
made to react with monomethyl amine in toluene and titanium
tetrachloride, which acts as catalyst.
Toluene is distilled off and n-hexane/ MeOH is added to give stage-1
material.
Stage 2:
Stage-I material is reduced with sodium borohydride in methanol.
The product is isolated as hydrochloride salt (Stage-II) by purging dry HCl
gas.
Stage 3:
Stage-II is treated with D(-)mandelic acid in MDC at basic pH.
The reaction is worked up by distilling out MDC completely under vacuum
followed by addition of acetone to precipitate the material.
It is filtered, washed and dried to give Stage-III as adduct.
Stage 4:
Mandelic acid adduct (Stage-III) is decomposed at basic pH in MDC. The
reaction is worked up by distilling off MDC under vacuum.
IPA is added to the residue, treated with activated carbon, then its pH is
adjusted with concentrate HCl at 60-65 °C, cooled to 30 °C, product
crystallises out.
Filtered, washed with distilled IPA and dried to give pure sertraline
hydrochloride.
The chemical reaction, flow chart and mass balance diagram for the Sertraline
Hydrochlorideproduction given in Figure 2.6through Figure 2.8 respectively.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.6 : Chemical reaction for Sertraline Hydrochloride
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.7 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Sertraline Hydrochloride
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.8 : Mass Balance for the Sertraline Hydrochloride Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Clopidogrel Bisulphate Manufacturing Process
Clopidogrel is an oral antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary
artery diseases. Its manufacturing involves five steps namely Estrification,
Resimisation, Basification, Condensation & cyclisation.
Stage 1:
2-chloro phenyl glycine (2-CPG) is estrified with methanol and
concentrated sulphuric acid followed by resolution of resmic mixture with
tartaric acid in methanol to give stage-1 as tartarate salt.
Stage 2:
Stage-1 is converted into free base with liquid ammonia in MDC which on
workup give stage-2 as oily material.
Stage 3:
Thiophene-2-ethanol is protected with para toluene sulphonyl chloride in
toluene to give oily residue (Stage-3).
Stage 4:
Stage-2 and Stage-3 is condensed with potassium hydrogen phosphate
(K2HPO4) in DM water.
The product is isolated as hydrochloride salt of stage-4 by adjusting its pH
with HCl.
Stage 5:
Cyclisation of stage-4 is carried out with paraformaldehyde in acidic pH.
Clopidogrel bisulphate is isolated by adjusting its pH with sulphuric acid.
Product is centrifuged and dried.
The flow chart for the Clopidogrel Bisulphate production is given in Figure 2.5.
The mass balance for the process is shown in Figure 2.6
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
2-chloro phenyl glycine
MDC
Toluene
Tartric Acid
Methanol
Liq. Ammonia
DMW
MDC
K2HPO4
DMW
HCl
Paraformaldehyde
DMW
HCl
MDC
AC
Sulphuric Acid
Stage-1
Esterification &
Resimisation
Thiophene-2-ethanol
PTSCl
Basification
Protection
Stage-2
Stage-3
Condensation
Cyclisation
Clopidogrel
Bisulphate
Figure 2.9 : Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Clopidogrel Bisulphate
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.10 Mass Balance for the Clopidogrel Bisulphate Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.4.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefaclor Manufacturing Process
Cefaclore is a second generation cephalosporin class of antibiotic used for the treatment
of bacterial infection. it consist of six steps namely Silylation. Mixed anhydride formation,
condensation, hydrolysis, crystallization and drying.
Stage 1:
7-amino-3-chloro-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid is subjected to silylation
using Hexamethyl disilazane & Trimethyl chlorosilane as a silylation
catalyst in the solvent Methylene Chloride to yield the silylated mass of
the 7-amino-3-chloro-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid.
Stage 2:
D(-)alpha phenyl glycine dane salt methyl Potassium is subjected to the
Ethyl chloroformate in the presence of the Dimethyl formamide and nmethyl morpholine to yield the Mixed anhydride of the D(-)alpha phenyl
glycine dane salt ethyl Potassium using the Methylene Chloride as a
solvent.
Stage 3:
Both the reagents prepared above i.e. the silylated mass of the 7-amino3-chloro-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid & Mixed anhydride of the D(-)alpha
phenyl glycine dane salt ethyl Potassium are further mixed for the
condensation & hydrolysis mixing with the Cefaclor -Nepthol Complex
by using the Hydrochloric acid & water yields the Cefaclor.
Stage 4:
The above mass is further extracted with Methylene chloride to remove
the impurities & the Cefaclor gets transferred to the aqueous layer which
on treatment with the EDTA & activated charcoal, its pH adjustment with
Ammonia yields the Cefaclor which on further centrifugation & washing
with water & Acetone yields the Cefaclor in wet form.
Stage 5:
Mother liquor recovered after centrifugation is sent for the recovery of
second crop of Cefaclor in the form of Cefaclor -Nepthol Complex.
Stage 6:
Material is further dried using the Fluid bed dryer yields the Cefaclor
monohydrate.
The chemical reaction, flow chart & mass balance diagram for the Cefaclor
production is given in Figure 2.11 through Figure 2.13
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.11 : Chemical reaction of Cefaclor
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
7-ACCA
HMDS
TMCS
MDC
Silylation
PG Dane salt
ECF
NMM
MDC
Mixed anhydride
Condensation
MDC
DMW
HCl
Hydrolysis
MDC
AC
EDTA
Ammonia
-Napthol
Charcoalisation
Mother Liquor
Cefaclor
Cefaclor 2
nd
Figure 2.12 : Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefaclor
Crop
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.13 Mass Balance for the Cefaclor Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.5.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefpodoxime Proxetil Manufacturing Process
Cefpodoxime proxtil is a cephalosporin class of antibiotic used for the treatment
of bacterial infection. It consist of eight steps namely Methoxilation, condensation
side chain formation, work up charcolisationm crystallization and drying.
Stage 1:
Methoxylation of 7-ACA is carried out with methanol and BF3 complex at
low temperature.
Byproduct is removed by adding in methanol and adjusting its pH to 1.0.
It is filtered through nutch filter and pH of the filtrate is adjusted with TEA
to get 7-AMCA (Stage-I).
Stage 2:
7-AMCA is condensed with MAEM in presence of methanol and TEA.
Byproduct is removed by filtration.
Filtered mass is treated with activated carbon.
Product is isolated by adjusting its pH with sulphuric acid.
It is centrifuged, washed with acetone and dried at 45°C to get
Cefpodoxime acid.
Stage 3:
1-Chloro ethyl isopropyl carbonate is subjected to Iodination in the
presence of Sodium iodide using Crown ether as phase transfer catalyst
& toluene as a solvent under reflux condition to get 1-Iodoethylisopropyl
carbonate, which on further workup with water & washing with sodium
thiosulfate & sodium chloride & recovery of Toluene yields the 1-Iodoethyl
isopropyl carbonate having the small quantity of Toluene.
Stage 4:
Above 1-Iodoethyl isopropyl carbonate is further subjected to
condensation with the Cefpodoxime Acid in the presence of dimethyl
acetamide using the 1,8-Diazabicyclo[5,4,0] unde-7-ene(DBU) as a
catalyst to yield the Cefpodoxime Proxetil.
Stage 5:
The reaction mass is further dispersed in the ethyl acetate , water and its
extraction & several washings with brine solution to transfer the material
in ethyl acetate layer.
Stage 6:
Ethyl acetate layer is further subjected to the treatment with Activated
charcoal & hydro & its filtration gives the clear & colorless mass from
which some part is recovered by distillation.
Stage 7:
The above mass is further reacted with Methane Sulfonic acid &
cyclohexane & its extraction & washing using the water tends to transfer
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
the material in the water layer which gets separated & treatment with
Methanol & EDTA & its further crystallization using the ammonia solution
for pH adjustment yields the Cefpodoxime Proxetil.
Stage 8:
The product on drying using the Fluid bed dryer yields the material in pure
form.
The chemical reaction, flow chart& mass balance diagram for the Cefpodoxime
Proxetil production is given in Figure 2.14. through Figure 2.16
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.14 : Chemical reaction of Cefpodoxime Proxetil
Figure 2.15 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefpodoxime Proxetil
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.16 Mass Balance for the Cefpodoxime Proxetil Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
zwq
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.6.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous Manufacturing Process
Cefuroxime Axetil is a cephalosporin class of antibiotic used for the treatment of
bacterial infection. It consist of four steps namely Hydroxilation, rearrangement,
condensation followed by spray drying.
Stage 1: 3-OH Compound
7-ACA is hydrolysed with caustic solution at low temperature in water /
methanol mixture.
SMIA is activated with phosphorous penta chloride in MDC as solvent at
low temperature.
Condensation is carried out with hydrolysed 7-ACA and activated side
chain at low temperature for 45 minutes.
3-OH compound is isolated by adjusting its pH with dilute HCl to 2.0.
Filtered / washed and dried at 45 °C.
Stage 2: CXM Acid
Chlorosulphonyl iso cyanate (CSI) is added slowly in chilled solution of 3OH compound in acetone.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Reaction is quenched by addition of water.
pH is adjusted to 2.1 with HCl. Clear solution is obtained.
Clear solution is treated with activated carbon.
Acetone is distilled off and product is isolated by adding MDC.
Product is filtered, washed with chilled MDC and dried.
Stage 3: CXM Acid to Cefuroxime Axetil
Cefuroxime acid API starting material is reacted with 1-Acetoxy ethyl
bromide in the presence of the 1,8-Diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU)
and sodium carbonate in the presence of Dimethylacetamide as a solvent
medium.
Thereafter, pH of the reaction mass is adjusted by using the 10% sodium
bicarbonate solution to 6.0-6.5; this reaction mass is further extracted with
the ethyl acetate and the entire material gets transferred in the solvent.
Ethyl acetate layer is further subjected to charcolization using the
activated charcoal (Norit) & treated with the EDTA & passed through the
sparkler filter.
Ethyl acetate layer is further recovered under vacuum and the residual
reaction mass gets crystallized by addition of the methanol water solution.
The above crystallized mass is filtered though the Agitated nutsch filter to
get the wet Cefuroxime Axetil (crystalline) which is dried to yield the
material.
Dry crystalline material is further dissolved in the Acetone and pumped in
the atomizer of the spray drying unit which converts the Cefuroxime Axetil
in to amorphous form.
The chemical reaction, flow chart and mass balance for the Cefuroxime Axetil
Amorphous production is given in Figure 2.17through Figure 2.19
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.17 : Chemical reaction of Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.18 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.19 Mass Balance for the Cefuroxime Axetil Amorphous Production
Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.7.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Gabapentin Manufacturing Process
Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug. Originally it was develop to treat
epilepsy and is currently to used to relief neuro-phatic pain. It is manufacture in five
steps comprising of condensation, cyclisation, salt formation, crystallization, and
purification.
Stage 1:
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
1,1-cyclodiacetic acid is condensed with urea in xylene. After completion,
product is isolated by adjusting its pH with HCl to give stage-I.
Stage 2:
Stage-1 undergoes hoffman reduction with sodium hypochloride followed
by cyclisation to give stage-II.
Stage 3:
Stage-II is converted into its hydrochloride salt with concentrate HCl.
The product (Stage-III) is isolated by cooling the reaction mixture.
Stage 4:
Hydrochloride salt of stage-III is converted into gabapentin monohydrate
by treatment with caustic solution.
The product crystallises during caustic addition.
Stage 5:
Gabapentin monohydrate is dehydrated with methanol to get clear
solution. It is treated with activated carbon and filtered.
Gabapentin is isolated by cencentrating followed by cooling of reaction
mixture.
Product is filtered, washed and dried.
The chemical reaction, flow chart and mass balance for the Gabapentin
production is given in Figure 2.20. through Figure 2.22
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.20 : Chemical reaction of Gabapentin
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.13: Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Gabapentin
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.14: Mass Balance for the Gabapentin Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.8.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Pregabaline Manufacturing Process
Pregabaline is an anti convulsant drug use for neurophatic pain and as an
adjunct therapy for partial seizurs it is manufacture in five steps starting from
condensation, cyclisation, ring opening, protection and reduction.
Stage 1:
Ethyl cyano acetate and Isovaleraldehyde (IV) is condensed with Di-npropylamine in presence of n-hexane.
Intermediate formed is further condensed with diethylmalanote in
presence of di-n-propylamine followed by hydrolysis with HCl to give
stage-1.
Stage 2:
Stage-1 is condensed with acetic anhydride at 135 C.
Product is isolated by recovering excess acetic anhydride under vacuum
to get stage-II in the form of residue (oil).
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage 3:
Ring opening of stage-II is carried out with ammonia solution in MDC.
Product is isolated by adjusting its pH 1.5 with dilute HCl to give stage-III.
Stage 4:
Stage-III is condensed with methylbenzylamine in chloroform at 50 C.
After reaction completion, reaction mixture is cooled to 0 C, filtered,
washed and dried to give stage-IV.
Stage 5:
Stage-IV material is reduced with sodium hypobromide and caustic
solution at 90 C.
Reaction mixture is neutralized with HCl and cooled to RT.
Product crystallizes out and is filtered, washed and dried to give
Pregabaline.
The chemical reaction, flow chart and mass balance
production is given in Figure 2.21. through Figure 2.23
for the Pregabaline
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.21 : Chemical reaction of Pregablin
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.22 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Pregabaline
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.23 : Mass Balance for the Pregabaline Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.9.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ceftibuten Manufacturing Process
Ceftibuten is an third generation cephalosporin antibiotic use for treatment of
bacterial infection, it consist of six step namely silylation, vilsmayer formation
condensation, hydrolysis, deprotection, and isolation.
Stage 1:
7 ANCA is silylated with HMDS in MDC at reflux temperature for 90
minutes cooled to low temperature for condensation. Simultaneously,
vilsmayer reagent of PHE ester (side chain) is prepared with phosphorous
oxychloride in methylene chloride / DMF mixture at low temperature.
Stage 2:
Condensation of silyated mass with vilsmayer reagent is carried out at
low temperature.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage 3:
After completion of reaction, it is poured into sod. Bicarbonate solution.
Layer gets separated. Organic layer is sent for recovery.
Stage 4:
Product is crystallized out by adjusting pH of aqueous layer to 4.0.It is
filtered, washed with distilled water and dried to get protected ceftibutene.
Stage 5:
Deprotection is carried out into triflic acid at low temperature.
Stage 6:
Ceftibuten is isolated by pouring reaction mass into sod. Bicarbonate
solution followed by pH adjustment with 10% HCl.
The chemical reaction, flow chart & mass balance diagram for the Ceftibuten
production is given in Figure 2.24 through Figure 2.26
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.24 : Chemical rection of Ceftibuten
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.25 : Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Ceftibuten
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.26 : Mass Balance for the Ceftibuten Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.10.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefdinir Manufacturing Process
Cefdinir is an third generation cephalosporin antibiotic use for treatment of
bacterial infection, it consist of five step namely condensation, cystalisation,
deacitylation, purification, and finally crystallization.
Stage-1:
7-amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic
acid
and
2-mercapto
benzothiazolyl
(Z)-2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-acetyl
oxyiminoacetate
(CAEM) is subjected to condensation in the presence of triethyl amine
base using Tetra hydro furan (THF) & water as solvent under cooled
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
condition
to
get
7-{2-(aminothiazol-4-yl)-2(methylcarbonyloxyimino)acetamido]-3-vinylcepham-4-carboxylic acid.
Stage-2:
Above reaction mass is further subjected to the pH adjustment by addition
of the Sulphuric acid & then Ammonium chloride is added for the
precipitation to get the Acetylated Cefdinir ammonium salt.
Stage-3:
Acetylated Cefdinir Ammonium Salt is further subjected to deacetylation
in the presence of Sulphuric acid using methanol as a solvent & further
addition of Sodium bicarbonate to adjust the pH to get the Cefdinir in aq.
Medium.
Stage-4:
Finally, aq. mass of Cefdinir is treated with activated charcoal, EDTA &
further subjected to pH adjustment with Sulphuric Acid, centrifugation,
washing & drying the material yields the Cefdinir in pure form.
Stage-5:
Final crystallization, centrifuge & drying are carried out in the clean room
area of class 100000 to avoid any cross contamination.
The chemical reaction, flow chart & mass balance diagram for the Cefdinir
production is given in Figure 2.27. ThroughFigure 2.20
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.27 : Chemical reaction of Cefdinir
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.28 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefdinir
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.29 Mass Balance for the Cefdinir Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.11.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ondansetron Manufacturing Process
Ondansetron is an serotonin receptor used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by
cancer chemotherapy, it manufactures in six step comprising of condensation,
cyclisation, methylation, salt formation, purification and finally isolation of the product.
Stage-1:
1,3-dioxane is condensed with phenyl hydrazine in presence of acetic
acid followed by cyclisation with conc. H2SO4 is give stage-1 material.
Stage-2:
Stage-1 is methylated with dimethylsulfate and caustic in acetone
medium at reflux temperature to give stage-2. Product is isolated by
distill of acetone and adding excess water.
Stage-3:
Stege-2 is reacted with dimethylamine HCl in presence of
paraformaldehyde and acetic acid and abs. ethanol. The product (stage3) is isolated as free base by adjusting its pH 10.0 with caustic lye.
Stage-4:
It is than converted into hydrochloride salt in IPA / HCl mixture to give
stage-4.
Stage-5:
Stage-4 is dissolved in methanol and treated with activated carbon to
remove the colour impurities. Methanol is distilled off, cooled and filtered
to give purified stage-5.
Stage-6:
Ondasetron hydrochloride dihydrate salt is obtained with IPA and conc.
HCl at reflux temperature. Clear reaction mass is treated with activated
carbon and added in excess IPA to get pure material.
The chemical reaction, flow chart & mass balance diagram for the Ondansetron
production is given in Figure 2.30ThroughFigure 2.32
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.30 : Chemical reaction of Ondansetron
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.31 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Ondansetron
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.32 Mass Balance for the Ondansetron Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.12.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefditoren Pivoxil Manufacturing Process
Cefditoren is an third generation cephalosporin antibiotic use for treatment of
bacterial infection, it consist of twelve step namely wittig reaction,
deprotection, enzymatic hydrolysis, side chain preparation, condensation
purification, crystallization followed by spray drying to get amorphous
material.
Stage-1:
GCLE reacted with sodium iodide to give iodo derivative which than
undergo wittig reaction with MTHA to give GCTA. Product is isolated by
evaporating chloroform then addition of methanol. Deprotection of
phenylacetyl group at 7-position and p-methoxy benzyl group at 4-
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
position is carried out with phenol followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to
give ATCA.
Stage-2:
7-ATCA key starting material when subjected to condensation with the
(benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-(2-aminothiazolyl-4-yl)-(Z)-2-methoxyamino
thioacetate (MAEM) in the presence of acetone water mixture in triethyl
amine base under cooled condition which on reaction with Sodium -2ethyl hexanoate yields the Cefditoren sodium (Step-1).
Stage-3:
Reaction is monitored by the High pressure liquid chromatography to
know the absence of the key starting material 7-ATCA & presence of
Cefditoren in the reaction mass.
Stage-4:
Above Cefditoren sodium is further subjected to condensation with the
Iodomethyl pivolate in the presence of dimethyl formamide & phase
transfer catalyst Tetrabutylammonium bromide to yield the Cefditoren
Pivoxil.
Stage-5:
Reaction is monitored by the High pressure liquid chromatography to
know the absence of the precursor Cefditoren & presence of Cefditoren
Pivoxil in the reaction mass.
Stage-6:
The reaction mass is further dispersed in the ethyl acetate, water and its
extraction & several washings with brine solution to transfer the material
in ethyl acetate layer.
Stage-7:
Ethyl acetate layer is further subjected to the treatment with Activated
charcoal & hydro & its filtration gives the clear & colourless mass which
on crystallization & further washing with cyclohexane yields the pure form
of Cefditoren Pivoxil (crystalline)in pure form i.e. Step-2.
Stage-8:
Material on drying using the Fluid bed dryer yields the material in pure
form.
Stage-9:
Iodomethyl pivalate used in the process is synthesized by reaction of
Chloromethyl pivalate with sodium iodide in the presence of Acetone as
solvent.
Stage-10:
Reaction is monitored by the Gas chromatography to know the absence
of the starting material Chloromethyl pivalate & presence of Iodomethyl
pivalate in the reaction mass.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage-11:
Cefditoren Pivoxil (crystalline) is further dissolved in acetone and pass
through the spray dryer to convert in the form of Cefditoren Pivoxil
amorphous.
Stage-12:
Amorphous nature of API Sample of the dried material is monitored by
the FTIR.
The chemical reaction, flow chart& mass balance diagram for the Cefditoren
Pivoxil production is given in Figure 2.33. ThroughFigure 2.35
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.33 : Chemical reaction of cefditoren Pivoxil
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.34 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefditoren Pivoxil
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.35 Mass Balance for the Cefditoren Pivoxil Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.13.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl Manufacturing Process
Cefcapene is an third generation cephalosporin antibiotic use for treatment of bacterial
infection, it consist of seven steps comprises silylation, mixed anhydride formation,
condensation, side chain preparation, crystallization, deprotection, salt formation.
Stage-1:
HACA is silylated with HMDS / Acetamide in MDC at reflux temperature,
mixed anhydride of BPTA side chain is formed with methane sulphonyl
chloride and TEA in MDC. Condensation of silylated mass with mixed
anhydride is carried out at low temperature. After reaction completion, it
is hydrolysed with aq. Ammonia solution. Layers are separated. Organic
layer is concentrated under vacuum. Residue so obtained is treated with
diisopropylamine.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage-2:
Stage-1 material is isolated as diisopropylamine salt (DIPA Salt) by
adding excess acetone.
Stage-3:
(6R,7R)-7-[(z)-2-(2-tertbutoxycarbonylaminothiazol-4-yl)-2pentenoylamino]-3-(carbamoyloxy methyl)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid
diisopropyl amine salt DIPA salt is subjected to estrification with
Iodomethyl pivalate in ethyl ecetate to yield the (6R,7R)-7-[(z)-2-(2tertbutoxycarbonyl
aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-pentenoylamino]-3(carbamoyloxymethyl)
-3-cephem-4-carboxylic
acid
pivoloylyloxymethylester. Reaction is monitored by HPLC.
Stage-4:
After completion of reaction, organic layer is separated, concentrated in
vacuum & subjected to crystallization by adding cyclohexane to get BOCCefcapene Pivoxil.
Iodomethyl pivalate used in the process is synthesized by reaction of
Chloromethyl pivalate with sodium iodide in the presence of Acetone as
solvent.
Stage-5:
BOC-Cefcapene Pivoxil is further subjected to deprotection using Boron
trifluoride (BF3) gas in acetonitrile solvent to get Cefcapene Pivoxil base.
Stage-6:
Cefcapene Pivoxil base is further subjected to methanolic HCl in Methyl
Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) to yield the Cefcapene Pivoxil Hydrochloride
hydrate in crude form.
Stage-7:
Cefcapene Pivoxil Hydrochloride hydrate in crude form is again subjected
to methanolic HCl in Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) to yield the
Cefcapene Pivoxil Hydrochloride hydrate in pure form.
The chemical reaction, flow chart& mass balance for the Cefcapene Pivoxil MH
HCl production is given in Figure 2.36. ThroughFigure 2.38
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.36 : Chemical reaction of Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.37 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.38 Mass Balance for the Cefcapene Pivoxil MH HCl Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.14.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefixime Manufacturing Process
Cefixime is an third generation cephalosporin antibiotic use for treatment of
bacterial infection, it consist of five steps comprses of wittig reaction,
deprotection, enzymatic hydrolysis, condensation, basic hydrolysis, and
crystallization
Stage-1: CFX-VI (GVNE)
GCLE is converted into its bromo derivative with sodium bromide in DMF
then it undergoes wittig reaction in presence of triphenyl phosphine
(TPP), caustic and formaldehyde in MDC. MDC is distilled off under
vacuum and product is isolated by adding methanol. Filtered, washed
with methanol and dried to give GVNE.
Stage-2: CFX-VIII (AVNA)
Deprotection of caboxylic acid and amino group is carried out with phenol
and penicillin G amidase enzyme respectively. Hydrolysed mass is
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
treated with activated carbon than crystallised by adjusting pH with dilute
HCl to 4.0. 7-AVNA is filtered, washed with water and dried.
Stage-3: Cefixime
7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (7-AVCA) is condensed with
MICA Ester in methanol / water mixture at pH 8.0 in presence of TEA.
After completion of reaction, reaction mixture is poured into water and its
pH is adjusted. Mercaptobenzothiazol (MBT) is crystallised out as by
product. It is removed by filtration. To the filtrate, ethyl acetate, EDTA
and water is added and adjusted its pH with dilute HCl to get precursor of
cefixime i.e. methyl ester of cefixime.
Stage-4:
Methyl ester of cefixime is further subjected to basic hydrolysis using
sodium hydroxide. The product is crystallization by hydrochloric acid
followed by centrifugation yields the Cefixime which on further drying
yields the Cefixime EP in the pure form.
Stage-5:
Final crystallization is carried out in the clean room area of class 100000
to avoid any cross contamination.
The chemical reaction, flow chart& mass balance diagram for the Cefixime
production is given in Figure 2.39. ThroughFigure 2.41
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.39 : Chemical reaction for Cefixime
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.40 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefixime
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.41 Mass Balance for the Cefixime Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.4.15.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cefprozil Manufacturing Process
Cefprozil is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic use for treatment of
bacterial infection, it consist of four steps comprises of wittig reaction,
deprotection, enzymatic hydrolysis, mixed anhydride preparation,
condensation and desolvation.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Stage-1:
GCLE undergoes witting reaction in the presence of triphenyl phosphine,
sodium iodide, acetaldehyde, dimethylformamide and methylene chloride
to give GPRE (Int-I).
Stage-2:
Deprotection of carboxylic & amino groups in GPRE is carried out with
phenol & penicillin G amidase enzyme respectivly to yield 7-APCA (Int-II).
Stage-3:
Silylated 7-APCA is condensed with mixed anhydride of p-hydroxy
phenylgylcine dane salt at low temperature in presence of methylene
chloride. Int-III is isolated in the form of dimethylformamide solvate of
cefprozil by acidic hydrolysis of condensed mass.
Stage-4:
DMF solvate of cefprozil undergoes de-solvation in acetone / water
mixture and gives cefprozil monohydrate.
The chemical reaction, flow chart& mass balance diagram for the Cefprozil
production is given in Figure 2.42. ThroughFigure 2.44
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.42 : Chemical reaction of Cefprozil
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.43 Manufacturing Process Flow Chart for Cefprozil
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.44 Mass Balance for the Cefprozil Production Process
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.5.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Solvents Used in the Manufacturing Process
The solvents used in the manufacturing process of APIs are tabulated below
(Table 2.3 ) All fresh solvents listed below will be stored in tank farm area in
10-20 KL tanks. Flame arrester & dyke wall with sufficient height, width, free
board (equal to the volume of maximum capacity tank) and impervious floor. All
storage tanks will be under negative pressure to avoid any leakage. Condenser
with brine chilling shall be provided to minimise loses.
Table 2.3 List of Solvents used in Manufacturing Process
Sl. No.
Name of the Raw Material
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Storage Area and
Capacity
Storage
Specifications
20 KL
10 KL
20 KL
10 KL
5 KL
10 KL
20 KL
20 Kl
20 KL
SS-304
SS-304
SS-304
SS-304
SS-304
SS-304 ( jacketed)
SS-304
SS-304
SS-304 ( jacketed)
Methanol
Toluene
Acetone
IPA
Ethanol
Cyclohexane
n-Butyl acetate
Ethyl acetate
Methylene Chloride
2.5.2.
Solvent Recovery System
The recovery and recycling of solvents in the process is a key issue in achieving
productivity and an edge in competitive world. Hence, all the solvent mixtures
generated from different stages of the products will be fractionated in a state of
the art solvent recovery system to give 95-98% recovery depending upon
composition of solvent mixtures and their boiling point. Therefore, Dhanuka has
planned 10 distillation columns with varying specification to take care of the all
the spent solvents recovered from various stages of the production. Table: 2.4
shows the designing details of distillation column.
Table 2.4 Details of distillation system.
S.
N
o.
1
Specific
ation
Colu
mn-I
Colu
mn-II
Colu
mn-III
MOC
2
Column
height
Column
dia
Kettle
SS316
7.0
mtr
300
mm
2.5
SS316
3.5
mtr
200
mm
0.8
SS316
7.0
mtr
400
mm
2.5
3
4
Colu
mnIV
SS316
20.0
mtr
350
mm
4.5
Colu
mnV
SS316
9.0
mtr
350
mm
Conti
Colu
mnVI
SS316
10.0
mtr
400
mm
5.0
Colu
mnVII
SS316
8.5
mtr
600
mm
6.0
Colu
mnVIII
SS316
10.0
mtr
400
mm
2.0
Colu
mnIX
SS316
9.0
mtr
350
mm
Conti
Colu
mnX
SS316
12.0
mtr
700
mm
10.0
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
5
6
7
8
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Cap.
Conden
ser Cap.
KL
2
10M
+
2
10M
Product
cooler
Reflux
drum
Cap.
Reflux
pump
5M
5M
5M
5M
5M
200
ltr
100
ltr
200
ltr
200
ltr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struct
ured
Packi
ng
6.0
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struct
ured
Packi
ng
3.0
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struct
ured
Packi
ng
6.0
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struct
ured
Packi
ng
19.0
mtr
2
9
Packing
10
Packed
height
KL
2
10M
+ 5
2
M
2
KL
2
15M
+
2
10M
2
KL
2
15M
+
2
10M
2
nue
15
2
M+
2
10M
KL
10
2
M+
10
2
M
2
5M
KL
20
2
M+
2
10 M
7M
5M
200
ltr
200
ltr
500
ltr
200 ltr
200
ltr
KL
40
2
M+
15
2
M
10
2
M
500
ltr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Hea
d -25
mtr
Struc
tured
Pack
ing
8.0
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struc
tured
Packi
ng
9.0
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struct
ured
Packi
ng
7.5
mtr
cap.10 M3
/ hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Head
-25
mtr
Struc
tured
Packi
ng
8.0
mtr
cap.10
M3 /
hrs,
Hea
d -25
mtr
Struc
tured
Pack
ing
11.0
mtr
2
2
KL
10
2
M+
2
10 M
2
Struct
ured
Packi
ng
9.0
mtr
nue
15
2
M+
10
2
M
2
5M
To minimise solvent losses during distillation following measurers will be adopted:
Chilled brine of -10°C will be circulated in condensers to condense the solvent
vapours.
Transfer of solvents to be done through pumps instead of manual handling.
Vent condensers to be provided on all storage tanks.
2.6.
Raw Material for APIs Manufacturing
The raw materials used in manufacturing process, their quantity, source, storage
capacity and mode of transportation is given at Table 2.5.
Table 2.5 Raw Material Requirement
Sl.
No.
Name of the Raw
Material
Quantity
per day
1.
7-ANCA
5.0 Kg.
2.
3.
Methylene chloride
Acetamide
4.7 KL.
6.7 Kg.
Source
Shandong Lukang
Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
PD Polychem pvt Ltd/SRF Ltd
Ronak chemicals plot
No.4709/1, GIDC, Indl.
Estate, Ankleshwar, Bharuchi
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY AIR
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
Storage
Capacit
y
100.0
Kg.
20.0 KL
100.0
Kg.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Sl.
No.
4.
Name of the Raw
Material
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Quantity
per day
7.
Hexamethyldisilazan
e (HMDS)
Dimethylformamide
(DMF)
Phosphorous
Oxychloride
Hydrochloric Acid
1063 L
8.
Methanol
3159 L.
9.
Triflic Acid
34.0 L
10.
Sodium Bicarbonate
212.0 Kg.
11.
10.66 Kg.
12.
PHE Ester (Side
Chain)
Sodium Carbonate
13.
CAEM
44.0 Kg.
14.
15.
Triethylamine (TEA)
Sulphuric Acid
16.
17.
11.0 Kg.
340.0 Kg.
21.
Hyflo (Filter Aid )
Sodium
Hydrosulphite
(Hydro)
Acetic anhydride
Ethylene diamine
tetraacetic acid
(EDTA)
Tetrahydrofuran
(THF)
Acetone
22.
2,3-hexanedione
23.
Phenylhydrazine
5.
6.
18.
19.
20.
Source
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY ROAD
Storage
Capacit
y
1000 L
75.0 L
Anuj Health Care Limited
226 L.
Sanjay chemicals pvt.
Samsang fine chemicals
United phosphorous limited
BY ROAD
2000 L
BY ROAD
100 L.
AG Gasochem Private Ltd.
DCM Shriram
Manu
Enterprises/FANAVARAN
petrochemical Ltd
Rakesh scientific
centre/Rankem
Gurgaon Industrial
chemicals/TATA
Shandong Lukang
Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
Gurgaon Industrial
chemicals/TATA
Shandong Jincheng Kerui
chemicals Co. Ltd.
Alkyl Amines chemicals Ltd.
Max chemicals/ Hindustan
Zinc Limited
Amba chemicals/Celite USA
Gulshan chemicals limited.
BY ROAD
10 KL.
BY ROAD
20 KL
BY ROAD
250 L
BY ROAD
1000
Kg.
100 Kg.
4.0 L
260.0 Kg.
402 L.
390 L
By Air.
BY ROAD
By Air/Sea
4000
Kg.
500 Kg.
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
3000 L.
5000 L
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
250 Kg.
2000
Kg.
64.4 L
14.0 Kg.
Dhampur Speciality sugar ltd.
Gurgaon Industrial chemicals.
Hindustan Industries
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
2000 L
100 Kg.
37 L.
BY ROAD
1.0 KL
BY ROAD
20.0 KL
88.8 Kg.
Adinath petrochemicals /Kruti
chemicals
Paras Polymers pvt Ltd.
Hindustan Organic Chemical
Sinochem Jiangsu Co. Ltd.
BY SEA
88.8 Kg.
Ronak chemicals/Anuja
1000
Kg.
1000
600.0L.
BY SEA
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Sl.
No.
Name of the Raw
Material
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Quantity
per day
24.
25.
Acetic Acid
Dimethyl Sulphate
163.0 L
177.7 L
26.
326.0L
27.
Isopropyl Alcohol
(IPA)
GCLE
765.0 Kg.
28.
MAEM
58.0 Kg.
29.
31.
Chloromethyl
Pivalate
Sodium-2ethlyhexonate
Sodium Iodide
32.
Sodium Chloride
33.
Sodium Thiosulphate
35.3 Kg.
34.
Sodium sulphate
54.0 Kg.
35.
3.50 Kg.
36.
Tetrabutyl
Ammonium Bromide
(TBAB)
Activated Carbon
37.
38.
Ethyl Acetate
Cyclohexane
1770.0 L
150 L
39.
41.
Dimethyl Acetamide
(DMAC)
Triphenyl Phosphine
(TPP)
Sodium Hydroxide
42.
Chloroform
30.
40.
20.0 L
Source
Health
Dhampur speciality sugar Ltd.
Ronak chemicals/Anuja
Health
VS Interchem. Pvt.
Ltd./Ghaziabad org. Ltd.
Otsuka Chemical (India) Pvt.
Ltd.
Shandong Jincheng
Pharmaceutical chemical Co.
Ltd.
Sinochem Jiangsu Co. Ltd.
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY AIR/Rd
By AIR
Storage
Capacit
y
Kg.
2500 L
1000.0
L
10 K L
5000
Kg.
1000
Kg.
BY SEA
500 L
BY ROAD
151.0 Kg.
Ronak chemicals/Anuja
Health
Caliber chemicals pvt limited
1484.0Kg.
Simar Enterprises/Nimna Ltd
BY ROAD
Adinath petrochem/Puro
chem. Pvt. Ltd.
Adinath petrochem/Grasim
Industries
Tatva chenten pharma
BY ROAD
500.0
Kg.
1000
Kg.
5000
Kg.
500.0
Kg.
500.0
Kg.
50.0 Kg.
Global absorbant pvt ltd/ Norit
carbons
Dhampur speciality sugar Ltd.
Solvochem/Formosa
chemicals& fibre Co.
Sansom Chem Pharma/Balaji
Amines Ltd.
Fortune pharma pvt. Ltd.
BY ROAD
73.0 Kg.
10.4 Kg.
116 L
423.0 Kg.
922 Kg.
650 L.
Goyal chemi trade/Grasim
Industries
Sanjay chemicals pvt.
Samsang fine chemicals
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY
SEA/AIR
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
100.0
Kg.
20.0 KL
10 KL.
2000.0
KL.
4000.0
Kg.
5000.0
Kg.
5.0 KL.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Sl.
No.
Name of the Raw
Material
Quantity
per day
43.
125 Kg.
116.7 Kg.
45.
4-methyl-5-formylthiazol (MTHA)
Potasium
metabisulphite
n-propyl alcohol
46.
BTPA (side chain)
10.5 Kg.
47.
Boron trifluoride
48.
Acetonitrile
1.0
Cylinder
110 L
49.
Methyl isobutyl
ketone (MIBK)
119 L
50.
Formaldehyde
665 L.
51.
Phenol
52.
Trifluoroacetic acid
53.
Norit carbon
1.8 Kg.
54.
Sodium bromide
145 Kg.
55.
n-Butyl acetate
820 L
56.
Acetaldehyde
380 L
57.
Sodium
metabisulphite
Enzyme
Trimethyl Chloro
silane (TMCS)
44.
58.
59.
60.
130 L
Source
Shenzhen winhope
industries/Highsum Pharma
Sanjay chemicals pvt. Ltd.
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY
SEA/AIR
BY ROAD
Manu Enterprises/East man
chemicals Ltd
Shenzhen winhope
industries/Highsum Pharma
Manu Enterprises/Hubei
Xinghuo chemicals ind. Ltd.
Manu
Enterprises/FANAVARAN
Manu
Enterprises/FANAVARAN
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
100.0
Kg.
5.0
Cylinder
1000 L
BY ROAD
1000 L
Manu Enterprises/Shiv
Pharmachem
Paras polymer Pvt.Ltd (Delhi)
BY ROAD
5000 L.
BY ROAD
Manu Enterprises/SRF
Limited
Global absorbant pvt
ltd/Danau carbons
ANUJA Health Care Ltd.
BY ROAD
2000.
Kg.
500 L.
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
2000 L
160 Kg.
VS Interchem pvt.
Ltd./Ghaziabad Organics
IOL Chemicals &
Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Sanjay chemicals pvt. Ltd.
1500
Kg.
20.0 KL.
BY ROAD
2.0 Kg.
37 L.
Fermenta Biotech Ltd.
Anuja health Care limited
55 L
Manu Enterprises/Balaji
Amines Ltd.
Adinath petrochem/Puro
chem pvt. Ltd.
Daurala organics limited.
BY ROAD
BY
SEA/AIR
BY ROAD
1000.
Kg.
60.0 Kg.
250 L
220 Kg.
75 L
61.
Ethyl chloroformate
(ECF)
Imidazole
0.25 Kg
62.
p-Hydroxy phenyl
33.0 Kg.
BY
SEA/AIR
BY ROAD
Storage
Capacit
y
500.0
Kg.
500.0
Kg.
1000 L
BY
SEA/AIR
BY ROAD
50 Kg.
500 L.
BY ROAD
10.0 Kg.
BY ROAD
250.0
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Sl.
No.
Name of the Raw
Material
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Quantity
per day
65.
glycine dane salt
n-methyl morpholine
Methane sulphonic
acid (MSA)
Ammonia solution
1250 L
66.
Tetralone
390 Kg.
67.
Toluene
1670 L.
68.
69.
70.
Monomethyl amine
Titanium
tetrachloride
n-Hexane
71.
Sodium borohydride
25 Kg.
72.
D(-)mandelic acid
75 Kg.
73.
232 Kg.
74.
2-chlorophenyl
glycine (2-CPG)
Tartaric acid
75.
Thiophene-2-ethanol
135 L
76.
450 L
312 Kg.
78.
Para toluene
sulphonyl chloride
Potassium hydrogen
phosphate (k2HPO4)
Paraformaldehyde
79.
PENGK
395 kg.
80.
Para Nitrobenzyl
bromide (PNBBr)
Hydrogen Peroxide
Trimethyl phosphite
(TMP)
234 Kg.
63.
64.
77.
81.
82.
1.4 L
40 L
392 L
75 Kg.
50 L.
44 Kg.
105 Kg.
95 L.
383 L
Amines plastizers Ltd.
Manu Enterprises/Hubei
Xinghuo chemical Co. Ltd.
Manu Enterprises/Ammonia
gas supply company
Amines plastizers Ltd.
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
Storage
Capacit
y
Kg.
25 L
600 L
BY ROAD
5000 L
BY ROAD
Manu Enterprises / Anuja
Health care Ltd.
Amines plastizers Ltd.
Dishman pharmaceutical &
chemical Ltd.
Manu Enterprises/
FANAVARAN
Manu Enterprises/ Shiv
pharmachem
Dishman pharmaceutical &
chemical Ltd.
Manu Enterprises/Shiv
pharmachem
Manu Enterprises/Shiv
pharmachem
Manu Enterprises/Shiv
pharmachem
Dishman pharmaceutical &
chemical Ltd.
Chemical suppliers India/
Gujarat alkalies chemicals
Manu Enterprises/Shiv
pharmachem
Herbing Pharmaceutical
Group Co. Ltd.
Saurav chemicals Limited
BY ROAD
2000.0
kg.
10.0 KL.
GL India chemicals
United phosphorous Ltd.
(jhagadia)
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
Source
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
2000 L
500.0
Kg.
600.0 L.
BY ROAD
250.0
Kg.
800.0
Kg.
2000
Kg.
250.0
Kg.
1000 L
BY ROAD
5000 L
BY ROAD
2000
Kg.
1000
Kg.
5000
Kg.
1000
Kg.
1000 L
4000 L
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY SEA
BY ROAD
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
83.
Morpholine (4M)
232 L
Balaji Amines Limited
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY ROAD
84.
Bromine
140 L
Bromos organics
BY ROAD
85.
45 Kg.
Fortune pharma pvt. Ltd.
BY ROAD
86.
87.
Triphenyl phosphite
(TPP)
Ethanol
Chlorine gas
Dhampur Speciality sugar ltd.
Group Tech Industries
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
88.
Pyridine
25 L
BY ROAD
89.
280 L
115 Kg.
Manu Enterprises/ Industrial
solvent chemicals pvt. Ltd.
Daurala organics limited.
BY ROAD
92.
Mono ethylene glycol
(MEG)
Phosphorous
pentachloride
Dimethyl aniline
(DMA)
D(-) PG Dane Salt
Adinath petrochem/ jubilant
organosys Ltd.
Manu Enterprises/Indian
Glycol Ltd.
United phosphorous limited
93.
β-Naphthol
11 Kg.
Multi organics pvt. Ltd.
BY ROAD
94.
7-ACA
250 Kg.
95.
1-chloroethyl
isopropyl carbonate
Crown ether (cat.)
Shandong Lukang
pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
Atul bioscience ltd/Gujarat
INDIA
Vedant incorporation/
TLANLIN pharma
Manu Enterprises/ Shandong
Xinhua Pharmaceutical I & E
Co. Ltd.
Manu Enterprises/Hubei
yanuo chemical Ind. Ltd.
BY AIR
/SEA
BY ROAD
2000.0
L
1500
Kg.
1000.0
L.
1000
Kg.
100.0
Kg.
4000.
Kg.
500.0 L
BY ROAD
50.0 Kg.
BY ROAD
500.0 L
5000.
Kg.
80 L
Jiangsu Arysta Qiugquan
chemical Co. Ltd.
Lonza limited
BY
ROAD/BY
SEA
BY SEA
/AIR
BY /SEA
95 L
Saurav chemical Ltd.
BY ROAD
Sl.
No.
90.
91.
96.
97.
98.
99.
Name of the Raw
Material
1,8Diazabicyclo[5,4,0]
undec-7-ene (DBU)
Methane Sulphonic
acid
SMIA
100. Chlorosuphonyl
isocyanate (CSI)
101. Acetoxy ethyl
bromide (AEB)
Quantity
per day
90 L.
5 Cylinder
250 Kg.
180 L
68 L
5 Kg.
48 L
1094 Kg.
80 Kg.
Source
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
BY ROAD
Storage
Capacit
y
2000.0
L
2000.0
L
2000
Kg.
5 KL
10
Cylinder
200.0 L.
2000.
Kg.
1000.0
L.
1000.0
L
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
102. 1,1-cyclodiacetic
acid
103. Urea
350 Kg.
Ancon chem plast pvt Ltd.
Mode of
Transport
ation
BY ROAD
208 Kg.
Manu Enterprises
BY ROAD
104. Isovaleraldehyde
(IV)
105. Ethylcyanoacetate
(ECNA)
106. Di-n-propylamine
(DNPA)
107. Diethylmalonate
(DEM)
108. Xylene
109. Mica ester
110. Malic acid
222 Kg.
Ancon chem plast pvt Ltd.
BY ROAD
293 Kg.
Solvochem/Formosa
chemicals& fibre Co.
Alkyl Amines chemicals
limited.
Solvochem/Formosa
chemicals& fibre Co.
Sanjay Chemicals
Shandong Jinchang, China
Mannu Enterprises
BY ROAD
Sl.
No.
Name of the Raw
Material
Quantity
per day
21 L
512 L
450 L
430 Kg
48 Kg.
Source
BY ROAD
Storage
Capacit
y
2000
Kg.
1000.
Kg.
1000.
Kg.
2000
Kg.
200.0 L
BY ROAD
5000.L
BY ROAD
BY AIR
BY ROAD
5000 L
5 MT.
250 Kg.
Details about the raw material and finished good storage area and specifications
are given in Table 2.6.
Table 2.6 Raw Material and Finished Good Storage Area and its
Specifications.
Sl.
Entity
No.
1
Raw material
Storage
Area (m2)
1400
2
Solvent
storage tanks
375
3
Hazardous
material
storage area
35
4
Chlorine
storage area
10
Place of Storage
and Capacity
To be kept on
pallets in Racks in
Warehouse(Approx.
qty 125MT )
At tank farm area
in the corner of the
plot (approx.150
KL)
Away from
manufacturing area
(approx.5000 Kg)
Away from
manufacturing area
(10 nos Cylinders of
50 Kg)
Specification of Storage
Facility
Two floors of 700 sq mt each
will be dedicated for solid and
liquid RM‟s respectively
Solvents tank with 10 to 20
KL in MS/SS construction
Will be constructed in RCC
structure in solid walls &
sufficient hard floor which is
impermeable to liquids
Cage type shed. Well
ventilated
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Sl.
Entity
No.
5
Finished
product
storage
facility
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Storage
Area (m2)
700
Place of Storage
Specification of Storage
and Capacity
Facility
In the basement of
Area will be provided air
ware-house( approx handling unit to store FG‟s
15 MT )
below 25°C. Cold room below
8°C will be provided for
storage of heat sensitive
materials
The chemicals shall be stored based on compatibility analysis. The warehouse
for storage of chemicals will be constructed in RCC structure in solid walls and
sufficient hard floor, which is impermeable to liquids. An impervious sill or low
bund will be installed to prevent spillage in outer storage area.
The warehouse will be well ventilated taking into account the products stored. It
will be provided with flame proof electrical fittings and equipments. It will have
two emergency doors on each floor for smooth escape in case of emergency.
Organic solvents such as methylene chloride, acetone, toluene, methanol, ethyl
acetate etc. which are highly flammable, in 10 – 20 KL tanks in tank farm area
Certain chemicals namely 7-ACA, 1-acetoxy ethyl bromide, MAEM, GCLE, etc
which are sensitive to heat shall be stored separately in cold rooms at a
temperature < +8°C and < +25 °C.
Storage area for hazardous chemicals will be isolated from the rest of the
warehouse with impervious walls, floors and provision of safe disposal of
spillages. The area will be provided with emergency showers and eye wash
facility as well. Hazardous gases (. Chlorine, ammonia ) will be stored in a
separate cage type shed.
Utilities
2.6.2.
Water Requirement
During construction phase 24 KLD and during operation phase 150 KLD of fresh
water will be required sourced from borewell at the site.
Table 2.7 Water Consumption for Various Activities during Operation
Phase
Sl. No.
1
Component
Manufacturing Process
Fresh Water Required
(kLD)
81
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Sl. No.
Component
Fresh Water Required
(kLD)
2
Boiler and cooling tower
60
3
Drinking & Sanitation
05
4
Water Softener
04
5
Green Belt
10 (Met through recycled
or RO reject Water )
TOTAL
150 KLD Fresh Water +
10 KLD Recycled Water
(Source: DLL)
The water balance diagram during operation phase has been shown in Figure
2.33.
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.45 Water Balance Diagram
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.6.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Fuel
Petcoke will be used as fuel in the boiler and High speed diesel (HSD) will be used in the
incinerator and DG sets respectively. Table 2.8
tabulate the fuel quantity and the
source.
Table 2.8 : Fuel quantity and source
2.6.4.
Sl.
No.
Fuel
Quantity
Source
Transportation
Mode
Storage
1
Pet Coke
12
Tonnes/day
Locally
By road
Covered
shed
2
Diesel
75 Kl/month
Locally
By road
20 Kl MS
tank
Power
The Power requirement during construction phase is 125 KVA and during operation
phase is 3000 KVA. The power supply shall be from Jaipur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited
(JVVNL), In addition there is provision of DG sets for backup. The capacity of the DG set
is 125 KVA during construction phase and 6 X 500 KVA during operational phase.
2.6.5.
Employement
During construction phase DLL will employe 104 person and the manpower requirement
during the operation phase will be 216. DLL will make sure to employ local labour to the
extent possible. Table 2.9 and 2.10 provide the detail of manpower requirement during
construction and operation respectively.
Table 2.9 : Manpower Requirement during Construction Phase
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
Type
Skilled labour
Unskilled labour
Supervisor
Manager
Total
Number
25
75
03
01
104
Table 2.10 Manpower Requirement during Operation Phase
Sl. No.
1
2
Type
Unskilled workers (Helpers)
Skilled workers (Chemist)
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Number
100
80
149
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3
4
5
2.7.
Supervisor (Shift Incharge)
Manager
General Manager
Total
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
25
10
01
216
Generation of Pollutants
The generation of pollutants associated with the DLL during operation of APIs Unit can
be in the form of liquid effluent, solid waste, hazardous waste, air emissions and noise
pollution.
2.7.1.
Sewage Treatment
The 10 KLD quantity of sewage will be generated during the operation phase of the
proposed project. The sewage will be treated through activated sludge process along
with the effluent in the ETP of 150 KLD capacity.
2.7.2.
Effluent Treatment Plant
An ETP of 150 KLD capacity will be constructed to treat the effluents from the
manufacturing of APIs and Domestic Sewage. The effluent generated from process will
be segregated based on COD level into two streams as low COD effluent and High COD
effluent. The high COD effluent will be treated separately through MEE (Multi Effect
Evaporation system). The LOW COD effluent will be sent to ETP.
While the equalized effluent will be neutral, primary treatment in the form of coagulation,
flocculation and settling is envisaged to remove suspended solids and partial reduction
of TDS. Primary effluent then will be let into the biological treatment system. Biotreatment will be designed as two stage treatment, operating in series.
Being a Zero Effluent Discharge facility, the treated effluent will be desalinated using a
Reverse Osmosis system. Excess biomass from bio-treatment system will be dewatered
in continuous flow Belt Press with integral Screw Thickener. The filtrate and wash-water
from Belt Press shall flow back to Equalization Tank. The Reject from RO train will be
softened using lime and filtered using tubular membranes to minimize scaling. The
filtrate will be collected in a Collection Tank of 7-day retention time and disposed in
Multiple Effect Evaporator to separate out the dissolved salts.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
150
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.7.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Multiple Effect Evaporator
The MEE will be three-effect configuration with Thermal Vapour Compressor. A
Mechanical compressor can be offered as well, but due to low steam cost and
consumption, a TVR-based system is considered as optimum. All three calandria to be
configured as forced circulation systems to minimize scaling. The final effect will have a
salt settler, and the slurry from bottom of the settler shall be dewatered in a Basket
Centrifuge to provide wet salt with just 10-15% moisture, which will be packed in HDPE
bags/drums and disposed to approve landfill.
The detail of MEE to be utilized during operation phase is provided in Table 2.11 through
Table 2.16. and the zero effluent discharge flow diagram given in figure 2.46.
Table 2.11 MEE Collection Tank
Quantity
Working Volume
Size
Configuration
MOC
1 no.
300 m3
12mØ x 3m
Vertical Cylindrical, Covered
RCC M 30-EC
Table 2.12 MEE Transfer Pump
Quantity
Type
Service
Capacity
Head at Discharge
MOC
• Casing
• Impeller
• Shaft & Sleeve
Motor
• Type
• Est. Rating
1 Working + 1 Stand-by
Horizontal Centrifugal
Reject Transfer / Continuous
2 m3/h
15m WC
CI
CI
SS 410
Horizontal Foot Mounted
1 hp/2900 rpm
Table 2.13 Triple Effect Thermal Vapour Compressor Evaporator
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
Description Unit Value
Feed rate
Evaporation Capacity
Motive Steam Pressure
Motive Steam Consumption
Power Consumption
Unit
kg/hr
kg/hr
kg/cm2(g)
kg/hr
Absorbed
Value
2000
1930
5.0
720
30
Table 2.14 Sludge Collection System
Quantity
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
One Set
151
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Primary Sludge Quantity
Secondary Sludge Quantity
Sludge from Softening System
Total Sludge Quantity
Sludge Tank
Sludge Tank Volume
Mixing
Sludge Press Feed Pump
Pump Type / MOC
Pump Motor
No. of Pump
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
01 m3/d
5.9 m3/d
0.1 m3/d
7.0 m3/d
One No. / RCC M-30
25 m3
Vertical Hydrofoil Agitator/Air Grid
10 m3/hr @ 35m
Horizontal Centrifugal / CI
5 hp / 2900 rpm
1 working + 1 stand-by
Table 2.15 Membrane Filter Press
Quantity
Service
Type of Press
Operations
Total Sludge Generation
No. of Dewatering Cycles
Wet Cake Generation per Cycle
Cake Holding Capacity Provided
Press Plate Size
No. of Chambers
Cake Thickness after Squeezing
Squeezing Air Requirement
MOC
• Membrane Plate
• Combination Plate
• Filter Cloth
• Mounting Structure
Hydraulic Power Pack Motor
Air Compressor Motor
2 Working Alternative
Mixed sludge Dewatering/Intermittent
Membrane Combination Plate
Manual
7.0m3/d
16 per day
~ 0.42m3 @ 20%
260 L
800mm x 800mm @ 40mm
26 nos.
28mm
10 m3/hr @ 10 bar
• PP with EPDM-based Membrane
• PP
• PP
• MS
3 hp
3 hp
Table 2.16 Waste Sludge Generation
Sl. No.
1
2
Sludge Type
Mixed Sludge
Wet Salt from MEE
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Solid Content
20%
85-90%
Daily Quantity
0.42 T /Day
0.16 T/Day
152
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 2.46 Flow Diagram for Zero Effluent Discharge Plant
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
153
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.7.4.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Hazardous Wastes and Management
The quantity of hazardous wastes anticipated to be generated from the proposed
unit is given in Table 2.17
Table 2.17 : Quantity of Hazardous Waste to be Generated.
Sl. No.
Type of Hazardous Waste
1
2
Chemical sludge from wastewater treatment
Ash from incineration of hazardous waste,
flue gas cleaning residues
MEE Sludge
Process waste
3
4
2.7.4.2
Quantity to be Generated
from the Proposed Unit
420 Kg/Day
10 Kg/Day
160 Kg/Day
13 Kg/Day
Incinerator
The design capacity of the proposed liquid incinerator facility for on-site thermal
destruction of vapour, MEE residue and solvent recovery is given in the Table:
2.18 through Table 2.21.
Table 2.18 Waste Characteristics
Sl. Waste
No.
1
2
Process Waste
Aqueous
Volatile Effluent
Form
Quantity
Kg/Hour
Water %
Organics
%
Liquid
Liquid
65
150
Nil
98
100 %
2%
Calorific
Value
Kcal/Kg
5000
Nil
Table 2.19 Operating Conditions
Operating Time per Day
Heating Time
Waste Charging Rate
Primary Chamber Temperature
Secondary Chamber Temperature
Water Evaporation in Quencher/Scrubber
16 hrs.
2-3 hrs.
65 kg/hr+ 150 kg/hr
800±50°C
1150±50°C
500-550LPH
Table 2.20 Incinerators
Configuration
Primary Chamber Volume
Secondary Chamber Volume
No. of Primary Burners
No. of Secondary Burners
Fuel
Day Tank Capacity
Furnace Lining (Primary Chamber
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Dual Chamber Composite
4000L
2400L
1 @ 40LPH
1 @ 40LPH
HSD/LDO
1000L
230 mm IS-8 +230 mm Ins. + 6 mm
Asbestos
154
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Furnace Lining (Secondary Chamber)
230 mm 70% Al +230 mm Ins. + 6 mm
Asbestos
5 mm Mild Steel
80 LPH
15-20 LPH
Furnace Shell
Oil Consumption during Heating
Oil Consumption during Incineration
Table 2.21 Scrubbing System
4200 am3/hr.
1100-1200°C
1000 mm Dia. X 3500 mm ht.
Recycled Alkaline Effluent
MS- Refractory Lined
SS-316
Flue Gas Quantity
Flue Gas Temperature
Quencher Size
Quencher Liquid
Quencher MOC
Spray Nozzle
2.7.5.
Solid waste management
The type and quantity of solid wastes, which are anticipated to be generated from the
proposed project during construction and operation phase are tabulated in Table 2.22.
Table 2.22 : Type and Quantity of Solid Waste to be Generated in
the Construction and Operation Phases
Sl. No.
Type of Solid Waste
Construction Phase
1
Construction
waste
(debris)
Operation Phase
2
Empty barrels (used for
non-hazardous materials)
3
Scrap metals
4
2.7.6.
Used / Spent oil
Quantity
Treatment/ Disposal Method
It will be Debris will be used for internal
minimal
road laying purpose & landscaping
5-7 barrels / Collected and sold to authorize
day
recyclers after cleaning.
200 kg/day
Collected and sold to authorize
recyclers.
10 L/Day
To be incinerated & ash will be
sent to TSDF
Air Emissions
Multi cyclone Separator with stack of 50 m height shall be installed for dispersion of
pollutant. Scrubber shall be provided wherever; there is a process emission from the
project. The details of air emissions are provided in Table 2.23.
Table 2.23 Details of Air Emissions
S.
No.
Source of air
emissions
Type of Pollutant
Considered
1.
DG Sets (6X 500
KVA)
NO2,SO2, HC, PM2.5, PM10,
CO.
2.
Incinerator (Diesel
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
NO2, SO2, PM2.5, PM10,
155
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
2.8.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
fired capacity 65 ltr/hr)
CO, HF, TOC, HCl, total
dioxins and furans
3.
Two coal fired boiler
(5 TPH each) one
standby
PM2.5, PM10
4
Process scrubbers.
VOC and some other
constituents
OHS System
The existing plant of DLL has well organized Safety Management system with well
defined “Safety Health & Environment Policy”, “Quality Policy”, “Environment Policy” and
“Occupational Health & Safety Policy” which are certified by external agency of
international repute. DLL are committed to the principles of sustainable development.
As a part of this commitment, DLL protect the environment in which they operate and
ensure the health and safety of our employees, contractors, visitors and communities. All
employees are responsible for being aware about safety, health and environment needs
in their area of work. The proposed plant will also have these policies in place. The
significance of safety & health in chemical industries has been a vital issue in achieving
productivity and an edge in competitive world. Hence, all the pollution control measures
envisaged at feasibility stage will be implemented with due care.
The proposed plant will be designed as per international guidelines viz. WHO GMP ,
USFDA etc comprising of separate entry & exit for workers and material. The layout of
plants will be under purview of various statutory regulations and these regulations will be
reviewed regularly. All reaction vessels will be connected with scrubber so that any toxic
fumes/ vapour generated during reaction gets neutralized.
The proposed plant will have Air Handling Units to keep temperature <25 deg in powder
processing area and filtered air will be supplied in other areas. Dust collector will be
provided in powder processing area to remove dust generated during sifting/ milling of
product. Workers engaged in powder processing work will be provided personal
protective equipments like dust masks, respirators etc
The proposed plant will be provided with sophisticated instrumentation for continuously
monitoring of operating parameters.
The plant premises will be strictly maintained as a “NO SMOKING “area. Fire fighting
facility will be provided at site consisting of underground fire hydrant system and various
fire extinguishers.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
156
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
For electrical instrumentation and installations, the entire plant will be sub divided into
hazardous and non hazardous zone. In the hazardous zone, flame proof fittings
&fixtures will be provided. Arrangements will be made in each equipment to avoid static
spark.
All reaction vessels will be provided safety valve, rupture disc, pressure gauges etc to
avoid any explosion. Provision for inert gas purging will be there in each reactor to avoid
possibility of developing any hazardous mixture.
The company will have On Site Emergency Plan to handle any emergencies e. g. fire,
chemical spillage and medical arising from any unforeseen reason.
Workers will be trained & make them aware regarding safety and proper hygiene in
plant. All workers will undergo periodic medical examination and will be provided
personal protective equipments for their safety.
Major hazards can be avoided by proper implementation of Maintenance and Inspection
Schedule, Periodic maintenance will be in place to check the various types of
compressors, pumps, fan, blowers and monitor the vibration level. Compliance of
Statuary Regulations related to Factory act and IBR in which all boilers will be hydro
tested all pressure vessels will be tested for ultrasonic thickness measurement and weld
joint by radiography. All hot/cold surfaces will be insulated. Waste generated during
process will be removed regularly. Proper housekeeping in maintenance block, utility
block will be done so as to ensure that spillage of oil, litters of maintenance material are
cleared off.
2.9.
Project Cost and Cost towards Environmental Protection
The total estimated cost of the proposed project is approximately Rs 7000 lacs (~ Rs 70
Crore) which include the cost of the land, internal development and construction cost,
administrative cost and associated contingencies.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
157
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
This Chapter describes the baseline environmental conditions around the project site
for various environmental attributes, viz., and physical, biological and socio-economic,
within the 10 km study area . Topography, soil, water, meteorology, air, noise, and land
constitute the physical environment, whereas flora and fauna constitute the biological
environment. Demographic details and occupational pattern in the study area constitute
socio-economic environment. Baseline environmental conditions presented are both
the study carried out by Asian Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd. during the month of Feb
2013 – April 2013 and validation carried out by EQMS From March 2014 to Jun‟ 2014.
3.1.
Prelude
The environmental components are essential and valued parameters in the
environmental assessment, hence, the study of these components and making a
baseline of these would be critical in studying the effect of establishment of present
project and its impacts because of the developmental activities of the present project.
Hence, it is necessary to make a detailed study of the existing environmental conditions
not only to establish the pre-project physical, biological, and socio-economic conditions,
but also in predicting the fore-coming impacts during the construction and operation
developments during the study period and also suggest proper mitigational measures to
cater the anticipated impacts.
The study area usually comprises of 10 km boundary where all the environmental
attributes like land, water, air, noise, etc are examined and a detailed analysis is carried
out for these parameters by generating primary data for the locations identified based on
wind, temperature and other meteorological parameters. The primary data collection
includes soil, air, noise, ground water and surface water from a cluster of places
surrounding the proposed project site. Apart from these, data was also collected by
utilizing the secondary sources, this would help in making the analysis of the
surrounding ambient air quality, soil quality status, ground water quality, surface water
quality status of the present study area would provide inputs in predicting impacts by
which the establishment of the present project in the current study area.
The study carried out by previous EIA consultant Asian Consulting Engineers was
referred and further validated through filed survey. The relevant data regarding air,
water, soil is appened as Annexure X The validation study was carried out based on
three months data instead of required one month, The study carried in the months of 15
March –June, 2014. Sampling, testing was carried out by the NABL approved laboratory
Kamal Enviro and Food Lab Pvt. Ltd., IMT, Manesar Dist. Gurgaon, Haryana along with
EQMS Team.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
158
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.2.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Site Location and its surroundings
The proposed project site is situated at SP1-4-4, RIICO Industrial Area, Kotputli, District
Jaipur (Rajasthan).
The site is very well connected with NH-8 approximately 2.4 km in the Eastern direction,
Nearest Railway station and Airport is Alwar railway station is approx. 47 km away from
project site (aerial distance) and Jaipur airport is approx. 128 km away from project site
(aerial distance). Major city is Kotputli is approx. 11 km away (aerial distance) in south
direction from the proposed project site.
Baseline Study of the proposed site has been done in a 10 Km radial zone. Figure 2.1
shows the study area showing study area and connectivity.
3.3.
3.3.1.
State of the Environment (Regional)
Geology
Quaternary alluvium, quartzite & schist of Delhi Super Group and gneiss of Bhilwara
Super Group. The proposed project region belongs to Quaternary alluvium sediments
and Proterozoic rock formations. Quaternary alluvium is composed of fine to mediumgrained sand, silt, clay and kankar in varying proportions. The Proterozoic rock of the
project region, represented by Delhi Supergroup. The lithology of Delhi Supergroup
consists of schist‟s, quartzite and marble of Proterozoic age with associated basic flows,
tuffs, acid and basic intrusive.
In northern part of the district altitude of bedrock ranges from 426.72mamsl at Mairh to
276.82 mamsl at Kotputli indicating northerly sloping bed rock. In north-western and
western parts altitude of bedrock varies from 446 mamsl at Kariri (Shahpura) to 337
mamsl at Dhani Boraj (Sambhar block) showing southwesterly slopping bed rocks.
Around Jaipur urban area, altitude is higher at Harmada area(417.11 mamsl) with
southerly & southeasterly sloping bedrock having low altitudes of 310.79 mamsl at
Chandlai and 273.47 mamsl at Kotkaoda in Chaksu block.
3.3.2.
Topography
The topography of the project site and the study area of 10 km radial zone is plain. The
elevation of the project area is undulating. However, in the southern and eastern side to
the project area the elevations are in the range of 310 to 600 m, which provides a gentle
slope towards west direction of the project site. There are no hills, hillocks but at parts
there is undulating land in the study area which is not a major area of concern.
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography
or terrain. It is also widely known as a digital terrain model (DTM). A DEM can be
represented as a raster (a grid of squares, also known as a height map when
representing elevation) or as a triangular irregular network. The Greenfield plant location
is shown in that Relief map.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
159
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
For the relief study of the area very higher quality ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne
Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) DEM is downloaded. These DEMs of the
Terra satellite is freely available for 99% of the globe, and represents elevation at a 30
meter resolution. After downloading the DEMs the farther processing is done using the
ARC GIS 9.2 version.30 m interval contours are generated using the 3 D Analyst Surface analysis – Contour option. Then the TIN model is generated using the height
source of these contours in the 3-D Analyst environment.
Figures 3.3 and 3.4 present the DEM and the contour map of the study area
respectively.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
160
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: SRTM Contour)
Figure 3.1 : Contour Map of Study Area
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
161
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: SRTM DEM)
Figure 3.2 : DEM Map of Study Area
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
162
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.3.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Climate & Rainfall
Basically district receives normal annual rainfall of 527mm (1901-71) while average annual
rainfall for the last 30 years (1977-2006) is 565mm. Over 90% of total annual rainfall is received
during monsoon. Total annual potential evapo-transpiration is 1744.7mm. The coefficient of
variation is moderate at 32.6% indicating slightly unreliable pattern of rainfall. Though, Jaipur
city has experienced floods in 1981, the district area is prone to drought spells as witnessed
during 1984 to 1989 and 1999 to 2002.
The project region mainly receives rainfall in the monsoon season. The last five-year (20082012) annual rainfall in the Jaipur District is given in Table
Table 3.1 : Five-Year Rainfall (in mm) from 2008 to 2012 in Jaipur
District
Sl. No.
Months
Rainfall (in mm)
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
1
January
0
0
1.8
0
0
2
February
0
0
2.6
32.6
0
3
March
0
1.6
0
0
0
4
April
7
0.3
2.1
5.9
4.5
5
May
13
3
1.3
3.8
4.2
6
June
166.3
33.6
15.9
115.1
1.5
7
July
120.1
114.2
204.3
135.1
118.4
8
August
132.7
102.2
325
228.8
407.4
9
September
114.3
36.6
165.3
160.5
98.6
10
October
0.2
3.5
0.4
0
0.3
11
November
0
3.1
73.1
0
0
12
December
0
0
4.1
0
0
553.6
298.1
795.9
681.8
634.9
Total
(Source: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), imd.gov.in)
3.3.4.
Seismic Considerations
According to the seismic-zoning map of India, the state of Rajasthan falls in a region of
moderate to high seismic hazard.As per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map,
Rajasthan also falls in Zones II, III & IV. Historically, parts of this state have experienced seismic
activity in the M5.0 range The Seismic Zoning & Hazard Zoning Map is shown in Figure 1.3
Historically; parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the 5.0-6.0 range.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
163
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: Amateur Seismic Centre, Pune, 2011)
Figure 3.3 : Seismic Zoning Map & Hazard Zoning Map of India
3.3.5.
Hydrogeology
The Gneisses and schists of Bhilwara Super Group are the oldest rock types overlain by
quartzites, schists, conglomerates, dolomitic limestone etc. belonging to Alwar & Ajabgarh
Groups of Delhi Super Group along with granite, pegmatite & amphibolite intrusive of Post Delhi
age. Hard rocks in major parts of the district are covered by Quaternary fluvial & aeolian
deposits mainly composed of sand, silt, clay, gravel & kankar. Alluvial thickness is less in
southern & SW parts of the district i.e. in Naraina, Sakhun, Dudu, Mozamabad, Phagi, Chaksu
areas etc. Alluvial thickness between 90 & 100m has been observed at Chomu, Jairampura,
Nangal Bharra, Dhaunauta area whereas its thickness over 100m has been found at Risani
village (104m). In northern part of the district altitude of bedrock ranges from 426.72m amsl at
Mairh to 276.82 mamsl at Kotputli indicating northerly sloping bed rock. In northwestern and
western parts altitude of bedrock varies from 446 mamsl at Kariri (Shahpura) to 337 mamsl at
Dhani Boraj (Sambhar block) showing southwesterly slopping bed rocks. Around Jaipur urban
area, altitude is higher at Harmada area(417.11 mamsl) with southerly & southeasterly sloping
bedrock having low altitudes of 310.79 mamsl at Chandlai and 273.47 mamsl at Kotkaoda in
Chaksu block.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
164
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 3.4 Hydrogeological map
3.3.6.
Groundwater Resources
As per the reports from Central Ground Water Board1 Groundwater in the district occurs both in
unconsolidated quaternary formations and consolidated formations of Bhilwara & Delhi Super
Groups and also Post Delhi Granites. In greater part of the district, alluvial deposits mainly fine
sand & silt serve as potential aquifers in addition to gravel zones as encountered at Sanganer,
1
CGWB Report 2007 and Research Paper by Srivastava.Ranjana 2011
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
165
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ambabari, Bajaj Nagar (Jaipur city) and Shahpura, Dhanauta, Nayan, Kalyanpur, Mohana and
Chandalai. Shallow depth to groundwater occurs under water table condition and under semiconfined conditions at depth. Talus and scree deposits at foothills form potential aquifer at
places including Banskho in Bassi block and parts of Amber, Jamuwa Ramgarh and Govindgarh
blocks. Yield of wells in these formations ranges from 100 to 500 m3 /day. Hard rocks of
Bhilwara Super Group form main aquifers in Southern and south western parts of the district in
Dudu, Phagi and Chaksu blocks comprising of granulitic gneisses, quartz mica schist, phyllite
along with granite & pegmatite intrusives. Similarly, quartzite, schist & phyllite of Delhi Super
Group form aquifers in Jamwa Ramgarh, Bairath, Kotputli, Shahpura, Amer and Bassi blocks.
Movement of groundwater in these hard rocks is controlled by size, continuity and
interconnectivity of weathered and fractured parts and due to other secondary porosities. Depth
of wells in the district generally varies from 50m to 100m in alluvium and 50 to 200m in
combination/consolidated formation areas. Specific capacity of wells varies from 58 to 500
lpm/m. Transmissivity value and storage coefficient varies from 10-to 850m2/d and 4.70 x 10-5
to 1.05x 10-3 respectively. The detail of water label with decline detail given in Table 3.2
Depth of Water Level – Pre-monsoon
Depth of Water Level - Post monsoon
Figure 3.5 Water Level Trends of the district.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
166
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.2 Water table (Fluctuation and Decline)
S Block
.
N
Avera
ge WL
1984
(m)
Avera
ge WL
1996
(m)
Averag
e WL
2001
(m)
Avera
ge WL
2006
(m)
AverageW
L Fluctuation PrePost 2006
1 Amer
16.9
18.54
21.53
32.51
-0.9
2 Bairat
h
11.79
15.68
16.45
23.65
3 Bassi
11.39
18.8
27.79
4 Chaks
u
9.62
11.85
5 Dudu
10.35
6 Govin
dgarh
Avera-ge
Rate of WL
decline8406 (m/yr)
AverageR
ate of WL
decline 9606 (m/yr)
AverageRat
e of WL
decline 0106 (m/yr)
0.71
1.4
2.2
-0.98
0.54
0.8
1.44
29.45
-0.41
0.82
1.07
0.33
13.58
22.73
1.6
0.6
1.09
1.83
13.97
15.87
19.98
-0.98
0.44
0.6
0.82
10.75
16.74
20.84
30.41
-0.15
0.89
1.37
1.91
7 Jamw
aRam
garh
12.12
20.09
21.77
24.58
0.93
0.57
0.45
0.56
8 Jhotw
ara
13.81
24.86
28.82
41.25
-0.83
1.24
1.64
2.49
9 Kotput
li
10.05
15.91
18.24
21.79
-0.55
0.53
0.59
0.71
1 Phagi
0
10.03
12.17
13.03
17.4
0.21
0.33
0.52
0.87
Source: CGWB, 2007
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
167
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.3.7.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Drainage System
Study area is characterized by wide spectrum of landscapes including hillocks,
pediments, undulating fluvial plains, aeolian dune fields, ravines, palaeo-channels etc.
Structural hills (mainly in north and NE parts) trending NNE-SSW are generally
composed of Delhi quartzite. Main peaks include Jaigarh (648mamsl), Nahargarh
(599mamsl), Manoharpura (747mamsl) and Bichun (656mamsl). Pediments with thin to
thick soil cover can be seen around Dudu, Phagi & Chaksu forming flat gneissic
outcrops. Undulating plains of fluvial/fluvial- aeolian origin forming landforms of river
terraces, floodplains and buried channels of various drainage systems dominate the
district area. Aeolian sand dunes are found mainly in western parts (Sambhar, Jobner,
Renwal area) which are few metres to 10m high. Obstacle and shadow dunes can also
be seen in parts of the district in addition to ravine and badland topography at places.
The district area is drained by ephemeral rivers Banganga, Bandi, Dhund, Mendha,
Mashi, Sota & Sabi and their tributaries. Sota & Sabi rivers in the northern part of district
flow northeasterly while southwesterly flowing Banganga river passes through Shahpura,
Bairath, Jamwa Ramgarh blocks and contribute water to the famous Ramgarh lake from
where it flows easterly to enter Dausa district. Mendha River in northwest portion of the
district merges with famous Sambhar lake whereas Mashi river in the southwestern part
flows easterly. The rivers in rajasthan basically dry in nature.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
168
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 3.6 Drainage Pattern
3.3.8.
Land Use
The basic purpose of land use pattern and classification in an EIA study is to identify the
manner in which different parts of land in an area are being utilized or not utilized.
Remote sensing data provides reliable accurate baseline information for land use
mapping as it is a rapid method of acquiring up-to-date information of over a large
geological area.
A systematic digital image interpretation approach was used to delineate the land use
classes. The present study was focused on demarcating boundaries of different land
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
169
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
use/land cover units from an analysis of different types of colour registrations of land
use/land cover units from satellite imagery.
Data Used in the landuse map preparation is the satellite Imagery of Indian Remote
Sensing Satellite (IRS- ID , sensor P6, LISS III) of 24 m resolution. The Swath of the
imagery is 141 Km x 141 Km. Band used are 2, 3 4 and 5. LANDSAT imagery of 30
meter resolution and 185 x 185 km swath is also used for the comparative and overall
analysis of the area. 1 LISS III imagery and 1 LANDSAT imagery were used for the
complete coverage of the study area. Band used are 2, 3 and 4.
Land use / land cover map of 10 km study area has been show in Figure 1.6 The
agricultural area and Agri fallow land represents around 33 % and 48 % of the whole
land cover. Vegetation covers about 7 % of the area. Table 3-4 shows the land use
categories with the respective percentages in the study area.
The area contains different types of land cover and land use:Agriculture land
Human settlements
Open lands-like Agricultural Fallow and other fallow areas
Water Bodies
Some shrub vegetation areas are also there in the study area
Barren land
Table 3.3 : Land use category in the Study Area
Class
Area(Sq km) Percentage
Agricultural land
155.32
49.35
Agri fallow land
120.19
38.19
Settlement
7.94
2.52
Waterbody
0.01
0.00
Land with open shrub & grass
27.92
8.87
Vegetation
3.36
1.07
Total
314.74
100
(Source: Primary Data Analysis-EQMS)
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
170
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Landuse
Agricultural land
Agri fallow land
Settlement
Waterbody
Land with open shrub & grass
Vegetation
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 3.7 : Land use statistics of the proposed site
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
171
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: glovis.usgs.gov)
Figure 3.8 : Land use/ Land cover statistics of the proposed site
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
172
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.3.9.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Micro-Meteorology
Table 3.4 Monitoring Methodology of Meteorological Data
S.
No
.
Env.
Compone
nt
locatio
n
Meteorolog
y
1.
Parameter
s
Wind
speed,
wind
direction,
temperatur
e, Relative
humidity,
and rainfall
At Site
Frequenc
y
Period
SummerSeason
Hourly for
all
parameter
s
Methodolog
y
As per
manufacturer
‟s manual.
Instruments
are calibrated
Cloud cover
is done by
visual
interpretation
of the sky by
the observer.
Wind Speed, Wind Direction, Temperature and Relative Humidity were recorded on
hourly basis for the total study period. Wind roses on sixteen-sector basis (N, NNE, NE,
ENE, E, ESE, SE, SSE, S, SSW, SW, WSW, W, WNW, NW, and NNW) have been
drawn for the study period. The meteorological data was recorded on hourly basis.
Predominant wind direction of the study area given in table 3.4.
Table 3.5 :Predominant Wind Direction ( Blowing from)
Predominant First
Second
Third
Month
Morning
Evening
Morning
Evening
Morning
Evening
January
CALM
N
SE/NW
NW
S/N
NE
February
CALM
N
NW
NW
SE
NE
March
CALM
NW
NW
N
S
NE
April
NW
NW
CALM
N
W
W
May
NW
NW
W
W
CALM
N
June
W
NW
NW
W
SW/CALM
N
July
W
W
SW
NW
NW/CALM NW
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
173
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Predominant First
Second
Third
Month
Morning
Evening
Morning
Evening
Morning
Evening
August
W
W
NW
NW
CALM
CALM
September
W
NW
CALM
W
NW
N
October
CALM
CALM
W
NW
SW
N
November
CALM
CALM
S
NW
NW
N
December
CALM
CALM
S
N
NW/SE
NE
(Source: IMD Jaipur, average analysis of last thirty years, 1961 to 1990)
Meteorological study exerts a critical influence on air quality as it is an important factor in
governing the ambient air quality. The meteorological data recorded during the study
period is used for interpretation of the baseline information as well as input for air quality
simulation models. A meteorological station was installed in the project area at about 10
m above the ground level. All care was taken to see that the station is free from
obstructions to free flow of winds. Wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative
humidity data was collected daily on hourly basis during the study period. The maximum,
minimum and average temperatures as well as relative humidity of the study period are
presented in Table 3.5.
Table 3.6 : Summary of Micrometeorological Data of Summer Season (15 Mar- 15
Jun’14)
Temperature (°C)
Relative Humidity (%)
Month
Maximum Minimum Mean Maximum
Minimum Mean
38
17
27
78
12
33
Apr –May, 42
2014
20
31
83
12
30
May – Jun, 45
2014
25
35
74
18
27
Mar-Apr,
2014
(Source: EQMS Field Monitoring)
The windrose diagram for the study area is shown in Figure 3.9 and the wind class
frequency distribution is shown in Figure 3.10. The analysis of the average wind pattern
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
174
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
shows predominant winds from WNW, NW and W with wind frequencies of 13%, 11%
and 11%, respectively. Calm conditions prevailed for 15.41% of the total study period.
Figure 3.9 : Windrose diagram for the study area
(Source: field data )
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
175
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 3.10 : Wind Class Frequency Distribution
(Source: Field data)
3.4.
Baseline Environment
The environmental status of the local vicinity at 10 km radial zone around the project site
has been studied during the Summer Season and the details are given table 3.6 and
Figure 3.11 in the following sub-sections:
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
176
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: Google Earth & SOI Toposheet)
Figure 3.11 : Sampling Locations in the Study Area
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
177
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.7 : Sampling sites
Parameters
Sites
Air
Project site
Binajhera
Goneda
Mordha
Paniyala
Keshwana rajpur
Project site
Binajhera
Goneda
Mordha
Paniyala
Keshwana rajpur
Village Raj Malik
(Pond)
Project site
Binajhera
Goneda
Mordha
Paniyala
Keshwana rajpur
Project site
Binajhera
Goneda
Mordha
Paniyala
Keshwana rajpur
Ground Water
Surface
Water
Soil
Noise
Distance from Direction from
Site (KM)
Project site
4.56
2.73
3.74
2.03
3.40
SE
SW
E
SE
N
4.56
2.73
3.74
2.03
3.40
pur 4
SE
SW
E
SE
N
W
4.56
2.73
3.74
2.03
3.40
SE
SW
E
SE
N
4.56
2.73
3.74
2.03
3.40
SE
SW
E
SE
N
(Source: EQMS)
3.4.1.
Air Environment
Preliminary air sampling and monitoring was carried out in Summer Season to establish
the air quality of the study area. The project site situated at industrial area so it
surrounded with various industry like M/s Surya food & agro limited, M/s Krishna mills
limited etc so basic source of of air pollution is is emission from various industry
vehicular emission, re-suspended dust from the paved and unpaved tracks, fuel burning
for domestic requirements and windblown dust from the open agricultural and waste
land. Sampling locations were selected based upon:
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
178
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Sensitivity of site, where the construction activity and traffic due to the proposed
project will take place.
Presence of sensitive receptors such as settlements.
Based on the above, six sampling locations were selected at Project
Site,Binajhera, Goneda, Paniyala, Mordha, Keshwana rajpur.
The average of the analytical results of air quality monitoring in the above
mentioned locations are compared against the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS). The maximum, minimum and average concentrations of the
air pollutants are given in Table 3-10.
The Monitoring was carried out twice a week at each location
3.4.1.1
Parameters Monitored and Methods Used
The parameters monitored were:
The sampling and monitoring has been carried out Summer Season 2014. Major
pollutants, namely Particulate Matter PM10, PM2.5, Sulphur Dioxide (SO ), Nitrogen
Oxides (NOx), Carbon mono-oxide (CO) were measured at the monitoring stations.
Additionally, NH3 and VOC were measured in accordance with the TOR issued by
MoEF, Govt. of India. The samples were collected in accordance with the guidelines
issued by Central Pollution Control Board under National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
The parameters were monitored during Summer Season, 2014. The detailed monitoring
methodology of ambient air is given in Table 3-9.
Table 3.8 Methodology of Ambient Air Monitoring
Sampling
Parameters
PM10
CO
Sensitivity/Detecti
on Limit
Respirable
Dust 5 µg/m3
Sampler with Cyclone
& Flow measurement
Gaseous
Flow 1.7 µg/m3
attachment with RDS
Sampler
Gaseous
Flow 0.5 µg/m3
attachment with RDS
Sampler
Grab samples
1ppm
VOC
Grab samples
SO2
NOx
3.4.1.2
Sampling equipment
1ppm
Methodology
Gravimetric
IS:
5182(Part 23) 2006
Colorimetric
IS:
5182:
(Part II) 2001
Colorimetric
IS:
5182:
(Part VI) 2006
As per equipment
manual
As per equipment
manual
Results of Ambient Air Monitoring
The results of ambient air monitoring are given in Table 3-10. Graphical representation
of the results is shown in Figures 3.10 through 3.13.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
179
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.9 : Ambient Air Quality Status in the Study Area
Location
Value /
Concentra
tion
PM10
(µg/m³)
PM2.5
(µg/m³)
SO2
(µg/m³)
NOx
(µg/m³)
CO
(µg/m³)
NH3
(µg/m³)
VOC
(µg/m³)
Project
Site
Max
Min
118
72
52
34
17
9
34
20
930
430
15
9
BDL (0.1)
BDL (0.1)
Mean
93
41
12
26
612
12
BDL (0.1)
98
Percentile
Max
115
50
17
34
866
15
BDL (0.1)
112
50
14
20
1030
15
BDL (0.1)
Min
87
33
8
14
620
8
BDL (0.1)
Mean
102
41
12
17
839
12
BDL (0.1)
98
Percentile
Max
112
49
14
20
1007
15
BDL (0.1)
105
46
17
32
890
17
BDL (0.1)
Min
72
28
10
20
470
8
BDL (0.1)
Mean
88
37
14
27
633
12
BDL (0.1)
98
Percentile
Max
105
45
17
32
858
17
BDL (0.1)
121
56
15
23
1070
18
BDL (0.1)
Min
87
35
9
16
610
11
BDL (0.1)
Mean
108
44
13
20
846
14
BDL (0.1)
98
Percentile
Max
120
54
15
23
1038
17
BDL (0.1)
105
46
16
31
1140
15
BDL (0.1)
Min
65
29
8
21
730
10
BDL (0.1)
Mean
86
41
12
26
915
13
BDL (0.1)
98
Percentile
Max
104
46
16
30
1126
15
BDL (0.1)
115
52
17
34
1070
14
BDL (0.1)
Min
72
30
9
21
640
8
BDL (0.1)
Mean
89
37
13
27
828
11
BDL (0.1)
98
Percentile
109
51
17
34
1038
14
BDL (0.1)
Binjahera
Goneda
Paniyala
Mordha
Keshwan
aRajpur
Source: Air Analysis during study period
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
180
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Interpretation of Result.
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Max
Min
Mean
98 Percentile
Figure 3.12 Graphical representation of PM10in the Study Area
Particulate Matter (PM10):
The average highest PM10 level (121 µg/m3), was observed at the Paniyala village while
the lowest level was observed at Mordha village (105 µg/m3). The PM10 levels are
higher ( about 21 µg/m3 ) than the NAAQS level of 100 µg/m3. The high value of PM10
in the study area is contributed mainly due to nearer industry, vehicular emissions, resuspended dust from paved roads and open areas as well as from nearby industrial
activities.
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Max
Min
Mean
98 Percentile
Figure 3.13 Graphical representation of PM 2.5 in the Study Area
Particulate Matter (PM2.5)):
PM2.5 levels were found ranging from 46 to 56 µg/m3. The highest PM2.5 levels were
found at the Village Paniyala (56 µg/m3) as well as project site (52 µg/m3) where as
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
181
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
lowest one observe at Village Goneda (46 µg/m3). PM2.5 values are under permissible
limit i.e. NAAQS levels 60 µg/m3.
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Max
Min
Mean
98 Percentile
Figure 3.14 Graphical representation of SO2 in the Study Area
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2):
The main source of SO2 emission is from industrial and vehicular sources and the
emission are under permissible limit. The maximum concentration of sulphur di oxide
observed at Village Goneda (17 µg/m3) and Project site (17 µg/m3) respectively.
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Max
Min
Mean
98 Percentile
Source: Analysis during study period
Figure 3.15 Graphical representation of NOx in the Study Area
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx):
The highest level of NOx was found at the Project site (34 µg/m3) whereas lowest level
was found at village Paniyala (16 µg/m3). The main source of NOx emission is form
industrial and vehicular sources.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
182
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.4.2.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Noise Environment
Noise after a certain level can have a very disturbing effect on the people and animals
exposed to it. Hence, it is important to assess the present noise quality of the area in
order to predict the potential impact of future noise levels due to the proposed project.
The Noise Monitoring locations are shown in Table 3.5.Noise measurements were done
using Cygnet Sound Level Meter Model 2031A. Monitoring was carried out both in the
day and night time and accordingly Leq day and night were derived from the monitored
data including the peak values.
The results of the monitoring are provided in Table 3.12. Monitored levels were
compared against Ambient Noise Standards prescribed under Gazette Notification 643
of Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Noise measurements were done using Cygnet Sound Level Meter Model 2031A.
Monitoring was carried out both in the day and night time and accordingly Leq day and
night were derived from the monitored data including the peak values.
3.4.2.1
Noise Level Results
Noise readings were taken at six different locations within the study area near-by sensitive locations. The average noise level are presented vide Table 3.10.
Table 3.10 Noise Monitoring Results
Location
Name
Time
Day 6.00
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Binjahear
47.4
52.8
56.4
59.5
57.7
50.3
37.8
27.5
36.3
42.3
47.8
49.2
52.6
52.3
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Goneda
Paniyala
Mordha
Noise Level (dBA)
Hourly Leq
47.3
52
49.8
53.4
51.4
56.5
56.6
59.9
59.5
56.6
51.9
54.9
46.3
48.8
39.2
41.5
34.4
32.0
41.6
40.1
47.8
46.4
53.3
49.9
56.9
52.6
55.6
53.5
43.6
53.2
56.8
50.2
46.6
43.5
35.4
28.5
36.2
43.6
50.3
53.4
49.6
48.3
Project
Site
Keshwana
Rajpur
45.5
48.2
54.3
56.7
55.4
50.8
42.1
35.2
26.5
38.2
43.7
49.3
50.8
47.7
47.2
51.4
50.5
55.1
53.5
51.4
48.2
51.6
48.8
42.2
46.1
52.2
54.1
51.0
183
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
20
50.6
52.4
51.8
46.1
21
48.8
51.8
50.0
45.8
Night
22.00
46.0
47.7
46.7
42.6
23
42.4
43.4
44.2
41.8
24
38.5
36.6
39.4
41.2
1
34.4
34.8
37.4
40.5
2
32.8
35.7
35.7
39.8
3
33.6
36.9
39.3
39.6
4
40.5
42.0
43.2
40.5
5
43.7
44.2
45.3
40.3
Leq Day
52.7
53.2
53.4
49.7
Leq Night
41.2
42.4
42.9
40.9
(Source: Noise Analysis during study period by EQMS Team)
43.1
42.3
53.4
51.6
46.7
42.3
35.8
30.5
28.3
32.7
37.6
40.9
50.2
40.5
46.4
43.5
38.1
33.3
33.6
35.3
39.0
43.2
51.5
41.3
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
Leq Day(dBA)
10.0
Leq Night(dBA)
0.0
Figure 3.16 : Leq Day and Night of the study area
Table 3.11 : Standard of Ambient Noise Level as per CPCB
Guidelines
Area
Code
A
B
C
D
Limits in dB (A) Leq
Day Time
From 6.00 am to 10.00 pm
Industrial area
75
Commercial area 65
Residential area 55
Silence Zone
50
Category
Area/Zone
of
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Night Time
From 10.00 pm. to 6.00 am
70
55
45
40
184
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.4.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Damage risk criteria for hearing loss, Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) regulations
Table 3.12 : Damage risk criteria for hearing loss, Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) regulations
Max allowable Exposure duration hour per day
8
4
3
2
1.5
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
No exposure in excess of 115 dB(A) is permitted.
Sound pressure level dB(A)
90
95
97
100
102
105
107
110
115
The noise levels at all the locations were found within the ambient noise standards for
Residential and Rural Areas and commercial areas (NH-24 near Project Site) during day
as well as night time for which the standards are 55 dB (A) and 45 dB(A) during daytime
& night time and 65 dB(A) and 55 dB(A)during daytime & night time respectively. It is
clear from the above table that noise levels at all the locations were well below the
National Ambient Noise Standards for Residential & Rural Areas and this area falls in
industrial area So the noise limits as per norms.
3.4.4.
Water Environment
The water resources, both surface and groundwater plays an important role in the
development of an area. Likewise, the water resources of the area have been studied to
establish the current status of water availability and quality in the area.
3.4.4.1
Ground Water
Ground water is pressed for almost all uses. Generally, every village has open wells and
hand pumps to draw water for domestic uses.
Ground water from dug wells, tube wells and hand pumps cater to the drinking water
needs of the villages in the region. The quality of ground water was assessed by taking
samples and analysed as per CPCB guidelines. The methodology followed for sampling
and analysis is as follows
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
185
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.13 : Monitoring Methodology of water
S.
Minimum
Parameters
Methodology
No
Detection Limit
1
pH
APHA, Edition 21 (4500 H+ B), pH meter
2
Temperature
APHA Edition
Thermometer
3
Turbidity
APHA
Edition
Nephelophotometric
4
TDS
APHA Edition 21 (2540 C) Gravimetric
5
Electrical
conductivity
APHA Edition 21 (2510 B) Conductivity 1µmoh/cm
Meter
6
COD
APHA Edition 21 (5220 B), Tetrameter open 4 mg/l
reflux
7
BOD
8
Chlorides
APHA Edition 21 (4500 Cr B) Titrametric
9
Sulphates
APHA Edition 21 (4500 SO2 4 E) Turbid 0.1 mg/l
metric
10
Total Hardness
APHA Edition 21 (2340 C)
(EDTA Method)
11
Ca++ Hardness
12
Mg++ Hardness
13
Total Alkalinity
APHA Edition 21 (2320 B) Titrametric
10 mg/l
14
Nitrate
APHA Edition 16 (418 D) Colorimetric
0.08 mg/l
15
Fluoride
APHA Edition 21 (4500 F- D) Colorimetric
0.005 mg/l
16
Sodium
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Na- B)
Emission Photometric
Flame 1 mg/l
17
Potassium
APHA Edition 21 (3500 K- B)
Emission Photometric
Flame 1 mg/l
18
Calcium
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Ca- B) Titrametric 1 mg/l
(EDTA Method)
19
Magnesium
APHA Edition
difference
Standard 1OC
21 (2130 B),
21
0.01
(2130
B), 0.1 NTU
4 mg/l
3 days IS 3025 part 44, 1993 Iodometric
1 mg/l
5 days APHA edition 21 (5210 B) Iodometric
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
21
(3500
5 mg/l
Titrametric 10 mg/l
Mg-
B),
by 2 mg/l
186
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
S.
Minimum
Parameters
Methodology
No
Detection Limit
APHA Edition 21 (2520 B),
conductivity Method
Electrical -
20
Salinity
21
Total Nitrogen
22
Total
Phosphorous
23
Dissolved
Oxygen
24
Ammonical
Nitrogen
APHA Edition 21 (4500 NH3) Colorimetric
0.01 mg/l
25
SAR
Flame photometric and EDTA Method
-
a
Arsenic (as As)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 As- B) Colorimetric
0.01 mg/l
b
Cadmium (as Cd)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Cd), 3111 B, AAS
Method
0.001 mg/l
c
Chromium (as Cr)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Cr B) Colorimetric
0.001 mg/l
d
Copper (as Cu)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Cu B), (3111B), AAS 0.02 mg/l
Method, Colorimetric
e
Cyanide (as CN)
f
Iron (as Fe)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Fe-B) Colorimetric
0.01 mg/l
g
Lead (as Pb)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Pb-A), AAS Method
0.02 mg/l
h
Mercury (as Hg)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Hg), AAS Method
0.001 mg/l
i
Manganese
Mn)
j
Nickel (as Ni)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Ni), AAS Method
k
Zinc (as Zn)
APHA Edition 21 (3500 Zn-B) (3111 B), AAS 0.002 mg/l
Method/ Colorimetric
28
Total Coliform
APHA Edition 21 (9221 B), Multiple Tube
Fermentation
2 MPN/100ml
29
Faecal Coliforms
APHA Edition 21 (9221 E), Multiple Tube
Fermentation
2 MPN/100ml
(as APHA Edition 21 (3500 Mn-B) (3111 B), 0.007mg/l
AAS Method/ Colorimetric
0.02 mg/l
(Source: APHA Standard Methods (20thEdition, 1998))
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
187
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.4.4.2
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Water Quality Assessment
Water samples were collected from ground and surface waters covering 10 km radial
zone. A total of six samples of ground water and three sample of surface water were
taken from different sampling locations including surface and ground water bodies. The
samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters, the sampling and analysis of
water were carried out as described in standard methods of water and waste water
analysis (APHA). The results of water analysis were compared with IS:10500-1993
drinking water standard to study their suitability for drinking purpose and surface water
were classified on basis of CPCB standard. Sampling locations for water samples are
shown in Table 3.5 and the analytical results of the water samples are shown in Table
3.7
3.4.4.3
Quality of Ground Water (Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological)
Groundwater analysis results are given vide in table 3.11.
Table 3.14 : Ground Water Quality in the Study Area
Locations
Parameters
Proje
ct
Binja
hera
Site
Kesh
wana
Desi
rabl
e
Gone
da
Paniy
ala
Mord
ha
Rajur
Permi
ssible
Limi
ts
limits
Test
Protoco
l
Colour (Hazen
Units)
Less
than
5
Less
than
5
Less
than
5
Less
than
5
Less
than
5
Less
than
5
5
25
IS: 3025
Part -4
Conductivity
(µmhos/cm)
1359
2274
965.8
482.5
1125
1945
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -14
3.9
0.9
4.6
0.7
1.9
0.6
5
10
IS: 3025
Part -10
Turbidity (NTU)
No
pH
7.33
7.09
7.48
7.39
7.05
7.19
6.5
to
8.5
Total Dissolved
Solids (mg/ Liter)
728
1527
575
288
675
1165
500
2000
IS: 3025
Part -16
Total Suspended
Solids (mg/ Liter)
19
12
22
18
21
16
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -17
Total Hardness
(mg/liter)
427
356
169
214
320
360
300
600
IS: 3025
Part -21
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Relax
ation
IS: 3025
Part -11
188
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Chlorides (as Cl)
mg/ liter
306
522
267
63
198
360
250
1000
IS: 3025
Part -32
Sulphate (as SO4)
mg/ liter)
56
53
21
21
39
49
200
400
IS: 3025
Part -24
Nitrate (as NO3)
(mg/ Liter)
1.82
2.6
2.01
1.63
1.98
1.74
45
100
IS: 3025
Part -34
Phosphate (as
PO4) (mg/ Liter)
2.4
1.72
1.76
2.8
2.4
2.67
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -31
Fluorides (as F)
(mg/ Liter)
1.69
2.3
2.2
1.92
2.03
2.12
1
1.5
IS: 3025
Part -60
Iron (as Fe) (mg/
Liter)
7.2
0.57
8.64
0.69
1.2
9.37
0.3
1
IS: 3025
Part -53
Lead (as Pb) (mg/
Liter)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
0.05
Copper (as Cu)
(mg/ Liter)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
0.05
1.5
IS: 3025
Part -42
Sodium (as a Na)
(mg/ Liter)
418
712
315
88
295
385
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -45
Potassium (as K)
(mg/ Liter)
102
175
147
19
37
244
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -45
Nickel(as Ni) (mg/
Liter)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -54
Zinc (as Zn) (mg/
Liter)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
5
1.5
IS: 3025
Part -49
Total chromium
(as Cr) (mg/ Liter)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
0.05
Relax
ation
Manganese (as
Mn) (mg/ Liter)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
BDL
(0.01)
0.1
0.3
IS: 3025
Part
BDL
(1)
BDL
(1)
BDL
(1)
BDL
(1)
BDL
(1)
BDL
(1)
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -39
No
Relax
ation
IS: 3025
Part -47
No
Oil &grease (mg/
Liter)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
IS: 3025
Part -52
189
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Calcium (as Ca)
(mg/ Liter)
71
43
30
41
53
52
75
200
IS: 3025
Part -40
magnesium(as
Mg) (mg/ Liter)
61
60
23
27
46
56
30
100
IS: 3025
Part -46
Total
Alkalinity(mg/
Liter)
165
255
220
210
170
240
200
600
IS: 3025
Part -23
Total
Coliform(MPN/10
0 ml)
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
NIL
10
10
IS: 3025
Part -2
COD (mg/ Liter)
BDL
(5)
BDL
(5)
BDL
(5)
BDL
(5)
BDL
(5)
BDL
(5)
-
-
IS: 3025
Part -58
(Source: Water Analysis during study period by Kamal Laboratory)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
190
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ground water quality was compared with the drinking water norms (IS 10500: 1993;).
The values of physico-chemical parameters in ground water samples collected during
study period are summarized in Table.
The pH value of drinking water is an important index of acidity or alkalinity. A
number of minerals and organic matter interact with one another to give the
resultant pH value of the sample. pH levels vary from 7.05 to 7.48. It lies
within BIS and WHO standard limits for drinking water quality and are
suitable for drinking purpose. Temperature exerts a major influence on the
biological activities and growth.
Temperature influences water chemistry, e.g. DO, solubility, density, pH,
conductivity etc. water holds lesser oxygen at higher temperatures..
Suspension of particles in water interfering with passage of light is called
turbidity. Turbidity of water is responsible for the light to be scattered.
Turbidity in natural water restricts light penetration thus limiting
photosynthesis, which consequently leads to depletion of oxygen content.
Turbidity was not found in any of the ground water sample.
A high value of Conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to pass an
electrical current. Conductivity in water is affected by the presence of
inorganic dissolved solids. Therefore, EC is considered as an important
water quality parameter in assessing drinking water as well as irrigation
water. EC is a widely used as indicator for salinity and this has also been
used to classify the water under medium saline, low and high saline water.
EC levels vary from 482.5 to 2274 µmho.cm-1. These values are exceeding
standard limits. They also opined that the higher value of EC in groundwater
is due to the high dissolved solids which may subscribe to the conductivity
and has a direct bearing on the percentage of total solids.
The level of TDS is one of the characteristics, which decides the quality of
drinking water. Total dissolved solids were recorded from 288 to 1527. mg.L1, which are under standard limits prescribed by WHO and BIS . Water with
fewer residues is less palatable and suits for drinking purpose. On the other
hand, high level of TDS may aesthetically be unsatisfactory for bathing and
washing Ammonical nitrogen is an indicator of organic contamination. In
combination with elevated chloride it could indicate the presence of landfill
leachate.
Chloride in the groundwater samples ranges from 63 to 522 mg.L-1.
According to WHO the maximum permissible limit for chloride in drinking
water is 200mg.L-1. Present study shows the values within standard limits.
In the present study, the amount of sulphate ion is estimated to vary from 21
to 56 mg.L-1. The maximum tolerance range for sulphate is 200-400 mg.L-1.
The excess amount of sulphate causes diarrhoea. All samples are free from
sulphate problems. Sulphate produces an objectionable taste at 300-400
mg.L-1 and bitter taste at 500 mg.L-1.
The total hardness is an important parameter of water quality whether it is to
be used for domestic, industrial or agricultural purposes. The hardness
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
191
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
values were recorded between 169 to 427 mg.L-1. WHO and Indian
standards permit any value less than 500mg.L-1.
Alkalinity of water is its capacity to neutralize a strong acid and it
characterized by the presence of all hydroxyl ion capable of combining with
the hydrogen ion. The various ionic species that contribute to alkalinity
include bicarbonate, hydroxide, phosphate, borate and organic acids. The
bicarbonate alkalinity is expressed as a total alkalinity, which ranges
between 165 to 255mg.L-1. The alkalinity values of all the samples are
exceeding the permissible limit of 200 mg.L-1 in potable water as fixed by
BIS. However, little abnormal value of alkalinity is not harmful to human
beings. The value of nitrate recorded throughout the year ranges from 1.63
to 2.6 mg.L-1. One sample shows slight increased value than the prescribed
value of Indian standard. WHO has imposed a limit of 10 mg.L-1 nitrate for
drinking water to prevent the disorder of methemoglobinemia. High nitrate
values in ground water are possibly due to organic and sewage pollution.
Fluorides were found within the desirable limits sets (0.01 to 0.05). Fluoride
with 1.69 to 2.3 mg.L-1 is regarded as an essential constituent of drinking
water mainly because of its role in prevention of dental caries]. Ground
water from the villages is more or less suitable for drinking purposes
(“permissible limit in the absence of other source of water”).
3.4.4.4
Surface Water
There is only one source of surface water i.e. pond in Village rajmalikpur which help to
fulfil agriculture and domestic needs in the study area.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
192
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.4.4.5
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Quality of Surface Water (Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological)
Surface water analysis results of samples collected from river/ lake is given vide.
Table 3.15 : Surface Water Quality in the Study Area
Parameters
Colour
Conductivity (µmho/cm)
Turbidity (NTU)
pH
Total Dissolved Solids (mg/ liter)
Total suspended solids (mg/ liter)
Total Hardness (as CaCO3) mg/liter
Chlorides (as Cl) mg/ liter
Sulphate (as SO4) mg/liter
Nitrate (as NO3) mg/liter
Phosphate (as PO4) mg/ liter
Fluoride (as F) mg/liter
Iron (as Fe) mg/ liter
Lead (as Pb) mg/liter
Copper (as Cu) mg/liter
Nickel (as Ni) mg/liter
Sodium (as Na) mg/ liter
Potassium (as K) mg/liter
Zinc (as Zn) mg/liter
Total Chromium (as Cr) mg/liter
Manganese (as Mn) mg/liter
Oil & grease (mg/liter)
Calcium (as Ca) mg/ liter
Magnesium (as Mn) mg/liter
Total Alkalinity (mg/liter)
COD (mg/liter)
BOD (for 3 days at 27oC) (mg/liter)
DO (mg/liter)
Total coliform
E.Coli
Pond (Village Rai Malikpur)
Pale Yellow
3368
115.8
8.10
2015
821
1824
688
241
6.21
4.5
6.2
5.1
BDL (0.01)
BDL (0.01)
BDL (0.01)
825
363
BDL (0.1)
BDL (0.01)
BDL (0.01)
BDL (1)
284
270
1150
39
11
4.5
NIL
Absent
(Source: Water Analysis during study period by Kamal Laboratory)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
193
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.4.4.6
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Discussion
Surface water in the region has been compared with respect to the Water Quality
Standards as per IS: 2296:1992 and reveals that these are having TDS levels and Total
Coliform. All the other parameters were found well within the standards. Thus, study
shows the water Quality comes under designated Class-C (Drinking water sources with
conventional treatment followed by disinfection) of IS 2296:1982 2 and can be used for
Domestic/Drinking use after conventional treatment and Disinfection.
3.4.5.
Soil Environment
Soils in the district may be classified as:
• Loamy sand to sandy loam
• Sandy clay loam
• Sandy clay
• Wind blown sand
• River sand
(Source-http://agricoop.nic.in/Agriculture%20contingency%20Plan/Rajasthan/RAJ1Jaipur%203.2.2011.pdf)
2
Please refer IS 2296: 1982 as Annexure 10
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
194
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Methodology
The soil samples were collected from six (06) selected locations during the pre-monsoon
season. The samples collected from all the locations were homogeneous
representatives of each location. At random five sub-locations were identified at each
location and soil samples were collected from 5 to15-cm below the surface. It was
uniformly mixed before homogenizing the soil samples. The samples about 500-gms
were packed in polythene bags labelled in the field with location & number and sent to
the laboratory for the analysis of physicochemical parameters.
Analysis of Soil Samples
The soil samples were examined for various physicochemical parameters, to determine
the existing soil characteristics of the study area. Soil samples were collected from the
vicinity of proposed project site. Physicochemical characteristics of soil are presented in
Table: 3.16 as follows,
Table 3.16 -Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil
S.
No. Parameters
Unit
1
Color/
Appearance
-
2
Texture
-
i)
ii)
iii)
4
Sand
Silt
Clay
Porosity
Bulk
Density
(BD)
Water
Holding
Capacity
(WHC)
%
%
%
%
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Project
Keshwana
Paniyala Binjahera Mordha
Goneda
Site
Rajpur
(S-2)
(S-3)
(S-4)
(S-6)
(S-1)
(S-5)
Physical Characteristics
Yellowish Yellowish Yellowish
Brown
Brown
Brown
Brown
Brown
Brown
Sandy
Sandy
Sandy
Sandy
Clay
Sandy
Sandy
Loam
Loam
Clay Loam
Loam
47
45
46
54
56
52
18
27
19
19
21
16
35
28
35
27
23
32
45.3
50.2
53.6
46.4
49.1
43.8
gm/cc
1.45
1.32
1.23
1.42
1.35
1.49
%
28.0
33.5
30.6
30.8
30.4
29.0
Chemical Characteristics
7.25
7.62
7.13
8.02
6.85
7.53
242
166
180
175
172
168
0.80
0.58
0.70
0.82
0.65
0.48
0.47
0.34
0.41
0.48
0.38
0.28
18
16
21
23
20
22
pH
20% Slurry
Conductivity
µmhos/cm
(EC)
Organic
%
Matter (OM)
Organic
%
Carbon(OC)
Cation
meq/100gm
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
195
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
12
13
14
15
i)
ii)
iii)
16
Exchange
Capacity
(CEC)
Zinc as Zn
Copper as
Cu
Manganese
as Mn
Boron as B
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
mg/kg
0.50
0.51
0.42
0.56
0.60
0.54
mg/kg
0.45
0.35
0.55
0.50
0.46
0.48
mg/kg
mg/kg
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
BDL (0.1)
(0.1)
BDL
BDL (0.1)
(0.1)
Available Nutrients
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
Nitrogen as
kg/ha
216.0
264.0
268.0
267.0
N
Phosphorus
kg/ha
14.5
16.5
18.7
16.6
as P
Potassium
kg/ha
140.0
167.0
155.0
155.0
as K
SAR
%
1.6
1.8
1.3
1.7
(Source: Kamal Enviro & Food Lab Pvt. Ltd. Gurgaon, Haryana)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL
(0.1)
BDL (0.1)
BDL (0.1)
258.0
214.0
17.4
15.4
149.0
138.0
1.5
1.9
Physical Characteristics of Soil
Physical characteristics of soil greatly influence its use and behavior towards plant
growth.
Soil Texture
The mineral components of soil are sand, silt and clay, and their relative proportions
determine a soil's texture. Properties that are influenced by soil texture, include
porosity, permeability, infiltration, shrink-swell, water-holding capacity, and susceptibility
to erosion. The soil in which neither sand & silt nor clay predominates is called "loam".
The mineral constituents of a loam soil might be 40% sand, 40% silt and the balance
20% clay by weight. Soil texture affects soil behavior, in particular its retention capacity
for nutrients and water. Texturally the soils of study area are observed as Sandy, Sandy
Loam and Sandy Clay Loam soils.
Bulk density
Bulk density of soil relates to the combined volumes of the solids and pore spaces. Soil
with a high pore space with loose solid particles will have lower bulk density than those
that are more compact and have less pore space. This is directly related to the
movement of air and water through soil thus affecting the productivity. The bulk density
of the soils was found in the range of 1.23 to 1.49-gm/cm3.
Water Holding Capacity
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
196
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Water-holding capacity is usually defined as the amount of water that soil can hold. Soil
that have fine particles are able to hold more water than coarse soils while rock
fragments cannot hold any water and contribute negatively to soil water-holding
capacity. The type and composition of soil are the controlling factors in this case. Water
Holding Capacity of study area soils was observed as 28.0 to 33.5%.
 Chemical Characteristics of Soil
Soil Reaction Classes and Critical Limits for Macro and Micro Nutrients in
Soil
According to Soil Survey Manual (IARI, 1970), the soils are grouped under different soil
reaction classes viz; extremely acidic (pH<4.5), very strongly acidic (pH 4.5-5.0 ),
strongly acidic (pH 5.1-5.5), moderately acidic (pH 5.6-6.0), slightly acidic (pH 6.1-6.5),
neutral (pH 6.6-7.3), slightly alkaline (pH 7.4-7.8), moderately alkaline (pH 7.9-8.4),
strongly alkaline (pH 8.5-9.0).The soils are rated as low (below 0.50 %), medium (0.500.75 %) and high (above 0.75 %) in case of organic carbon, low (<280-kg/ha-1), medium
(280 to 560-kg/ha-1) and high (>560-kg/ha-1) in case of available Nitrogen, low (<10kg/ha-1), medium (10 to 25-kg/ha-1) and high (>25-kg/ha-1) for available Phosphorus,
low (<108-kg/ha-1), medium (108 to 280-kg/ha-1) and high (>280-kg/ha-1) for available
Potassium and low (<10-mg/kg-1), medium (10-20-mg/kg-1) and high (>20-mg/kg-1) for
available Sulphur (Singh et. al. 2004, Mehta et. al.1988). Critical limits of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu
and B, which separate deficient from non-deficient soils followed in India, are 4.5, 2.0,
0.5, 0.2 and 0.5-mg/kg-1 respectively. (Follet & Lindsay-1970 and Berger & Truog-1940)
Soil Reaction
Soil pH is an important soil property, which affects the availability of several plant
nutrients. It is a measure of acidity and alkalinity and reflects the status of base
saturation. The soil pH ranges from 7.13 to 8.02 thereby indicating the soils are neutral
to alkaline in nature.
Organic Carbon (OC)/Organic Matter (OM)
The effect of soil organic matter on soil properties is well recognized. Soil organic matter
plays a vital role in supplying plant nutrients, cation exchange capacity, improving soil
aggregation and hence water retention and soil biological activity. The Organic Carbon
content of soil varied from 0.28 to 0.48 %( 0.48 to 0.82 % as Organic Matter) thereby
implying that soils are low in organic content.
 Macronutrients
Nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are considered as primary
nutrients and sulphur (S) as secondary nutrient. These nutrients help in proper growth,
development and yield differentiation of plants and are generally required by plants in
large quantity.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
197
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Available Nitrogen
Nitrogen is an integral component of many compounds including chlorophyll and enzyme
essential for plant growth. It is an essential constituent for amino acids which is building
blocks for plant tissue, cell nuclei and protoplasm. It encourages aboveground
vegetative growth and deep green color to leaves. Deficiency of nitrogen decreases rate
and extent of protein synthesis and results into stunted growth and develop chlorosis.
Available nitrogen content in the surface soils ranges between 214.0 & 268.0-kg/ha,
thereby indicating that soils are low in available nitrogen content.
Available Phosphorus
Phosphorus is an important component of adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) and
adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), which involves in energy transformation in plant. It is
essential component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the seat of genetic inheritance in
plant and animal. Phosphorous take part in important functions like photosynthesis,
nitrogen fixation, crop maturation, root development, strengthening straw in cereal crops
etc. The availability of phosphorous is restricted under acidic and alkaline soil reaction
mainly due to P-fixation. In acidic condition it gets fixed with aluminum and iron and in
alkaline condition with calcium. Available phosphorus content ranges between 14.5 &
18.7-kg/ha, thereby indicating that soils are having medium available phosphorus.
Available Potassium
Potassium is an activator of various enzymes responsible for plant processes like energy
metabolism, starch synthesis, nitrate reduction and sugar degradation. It is extremely
mobile in plant and help to regulate opening and closing of stomata in the leaves and
uptake of water by root cells. It is important in grain formation and tuber development
and encourages crop resistance for certain fungal and bacterial diseases. Available
potassium content in these soils ranges between 138.0 & 167.0-kg/ha, thereby is
indicating that the soils are medium in potassium content.
 Micronutrients
Proper understanding of micronutrients availability in soils and extent of their
deficiencies is the pre-requisite for efficient management of micronutrient fertilizer to
sustain crop productivity. Therefore, it is essential to know the micronutrients status of
soil before introducing any type of land use.
Available Manganese
Manganese is essential in photosynthesis and nitrogen transformations in plants. It
activates decarboxylase, dehydrogenize, and oxides enzymes. The available
manganese content in surface soils was recorded as BDL (0.1- mg/kg-1) as the critical
limit of available manganese is >2.0-mg/kg-1.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
198
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Available Zinc
Zinc plays role in protein synthesis, reproductive process of certain plants and in the
formation of starch and some growth hormones. It promotes seed maturation and
production. The available zinc in surface soils of the study area ranges from 0.42 to
0.60-mg/kg-1. As per the critical limit of available zinc (>0.5-mg/kg-1), most of the study
area soils are more than sufficient in available zinc in the vicinity of the project.
Available Boron
Boron increases solubility and mobility of calcium in the plant and it act as regulator of
K/Ca ratio in the plant. It is required for development of new meristematic tissue and also
necessary for proper pollination, fruit and seed setting and translocation of sugar, starch
and phosphorous etc. It has role in synthesis of amino acid and protein and regulates
carbohydrate metabolism. The available boron content in the soils observed as BDL
(0.1). The critical limit for deficiency of the available boron is <0.5-mg/ kg-1.
As per the above mentioned detailed soil descriptions indicate medium fertility status or
agricultural potential of soil. Thus the soil of the study area is moderate fertile.
3.4.6.
Biological Environment
Biodiversity or biological diversity discusses the existence of a variety of living species
including algae to monocots of plant kingdom and protozoans to mammals of animal
kingdom and nature supports these living beings under a structural and functional unit
called ecosystem. Biodiversity satisfies human needs in different ways either directly or
indirectly. The direct way is increasing agricultural productivity, which supports existence
of life on the earth. Indirect way include nutrient trapping, maintaining water cycles,
production and protection of soil, absorption and breakdown of pollutants, provide
recreational, aesthetic, scientific and spiritual values that helps to continue life on the
earth. Present study has been carried out to inventorise the biodiversity existed in and
around the study area and to evaluate the possible impacts on biodiversity during
construction and operation phases of proposed Industrial Area.
The baseline ecological surveys were carried out, based on various secondary sources
(Forest Department Data, Scientific Studies etc.) which further validated from various
primary surveys, and also through interviewing local people. Present biological studies
were carried out in two zones: core zone (project area) and buffer zone (10 km
surrounding the core area).
3.4.6.1
Survey methodology
The floristic composition along with frequency, density, abundance, relative frequency
and relative density for each species were calculated by laying quadrates. The
quadrates were laid out at pre-selected sites to cover different vegetation profiles as also
to represent the existing variables within the area.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
199
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
To study the phytosociological attributes of the area, quadrates of 10m x 10m were laid
for tree composition at each sampling site, 5m x 5m for shrubs and 1m X 1m for herbs.
The phytosociological parameters of different recorded species have been calculated
using the following formulae (Phillips, 1959; Misra, 1966)
Flora
3.4.6.2
The present baseline floristic study has been carried out to inventorise floral composition
in the study area. Five sampling locations; two in activity area (core zone) and three in
outer area within the 10 km of core zone (Buffer zone) were selected for carrying out
vegetation survey and in addition an inventory of various floristic elements was also
prepared by walking from one sampling site to another especially near villages. In order
to understand the composition of the vegetation, most of the plant species were
identified in the field itself whereas the species that could not be identified a herbarium
specimen was collected along with their photographs for identification later with the help
of available published literature and floras of the region.
Vegetation Sampling Locations
3.4.6.3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3.4.6.4
Project site (Core Area)Opposite keshwanagujar Village (Core Area)Near Malpura village (Surrounding Area)Near Dhidor (Surrounding Area)Near Shekupur (Surrounding Area)-
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
Core Area (within project area)
Trees species observed at the core zone include Acacia nilotica, Acacia arabica, Ficus
religiosa, Acacia catechu, Prosopis Cineraria, Tamarindus indica, Azadirachta indica and
Azadirachta indica. A total of 8 tree species, 4 species of shrubs & herbs, 2 species of
grasses have been recorded in the core zone during primary study. Predominantly
shrubs: Calotropis gigantea, Tribulus terrestris and herb Dhatura metel were observed in
the core zone. Major grasses found include Cynodon dactylon, Saccharum munja.
3.4.6.5
Buffer Area (10 Km surrounding of core area)
A total of 23 trees, 6 shrubs and 6 herbs have been recorded during primary study in the
buffer area of the project. The chief tree species recorded during primary study were
Prosopis Cineraria, Prosopis Cineraria, Azadirachta indica, and Acacia nilotica along
with Shrubby vegetation of this zone includes Calotropis gigantean, Fagonia cretica,
Dhatura metel, Tribulus terrestris and Aerva tomentosa. In the herbaceous flora,
Cynodon dactylon, Saccharum munja were leading species. The list of floral species
recorded in buffer zone is presented in Table 3.17
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
200
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.17 : List of Tree and Shrub Flora Recorded in the Study
Area
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
Scientific Name
Trees
Emblica officinalis
Mangifera indica
Acacia arabica
Ficus bengalensis
Zizyphus jujube
Ficus glomerata
Tamarindus indica
Albizia lebbeck
Acacia catechu
Prosporis spigelia
Azadirachta indica
Citrus medica
Ficus religiosa
Jatropha curcus
Dalbergia sissoo
Prosopis Cineraria
Tectona grandis
Acacia nilotica
Phoenix sylvestris
Aegle marmelos
Dalbergia sissoo
Eucalyptus sp.
Acacia senegal
Shrubs
Calotropis gigantea
Fagonia cretica
Dhatura metel
Tribulus terrestris
Aerva tomentosa
Ocimum Sanctum
Herbs/Grasses
Cenchrus ciliaris
Cenchrus satiger
Cynodon dactylon
Saccharum munja
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Anacardiaceae
Fabaceae
Moracea
Rhamnaceae
Moraceae
Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Mimosoideae
Fabaceae
Meliaceae
Rutacea
Moracea
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
Mimosacceae
Verbenaceae
Fabaceae
Palmae
Rutaceae
Fabaceae
Myrtaceae
Apocynaceae
Zygophyllaceae
Solanaceae
Zygophyllaceae
Amaranthaceae
Labiatae
Poaceae
Colubridae
Poaceae
Gramineae
Core
Zone
S-I S-2
*
*
Surrounding
Area
S-3 S-4 S-5
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Near
Villages
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
201
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
5
6
3.4.6.6
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Calotropis procera
Asclepiadaceae
*
Amaranthus spinosus
Amaranthaceae
Source: *Present, Local Enquiry and field investigation
*
*
*
Fauna
In order to study the wild mammals, avifauna, and herpetofauna of the project area, 2-3
km transect trails were carried out in the different locations. Sampling for habitat and
animals was done in different strata through normal systematic transect sampling. In
addition to the field sampling secondary data and information was also collected as i)
direct sighting and indirect evidences such as calls, signs and trophies of mammals were
recorded along the survey routes ii) interviews with local villagers for the presence and
relative abundance of various animal species within each locality iii) Forest Working Plan
of the Forest Division falling in the project area was referred for secondary informations
on the wildlife of the area.
Total 9 mammalian species were recorded from the study area which is listed in Table
3.18 There was no Shedule-I mammals recorded during primary survey.
Table 3.18 : List of Mammalian Fauna Present in the study area
S. No.
Name
Scientific Name
Order
Family
Schedule
1.
Common
Mangoose
Herpestes edwardsi
Carnivora
Herpestidae
II
2.
Jackal
Canis aureus
Carnivora
Canidae
III
3.
Indian Hare
Lepus nigricollis
Lagomorpha
Leporidae
IV
4.
Blue bull
Boselaphus
tragocamelus
Cetartiodactyla Bovidae
III
5.
Five striped
squirrel
Funambulus pennanti
Rodentia
Sciuridae
IV
6.
Common House
rat
Rattus rattus
Rodentia
Muridae
IV
7.
Indian field mouse
Mus booduga
Rodentia
Muridae
IV
8.
Grey Musk Shrew
Suncus murunus
Soricomorpha
Soricidae
V
9.
Common langur
Presbytis entellus
Primates
Cercopithecidae
II
During the primary study a total of 11 bird species has been recorded. The common
birdsrecorded from the study area are: Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis), House
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
202
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
sparrow (Passer domesticus), Little Green Bee-eater (Merops orientalis), and Roseringed Parakeet (Psittacula Krameri). The list of avifauna and birds recorded in the study
area is listed in table 3.19
Table 3.19 :List of Avi- Fauna Present in the study area
S. No.
Name
Scientific Name
Order
Family
Streptopelia decaocto
Psittacula Krameri
Columbiformes
Psittaciformes
Columbidae
Psittacidae
3.
Indian Ring Dove
Rose-ringed
Parakeet
Common Myna
Acridotheres tristis
Passeriformes
Sturnidae
4.
Short eared Owl
Asio flammeus
Strigiformes
5.
6.
Little Green
eater
Weaver bird
7.
8.
1.
2.
Strigidae
Bee- Merops orientalis
Coraciiformes
Meropidae
Ploceus philippinus
Passeriformes
House crow
Corvus splendens
Passeriformes
Common bulbul
Pycnonotus barbatus
Passeriformes
Ploceidae
Corvidae
Pycnonotidae
9.
Indian Robin
Saxicoloides fulicatus
Passeriformes
10.
House sparrow
Passer domesticus
Passeridae
Muscicapidés
11.
Common Peafowl
Pavo Cristatus
Galliformes
Passeridae
Phasianidae
Four species of herpetofauna were also sighted during the primary survey which are
listed below
Table 3.20 List of Herpetofauna Present in the study area
S. No.
Name
Scientific Name
Order
Family
12. Common Garden
Lizard
Calotes versicolor
Squamata
Agamidae
13. Common Skink
Lampropholis
guichenoti
Squamata
Scincidae
14. Bull Frog
Rana tigrina
Anura
Ranidae
15. Common frog
Rana temporaria
Anura
Ranidae
Source: Field survey
Greenbelt Plantation- the plant species are generally selected by carefully screening
the natural taxa of the area and choosing those species which are resistant to SO2, NOx
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
203
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
and SPM (coal dust and fly ash). The best plant species for this purpose include
albergia sissoo, Albezia sp, Ficus spp., Cassia fistula, Butea monosperma, Azadirachta
indica, and Grevillea robusta. Side-line Plantation- the sideline green belt is usually
designed around the periphery of important structures in such a way that the first few
rows of trees on the inside of the green belt are shorter than the ones in the middle and
have dense canopies to absorb pollutants. Pollutants laden winds bounce on these inner
tree rows and then hit the outer rows trees consisting of much taller trees for achieving
more effective attenuation of pollutants. Species suggested for such type of plantation
include Polyalthia longifolia, Melia azadirachta, Bougainvillea sp, Hibiscus rosasinenis,
Delonix regia, Bahunia variagata, and Azadirachta indica. Open-space plantation- in
the core zone of project, all open spaces do not required for construction activities and
then should be planted with local plant species like Casuarina sp, Bahunia variagata,
Azadirachta indica, Sapindus sp, Albezia sp, and Leucena leucocephala. Avenue
Plantation- For Avenue Plantation on either side of the road Leuceana leucocephala,
Nerium odorum, Hibiscus rosasinenis, Bougainvillea sp, Polyalthia longifolia, Delonix
regia and Cassia fistula would be planted. Detail list of species to be planted is given in
Table 3.21.
Table 3.21 List of Plant species to be planted under greenbelt
development pogramme
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Name
Aam
Amaltas
Ashoka
Casuarina
Bel
Bougainvillea
Dhak
Dodonea
Gudhal
Gulmohar
Kachnar
Neem
Nerium
Ficus
Poisenttia
Reetha
Sahtoot
Shisham
Siris
Eucalyptus
Subabool
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Scientific Name
Mangifera indica
Cassia fistula
Polyalthia longifolia
Casuarina sp
Aegle marmelos
Bougainvillea sp
Butea monosperma
Dodonea sp
Hibiscus rosasinenis
Delonix regia
Bahunia variagata
Azadirachta indica
Nerium odorum
Ficus sp
Euphorbia pulcherrima
Sapindus mukorossi
Morus alba
Dalbergia sissoo
Albezia lebbek
Eucalyptus sp
Leucena leucocephala
Importance
NB, HI
AP
AP, OP, IP, DR
HI
MP
AP, DR
NB
LH
AP, OP
AP
HI
NB
AP, OP
HI
LH
MP
HI
NB
HI
HI
NB, AP
204
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
22
Teak
Tectona grandis
NB
NB- Noise Barrier, AP- Avenue Plant, OP- Ornamental Plant, LH-Live Hedge, MP- Medicinal Plant,
HI- Habitat Improvement, IP-Indicator Plants (to monitor pollution level), DR- Dust Receptor
3.5.
National Parks/wildlife Sanctuary / Reserve Forest
The Figure 3-13 gives the location of National Parks and Sanctuaries in Rajasthan.
There are no National Parks/wildlife sanctuaries in the 10 km radius of the study area.
Figure 3.17 : National Parks and Sanctuaries in Rajasthan
3.6.
3.6.1.
Socio-Economic Conditions
Demographic Profile of Study Area
The socio-economic profile of the study area is based on 2011 Census of India.. The
study of socio-economic components of environment incorporates various features viz.,
demographic structure, availability of basic amenities such as housing, education,
medical facilities, drinking water facilities, post, telegraph and telephone facilities,
communication facilities, recreational, cultural facilities, approach to villages etc. The
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
205
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
study of these parameters helps in identifying, predicting and evaluating the likely
impacts due to the proposed project activity in that region.
The study area includes two districts of Rajasthan state namely, Alwar and Jaipur and
one district of Haryana, which is Mahendragarh district. Districts and their habitations
found in the study area are as shown in Figure 3.18 and listed in Table 3.22.
Figure 3.18 Habitations within the Study Area
Table 3.22 : Districts and their Habitations under the Study Area
State
District
1. Jaipur
Rajasthan
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Habitations under the
Study Area
1. Paniyala
2. Beenjahera
3. Kheri Veerbhan
206
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
State
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
District
2. Alwar
3. Mahendragarh
Haryana
3.6.1.2
Habitations under the
Study Area
4. Kharkhari
5. Navrangpura
6. Gopalpura
7. Gonera
8. Karwas
9. Hasanpura
10. Mordha
11. Bakhrana
12. Nangal Checheeka
13. Jaisinghpur
14. Chimanpura
15. Keshwana Gujjar
16. Keshwana Rajpoot
17. Gadohj
18. Kherki
19. Behror ((M))
20. Goonti
21. Mohammadpur
22. Jainpurawas
23. Pahari
24. Sherpur
25. Nangal Lakha
26. Ukhal Hera
27. Kothiya
28. Nain
29. Thanwas
30. Morund
31. Banihari
32. Amarpura
33. Gothri
34. Bhudwal
35. Raimullickpur
Demographic Profile
There are total 34rural villages and 1 urban town (Behror) in study area. The total
number of households are 18380 whereas the total population is 109239 comprising of
Male 57566 (52.7%) and Female 51673 (47.3%). The statistics is provided in summary
of the demography profile of mandals with their habitations surveyed in and around the
proposed project site is given in Table 3.24.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
207
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.23 Summary of Demographic Profile of Revenue Villages
under the Study Area
As per Census 2011
S
l
. Distr
N ict
o
.
Habitat
ion
1
Paniyal
a
Beenja
hera
Kherki
Veerbh
an
2
3
Tota
l
Hou
seho
lds
Population
SC
Population
ST
Population
M
al
e
Fe
m
al
e
To
tal
M
al
e
Fe
m
al
e
T
ot
al
M
al
e
Fe
m
al
e
712
23
81
20
95
44
76
26
2
25
5
51
7
2
7
4
22
2
131
49
1
42
0
91
1
46
41
87
6
3
354
10
69
93
0
19
99
33
5
26
0
59
5
4
2
T
o
t
al
4
9
6
Literates
M
al
e
Fe
m
al
e
T
ot
al
24
64
16
10
85
4
9
58
6
35
5
23
1
35
7
7
12
77
80
1
47
6
4
Kharkh
ari
191
61
6
56
2
11
78
87
91
17
8
5
2
46
9
8
70
5
43
8
26
7
5
Navran
gpura
208
71
7
64
2
13
59
24
0
19
6
43
6
0
0
0
69
7
46
8
22
9
6
Gopalp
ura
558
19
29
16
61
35
90
39
7
37
8
77
5
1
4
8
12
4
21
57
14
14
74
3
7
Gonera
504
19
24
17
02
36
26
44
9
38
0
82
9
7
0
56
20
59
12
84
77
5
8
Karwas
298
86
2
80
3
16
65
19
1
16
2
35
3
1
3
1
11
6
10
62
63
3
42
9
9
Hasanp
ura
88
26
8
25
0
51
8
64
63
12
7
0
0
0
32
2
19
3
12
9
1
0
Mordha
365
12
55
11
84
24
39
33
5
32
6
66
1
6
2
8
14
08
90
3
50
5
1
1
Bakhra
na
319
93
9
85
9
17
98
12
1
10
9
23
0
6
1
65
11
18
69
1
42
7
1
2
Nangal
Cheche
eka
318
95
7
90
6
18
63
14
0
13
5
27
5
5
9
44
10
01
64
1
36
0
1
3
Jaising
hpura
300
88
4
79
7
16
81
21
7
23
2
44
9
0
0
0
96
1
62
1
34
0
1
4
Chiman
pura
384
11
05
10
13
21
18
36
4
31
1
67
5
1
8
9
17
7
3
6
6
12
09
77
9
43
0
Jaip
ur
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
2
7
2
1
2
6
2
4
7
1
2
6
1
0
3
Child
Population
(0-6 Years)
Fe
M
T
m
al
ot
al
e
al
e
4
36 80
4
6
7
1
7
13
58
7
5
1
13 30
7
2
2
0
1
19
0 92
3
1
1
10 23
3
4
7
3
2
25 54
9
3
8
5
3
27 61
3
8
2
4
1
12 24
2
4
9
5
4
43 84
1
1
18 37
9
1
9
8
1
10 23
3
0
5
5
1
13 29
5
7
3
6
1
12 23
1
4
6
2
1
16 33
6
5
3
8
208
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
1
5
Keshwa
nagujar
Keshwa
na
Rajput
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
67
23
5
19
0
42
5
12
10
22
4
1
5
21
6
15
6
60
355
10
07
86
8
18
75
36
0
31
6
67
6
1
6
13
2
9
11
71
73
3
43
8
Total
5152
16
63
9
14
88
2
31
52
1
36
20
32
65
68
85
1
0
5
8
90
4
1
9
6
2
18
41
3
11
72
0
66
93
1
7
Gadoj
580
16
73
14
73
31
46
23
9
21
6
45
5
0
0
0
21
86
13
69
81
7
1
8
Kherki
260
71
0
64
3
13
53
97
93
19
0
0
0
0
97
4
55
5
41
9
1
9
Behror
(M)
5484
15
57
0
13
96
1
29
53
1
23
25
21
41
44
66
5
1
5
42
5
9
4
0
21
65
6
12
46
2
91
94
2
0
Goonti
703
21
03
19
52
40
55
52
6
45
5
98
1
2
7
4
25
8
5
3
2
26
89
16
04
10
85
2
1
Moham
madpur
449
14
57
13
44
28
01
36
7
37
3
74
0
0
0
0
16
92
11
01
59
1
Jainpur
bas
666
22
10
20
12
42
22
32
2
27
4
59
6
3
6
30
6
6
24
92
15
63
92
9
2
3
Pahari
630
21
74
18
53
40
27
30
0
25
8
55
8
8
8
70
22
43
15
19
72
4
2
4
Sherpur
415
12
29
11
75
24
04
22
5
22
0
44
5
7
3
66
16
17
94
6
67
1
2
5
Nangal
Lakha
277
98
0
88
0
18
60
25
8
25
0
50
8
0
0
0
87
0
57
4
29
6
2
6
Ukhalh
era
68
27
5
26
3
53
8
26
23
49
0
0
0
25
1
15
8
93
2
7
Kothiya
245
75
2
70
0
14
52
31
1
28
8
59
9
0
0
0
93
3
56
2
37
1
Total
9777
29
13
3
26
25
6
55
38
9
49
96
45
91
95
87
9
8
6
84
9
1
8
3
5
37
60
3
22
41
3
15
19
0
Nain
712
27
78
24
97
52
75
20
7
19
7
40
4
0
0
0
28
74
18
76
99
8
Thanwa
s
712
26
57
23
69
50
26
19
0
18
1
37
1
0
0
0
28
27
18
40
98
7
1
6
2
2
2
8
2
9
Alwa
r
Mah
endr
a
Garh
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
1
5
8
1
3
9
3
0
1
5
7
2
6
7
3
2
1
3
1
2
0
2
0
4
7
3
2
4
2
1
8
3
4
6
3
3
5
1
8
3
1
7
0
5
4
1
0
0
4
1
1
0
4
1
4
4
3
4
26
56
11
2
26
9
22
95
49
68
16
5
37
8
71
19
1
17
23
37
70
29
3
61
7
22
3
44
1
30
5
65
1
30
4
63
9
15
1
33
4
16
3
33
3
42
96
98
19
8
35
38
76
48
35
3
76
7
36
8
80
2
209
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
3
0
Morund
309
10
66
98
8
20
54
10
1
98
19
9
0
0
0
12
14
76
0
45
4
3
1
Banihar
i
274
78
3
66
9
14
52
19
8
16
1
35
9
0
0
0
10
39
66
9
37
0
3
2
Amarpu
ra
238
77
1
72
0
14
91
21
2
20
3
41
5
0
0
0
97
3
58
9
38
4
3
3
Gothri
347
11
38
10
35
21
73
18
8
15
5
34
3
0
0
0
12
14
76
4
45
0
3
4
Budhw
al
601
17
20
15
00
32
20
32
7
29
0
61
7
0
0
0
20
81
13
13
76
8
3
5
Rai
Malikpu
r
258
88
1
75
7
16
38
17
0
15
0
32
0
0
0
0
92
8
63
3
29
5
Total
3451
11
79
4
10
53
5
22
32
9
15
93
14
35
30
28
0
0
0
13
15
0
84
44
47
06
18,3
80
57
,5
66
51
,6
73
10
9,2
39
10
,2
09
9,
29
1
19
,5
00
2,
0
4
4
1,
75
3
3,
7
9
7
69
,1
66
42
,5
77
26
,5
89
Grand Total
1
7
8
6
0
1
2
3
1
5
8
2
4
0
1
3
5
1
7
4
2
8,
5
2
5
13
6
31
4
50
11
0
89
21
2
13
0
28
8
15
4
39
4
11
8
25
3
13
98
31
40
7,
23
1
15
,7
56
Source:Census Survey 2011
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
210
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
3.6.1.3
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Sex Ratio
The sex ratio is thus 898 Female per 1000 Male.and child sex ratio is (age group 0-6
Year) 848 Female / 1000 Male (Figure)
Male
Female
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
Jaipur (RJ)
Alwar (RJ)
Mahendargarh
(HR)
Total
Figure 3.19 District-wise Male Female Population of the Study Area
Male
Female
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Jaipur (RJ)
Alwar (RJ)
Mahendargarh
(HR)
Total
Figure 3.20 District-wise Child Population (age group 0-6 years) Male Female of
the Study Area
3.6.1.4
SC/ST
A considerable 21.4% of the population in the Study Area is constituted by SC/ST of
which SC population constitutes 17.9 % and rest 3.5% is constituted by ST populations
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
211
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Table) . A comparative graph of SC/ST Population in Study Area (District wise) is
depicted in Figure 3.15 and 3.17.
Table 3.24 List of SC/ST Population (District-wise)
State
District
Rajasthan
Jaipur
Sex
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Alwar
Haryana
Total
Population
16639
14882
29133
26256
11794
10535
109239
100
Mahendargarh
Total
% of Total
General
SC
General
SC
ST
11961
10713
23151
20816
10201
9100
85942
78.7
3620
3265
4996
4591
1593
1435
19500
17.9
1058
904
986
849
0
0
3797
3.5
ST
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
Male
Female
Jaipur (RJ)
Male
Female
Alwar (RJ)
Male
Female
Mahendargarh (HR)
Figure 3.21 District -wise SC/ ST Population in Study Area
3.6.1.5
Literacy Rate
The literacy rate of the study area is 63.3% of which Male literate are 74.0% and female
literate are 51.5%. The illiterates are 36.7% of the total population of which Female
illiterates are 48.5 (Table 3.35). The graphical presentation is shown in
Table 3.25 Male and Female Literates/Illiterates (District-wise)
District
Total
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Literat
Male
Femal
Illiterat
Male
Female
212
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Jaipur (RJ)
Alwar (RJ)
Mahendarg
arh (HR)
Total
Percentag
e
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Population
es
Literat
es
es
illiterat
es
Illiterat
es
11720
22413
8444
e
Literat
es
6693
15190
4706
31521
55389
22329
18413
37603
13150
13108
17786
9179
4919
6720
3350
8189
11066
5829
109239
69166
63.3
42577
74.0
26589
51.5
40073
36.7
14989
26.0
25084
48.5
Male
Female
Literates
Iliiterates
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
Male
Female
Jaipur (RJ)
Male
Female
Alwar (RJ)
Mahendargarh (HR)
Figure 3.22 Gender - wise Distribution of Illiteracy in Study Area
3.6.1.6
Workers Scenario
Workers Participation Ratio of the Area is 42%.Among this 30% is the Main workers and
12% are the marginal Workers. 58 % are Non-workers in the study area.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
213
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Workers Scenario
Main Workers
30%
Non Workers
58%
Marginal
Workers
12%
Figure 3.23 Workers Scenario of the Area
3.6.1.7
Main Workers
A considerable percentage (30%) of Main workers in the Study area belongs to Casual
Labours 50%,Agricultural 8%, Household workers constitutes 2% and other workers40%
respectively
Main workers
Others Workers
40%
Household
Workers
2%
Casual Workers
50%
Agricltural
Workers
8%
Figure 3.24 Distribution of Main Workers
3.6.1.8
Marginal Workers
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
214
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
A considerable percentage (12%) of Marginal workers in the Study area belongs to
Casual Labours 49%,Agricultural 30%, Household workers constitutes 2% and other
workers19% respectively
Marginal Workers
Others Workers
19%
Household
Workers
2%
Casual Workers
49%
Agricltural
Workers
30%
Figure 3.25 Distribution of Marginal Workers
3.6.1.9
Occupation
The major occupation of surveyed population is agriculture. The main crops of the area
are Mustard, Wheat, Maize, Jowar and Grams. The agriculture in the area mostly
dependent on monsoon season. Apart from the agriculture, the study area comprises the
Keshwana RIICO industrial area, which consists of pharmaceutical industries, paper and
beverages based unit, cement plant, etc. A significant number of populations are
engaged in these industrial activities. Some of them are involved in other activities like
own small businesses (shop owners), service in government agency, laborers in the
agricultural fields etc.
3.6.1.10
Connectivity
All the villages are accessible through roads, either pakka or kachha. They are well
connected with national highway (NH-8), district and rural roads.
3.6.1.11
Basic Amenities and Facilities
The basic amenities and facilities within the study area, as per Census 2001. (as village
wise amenities data was not available in Census of India 2011 at the time of report
preparation). Amenities data are given in Table 3.25.
3.6.1.12
Education facilities
There are 62 Primary School, 28 Middle School, 11 Secondary School, 2 Senior
Secondary Schools and there are no college in villages of study area. Higher education
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
215
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
facilities are available in Tehsil Kotputli of district Jaipur and tehsil behror of district
Alwar.
3.6.1.13Health facilities
There are no Hospitals in villages of study area there are 6 ayurvedic dispensaries and 1
Health Centre, 1 Primary Health Centre and 7 Primary Health Sub-centres in the study
Area. However, several private medical practitioner and community health workers are
also available. Hospitals are available in Tehsil Kotputli of district Jaipur and tehsil
behror of district Alwar
3.6.1.14Drinking Water facilities
Villagers mostly depend on groundwater resource for drinking/domestic water by various
means such as hand pumps (28 villages), well water (33 villages) and tank Water (6
villages). Tap water facilities by the state department has been provided in 11 villages.
3.6.1.15Communication Facilities
In the study area there are 16 post offices. As regards basic telecommunication.
3.6.1.16Banking Facilities
3 Banks and 9 Credit Societies operates in the study area villages. Banks also available
in Tehsil Kotputli of district Jaipur and tehsil behror of district Alwar
3.6.1.17Electricity
33 villages are electrified out of 34 villages in the study area. Comprehensive List of
Infrastructures present in the Study Area as per Census records 2001 is given in Table
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
216
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 3.25: Basic Amenities and Facilities within the Study Area
Village:
Num
ber
of
prim
ary
scho
ols
Num
ber
of
midd
le
scho
ols
Numb
er of
secon
dary
school
s
Numb
er of
senior
secon
dary
school
s
Num
ber
of
colle
ges
Num
ber
of
hosp
ital
Numbe
r of
dispen
sary
Number of
health centre
Paniyala
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
1 PHSC
Beenjahera
Kherki
Veerbhan
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Kharkhari
Navrangpur
a
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Gopalpura
2
1
0
Gonera
2
2
Karwas
1
Hasanpura
1
Mordha
Num
ber
of
post
offic
e
Ba
nk
Communi
cation
facilities
(Bus
Service)
Credi
t
socie
ties
Appro
ach
paved
roads
Power
supply
domes
tic and
agricul
tural
use
TP, WW,
HP
1
0
Y
0
A
A
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
NA
A
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
A
A
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
NA
A
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
NA
A
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
A
A
1
0
0
0
0
1 HC
WW, HP
1
1
Y
1
A
A
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
A
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
Y
0
A
A
1
1
0
0
0
0
1 AY
0
WW, HP
1
0
N
0
A
A
Bakhrana
Nangal
Checheeka
Jaisinghpur
a
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
Y
0
A
A
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
NA
A
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
A
A
Chimanpura
Keshwanag
ujar
Keshwana
Rajput
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
1 PHSC
WW, HP
1
0
Y
1
A
A
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
A
NA
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
1 PHSC
WW, HP
1
0
Y
0
A
A
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Drinking
water
facilities
217
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Gadoj
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
1 PHSC
WW, HP
1
0
Y
0
A
A
Kherki
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
NA
A
Goonti
Mohammad
pur
4
2
1
0
0
0
1 AY
1 PHSC
TP, HP
1
0
Y
0
A
A
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Y
1
A
A
Jainpurbas
4
2
1
1
0
0
1 AY
0
1
1
Y
0
A
A
Pahari
4
1
1
0
0
0
1 AY
0
WW, HP
TP, WW,
HP, TK
WW, HP,
TK
1
0
Y
1
A
A
Sherpur
Nangal
Lakha
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
1
0
Y
1
A
A
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
1
0
Y
0
A
A
Ukhalhera
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
WW, HP
0
0
N
0
NA
A
Kothiya
2
1
0
0
0
0
1 AY
0
WW, HP
0
0
Y
0
A
A
Nain
1
1
1
1
0
0
1 AY
0
0
0
Y
1
A
A
Thanwas
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1 PHSC
TP,WW
TP,WW,
TK
1
0
Y
0
A
A
Morund
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TP,WW
0
0
Y
0
A
A
Banihari
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Y
0
A
A
Amarpura
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
TP,WW
TP,WW,
TK
0
0
Y
0
A
A
Gothri
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Y
0
A
A
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
Y
2
A
A
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
TP,WW
TP, WW,
HP, TK
TP, WW,
HP, TK
1
Budhwal
Rai
Malikpur
0
1 PHC & 1
PHSC
0
0
Y
1
A
A
Total
62
28
11
2
0
0
0
-
16
3
-
9
-
-
1)
0
1 HC, 1PHC,
7 PHSC
HC = Health centre, 2) PHC = Primary health centre , 3) PHSC =primary health sub centre, 4) TP = Tap water, 5) WW = Well water, 6) TK=
Tank water, 7) HP = Hand Pump, 8) N= No,9)
Y= Yes, 10) A= Available, 11)N A= Not available,
Source:Census Survey 2011
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
218
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 4.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION
MEASURES
This chapter details the inferences drawn from the environmental impact assessment of
the proposed project. It describes the overall impacts of the project activities and
underscores the areas of concern, which need mitigation measures. Predictions have
been done based on the various quantitative and qualitative methods suggested by
Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi.
4.1.
Prelude
Prediction of environmental impacts is the most important component in the impact
assessment study, as it provides quantitative information on anticipated environmental
impacts from a project well in advance. Several mathematical/statistical techniques and
methodologies are available for predicting impacts from developmental projects on the
surrounding physico-chemical, ecological and socio-economic components of
environment. The results obtained from the predictions are superimposed over the
baseline data (pre-project) to derive the ultimate (post-project) scenario of environmental
quality status in the study area around the proposed project site. The quantitative
impacts derived from predictions are also essential to delineate effective environmental
management plan for minimizing the adverse impacts on the surrounding environment
during construction and operation phases of the project.
The following sections identify the potential impacts on the environment from the
proposed project based on the nature and extent of the various activities associated with
the project implementation and operation, as well as the current status of the
environmental quality at the project site. Both beneficial (positive) and adverse
(negative) impacts are considered.
4.2.
Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures during construction
phase
Construction activities are normally spread over pre-construction, preparatory
construction, machinery installation and commissioning stages and end with the
induction of manpower and start-up.
Preparatory construction phase mainly consists of transportation of machinery,
equipment and materials to the site for construction, clearing and leveling of land,
construction of foundations, buildings and approach roads.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
219
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
4.2.1.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Air Environment
Impact:
The sources of air emission during construction phase will include site clearing, vehicles
movement, materials storages and handling and operation of construction equipment.
Emissions from them are expected to result in temporary degradation of air quality,
primarily in the working environment affecting construction employees. However, dust
generation and particulate matter rise in the ambient air will be coarse and will settle
within a short distance close to the construction sites. Hence, dust and other emissions
are unlikely to spread sufficiently to affect the surroundings of the construction site.
During construction phase, traffic at the road which connects with the project site is
expected to be slightly more intensive than the traffic at present. However due to well
connectivity of the site with NH-8, which is located at distance of 2.4 km from the project
site, significant stress on the traffic is not anticipated. The present road conditions are
good for the proposed additional movement of vehicular traffic. Hence the impacts on
the ambient air quality during construction phase will be temporarily for short duration,
reversible in nature and restricted to small area.
Fugitive dust sources associated with construction phase include vehicular traffic
generating fugitive dust on paved and unpaved roads, aggregate material handling, and
other aggregate processing operations.
Mitigation Measures:
4.2.1.1
Dust Control
Paving is an appropriate solution for access road to the project. Another appropriate use
of paving is for parking lots and for material storage areas, where gravel cover is not
adequate for dust control or erosion.
Locally found gravels can also be applied to access roads and lots to add a protective
layer over the exposed soil and helps to control dust generation. However, gravels shall
contain a minimal percentage of fines and clean gravel shall be added periodically, as
the fines migrate to the surface and create dust.
Water spray, through water trucks is an effective way to keep dust under control.
Sprinklers can also be employed to deliver continuous moisture in dust prone areas.
Vehicles running at high speed may increase the amount of fugitive dust created from
unpaved areas. Hence reduction in the speed of vehicle to 20 km/hr. is suggested so as
to reduce emissions from vehicular traffic by a large extent.
Care shall be taken to keep all material storages adequately covered and contained so
that they are not exposed to winds on site, which could lead generation of dust/
particulate emissions. Usage of fabrics and plastics for covering piles of soils and debris
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
220
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
can serve as an effective means to reduce fugitive dust from the material stores/
warehouses.
Spills of dirt or dusty materials shall be cleaned up promptly so that the spilled materials
do not become a source of fugitive emission.
Spilled concrete slurries or liquid wastes shall be contained/ cleaned up immediately
before its infiltration into soil/ ground or runoff in nearby areas.
4.2.1.2
Gaseous Emissions Control
Regular maintenance of machinery and equipment will be carried out.
All the vehicles used for construction activity shall be checked for „Pollution under
Control‟. Ambient air quality monitoring should be carried out during construction phase.
If monitored parameters are above the prescribed limits, suitable control measures must
be taken.
4.2.2.
Noise Environment
Impact:
The general noise levels during construction phase viz., due to working of heavy earth
moving equipment and machinery installation may sometimes go up to 90 dB(A) at the
work sites during day time. The workers in general are likely to be exposed to an
equivalent noise level of 80-90 dB (A) in 8 hours shift for which all statutory measures
will be implemented. Use of proper personal protective equipment will further mitigate
any adverse impact of noise to the workers.
The noise generation will be considerable during such type of large scale construction
activities. Typical noise sources during construction phases are mentioned in Table 4.1.
Different phases of construction activities at project site are scheduled to take place for
about 4 - 6 months. The impacts during construction phase are temporary and will be
marginal. Necessary mitigative measures are required to be implemented during
construction period. The noise impact will be relatively more on construction workers
during their duty hours, which will be mitigated to comply occupational exposure
standards alongwith usage of personal protective devices like ear muffs/plugs etc. which
would further minimize the noise impacts.
It is anticipated that the increase in the ambient noise levels will be temporary and are
likely to occur for short duration.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
221
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 4.1 : Typical Noise Sources during Construction Phase
Description
Earth Movers
Dozers
Front Loaders
Backhoes
Tractors
Tippers/Trucks
Material Handlers
Concrete mixers
Concrete pumps
Cranes (movable)
Vehicular Traffic
(Construction material & plant machinery)
Stationary Equipment
DG Sets
Pumps
Compressors
Impact Based Equipment
Pneumatic Wrenches
Jack hammer
Pile drivers (peak)
Noise Level dB(A)
95-100
72-84
72-93
76-96
82-94
75-83
81-83
75-86
85-98
90-95
69-71
74-86
83-88
81-98
95-105
Mitigation Measures:
There will be increase in ambient noise levels during the construction phase due to all
the project activities during construction phase, which will be temporary in nature and for
a shorter duration (i.e. construction phase). The measures described below will be able
to mitigate the noise levels generated at site:
Provision of rubber padding/ noise isolators
Provision of silencers to modulate the noise generated by machines.
Provision of protective devices like ear muff/plugs to the workers.
As far as possible no construction activities will be carried out during night time.
Maintenance of construction equipments shall be carried out in appropriate
manner. This shall be ensured through the provision laid under the various
contracts with the contractors.
Vehicular movement towards the construction sites shall be properly regulated to
minimize air and noise pollution.
Movement of trucks shall be controlled during night time.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
222
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Water Environment
4.2.3.
Impact:
On the basis of construction activities, during the construction phase of the project, total
water requirement is estimated to be 24 KLD. This requirement of water will be fulfilled
from the groundwater. Nearly 4.0 KLD of sewage will be generated in the construction
phase. Adequate drainage system will be require channelization of the run off water to
avoid water logging which would be further utilized during the construction phase for the
proposed plant. Therefore, no long term adverse impact on water quality (surface as well
as ground) is anticipated during construction phase.
Mitigation Measures:
Construction Wastewater Management
4.2.3.1
Wastewater generated during the construction phase of the project. Water will be used
only for curing of concrete, which will be absorbed by land or will get evaporated. A
separate drainage shall be provided for the construction wastewater and collected in a
separate basin. If required, water shall be discharged into the drain only after its
pretreatment including filtration and removal of contaminants in accordance with the
standards prescribed for disposal.
Sanitation
4.2.3.2
The construction work force will use the sanitation facility of the existing plant in order to
maintain adequate hygienic conditions.
Land Environment
4.2.4.
Impact:
Soil around construction site, haulage road, and workshop areas, will get compacted due
to transportation of man, machine and materials. Soil may also get contaminated around
construction site, machine maintenance area, fuelling station, and internal road
construction material storage (not much involved) & preparation site and haulage road.
No soil erosion is anticipated due to the construction activities during the rainy season,
as the project site located within the existing plant premises is a flat land.
Mitigation Measures:
Measures for top soil preservation, soil erosion & sedimentation control are given below:
To keep the damage to topsoil minimum, excavators shall be used for
construction. The excavated material such as topsoil shall be stacked at safe
places for reuse at a later stage of construction.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
223
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Preserving existing vegetation or re-vegetation of disturbed soils is one of the
most effective ways to control soil erosion, which shall be ensured by the project
proponent.
During dry weather, control of the dust nuisance created by excavation, levelling,
and transportation activities shall be carried out by water sprinkling.
Spill prevention and control plans shall be made, clearly stating measures to stop
the source of the spill, to contain the spill, to dispose the contaminated material
and hazardous wastes including chemicals, paints, cleaners, and petroleum
products.
Movement of construction vehicles, machinery and equipment shall be restricted
to the pre-defined haulage roads. The non-usable, non-saleable, non-hazardous
construction waste shall be disposed off in the properly delineated places.
Usable or saleable waste shall not be disposed off to landfill.
All efforts shall be made to prevent soil contaminations. Following measures shall be
taken to ensure the same:
No fuelling/ repairing of vehicles at the project site shall be permitted, as the
volume of construction activities is very limited.
To avoid the soil contamination at the wash down areas, “oil interceptors” shall
be provided.
Oil and grease spill and oil soaked materials shall be sold off only to RSPCB/
CPCB authorized vendors respectively.
B paragraphs)
4.2.5.
Materials (Chemicals, Input material) and Waste ( Solid and
Hazardous) Management:
During construction phase, solid waste such as excavated soil, debris, metal waste and
oil & grease from construction machines will be generated. This waste may contaminate
soil at plant site temporarily which would be restricted to a small area. Excavated topsoil
will be used for backfilling/ plantation and as soon as construction is over, all wastes
from the site will be cleared in appropriate manner. This shall be strictly carried out in
compliance with the regulatory requirements.
During the construction phase, hydraulic oil, fuels and lubricating oils will be used. There
is potential for accidental spills while re-fuelling or servicing vehicles and through the
breakage due to wear and tear. Procedures for maintenance of equipment will ensure
that this risk is minimized and cleanup response is rapid, if any spill occurs.
During construction phase, waste oil will be generated as and when lubricating oil is
changed. Waste oil will be collected through the drain ports and stored in leak proof steel
drums. The waste oil drums will be properly identified and its contents shall be labeled
both in local language (Hindi) and English. It will be mainly disposed off by selling to
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
224
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
appropriate vendors as per Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans
boundary Movement) Rules, 2008.
Municipal waste will be minimal as most of workforce will be from nearby areas. The
waste so generated will be collected and segregated and will be sent to municipal waste
disposal site allocated by the local administrative authorities. Hence impacts will be
insignificant and confined to the construction site only.
Mitigation Measures:
The best option of solid and hazardous waste management is to reduce its generation at
source with the help of following good practices in construction management:
Hazardous materials shall not be stored near surface waters and shall be stored
near plastic sheeting to prevent leaks and spills.
The recyclable items like metal, plastic shall be sent to recyclable industry, and
rest of this scrap shall be stored in a covered area.
Wherever materials (aggregates, sand, etc.) are more likely to generate fine
airborne particles during operations, nominal wetting by water shall be practiced.
Workers / labour shall be given proper air masks and helmets.
Skilled labour and good workmanship is must for judicious utilization of materials
and minimization the waste.
Contaminated runoff from storage shall be captured in ditches or ponds with an
oil trap at the outlet.
Utmost care shall be taken to store these materials at a suitable place and then
disposed off at a place in consultation with and as per the guidelines of
RSPCB/CPCB
4.2.6.
Socio-Economic Environment
Impact:
All the activities to be carried out during the planning, and construction phases will
require skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled labours, hence creating temporary as well as
permanent employment for the local people. The workforce required during the
construction phase will be about 104 persons. Most of the unskilled and semi-skilled
labour will be by and large available from the nearby villages. Details of man power
requirement during construction and operation phase given in section 2.12 and 2.13
respectively. Thus, impact on the physical and aesthetic resources will be minimal.
Further, local skilled, semiskilled and unskilled labourers will get direct and indirect
employment during the construction phase. This might also result in a steep rise in
wages of the agricultural labourers living in surrounding villages, especially at the time of
harvesting. Hence, the short-term positive impacts on socio-economic conditions of the
area are anticipated during the construction phase.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
225
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Mitigation Measures:
Short term positive impacts will result in better quality of life. The project proponent/
contractors shall ensure that most of the workforce shall be engaged from the nearby
villages/ town.
Occupational Health and Safety Management
4.2.7.
Impact:
A construction site forms a potentially hazardous environment due to the various
construction activities, involvement of heavy construction machinery, vehicular
movement etc. To ensure health and safety of the workers during construction, with
effective provisions for the basic facilities of sanitation, drinking water, safety of
equipment or machinery etc Any accident happens in the project site can affect the
construction workers..
Mitigation Measures:
Comply with the safety procedures, norms and guidelines (as applicable) as
outlines in the Constructional Practices and Safety, 2005, National Building Code
of India, Bureau of Indian Standards.
Training module on construction safety shall be prepared and impart training to
the construction workers.
To ensure that the surrounding population is not exposed to these hazards, the
site shall be properly secured by fencing or by construction of a boundary wall
and also guards shall be posted at entry points.
First aid facilities shall be created at different locations for immediate assistance
in case of emergencies and accidents.
Important information about nearby hospitals, fire stations, police station etc.
should be kept available in the first aid centres for speedy action at the time of
emergency.
In case inflammable materials are to be kept at the site, they shall be stored and
handled in accordance with guidelines of Inspectorate of Safety and Health of the
State and Central Governments.
Fire extinguishers shall be located at all vulnerable sites.
4.3.
Potential Impacts and Mitigation Measures during Project
Operation
The operation stage impacts will largely be associated with operation of the
Manufacturing Unit. The impacts associated with this phase are described below:
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
226
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
4.3.1.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Air Environment
Impact:
The main sources of air pollution due to the operation of the plant will be boiler, process
emissions (scrubber), incinerator and DG sets. The continuous source of air emission
will be stacks attached with process scrubber, boiler and incinerator only. DG sets will be
used for power backup only. HCl and organic solvents are the main concern of process
emission from the reactors. PM, SO2 and NOx are the main air pollutant generated from
the utility units.
4.3.1.1
Air Quality Dispersion Model
Air dispersion modelling can be used to predict atmospheric concentrations of pollutants
at specific locations (receptors) over specific averaging times (i.e. annual, daily, and
hourly).
In the proposed project, prediction of impacts on air environment has been carried out by
employing mathematical model based on a Steady State Gaussian Plume Dispersion
Model designed for multiple point sources for short term. In the present case, Industrial
Source Complex Short-term [ISCST3] dispersion model based on steady state Gaussian
Plume Dispersion, designed for multiple point sources for short term and developed by
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has been used for simulations
from point sources.
The predictions for air quality during operation phase were carried out for particulate
matter less than 10 microns (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5),
oxides of sulphur (SOx), oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) from the boiler, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx,
carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) from the incinerator and acid mist
(HCl), ammonia (NH3), bromine, ethyl chloride and Ozone (O3) from the process stacks
(scrubber) concentration using ISCST3.
The options used for short-term computations are:
The plume rise is estimated by Briggs formulae, but the final rise is always
limited to that of the mixing layer
Stack tip down-wash is not considered
Buoyancy induced dispersion is used to describe the increase in plume
dispersion during the ascension phase
Calms processing routine is used by default
Wind profile exponents is used by default
Flat terrain is used for computation
Pollutants do not undergo any physico-chemical transformation
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
227
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
No pollutant removal by dry deposition
Universal Transverse Meter (UTM) coordinates have been used for
computation
A uniform polar grid was used with an extent of 10 km from the centre of the
proposed project. In addition to that, receptors were placed at the sampling
locations to assess the incremental load on the baseline environmental
scenario.
Meteorological Parameters:
The meteorological data consisting of wind speed, direction, temperature, humidity, solar
radiation, cloud cover and rainfall was recorded from the mid of March through June,
2014, on an hourly basis. Wind speed, wind direction and temperature have been
processed to extract the 24 hourly mean meteorological data for application in ISCST3.
Stack and Emission Characteristics:
The major source of emissions is from the stacks attached to boiler, incinerator and
process stacks (scrubber) during the manufacturing of APIs at the proposed project. The
stack and emission characteristics pertaining to the stacks present in the proposed plant
are reported in Table 4.5. The modelling has been carried out as per the guidelines of
the CPCB. The 24-hourly maximum GLCs (except Ozone and CO) have been computed
for comparison with the NAAQS 2009 standards.
Receptor Locations:
A total of about 108 polar grid receptors were considered over a 10 km zone around the
project site. Apart from these polar grid receptors, the sampling locations were also
taken into account to assess the incremental load on the baseline environmental
scenario.
Table 4.2 : Stack Details
S.
N
o.
Stacks
1
Boiler
2
Inciner
ator
Proces
s
Stacks
–2
(Scrubb
er)
3
Stac
k
Heig
ht
(m)
50
Stack
Diame
ter (m)
30
0.41
20
0.508
1.32
Stack
Exit
Veloc
ity
(m/s)
0.595
Stack
Temperat
ure (K)
6.169
7
6.0
673
343
308
2
NO
x
Emissions (g/sec)
PM PM2.
C
HF
O
10
5
6.3
9
0.0
3
-
0.0
56
0.1
8
-
0.5
6
0.0
11
-
SO
HCl
NH3
0.23
-
-
-
-
0.00
45
-
0.0
7
-
0.4
2
-
0.00
38
4.71
E-02
4.12
E-01
(Source: DDL)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
228
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
4.3.1.2
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Summary of Ground Level Concentrations (GLCs)
The summary of maximum ground level concentrations (GLC) for the proposed project
and its impact on the study area under the worst meteorological scenario are listed in
Tables 4.6 and 4.7.
Table 4.3 : Summary of Maximum 24-hour GLC due to the proposed Project
Description
Maximum Rise
in GLC
Direction of
Occurrence
Maximum
Baseline
Concentration
reported
Total
Concentration
(Post Project
Scenario)
Prescribed
Standards
(Source: EQMS)
Concentration (µg/m3)
PM10(24- PM2.5(24CO
hr)
hr)
(8-hr)
SOx
(24hr)
NOx
(24hr)
NH3
(24hr)
Ozone
(8-hr)
58.29
2.24
3.98
1.59
1.54
7.08
0.048
N
(1.0
km)
N
(1.0
km)
N
(1.0 km)
N
(1.0 km)
N
(1.0 km)
N
(1.0
km)
SSE
(1.0
km)
17.00
34.00
121.00
56.00
1140.00
18.00
0.1
75.29
36.24
124.98
57.59
1141.54
25.08
0.148
80
80
100
60
2000
400
100
Tables 4.4 and 4.5 show that the average concentrations for all the criteria pollutants are
well within the ambient air quality standards for industrial, residential, rural and other
areas. The isopleths of the pollutant concentration due to the impacts associated with
the operation of the proposed project are shown in Figures 4.2 through 4.12 for SOx,
NOx, PM10, PM2.5, CO, NH3, O3, bromine, ethyl chloride, HF and HCl respectively.
Additionally, the cumulative impact of the proposed project at the monitoring locations
within 10 km radius is provided in Table 4.4.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
229
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 4.4 : Summary of Maximum GLC at Monitoring Locations due to Proposed
Project
Location
Project
Site
Binajhera
Goneda
Mordha
Paniyala
Keshwana
rajpur
SO2
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO
NH3
SO2
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO
NH3
SO2
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO
NH3
SO2
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO
NH3
SO2
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO
NH3
SO2
NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO
NH3
Distance
&
Direction
from the
site
-
4.56 km
(SE)
2.73 km
(SW)
3.74 km
(E)
2.03 km
(SE)
3.40 km
(N)
Rise in
GLC
3
(µg/m )
Max.
Background
Concentration
3
(µg/m )
Impact
from
Project
3
(µg/m )
NAAQS
3
(µg/m )
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.99
0.12
0.20
0.08
0.09
0.50
11.07
0.48
0.76
0.30
0.39
2.80
16.22
0.55
1.10
0.44
0.36
1.92
15.44
0.50
1.05
0.42
0.28
3.53
9.96
0.32
0.68
0.27
0.13
0.71
17.00
34.00
118.00
52.00
930.00
15.00
14.00
20.00
112.00
50.00
1030.00
15.00
17.00
32.00
105.00
46.00
890.00
17.00
16.00
31.00
105.00
46.00
1140.00
15.00
15.00
23.00
121.00
56.00
1070.00
18.00
17.00
34.00
115.00
52.00
1070.00
14.00
17.00
34.00
118.00
52.00
930.00
15.00
16.99
20.12
112.2
50.08
1030.09
15.5
28.07
32.48
105.76
46.3
890.39
19.8
32.22
31.55
106.1
46.44
1140.36
16.92
30.44
23.5
122.05
56.42
1070.28
21.53
26.96
34.32
115.68
52.27
1070.13
14.71
80
80
100
60
2000
400
80
80
100
60
2000
400
80
80
100
60
2000
400
80
80
100
60
2000
400
80
80
100
60
2000
400
80
80
100
60
2000
400
Table 4.8 shows that the impacts from the proposed project are well within the NAAQS.
Therefore, there will be no adverse impacts on the agricultural productivity of the nearby
areas. Highly efficient air pollution control systems will be adopted to mitigate particulate
matter as well as gaseous emissions in the ambient environment.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
230
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.1 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of SOx
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
231
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.2 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of NOx
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
232
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.3 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of PM10
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
233
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.4 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of PM2.5
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
234
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.5 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of CO
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
235
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.6 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of NH3
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
236
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
(Source: EQMS)
Figure 4.7 : Isopleth of Ground level Concentration of Ozone
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
237
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
4.3.1.3
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Mitigation Measures
Mitigation measures for air quality impacts during construction phase are:
Periodical checking of vehicles and construction machinery to ensure compliance of
emission standards
Attenuation of pollution /protection of receptor through greenbelt/green cover
Ensure periodical washing of construction equipment and transport vehicles to
prevent accumulated dust
Mitigation measures for air quality during operation phase are:
Proposed project trees will be replanted, in case of cutting of trees due to proposed
structures location.
Periodical checking of tankers to ensure compliance of emission standards
Attenuation of pollution/protection of receptor through greenbelt/green cover.
Regular monitoring of air polluting concentrations
Control vehicle speed on sight.
DG Sets will be operated during power failure only.
Location of fixed emission source at isolated places
Height of the stack for DG sets will be kept as per CPCB guidelines;
Sprinkling of water will control fugitive dust emissions from construction activities.
Regular maintenance of machinery and equipment will be carried out.
Considering the above mitigation measures as well as the operating and other
conditions mentioned in the above sections, the impact scores on air environment is
presented in Table 4.8 as below:
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
238
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Figure 4.8 Diagrammatic Representation of the Scrubber System for the Proposed
Plant
Table 4.5 : Impact Scoring of Air Environment
Impact Scoring
Code
C1
Impacting Activity
C2
Probability,
Final Score
e, C
P
CxP
C3
C4
C5
C6
2
2
Low risk
2
2
2
2
Construction Phase
Site
Clearing
and
1
1
Levelling
Burning of Waste and
2
1
Vegetation
3
Civil Works such as earth 1
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Remarks
Consequenc
Low risk
Low risk
239
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Impact Scoring
Code
C1
Impacting Activity
C2
moving and building of
structures
including
temporary structures
Excavation
work
and
4
filling of foundation
Plain Concreting, RCC
5
Civil Foundations and
Erection Activities
Heavy Fabrication work
6
and Equipment operation
Laying of above ground
7
pipelines
Erection
and
commissioning
of
8
Equipments
such
as
pumps, blowers, agitators,
aerators, pipings etc
9
Final Cleaning of Site
Operation Phase
No ETP as water is not
used
for
industrial
1
purpose, Domestic waste
will be sent to septic tank
Conveyance of domestic
2
effluent–
Unauthorized
disposal, spills and leaks
Better
Operating
3
Practices
and
Management Systems
Temporary storage &
4
handling of sludge
Solvents and Its Recovery
5
Plan
Hazardous and Toxic
6
chemicals storage and
transportation
7
Probability,
Final Score
e, C
P
CxP
C3
C4
C5
C6
1
2
2
Low risk
1
2
2
Low risk
1
2
2
Low risk
1
2
2
Low risk
1
2
2
Low risk
1
2
2
Low risk
1
4
4
Moderate
Risk
1
4
4
Moderate
Risk
1
2
2
Moderate
Risk
1
4
4
2
4
8
2
4
8
Moderate
Risk
High Risk
High Risk
DG set, Scrubbers and
1
boilers operation
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Remarks
Consequenc
4
4
Low Risk as
DG set will
be operated
only during
power
240
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Impact Scoring
Code
C1
Impacting Activity
C2
Consequenc
Probability,
Final Score
e, C
P
CxP
C3
C4
C5
Remarks
C6
failure and
Moderate
Risk
for
boilers and
scrubbers
(Source: DLL)
4.3.2.
Foul Odour Problem
Impact
Some of the processes and wastes generated from the plant may release high odour.
Undesirable odour contributes to air quality concerns and affect human lifestyles. On the
economic front, loss of property value near odour-causing operations/industries and
odorous environment is partly a consequence of offensive odour.
Mitigation Measures:
4.3.2.1
Control of VOC and fugitive Emissions
To control VOC emissions chilled brine system of 35°C and 15°C in vent
condensers will be installed.
Sampling points will be provided with double valve followed by suction hoods
which will be connected to ducting system leading to charcoal bed.
Odour causing raw materials will be charged in closed chambers with exhaust of
chambers connected to ducting system leading to waste gas incineration/
scrubbing system/ Charcoal Bed.
All waste storage tanks and waste preparation and raw material storage tanks
will be connected to vacuum system. These off gases will be incinerated in the
incinerator. Well designed two/three stage scrubbing system will be provided as
a standby to gas incineration. The change over from incinerator to Scrubbing or
vice-versa will take place through a fully automated system with no human
interface.
All tanks being used for storage of odorous chemicals/ products/ by-products will
be connected to vacuum system. Manometers will be provided on these tanks.
The vacuum will be monitored on daily basis and actions will be taken
accordingly.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
241
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Additional Measures
4.3.2.2
Odour rounds by non-plant personnel will hold regular meetings and “odour
rounds” in the factory premises for ensuring effective implementation of odour
control measures.
As a long term measure to improve the environment, plantation of trees within
factory premises as well as along the nearby roads is proposed.
All critical vessels, pumps and reactors which have potential to generate odour
will be fitted with mechanical seals to prevent leakage and therefore odour.
De-odorizer solution will be sprayed through special network, which will be laid
around the plant. It will help in neutralizing the fugitive emissions.
Beneath all sample points/ drain points, spill control powder containing trays will
be kept so as to adsorb even slightest of leakage, if at all arises from these
points. The spill control powder will then be sent for incinerator as a solid waste.
4.3.3.
Noise Environment
Impact:
Increase in ambient noise levels are not expected as machineries and equipment shall
be provided in closed chambers.
4.3.4.
Water Environment
Impact:
About 150 KLD of ground water will be utilized during operation phase for the proposed
project. Consumption of ground water might lead to depreciation of ground water. 4.0
KLD of sewage will be generated in the operation phase. Disposal of sewage from the
project site onto the nearby water body and/or onto the land will lead to water pollution.
142 KLD of effluent will be generated from the manufacturing unit as well as scrubber
units. Improper disposal of the same without prior treatment into a water body or land will
affect the water quality. Discharge of contaminated storm water onto the water body or in
rainwater harvesting system without any pretreatment, will also lead to water pollution.
Mitigation:
ETP of 150 KLD capacity is proposed with “Zero Discharge” concept to treat the effluent
generated from the process.
The effluent arising out of the manufacturing process will be treated and reused for ash
cooling, incinerator quenching, cooling tower evaporation, vacuum pumps and green belt
development. Hence, no effluent will be discharged. Proper sanitation facilities will be
provided in the proposed plant unit and the sewage will be collected in septic tanks and
it will be treated along with the process effluent in the anaerobic digester of ETP. The
treated wastewater shall comply with the discharge standards (MINAS) as prescribed by
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
242
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
the RSPCB/CPCB. Also, regular monitoring of ETP discharge shall be carried out to
ensure proper treatment of the industrial and domestic wastewater
A proper storm water drainage system with pre treatment for removal of sediment will be
installed, prior to its discharge into rain water harvesting system.
4.3.5.
Storm Water Management
1. Rainwater harvesting
The rain water from the building roofs, paved areas and other areas will be directed
through closed pipeline to rain water recharging pit after suitable de-silting and filtration
via inverted filter. Dhanuka Laboratories proposed to practice rainwater harvesting and
artificial recharge to ground water at or around their plant located in RIICO Keswana
industrial belt in Kotputli Tehsil of Jaipur District to augment ground water resource. The
salient features of the site are as follows:
1.
Normal annual Rainfall in the area
602 mm
2.
Monsoon rainfall is 80 % of annual
481 mm
3.
Expected runoff from roof top monsoon rain fall
at 90 %
433 mm/m2
4.
Total run off from roof top during monsoon
10000x0.0433 = 4329m3
5.
Assumed rainfall intensity
20 mm per hour
6.
Rainfall runoff coefficient (roof top)
90 %
7.
Total rain water generation
18.0 mm per hour per m2
8.
Total paved and roof top area
17350 m2
9.
Annual runoff generated
7520 m3
10. Total water generated in one hour
312 m3
11. Depth to ground water level
36 m
12. Expected recharge through one pit with one well
8 lps or 38.8 m3 per hour
It is proposed to install 2 recharge shafts with one recharge well each. There shall be
one de-silting chamber and one oil/grease trap before each recharge shaft to effectively
remove all undesired material from the run off in the conveyance pipe. In the lower 1.5 m
of the shaft gravel and filter material shall be placed and top 0.5 m shall be kept as free
board.
Capacity of proposed rainwater harvesting shaft are as under:
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
243
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Total volume of the shaft
Water holding capacity above gravel
Water holding capacity in the gravel part
Total water holding capacity of shaft
Recharge with one well during one hour
rainfall
6. Water disposed of at the end of one hour
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
117.8 m3
3.14x2.5 x 2.5 x 4
= 78.5 m3
3.14x2.5x2.5x1.5x0.4 = 11.8 m3
90 m3
38.8 m3
128.8 m3
As total runoff generation at the site is around 7520 m3 per annum, it is expected that all
of this shall be harvested and recharged into the ground water aquifers at the site
through the two recharge structures.
Figure 4.9 Schematic diagram of Rainwater Harvesting
4.3.6.
Land Environment
Impact:
Out of the total land area of 32,800 m2, large part of area at present is vacant land which
will be utilized for setting up the proposed plant. A total of ~10824 m2 area (~33% of the
total area) has been earmarked for the green area development.
Mitigation Measures:
Green belt development should be ensured and should be undertaken in consultation
with forest department. Topsoil conserved during the construction phase shall be utilized
for landscaping and greenbelt development.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
244
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Soil Environment
4.3.7.
Impact:
There are no major sources of land contamination from waste spillage. The used oil shall
be collected in barrels and shall be sold to the authorized recyclers identified by the
RSPCB/ CPCB. All other hazardous wastes shall also be stored safely within the site
before its final disposal to the landfill site or will be incinerated at the plant premises.
Mitigation Measures:
No further mitigation measures will be required.
4.3.8.
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management during operation
phase
Solid wastes like process waste and organic waste are to be separately collected & sent
for incineration. The final hazardous wastes from the plant as classified under
Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008
are to be disposed off in the common hazardous waste secured landfill site and through
authorized dealer. The authorization certificate is provided attached as Annexure VI The
details of hazardous wastes, which will be generated from the proposed plant along with
the quantity, are provided in Error! Reference source not found..
Mitigation Measures:
Hazardous waste generated from the facility shall be disposed off in suitable manner as
per the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement)
Rules, 2008. The storage, handling and disposal practices proposed to be followed in
the plant have been presented in Error! Reference source not found.. The used oil
generated from the proposed project shall also be collected in barrels and shall be sold
to the authorized recyclers identified by the RSPCB/ CPCB. The Detail of solvent
recovery system is given in section 2.5.2. Authorization from RSPCB shall be taken for
Hazardous Waste disposal.
Mitigation Measures:
Solid waste management includes following:
Measures to minimize waste generation
Operation of waste handling, treatment and disposal facilities
The hazardous solid wastes generated from the proposed plant shall be sent for landfill
as well as for incineration as per RSPCB guidelines. The waste management plan
includes:
Waste inventory
Classification of waste
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
245
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Packaging, storing and transporting wastes to disposal site
Data management and reporting
Contingency plan
Personnel training
Waste minimization
The requirements which will be specified in the Authorization from RSPCB shall be
followed. The manifest system shall also be implemented for control and record keeping.
Good House Keeping: Proper housekeeping practices shall be ensured at the site.
Minimizing Solid Wastes Disposal: The following points are suggested to facilitate solid
wastes disposal:
To investigate the large scale regionalized treatment centres for centralized
disposal and reuse of solid wastes.
Efficient collection and transportation mechanism for disposal of solid wastes.
Search for future recycling schemes and evaluate their worth and implement
such schemes wherever a promise of economic feasibility exists.
4.3.8.1
Discarded Container/ Barrels/ Liners Management
Discarded containers/ barrels/ liners will be kept at a designated place with paved
surface. These will be decontaminated (washed/ cleaned) and after that will be stored in
the designated area in scrap yard. Later on these will be sold to the actual users/
recyclers as per the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary
Movement) Rules, 2008. The record of discarded containers/ barrels/ liners stored in
scrap yard shall be maintained and also, inventory of their selling to the registered
recyclers shall be maintained. The same shall be reviewed by the HSE Department of
the project.
4.3.9.
Socio-Economic Environment
Impact:
The proposed drug project will have some positive impact on the industrial growth in the
region. It is anticipated that during the operation phase, the proposed project will
generate some indirect employment due to additional sales / transportation etc. In
addition to that, the project will generate significant opportunities for indirect benefits
through agriculture growth trading etc.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
246
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ecology and Biodiversity
4.3.10.
Impact:
The project activity does not require tree cutting during land clearing. Also, the study
zone does not have any ecologically sensitive location and hence, the plant activities are
not expected to have any impact on the ecology and biodiversity.
Mitigation Measures:
A total of ~10824 m2 area (~33% of the total plot area) has been earmarked for
greenbelt development, which will help in development of biodiversity. The indigenous
plants shall be planted along with ornamental trees/ shrubs to provide an aesthetic
environment within and around the plant. The maintenance of the greenbelt developed
shall be ensured and survival rate of the plants shall also be studied every half yearly.
Treated domestic water will be used for greenbelt development and irrigation purposes.
4.3.11.
Energy Conservation
During the operation phase of the project, energy resources will be required for
operating various pumping machineries for water & wastewater, internal road
lighting, common utilities etc. The following options can be used for energy
conservation:
Energy efficient machineries shall be used during operation phase as per ECBC
2007.
Wherever possible in the plant, utilization of renewable sources of energy for
conservation of non-renewable sources of energy shall be ensured.
Sufficient care shall be taken to prevent/ minimize energy losses at each stage of
development.
Every year energy audit shall be conducted through competent authority
nominated by Govt. of India.
4.3.12.
Safety Provisions
All the provisions as per the Factories Act, 1948, Manufacture, Storage and
Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MSIHC) Rules, 1989 and amendments
thereafter and also, the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling &Trans
boundary Movement) Rules, 2008 to be followed.
In the proposed plant of Dhanuka, a 2 bedded occupational health centre has
proposed with a weekly visit of one doctor. A doctor has also been contracted for
regular health check-ups of the employees.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
247
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
CHAPTER 5. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
This chapter provides mitigation and control measures to attenuate or eliminate environmental
impacts, which are likely to be caused by the proposed project. An Environmental Management Plant
(EMP) has been developed to mitigate the potential adverse impacts and to strengthen the beneficial
environmental impacts during the construction and operation phases. In addition to that during the
operation phase, the industry will have an additional responsibility to comply with the statutory
requirements as per the guidelines of Central/ State Government.
5.1.
Prelude
The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is the synthesis of all proposed mitigation
and monitoring actions, set to a time frame with specific responsibility assigned and
follow-up actions defined. An equally essential element of this process is to develop
measures to eliminate, offset, or reduce impacts to acceptable levels during project
implementation and operation of the project. The integration of such measures into
project implementation and operation is supported by clearly defining the environmental
requirements within an Environmental Management Plan (EMP). The aim of the EMP is
to ensure that the various adverse impacts associated with the project are properly
mitigated; either by preventing the impacts or by mitigating those to reduce the effect to
an acceptable level by adopting the most suitable techno-economic option. The EMP
also ensures that the positive impacts are conserved and enhanced.
5.2.
The EMP
The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) consists of a set of mitigation, monitoring
and institutional measures to be taken during the design, construction and operation
phases of the project. The plan also includes the actions needed for implementation of
these measures. Overall objective of EMP:
Prevention: Measures aimed at impeding the occurrence of negative environmental
impacts and/or preventing such an occurrence having harmful environmental impacts.
Preservation: Preventing any future actions that might adversely affect an
environmental resource or attribute.
Minimization: Limiting or reducing the degree, extent, magnitude, or duration of adverse
impacts.
The major components of the Environmental Management Plan are:
Mitigation of potentially adverse impacts
Monitoring during project implementation and operation
Implementation schedule and environmental cost estimates
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
248
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Integration of EMP with project planning, design, construction and operation
The EMP has been designed keeping in view the regulatory and other requirements to
ensure the following:
Minimum disturbance to the native flora and fauna.
Compliance with the air, water, soil and noise quality norms.
Conservation of water to the extent possible.
Encourage the socio-economic development.
DLL will incorporate all necessary steps to mitigate environmental pollution in the design
stage itself. In addition to that during the operation phase of the project, the company will
take all the mitigation measures suggested in the environmental management plan and
also comply with the statutory requirements as per the guidelines of Central and/or State
Government. It also provides detailed post-project monitoring which is required to be
undertaken by the authorities to maintain the environmental quality within the stipulated
standards specified by the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB), Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF).
The environmental impacts due to different project activities and proposed mitigation
measures have been detailed in Chapter 4. The mitigation measures for reducing the
adverse environmental impacts together constitute a part of EMP.
5.3.
Environmental, Health and Safety Management System
Chemical industries prefer an integrated approach and make environmental
management a part of overall Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Management
system.
This model EHS system suggests and addresses EMS issues such as:
Management system expectation
Management leadership, responsibilities and accountability
Risk assessment and management
Compliance and other requirements
Personnel, training and contractor services
Documentation and communications
Facilities design and construction
Operation, maintenance and management
Community awareness and emergency response
EHS performance monitoring and measurement
Incident investigation reporting and analysis
EHS management system audit
Management review and audit
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
249
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
With this type of EHS management approach, proposed project of DLL would be able to
meet all statutory norms.
5.4.
Construction Phase
Adequate and effective environment protection measures will be planned and designed
to minimize the impacts due to activities related to pre-construction (preparatory phase)
of the project, machinery installation and commissioning stages and end with the
induction of manpower and start up. The impacts identified during the construction
phase are mainly due to site preparation, foundation work, material handling,
construction of buildings and installation of the machinery. The impacts identified on air
environment, water environment, land environment and biological environment are
localized in nature and can be mitigated by adopting the mitigation measures suggested
in the Chapter 4 with associated impacts.
In view of the above, the following measures are recommended to reduce the impact
during this period:
Due provision of necessary infrastructural services like water and power supply
etc., for the construction area.
All possible care will be taken to reduce the noise level due to construction
activity. Also, noise prone activities shall be restricted to the extent possible
during night particularly during the period 10 PM to 6 AM in order to have
minimum environmental impact.
5.5.
Operation Phase
5.5.1.
Air Environment
5.5.1.1
Measures for Reducing Stack Emissions
In the proposed project, DG set will be used only during the power failure and will be
connected with a separate stack. Multi cyclone separator with stack height of 50 mtr
shall be installed for dispersion of particulate matter from Boiler.
In the manufacturing process, almost 95-97% of the waste solvents are recovered and
reused in the process through Solvent Recovery Unit based on distillation process. The
solvent vapours will be treated in up-flow scrubber system. 2 number of systems will be
installed for the treatment of VOCs from the proposed unit. The diagrammatic
representation of the Scrubber System for the proposed unit is given in the Figure 8.1.
Similarly, the air from dryer chamber is also treated, but instead of passing it through
cooler chamber, it will be passed through dryer scrubber. All the reaction vessels will be
connected with the scrubber system so that any toxic fumes and vapours generated
during reaction get neutralised. The scrubber stack will meet existing norms emission
.As per guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Rajasthan State
Pollution Control Board (RSPCB), pollution control equipment are not required for DG
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
250
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
set and Pollution control will be achieved through natural dispersion process as the
stacks provided would be of appropriate heights.
5.5.1.2
Greenbelt Development
It is proposed to develop a green area of ~10824 m2 (~33% of the total area) within the
plant premises of proposed project site. The green area development and tree plantation
will be done by using indigenous species as well as ornamental plants. Separate budget
will be allocated for green belt development within the premises. DLL is committed to
develop healthy green belt, which will help in absorbing the pollutants as well as
providing aesthetic environment within and around the plant. Treated effluents will be
used for greenbelt development and irrigation within the plant premises.
Few guidelines for green belt development are as below:
Strict surveillance shall be made to increase the survival rate of the trees.
Plants with higher height, medium and low height should be planted to ensure
thick belt for attenuation of fugitive emission.
Open spaces, where tree plantation may not be possible, will be covered with
shrubs and grass to prevent erosion of topsoil.
Adequate attention will be paid to plantation of trees, their maintenance and
protection.
During commissioning project management has proposed to develop a greenbelt
all along the boundary wall of plant, along the roads, and surroundings of the
production block, boiler, ETP etc.
Plant Species for Greenbelt
While selecting the plant species for the proposed green belt, the following guidelines
will be considered.
Fast growing type
Should have a thick canopy cover
Should be perennial green
Native origin
Should have a large leaf area index.
Design of Green Belt
As far possible the following guidelines will be considered in green belt development.
The spacing between the trees will be maintained slightly less than the normal
spaces, so that the trees may grow vertically and slightly increase the effective
height of the green belt.
Planting of trees in each row will be in staggered orientation.
In the front row shrubs consisting of Callistemon, Prosopis etc. will be grown.
Since the trunks of the tall trees are generally devoid of foliage, it will be useful to
have shrubs and trees in front of the trees so as to give coverage to this portion.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
251
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Shrubs and trees will be planted in encircling rows around the project site
The short trees (<10 m height) will be planted in the first two rows (towards plant
side) of the green belt. The tall trees (> 10 m height) will be planted in the outer
three rows (away from plant side).
Tall trees one line and short trees one line will be planted around the boiler house, DG
set room and around the production blocks to control the fugitive emissions and to
reduce the noise
Measures for Fugitive Emissions
5.5.1.3
The fugitive emissions of organic chemicals and VOCs may come from leakage through
valves, fittings, pumps, etc. Though this is not expected to be significant, it may be
reduced further by adopting the following measures:
Regular maintenance of valves, pumps and other equipment to prevent leakage
and thus minimizing the fugitive emissions of VOCs.
Regular monitoring of VOCs shall be conducted in the areas prone to fugitive
emissions.
The monitoring at working environment shall be carried out and shall be recorded
in the prescribed form of the Factories Act.
The design features as suggested in Table 5.1for new equipment may be
considered.
Table 5.1 : Design Features for Minimization of Fugitive Emissions
S. No.
1
Equipment
Pumps
2
Valves
3
Compressor
4
Connectors
5
Pressure Relief Devices
6
Sampling Connection
(Source: DLL)
5.5.2.
Design Features
Seal less design
Dual Mechanical Seal
Seal less Design
Dual Mechanical Seal
Weld together
Rupture Disc
Closed loop sampling
Control Efficiency, %
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Water Environment
Water conservation measures shall be taken to optimize the fresh water requirement.
The fresh water shall be taken from the ground water.
The mitigation measures for minimizing the impacts on water environment in general
includes following:
Minimization of water use
Wastewater from different sources to be discharged after proper metering.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
252
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Segregation and collection philosophy for effluent to minimize waste generation
and facilitate treatment as well as recycle and reuse
Treatment philosophy to achieve regulatory standards
Reuse/recycle and disposal
Some of the measures, which have to be implemented, include:
Use equipment wash down waters as makeup solutions for subsequent batches,
if feasible.
Use high-pressure jet hoses for equipment cleaning to reduce the amount of
water consumption and wastewater generation.
Reducing the actual process water consumption by way of improvement in
operation of processing units
Ensuring proper operation and maintenance schedule for the ETP.
5.5.3.
Solid and Hazardous Waste Management
The details of solid and hazardous waste management have been provided in the
mitigation measures of Section 1.1.1. Also, the list of hazardous wastes and their
proposed disposal options as per the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and
Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008 has been provided in Error! Reference source not
found..
Segregation management of high COD and low COD effluent. The type and quantity of
solid wastes, which are anticipated to be generated from the proposed units, are
tabulated in 5.2
Table 5.2 : Quantity of Solid Waste to be Generated during the
Construction and Operation Phases
Sl. No.
Type of Solid Waste
Construction Phase
1
Construction waste
(debris)
Operation Phase
2
Empty barrels (used for
non-hazardous materials)
Quantity
Treatment/ Disposal
Method
It will be minimal
Debris will be used
for internal road
laying purpose.
5-7 barrels / day
3
Scrap metals
200 kg/day
4
Used/Spent Oil
10 L/day
Collected and sold to
authorized recyclers
after cleaning.
Collected and sold to
authorized recyclers.
Recycled by
authorized dealer
The authorized quantity of hazardous waste and its disposal method is tabulated in 5.3
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
253
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 5.3 Quantity of Hazardous Wastes, its Disposal Method by
authorized dealer
Sl. No.
Type of Hazardous Waste
1
Chemical sludge from wastewater
treatment (ETP & MEE)
Ash
from
incineration
of
hazardous
waste,
flue
gas
cleaning residues
Process waste
2
3
5.5.4.
Quantity to be
Generated from the
Proposed Unit
580 Kg
15 Kg/day
13 Kg/day
Noise Environment
The statutory national standards for noise levels at the plant boundary will be met. The
selection of all new plant equipment will be made with specification of low noise levels.
Noise suppression measures such as enclosures, buffers and/or protective measures
may be provided (wherever noise level is more than 90 dB(A) and exposure limits to
workers is more than 8 hours a day) to limit noise levels within occupational exposure
limits. Areas with high noise levels will be identified and segregated where possible and
will include prominently displayed caution boards.
However, in areas where noise levels are high and exposure time is less, employees are
to be provided with ear protection measures like earplugs or earmuffs. Earplugs are to
be provided to all workers where exposure will be 85 dB (A) or more. The exposures of
employees working in the noisy area shall be regularly monitored to ensure compliance
with the regulatory requirements.
Monitoring of noise levels is essential to assess the efficacy of maintenance schedules
undertaken to reduce noise levels and noise protection measures.
5.5.5.
Occupational Health Programme
Some of the measures under the occupational health program in the proposed project
have been provided below:
Annual health check for employees shall be carried out and record shall be
maintained.
Fire protection system, fire detection system, continuous monitoring system and
qualified fire staff shall be running in round the clock for handling any emergency.
Regular training to plant personnel in safety, fire fighting and first aid shall be
provided.
The proposed plant shall maintain a healthy work environment. This shall be
accomplished through the identification, evaluation and control of workplace
environmental factors, which may cause sickness, impaired health or significant
discomfort and inefficiency among workers. Environmental factors such as noise,
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
254
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
physical hazards toxicity/chemical hazard and ergonomic hazards shall be
regularly monitored to assist in maintaining a healthy work environment.
Worker‟s exposure to noise and toxic materials shall be evaluated against
applicable recognised exposure levels in the Factories Act.
Hearing protection aids shall be provided to workers who work in the high noise
areas, during construction of the proposed facilities and also to those who will
continue through the life of the facility.
5.5.6.
Hazard Communication and Chemical Safety
A hazardous chemical directory shall be developed to maintain information on the
hazards associated with each chemical used. Copies of Material Safety Data Sheets for
all hazardous materials at the proposed facility shall be provided at the unit and shall
available for employee review. The hazard communication program shall be arranged
regularly to serve as the basis for selection of personal protective equipment such as
gloves, goggles, face shields, etc. A select group of employees at the proposed facilities
shall be trained on first aid to provide an immediate response and medical care for
injuries. Safety department shall arrange the in-house safety training programs for
workers, supervisors, senior staff and management personnel at regular intervals. The
Safety Training Calendars shall be made on the basis of identifying training needs at
different level of employees (Management staff, company supervisory staff and
contractor employees). Three tiers of training programs shall be conducted regularly as:
Induction Safety Training
Basic Safety Training and
Specialized Training Programs
5.5.7.
Environmental Audit
Environmental audits shall be carried out as per regulatory requirements. Records of
quality and quantity of air emissions and liquid effluent shall be monitored and
maintained records. An inventory of waste storage area in the complex shall also be
maintained, which shall include details of the type of waste and the quantity stored.
Manifest system shall also be followed for disposal of hazardous waste.
Data on influent to the effluent treatment plant and treated effluent quality, stack
emissions shall be used to ascertain compliance with stipulated standards.
The quantity of waste generated from various units will be compared with previous
year‟s data and efforts will be made to minimise wastes for more efficient utilisation of
resources.
5.5.7.1
External Safety Audits and Inspections
External safety Audits & Inspection shall be carried out as per the statutory requirement
i.e. once in two year.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
255
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
5.5.7.2
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Internal Safety Audits & inspection
Internal safety audit & inspection shall be conducted by Safety Officer as per Standard
Operating Procedure and checklists to be prepared for respective area. Observations &
discrepancy report shall be sent to all concerns department for corrective action and
preventive action.
5.5.8.
Manpower for Environmental Health and Safety Management
A dedicated Environmental Management Cell with trained staff will look after the proper
environmental management of the proposed plant including operation & maintenance of
all facilities outlined earlier. DLL will assign responsibilities to officers from various
disciplines to co-ordinate the activities concerned with management and implementation
of environment control measures. Basically, the EHS department will undertake the
monitoring of environmental pollution level by measuring stack emissions, ambient air
quality, water and effluent quality, noise level, etc. either departmentally or appointing
external agency whenever necessary. DLL will also set up its own laboratory equipped
with different equipment for environmental monitoring and analysis. In addition to that
DLL will have a quality control laboratory, which will be equipped with sophisticated
equipment. Equipment of quality control laboratory will also be available for monitoring of
environment pollution. In case the monitored results of environment pollution are found
to exceed the prescribed limits, remedial actions shall be taken through the concerned
plant authorities. The actual operation and maintenance of pollution control equipments
of each department will be under respective department heads.
The Environmental, Health and Safety department will ensure preparation of
environment statement, carrying out environment audit, preparation of Water Cess
Return and various consent applications and renewal under water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 as
well as application for authorization and its renewal under Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling and Trans boundary Movement) Rules, 2008 under
Environment Protection Act, 1986.
5.6.
CREP Compliance
The guidelines enunciated by CPCB are very helpful to mitigate environment pollution,
improve human health and benefit of cost savings by cutting cost of valuable solvent by
efficient recovery system. Dhanuka laboratories Ltd., will adopt all the guidelines as
stated below given table5.4
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
256
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 5.4 CREP Compliance
Sr. No
CREP Point
Dhanuka Compliance
1
Segregation waste streams: Waste streams
should be segregated into COD waste, toxic waste,
low OCD waste, inorganic waste etc, for the
purpose of providing appropriate treatment.
Generated
and
segregated
inorganic
and toxic waste for the
safe disposal through
authorized vendor
2
Detoxification and treatment of high COD waste
streams: Streams should be detoxified and treated
in CTP or thermally destroyed in incinerator, as per
CPCB guidelines. The waste streams should be
treated suitably before taking to evaporation
Not applicable with our
Process
since
the
Manufacturing process
based on anhydrous
process.
No
water
effluent generated in the
manufacturing process
ponds.
3
Improvement in solvent recovery:
We have improve the
– Solvent recovery should be improved and cooling 45 TR to 150 TR
attempts should be made to achieve at least 90% and chilling efficiency to
get better recovery.
recovery wherever possible.
– Rest of the solvents which can not be recovered Residue will arrange to
send for incineration to
shall be incinerated.
approved agency
4
Hazardous air pollutant control:
– For air pollution control from processes, scrubber
efficiency will be improved and maintained as per
the best practicable technology for control of HCI,
CI.
Installed scrubber and
stacks for reducing the
Air pollution of High
efficiency
Methyl Chloride, Phosphorus Pentoxide, Ammonia,
H2S and VOCs.
We
have
made
– An incinerator will be installed, where necessary. arrangement
to
Authorized agency oil
waste management for
the
incarnation
if
required
5
Control of fugitive emissions/ VOCs: For control
of fugitive emissions (particularly for hazardous air
pollutions). The industries will adopt standard
engineering practices. System of leak detection
and repair (LDAR) programme especially for
solvents should be developed industries.
6
Upgrade of incinerators: Incinerators will be Not Applicable
upgraded to meet CPCB norms hazardous waste
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Installed
the
water
vacuum
ejector
to
prevent and collect the
toxic vapor.
These
vapor dissolved into
water which neutralize in
scrubber system
257
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
incinerators. This is necessary for Halogenated
compound and POPs.
Replacement of Bio Assay test by toxicity Not Applicable
Factor: The present bio-assay test will be replaced
by Toxicity Factor test method developed by
CPCB. Toxicity factor of four (TF-4) will be
achieved and industries will improve their system to
achieve TF
7
2. TF test method will be implemented by
PCBs/CPCB/ MoEF. The CPCB will organize
workshops on “Toxicity Factor” for industry.
8
Minimum scale of production to afford cost of Sufficient measures will
pollution load: To be decided, as industries view be taken to reduce the
point is that this cannot be done as few products pollution load
are costly and made in small volume. The matter
will be studied in detail by MoEF/ CPCB.
9
Non-complying Units (as identified by SPCB) NA
should meet the notified standards
10
Bank guarantee to be submitted to SPCB by NA
Non-complying units: The submissions from
Chemical industry regarding speedy clearance and
other will be considered by MoEF/CPCB for
examination.
(Source: DLL)
5.7.
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT CELL
An Environment Management Cell (EMC) will be formed which will be responsible for
implementation of the aforesaid post project monitoring/management plan. The
composition of the Environment Management Cell and responsibilities of its various
members are given in Table: 5.3
Table 5.5 : Environmental management cell
S.No.
1.
Designation
Vice President
2.
General Manager
(Production)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Proposed Responsibility
Policy decisions and overall responsibility of the
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd.
Responsible for management and implementation
of EMP.
258
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
5.8.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
EMP BUDGET
A total capital and recurring cost provision of about INR 32 Lakh has been kept in the
project cost towards the environmental protection, control and mitigation measures and
implementation of the EMP. The budgetary cost estimate for the EMP is given in table
5.4.
Table 5.6 : Environmental budget
S.N
o.
Items
Capital Cost( in INR
Lakh)
Items
Recurring
Cost/yr (in INR
Lakh)
1
ETP
100
Occupation Health
and Safty
24
2
MEE
120
Effluent treatment
18
3
Incernator
125
Air pollution control
management
12
4
RO system
30
Misscellanious and
contingency
6
5
Solid Waste
Management
10
6
Green belt
development
5
7
Scrubbers
30
9
Water
Harvesting
10
11
Contingency
10%
45
TOTAL
499.5 lakh or 5 Crores
Total
60
5.9.
Environmental Monitoing Programme
Based on the findings of the Environmental Impact Assessment study, various mitigation
measures have been proposed, which have been detailed out in Environmental
Management Plan (EMP). In order to monitor the impacts and efficacy of these plans,
monitoring of various environmental attributes have been proposed during and after the
completion of the management plans. A well defined environmental monitoring program
would be employed with trained and qualified staff of Environmental Management Cell of
the proposed agro-chemicals, fine chemicals & intermediate chemicals manufacturing
plant to monitor the environmental attributes of the area with respect to EMP as well as
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
259
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
the guidelines of the RSPCB/ CPCB. Environmental monitoring schedule proposed to be
adopted by the project authorities is as presented in Table 5.7.
Table 5.7 : Matrix of Environmental Monitoring Plan
S. No.
Aspect
Source of
Impact
1.0
1.1
Construction Phase
Local
Construction
Manpower
Works
Absorption
1.2
Soil Erosion
1.3
Biodiversity
1.4
Revegetation &
Greenbelt
Development
1.5
Water Quality
1.6
Air Quality
Excavation,
disposal, cut
& fill for site
leveling and
internal
roads,
disposal
Land clearing
activities;
Fauna in the
project area
Land clearing
& disposal
works
Monitoring
Methods and
Parameters
Frequency
Executing
Agency
Contractor‟s
report
No. of people
working in the
project
Survey &
observation;
Extent and
degree of
erosion;
Monthly
Contractor
DLL
Monthly
Contractor
DLL
Composition of
flora & fauna
Twice in a
year
Contractor
DlL
DLL
Environmental
Management
Cell of DLL
Contractor
DLL
DLL
DLL
Survey &
Half Yearly
observation;
Survival rate of
species planted;
Density of
vegetation
Excavation,
Surveys &
Monthly
disposal,
sample collection
sewage
and field
disposal, land measurements
clearing
for turbidity, pH,
activities
TDS, DO, and
other chemical
parameters
Operation of
Survey &
Monthly
DG sets,
observations;
transportation Levels of PM10,
of
SO2 and NOx
construction
materials,
road
construction,
construction
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Monitoring
Agency
260
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
S. No.
1.7
1.8
2.0
Aspect
Source of
Impact
of utilities
Public Health Dust, Noise,
Influx of
labours
Waste
Restoration
Management of disposal
sites and
construction
areas
Operation Phase
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Monitoring
Methods and
Parameters
Frequency
Executing
Agency
Regular medical
checkups
Quarterly
Contractors DLL
Status of
protection
measures
Half Yearly
Contractor
DLL
DLL
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
[Three nos
Peizeometric
Wells at
strategic
locations ]
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
2.1
Water Quality
& Quantity
Surface &
Ground water
quality within
the Project
Area
Surveys, sample
collection & field
measurement
Quarterly
2.2
Effluent
Quality
Quality of
effluent
discharged
and reused
ETP sample
collection &
quality analysis
2.3
Air Quality
Emission
from utility
and process
Air quality
monitoring at 2-3
locations at plant
boundary (SO2,
NOx, PM10, HF,
VOC)
Stack emission
monitoring
(Boiler, Process
& DG)
Daily
DLL
(Internal);
Monthly
(Third
Party)
Ambient DLL
Monthly
(24 hourly);
Monitoring
Agency
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
Stack –
Monthly
(third
party)
Monthly
2.4
Noise Levels
Noise levels
compliance
with respect
to industrial
standards
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Work area
ambient air
quality
monitoring as
per Factories
Rules
Ambient
Equivalent
Sound Pressure
Levels (Leq) at
day and Night
Monthly
DLL
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
261
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Aspect
Source of
Impact
2.5
Biological
Environment
2.6
Solid Waste
Management
Monitoring of
Occupational
Noise Levels
Horticulture/
Greenbelt
Development
Disposal of
waste
2.7
Hazardous
Waste
Management
Disposal of
Hazardous
Waste
S. No.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Monitoring
Methods and
Parameters
time at 4 to
6locations
Near the noise
generating
sources
Survival rate of
plants and
shrubs
Tracking of
waste collection,
segregation and
disposal
Tracking of
hazardous waste
collection,segreg
ation, storage
and disposal
Frequency
Executing
Agency
Fortnightly
DLL
Half Yearly
DLL
Fortnightly
DLL
Fortnightly
DLL
Monitoring
Agency
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
RSPCB (half
yearly
reporting)
(Source: DLL)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
262
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 6.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT
In this chapter, the possibilities of accidental events that may be encountered in the
operation phase of production are assessed. Details of the hazards and safety
measures have been identified using the technique of hazard analysis. The analysis
is based on known potential failure causes for storage vessels and pipelines and
case histories, type of operations to be carried out in the proposed project and past
experience of the consultant.
6.1.
Hazard Identification
6.1.1.
Hazard Associated with Process Industry
The project description, and other project related data provided by the client have been
comprehensively reviewed to identify the hazardous operations. Also the information on
the hazardous properties (MSDS) of all the chemicals handled at the site has been
reviewed to identify the hazards associated with the same.
6.1.2.
Planning
6.1.2.1
Event Classification and Modes of Failure
Hazards that can lead to accidents in operations are discussed in this section. Important
hazardous events are classified in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1 : Event Classification
Type of Event
BLEVE
Deflagration
Detonation
Explosion
Fire
Fireball
Flash Fire
Jet Fire
Pool Fire
Explanation
Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapor Explosion; may happen due to
catastrophic failure of refrigerated or pressurized gases or liquids
stored above their boiling points, followed by early ignition of the
same, typically leading to a fire ball
Is the same as detonation but with reaction occurring at less than
sonic velocity and initiation of the reaction at lower energy levels
A propagating chemical reaction of a substance in which the reaction
front advances in the unreacted substance at or greater than sonic
velocity in the unreacted material
A release of large amount of energy that form a blast wave
Fire
The burning of a flammable gas cloud on being immediately ignited
at the edge before forming a flammable/explosive mixture.
A flammable gas release gets ignited at the farthest edge resulting in
flash-back fire
A jet fire occurs when flammable gas releases from the pipeline (or
hole) and the released gas ignites immediately. Damage distance
depends on the operating pressure and the diameter of the hole or
opening flow rate.
Pool fire is a turbulent diffusion fire burning above a horizontal pool
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
263
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
of vaporizing hydrocarbon fuel where the fuel has zero or low initial
momentum
Spill Release
„Loss of containment‟. Release of fluid or gas to the surroundings
from unit‟s own equipment / tanks causing (potential) pollution and /
or risk of explosion and / or fire
Structural
Breakage or fatigue failures (mostly failures caused by weather but
Damage
not necessarily) of structural support and direct structural failures
Vapor
Cloud Explosion resulting from vapor clouds formed from flashing liquids or
Explosion
non-flashing liquids and gases
6.1.2.2
Hazard and Damage Assessment
Toxic, flammable and explosive substances released from sources of storage as a result
of failures or catastrophes, can cause losses in the surrounding area in the form of:
Toxic gas dispersion, resulting in toxic levels in ambient air,
Fires, fireballs, and flash back fires, resulting in a heat wave (radiation), or
Explosions (Vapour Cloud Explosions) resulting in blast waves (overpressure).
6.1.2.3
Consequences of Fire/Heat Wave
The effect of thermal radiation on people is mainly a function of intensity of radiation and
exposure time. The effect is expressed in term of the probability of death and different
degree of burn. The consequence effects studied to assess the impact of the events on
the receptors are:
Table 6.2 : Damage due to Radiation Intensity
2
Radiation (kW/m )
1.2
1.6
Damage to Equipment
Solar heat at noon
-
2.0
4.0
PVC insulated cable damage
-
6.4
12.5
16.0
25.0
37.5
Damage to People
Minimum
threshold
level
of
pain
Causes pain if duration is
longer than 20 sec. But
blistering is unlikely.
Pain threshold reached after
8 sec. Second degree burns
after 20 sec.
Minimum energy to ignite wood 1% lethality in one minute.
with a flame; melts plastic tubing.
First degree burns in 10 sec.
Severe burns after 5 sec.
Minimum energy to ignite wood at 100% lethality in 1 min.
identifying long exposure without a Significant injury in 10 sec.
flame.
Severe damage to plant
100% lethality in 1 min.
50% lethality in 20 sec.
1% lethality in 10 sec.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
264
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
6.1.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Consequences of Overpressure
The effects of the shock wave vary depending on the characteristics of the material, the
quantity involved and the degree of confinement of the vapor cloud. The peak pressures
in an explosion therefore vary between a slight over-pressure and a few hundred
kilopascals (kPa). Direct injury to people occurs at pressures of 5-10 (5E-5 to E-4) kPa
(with loss of life generally occurring at a greater over-pressure), whereas dwellings are
demolished and windows and doors broken at pressures of as low as 3-10 kPa. The
pressure of the shock wave decreases rapidly with the increase in distance from the
source of the explosion.
Table 6.3 : Overpressure Damage
Overpressure
(bar)
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.007
0.010
0.020
0.027
0.034
0.034 to 0.068
0.048
0.068
0.068 to 0.136
0.088
0.136
0.136 to 0.204
0.157
0.170
0.204
0.204 to 0.272
0.272
0.340
0.340 to 0.476
0.476
0.476 to 0.544
0.612
Damage
Annoying noise (137 dB if of low frequency 10-15 Hz)
Loud noise (143DB, sonic boom glass failure
Occasional breaking of large glass windows already under strain
Breakage of small windows under strain
Typical pressure for glass breakage
projectile limit; some damage to house ceilings; 10% window glass
broken
Limited minor structural damage
Large and small windows usually shattered; occasional damage to
window frames
Minor damage to house structures
Partial demolition of houses, made uninhabitable
Corrugated asbestos shattered; corrugated steel or aluminum
panels, fastenings fail, followed by buckling, wood panels (standard
housing) fastenings fail, panels blown in
Steel frame of clad building slightly distorted
Partial collapse of walls and roofs of houses
Concrete of cinder brick walls, not reinforced, shattered
Lower limit of serious structural damage
50% destruction of brickwork of houses
Heavy machines (3,000 lb) in industrial building suffered little
damage; steel frame building distorted and pulled away from
foundations.
Frameless, self -framing steel panel building demolished; rupture of
oil storage tanks
Cladding of light industrial buildings ruptured
Wooden utility poles snapped; tall hydraulic press (40,000 lb) in
building slightly damaged
Nearly complete destruction of houses
Loaded train wagons overturned
Brick panels, 8-12 inches thick, not reinforced; heavy machine tools
(7,000 lb) moved and badly
Loaded trains boxcars completely demolished
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
265
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
0.680
20.414
Probable total destruction of buildings; heavy machines tools
(7,000 lb) moved and badly damaged, very heavy machines tools
(12,000 lb) survived.
Limit of crater lip
Source: CCPS Consequence analysis of chemical release
6.1.4.
Consequences of Toxic Release
The effect of exposure to toxic substance depends upon the duration of exposure and
the concentration of the toxic substance.
Short-term exposures to high concentration may lead to acute effects while long term
exposures to low concentrations may result in chronic effects.
Some of the acute effects which might occur due to the exposures to high concentration
of hazardous chemicals include:
Irritation (respiratory system skin, eyes)
Narcosis (nervous system)
Asphyxiation (oxygen deficiency)
System damage (blood organs)
Following are some of the common terms used to express toxicity of materials.
Threshold Limit Value (TLV): it is the permitted level of exposure for a given period
on a weighted average basis(usually 8 hrs for 5 days in a week)
Short Time Exposure Limit (STEL): it is the permitted short term exposure limit
usually for a 15 minutes exposure.
Immediately Dangerous to life and health (IDLH): It represents the maximum
concentration of a chemical from which, in the event of respiratory failure, one could
escape within 30 minutes without a respirator and without experiencing any
escape/impairing (eg. Severe irritation) or irreversible health effects.
Lethal Concentration Low (LCLo): It is the lowest concentration of a material in air,
other that LC50, which has been reported to cause a death in human or animals.
Toxic Concentration Low (TCLo): It is the lowest concentration of a material in air, to
which humans or animals have been exposed for any given period of time that
produces toxic effects in humans or produced carcinogenic, neoplastigenic or
tetratogenic effect in humans or animals.
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines1 (EPRG1): The maximum airborne
concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed
for up to 1 hour (without a respirator) without experiencing other than mild transient
adverse health effects or without perceiving a clearly defined objectionable odor.
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines2 (ERPG2): The maximum airborne
concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
266
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious
health effects or symptoms that could impair their abilities to take protective action.
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines3 (ERPG3): The maximum airborne
concentration below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for
up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing life-threatening health effects.
6.1.5.
Meteorology
Atmospheric stability plays an important role in the dispersion of the chemicals. “Stability
means, its ability to suppress existing turbulence or to resist vertical motion”.
Variations in thermal and mechanical turbulence and in wind speed are greatest in the
atmospheric layer in contact with the surface. The air temperature has influenced these
turbulences greatly and air temperature decreases with the height. The rate at which the
temperature of air decreases with height is called Environment Lapse Rate (ELR). It will
vary from time to time and from place to place. The atmosphere is said to be stable,
neutral or unstable according to ELR less than, equal to or greater than Dry Adiabatic
Lapse Rate (DALR), which is a constant value of 0.98 oC per 100 meters.
Pasquill Stability Classes
Pasquill has defined Six (6) stability classes.
A
B
C
D
E
F
- Extremely unstable.
- Moderately unstable
- Slightly unstable.
- Neutral
- Slightly stable.
- Moderately stable.
Three prime factors that defines Stability
Solar radiation
Night-time sky over
Surface wind
When the atmosphere is unstable and wind speeds are moderate or high or gusty, rapid
dispersion of vapors will occur. Under these conditions, air concentrations will be
moderate or low and the material will be dispersed rapidly. When the atmosphere is
stable and wind speed is low, dispersion of material will be limited and air concentration
will be high.
Site Specific Meteorological Condition
Site-specific meteorological condition has been obtained using Indian Climatological
data
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
267
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Weather conditions selected are 1.5/B (prevalent during the night, most times of the
year), 2.0/E (prevalent during the day, most times of the year) and 4/D (prevalent during
the monsoon months). These situations cover most of the weather conditions possible at
the site.
6.1.6.
Consequences Analysis
The consequences of the release of Hazardous substances by failures or catastrophes
and the damage to the surrounding area can be determined by means of models.
Models help to calculate the physical effects resulting from the release of hazardous
substances and to translate the physical effects in terms of injuries and damage to
exposed population and environment. To assess the damage level caused by the
various accidental events, it is essential to firm up the damage criteria with respect to
different types of accidents e.g. thermal radiation, toxicity, explosion overpressure etc.
Consequence analysis involves the application of mathematical, analytical and computer
models for calculation of effects and damages subsequent to a hydrocarbon release
accident. Consequence models are used to predict the physical behavior of the
hazardous incidents. The techniques used to model the consequences of hydrocarbon
and other hazardous material releases cover the following:
Modeling of discharge rates when holes develop in process equipment/pipe
work/pipeline.
Modeling of the size and shape of flammable and toxic gas clouds from releases in
the atmosphere
Modeling of the flame and radiation field of the releases that are ignited and burn as
jet fire, pool fire, flash fire and BLEVE/Fire ball
Modeling of the explosion fields of releases, which are ignited away from the point of
release
The information normally required for consequence analysis includes meteorological
conditions, failure data of equipments and components, ignition sources, population
characteristics within and outside the plant, acceptable levels of risk etc.
MCAS Development Techniques
As a first step towards risk assessment is to identify the possible release scenarios
based on available information about scenario development for Maximum Credible
Accident Scenarios (MCAS).
Basis for Selecting the Material to be Studied for Consequence Assessment
Following points are considered while selecting the release scenarios:
Flammability and the flash point of the material
Phase of the material i.e. liquid or gas
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
268
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Threshold quantity of the chemical as prescribed in MSHIC Rule
Operating Temperature and Pressure of the material
Total inventory of the material
6.1.7.
Maximum Credible Risk Scenario (MCLS)
Emergency situations involving loss of containment of hazardous materials: For the
proposed facility, the following containment loss scenarios may be envisaged and are
listed below in Error! Reference source not found..
1. Emergency situations not involving loss of containment are generally more likely to
occur and the following are possible:
Falls due to working at heights (during construction/repair and maintenance)
Electric shock caused by contact with faulty electrical equipment, cables, etc.
Chronic health issues related to inhalation or ingestion of dust or chemical vapor
Falls on floors made slippery by aqueous solutions or solvents
Burns by splashes of liquids, by steam or hot vapors, by contact with hot surfaces
Exposure to adverse environmental factors (for e.g. high temperature)
Emergency situations involving containment failure as mentioned above have been
modeled for their consequence distances using the software „PHAST‟ version 6.7,
prepared by DNV Technica, UK.
Table 6.4 MCAS’ and Worst Case Scenario
Chemicals
Methylene chloride
Dimethylformamide
(DMF)
Methanol
Tetrahydrofuran (THF)
Acetone
Acetic Acid
Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)
Ethyl Acetate
Cyclohexane
Acetonitrile
Scenarios Considered
MCA Scenario
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
Leak
10 mm, 20 mm & 50 mm
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
eq. dia.
Worst Case Scenario
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
Tank
Catastrophic Rupture
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
of
269
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Leak
Methyl isobutyl ketone 10 mm,
(MIBK)
Leak
Toluene
10 mm,
Leak
n-Hexane
10 mm,
Leak
Bromine
10 mm,
Leak
Ethanol
10 mm,
Leak
Chlorine gas
10 mm,
Leak
Xylene
10 mm,
Leak
6.1.8.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
20 mm & 50 mm eq. dia.
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Catastrophic
Tank
Rupture of
Rupture of
Rupture of
Rupture of
Rupture of
Rupture of
Rupture of
Estimation of Risk in Terms of Fatality Probability and its Comparison
with Accepted Risk Criteria
The previous sections dealt with hazards associated with operations, development of
MCAS‟, frequency of occurrence of the MCAS‟ and consequence of the same. The
important point to consider here is that most of the events of the scale defined in the
MCAS‟ rarely take place, and therefore the fatalities or injuries mentioned normally do
not occur.
Risk is a function of both: the damage consequence as well as its likelihood of
occurrence. Fatality risk for the MCAS‟ and its comparison with their acceptability or
otherwise with internationally recognized yardsticks for measuring risk are described in
the following sections.
Failure Rates
A leak or rupture of the tank / pipe, releasing some or all of its contents, can be caused
by brittle failure of the tank walls, welds or connected pipe work due to use of inadequate
materials, combined with loading such as wind, earthquake or impact. The failure rates
are the deciding factor for selecting the MCAS‟. The failure rates for selected MCAS‟ are
given in Error! Reference source not found..
Table 6.5 Failure Frequencies for Storage Tanks
Categories
Catastrophic
Rupture Frequency
(per tank per year)
Tank 2.3 × 10-5
Refrigerated Storage
(Single Wall)
Refrigerated Storage Tank
(Double Walled)
Atmospheric Storage Tank
Pressure Vessels
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
2.5 × 10-8
3.0 × 10-6
4.7 × 10-7
Leak Frequency (per year)
1.0 × 10-5
1.0 × 10-5
(for primary containment)
2.8× 10-3
1.2 × 10-5 (for Hole Size 3 to 10
270
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
mm)
7.1 × 10-6 (for Hole Size 10 to
50 mm)
Reference: International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (OGP); Report No. 434-3,
March 2010
6.1.9.
Internationally Recognized Yardsticks for Measuring Risk
Risk assessment is considered using certain internationally recognized yardsticks for
measuring risk. These first need to be explained, and this is done as Error! Reference
source not found..
Table 6.6 Broadly Accepted Frequency
Annual Fatality risk level per year
10-3
Conclusion
Unacceptable to everyone. Immediate action shall
be taken to reduce the hazards
10-4
Willing to spend public money to control hazards,
such as traffic signs, fire departments etc
10-5
People still recognize. Safety slogans have
precautionary rings. Such as never swim alone,
never point a gun, avoid air travels
-6
10
Not of great concern to everyone. People are
aware of these hazards but feel that they cannot
happen to them. Such as Lightning Never Strikes
twice an Act of God.
ALARP: ALARP, short for „As Low AS Reasonably Practicable‟ refers to acceptability of
fatality risk per year, for employees. Health and Safety Executives (HSE) of UK have
developed the ALARP system. Based on ALARP, Fatality Risk can broadly be graded
into following levels, namely:
Tolerability Limits of Risk : 1 X 10-3 for onsite hazards per year
: 1 X 10-4 for offsite hazards per year
Broadly acceptable limit of Risk : 1 X 10-6 per year
The region between the tolerable & acceptable region is known as the “ALARP
REGION” wherein efforts should be made to minimize risk. Risks are not acceptable
above tolerating limits.
6.2.
Consequences of Containment Failure and Release of Material into
Environment
6.2.1.
Release of Methanol into Environment
Release of Methanol into environment is given in Error! Reference source not found..
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
271
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 6.7 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of Methanol
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
Consequence Met
Data
10 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
100% Rupture
Liquid
Late Pool fire
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
16.8
14.2
NR
NR
17.6
14.9
NR
NR
15.3
12.7
10.4
NR
21.3
16.4
11.7
21.2
16.2
11.2
21.5
17.3
13.4
50.0
36.7
25.8
NR
51.0
37.1
25.1
NR
48.6
37.0
27.5
NR
29.3
24.6
19.6
NR
30.3
25.6
NR
NR
26.8
22.3
18.4
NR
37.4
28.1
20.3
36.9
27.4
18.9
37.3
29.1
22.3
92.9
67.3
47.0
29.0
94.3
67.6
45.6
29.0
89.8
67.3
49.2
29.1
56.2
47.1
38.4
NR
57.7
48.7
38.9
NR
53.0
43.8
36.1
NR
81.6
59.9
42.6
27.2
81.0
58.9
40.5
26.6
79.5
60.1
44.4
26.8
148.6
107.5
75.3
46.7
147.6
106.1
72.2
46.1
145.5
108.1
78.4
46.4
1432.7 1057.5 766.8 539.8
1444.9 1065.4 766.3 548.0
1456.4 1095.3 822.9 592.3
Table 6.8 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
Methanol
Failure Scenarios
10 mm Hole in
the Tank
20 mm Hole in
Met.
Data
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Effect Distance in Meters to Toxic Dose
6000 ppm
ERPG 1
ERPG 2
ERPG 3
(IDLH)
(200)
(1000)
(5000)
41.3
91.9
54.1
34.8
63.8
271.4
100.0
52.0
16.5
91.3
36.4
13.0
76.01
177.5
98.2
67.5
272
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
the Tank
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
50 mm Hole in
the Tank
Catastrophic
Rupture
109.3
54.2
103.1
162.8
88.7
48.9
48.7
60.3
537.5
203.4
353.7
1076.0
405.9
1088.4
2787.3
2001.5
202.2
86.9
161.7
367.6
158.6
99.4
116.9
105.3
90.3
42.9
86.5
116.7
68.9
11.5
11.4
NH
Table 6.9 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of Methanol
Failure Scenariouis
Met. Data Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
0.21
0.41
1
bar
bar
bar
bar
20 mm Leak in Tank:
3.0/B
52.4
34.3
32.8
31.7
Late Ignition
2.0/E
50.2
33.9
32.6
31.5
7.0/D
23.0
12.5
11.6
11.0
50 mm Leak in Tank:
3.0/B
48.0
33.4
32.3
31.4
Late Ignition
2.0/E
48.5
33.5
32.3
34.4
7.0/D
35.8
23.6
22.0
21.2
Catastrophic Rupture of Tank: 3.0/B
988.4
254.3
196.3
149.9
Late Ignition
2.0/E
959.9
258.1
202.1
161.2
7.0/D
958.7
290.3
274.1
264.5
6.2.2.
Release of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) into Environment
Release of THF into environment is given in Error! Reference source not found.
Table 6.10 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of THF
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Consequence Met
Data
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Jet fire
Early pool fire
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
kw/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
17.3
11.8
7.0
NR
17.1
11.1
6.6
NR
16.3
11.5
8.1
5.8
31.1
24.1
18.3
11.8
28.4
21.1
15.0
8.8
36.5
30.4
25.1
18.5
71.6
51.9
25.2
NR
68.1
46.5
21.4
NR
80.2
61.7
33.4
NR
33.3
22.5
13.4
7.2
31.9
20.8
12.6
NR
32.7
22.9
15.7
10.9
46.9
35.9
26.6
16.0
273
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
100% Rupture
Liquid
Late Pool fire
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
41.3
53.3
103.8
95.3
115.3
70.9
64.1
68.3
65.1
61.9
78.2
101.7
96.4
118.2
1255.8
1233.3
1335.6
30.0
43.7
72.6
62.3
88.2
47.7
41.9
48.0
48.0
43.9
62.1
70.5
63.3
91.1
865.5
836.7
978.9
20.0
35.4
33.5
27.5
41.4
28.5
25.5
31.9
26.7
22.9
41.9
31.4
28.6
44.3
562.5
566.9
583.0
10.4
23.33
NR
NR
NR
16.8
9.4
20.5
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Table 6.11 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Release
Due to THF
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
Catastrophic 3.0/B
Rupture of
2.0/E
Tank:
7.0/D
Late Ignition
6.2.3.
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
0.21
0.41
1
bar
bar
bar
bar
353.7
116.7
97.8
82.7
330.5
112.2
94.8
80.9
398.0
141.4
121.0
104.6
Release of Toluene into Environment
Release of Toluene into environment is given in Error! Reference source not found.
Table 6.12 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of Toluene
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Consequence Met
Data
Jet fire
Early pool fire
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
3.0/B 21.6
14.7
7.35
37.5
2.0/E 21.6
14.0
7.29
NR
7.0/D 20.6
14.4
9.84
7.12
3.0/B 31.2
24.5
18.9
12.9
2.0/E 27.8
20.8
15.0
9.19
7.0/D 36.7
30.8
25.8
19.8
274
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
Liquid
Late Pool fire
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
72.3
68.2
80.1
41.3
39.8
40.9
45.6
41.1
50.9
106.6
101.3
115.4
90.3
84.8
86.4
65.4
62.1
77.9
135.2
129.3
153.2
133.0
131.1
152.2
52.8
47.3
61.6
27.8
25.9
28.4
34.9
29.8
41.6
75.0
66.9
87.8
60.3
55.2
60.1
48.2
44.5
62.3
93.3
85.0
116.3
91.1
86.8
115.3
27.7
22.7
37.0
16.5
15.6
19.2
25.9
20.4
33.5
33.8
28.9
41.1
35.7
33.3
39.3
28.7
24.7
45.3
40.8
37.6
54.6
38.5
39.4
53.6
NR
NR
NR
9.33
NR
13.1
15.8
11.0
22.5
NR
NR
NR
21.4
14.3
25.1
17.9
15.8
29.9
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Table 6.13 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
Toluene
Failure Scenarios
Met.
Data
10 mm Hole in 3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
7.0/D
20 mm Hole in 3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
Effect Distance in Meters to Toxic Dose
500 ppm
ERPG 1
ERPG 2
(IDLH)
(50)
(300)
7.9
57.1
12.5
38.8
255.0
50.4
12.0
75.9
13.4
29.5
132.8
37.0
104.7
478.0
118.7
ERPG 3
(1000)
NH
NH
NH
9.62
67.9
7.0/D
50 mm Hole in 3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
7.0/D
Catastrophic
3.0/B
Rupture
2.0/E
16.3
92.4
21.6
91.9
418.0
435.1
15.1
54.1
148.9
33.65
132.3
290.8
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
172.6
320.4
991.4
449.5
818.3
1473.0
17.0
107.0
260.5
114.0
424.8
470.3
275
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
7.0/D
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
200.4
836.5
210.4
90.3
Table 6.14 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Release
Due to Toluene
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
0.02
bar
701.1
Catastrophic
3.0/B
Rupture
of
2.0/E
Tank:
Late Ignition 7.0/D
6.2.4.
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.21
0.41
1
bar
bar
bar
191.9
151.3
146.4
732.1
302.0
281.1
269.3
698.3
201.1
170.8
158.6
Release of Acetic Acid into Environment
Release of Acetic Acid into environment is given in Error! Reference source not found.
Table 6.15 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of Acetic Acid
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
20 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
50 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Consequence Met
Data
Jet fire
Jet fire
Jet fire
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
kw/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
37.5
kW/m2
3.0/B
32.4
25.8
20.5
16.8
2.0/E
34.1
27.4
22.0
18.0
7.0/D
29.3
22.9
17.9
14.7
3.0/B
60.5
47.9
37.9
31.2
2.0/E
63.5
50.9
40.6
33.5
7.0/D
55.0
42.8
33.2
27.3
3.0/B
137.3
108.0
84.7
69.8
2.0/E
143.9
114.4
90.7
75.1
7.0/D
125.4
96.9
74.5
60.9
Table 6.16 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of Acetic Acid
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
10 mm Leak 3.0/B
in
Tank: 2.0/E
Late Ignition 7.0/D
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
0.21
0.41
bar
bar
bar
90.8
49.8
46.5
129.0
73.3
68.8
66.6
37.0
34.7
1
bar
43.9
65.3
32.8
276
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
20 mm Leak
in
Tank:
Late Ignition
50 mm Leak
in
Tank:
Late Ignition
Catastrophic
Rupture of
Tank: Late
Ignition
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
179.1
238.4
160.5
411.3
528.7
390.6
603.5
336.7
245.6
99.1
126.7
95.5
216.6
247.3
236.8
103.9
778.0
778.2
92.7
117.8
90.3
201.1
224.9
224.5
909.7
575.7
594.4
87.6
110.7
86.2
188.7
207.0
214.7
754.4
414.0
453.1
Table 6.17 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
Acetic Acid
Failure Scenarios
Met. Data
10 mm Hole in the
Tank
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
20 mm Hole in the
Tank
50 mm Hole in
the Tank
Catastrophic
Rupture
6.2.5.
Effect Distance in Meters to Toxic Dose
50
ERPG 1
ERPG 2
ERPG 3
ppm (IDLH)
(5)
(25)
(225)
451.8
994.4
451.8
132.7
227.1
833.2
227.1
607.9
660.9
665.0
660.9
187.6
807.6
425.9
807.6
320.4
744.3
658
744.3
431.3
547.0
897.4
547.0
463.0
690.4
768.4
690.4
787.6
725.5
751.9
725.5
465.8
344.8
979.1
844.8
591.3
612.8
930.6
912.8
629.1
920.5
729.8
920.5
612.8
307.5
608.1
927.5
625.4
Release of Acetone into Environment
Release of Acetone into environment is given in Error! Reference source not found.
Table 6.18 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of Acetone
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Consequen
ce
Jet fire
Met Effective Distance in meter to
Data Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m kW/m kW/m kW/m
3.0/
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
2
2
2
2
23.8
15.7
9.55
NR
23.0
15.0
7.27
NR
23.3
16.9
11.6
7.76
277
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Early
fire
20 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
461.
50
mm 462.
Hole in Storage id
Tank
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Liqu
pool 3.0/
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Late
pool 3.0/
fire
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Jet fire
3.0/
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Early pool 3.0/
fire
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Late
pool 3.0/
fire
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Jet fire
3.0/
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Early pool 3.0/
fire
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
Late
pool 3.0/
fire
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
24.8
20.0
15.9
11.3
21.5
16.5
12.2
8.12
30.6
26.5
23.0
17.6
62.5
46.0
32.6
19.4
62.3
44.1
29.6
16.1
64.4
50.5
38.8
26.2
45.4
29.9
18.3
NR
44.1
28.9
15.8
NR
44.9
32.0
21.3
14.0
40.4
31.4
24.0
15.4
36.2
26.6
18.7
10.6
47.5
39.7
33.0
24.1
116.9
83.7
57.3
35.7
118.8
82.4
53.8
30.7
115.4
87.5
64.7
46.2
106.2
69.6
42.5
15.3
103.5
68.0
39.0
7.63
106.5
74.1
47.5
30.7
83.4
61.3
43.4
27.1
80.9
57.2
38.3
21.8
89.3
70.0
54.1
39.0
178.5
126.2
84.8
54.8
173.8
120.0
77.8
46.2
184.2
136.4
98.0
72.6
278
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
463.
Catastrop
hic Rupture
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
464.
Liquid
Late
fire
Pool 3.0/
B
2.0/
E
7.0/
D
1632.
3
1648.
1
1620.
4
1130.
1
1138.
1
1143.
4
736.0
489.7
735.2
479.7
765.0
542.5
Table 6.19 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
Acetone
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
50 mm Leak 3.0/B
in Tank:
2.0/E
Late Ignition 7.0/D
Catastrophic 3.0/B
Rupture of 2.0/E
Tank:
7.0/D
Late Ignition
6.2.6.
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
bar
94.5
110.1
86.8
0.21
bar
26.3
37.4
32.9
0.41
bar
20.9
31.6
28.6
1
bar
16.5
26.9
25.1
1212.4
1418.3
1213.2
547.4
709.9
548.6
510.0
665.9
534.3
485.5
631.6
532.6
Release of Dimethyl Formamide (DMF) into the Environment
Release of DMF into Environment is given in Error! Reference source not found.
Table 6.20 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of DMF
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Consequence Met
Data
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Jet fire
Early pool fire
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
20.9
16.4
12.8
10.5
21.6
17.1
13.5
11.0
19.7
15.2
11.6
9.4
27.5
20.7
14.9
8.7
27.6
20.3
14.3
8.3
26.9
20.9
15.8
9.6
64.9
46.4
23.6
NR
64.8
44.9
21.8
NR
65.4
48.4
27.7
NR
36.4
28.5
22.2
18.2
37.2
29.4
23.1
19.0
34.6
26.6
20.3
16.5
41.7
30.6
21.3
10.7
41.2
29.6
19.8
10.1
279
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
Liquid
Late Pool fire
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
41.0
94.9
94.6
96.7
69.1
68.9
68.2
64.1
62.5
65.7
134.2
129.9
140.7
134.9
132.1
1098.4
31.3
65.5
62.1
71.2
53.7
54.1
51.9
46.4
44.3
49.3
91.3
84.6
103.1
92.0
86.7
801.5
23.0
26.9
26.2
27.9
41.5
42.3
39.3
25.9
23.6
30.4
38.1
36.6
40.0
38.8
38.7
420.6
11.3
NR
NR
NR
34.0
34.8
31.9
15.3
15.7
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Table 6.21 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
DMF
Failure Scenarios
Met.
Data
Effect Distance in Meters to Toxic Dose
500
ERPG 1
ERPG 2
ERPG 3
ppm (IDLH)
(50)
(150)
(1000)
10 mm Hole in 3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
53.9
120.0
75.0
40.9
98.5
382.0
185.5
54.4
7.0/D
51.0
152.3
82.2
27.5
3.0/B
100.9
237.0
141.9
77.8
2.0/E
177.5
685.7
325.0
97.3
7.0/D
102.5
319.3
169.4
61.0
3.0/B
148.8
397.1
224.5
101.5
2.0/E
294.4
1226.9
552.2
150.7
7.0/D
185.9
601.9
313.0
101.5
3.0/B
517.3
923.9
672.9
354.8
2.0/E
704.8
2267.3
1088.9
469.9
7.0/D
843.4
3161.0
1209.7
485.4
20 mm Hole in
the Tank
50 mm Hole in
the Tank
Catastrophic
Rupture
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
280
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 6.22 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of DMF
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
0.21
0.41
bar
bar
bar
39.5
23.7
22.5
67.4
37.2
34.8
23.4
12.5
11.7
1
bar
21.5
32.9
11.0
10 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late
Ignition
20 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
117.1
155.1
62.6
62.9
78.3
36.3
58.6
72.2
34.2
55.2
67.3
32.5
50 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
Catastrophic
Rupture of
Tank: Late
Ignition
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
143.6
217.6
102.7
1108.1
1167.7
1170.2
76.1
106.6
60.1
461.8
535.9
605.0
70.7
97.7
56.7
424.2
494.2
600.0
66.4
90.6
54.0
400.2
464.6
596.0
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
281
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
6.2.7.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Release of Ethanol into Environment
Release of Ethanol into Environment is given inError! Reference source not found..
Table 6.23 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of Ethanol
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
Consequence
Met
Data
10 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
Liquid
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Late Pool fire
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
15.4
12.6
10.2
NR
16.0
13.2
10.7
NR
14.3
11.5
9.2
8.3
23.5
17.8
13.1
8.2
23.5
17.5
12.6
8.2
23.6
18.7
14.5
8.9
72.5
51.8
35.3
18.6
73.9
52.0
34.8
18.3
69.9
51.6
36.5
19.8
26.7
21.9
17.7
NR
27.5
22.7
18.5
NR
25.0
20.1
16.1
13.4
41.5
30.6
21.8
12.0
41.6
30.2
21.0
12.0
40.9
31.3
23.2
12.6
134.7
95.1
64.1
37.1
137.1
95.7
63.3
35.7
129.6
94.2
65.5
40.8
50.4
41.0
33.2
NR
51.0
41.9
34.1
NR
48.8
39.0
31.2
26.0
90.9
65.2
44.8
25.2
91.3
64.6
43.7
24.4
89.1
66.0
47.0
27.6
209.6
147.5
99.0
61.1
209.8
146.1
96.7
57.6
205.5
148.3
102.5
70.2
2070.0 1472.3 1010.2 714.1
2082.5 1481.4 1008.6 703.4
2073.1 1499.1 1048.8 787.0
282
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 6.24 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of Ethanol
Failure
Scenariouis
20 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
Met. Data
50 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
Catastrophic
Rupture of
Tank: Late
Ignition
6.2.8.
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02bar
0.21bar
0.41bar
55.8
34.9
33.3
52.9
34.4
32.9
22.9
12.5
11.6
1bar
32.0
31.7
11.0
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
31.7
55.4
32.0
70.0
82.5
83.1
20.9
31.9
20.9
34.1
03.4
107.0
22.2
34.9
22.3
72.3
81.4
99.1
21.5
33.2
21.5
40.2
88.6
104.8
Release of Xylene into the Environment
Release of Xylene into the environment is given inError! Reference source not found..
Table 6.25 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of Xylene
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Consequence Met
Data
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
10.6
8.28
6.25
5.66
10.8
8.49
6.49
6.04
10.1
7.74
5.74
4.27
28.6
21.4
15.4
8.99
28.7
21.0
14.8
8.57
28.3
21.9
16.6
10.2
41.4
30.1
20.7
9.95
41.2
29.4
19.5
9.61
41.2
31.3
22.8
11.0
18.1
14.1
10.9
8.8
18.3
14.4
11.2
9.2
17.5
13.4
10.1
8.1
42.3
31.0
21.5
10.7
42.1
30.3
20.3
10.4
41.9
32.0
23.5
11.5
42.3
31.0
21.5
10.7
42.1
30.3
20.3
10.4
41.9
32.0
23.5
11.5
32.8
25.4
19.6
16.0
32.2
25.3
19.7
16.2
32.9
25.0
18.9
15.3
43.8
32.5
22.9
12.1
283
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
6.2.9.
Liquid
Late Pool fire
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
43.6
43.5
43.8
43.6
43.5
37.5
37.2
37.0
31.7
33.5
32.5
31.7
33.5
26.1
25.3
27.0
21.7
24.9
22.9
21.7
24.9
16.5
15.2
18.4
11.7
12.1
12.1
11.7
12.1
5.64
5.35
6.19
Release of MIBK into Environment
Release of MIBK into the environment is given in Error! Reference source not found..
Table 6.26 Radiation Level and Effective Distance Due to
Release of MIBK
Failure
Scenarios
Met.
Data
10 mm Hole in 3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
7.0/D
25 mm Hole in
3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
7.0/D
50 mm Hole in
3.0/B
the Tank
2.0/E
7.0/D
Catastrophic
3.0/B
Rupture
2.0/E
7.0/D
Effect Distance in Meters to Toxic Dose
400
ERPG 1
ERPG 2
ERPG 3
ppm
(50)
(250)
(750)
(IDLH)
55.4
120.0
62.0
48.7
88.2
336.8
103.3
70.7
52.3
151.3
62.6
38.3
134.8
287.6
144.5
116.5
193.4
749.0
240.6
157.2
130.4
387.7
156.3
102.3
187.6
450.6
208.1
160.8
294.4
1180.1
365.5
226.5
215.2
678.6
259.2
155.9
1077.8
1847.6
1255.7
932.4
1260.8
2312.1
1503.7
1048.6
1558.4
5927.6
1703.3
1361.6
Table 6.27 Radiation Level and Effect Distances Due to Release
of MIBK
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
10 mm Hole in Liquid
Storage Tank
Consequence Met
Data
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
3.0/B 10.6
8.28
6.25
5.66
2.0/E 10.8
8.49
6.49
6.04
7.0/D 10.1
7.74
5.74
4.27
3.0/B 28.6
21.4
15.4
8.99
2.0/E 28.7
21.0
14.8
8.57
7.0/D 28.3
21.9
16.6
10.2
3.0/B 41.4
30.1
20.7
9.95
2.0/E 41.2
29.4
19.5
9.61
7.0/D 41.2
31.3
22.8
11.0
284
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
20 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
6.2.10.
Liquid
Late Pool fire
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
18.1
18.3
17.5
42.3
42.1
41.9
42.3
42.1
41.9
32.8
32.2
32.9
43.8
43.6
43.5
43.8
43.6
43.5
37.5
37.2
37.0
14.1
14.4
13.4
31.0
30.3
32.0
31.0
30.3
32.0
25.4
25.3
25.0
32.5
31.7
33.5
32.5
31.7
33.5
26.1
25.3
27.0
10.9
11.2
10.1
21.5
20.3
23.5
21.5
20.3
23.5
19.6
19.7
18.9
22.9
21.7
24.9
22.9
21.7
24.9
16.5
15.2
18.4
8.8
9.2
8.1
10.7
10.4
11.5
10.7
10.4
11.5
16.0
16.2
15.3
12.1
11.7
12.1
12.1
11.7
12.1
5.64
5.35
6.19
Release of Cyclohexane into the Environment
Release of Cyclohexane into Environment is given in Error! Reference source not found..
Table 6.28 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
Cyclohexane
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
Consequence Met
Data
10 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
KW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2 kW/m2
26.8
20.7
15.9
12.9
27.3
21.4
16.6
13.6
23.5
19.2
14.5
11.6
25.2
19.1
13.9
8.1
25.4
18.8
13.4
7.8
25.7
20.3
15.8
10.0
62.3
44.5
24.4
12.3
62.7
43.7
22.2
12.8
62.6
46.9
30.6
13.0
46.9
36.1
27.7
22.5
47.8
37.2
28.8
23.6
45.1
34.0
25.5
20.4
39.3
29.1
20.4
10.6
38.8
28.0
18.8
9.8
39.2
30.4
22.6
12.1
88.7
61.1
25.1
NR
285
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
50 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
Liquid
Late Pool fire
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
88.8
90.4
92.2
92.5
91.3
63.2
61.8
64.8
122.9
118.6
130.1
122.1
118.6
138.1
57.8
66.8
70.5
71.5
68.0
45.9
44.2
49.2
82.6
76.1
95.4
81.9
76.1
103.4
24.0
27.9
53.5
55.0
50.5
27.1
24.9
33.0
33.5
32.3
35.9
32.8
32.4
43.9
NR
NR
43.3
44.9
40.2
14.4
14.3
15.3
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Table 6.29 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of Cyclohexane
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
10 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
20 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
50 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late
Ignition
Catastrophic
Rupture of
Tank: Late
Ignition
6.2.11.
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
0.21
0.41
bar
bar
bar
42.8
24.4
22.9
69.8
37.6
35.1
26.3
13.1
12.1
121.9
63.8
59.2
160.8
79.4
73.0
90.0
49.6
46.4
166.7
88.6
82.4
229.4
116.9
107.9
130.7
73.6
69.1
1
bar
21.7
33.0
11.2
55.5
67.8
43.8
77.5
100.8
65.4
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
1333.35
1419
1303.2
477.8
552.8
533.0
558.2
646.7
580.3
510.5
594.5
551.5
Release of Iso Propyl Alcohol into the Environment
Release of IPA into Environment is given in Error! Reference source not found..
Table 6.30 Radiation Level and Effect Distance Due to Release
of IPA
Scenario
Description
Release
Phase
Consequence
Met
Data
10 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Effective Distance in meter to
Radiation Level
1.6
4
12.5
37.5
2
2
2
2
KW/m
kW/m
kW/m
kW/m
15.6
12.5
9.9
NR
16.0
13.0
10.4
NR
14.5
11.5
9.0
7.63
286
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
20 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
50 mm Hole in
Storage Tank
Liquid
Jet fire
Early pool fire
Late pool fire
Catastrophic
Rupture
Liquid
Late Pool fire
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
24.6
24.6
24.6
86.7
88.5
83.3
26.9
27.5
25.4
43.6
43.8
18.6
18.3
19.4
61.3
61.7
60.8
21.6
22.3
20.0
32.0
31.6
13.6
13.1
14.6
41.1
40.6
60.8
17.2
18.0
15.7
22.6
21.9
7.9
7.9
8.5
23.8
22.8
26.9
14.0
NR
13.0
12.6
12.2
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
43.1
161.6
164.7
155.3
50.6
50.7
49.6
96.3
96.7
93.6
342.0
342.2
334.5
3315.8
3336.5
3312.3
32.8
113.1
113.9
11.6
40.3
40.9
38.8
68.7
68.0
68.6
237.7
235.7
237.1
2343.8
2357.6
2372.9
24.2
74.8
74.2
76.8
32.1
32.8
30.3
46.7
45.5
48.5
156.6
153.0
160.4
1582.7
1582.0
1629.5
13.9
47.3
44.7
54.0
26.4
26.6
25.1
28.3
26.7
32.0
102.0
96.1
113.6
115.3
1102.7
1202.1
Table 6.31 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of IPA
Failure
Scenariouis
Met. Data
10 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
20 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
50 mm Leak
in Tank:
Late Ignition
Catastrophic
Rupture of
Tank: Late
Ignition
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.02
0.21
0.41
bar
bar
bar
18.0
11.5
11.0
33.3
22.5
21.7
53.1
34.4
32.9
78.3
47.4
44.9
37.1
23.3
22.2
73.8
46.5
44.3
144.3
76.2
70.8
60.0
35.8
33.8
1020.8
502.0
491.3
1226.1
743.3
727.1
1013.2
348.6
330.6
1
bar
10.6
21.0
31.7
42.9
21.3
42.6
66.5
32.3
482.8
716.3
318.4
287
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
6.2.12.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Release of Hexane into Environment
Release of Hexane into Environment is given inError! Reference source not found..
Table 6.32 Radiation Level and Effect Distance Due to Release
of Hexane
Failure
Scenarios
Consequen
ces
2 mm
release
Jet fire
10 mm
Releas
e
Jet fire
Early
Pool
Fire
Late
pool fire
Catastr
ophic
Ruptur
e
Late
pool fire
Met.
Data
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
Effective Distance in meters to Radiation
Level
2
1.6
4 kW/m
12.5
37.5
kW/m2
kW/m2
kW/m2
8.82
6.86
5.11
3.94
8.48
6.50
4.77
3.52
8.22
6.25
4.25
3.23
38.99
30.49
23.76
19.55
37.64
29.06
22.30
18.14
36.59
28.02
18.14
17.18
25.12
19.91
15.50
10.87
21.40
18.04
15.14
11.67
21.56
18.62
16.06
12.84
53.08
38.89
24.48
13.32
41.21
31.68
23.46
14.18
39.89
31.58
24.35
15.32
187.20
116.58
57.37
NR
192.47
123.61
54.17
NR
203.49
137.26
60.35
NR
Table 6.33 Overpressure Distance for Explosion and Due to
Release of Hexane
Failure
Scenarios
10 mm
Catastrophi
c Rupture
Met.
Data
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
3.0/B
2.0/E
7.0/D
0.02 bar
123.31
81.91
68.28
2015.33
1886.71
1866.65
Overpressure Distances in Meters
0.21 bar
0.41 bar
1 bar
64.16
59.59
55.68
48.09
45.48
43.25
37.39
35.00
32.96
972.12
897.88
837.67
857.17
790.93
740.67
834.55
772.07
727.35
Table 6.34 Effect Distance and Toxic Dose Due to Release of
Hexane
Failure Scenarios
Met.
Data
2 mm Release
2.0/F
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Effect Distance in Meters to Toxic Dose (in ppm)
IDLH
ERPG 1
ERPG 2
ERPG 3
(1100)
(150)
(250)
(1100)
18.25
56.65
31.66
18.16
288
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
10 mm Release
Catastrophic
Rupture
6.3.
3.0/C
4.0/D
2.0/F
3.0/C
4.0/D
2.0/F
3.0/C
4.0/D
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
NH
NH
85.65
75.85
74.39
1186.49
1170.09
1219.64
19.58
20.36
241.64
123.61
132.58
2520.24
1964.15
2100.19
13.52
12.57
143.63
103.47
106.58
2036.45
1773.52
1796.91
NH
NH
85.18
75.15
73.80
1186.49
1175.50
1222.79
Component Wise Environment Risk Assessment and Mitigation
A component wise approach to environmental risk assessment and mitigation is
mentioned below. For each environmental component this is carried through a series of
steps as follows.
Step 1: Review and Assessment of the Specific Aspects Generating
Environmental Risk
Several scientific techniques and methodologies are also used to predict impacts on the
environment. Mathematical models are useful tools (where applicable) to quantitatively
describe the cause and effect relationships between sources of pollution and different
components of environment. In cases where it is not possible to identify and validate a
model for a particular situation, predictions have been arrived at based on logical
reasoning / consultation / extrapolation or overlay methods.
Step 2: Quantifying the Environmental Risk, Identifying Aspects Causing
Unacceptable Levels of Risk and Prioritizing Aspects Requiring Mitigation
Measures
Efforts are made to compare different impacts so as to prioritize mitigation measures.
For ease of comparison across different activities, environmental risk score is calculated.
Two key elements are taken into consideration based on standard environmental risk
assessment methodologies:
Severity / consequence: the resultant effect of an activity and its interaction with the
physical, biological and/or socio-economic environments
Probability: the likelihood that an impact may occur due to the project activity/aspect
6.4.
Consequence Analysis Summary
The effect of jet fire and late pool fire due to 10 mm & 25 mm leak scenario is
confined to the site boundary
The possibility of cascade effect of tank fire is reduced to an extent by providing
bund to each tank
The centre of effective distances of Maximum Credible Loss Scenarios of 50 mm &
Catastrophic rupture (worst case scenario) of tank would lead to release of
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
289
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
chemicals into the environment, such as Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Methanol,
Ethanol, Ammonia and Pyridine within the site boundary
The risk contour of late explosion of tank, would result in release of chemicals into
environment such as Ethanol and Ammonia on site layout. This clearly indicates that
the centre of explosion lies from the site or any neighboring industrial facility.
A concrete wall of a good fire rating capacity will be erected along the site boundary
and development of green belt along the site periphery is also envisaged
Spillage will be transferred to vacant tank to restrict the spreading of pool
Some of the ways of preventing emergencies are as follows:
Preparation of a Preventive Maintenance Schedule Programme covering
maintenance schedules for all critical equipments and instruments as per
recommendations of the manufacturers user manuals.
Establishment of a computerized Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis
(FMECA) or similar procedure to generate data on failures of critical equipments
and instruments based on mode wise failures and their criticality. This requires
codification of equipments, instruments and their modes of failure and their
criticality.
Establishment of a Non Destructive Testing (NDT) system as necessary. This
may not be feasible in-house but there are specialized organizations who
undertake the work, and the same may be used.
Collection and analysis of information pertaining to minor incidents and accidents
at the site, as well as for recording near-misses or emergencies that were
averted. This information gives an indication of how likely or unlikely it is for the
site to face actual emergencies and what should be further done to prevent them
from occurring.
Establishment of an ongoing training and evaluation programme, incorporating
the development of capabilities amongst employees about potential
emergencies, ways, means of identifying and averting the same. Most
emergencies do not occur without some incident or an abnormal situation. So
there is always sometime of few seconds to few minutes to arrest an incident of
abnormal situation from turning in to an emergency. This is the role of the shift incharge who is the incident controller (IC) along with his shift team.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
290
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
6.4.1.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Treatment and Control Actions
Treatment and Controls
After examining the high priority risks, prime consideration is given to the potential to
reduce or eliminate the risk by using the hierarchy of controls. This assists in
establishing methods to reduce risk. From experience, the effectiveness of each method
is given as a percentage after each of the control descriptions. The desirability of control
plans (with reducing effectiveness) is as follows:
Elimination: Remove step to eliminate the hazard completely
Substitution: Replace with less hazardous material, substance or process
Separation: Isolate hazard from person by guarding, space or time separation
Administration: Adjusting the time or conditions of risk exposures
Training: Increasing awareness, improving skills and making tasks less hazardous to
persons involved.
Personnel protective equipment: Used as the last resort, appropriately designed and
properly fitted equipment, where other controls are not practicable.
Control measures can reduce either the likelihood or consequence of the event or both.
Depending on the level of reduction of the hazard, there could still be a residual risk that
needs to be monitored so that a secondary prevention process can be initiated when
trigger points are reached.
Mitigation Measures Suggested
Following points are the available and suggested mitigation measures:
Usage of dragger tubes to check the level of pollutants and to detect the leakages
Provision of wind sock to know the direction of wind in case there is a leak
Dyke of sufficient capacity to be constructed for all toxic and flammable materials
Usage of spark arrestor muffler for the vehicles entering the plant battery limits area.
Procure and train the persons in use of air breather mask and self contained air
breather escape mask.
Keep the MSDS of all the hazardous material handy.
The pumps with mechanical seals are to be used as far as possible to reduce air
pollution due to VOC‟s.
Ensure periodical checking of gaskets and monitoring of emergency response
system
Provide blinds end flanges, wherever there are flanges, blinds shall be provided
No ignition source shall be located within 50 meter radius of the Acetaldehyde,
Formaldehyde, Ethanol Methanol, Ammonia and Pyridine Storage Tank
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
291
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The SOPs‟ to be followed strictly for effective implementation of the system
Ensure preventive maintenance of critical equipment and T & P elements
Earthing connection point should not be painted
Anti-static footwear shall be used
Static build-up on tires of tanker carrying flammable material is to be discharged
Breath analyzer to be provided for testing of drunken state of the employees
Thus, it can be concluded on a positive note that after the implementation of the
mitigation measures and Disaster Management Plan, the project activities of Dhanuka
Laboratories Ltd. will have negligible impact on environment due to any accident.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
292
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 7.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN
The Disaster Management Plan (DMP) is a guide, giving general considerations,
directions and procedures for handling emergencies likely to arise from planned
operations. Site specific documentation and demonstration of suitable implementation
of the DMP is described in the annexure following DMP. The Annexure, being site
specific, will require to be updated once the actual site operations are underway.
The DMP must also be revaluated prior to start of operations and the Plant Manager
shall be responsible for carrying out the same requirement. The DMP has been
prepared for Dhanuka Laboratories Limited on the basis of the Risk Assessment and
related findings covered in the earlier chapters of this report.
The results of consequence assessment for the credible scenarios indicate that the risk
contours are confined within the site boundary only.
7.1.
Disaster Management Plan: Structure
The DMP is a dynamic, changing, document which focuses on continual improvement
of emergency response planning and arrangement. A structure working on a Plan, Do,
Check and Review (PDCR) cycle has been therefore suggested. Another advantage of
doing this is to have a system that is in synchronicity with commonly used EHS system
such as ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18000.
The DMP is covered in further details in the remaining sections of this Chapter.
7.2.
Policy
The Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) policies are to be made accessible to all at
site and to other stakeholders. The policies must be framed considering legislative
compliance, stakeholder involvement, continual improvement, and management.
Planning
7.2.1.
Identification and Prevention of Possible Emergency Situations
Identification of Emergencies
Possible emergency situation can broadly be classified into toxic release, fire or
explosion, while doing so, it is stressed that these results are only for the modeled
scenarios and, that the distances as well as damages can change depending upon the
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
293
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
actual development of a scenario. Additional emergency situations can be developed
on the basis of audit / HAZOP or other procedures prior to commencement of
operations.
Emergency Prevention
Some of the ways of preventing emergencies are as follows:
Preparation of a Preventive Maintenance Schedule Programme covering
maintenance schedules for all critical equipments and instruments as per
recommendations of the manufacturers user manuals,
Establishment of a computerized Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis
(FMECA) or similar procedure to generate data on failures of critical equipments
and instruments based on mode wise failures and their criticality. This requires
codification of equipments, instruments and their modes of failure and their
criticality. Consideration may be given to the use of appropriate software for
processing FMECA data for review of the Preventive Maintenance Schedule
and for improvement of the same to ensure critical failures,
Establishment of a Non Destructive Testing (NDT) system as necessary. This
may not be feasible in-house but there are specialized organizations who
undertake the work, and the same may be used.
Importantly, it is of great importance to collect and analyze information
pertaining to minor incidents and accidents at the site, as well as for recording
near-misses or emergencies that were averted. This information gives an
indication of how likely or unlikely it is for the site to face actual emergencies
and what should be further done to prevent them from occurring.
Establishment of an ongoing training and evaluation programme, incorporating
the
development
of
capabilities
amongst
employees
about
potential
emergencies and ways and means of identifying and averting the same. Most
emergencies do not occur without some incident or an abnormal situation. So
there is always sometime of few seconds to few minutes to arrest an incident of
abnormal situation from turning in to an emergency. This is the role of the shift
in-charge who is the incident controller (IC) along with his shift team.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
294
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) or chemical information sheets (CIS)
should be kept handy.
Fire and emergency alarms should be provided; alarm recognition training
should be given to every employee.
Regular mock drills should be conducted on a specific potential disaster
scenario as determined through risk assessment study
Safe operating procedures including safe emergency and normal shut down
procedures and safe maintenance procedures should be adopted.
The roles and responsibilities of all responsible for the control of emergency
should be clearly defined.
List of key personnel and authorities (including police, factory inspector, district
magistrate, state and central level authorities, experts, doctors, village leaders)
along with their location should be kept handy.
Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) and safety torches should be made
available.
Sufficient antidotes and first aid facilities like stretchers, beds, wheel chairs etc
should be made available in the factory dispensary/hospital to cope with
emergency.
Liaison with outside agencies, home guards and civic authorities for cooperation in mitigating the emergency consequences.
7.2.2.
Identification and Compliance with Legislative Requirements:
The following EHS regulatory requirements are applicable to the activities being
planned, and the checklist given in Annexure may be taken into consideration prior to
actual commencement of operations. This checklist requires to be reviewed at quarterly
intervals.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
295
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Table 7.1 : Applicable EHS regulatory requirements – Dhanuka Laboratories
Limited
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Applicable
Legislation / Rule /
Permit
NOC
from
the
RSPCB
License from the
Directorate
of
Industrial Safety and
Health
/
Factory
Inspectorate
Consent under the
Air Act from the
RSPCB
Consent under the
Water Act from the
RSPCB
Authorization
to
generate, transport
and
dispose
hazardous
wastes
from the RSPCB
Applicable
permits
from
the
CCE,
Nagpur for storage of
explosive / flammable
material
The
Manufacture,
Storage and Import
of
Hazardous
Chemicals
Rules,
1989 (as amended till
date)
Requirement
A
general
permit
to
establish
facilities
for
establishment
of
plant
operations.
A
general
permit
to
undertake plant activities
from
a
safety
and
occupational
health
viewpoint.
Permit to discharge air
emissions from the flue gas
stacks and process stacks
Permit
to
discharge
wastewater resulting from
the project activities
Permit to generate and
dispose hazardous wastes
NOC to be applied for
along
with
the
completed EIA report
Requirements of permits to
be ascertained prior to
establishment of facilities.
If
required,
applications to be filed
and required permits
to be obtained.
If required, safety audit
and safety report to be
prepared.
8.
The Public Liability
Act, 1991 (PLI)
Listing
of
hazardous
materials;
thresholds
against which Safety Audit
and Safety Report has to
be
maintained;
Requirements of disclosure
of information; Availability
of MSDS‟;
PLI Insurance to be taken
out
9.
Chemical Accidents
(Emergency
Preparation of Local and
District Level Crisis Groups,
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Action Required /
Timing of Action
On
completion
of
detailed plant layout
and
prior
to
commencement
of
operations.
Application to be filed
with the RSPCB once
the NOC is obtained
Application to be filed
with the RSPCB once
the NOC is obtained
Application to be filed
with the RSPCB once
the NOC is obtained
Check whether The
company‟s insurance
under PLI covers the
project
under
consideration
Identify whether Local
or District Level Crisis
296
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Sr.
No.
10.
7.2.3.
Applicable
Legislation / Rule /
Permit
Planning,
Preparedness
and
Response)
Rules,
1996
Factory License from
the
DISH
(Department
of
Industrial
Safety
Health)
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Requirement
for management of offsite
emergencies
A basic safety license to
run the Factory.
Action Required /
Timing of Action
Groups exist at site
and take proactive part
in preparing Offsite
DMP.
Application prior to
construction
Identification of and communication with relevant Stakeholders
This includes identifying, communicating and developing working relations with relevant
offsite agencies that have an interest (either due to regulatory requirements or
otherwise) in the continued safe operations of the site.
On the basis of the Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and
Response) Rules, 1996, (referred to as The Chemical Accidents Rules), following
persons may be considered as relevant stakeholders with regard to the maintenance of
Company‟s emergency response at the district level:
District Collector
Inspector of Factories
District Energy Officer
Chief Fire Officer
District Information Officer
Controller of Explosives
Chief, Civil Defense
Deputy Superintendent of Police
District Health Officer/Chief Medical Officer
Commissioner, Municipal Corporations
Representative of the Department of Public Health Engineering
Experts (Industrial Safety, Health and Environment)
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
297
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Commissioner (Transport)
Following persons may be considered as relevant stakeholders at the local level:
Sub-divisional Magistrate
Inspector of Factories
Representative of Industries in the District
Transporters of Hazardous Chemicals
Fire Officer
Station House Officer (Police)
Block Development Officer
One Representative of Civil Defence
Primary Health Officer
Editor of local News paper
Community leader / Sarpanch / Village
Non-Government Organization representatives
Eminent Doctors in the Local area
7.2.4.
Formation of Emergency Plan Objectives
Specific objectives of the Emergency Response Plan are to be clearly listed with regard
to the responses required for successful management of the possible emergency
situations. Suggested objectives could, initially include:
Formulation of suitable onsite / offsite fire release response
Improved awareness of safety issues amongst site personnel
Training of key persons in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and other first aid
Specific objectives as per requirement of the project shall be evolved eventually with
the development of the project. Responsibilities, resources and timeframes are required
to be allocated for implementing the objectives.
7.3.
Implementation
7.3.1.
Allocation of Resources
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
298
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Dhanuka Laboratories Limited would ensure allocation of suitable resources for
effective implementation of the Emergency Response Plan. The resources which shall
be allocated would include both human and financial resources.
7.3.2.
Emergency Structure and Responsibility
Emergency Organisation Structure
The emergency organization is a network system with focus on the Emergency Control
Centre (ECC), the Incident Controller (IC), and the Incident Site (IS). The following are
office bearers of the Emergency Organisation:
Emergency Organisation: Responsibilities of Key Personnel
Role of Site Main Controller
Immediately being aware of the emergency, the SMC will go to the Emergency Control
Center. On arrival he will:
Site Main controller relieves the incident Controller of the responsibilities of
overall emergency control as soon as he arrives in the plant and takes stock of
the situation and thereafter will position himself in the Emergency Control Centre
and give directions from here.
Exercise direct control over area of the plant, which are affected by the incident
and constantly reviews the situations in the affected area with the incident
controller.
Assesses the magnitude of the incident and decides to call additional personnel
and to shutdown the total operations in the plant loading or unloading operations
depending on the nature of emergency.
Ensures the medical aid is promptly provided to the causalities and their
relatives are informed.
Organizes evacuation and transportation of personnel from the assembly points
to a safe location in or outside the plant.
If external help is needed, coordinates for outside emergency services.
Initiates the Off-site Emergency plan, if outside area and neighbouring habitants
are likely to get affected.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
299
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ensures that affected personnel are transported to external medical centres, if
required and keep constant liaisoning with these medical centres during the
course of the emergency through the medical officer.
Keeps Corporate Office and concerned Government Agencies informed of the
emergency and, if necessary arranges information to the outside habitants
through police.
Decides to call off the emergency.
Role of Incident Controller
Immediately being aware of the emergency and its location he will proceed to the
scene. On arrival he will:
Incident Controller on reaching the site of the incident relieves the shift-incharge of the responsibilities of directing the emergency operations and
assumes total control of emergency operations in the affected area.
Assesses the magnitude of the incident and decides to call any Emergency.
Determines the adequacy of the emergency services.
Direct emergency operation from the incident site to localize emergency,
keeping in mind the priorities for safety of personnel, lease damage to the
property and environment and minimum loss of materials.
Ensures that all non-essential personnel of the affected area are evacuated to
the appropriate assembly points for evacuation of to the safer place.
Provide advice and information to the Fire and Security Personnel and Local
Fire Services ad and when they are called.
Removes the causalities to the medical communication with the emergency
control centre.
Ensures that key personnel have been called in, if need be and provides advice
and information as required, to the emergency services.
Continuously reviews the situation with Site Main Controller.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
300
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Role of Manager (safety)/ Executive (Fire and Safety)
Proceeds to the Fire Station, establishes contact with firemen and incident
controller and supplements efforts in fire fighting.
Assists in searching for causalities and their removal to the medical centre.
Organize outside assistance in fire fighting and rescue operations if required.
Mobilize personal protective equipment and safety appliance and assists
personnel handling emergency in using them.
Assists male nurse in providing first aid to those who are injured.
Keeps a check on any new development of unsafe situation and repost the
same to the incident controller.
Collect and preserves evidence for facilitate future inquiry.
Informs SMC/IC on the matters related to statutory obligations.
Role of Medical Officer
Provides medical aid to the injured personnel and prepare case papers for those
who are required to be admitted in a hospital.
Organize ambulance service to bring causalities to the medical center and to
transport them to the hospital.
Contacts designated hospitals and nursing homes informing them about the
emergency and alert them to be prepared to admit the injured.
Arranges blood donors of various blood groups to assist hospitals in procuring
blood.
Carries out necessary formalities in the fatal cases and keeps site controller
informed about the causalities.
Carries out necessary formalities in the fatal cases and keeps site controller
informed about the causalities.
Role of Security In-charge
Assumes charge of all external communication in consultation with Site Main
Controller.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
301
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Takes charge of EPABS Board and deputes a trained person (e.g. security
guard) to man the board when regular telephone operator is off duty and restrict
the unnecessary calls.
Deputes a runner/messenger, if established communication fails.
Assumes total control of the storage facility under the direction of the Site Main
Controller.
Controls traffic movement, removes truck and tankers drivers outside the plant
and prevents entry of all non-essential personnel.
Cordons off the incident site and keeps the site clears of by standers.
Assists in the evacuation of personnel, if necessary to the assembly points or
safe areas.
Role of Sr. Manager/ In-charge Stores/ Manager (Instrument/ Electrical)
Assumes charge for the smooth operations of all emergency equipment and
systems
Takes charge of shift maintenance of technicians and assigns them emergency
repair work in consultation with incident controller.
Make available essential material and spare parts form the stores.
Organizes external engineering services such as crane services, if required.
Co-ordinates with GEC in case of any failure or damage to the HT electrical
system.
General Manager (P and HR)
Co-ordinates with corporate office and issues press or public statements if
required.
Collects information on roll call from the assembly points.
In case of prolonged emergency, arranges for relief of personnel and their
catering needs.
Establish contacts with the families of injured personnel.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
302
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Receives and meets important visitors and Government Officials.
7.3.3.
Setting up of Emergency Infrastructure
To enable the key persons to implement the EP, the following infrastructure will require
to be set up:
Site Map with Escape Routes and Safe Assembly Points marked on it
Site layouts have to be put up at key areas where assembly is to be done. These points
could vary depending upon the atmospheric stability and location and intensity of the
emergency.
With the onset of emergency, all non-essential workers (those workers not assigned
emergency duty) shall evacuate the area and report to the specified emergency
assembly point.
Wind Sock
It is required to install wind sock at the top of any tall structure in the vicinity of the site.
In case there is a risk of the structure getting damaged during the emergency, it is
desirable to have alternate wind sock(s) as required. At least one wind sock should be
visible from any part of the site. Site personnel have to be trained in reading the
atmospheric conditions on the basis of the status of the wind sock.
Evacuation, Escape and Rescue (EER) Plan
In case of major emergency, it will be necessary to evacuate personnel from affected
areas and as a precaution / measure to further evaluate non-essential workers from
areas likely to be affected. Whether evacuation is required or not can be decided by the
Incident Controller, and arrangements made to communicate with employees in this
regard. Arrangements could include announcements over the public address system, or
through other suitable means.
On evacuation, employees should be directed to pre-determined assembly points
already explained earlier. If they are required to be evacuated outside the site and at a
remote place, their transportation will be necessary for which vehicles will be required.
At remote shelters their care and welfare will also be through beforehand. Use own
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
303
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
vehicles fist and then use, if necessary, the mutual aid system or hired vehicles from
elsewhere. The vehicle may be needed to warn public also.
The safe authorize passages/routes for escape shall be decided and marked by arrows
in the plans as explained under as details of Emergency Control Centre
a. Safe Assembly Points
In affected sites, all non-essential workers (who are not assigned any emergency duty)
shall evacuate the area and report to a specified assembly point. The need to evacuate
non-essential workers from non-affected areas will be determined by the foreseeable
rate at which the incident may escalate. Plan layout showing evacuation path is
required.
Each assembly point must be situated in a safe place, well away from areas of risk and
least affected by down wind direction. It may be in the open or in a building depending
on hazard involved.
Before reaching an assemble point, or subsequently, if it is required to pass through an
effected area, suitable personal protective equipment (PPC) including respirator,
helmets etc., should be available to the people
b. Emergency Control Centre
An Emergency Control Centre (ECC) is the primary area from where emergencies are
handled. An ECC should contain various items as listed. The Main Control Centre, or
any structure on the site, that is designed to withstand overpressure and radiation
stress should be designated at the ECC.
For communication:
Siren, or other suitable alarm system
Intercom sets
External phone sets
Telephone directory
Company Directory
List of Important phone numbers
Walkie-talkies
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
304
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Wireless set
Mobile phone
Documents for ready reference:
Site Plan
Layout plan with hazard zones, assembly points marked and location of siren,
safety/fire system shown (Display)
Stock list of Fire extinguishers
Fire-water system and additional sources of water
Emergency Response Plan and CP Flip chart,
Copy of First Aid
Mutual Aid Members list.
List of employees and their addresses and phones numbers.
Wall display:
Site plan
Layout plan
Emergency Organization
Besides these, it should also contain stationery, recording system, utility items (such as
torches and umbrellas) and a first aid box.
7.3.4.
Awareness, Training, and Competence
a. Awareness
General awareness is to be invoked in all site personnel (including contractor‟s
employees) with regards to the importance of safety in general and emergency
procedures in particular. Awareness can be generated in a number of ways, some of
which are:
Awareness of Expanded Incorporation‟s Environment, Health and Safety
Policies, and the role of each employee in achieving what is covered under the
policies.
Awareness of the importance of carrying out tasks as mentioned in the Standard
Operating Procedures and the potential impacts of not doing so.
The importance of wearing personal protective equipment
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
305
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Awareness with regards to relevant recommendations issued in this report.
Awareness about relevant portions of the safety instructions covered in
equipment manuals used at site.
b. Training
Specific training requires to be given to key employees. Examples of such training
include:
Testing of critical equipment and controls
Training in Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation
Use of firefighting equipment
Emergency Evacuation and Rescue (EER) procedures.
Training in use of communication procedures to be followed in case of
emergencies.
Training needs identification exercises should be undertaken prior to
commencement of operations and the same must cover environment, health
and safety issues.
c. Competence
Competence is a function of training, experience and education. Key persons involved
in administering the EP, should be competent. The level of competence can be decided
for each key task and a clearly defined competence chart should be prepared.
7.3.5.
Communication
Communication is vital during emergencies. Under the Factories Act, as well as the
MSIHC Rules, communication is important and it is required to divulge the potential
emergencies that could arise out of the operations related to hazardous units.
After undertaking an assessment of risks and their possible environmental impacts, and
setting up an organization for the preparedness to control the emergency, including
related infrastructure, the next step is operational zing the communications system.
Depending upon the severity of the event, communications may have to be made with:
Persons inside the site premises
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
306
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Key personnel outside the site premises during their non-working hours
Outside emergency services and authorities, and
Neighboring businesses, industries and general public.
Requirements pertaining to communication during emergencies are covered in
this section.
a. Levels of Emergency
Three levels of emergencies are to be recognized:
First level: Confined to a particular unit of the entire site,
Second level: A spreading emergency, that requires outside help, and
Third level: A major emergency requiring neighboring population to be alerted.
Suitable alarms require to be made for each of these potential emergencies. The alarm
should be audible in every part of the site. In areas of high noise levels, an alternative to
an audible alarm, such as flashing lights may be installed.
b. Communication of Emergency
There should be an effective system to communicate emergency:
Inside the factory, i.e. to the workers including key personnel and essential
workers on duty, and inside normal working hours,
To the key personnel and essential workers not on duty and outside during
normal working hours
To outside emergency services and the government authorities, and
To the neighboring businesses, and public in general
c. Communication inside with Personnel inside the Site during the Incident
Relevant statutory information pertaining to the site must be made available
beforehand, preferably in the form of a booklet, to workers so that they can prepare
themselves to prevent or control the emergency.
In all cases, once the communication of emergency is done, through an alarm, all
personnel should be ready to undertake their roles in the same.
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
307
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
d. Communication with Personnel outside the Site during the Incident
Because of the suggested planning, key personnel will typically be available in all shifts
or on short call. But due to some reason, if some are outside or not on duty and if their
help is required, their updated details should be kept in the ECC for communication.
e. Communication inside with External Emergency Services and Relevant
Authorities
Communication with external agencies is important and essential, both to control the
emergency and as per regulatory compliance requirements. This is specially so for
reportable (lost time) accidents. In such cases, it is essential that the outside
emergency services as well as relevant outside agencies be informed in the shortest
possible time. Liaison at the local level will help determine the best means for achieving
this.
Relevant agencies that provide emergency services include the fire brigade, nearby
hospitals and doctors, and the police, besides senior local and district administration
personnel. Statutory information, given to such agencies in advance will help them in
arranging emergency services.
f. Communication with Neighboring Firms and the General Public
In the study area, since there are other major industries, contact with these industries in
the study area with a view of receiving mutual aid, may be practical.
The public in the area, in some circumstances, may require to be informed about the
emergency, which as stated earlier, should be done after careful evaluation.
g. Communication with District Crisis Group and the Local Crisis Group
In addition to the general public communication will require being provided to the district
administration and this may be done by liasioning with different agencies.
7.3.6.
Emergency Documentation and Document Control
Documentation
Emergency documentation consists of:
The Emergency Plan
The Contingency Plan
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
308
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Related Formats and Records showing compliance with these documents
The EP and CP need to be approved by the project in-charge prior to use. All
documents should be easily accessible at site.
Document Control
Documents should be legible
All documents should be protected against damage, deterioration and loss
Changes, if any, should also be approved by the project in-charge
Copies of the approved EP and CP are to be kept with the project in-charge at
the project office, as well as at each site, in the Emergency Control Centre, with
the site in-charge / Site Main Controller
Obsolete documents should be marked as such, and copies of such documents
are to be collected and prevented from being used
7.3.7.
Emergency Control
In case of emergencies, actions can broadly be categorized into the following activities:
Saving of human lives
Controlling the spread of the emergency and ultimately stopping it from further
developing
On the basis of the issues covered in this chapter, the following are required to be
incorporated into the CP for implementing this EP‟s requirements:
Onsite Emergency Control
Shut down and Isolation: Raising the alarm, followed by immediate safe shut
down of the power supply, and isolation of affected areas.
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue: Safeguarding human lives at site by
commencement of the Emergency Evacuation and Rescue Plan. Ensuring that
all personnel are accounted for and carrying out a head count of persons
evacuated. Notification and commencement of offsite emergency plan in case
offsite impacts are possible.
Stopping the development of the emergency: Control or response to the
emergency depending upon its nature (fire or explosion).
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
309
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Treatment of injured: First aid and hospitalization of injured persons.
Protection of environment and property: During mitigation, efforts should be
made to prevent impacts on environment and property to the extent possible.
Welfare of the personnel managing the emergency: Changeover, first aid and
refreshments for the persons managing the emergency.
Informing and collaborating with statutory, mutual aid and other authorities
including those covered in the Local Crisis Group.
Informing and assisting relatives of the victims.
Informing the news and electronic media.
Preserving all evidences and records: This should be done to enable a through
investigation of the true causes of the emergency.
Investigation and follow up: This requires to be carried out to establish
preventive measures for the future and a review of the EP and CP to fill up the
deficiencies in the emergency planning procedures.
Ensuring safety of personnel prior to restarting of operations: Efforts require to
be made to ensure that work environment is safe prior to restarting the work.
Off-site Emergency Response Plan
The following are the Expanded Incorporation‟s responsibilities towards generation of
the Offsite Emergency Plan:
To provide basic information on Risk and Environmental Impact Assessment to
the Local/District Authority, Police, Fire Brigade, Doctors, surrounding industries
and the public and
to appraise them on the consequences and the
protection/prevention measures and control plans and seek their help to
manage the emergency.
To assist the District Authorities in preparing the Off-site Emergency Plan.
An off-site emergency plan organization has essentially two parts:
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
310
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Formation of the Local Crisis Group: This Group is headed by the Deputy
Collector or the Magistrate of the Industrial area and is responsible for the
management of any industrial emergency confined to the local area.
Formation of the District Crisis Group: This Group is headed by the District
Collector of the District and is responsible for any major Industrial emergency
affecting Local and beyond any industrial area of the District.
The composition of the Off-site crisis is covered in. since, the actual offsite plan requires
the participation of outside agencies; this report does not dwell further on the issue.
Figure 7.1 : Composition of Offsite Crisis Group
District Collector
Off-Site EMP Teams
Each Team has:
1. A Chair Person
2. Secretary
3. Co-ordinator
4. member
Local Crisis Groups
(For each Industrial Area Headed by
the Deputy District Collector
orMagistrate)
Off-Sit EMP Teams
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fire Brigade Team,
Experts,
SMC-Team,
IC-Team
Toxic Gas Containment team,
Communication Team,
Transport and Evacuation
Team,
8. Traffic Control Team,
9. Medical Team,
10. Mass Media and PR-Team
| EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
311
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
7.4.
Checking and Corrective Action
7.4.1.
Monitoring and Measurement
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Monitoring of the planned arrangements and the implementation of the EP are essential
to deliver the required output and enhance emergency preparedness. This includes:
Provisions for NDT, FMECA and other tests to identify failure of critical
equipment, before it actually takes place.
Monitoring compliance to permits and statutory requirements laid down by
regulatory authorities.
Conducting mock drills (including fire drills and toxic release drills) to check
whether the planned arrangements are working as per the required norms or
not.
Testing of critical equipment, and
Identifying minor leaks, accidents, near misses and others incidents that can
lead to emergencies.
A detailed monitoring checklist requires being prepared and the required actions carried
out, prior to start of work.
7.4.2.
Records
Records are a means of evaluating performance. Records include (but are not limited
to):
Regulatory records, such as permits and related documents
Monitoring and test records
Correspondence with relevant offsite and onsite agencies
Site management will ensure that records are properly maintained and available. It is
desirable to keep copies of all records at the site, to prevent their loss. The retention
time for these records will depend upon their criticality and an ultimate decision will
require to be taken by The Company in this regards. Legal records should be kept
permanently.
7.4.3.
EP Audit, Non Conformance and Corrective Action and Preventive
Action
Since this EP has been designed as a dynamic document, it is required that its
performance be audited at regular intervals. Ideally, persons auditing the EP should be
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
312
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
external auditors (i.e. not employed at the site being audited). The audit should result in
a set of findings that are put before the site management for review.
7.5.
Review of Emergency Performance
The site / office management will review the findings of the audit and the noncompliances. It will consider whether the EP is providing adequate safety assurance to
the management, delivering performance as desired, and whether it continues to be in
the spirit of Expanded Incorporation‟s Environment, Health and Safety Policies, and
changing requirements. On the basis of these, the Expanded Incorporation‟s
management will record its steps and consider modifying the EP, as deemed
appropriate.
7.6.
The Contingency Plan
The Contingency Plan (CP) is meant to be a ready reference flip chart that is site
specific. It contains forms that require to be filled up prior to commencement of actual
fieldwork. Guidelines provided in the EP, may be taken into account prior to filling up of
the CP.
7.6.1.
Contents of the Contingency Plan
The CP should first be completed in respect of the names, addresses and contact
phone numbers of all the members of the emergency organization. In addition, the
names, addresses and phones numbers of nearest police station, local authorities,
media, doctors, hospitals, fire brigade, voluntary organizations, and home guards also
require to be collected. Once this, (and other) updating of CP has been done for the
site, the same may be got printed and kept with each officer, work sites and security,
and other relevant persons as may be needed. The items covered in the CP are:
Emergency organization
Siren code
Site map with escape routes and safe assembly points
Emergency control centers
Role of site main controller
Role of incident controller
Role of deputy incident controller
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
313
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Role of fire safety services
Pollution control
Medical services
Engineering services
Welfare services
Security services
Replenishment services
Mutual aid
Internal emergency reporting and communication system
Safe assembly points
Evacuation, escape and rescue (EER) plan
MCLS
Atmospheric stability class prevalence (ASCLAP) in the area
Hazard distances of gas dispersions under different stability classes
Mutual aid organizations
Mock drill and review procedure
Offsite plan components
7.7.
Emergency Organization
Emergency Organization would be develop and plan as per formate and promittent
display in the organization. The emergency organization formate given in Table 7.2 .
Table 7.2 : Emergency Organization
EMERGENCY ORGANISATION CHART
Designation
Name
Phone
Phone
Phone (M)
(O)
(R)
EMERGENCY CONTROL CENTRE (ECC) SITE MAIN CONTROLLER
Project
Manager
OTHER KEY PERSONNEL (OKP)
Operations
Manager
Safety Officer
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
314
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EMERGENCY ORGANISATION CHART
Designation
Name
Phone
(O)
INCIDENT CONTROLLERS (IC)
General Shift
Second Shift
Third Shift
Alternate
DEPUTY INCIDENT CONTROLLERS (Dy. IC)
General Shift
Second Shift
Third Shift
Alternate
KEY WORKERS
Communications
Transport and
Logistics
Maintenance
Pollution Control
EXTERNAL AGENCIES (DISTRICT LEVEL)
District Collector
Chief Fire
Officer
Controller of
Explosives
Chief, Civil
Defense
SP / DSP
(Police)
District Health
Officer
Chief Medical
Officer
RO, Pollution
Control Board
District Energy
Officer
EXTERNAL AGENCIES (LOCAL LEVEL)
Sub-divisional
Magistrate
Inspector of
Factories
Fire Officer
Station House
Officer (Police)
Block
Development
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Phone
(R)
Phone (M)
315
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
EMERGENCY ORGANISATION CHART
Designation
Name
Phone
(O)
Officer
Representative,
Civil Defense
Primary Health
Officer
Editor, News
paper
Village
Sarpanch
Doctor, 1
Doctor, 2
7.8.
Phone
(R)
Phone (M)
Site Layout Plan with Escape Routes and Assembly Points
A layout of site is to be prepared incorporating escape routes and assembly points.
Location of the emergency control center(s) are to be marked on the map.
7.8.1.
Safe Assembly Points
The safe assembly points for the project site are as mentioned in Error! Reference source
not found.
Table 7.3 : Safe Assembly Points for the Site
Assembly Point No.
1
2
3
4
Location
Location 1:
Location 2:
Location 2:
Location 4:
7.9.
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) Plan
7.9.1.
Escape
Non-essential personnel have to escape through safe escape route towards the nearest
assembly point.
7.9.2.
Evacuation
All non-essential personnel who have assembled at the safe assembly points have to be
evacuated from the site, then noted down as part of head count and evacuated to
temporary shelter outside, like nearest village school, panchayat office or other area as
previously determined.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
316
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
7.9.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Rescue
On receipt of Incident information, any trapped personnel have to be rescued. This
requires rigorous training. The rescuers must first ensure their own safety. There should
be at least two rescuers for each victim to be rescued. The following procedure may be
followed:
Preplan the rescue operation as to who will hold shoulders and who the legs of
the victim,
Ensure appropriate gas mask and other PPE is worn by each rescuer,
See the nearest windsock and approach the site of victim from upwind. If no PPE
is available nearby, then take a deep breath, hold breath and approach,
Undertake rescue operation swiftly and confidently,
Check victims first needs
Impart first aid as appropriate, including CPR and oxygen breathing,
Call for ambulance and shift victim to nearest doctor/hospital.
7.10.
Credible Loss Scenarios
The results of the consequence analysis lead to the possibility of the Credible Loss
Scenarios results.
7.10.1.
Atmospheric Stability Class Prevalence (ASCLAP) for nearest
Observatory
Atmospheric Stability Class is the vertical and horizontal mixing of air and depends on
the solar radiation and cloud condition. Information pertaining to the nearest IMD station
is to be collected and kept for use.
7.11.
Mutual Aid Organizations
A table showing various mutual aid organizations and their contact details should be
prepared and kept ready.
7.12.
Mock Drill and Review Procedure
The mock drill and review procedures are as follows:
Everyone should synchronize his watch daily with the main clock at security gate
to ensure the timings recorded by observers match with each other,
One mock drill is to be conducted once in a period of 6-Months,
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
317
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The plan of mock drill should be known to Site Main Controller and Incident
Controller and observers only,
Mock drill should be against one of the MCLS studied in the EP-CP Report,
There should be at least two mock victims,
All the steps of CP from available incident report raised by a trained or untrained
observer to the all clear siren are to be rehearsed,
Observers to be set up at the Incident Site, at each Assembly point, ECC and
First Aid Center.
Observers should record each activity with timings and head counts etc.,
All clear siren to be sounded only after head count tallies with gate entry list.
After all clear is sounded, all personnel belonging to Emergency Organization
should assemble at the pre decided conference room for Mock drill review,
Review to be conducted to check effectiveness of CP-Implementation in terms of
the following:
7.13.
o
The first witness‟ incident call,
o
Actions by Incident Controller to prevent Incident
o
EER operations,
o
Communication system,
o
Other activities,
o
Review CP to overcome deficiencies in the Mock Drill.
Offsite Plan Components
Based on the details of the hazard distances of identified containment loss scenarios,
the detailed offsite plan may be drawn up in consultation with the Local Authorities.
7.14.
Recommendations
Recommendations are made for different aspects of the project and are given in
subsequent paragraphs.
7.14.1.
Storage of Hazardous Chemicals in Bulk
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
318
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Attempt should be made to find suitable less hazardous alternate chemicals, to
replace the hazardous chemical. The inventory of all hazardous chemicals for
that matter must be kept as minimum as possible
The tanks should be located so as not to pose safety problems due to leakage
and reaction with other chemicals stored nearby
The storage area should be declared as a prohibited area and should be
provided with fencing having at least two exits / “No Smoking” and/or “Prohibited
Area” display boards, as applicable should be provided at site
The storage tank and foundation should be of suitable material of construction to
prevent corrosion
The connections and openings to the tank should be as less as possible so that
the possibility of leakage and maintenance hazards is minimized
Each storage tank should have necessary instruments to monitor its level,
pressure and temperature
The storage tanks / area should have suitable fire protection and fire fighting
facility
The name of chemical, type of hazard, emergency operational instructions,
antidote first aid etc. should be displayed near each tank
All cables and electric fittings shall be constructed, installed, protected, operated
and maintained in such a manner so as to prevent risk of open sparking
7.14.2.
Storage of Hazardous Chemicals in Drums and other Containers
The drums should never be filled full with the liquid chemical. There should be
sufficient space to take care of thermal expansion
The drums should preferably be stored in a well ventilated shed (preferably away
from process units) with impermeable floor sloping away from drums
Periodic site inspection should be carried out to ensure that there is no leakage
from any of the drums
7.14.3.
Unloading of Tank Trucks
Before the tanker enters the industry premises, the tanker is to be inspected for
authorized entry and safe and sound condition of the tanker, its contents and that
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
319
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
of the prime mover. Tankers entering plant are to be fitted with flare arresters on
their exhaust
Static charge neutralizing at gate entry only
The quality of the chemical in the tanker should be ascertained before unloading
to avoid contamination of chemical already at storage
Coupling used for connecting hose to tanker must be leak proof
For flammable chemicals, the tanker and the hose are to be properly earthed
before starting unloading operation
Unloading should be done under personal supervision of responsible staff
authorized by the management
Provision of sample quantity of water / neutralizing medium to take care of
leakage / spillage must be made. Also steam and inert gas hose stations must
be available at unloading point
Fire alarm and fire fighting facility commensurate with the chemical should be
provided at the unloading point
7.14.4.
Hazardous Waste Transport
The occupier of hazardous substance shall prepare six copies of the manifest
(transporting documents) in Form 9 comprising of colour code indicated below (all six
copies to be signed by the transporter):
Copy 1 (white): to be forwarded by the occupier to the State Pollution Control
Board or Committee
Copy 2 (yellow): to be retained by the occupier after taking signature on it from
the transporter and rest of the four copies to be carried by the transporter
Copy 3 (pink): to be retained by the operator of the facility after signature
Copy 4 (orange): to be returned to the transporter by the operator of facility after
accepting waste
Copy 5 (green): to be returned by the operator of the facility to State Pollution
Control Board / Committee after treatment and disposal of wastes.
Copy 6 (blue): to be returned by the operator of the facility to the occupier after
treatment and disposal of wastes
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
320
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The occupier shall forward copy number 1 (white) to the State Pollution Control Board or
Committee and in case the hazardous waste is likely to be transported through any
transit State, the occupier shall prepare an additional copy each for such State and
forward the same to the concerned State Pollution Control Board or Committee before
he hands over the hazardous waste to the transporter.
No transporter shall accept hazardous wastes from an occupier for transport unless it is
accompanied by copy numbers 2 to 5 of the manifest. The transporter shall return copy
number 2 (yellow) of the manifest signed with date to the occupier as token of receipt of
the other four copies of the manifest and retain the remaining four copies to be carried
and handed over to respective agencies as specified in sub-rule (4).
7.15.
General Safety Practices
7.15.1.
Work Permit System
It is recommended that plot plans of the installation and the operating blocks
should be displayed in the fire and concerned unit control rooms respectively and
site of hot jobs under progress should be indicated on these plot plans with red
pins
No hot/cold work shall be undertaken without a work permit except in the areas
pre-determined and designated by the owner-in-charge
Permit should be issued only for a single shift and its validity should expire at the
termination of the shift. However, where the work has to be continued, the same
permit may be revalidated in the succeeding shift, by authorized person after
satisfying the normal checks
Equipment or area where work is to be conducted should be inspected to ensure
that it is safe to carry out the work and assess other safety requirements /
stipulations
Unsafe conditions for performance of work may arise from surrounding area. It
should be cleaned-up to remove flammable material such as oil, rags, grass etc
Other activities (routine / non-routine) being carried out near-by which can create
conditions unsafe for performance of the permit work, should be taken into
consideration and the concerned persons should be alerted accordingly
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
321
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Running water hose and portable fire extinguisher are required respectively to
flush / dilute in case of release of any hazardous chemical or to quench sparks
and to put out small fires immediately
In order to meet any contingency, it should be ensured that the fire water system
including fire water pumps, storage, network etc. is checked and kept ready for
immediate use
Equipment / Vessel, on which the work permit is being issued, should be
completely isolated from the rest of the plant with which it is connected during
normal operation, in order to ensure that there is no change in the work
environment with respect to presence of toxic / flammable gases, liquids,
hazardous chemicals etc. in the course of the work
Equipment under pressure should be depressurized after isolation. This will be
followed by draining / purging / water flushing etc. as the case may be
Proper means of exit is required in case of emergencies developed on account of
the work or otherwise. Availability of an alternate route of escape should be
considered
7.15.2.
Contractor Safety
Duties and responsibilities of the contractor should include the following:
To implement safe methods and practices, deploy appropriate machinery, tools
and tackles, experienced supervisory personnel and skilled work force etc.
required for execution
To prepare a comprehensive and documented plan for implementation,
monitoring and reporting of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and
implement the same after its approval
To nominate qualified and trained Safety Engineers / Officers reporting to the
Site in charge, for supervision, co-ordination and, liaison for the implementation
of the safety plan
To arrange for fire protection equipment as per the advice of owner
To ensure that its employees have completed appropriate health and safety
training as required by the statute / regulation and also as per requirements of
the Owner / Consultant
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
322
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
To comply with all the security arrangements of owner
To ensure availability of First Aid boxes and First Aid trained attendant
To ensure that all incidents including near misses are reported to all concerned
immediately
To ensure strict compliance with work permit system by carrying out work only
with appropriate work permits and after ensuring that all safety precautions /
conditions in the permit are complied with and closing the same after job
completion
To
ensure
that
the
workers
likely
to
be
exposed
to
hazardous
chemicals/materials have access to appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS), wherever applicable, and provide necessary mitigation measures
To ensure that appropriate warning signboards or tags are displayed
To ensure that workers have proper training for their job assignments, including
use of appropriate PPE and first aid fire fighting equipment
To comply with all applicable safety and health standards, rules, regulations and
orders issued by competent authority pertaining to the assigned activities
To conduct daily inspections to ensure compliance with safety standards, codes,
regulations, rules and orders applicable to the work concerned
7.15.3.
Static Electricity
Ensure no metal objects/appurtenances projecting from roof/shell plates, which
will attract highly charged spots in fuel for dissipation
Ensure reduced rate of flow initially into tank/vessel until fill point/nozzle is
completely submerged in fluid
Ensure periodic checking and recording of earthing test for tanks and piping
systems are maintained
Agitation with air, steam gas, jet nozzle or mechanical mixtures should be
avoided
Ensure no personnel is allowed on tank roof for gauging / sampling during
product transfer unless dip pipes extend to bottom of tanks. Use only mechanical
gauges for ascertaining product transferred during transfer operations otherwise
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
323
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Protective bonding is required when fill open containers where the product to be
handled has a flash point below 54.5 oC (130 oF) or, in the case of a higher flash
point product, when it is heated to within 6.0 oC (15 oF) of its flash point. The
purpose is to keep the nozzle and container at the same electrical potential, thus
avoiding a possible static spark in the area of a flammable mixture
Small containers made up of plastic or other non-conductive materials should not
be used for filling of fuels
Water washing is safe from a static electricity stand-point.
However, there
should be no insulated conductive objects within the tank
7.15.4.
Lightning Protection
Measures to control fugitive emission from storage tanks should be given special
consideration
Structures of exceptional vulnerability by reason of explosive or highly flammable
contents need special consideration and every possible protection need to be
provided even against the rare occurrence of a lightning discharge
A lightning protection system (Conventional Air Terminal System) consists of the
following three basic components - Air terminal, Down conductor and Earth
connection
Non-conducting chimneys whose overall width or diameter at top is upto 1.5m
shall be provided with one down conductor, and chimneys with overall width or
diameter at top more than 1.5m shall be provided with 2 no. down conductors
Metal stacks shall be properly earthed at the bottom
Flammable liquids shall be stored in essentially gastight structures
Openings where flammable concentrations of vapour or gas can escape to the
atmosphere shall be closed or otherwise protected against the entrance of flame
Structures and all accessories e.g. dip-gauge hatches, vent valves shall be
maintained in good and sound operating conditions
Flammable air-vapour mixtures shall be prevented to the greatest possible extent
from accumulating outside storage tanks
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
324
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Potential spark-gaps between metallic conductors shall be avoided at points
where flammable vapours may escape or accumulate
A properly designed / constructed gas tight storage tanks considered to be selfprotected against lightning provided it is properly earthed and bonded. Such a
structure may not require any additional means of lightning protection
7.16.
Personnel Safety
7.16.1.
Personnel Protective Equipment
All entrances to areas where fungicides are manufactured, formulated,
repackaged, stored or otherwise handled shall be posted with signs specifying.
Special clothing and personal protective equipment necessary for entry.
Protective equipment should be inspected frequently to ensure that it is in good
condition. Frequency of checking can be decided depending upon the usage.
After the use of protective equipment, it should be cleaned and disinfected before
being issued to another person
Glove materials must resist the product‟s active ingredients and its solvents. it
should allow adequate grip so that applicators can safely carry out their jobs(e.g.
change nozzles and screens)
Never leave Drug contaminated gloves or clothes behind the seat, on the floor
board, above the visor, on the stick shift or in the bed of the truck because drugs
residues may transfer to such surfaces.
For protection of eyes always use goggles, polycarbonate lenses are preferred to
protect eyes from flying objects. Face shields are secondary means of eye
protection and are designed to be worn over safety spectacles or goggles for full
face protection.
When purchasing eye protection, make sure it complies with ANSI Z87 for
occupational and educational eye and face protection.
Sleeve guards should be use when handling hazardous materials to avoid the
splashing effect of material.
Wash contaminated clothing and other PPE daily, as soon as possible after
wearing. Delay in laundering will reduce the likelihood of total residual removal
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
325
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Follow the work instruction/checklist.
Know about MSDS of hazardous chemicals used.
A person not-familiar with MSDS and trained in use of appropriate shall not
commence any work with hazardous chemicals.
Frequently refer to the MSDS and use of appropriate PPE
Display prominently requisite information on MSDS and use of PPE through
illustrations
It is essential that right type of PPE and in sound condition be used.
All stocks of PPEs should be periodically inspected, serviced and maintained and
unusable ones removed from stock of usable PPEs and sent for disposal.
All PPEs should be cleaned for personal hygiene and kept packed in poly bags.
All PPEs should be inspected before and after each use.
7.16.2.
Training
Participant‟s reaction should be obtained in respect of the course content;
training methods/techniques used by the faculty, quality of course material etc.
Before employees are exposed to any API formulation, inert or raw material, they
should be fully apprised of the following.
a. Identification by name, characteristics (smell, appearance, etc) and physical
properties.
b. Hazards of toxicity.
c. Signs and symptoms of overexposure
d. Fire and explosion hazards.
e. Precaution of safe handling
f. Emergency first aid treatment for over exposure.
It should be ascertained whether participants‟ are learning in terms of knowledge
and skills in specific areas or activities e.g. safe operating and maintenance
procedures, fire prevention and control etc. have improved after the training.
It should be checked in what ways and to what degree/extent the attitude of the
participants (values or beliefs) have been influenced by the training programme.
An evaluation of their behavior on the job is necessary for this purpose.
Change in participants‟ performance at their place of work as a result of the
training, should be evaluated.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
326
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The effectiveness of faculty in each training programme should be evaluated and
necessary changes if need be, should be made in subsequent training
programme.
The impact of the training programme on the performance standards of the
organization and attainment of tangible results with respect to safety should be
evaluated.
Records of training should be maintained in respect of every employee indicating
the types and the period of training programme attended, performance evaluation
and the need for future training.
The impact of training programme should be evaluated in terms of overall safety
objectives achieved.
7.17.
Safety of Plant Equipment
7.17.1.
Thermal Insulation
Frequency of Visual Inspection shall be once a year for plants and mobile
equipment. This visual inspection shall be preferably carried out before monsoon,
to check for any damage/deterioration, and record the same.
Like equipment, insulation also shall be checked and maintained at regular
intervals. Preventive maintenance of insulation is very much necessary for safe
and economic operation.
7.17.2.
Electrical Equipment
Before initiating the inspection of electrical equipment and associated circuits,
Inspector should familiarize himself with the complete previous history of the
equipment/circuits, design parameters, service, and likely areas of concern,
manufacturer‟s recommendations and such other pertinent data to arrive at the
appropriate inspection procedure.
The field inspection of electrical equipment in an operating unit is classified into
following three types as follows:
On Stream Inspection
This covers audio visual inspection items (instrument aided or otherwise) for checking of
general equipment conditions, while the equipment is in operation. (e.g. an abnormal
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
327
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
nose or vibration of motor, leakage of transformer oil or overheating of equipment etc.,
can be accessed through such inspections).
Shutdown Inspection
This covers those inspection items for checking conditions of equipment and systems
which cannot be revealed through on-stream inspection (such as internal condition of
equipment). This inspection shall be carried out after taking the shutdown of the related
equipment after obtaining the Electrical Line Clearance and Work Permit requirements
Inspection of Standby Equipment and Spare Parts
The standby electrical equipment electrical equipment shall be inspected on the same
basis and schedule applicable under shutdown inspection, so that changeover from
normal to standby equipment shall be possible without any downtime of unit operation.
7.17.3.
Reactors
Reactors will be designed such that the safe working pressure of the reactors is never
exceeded. As per the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the safe
working pressure of a vessel should always be higher of the two conditions mentioned:
10% higher than the maximum operating pressure, or
2 kg/cm2 more than the maximum operating pressure
Minimum statutory requirements include:
Safety relief valves or rupture discs
Pressure gauges
Isolation valves or valves to prevent connected equipment over-pressurization
Drain valve at the bottom to drain of condensates
Vents of pressure relief systems should lead to a surge tank whose vent should lead to a
scrubbing system that should have reserve overhead water tank with interlock with
critical operating parameters such as pressure. Other safety devices that may be
considered include:
High / low pressure alarms, and
Interlocking equipment to prevent over-pressurization; such as between
compressors and connected equipment.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
328
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Pressure relief devices and rupture discs are always the last resort. Engineered design
should include high / low pressure alarms, auto trips that are set up at pressure above
the operating pressure but below the relief systems.
In general, all reactors and pressure vessels will conform to rules laid down in The Static
and Mobile Pressure Vessels (Unfired) Rules 1981.
7.17.4.
Equipment Safety
Pumps
Pre-starting procedure
Equipment: Pump shall be thoroughly cleaned
Piping: Assembly of all piping shall be checked to ensure that they are as per the
design
drawing.
Piping
shall
be
thoroughly
flushed
to
remove
rust
preventive/foreign material
Support: Relevant pipe supports shall be checked to ensure that they are as per
design drawing
Alignment: Alignment of pump and prime mover shall be carried out
Bearing: Bearings shall be lubricated with correct lubricant wherever applicable
Prime mover: The prime mover shall be prepared for operation as manufacturer‟s
instruction. In case of Electric Drive correct direction of rotation shall be ensured
in decoupled condition. Insulation value of motor and cable shall be checked and
recorded
Packing: For gland packing and mechanical seal, cooling and flushing shall be
ensured. Mechanical Seals (if applicable) shall be installed as per manufacturer‟s
recommendations
Heating up before startup: Pumps on high temperature service shall be heated
up gradually to an even temperature before putting on service
Balancing drum leakage: For pumps equipped with balancing drums, any valve in
the line shall be locked open for ensuring leakage return to pump suction or to
the vessel
Start-up Procedure
The free rotation of the pump shall be checked
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
329
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Ensure all instruments are installed as per diagram
Ensure that strainer is provided in the suction line
Discharge valve shall be closed (if not already closed)
On pumps having externally sealed stuffing boxes, the injection line valves shall
be opened and sealing fluid allowed to flow to the seal cages
Pump shall be properly primed
Prime mover shall be started as per prescribed recommendation
Post-start Checks
All instrument readings shall be checked and recorded periodically
Vibration readings shall be checked and signature shall be taken as necessary
Stuffing box packing shall be checked for overheating
Temperature rise, vibration and any abnormal sound from bearings shall be
checked
Cooling water flow shall be checked frequently
Suction and discharge pressure shall be monitored to ensure proper operating
condition
Diesel Engines
Fuel, oil, water and exhaust shall be checked for leaks
Air cleaner oil level shall be checked
Oil level in hydraulic governor shall be checked, if provided
The following checks shall be carried out after every 250 hours - condition of
entire oil, the filter elements for metal particles and oil sludging, element holes
and tears, oil in aneroid control, if provided, belts, fan hub and drives
Mechanical Seals
Inspection of Seal Components Prior to Installation:
It should be ensured that all parts are kept clean; especially the running faces of
the seal ring and insert
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
330
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The seal rotary unit should be checked to ensure that the drive pins and/or spring
pins are free in the holes or slots
The set screws in the rotary unit collar should be checked to ensure that they are
free in the threads
The thickness of all gaskets should be checked against the dimensions shown on
the assemble drawing. Improper gasket thickness will affect the seal setting and
the spring load imposed on the seal
The fit of the gland ring to the equipment should be checked to ensure that the
gland ring pilot enters the bore with a reasonable guiding fit for proper seal
alignment. It should be ensured that there is no interference or binding on the
studs or bolts or other obstructions
It should be ensured that all rotary unit parts of the seal fit over the shaft. „V‟ ring
should be placed on the shaft individually, and never be installed on the shaft
while they are seated in the seal ring or rotating assembly
Both running faces of the seal should be checked to ensure that there are no
nicks or scratches. Imperfections of any kind on either of these faces will cause
seal leakage
Fixing of mechanical seal
The complete seal assembly drawings and instructions should be carefully
studied before starting installation
All burrs and sharp edges should be removed from the shaft or shaft sleeve
including sharp edges on key-ways and threads. Worn shaft or sleeves should be
replaced
The stuffing‟s box bore and stuffing box face should be checked to ensure that
they are clean and free of burrs
The shaft or shaft sleeve should be marked with various reference marks
required for installation of seal as per assembly drawings
The shaft or sleeve should be oiled lightly prior to seal assembly to allow the seal
parts to move freely over it
The rotary units should be installed on the shaft or sleeve in proper sequence
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
331
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
The back of the collar should be set at the proper distance from the original
reference mark on the shaft or sleeve. Tighten all set screws firmly and evenly
The seal faces should be wiped clean and a thin oil film applied prior to
completing the equipment assembly
The gland ring should be inserted with insert over the shaft carefully. Complete
the equipment assembly taking care when compressing the seal into the stuffing
box
The gland ring and gland ring gasket should be seated to the faces of the stuffing
box by tightening the nuts or bolts evenly and firmly enough to affect a seal at the
gland ring gasket
Rotating Equipment
Maintenance work on any rotating equipment should be started only after
obtaining the work permit from the concerned department.
Ensure that the
equipment is electrically isolated
During opening of equipment such as pumps and compressors, it is a good
practice to treat the equipment as if it were under considerable pressure even
though all steps have been taken to relieve the pressure
Vehicle entry permit should be obtained from the concerned authority before
bringing any crane or any other equipment for removing the pump
Inspection of Storage Tanks
Inspection of tanks during fabrication shall be carried out as per the requirements
of the applicable codes, specifications, drawings etc. This inspection requires
regular checks on the work at various stages as it progresses. During fabrication,
a thorough visual check should be undertaken and the tank should be checked
for foundation pad and slope, slope of the bottom plates, proper welding
sequence and external and Internal surfaces etc.
Roof plates shall be inspected for defects like pin holes, weld cracks, pitting etc.,
at water accumulation locations
Tanks pads shall be visually checked for settlement, sinking, tilting, spelling,
cracking and general deterioration
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
332
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Anchor bolts wherever provided shall be checked for tightness, and integrity by
hammer testing
All open vents, flame arrestors and breather valves shall be examined to ensure
that the wire mesh and screens are neither torn nor clogged by foreign matter or
insects
If a tank is insulated, the insulation and weather proof sealing shall be visually
inspected for damage
Grounding connections shall be visually checked for corrosion at the points
where they enter earth and at the connection to the tank
The tanks shall be inspected for any obvious leakage of the product. Valves and
fittings shall be checked for tightness and free operations
The tanks shell shall be visually examined for external corrosion, seepage,
cracks, bulging and deviation from the vertical
Pipes, Valves and Fittings
The inspection of piping during fabrication shall be carried our as per the
requirement of applicable codes, specifications, drawings, etc. This inspection
requires regular checks on the work at various stages as it progresses. The
inspection shall include Identification and inspection of material, approval of
welding procedures in accordance with code and tender requirement, carrying
out of performance qualification test and hydrostatic testing.
Visual inspection shall be made to locate leaks. Particular attention should be
given to pipe connections, the packing glands of valves and expansion joints.
Pipe supports shall be visually inspected for condition of protective coating or fire
proofing if any. If fireproofing is found defective, sufficient fireproofing should be
removed to determine extent of corrosion.
If vibrations or swaying is observed, inspection shall be made for cracks in welds,
particularly at points of restraint such as where piping is attached to equipment
and in the vicinity of anchors.
Line shall be checked for bulging, bowing and sagging in between the supports.
Conditions of paint and protective coating shall be checked.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
333
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Pipelines shall be inspected for cracks. Particular attention should be given to
areas near the weld joints.
Externally coverts lined piping shall be visually inspected for cracking and
dislodging of concrete.
All piping, which cannot be checked on the run, shall be inspected during
shutdown.
These are mostly high temperature piping.
During shutdown
inspection, hammer-testing and hydro testing as applicable should be carried out
in addition to visual, ultrasonic and radiographic inspections.
Pipelines in some of the services like water, phenol and steam are prone to
pitting corrosion. Neither ultrasonic nor radiographic testing will reveal the actual
internal condition of the pipes in such service. In such cases samples shall be
cut for thorough internal examination, at scheduled comprehensive inspections.
The samples shall be split open in two halves and internal surfaces inspected for
pitting, grooving, etc.
Piping shall be opened at various locations by removing valves at flanged
locations to permit visual inspection.
When erratic corrosion or erosion
conditions are noted in areas accessible for visual examination, radiographic
examination or ultrasonic testing shall be performed to determine thickness.
The gasket faces of flange joints, which have been opened, shall be inspected
visually for corrosion and for defects such as scratches, cuts and grooving which
might cause leakage. Ring gaskets and joints shall be checked for defects like
dents, cuts, pitting and grooving.
Inspection shall be made for hot spots on internally insulated piping. Any bulging
or scaling shall be noted for further inspection when the equipment is shut down.
Pressure Relieving Devices
All pressure relieving devices shall be bench tested for set pressure, blow down
and leakage as applicable prior to installation.
The following inspection checks shall be carried out once in every six months for
breather valves on storage tanks - discharge opening should be checked for
obstruction, flame arrestor wherever provided shall be inspected for fouling, bird
nests or clogging, element shall be inspected for mechanical damage, deposits,
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
334
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
scaling etc. and cleaned before onset of monsoon, oil filled type liquid seal valve
shall be inspected for oil level, fouling, bird nests, foreign material etc. and free
movement of pallet shall be checked.
Visual inspection of different parts of safety valve shall be done after dismantling
to check the condition of flanges for pitting, roughening, decrease in width of
seating surface etc.
7.18.
Tank Farm Safety
7.18.1.
Inspection of Flammable Solvent Storage Tanks
All vents storages and reactors and safety relief valve vents to be taken above
the roof- top if inside the building or taken above the nearest roof of the building
and fitted with flame arrestors.
All electrical equipments should be flame proof.
Smoke/heat sensors with fore alarm should be installed.
Electrical bonding and earthing of flanges/piping and vessels must be carried out.
7.18.2.
Emergency Response
Onsite Emergency Response
Shut down and Isolation: Raising the alarm, followed by immediate safe shut
down of the power supply, and isolation of affected areas
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue: Safeguarding human lives at site by
commencement of the Emergency Evacuation and Rescue Plan. Ensuring that
all personnel are accounted for and carrying out a head count of persons
evacuated. Notification and commencement of offsite emergency plan in case
offsite impacts are possible
Stopping the development of the emergency: Control or response to the
emergency depending upon its nature (fire, toxic release or explosion). Fire can
be somewhat better controlled through fire fighting, while toxic release impacts
can be partially controlled through proper communication with affected
population. Impacts of explosions impacts cannot be controlled once they occur,
hence efforts will require focusing on provision of relief or control of secondary
impacts (such as property damage or fires) resulting from explosions
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
335
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Treatment of injured: First aid and hospitalization of injured persons
Protection of environment and property: During mitigation, efforts should be
made to prevent impacts on environment and property to the extent possible
Welfare of the personnel managing the emergency: Changeover, first aid and
refreshments for the persons managing the emergency
Informing and collaborating with statutory, mutual aid and other authorities
including those covered in the Local Crisis Group
Informing and assisting relatives of the victims
Informing the news and electronic media
Preserving all evidences and records: This should be done to enable a through
investigation of the true causes of the emergency
Investigation and follow up: This requires to be carried out to establish preventive
measures for the future and a review of the DMP and its Annexure to fill up the
deficiencies in the emergency planning procedures
Ensuring safety of personnel prior to restarting of operations: Efforts require to be
made to ensure that work environment is safe prior to restarting the work
Off-site Emergency Response Plan
An emergency may affect areas offsite of the works as for example, an explosion can
scatter debris over wide areas and the effects of blast can cover considerable distances,
wind can spread burning brands of gases. In some cases e.g. as the result of an
explosion, outside damage will be immediate and part of the available resources of the
emergency services may need to be deployed in the affected areas. In any case, the
possibility of further damage may remain, e.g. as the result of further explosion or by the
effect of wind spreading burning brands of hazardous material.
It will be necessary to prepare in advance simple charts or tables relating the likely
spread of the vapors cloud taking into account its expected buoyancy, the local
topography and all possible weather conditions during the time of release. It may also be
desirable to install instruments indicating wind speed and direction, which could be done
jointly with surrounding industries.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
336
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
7.18.3.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Inspection of Fire Fighting Equipment and Systems
The internal and external surfaces of the cylinder body shall be coated with Zinc
or lead-tin alloy
Material used for the cylinder shell shall be identified to ensure conformity with
manufacturing standard.
Extinguisher (DCP Vessel) is prone to internal corrosion at the interface between
the dry powder top level and empty space; periodic inspection should therefore
be undertaken.
The shell of the DCP extinguisher shall
be visually inspected externally once
a month and internally once every three months to check for any mechanical
damage or corrosion.
A DCP extinguisher body shall be removed from service and destroyed
when it
is corroded or damaged to such an extent at repair is required, when the shell
threads are damaged, when it has failed in hydro testing or when the
extinguisher has been exposed to high temperatures due to proximity of fire.
The
internal
coating
and
external
painting
shall
be
checked
for
damage/deterioration once in three months.
The safety valve shall be visually inspected for corrosion or damage once every
three months. The safety valve shall be bench tested at rated test pressure once
every three years.
All DCP extinguishers shall be permanently punched at the bottom ring with
Manufacturer‟s name, year of manufacture, manufacturer‟s Sr. No. and
Inspectors stamp.
Equipment, which will automatically detect heat, flame, smoke, flame of solvent,
gases, or other conditions likely to produce fire or explosion and cause automatic
actuation of alarm, fire alarm system and protection equipment should be
provided.
7.18.4.
Recommendations on Individual Accident Risks
Fall of persons from height: Training, use of life harness for working at height,
providing platforms with railing at height, barricading pits and eliminating piping
and other trips in passages are needed to prevent fall accidents of individuals.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
337
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Fall of objects from overhead work: Helmet use is essential for all project
personnel, irrespective of their job nature; use of proper tools properly and
handling non-greasy tools is important in preventing falls of objects; use of MS
plates on overhead platforms to help restrict the fall of objects since even nuts
and bolts can cause injuries.
Object hits on the body causing injuries: These accidents are prevented by
providing appropriate guards and barricades for all moving parts and in-running
nips.
Hand and foot injuries: Training may be given to workers pertaining to these
techniques. Use of safety shoes with toe protection cup and use of appropriate
hand gloves for specific activities are required in addition to use of correct tools
and correct methods.
Flying objects and splinters causing face injuries: Use of face shields is required
wherever such hazards exist.
Falls, vehicle accidents, flying objects and falling objects causing head injury:
Head injury is a very serious injury. Use of helmet should be mandatory. Helmet
should be worn with snugly fitting chin belt. This is very important, as the chin
belts are never used in India. Non-use of chin belt, leads to the helmet flying off
before the head hits during falls exposing the head for injuries.
Collisions of vehicles with other vehicles, other structures and human beings:
Vehicular movement restrictions and routes need to be displayed. Backing of
vehicles has high risk of accidents. Backing alarm signal (Not musical one) is
made mandatory on all vehicles. For fork lift trucks now they come fitted with
infra red sensors to detect objects behind about one meter away are available.
All such measures are ensured to prevent collisions.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
338
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 8.
8.1.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Prelude
The present study was aimed at identifying the potential environmental impacts due to
the various project activities, assessment of impact, mitigation measures, and at
developing an environmental management and monitoring plans for proper mitigation of
any adverse environmental impact. In this study, the various activities likely to take place
during the construction and operation phases of the project have been analyzed in
relation to the baseline condition of different environmental components. The mitigation
measures proposed for the contractors and the project proponent have also been
reviewed and the potential residual impacts discussed. The key points considered in this
study are described in the following sections:
8.2.
Regulatory Compliance
The project is yet at its technical investigation stage. Prior to its implementation, it will be
necessary to acquire all the necessary clearance from the Government of India, as per
the applicable national regulations. Key clearances include obtaining No Objection
Certificate from the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board (RSPCB) under The Water
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Rules, 1975; The Air (Prevention
and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and Rules, 1982. In addition to that Manufacture,
Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MSIHC) Rules, 1989 and amendments
thereafter, Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans-boundary Movement)
Rules, 2008, Bio Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 and
amendments thereafter, Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000
and amendments thereafter will also be applicable to the industry.
8.3.
Baseline Conditions
The monitoring of the existing environmental conditions of the proposed project site and
of its close vicinity have been established with respect to physical, biological and human
environment. The air quality of the area meets the prescribed National Ambient Air
Quality Standards applicable for the Residential & Rural Areas. The background noise
levels were also found well within the standards as at present most of the area is not
developed.
The water quality prevails in the study area is not good as it is not meeting the desirable
limits of drinking . Ground water quality was compared with the drinking water It was
observed that ground water samples from village Gambhira and project site were
exceeding the norms ―desirable limit ―in respect of TDS, Cl, Total hardness,Ca, Mg
and Sulphates.At project site groundwater exceeding the permissible limit in respect of
TDS and total hardness..Ground water from other villages is more or less suitable for
drinking purposes (―permissible limit in the absence of other source of water‖ ).
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
339
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Similarly It was observed that Surface water samples from pond Raj Malikpur were with
in the norms of ―permissible limit in the absence of other source of water‖ in respect of
TDS, Cl, Total hardness, Mg and Total Coliform. The geology of the project area is of
varied nature. No forest land is falling in the study area. In addition there is no sensitive
ecosystem in the vicinity.
8.4.
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
The project entails various impacts on the study area, some negative and some positive.
The impacts will be caused by the construction activities as well as by the other
industrial activities during the construction and operation phases, respectively. Various
impacts identified during the study have been provided mitigation measures for a better
environmental management. In addition to that the roles and responsibilities of the
developers have also been given in the Environmental Monitoring Program to monitor
the implementation of the environmental management plan to ensure the mitigations of
adverse impacts.
8.5.
Recommendations
Based on the environmental
recommendations are made:



impact
assessment
conducted,
the
following
Since regulations are fast changing in India, the project proponent must keep
themselves updated with respect to applicable laws and take appropriate actions
in case the provisions in some regulations undergo change.
Most of the impacts envisaged are due to construction activities. Systems of
periodic auditing and reporting shall be adopted during the construction period to
ensure that the contractors adhere to the EMP.
The project proponent and its team of consultants and contractors are urged to
develop a strategy for effective communication with local people. The
construction team/ developer should effectively follow the suggestions made in
the EMP and/ or any other environmental measures so as not to damage the
environment of the project area.
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
340
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
CHAPTER 9.
9.1.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
DISCLOSURE OF CONSULTANTS
Declaration by Experts Contributing to this Report
Declaration by Experts Contributing To the EIA/EMP & RA/DMP for Bulk Drug
intermediate Manufacturing Unit, Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd., RIICO Industrial Area,
Keshwana Rajpoot, Tehsil Kotputli, District Jaipur
This will be submitted as per NABET formate in the Final report to MoEF. The list of
experts are given below.
EIA Coordinator:
Name:
Signature & Date:
S K Jain
Period of involvement
June 2014 to finalization of report
Contact Information:
Functional Areas
011-30003200
Functional Area Experts
Involvement
Name of the
Signature
(Period and Task**)
Expert
S K Jain
Air Pollution
Monitoring &
Control (AP)
Air Quality
Modeling and
Prediction (AQ)
Team Member:
Om Prakash
(AFAE)
SanjeevSharma
Team Member :
Maulik Suthar
Landuse (LU)
Anil kumar
Noise
Sanjeev Sharma
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
Site visit, assistance in
selection of monitoring
locations, checking air
quality data, evaluation of
results of Ambient Air
Quality
Monitoring
(AAQM)
Assistance in air quality
modeling and prediction:
met file generation and
model run
Development of landuse
maps of study area using
GIS / related tools, site visit
for ground truth survey,
finalization of landuse
maps
Assistance in selection of
monitoring
locations,
checking noise
data,
evaluation of results
341
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
Functional Areas
Name of the
Expert
Water Pollution
(WP)
S K Jain
Ecology and Biodiversity
Conservation (EB)
Dr. Sunil Bhatt
Solid and
Hazardous Waste
Management
(SHW)
S K Jain
T. G. Ekande
Socio-Economics
(SE)
Team Member:
Anil Kumar (AFAE)
S K Jain
Risk and Hazards
(RH)
Team Member:
Maulik Suthar
Soil Conservation
(SC)
Manoj Sharma
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Involvement
(Period and Task**)
Signature
Site visit, assistance in
selection
of
sampling
locations for surface water
sampling, water balance
for the project and
contribution
to
EIA
documentation
Site visit, assistance in
selection
of
sampling
locations and contribution
to EIA documentation
Identification of waste
generated
from
the
industry,
studying
adequacy of mitigation
measures for management
of hazardous waste
Site visit, contribution to
Baseline environment and
contribution
to
EIA
documentation
Site visit, Identification of
modeling
scenarios,
consequence
modeling
using PHAST, finalization of
DMP, contribution to RA /
DMP Documentation and
contribution
to
EIA
documentation
Site visit, assistance in
selection
of
sampling
locations and contribution
to EIA documentation
342
Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd
EIA Report for API Plant at Keshwana
Declaration by the Head of the Accredited Consultant Organization/authorized person
I, S.K.Jain, hereby confirm that the above-mentioned experts the the EIA/EMP & RA/DMP for
Bulk Drug intermediate Manufacturing Unit, Dhanuka Laboratories Ltd., RIICO Industrial Area,
Keshwana Rajpoot, Tehsil Kotputli, District Jaipur. I also confirm that the consultant organization
shall be fully accountable for any mis-leading information mentioned in this statement.
Signature:
Name:
Designation:
S.K.Jain
Director, Technical
Name of the EIA Consultant organization
NABET Certificate No.
NABET Issue Date:
EQMS India Pvt. Ltd.
NABET/EIA/RA11/007
th
19 May, 2014
EQMS INDIA PVT. LTD.
343
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement