Cloudscape VII Insights

Cloudscape VII Insights
A smart and secure connected digital world
9 & 10 March 2015
Brussels, Belgium
Insights | [email protected] | #cloudscapeVII
Cl ud
A European Cloud observatory supporting
cloud policies, standards profiles & services
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The views expressed in the position papers in this document are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the view of their organisations and/or affiliates. © Copyright Cloudscape Series.
Editors: Stephanie Parker, Silvana Muscella & Nicholas Ferguson, Trust-IT Services Ltd
Welcome to Cloudscape VII ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
Cisco - Many Clouds. Unlimited Choices.....................................................................................................................................5
Microsoft - Email privacy....................................................................................................................................................................6
Microsoft - Wanted: An international standard for cloud privacy....................................................................................8
VMware - The VMware story.............................................................................................................................................................9
New Directions for Cloud................................................................................................................................................................10
Digital Disciplines..................................................................................................................................................................................11
Intercloud and the Single Digital Economy.............................................................................................................................. 13
The Intercloud - Understand how the Intercloud elegantly meets Public Sector IT requirements..................16
Secure Federated Intercloud Tool Box........................................................................................................................................ 21
Building trust in the cloud through transparent, flexible and detailed cloud certifications............................... 28
Addressing Challenges to Cloud Adoption........................................................................................................................... 27
ENISA Certification tools for a more transparent cloud.................................................................................................... 30
Cyber Insurance - The last line of defence................................................................................................................................ 31
Towards a European trusted cloud...............................................................................................................................................33
CLARUS - A Framework for User Centred Privacy and Security in the Cloud............................................................35
Towards Common Metrics for SLAs.............................................................................................................................................38
SLA-Ready - Making cloud security SLAs easier for European SMEs.............................................................................43
Cloud Pricing is Broken..................................................................................................................................................................... 45
OGF Cloud-related Standards........................................................................................................................................................47
The Cloud Interoperability Plugfest Series............................................................................................................................... 50
Cloud for the Public Sector, Education, Research and Government..........................................................................53
How The UK’s G-Cloud Programme Would Benefit Europe.............................................................................................. 54
Making School as a Service a reality............................................................................................................................................57
How GRNET Provides cloud services for science and government............................................................................... 59
INDIGO-DataCloud - A Cloud Stack for European Research ...........................................................................................61
EU-Brazil Cloud Connect - Strengthening cooperation between Europe and Brazil in Cloud Computing ...63
SMEs – The Backbone of the European Economy.............................................................................................................. 65
CloudWATCH - At the cusp of cloud meeting the Internet of Things, How can SMEs grasp new
opportunities while staying safe in the cloud? ..................................................................................................................... 66
CloudCatalyst - Startup and SME cloud adoption enablement...................................................................................... 69
Cloud Adoption – Barriers, Opportunities and actions for SMEs in the cloud........................................................ 72
Innovative models for intelligent management of road transports ..............................................................................74
New Service and Software for the European Market.......................................................................................................76
ARTIST - Unlock the code and release the future in the cloud....................................................................................... 77
AppHub - The European open source market place............................................................................................................. 79
COMPOSE: the design of Internet of Things Marketplace.................................................................................................81
BEACON - Enabling Federated Cloud Networking ................................................................................................................83
DICE - Towards the Development of Data-Intensive Applications with Iterative Quality Enhancements.... 85
CloudSocket - Business Process and IT Cloud Alignment.................................................................................................. 87
ENTICE - Decentralized repositories for transparent and efficient virtual machine operations ..................... 89
Cloudscape just keeps going from strength to strength. This annual workshop, which began back in 2009
mainly for the research community, is now a premier event in the cloud space. Backed by sponsors who
are among the prominent leaders in the marketplace, an impressive line-up of speakers and a prestigious
programme committee, Cloudscape VII remains unique for bringing together all the key constituencies to
help advance the field.
As we stand at the cusp of cloud meeting the Internet of Things (IoT), it seems timely to take stock of
unprecedented opportunities but also of the challenges that are unfolding alongside them, not least
security and privacy.
Cloudscape VII, a smart and secure connected digital world, broadens the debate on cyber security, asking
just how prepared we are in a fast evolving landscape of threats. Such a landscape not only calls for
international co-operation and multi-disciplinary approaches but also merits a closer look at how insurance
needs to evolve.
The multi-jurisdictional dimension of cloud computing also presents a number of legal and regulatory
challenges. Cloudscape VII asks what possible approaches we can take to re-assure businesses, assessing
also the relevance of current regulation when applied to cloud and IoT.
An important feature of Cloudscape VII is given to SMEs and start-ups, as the backbone of the European
economy and key game-changers in the marketplace. We showcase some really innovative small firms that
are disrupting the market. We also give equal weight to major barriers that are standing in the way of wider
uptake of cloud services, especially by small firms, which are expected to benefit the most.
Our collection of fascinating insights from thought leaders reflect this exciting and fast-moving landscape.
Please take time to read through them and learn about these perspectives from some of the top thought
leaders in this field.
Cloudscape VII is all of this and much more with a series of workshops from DIGITALEUROPE and EC-funded
projects AppHub, ARTIST, CloudWATCH and MARKOS. It’s also great to welcome 20 demos which will be
shown during the breaks and evening cocktail.
We would like to extend our thanks to our sponsors Cisco, Microsoft, VMware and CloudSigma, our
committed Programme Committee members our supporters & international guests, venue hosts and you
the participants for what we know will be a truly stimulating event, with plenty of networking opportunities
in a relaxed and friendly environment.
Cloudscape Chair
Silvana Muscella, Trust-IT Services
Cloudscape Manager
Nick Ferguson, Trust-IT Services
Programme Committee
Joe Baguley, VMware
Welcome to Cloudscape VII
Dalibor Baškov, EuroCloud Slovenia
David Bernstein, Cloud Strategy Partners, IEEE Cloud Computing & IEEE Intercloud
Robert Bohn, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Patrice Chazerand, DIGITALEUROPE
Rüdiger Dorn, Microsoft
Michel Drescher,
Dean Flanders, Friedrich Miescher Institute & Swiss National Grid Association
Fabrizio Gagliardi, Independent Consultant
Evangelos Floros, GRNET
Tua Huomo, EIT ICT Labs
Bob Jones, CERN
Steven Newhouse, European Bioinformatics Institute
Dana Petcu, West University of Timisoara
Lutz Schubert, University of Ulm
Alan Sill, OGF
David Wallom, Oxford eResearch Centre, Oxford University
Cisco - Many Clouds. Unlimited Choices
Microsoft - Email privacy
believe personal information stored in the
cloud deserves the same privacy protections
as personal information stored on paper
Concerned you’re not the only
one checking your email?
Then you may be as concerned as the Irish people we surveyed about who has access to your emails
saved in the cloud.
Microsoft believes you own your emails no matter where they are stored. That’s why we’ve
gone to court in the United States to ask the government there to follow long-established,
internationally agreed upon processes to obtain emails stored in our Irish data center rather
than forcing technology companies to turn them over.
While technology advances, Microsoft is working to make sure that privacy endures and
digital common sense prevails. We don’t have all the answers. But we hope the governments
around the world will strike the right balance between public safety and the privacy concerns
of technology users.
To learn more about what Microsoft is doing to help strike this balance, visit
1,000 Irish people were surveyed in November 2014 by Amárach Consulting.
We Opened
The Cybercrime
Meet the Microsoft Digital Crimes Unit.
to shut down cybercriminals.
DCU focuses on three specific areas:
The Microsoft Digital Crimes Unit (DCU) consists of legal and technical experts
who work with law enforcement agencies—including Europol, the FBI, and
Interpol—academia, global governmental agencies, and nongovernmental
organizations. The Cybercrime Center is a working lab that showcases Microsoft’s
approach to cybersecurity and how we engage in the fight against cybercrime.
Our job is to stop cybercrime, refer criminals to law enforcement, and create
a safe digital world. Throughout the process, Microsoft is committed to
trustworthy computing, customers’ privacy, and protection of their data.
Microsoft - Wanted: An international standard
for cloud privacy
Enterprise customers around the world want an international standard for cloud privacy. Now there is
one, and cloud providers are starting to recognize its value to their customers. It’s known as ISO/IEC 27018,
and it was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to establish a uniform,
international approach to protecting privacy for personal data stored in the cloud.
Why does this matter to you? The reasons are multiple. Adherence to ISO 27018 assures enterprise
customers that privacy will be protected in several distinct ways:
»» You are in control of your data. A cloud service provider’s adoption of the standard ensures that it will only
process personally identifiable information according to the instructions that you give to the provider.
»» You know what’s happening with your data. Adherence to the standard ensures transparency about the
provider’s policies regarding the return, transfer, and deletion of personal information you store in data
centers. You’ll know where your data is, if the provider is working with other companies who need to
access your data, and if there is unauthorized access to personally identifiable information or processing
equipment or facilities resulting in the loss, disclosure or alteration of this information.
»» You get strong security protection for your data. Adherence to ISO 27018 ensures that there are defined
restrictions on how a provider handles personally identifiable information, including restrictions on
its transmission over public networks, storage on transportable media, and proper processes for data
recovery and restoration efforts.
»» Your data won’t be used for advertising. Enterprise customers are increasingly expressing concerns about
cloud service providers using their data for advertising purposes without consent.
»» You’ll be informed about government access to data. The standard requires that law enforcement requests
for disclosure of personally identifiable data must be disclosed to you as an enterprise customer, unless
this disclosure is prohibited by law.
Microsoft is the first major cloud provider to adopt the ISO 27018 standard, as verified by independent
auditors. We’re also optimistic that ISO 27018 can become a common template for regulators, vendors and
customers alike as they seek to ensure strong privacy protection across geographies and vertical industry
VMware - The VMware story
The VMware Story
The World Is Liquid
Disruption is the norm and old, rigid structures across
all markets are melting away.
Successful Businesses Focus On
Innovating faster
to grow business
Managing risk
and protecting
brand value
Amazing customers.
Empowering employees.
This Requires a New Model of IT
that is fluid,
instant, and secure. We call this brave new IT.
As Fearless Innovators, We Help IT
Become Brave New IT Through
One Cloud, Any Application
Business Mobility
One cloud for rapidly developing
and automatically delivering any
application, securely.
Connect customers and empower
employees by securely delivering
any application, on any device.
Brave New IT Starts With These IT Outcomes
Data Center
Virtualization and
Hybrid Cloud
Streamlined and Automated
Data Center Operations
Application and
Infrastructure Delivery
Security Controls
Native to Infrastructure
Fast, Secure Delivery
of Mobile Apps
High Availability and
Resilient Infrastructure
And Delivers These Business Benefits
Dramatically accelerate
the speed of IT to
bring innovations
to business
Redefine customer
intimacy and
in a mobilecentric world
Manage security
and risk to ensure
customer trust
VMware, Inc. 3401 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Tel 877-486-9273 Fax 650-427-5001
Copyright © 2015 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. This product is protected by U.S. and international copyright and intellectual property laws. VMware products are covered by one or more patents listed at VMware is a registered
trademark or trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies.
At our core, we are fearless innovators. We are
uniquely able to deliver the software that powers
brave new IT. As a result, our customers can innovate
faster by rapidly developing, automatically delivering
and safely consuming all of their applications.
New Directions for Cloud
Digital Disciplines
Joe Weinman, Author Cloudonomics
Focus Area
Cloud computing, big data, social, mobile and wireline networks, and the Internet of Things
Market sector targets
Today’s technologies impact consumers, businesses, non-profits, governments, non-governmental
organizations, and societies. The benefits include cost reduction, convenience, operational efficiencies,
labor productivity, asset utilization, process flexibility, social connection and other behavioral drivers. Depending on the segment, there are additional benefits. For example, big data analytics against genomic,
microbiomic, epigenetic, and pharmacological databases can lead to better patient outcomes through
patient-specific therapies and personalized medicine.
The traditional view of the cloud is largely as resources for rent at the infrastructure layer, and a common
view of the benefits of such capabilities revolve around cost reduction through either scale economies
or hybrid cost optimization, business agility through elasticity, or performance enhancement through
parallelization or geographic dispersion and hence latency reduction.
However, cloud computing, including platform services / micro-services and applications is less important
as a standalone capability than as part of an integrated architecture including things, people, and data, all
connected through networks. This in turn enables not just improved cost, performance, or agility, but the
strategic application of these on an integrated basis to enable strategic competitive advantage.
The author has identified four major “digital disciplines,” which update the Treacy and Wiersema value
disiplines framework for the digital era. The digital disciplines are information excellence, solution
leadership, collective intimacy, and accelerated innovation, and they all use the same five building blocks:
people, things, networks, cloud, and big data. Information excellence involves process and asset optimization
to achieve differentiated process advantage. Solution leadership uses smart, digitalized products, or smart,
digitalized service delivery components, connected to back-end cloud, data management, and analytics
and from there on to ecoystems and social media. Collective intimacy uses data collected from everyone,
together with external sources, to achieve better outcomes for each individual customer on a personalized
basis. Accelerated innovation leverages the cloud and contest mechanics to make innovation better, faster,
and less expensive, through challenges, idea markets, and prediction markets.
How is cloud disrupting the market?
By helping to achieve competitive advantage through one of the four digital disciplines mentioned above.
Measuring efficiencies and impact
Links and references
Joe Weinman, Cloudonomics: The Business Value of Cloud Computing, John Wiley & Sons, 2012
Joe Weinman in Regulating the Cloud, MIT Press, 2015 (forthcoming)
Joe Weinman, Digital Disciplines: Attaining Market Leadership via the Cloud, Big Data, Social, Mobile, and
the Internet of Things, John Wiley & Sons, 2015 (forthcoming)
Intercloud and the Single Digital Economy
David Bernstein, Cloud Strategy Partners, IEEE Senior Member
Cloud Computing is a capability being heavily utilized for research, Internet sites, and mobile telephony.
However, unlike those utilities, clouds cannot yet federate and interoperate. This article reviews how the
global Telephone System and the Internet were made interoperable amongst the various Service Providers.
These important networks have provided a “single electronic system” whereby global commerce has
emerged. We don’t often think about it, but imagine what it would be like to do business without the phone
system, let alone the Internet. An interoperable Intercloud, will become just as indispensable to business,
as these other networks have become. This was the motivation of the IEEE Intercloud project. This is
described, where researchers tried several approaches to add interoperability to Cloud Computing. A
technique which mirrors the way the Telephone System and the Internet was developed, which shows great
promise, assuming that the Cloud operators participate in implementing Intercloud protocols. It is shown
that next generation services such as multiparty global video calling requires such a capability in order to
deliver the best video quality possible. This article describes a “work in progress” – that is the process of the
standards effort and test-bed efforts formed by the IEEE – and the work in progress. Finally, the technical
highlights of the Intercloud architecture are described.
Market sector targets
Cloud computing is a new design pattern for large, distributed data centers. Cloud computing offers end
consumers a “pay as you go” model - a powerful shift for computing, towards a utility model like the
telephone system or more recently the Internet.
However, unlike those utilities, clouds cannot yet federate and interoperate. In the Telephone Network,
any phone can call any other phone with “direct dial”. There is no requirement that the two phone users are
connected to the same phone company! The phone network has even evolved, with Mobile, to allow a user
to carry their phone to any country, “roam” with a provider, and make calls. This is amazing cooperation
amongst telecommunications providers!
In the internet, any Internet connect browser can access any web site. The Internet Service Provider (“ISP”)
giving connectivity to the browser, does not have be the same Internet Service Provider hosting the web
site. In fact, browsers can easily change ISP’s – even in different countries – and web sites (as long as their
name remains the same) can host in any location – and the system still works.
So far the global world of Cloud Computing does not have any of the capabilities of interoperability which
have made the telephone network and the Internet such indispensable utilities.
Focus Area
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
Business are developing using IT strategies which are hopelessly linked to Cloud Computing. Behind the
most interesting consumer and business to business web sites are massive computational engines based in
clouds. Travel sites use extensive calculational engines to find inventory from supplying partners. Business
sites supporting B2B Ecommerce, for example Alibaba, are entirely cloud based. They use both private and
public clouds to support their business. Cloud computing is forming the processing and storage substrate
for anything currently done in Mobile, as well as in Internet of Things.
Cloud Interoperability will be good for global business in supporting these new application categories, just
as other commerce networks have provided substrates for business based on interoperability, eg the phone
system, the Internet.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
The lack of established cloud standards and interoperability has made and vendors have built proprietary
cloud services on software stacks that are not compatible with the stacks used in public clouds -- making
interoperability difficult. Cloud interoperability standards would allow IT to move applications and
workloads back and forth between private and public clouds and from one public cloud to another. Such
application migration among clouds would allow IT to select the best cloud technologies and avoid vendor
For new areas such as IoT, the cloud is the go-to platform. A cloud-based analytics system for the Internetof-Things (IoT) includes resources for the collection and analysis of sensor data and uses the cloud to
process that. This is the future of the Internet of Things, but it won’t be made possible by a jumble of wires.
What makes it possible is cloud computing, combined with the glut of sensors and applications all around
you that collect, monitor and transfer data to where it’s needed. All of this information can be sent out or
streamed to any number of devices and services.
For Big Data, Big data analytics offers the promise of providing valuable insights that can create competitive
advantage, spark new innovations, and drive increased revenues. As a delivery model for Big Data services,
Cloud is the typical structure to support their big data projects. Big data environments require clusters of
servers to support the tools that process the large volumes, high velocity, and varied formats of big data.
Clouds are already deployed on pools of server, storage, and networking resources and can scale up or down
as needed. Cloud computing offers a cost-effective way to support big data technologies and the advanced
analytics applications that can drive business value. Interoperability of these services across a wider and more transparent cloud to cloud framework would
open up new doors in applicatons functionality.
Is there a common vision and goal for international dialogue on the
cloud, IoT or big data?
An interoperable global cloud, could support a Single Digital Vision allowing a company to access a market
expanded portfolios of cloud services by leveraging offerings from other Network members.
Interoperable Cloud will enable the opportunity to reduce CAPEX and R&D costs via access to cloud
services sourced in geographies where you don’t have a physical presence. Leveraging an open, secure and
agile hybrid IT environment that prevents vendor lock-in and enables workload portability between onand off-premise resources. Allowing one to adhere to country-specific regulations for data sovereignty,
retention, and protection.
Links and references
The Intercloud - Understand how the Intercloud elegantly
meets Public Sector IT requirements.
Patrick Bikar, CISCO EMEAR
Setting the context of Government Cloud
Public Sector IT departments have traditionally been focused on managing technology and keeping
operations running smoothly. Today, they must expand their scope beyond just running the overall digital
environment. IT must align to the needs of government leaders and offer tailored services with a range of
options for cost, security and performance.
If IT departments fail to meet these requirements, there is a new generation of Public Sector leaders
increasingly willing to launch new IT initiatives on their own, leading to the rise of ‘Shadow IT.’ The result: a
significant amount of waste, as well as risk, governance and security challenges.
IT represents a significant cost for most agencies. In a recent study (UK Public Sector ICT Overview &
Forecast – 2014/15), Kable estimates that costs are, on average, 3% of overall budgets, but the figure can be
as great as 20% in some compute-intensive organisations (e.g. statistics). There is a strong consensus that
the Public Sector can best realise IT cost savings through buying IT in a different way – as metred services
(OPEX) rather than hardware and software assets (CAPEX). It is in this context that the Intercloud finds its
real significance.
Cisco’s Cloud Vision: The Intercloud
Government IT organisations are finding it hard to buy cloud services from any vendor they choose and
manage these services as if they were part of their own extended private cloud. Main reason: lack of ability
to connect their different clouds (private, partner, public, etc).
Thirty years ago, Cisco pioneered a strategy to connect previously isolated, heterogeneous networks, which led
to the rise of the internet as we know it. Now, Cisco is embarking on a journey just as ambitious: the connection
of multiple isolated clouds, leading to the creation of the Intercloud – an interconnected cloud of clouds.
How does the Intercloud meet Public Sector needs in a unique way?
Key public sector requirement #1
Citizens’ data privacy is of paramount importance. Some governments are considering legislation that
requires data (including the backup) to be located inside the country.
The Intercloud Solution
Cisco helps public institutions deal with their specific data sovereignty needs, by enabling them to either
build their own infrastructure to host their most critical data privately, or be able to leverage an Intercloud
partner with local infrastructure, compliance and people.
Key public sector requirement #2
Hybrid Cloud helps governments cut down the cost of IT infrastructure: you can deploy IT applications on
the public cloud while – at the same time – retaining security policies and access to private databases if
Cisco does this by enabling enterprises and cloud providers to build hybrid-ready private clouds; by providing
ready-to-consume public cloud services (e.g. WebEx); and by enabling secure application migration across
public and private clouds, through the Cisco Intercloud suite of connective products.
This strategy enables organisations to increase ROI, reduce TCO, lower risk, and enable business agility by
using the increased efficiency, automation and management capabilities, enhanced security, transformative
potential, and innovation edge that the Cisco cloud solutions, services, and partner ecosystem can provide.
The Intercloud Solution
Key public sector requirement #3
While all countries have identified cloud as a major opportunity for government transformation, the biggest
barrier to government cloud is undoubtedly political. In many cases, it just doesn’t make sense to migrate
all IT applications to a central location. However, these ministries would benefit from the capabilities of
bursting to a central cloud for disaster recovery purposes.
The Intercloud Solution
The Cisco Intercloud seamlessly interconnects all data centres: those privately managed by ministries,
others managed by local Intercloud providers, public clouds (e.g. Azure, AWS), or Cisco cloud. Bursting and
disaster recovery are inherent capabilities. The Intercloud eases the political friction, while achieving the
promises of cloud.
Public IT organisations are confronted with the siloed approach of the development teams vs. the operations
teams, which have diverging performance metrics (time vs. stability). The result is a tug of war between both
The Intercloud Solution
Cisco ACI (Application Centric Infrastructure) – a core component of the Intercloud – helps dissolve IT silos
for application deployment, security, network services, and network configuration personnel by enabling
all of them to collaborate through a common platform (Dev+Ops), which spans across private and public
Key public sector requirement #5
With more and more official data being digitalised, Cyber Security is at the top of government CIOs’ list of
The Intercloud Solution
The Intercloud can be used to support the differing needs of government (information assurance), healthcare
(patient identifiable data), and education and research (securing IP). Cisco cloud services are consistent with
the requirements of ISO27001.
Key public sector requirement #6
Governments are often suffering from a skill gap: engineers find it difficult to keep up with the everincreasing rate of innovation. As a result, government IT departments often find themselves operating
legacy architectures at great cost and without preserving enough resources to innovate where it makes a
Key public sector requirement #4
The Intercloud Solution
The Cisco Intercloud comes with a full suite of professional services, in order to design, build, operate and
optimise the cloud infrastructure, either for the government directly, or for the (local) service provider.
Key public sector requirement #7
What happens when you move from contract to contract? A common problem to overcome – in particular
for bigger public administrations – is the captive relationship that some departments have with IT providers
and outsourcers.
The Intercloud Solution
The Cisco Intercloud Fabric (ICF) enables easy application portability between different hypervisors (e.g.
VMware, Microsoft and Linux) and between different clouds (operated by government, by a local integrator,
by a public cloud provider, or by Cisco).
Key public sector requirement #8
The role of IT departments is moving from pure provider to IT broker, proposing a full range of consumption
models for cloud services to meet the specific needs of government.
The Intercloud Solution
The Cisco Service Catalogue provides the interface for local IT administrators to pick and choose which IT
services they will offer to their organisation and end users.
Key public sector requirement #9
Transparency and trust is a very important topic for Public Sector organisations. Despite official statements
made by IT suppliers, how can government be assured that the services they subscribe to are complying with
all regulations (e.g. data sovereignty)?
The Intercloud Solution
Cisco works very closely with our selected Intercloud providers on a consistent set of architecture and
contractual access requirements that enhance transparency and trust in Cisco’s security and data sovereignty
related measures.
Over the last decade, many Public Sector organisations have embraced the opportunity to join forces
with seasoned experts from Cisco. If you’re thinking of joining them, please contact us today. For more
information, please visit: Secure Federated Intercloud Tool Box
Monique J. Morrow, CTO-Evangelist –New Frontiers
The Situation
Visibility: Maintaining compliance and providing visibility into the virtual and cloud data center is of
primary concern. Customers want to ensure that the security controls that are used in the physical world
are also present in the virtual domain. Proliferation of mobile devices: IT departments are grasping for any standard or proven approaches that
make bring your own device (BYOD) access of enterprise resources both secure and reliable. The task is
dauntingly complex, and new and unforeseen consequences of BYOD are cropping up regularly.
Taking an architectural approach helps in resolving these challenges by:
»» Hardening an infrastructure before a security threat;
»» Performing forensics and mitigation during a security incident and;
»» Performing post-mortem procedures after an event to avoid similar incidents in the future.
An attacker may attempt to use the Intercloud framework to launch various attacks against other
systems. The Intercloud framework provides various functions that can be abused by an attacker. Clearly the chain- of-trust rule must be in place when considering a federated model.
In general the attacker may wish to do the following:
»» Compromise the confidentiality, authenticity, and availability of network functions and data flowing over
the network;
»» Compromise the confidentiality, authenticity and availability of network attached devices and data on
those devices;
»» Compromise the access control or availability of devices used by the Intercloud framework;
»» Compromise the access control or availability of services provided by the Inter-cloud framework;
»» Obtain services or resources under false pretenses. The value of the assets affected is variable from trivial to large amounts of money. An attacker is assumed to
have access to network links and therefore can act as a man-in-the-middle that might be able to observe and
modify all traffic. The attacker could modify any portion of the message including the address, header and
payload. The attacker could selectively insert and delete messages. The attacker may not have access to
all links simultaneously, however the attacker can capture a packet at one location and replay it at another
Challenges posed by new technology transitions: Multi-tenancy is a good example. Instead of having a
physically dedicated infrastructure (servers, switches, storage) for each application, business unit, or
function, large virtual and cloud infrastructures use multi-tenancy to logically separate those business
groups that require a protected and trusted virtual computing environment. Secure data flow between
these segmented environments must ensure that data flows only into and out of its assigned tenant and
only persons or services with approved access to that tenant can add or retrieve data.
immediately or at some later point in time of his choice. It is possible that some links may be difficult
to compromise because of physical security and other topological restrictions, however such restrictions
typically limit the ways in which the system can be deployed and are undesirable. If such restrictions are
part of the solution then the system needs to still evaluate how attacks on other links can compromise the
protected link (off path attacks). An enumeration of what solution aspects rely upon the security of the
link in order to determine the risk associated with compromise and how much resources should be spent
on protecting it. Insights
Attacks on Devices and Hosts
It is possible that an attacker may be able to compromise the devices and hosts that make up the solution. In
general an attacker given enough resources and compromise any host, however not all hosts present the same
risk of compromise. A host may be compromised remotely because of software design or implementation
vulnerabilities. All hosts may also be compromised through local physical access. A host compromise may
be complete in which all information on the host and functions of the host are available to an attacker. A
host may be compromised so it can be used in an unauthorized manner, but not all information may be
compromised. A host may be rendered unavailable without compromising the functions it performs or
data that it contains. The analysis should consider what happens if hosts are compromised in certain
ways what the effect is on the system. This helps identify which hosted functions and data are the most
important to protect. Some hosts will be critical and require more resources expenditure by the customer
and vendor to assure security. The analysis should also consider whether an authorized host can be used in
an inappropriate way by an attacker. Attack Vectors
This section describes potential vectors for an attacker to reach their goals. This analysis in the following
sections of the document will focus on vectors that make use of the Inter-Cloud framework. They do not
cover threats and mitigation outside of the Inter-Cloud framework other than to describe the possible use
as an attack vector manipulated by the Intercloud framework.
Network Vectors
Since the Intercloud framework has a protocol that is carried over the Internet, its messages can potentially
be observed and manipulated by an attacker.
An attacker may generate, manipulate or delete messages that control the workloads.
An attacker may manipulate responses from end systems to falsify data so the administrator thinks that
the resource is other than what it should be or the state of a workload is different than what it actually is.
An attacker may observe protocol messages and extract information, such as topology information,
performance information, and physical location that may be useful in planning physical or cyber attacks. An attacker may attempt to manipulate protocol messages to attack a workload through the network. An attacker may observe, generate and manipulate protocol messages in order to attack the Intercloud
framework or other systems. Host and Device Compromise
A host or device may be partially or completely compromised by an attacker. If an attacker fully
compromises a host then he can use the host or device to perform any function for which it is authorized
and obtain and modify any data that is on the host. Only some of the data and functions are available on a
host that is partially compromised. Service Discovery
A participant in the Intercloud framework uses a discovery mechanism so that its’ service can be discovered
by the Intercloud framework. This allows the endpoints of the Intercloud framework to create an inventory
of services. These messages will contain identity and attribute information. If these messages are spoofed then the
endpoints will have an incorrect understanding of what services are available. Therefore, these messages
should be accompanied by entity authentication and integrity protection. Any device may be partially or completely compromised with a network, however in general some hosts
have a higher risk of compromise than others. This may be due to their physical location, vulnerabilities
in their software, number and type of users that operate the system, and type of hardware amongst other
things. Insights
Risk of Device Compromise
Endpoints have varying levels of risk associated with being compromised, some will be heavily protected
and others may be out in the open with almost no protection. They will be implemented on a wide variety
of systems with a wide variety of usage models. A general assumption for the Intercloud framework is that
endpoints as a general class have a high risk of compromise as they are directly interfaced to the Internet.
Peer Entity Authentication
Peer entity authentication establishes the identity of a peer as the first step in determining what level of
trust and authorization to place in it. In order to perform peer entity authentication it is necessary to
assign an identity to each entity that can be cryptographically verified. It is desirable for authentication
to be mutual. Different types of entities can make use of different types of credentials to establish
identity. Some types of credentials that are typically supported are pre-shared keys, certificates,
passwords, tokens, and smart cards. Peer entity authentication forms the basis for providing identity-based
accounting and auditing. The authentication credentials or authentication mechanism may provide a
way to establish cryptographic key material to provide message authentication, integrity protection and
encryption. Credential based authorization provides a mechanism that allows an entity to prove it is
authorized for some purpose. The authorization credential can be directly tied to an identity authenticated
during peer entity authentication. Some examples of this include a attribute certificates and SAML
assertions. In other cases it may be a separately validated credential such as a group symmetric key that
proves membership in a group. In the later case it may not be possible to uniquely identify any one peer
in a group so identity based accounting and auditing is more of a challenge. The mechanism for proving
possession of the authorization credentials may provide a way to establish cryptographic key material to
provide message authentication, integrity protection and encryption. Message Integrity and Authentication
Message integrity and authentication techniques ensure that data transmitted between peers has not
been modified. These mechanisms are rooted in key material based on peer entity authentication or
authorization credentials. If the authenticated key material is based on peer entity authentication then
only the communicating peers have the authorization to modify or generate messages. If the key material
is based directly on an authorization credential then any authorized party can modify or generate messages.
Message integrity should also take care to mitigate replay attacks. Insights
Encryption is used to protect messages from unauthorized viewing. Encryption keys can be based on peer
authentication credentials or exchanges, in which case they protect the data from unauthorized viewing
by anyone but the communicating parties. If the encryption keys are based directly on authorization
credentials or exchanges then any authorized party can observe the messages.
Accounting and Auditing
Accounting and auditing are used to monitor and validate correct operation of the framework. All
authorized transactions should be logged along with the identities and authorizations involved. Note that
if the logged identities are not based on peer entity authentication it may not be possible to trace back a
problem directly to the misbehaving entity.
Identity-Based Authorization
In many cases, authorization is performed by taking an identity that is authenticated during peer entity
authentication and using it to look up authorizations in an ACL or database. Note that other identities
besides peer identities may be used to look up entries in a database, however if these are not tied to peer
entity authentication in some way identity-based accounting and auditing will be difficult. Containment
There is always a risk that part of the system may be compromised. Principles of containment attempt to
contain the risk of compromise of a given component as much as possible to limit how far the compromise
can propagate throughout the system. Principle of Least Privilege
A component should not be given more privilege than what is necessary for it to perform its function. This
prevents a compromised component from over stepping its bounds and directly affecting unrelated areas
of the system.
Separation of duties
The more functions a single entity performs the more valuable that entity becomes and the greater the
resources needed to protect it. Separation of duties goes hand-in-hand with least privilege to prevent
compromised components from overstepping their bounds. Separating out highly privileged components
helps to reduce management costs by allowing security administrators to focus their resources. Managed Threat Defense
Due to the enormous volumes of network traffic generated on today’s enterprise networks it is difficult
for customers to discover threat indicators in a comprehensive way. Shortages and costs of trained staff
add to the difficulties. Even when threats are detected, customers with large and complex networks face
difficulty in efficiently mitigating detected vulnerabilities and threats. Properly optimizing and configuring
the production network becomes a challenge in many customer environments.
Cyber-insurance as a Service
Examples of Potential Coverage Areas:
»» Liability of companies arising from a breach of data protection laws and the management of personal data
»» Cover for 3rd party claims against the insured for breach of personal information (employee and customer)
and corporate information
»» Data administrative investigations and fines from data protection regulators that are insurable at law
»» Crisis Management – includes: cyber incident response services following a data breach, PR repair of
company and individual reputations, breach coaching, and notification and monitoring costs associated
with a breach of information
»» Electronic data- includes: data restoration, recollection and recreation following a security breach or
data leak
»» Data Liability – includes: personal data, corporate data, outsourcing and network security
»» Business / Network interruption – loss of net profit as a result of a material interruption to the insured’s
network, after a DDOS attack or network security breach
»» Multimedia Liability – covering damage and defence costs incurred in connection with a breach of 3rd
party intellectual property, or negligence in connection with electronic content
»» Cyber / Privacy Extortion – covering ransom payment (extortion loss) to 3rd parties incurred in terminating
a security threat
Addressing Challenges to Cloud Adoption
Building trust in the cloud through transparent, flexible and
detailed cloud certifications
Daniele Catteddu, Cloud Security Alliance
Security and privacy certifications and attestations have been identified as one of most effective and efficient
means to increase the level of trust in cloud services and stimulate their adoption. Based on this a number
of efforts have begun in Europe at policy level mainly led by the European Commission (EC), in collaboration
with the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) and the Clouds Standards
Coordination (CSC) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). These efforts have aroused
much interest in European solutions for cloud standards and software industry development beyond the
European Union.
How CloudWATCH is making a contribution
The CloudWATCH project is making an active contribution to European efforts through its focus on standards
and certification, driving interoperability as key to ensuring broader choice and fairer competition. Building
on the work by ETSI and the EC’s Cloud Select Industry Group , CloudWATCH aims to provide guidance for
cloud service customers, especially public administrations and small and medium companies, cloud service
providers and policy makers in their evaluation of possible options for “certifying” the level of security and
privacy of cloud services.
Main findings of the CloudWATCH analysis
Over the last 15 months, the CloudWATCH consortium has analysed currently available cloud security
cetifications schemes with the following findings:
»» The majority of the certification schemes considered have some promising transparency features.
However, in most cases the level of visibility and information available about the certification process,
and audit results are not yet sufficient.
»» While most certification schemes considered appear to provide the necessary level of scalability and
some seem to be cost efficient, although a few clearly provide the necessary level of flexibility. This lack
of flexibility could represent a potential problem since it might prevent, in some cases, the underlying
technical frameworks from being able to evolve at same pace of the cloud market, therefore failing to
satisfy changing requirements. »» Only a few certification schemes are able to address the needs of organisations with varying level of
assurance. For example, very few schemes are based on a maturity/capability model, and very few include
a self-certification option.
CloudWATCH recommendations
Based on these findings and our associated conclusions, CloudWATCH makes the following recommendations.
Links and references
Add transperency requirements in the procurement process
We recommend that cloud customers, especially public administrations, adopt a cloud selection process
that favours certifications/attestations which clearly support transparency. It is particularly important
that the details of technical standard(s) on which the certification assessment is based is clear
to procurement officers. Knowing which technical controls are included in a standard is the only way to
understand if that technical framework, and the certification scheme it is based on, is suitable to satisfy the
technical requirements and compliance needs of a certain organisation. Furthermore, importance should
be given to the quality of the assessment/audit. This recommendation is mainly addressed to public sector
procurement offices, since they have the necessary negotiation power to demand specific features and
Introduce appropriate level of detail on information security approaches
We recommend that cloud providers introduce more transparency in their information security
approaches. We do not suggest an approach based on full disclosure, as we appreciate that in some cases this
is not possible given the confidentiality of some information included in the assessment report. However,
cloud providers should nevertheless be willing to provide as much detail as possible about the results of
their certification assessment reports. Soft law supporting transparency
We recommend that policy makers work on soft-law to foster transparency by supporting certification
schemes that enable transparency. Transparency is a fundamental attribute of accountability and essential
trust-enabling component. The adoption of soft-law supporting transparency could prevent the need for
binding regulatory intervention that might not be the most appropriate measure in a market which is still
under development and in continuous transformation.
Increase trust through clearly defined SLAs
We recommend cloud providers and customers to clearly define the scope, requirements and monitoring
parameters of the SLA based on their compliance needs. This may significantly differ from customer to
customer. Policies and procedures should be implemented to ensure the consistent review of SLAs between
providers and customers across the relevant supply chain.
Certification schemes should provide scalability, flexibility & cost efficiency
Finally, we recommend that policy makers endorse/demand certification schemes that are able to provide
scalability, flexibility and cost efficiency and to match the different assurance levels requested by regulatory
authorities and customers of any kind (pubic administration, micro, small medium companies and
enterprise). There is a clear trade-off between the levels of rigour and the cost of certification (obviously
self-certification is less expensive than a certification based on third party assessment). To make the market
more efficient, each actor should be given the possibility to select the most cost effective solution to
satisfy its assurance needs.
ENISA Certification tools for a more transparent cloud
Dimitra Liveri, ENISA
ENISA together with the EC and the C-SIG on Certification has created two tools under the certification
objective of the EC Cloud Strategy.
The first is the Cloud Certification Schemes List (CCSL). This is a list of (existing) certification schemes relevant
to cloud customers. CCSL provides potential customers with an overview of objective characteristics per
scheme, to help them understand what certification against a specific scheme means in practice and if it is
appropriate for their settings. Insights
The second tool is the Cloud Certification Schemes Metaframework (CCSM) which is a framework made of
existing frameworks which maps in detail security requirements (collection of ICT requirements from the
public sector-12 MSs) to security objectives in existing certification schemes (from CCSL). The goal is to
increase transparency and trust and help customers in the public sector and SMEs with cloud procurement.
This first version of CCSM is restricted to network and information security requirements. It is based on 29
documents with NIS requirements from 11 countries. It covers 27 security objectives, and maps these to 5
cloud certification schemes. 30
This version of CCSM has been implemented as an online tool. The tool maps different certification
schemes to a single list of security objectives. The tool allows customers to choose the security objectives
most relevant to them, and
1. generate a matrix mapping to different cloud certification schemes, and/or
2. generate procurement checklists or questionaires as printouts or spreadsheets.
Links and references
Cyber Insurance - The last line of defence
Giorgio Aprile, Aon
Focus Area
Cyber Risk, Cyber Security, Cyber Insurance
Market sector targets
Large Companies, Financial Institutions, SMEs
Cyber attacks are increasing in velocity and intensity, potentially undermining or at least slowing down
the development of cloud applications. 90% of companies worldwide recognize they are insufficiently
prepared to protect themselves against them. The level of sophistication of cyber attacks is increasing too,
showing at least three different ways of using the cyber weapon:
1. Cyber sabotage - we’ve watched over the last years, specifically in periods of political tension, significant
occurrences of IT sabotage on companies (and countries). The attempt is to hurt the firm releasing
confidential information about the company or its clients causing potentially catastrophic damage without
a direct economic benefit for the attackers. Cyber threat is increasingly used as a weapon of political
pressure, strictly related with traditional political threats. 2. Cyber data theft – this is a kind of attack that requires sophistication. It is not only about penetration, it
is also about data exploitation. What once was basically credit card number stealing, has now evolved into
the stealing of insider information to gain an advantage in capital markets. And now, as the Anthem hack
recently demonstrated, the generation of fraudulent healthcare claims.
3. Cyber transfer of funds - This is the most frightening nightmare for Financial Institutions, but is a real
threat for all firms dealing with payment systems. As the recent Carbanak attach showed, despite investments
in IT security, business continuity and disaster recovery, the cyber threat facing financial institutions evolved
from a perceived risk to a substantial sequence of real economic losses. According to some estimates, up to USD 1 billion was lost by banks in this co-ordinated cyber attack involving more than 100 banks and raising
the prospect of systemic cyber risk within the banking sector.
Cyber risk Insurance is not a solution to the cyber threat. Cyber security is a Risk Management and IT issue
that must be faced by implementing new and completely different defence mechanisms. Cyber insurance
is a last line of defence to avoid the worst: the possibility that a cyber attack cold compromise the survival
of a firm.
Addressing key concerns impeding the mainstream adoption of the
cloud: privacy, security, trust
How is cloud disrupting the market?
The concentration of large amount of data in one physical place will increase security on the one hand, but
on the other hand will increase the possibility of a systemic data breach event.
Links and references
Towards a European trusted cloud
Tua Huomo & Björn Hovstadius, EIT ICT Labs Future Cloud
Focus Area
Cloud-based business is becoming the backbone of the European economy and society. Many services are
based on the Cloud and several businesses and critical infrastructures are becoming increasingly dependent
on it.
Overall, the speed of change in Cloud technologies and services continues to be impressive and the main
transformation is driven by the Trusted Cloud and Big Data integration as visible in the Future Cloud high
impact initiative: Trusted Cloud.
All of Europe stands to benefit from increased uptake of cloud based services. EIT ICT Labs’ Trusted Cloud
initiative is an ambitious approach to find a European solution to store digital data and contents, so that
consumers and businesses in Europe do not have to worry on where and by whom their valuable digital age
assets are handled. With EIT ICT Labs support the partners will gain European wide coverage to create an
ecosystem that really matters in creating new business opportunities around trusted cloud services.
Our vision is to provide consumers and businesses better tools and services to take greater control over
the use of sensitive and personal data created by and about them.
Market sector targets
Addressing key concerns impeding the mainstream adoption of the
cloud: privacy, security, trust
Europe’s companies will benefit from a robust and efficient mission-critical Europe-based Cloud computing
infrastructure that is established by leveraging Europe’s strong position as trusted Cloud service provider.
There are gains to be achieved in European competitiveness in the area of Cloud services and Big Data but
European companies must be able to offer trusted Cloud services and solutions providing sufficient level
of security and privacy to support business and personal requirements. Made in Europe solutions such as
the unique Apache Flink platform, which is an open source platform for Big Data analytics are examples
of innovative new services being deployed by European companies for global markets. These are critical
showcases of European Cloud innovation which should be recognised, trusted and applied globally.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
Cloud-based business specifically including Internet of Everything (IoE) and Big Data Analytics are the
top drivers of the European economy and society. Although Europe does not have a specific competitive
advantage in cloud technology, due to its importance business and society, Europe cannot afford to rely on
technology and services bought from elsewhere. The future of Cloud in Europe is promising but it requires
secure multi-platform Clouds that users trust.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
Industrial partners including F-Secure, Telecom Italia, BT and Ericsson are providing the core of the platform
for the Trusted Cloud initiative but it is from the beginning architected in a way that allow SMEs to
participate. With support from the EIT ICT Labs business development network, leading research institutes
and universities the SMEs will help grow the ecosystem. SMEs stand to benefit from both a low treshold for
entry and access to new markets and customers.
The ecosystem has been developed to be made available to anyone wanting to contribute to the services on
offer in Europe, no matter in what domain. SMEs are critical to reach all these opportunities. The partners involved in the project will certainly be establishing their own services on the platform, but
it is also being targeted at companies that already have some idea of cloud services, but which are not yet
able to store their data in a reliable manner.
Links and references
CLARUS - A Framework for User Centred Privacy and
Security in the Cloud
David Sánchez & Josep Domingo-Ferrer, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV)
Focus Area
Market sector targets
The beneficiaries of the CLARUS solution will be, on the one side, potential cloud customers like companies,
public organisations and e-government administrations, which could thereby be motivated to embrace
the benefits of trusted cloud services while retaining full control over any potentially sensitive data they
outsource to the cloud. On the other side, the cloud providers themselves can also benefit because a trustenabling solution like CLARUS will widen the spectrum of potential cloud users, which implies a market
opportunity for cloud providers. In the long term, initiatives like CLARUS can pave the way to developing
more transparent, standardised, auditable and controllable cloud services, which will be beneficial for all
Addressing key concerns impeding the mainstream adoption of the
cloud: privacy, security, trust
Enhancing privacy, security and trust of end users with respect to the cloud providers is the main goal of the
CLARUS project. To achieve this, the CLARUS solution is envisioned as a proxy located in a domain trusted
by the end user (e.g., a server in her company’s intranet, a plug-in in the user’s device) that implements
security and privacy-enabling features towards the cloud service provider.
To enhance privacy, CLARUS will implement a set of privacy-enabling mechanisms to ensure that the user’s
Although cloud computing offers many benefits to its users, security issues such as confidentiality and
privacy are still major concerns to those intending to migrate to the cloud. Traditional cloud security has
been based on assurance to customers that cloud providers follow sound security practices. As a result,
current security mechanisms are commonly located within the cloud platform, hence compelling customers
to trust cloud providers. However, customers might be reluctant to outsource sensitive data due to lack of
control over data storage and management. To reach its full potential, cloud computing needs solid security
mechanisms that enhance trust in cloud computing by allowing cloud customers a greater control on the
security and privacy of their data.
The main objective of the CLARUS project [1] is to enhance trust in cloud computing services by developing
a secure framework for the storage and processing of data outsourced to the cloud that allows end users to
monitor, audit and control the stored data without impairing the functionality and cost-saving benefits of
cloud services.
sensitive data are properly protected before they are outsourced to the cloud. Protection will be provided
in a way that cloud service functionalities are still preserved, even those that require performing operations
(e.g., queries, transformations, calculations) on the protected data. To achieve that, CLARUS will rely on
and innovate over the current state of the art on functionality-preserving cryptographic (e.g., (partially)
homomorphic encryption, searchable encryption, etc.) and non-cryptographic data protection techniques
(e.g., data anonymisation, document redaction, data splitting and merging, private information retrieval,
etc.), with a special focus on preserving the benefits associated with cloud services (functionality, costeffectiveness, efficiency, etc.).
To enhance trust, CLARUS will also implement a set of auditing services, so that users can directly supervise
how data are being protected and outsourced to the cloud. To enhance security, CLARUS will also develop
an attack-tolerant framework, so that potential security breaches within the cloud can be dynamically
detected and appropriate mitigation measures can be activated on-line.
In this way, the user’s privacy, security and trust can be significantly enhanced with respect to current
cloud security solutions both regarding honest-but-curious cloud providers and potential attackers
(insiders as well as outsiders), while still preserving cloud functionalities (within the Platform-as-a-Service,
Infrastructure-as-a-Service and Software-as-a-Service models).
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
The CLARUS project proposes to develop the above-described framework as a set of generic protocols
that can be used by collaborative cloud service providers in order to build trusted cloud services that are
standardised and, therefore, transparent with regard to data management, privacy and security.
To do so, within the CLARUS project, a set of communication interfaces and protocols will be designed:
i) between the end user and the CLARUS proxy, ii) among different CLARUS instances running at different
organisations, and iii) between the CLARUS proxy and the cloud service providers. The aim is that the
interfaces and protocols should be generic and cover most of the spectrum of cloud services, so that they
can be proposed as cloud standards. By means of standardisation, protocols and functions can be made
homogenous for cloud providers and CLARUS proxies, so that: i) interoperability can be achieved among
otherwise heterogeneous cloud providers; ii) collaborative services (e.g., edition of documents outsourced
to the cloud by several users) can be implemented through several CLARUS proxies; and iii) APIs based on
standards can be made available to programmers for a seamless development of end-user cloud-based
How is cloud disrupting the market?
Cloud computing certainly provides great benefits to end users, but it has been built on the assumption
that appropriate security and privacy-preserving techniques are implemented by cloud providers. However,
recent security breaches of well-known cloud services (e.g., Sony Playstation Network outage, Apple iCloud
celebrity photos leakage) have revealed the risks of uncontrolled data outsourcing; as a result, the trust
of end users in cloud services has been seriously undermined and users with really sensitive data (e.g.
healthcare data) are extremely reluctant to outsourcing them. As highlighted by the European Commission
and several Cloud-related working parties [2-4], a model change is needed to tackle this serious issue. The
new model should return to data owners the control over their data and should foster cloud services based
on standards that can be certified as compliant with security and privacy.
Links and references
[1] CLARUS Project.
[2] European Commission. What does the Commission mean by secure Cloud computing services in
Europe? Press Release Database. Brussels, 15 October 2013. Available at:
[3] European Commission. Unleashing the Potential of Cloud Computing in Europe. Brussels, 27 September
2012. Available at:
[4] ETSI. Cloud Standards Coordination. Final report. November 2013. Available at:
Towards Common Metrics for SLAs
Robert B. Bohn, NIST Cloud Computing Program, NIST
Focus Area
When considering the life cycle of cloud services, the procurement tends not to be a straightforward
exercise. First, one needs to develop the technical and business requirements of the service. With
requirements in hand, selecting services can only begin after comparing them in a reliable and repeatable
manner. By employing a common vocabulary for cloud computing, communication between customer
and provider is able to be more precise and meaningful. The comparisons themselves are based on the
properties of the cloud services and the metrics to be used should relate the properties back to the original
set of requirements. This information is used in a Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the provider and
customer. The provider will fulfill the Service Level Objectives (SLOs) of the customer at a certain measured
level as stated in the SLA. The customer can use their metrics to monitor the performance of the provider
and react or make decisions on the service based on the monitoring results. Using a standardized set of
metrics, templates or method for determining cloud service metrics makes it easier and quicker to define
SLAs and SLOs, and to compare them with others.
Market sector targets
The target audience for this consists of cloud customers, cloud providers, cloud auditors and those involved
in the procurement of cloud services at all levels. The importance for metrics that can be used in cloud
computing cannot be understated. Developing metrics that are reliable, repeatable and measureable are
timely considering the continued growth in cloud computing and market forces. Ultimately, these metrics
will result in cloud computing being bought & sold in a confident and trustworthy manner that will add to
additional growth. Reliable & trusted cloud metrics give a cloud provider additional marketing and business
tools which allow them to set themselves apart from the competition.
Addressing key concerns impeding the mainstream adoption of the
cloud: privacy, security, trust
According to the NIST definition1 - Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network
access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications,
and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service
provider interaction. This definition is a good starting point for those who are interested in understanding
what cloud computing is. However, this model is not enough to purchase or procure clouds services for an
enterprise. In October 2014, NIST published a two-volume USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap
(NIST SP 500-293) which identifies the top level requirements in security, interoperability and portability
for a quick, secure and successful migration to the cloud2. Three principle requirements that are important
for this discussion are:
Requirement 3: Technical specifications to enable development of consistent, high-quality Service-Level
Requirement 4: Clearly and consistently categorized cloud services
Requirement 10: Defined and implemented cloud service metrics
When considered together, these requirements point out a clear pathway for customers and procurement
officials to embark on purchasing cloud services.
To undertake an assessment of available cloud services requires a type of normalization of the services in
which they can be compared against each other. This comparison depends upon two things:
»» An ability to discuss the concepts in cloud computing using a common vocabulary.
»» An ability to decide upon and develop relevant service metrics that reflect the organizational requirements.
The use of a common vocabulary to understand and communicate the concepts that underpin cloud
computing is a crucial aspect in order to make comparisons. In addition, this same vocabulary gives a
customer the necessary tools to discuss a framework for metrics with the provider, the capabilities of the
services and language that can be used in contractual agreements like the Service Level Agreement (SLAs).
For example, the simple terms “availability” and “response time” may hold different meanings amongst
cloud providers because they start with their specific definitions. One provider may describe availability as
being 99.5% available for use 24x7 whereas another provider may define it as 99.5% available for use from
9am-5pm. These are distinctly different and a customer should be alert. In many situations, the availability
to the customer does not take into account service downtime or service maintenance. Using a consistent
method to compare the cloud services satisfies Requirement 4.
The development of reliable metrics for cloud services rely on translating your business and technical
requirements into a form that can be measured in a repeatable fashion. For example, a possible metric
for an email service might be related to its ability to filter spam, detect viruses or malware. If one is
considering purchasing for a large organization, the time it takes to update mail servers or the number
of times a message will be resent in case it is deemed undeliverable could be important. NIST has
recently released a draft document entitled Cloud Service Metrics Description (NIST SP 500-307)
which discusses a method for describing cloud service metrics. Employing a method to develop
cloud service metrics is a useful exercise and helps to fulfill Requirement 10. The figure (Figure 1)
below shows how a customer uses metrics in order to make a decision when selecting a provider. Insights
Related to “safe and fair contracts”: Cloud law, service level agreements
Figure 1: Using Cloud Service Metrics to Decide between Providers A and B.
When used together, the customer has some important tools to assist in the procurement process. By
employing the common vocabulary and a description of the metrics, one can express these technical
specifications in the SLA. This document will be used in the managing and monitoring of the services and
their levels from the cloud provider. The following figure (Figure 2) gives insight into how the customer uses
metrics with SLA as a verification method.
With results in hand on the service levels through the monitoring process, the customer has the power to
make additional decisions such as purchasing more services, deciding on less or to take action on a service
that does not meet its agreed upon level.
Is there a common vision and goal for international dialogue on the
cloud, IoT or big data?
There is a common vision and goal for international dialogue on cloud computing. There have been many
advances in cloud computing standards. The most relevant are the joint standards produced by ISO and
the ITU-T. In August 2014, ISO standards 17788 (Cloud Vocabulary) and 17789 (Cloud Computing Reference
Architecture) were released. In addition, ISO is also working standards for SLAs – 19086. This is a 4 part
standard that will focus on concepts, metrics, requirements and security.
Figure 2: Verification and Monitoring of Cloud Services using Metrics and SLAs.
Links and references
1. NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, NIST SP 800-145
2. US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume I: High-Priority Requirements to Further
USG Agency Cloud Computing Adoption; and Volume II: Useful Information for Cloud Adopters, NIST SP
3. Cloud Service Metrics Description (draft), NIST SP 500-307
SLA-Ready - Making cloud security SLAs easier for
European SMEs
Stephanie Parker, Trust-IT, Arthur van der Wees, Arthur’s Legal and Jesus Luna, Cloud Security Alliance
Focus Area
The on-going evolution of cloud computing will radically transform business processes and bring about
the most sweeping changes to the structure of the global economy since the Industrial Revolution. Cloud
computing should be the answer to the rising complexity of software systems and therefore bring simplicity
and transparency in all possible and innovative ways, especially in a data-driven era. Complex and misleading language is one the main barriers to the wider adoption of cloud services, which
typically come with “take-it-or-leave-it” contracts. SMEs find it particularly hard to understand the
terminology of service level agreements (Cloud SLAs), which often shift significant risks to the customer.
SLA-Ready is driving a common understanding of Cloud SLAs with greater standardisation and transparency
so firms can make an informed decision on what services to use, what to expect and what to trust. The main target audience of SLA-Ready are small- and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). This group is
expected to benefit the most from cloud services but lack of knowledge and security concerns are holding
them back. The Federation of Small Businesses (FSB) has recently found that nearly two fifths of small
businesses are sceptical about the benefits of cloud technology when compared against security risks [2].
SLA-Ready aims to change this through a service-driven approach that makes Cloud SLAs readily
understandable to the private sector in Europe, thus breaking down barriers to mainstream adoption [1].
The SLA-Ready approach is also an added bonus as the potential of cloud computing in Europe increasingly
shifts towards the Internet of Things (IoT), rather than just generic cloud services.
Addressing key concerns impeding the mainstream adoption of the
cloud: privacy, security, trust
Research by the Cloud Security Alliance shows customers see the use of standardised Cloud SLAs as a
critical step towards better understanding the level of security and data protection offered by the Cloud
Service Provider (CSP), and for monitoring the CSP’s performance and security levels.
If a user cannot understand what the cloud offers, she/he cannot meaningfully utilise the benefits. With
SLAs offering this crucial user-Cloud interface, SLA-Ready plays a very timely and critical usability role via
its advocacy of reference SLA and best practice repositories. SLA-Ready will create a new set of services designed specifically to make Cloud Service Level Agreements
(SLAs) more understandable in the private sector and across different audiences, from C-level executives to
Market sector targets
technical and legal staff. It will also support decision making during the entire SLA lifecycle. New service creation in SLA-Ready spans practical guides, a social marketplace, tutorials-as-a-service, and
decision-making services. These services will help firms to carefully plan their journey to the cloud, and
make it strategic through an informed, stepping-stone approach, so the cloud and applications grow with
their businesses.
The SLA-Ready Common Reference Model will benefit the industry by integrating a set of SLA components,
such as common vocabularies, SLO metrics and measurements, as well as best practices and relevant
standards to fill identified gaps in the current SLA landscape. On top of this, SLA-Ready is gathering feedback from customers and value-chain partners within its business
network. SLA-Ready will therefore also act as a forum where customers, cloud service providers and related
vendors can learn to speak the same language on equal terms, thus gaining reciprocal benefits. SLA-Ready
will also exchange best practices on SLAs and procurement with public sector stakeholders through is
Advisory Board and a group of selected supporters. This is key to providing the right answers for smooth and effective cloud adoption approach, including
security, which only cloud can offer in a cost effective way. It is also the best course of action to establish
a workable and transparent (cloud services) market as goal for the European economy, jobs and growth.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
In order to stay competitive in the global marketplace, firms need to provide something new, something
exciting on a regular basis. As real-time value delivery becomes increasingly important, firms need to embrace
the change that cloud enables along with new processes and business models. One of the advantages of the
cloud is that it demands and enables business agility. Put simply, this means becoming more efficient and
cutting costs, but also focusing on new business value creation. On the downside, the recent FSB survey brings yet more proof that cloud services need to have terms and
conditions in plain English and transparent pricing. Evidence strongly suggests that without these, further
uptake by SMEs will be much less likely. But it’s not just about greater clarity. Small firms typically have
restricted budgets, limited human resources and limited knowledge of information security. Ultimately, it is
about building confidence and trust in the market as the very foundation of business. Now is the time to address this challenge in earnest through a common dialogue and through the creation
of new services and tools that can benefit both the industry at large and cloud customers, building on the
expert work already done by the consortium members of SLA-Ready [3]. Links and references
[1] SLA-Ready has received funding from the European Commission under Horizon 2020
– H2020-ICT-2014-1/644077.
[2] UK Federation of Small Businesses, Cloud Computing Survey – January 2014,
Cloud Pricing is Broken
James Mitchell, Strategic Blue
Focus Area
Commodity trading of cloud services would benefit both buyers and sellers, but the industry’s current
pricing models are standing in the way. The Economist’s Intelligence Unit asks Dr James Mitchell of Strategic
Blue, “Why is Cloud Pricing Broken?”
Market sector targets
Most people are happy to pay a premium for a quality service, provided it is made clear what is charged for
that premium. The same is true for buyers of cloud services, but the lack of comparability of service quality
and pricing between the major cloud providers is holding back buyer trust in the market. Greater pricing
transparency will be good for the cloud market.
Major cloud consumers should adopt a multi-cloud approach, deliberately running benchmark tests on
multiple clouds, and moving workloads to where the best price is available, on a performance adjusted
basis. The effect of this will be to enable fair comparisons between cloud providers, enabling transparency
in the premia being charged for higher quality services.
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
A traded market in cloud computing would allow financing models that are now commonplace in the energy
markets to be used to cost-effectively finance the build-out of new cloud services, whilst significantly
reducing risk.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
The pay-as-you-go utility cloud model is crucial for allowing startup SMEs to innovate with their digital
services more cost-effectively than ever before. Instead of buying physical servers outright, virtual servers
can be rented for even just an hour, at a tiny fraction of the cost.
What is missing is the right cloud pricing model to bridge the gap between unpredictable “on-demand”
hourly usage, and the 1 year or 3 year commitments, generally paid upfront, that are available from some
cloud providers at a discount to on-demand. Insights
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
Links and references
Page 8 of The Impact of Cloud by The Economist Intelligence Unit
Other articles by Dr James Mitchell on the Strategic Blue blog
Dr James Mitchell on LinkedIn and on Twitter
OGF Cloud-related Standards
Alan Sill, VP of Standards; Thijs Metsch, OCCI-WG leader; Wolfgang Ziegler, Applications Area Director
- Open Grid Forum
Focus Area
The Open Grid Forum is an open global community committed to driving the rapid evolution and
adoption of modern advanced applied distributed computing, including cloud, grid and associated storage,
networking and workflow methods. The output products that result from this process codify best practices
and standards that provide the basis for some of the largest and most powerful operational computing
infrastructure systems in the world.
OGF is focused on developing and promoting innovative scalable techniques, applications and
infrastructures to improve productivity in the enterprise and within the international research, science
and business communities. OGF accomplishes its work through open forums and events that build the
community, explore trends, share optimal approaches, document findings and consolidate these results
where appropriate into standards. OGF adheres to and endorses the OpenStand principles [1] for open
standards development and is a signatory to the joint statement of affirmation of these principles.
OGF standards and related documents span a wide range of topics across the entire spectrum of advanced
distributed computing and related areas. Here we only have room to highlight two of the most mature
cloud-related topics. For more detail, see the OGF web site at and explore the links
there for other recent updates.
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
Standards benefit users by eliminating or greatly reducing vendor lock-in, encouraging interoperability and
permitting the selection and use of best-of-breed implementations of software components. Suppliers
and providers of cloud and grid technology benefit by the increased assurance that such components will
work together designed when deployed – which is especially important in high-usage and automated
infrastructures. Software developers also benefit by making use of standard interfaces with well-understood
and properly designed behaviors, allowing them to pursue innovation in software internals without having
to redesign and re-implement common components for connectivity to other software. As an example of recent widely adopted OGF output, the Open Cloud Computing Interface
(OCCI) specification set [2] defines a general protocol and API applicable to many different cloud resource
management tasks. OCCI began as a remote management API for IaaS model based Services, allowing for
the development of interoperable tools for common tasks including deployment, autonomic scaling and
Market sector targets
monitoring. It has since evolved into a general-purpose flexible RESTful API framework with a strong focus
on integration, portability, interoperability and innovation while still remaining highly extensible. OCCI is
suitable to serve many other models in addition to IaaS, including e.g. PaaS and SaaS. The current release
(v1.1) of OCCI has achieved a high degree of adoption and implementation in production in a wide variety
of languages, projects, software products and application areas [3]. The OCCI working group is in the process of developing an update of the OCCI specifications as version
1.2 with improvements that result from nearly four years of successful field experience. This version will be
backwards compatible with v1.1 and will include:
»» A new JSON rendering to accompany updates to the existing HTTP and text renderings
»» Minor updates of current OCCI core infrastructure model and specification
»» New extensions that will include PaaS support, notifications support and SLA support
​In addition, the OCCI group is considering best methods for support of additional features, including
monitoring, key management and security, interdomain networking and direct interface support for popular
batch systems through the Distributed Resource Management Application API (DRMAA) standard [4].
Related to “safe and fair contracts”: cloud law, service level agreements
Among OGF’s most widely adopted and impactful standards is the WS-Agreement and WS-Agreement
Negotiation family of specifications for advanced machine-readable agreements [5. 6]. These specifications provide
a language and a protocol for creation, management and monitoring of automated machine-readable service
agreements in real time. They include provisions for advertising the capabilities of service providers and creating
agreements based on templates, and for monitoring agreement compliance at runtime. They are among the most
widely studied and adopted specifications in the industry of their type. Many independent implementations and
a framework [7] exist for the use of these standards.
WS-Agreement extends the classical service discovery and usage model since it allows service consumers not
only to discover and use services, but also to dynamically negotiate the quality with which the service is provided.
Once the service consumer and the service provider achieve a common understanding of the requirements for
service provisioning, an agreement or SLA is created that serves as a formal contract between the two parties
and describes the rights and obligations of each party in the context of the service provisioning process. An
agreement life cycle includes the creation, termination and monitoring of agreement states.
WS-Agreement Negotiation is a Web Services protocol for negotiating agreement offers between two
parties, such as between a service provider and a service consumer. WS-Agreement Negotiation can also
be used to renegotiate an existing agreement. To achieve this, it defines an extensible XML language for
specifying agreement offers and agreement templates. These templates include a negotiation context and
a set of negotiation constraints that are used for processing the negotiation. The specification also includes
all schemas required for the negotiation and the necessary port types. The WS-Agreement and WS-Agreement Negotiation specifications have been used as the basis for a wide
variety of deployed software, including being incoroprated into the software output of many Europeanfunded FP-series projects and in Horizon 2020 research projects, as well as several commercial products.
Is there a common vision and goal for international dialogue on the
cloud, IoT or big data?
OGF regards cloud, IoT and Big Data technologies as part of the broad spectrum of advanced distributed
computing and human interface methods. In practice in these and other related settings in the modern
software development world, standards cannot be designed in isolation from feedback from real user,
provider and developer usage patterns. The OGF processes [8] for document and standards production have been refined to allow close, active
communication among all of these contributors with processes that allow for due deliberation but that still
provide options for rapid turn-around when needed and timely feedback from the community.
We are proud that OGF standards support infrastructures that are used to deliver billions of core-hours of
computation annually, move and manage hundreds of petabytes of data routinely, and to control and
configure some of the fastest research networks in the world on a daily production basis.
Links and references
The Cloud Interoperability Plugfest Series
Alan Sill, OGF, on behalf of Cloud Plugfest organizers group
Focus Area
The Cloud Interoperability Plugfest series (or “Cloud Plugfests” for short) originated out of communitybased interoperability efforts by a variety of organizations in 2011 and was further developed into a
cooperative venue to exchange information and to encourage interoperability on implementations of
relevant cloud standards. It has since expanded to include sponsorships and support at different events
by several important standards organizations and software development projects, including the Cloud
Standards Customer Council, CloudWATCH, DMTF, ETSI, OASIS, the OCEAN Project, OGF, OW2 and SNIA.
A total of fifteen Cloud Plugfest events have been held over the past four years [1], and other events are
scheduled or in the planning stages.
Market sector targets
The Cloud Plugfest series is open to participation by other standards organizations, individual developers,
vendors and software framework projects. The series is open to the community, and other projects and
organizations are welcome to participate and to make use of the tools provided by the Cloud Plugfest
series, and to propose to sponsor an event to highlight developer interaction opportunities with their
product, project or standard.
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
Cloud Plugfests are organized get-togethers between participants who are active developers in cloudoriented framework projects, cloud standards and software.
Cloud Plugfests are work-oriented gatherings of developers and participants in standards organization
projects and framework project developers designed to promote interchange of methods, tools and
techniques that are defined by the plugfest participants as being suitable to test features such as portability,
interoperability, ease of use, self-consistency and security when used in a cloud setting. The main goal of
these events is progress by the community at large, with a strong focus on opportunities for hands-on
Our primary goal is to leverage resources brought by participating organizations and individuals to further
the above aspects of cloud computing software in an organized setting. Presentations are preferably brief
and intermixed with extensive periods of active coding and comparison between techniques. The goal is
to produce interoperable, portable, reliable, scalable software with good security and good use of stateof-the-art techniques. The experience is oriented towards members of the development community and
intended to promote communication between and among project and product developers and standards
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
Developer engagement is the key focus of the Cloud Interoperability Plugfest series. When developing
new techniques, new standards, or proposing and implementing new features of software in the cloud
and distributed computing, big data or multi-endpoint edge computing, it is extermely important to have
the opportunity to try out these new ideas in practice. Cloud Plugfests give develpers the opportunity
to interact with each other and with other technology experts in a setting that is focused on producing
progress on taking these new ideas to market and on implementing them in practice. The feedback is valuable not only to software and standards developers, but to those who would like to
assess the maturity of a new idea and to see how to implement it.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
Cloud computing has special relevance to small and medium-scale enterprise (SME) markets because of the
way in which it makes available a range of new tools that can be assembled and deployed in ways that are
specific to the exact needs of the organization. To make best use of these techniques, it is important that tools
are developed to meet these needs with interoperability in mind from the outset, so that the possibility of
incompatible approaches is minimized, and so that the tools themselves are more likely to work together.
organizations. It is aimed towards those participants who would like to see the output of their work used
in practice in working systems.
You should attend the Cloud Plugfest to
»» Benefit from first-hand information on how Cloud standardization is progressing and how to implement
Cloud standards
»» Get support from experienced developers and SDO members to improve your implementation of Cloud
»» Learn how to integrate open standards implementations into your software project, and grow your base
of users and implementers
»» Provide feedback and discuss with SDOs on which features are needed for your applications or use cases
»» Learn to use important industry standard testing tools
»» Develop personal relationships with some of the leading developers and open source project experts in
the industry
»» Meet and discuss with standards implementers, SDO experts and testing experts
»» Test your implementations together with experts and help ensure interoperability across multiple
implementations and standards
The Cloud Plugfest organizers invite all interested standards organizations, funded projects, and opensource efforts interested in interoperability, portability, security and other important aspects of functional
cloud computing to contact us at [email protected] or to follow the links for further information
on how to participate that are on the web site [2].
This positive situation will not happen by itself, however. To ensure actively that standards, best practice
tools, and innovations from the software development community itself will actually work together, events
of this type and community cooperative work to support them are important.
Events can be co-hosted with, or held immediately prior to or subsequent to organizational meetings of one
or more of the participating sponsoring organizations of a Cloud Plugfest location. For information on how to coordinate a Cloud Plugfest location as a component of one or more of your
events, please contact the Cloud Plugfest organizers.
Links and references
Cloud for the Public Sector, Education, Research
and Government
How The UK’s G-Cloud Programme Would Benefit Europe
Kate Craig-Wood, Memset
Focus Area
The G-Cloud, which launched in 2012, essentially provides an online Digital Marketplace where public
organisations can find different services offered by a large amount of suppliers that are part of the G-Cloud
Framework Agreement. The G-Cloud has definitely had an impact on the way the UK public sector buys
commodity IT services and the government has been commended on the strides it has taken to refine the
procurement and certification process through the G-Cloud.
A research report issued by IDC at the end of last year, claims the UK government is “ahead of the curve”
when it comes to cloud adoption and streamlining digital service procurement practices across Europe.
However, over the past five or six years, western European governments have certainly embraced and
realised the potential benefits of cloud computing. Whilst initially deemed as a way of saving considerable
cap-ex now Government CIOs are starting to see the wider benefits of cloud computing, like improving
accessibility to applications and data from remote locations and multiple devices, as well as the extra
scalability and elasticity to deal with peak workloads.
The time is ripe for desperately cash-strapped European governments to put in place a G-Cloud style framework
to not only save vast sums but also reap some of the rewards the UK G-Cloud programme has delivered.
Market sector targets
By implementing a G-Cloud Framework similar to what the UK have put in place, the programme has the
potential to save European governments billions. For example, I’ve calculated that the UK government
should actually be aiming for a 70-80% savings on their ICT spend from the G-Cloud. If done properly,
G-Cloud has the potential to be hugely disruptive and could be saving the government £12bn per year by
Measuring efficiencies and impact
Working For Government
The G-Cloud has made it clearer, simpler and faster for the whole of the public sector to buy digital products
and services when they need to. By creating a marketplace of quality suppliers of all sizes, who work in agile
ways, to supply and work with government.
G-Cloud has facilitated four types of savings for government:
»» Published prices in the Digital Marketplace are transparent and comparable across providers. This has
enabled the government to buy products and services at lower prices;
»» Reduced procurement costs for the buyer. The procurement of a service is done directly with the actual
How is cloud disrupting the market?
The G-Cloud public sector cloud services procurement framework has been active for two and a half years
supplier under the framework agreements of G-Cloud, without the need for intermediaries.
»» Benefits from adopting agile solutions
»» Creating deflationary pressure in the wider market
Opening Up The Market To SMEs
System Integrators have traditionally held a cast iron grip on the public sector IT market for years, imposing
long, expensive contracts with little room for innovation. G-Cloud has helped to widen the playing field
and open up public sector opportunities to SME suppliers like Memset who not only bring lower prices to
the market, but are also much more agile by nature.
Saving Time
G-Cloud’s other hailed success is the reduced time it takes for procurement by public sector buyers of offthe-shelf cloud services. For example;
The average time to obtain a cloud service via G-Cloud is 18 days as opposed to 171 days using the
conventional OJEU procurement process.
A Single Market for Services
The European Council has called for all efforts to be made for Europe’s industry to regain momentum in
digital products and services, describing an urgent need for an integrated single digital and telecoms market,
benefiting consumers and companies.
In order to take advantage of the full potential of the digital economy the Council stated that Europe needs
investment and the right regulatory framework to enable infrastructure roll out of high speed broadband
and 4G whilst maintaining technology neutrality.
In addition, investment in a Framework for actually selling these services will be to all our benefits. I
passionately believe that we should not be afraid of competing with each other, rather that if we can foster
international excellence in low-cost, high-security, high-efficiency cloud services, whether IaaS, PaaS or
SaaS, in Europe it will be to all our benefits.
The old guard (systems integrators etc.) are protectionist. They expend huge efforts to preserve dwindling
revenues, especially from government. What they fail to understand is one of the foundation stones of my
part-time doctorate; that if you make something a lot cheaper, faster, better and more efficient, in the longterm markets actually end up spending more on it.
In technology’s case this increased long-term spend will represent orders of magnitude efficiency gains on
where we are now and much greater savings through transformation of public services. In the short term,
however, the public sector’s spending on technology should fall significantly as the market moves away from
consultancy towards automation.
This message should be especially poignant for Europe. The austerity measures have barely started biting;
we are at the tip of the iceberg. The way we, Europe, will save the public purse is through technology.
By working together we can form the foundation of the new European cloud industry, while at the same
time saving the desperately cash-strapped European governments huge sums and boosting the European
economy. It is our time!
and the numbers speak for themselves. To date, over £350m worth of sales have been made through the
framework, with SMEs securing roughly half of the contracts. Even with the conservative estimates this
represents a 50% saving over what the government would have paid in the old world.
The framework has definitely started to level the playing field and open up the market for SMEs. Sales will
continue to grow as the public sector embraces the flexibility and potential savings available through cloud
Links and references
Making School as a Service a reality
Fabrice Moizan, NVIDIA
Focus Area
Market sector targets
EDUCLOUD as a SAAS platform is targeting state and private schools, covering K-12 and Higher-Ed sectors.
Its main goal is to provide a flexible cloud-based educational platform supporting 3D Gaming, blended
knowledge, social network capabilities which could be adapted to any kind of curriculum globally.
The benefits are multiple as this new approach brings together new technologies, new learning methods,
and 3D gaming with the aim of bringing learning and teaching pleasure to students and teachers.
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
One of the key points with EDUCLOUD moving forward is to figure out the business model of providing
educational contents to schools and individuals.
Like any SAAS model, School as a Service is at its infancy and is clearly disruptive versus the existing paper
book selling model. It will take time and experience to figure out what the best model is.
EDUCLOUD is a great opportunity to define the next business models for the e-education sector.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
EDUCLOUD will bring together a new SAAS model as well as Deep learning analytics.
EDUCLOUD is the first “School as a Service” platform available in a French state school today.
Following the theme of making learning fun for children, NVIDIA has been working with Gayatech, other
start-up companies, and local authorities, on a customisable cloud-based educational platform which
includes a 3D video game for children as its main pillar.
The student controls an avatar using the tablet touchscreen, exploring a picturesque 3D coastal landscape
based on the south of France. The educational element comes when the user interacts with other characters
in the world. The platform offers multiple-choice quizzes that the pupil can complete to gain rewards and
points. These quizzes can be customised by the teachers to reflect their curriculum.
The game is then fully connected through the platform to other rich blended media such as e-books, videos
and other games. It uses a dedicated search engine as well as an integrated social network.
To conclude, EDUCLOUD is an extremely flexible educational content platform, capable of integrating any
type of media file and render it via streaming, anytime, anywhere on any electronic device.
How is cloud disrupting the market?
The Cloud is bringing the capability for students to learn digital based media at anytime, anywhere on any
The Cloud will enable students from the same community to work together with their teachers in a more
efficient way globally.
How GRNET Provides cloud services for science and
Vangelis Floros, GRNET
GRNET is currently faced with a number of challenges regarding the future of ~okeanos. The increased
demand for computing resources is pushing GRNET to expand its underlying computing capacity. At this
moment, GRNET is running a number of procurement projects seeking to build the required physical
infrastructure for hosting cloud services. Probably the most notable of them is the development of an
innovative container-based data centre, currently being constructed by the banks of Louros river in Central
Greece, nearby an hydroelectric dam operated by the public power corporation (PPC). The data centre will
use water from the river in order to cool the IT equipment and electricity produced by the dam, making it
an excellent example of Green IT implementation. This data centre will act mainly as disaster recovery of
the main data centre in Athens, which is also being expanded in order to accommodate a larger capacity of
physical resources. The underlying software is also evolving in order to support new technologies, capabilities and use cases.
GRNET is also aiming to expand its cloud offerings beyond IaaS and exploit ~okeanos to develop state-ofthe-art services on the PaaS level.
Sustainability and funding are also two obvious challenges. ~okeanos, as part of GRNET’s activities, has been
included in Greece’s national strategic map of research infrastructures and is expected to continue to be
funded until 2020. What is evident though is that the scale and quality of service that ~okeanos is currently
targeting cannot rely on government or EC funding alone. Rather, it calls for a partial commercialization of
Okeanos [1] is an IaaS cloud service developed and operated by GRNET [2]. The service is powered
by Synnefo [3], an open source software build on top of existing proven open source software (Google
Ganeti, Ceph, etc.) which has been expanded in-house in order to provide a robust and complete IaaS cloud
solution. The incentive for building the service has been the provision of public IaaS cloud service free of
charge to the Greek Research and Academic community. ~okeanos is a national-funded project the success
of which has seen expansion beyond national borders, attracting international collaborations and use cases. ~okeanos is one of the cloud services that participate in the European Grid Infrastructure’s (EGI) Federated
Cloud [4] providing computing resources to the high-productivity federated infrastructure offered by EGI.
GRNET is using ~okeanos to offer public cloud services to the GÉANT [5] community through the ~okeanos
GLOBAL initiative [6] enabled in part of GÉANT’s GN3+ SA7 Support to Clouds activity. Moreover, the service
is now an integral part of a number of existing and upcoming EC funded project, for example ~okeanos is
one of the cloud services participating in the CELAR FP7 [7] project, which is developing advanced cloud
elasticity capabilities.
the service. GRNET is currently investigating possible business models and is examining pricing models that
could be used for commercial exploitation of the service. The process is less than trivial but is crucial for the
sustainability of the service and to ensure that ~okeanos will remain competitive and relevant comparing to
other open source and other commercial cloud solutions. References
[1] ~okeanos, [2] GRNET,
[3] Synnefo cloud software stack,
[4] EGI Federated Cloud Task Force,
[5] GEANT,
[6] ~okeanos GLOBAL announcement,
[7] CELAR project,
INDIGO-DataCloud - A Cloud Stack for European Research
Davide Salomoni, INFN
Focus Area
In the past decade, European research institutions, scientific collaborations and resource providers
have been involved in the development of software frameworks and in the set-up of unprecedented
distributed e-infrastructures, such as the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). Their collaboration has made
it possible to produce, store and analyze Petabytes of research data through hundreds of thousands of
compute processors, in a way that has been instrumental for scientific research and discovery worldwide.
New technological advancements, such as virtualization and cloud computing, and the need of resource
providers to keep improving their services to maximize effectiveness, efficiency and business opportunities
pose new important challenges.
In Cloud computing, both the public and private sectors are already offering Cloud resources as IaaS
(Infrastructure as a Service). However, there are numerous areas of interest to scientific communities where
Cloud computing uptake is currently lacking, especially at the PaaS (Platform as a Service) and SaaS (Software
as a Service) layers. In particular, there are number of technological gaps that currently prevent massive
exploitation of e-infrastructures and resources (either public or private) by several scientific communities.
Market sector targets
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
For example, ease of access to distributed resources, in particular for small collaborations, is currently
lacking. While big scientific endeavors often have the critical mass to write their own custom set of routines
or computing models to access these resources, the same cannot be said in general for the long tail of
science, such as small experiments where IT expertise and manpower is at a premium. Also, while in the
past a substantial amount of middleware was written directly by scientific communities, the problem of
maintaining that software is a non-trivial proposition. Fortunately, the IT world has substantially advanced
in recent years in providing open solutions to the market, especially in areas related to Cloud computing:
while this is an advancement toward sustainability, there is still the need to adapt these solutions to
the dynamic requirement of scientific communities, while retaining at the same time openness, vendor
independence, and the flexibility to identify the most cost-effective resources, be they available in the
public sector, in the private one, or in both. Examples of areas that scientific communities and resource
providers perceive as problematic for the exploitation of distributed e-infrastructures include:
»» The orchestration and federation of Cloud, Grid and HPC resources.
»» Potential performance issues limiting massive adoption of shared and virtualized Cloud resources in large
data centers.
»» The difficulty in exploiting specialized hardware, such as GPGPUs or low-latency interconnections,
without statically dedicating such hardware to individual tenants or users.
»» The management of dynamic and complex workflows for scientific data analysis.
»» The aggregation of data coming from multiple sources and stored in multiple locations through
sometimes-incompatible technologies.
»» The support of federated identities and of distributed authorization policies.
»» Barriers that limit the adoption of PaaS solutions, such as the use of custom, non-interoperable interfaces,
and the limited availability of APIs for technology-independent storage access.
»» The difficulty in moving beyond static allocation and partitioning of both storage and computing
resources in data centers.
»» Flexible packaging, distribution and deployment of distributed, scalable applications.
»» Exploitation of distributed computing and storage resources through dynamic, transparent network
»» Missing APIs that allow writing applications, customizable portals and mobile apps exploiting the features listed above.
In order to fill these gaps, the European Commission has recently approved INDIGO-DataCloud, a project
involving 26 research and industrial partners located in 11 European countries. The project will be funded
with about 11M€ in 30 months, with the goal to build a Cloud-based open platform tailored to multidisciplinary scientific communities and capable of running on public and private infrastructures. It will
allow scientists to write and use applications through scientific gateways and mobile appliances, making
use of workflows and advanced capabilities such as service composition, quality of service, and low-impact
virtualization technologies for compute, storage and network resources. The INDIGO work plan, starting
in April 2015, will consider the requirements of communities as diverse as physics, astronomy, life sciences,
bioinformatics, molecular modeling, climate and earth sciences, cultural heritage, and social sciences, and
engage the best European software developers of distributed solutions, large e-infrastructure providers,
alongside key industrial partners to develop solutions that will allow European research communities to
increase their possibilities to easily access and use distributed IT infrastructures. In this way, the ability of
European scientists from all fields to solve problems and make new discoveries will also be increased.
How is cloud disrupting the market?
The potential of Cloud computing has probably not been exploited so far by European scientists. While
very successful, the usage of distributed e-infrastructures has in the past focused on lower layer features
such as physical (or virtualized, as in “virtual machine”) resources. This brought with it the complexity of
managing these resources, and thus limited the impact of distributed infrastructures for science. What
Cloud means, however, is the possibilty to abstract from the details of real or virtual hardware, and focus
on higher-level requirements, such as the need to dynamically define analysis workflows, or seamlessly
connect distributed resource centers, or dynamically create and scale clusters of databases for the analysis
of distributed data. The capability to define solutions to these requirements, and the possibility to support
them in both the public and private sectors is going to open up a competitive market where both research
institutions and industries can play a role, which will ultimately benefit overall efficiency and allow small
and big scientific collaborations alike to get faster results at a lower cost.
EU-Brazil Cloud Connect - Strengthening cooperation
between Europe and Brazil in Cloud Computing
Ignacio Blanquer, Universitat Politècnica de València; Francisco Brasileiro, Universidade Federal de
Campina Grande
EUBrazilCloudConnect (EUBrazilCC) - EU-Brazil Cloud infrastructure Connecting federated resources for
Scientific Advancement (2013-2015), funded under the Objective FP7-ICT-2013-EU-Brazil - Cloud computing
for Science, is a transcontinental collaborative project “by design”. All activities reflect the natural
collaboration between European and Brazilian institutions. From a technical viewpoint, a very interesting
case is the asynchronous deployment of resources on a cross-Atlantic federated infrastructure of several
on-premise IaaS providers, by means of a technology developed in Brazil (namely fogbow). Fogbow
is used by high-level workflow, data analysis and programming environments developed in Europe. The
adoption of standards and the experience of past European initiatives has paved the road for this successful
Three scientific scenarios are developed on top of the EUBrazilCloudConnect platform. These scenarios
are multidisciplinary and highly complementary, covering Epidemiology, Health, Biodiversity, Natural
Resources and Climate Change, and involving complex workflows and access to huge datasets. The cloud
facilitates the collaboration at the level of the research scenarios in EUBrazilCloudConnect. Each of the
three use scenarios combine virtual appliances from Europe and Brazil in a single application. Encapsulating
the services is much easier and efficient with the cloud.
Market sector targets
EUBrazilCC targets the long-tail research community, demonstrated in three use scenarios. The first
one aims at providing a workbench to improve the knowledge on the susceptibility of the outburst of
the leishmaniasis disease. It currently integrates the information on Leishmania vectors and processing
pipelines for their analysis. The second scenario case demonstrates the use of geographically distributed,
heterogeneous infrastructures in vascular simulation by the integration in real-time of the ADAN and Alya
Red simulators. To date, we have developed a prototype that uses cloud resources to optimise HPC. Finally,
the third use case aims at analysing both climate change and biodiversity and their interaction. Prototypes
for a scientific gateway to process and consume climatic and biodiversity big data along with a pipeline for
the evapotranspiration analysis are currently available.
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
Federating multiple on-premise cloud providers and synchronising access to cluster-based resources
Focus Area
is a key focus area of EUBrazilCC. The main federation component, namely fogbow, is based on a peerto-peer architecture that aims at creating a federation from totally distributed and independent IaaS
deployments. The main objective is to allow local cloud users to use surplus resources coming from other
members of the federation. Federation is implemented addressing 5 main requirements: i) Membership
management, through a rendezvous component acting as a discovery service for a fogbow federation and
running as an XMPP component; 2) Resource matching, performed at the level of the federation manager; 3)
Authentication and Authorisation, at three different levels (federation layer, local cloud and among clouds);
4) Intrusiveness, not requiring (or minimising) changes on local security policies, privacy settings or cloud
management frameworks; and 5) External Accessibility, through a Reverse Tunnelling Service.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
While the model of resource provisioning proposed by EUBrazilCC currently focuses on scientific domains,
it can be extended to benefit SMEs. Two of the use scenarios (Leishmania and climate) aim at providing
services for a community by post-processing public data resources. These added-value services need to be
provisioned on a production-quality ?? and with a reasonable capacity for scalability. The use of standards
(at the level of the images, the deployment services and the authentication) eases the migration from one
infrastructure to another. Three advantages (quality of service, scalability and no vendor lock-in) are also
important for SMEs, which have budget restrictions and need reliable solutions valid in the long-term.
Finally, sharing key services, such as the marketplace, with other infrastructures, can considerably increase
the impact of these developments.
Links and references
[1] EUBrazilCloudConnect project,
[2] Ignacio Blanquer, Francisco Vilar Brasileiro, Daniele Lezzi, Maria Julia Lima, Antonio Tadeu A. Gomes,
Giovanni Aloisio, Jacek Cala “EU-Brazil Cloud Connect: Integrating services for heterogeneous infrastructures”,
EGI Community Forum 2014.
[3] Abmar Barros, Francisco Brasileiro, Rafael Carvalho, Giovanni Farias, Francisco Germano, Marcos
Nóbrega, Ana Costa Ribeiro, Igor Silva, Leticia Teixeira, “Using Fogbow to federate private Clouds”.
November 2014,
[4] Harnessing the cloud for global research collaboration,
SMEs – The Backbone of the European Economy
CloudWATCH - At the cusp of cloud meeting the Internet
of Things, How can SMEs grasp new opportunities while
staying safe in the cloud?
Patrice Chazerand, Digital Europe & Stephanie Parker, Trust-IT Services
Focus Area
The pressure to produce new features and new service capabilities faster than ever to keep up with the
cloud now applies to many different types of businesses and government services. It brings with it an
acceleration of the pace of business.
The is a digital hub helping public and private sector organisations carefully plan their
journey to the cloud. It showcases the benefits of cloud computing in terms of agility, capacity, the creation
of new business value and cost efficiency.
The use of cloud services is not as high as expected, mainly due to concerns about security of data, lack
of clarity and transparency. Addressing these issues is fundamental to increase further uptake of cloud
services. It is particularly important as we stand at the cusp of cloud meeting the Internet of Things (IoT),
where each connected device create a potential security weakness. Experts are already raising unsettling
questions about online privacy and security [1].
Cybercrime is also on the rise and already extracts between 15-20% of the value created by the Internet,
currently estimated to be around $2-3 trillion annually, with significant direct impact (e.g. financial losses,
destruction of digital assets, business interruption) and indirect impact (e.g. reputational damage, loss of
customers and loss of intellectual property) [2].
Small organisations are now facing similar risks to big corporations in a rapidly evolving landscape of threats.
Lack of proper risk management (RM) and inadequate security information systems and networks also play
a key part in increasing cyber incidents. By far the most important challenge, however, is lack of awareness,
especially among small firms.
Special guidance, tailored frameworks and standards implementation are needed to ensure the right security
measures are put in place. This is fundamental to counter concerns and mitigate risks so that security and
data protection enable rather than stand in the way of new business opportunities, economic growth and
job creation. Market sector targets
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of the European economy: 99 out of every
100 businesses are SMEs and they employ 2 in every 3 employees. But when it comes to adopting new
services or implementing information security systems, SMEs face significant challenges. They typically
have restricted budgets, limited resources and limited expertise in information security. They are also in a
weaker position compared with larger organisations when it comes to negotiating cloud contracts. They
are increasingly less likely to adopt cloud because of security concerns, complex terminology and lack of
So how can we best facilitate SMEs in migrating to the cloud and help them innovate in the global marketplace
where new business value creation is becoming increasingly important? How do we bring together small
firms and cloud service providers in a way that facilities information in a neutral and objective way?
CloudWATCH is creating new services and tools to help navigate SMEs to the cloud confident that they have
at their fingertips all the practical, security and legal information they need to make the right decisions [3].
Helping SMEs understand means for their business is the first step towards realising its benefits. It is key to
enabling innovation in the marketplace by creating and delivering value to customers in news. CloudWATCH has already led the way with the launch of the European Cloud Scout, a novel interactive
tool for SME managers in Europe with low-threshold information on legal, organisational and technical
requirements for the successful use of cloud services [4].
Cloud Scout focuses on security issues primarily for SMEs. In just 10 to 15 minutes this tool provides
information about what needs to be considered in order to use cloud computing in a secure manner and
about how businesses can even improve information security.
Cloud Scout has an EU-wide vision. Launched by former European Commissioner for the Digital Agenda,
Neelie Kroes, Cloud Scout is supported by DIGITALEUROPE’s member National Trade Associations across
Europe. Several country and language specific versions already available online and more will follow.
But it doesn’t stop here. CloudWATCH is now poised to launch a highly practical and insightful web
application for SMEs. The goal is to enable SMEs to get a much clearer picture of cloud services, and match
current offers on the market with their specific business needs and processes. It will put at the fingertips of
SMEs all the information they need to make informed decisions in a stepwise approach.
The tool will also provide information, tips and check-lists on key pain points for SMEs: legal issues, contracts
and SLAs; certification and compliance; interoperability and performance.
Features of the web application include:
»» A portfolio of cloud service providers
»» A portfolio of cloud services with links to further information, demos and other practical guides on CSP
The web application will also offer an opportunity for cloud service providers to describe their services in a
way that focuses on capabilities and added value rather than just prices. Providers will also benefit from the
feedback SMEs can give through interactive features. This will make the web application an important digital
space where SMEs and cloud service providers can mutually benefit from sharing information, ultimately
helping to better understand and meet SME needs.
Links and references
[1] Internet of Things and cloud raising ‘unsettling’ questions over online privacy and security, warns
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
[2] Net Losses: Estimating the Global cost of Cybercrime – Economic Impact of Cybercrime II, Center
for Strategic and International Studies, June 2014,
CloudCatalyst - Startup and SME cloud adoption
Dalibor Baskovc, EuroCloud
Focus Area
CloudCatalyst aims to provide useful tools to foster the adoption of cloud computing in Europe. The
project will set up a cross-border support service, contributing to strengthening European position in the
Cloud Computing market, including the European software industry for both businesses and consumers.
Market sector targets
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
»» Challenge no.1 : Cloud computing adoption will contribute to increasing the competitiveness of the EU
Cloud Catalyst showcases how cloud computing enables companies to have a clear advantage in using cloud
computing. Advantages inclued greater flexibility, lower fixed costs, reduced time to deploy and a pay as
you go model within industries. CloudCatalyst focusses on sectors such as Healthcare, Media, Education,
Banking, Government, ICT.
»» Challenge no.2 : The challenges of cloud computing expansion create / promote huge entrepreneurial
CloudCatalyst develops highly efficient go-to-market strategies, focused on entrepreneurship acceleration
and business exploitation, within targeted industries and targeted pilot countries, such as Portugal, Spain,
France, Germany, Poland, Slovenia, UK.
»» Challenge no.3 : Project partners launched successful cloud initiatives and reach a vast network of
CloudCatalyst initiatives are based on a pro-active collaboration with relevant cloud stakeholders that have
a strong focus on end-users and the need to create innovative products and services. We have compared
seven EU countries, more than 24 providers within SaaS, PaaS and IaaS models, 23 support policies were
identified, 43 EU incubators were analyzed for cloud-related businesses and based on this we are building
EU citizens and businesses are eager to go-to-the-cloud, but there are still several barriers that discourage
consumers from starting to use Cloud services. CloudCatalyst supports entrepreneurs during the adoption
of cloud solutions and in defining their cloud strategy. Several support services will be made available: cloud accelerator toolbox; go-to-the-Cloud service; strategic
planning for cloud adoption and external environment analysis; major cloud trends in key industries and
critical success factors to overcome technical challenges for cloud expansion.
now our ecosystem.
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
CloudCatalyst will facilitate the adoption of Cloud Computing services by providing the following tools to
SMEs and startups through:
1. Cloud accelerator toolbox is a unique asset for the creation of new Cloud based-projects. It is a collection
of management tools, bundling together trend analysis, use cases, and practical recommendations in the
form of printable report templates. It will also have a set of guidelines and best practices for the developers’
community, entrepreneurs, technical transfer units, start-up incubators and other stakeholders that can
have an important role in stimulating Cloud Computing uptake.
2. European Bootcamps
The bootcamps allow participants to: 1. learn why cloud computing is relevant today from an economic,
business and technology standpoint; 2. hear from industry experts the questions that should be considered
when evaluating cloud-based systems; 3. understand the potential benefits of moving to the cloud; 4. ensure
the security of data and applications; 5. transform a traditional solution that is less flexible and costly to a
cloud computing environment that is secure, virtualized and automated.
3. Go-To-The-Cloud service
This service aims to provide an on-line platform for joint work between the European entrepreneurial
ecosystem and the ecosystem of the project’s partners. It will be the privileged channel for CloudCatalyst
to disseminate the main project outputs. This will allow entrepreneurs, start-ups, SMEs and other cloud
stakeholders to define their Cloud Computing offering, value proposition and targeted customers. It will
help them define and test the most sustainable business model, which is the key for successful cloud
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
According to the European Commission’s strategy for “Unleashing the potential of Cloud Computing in
Europe” it is expected that Cloud increased adoption delivers a net gain of 2.5 million new European jobs,
and an annual boost of EUR 160 billion to EU GDP (around 1%), by 2020[i]. At the pace that the Cloud
Computing model is evolving, an urgent issue to address is deepening cooperation in this area, namely to
ensure the sustainability of the Cloud Computing market for years to come, the leadership of Europe in
the innovation of Cloud products, the overall adoption of a Cloud Computing cross-border environment
and prepare Horizon 2020 initiative[ii]. Businesses, public entities and EU citizens are eager to go-to-thecloud, and, at this stage, ICT providers and other Cloud stakeholders have the means to fulfil the demand’s
needs, but there are still several barriers that discourage consumers, business developers and entrepreneurs,
including software developers, to start using Cloud services. Accordingly to a recent study by IDC[iii], if
no action is taken, after solid growth in 2011-2014 (33% annually), the EU compound annual growth rate of
Cloud spending would moderate to 21.6% in the period 2015-2020.
CloudCatalyst Cloud Accellerator toolbox sources:
Source for key problems that startups have:
Business model generation framework, also Empathy map and Value proposition canvas source: http://
Problem map source and incubator, that using all the methodology:
Hook model source:
Other cloud adoption links:
Expert Group, “The Future of Cloud Computing”, Jan. 2010. Online available at:
Open Cloud Discussion Group, “Cloud Computing Use Case White Paper (version 3.0)”, Feb. 2010 Online
available at:
Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, May 2012. Online available
European Cloud Computing Strategy – an overview, 2011. Online available at:
IDC report. Online available at:
The Open Group, Cloud Computing for Business: Establishing your Cloud Vision Jul. 2014. Online available
Links and references
Cloud Adoption – Barriers, Opportunities and actions for
SMEs in the cloud
Andreas Weiss - EuroCloud Deutschland_eco e.V
Focus Area
CloudingSMEs takes a comprehensive approach to the use of cloud computing by SMEs, which considers
both the supply side (i.e. results and endeavors of ICT SMEs with expertise on cloud computing) and the
demand side (i.e. the adoption and use of cloud computing technologies by SMEs).
Market sector targets
CloudingSMEs is motivated by the need to lower the barriers associated with the adoption of cloud based
solutions by SMEs, while also considering the need to facilitate SME providers of cloud solutions with
the aim of sustaining and strengthening their positions in a very competitive cloud computing market.
Specifically, the main motivating factors behind CloudingSMEs are:
»» The unsatisfactory adoption rates of cloud computing technologies within SME communities, despite
relevant benefits.
»» The fact that SMEs need practical support in their cloud computing related decisions and initiatives.
»» The potential of cloud computing technologies to boost competitiveness help SMEs grow and the need
to unveil and boost this potential.
»» The lack of market solutions focused on micro SME needs.
»» The need for consolidating SME requirements as a means of achieving/boosting interoperability,
harmonization and economies of scale
Addressing key concerns impeding the mainstream adoption of the
cloud: privacy, security, trust
»» The need to raise cloud awareness within SMEs, but also to make communications about the cloud more
targeted, substantial and effective.
»» Issues associated with the cost-effectiveness of the cloud for SMEs.
»» The needs to simplify and make SLAs, contracts and procurements easily understandable for SMEs.
»» Issues related to openness, transparency and avoidance of vendor lock-In.
»» The need to abide by EU Privacy and Security Directives, but also to overall ensuring security and
increase the trustworthiness of the cloud perceived by SMEs.
»» The identification of opportunities for ICT SMEs in terms of niche cloud products and services.
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
Among the main objectives of CloudingSMEs is to provide support to SMEs that aim to adopt and/or
exploit cloud computing, through a practical toolbox (i.e. the CloudingSMEs toolbox) that will facilitate
their cloud-related decisions. In this direction the project is committed to support SMEs in contractual,
legal and cost-related issues, including privacy and security issues. CloudingSMEs has already implemented,
evaluated and fine-tuned on number of interactive tools, including:
»» Cloud Security Scorecard
»» TCO/ROI Calculator
»» Strategic Considerations Scorecard
»» Contents of Contracts and SLAs
»» Cloud Standards Catalog
»» SLA Guide
»» Cloud Services and Solutions Providers Searchable Catalogue
»» Qualify as Expert and Consultant
»» Create your Knowledge Pyramide
for SMEs
for Consultants/Experts
»» Create Multilingual Questionnaires and Surveys
for Providers
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
Cloud Computing can help SMEs lower their IT costs by outsourcing IT services and obviating the need for
in-house infrastructures. Furthermore, the pay-as-you-go nature of the cloud ensures that SMEs can pay for
exactly what they use. In this way, SMEs can also transform the capital expenses (CAPEX) associated with IT
infrastructure acquisition to operational expenses (OPEX) associated with usage-based billing.
Software-based services on a global scale greatly reduced requirements for capital expenditure lower
operating costs (including energy costs). For SMEs this can be an element of their competitiveness (since it
allows them to operate based on a reduced IT budget and with higher efficiencies).
Links and references
Innovative models for intelligent management of road
Boris Horvat, UP IAM & Abelium
Focus Area
How SMEs and Start-ups are innovating in the market
Market sector targets
Starting in the 1990s, a huge expansion of air travel was induced by the deregulation of the EU commercial
air market. The dramatic growth of the airlines in the last 15 years has brought important benefits to the
consumers, offering them more choice of destinations and low fares. This has also seen a marked increase
in independent travel, stimulated tourism and has considerably changed the way Europeans travel. It is
estimated that millennials, generation in their twenties and early thirties, will account for nearly half of
the workforce by 2020, and this trend will shape the future of travel, since they will travel more often and
are most likely to extend their business trip into a vacation. Based on this trend, we have built a demand
responsive, long-distance, low-cost intelligent passenger transportation system, that connects airports,
places and people in peripheral cities and regions. Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
In recent years, information technologies (and information) have considerably increased their role in society.
Mobile devices, cloud computing, Internet of Things, Big Data, Smart(er) Cars and Predictive Analytics are
technological drivers for so-called “Intelligent Transportation Systems” (ITS).
People have always been trying to get the best of everything for the smallest cost. The rise of big data
analytics coupled with business intelligence make it possible to optimize getting the best out of the data
we have available. If we analyze the data smartly we can learn from mistakes that we have made and also
“predict“ the future. With this approach we can transform a normal logistics system into an intelligent
one. The benefits of the ITS are many: healthier environment, better resource (energy) management, lower
transportation cost, improved mobility, and new social interactions. Nowadays, modern intelligent systems involving lots of customers are assisted by cloud services, due to
flexibility, disaster recovery, automatic software updates, increased collaboration, possibility to work from
anywhere, security, and elasticity. Customers are interacting with the system through web and mobile
applications most of the time, whereas communication with the person in the call-center is getting rare. The modern cloud assisted passenger transportation services that are being implemented are using
location based services that enable real-time vehicle tracking and hence provide better fleet and resource
management and more pleasant traveler experience. Since location based data combined with the data
about passengers and drivers contain personal data, personal data protection should be one of the highest
priorities in ITS. Use of mobile devices allows transportation companies to enhance customer experience,
improve processes and save costs. Mobile channels are being used for receiving push notifications containing
additional information about their journey. Moreover, operators of such logistic systems tend to transform such systems into platforms (or even
marketplaces) in order to assist many (sometimes different) logistic providers, and with the help of
computer algorithms optimize their daily operations. The potential of disruptive business models in conventional public transportation have been clearly
demonstrated by various start-up companies in the last few years: Waze, Uber, Lyft, BlaBlaCar, GoOpti,
Kuaidi-Dache etc. Market research clearly shows that Europe is lagging behind USA in ITS development,
although it is facing similar issues and problems, due to public transport inefficiency. The European
passenger transportation market is fragmented and diverse in terms of customer expectations, the political
and regulatory environment. Automated digital marketplace (virtual transportation companies) assisted by cloud services and mobile
devices as a primary channel of interaction with the customer are replacing direct communication with the
customer and hence it is harder for a transportation company to understand the customer needs. This gap
is being filled by using prediction services on the top of the traveller-specific data for real-time customer
segmentation, sales funnel optimization as powerful marketing tools, assisted by the cloud. All together
leads to more pleasant customer journey. Knowing people’s travel preferences together with new insights
from behavioural economics, can contribute to viral growth of disruptive changes and business models in
transport. An essential part for managing market participants on demand and supply side is influencing the
engagement of participants.
How is cloud disrupting the market?
New Service and Software for the European
ARTIST - Unlock the code and release the future in the
Clara Pezuela, Atos
For software companies, cloud computing offers a modern world of business opportunity, allowing them
to provide their application not only as a product but as a service. Thus, they will enjoy, among other
advantages, of agility and efficiency.
Migrating software to cloud infrastructure may be sufficient much of the time. But residing in the cloud
is not enough to make an application fully scalable, elastic and ‘cloudy’. The software code itself must be
modernized if maximum performance and efficiency are required.
Using model-driven techniques, ARTIST facilitates the modernization of your existing non-cloud software
assets and your business model to the cloud. ARTIST provides a tool-supported methodological migration
process consisted in three main steps:
»» perform a technical and business feasibility analysis and support in the decision making of whether it is
viable to move to the cloud or not, in terms of technology and cost
»» gather the knowledge and understanding of your application to optimize it and adjust the business model
so it can be deployed on the best cloud provider for your needs »» validate the behavioral equivalence of the migrated application and the fulfillment of the optimization
requirements, and optionally certify that it is cloud-complaint
Market sector targets
The main market sectors for ARTIST are two-fold, firstly IT consultants who will adopt the tools and
incorporate them into their own offerings, most likely oriented around application portfolio management.
This will be the case of the larger industrial partners in the consortium. Secondly there is a market segment
which will contract ARTIST-based services from these providers. These are ISVs and other owners of bespoke
software systems that require modernisation to the cloud. In particular clients requiring the modernisation
of several related software programs will be targeted. In some cases these end clients can perform the
modernisation themselves using the tools, providing they have the necessary IT skills base.
In both sectors, the benefits for the end users are similar. On one hand, the migration encompasses less risks
due to a previous feasibility analysis, and on the other, the effort for the transformation of the product is
reduced thanks to the guided process and semi-automatic tools provided by ARTIST
Focus Area
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
Cloud computing is above all, a business model. The provision of software applications following the SaaS
deployment model allow companies to address new market niches and market regions that were never
explored before because of the limitations of the previous product and company’s resources.
ARTIST focuses on the modernization of application based on three pillars that in most occasions cannot
be tackled independently. The business model modernization and the selected deployment model involve
some architectural constraints in the application. Furthermore, for SMEs offering their applications as a
service, a transformation in the organizational processes is also needed in order to support the delivery of
these services.
The trend for all industries is currently the servitization, that is, deliver services or services and products
instead of just products. This servitization trend impacts in a bigger offer for end users, a more competitive
market, more innovation and thus, better applications for end users with innovative business models.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
Software companies feel that cloud may bring plenty of new business opportunities to them. They
perceive that migrating to the cloud may reduce the operational costs for code maintenance, for ad-hoc
customizations, due to technologies obsolete and not largely supported or for the scarcity of skilled people.
Additionally, they can address the changing market requirements and adapt easily to new challenges. Cloud
also allows them to create future value through new market generation for their products, improved
customer retention, better application performance and increasing revenue growth.
These arguments are especially relevant in the case of SMEs, since their capacity of investment in dedicated
infrastructures is quite limited, although they are very flexible and adaptable to market changes, which is
an added value in this changing context. ARTIST provides SMEs open source methodology and tools for
supporting them in the migration to the cloud, reducing the risk and the cost of this decision by an early
assessment of the migration feasibility.
Links and references
Project web site:
Open Source Package:
Project video: AppHub - The European open source market place
OW2, Fraunhofer FOKUS and UShareSoft
Today’s innovation is complex, collaborative and open source. Technology development endeavours such as Hadoop in Big Data, OpenStack in cloud computing and Open
Daylight in Software De-fined Networking are not controlled by one company, and if they have achieved
high visibility and gained strong market momentum it is thanks to their open source status and collaborative
approach. They have rapidly delivered significant results both in terms of technical output and market
penetration. While OpenDaylight is still in the early stage of its development, several companies engaged in
contribution to and support of Hadoop and OpenStack have already attracted large financial investments,
thus confirming their growth potential.
Over the last few years, these broad-scale innovations in information technology have demonstrated the
efficiency of the open source collaborative development model. As the European Commission is committing
large amounts of funds to support collaborative projects for research and innovation in ICT, a significant
number of them choose to make their software results available under open source licenses. The reason is
not ideological, it is organizational. Open source helps combine multiple technologies and know-how from
independent providers. It makes multi-tier cooperation easier by enhancing trust and reducing coordination
costs. It also reduces legal and economic barriers.
The open source ecosystem is structured by non-profit organizations. While many open source projects have developed outside the realm of these organizations or have
launched their own foundation such as the LibreOffice foundation or the MariaDB foundation, today’s key
trend for complex collaborative projects is to seek neutral hosting environments. Open source projects
are collaborative by definition and open source communities have long experience in supporting these
projects. In the open source world this experience is embodied in non-profit organizations. Open source
organizations are well positioned to provide collaborative projects with a neutral environment where
contributors can work together independently of private interests.
AppHub delivers a new breed of support services for open source
software. AppHub, the European Open Source Market Place, aims at providing a neutral distribution channel for
trustworthy software developed by EU-supported projects and open source SMEs in general. Leveraging
unparalleled expertise in open source community management, EU research projects and a cutting-edge
technology in software asset management, the partners that run and promote AppHub provide innovative
Open source facilitates collaborative innovation. 79
support services to open source projects. AppHub provides unique benefits to project leaders, it helps
the market to seamlessly identify, position and implement their software. AppHub also fosters adoption
of open source projects by users and integrators by making them trustworthy, easy to find, and easy to
download and run. AppHub provides open source software as cloud-ready packages that can be executed
by a broad range of cloud service providers.
Links and references
COMPOSE: the design of Internet of Things Marketplace
David Carrera, Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC)
Focus Area
Internet of Things, Marketplaces, Data Streaming, Cloud Computing, Data Processing, Smart Cities
Market sector targets
Our COMPOSE demo targets IoT Apps developers, IoT Infrastructure Managers and Sensor makers.
There is an increasing demand for advanced IoT data management and processing platforms.
Such platforms require support for multiple protocols at the edge for extended connectivity
with the objects, but also need to exhibit uniform internal data organization and advanced data
processing capabilities to fulfil the demands of the application and services that consume IoT data.
To provide an answer to this growing demand, the COMPOSE project developed servIoTicy, a state-ofthe-art platform for hosting Internet of Things (IoT) workloads in the Cloud. It provides multi-tenant data
stream processing capabilities, a REST API, data analytics, advanced queries and multi-protocol support in
a combination of advanced data-centric services. ServIoTicy aims to provide a technological platform for
easily creating services based on the Internet of Things (IoT), thus unleashing the full potential of an Internet
of Services (IoS) based on the IoT. The main focus of servIoTicy is to provide a rich set of features to store and
process data through it REST API, allowing objects, services and humans to access the information produced
by the devices connected to the platform. servIoTicy allows for a real time processing of device-generated
data, and enables for simple creation of data transformation pipelines using user generated logic. Unlike
traditional service composition approaches, usually focused on addressing the problems of functional
composition of existing services, one of the goals of the servIoTicy is to focus on data processing scalability.
Other components that can be connected to servIoTicy provide added capabilities to automatically create
compositions (through the GlueThings project) of high-level services using existing tools, as well as to
perform Composition Recommendation and Sensor Discovery through the iServe semantic engine.
How can you turn big data into smart data?
At the core of the ServIoTicy runtime, there is a novel technique to dynamically construct data stream
processing topologies based on user-supplied codes. These topologies are built on-the-fly using a data
subscription model defined by the applications that consume data. Each user-defined processing unit is
called a Service Object, and each Service Object consumes input data streams and may produce output
streams that others can consume. Data streams can originate in real-world devices or they can the outputs
of Service Objects deployed in the platform.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
Advanced streaming and analytics platforms such as servIoTicy are complex pieces of software that
integrate a large set of components under the hood. They hide their complexity behind simple REST APIs and
multi-protocol channels, but the reality is that their deployment and configuration is complex. ServIoTicy
leverages Apache STORM runtime for parallel data processing, that combined with dynamic user-code
injection provides multi-tenant stream processing topologies for the Internet of Things.
Links and references
BEACON - Enabling Federated Cloud Networking
Philippe Massonet, CETIC
Focus Area
The BEACON H2020 project focuses on enabling federated cloud networking. The long term vision is a
fully virtualized data center for federated clouds. While virtualisation technologies for computing
ressources has developped tremendoulsy in the last years and been integrated into the enterprise data
center, virtualisation technologies for network ressources have lagged behind. The recent development of
software defined networking and network virtualisation technologies has created the opportunity to fully
integrate network virtualisation technologies into the data center. The BEACON project aims to network
virtualisation technologies from the OpenDaylight project with open source cloud middleware OpenNebula
and OpenStack.
The BEACON project targets the cloud middleware market and the manegement of cloud federations. The
project will target several communities. The first community that will be targeted are the user communities
of OpenDaylight, OpenNebula and OpenStack. The BEACON project will integrate some project results into
these existing open source projects. Other communities that will be targeted are the research community
in the field of cloud computing. The more advanced research topics on location-aware elaticity or high
availability will be disseminated in the cloud computing communities. The general public will also be
informed of project results via the project disseminatiopn channels such as Facebook or Twitter.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
Cloud federation enables cloud providers to collaborate and share their resources to create a large virtual
pool of resources at multiple network locations. Different types of federation architectures for clouds and
datacenters have been proposed and implemented (e.g. cloud bursting, cloud brokering or cloud aggregation)
with different levels of resource coupling and interoperation among the cloud resources, from loosely
coupled, typically involving different administrative and legal domains, to tightly coupled federation,
usually spanning multiple datacenters within an organization. In both situations, an effective, agile and
secure federation of cloud networking resources is key to impact the deployment of federated applications.
The main goal of this project is two-fold: research and develop techniques to federate cloud network
resources, and to derive the integrated management cloud layer that enables an efficient and secure
deployment of federated cloud applications. Our proposal will deliver a homogeneous virtualization
layer, on top of heterogeneous underlying physical networks, computing and storage infrastructures,
providing enablement for automated federation of applications across different clouds and datacenters.
Market sector targets
The project is fully committed to open source software. Cloud networking aspects will be based on
OpenDaylight, a collaborative project under The Linux Foundation, and specifically we will leverage and
extend the OpenDOVE project with new rich inter-cloud APIs to provision cross-site virtual networks
overlays. The new inter-cloud network capabilities will be leveraged by existing open source cloud platforms,
OpenNebula and OpenStack, to deploy multi-cloud applications. In particular, different aspects of the
platforms will be extended to accommodate the federated cloud networking features like multi-tenancy,
federated orchestration of networking, compute and storage management or the placement and elasticity
of the multi-cloud applications.
How is cloud disrupting the market?
The BEACON project is contributing to fully virtualise data center compute and networking ressources. By
completely seperating logical ressources from physical ressources, it will enable advanced cloud federation
models. Advanced cloud federation models will in turn provide much greater opportunities to end users.
Links and references
DICE - Towards the Development of Data-Intensive
Applications with Iterative Quality Enhancements
Giuliano Casale, Imperial College London; Elisabetta Di Nitto, Politecnico Di Milano; Dana Petcu, West
University of Timisoara
DICE action (Developing Data-Intensive Cloud Applications with Iterative Quality Enhancements) [1] focuses
on Big Data, Quality Assurance (QA) and Model-Driven Engineering (MDE).
Recent years have seen the rapid growth of interest for developing enterprise applications that use dataintensive technologies. However, quality assurance in the software engineering process for these applications
is still in its infancy.
MDE often includes QA techniques to ensure that software systems meet performance, reliability, and safety
requirements through quality-driven design and iterative enhancement based on operational data. The
quality-aware MDE support for data-intensive software systems is a challenging target, since existing models
and QA techniques largely ignore properties of data such as volumes, velocities, or business values, and are
therefore difficult to apply to Big Data applications. Furthermore, QA requires the ability to characterize the
behaviour of technologies such as MapReduce, NoSQL, and stream-based processing, which are still poorly
understood from a modelling perspective.
Focus Area
Market sector targets
Data-intensive technologies are important in many application domains, from predictive analytics to
environmental monitoring, from e-government to smart cities.
Since the software development market expects to be dominate by data-intensive cloud applications in
the next years, there is an urgent need for novel, highly productive, software engineering methodologies
capable of increasing the competitiveness of software vendors.
DICE action intends to offer to software vendors a quality-driven MDE tool-chain for developing dataintensive cloud applications. The action includes three demonstrators in the domains of news and media,
maritime operations, and e-government, proving the versatility of the framework for a variety of end users.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
The growing importance of Big Data applications now calls to extend MDE and QA methods to better
support Big Data technologies, which raise specific challenges. Incorporating quality in complex dataintensive application involves major business and technical challenges:
From a business perspective. After the rush to enter cloud and Big Data markets, small and medium-sized
software providers have now to cope with steep learning curves in order to understand and enhance the
quality of their products. In fact, they suffer the shortage of skills in quality engineering, and additional
difficulties come from the high costs and the complexity of quality testing. Moreover, they need to deliver
architectural changes iteratively, when service-level agreement (SLA) constraints are not met.
From a technical perspective. Incorporating quality assessment for design enhancement requires developing
the following assets at least: data-aware modelling abstractions, transformation methodologies, simulation
and analysis tools, verification methods, anti-patterns methodologies. All of them must be coordinated for
being capable of continuously assimilating runtime information about the data and its use by the application.
Data-intensive applications are often based on Hadoop/MapReduce, which implies that to model these
applications and annotate at design-time performance, reliability and cost requirements, new abstractions
need to be developed. These include, among others, models for data storage, replication and transportation,
for components such as mappers and reducers, and for the direct acyclic graphs used to describe data
transformations and data movements. These abstractions are important to provide a complete description
of the design-space of a Big Data application and thus enable automated reasoning on the best architectural
and deployment choices, taking into account the specificities of these software systems. Yet, the extension
of QA tools to meet this goal is particularly challenging. For example, modelling of MapReduce performance
and reliability requires for example to:
»» explicit model the synchronization of the map and reduce processing phases;
»» characterize the impact of network latencies during the shuffle phases;
»» statistically characterize the execution times of each phase and its memory and storage requirements,
which depend on data properties such as volumes;
»» describe technology-specific queueing, scheduling and failure mechanisms.
This puts a high barrier for use of these techniques by developers not explicitly trained in quality engineering.
We argue that addressing these issues making quality-aware MDE accessible to developers of Big Data
applications requires the design of an automated tool chain that will rely on UML meta-models annotated
with information about data, data processing and data movements. The QA tool chain should cover
simulation, verification and architectural optimization through feedback analysis.
More precisely, the focus of the DICE action is to define a quality-driven framework for developing dataintensive applications that leverage Big Data technologies hosted in private or public clouds. A novel profile
and tools for data-aware quality-driven development are needed, as well as a methodology distinguished
by its quality assessment, architecture enhancement, agile delivery and continuous testing and deployment,
and relying on principles from the emerging DevOps paradigm [2].
How can you turn big data into smart data?
We argue that novel models and annotations are needed to describe data and Big Data technologies with
respect to quality issues of efficiency, reliability and safety. Moreover, delivering methods and tools should
be designed to help satisfy quality requirements in data-intensive applications by iterative enhancement
of their architecture design. That is, the data acquired during testing and operation will be deeply analysed
to find quality pitfalls and outliers, which will lead to identify quality anti-patterns in the architecture and
downstream design. Data will be then exploited to accelerate the application refactoring. It will do so using
agile software development and a delivery approach inspired by DevOps.
CloudSocket - Business Process and IT Cloud Alignment
Robert Woitsch, BOC & CloudSocket
Focus Area
The CloudSocket project, funded under H2020, puts forth the idea of a “hybrid process” modelling
framework applying well-known techniques for semantic, rule-based inference, meta modelling and
knowledge management techniques to bridge the gap between business needs and the use and exploitation
of Cloud resources and components.
The proposed framework implements a layered approach for managing the complexity of bridging the
semantic distance from business process to workflow configuration of Business Proceses in the Cloud.
The use case Business Incubator focuses on supporting the “Coaching and Finance” effort for more than
300 Start-ups with designing, analysing and simulating individual business plans, business processes, and
also concerns a high degree of adaptability of Cloud Services for Start-ups, e.g. Customer Relationship
Management, Order Management, Human Resources Management – both with respect to costs and
The Business Process Broker use case identifies typical business episodes. Within the ICT –Robotics cluster
there are more than 700 enterprises that deal with different application domains as eHealth, Manufacturing,
Photonics, Government, Security, e-Commerce, Retails, etc. but share a common set of business processes.
CloudSocket targets brokers like the business incubator or the process broker by providing tools, framework
and knowledge to setup smart business and cloud alignment in form of a service.
Business models to take new services to market – including spin-outs and
new services transferring publicly funded research to the private sector
The overall idea of the project CloudSocket can be formulated as “The Smart Cloud Business Process
Broker”, which comprises the discovery, orchestration, deployment and execution of services on the cloud.
A learning cycle improves cloud individualization over time. This means that the level of integration has to
be lifted from the technical to the business level. Currently the model-based approach is prominent for this
integration. A detailed analysis of the business requirements based on the phases plan, model, manage and
measure is common. The field of business informatics is a candidate to align business and IT. Business models
such as business processes, business rules and workflows are aligned with IT models such as IT infrastructure
and architecture.
The proposed concept extends the integration problem from the IT level to the business level.
CloudSocket aspires to realise this vision by: (1) supporting the extraction of business- and IT-experts’
knowledge in a human and machine interpretable way and enable smart integration and translation between
business and IT models, (2) provide smart and intelligent tools to align business requirements to Cloud
Market sector targets
offerings, (3) support the model-driven and knowledge supported resource allocation of Cloud-based
workflows, (4) enabling intelligent execution of models within a smart and adaptive BPaaS middleware and
(5) feedback the process monitoring results from Cloud level to business level thanks to semantic enrichment
and conceptual analytics.
The focus of the project is characterized by:
(1) Knowledge-based Approach: For bridging the gap between business requests and Cloud offerings by
abstracting from technical details and presenting Cloud service monitoring results at the business level.
(2) Business Process in the Cloud: For dealing with the whole business processes in the Cloud that is deployed
by defining self-adaptive workflows in a multi-Cloud environment. Furthermore, the Service management
and monitoring used for Quality of BP like billing is also performed on the business process level.
(3) Public services: CloudSocket aims to provide business solutions to the SME market, which can be offered
in an open and interoperable way. A particular focus is on startups which do not want to invest in own IT
infrastructure but concentrate on the development of their business. With the change and progress of their
business, IT services have to be flexibly adapted.
CloudSocket comprises five phases, each phase supported by a corresponding building block: (a) (1) the
design environment to describe business processes and business requestes, (b) the allocation environment
creating deployable workflows, (c) the execution environment that execute the workflow as well as (d) the
evaluation environment that lifts key performance indicators back to the business level.
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
Startups, small and medium enterprises are typically very much focused on their core business or core ideas.
Hence, there are several business processes like customer relationship and campaigning, administrative
issues on registration, part of IT services as well as part of after sales support that are necessary for the
business success, but can only insufficiently be handled by those organisations.
Business Processes in the Cloud enables brokers that may act as a public or private organisation to offer the
cloud-based execution of those business processes the startups, founders and SMEs wants to delegate to
reasonable price.
Links and references
ENTICE - Decentralized repositories for transparent and
efficient virtual machine operations
Radu Prodan, University of Innsbruck
Focus Area
In this project, we will research and create a novel VM repository and operational environment named ENTICE for
federated Cloud infrastructures. The project aims to: (i) simplify the creation of lightweight and highly
optimised VM images tuned for functional descriptions of applications; (ii) automatically decompose and
distribute VM images based on multi-objective optimisation (performance, economic costs, storage size, and
QoS needs) and a knowledge base and reasoning infrastructure to meet application runtime requirements;
and (iii) elastic auto-scale applications on Cloud resources based on their fluctuating load with optimised
VM interoperability across Cloud infrastructures and without provider lock-in, in order to finally fulfill the
promises that virtualization technology has failed to deliver so far.
With the advent of a pervasive ENTICE distributed repository enhanced by a knowledge base which
effectively supports migration, portability and accessability of optimally-sized VMs in federated and multilayered clouds - required by the major target market of ENTICE -, the Cloud ecosystem environment will
become a reality. There are real differences among the various VM products. Prices and business models
vary widely, but each supplier monetises virtualization through the hypervisor, management, support or
operating system software. In a market that is in flux, Gartner continues to recommend deployments with a
rapid return on investment, and fallback plans to migrate to alternative technologies if necessary. The main
competitors are VMWare, Citrix, Oracle, and Microsoft. ENTICE will enable to boost EU competitiveness in
Cloud computing, a sector that is predicted to empower the EU economy by 957 million EUROS by then end
of the decade.
Interoperability and portability: existing and emerging standards that can
foster trust in the cloud
As VM image migration will be a normal practice within this area, efficient portability of user VMs is essential.
The added value of ENTICE stands in its ability to optimise VMs towards specific markets, for example where
migration time, user latency, and economic costs are most important for critical services. If one imagines
a service provider enabling resources closest to its user demand at any given time and in a transparent and
dynamic way, this is where ENTICE understands and serves best this new target market.
The standardisation activities of ENTICE will focus on establishing collaborative relations with the committees
of several standardisation bodies (e.g. Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF), Storage Networking
Industry Association (SNIA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Open Grid Forum (OGF),
Market sector targets
Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) and World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)). The project will rely on Cloudrelated standards both from the point of view of IaaS providers (i.e. how their internals should behave in
collaboration with ENTICE technologies) as also from the users’ point of view who plan to use several Clouds
in a federated manner (i.e. how they should interface with Cloud providers exploiting the ENTICE advances).
First, the provider view will enable the project to participate and contribute to standards that foster efficient
VM image distribution and image component representation such as Open Virtualization Format (OVF) from
DMTF. The project also plans to investigate the applicability and extendability of the Cloud Data Management
Interface (CDMI) standard of SNIA to ensure wide availability of the public VM images and image fragments
produced by ENTICE. When crossing the barrier of private-public Clouds, the project technologies aim at
reducing the risk of publishing sensitive data. The security and privacy measures taken during these steps
will consider the Cloud Controls Matrix (CCM) standard of CSA and, if needed, the consortium members
will actively lobby for the extension of the standard to be more applicable to VM image delivery, storage
and distribution tasks.
Next, from the Cloud users’ point of view, consortium members will participate in several standardisation efforts
that are aimed at allowing the shared or federated use of Cloud computing infrastructures. ENTICE will ensure
that use cases will be developed so they are using standardised Cloud access APIs (like Open Cloud Computing
Interface (OCCI) from OGF). The consortium members will also actively build on and collaborate with in IEEE
Intercloud and DMTF Cloud Infrastructure Management Interface (CIMI) standards in order to allow better
collaboration between a federation of Clouds and the distributed repository delivered by ENTICE.
As part of the standardisations efforts, the ontology and the associated knowledge base of the use
cases and the Federated Cloud environment will be proposed to the W3C organisation. The W3C has
several working groups that are relevant to ENTICE dealing with Semantic Web and Cloud computing.
The developed ontology will be proposed to become part of a recommended set of ontologies for the
interoperability and integration in the Cloud domain.
Addressing new challenges for cloud, IoT, big data
Challenge 1: Creation of lightweight VM images through functional descriptions. The project will
support users with no expertise in VM image creation by delegating the optimisation of VM management
operations to the ENTICE environment. Based on functional descriptions received from the endusers for their applications (researched in Challenge 5), ENTICE will build highly-specific and highlyoptimised VM images tuned for minimal size and management overhead. When no further optimisation
is possible, ENTICE will highlight the major obstacles and provide hints to the users on possible manual
Challenge 2: Distributed lightweight VM image storage. ENTICE will deliver technologies that decompose user
VM images into smaller reusable parts bringing a twofold benefit: (i) it will reduce the storage space by
storing the common parts of multiple image only once, and (ii) it will lower the costs by ensuring that users
only pay for the VM image parts that they cannot reuse from past images.
Challenge 3: Autonomous multi-objective repository optimisation. ENTICE will research heuristics for multiobjective distribution and placement of VM images across a decentralised ENTICE repository that optimises
multiple conflicting objectives including performance-related goals (e.g. VM deployment and instantiation
overheads, data communication, application QoS metrics), operational costs, and storage space. Through
these heuristics, ENTICE will ensure that commonly used VM image parts (e.g. just enough OS) are replicated
and stored more widely. Thus, upon creating a new VM, common parts can be discovered and delivered from
local repositories (i.e. of the provider who will host the new VM), while user-provided parts come from a
different location (fostering cross-Cloud migration).
Challenge 4: Elastic resource provisioning. The ultimate aim of this project is to use the optimised
and lightweight VM management methods researched in the previous objectives to improve the elasticity
for ondemand scaling of industrial and business applications in Clouds in response to their fluctuating
compute and storage requirements.
Challenge 5: Information infrastructure for strategic and dynamic reasoning. To support the optimised VM
creation in the distributed ENTICE repository, we will develop a knowledge model of all entities
and relationships for Cloud applications, including functional and non-functional properties of their
underlying software components, QoS metrics, OS, VM type, and federated Cloud (e.g. SLAs), supported by
strategic and dynamic reasoning. Strategic reasoning will support automatic VM packaging of applications
based on criteria such as QoS functional properties, execution time, costs, and storage. Dynamic reasoning
will support proper VM packaging and preparation based on dynamic (benchmark) information about the
underlying federated Cloud (e.g. resource and network characteristics).
A clear target market for ENTICE is SMEs by supporting them to adopt Cloud technologies, as it is
predicted that SMEs (especially companies with 100 - 249 employees) will increasingly rely on Cloud
solutions. SMEs can be approached by IT re-sellers and consultant companies offering tailored SaaS
solutions and getting revenue from charging depending on the infrastructure provider and the service
sold. For Cloud providers, it means a new market channel to sell their services. WT can directly benefit from
using ENTICE and offering consultancy services, expecting an increased revenue of 30% in their services
sales. It is expected that SME’s share on total public Cloud spending will increase to 25% in 2020 thanks to
innovative solutions like ENTICE. Taking into account the Gartner forecast which indicates an SaaS market
of approximately 26 billion USD by the year 2016, a conservative estimate is that at least 15% of this market
can directly benefit from ENTICE outcomes, which would amount to 3,9 billion USD. The ENTICE project
targets a small portion of this market.
Links and references
- ENTICE project:
- University of Innsbruck:
- University of Ljubljana:
- Flexiant Limited:
- Wellness Telecom S.L.:
- Deimos Castilla La Mancha S.L.:
Why cloud is a helping hand for SMEs?
Position Paper Authors
Giorgio Aprile, Aon
Dalibor Baskovc, EuroCloud
David Bernstein, Cloud Strategy Partners, IEEE Senior Member
Patrick Bikar, Cisco EMEAR
Ignacio Blanquer, Universitat Politècnica de València
Robert B. Bohn, NIST Cloud Computing Program, NIST
Francisco Brasileiro, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande
David Carrera, Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC)
Giuliano Casale, Imperial College London
Daniele Catteddu, Cloud Security Alliance
Patrice Chazerand, Digital Europe
Kate Craig-Wood, Memset
Josep Domingo-Ferrer, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV)
Vangelis Floros, GRNET
Boris Horvat, UP IAM & Abelium
Björn Hovstadius, EIT ICT Labs Future Cloud
Tua Huomo, EIT ICT Labs Future Cloud
Jesus Luna, Cloud Security Alliance
Dimitra Liveri, ENISA
Philippe Massonet, CETIC
Thijs Metsch, Intel & OGF
James Mitchell, Strategic Blue
Fabrice Moizan, NVIDIA
Monique J. Morrow, CTO-Evangelist –New Frontiers
Elisabetta Di Nitto, Politecnico Di Milano
OW2, Fraunhofer FOKUS and UShareSoft
Stephanie Parker, Trust-IT
Dana Petcu, West University of Timisoara
Clara Pezuela, Atos
Radu Prodan, University of Innsbruck
Davide Salomoni, INFN
David Sánchez, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV)
Alan Sill, Texas Tech University & Open Grid Forum
Andreas Weiss - EuroCloud Deutschland_eco e.V
Arthur van der Wees, Arthur’s Legal
Robert Woitsch, BOC & CloudSocket
Wolfgang Ziegler, OGF
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