Linux System Administration

Linux System Administration
Linux System Administration
Paul Cobbaut
Linux System Administration
Paul Cobbaut
lt-1.9
Publication date Thu 12 Mar 2015 01:01:08 AM CET
Abstract
This book is meant to be used in an instructor-led training. For self-study, the intent is to read
this book next to a working Linux computer so you can immediately do every subject, practicing
each command.
This book is aimed at novice Linux system administrators (and might be interesting and useful
for home users that want to know a bit more about their Linux system). However, this book
is not meant as an introduction to Linux desktop applications like text editors, browsers, mail
clients, multimedia or office applications.
More information and free .pdf available at http://linux-training.be .
Feel free to contact the author:
• Paul Cobbaut: [email protected], http://www.linkedin.com/in/cobbaut
Contributors to the Linux Training project are:
• Serge van Ginderachter: [email protected], build scripts and infrastructure setup
• Ywein Van den Brande: [email protected], license and legal sections
• Hendrik De Vloed: [email protected], buildheader.pl script
We'd also like to thank our reviewers:
• Wouter Verhelst: [email protected], http://grep.be
• Geert
Goossens:
geertgoossens
[email protected],
http://www.linkedin.com/in/
• Elie De Brauwer: [email protected], http://www.de-brauwer.be
• Christophe Vandeplas: [email protected], http://christophe.vandeplas.com
• Bert Desmet: [email protected], http://blog.bdesmet.be
• Rich Yonts: [email protected],
Copyright 2007-2015 Paul Cobbaut
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the
GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled 'GNU Free Documentation
License'.
Table of Contents
I. process management .............................................................................................................. 1
1. introduction to processes ............................................................................................. 3
1.1. terminology ...................................................................................................... 4
1.2. basic process management ................................................................................... 5
1.3. signalling processes ............................................................................................ 9
1.4. practice : basic process management .................................................................... 12
1.5. solution : basic process management .................................................................... 13
2. process priorities ....................................................................................................... 15
2.1. priority and nice values ..................................................................................... 16
2.2. practice : process priorities ................................................................................. 19
2.3. solution : process priorities ................................................................................. 20
3. background jobs ....................................................................................................... 22
3.1. background processes ........................................................................................ 23
3.2. practice : background processes .......................................................................... 25
3.3. solution : background processes .......................................................................... 26
II. disk management ............................................................................................................... 28
4. disk devices .............................................................................................................. 31
4.1. terminology ..................................................................................................... 32
4.2. device naming ................................................................................................. 34
4.3. discovering disk devices .................................................................................... 35
4.4. erasing a hard disk ........................................................................................... 40
4.5. advanced hard disk settings ................................................................................ 41
4.6. practice: hard disk devices ................................................................................. 42
4.7. solution: hard disk devices ................................................................................. 43
5. disk partitions ........................................................................................................... 45
5.1. about partitions ................................................................................................ 46
5.2. discovering partitions ........................................................................................ 47
5.3. partitioning new disks ....................................................................................... 49
5.4. about the partition table ..................................................................................... 51
5.5. practice: partitions ............................................................................................ 52
5.6. solution: partitions ............................................................................................ 53
6. file systems ............................................................................................................... 54
6.1. about file systems ............................................................................................ 55
6.2. common file systems ........................................................................................ 56
6.3. putting a file system on a partition ...................................................................... 59
6.4. tuning a file system .......................................................................................... 60
6.5. checking a file system ....................................................................................... 61
6.6. practice: file systems ........................................................................................ 62
6.7. solution: file systems ........................................................................................ 63
7. mounting .................................................................................................................. 64
7.1. mounting local file systems ................................................................................ 65
7.2. displaying mounted file systems .......................................................................... 66
7.3. from start to finish ........................................................................................... 68
7.4. permanent mounts ............................................................................................ 69
7.5. securing mounts ............................................................................................... 70
7.6. mounting remote file systems ............................................................................. 71
7.7. practice: mounting file systems ........................................................................... 72
7.8. solution: mounting file systems ........................................................................... 73
8. troubleshooting tools ................................................................................................. 75
8.1. lsof ................................................................................................................ 76
8.2. fuser .............................................................................................................. 77
8.3. chroot ............................................................................................................ 78
8.4. iostat .............................................................................................................. 79
8.5. iotop .............................................................................................................. 80
8.6. vmstat ............................................................................................................ 81
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Linux System Administration
8.7. practice: troubleshooting tools ............................................................................ 82
8.8. solution: troubleshooting tools ............................................................................ 83
9. introduction to uuid's ................................................................................................ 84
9.1. about unique objects ......................................................................................... 85
9.2. tune2fs ........................................................................................................... 85
9.3. uuid ............................................................................................................... 85
9.4. uuid in /etc/fstab .............................................................................................. 86
9.5. uuid as a boot device ........................................................................................ 87
9.6. practice: uuid and filesystems ............................................................................. 88
9.7. solution: uuid and filesystems ............................................................................. 89
10. introduction to raid ................................................................................................. 90
10.1. hardware or software ....................................................................................... 90
10.2. raid levels ..................................................................................................... 91
10.3. building a software raid5 array .......................................................................... 93
10.4. practice: raid .................................................................................................. 96
10.5. solution: raid ................................................................................................. 97
11. logical volume management ...................................................................................... 98
11.1. introduction to lvm ......................................................................................... 99
11.2. lvm terminology ........................................................................................... 100
11.3. example: using lvm ....................................................................................... 101
11.4. example: extend a logical volume .................................................................... 103
11.5. example: resize a physical Volume ................................................................... 105
11.6. example: mirror a logical volume ..................................................................... 107
11.7. example: snapshot a logical volume ................................................................. 108
11.8. verifying existing physical volumes .................................................................. 109
11.9. verifying existing volume groups ..................................................................... 111
11.10. verifying existing logical volumes .................................................................. 112
11.11. manage physical volumes ............................................................................. 113
11.12. manage volume groups ................................................................................. 115
11.13. manage logical volumes ............................................................................... 117
11.14. practice : lvm ............................................................................................. 119
11.15. solution : lvm ............................................................................................. 120
12. iSCSI devices ......................................................................................................... 124
12.1. iSCSI terminology ........................................................................................ 125
12.2. iSCSI Target in RHEL/CentOS ....................................................................... 125
12.3. iSCSI Initiator in RHEL/CentOS ..................................................................... 127
12.4. iSCSI target on Debian .................................................................................. 129
12.5. iSCSI target setup with dd files ....................................................................... 130
12.6. ISCSI initiator on ubuntu ............................................................................... 132
12.7. using iSCSI devices ...................................................................................... 134
12.8. practice: iSCSI devices .................................................................................. 135
12.9. solution: iSCSI devices .................................................................................. 136
13. introduction to multipathing ................................................................................... 137
13.1. install multipath ............................................................................................ 138
13.2. configure multipath ....................................................................................... 138
13.3. network ....................................................................................................... 139
13.4. start multipathd and iscsi ................................................................................ 139
13.5. multipath list ................................................................................................ 141
13.6. using the device ............................................................................................ 142
13.7. practice: multipathing .................................................................................... 143
13.8. solution: multipathing .................................................................................... 144
III. boot management ............................................................................................................ 146
14. bootloader ............................................................................................................. 148
14.1. boot terminology .......................................................................................... 149
14.2. grub ............................................................................................................ 152
14.3. grub2 .......................................................................................................... 157
14.4. lilo ............................................................................................................. 158
14.5. practice: bootloader ....................................................................................... 159
v
Linux System Administration
14.6. solution: bootloader .......................................................................................
15. init and runlevels ...................................................................................................
15.1. system init(ialization) ....................................................................................
15.2. daemon or demon ? .......................................................................................
15.3. starting and stopping daemons .........................................................................
15.4. chkconfig ....................................................................................................
15.5. update-rc.d ...................................................................................................
15.6. bum ............................................................................................................
15.7. runlevels .....................................................................................................
15.8. systemd .......................................................................................................
15.9. practice: init .................................................................................................
15.10. solution : init ..............................................................................................
IV. system management .........................................................................................................
16. scheduling .............................................................................................................
16.1. one time jobs with at .....................................................................................
16.2. cron ............................................................................................................
16.3. practice : scheduling ......................................................................................
16.4. solution : scheduling ......................................................................................
17. logging ..................................................................................................................
17.1. login logging ................................................................................................
17.2. syslogd ........................................................................................................
17.3. logger .........................................................................................................
17.4. watching logs ...............................................................................................
17.5. rotating logs .................................................................................................
17.6. practice : logging ..........................................................................................
17.7. solution : logging ..........................................................................................
18. memory management .............................................................................................
18.1. displaying memory and cache .........................................................................
18.2. managing swap space ....................................................................................
18.3. monitoring memory with vmstat ......................................................................
18.4. practice : memory .........................................................................................
18.5. solution : memory .........................................................................................
19. resource monitoring ...............................................................................................
19.1. four basic resources .......................................................................................
19.2. top .............................................................................................................
19.3. free ............................................................................................................
19.4. watch ..........................................................................................................
19.5. vmstat .........................................................................................................
19.6. iostat ..........................................................................................................
19.7. mpstat .........................................................................................................
19.8. sadc and sar .................................................................................................
19.9. ntop ............................................................................................................
19.10. iftop ..........................................................................................................
19.11. iptraf .........................................................................................................
19.12. nmon ........................................................................................................
19.13. htop ..........................................................................................................
20. package management .............................................................................................
20.1. package terminology ......................................................................................
20.2. deb package management ...............................................................................
20.3. apt-get ........................................................................................................
20.4. aptitude .......................................................................................................
20.5. apt ..............................................................................................................
20.6. rpm ............................................................................................................
20.7. yum ............................................................................................................
20.8. alien ...........................................................................................................
20.9. downloading software outside the repository ......................................................
20.10. compiling software ......................................................................................
20.11. practice: package management .......................................................................
vi
160
161
162
167
167
168
170
171
172
174
180
181
183
185
186
188
190
191
192
193
196
199
199
200
201
202
204
205
206
208
209
210
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212
212
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213
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215
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216
216
217
217
218
219
221
223
226
227
228
230
237
238
238
239
Linux System Administration
20.12. solution: package management ....................................................................... 240
V. network management ........................................................................................................ 241
21. general networking ................................................................................................ 244
21.1. network layers .............................................................................................. 245
21.2. unicast, multicast, broadcast, anycast ................................................................ 248
21.3. lan-wan-man ................................................................................................ 250
21.4. internet - intranet - extranet ............................................................................ 252
21.5. tcp/ip .......................................................................................................... 253
22. interface configuration ........................................................................................... 254
22.1. to gui or not to gui ....................................................................................... 255
22.2. Debian/Ubuntu nic configuration ..................................................................... 256
22.3. Red Hat/Fedora nic configuration .................................................................... 258
22.4. ifconfig ....................................................................................................... 260
22.5. hostname ..................................................................................................... 262
22.6. arp ............................................................................................................. 263
22.7. route ........................................................................................................... 264
22.8. ping ............................................................................................................ 264
22.9. optional: ethtool ............................................................................................ 265
22.10. practice: interface configuration ..................................................................... 266
22.11. solution: interface configuration ..................................................................... 267
23. network sniffing ..................................................................................................... 269
23.1. wireshark ..................................................................................................... 270
23.2. tcpdump ...................................................................................................... 274
23.3. practice: network sniffing ............................................................................... 275
23.4. solution: network sniffing ............................................................................... 276
24. binding and bonding .............................................................................................. 277
24.1. binding on Redhat/Fedora ............................................................................... 278
24.2. binding on Debian/Ubuntu .............................................................................. 279
24.3. bonding on Redhat/Fedora .............................................................................. 280
24.4. bonding on Debian/Ubuntu ............................................................................. 282
24.5. practice: binding and bonding ......................................................................... 284
24.6. solution: binding and bonding ......................................................................... 285
25. ssh client and server .............................................................................................. 286
25.1. about ssh ..................................................................................................... 287
25.2. log on to a remote server ............................................................................... 289
25.3. executing a command in remote ...................................................................... 289
25.4. scp ............................................................................................................. 290
25.5. setting up passwordless ssh ............................................................................. 291
25.6. X forwarding via ssh ..................................................................................... 292
25.7. troubleshooting ssh ........................................................................................ 293
25.8. sshd ............................................................................................................ 294
25.9. sshd keys ..................................................................................................... 294
25.10. ssh-agent ................................................................................................... 294
25.11. practice: ssh ............................................................................................... 295
25.12. solution: ssh ............................................................................................... 296
26. introduction to nfs ................................................................................................. 298
26.1. nfs protocol versions ..................................................................................... 299
26.2. rpcinfo ........................................................................................................ 299
26.3. server configuration ....................................................................................... 300
26.4. /etc/exports ................................................................................................... 300
26.5. exportfs ....................................................................................................... 300
26.6. client configuration ....................................................................................... 301
26.7. practice: introduction to nfs ............................................................................ 302
27. introduction to networking ..................................................................................... 303
27.1. introduction to iptables .................................................................................. 304
27.2. practice : iptables .......................................................................................... 305
27.3. solution : iptables .......................................................................................... 306
27.4. xinetd and inetd ............................................................................................ 307
vii
Linux System Administration
27.5. practice : inetd and xinetd ...............................................................................
27.6. network file system .......................................................................................
27.7. practice : network file system ..........................................................................
VI. kernel management ..........................................................................................................
28. the Linux kernel ....................................................................................................
28.1. about the Linux kernel ...................................................................................
28.2. Linux kernel source .......................................................................................
28.3. kernel boot files ............................................................................................
28.4. Linux kernel modules ....................................................................................
28.5. compiling a kernel ........................................................................................
28.6. compiling one module ...................................................................................
29. library management ...............................................................................................
29.1. introduction .................................................................................................
29.2. /lib and /usr/lib .............................................................................................
29.3. ldd .............................................................................................................
29.4. ltrace ..........................................................................................................
29.5. dpkg -S and debsums ....................................................................................
29.6. rpm -qf and rpm -V ......................................................................................
29.7. tracing with strace .........................................................................................
VII. backup management .......................................................................................................
30. backup ..................................................................................................................
30.1. About tape devices ........................................................................................
30.2. Compression ................................................................................................
30.3. tar ..............................................................................................................
30.4. Backup Types ..............................................................................................
30.5. dump and restore ..........................................................................................
30.6. cpio ............................................................................................................
30.7. dd ..............................................................................................................
30.8. split ............................................................................................................
30.9. practice: backup ............................................................................................
VIII. Appendices ..................................................................................................................
A. disk quotas .............................................................................................................
A.1. About Disk Quotas ........................................................................................
A.2. Practice Disk quotas .......................................................................................
B. introduction to vnc ..................................................................................................
B.1. About VNC ..................................................................................................
B.2. VNC Server ..................................................................................................
B.3. VNC Client ..................................................................................................
B.4. Practice VNC ................................................................................................
C. License ..................................................................................................................
Index ..................................................................................................................................
viii
309
310
312
313
315
316
319
323
325
330
333
335
336
336
336
337
337
338
339
340
342
342
343
343
345
346
346
347
348
348
350
352
352
352
353
353
353
353
354
355
362
List of Tables
4.1. ide device naming ............................................................................................................ 34
4.2. scsi device naming ........................................................................................................... 34
5.1. primary, extended and logical partitions ............................................................................... 46
5.2. Partition naming .............................................................................................................. 46
15.1. systemd power management ........................................................................................... 178
ix
Part I. process management
Table of Contents
1. introduction to processes ..................................................................................................... 3
1.1. terminology .............................................................................................................. 4
1.2. basic process management ........................................................................................... 5
1.3. signalling processes .................................................................................................... 9
1.4. practice : basic process management ............................................................................ 12
1.5. solution : basic process management ............................................................................ 13
2. process priorities ............................................................................................................... 15
2.1. priority and nice values ............................................................................................. 16
2.2. practice : process priorities ......................................................................................... 19
2.3. solution : process priorities ........................................................................................ 20
3. background jobs ............................................................................................................... 22
3.1. background processes ................................................................................................ 23
3.2. practice : background processes .................................................................................. 25
3.3. solution : background processes .................................................................................. 26
2
Chapter 1. introduction to processes
3
introduction to processes
1.1. terminology
1.1.1. process
A process is compiled source code that is currently running on the system.
1.1.2. PID
All processes have a process id or PID.
1.1.3. PPID
Every process has a parent process (with a PPID). The child process is often started by the
parent process.
1.1.4. init
The init process always has process ID 1. The init process is started by the kernel itself so
technically it does not have a parent process. init serves as a foster parent for orphaned
processes.
1.1.5. kill
When a process stops running, the process dies, when you want a process to die, you kill it.
1.1.6. daemon
Processes that start at system startup and keep running forever are called daemon processes
or daemons. These daemons never die.
1.1.7. zombie
When a process is killed, but it still shows up on the system, then the process is referred to
as zombie. You cannot kill zombies, because they are already dead.
4
introduction to processes
1.2. basic process management
1.2.1. $$ and $PPID
Some shell environment variables contain information about processes. The $$ variable will
hold your current process ID, and $PPID contains the parent PID. Actually $$ is a shell
parameter and not a variable, you cannot assign a value to it.
Below we use echo to display the values of $$ and $PPID.
[[email protected] ~]$ echo $$ $PPID
4224 4223
1.2.2. pidof
You can find all process id's by name using the pidof command.
[email protected] ~# pidof mingetty
2819 2798 2797 2796 2795 2794
1.2.3. parent and child
Processes have a parent-child relationship. Every process has a parent process.
When starting a new bash you can use echo to verify that the pid from before is the ppid
of the new shell. The child process from above is now the parent process.
[[email protected] ~]$ bash
[[email protected] ~]$ echo $$ $PPID
4812 4224
Typing exit will end the current process and brings us back to our original values for $$
and $PPID.
[[email protected]
4812 4224
[[email protected]
exit
[[email protected]
4224 4223
[[email protected]
~]$ echo $$ $PPID
~]$ exit
~]$ echo $$ $PPID
~]$
5
introduction to processes
1.2.4. fork and exec
A process starts another process in two phases. First the process creates a fork of itself, an
identical copy. Then the forked process executes an exec to replace the forked process with
the target child process.
[[email protected]
4224
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
5310 4224
[[email protected]
~]$ echo $$
~]$ bash
~]$ echo $$ $PPID
~]$
1.2.5. exec
With the exec command, you can execute a process without forking a new process. In the
following screenshot a Korn shell (ksh) is started and is being replaced with a bash shell
using the exec command. The pid of the bash shell is the same as the pid of the Korn
shell. Exiting the child bash shell will get me back to the parent bash, not to the Korn shell
(which does not exist anymore).
[[email protected] ~]$
4224
[[email protected] ~]$
$ echo $$ $PPID
5343 4224
$ exec bash
[[email protected] ~]$
5343 4224
[[email protected] ~]$
exit
[[email protected] ~]$
4224
echo $$
# PID of bash
ksh
# PID of ksh and bash
echo $$ $PPID
# PID of bash and bash
exit
echo $$
6
introduction to processes
1.2.6. ps
One of the most common tools on Linux to look at processes is ps. The following screenshot
shows the parent child relationship between three bash processes.
[[email protected]
4224 4223
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
4866 4224
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
4884 4866
[[email protected]
PID TTY
4223 ?
4224 pts/0
4866 pts/0
4884 pts/0
4902 pts/0
[[email protected]
exit
[[email protected]
PID TTY
4223 ?
4224 pts/0
4866 pts/0
4903 pts/0
[[email protected]
exit
[[email protected]
PID TTY
4223 ?
4224 pts/0
4904 pts/0
[[email protected]
~]$ echo $$ $PPID
~]$ bash
~]$ echo $$ $PPID
~]$ bash
~]$ echo $$ $PPID
~]$ ps fx
STAT
TIME COMMAND
S
0:01 sshd: [email protected]/0
Ss
0:00 \_ -bash
S
0:00
\_ bash
S
0:00
\_ bash
R+
0:00
\_ ps fx
~]$ exit
~]$ ps fx
STAT
TIME COMMAND
S
0:01 sshd: [email protected]/0
Ss
0:00 \_ -bash
S
0:00
\_ bash
R+
0:00
\_ ps fx
~]$ exit
~]$ ps fx
STAT
TIME COMMAND
S
0:01 sshd: [email protected]/0
Ss
0:00 \_ -bash
R+
0:00
\_ ps fx
~]$
On Linux, ps fax is often used. On Solaris ps -ef (which also works on Linux) is common.
Here is a partial output from ps fax.
[[email protected] ~]$ ps fax
PID TTY
STAT
TIME COMMAND
1 ?
S
0:00 init [5]
...
3713
5042
5044
5045
5077
?
?
?
pts/1
pts/1
Ss
Ss
S
Ss
R+
0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd
0:00 \_ sshd: paul [priv]
0:00
\_ sshd: [email protected]/1
0:00
\_ -bash
0:00
\_ ps fax
7
introduction to processes
1.2.7. pgrep
Similar to the ps -C, you can also use pgrep to search for a process by its command name.
[[email protected] ~]$ sleep 1000 &
[1] 32558
[[email protected] ~]$ pgrep sleep
32558
[[email protected] ~]$ ps -C sleep
PID TTY
TIME CMD
32558 pts/3
00:00:00 sleep
You can also list the command name of the process with pgrep.
[email protected]:~$ pgrep -l sleep
9661 sleep
1.2.8. top
Another popular tool on Linux is top. The top tool can order processes according to cpu
usage or other properties. You can also kill processes from within top. Press h inside top
for help.
In case of trouble, top is often the first tool to fire up, since it also provides you memory
and swap space information.
8
introduction to processes
1.3. signalling processes
1.3.1. kill
The kill command will kill (or stop) a process. The screenshot shows how to use a standard
kill to stop the process with pid 1942.
[email protected]:~$ kill 1942
[email protected]:~$
By using the kill we are sending a signal to the process.
1.3.2. list signals
Running processes can receive signals from each other or from the users. You can have a
list of signals by typing kill -l, that is a letter l, not the number 1.
[[email protected] ~]$ kill -l
1) SIGHUP
2) SIGINT
3) SIGQUIT
4) SIGILL
5) SIGTRAP
6) SIGABRT
7) SIGBUS
8) SIGFPE
9) SIGKILL
10) SIGUSR1
11) SIGSEGV
12) SIGUSR2
13) SIGPIPE
14) SIGALRM
15) SIGTERM
17) SIGCHLD
18) SIGCONT
19) SIGSTOP
20) SIGTSTP
21) SIGTTIN
22) SIGTTOU
23) SIGURG
24) SIGXCPU
25) SIGXFSZ
26) SIGVTALRM
27) SIGPROF
28) SIGWINCH
29) SIGIO
30) SIGPWR
31) SIGSYS
34) SIGRTMIN
35) SIGRTMIN+1
36) SIGRTMIN+2 37) SIGRTMIN+3 38) SIGRTMIN+4 39) SIGRTMIN+5
40) SIGRTMIN+6 41) SIGRTMIN+7 42) SIGRTMIN+8 43) SIGRTMIN+9
44) SIGRTMIN+10 45) SIGRTMIN+11 46) SIGRTMIN+12 47) SIGRTMIN+13
48) SIGRTMIN+14 49) SIGRTMIN+15 50) SIGRTMAX-14 51) SIGRTMAX-13
52) SIGRTMAX-12 53) SIGRTMAX-11 54) SIGRTMAX-10 55) SIGRTMAX-9
56) SIGRTMAX-8 57) SIGRTMAX-7 58) SIGRTMAX-6 59) SIGRTMAX-5
60) SIGRTMAX-4 61) SIGRTMAX-3 62) SIGRTMAX-2 63) SIGRTMAX-1
64) SIGRTMAX
[[email protected] ~]$
1.3.3. kill -1 (SIGHUP)
It is common on Linux to use the first signal SIGHUP (or HUP or 1) to tell a process that
it should re-read its configuration file. Thus, the kill -1 1 command forces the init process
(init always runs with pid 1) to re-read its configuration file.
[email protected]:~# kill -1 1
[email protected]:~#
It is up to the developer of the process to decide whether the process can do this running,
or whether it needs to stop and start. It is up to the user to read the documentation of the
program.
9
introduction to processes
1.3.4. kill -15 (SIGTERM)
The SIGTERM signal is also called a standard kill. Whenever kill is executed without
specifying the signal, a kill -15 is assumed.
Both commands in the screenshot below are identical.
[email protected]:~$ kill 1942
[email protected]:~$ kill -15 1942
1.3.5. kill -9 (SIGKILL)
The SIGKILL is different from most other signals in that it is not being sent to the process,
but to the Linux kernel. A kill -9 is also called a sure kill. The kernel will shoot down the
process. As a developer you have no means to intercept a kill -9 signal.
[email protected] ~# kill -9 3342
1.3.6. SIGSTOP and SIGCONT
A running process can be suspended when it receives a SIGSTOP signal. This is the same
as kill -19 on Linux, but might have a different number in other Unix systems.
A suspended process does not use any cpu cycles, but it stays in memory and can be reanimated with a SIGCONT signal (kill -18 on Linux).
Both signals will be used in the section about background processes.
10
introduction to processes
1.3.7. pkill
You can use the pkill command to kill a process by its command name.
[[email protected] ~]$ sleep 1000 &
[1] 30203
[[email protected] ~]$ pkill sleep
[1]+ Terminated
[[email protected] ~]$
sleep 1000
1.3.8. killall
The killall command will send a signal 15 to all processes with a certain name.
[email protected]:~$ sleep 8472 &
[1] 18780
[email protected]:~$ sleep 1201 &
[2] 18781
[email protected]:~$ jobs
[1]- Running
[2]+ Running
[email protected]:~$ killall sleep
[1]- Terminated
[2]+ Terminated
[email protected]:~$ jobs
[email protected]:~$
sleep 8472 &
sleep 1201 &
sleep 8472
sleep 1201
1.3.9. killall5
Its SysV counterpart killall5 can by used when shutting down the system. This screenshot
shows how Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3 uses killall5 when halting the system.
[email protected] ~# grep killall /etc/init.d/halt
action $"Sending all processes the TERM signal..." /sbin/killall5 -15
action $"Sending all processes the KILL signal..." /sbin/killall5 -9
1.3.10. top
Inside top the k key allows you to select a signal and pid to kill. Below is a partial screenshot
of the line just below the summary in top after pressing k.
PID to kill: 1932
Kill PID 1932 with signal [15]: 9
11
introduction to processes
1.4. practice : basic process management
1. Use ps to search for the init process by name.
2. What is the process id of the init process ?
3. Use the who am i command to determine your terminal name.
4. Using your terminal name from above, use ps to find all processes associated with your
terminal.
5. What is the process id of your shell ?
6. What is the parent process id of your shell ?
7. Start two instances of the sleep 3342 in background.
8. Locate the process id of all sleep commands.
9. Display only those two sleep processes in top. Then quit top.
10. Use a standard kill to kill one of the sleep processes.
11. Use one command to kill all sleep processes.
12
introduction to processes
1.5. solution : basic process management
1. Use ps to search for the init process by name.
[email protected] ~# ps -C init
PID TTY
TIME CMD
1 ?
00:00:04 init
2. What is the process id of the init process ?
1
3. Use the who am i command to determine your terminal name.
[email protected] ~# who am i
paul
pts/0
2010-04-12 17:44 (192.168.1.38)
4. Using your terminal name from above, use ps to find all processes associated with your
terminal.
[email protected] ~# ps fax | grep pts/0
2941 ?
S
0:00
\_ sshd: [email protected]/0
2942 pts/0
Ss
0:00
\_ -bash
2972 pts/0
S
0:00
\_ su 2973 pts/0
S
0:00
\_ -bash
3808 pts/0
R+
0:00
\_ ps fax
3809 pts/0
R+
0:00
\_ grep pts/0
or also
[email protected] ~# ps -ef
paul
2941 2939
paul
2942 2941
root
2972 2942
root
2973 2972
root
3816 2973
root
3817 2973
|
0
0
0
0
0
0
grep pts/0
17:44 ?
17:44 pts/0
17:45 pts/0
17:45 pts/0
21:25 pts/0
21:25 pts/0
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
sshd: [email protected]/0
-bash
su -bash
ps -ef
grep pts/0
5. What is the process id of your shell ?
2973 in the screenshot above, probably different for you
echo $$ should display same number as the one you found
6. What is the parent process id of your shell ?
2972 in the screenshot above, probably different for you
in this example the PPID is from the su - command, but when inside gnome then for example
gnome-terminal can be the parent process
7. Start two instances of the sleep 3342 in background.
13
introduction to processes
sleep 3342 &
sleep 3342 &
8. Locate the process id of all sleep commands.
pidof sleep
9. Display only those two sleep processes in top. Then quit top.
top -p pidx,pidy (replace pidx pidy with the actual numbers)
10. Use a standard kill to kill one of the sleep processes.
kill pidx
11. Use one command to kill all sleep processes.
pkill sleep
14
Chapter 2. process priorities
15
process priorities
2.1. priority and nice values
2.1.1. introduction
All processes have a priority and a nice value. Higher priority processes will get more
cpu time than lower priority processes. You can influence this with the nice and renice
commands.
2.1.2. pipes (mkfifo)
Processes can communicate with each other via pipes. These pipes can be created with the
mkfifo command.
The screenshots shows the creation of four distinct pipes (in a new directory).
[email protected]:~$ mkdir procs
[email protected]:~$ cd procs/
[email protected]:~/procs$ mkfifo pipe33a pipe33b pipe42a pipe42b
[email protected]:~/procs$ ls -l
total 0
prw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 0 2010-04-12 13:21 pipe33a
prw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 0 2010-04-12 13:21 pipe33b
prw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 0 2010-04-12 13:21 pipe42a
prw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 0 2010-04-12 13:21 pipe42b
[email protected]:~/procs$
2.1.3. some fun with cat
To demonstrate the use of the top and renice commands we will make the cat command
use the previously created pipes to generate a full load on the cpu.
The cat is copied with a distinct name to the current directory. (This enables us to easily
recognize the processes within top. You could do the same exercise without copying the cat
command, but using different users. Or you could just look at the pid of each process.)
[email protected]:~/procs$
[email protected]:~/procs$
[email protected]:~/procs$
[1] 1670
[email protected]:~/procs$
[2] 1671
[email protected]:~/procs$
[3] 1673
[email protected]:~/procs$
[4] 1674
cp /bin/cat proj33
cp /bin/cat proj42
echo -n x | ./proj33 - pipe33a > pipe33b &
./proj33 <pipe33b >pipe33a &
echo -n z | ./proj42 - pipe42a > pipe42b &
./proj42 <pipe42b >pipe42a &
The commands you see above will create two proj33 processes that use cat to bounce the x
character between pipe33a and pipe33b. And ditto for the z character and proj42.
16
process priorities
2.1.4. top
Just running top without options or arguments will display all processes and an overview of
innformation. The top of the top screen might look something like this.
top - 13:59:29 up 48 min, 4 users, load average: 1.06, 0.25, 0.14
Tasks: 139 total,
3 running, 136 sleeping,
0 stopped,
0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.3%us, 99.7%sy, 0.0%ni, 0.0%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.0%si, 0.0%st
Mem:
509352k total,
460040k used,
49312k free,
66752k buffers
Swap:
746980k total,
0k used,
746980k free,
247324k cached
Notice the cpu idle time (0.0%id) is zero. This is because our cat processes are consuming
the whole cpu. Results can vary on systems with four or more cpu cores.
2.1.5. top -p
The top -p 1670,1671,1673,1674 screenshot below shows four processes, all of then using
approximately 25 percent of the cpu.
[email protected]:~$ top -p 1670,1671,1673,1674
PID
1674
1670
1671
1673
USER
paul
paul
paul
paul
PR
20
20
20
20
NI
0
0
0
0
VIRT
2972
2972
2972
2972
RES
616
616
616
620
SHR
524
524
524
524
S
S
R
S
R
%CPU %MEM
26.6 0.1
25.0 0.1
24.6 0.1
23.0 0.1
TIME+
0:11.92
0:23.16
0:23.07
0:11.48
COMMAND
proj42
proj33
proj33
proj42
All four processes have an equal priority (PR), and are battling for cpu time. On some
systems the Linux kernel might attribute slightly varying priority values, but the result
will still be four processes fighting for cpu time.
2.1.6. renice
Since the processes are already running, we need to use the renice command to change their
nice value (NI).
The screenshot shows how to use renice on both the proj33 processes.
[email protected]:~$ renice +8 1670
1670: old priority 0, new priority 8
[email protected]:~$ renice +8 1671
1671: old priority 0, new priority 8
Normal users can attribute a nice value from zero to 20 to processes they own. Only the
root user can use negative nice values. Be very careful with negative nice values, since they
can make it impossible to use the keyboard or ssh to a system.
17
process priorities
2.1.7. impact of nice values
The impact of a nice value on running processes can vary. The screenshot below shows the
result of our renice +8 command. Look at the %CPU values.
PID
1674
1673
1671
1670
USER
paul
paul
paul
paul
PR
20
20
28
28
NI
0
0
8
8
VIRT
2972
2972
2972
2972
RES
616
620
616
616
SHR
524
524
524
524
S %CPU %MEM
S 46.6 0.1
R 42.6 0.1
S 5.7 0.1
R 4.7 0.1
TIME+
0:22.37
0:21.65
0:29.65
0:29.82
COMMAND
proj42
proj42
proj33
proj33
Important to remember is to always make less important processes nice to more important
processes. Using negative nice values can have a severe impact on a system's usability.
2.1.8. nice
The nice works identical to the renice but it is used when starting a command.
The screenshot shows how to start a script with a nice value of five.
[email protected]:~$ nice -5 ./backup.sh
18
process priorities
2.2. practice : process priorities
1. Create a new directory and create six pipes in that directory.
2. Bounce a character between two pipes.
3. Use top and ps to display information (pid, ppid, priority, nice value, ...) about these two
cat processes.
4. Bounce another character between two other pipes, but this time start the commands nice.
Verify that all cat processes are battling for the cpu. (Feel free to fire up two more cats with
the remaining pipes).
5. Use ps to verify that the two new cat processes have a nice value. Use the -o and -C
options of ps for this.
6. Use renice te increase the nice value from 10 to 15. Notice the difference with the usual
commands.
19
process priorities
2.3. solution : process priorities
1. Create a new directory and create six pipes in that directory.
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
total 0
prw-rw-r-- 1
prw-rw-r-- 1
prw-rw-r-- 1
prw-rw-r-- 1
prw-rw-r-- 1
prw-rw-r-- 1
~]$ mkdir pipes ; cd pipes
pipes]$ mkfifo p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6
pipes]$ ls -l
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
paul
0
0
0
0
0
0
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
12
12
12
12
12
12
22:15
22:15
22:15
22:15
22:15
22:15
p1
p2
p3
p4
p5
p6
2. Bounce a character between two pipes.
[[email protected] pipes]$ echo -n x | cat - p1 > p2 &
[1] 4013
[[email protected] pipes]$ cat <p2 >p1 &
[2] 4016
3. Use top and ps to display information (pid, ppid, priority, nice value, ...) about these two
cat processes.
top (probably the top two lines)
[[email protected] pipes]$ ps
PID TTY
TIME
4013 pts/0
00:03:38
4016 pts/0
00:01:07
-C cat
CMD
cat
cat
[[email protected] pipes]$ ps fax
4013 pts/0
R
4:00
4016 pts/0
S
1:13
4044 pts/0
S+
0:00
| grep cat
|
|
|
\_ cat - p1
\_ cat
\_ grep cat
4. Bounce another character between two other pipes, but this time start the commands nice.
Verify that all cat processes are battling for the cpu. (Feel free to fire up two more cats with
the remaining pipes).
echo -n y | nice cat - p3 > p4 &
nice cat <p4 >p3 &
5. Use ps to verify that the two new cat processes have a nice value. Use the -o and -C
options of ps for this.
[[email protected] pipes]$ ps -C cat -o pid,ppid,pri,ni,comm
PID PPID PRI NI COMMAND
4013 3947 14
0 cat
4016 3947 21
0 cat
4025 3947 13 10 cat
4026 3947 13 10 cat
6. Use renice te increase the nice value from 10 to 15. Notice the difference with the usual
commands.
[[email protected] pipes]$ renice +15 4025
4025: old priority 10, new priority 15
[[email protected] pipes]$ renice +15 4026
20
process priorities
4026: old priority 10, new priority 15
[[email protected] pipes]$ ps -C cat -o pid,ppid,pri,ni,comm
PID PPID PRI NI COMMAND
4013 3947 14
0 cat
4016 3947 21
0 cat
4025 3947
9 15 cat
4026 3947
8 15 cat
21
Chapter 3. background jobs
22
background jobs
3.1. background processes
3.1.1. jobs
Stuff that runs in background of your current shell can be displayed with the jobs command.
By default you will not have any jobs running in background.
[email protected] ~# jobs
[email protected] ~#
This jobs command will be used several times in this section.
3.1.2. control-Z
Some processes can be suspended with the Ctrl-Z key combination. This sends a SIGSTOP
signal to the Linux kernel, effectively freezing the operation of the process.
When doing this in vi(m), then vi(m) goes to the background. The background vi(m) can
be seen with the jobs command.
[[email protected] ~]$ vi procdemo.txt
[5]+ Stopped
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[5]+ Stopped
vim procdemo.txt
vim procdemo.txt
3.1.3. & ampersand
Processes that are started in background using the & character at the end of the command
line are also visible with the jobs command.
[[email protected] ~]$ find / > allfiles.txt 2> /dev/null &
[6] 5230
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[5]+ Stopped
vim procdemo.txt
[6]- Running
find / >allfiles.txt 2>/dev/null &
[[email protected] ~]$
3.1.4. jobs -p
An interesting option is jobs -p to see the process id of background processes.
[[email protected]
[1] 4902
[[email protected]
[2] 4903
[[email protected]
4902
4903
[[email protected]
~]$ sleep 500 &
~]$ sleep 400 &
~]$ jobs -p
~]$ ps `jobs -p`
23
background jobs
PID TTY
STAT
4902 pts/0
S
4903 pts/0
S
[[email protected] ~]$
TIME COMMAND
0:00 sleep 500
0:00 sleep 400
3.1.5. fg
Running the fg command will bring a background job to the foreground. The number of the
background job to bring forward is the parameter of fg.
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[1]
Running
[2]- Running
[3]+ Running
[[email protected] ~]$ fg 3
sleep 2000
sleep 1000 &
sleep 1000 &
sleep 2000 &
3.1.6. bg
Jobs that are suspended in background can be started in background with bg. The bg will
send a SIGCONT signal.
Below an example of the sleep command (suspended with Ctrl-Z) being reactivated in
background with bg.
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[[email protected] ~]$ sleep 5000 &
[1] 6702
[[email protected] ~]$ sleep 3000
[2]+ Stopped
[[email protected] ~]$
[1]- Running
[2]+ Stopped
[[email protected] ~]$
[2]+ sleep 3000
[[email protected] ~]$
[1]- Running
[2]+ Running
[[email protected] ~]$
sleep 3000
jobs
sleep 5000 &
sleep 3000
bg 2
&
jobs
sleep 5000 &
sleep 3000 &
24
background jobs
3.2. practice : background processes
1. Use the jobs command to verify whether you have any processes running in background.
2. Use vi to create a little text file. Suspend vi in background.
3. Verify with jobs that vi is suspended in background.
4. Start find / > allfiles.txt 2>/dev/null in foreground. Suspend it in background before it
finishes.
5. Start two long sleep processes in background.
6. Display all jobs in background.
7. Use the kill command to suspend the last sleep process.
8. Continue the find process in background (make sure it runs again).
9. Put one of the sleep commands back in foreground.
10. (if time permits, a general review question...) Explain in detail where the numbers come
from in the next screenshot. When are the variables replaced by their value ? By which shell ?
[[email protected] ~]$ echo $$ $PPID
4224 4223
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c "echo $$ $PPID"
4224 4223
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c 'echo $$ $PPID'
5059 4224
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c `echo $$ $PPID`
4223: 4224: command not found
25
background jobs
3.3. solution : background processes
1. Use the jobs command to verify whether you have any processes running in background.
jobs (maybe the catfun is still running?)
2. Use vi to create a little text file. Suspend vi in background.
vi text.txt
(inside vi press ctrl-z)
3. Verify with jobs that vi is suspended in background.
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[1]+ Stopped
vim text.txt
4. Start find / > allfiles.txt 2>/dev/null in foreground. Suspend it in background before it
finishes.
[[email protected] ~]$ find / > allfiles.txt 2>/dev/null
(press ctrl-z)
[2]+ Stopped
find / > allfiles.txt 2> /dev/null
5. Start two long sleep processes in background.
sleep 4000 & ; sleep 5000 &
6. Display all jobs in background.
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[1]- Stopped
[2]+ Stopped
[3]
Running
[4]
Running
vim text.txt
find / > allfiles.txt 2> /dev/null
sleep 4000 &
sleep 5000 &
7. Use the kill command to suspend the last sleep process.
[[email protected] ~]$ kill -SIGSTOP 4519
[[email protected] ~]$ jobs
[1]
Stopped
vim text.txt
[2]- Stopped
find / > allfiles.txt 2> /dev/null
[3]
Running
sleep 4000 &
[4]+ Stopped
sleep 5000
8. Continue the find process in background (make sure it runs again).
bg 2 (verify the job-id in your jobs list)
9. Put one of the sleep commands back in foreground.
fg 3 (again verify your job-id)
10. (if time permits, a general review question...) Explain in detail where the numbers come
from in the next screenshot. When are the variables replaced by their value ? By which shell ?
[[email protected] ~]$ echo $$ $PPID
4224 4223
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c "echo $$ $PPID"
26
background jobs
4224 4223
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c 'echo $$ $PPID'
5059 4224
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c `echo $$ $PPID`
4223: 4224: command not found
The current bash shell will replace the $$ and $PPID while scanning the line, and before
executing the echo command.
[[email protected] ~]$ echo $$ $PPID
4224 4223
The variables are now double quoted, but the current bash shell will replace $$ and $PPID
while scanning the line, and before executing the bach -c command.
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c "echo $$ $PPID"
4224 4223
The variables are now single quoted. The current bash shell will not replace the $$ and
the $PPID. The bash -c command will be executed before the variables replaced with their
value. This latter bash is the one replacing the $$ and $PPID with their value.
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c 'echo $$ $PPID'
5059 4224
With backticks the shell will still replace both variable before the embedded echo is
executed. The result of this echo is the two process id's. These are given as commands to
bash -c. But two numbers are not commands!
[[email protected] ~]$ bash -c `echo $$ $PPID`
4223: 4224: command not found
27
Part II. disk management
Table of Contents
4. disk devices ......................................................................................................................
4.1. terminology .............................................................................................................
4.2. device naming .........................................................................................................
4.3. discovering disk devices ............................................................................................
4.4. erasing a hard disk ...................................................................................................
4.5. advanced hard disk settings ........................................................................................
4.6. practice: hard disk devices .........................................................................................
4.7. solution: hard disk devices .........................................................................................
5. disk partitions ...................................................................................................................
5.1. about partitions ........................................................................................................
5.2. discovering partitions ................................................................................................
5.3. partitioning new disks ...............................................................................................
5.4. about the partition table .............................................................................................
5.5. practice: partitions ....................................................................................................
5.6. solution: partitions ....................................................................................................
6. file systems .......................................................................................................................
6.1. about file systems ....................................................................................................
6.2. common file systems ................................................................................................
6.3. putting a file system on a partition ..............................................................................
6.4. tuning a file system ..................................................................................................
6.5. checking a file system ...............................................................................................
6.6. practice: file systems ................................................................................................
6.7. solution: file systems ................................................................................................
7. mounting ..........................................................................................................................
7.1. mounting local file systems ........................................................................................
7.2. displaying mounted file systems .................................................................................
7.3. from start to finish ...................................................................................................
7.4. permanent mounts ....................................................................................................
7.5. securing mounts .......................................................................................................
7.6. mounting remote file systems .....................................................................................
7.7. practice: mounting file systems ...................................................................................
7.8. solution: mounting file systems ...................................................................................
8. troubleshooting tools .........................................................................................................
8.1. lsof ........................................................................................................................
8.2. fuser ......................................................................................................................
8.3. chroot ....................................................................................................................
8.4. iostat ......................................................................................................................
8.5. iotop ......................................................................................................................
8.6. vmstat ....................................................................................................................
8.7. practice: troubleshooting tools ....................................................................................
8.8. solution: troubleshooting tools ....................................................................................
9. introduction to uuid's ........................................................................................................
9.1. about unique objects .................................................................................................
9.2. tune2fs ...................................................................................................................
9.3. uuid .......................................................................................................................
9.4. uuid in /etc/fstab ......................................................................................................
9.5. uuid as a boot device ................................................................................................
9.6. practice: uuid and filesystems .....................................................................................
9.7. solution: uuid and filesystems .....................................................................................
10. introduction to raid .........................................................................................................
10.1. hardware or software ...............................................................................................
10.2. raid levels .............................................................................................................
10.3. building a software raid5 array ..................................................................................
10.4. practice: raid ..........................................................................................................
10.5. solution: raid .........................................................................................................
29
31
32
34
35
40
41
42
43
45
46
47
49
51
52
53
54
55
56
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
68
69
70
71
72
73
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
85
85
86
87
88
89
90
90
91
93
96
97
disk management
11. logical volume management .............................................................................................. 98
11.1. introduction to lvm ................................................................................................. 99
11.2. lvm terminology ................................................................................................... 100
11.3. example: using lvm ............................................................................................... 101
11.4. example: extend a logical volume ............................................................................ 103
11.5. example: resize a physical Volume .......................................................................... 105
11.6. example: mirror a logical volume ............................................................................ 107
11.7. example: snapshot a logical volume ......................................................................... 108
11.8. verifying existing physical volumes .......................................................................... 109
11.9. verifying existing volume groups ............................................................................. 111
11.10. verifying existing logical volumes .......................................................................... 112
11.11. manage physical volumes ..................................................................................... 113
11.12. manage volume groups ......................................................................................... 115
11.13. manage logical volumes ....................................................................................... 117
11.14. practice : lvm ..................................................................................................... 119
11.15. solution : lvm ..................................................................................................... 120
12. iSCSI devices ................................................................................................................. 124
12.1. iSCSI terminology ................................................................................................ 125
12.2. iSCSI Target in RHEL/CentOS ............................................................................... 125
12.3. iSCSI Initiator in RHEL/CentOS ............................................................................. 127
12.4. iSCSI target on Debian .......................................................................................... 129
12.5. iSCSI target setup with dd files ............................................................................... 130
12.6. ISCSI initiator on ubuntu ....................................................................................... 132
12.7. using iSCSI devices .............................................................................................. 134
12.8. practice: iSCSI devices .......................................................................................... 135
12.9. solution: iSCSI devices .......................................................................................... 136
13. introduction to multipathing ........................................................................................... 137
13.1. install multipath .................................................................................................... 138
13.2. configure multipath ............................................................................................... 138
13.3. network ............................................................................................................... 139
13.4. start multipathd and iscsi ........................................................................................ 139
13.5. multipath list ........................................................................................................ 141
13.6. using the device .................................................................................................... 142
13.7. practice: multipathing ............................................................................................ 143
13.8. solution: multipathing ............................................................................................ 144
30
Chapter 4. disk devices
This chapter teaches you how to locate and recognise hard disk devices. This prepares you
for the next chapter, where we put partitions on these devices.
31
disk devices
4.1. terminology
4.1.1. platter, head, track, cylinder, sector
Data is commonly stored on magnetic or optical disk platters. The platters are rotated (at
high speeds). Data is read by heads, which are very close to the surface of the platter, without
touching it! The heads are mounted on an arm (sometimes called a comb or a fork).
Data is written in concentric circles called tracks. Track zero is (usually) on the outside.
The time it takes to position the head over a certain track is called the seek time. Often
the platters are stacked on top of each other, hence the set of tracks accessible at a certain
position of the comb forms a cylinder. Tracks are divided into 512 byte sectors, with more
unused space (gap) between the sectors on the outside of the platter.
When you break down the advertised access time of a hard drive, you will notice that most
of that time is taken by movement of the heads (about 65%) and rotational latency (about
30%).
4.1.2. ide or scsi
Actually, the title should be ata or scsi, since ide is an ata compatible device. Most desktops
use ata devices, most servers use scsi.
4.1.3. ata
An ata controller allows two devices per bus, one master and one slave. Unless your
controller and devices support cable select, you have to set this manually with jumpers.
With the introduction of sata (serial ata), the original ata was renamed to parallel ata.
Optical drives often use atapi, which is an ATA interface using the SCSI communication
protocol.
4.1.4. scsi
A scsi controller allows more than two devices. When using SCSI (small computer system
interface), each device gets a unique scsi id. The scsi controller also needs a scsi id, do not
use this id for a scsi-attached device.
Older 8-bit SCSI is now called narrow, whereas 16-bit is wide. When the bus speeds was
doubled to 10Mhz, this was known as fast SCSI. Doubling to 20Mhz made it ultra SCSI.
Take a look at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCSI for more SCSI standards.
32
disk devices
4.1.5. block device
Random access hard disk devices have an abstraction layer called block device to enable
formatting in fixed-size (usually 512 bytes) blocks. Blocks can be accessed independent of
access to other blocks.
[[email protected] ~]# lsblk
NAME
MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda
8:0
0
40G 0 disk
--sda1
8:1
0 500M 0 part /boot
--sda2
8:2
0 39.5G 0 part
--VolGroup-lv_root (dm-0) 253:0
0 38.6G 0 lvm /
--VolGroup-lv_swap (dm-1) 253:1
0 928M 0 lvm [SWAP]
sdb
8:16
0
72G 0 disk
sdc
8:32
0 144G 0 disk
A block device has the letter b to denote the file type in the output of ls -l.
[[email protected] ~]#
brw-rw----. 1 root
brw-rw----. 1 root
brw-rw----. 1 root
brw-rw----. 1 root
brw-rw----. 1 root
ls -l /dev/sd*
disk 8, 0 Apr
disk 8, 1 Apr
disk 8, 2 Apr
disk 8, 16 Apr
disk 8, 32 Apr
19
19
19
19
19
10:12
10:12
10:12
10:12
10:12
/dev/sda
/dev/sda1
/dev/sda2
/dev/sdb
/dev/sdc
Note that a character device is a constant stream of characters, being denoted by a c in ls l. Note also that the ISO 9660 standard for cdrom uses a 2048 byte block size.
Old hard disks (and floppy disks) use cylinder-head-sector addressing to access a sector
on the disk. Most current disks use LBA (Logical Block Addressing).
4.1.6. solid state drive
A solid state drive or ssd is a block device without moving parts. It is comparable to flash
memory. An ssd is more expensive than a hard disk, but it typically has a much faster access
time.
In this book we will use the following pictograms for spindle disks (in brown) and solid
state disks (in blue).
33
disk devices
4.2. device naming
4.2.1. ata (ide) device naming
All ata drives on your system will start with /dev/hd followed by a unit letter. The master
hdd on the first ata controller is /dev/hda, the slave is /dev/hdb. For the second controller,
the names of the devices are /dev/hdc and /dev/hdd.
Table 4.1. ide device naming
controller
ide0
ide1
connection
device name
master
/dev/hda
slave
/dev/hdb
master
/dev/hdc
slave
/dev/hdd
It is possible to have only /dev/hda and /dev/hdd. The first one is a single ata hard disk, the
second one is the cdrom (by default configured as slave).
4.2.2. scsi device naming
scsi drives follow a similar scheme, but all start with /dev/sd. When you run out of letters
(after /dev/sdz), you can continue with /dev/sdaa and /dev/sdab and so on. (We will see later
on that lvm volumes are commonly seen as /dev/md0, /dev/md1 etc.)
Below a sample of how scsi devices on a Linux can be named. Adding a scsi disk or raid
controller with a lower scsi address will change the naming scheme (shifting the higher scsi
addresses one letter further in the alphabet).
Table 4.2. scsi device naming
device
scsi id
device name
disk 0
0
/dev/sda
disk 1
1
/dev/sdb
raid controller 0
5
/dev/sdc
raid controller 1
6
/dev/sdd
A modern Linux system will use /dev/sd* for scsi and sata devices, and also for sd-cards,
usb-sticks, (legacy) ATA/IDE devices and solid state drives.
34
disk devices
4.3. discovering disk devices
4.3.1. fdisk
You can start by using /sbin/fdisk to find out what kind of disks are seen by the kernel.
Below the result on old Debian desktop, with two ata-ide disks present.
[email protected]:~# fdisk -l | grep Disk
Disk /dev/hda: 60.0 GB, 60022480896 bytes
Disk /dev/hdb: 81.9 GB, 81964302336 bytes
And here an example of sata and scsi disks on a server with CentOS. Remember that sata
disks are also presented to you with the scsi /dev/sd* notation.
[[email protected]
Disk /dev/sda:
Disk /dev/sdb:
Disk /dev/sdc:
Disk /dev/sdd:
~]# fdisk -l | grep 'Disk /dev/sd'
42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
77.3 GB, 77309411328 bytes
154.6 GB, 154618822656 bytes
154.6 GB, 154618822656 bytes
Here is an overview of disks on a RHEL4u3 server with two real 72GB scsi disks. This
server is attached to a NAS with four NAS disks of half a terabyte. On the NAS disks, four
LVM (/dev/mdx) software RAID devices are configured.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l | grep Disk
Disk /dev/sda: 73.4 GB, 73407488000 bytes
Disk /dev/sdb: 73.4 GB, 73407488000 bytes
Disk /dev/sdc: 499.0 GB, 499036192768 bytes
Disk /dev/sdd: 499.0 GB, 499036192768 bytes
Disk /dev/sde: 499.0 GB, 499036192768 bytes
Disk /dev/sdf: 499.0 GB, 499036192768 bytes
Disk /dev/md0: 271 MB, 271319040 bytes
Disk /dev/md2: 21.4 GB, 21476081664 bytes
Disk /dev/md3: 21.4 GB, 21467889664 bytes
Disk /dev/md1: 21.4 GB, 21476081664 bytes
You can also use fdisk to obtain information about one specific hard disk device.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l /dev/sdc
Disk /dev/sdc: 154.6 GB, 154618822656 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 18798 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Later we will use fdisk to do dangerous stuff like creating and deleting partitions.
35
disk devices
4.3.2. dmesg
Kernel boot messages can be seen after boot with dmesg. Since hard disk devices are
detected by the kernel during boot, you can also use dmesg to find information about disk
devices.
[[email protected] ~]# dmesg | grep 'sd[a-z]' | head
sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 83886080 512-byte logical blocks: (42.9 GB/40.0 GiB)
sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support \
DPO or FUA
sda: sda1 sda2
sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI disk
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] 150994944 512-byte logical blocks: (77.3 GB/72.0 GiB)
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support \
DPO or FUA
Here is another example of dmesg on a computer with a 200GB ata disk.
[email protected]:~$ dmesg
[
2.624149] hda:
[
2.904150] hdb:
[
3.472148] hdd:
| grep -i "ata disk"
ST360021A, ATA DISK drive
Maxtor 6Y080L0, ATA DISK drive
WDC WD2000BB-98DWA0, ATA DISK drive
Third and last example of dmesg running on RHEL5.3.
[email protected]
sd 0:0:2:0:
sd 0:0:3:0:
sd 0:0:6:0:
~# dmesg
Attached
Attached
Attached
| grep -i
scsi disk
scsi disk
scsi disk
"scsi disk"
sda
sdb
sdc
36
disk devices
4.3.3. /sbin/lshw
The lshw tool will list hardware. With the right options lshw can show a lot of information
about disks (and partitions).
Below a truncated screenshot on Debian 6:
[email protected]~# lshw -class volume | grep -A1 -B2 scsi
description: Linux raid autodetect partition
physical id: 1
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,1
logical name: /dev/sdb1
-description: Linux raid autodetect partition
physical id: 1
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,1
logical name: /dev/sdc1
-description: Linux raid autodetect partition
physical id: 1
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,1
logical name: /dev/sdd1
-description: Linux raid autodetect partition
physical id: 1
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,1
logical name: /dev/sde1
-vendor: Linux
physical id: 1
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,1
logical name: /dev/sda1
-vendor: Linux
physical id: 2
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,2
logical name: /dev/sda2
-description: Extended partition
physical id: 3
bus info: [email protected]:0.0.0,3
logical name: /dev/sda3
Redhat and CentOS do not have this tool (unless you add a repository).
37
disk devices
4.3.4. /sbin/lsscsi
The lsscsi command provides a nice readable output of all scsi (and scsi emulated devices).
This first screenshot shows lsscsi on a SPARC system.
[email protected]:~# lsscsi
[0:0:0:0]
disk
Adaptec
[1:0:0:0]
disk
SEAGATE
[email protected]:~#
RAID5
ST336605FSUN36G
V1.0
0438
/dev/sda
/dev/sdb
Below a screenshot of lsscsi on a QNAP NAS (which has four 750GB disks and boots from
a usb stick).
[email protected]~# lsscsi
[0:0:0:0]
disk
SanDisk
[1:0:0:0]
disk
ATA
[2:0:0:0]
disk
ATA
[3:0:0:0]
disk
ATA
[4:0:0:0]
disk
ATA
Cruzer Edge
ST3750330AS
ST3750330AS
ST3750330AS
ST3750330AS
1.19
SD04
SD04
SD04
SD04
/dev/sda
/dev/sdb
/dev/sdc
/dev/sdd
/dev/sde
This screenshot shows the classic output of lsscsi.
[email protected]~# lsscsi -c
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Target: 00 Lun:
Vendor: SanDisk Model: Cruzer Edge
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Target: 00 Lun:
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi2 Channel: 00 Target: 00 Lun:
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi3 Channel: 00 Target: 00 Lun:
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi4 Channel: 00 Target: 00 Lun:
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
38
00
Rev: 1.19
ANSI SCSI revision: 02
00
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
00
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
00
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
00
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
disk devices
4.3.5. /proc/scsi/scsi
Another way to locate scsi (or sd) devices is via /proc/scsi/scsi.
This screenshot is from a sparc computer with adaptec RAID5.
[email protected]:~# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: Adaptec Model: RAID5
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: SEAGATE Model: ST336605FSUN36G
Type:
Direct-Access
[email protected]:~#
Rev: V1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Rev: 0438
ANSI SCSI revision: 03
Here we run cat /proc/scsi/scsi on the QNAP from above (with Debian Linux).
[email protected]~# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: SanDisk Model: Cruzer Edge
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi2 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi3 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi4 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: ST3750330AS
Type:
Direct-Access
Rev: 1.19
ANSI SCSI revision: 02
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: SD04
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Note that some recent versions of Debian have this disabled in the kernel. You can enable
it (after a kernel compile) using this entry:
# CONFIG_SCSI_PROC_FS is not set
Redhat and CentOS have this by default (if there are scsi devices present).
[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: VBOX HARDDISK
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi3 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: VBOX HARDDISK
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi4 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: ATA
Model: VBOX HARDDISK
Type:
Direct-Access
39
Rev: 1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: 1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: 1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
disk devices
4.4. erasing a hard disk
Before selling your old hard disk on the internet, it may be a good idea to erase it. By simply
repartitioning, or by using the Microsoft Windows format utility, or even after an mkfs
command, some people will still be able to read most of the data on the disk.
[email protected]~# aptitude search foremost autopsy sleuthkit | tr -s ' '
p autopsy - graphical interface to SleuthKit
p foremost - Forensics application to recover data
p sleuthkit - collection of tools for forensics analysis
Although technically the /sbin/badblocks tool is meant to look for bad blocks, you can use
it to completely erase all data from a disk. Since this is really writing to every sector of the
disk, it can take a long time!
[email protected]:~# badblocks -ws /dev/sdb
Testing with pattern 0xaa: done
Reading and comparing: done
Testing with pattern 0x55: done
Reading and comparing: done
Testing with pattern 0xff: done
Reading and comparing: done
Testing with pattern 0x00: done
Reading and comparing: done
The previous screenshot overwrites every sector of the disk four times. Erasing once with
a tool like dd is enough to destroy all data.
Warning, this screenshot shows how to permanently destroy all data on a block device.
[[email protected] ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb
40
disk devices
4.5. advanced hard disk settings
Tweaking of hard disk settings (dma, gap, ...) are not covered in this course. Several tools
exists, hdparm and sdparm are two of them.
hdparm can be used to display or set information and parameters about an ATA (or SATA)
hard disk device. The -i and -I options will give you even more information about the
physical properties of the device.
[email protected]:~# hdparm /dev/sdb
/dev/sdb:
IO_support
readonly
readahead
geometry
= 0 (default 16-bit)
= 0 (off)
= 256 (on)
= 12161/255/63, sectors = 195371568, start = 0
Below hdparm info about a 200GB IDE disk.
[email protected]:~# hdparm /dev/hdd
/dev/hdd:
multcount
IO_support
unmaskirq
using_dma
keepsettings
readonly
readahead
geometry
= 0 (off)
= 0 (default)
= 0 (off)
= 1 (on)
= 0 (off)
= 0 (off)
= 256 (on)
= 24321/255/63, sectors = 390721968, start = 0
Here a screenshot of sdparm on Ubuntu 10.10.
[email protected]:~# aptitude install sdparm
...
[email protected]:~# sdparm /dev/sda | head -1
/dev/sda: ATA
FUJITSU MJA2160B 0081
[email protected]:~# man sdparm
Use hdparm and sdparm with care.
41
disk devices
4.6. practice: hard disk devices
About this lab: To practice working with hard disks, you will need some hard disks. When
there are no physical hard disk available, you can use virtual disks in vmware or VirtualBox.
The teacher will help you in attaching a couple of ATA and/or SCSI disks to a virtual
machine. The results of this lab can be used in the next three labs (partitions, file systems,
mounting).
It is adviced to attach three 1GB disks and three 2GB disks to the virtual machine. This will
allow for some freedom in the practices of this chapter as well as the next chapters (raid,
lvm, iSCSI).
1. Use dmesg to make a list of hard disk devices detected at boot-up.
2. Use fdisk to find the total size of all hard disk devices on your system.
3. Stop a virtual machine, add three virtual 1 gigabyte scsi hard disk devices and one virtual
400 megabyte ide hard disk device. If possible, also add another virtual 400 megabyte ide
disk.
4. Use dmesg to verify that all the new disks are properly detected at boot-up.
5. Verify that you can see the disk devices in /dev.
6. Use fdisk (with grep and /dev/null) to display the total size of the new disks.
7. Use badblocks to completely erase one of the smaller hard disks.
8. Look at /proc/scsi/scsi.
9. If possible, install lsscsi, lshw and use them to list the disks.
42
disk devices
4.7. solution: hard disk devices
1. Use dmesg to make a list of hard disk devices detected at boot-up.
Some possible answers...
dmesg | grep -i disk
Looking for ATA disks: dmesg | grep hd[abcd]
Looking for ATA disks: dmesg | grep -i "ata disk"
Looking for SCSI disks: dmesg | grep sd[a-f]
Looking for SCSI disks: dmesg | grep -i "scsi disk"
2. Use fdisk to find the total size of all hard disk devices on your system.
fdisk -l
3. Stop a virtual machine, add three virtual 1 gigabyte scsi hard disk devices and one virtual
400 megabyte ide hard disk device. If possible, also add another virtual 400 megabyte ide
disk.
This exercise happens in the settings of vmware or VirtualBox.
4. Use dmesg to verify that all the new disks are properly detected at boot-up.
See 1.
5. Verify that you can see the disk devices in /dev.
SCSI+SATA: ls -l /dev/sd*
ATA: ls -l /dev/hd*
6. Use fdisk (with grep and /dev/null) to display the total size of the new disks.
[email protected] ~#
Disk /dev/hda:
Disk /dev/hdb:
Disk /dev/sda:
Disk /dev/sdb:
Disk /dev/sdc:
fdisk -l
21.4 GB,
1073 MB,
2147 MB,
2147 MB,
2147 MB,
2>/dev/null | grep [MGT]B
21474836480 bytes
1073741824 bytes
2147483648 bytes
2147483648 bytes
2147483648 bytes
7. Use badblocks to completely erase one of the smaller hard disks.
#Verify the device (/dev/sdc??) you want to erase before typing this.
#
[email protected] ~# badblocks -ws /dev/sdc
Testing with pattern 0xaa: done
Reading and comparing: done
Testing with pattern 0x55: done
Reading and comparing: done
Testing with pattern 0xff: done
Reading and comparing: done
Testing with pattern 0x00: done
Reading and comparing: done
8. Look at /proc/scsi/scsi.
[email protected] ~# cat /proc/scsi/scsi
43
disk devices
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 02 Lun: 00
Vendor: VBOX
Model: HARDDISK
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 03 Lun: 00
Vendor: VBOX
Model: HARDDISK
Type:
Direct-Access
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 06 Lun: 00
Vendor: VBOX
Model: HARDDISK
Type:
Direct-Access
Rev: 1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: 1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Rev: 1.0
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
9. If possible, install lsscsi, lshw and use them to list the disks.
Debian,Ubuntu: aptitude install lsscsi lshw
Fedora: yum install lsscsi lshw
[email protected] ~# lsscsi
[0:0:2:0]
disk
VBOX
[0:0:3:0]
disk
VBOX
[0:0:6:0]
disk
VBOX
HARDDISK
HARDDISK
HARDDISK
1.0
1.0
1.0
44
/dev/sda
/dev/sdb
/dev/sdc
Chapter 5. disk partitions
This chapter continues on the hard disk devices from the previous one. Here we will put
partitions on those devices.
This chapter prepares you for the next chapter, where we put file systems on our partitions.
45
disk partitions
5.1. about partitions
5.1.1. primary, extended and logical
Linux requires you to create one or more partitions. The next paragraphs will explain how
to create and use partitions.
A partition's geometry and size is usually defined by a starting and ending cylinder
(sometimes by sector). Partitions can be of type primary (maximum four), extended
(maximum one) or logical (contained within the extended partition). Each partition has a
type field that contains a code. This determines the computers operating system or the
partitions file system.
Table 5.1. primary, extended and logical partitions
Partition Type
naming
Primary (max 4)
1-4
Extended (max 1)
1-4
Logical
5-
5.1.2. partition naming
We saw before that hard disk devices are named /dev/hdx or /dev/sdx with x depending on
the hardware configuration. Next is the partition number, starting the count at 1. Hence the
four (possible) primary partitions are numbered 1 to 4. Logical partition counting always
starts at 5. Thus /dev/hda2 is the second partition on the first ATA hard disk device, and /
dev/hdb5 is the first logical partition on the second ATA hard disk device. Same for SCSI, /
dev/sdb3 is the third partition on the second SCSI disk.
Table 5.2. Partition naming
partition
device
/dev/hda1
first primary partition on /dev/hda
/dev/hda2
second primary or extended partition on /dev/hda
/dev/sda5
first logical drive on /dev/sda
/dev/sdb6
second logical on /dev/sdb
The picture below shows two (spindle) disks with partitions. Note that an extended partition
is a container holding logical drives.
46
disk partitions
5.2. discovering partitions
5.2.1. fdisk -l
In the fdisk -l example below you can see that two partitions exist on /dev/sdb. The first
partition spans 31 cylinders and contains a Linux swap partition. The second partition is
much bigger.
[email protected]:~# fdisk -l /dev/sdb
Disk /dev/sdb: 100.0 GB, 100030242816 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 12161 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb2
[email protected]:~#
Start
1
32
End
31
12161
Blocks
248976
97434225
Id
82
83
System
Linux swap / Solaris
Linux
5.2.2. /proc/partitions
The /proc/partitions file contains a table with major and minor number of partitioned
devices, their number of blocks and the device name in /dev. Verify with /proc/devices to
link the major number to the proper device.
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/partitions
major minor #blocks name
3
3
8
8
8
8
8
8
253
253
0
64
0
1
2
16
32
48
0
1
524288
734003
8388608
104391
8281507
1048576
1048576
1048576
7176192
1048576
hda
hdb
sda
sda1
sda2
sdb
sdc
sdd
dm-0
dm-1
The major number corresponds to the device type (or driver) and can be found in /proc/
devices. In this case 3 corresponds to ide and 8 to sd. The major number determines the
device driver to be used with this device.
The minor number is a unique identification of an instance of this device type. The
devices.txt file in the kernel tree contains a full list of major and minor numbers.
47
disk partitions
5.2.3. parted and others
You may be interested in alternatives to fdisk like parted, cfdisk, sfdisk and gparted. This
course mainly uses fdisk to partition hard disks.
parted is recommended by some Linux distributions for handling storage with gpt instead
of mbr.
Below a screenshot of parted on CentOS.
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -q parted
parted-2.1-21.el6.x86_64
[[email protected] ~]# parted /dev/sda
GNU Parted 2.1
Using /dev/sda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) print
Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 42.9GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Number
1
2
Start
1049kB
525MB
End
525MB
42.9GB
Size
524MB
42.4GB
Type
primary
primary
(parted)
48
File system
ext4
Flags
boot
lvm
disk partitions
5.3. partitioning new disks
In the example below, we bought a new disk for our system. After the new hardware is
properly attached, you can use fdisk and parted to create the necessary partition(s). This
example uses fdisk, but there is nothing wrong with using parted.
5.3.1. recognising the disk
First, we check with fdisk -l whether Linux can see the new disk. Yes it does, the new disk
is seen as /dev/sdb, but it does not have any partitions yet.
[email protected]:~# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 12.8 GB, 12884901888 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1566 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sda1
*
/dev/sda2
Start
1
14
End
13
1566
Blocks
104391
12474472+
Id
83
8e
System
Linux
Linux LVM
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 130 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table
5.3.2. opening the disk with fdisk
Then we create a partition with fdisk on /dev/sdb. First we start the fdisk tool with /dev/sdb
as argument. Be very very careful not to partition the wrong disk!!
[email protected]:~# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI...
Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
content won't be recoverable.
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected...
5.3.3. empty partition table
Inside the fdisk tool, we can issue the p command to see the current disks partition table.
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 130 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
Start
End
Blocks
49
Id
System
disk partitions
5.3.4. create a new partition
No partitions exist yet, so we issue n to create a new partition. We choose p for primary, 1
for the partition number, 1 for the start cylinder and 14 for the end cylinder.
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
p
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-130, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-130, default 130): 14
We can now issue p again to verify our changes, but they are not yet written to disk. This
means we can still cancel this operation! But it looks good, so we use w to write the changes
to disk, and then quit the fdisk tool.
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 130 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sdb1
Start
End
1
Blocks
Id System
112423+ 83 Linux
14
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
[email protected]:~#
5.3.5. display the new partition
Let's verify again with fdisk -l to make sure reality fits our dreams. Indeed, the screenshot
below now shows a partition on /dev/sdb.
[email protected]:~# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 12.8 GB, 12884901888 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1566 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sda1
*
/dev/sda2
Start
1
14
End
13
1566
Blocks
104391
12474472+
Id
83
8e
System
Linux
Linux LVM
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 130 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
Start
/dev/sdb1
[email protected]:~#
End
1
Blocks
Id System
112423+ 83 Linux
14
50
disk partitions
5.4. about the partition table
5.4.1. master boot record
The partition table information (primary and extended partitions) is written in the master
boot record or mbr. You can use dd to copy the mbr to a file.
This example copies the master boot record from the first SCSI hard disk.
dd if=/dev/sda of=/SCSIdisk.mbr bs=512 count=1
The same tool can also be used to wipe out all information about partitions on a disk. This
example writes zeroes over the master boot record.
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1
Or to wipe out the whole partition or disk.
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda
5.4.2. partprobe
Don't forget that after restoring a master boot record with dd, that you need to force the
kernel to reread the partition table with partprobe. After running partprobe, the partitions
can be used again.
[[email protected] ~]# partprobe
[[email protected] ~]#
5.4.3. logical drives
The partition table does not contain information about logical drives. So the dd backup
of the mbr only works for primary and extended partitions. To backup the partition table
including the logical drives, you can use sfdisk.
This example shows how to backup all partition and logical drive information to a file.
sfdisk -d /dev/sda > parttable.sda.sfdisk
The following example copies the mbr and all logical drive info from /dev/sda to /dev/sdb.
sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk /dev/sdb
51
disk partitions
5.5. practice: partitions
1. Use fdisk -l to display existing partitions and sizes.
2. Use df -h to display existing partitions and sizes.
3. Compare the output of fdisk and df.
4. Create a 200MB primary partition on a small disk.
5. Create a 400MB primary partition and two 300MB logical drives on a big disk.
6. Use df -h and fdisk -l to verify your work.
7. Compare the output again of fdisk and df. Do both commands display the new partitions ?
8. Create a backup with dd of the mbr that contains your 200MB primary partition.
9. Take a backup of the partition table containing your 400MB primary and 300MB logical
drives. Make sure the logical drives are in the backup.
10. (optional) Remove all your partitions with fdisk. Then restore your backups.
52
disk partitions
5.6. solution: partitions
1. Use fdisk -l to display existing partitions and sizes.
as root: # fdisk -l
2. Use df -h to display existing partitions and sizes.
df -h
3. Compare the output of fdisk and df.
Some partitions will be listed in both outputs (maybe /dev/sda1 or /dev/hda1).
4. Create a 200MB primary partition on a small disk.
Choose one of the disks you added (this example uses /dev/sdc).
[email protected] ~# fdisk /dev/sdc
...
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
p
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-261, default 1): 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-261, default 261): +200m
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
5. Create a 400MB primary partition and two 300MB logical drives on a big disk.
Choose one of the disks you added (this example uses /dev/sdb)
fdisk /dev/sdb
inside fdisk : n p 1 +400m enter --- n e 2 enter enter --- n l +300m (twice)
6. Use df -h and fdisk -l to verify your work.
fdisk -l ; df -h
7. Compare the output again of fdisk and df. Do both commands display the new partitions ?
The newly created partitions are visible with fdisk.
But they are not displayed by df.
8. Create a backup with dd of the mbr that contains your 200MB primary partition.
dd if=/dev/sdc of=bootsector.sdc.dd count=1 bs=512
9. Take a backup of the partition table containing your 400MB primary and 300MB logical
drives. Make sure the logical drives are in the backup.
sfdisk -d /dev/sdb > parttable.sdb.sfdisk
53
Chapter 6. file systems
When you are finished partitioning the hard disk, you can put a file system on each partition.
This chapter builds on the partitions from the previous chapter, and prepares you for the
next one where we will mount the filesystems.
54
file systems
6.1. about file systems
A file system is a way of organizing files on your partition. Besides file-based storage, file
systems usually include directories and access control, and contain meta information about
files like access times, modification times and file ownership.
The properties (length, character set, ...) of filenames are determined by the file system you
choose. Directories are usually implemented as files, you will have to learn how this is
implemented! Access control in file systems is tracked by user ownership (and group ownerand membership) in combination with one or more access control lists.
6.1.1. man fs
The manual page about filesystems is accessed by typing man fs.
[[email protected] ~]# man fs
6.1.2. /proc/filesystems
The Linux kernel will inform you about currently loaded file system drivers in /proc/
filesystems.
[email protected] ~# cat /proc/filesystems
ext2
iso9660
ext3
| grep -v nodev
6.1.3. /etc/filesystems
The /etc/filesystems file contains a list of autodetected filesystems (in case the mount
command is used without the -t option.
Help for this file is provided by man mount.
[[email protected] ~]# man mount
55
file systems
6.2. common file systems
6.2.1. ext2 and ext3
Once the most common Linux file systems is the ext2 (the second extended) file system. A
disadvantage is that file system checks on ext2 can take a long time.
ext2 was being replaced by ext3 on most Linux machines. They are essentially the same,
except for the journaling which is only present in ext3.
Journaling means that changes are first written to a journal on the disk. The journal is
flushed regularly, writing the changes in the file system. Journaling keeps the file system
in a consistent state, so you don't need a file system check after an unclean shutdown or
power failure.
6.2.2. creating ext2 and ext3
You can create these file systems with the /sbin/mkfs or /sbin/mke2fs commands. Use
mke2fs -j to create an ext3 file system.
You can convert an ext2 to ext3 with tune2fs -j. You can mount an ext3 file system as ext2,
but then you lose the journaling. Do not forget to run mkinitrd if you are booting from this
device.
6.2.3. ext4
The newest incarnation of the ext file system is named ext4 and is available in the Linux
kernel since 2008. ext4 supports larger files (up to 16 terabyte) and larger file systems than
ext3 (and many more features).
Development started by making ext3 fully capable for 64-bit. When it turned out the changes
were significant, the developers decided to name it ext4.
6.2.4. xfs
Redhat Enterprise Linux 7 will have XFS as the default file system. This is a highly scalable
high-performance file system.
xfs was created for Irix and for a couple of years it was also used in FreeBSD. It is supported
by the Linux kernel, but rarely used in dsitributions outside of the Redhat/CentOS realm.
56
file systems
6.2.5. vfat
The vfat file system exists in a couple of forms : fat12 for floppy disks, fat16 on ms-dos, and
fat32 for larger disks. The Linux vfat implementation supports all of these, but vfat lacks a
lot of features like security and links. fat disks can be read by every operating system, and
are used a lot for digital cameras, usb sticks and to exchange data between different OS'ses
on a home user's computer.
6.2.6. iso 9660
iso 9660 is the standard format for cdroms. Chances are you will encounter this file system
also on your hard disk in the form of images of cdroms (often with the .iso extension). The
iso 9660 standard limits filenames to the 8.3 format. The Unix world didn't like this, and thus
added the rock ridge extensions, which allows for filenames up to 255 characters and Unixstyle file-modes, ownership and symbolic links. Another extensions to iso 9660 is joliet,
which adds 64 unicode characters to the filename. The el torito standard extends iso 9660
to be able to boot from CD-ROM's.
6.2.7. udf
Most optical media today (including cd's and dvd's) use udf, the Universal Disk Format.
6.2.8. swap
All things considered, swap is not a file system. But to use a partition as a swap partition
it must be formatted and mounted as swap space.
6.2.9. gfs
Linux clusters often use a dedicated cluster filesystem like GFS, GFS2, ClusterFS, ...
6.2.10. and more...
You may encounter reiserfs on older Linux systems. Maybe you will see Sun's zfs or the
open source btrfs. This last one requires a chapter on itself.
57
file systems
6.2.11. /proc/filesystems
The /proc/filesystems file displays a list of supported file systems. When you mount a file
system without explicitly defining one, then mount will first try to probe /etc/filesystems
and then probe /proc/filesystems for all the filesystems without the nodev label. If /etc/
filesystems ends with a line containing only an asterisk (*) then both files are probed.
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/filesystems
nodev
sysfs
nodev
rootfs
nodev
bdev
nodev
proc
nodev
sockfs
nodev
binfmt_misc
nodev
usbfs
nodev
usbdevfs
nodev
futexfs
nodev
tmpfs
nodev
pipefs
nodev
eventpollfs
nodev
devpts
ext2
nodev
ramfs
nodev
hugetlbfs
iso9660
nodev
relayfs
nodev
mqueue
nodev
selinuxfs
ext3
nodev
rpc_pipefs
nodev
vmware-hgfs
nodev
autofs
[email protected]:~$
58
file systems
6.3. putting a file system on a partition
We now have a fresh partition. The system binaries to make file systems can be found with ls.
[[email protected] ~]# ls -lS
-rwxr-xr-x 3 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 3 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 3 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 3 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 3 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 3 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
-rwxr-x--- 1 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
[[email protected] ~]#
/sbin/mk*
34832 Apr
34832 Apr
34832 Apr
28484 Oct
28484 Oct
28484 Oct
20313 Apr
15444 Oct
15300 May
13036 May
6912 May
5905 Aug
24
24
24
13
13
13
10
5
24
24
24
3
2006
2006
2006
2004
2004
2004
2006
2004
2006
2006
2006
2004
/sbin/mke2fs
/sbin/mkfs.ext2
/sbin/mkfs.ext3
/sbin/mkdosfs
/sbin/mkfs.msdos
/sbin/mkfs.vfat
/sbin/mkinitrd
/sbin/mkzonedb
/sbin/mkfs.cramfs
/sbin/mkswap
/sbin/mkfs
/sbin/mkbootdisk
It is time for you to read the manual pages of mkfs and mke2fs. In the example below,
you see the creation of an ext2 file system on /dev/sdb1. In real life, you might want to use
options like -m0 and -j.
[email protected]:~# mke2fs /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=1024 (log=0)
Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
28112 inodes, 112420 blocks
5621 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=1
Maximum filesystem blocks=67371008
14 block groups
8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
2008 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729
Writing inode tables: done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 37 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
59
file systems
6.4. tuning a file system
You can use tune2fs to list and set file system settings. The first screenshot lists the reserved
space for root (which is set at five percent).
[[email protected] ~]# tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep -i "block count"
Block count:
104388
Reserved block count:
5219
[[email protected] ~]#
This example changes this value to ten percent. You can use tune2fs while the file system
is active, even if it is the root file system (as in this example).
[[email protected] ~]# tune2fs -m10 /dev/sda1
tune2fs 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
Setting reserved blocks percentage to 10 (10430 blocks)
[[email protected] ~]# tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep -i "block count"
Block count:
104388
Reserved block count:
10430
[[email protected] ~]#
60
file systems
6.5. checking a file system
The fsck command is a front end tool used to check a file system for errors.
[[email protected] ~]# ls /sbin/*fsck*
/sbin/dosfsck /sbin/fsck
/sbin/e2fsck
/sbin/fsck.cramfs
[[email protected] ~]#
/sbin/fsck.ext2
/sbin/fsck.ext3
/sbin/fsck.msdos
/sbin/fsck.vfat
The last column in /etc/fstab is used to determine whether a file system should be checked
at boot-up.
[[email protected] ~]$ grep ext /etc/fstab
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
/
LABEL=/boot
/boot
[[email protected] ~]$
ext3
ext3
defaults
defaults
1 1
1 2
Manually checking a mounted file system results in a warning from fsck.
[[email protected] ~]# fsck /boot
fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
e2fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
/dev/sda1 is mounted.
WARNING!!! Running e2fsck on a mounted filesystem may cause
SEVERE filesystem damage.
Do you really want to continue (y/n)? no
check aborted.
But after unmounting fsck and e2fsck can be used to check an ext2 file system.
[[email protected] ~]# fsck /boot
fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
e2fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
/boot: clean, 44/26104 files, 17598/104388 blocks
[[email protected] ~]# fsck -p /boot
fsck 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
/boot: clean, 44/26104 files, 17598/104388 blocks
[[email protected] ~]# e2fsck -p /dev/sda1
/boot: clean, 44/26104 files, 17598/104388 blocks
61
file systems
6.6. practice: file systems
1. List the filesystems that are known by your system.
2. Create an ext2 filesystem on the 200MB partition.
3. Create an ext3 filesystem on one of the 300MB logical drives.
4. Create an ext4 on the 400MB partition.
5. Set the reserved space for root on the ext3 filesystem to 0 percent.
6. Verify your work with fdisk and df.
7. Perform a file system check on all the new file systems.
62
file systems
6.7. solution: file systems
1. List the filesystems that are known by your system.
man fs
cat /proc/filesystems
cat /etc/filesystems (not on all Linux distributions)
2. Create an ext2 filesystem on the 200MB partition.
mke2fs /dev/sdc1 (replace sdc1 with the correct partition)
3. Create an ext3 filesystem on one of the 300MB logical drives.
mke2fs -j /dev/sdb5 (replace sdb5 with the correct partition)
4. Create an ext4 on the 400MB partition.
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1 (replace sdb1 with the correct partition)
5. Set the reserved space for root on the ext3 filesystem to 0 percent.
tune2fs -m 0 /dev/sdb5
6. Verify your work with fdisk and df.
mkfs (mke2fs) makes no difference in the output of these commands
The big change is in the next topic: mounting
7. Perform a file system check on all the new file systems.
fsck /dev/sdb1
fsck /dev/sdc1
fsck /dev/sdb5
63
Chapter 7. mounting
Once you've put a file system on a partition, you can mount it. Mounting a file system
makes it available for use, usually as a directory. We say mounting a file system instead
of mounting a partition because we will see later that we can also mount file systems that
do not exists on partitions.
On all Unix systems, every file and every directory is part of one big file tree. To access
a file, you need to know the full path starting from the root directory. When adding a file
system to your computer, you need to make it available somewhere in the file tree. The
directory where you make a file system available is called a mount point.
64
mounting
7.1. mounting local file systems
7.1.1. mkdir
This example shows how to create a new mount point with mkdir.
[email protected]:~# mkdir /home/project42
7.1.2. mount
When the mount point is created, and a file system is present on the partition, then mount
can mount the file system on the mount point directory.
[email protected]:~# mount -t ext2 /dev/sdb1 /home/project42/
Once mounted, the new file system is accessible to users.
7.1.3. /etc/filesystems
Actually the explicit -t ext2 option to set the file system is not always necessary. The mount
command is able to automatically detect a lot of file systems.
When mounting a file system without specifying explicitly the file system, then mount will
first probe /etc/filesystems. Mount will skip lines with the nodev directive.
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/filesystems
ext3
ext2
nodev proc
nodev devpts
iso9660
vfat
hfs
7.1.4. /proc/filesystems
When /etc/filesystems does not exist, or ends with a single * on the last line, then mount
will read /proc/filesystems.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/filesystems | grep -v ^nodev
ext2
iso9660
ext3
7.1.5. umount
You can unmount a mounted file system using the umount command.
[email protected]:~# umount /home/reet
65
mounting
7.2. displaying mounted file systems
To display all mounted file systems, issue the mount command. Or look at the files /proc/
mounts and /etc/mtab.
7.2.1. mount
The simplest and most common way to view all mounts is by issuing the mount command
without any arguments.
[email protected]:~# mount | grep /dev/sdb
/dev/sdb1 on /home/project42 type ext2 (rw)
7.2.2. /proc/mounts
The kernel provides the info in /proc/mounts in file form, but /proc/mounts does not exist
as a file on any hard disk. Looking at /proc/mounts is looking at information that comes
directly from the kernel.
[email protected]:~# cat /proc/mounts | grep /dev/sdb
/dev/sdb1 /home/project42 ext2 rw 0 0
7.2.3. /etc/mtab
The /etc/mtab file is not updated by the kernel, but is maintained by the mount command.
Do not edit /etc/mtab manually.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/mtab | grep /dev/sdb
/dev/sdb1 /home/project42 ext2 rw 0 0
66
mounting
7.2.4. df
A more user friendly way to look at mounted file systems is df. The df (diskfree) command
has the added benefit of showing you the free space on each mounted disk. Like a lot of
Linux commands, df supports the -h switch to make the output more human readable.
[email protected]:~# df
Filesystem
1K-blocks
Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
11707972
6366996
4746240 58% /
/dev/sda1
101086
9300
86567 10% /boot
none
127988
0
127988
0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb1
108865
1550
101694
2% /home/project42
[email protected]:~# df -h
Filesystem
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
12G 6.1G 4.6G 58% /
/dev/sda1
99M 9.1M
85M 10% /boot
none
125M
0 125M
0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb1
107M 1.6M 100M
2% /home/project42
7.2.5. df -h
In the df -h example below you can see the size, free space, used gigabytes and percentage
and mount point of a partition.
[email protected]:~# df -h | egrep -e "(sdb2|File)"
Filesystem
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sdb2
92G
83G 8.6G 91% /media/sdb2
7.2.6. du
The du command can summarize disk usage for files and directories. By using du on a
mount point you effectively get the disk space used on a file system.
While du can go display each subdirectory recursively, the -s option will give you a total
summary for the parent directory. This option is often used together with -h. This means du
-sh on a mount point gives the total amount used by the file system in that partition.
[email protected]~# du -sh /boot /srv/wolf
6.2M /boot
1.1T /srv/wolf
67
mounting
7.3. from start to finish
Below is a screenshot that show a summary roadmap starting with detection of the hardware
(/dev/sdb) up until mounting on /mnt.
[[email protected] ~]# dmesg | grep '\[sdb\]'
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] 150994944 512-byte logical blocks: (77.3 GB/72.0 GiB)
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support \
DPO or FUA
sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI disk
[[email protected] ~]# parted /dev/sdb
(parted) mklabel msdos
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 1 77000
(parted) print
Model: ATA VBOX HARDDISK (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 77.3GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Number
1
Start
1049kB
End
77.0GB
Size
77.0GB
Type
primary
File system
(parted) quit
[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
4702208 inodes, 18798592 blocks
939929 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
574 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
( output truncated )
...
[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
[[email protected] ~]# mount | grep mnt
/dev/sdb1 on /mnt type ext4 (rw)
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep mnt
/dev/sdb1
71G 180M
67G
1% /mnt
[[email protected] ~]# du -sh /mnt
20K
/mnt
[[email protected] ~]# umount /mnt
68
Flags
mounting
7.4. permanent mounts
Until now, we performed all mounts manually. This works nice, until the next reboot.
Luckily there is a way to tell your computer to automatically mount certain file systems
during boot.
7.4.1. /etc/fstab
The file system table located in /etc/fstab contains a list of file systems, with an option to
automtically mount each of them at boot time.
Below is a sample /etc/fstab file.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/fstab
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 /
LABEL=/boot
/boot
none
/dev/pts
none
/dev/shm
none
/proc
none
/sys
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01 swap
ext3
ext3
devpts
tmpfs
proc
sysfs
swap
defaults
defaults
gid=5,mode=620
defaults
defaults
defaults
defaults
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
By adding the following line, we can automate the mounting of a file system.
/dev/sdb1
/home/project42
ext2
defaults
0 0
7.4.2. mount /mountpoint
Adding an entry to /etc/fstab has the added advantage that you can simplify the mount
command. The command in the screenshot below forces mount to look for the partition
info in /etc/fstab.
[email protected]:~# mount /home/project42
69
mounting
7.5. securing mounts
File systems can be secured with several mount options. Here are some examples.
7.5.1. ro
The ro option will mount a file system as read only, preventing anyone from writing.
[email protected] ~# mount -t ext2 -o ro /dev/hdb1 /home/project42
[email protected] ~# touch /home/project42/testwrite
touch: cannot touch `/home/project42/testwrite': Read-only file system
7.5.2. noexec
The noexec option will prevent the execution of binaries and scripts on the mounted file
system.
[email protected] ~# mount -t ext2 -o noexec /dev/hdb1 /home/project42
[email protected] ~# cp /bin/cat /home/project42
[email protected] ~# /home/project42/cat /etc/hosts
-bash: /home/project42/cat: Permission denied
[email protected] ~# echo echo hello > /home/project42/helloscript
[email protected] ~# chmod +x /home/project42/helloscript
[email protected] ~# /home/project42/helloscript
-bash: /home/project42/helloscript: Permission denied
7.5.3. nosuid
The nosuid option will ignore setuid bit set binaries on the mounted file system.
Note that you can still set the setuid bit on files.
[email protected] ~# mount -o nosuid /dev/hdb1 /home/project42
[email protected] ~# cp /bin/sleep /home/project42/
[email protected] ~# chmod 4555 /home/project42/sleep
[email protected] ~# ls -l /home/project42/sleep
-r-sr-xr-x 1 root root 19564 Jun 24 17:57 /home/project42/sleep
But users cannot exploit the setuid feature.
[email protected] ~# su - paul
[[email protected] ~]$ /home/project42/sleep 500 &
[1] 2876
[[email protected] ~]$ ps -f 2876
UID
PID PPID C STIME TTY
STAT
paul
2876 2853 0 17:58 pts/0
S
[[email protected] ~]$
TIME CMD
0:00 /home/project42/sleep 500
7.5.4. noacl
To prevent cluttering permissions with acl's, use the noacl option.
[email protected] ~# mount -o noacl /dev/hdb1 /home/project42
More mount options can be found in the manual page of mount.
70
mounting
7.6. mounting remote file systems
7.6.1. smb/cifs
The Samba team (samba.org) has a Unix/Linux service that is compatible with the SMB/
CIFS protocol. This protocol is mainly used by networked Microsoft Windows computers.
Connecting to a Samba server (or to a Microsoft computer) is also done with the mount
command.
This example shows how to connect to the 10.0.0.42 server, to a share named data2.
[[email protected] ~]# mount -t cifs -o user=paul //10.0.0.42/data2 /home/data2
Password:
[[email protected] ~]# mount | grep cifs
//10.0.0.42/data2 on /home/data2 type cifs (rw)
The above requires yum install cifs-client.
7.6.2. nfs
Unix servers often use nfs (aka the network file system) to share directories over the network.
Setting up an nfs server is discussed later. Connecting as a client to an nfs server is done
with mount, and is very similar to connecting to local storage.
This command shows how to connect to the nfs server named server42, which is sharing
the directory /srv/data. The mount point at the end of the command (/home/data) must
already exist.
[[email protected] ~]# mount -t nfs server42:/srv/data /home/data
[[email protected] ~]#
If this server42 has ip-address 10.0.0.42 then you can also write:
[[email protected] ~]# mount -t nfs 10.0.0.42:/srv/data /home/data
[[email protected] ~]# mount | grep data
10.0.0.42:/srv/data on /home/data type nfs (rw,vers=4,addr=10.0.0.42,clienta\
ddr=10.0.0.33)
7.6.3. nfs specific mount options
bg If mount fails, retry in background.
fg (default)If mount fails, retry in foreground.
soft Stop trying to mount after X attempts.
hard (default)Continue trying to mount.
The soft+bg options combined guarantee the fastest client boot if there are NFS problems.
retrans=X Try X times to connect (over udp).
tcp Force tcp (default and supported)
udp Force udp (unsupported)
71
mounting
7.7. practice: mounting file systems
1. Mount the small 200MB partition on /home/project22.
2. Mount the big 400MB primary partition on /mnt, the copy some files to it (everything in /
etc). Then umount, and mount the file system as read only on /srv/nfs/salesnumbers. Where
are the files you copied ?
3. Verify your work with fdisk, df and mount. Also look in /etc/mtab and /proc/mounts.
4. Make both mounts permanent, test that it works.
5. What happens when you mount a file system on a directory that contains some files ?
6. What happens when you mount two file systems on the same mount point ?
7. (optional) Describe the difference between these commands: find, locate, updatedb,
makewhatis, whereis, apropos, which and type.
8. (optional) Perform a file system check on the partition mounted at /srv/nfs/salesnumbers.
72
mounting
7.8. solution: mounting file systems
1. Mount the small 200MB partition on /home/project22.
mkdir /home/project22
mount /dev/sdc1 /home/project22
2. Mount the big 400MB primary partition on /mnt, the copy some files to it (everything in /
etc). Then umount, and mount the file system as read only on /srv/nfs/salesnumbers. Where
are the files you copied ?
mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
cp -r /etc /mnt
ls -l /mnt
umount /mnt
ls -l /mnt
mkdir -p /srv/nfs/salesnumbers
mount /dev/sdb1 /srv/nfs/salesnumbers
You see the files in /srv/nfs/salenumbers now...
But physically they are on ext3 on partition /dev/sdb1
3. Verify your work with fdisk, df and mount. Also look in /etc/mtab and /proc/mounts.
fdisk -l
df -h
mount
All three the above commands should show your mounted partitions.
grep project22 /etc/mtab
grep project22 /proc/mounts
4. Make both mounts permanent, test that it works.
add the following lines to /etc/fstab
/dev/sdc1 /home/project22 auto defaults 0 0
/dev/sdb1 /srv/nfs/salesnumbers auto defaults 0 0
5. What happens when you mount a file system on a directory that contains some files ?
The files are hidden until umount.
6. What happens when you mount two file systems on the same mount point ?
Only the last mounted fs is visible.
73
mounting
7. (optional) Describe the difference between these commands: find, locate, updatedb,
makewhatis, whereis, apropos, which and type.
man find
man locate
...
8. (optional) Perform a file system check on the partition mounted at /srv/nfs/salesnumbers.
# umount /srv/nfs/salesnumbers (optional but recommended)
# fsck /dev/sdb1
74
Chapter 8. troubleshooting tools
This chapter introduces some tools that go beyond df -h and du -sh. Tools that will enable
you to troubleshoot a variety of issues with file systems and storage.
75
troubleshooting tools
8.1. lsof
List open files with lsof.
When invoked without options, lsof will list all open files. You can see the command (init in
this case), its PID (1) and the user (root) has openend the root directory and /sbin/init. The
FD (file descriptor) columns shows that / is both the root directory (rtd) and current working
directory (cwd) for the /sbin/init command. The FD column displays rtd for root directory,
cwd for current directory and txt for text (both including data and code).
[email protected]:~# lsof | head -4
COMMAND PID TID
USER
FD
init
1
root cwd
init
1
root rtd
init
1
root txt
TYPE
DIR
DIR
REG
DEVICE SIZE/OFF
254,0
4096
254,0
4096
254,0
36992
NODE
2
2
130856
NAME
/
/
/sbin/init
Other options in the FD column besides w for writing, are r for reading and u for both reading
and writing. You can look at open files for a process id by typing lsof -p PID. For init this
would look like this:
lsof -p 1
The screenshot below shows basic use of lsof to prove that vi keeps a .swp file open (even
when stopped in background) on our freshly mounted file system.
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep sdb
/dev/sdb1
541M
17M 497M
4% /srv/project33
[[email protected] ~]# vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
[1]+ Stopped
vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
[root[email protected] ~]# lsof /srv/*
COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
vi
3243 root
3u REG
8,17
4096
12 /srv/project33/.busyfile.txt.swp
Here we see that rsyslog has a couple of log files open for writing (the FD column).
[email protected]:~# lsof /var/log/*
COMMAND
PID USER
FD
TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF
NODE NAME
rsyslogd 2013 root
1w
REG 254,0
454297 1308187 /var/log/syslog
rsyslogd 2013 root
2w
REG 254,0
419328 1308189 /var/log/kern.log
rsyslogd 2013 root
5w
REG 254,0
116725 1308200 /var/log/debug
rsyslogd 2013 root
6w
REG 254,0
309847 1308201 /var/log/messages
rsyslogd 2013 root
7w
REG 254,0
17591 1308188 /var/log/daemon.log
rsyslogd 2013 root
8w
REG 254,0
101768 1308186 /var/log/auth.log
You can specify a specific user with lsof -u. This example shows the current working
directory for a couple of command line programs.
[[email protected]
bash
3302
lsof
3329
grep
3330
lsof
3331
~]$ lsof -u paul | grep home
paul cwd
DIR 253,0
4096
paul cwd
DIR 253,0
4096
paul cwd
DIR 253,0
4096
paul cwd
DIR 253,0
4096
788024
788024
788024
788024
/home/paul
/home/paul
/home/paul
/home/paul
The -u switch of lsof also supports the ^ character meaning 'not'. To see all open files, but
not those open by root:
lsof -u^root
76
troubleshooting tools
8.2. fuser
The fuser command will display the 'user' of a file system.
In this example we still have a vi process in background and we use fuser to find the process
id of the process using this file system.
[[email protected] ~]# jobs
[1]+ Stopped
vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
[[email protected] ~]# fuser -m /srv/project33/
/srv/project33/:
3243
Adding the -u switch will also display the user name.
[[email protected] ~]# fuser -m -u /srv/project33/
/srv/project33/:
3243(root)
You can quickly kill all processes that are using a specific file (or directory) with the -k
switch.
[[email protected] ~]# fuser -m -k -u /srv/project33/
/srv/project33/:
3243(root)
[1]+ Killed
vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
[[email protected] ~]# fuser -m -u /srv/project33/
[[email protected] ~]#
This example shows all processes that are using the current directory (bash and vi in this
case).
[email protected]:~/test42# vi file42
[1]+ Stopped
vi file42
[email protected]:~/test42# fuser -v .
USER
PID ACCESS COMMAND
/root/test42:
root
2909 ..c.. bash
root
3113 ..c.. vi
This example shows that the vi command actually accesses /usr/bin/vim.basic as an
executable file.
[email protected]:~/test42# fuser -v $(which vi)
USER
PID ACCESS COMMAND
/usr/bin/vim.basic: root
3113 ...e. vi
The last example shows how to find the process that is accessing a specific file.
[[email protected] ~]# vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
[1]+ Stopped
vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
[[email protected] ~]# fuser -v -m /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
USER
PID ACCESS COMMAND
/srv/project33/busyfile.txt:
root
13938 F.... vi
[[email protected] ~]# ps -fp 13938
UID
PID PPID C STIME TTY
TIME CMD
root
13938 3110 0 15:47 pts/0
00:00:00 vi /srv/project33/busyfile.txt
77
troubleshooting tools
8.3. chroot
The chroot command creates a shell with an alternate root directory. It effectively hides
anything outside of this directory.
In the example below we assume that our system refuses to start (maybe because there is a
problem with /etc/fstab or the mounting of the root file system).
We start a live system (booted from cd/dvd/usb) to troubleshoot our server. The live system
will not use our main hard disk as root device
[email protected]:~# df -h | grep root
rootfs
186M
11M 175M
6% /
/dev/loop0
807M 807M
0 100% /lib/live/mount/rootfs/filesystem.squashfs
[email protected]:~# mount | grep root
/dev/loop0 on /lib/live/mount/rootfs/filesystem.squashfs type squashfs (ro)
We create some test file on the current rootfs.
[email protected]:~# touch /file42
[email protected]:~# mkdir /dir42
[email protected]:~# ls /
bin
dir42
home
lib64
boot etc
initrd.img media
dev
file42 lib
mnt
opt
proc
root
run
sbin
selinux
srv
sys
tmp
usr
var
vmlinuz
First we mount the root file system from the disk (which is on lvm so we use /dev/mapper
instead of /dev/sda5).
[email protected]:~# mount /dev/mapper/packer--debian--7-root /mnt
We are now ready to chroot into the rootfs on disk.
[email protected]:~# cd /mnt
[email protected]d:/mnt# chroot /mnt
[email protected]:/# ls /
bin
dev
initrd.img lost+found
boot etc
lib
media
data home lib64
mnt
opt
proc
root
run
sbin
selinux
srv
sys
tmp
usr
vagrant
var
vmlinuz
Our test files (file42 and dir42) are not visible because they are out of the chrooted
environment.
Note that the hostname of the chrooted environment is identical to the existing hostname.
To exit the chrooted file system:
[email protected]:/# exit
exit
[email protected]:~# ls /
bin
dir42
home
boot etc
initrd.img
dev
file42 lib
lib64
media
mnt
opt
proc
root
run
sbin
selinux
78
srv
sys
tmp
usr
var
vmlinuz
troubleshooting tools
8.4. iostat
iostat reports IO statitics every given period of time. It also includes a small cpu usage
summary. This example shows iostat running every ten seconds with /dev/sdc and /dev/sde
showing a lot of write activity.
[[email protected] ~]# iostat 10 3
Linux 2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 (RHEL65)
avg-cpu:
%user
5.81
Device:
sda
sdb
sdc
sdd
sde
sdf
sdg
dm-0
dm-1
avg-cpu:
Device:
sda
sdb
sdc
sdd
sde
sdf
sdg
dm-0
dm-1
avg-cpu:
%nice %system %iowait
0.00
3.15
0.18
tps
42.08
1.20
0.92
0.91
1.04
0.70
0.69
191.68
49.26
%user
56.11
Device:
sda
sdb
sdc
sdd
sde
sdf
sdg
dm-0
dm-1
Blk_read/s
1204.10
7.69
5.30
5.29
6.28
3.40
3.40
1045.78
150.54
Blk_read/s
10185.97
0.00
1.60
0.00
1.60
0.00
0.00
10185.97
0.00
Blk_read/s
26961.09
0.00
0.90
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
26938.46
22.62
%steal
0.00
Blk_wrtn/s
76.95
0.00
2953.11
0.00
4813.63
0.00
0.00
76.95
0.00
%nice %system %iowait
0.00
31.11
0.11
tps
466.86
0.00
31.45
0.00
0.34
0.00
0.00
503.62
2.83
%steal
0.00
Blk_wrtn/s
1634.88
45.78
45.82
45.78
91.49
91.46
91.46
1362.30
243.55
%nice %system %iowait
0.00
16.83
0.10
tps
257.01
0.00
3.81
0.00
4.91
0.00
0.00
283.77
0.00
%user
67.65
06/16/2014
%steal
0.00
Blk_wrtn/s
178.28
0.00
24997.29
0.00
5.43
0.00
0.00
178.28
0.00
_x86_64_
(1 CPU)
%idle
90.85
Blk_read
1743708
11134
7672
7656
9100
4918
4918
1514434
218000
Blk_wrtn
2367530
66292
66348
66292
132496
132440
132440
1972808
352696
%idle
26.95
Blk_read
101656
0
16
0
16
0
0
101656
0
Blk_wrtn
768
0
29472
0
48040
0
0
768
0
%idle
1.13
Blk_read
238336
0
8
0
0
0
0
238136
200
Blk_wrtn
1576
0
220976
0
48
0
0
1576
0
[[email protected] ~]#
Other options are to specify the disks you want to monitor (every 5 seconds here):
iostat sdd sde sdf 5
Or to show statistics per partition:
iostat -p sde -p sdf 5
79
troubleshooting tools
8.5. iotop
iotop works like the top command but orders processes by input/output instead of by CPU.
By default iotop will show all processes. This example uses iotop -o to only display
processes with actual I/O.
[[email protected] ~]# iotop -o
Total
TID
15000
25000
24988
25003
25004
DISK READ: 8.63 M/s | Total DISK WRITE: 0.00 B/s
PRIO USER DISK READ DISK WRITE SWAPIN
IO>
be/4 root
2.43 M/s
0.00 B/s 0.00 % 14.60 %
be/4 root
6.20 M/s
0.00 B/s 0.00 % 6.15 %
be/4 root
0.00 B/s
7.21 M/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
be/4 root
0.00 B/s 1591.19 K/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
be/4 root
0.00 B/s 193.51 K/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
COMMAND
tar cjf /srv/di...
tar czf /srv/di...
gzip
gzip
bzip2
Use the -b switch to create a log of iotop output (instead of the default interactive view).
[[email protected] ~]# iotop -bod 10
Total DISK READ: 12.82 M/s | Total DISK WRITE: 5.69 M/s
TID PRIO USER DISK READ DISK WRITE SWAPIN
IO
25153 be/4 root
2.05 M/s
0.00 B/s 0.00 % 7.81 %
25152 be/4 root
10.77 M/s
0.00 B/s 0.00 % 2.94 %
25144 be/4 root
408.54 B/s
0.00 B/s 0.00 % 0.05 %
12516 be/3 root
0.00 B/s 1491.33 K/s 0.00 % 0.04 %
12522 be/3 root
0.00 B/s
45.48 K/s 0.00 % 0.01 %
25158 be/4 root
0.00 B/s
0.00 B/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
25155 be/4 root
0.00 B/s 493.12 K/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
25156 be/4 root
0.00 B/s
2.81 M/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
25159 be/4 root
0.00 B/s 528.63 K/s 0.00 % 0.00 %
COMMAND
tar cjf /srv/di...
tar czf /srv/di...
python /usr/sbi...
[jbd2/sdc1-8]
[jbd2/sde1-8]
[flush-8:64]
bzip2
gzip
[flush-8:32]
This is an example of iotop to track disk I/O every ten seconds for one user named vagrant
(and only one process of this user, but this can be omitted). The -a switch accumulates I/
O over time.
[[email protected] ~]# iotop -q -a -u vagrant -b -p 5216 -d 10 -n
Total DISK READ: 0.00 B/s | Total DISK WRITE: 0.00 B/s
TID PRIO USER
DISK READ DISK WRITE SWAPIN
IO
5216 be/4 vagrant
0.00 B
0.00 B 0.00 % 0.00 %
Total DISK READ: 818.22 B/s | Total DISK WRITE: 20.78 M/s
5216 be/4 vagrant
0.00 B
213.89 M 0.00 % 0.00 %
Total DISK READ: 2045.95 B/s | Total DISK WRITE: 23.16 M/s
5216 be/4 vagrant
0.00 B
430.70 M 0.00 % 0.00 %
Total DISK READ: 1227.50 B/s | Total DISK WRITE: 22.37 M/s
5216 be/4 vagrant
0.00 B
642.02 M 0.00 % 0.00 %
Total DISK READ: 818.35 B/s | Total DISK WRITE: 16.44 M/s
5216 be/4 vagrant
0.00 B
834.09 M 0.00 % 0.00 %
Total DISK READ: 6.95 M/s | Total DISK WRITE: 8.74 M/s
5216 be/4 vagrant
0.00 B
920.69 M 0.00 % 0.00 %
Total DISK READ: 21.71 M/s | Total DISK WRITE: 11.99 M/s
80
10
COMMAND
gzip
gzip
gzip
gzip
gzip
gzip
troubleshooting tools
8.6. vmstat
While vmstat is mainly a memory monitoring tool, it is worth mentioning here for its
reporting on summary I/O data for block devices and swap space.
This example shows some disk activity (underneath the -----io---- column), without
swapping.
[[email protected] ~]# vmstat 5 10
procs ----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu----r b swpd
free
buff cache
si
so
bi
bo
in
cs us sy id wa st
0 0 5420
9092 14020 340876
7
12
235
252
77 100 2 1 98 0 0
2 0 5420
6104 13840 338176
0
0 7401 7812 747 1887 38 12 50 0 0
2 0 5420 10136 13696 336012
0
0 11334
14 1725 4036 76 24 0 0 0
0 0 5420 14160 13404 341552
0
0 10161 9914 1174 1924 67 15 18 0 0
0 0 5420 14300 13420 341564
0
0
0
16
28
18 0 0 100 0 0
0 0 5420 14300 13420 341564
0
0
0
0
22
16 0 0 100 0 0
...
[[email protected] ~]#
You can benefit from vmstat's ability to display memory in kilobytes, megabytes or even
kibibytes and mebibytes using -S (followed by k K m or M).
[[email protected] ~]# vmstat -SM 5 10
procs ----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---r b swpd
free
buff cache
si
so
bi
bo
0 0
5
14
11
334
0
0
259
255
0 0
5
14
11
334
0
0
0
2
0 0
5
15
11
334
0
0
6
0
2 0
5
6
11
336
0
0 17100 7814
2 0
5
6
11
336
0
0 13193
14
2 0
5
13
11
330
0
0 11656 9781
2 0
5
9
11
334
0
0 10705 2716
1 0
5
14
11
336
0
0 6467 3788
0 0
5
14
11
336
0
0
0
13
0 0
5
14
11
336
0
0
0
0
[[email protected] ~]#
vmstat is also discussed in other chapters.
81
--system-- -----cpu----in
cs us sy id wa st
79 107 2 1 97 0 0
21
18 0 0 100 0 0
35
31 0 0 100 0 0
1378 2945 48 21 31 0 0
1662 3343 78 22 0 0 0
1419 2642 82 18 0 0 0
1504 2657 81 19 0 0 0
765 1384 43 9 48 0 0
28
24 0 0 100 0 0
20
15 0 0 100 0 0
troubleshooting tools
8.7. practice: troubleshooting tools
0. It is imperative that you practice these tools before trouble arises. It will help you get
familiar with the tools and allow you to create a base line of normal behaviour for your
systems.
1. Read the theory on fuser and explore its man page. Use this command to find files that
you open yourself.
2. Read the theory on lsof and explore its man page. Use this command to find files that
you open yourself.
3. Boot a live image on an existing computer (virtual or real) and chroot into to it.
4. Start one or more disk intensive jobs and monitor them with iostat and iotop (compare
to vmstat).
82
troubleshooting tools
8.8. solution: troubleshooting tools
0. It is imperative that you practice these tools before trouble arises. It will help you get
familiar with the tools and allow you to create a base line of normal behaviour for your
systems.
1. Read the theory on fuser and explore its man page. Use this command to find files that
you open yourself.
2. Read the theory on lsof and explore its man page. Use this command to find files that
you open yourself.
3. Boot a live image on an existing computer (virtual or real) and chroot into to it.
4. Start one or more disk intensive jobs and monitor them with iostat and iotop (compare
to vmstat).
83
Chapter 9. introduction to uuid's
A uuid or universally unique identifier is used to uniquely identify objects. This 128bit
standard allows anyone to create a unique uuid.
This chapter takes a brief look at uuid's.
84
introduction to uuid's
9.1. about unique objects
Older versions of Linux have a vol_id utility to display the uuid of a file system.
[email protected]:~# vol_id --uuid /dev/sda1
193c3c9b-2c40-9290-8b71-4264ee4d4c82
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 puts vol_id in /lib/udev/vol_id, which is not in the $PATH. The
syntax is also a bit different from Debian/Ubuntu/Mint.
[email protected] ~# /lib/udev/vol_id -u /dev/hda1
48a6a316-9ca9-4214-b5c6-e7b33a77e860
This utility is not available in standard installations of RHEL6 or Debian6.
9.2. tune2fs
Use tune2fs to find the uuid of a file system.
[[email protected] ~]# tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep UUID
Filesystem UUID:
11cfc8bc-07c0-4c3f-9f64-78422ef1dd5c
[[email protected] ~]# /lib/udev/vol_id -u /dev/sda1
11cfc8bc-07c0-4c3f-9f64-78422ef1dd5c
9.3. uuid
There is more information in the manual of uuid, a tool that can generate uuid's.
[[email protected] ~]# yum install uuid
(output truncated)
[[email protected] ~]# man uuid
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introduction to uuid's
9.4. uuid in /etc/fstab
You can use the uuid to make sure that a volume is universally uniquely identified in /etc/
fstab. The device name can change depending on the disk devices that are present at boot
time, but a uuid never changes.
First we use tune2fs to find the uuid.
[[email protected] ~]# tune2fs -l /dev/sdc1 | grep UUID
Filesystem UUID:
7626d73a-2bb6-4937-90ca-e451025d64e8
Then we check that it is properly added to /etc/fstab, the uuid replaces the variable
devicename /dev/sdc1.
[[email protected] ~]# grep UUID /etc/fstab
UUID=7626d73a-2bb6-4937-90ca-e451025d64e8 /home/pro42 ext3 defaults 0 0
Now we can mount the volume using the mount point defined in /etc/fstab.
[[email protected] ~]# mount /home/pro42
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep 42
/dev/sdc1
397M
11M 366M
3% /home/pro42
The real test now, is to remove /dev/sdb from the system, reboot the machine and see what
happens. After the reboot, the disk previously known as /dev/sdc is now /dev/sdb.
[[email protected] ~]# tune2fs -l /dev/sdb1 | grep UUID
Filesystem UUID:
7626d73a-2bb6-4937-90ca-e451025d64e8
And thanks to the uuid in /etc/fstab, the mountpoint is mounted on the same disk as before.
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep sdb
/dev/sdb1
397M
11M
366M
3% /home/pro42
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introduction to uuid's
9.5. uuid as a boot device
Recent Linux distributions (Debian, Ubuntu, ...) use grub with a uuid to identify the root
file system.
This example shows how a root=/dev/sda1 is replaced with a uuid.
title
Ubuntu 9.10, kernel 2.6.31-19-generic
uuid
f001ba5d-9077-422a-9634-8d23d57e782a
kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-19-generic \
root=UUID=f001ba5d-9077-422a-9634-8d23d57e782a ro quiet splash
initrd
/boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-19-generic
The screenshot above contains only four lines. The line starting with root= is the
continuation of the kernel line.
RHEL and CentOS boot from LVM after a default install.
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introduction to uuid's
9.6. practice: uuid and filesystems
1. Find the uuid of one of your ext3 partitions with tune2fs ( and vol_id if you are on
RHEL5).
2. Use this uuid in /etc/fstab and test that it works with a simple mount.
3. (optional) Test it also by removing a disk (so the device name is changed). You can edit
settings in vmware/Virtualbox to remove a hard disk.
4. Display the root= directive in /boot/grub/menu.lst. (We see later in the course how to
maintain this file.)
5. (optional on ubuntu) Replace the /dev/xxx in /boot/grub/menu.lst with a uuid (use an
extra stanza for this). Test that it works.
88
introduction to uuid's
9.7. solution: uuid and filesystems
1. Find the uuid of one of your ext3 partitions with tune2fs ( and vol_id if you are on
RHEL5).
[email protected]:~# /lib/udev/vol_id -u /dev/hda1
60926898-2c78-49b4-a71d-c1d6310c87cc
[email protected]:~# tune2fs -l /dev/sda2 | grep UUID
Filesystem UUID:
3007b743-1dce-2d62-9a59-cf25f85191b7
2. Use this uuid in /etc/fstab and test that it works with a simple mount.
tail -1 /etc/fstab
UUID=60926898-2c78-49b4-a71d-c1d6310c87cc /home/pro42 ext3 defaults 0 0
3. (optional) Test it also by removing a disk (so the device name is changed). You can edit
settings in vmware/Virtualbox to remove a hard disk.
4. Display the root= directive in /boot/grub/menu.lst. (We see later in the course how to
maintain this file.)
[email protected]:~$ grep ^[^#] /boot/grub/menu.lst | grep root=
kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.26-2-686 root=/dev/hda1 ro selinux=1 quiet
kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.26-2-686 root=/dev/hda1 ro selinux=1 single
5. (optional on ubuntu) Replace the /dev/xxx in /boot/grub/menu.lst with a uuid (use an
extra stanza for this). Test that it works.
89
Chapter 10. introduction to raid
10.1. hardware or software
Redundant Array of Independent (originally Inexpensive) Disks or RAID can be set up using
hardware or software. Hardware RAID is more expensive, but offers better performance.
Software RAID is cheaper and easier to manage, but it uses your CPU and your memory.
Where ten years ago nobody was arguing about the best choice being hardware RAID, this
has changed since technologies like mdadm, lvm and even zfs focus more on managability.
The workload on the cpu for software RAID used to be high, but cpu's have gotten a lot
faster.
90
introduction to raid
10.2. raid levels
10.2.1. raid 0
raid 0 uses two or more disks, and is often called striping (or stripe set, or striped volume).
Data is divided in chunks, those chunks are evenly spread across every disk in the array.
The main advantage of raid 0 is that you can create larger drives. raid 0 is the only raid
without redundancy.
10.2.2. jbod
jbod uses two or more disks, and is often called concatenating (spanning, spanned set, or
spanned volume). Data is written to the first disk, until it is full. Then data is written to the
second disk... The main advantage of jbod (Just a Bunch of Disks) is that you can create
larger drives. JBOD offers no redundancy.
10.2.3. raid 1
raid 1 uses exactly two disks, and is often called mirroring (or mirror set, or mirrored
volume). All data written to the array is written on each disk. The main advantage of raid 1
is redundancy. The main disadvantage is that you lose at least half of your available disk
space (in other words, you at least double the cost).
10.2.4. raid 2, 3 and 4 ?
raid 2 uses bit level striping, raid 3 byte level, and raid 4 is the same as raid 5, but with a
dedicated parity disk. This is actually slower than raid 5, because every write would have
to write parity to this one (bottleneck) disk. It is unlikely that you will ever see these raid
levels in production.
10.2.5. raid 5
raid 5 uses three or more disks, each divided into chunks. Every time chunks are written
to the array, one of the disks will receive a parity chunk. Unlike raid 4, the parity chunk
will alternate between all disks. The main advantage of this is that raid 5 will allow for full
data recovery in case of one hard disk failure.
10.2.6. raid 6
raid 6 is very similar to raid 5, but uses two parity chunks. raid 6 protects against two hard
disk failures. Oracle Solaris zfs calls this raidz2 (and also had raidz3 with triple parity).
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introduction to raid
10.2.7. raid 0+1
raid 0+1 is a mirror(1) of stripes(0). This means you first create two raid 0 stripe sets, and
then you set them up as a mirror set. For example, when you have six 100GB disks, then
the stripe sets are each 300GB. Combined in a mirror, this makes 300GB total. raid 0+1
will survive one disk failure. It will only survive the second disk failure if this disk is in the
same stripe set as the previous failed disk.
10.2.8. raid 1+0
raid 1+0 is a stripe(0) of mirrors(1). For example, when you have six 100GB disks, then
you first create three mirrors of 100GB each. You then stripe them together into a 300GB
drive. In this example, as long as not all disks in the same mirror fail, it can survive up to
three hard disk failures.
10.2.9. raid 50
raid 5+0 is a stripe(0) of raid 5 arrays. Suppose you have nine disks of 100GB, then you
can create three raid 5 arrays of 200GB each. You can then combine them into one large
stripe set.
10.2.10. many others
There are many other nested raid combinations, like raid 30, 51, 60, 100, 150, ...
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introduction to raid
10.3. building a software raid5 array
10.3.1. do we have three disks?
First, you have to attach some disks to your computer. In this scenario, three brand new disks
of eight gigabyte each are added. Check with fdisk -l that they are connected.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l 2> /dev/null | grep MB
Disk /dev/sdb: 8589 MB, 8589934592 bytes
Disk /dev/sdc: 8589 MB, 8589934592 bytes
Disk /dev/sdd: 8589 MB, 8589934592 bytes
10.3.2. fd partition type
The next step is to create a partition of type fd on every disk. The fd type is to set the partition
as Linux RAID autodetect. See this (truncated) screenshot:
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk /dev/sdd
...
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
p
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1044, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-1044, default 1044):
Using default value 1044
Command (m for help): t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes): fd
Changed system type of partition 1 to fd (Linux raid autodetect)
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
10.3.3. verify all three partitions
Now all three disks are ready for raid 5, so we have to tell the system what to do with these
disks.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l 2> /dev/null | grep raid
/dev/sdb1
1
1044
8385898+ fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdc1
1
1044
8385898+ fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/sdd1
1
1044
8385898+ fd Linux raid autodetect
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introduction to raid
10.3.4. create the raid5
The next step used to be create the raid table in /etc/raidtab. Nowadays, you can just issue
the command mdadm with the correct parameters.
The command below is split on two lines to fit this print, but you should type it on one line,
without the backslash (\).
[[email protected] ~]# mdadm --create /dev/md0 --chunk=64 --level=5 --raid-\
devices=3 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.
Below a partial screenshot how fdisk -l sees the raid 5.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l /dev/md0
Disk /dev/md0: 17.2 GB, 17172135936 bytes
2 heads, 4 sectors/track, 4192416 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 8 * 512 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 65536 bytes / 131072 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/md0 doesn't contain a valid partition table
We could use this software raid 5 array in the next topic: lvm.
10.3.5. /proc/mdstat
The status of the raid devices can be seen in /proc/mdstat. This example shows a raid 5
in the process of rebuilding.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sdd1[3] sdc1[1] sdb1[0]
16769664 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 64k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [UU_]
[============>........] recovery = 62.8% (5266176/8384832) finish=0\
.3min speed=139200K/sec
This example shows an active software raid 5.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sdd1[3] sdc1[1] sdb1[0]
16769664 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 64k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/3] [UUU]
94
introduction to raid
10.3.6. mdadm --detail
Use mdadm --detail to get information on a raid device.
[[email protected] ~]# mdadm --detail /dev/md0
/dev/md0:
Version : 1.2
Creation Time : Sun Jul 17 13:48:41 2011
Raid Level : raid5
Array Size : 16769664 (15.99 GiB 17.17 GB)
Used Dev Size : 8384832 (8.00 GiB 8.59 GB)
Raid Devices : 3
Total Devices : 3
Persistence : Superblock is persistent
Update Time
State
Active Devices
Working Devices
Failed Devices
Spare Devices
:
:
:
:
:
:
Sun Jul 17 13:49:43 2011
clean
3
3
0
0
Layout : left-symmetric
Chunk Size : 64K
Name : rhel6c:0 (local to host rhel6c)
UUID : c10fd9c3:08f9a25f:be913027:999c8e1f
Events : 18
Number
0
1
3
Major
8
8
8
Minor
17
33
49
RaidDevice
0
1
2
State
active sync
active sync
active sync
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdc1
/dev/sdd1
10.3.7. removing a software raid
The software raid is visible in /proc/mdstat when active. To remove the raid completely so
you can use the disks for other purposes, you stop (de-activate) it with mdadm.
[[email protected] ~]# mdadm --stop /dev/md0
mdadm: stopped /dev/md0
The disks can now be repartitioned.
10.3.8. further reading
Take a look at the man page of mdadm for more information. Below an example command
to add a new partition while removing a faulty one.
mdadm /dev/md0 --add /dev/sdd1 --fail /dev/sdb1 --remove /dev/sdb1
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introduction to raid
10.4. practice: raid
1. Add three virtual disks of 1GB each to a virtual machine.
2. Create a software raid 5 on the three disks. (It is not necessary to put a filesystem on it)
3. Verify with fdisk and in /proc that the raid 5 exists.
4. Stop and remove the raid 5.
5. Create a raid 1 to mirror two disks.
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introduction to raid
10.5. solution: raid
1. Add three virtual disks of 1GB each to a virtual machine.
2. Create a software raid 5 on the three disks. (It is not necessary to put a filesystem on it)
3. Verify with fdisk and in /proc that the raid 5 exists.
4. Stop and remove the raid 5.
5. Create a raid 1 to mirror two disks.
[[email protected] ~]# mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 \
/dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid1]
md0 : active raid1 sdc1[1] sdb1[0]
8384862 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]
[====>................] resync = 20.8% (1745152/8384862) \
finish=0.5min speed=218144K/sec
97
Chapter 11. logical volume
management
Most lvm implementations support physical storage grouping, logical volume resizing
and data migration.
Physical storage grouping is a fancy name for grouping multiple block devices (hard disks,
but also iSCSI etc) into a logical mass storage device. To enlarge this physical group, block
devices (including partitions) can be added at a later time.
The size of lvm volumes on this physical group is independent of the individual size of the
components. The total size of the group is the limit.
One of the nice features of lvm is the logical volume resizing. You can increase the size of
an lvm volume, sometimes even without any downtime. Additionally, you can migrate data
away from a failing hard disk device, create mirrors and create snapshots.
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logical volume management
11.1. introduction to lvm
11.1.1. problems with standard partitions
There are some problems when working with hard disks and standard partitions. Consider
a system with a small and a large hard disk device, partitioned like this. The first disk (/
dev/sda) is partitioned in two, the second disk (/dev/sdb) has two partitions and some empty
space.
In the example above, consider the options when you want to enlarge the space available
for /srv/project42. What can you do ? The solution will always force you to unmount the
file system, take a backup of the data, remove and recreate partitions, and then restore the
data and remount the file system.
11.1.2. solution with lvm
Using lvm will create a virtual layer between the mounted file systems and the hardware
devices. This virtual layer will allow for an administrator to enlarge a mounted file system in
use. When lvm is properly used, then there is no need to unmount the file system to enlarge it.
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logical volume management
11.2. lvm terminology
11.2.1. physical volume (pv)
A physical volume is any block device (a disk, a partition, a RAID device or even an iSCSI
device). All these devices can become a member of a volume group.
The commands used to manage a physical volume start with pv.
[[email protected] ~]# pv
pvchange
pvck
pvcreate
pvresize
pvs
pvscan
pvdisplay
pvmove
pvremove
11.2.2. volume group (vg)
A volume group is an abstraction layer between block devices and logical volumes.
The commands used to manage a volume group start with vg.
[[email protected]
vgcfgbackup
vgcfgrestore
vgchange
vgck
~]# vg
vgconvert
vgcreate
vgdisplay
vgexport
vgextend
vgimport
vgimportclone
vgmerge
vgmknodes
vgreduce
vgremove
vgrename
vgs
vgscan
vgsplit
11.2.3. logical volume (lv)
A logical volume is created in a volume group. Logical volumes that contain a file system
can be mounted. The use of logical volumes is similar to the use of partitions and is
accomplished with the same standard commands (mkfs, mount, fsck, df, ...).
The commands used to manage a logical volume start with lv.
[[email protected] ~]# lv
lvchange
lvextend
lvconvert
lvm
lvcreate
lvmchange
lvdisplay
lvmconf
lvmdiskscan
lvmdump
lvmetad
lvmsadc
lvmsar
lvreduce
lvremove
lvrename
100
lvresize
lvs
lvscan
logical volume management
11.3. example: using lvm
This example shows how you can use a device (in this case /dev/sdc, but it could have been /
dev/sdb or any other disk or partition) with lvm, how to create a volume group (vg) and how
to create and use a logical volume (vg/lvol0).
First thing to do, is create physical volumes that can join the volume group with pvcreate.
This command makes a disk or partition available for use in Volume Groups. The screenshot
shows how to present the SCSI Disk device to LVM.
[email protected]:~# pvcreate /dev/sdc
Physical volume "/dev/sdc" successfully created
Note: lvm will work fine when using the complete device, but another operating system on the
same computer (or on the same SAN) will not recognize lvm and will mark the block device
as being empty! You can avoid this by creating a partition that spans the whole device, then
run pvcreate on the partition instead of the disk.
Then vgcreate creates a volume group using one device. Note that more devices could be
added to the volume group.
[email protected]:~# vgcreate vg /dev/sdc
Volume group "vg" successfully created
The last step lvcreate creates a logical volume.
[email protected]:~# lvcreate --size 500m vg
Logical volume "lvol0" created
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logical volume management
The logical volume /dev/vg/lvol0 can now be formatted with ext3, and mounted for normal
use.
[email protected]:~# mke2fs -m0 -j /dev/vg/lvol0
mke2fs 1.35 (28-Feb-2004)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=1024 (log=0)
Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
128016 inodes, 512000 blocks
0 blocks (0.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=1
Maximum filesystem blocks=67633152
63 block groups
8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
2032 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729, 204801, 221185, 401409
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (8192 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 37 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[email protected]:~# mkdir /home/project10
[email protected]:~# mount /dev/vg/lvol0 /home/project10/
[email protected]:~# df -h | grep proj
/dev/mapper/vg-lvol0 485M
11M 474M
3% /home/project10
A logical volume is very similar to a partition, it can be formatted with a file system, and
can be mounted so users can access it.
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logical volume management
11.4. example: extend a logical volume
A logical volume can be extended without unmounting the file system. Whether or not a
volume can be extended depends on the file system it uses. Volumes that are mounted as
vfat or ext2 cannot be extended, so in the example here we use the ext3 file system.
The fdisk command shows us newly added scsi-disks that will serve our lvm volume. This
volume will then be extended. First, take a look at these disks.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l | grep sd[bc]
Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table
Disk /dev/sdc doesn't contain a valid partition table
Disk /dev/sdb: 1181 MB, 1181115904 bytes
Disk /dev/sdc: 429 MB, 429496320 bytes
You already know how to partition a disk, below the first disk is partitioned (in one big
primary partition), the second disk is left untouched.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l | grep sd[bc]
Disk /dev/sdc doesn't contain a valid partition table
Disk /dev/sdb: 1181 MB, 1181115904 bytes
/dev/sdb1
1
143
1148616
83
Disk /dev/sdc: 429 MB, 429496320 bytes
Linux
You also know how to prepare disks for lvm with pvcreate, and how to create a volume
group with vgcreate. This example adds both the partitioned disk and the untouched disk
to the volume group named vg2.
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb1
Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdc
Physical volume "/dev/sdc" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]# vgcreate vg2 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc
Volume group "vg2" successfully created
You can use pvdisplay to verify that both the disk and the partition belong to the volume
group.
[[email protected] ~]# pvdisplay | grep -B1 vg2
PV Name
/dev/sdb1
VG Name
vg2
-PV Name
/dev/sdc
VG Name
vg2
And you are familiar both with the lvcreate command to create a small logical volume and
the mke2fs command to put ext3 on it.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate --size 200m vg2
Logical volume "lvol0" created
[[email protected] ~]# mke2fs -m20 -j /dev/vg2/lvol0
...
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logical volume management
As you see, we end up with a mounted logical volume that according to df is almost 200
megabyte in size.
[[email protected] ~]# mkdir /home/resizetest
[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/vg2/lvol0 /home/resizetest/
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep resizetest
194M 5.6M 149M
4% /home/resizetest
Extending the volume is easy with lvextend.
[[email protected] ~]# lvextend -L +100 /dev/vg2/lvol0
Extending logical volume lvol0 to 300.00 MB
Logical volume lvol0 successfully resized
But as you can see, there is a small problem: it appears that df is not able to display the
extended volume in its full size. This is because the filesystem is only set for the size of the
volume before the extension was added.
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep resizetest
194M 5.6M 149M
4% /home/resizetest
With lvdisplay however we can see that the volume is indeed extended.
[[email protected] ~]# lvdisplay /dev/vg2/lvol0 | grep Size
LV Size
300.00 MB
To finish the extension, you need resize2fs to span the filesystem over the full size of the
logical volume.
[[email protected] ~]# resize2fs /dev/vg2/lvol0
resize2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Filesystem at /dev/vg2/lvol0 is mounted on /home/resizetest; on-line re\
sizing required
Performing an on-line resize of /dev/vg2/lvol0 to 307200 (1k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/vg2/lvol0 is now 307200 blocks long.
Congratulations, you just successfully expanded a logical volume.
[[email protected] ~]# df -h | grep resizetest
291M 6.1M 225M
[[email protected] ~]#
104
3% /home/resizetest
logical volume management
11.5. example: resize a physical Volume
This is a humble demonstration of how to resize a physical Volume with lvm (after you
resize it with fdisk). The demonstration starts with a 100MB partition named /dev/sde1. We
used fdisk to create it, and to verify the size.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l 2>/dev/null | grep sde1
/dev/sde1
1
100
102384
[[email protected] ~]#
83
Linux
Now we can use pvcreate to create the Physical Volume, followed by pvs to verify the
creation.
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sde1
Physical volume "/dev/sde1" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]# pvs | grep sde1
/dev/sde1
lvm2 -99.98M 99.98M
[[email protected] ~]#
The next step is to use fdisk to enlarge the partition (actually deleting it and then recreating /
dev/sde1 with more cylinders).
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk /dev/sde
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sde: 858 MB, 858993152 bytes
64 heads, 32 sectors/track, 819 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sde1
Start
1
End
100
Blocks
102384
Id
83
System
Linux
Command (m for help): d
Selected partition 1
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
p
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4):
Value out of range.
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-819, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-819, default 819): 200
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
[[email protected] ~]#
105
logical volume management
When we now use fdisk and pvs to verify the size of the partition and the Physical Volume,
then there is a size difference. LVM is still using the old size.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l 2>/dev/null | grep sde1
/dev/sde1
1
200
204784
[[email protected] ~]# pvs | grep sde1
/dev/sde1
lvm2 -99.98M 99.98M
[[email protected] ~]#
83
Linux
Executing pvresize on the Physical Volume will make lvm aware of the size change of the
partition. The correct size can be displayed with pvs.
[[email protected] ~]# pvresize /dev/sde1
Physical volume "/dev/sde1" changed
1 physical volume(s) resized / 0 physical volume(s) not resized
[[email protected] ~]# pvs | grep sde1
/dev/sde1
lvm2 -199.98M 199.98M
[[email protected] ~]#
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logical volume management
11.6. example: mirror a logical volume
We start by creating three physical volumes for lvm. Then we verify the creation and the
size with pvs. Three physical disks because lvm uses two disks for the mirror and a third
disk for the mirror log!
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd
Physical volume "/dev/sdb" successfully created
Physical volume "/dev/sdc" successfully created
Physical volume "/dev/sdd" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]# pvs
PV
VG
Fmt Attr PSize
PFree
/dev/sdb
lvm2 -409.60M 409.60M
/dev/sdc
lvm2 -409.60M 409.60M
/dev/sdd
lvm2 -409.60M 409.60M
Then we create the Volume Group and verify again with pvs. Notice how the three physical
volumes now belong to vg33, and how the size is rounded down (in steps of the extent size,
here 4MB).
[[email protected] ~]# vgcreate vg33 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd
Volume group "vg33" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]# pvs
PV
VG
Fmt Attr PSize
PFree
/dev/sda2 VolGroup00 lvm2 a15.88G
0
/dev/sdb
vg33
lvm2 a408.00M 408.00M
/dev/sdc
vg33
lvm2 a408.00M 408.00M
/dev/sdd
vg33
lvm2 a408.00M 408.00M
[[email protected] ~]#
The last step is to create the Logical Volume with lvcreate. Notice the -m 1 switch to create
one mirror. Notice also the change in free space in all three Physical Volumes!
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate --size 300m -n lvmir -m 1 vg33
Logical volume "lvmir" created
[[email protected] ~]# pvs
PV
VG
Fmt Attr PSize
PFree
/dev/sda2 VolGroup00 lvm2 a15.88G
0
/dev/sdb
vg33
lvm2 a408.00M 108.00M
/dev/sdc
vg33
lvm2 a408.00M 108.00M
/dev/sdd
vg33
lvm2 a408.00M 404.00M
You can see the copy status of the mirror with lvs. It currently shows a 100 percent copy.
[[email protected] ~]# lvs vg33/lvmir
LV
VG
Attr
LSize
Origin Snap%
lvmir vg33 mwi-ao 300.00M
107
Move Log
Copy%
lvmir_mlog 100.00
logical volume management
11.7. example: snapshot a logical volume
A snapshot is a virtual copy of all the data at a point in time on a volume. A snapshot Logical
Volume will retain a copy of all changed files of the snapshotted Logical Volume.
The example below creates a snapshot of the bigLV Logical Volume.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -L100M -s -n snapLV vg42/bigLV
Logical volume "snapLV" created
[[email protected] ~]#
You can see with lvs that the snapshot snapLV is indeed a snapshot of bigLV. Moments
after taking the snapshot, there are few changes to bigLV (0.02 percent).
[[email protected] ~]# lvs
LV
VG
bigLV
vg42
snapLV
vg42
[[email protected] ~]#
Attr
LSize
Origin Snap% Move Log Copy%
owi-a- 200.00M
swi-a- 100.00M bigLV
0.02
But after using bigLV for a while, more changes are done. This means the snapshot volume
has to keep more original data (10.22 percent).
[[email protected] ~]# lvs | grep vg42
bigLV
vg42
owi-ao 200.00M
snapLV
vg42
swi-a- 100.00M bigLV
[[email protected] ~]#
10.22
You can now use regular backup tools (dump, tar, cpio, ...) to take a backup of the snapshot
Logical Volume. This backup will contain all data as it existed on bigLV at the time the
snapshot was taken. When the backup is done, you can remove the snapshot.
[[email protected] ~]# lvremove vg42/snapLV
Do you really want to remove active logical volume "snapLV"? [y/n]: y
Logical volume "snapLV" successfully removed
[[email protected] ~]#
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logical volume management
11.8. verifying existing physical volumes
11.8.1. lvmdiskscan
To get a list of block devices that can be used with LVM, use lvmdiskscan. The example
below uses grep to limit the result to SCSI devices.
[[email protected] ~]# lvmdiskscan | grep sd
/dev/sda1
[
101.94 MB]
/dev/sda2
[
15.90 GB] LVM physical volume
/dev/sdb
[
409.60 MB]
/dev/sdc
[
409.60 MB]
/dev/sdd
[
409.60 MB] LVM physical volume
/dev/sde1
[
95.98 MB]
/dev/sde5
[
191.98 MB]
/dev/sdf
[
819.20 MB] LVM physical volume
/dev/sdg1
[
818.98 MB]
[[email protected] ~]#
11.8.2. pvs
The easiest way to verify whether devices are known to lvm is with the pvs command. The
screenshot below shows that only /dev/sda2 is currently known for use with LVM. It shows
that /dev/sda2 is part of Volgroup00 and is almost 16GB in size. It also shows /dev/sdc and /
dev/sdd as part of vg33. The device /dev/sdb is knwon to lvm, but not linked to any Volume
Group.
[[email protected] ~]# pvs
PV
VG
/dev/sda2 VolGroup00
/dev/sdb
/dev/sdc
vg33
/dev/sdd
vg33
[[email protected] ~]#
Fmt
lvm2
lvm2
lvm2
lvm2
Attr
a-aa-
PSize
15.88G
409.60M
408.00M
408.00M
PFree
0
409.60M
408.00M
408.00M
11.8.3. pvscan
The pvscan command will scan all disks for existing Physical Volumes. The information is
similar to pvs, plus you get a line with total sizes.
[[email protected] ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdc
VG vg33
lvm2 [408.00 MB / 408.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdd
VG vg33
lvm2 [408.00 MB / 408.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sda2
VG VolGroup00
lvm2 [15.88 GB / 0
free]
PV /dev/sdb
lvm2 [409.60 MB]
Total: 4 [17.07 GB] / in use: 3 [16.67 GB] / in no VG: 1 [409.60 MB]
[[email protected] ~]#
109
logical volume management
11.8.4. pvdisplay
Use pvdisplay to get more information about physical volumes. You can also use pvdisplay
without an argument to display information about all physical (lvm) volumes.
[[email protected] ~]# pvdisplay /dev/sda2
--- Physical volume --PV Name
/dev/sda2
VG Name
VolGroup00
PV Size
15.90 GB / not usable 20.79 MB
Allocatable
yes (but full)
PE Size (KByte)
32768
Total PE
508
Free PE
0
Allocated PE
508
PV UUID
TobYfp-Ggg0-Rf8r-xtLd-5XgN-RSPc-8vkTHD
[[email protected] ~]#
110
logical volume management
11.9. verifying existing volume groups
11.9.1. vgs
Similar to pvs is the use of vgs to display a quick overview of all volume groups. There
is only one volume group in the screenshot below, it is named VolGroup00 and is almost
16GB in size.
[[email protected] ~]# vgs
VG
#PV #LV #SN Attr
VSize VFree
VolGroup00
1
2
0 wz--n- 15.88G
0
[[email protected] ~]#
11.9.2. vgscan
The vgscan command will scan all disks for existing Volume Groups. It will also update the
/etc/lvm/.cache file. This file contains a list of all current lvm devices.
[[email protected] ~]# vgscan
Reading all physical volumes. This may take a while...
Found volume group "VolGroup00" using metadata type lvm2
[[email protected] ~]#
LVM will run the vgscan automatically at boot-up, so if you add hot swap devices, then you
will need to run vgscan to update /etc/lvm/.cache with the new devices.
11.9.3. vgdisplay
The vgdisplay command will give you more detailed information about a volume group (or
about all volume groups if you omit the argument).
[[email protected] ~]# vgdisplay VolGroup00
--- Volume group --VG Name
VolGroup00
System ID
Format
lvm2
Metadata Areas
1
Metadata Sequence No 3
VG Access
read/write
VG Status
resizable
MAX LV
0
Cur LV
2
Open LV
2
Max PV
0
Cur PV
1
Act PV
1
VG Size
15.88 GB
PE Size
32.00 MB
Total PE
508
Alloc PE / Size
508 / 15.88 GB
Free PE / Size
0 / 0
VG UUID
qsXvJb-71qV-9l7U-ishX-FobM-qptE-VXmKIg
[[email protected] ~]#
111
logical volume management
11.10. verifying existing logical volumes
11.10.1. lvs
Use lvs for a quick look at all existing logical volumes. Below you can see two logical
volumes named LogVol00 and LogVol01.
[[email protected] ~]# lvs
LV
VG
Attr
LSize Origin Snap%
LogVol00 VolGroup00 -wi-ao 14.88G
LogVol01 VolGroup00 -wi-ao 1.00G
[[email protected] ~]#
Move Log Copy%
11.10.2. lvscan
The lvscan command will scan all disks for existing Logical Volumes.
[[email protected] ~]# lvscan
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00' [14.88 GB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01' [1.00 GB] inherit
[[email protected] ~]#
11.10.3. lvdisplay
More detailed information about logical volumes is available through the lvdisplay(1)
command.
[[email protected] ~]# lvdisplay VolGroup00/LogVol01
--- Logical volume --LV Name
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01
VG Name
VolGroup00
LV UUID
RnTGK6-xWsi-t530-ksJx-7cax-co5c-A1KlDp
LV Write Access
read/write
LV Status
available
# open
1
LV Size
1.00 GB
Current LE
32
Segments
1
Allocation
inherit
Read ahead sectors
0
Block device
253:1
[[email protected] ~]#
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logical volume management
11.11. manage physical volumes
11.11.1. pvcreate
Use the pvcreate command to add devices to lvm. This example shows how to add a disk
(or hardware RAID device) to lvm.
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb
Physical volume "/dev/sdb" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]#
This example shows how to add a partition to lvm.
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdc1
Physical volume "/dev/sdc1" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]#
You can also add multiple disks or partitions as target to pvcreate. This example adds three
disks to lvm.
[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sde /dev/sdf /dev/sdg
Physical volume "/dev/sde" successfully created
Physical volume "/dev/sdf" successfully created
Physical volume "/dev/sdg" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]#
11.11.2. pvremove
Use the pvremove command to remove physical volumes from lvm. The devices may not
be in use.
[[email protected]
Labels on
Labels on
Labels on
[[email protected]
~]# pvremove /dev/sde /dev/sdf /dev/sdg
physical volume "/dev/sde" successfully wiped
physical volume "/dev/sdf" successfully wiped
physical volume "/dev/sdg" successfully wiped
~]#
11.11.3. pvresize
When you used fdisk to resize a partition on a disk, then you must use pvresize to make lvm
recognize the new size of the physical volume that represents this partition.
[[email protected] ~]# pvresize /dev/sde1
Physical volume "/dev/sde1" changed
1 physical volume(s) resized / 0 physical volume(s) not resized
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logical volume management
11.11.4. pvchange
With pvchange you can prevent the allocation of a Physical Volume in a new Volume Group
or Logical Volume. This can be useful if you plan to remove a Physical Volume.
[[email protected] ~]# pvchange -xn /dev/sdd
Physical volume "/dev/sdd" changed
1 physical volume changed / 0 physical volumes not changed
[[email protected] ~]#
To revert your previous decision, this example shows you how te re-enable the Physical
Volume to allow allocation.
[[email protected] ~]# pvchange -xy /dev/sdd
Physical volume "/dev/sdd" changed
1 physical volume changed / 0 physical volumes not changed
[[email protected] ~]#
11.11.5. pvmove
With pvmove you can move Logical Volumes from within a Volume Group to another
Physical Volume. This must be done before removing a Physical Volume.
[[email protected]
/dev/sdf
/dev/sdg
[[email protected]
/dev/sdf:
/dev/sdf:
[[email protected]
/dev/sdf
/dev/sdg
~]# pvs | grep vg1
vg1
lvm2 avg1
lvm2 a~]# pvmove /dev/sdf
Moved: 70.1%
Moved: 100.0%
~]# pvs | grep vg1
vg1
lvm2 avg1
lvm2 a-
816.00M
0
816.00M 816.00M
816.00M 816.00M
816.00M
0
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logical volume management
11.12. manage volume groups
11.12.1. vgcreate
Use the vgcreate command to create a volume group. You can immediately name all the
physical volumes that span the volume group.
[[email protected] ~]# vgcreate vg42 /dev/sde /dev/sdf
Volume group "vg42" successfully created
[[email protected] ~]#
11.12.2. vgextend
Use the vgextend command to extend an existing volume group with a physical volume.
[[email protected] ~]# vgextend vg42 /dev/sdg
Volume group "vg42" successfully extended
[[email protected] ~]#
11.12.3. vgremove
Use the vgremove command to remove volume groups from lvm. The volume groups may
not be in use.
[[email protected] ~]# vgremove vg42
Volume group "vg42" successfully removed
[[email protected] ~]#
11.12.4. vgreduce
Use the vgreduce command to remove a Physical Volume from the Volume Group.
The following example adds Physical Volume /dev/sdg to the vg1 Volume Group using
vgextend. And then removes it again using vgreduce.
[[email protected] ~]# pvs | grep sdg
/dev/sdg
lvm2 -819.20M 819.20M
[[email protected] ~]# vgextend vg1 /dev/sdg
Volume group "vg1" successfully extended
[[email protected] ~]# pvs | grep sdg
/dev/sdg
vg1
lvm2 a816.00M 816.00M
[[email protected] ~]# vgreduce vg1 /dev/sdg
Removed "/dev/sdg" from volume group "vg1"
[[email protected] ~]# pvs | grep sdg
/dev/sdg
lvm2 -819.20M 819.20M
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logical volume management
11.12.5. vgchange
Use the vgchange command to change parameters of a Volume Group.
This example shows how to prevent Physical Volumes from being added or removed to the
Volume Group vg1.
[[email protected] ~]# vgchange -xn vg1
Volume group "vg1" successfully changed
[[email protected] ~]# vgextend vg1 /dev/sdg
Volume group vg1 is not resizable.
You can also use vgchange to change most other properties of a Volume Group. This
example changes the maximum number of Logical Volumes and maximum number of
Physical Volumes that vg1 can serve.
[[email protected] ~]# vgdisplay vg1 | grep -i max
MAX LV
0
Max PV
0
[[email protected] ~]# vgchange -l16 vg1
Volume group "vg1" successfully changed
[[email protected] ~]# vgchange -p8 vg1
Volume group "vg1" successfully changed
[[email protected] ~]# vgdisplay vg1 | grep -i max
MAX LV
16
Max PV
8
11.12.6. vgmerge
Merging two Volume Groups into one is done with vgmerge. The following example merges
vg2 into vg1, keeping all the properties of vg1.
[[email protected] ~]# vgmerge vg1 vg2
Volume group "vg2" successfully merged into "vg1"
[[email protected] ~]#
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logical volume management
11.13. manage logical volumes
11.13.1. lvcreate
Use the lvcreate command to create Logical Volumes in a Volume Group. This example
creates an 8GB Logical Volume in Volume Group vg42.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -L5G vg42
Logical volume "lvol0" created
[[email protected] ~]#
As you can see, lvm automatically names the Logical Volume lvol0. The next example
creates a 200MB Logical Volume named MyLV in Volume Group vg42.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -L200M -nMyLV vg42
Logical volume "MyLV" created
[[email protected] ~]#
The next example does the same thing, but with different syntax.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate --size 200M -n MyLV vg42
Logical volume "MyLV" created
[[email protected] ~]#
This example creates a Logical Volume that occupies 10 percent of the Volume Group.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -l 10%VG -n MyLV2 vg42
Logical volume "MyLV2" created
[[email protected] ~]#
This example creates a Logical Volume that occupies 30 percent of the remaining free space
in the Volume Group.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -l 30%FREE -n MyLV3 vg42
Logical volume "MyLV3" created
[[email protected] ~]#
11.13.2. lvremove
Use the lvremove command to remove Logical Volumes from a Volume Group. Removing
a Logical Volume requires the name of the Volume Group.
[[email protected] ~]# lvremove vg42/MyLV
Do you really want to remove active logical volume "MyLV"? [y/n]: y
Logical volume "MyLV" successfully removed
[[email protected] ~]#
Removing multiple Logical Volumes will request confirmation for each individual volume.
[[email protected] ~]# lvremove vg42/MyLV vg42/MyLV2 vg42/MyLV3
Do you really want to remove active logical volume "MyLV"? [y/n]: y
Logical volume "MyLV" successfully removed
Do you really want to remove active logical volume "MyLV2"? [y/n]: y
Logical volume "MyLV2" successfully removed
Do you really want to remove active logical volume "MyLV3"? [y/n]: y
Logical volume "MyLV3" successfully removed
[[email protected] ~]#
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logical volume management
11.13.3. lvextend
Extending the volume is easy with lvextend. This example extends a 200MB Logical
Volume with 100 MB.
[[email protected] ~]# lvdisplay /dev/vg2/lvol0 | grep Size
LV Size
200.00 MB
[[email protected] ~]# lvextend -L +100 /dev/vg2/lvol0
Extending logical volume lvol0 to 300.00 MB
Logical volume lvol0 successfully resized
[[email protected] ~]# lvdisplay /dev/vg2/lvol0 | grep Size
LV Size
300.00 MB
The next example creates a 100MB Logical Volume, and then extends it to 500MB.
[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate --size 100M -n extLV vg42
Logical volume "extLV" created
[[email protected] ~]# lvextend -L 500M vg42/extLV
Extending logical volume extLV to 500.00 MB
Logical volume extLV successfully resized
[[email protected] ~]#
This example doubles the size of a Logical Volume.
[[email protected] ~]# lvextend -l+100%LV vg42/extLV
Extending logical volume extLV to 1000.00 MB
Logical volume extLV successfully resized
[[email protected] ~]#
11.13.4. lvrename
Renaming a Logical Volume is done with lvrename. This example renames extLV to bigLV
in the vg42 Volume Group.
[[email protected] ~]# lvrename vg42/extLV vg42/bigLV
Renamed "extLV" to "bigLV" in volume group "vg42"
[[email protected] ~]#
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logical volume management
11.14. practice : lvm
1. Create a volume group that contains a complete disk and a partition on another disk.
2. Create two logical volumes (a small one and a bigger one) in this volumegroup. Format
them wih ext3, mount them and copy some files to them.
3. Verify usage with fdisk, mount, pvs, vgs, lvs, pvdisplay, vgdisplay, lvdisplay and df. Does
fdisk give you any information about lvm?
4. Enlarge the small logical volume by 50 percent, and verify your work!
5. Take a look at other commands that start with vg* , pv* or lv*.
6. Create a mirror and a striped Logical Volume.
7. Convert a linear logical volume to a mirror.
8. Convert a mirror logical volume to a linear.
9. Create a snapshot of a Logical Volume, take a backup of the snapshot. Then delete some
files on the Logical Volume, then restore your backup.
10. Move your volume group to another disk (keep the Logical Volumes mounted).
11. If time permits, split a Volume Group with vgsplit, then merge it again with vgmerge.
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logical volume management
11.15. solution : lvm
1. Create a volume group that contains a complete disk and a partition on another disk.
step 1: select disks:
[email protected]:~# fdisk -l | grep Disk
Disk /dev/sda: 8589 MB, 8589934592 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00055ca0
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdc: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
...
I choose /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc for now.
step 2: partition /dev/sdc
[email protected]:~# fdisk /dev/sdc
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disk\
label
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x94c0e5d5.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
sectors (command 'u').
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
p
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-130, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-130, default 130):
Using default value 130
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
step 3: pvcreate and vgcreate
[email protected]:~# pvcreate /dev/sdb /dev/sdc1
Physical volume "/dev/sdb" successfully created
Physical volume "/dev/sdc1" successfully created
[email protected]:~# vgcreate VG42 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc1
Volume group "VG42" successfully created
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logical volume management
2. Create two logical volumes (a small one and a bigger one) in this volumegroup. Format
them wih ext3, mount them and copy some files to them.
[email protected]:~# lvcreate --size 200m --name LVsmall VG42
Logical volume "LVsmall" created
[email protected]:~# lvcreate --size 600m --name LVbig VG42
Logical volume "LVbig" created
[email protected]:~# ls -l /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Apr 20 20:41 /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall -> ../dm-2
[email protected]:~# ls -l /dev/VG42/LVsmall
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Apr 20 20:41 /dev/VG42/LVsmall -> ../dm-2
[email protected]:~# ls -l /dev/dm-2
brw-rw----. 1 root disk 253, 2 Apr 20 20:41 /dev/dm-2
[email protected]:~# mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=1024 (log=0)
Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
51200 inodes, 204800 blocks
10240 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=1
Maximum filesystem blocks=67371008
25 block groups
8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
2048 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (4096 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 39 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[email protected]:~# mkfs.ext3 /dev/VG42/LVbig
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
38400 inodes, 153600 blocks
7680 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=159383552
5 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
7680 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (4096 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 25 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
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logical volume management
The mounting and copying of files.
[email protected]:~#
[email protected]:~#
[email protected]:~#
[email protected]:~#
[email protected]:~#
[email protected]:~#
mkdir
mkdir
mount
mount
cp -r
cp -r
/srv/LVsmall
/srv/LVbig
/dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall /srv/LVsmall
/dev/VG42/LVbig /srv/LVbig
/etc /srv/LVsmall/
/var/log /srv/LVbig/
3. Verify usage with fdisk, mount, pvs, vgs, lvs, pvdisplay, vgdisplay, lvdisplay and df. Does
fdisk give you any information about lvm?
Run all those commands (only two are shown below), then answer 'no'.
[email protected]:~# df -h
Filesystem
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
6.7G 1.4G 5.0G 21% /
tmpfs
246M
0 246M
0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1
485M
77M 383M 17% /boot
/dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall
194M
30M 154M 17% /srv/LVsmall
/dev/mapper/VG42-LVbig
591M
20M 541M
4% /srv/LVbig
[email protected]:~# mount | grep VG42
/dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall on /srv/LVsmall type ext3 (rw)
/dev/mapper/VG42-LVbig on /srv/LVbig type ext3 (rw)
4. Enlarge the small logical volume by 50 percent, and verify your work!
[email protected]:~# lvextend VG42/LVsmall -l+50%LV
Extending logical volume LVsmall to 300.00 MiB
Logical volume LVsmall successfully resized
[email protected]:~# resize2fs /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall
resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem at /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall is mounted on /srv/LVsmall; on-line res\
izing required
old desc_blocks = 1, new_desc_blocks = 2
Performing an on-line resize of /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall to 307200 (1k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall is now 307200 blocks long.
[email protected]:~# df -h | grep small
/dev/mapper/VG42-LVsmall
291M
31M 246M
[email protected]:~#
12% /srv/LVsmall
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logical volume management
5. Take a look at other commands that start with vg* , pv* or lv*.
6. Create a mirror and a striped Logical Volume.
7. Convert a linear logical volume to a mirror.
8. Convert a mirror logical volume to a linear.
9. Create a snapshot of a Logical Volume, take a backup of the snapshot. Then delete some
files on the Logical Volume, then restore your backup.
10. Move your volume group to another disk (keep the Logical Volumes mounted).
11. If time permits, split a Volume Group with vgsplit, then merge it again with vgmerge.
123
Chapter 12. iSCSI devices
This chapter teaches you how to setup an iSCSI target server and an iSCSI initiator client.
124
iSCSI devices
12.1. iSCSI terminology
iSCSI is a protocol that enables SCSI over IP. This means that you can have local SCSI
devices (like /dev/sdb) without having the storage hardware in the local computer.
The computer holding the physical storage hardware is called the iSCSI Target. Each
individual addressable iSCSI device on the target server will get a LUN number.
The iSCSI client computer that is connecting to the Target server is called an Initiator. An
initiator will send SCSI commands over IP instead of directly to the hardware. The Initiator
will connect to the Target.
12.2. iSCSI Target in RHEL/CentOS
This section will describe iSCSI Target setup on RHEL6, RHEL7 and CentOS.
Start with installing the iSCSI Target package.
yum install scsi-target-utils
We configure three local disks in /etc/tgt/targets.conf to become three LUN's.
<target iqn.2008-09.com.example:server.target2>
direct-store /dev/sdb
direct-store /dev/sdc
direct-store /dev/sdd
incominguser paul hunter2
</target>
Restart the service.
[[email protected] ~]# service tgtd start
Starting SCSI target daemon:
[
OK
]
The standard local port for iSCSI Target is 3260, in case of doubt you can verify this with
netstat.
[[email protected] tgt]# netstat -ntpl | grep tgt
tcp
0
0 0.0.0.0:3260
0.0.0.0:*
tcp
0
0 :::3260
:::*
125
LISTEN
LISTEN
1670/tgtd
1670/tgtd
iSCSI devices
The tgt-admin -s command should now give you a nice overview of the three LUN's (and
also LUN 0 for the controller).
[[email protected] tgt]# tgt-admin -s
Target 1: iqn.2014-04.be.linux-training:server1.target1
System information:
Driver: iscsi
State: ready
I_T nexus information:
LUN information:
LUN: 0
Type: controller
SCSI ID: IET
00010000
SCSI SN: beaf10
Size: 0 MB, Block size: 1
Online: Yes
Removable media: No
Prevent removal: No
Readonly: No
Backing store type: null
Backing store path: None
Backing store flags:
LUN: 1
Type: disk
SCSI ID: IET
00010001
SCSI SN: VB9f23197b-af6cfb60
Size: 1074 MB, Block size: 512
Online: Yes
Removable media: No
Prevent removal: No
Readonly: No
Backing store type: rdwr
Backing store path: /dev/sdb
Backing store flags:
LUN: 2
Type: disk
SCSI ID: IET
00010002
SCSI SN: VB8f554351-a1410828
Size: 1074 MB, Block size: 512
Online: Yes
Removable media: No
Prevent removal: No
Readonly: No
Backing store type: rdwr
Backing store path: /dev/sdc
Backing store flags:
LUN: 3
Type: disk
SCSI ID: IET
00010003
SCSI SN: VB1035d2f0-7ae90b49
Size: 1074 MB, Block size: 512
Online: Yes
Removable media: No
Prevent removal: No
Readonly: No
Backing store type: rdwr
Backing store path: /dev/sdd
Backing store flags:
Account information:
ACL information:
ALL
126
iSCSI devices
12.3. iSCSI Initiator in RHEL/CentOS
This section will describe iSCSI Initiator setup on RHEL6, RHEL7 and CentOS.
Start with installing the iSCSI Initiator package.
[[email protected] ~]# yum install iscsi-initiator-utils
Then ask the iSCSI target server to send you the target names.
[[email protected] ~]# iscsiadm -m discovery -t sendtargets -p 192.168.1.95:3260
Starting iscsid:
[ OK ]
192.168.1.95:3260,1 iqn.2014-04.be.linux-training:centos65.target1
We received iqn.2014-04.be.linux-training:centos65.target1.
We use this iqn to configure the username and the password (paul and hunter2) that we set
on the target server.
[[email protected] iscsi]# iscsiadm -m node --targetname
ining:centos65.target1 --portal "192.168.1.95:3260"
session.auth.username --value=paul
[[email protected] iscsi]# iscsiadm -m node --targetname
ining:centos65.target1 --portal "192.168.1.95:3260"
session.auth.password --value=hunter2
[[email protected] iscsi]# iscsiadm -m node --targetname
ining:centos65.target1 --portal "192.168.1.95:3260"
session.auth.authmethod --value=CHAP
iqn.2014-04.be.linux-tra\
--op=update --name node.\
iqn.2014-04.be.linux-tra\
--op=update --name node.\
iqn.2014-04.be.linux-tra\
--op=update --name node.\
RHEL and CentOS will store these in /var/lib/iscsi/nodes/.
[[email protected] iscsi]# grep auth /var/lib/iscsi/nodes/iqn.2014-04.be.linux-tr\
aining\:centos65.target1/192.168.1.95\,3260\,1/default
node.session.auth.authmethod = CHAP
node.session.auth.username = paul
node.session.auth.password = hunter2
node.conn[0].timeo.auth_timeout = 45
[[email protected] iscsi]#
127
iSCSI devices
A restart of the iscsi service will add three new devices to our system.
[[email protected] iscsi]# fdisk -l | grep Disk
Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0004f229
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdc: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdd: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sde: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdf: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdg: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root: 41.4 GB, 41448112128 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap: 973 MB, 973078528 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
[[email protected] iscsi]# service iscsi restart
Stopping iscsi:
[ OK
Starting iscsi:
[ OK
[[email protected] iscsi]# fdisk -l | grep Disk
Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0004f229
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdc: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdd: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sde: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdf: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdg: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root: 41.4 GB, 41448112128 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap: 973 MB, 973078528 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdh: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdi: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdj: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
You can verify iscsi status with:
service iscsi status
128
]
]
iSCSI devices
12.4. iSCSI target on Debian
Installing the software for the target server requires iscsitarget on Ubuntu and Debian, and
an extra iscsitarget-dkms for the kernel modules only on Debian.
[email protected]:~# aptitude install iscsitarget
The following NEW packages will be installed:
iscsitarget
0 packages upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 69.4 kB of archives. After unpacking 262 kB will be used.
Get:1 http://ftp.belnet.be/debian/ squeeze/main iscsitarget i386 1.4.20.2-1\
[69.4 kB]
Fetched 69.4 kB in 0s (415 kB/s)
Selecting previously deselected package iscsitarget.
(Reading database ... 36441 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking iscsitarget (from .../iscsitarget_1.4.20.2-1_i386.deb) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up iscsitarget (1.4.20.2-1) ...
iscsitarget not enabled in "/etc/default/iscsitarget", not starting...(warning).
On Debian 6 you will also need aptitude install iscsitarget-dkms for the kernel modules,
on Debian 5 this is aptitude install iscsitarget-modules-`uname -a`. Ubuntu includes the
kernel modules in the main package.
The iSCSI target server is disabled by default, so we enable it.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/default/iscsitarget
ISCSITARGET_ENABLE=false
[email protected]:~# vi /etc/default/iscsitarget
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/default/iscsitarget
ISCSITARGET_ENABLE=true
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iSCSI devices
12.5. iSCSI target setup with dd files
You can use LVM volumes (/dev/md0/lvol0), physical partitions (/dev/sda) ,raid devices (/
dev/md0) or just plain files for storage. In this demo, we use files created with dd.
This screenshot shows how to create three small files (100MB, 200MB and 300MB).
[email protected]:~# mkdir /iscsi
[email protected]:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/iscsi/lun1.img bs=1M count=100
100+0 records in
100+0 records out
104857600 bytes (105 MB) copied, 0.315825 s, 332 MB/s
[email protected]:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/iscsi/lun2.img bs=1M count=200
200+0 records in
200+0 records out
209715200 bytes (210 MB) copied, 1.08342 s, 194 MB/s
[email protected]:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/iscsi/lun3.img bs=1M count=300
300+0 records in
300+0 records out
314572800 bytes (315 MB) copied, 1.36209 s, 231 MB/s
We need to declare these three files as iSCSI targets in /etc/iet/ietd.conf (used to be /etc/
ietd.conf).
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cp ietd.conf ietd.conf.original
[email protected]:/etc/iet# > ietd.conf
[email protected]:/etc/iet# vi ietd.conf
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat ietd.conf
Target iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
IncomingUser isuser hunter2
OutgoingUser
Lun 0 Path=/iscsi/lun1.img,Type=fileio
Alias LUN1
Target iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
IncomingUser isuser hunter2
OutgoingUser
Lun 0 Path=/iscsi/lun2.img,Type=fileio
Alias LUN2
Target iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun3
IncomingUser isuser hunter2
OutgoingUser
Lun 0 Path=/iscsi/lun3.img,Type=fileio
Alias LUN3
We also need to add our devices to the /etc/initiators.allow file.
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cp initiators.allow initiators.allow.original
[email protected]:/etc/iet# >initiators.allow
[email protected]:/etc/iet# vi initiators.allow
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat initiators.allow
iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun3
130
iSCSI devices
Time to start the server now:
[email protected]:/etc/iet# /etc/init.d/iscsitarget start
Starting iSCSI enterprise target service:.
.
[email protected]ebby6:/etc/iet#
Verify activation of the storage devices in /proc/net/iet:
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat /proc/net/iet/volume
tid:3 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun3
lun:0 state:0 iotype:fileio iomode:wt blocks:614400 blocksize:\
512 path:/iscsi/lun3.img
tid:2 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
lun:0 state:0 iotype:fileio iomode:wt blocks:409600 blocksize:\
512 path:/iscsi/lun2.img
tid:1 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
lun:0 state:0 iotype:fileio iomode:wt blocks:204800 blocksize:\
512 path:/iscsi/lun1.img
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat /proc/net/iet/session
tid:3 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun3
tid:2 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
tid:1 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
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iSCSI devices
12.6. ISCSI initiator on ubuntu
First we install the iSCSi client software (on another computer than the target).
[email protected]:~# aptitude install open-iscsi
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Reading extended state information
Initializing package states... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
open-iscsi open-iscsi-utils{a}
Then we set the iSCSI client to start automatically.
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# cp iscsid.conf iscsid.conf.original
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# vi iscsid.conf
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# grep ^node.startup iscsid.conf
node.startup = automatic
Or you could start it manually.
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi/nodes# /etc/init.d/open-iscsi start
* Starting iSCSI initiator service iscsid
* Setting up iSCSI targets
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi/nodes#
[ OK ]
[ OK ]
Now we can connect to the Target server and use iscsiadm to discover the devices it offers:
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# iscsiadm -m discovery -t st -p 192.168.1.31
192.168.1.31:3260,1 iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
192.168.1.31:3260,1 iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
192.168.1.31:3260,1 iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun3
We can use the same iscsiadm to edit the files in /etc/iscsi/nodes/.
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# iscsiadm -m node --targetname "iqn.2010-02.be.linu\
x-training:storage.lun1" --portal "192.168.1.31:3260" --op=update --name no\
de.session.auth.authmethod --value=CHAP
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# iscsiadm -m node --targetname "iqn.2010-02.be.linu\
x-training:storage.lun1" --portal "192.168.1.31:3260" --op=update --name no\
de.session.auth.username --value=isuser
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi# iscsiadm -m node --targetname "iqn.2010-02.be.linu\
x-training:storage.lun1" --portal "192.168.1.31:3260" --op=update --name no\
de.session.auth.password --value=hunter2
Repeat the above for the other two devices.
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iSCSI devices
Restart the initiator service to log in to the target.
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi/nodes# /etc/init.d/open-iscsi restart
* Disconnecting iSCSI targets
* Stopping iSCSI initiator service
* Starting iSCSI initiator service iscsid
* Setting up iSCSI targets
[ OK ]
[ OK ]
[ OK ]
Use fdisk -l to enjoy three new iSCSI devices.
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi/nodes# fdisk -l 2> /dev/null | grep Disk
Disk /dev/sda: 17.2 GB, 17179869184 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0001983f
Disk /dev/sdb: 209 MB, 209715200 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdd: 314 MB, 314572800 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdc: 104 MB, 104857600 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
The Target (the server) now shows active sessions.
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat /proc/net/iet/session
tid:3 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun3
sid:5348024611832320 initiator:iqn.1993-08.org.debian:01:8983ed2d770
cid:0 ip:192.168.1.35 state:active hd:none dd:none
tid:2 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
sid:4785074624856576 initiator:iqn.1993-08.org.debian:01:8983ed2d770
cid:0 ip:192.168.1.35 state:active hd:none dd:none
tid:1 name:iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
sid:5066549618344448 initiator:iqn.1993-08.org.debian:01:8983ed2d770
cid:0 ip:192.168.1.35 state:active hd:none dd:none
[email protected]:/etc/iet#
133
iSCSI devices
12.7. using iSCSI devices
There is no difference between using SCSI or iSCSI devices once they are connected :
partition, make filesystem, mount.
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi/nodes# history | tail -13
94 fdisk /dev/sdc
95 fdisk /dev/sdd
96 fdisk /dev/sdb
97 mke2fs /dev/sdb1
98 mke2fs -j /dev/sdc1
99 mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdd1
100 mkdir /mnt/is1
101 mkdir /mnt/is2
102 mkdir /mnt/is3
103 mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/is1
104 mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/is2
105 mount /dev/sdd1 /mnt/is3
106 history | tail -13
[email protected]:/etc/iscsi/nodes# mount | grep is
/dev/sdb1 on /mnt/is1 type ext2 (rw)
/dev/sdc1 on /mnt/is2 type ext3 (rw)
/dev/sdd1 on /mnt/is3 type ext4 (rw)
134
iSCSI devices
12.8. practice: iSCSI devices
1. Set up a target (using an LVM and a SCSI device) and an initiator that connects to both.
135
iSCSI devices
12.9. solution: iSCSI devices
1. Set up a target (using an LVM and a SCSI device) and an initiator that connects to both.
This solution was done on Debian/ubuntu/Mint. For RHEL/CentOS check the theory.
Decide (with a partner) on a computer to be the Target and another computer to be the
Initiator.
On the Target computer:
First install iscsitarget using the standard tools for installing software in your distribution.
Then use your knowledge from the previous chapter to setup a logical volume (/dev/vg/
lvol0) and use the RAID chapter to setup /dev/md0. Then perform the following step:
vi /etc/default/iscsitarget (set enable to true)
Add your devices to /etc/iet/ietf.conf
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat ietd.conf
Target iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
IncomingUser isuser hunter2
OutgoingUser
Lun 0 Path=/dev/vg/lvol0,Type=fileio
Alias LUN1
Target iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
IncomingUser isuser hunter2
OutgoingUser
Lun 0 Path=/dev/md0,Type=fileio
Alias LUN2
Add both devices to /etc/iet/initiators.allow
[email protected]:/etc/iet# cat initiators.allow
iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun1
iqn.2010-02.be.linux-training:storage.lun2
Now start the iscsitarget daemon and move over to the Initiator.
On the Initiator computer:
Install open-iscsi and start the daemon.
Then use iscsiadm -m discovery -t st -p 'target-ip' to see the iscsi devices on the Target.
Edit the files /etc/iscsi/nodes/ as shown in the book. Then restart the iSCSI daemon and
rund fdisk -l to see the iSCSI devices.
136
Chapter 13. introduction to
multipathing
137
introduction to multipathing
13.1. install multipath
RHEL and CentOS need the device-mapper-multipath package.
yum install device-mapper-multipath
This will create a sample
multipath-0.4.9/multipath.conf.
multipath.conf
in
/usr/share/doc/device-mapper-
There is no /etc/multipath.conf until you initialize it with mpathconf.
[[email protected] ~]# mpathconf --enable --with_multipathd y
Starting multipathd daemon:
[[email protected] ~]# wc -l /etc/multipath.conf
99 /etc/multipath.conf
[
OK
]
13.2. configure multipath
You can now choose to either edit /etc/multipath.conf or use mpathconf to change this
file for you.
[[email protected] ~]# grep user_friendly_names /etc/multipath.conf
user_friendly_names yes
# user_friendly_names yes
[[email protected] ~]# mpathconf --enable --user_friendly_names n
[[email protected] ~]# grep user_friendly_names /etc/multipath.conf
user_friendly_names no
# user_friendly_names yes
[[email protected] ~]# mpathconf --enable --user_friendly_names y
[[email protected] ~]# grep user_friendly_names /etc/multipath.conf
user_friendly_names yes
# user_friendly_names yes
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introduction to multipathing
13.3. network
This example uses three networks, make sure the iSCSI Target is connected to all three
networks.
[[email protected] tgt]# ifconfig | grep -B1 192.168
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:4E:AB:8E
inet addr:192.168.1.98 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
-eth2
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:3F:A9:D1
inet addr:192.168.2.98 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
-eth3
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:94:52:26
inet addr:192.168.3.98 Bcast:192.168.3.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
The same must be true for the multipath Initiator:
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig | grep -B1 192.168
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:A1:43:41
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
-eth2
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:12:A8:70
inet addr:192.168.2.99 Bcast:192.168.2.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
-eth3
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:6E:99:9B
inet addr:192.168.3.99 Bcast:192.168.3.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
13.4. start multipathd and iscsi
Time to start (or restart) both the multipathd and iscsi services:
[[email protected] ~]# service multipathd restart
Stopping multipathd daemon:
Starting multipathd daemon:
[[email protected] ~]# service iscsi restart
Stopping iscsi:
Starting iscsi:
139
[
[
OK
OK
]
]
[
[
OK
OK
]
]
introduction to multipathing
This shows fdisk output when leaving the default friendly_names option to yes. The bottom
three are the multipath devices to use.
[[email protected] ~]# fdisk -l | grep Disk
Disk /dev/sda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0004f229
Disk /dev/sdb: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdc: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdd: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sde: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdf: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdg: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root: 41.4 GB, 41448112128 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap: 973 MB, 973078528 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdh: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdi: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdj: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdl: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdn: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdk: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdm: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdp: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdo: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/mpathh: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/mpathi: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/mapper/mpathj: 1073 MB, 1073741824 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
[[email protected] ~]#
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introduction to multipathing
13.5. multipath list
You can list the multipath connections and devices with multipath -ll.
[[email protected] ~]# multipath -ll
mpathj (1IET
00010001) dm-4 Reddy,VBOX HARDDISK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=active
| `- 13:0:0:1 sdh 8:112 active ready running
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
| `- 12:0:0:1 sdi 8:128 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
`- 14:0:0:1 sdm 8:192 active ready running
mpathi (1IET
00010003) dm-3 Reddy,VBOX HARDDISK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=active
| `- 13:0:0:3 sdk 8:160 active ready running
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
| `- 12:0:0:3 sdn 8:208 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
`- 14:0:0:3 sdp 8:240 active ready running
mpathh (1IET
00010002) dm-2 Reddy,VBOX HARDDISK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=active
| `- 12:0:0:2 sdl 8:176 active ready running
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
| `- 13:0:0:2 sdj 8:144 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=enabled
`- 14:0:0:2 sdo 8:224 active ready running
[[email protected] ~]#
The IET (iSCSI Enterprise Target) ID should match the ones you see on the Target server.
[[email protected] ~]# tgt-admin -s | grep -e LUN -e IET -e dev
LUN information:
LUN: 0
SCSI ID: IET
00010000
LUN: 1
SCSI ID: IET
00010001
Backing store path: /dev/sdb
LUN: 2
SCSI ID: IET
00010002
Backing store path: /dev/sdc
LUN: 3
SCSI ID: IET
00010003
Backing store path: /dev/sdd
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introduction to multipathing
13.6. using the device
The rest is standard mkfs, mkdir, mount:
[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/mpathi
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
65536 inodes, 262144 blocks
13107 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=268435456
8 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (8192 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 38 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[[email protected] ~]# mkdir /srv/multipath
[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/mapper/mpathi /srv/multipath/
[[email protected] ~]# df -h /srv/multipath/
Filesystem
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/mpathi 1008M
34M 924M
4% /srv/multipath
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introduction to multipathing
13.7. practice: multipathing
1. Find a partner and decide who will be iSCSI Target and who will be iSCSI Initiator and
Multipather. Set up Multipath as we did in the theory.
2. Uncomment the big 'defaults' section in /etc/multipath.conf and disable friendly names.
Verify that multipath can work. You may need to check the manual for /lib/dev/scsi_id and
for multipath.conf.
143
introduction to multipathing
13.8. solution: multipathing
1. Find a partner and decide who will be iSCSI Target and who will be iSCSI Initiator and
Multipather. Set up Multipath as we did in the theory.
Look in the theory...
2. Uncomment the big 'defaults' section in /etc/multipath.conf and disable friendly names.
Verify that multipath can work. You may need to check the manual for /lib/dev/scsi_id and
for multipath.conf.
vi multipath.conf
remove # for the big defaults section
add # for the very small one with friendly_names active
add the --replace-whitespace option to scsi_id.
defaults {
udev_dir
polling_interval
path_selector
path_grouping_policy
getuid_callout
-whitespace --device=/dev/%n"
prio
path_checker
rr_min_io
max_fds
rr_weight
failback
no_path_retry
user_friendly_names
}
/dev
10
"round-robin 0"
multibus
"/lib/udev/scsi_id --whitelisted --replace\
const
readsector0
100
8192
priorities
immediate
fail
no
The names now (after service restart) look like:
[email protected] etc]# multipath -ll
1IET_00010001 dm-8 Reddy,VBOX HARDDISK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=active
|- 17:0:0:1 sdh 8:112 active ready running
|- 16:0:0:1 sdi 8:128 active ready running
`- 15:0:0:1 sdn 8:208 active ready running
1IET_00010003 dm-10 Reddy,VBOX HARDDISK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=active
|- 17:0:0:3 sdl 8:176 active ready running
|- 16:0:0:3 sdm 8:192 active ready running
`- 15:0:0:3 sdp 8:240 active ready running
1IET_00010002 dm-9 Reddy,VBOX HARDDISK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=1 status=active
|- 17:0:0:2 sdj 8:144 active ready running
|- 16:0:0:2 sdk 8:160 active ready running
`- 15:0:0:2 sdo 8:224 active ready running
144
introduction to multipathing
Did you blacklist your own devices ?
vi multipath.conf
--> search for blacklist:
add
devnode "^sd[a-g]"
145
Part III. boot management
Table of Contents
14. bootloader .....................................................................................................................
14.1. boot terminology ..................................................................................................
14.2. grub ....................................................................................................................
14.3. grub2 ..................................................................................................................
14.4. lilo .....................................................................................................................
14.5. practice: bootloader ...............................................................................................
14.6. solution: bootloader ...............................................................................................
15. init and runlevels ...........................................................................................................
15.1. system init(ialization) ............................................................................................
15.2. daemon or demon ? ...............................................................................................
15.3. starting and stopping daemons .................................................................................
15.4. chkconfig ............................................................................................................
15.5. update-rc.d ...........................................................................................................
15.6. bum ....................................................................................................................
15.7. runlevels .............................................................................................................
15.8. systemd ...............................................................................................................
15.9. practice: init .........................................................................................................
15.10. solution : init ......................................................................................................
147
148
149
152
157
158
159
160
161
162
167
167
168
170
171
172
174
180
181
Chapter 14. bootloader
This chapter briefly discusses the boot sequence of an (Intel 32-bit or 64-bit) Linux
computer.
Systems booting with lilo are rare nowadays, so this section is brief.
The most common bootloader on Linux systems today is grub, yet this is not a Linux project.
Distributions like FreeBSD and Solaris also use grub.
Likewise, grub is not limited to Intel architecture. It can also load kernels on PowerPC.
Note that grub, while still the default in Debian, is slowly being replaced in most
distributions with grub2.
148
bootloader
14.1. boot terminology
The exact order of things that happen when starting a computer system, depends on the
hardware architecture (Intel x86 is different from Sun Sparc etc), on the boot loader (grub
is different from lilo) and on the operating system (Linux, Solaris, BSD etc). Most of this
chapter is focused on booting Linux on Intel x86 with grub.
14.1.1. post
A computer starts booting the moment you turn on the power (no kidding). This first process
is called post or power on self test. If all goes well then this leads to the bios. If all goes
not so well, then you might hear nothing, or hear beeping, or see an error message on the
screen, or maybe see smoke coming out of the computer (burning hardware smells bad!).
14.1.2. bios
All Intel x86 computers will have a basic input/output system or bios to detect, identify
and initialize hardware. The bios then goes looking for a boot device. This can be a floppy,
hard disk, cdrom, network card or usb drive.
During the bios you can see a message on the screen telling you which key (often Del or
F2) to press to enter the bios setup.
149
bootloader
14.1.3. openboot
Sun sparc systems start with openboot to test the hardware and to boot the operating system.
Bill Callkins explains openboot in his Solaris System Administration books. The details of
openboot are not the focus of this course.
14.1.4. boot password
The bios allows you to set a password. Do not forget this password, or you will have to
open up the hardware to reset it. You can sometimes set a password to boot the system, and
another password to protect the bios from being modified.
14.1.5. boot device
The bios will look for a boot device in the order configured in the bios setup. Usually an
operating system on a production server boots of a hard disk.
150
bootloader
14.1.6. master boot record
The master boot record or mbr is the first sector of a hard disk. The partitioning of a disk
in primary partitions, and the active partition are defined in the mbr.
The mbr is 512 bytes long and can be copied with dd.
dd if=/dev/sda of=bootsect.mbr count=1 bs=512
14.1.7. bootloader
The mbr is executed by the bios and contains either (a small) bootloader or code to load
a bootloader.
Looking at the mbr with od can reveal information about the bootloader.
[email protected]:~$ sudo dd if=/dev/sda count=1 bs=16 skip=24 2>/dev/null|od -c
0000000 376
G
R
U
B
\0
G
e
o
m \0
H
a
r
d
0000020
There are a variety of bootloaders available, most common on Intel architecture is grub,
which is replacing lilo in many places. When installing Linux on sparc architecture, you
can choose silo, Itanium systems can use elilo, IBM S/390 and zSeries use z/IPL, Alpha
uses milo and PowerPC architectures use yaboot (yet another boot loader).
Bootable cd's and dvd's often use syslinux.
14.1.8. kernel
The goal of all this is to load an operating system, or rather the kernel of an operating system.
A typical bootloader like grub will copy a kernel from hard disk to memory, and will then
hand control of the computer to the kernel (execute the kernel).
Once the Linux kernel is loaded, the bootloader turns control over to it. From that moment
on, the kernel is in control of the system. After discussing bootloaders, we continue with the
init system that starts all the daemons.
151
bootloader
14.2. grub
14.2.1. /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Debian switched to grub2, which will be discussed in the next section. The main boot menu
configuration file for grub2 is grub.cfg.
[email protected]:~# ls -l /boot/grub/grub.cfg
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2453 May 13 17:22 /boot/grub/grub.cfg
[email protected]:~#
14.2.2. /boot/grub/grub.conf
Distributions like Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 use grub.conf and provide a symbolic link
from /boot/grub/menu.lst and from /etc/grub.conf to this file.
[[email protected] ~]#
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root
[[email protected] ~]#
-rw-------. 1 root
[[email protected] ~]#
ls -l /boot/grub/menu.lst
root 11 Mar 7 11:53 /boot/grub/menu.lst -> ./grub.conf
ls -l /boot/grub/grub.conf
root 1189 May 5 11:47 /boot/grub/grub.conf
The file currently (RHEL 6.5) looks like this:
[[email protected] ~]# more /boot/grub/grub.conf
# grub.conf generated by anaconda
#
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that
#
all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
#
root (hd0,0)
#
kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
#
initrd /initrd-[generic-]version.img
#boot=/dev/sda
default=0
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title CentOS (2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGr\
oup-lv_root rd_NO_LUKS LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_swap \
SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 crashkernel=auto rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_root KEYBO\
ARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64.img
title CentOS (2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-l\
v_root rd_NO_LUKS LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_swap SYSFO\
NT=latarcyrheb-sun16 crashkernel=auto rd_LVM_LV=VolGroup/lv_root KEYBOARDTY\
PE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64.img
[[email protected] ~]#
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bootloader
14.2.3. menu commands
The menu commands must be at the top of grub's configuration file.
default
The default command sets a default entry to start. The first entry has number 0.
default=0
Each entry or stanza starts with a title directive.
fallback
In case the default does not boot, use the fallback entry instead.
fallback=1
timeout
The timeout will wait a number of seconds before booting the default entry.
timeout=5
hiddenmenu
The hiddenmenu will hide the grub menu unless the user presses Esc before the timeout
expires.
hiddenmenu
title
With title we can start a new entry or stanza.
title CentOS (2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64)
password
You can add a password to prevent interactive selection of a boot environment while grub
is running.
password --md5 $1$Ec.id/$T2C2ahI/EG3WRRsmmu/HN/
Use the grub interactive shell to create the password hash.
grub> md5crypt
Password: ********
Encrypted: $1$Ec.id/$T2C2ahI/EG3WRRsmmu/HN/
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bootloader
14.2.4. stanza commands
Every operating system or kernel that you want to boot with grub will have a stanza aka
an entry of a couple of lines. Listed here are some of the common stanza commands.
boot
Technically the boot command is only mandatory when running the grub command line.
This command does not have any parameters and can only be set as the last command of
a stanza.
boot
kernel
The kernel command points to the location of the kernel. To boot Linux this means booting
a gzip compressed zImage or bzip2 compressed bzImage.
This screenshot shows a kernel command used to load a Debian kernel.
kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.17-2-686 root=/dev/hda1 ro
And this is how RHEL 5 uses the kernel command.
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-128.el5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
All parameters in the kernel line can be read by the kernel itself or by any other program
(which are started later) by reading /proc/cmdline
initrd
Many Linux installations will need an initial ramdisk at boot time. This can be set in grub
with the initrd command.
Here a screenshot of Debian 4.0
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.17-2-686
And the same for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
initrd /initrd-2.6.18-128.el5.img
root
The root command accepts the root device as a parameter.
The root command will point to the hard disk and partition to use, with hd0 as the first
hard disk device and hd1 as the second hard disk device. The same numbering is used for
partitions, so hd0,0 is the first partition on the first disk and hd0,1 is the second partition
on that disk.
root (hd0,0)
154
bootloader
savedefault
The savedefault command can be used together with default saved as a menu command.
This combination will set the currently booted stanza as the next default stanza to boot.
default saved
timeout 10
title Linux
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz
savedefault
title DOS
root (hd0,1)
makeactive
chainloader +1
savedefault
14.2.5. chainloading
With grub booting, there are two choices: loading an operating system or chainloading
another bootloader. The chainloading feature of grub loads the bootsector of a partition
(that contains an operating system).
Some older operating systems require a primary partition that is set as active. Only one
partition can be set active so grub can do this on the fly just before chainloading.
This screenshot shows how to set the first primary partition active with grub.
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
Chainloading refers to grub loading another operating system's bootloader. The chainloader
switch receives one option: the number of sectors to read and boot. For DOS and OS/2 one
sector is enough. Note that DOS requires the boot/root partition to be active!
Here is a complete example to chainload an old operating system.
title MS-DOS 6.22
root (hd0,1)
makeactive
chainloader +1
155
bootloader
14.2.6. simple stanza examples
This is a screenshot of a Debian 4 stanza.
title
root
kernel
initrd
Debian GNU/Linux, kernel 2.6.17-2-686
(hd0,0)
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.17-2-686 root=/dev/hda1 ro
/boot/initrd.img-2.6.17-2-686
Here a screenshot of a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 stanza.
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-128.el5)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-98.el5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
initrd /initrd-2.6.18-98.el5.img
14.2.7. editing grub at boot time
At boot time, when the grub menu is displayed, you can type e to edit the current stanza.
This enables you to add parameters to the kernel.
One such parameter, useful when you lost the root password, is single. This will boot the
kernel in single user mode (although some distributions will still require you to type the
root password.
kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.17-2-686 root=/dev/hda1 ro single
Another option to reset a root password is to use an init=/bin/bash parameter.
kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.17-2-686 root=/dev/hda1 ro init=/bin/bash
Note that some distributions will disable this option at kernel compile time.
14.2.8. installing grub
Run the grub-install command to install grub. The command requires a destination for
overwriting the boot sector or mbr.
# grub-install /dev/hda
You will rarely have to do this manually, since grub is installed when installing the operating
system and does not need any re-install when changing configuration (as is the case for lilo).
156
bootloader
14.3. grub2
14.3.1. grub 2.0 ?
The main configuration file is now /boot/grub/grub.cfg. And while this file may look
familiar, one should never edit this file directly (because it is generated!).
[email protected]:~# ls -l /boot/grub/grub.cfg
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 2453 May 13 17:22 /boot/grub/grub.cfg
[email protected]:~# head -3 /boot/grub/grub.cfg
#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
14.3.2. /etc/grub.d/40_custom
The /etc/grub.d/40_custom file can be changed to include custom entries. These entries are
automatically added to grub.
[email protected]:~# ls -l /etc/grub.d/40_custom
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 214 Jul 3 2013 /etc/grub.d/40_custom
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/grub.d/40_custom
#!/bin/sh
exec tail -n +3 $0
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
14.3.3. /etc/default/grub
The new configuration file for changing grub is now /etc/default/grub.
[email protected]:~# head /etc/default/grub
# If you change this file, run 'update-grub' afterwards to update
# /boot/grub/grub.cfg.
# For full documentation of the options in this file, see:
#
info -f grub -n 'Simple configuration'
GRUB_DEFAULT=0
GRUB_TIMEOUT=5
GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="debian-installer=en_US"
14.3.4. update-grub
Whenever the /etc/default/grub file is changed, you will need to run update-grub to apply
the changes.
[email protected]:~# vi /etc/default/grub
[email protected]:~# update-grub
Generating grub.cfg ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-3.2.0-4-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-3.2.0-4-amd64
done
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bootloader
14.4. lilo
14.4.1. Linux loader
lilo used to be the most used Linux bootloader, but is steadily being replaced with grub and
recently grub2.
14.4.2. lilo.conf
Here is an example of a lilo.conf file. The delay switch receives a number in tenths of a
second. So the delay below is three seconds, not thirty!
boot = /dev/hda
delay = 30
image = /boot/vmlinuz
root = /dev/hda1
label = Red Hat 5.2
image = /boot/vmlinuz
root = /dev/hda2
label = S.U.S.E. 8.0
other = /dev/hda4
table = /dev/hda
label = MS-DOS 6.22
The configration file shows three example stanzas. The first one boots Red Hat from the first
partition on the first disk (hda1). The second stanza boots Suse 8.0 from the next partition.
The last one loads MS-DOS.
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bootloader
14.5. practice: bootloader
0. Find out whether your system is using lilo, grub or grub2. Only do the practices that are
appropriate for your system.
1. Make a copy of the kernel, initrd and System.map files in /boot. Put the copies also in /
boot but replace 2.x or 3.x with 4.0 (just imagine that Linux 4.0 is out.).
2. Add a stanza in grub for the 4.0 files. Make sure the title is different.
3. Set the boot menu timeout to 30 seconds.
4. Reboot and test the new stanza.
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bootloader
14.6. solution: bootloader
0. Find out whether your system is using lilo, grub or grub2. Only do the practices that are
appropriate for your system.
1. Make a copy of the kernel, initrd and System.map files in /boot. Put the copies also in /
boot but replace 2.x or 3.x with 4.0 (just imagine that Linux 4.0 is out.).
[[email protected] boot]# uname -r
2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64
[[email protected] boot]# cp System.map-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 System.map-4.0
[[email protected] boot]# cp vmlinuz-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 vmlinuz-4.0
[[email protected] boot]# cp initramfs-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64.img initramfs-4.0\
.img
Do not forget that the initrd (or initramfs) file ends in .img .
2. Add a stanza in grub for the 4.0 files. Make sure the title is different.
[[email protected] grub]# cut -c1-70 menu.lst | tail -12
title CentOS (4.0)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-4.0 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root rd_NO_LUKS L
initrd /initramfs-4.0.img
title CentOS (2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGro
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64.img
title CentOS (2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv
initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-431.el6.x86_64.img
[[email protected] grub]#
3. Set the boot menu timeout to 30 seconds.
[[email protected] grub]# vi menu.lst
[[email protected] grub]# grep timeout /boot/grub/grub.conf
timeout=30
4. Reboot and test the new stanza.
[[email protected] grub]# reboot
Select your stanza and if it boots then you did it correct.
160
Chapter 15. init and runlevels
Many Unix and Linux distributions use init scripts to start daemons in the same way that
Unix System V did. This chapter will explain in detail how that works.
Init starts daemons by using scripts, where each script starts one daemon, and where each
script waits for the previous script to finish. This serial process of starting daemons is slow,
and although slow booting is not a problem on servers where uptime is measured in years,
the recent uptake of Linux on the desktop results in user complaints.
To improve Linux startup speed, Canonical has developed upstart, which was first used
in Ubuntu. Solaris also used init up to Solaris 9, for Solaris 10 Sun developed Service
Management Facility. Both systems start daemons in parallel and can replace the SysV init
scripts. There is also an ongoing effort to create initng (init next generation).
In 2014 the systemd initiative has taken a lead when after Fedora, RHEL7 and CentOS7
also Debian has chosen this to be the prefered replacement for init. The end of this module
contains an introduction to systemd.
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init and runlevels
15.1. system init(ialization)
15.1.1. process id 1
The kernel receives system control from the bootloader. After a while the kernel starts the
init daemon. The init daemon (/sbin/init) is the first daemon that is started and receives
process id 1 (PID 1). Init never dies.
15.1.2. configuration in /etc/inittab
When /sbin/init is started, it will first read its configuration file /etc/inittab. In that file, it
will look for the value of initdefault (3 in the screenshot below).
[[email protected] ~]$ grep ^id /etc/inittab
id:3:initdefault:
15.1.3. initdefault
The value found in initdefault indicates the default runlevel. Some Linux distributions have
a brief description of runlevels in /etc/inittab, like here on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:
#
0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
#
1 - Single user mode
#
2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you don't have network)
#
3 - Full multiuser mode
#
4 - unused
#
5 - X11
#
6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
Runlevel 0 means the system is shutting down. Runlevel 1 is used for troubleshooting, only
the root user can log on, and only at the console. Runlevel 3 is typical for servers, whereas
runlevel 5 is typical for desktops (graphical logon). Besides runlevels 0, 1 and 6, the use may
vary depending on the distribution. Debian and derived Linux systems have full network
and GUI logon on runlevels 2 to 5. So always verify the proper meaning of runlevels on
your system.
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init and runlevels
15.1.4. sysinit script
/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit
The next line in /etc/inittab in Red Hat and derivatives is the following.
si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit
This means that independent of the selected runlevel, init will run the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit
script. This script initializes hardware, sets some basic environment, populates /etc/mtab
while mounting file systems, starts swap and more.
[[email protected] ~]$ egrep -e"^# Ini" -e"^# Sta" -e"^# Che" /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit
# Check SELinux status
# Initialize hardware
# Start the graphical boot, if necessary; /usr may not be mounted yet...
# Initialiaze ACPI bits
# Check filesystems
# Start the graphical boot, if necessary and not done yet.
# Check to see if SELinux requires a relabel
# Initialize pseudo-random number generator
# Start up swapping.
# Initialize the serial ports.
That egrep command could also have been written with grep like this :
grep "^# \(Ini\|Sta\|Che\)".
/etc/init.d/rcS
Debian has the following line after initdefault.
si::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS
The /etc/init.d/rcS script will always run on Debian (independent of the selected runlevel).
The script is actually running all scripts in the /etc/rcS.d/ directory in alphabetical order.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/init.d/rcS
#! /bin/sh
#
# rcS
#
# Call all S??* scripts in /etc/rcS.d/ in numerical/alphabetical order
#
exec /etc/init.d/rc S
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init and runlevels
15.1.5. rc scripts
Init will continue to read /etc/inittab and meets this section on Debian Linux.
l0:0:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
l1:1:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
l2:2:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
l3:3:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
l4:4:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
l5:5:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
l6:6:wait:/etc/init.d/rc
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux it is identical except init.d is rc.d.
l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
In both cases, this means that init will start the rc script with the runlevel as the only
parameter. Actually /etc/inittab has fields seperated by colons. The second field determines
the runlevel in which this line should be executed. So in both cases, only one line of the
seven will be executed, depending on the runlevel set by initdefault.
15.1.6. rc directories
When you take a look any of the /etc/rcX.d/ directories, then you will see a lot of (links to)
scripts who's name start with either uppercase K or uppercase S.
[[email protected]
lrwxrwxrwx 1
lrwxrwxrwx 1
lrwxrwxrwx 1
lrwxrwxrwx 1
rc3.d]# ls -l | tail -4
root root 19 Oct 11 2008
root root 19 Oct 11 2008
root root 11 Jan 21 04:16
root root 16 Jan 21 04:17
S98haldaemon -> ../init.d/haldaemon
S99firstboot -> ../init.d/firstboot
S99local -> ../rc.local
S99smartd -> ../init.d/smartd
The /etc/rcX.d/ directories only contain links to scripts in /etc/init.d/. Links allow for the
script to have a different name. When entering a runlevel, all scripts that start with uppercase
K or uppercase S will be started in alphabetical order. Those that start with K will be started
first, with stop as the only parameter. The remaining scripts with S will be started with start
as the only parameter.
All this is done by the /etc/rc.d/rc script on Red Hat and by the /etc/init.d/rc script on
Debian.
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init and runlevels
15.1.7. mingetty
mingetty in /etc/inittab
Almost at the end of /etc/inittab there is a section to start and respawn several mingetty
daemons.
[[email protected] ~]# grep getty /etc/inittab
# Run gettys in standard runlevels
1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2
3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3
4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5
6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6
mingetty and /bin/login
This /sbin/mingetty will display a message on a virtual console and allow you to type a
userid. Then it executes the /bin/login command with that userid. The /bin/login program
will verify whether that user exists in /etc/passwd and prompt for (and verify) a password.
If the password is correct, /bin/login passes control to the shell listed in /etc/passwd.
respawning mingetty
The mingetty daemons are started by init and watched until they die (user exits the shell and
is logged out). When this happens, the init daemon will respawn a new mingetty. So even
if you kill a mingetty daemon, it will be restarted automatically.
This example shows that init respawns mingetty daemons. Look at the PID's of the last two
mingetty processes.
[[email protected] ~]# ps -C mingetty
PID TTY
TIME CMD
2407 tty1
00:00:00 mingetty
2408 tty2
00:00:00 mingetty
2409 tty3
00:00:00 mingetty
2410 tty4
00:00:00 mingetty
2411 tty5
00:00:00 mingetty
2412 tty6
00:00:00 mingetty
When we kill the last two mingettys, then init will notice this and start them again (with
a different PID).
[[email protected] ~]# kill 2411 2412
[[email protected] ~]# ps -C mingetty
PID TTY
TIME CMD
2407 tty1
00:00:00 mingetty
2408 tty2
00:00:00 mingetty
2409 tty3
00:00:00 mingetty
2410 tty4
00:00:00 mingetty
2821 tty5
00:00:00 mingetty
2824 tty6
00:00:00 mingetty
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init and runlevels
disabling a mingetty
You can disable a mingetty for a certain tty by removing the runlevel from the second field
in its line in /etc/inittab. Don't forget to tell init about the change of its configuration file
with kill -1 1.
The example below shows how to disable mingetty on tty3 to tty6 in runlevels 4 and 5.
[[email protected] ~]# grep getty /etc/inittab
# Run gettys in standard runlevels
1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2
3:23:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3
4:23:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
5:23:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5
6:23:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6
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init and runlevels
15.2. daemon or demon ?
A daemon is a process that runs in background, without a link to a GUI or terminal. Daemons
are usually started at system boot, and stay alive until the system shuts down. In more recent
technical writings, daemons are often refered to as services.
Unix daemons are not to be confused with demons. Evi Nemeth, co-author of the UNIX
System Administration Handbook has the following to say about daemons:
Many people equate the word "daemon" with the word "demon", implying some
kind of satanic connection between UNIX and the underworld. This is an egregious
misunderstanding. "Daemon" is actually a much older form of "demon"; daemons have no
particular bias towards good or evil, but rather serve to help define a person's character or
personality. The ancient Greeks' concept of a "personal daemon" was similar to the modern
concept of a "guardian angel" ....
15.3. starting and stopping daemons
The K and S scripts are links to the real scripts in /etc/init.d/. These can also be used when the
system is running to start and stop daemons (or services). Most of them accept the following
parameters: start, stop, restart, status.
For example in this screenshot we restart the samba daemon.
[email protected]:~# /etc/init.d/samba restart
* Stopping Samba daemons...
* Starting Samba daemons...
[ OK ]
[ OK ]
You can achieve the same result on RHEL/Fedora with the service command.
[[email protected] ~]# service smb restart
Shutting down SMB services:
Shutting down NMB services:
Starting SMB services:
Starting NMB services:
[
[
[
[
You might also want to take a look at chkconfig, update-rc.d.
167
OK
OK
OK
OK
]
]
]
]
init and runlevels
15.4. chkconfig
The purpose of chkconfig is to relieve system administrators of manually managing all the
links and scripts in /etc/init.d and /etc/rcX.d/.
15.4.1. chkconfig --list
Here we use chkconfig to list the status of a service in the different runlevels. You can see
that the crond daemon (or service) is only activated in runlevels 2 to 5.
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig --list crond
crond
0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
When you compare the screenshot above with the one below, you can see that off equals to
a K link to the script, whereas on equals to an S link.
[[email protected] etc]# find ./rc?.d/ -name \*crond -exec ls -l {} \;|cut -b40./rc0.d/K60crond -> ../init.d/crond
./rc1.d/K60crond -> ../init.d/crond
./rc2.d/S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
./rc3.d/S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
./rc4.d/S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
./rc5.d/S90crond -> ../init.d/crond
./rc6.d/K60crond -> ../init.d/crond
15.4.2. runlevel configuration
Here you see how to use chkconfig to disable (or enable) a service in a certain runlevel.
This screenshot shows how to disable crond in runlevel 3.
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig --level 3 crond off
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig --list crond
crond
0:off 1:off 2:on 3:off 4:on 5:on 6:off
This screenshot shows how to enable crond in runlevels 3 and 4.
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig --level 34 crond on
[[email protected] ~]# chkconfig --list crond
crond
0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
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init and runlevels
15.4.3. chkconfig configuration
Every script in /etc/init.d/ can have (comment) lines to tell chkconfig what to do with the
service. The line with # chkconfig: contains the runlevels in which the service should be
started (2345), followed by the priority for start (90) and stop (60).
[[email protected] ~]# head -9 /etc/init.d/crond | tail -5
# chkconfig: 2345 90 60
# description: cron is a standard UNIX program that runs user-specified
#
programs at periodic scheduled times. vixie cron adds a
#
number of features to the basic UNIX cron, including better
#
security and more powerful configuration options.
15.4.4. enable and disable services
Services can be enabled or disabled in all runlevels with one command. Runlevels 0, 1 and
6 are always stopping services (or calling the scripts with stop) even when their name starts
with uppercase S.
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
crond
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
crond
~]# chkconfig crond off
~]# chkconfig --list crond
0:off
1:off
2:off
3:off
~]# chkconfig crond on
~]# chkconfig --list crond
0:off
1:off
2:on
3:on
169
4:off
5:off
6:off
4:on
5:on
6:off
init and runlevels
15.5. update-rc.d
15.5.1. about update-rc.d
The Debian equivalent of chkconfig is called update-rc.d. This tool is designed for use in
scripts, if you prefer a graphical tool then look at bum.
When there are existing links in /etc/rcX.d/ then update-rc.d does not do anything. This is
to avoid that post installation scripts using update-rc.d are overwriting changes made by
a system administrator.
[email protected]:~# update-rc.d cron remove
update-rc.d: /etc/init.d/cron exists during rc.d purge (use -f to force)
As you can see in the next screenshot, nothing changed for the cron daemon.
[email protected]:~# find
/etc/rc0.d/K11cron
/etc/rc1.d/K11cron
/etc/rc2.d/S89cron
/etc/rc3.d/S89cron
/etc/rc4.d/S89cron
/etc/rc5.d/S89cron
/etc/rc6.d/K11cron
/etc/rc?.d/ -name '*cron' -exec ls -l {} \;|cut -b44-> ../init.d/cron
-> ../init.d/cron
-> ../init.d/cron
-> ../init.d/cron
-> ../init.d/cron
-> ../init.d/cron
-> ../init.d/cron
15.5.2. removing a service
Here we remove cron from all runlevels. Remember that the proper way to disable a service
is to put K scripts oin all runlevels!
[email protected]:~# update-rc.d -f cron remove
Removing any system startup links for /etc/init.d/cron ...
/etc/rc0.d/K11cron
/etc/rc1.d/K11cron
/etc/rc2.d/S89cron
/etc/rc3.d/S89cron
/etc/rc4.d/S89cron
/etc/rc5.d/S89cron
/etc/rc6.d/K11cron
[email protected]:~# find /etc/rc?.d/ -name '*cron' -exec ls -l {} \;|cut [email protected]:~#
15.5.3. enable a service
This screenshot shows how to use update-rc.d to enable a service in runlevels 2, 3, 4 and
5 and disable the service in runlevels 0, 1 and 6.
[email protected]:~# update-rc.d cron defaults
Adding system startup for /etc/init.d/cron ...
/etc/rc0.d/K20cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc1.d/K20cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc6.d/K20cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc2.d/S20cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc3.d/S20cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc4.d/S20cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc5.d/S20cron -> ../init.d/cron
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init and runlevels
15.5.4. customize a service
And here is an example on how to set your custom configuration for the cron daemon.
[email protected]:~# update-rc.d -n cron start 11 2 3 4 5 . stop 89 0 1 6 .
Adding system startup for /etc/init.d/cron ...
/etc/rc0.d/K89cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc1.d/K89cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc6.d/K89cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc2.d/S11cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc3.d/S11cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc4.d/S11cron -> ../init.d/cron
/etc/rc5.d/S11cron -> ../init.d/cron
15.6. bum
This screenshot shows bum in advanced mode.
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init and runlevels
15.7. runlevels
15.7.1. display the runlevel
You can see your current runlevel with the runlevel or who -r commands.
The runlevel command is typical Linux and will output the previous and the current runlevel.
If there was no previous runlevel, then it will mark it with the letter N.
[[email protected] ~]# runlevel
N 3
The history of who -r dates back to Seventies Unix, it still works on Linux.
[[email protected] ~]# who -r
run-level 3 Jul 28 09:15
last=S
15.7.2. changing the runlevel
You can switch to another runlevel with the telinit command. On Linux /sbin/telinit is
usually a (hard) link to /sbin/init.
This screenshot shows how to switch from runlevel 2 to runlevel 3 without reboot.
[email protected]:~# runlevel
N 2
[email protected]:~# init 3
[email protected]:~# runlevel
2 3
15.7.3. /sbin/shutdown
The shutdown command is used to properly shut down a system.
Common switches used with shutdown are -a, -t, -h and -r.
The -a switch forces /sbin/shutdown to use /etc/shutdown.allow. The -t switch is used
to define the number of seconds between the sending of the TERM signal and the KILL
signal. The -h switch halts the system instead of changing to runlevel 1. The -r switch tells
/sbin/shutdown to reboot after shutting down.
This screenshot shows how to use shutdown with five seconds between TERM and KILL
signals.
[email protected]:~# shutdown -t5 -h now
The now is the time argument. This can be +m for the number of minutes to wait before
shutting down (with now as an alias for +0. The command will also accept hh:mm instead
of +m.
15.7.4. halt, reboot and poweroff
The binary /sbin/reboot is the same as /sbin/halt and /sbin/poweroff. Depending on the
name we use to call the command, it can behave differently.
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init and runlevels
When in runlevel 0 or 6 halt, reboot and poweroff will tell the kernel to halt, reboot or
poweroff the system.
When not in runlevel 0 or 6, typing reboot as root actually calls the shutdown command
with the -r switch and typing poweroff will switch off the power when halting the system.
15.7.5. /var/log/wtmp
halt, reboot and poweroff all write to /var/log/wtmp. To look at /var/log/wtmp, we need
to use th last.
[[email protected] ~]# last
reboot
system boot
reboot
system boot
reboot
system boot
reboot
system boot
| grep reboot
2.6.18-128.el5
2.6.18-128.el5
2.6.18-128.el5
2.6.18-128.el5
Fri
Wed
Mon
Mon
May 29 11:44
May 27 12:10
May 25 19:34
Feb 9 13:20
(192+05:01)
(06:49)
(1+15:59)
(106+21:13)
15.7.6. Ctrl-Alt-Del
When rc is finished starting all those scripts, init will continue to read /etc/inittab. The next
line is about what to do when the user hits Ctrl-Alt-Delete on the keyboard.
Here is what Debian 4.0 does.
[email protected]:~# grep -i ctrl /etc/inittab
# What to do when CTRL-ALT-DEL is pressed.
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
Which is very similar to the default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2 action.
[[email protected] ~]# grep -i ctrl /etc/inittab
# Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE
ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now
One noticable difference is that Debian forces shutdown to use /etc/shutdown.allow, where
Red Hat allows everyone to invoke shutdown pressing Ctrl-Alt-Delete.
15.7.7. UPS and loss of power
[[email protected] ~]# grep ^p /etc/inittab
pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure; System Shutting Down"
pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored; Shutdown Cancelled"
It will read commands on what to execute in case of powerfailure, powerok and Ctrl-AltDelete. The init process never stops keeping an eye on power failures and that triple key
combo.
[email protected]:~# grep ^p /etc/inittab
pf::powerwait:/etc/init.d/powerfail start
pn::powerfailnow:/etc/init.d/powerfail now
po::powerokwait:/etc/init.d/powerfail stop
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init and runlevels
15.8. systemd
It is likely that systemd will replace all the standard init/runlevel/rc functionality. Both Red
Hat and Debian have decided in 2014 that systemd will be replacing init in future releases
(RHEL7/CentOS7 and Debian 8).
The screenshot below shows systemd running as pid 1 on RHEL7.
[[email protected] ~]# ps fax | grep systemd | cut -c1-76
1 ?
Ss
0:01 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system
505 ?
Ss
0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-journald
545 ?
Ss
0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-udevd
670 ?
Ss
0:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-logind
677 ?
Ssl
0:00 /bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --no
2662 pts/1
S+
0:00
\_ grep --color=auto systemd
[[email protected] ~]#
Debian 8 (not yet released in September 2014) uses parts of systemd, but still has init as
pid 1.
[email protected]:~# ps fax | grep systemd
2042 ?
S
0:00 /sbin/cgmanager --daemon -m name=systemd
10127 pts/4
S+
0:00
|
\_ grep systemd
2777 ?
S
0:00 /lib/systemd/systemd-logind
[email protected]:~#
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init and runlevels
15.8.1. systemd targets
The first command to learn is systemctl list-units --type=target (or the shorter version
systemctl -t target). It will show you the different targets on the system.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl list-units --type=target
UNIT
LOAD
ACTIVE SUB
DESCRIPTION
basic.target
loaded active active Basic System
cryptsetup.target
loaded active active Encrypted Volumes
getty.target
loaded active active Login Prompts
graphical.target
loaded active active Graphical Interface
local-fs-pre.target loaded active active Local File Systems (Pre)
local-fs.target
loaded active active Local File Systems
multi-user.target
loaded active active Multi-User System
network.target
loaded active active Network
nfs.target
loaded active active Network File System Server
paths.target
loaded active active Paths
remote-fs.target
loaded active active Remote File Systems
slices.target
loaded active active Slices
sockets.target
loaded active active Sockets
swap.target
loaded active active Swap
sysinit.target
loaded active active System Initialization
timers.target
loaded active active Timers
LOAD
= Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB
= The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.
16 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.
[[email protected] ~]#
Targets are the replacement of runlevels and define specific points to reach when booting
the system. For example the graphical.target is reached when you get a graphical interface,
and the nfs.target requires a running nfs server.
To switch to a target (for example multi-user.target), we now use systemctl isolate (instead
of the equivalent init 3 to change the runlevel).
[[email protected]
169
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
129
[[email protected]
~]# ps fax | wc -l
~]# systemctl isolate multi-user.target
~]# ps fax | wc -l
~]#
To change the default target, we again use this systemctl command (instead of editing the
/etc/inittab file).
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable multi-user.target --force
rm '/etc/systemd/system/default.target'
ln -s '/usr/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target' '/etc/systemd/system/default\
.target'
[[email protected] ~]#
This command removed the file /etc/systemd/system/default.target and replaced it with a
symbolic link to the multi-user-.target target.
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init and runlevels
15.8.2. systemd dependencies
Dependencies are no longer defined by alfabetical order of running scripts, but by
configuration in /etc/systemd/system/. For example here are the required services for the
multi-user.target on Red Hat Enterprise 7.
[[email protected] ~]# ls /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/
abrt-ccpp.service
hypervkvpd.service
postfix.service
abrtd.service
hypervvssd.service
remote-fs.target
abrt-oops.service
irqbalance.service
rhsmcertd.service
abrt-vmcore.service
ksm.service
rngd.service
abrt-xorg.service
ksmtuned.service
rpcbind.service
atd.service
libstoragemgmt.service rsyslog.service
auditd.service
libvirtd.service
smartd.service
avahi-daemon.service mdmonitor.service
sshd.service
chronyd.service
ModemManager.service
sysstat.service
crond.service
NetworkManager.service tuned.service
cups.path
nfs.target
vmtoolsd.service
[[email protected] ~]#
Debian8 is not fully migrated yet.
[email protected]:~# ls /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/
anacron.service
binfmt-support.service pppd-dns.service ssh.service
atd.service
fancontrol.service
remote-fs.target
avahi-daemon.service lm-sensors.service
rsyslog.service
Typical rc scripts are replaced with services. Issue the systemctl list-units -t service --all
(or systemctl -at service) to get a list of all services on your system.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl -at service | head -5
UNIT
LOAD
ACTIVE
SUB
abrt-ccpp.service
loaded active
exited
abrt-oops.service
loaded active
running
abrt-vmcore.service loaded inactive dead
abrt-xorg.service
loaded active
running
[[email protected] ~]#
| column -t | cut -c1-78
DESCRIPTION
Install
ABRT
coredump
ABRT
kernel
log
Harvest
vmcores for
ABRT
Xorg
log
And here an example on how to see the status of the sshd service.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl status sshd.service
sshd.service - OpenSSH server daemon
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled)
Active: active (running) since Wed 2014-09-10 13:42:21 CEST; 55min ago
Main PID: 1400 (sshd)
CGroup: /system.slice/sshd.service
--1400 /usr/sbin/sshd -D
Sep 10 13:42:21 rhel7 systemd[1]: Started OpenSSH server daemon.
Sep 10 13:42:21 rhel7 sshd[1400]: Server listening on 0.0.0.0 port 22.
Sep 10 13:42:21 rhel7 sshd[1400]: Server listening on :: port 22.
[[email protected] ~]#
176
init and runlevels
15.8.3. systemd services
The chkconfig and service commands are considered 'legacy'. They are replaced with
systemctl.
This screenshot shows the new way to start and stop a service.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=active
SubState=running
UnitFileState=enabled
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=inactive
SubState=dead
UnitFileState=enabled
[[email protected] ~]#
start crond.service
show crond.service | grep State
stop crond.service
show crond.service | grep State
And here is the new way to stop and disable a service.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl stop crond.service
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl disable crond.service
rm '/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/crond.service'
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl show crond.service | grep State
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=inactive
SubState=dead
UnitFileState=disabled
[[email protected] ~]#
This screenshot shows how to enable and start the service again.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl enable crond.service
ln -s '/usr/lib/systemd/system/crond.service' '/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.\
target.wants/crond.service'
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl start crond.service
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl show crond.service | grep State
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=active
SubState=running
UnitFileState=enabled
[[email protected] ~]#
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init and runlevels
15.8.4. systemd signalling
You can also use systemd to kill problematic services.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl show crond.service | grep State
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=active
SubState=running
UnitFileState=enabled
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl kill -s SIGKILL crond.service
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl show crond.service | grep State
LoadState=loaded
ActiveState=failed
SubState=failed
UnitFileState=enabled
[[email protected] ~]#
15.8.5. systemd shutdown
The poweroff, halt and reboot commands are considered legacy now and are handeld by
systemctl. The table below shows the legacy commands on the left and their new systemd
equivalent on the right.
Table 15.1. systemd power management
legacy command
systemd command
poweroff
systemctl poweroff
reboot
systemctl reboot
halt
systemctl halt
pm-suspend
systemctl suspend
pm-hibernate
systemctl hibernate
15.8.6. remote systemd
The systemctl utility has a buil-in remote control providing there is an ssh daemon running
on the remote system.
This screenshot shows how to use systemctl to verify a service on an other RHEL server.
[[email protected] ~]# systemctl -H [email protected] status sshd
[email protected]'s password:
sshd.service - OpenSSH server daemon
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled)
Active: active (running) since Thu 2014-09-11 13:04:10 CEST; 16min ago
Process: 1328 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd-keygen (code=exited, status=0/SUCCE\
SS)
Main PID: 1363 (sshd)
CGroup: /system.slice/sshd.service
[[email protected] ~]#
178
init and runlevels
15.8.7. there is more systemd
There are other tools...
systemd-analyze
systemd-ask-password
systemd-cat
systemd-cgls
systemd-cgtop
systemd-coredumpctl
systemd-delta
systemd-detect-virt
systemd-inhibit
systemd-loginctl
systemd-machine-id-setup
systemd-notify
systemd-nspawn
systemd-run
systemd-stdio-bridge
systemd-sysv-convert
systemd-tmpfiles
systemd-tty-ask-password-agent
For example systemd-analyze blame will give you an overview of the time it took for each
service to boot.
[[email protected] ~]# systemd-analyze blame | head
1.977s firewalld.service
1.096s tuned.service
993ms postfix.service
939ms iprinit.service
925ms vboxadd-x11.service
880ms firstboot-graphical.service
839ms accounts-daemon.service
829ms network.service
822ms iprupdate.service
795ms boot.mount
[[email protected] ~]#
179
init and runlevels
15.9. practice: init
1. Change /etc/inittab so that only two mingetty's are respawned. Kill the other mingetty's
and verify that they don't come back.
2. Use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine. Go to runlevel 5, display the current
and previous runlevel, then go back to runlevel 3.
3. Is the sysinit script on your computers setting or changing the PATH environment
variable ?
4. List all init.d scripts that are started in runlevel 2.
5. Write a script that acts like a daemon script in /etc/init.d/. It should have a case statement
to act on start/stop/restart and status. Test the script!
6. Use chkconfig to setup your script to start in runlevels 3,4 and 5, and to stop in any other
runlevel.
180
init and runlevels
15.10. solution : init
1. Change /etc/inittab so that only two mingetty's are respawned. Kill the other mingetty's
and verify that they don't come back.
Killing the mingetty's will result in init respawning them. You can edit /etc/inittab so it
looks like the screenshot below. Don't forget to also run kill -1 1.
[[email protected] ~]# grep tty /etc/inittab
# Run gettys in standard runlevels
1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2
3:2:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3
4:2:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
5:2:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty5
6:2:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6
[[email protected] ~]#
2. Use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine. Go to runlevel 5, display the current
and previous runlevel, then go back to runlevel 3.
init 5 (watch the console for the change taking place)
runlevel
init 3 (again you can follow this on the console)
3. Is the sysinit script on your computers setting or changing the PATH environment
variable ?
On Red Hat, grep for PATH in /etc/rc.sysinit, on Debian/Ubuntu check /etc/rc.local and /
etc/ini.t/rc.local. The answer is probably no, but on RHEL5 the rc.sysinit script does set
the HOSTNAME variable.
[[email protected] etc]# grep HOSTNAME rc.sysinit
4. List all init.d scripts that are started in runlevel 2.
[email protected] ~# chkconfig --list | grep '2:on'
5. Write a script that acts like a daemon script in /etc/init.d/. It should have a case statement
to act on start/stop/restart and status. Test the script!
The script could look something like this.
#!/bin/bash
#
# chkconfig: 345 99 01
# description: pold demo script
#
# /etc/init.d/pold
181
init and runlevels
#
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Starting pold..."
sleep 1;
touch /var/lock/subsys/pold
echo "done."
echo pold started >> /var/log/messages
;;
stop)
echo -n "Stopping pold..."
sleep 1;
rm -rf /var/lock/subsys/pold
echo "done."
echo pold stopped >> /var/log/messages
;;
*)
echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/pold {start|stop}"
exit 1
;;
esac
exit 0
The touch /var/lock/subsys/pold is mandatory and must be the same filename as the script
name, if you want the stop sequence (the K01pold link) to be run.
6. Use chkconfig to setup your script to start in runlevels 3,4 and 5, and to stop in any other
runlevel.
chkconfig --add pold
The command above will only work when the # chkconfig: and # description: lines in the
pold script are there.
182
Part IV. system management
Table of Contents
16. scheduling .....................................................................................................................
16.1. one time jobs with at .............................................................................................
16.2. cron ....................................................................................................................
16.3. practice : scheduling ..............................................................................................
16.4. solution : scheduling ..............................................................................................
17. logging ..........................................................................................................................
17.1. login logging ........................................................................................................
17.2. syslogd ...............................................................................................................
17.3. logger .................................................................................................................
17.4. watching logs .......................................................................................................
17.5. rotating logs .........................................................................................................
17.6. practice : logging ..................................................................................................
17.7. solution : logging ..................................................................................................
18. memory management .....................................................................................................
18.1. displaying memory and cache .................................................................................
18.2. managing swap space ............................................................................................
18.3. monitoring memory with vmstat ..............................................................................
18.4. practice : memory .................................................................................................
18.5. solution : memory .................................................................................................
19. resource monitoring .......................................................................................................
19.1. four basic resources ...............................................................................................
19.2. top .....................................................................................................................
19.3. free ....................................................................................................................
19.4. watch ..................................................................................................................
19.5. vmstat .................................................................................................................
19.6. iostat ..................................................................................................................
19.7. mpstat .................................................................................................................
19.8. sadc and sar .........................................................................................................
19.9. ntop ....................................................................................................................
19.10. iftop ..................................................................................................................
19.11. iptraf .................................................................................................................
19.12. nmon ................................................................................................................
19.13. htop ..................................................................................................................
20. package management .....................................................................................................
20.1. package terminology ..............................................................................................
20.2. deb package management .......................................................................................
20.3. apt-get ................................................................................................................
20.4. aptitude ...............................................................................................................
20.5. apt ......................................................................................................................
20.6. rpm ....................................................................................................................
20.7. yum ....................................................................................................................
20.8. alien ...................................................................................................................
20.9. downloading software outside the repository ..............................................................
20.10. compiling software ..............................................................................................
20.11. practice: package management ...............................................................................
20.12. solution: package management ...............................................................................
184
185
186
188
190
191
192
193
196
199
199
200
201
202
204
205
206
208
209
210
211
212
212
212
213
213
214
215
215
216
216
216
217
217
218
219
221
223
226
227
228
230
237
238
238
239
240
Chapter 16. scheduling
Linux administrators use the at to schedule one time jobs. Recurring jobs are better
scheduled with cron. The next two sections will discuss both tools.
185
scheduling
16.1. one time jobs with at
16.1.1. at
Simple scheduling can be done with the at command. This screenshot shows the scheduling
of the date command at 22:01 and the sleep command at 22:03.
[email protected]:~# at 22:01
at> date
at> <EOT>
job 1 at Wed Aug 1 22:01:00 2007
[email protected]:~# at 22:03
at> sleep 10
at> <EOT>
job 2 at Wed Aug 1 22:03:00 2007
[email protected]:~#
In real life you will hopefully be scheduling more useful commands ;-)
16.1.2. atq
It is easy to check when jobs are scheduled with the atq or at -l commands.
[email protected]:~# atq
1
Wed Aug 1 22:01:00
2
Wed Aug 1 22:03:00
[email protected]:~# at -l
1
Wed Aug 1 22:01:00
2
Wed Aug 1 22:03:00
[email protected]:~#
2007 a root
2007 a root
2007 a root
2007 a root
The at command understands English words like tomorrow and teatime to schedule
commands the next day and at four in the afternoon.
[email protected]:~# at 10:05 tomorrow
at> sleep 100
at> <EOT>
job 5 at Thu Aug 2 10:05:00 2007
[email protected]:~# at teatime tomorrow
at> tea
at> <EOT>
job 6 at Thu Aug 2 16:00:00 2007
[email protected]:~# atq
6
Thu Aug 2 16:00:00 2007 a root
5
Thu Aug 2 10:05:00 2007 a root
[email protected]:~#
186
scheduling
16.1.3. atrm
Jobs in the at queue can be removed with atrm.
[email protected]:~# atq
6
Thu Aug 2
5
Thu Aug 2
[email protected]:~# atrm
[email protected]:~# atq
6
Thu Aug 2
[email protected]:~#
16:00:00 2007 a root
10:05:00 2007 a root
5
16:00:00 2007 a root
16.1.4. at.allow and at.deny
You can also use the /etc/at.allow and /etc/at.deny files to manage who can schedule jobs
with at.
The /etc/at.allow file can contain a list of users that are allowed to schedule at jobs. When
/etc/at.allow does not exist, then everyone can use at unless their username is listed in /
etc/at.deny.
If none of these files exist, then everyone can use at.
187
scheduling
16.2. cron
16.2.1. crontab file
The crontab(1) command can be used to maintain the crontab(5) file. Each user can have
their own crontab file to schedule jobs at a specific time. This time can be specified with
five fields in this order: minute, hour, day of the month, month and day of the week. If a
field contains an asterisk (*), then this means all values of that field.
The following example means : run script42 eight minutes after two, every day of the month,
every month and every day of the week.
8 14 * * * script42
Run script8472 every month on the first of the month at 25 past midnight.
25 0 1 * * script8472
Run this script33 every two minutes on Sunday (both 0 and 7 refer to Sunday).
*/2 * * * 0
Instead of these five fields, you can also type one of these: @reboot, @yearly or @annually,
@monthly, @weekly, @daily or @midnight, and @hourly.
16.2.2. crontab command
Users should not edit the crontab file directly, instead they should type crontab -e which
will use the editor defined in the EDITOR or VISUAL environment variable. Users can
display their cron table with crontab -l.
16.2.3. cron.allow and cron.deny
The cron daemon crond is reading the cron tables, taking into account the /etc/cron.allow
and /etc/cron.deny files.
These files work in the same way as at.allow and at.deny. When the cron.allow file exists,
then your username has to be in it, otherwise you cannot use cron. When the cron.allow file
does not exists, then your username cannot be in the cron.deny file if you want to use cron.
188
scheduling
16.2.4. /etc/crontab
The /etc/crontab file contains entries for when to run hourly/daily/weekly/monthly tasks.
It will look similar to this output.
SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
20 3 * * *
40 3 * * 7
55 3 1 * *
root
root
root
run-parts --report /etc/cron.daily
run-parts --report /etc/cron.weekly
run-parts --report /etc/cron.monthly
16.2.5. /etc/cron.*
The directories shown in the next screenshot contain the tasks that are run at the times
scheduled in /etc/crontab. The /etc/cron.d directory is for special cases, to schedule jobs
that require finer control than hourly/daily/weekly/monthly.
[email protected]:~$ ls -ld /etc/cron.*
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-04-11
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-04-19
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-04-11
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-04-11
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2008-04-11
09:14
15:04
09:14
09:14
09:14
/etc/cron.d
/etc/cron.daily
/etc/cron.hourly
/etc/cron.monthly
/etc/cron.weekly
16.2.6. /etc/cron.*
Note that Red Hat uses anacron to schedule daily, weekly and monthly cron jobs.
[email protected]:/etc# cat anacrontab
# /etc/anacrontab: configuration file for anacron
# See anacron(8) and anacrontab(5) for details.
SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
MAILTO=root
# the maximal random delay added to the base delay of the jobs
RANDOM_DELAY=45
# the jobs will be started during the following hours only
START_HOURS_RANGE=3-22
#period in days
delay in minutes
1
5
cron.daily
7
25
cron.weekly
@monthly 45
cron.monthly
[email protected]:/etc#
job-identifier
command
nice run-parts /etc/cron.daily
nice run-parts /etc/cron.weekly
nice run-parts /etc/cron.monthly
189
scheduling
16.3. practice : scheduling
1. Schedule two jobs with at, display the at queue and remove a job.
2. As normal user, use crontab -e to schedule a script to run every four minutes.
3. As root, display the crontab file of your normal user.
4. As the normal user again, remove your crontab file.
5. Take a look at the cron files and directories in /etc and understand them. What is the runparts command doing ?
190
scheduling
16.4. solution : scheduling
1. Schedule two jobs with at, display the at queue and remove a job.
[email protected] ~# at 9pm today
at> echo go to bed >> /root/todo.txt
at> <EOT>
job 1 at 2010-11-14 21:00
[email protected] ~# at 17h31 today
at> echo go to lunch >> /root/todo.txt
at> <EOT>
job 2 at 2010-11-14 17:31
[email protected] ~# atq
2 2010-11-14 17:31 a root
1 2010-11-14 21:00 a root
[email protected] ~# atrm 1
[email protected] ~# atq
2 2010-11-14 17:31 a root
[email protected] ~# date
Sun Nov 14 17:31:01 CET 2010
[email protected] ~# cat /root/todo.txt
go to lunch
2. As normal user, use crontab -e to schedule a script to run every four minutes.
[email protected] ~$ crontab -e
no crontab for paul - using an empty one
crontab: installing new crontab
3. As root, display the crontab file of your normal user.
[email protected] ~# crontab -l -u paul
*/4 * * * * echo `date` >> /home/paul/crontest.txt
4. As the normal user again, remove your crontab file.
[email protected] ~$ crontab -r
[email protected] ~$ crontab -l
no crontab for paul
5. Take a look at the cron files and directories in /etc and understand them. What is the runparts command doing ?
run-parts runs a script in a directory
191
Chapter 17. logging
This chapter has three distinct subjects.
First we look at login logging ; how can we find out who is logging in to the system, when
and from where. And who is not logging in, who fails at su or ssh.
Second we discuss how to configure the syslog daemon, and how to test it with logger.
The last part is mostly about rotating logs and mentions the tail -f and watch commands
for watching logs.
192
logging
17.1. login logging
To keep track of who is logging into the system, Linux can maintain the /var/log/wtmp, /
var/log/btmp, /var/run/utmp and /var/log/lastlog files.
17.1.1. /var/run/utmp (who)
Use the who command to see the /var/run/utmp file. This command is showing you all the
currently logged in users. Notice that the utmp file is in /var/run and not in /var/log .
[[email protected] ~]# who
paul
pts/1
sandra
pts/2
inge
pts/3
els
pts/4
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
14
14
14
14
18:21
18:11
12:01
14:33
(192.168.1.45)
(192.168.1.42)
(192.168.1.33)
(192.168.1.19)
17.1.2. /var/log/wtmp (last)
The /var/log/wtmp file is updated by the login program. Use last to see the /var/run/wtmp
file.
[[email protected] ~]# last | head
paul
pts/1
192.168.1.45
reboot
system boot 2.6.9-42.0.8.ELs
nicolas pts/5
pc-dss.telematic
stefaan pts/3
pc-sde.telematic
nicolas pts/3
pc-nae.telematic
nicolas pts/3
pc-nae.telematic
dirk
pts/5
pc-dss.telematic
nicolas pts/3
pc-nae.telematic
dimitri pts/5
rhel4
stefaan pts/4
pc-sde.telematic
[[email protected] ~]#
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Wed
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
18:39
18:21
12:32
12:28
11:36
11:34
10:03
09:45
07:57
07:16
-
still logged in
(01:15)
13:06 (00:33)
12:40 (00:12)
12:21 (00:45)
11:36 (00:01)
12:31 (02:28)
11:34 (01:48)
08:38 (00:40)
down
(05:50)
The last command can also be used to get a list of last reboots.
[[email protected] ~]$ last reboot
reboot
system boot 2.6.16-rekkie
Mon Jul 30 05:13
wtmp begins Tue May 30 23:11:45 2006
[[email protected] ~]
193
(370+08:42)
logging
17.1.3. /var/log/lastlog (lastlog)
Use lastlog to see the /var/log/lastlog file.
[[email protected] ~]# lastlog | tail
tim
pts/5 10.170.1.122
rm
pts/6 rhel4
henk
stefaan
pts/3 pc-sde.telematic
dirk
pts/5 pc-dss.telematic
arsene
nicolas
pts/5 pc-dss.telematic
dimitri
pts/5 rhel4
bashuserrm
pts/7 rhel4
kornuserrm
pts/5 rhel4
[[email protected] ~]#
Tue Feb
Tue Feb
**Never
Wed Feb
Wed Feb
**Never
Wed Feb
Wed Feb
Tue Feb
Tue Feb
13 09:36:54
13 10:06:56
logged in**
14 12:28:38
14 10:03:11
logged in**
14 12:32:18
14 07:57:19
13 10:35:40
13 10:06:17
+0100 2007
+0100 2007
+0100 2007
+0100 2007
+0100
+0100
+0100
+0100
2007
2007
2007
2007
17.1.4. /var/log/btmp (lastb)
There is also the lastb command to display the /var/log/btmp file. This file is updated by
the login program when entering the wrong password, so it contains failed login attempts.
Many computers will not have this file, resulting in no logging of failed login attempts.
[[email protected] ~]# lastb
lastb: /var/log/btmp: No such file or directory
Perhaps this file was removed by the operator to prevent logging lastb\
info.
[[email protected] ~]#
The reason given for this is that users sometimes type their password by mistake instead
of their login, so this world readable file poses a security risk. You can enable bad login
logging by simply creating the file. Doing a chmod o-r /var/log/btmp improves security.
[[email protected] ~]# touch /var/log/btmp
[[email protected] ~]# ll /var/log/btmp
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Jul 30 06:12 /var/log/btmp
[[email protected] ~]# chmod o-r /var/log/btmp
[[email protected] ~]# lastb
btmp begins Mon Jul 30 06:12:19 2007
[[email protected] ~]#
Failed logins via ssh, rlogin or su are not registered in /var/log/btmp. Failed logins via tty are.
[[email protected] ~]# lastb
HalvarFl tty3
Maria
tty1
Roberto tty1
Mon Jul 30 07:10 - 07:10
Mon Jul 30 07:09 - 07:09
Mon Jul 30 07:09 - 07:09
btmp begins Mon Jul 30 07:09:32 2007
[[email protected] ~]#
194
(00:00)
(00:00)
(00:00)
logging
17.1.5. su and ssh logins
Depending on the distribution, you may also have the /var/log/secure file being filled with
messages from the auth and/or authpriv syslog facilities. This log will include su and/or
ssh failed login attempts. Some distributions put this in /var/log/auth.log, verify the syslog
configuration.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/secure
Jul 30 07:09:03 sshd[4387]: Accepted publickey for paul from ::ffff:19\
2.168.1.52 port 33188 ssh2
Jul 30 05:09:03 sshd[4388]: Accepted publickey for paul from ::ffff:19\
2.168.1.52 port 33188 ssh2
Jul 30 07:22:27 sshd[4655]: Failed password for Hermione from ::ffff:1\
92.168.1.52 port 38752 ssh2
Jul 30 05:22:27 sshd[4656]: Failed password for Hermione from ::ffff:1\
92.168.1.52 port 38752 ssh2
Jul 30 07:22:30 sshd[4655]: Failed password for Hermione from ::ffff:1\
92.168.1.52 port 38752 ssh2
Jul 30 05:22:30 sshd[4656]: Failed password for Hermione from ::ffff:1\
92.168.1.52 port 38752 ssh2
Jul 30 07:22:33 sshd[4655]: Failed password for Hermione from ::ffff:1\
92.168.1.52 port 38752 ssh2
Jul 30 05:22:33 sshd[4656]: Failed password for Hermione from ::ffff:1\
92.168.1.52 port 38752 ssh2
Jul 30 08:27:33 sshd[5018]: Invalid user roberto from ::ffff:192.168.1\
.52
Jul 30 06:27:33 sshd[5019]: input_userauth_request: invalid user rober\
to
Jul 30 06:27:33 sshd[5019]: Failed none for invalid user roberto from \
::ffff:192.168.1.52 port 41064 ssh2
Jul 30 06:27:33 sshd[5019]: Failed publickey for invalid user roberto \
from ::ffff:192.168.1.52 port 41064 ssh2
Jul 30 08:27:36 sshd[5018]: Failed password for invalid user roberto f\
rom ::ffff:192.168.1.52 port 41064 ssh2
Jul 30 06:27:36 sshd[5019]: Failed password for invalid user roberto f\
rom ::ffff:192.168.1.52 port 41064 ssh2
[[email protected] ~]#
You can enable this yourself, with a custom log file by adding the following line tot
syslog.conf.
auth.*,authpriv.*
/var/log/customsec.log
195
logging
17.2. syslogd
17.2.1. about syslog
The standard method of logging on Linux was through the syslogd daemon. Syslog was
developed by Eric Allman for sendmail, but quickly became a standard among many
Unix applications and was much later written as rfc 3164. The syslog daemon can receive
messages on udp port 514 from many applications (and appliances), and can append to log
files, print, display messages on terminals and forward logs to other syslogd daemons on
other machines. The syslogd daemon is configured in /etc/syslog.conf.
17.2.2. about rsyslog
The new method is called reliable and extended syslogd and uses the rsyslogd daemon
and the /etc/rsyslogd.conf configuration file. The syntax is backwards compatible.
Each line in the configuration file uses a facility to determine where the message is coming
from. It also contains a priority for the severity of the message, and an action to decide on
what to do with the message.
17.2.3. modules
The new rsyslog has many more features that can be expanded by using modules. Modules
allow for example exporting of syslog logging to a database.
Se the manuals for more information (when you are done with this chapter).
[email protected]:/etc# man rsyslog.conf
[email protected]:/etc# man rsyslogd
[email protected]:/etc#
196
logging
17.2.4. facilities
The man rsyslog.conf command will explain the different default facilities for certain
daemons, such as mail, lpr, news and kern(el) messages. The local0 to local7 facility can
be used for appliances (or any networked device that supports syslog). Here is a list of all
facilities for rsyslog.conf version 1.3. The security keyword is deprecated.
auth (security)
authpriv
cron
daemon
ftp
kern
lpr mail
mark (internal use only)
news
syslog
user
uucp
local0-7
17.2.5. priorities
The worst severity a message can have is emerg followed by alert and crit. Lowest priority
should go to info and debug messages. Specifying a severity will also log all messages with
a higher severity. You can prefix the severity with = to obtain only messages that match that
severity. You can also specify .none to prevent a specific action from any message from
a certain facility.
Here is a list of all priorities, in ascending order. The keywords warn, error and panic are
deprecated.
debug
info
notice
warning (warn)
err (error)
crit
alert
emerg (panic)
197
logging
17.2.6. actions
The default action is to send a message to the username listed as action. When the action is
prefixed with a / then rsyslog will send the message to the file (which can be a regular file,
but also a printer or terminal). The @ sign prefix will send the message on to another syslog
server. Here is a list of all possible actions.
root,user1
*
/
-/
|
@
list of users, separated by comma's
message to all logged on users
file (can be a printer, a console, a tty, ...)
file, but don't sync after every write
named pipe
other syslog hostname
In addition, you can prefix actions with a - to omit syncing the file after every logging.
17.2.7. configuration
Below a sample configuration of custom local4 messages in /etc/rsyslog.conf.
local4.crit
local4.=crit
local4.*
/var/log/critandabove
/var/log/onlycrit
/var/log/alllocal4
17.2.8. restarting rsyslogd
Don't forget to restart the server after changing its configuration.
[email protected]:/etc# service rsyslog restart
Shutting down system logger:
Starting system logger:
[email protected]:/etc#
198
[
[
OK
OK
]
]
logging
17.3. logger
The logger command can be used to generate syslog test messages. You can aslo use it in
scripts. An example of testing syslogd with the logger tool.
[root[email protected]
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
~]# logger -p local4.debug "l4 debug"
~]# logger -p local4.crit "l4 crit"
~]# logger -p local4.emerg "l4 emerg"
~]#
The results of the tests with logger.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/critandabove
Feb 14 19:55:19 rhel4a paul: l4 crit
Feb 14 19:55:28 rhel4a paul: l4 emerg
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/onlycrit
Feb 14 19:55:19 rhel4a paul: l4 crit
[[email protected] ~]# cat /var/log/alllocal4
Feb 14 19:55:11 rhel4a paul: l4 debug
Feb 14 19:55:19 rhel4a paul: l4 crit
Feb 14 19:55:28 rhel4a paul: l4 emerg
[[email protected] ~]#
17.4. watching logs
You might want to use the tail -f command to look at the last lines of a log file. The -f option
will dynamically display lines that are appended to the log.
[email protected]:~$ tail -f /var/log/udev
SEQNUM=1741
SOUND_INITIALIZED=1
ID_VENDOR_FROM_DATABASE=nVidia Corporation
ID_MODEL_FROM_DATABASE=MCP79 High Definition Audio
ID_BUS=pci
ID_VENDOR_ID=0x10de
ID_MODEL_ID=0x0ac0
ID_PATH=pci-0000:00:08.0
SOUND_FORM_FACTOR=internal
You can automatically repeat commands by preceding them with the watch command.
When executing the following:
[[email protected] ~]# watch who
Something similar to this, repeating the output of the who command every two seconds,
will appear on the screen.
Every 2.0s: who
root
paul
paul
tty1
pts/0
pts/1
Sun Jul 17 15:31:03 2011
2011-07-17 13:28
2011-07-17 13:31 (192.168.1.30)
2011-07-17 15:19 (192.168.1.30)
199
logging
17.5. rotating logs
A lot of log files are always growing in size. To keep this within bounds, you may
want to use logrotate to rotate, compress, remove and mail log files. More info on the
logrotate command in /etc/logrotate.conf.. Individual configurations can be found in the /
etc/logrotate.d/ directory.
Below a screenshot of the default Red Hat logrotate.conf file.
[email protected]:/etc# cat logrotate.conf
# see "man logrotate" for details
# rotate log files weekly
weekly
# keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs
rotate 4
# create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones
create
# use date as a suffix of the rotated file
dateext
# uncomment this if you want your log files compressed
#compress
# RPM packages drop log rotation information into this directory
include /etc/logrotate.d
# no packages own wtmp and btmp -- we'll rotate them here
/var/log/wtmp {
monthly
create 0664 root utmp
minsize 1M
rotate 1
}
/var/log/btmp {
missingok
monthly
create 0600 root utmp
rotate 1
}
# system-specific logs may be also be configured here.
[email protected]:/etc#
200
logging
17.6. practice : logging
1. Display the /var/run/utmp file with the proper command (not with cat or vi).
2. Display the /var/log/wtmp file.
3. Use the lastlog and lastb commands, understand the difference.
4. Examine syslog to find the location of the log file containing ssh failed logins.
5. Configure syslog to put local4.error and above messages in /var/log/l4e.log and local4.info
only .info in /var/log/l4i.log. Test that it works with the logger tool!
6. Configure /var/log/Mysu.log, all the su to root messages should go in that log. Test that
it works!
7. Send the local5 messages to the syslog server of your neighbour. Test that it works.
8. Write a script that executes logger to local4 every 15 seconds (different message). Use
tail -f and watch on your local4 log files.
201
logging
17.7. solution : logging
1. Display the /var/run/utmp file.
who
2. Display the /var/log/wtmp file.
last
3. Use the lastlog and lastb commands, understand the difference.
lastlog : when users last logged on
lastb: failed (bad) login attempts
4. Examine syslog to find the location of the log file containing ssh failed logins.
[email protected] ~# grep authpriv /etc/syslog.conf
authpriv.*
/var/log/secure
Debian/Ubuntu: /var/log/auth.log
Ubuntu 9.10 and Debian Lenny have switched to using rsyslog.
[email protected]:~# grep authpriv /etc/rsyslog.d/50-default.conf
auth,authpriv.*
/var/log/auth.log
[email protected]:~# grep authpriv /etc/rsyslog.conf
auth,authpriv.*
/var/log/auth.log
5. Configure syslog to put local4.error and above messages in /var/log/l4e.log and local4.info
only .info in /var/log/l4i.log. Test that it works with the logger tool!
echo local4.error /var/log/l4e.log >> /etc/syslog.conf
echo local4.=info /var/log/l4i.log >> /etc/syslog.conf
/etc/init.d/syslog restart
logger -p local4.error "l4 error test"
logger -p local4.alert "l4 alert test"
logger -p local4.info "l4 info test"
cat /var/log/l4e.log
cat /var/log/l4i.log
6. Configure /var/log/Mysu.log, all the su to root messages should go in that log. Test that
it works!
echo authpriv.*
/var/log/Mysu.log >> /etc/syslog.conf
This will log more than just the su usage.
202
logging
7. Send the local5 messages to the syslog server of your neighbour. Test that it works.
On RHEL5, edit /etc/sysconfig/syslog to enable remote listening on the server.
On RHEL7, uncomment these two lines in /etc/rsyslog.conf to enable 'UDP syslog
reception'.
# Provides UDP syslog reception
$ModLoad imudp
$UDPServerRun 514
On Debian/Ubuntu edit /etc/default/syslog or /etc/default/rsyslog.
on the client: logger -p local5.info "test local5 to neighbour"
8. Write a script that executes logger to local4 every 15 seconds (different message). Use
tail -f and watch on your local4 log files.
[email protected] scripts# cat logloop
#!/bin/bash
for i in `seq 1 10`
do
logger -p local4.info "local4.info test number $i"
sleep 15
done
[email protected] scripts# chmod +x logloop
[email protected] scripts# ./logloop &
[1] 8264
[email protected] scripts# tail -f /var/log/local4.all.log
Mar 28 13:13:36 rhel53 root: local4.info test number 1
Mar 28 13:13:51 rhel53 root: local4.info test number 2
...
203
Chapter 18. memory management
This chapter will tell you how to manage RAM memory and cache.
We start with some simple tools to display information about memory: free -om, top and
cat /proc/meminfo.
We continue with managing swap space, using terms like swapping, paging and virtual
memory.
The last part is about using vmstat to monitor swap usage.
204
memory management
18.1. displaying memory and cache
18.1.1. /proc/meminfo
Displaying /proc/meminfo will tell you a lot about the memory on your Linux computer.
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/meminfo
MemTotal:
3830176 kB
MemFree:
244060 kB
Buffers:
41020 kB
Cached:
2035292 kB
SwapCached:
9892 kB
...
The first line contains the total amount of physical RAM, the second line is the unused RAM.
Buffers is RAM used for buffering files, cached is the amount of RAM used as cache and
SwapCached is the amount of swap used as cache. The file gives us much more information
outside of the scope of this course.
18.1.2. free
The free tool can display the information provided by /proc/meminfo in a more readable
format. The example below displays brief memory information in megabytes.
[email protected]:~$ free -om
total
used
Mem:
3740
3519
Swap:
6234
82
free
221
6152
shared
0
buffers
42
cached
1994
18.1.3. top
The top tool is often used to look at processes consuming most of the cpu, but it also displays
memory information on line four and five (which can be toggled by pressing m).
Below a screenshot of top on the same ubu1010 from above.
top - 10:44:34 up 16 days, 9:56, 6 users, load average: 0.13, 0.09, 0.12
Tasks: 166 total,
1 running, 165 sleeping,
0 stopped,
0 zombie
Cpu(s): 5.1%us, 4.6%sy, 0.6%ni, 88.7%id, 0.8%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.3%si, 0.0%st
Mem:
3830176k total, 3613720k used,
216456k free,
45452k buffers
Swap: 6384636k total,
84988k used, 6299648k free, 2050948k cached
205
memory management
18.2. managing swap space
18.2.1. about swap space
When the operating system needs more memory than physically present in RAM, it can use
swap space. Swap space is located on slower but cheaper memory. Notice that, although
hard disks are commonly used for swap space, their access times are one hundred thousand
times slower.
The swap space can be a file, a partition, or a combination of files and partitions. You can
see the swap space with the free command, or with cat /proc/swaps.
[email protected]:~$ free -o | grep -v Mem
total
used
free
Swap:
6384636
84988
6299648
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/swaps
Filename
Type
/dev/sda3
partition
shared
Size
6384636
buffers
Used
84988
cached
Priority
-1
The amount of swap space that you need depends heavily on the services that the computer
provides.
18.2.2. creating a swap partition
You can activate or deactivate swap space with the swapon and swapoff commands. New
swap space can be created with the mkswap command. The screenshot below shows the
creation and activation of a swap partition.
[email protected]:~# fdisk -l 2> /dev/null | grep hda
Disk /dev/hda: 536 MB, 536870912 bytes
/dev/hda1
1
1040
524128+
[email protected]:~# mkswap /dev/hda1
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 536702 kB
[email protected]:~# swapon /dev/hda1
83
Linux
Now you can see that /proc/swaps displays all swap spaces separately, whereas the free om command only makes a human readable summary.
[email protected]:~# cat /proc/swaps
Filename
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol01
/dev/hda1
[email protected]:~# free -om
total
used
free
Mem:
249
245
4
Swap:
1535
0
1535
Type
partition
partition
shared
0
206
Size
Used
1048568 0
524120 0
buffers
125
cached
54
Priority
-1
-2
memory management
18.2.3. creating a swap file
Here is one more example showing you how to create a swap file. On Solaris you can use
mkfile instead of dd.
[email protected]:~# dd if=/dev/zero of=/smallswapfile bs=1024 count=4096
4096+0 records in
4096+0 records out
[email protected]:~# mkswap /smallswapfile
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 4190 kB
[email protected]:~# swapon /smallswapfile
[email protected]:~# cat /proc/swaps
Filename
Type
Size
Used
Priority
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol01
partition
1048568 0
-1
/dev/hda1
partition
524120 0
-2
/smallswapfile
file
4088
0
-3
18.2.4. swap space in /etc/fstab
If you like these swaps to be permanent, then don't forget to add them to /etc/fstab. The
lines in /etc/fstab will be similar to the following.
/dev/hda1
/smallswapfile
swap
swap
swap
swap
defaults
defaults
207
0 0
0 0
memory management
18.3. monitoring memory with vmstat
You can find information about swap usage using vmstat.
Below a simple vmstat displaying information in megabytes.
[email protected]:~$ vmstat -S m
procs ---------memory-------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system- ----cpu---r b swpd free buff cache si
so
bi
bo
in
cs us sy id wa
0 0
87
225
46 2097
0
0
2
5
14
8 6 5 89 1
Below a sample vmstat when (in another terminal) root launches a find /. It generates a lot
of disk i/o (bi and bo are disk blocks in and out). There is no need for swapping here.
[email protected]:~$ vmstat 2 100
procs ----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ----cpu---r b
swpd
free buff cache
si
so
bi
bo
in
cs us sy id wa
0 0 84984 1999436 53416 269536
0
0
2
5
2
10 6 5 89 1
0 0 84984 1999428 53416 269564
0
0
0
0 1713 2748 4 4 92 0
0 0 84984 1999552 53416 269564
0
0
0
0 1672 1838 4 6 90 0
0 0 84984 1999552 53424 269560
0
0
0
14 1587 2526 5 7 87 2
0 0 84984 1999180 53424 269580
0
0
0
100 1748 2193 4 6 91 0
1 0 84984 1997800 54508 269760
0
0
610
0 1836 3890 17 10 68 4
1 0 84984 1994620 55040 269748
0
0
250
168 1724 4365 19 17 56 9
0 1 84984 1978508 55292 269704
0
0
126
0 1957 2897 19 18 58 4
0 0 84984 1974608 58964 269784
0
0 1826
478 2605 4355 7 7 44 41
0 2 84984 1971260 62268 269728
0
0 1634
756 2257 3865 7 7 47 39
Below a sample vmstat when executing (on RHEL6) a simple memory leaking program.
Now you see a lot of memory being swapped (si is 'swapped in').
[[email protected] ~]$ vmstat 2 100
procs
r b
0 3
0 2
1 3
1 4
0 4
3 5
----------memory-------swpd free buff cache
245208 5280
232 1916
263372 4800
72
908
350672 4792
56
992
449584 4788
56 1024
471968 4828
56 1140
505960 4764
56 1136
---swap-- ----io---- --system-- -----cpu----si
so
bi
bo
in
cs us sy id wa st
261
0
0
42
27
21 0 1 98 1 0
143840 128 0 1138 462 191 2 10 0 88 0
169280 256 0 1092 360 142 1 13 0 86 0
95880
64
0
606 471 191 2 13 0 85 0
44832
80
0
390 235
90 2 12 0 87 0
68008
16
0
538 286 109 1 12 0 87 0
The code below was used to simulate a memory leak (and force swapping). This code was
found on wikipedia without author.
[email protected]:~$ cat memleak.c
#include <stdlib.h>
int main(void)
{
while (malloc(50));
return 0;
}
208
memory management
18.4. practice : memory
1. Use dmesg to find the total amount of memory in your computer.
2. Use free to display memory usage in kilobytes (then in megabytes).
3. On a virtual machine, create a swap partition (you might need an extra virtual disk for this).
4. Add a 20 megabyte swap file to the system.
5. Put all swap spaces in /etc/fstab and activate them. Test with a reboot that they are
mounted.
6. Use free to verify usage of current swap.
7. (optional) Display the usage of swap with vmstat and free -s during a memory leak.
209
memory management
18.5. solution : memory
1. Use dmesg to find the total amount of memory in your computer.
dmesg | grep Memory
2. Use free to display memory usage in kilobytes (then in megabytes).
free ; free -m
3. On a virtual machine, create a swap partition (you might need an extra virtual disk for this).
mkswap /dev/sdd1 ; swapon /dev/sdd1
4. Add a 20 megabyte swap file to the system.
dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile20mb bs=1024 count=20000
mkswap /swapfile20mb
swapon /swapfile20mb
5. Put all swap spaces in /etc/fstab and activate them. Test with a reboot that they are
mounted.
[email protected]# tail -2 /etc/fstab
/dev/sdd1
swap swap defaults 0 0
/swapfile20mb swap swap defaults 0 0
6. Use free to verify usage of current swap.
free -om
7. (optional) Display the usage of swap with vmstat and free -s during a memory leak.
210
Chapter 19. resource monitoring
Monitoring is the process of obtaining information about the utilization of memory, cpu,
bandwidth and storage. You should start monitoring your system as soon as possible, to be
able to create a baseline. Make sure that you get to know your system! This baseline is
important because it allows you to see a steady or sudden growth in resource utilization
and likewise steady (or sudden) decline in resource availability. It will allow you to plan
for scaling up or scaling out.
Let us look at some tools that go beyond ps fax, df -h, free -om and du -sh.
211
resource monitoring
19.1. four basic resources
The four basic resources to monitor are:
•
•
•
•
cpu
network
ram memory
storage
19.2. top
To start monitoring, you can use top. This tool will monitor ram memory, cpu and swap. Top
will automatically refresh. Inside top you can use many commands, like k to kill processes,
or t and m to toggle displaying task and memory information, or the number 1 to have one
line per cpu, or one summary line for all cpu's.
top - 12:23:16 up 2 days, 4:01, 2 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00
Tasks: 61 total,
1 running, 60 sleeping,
0 stopped,
0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.3% us, 0.5% sy, 0.0% ni, 98.9% id, 0.2% wa, 0.0% hi, 0.0% si
Mem:
255972k total,
240952k used,
15020k free,
59024k buffers
Swap:
524280k total,
144k used,
524136k free,
112356k cached
PID USER
1 root
2 root
3 root
4 root
5 root
16 root
26 root
...
PR NI VIRT RES SHR S
16
0 2816 560 480 S
34 19
0
0
0 S
5 -10
0
0
0 S
5 -10
0
0
0 S
15 -10
0
0
0 S
5 -10
0
0
0 S
15
0
0
0
0 S
%CPU
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
%MEM
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
TIME+
0:00.91
0:00.01
0:00.57
0:00.00
0:00.00
0:00.08
0:02.86
COMMAND
init
ksoftirqd/0
events/0
khelper
kacpid
kblockd/0
pdflush
You can customize top to display the columns of your choice, or to display only the processes
that you find interesting.
[[email protected] ~]$ top p 3456 p 8732 p 9654
19.3. free
The free command is common on Linux to monitor free memory. You can use free to display
information every x seconds, but the output is not ideal.
[[email protected] gen]$ free -om -s 10
total
used
free
shared
Mem:
249
222
27
Swap:
511
0
511
total
Mem:
Swap:
used
249
511
free
222
0
shared
27
511
[[email protected] gen]$
212
buffers
0
cached
50
109
buffers
0
cached
50
109
resource monitoring
19.4. watch
It might be more interesting to combine free with the watch program. This program can run
commands with a delay, and can highlight changes (with the -d switch).
[[email protected] ~]$ watch -d -n 3 free -om
...
Every 3.0s: free -om
total
Mem:
Swap:
used
249
511
free
230
0
shared
19
511
Sat Jan 27 12:13:03 2007
buffers
cached
0
56
109
19.5. vmstat
To monitor CPU, disk and memory statistics in one line there is vmstat. The screenshot
below shows vmstat running every two seconds 100 times (or until the Ctrl-C). Below the
r, you see the number of processes waiting for the CPU, sleeping processes go below b.
Swap usage (swpd) stayed constant at 144 kilobytes, free memory dropped from 16.7MB
to 12.9MB. See man vmstat for the rest.
[[email protected] ~]$ vmstat 2 100
procs ----------memory--------- --swap-- ---io--- --system-- ---cpu---r b swpd
free
buff cache si so bi
bo
in
cs us sy id wa
0 0
144 16708 58212 111612
0
0
3
4
75
62 0 1 99 0
0 0
144 16708 58212 111612
0
0
0
0 976
22 0 0 100 0
0 0
144 16708 58212 111612
0
0
0
0 958
14 0 1 99 0
1 0
144 16528 58212 111612
0
0
0
18 1432 7417 1 32 66 0
1 0
144 16468 58212 111612
0
0
0
0 2910 20048 4 95 1 0
1 0
144 16408 58212 111612
0
0
0
0 3210 19509 4 97 0 0
1 0
144 15568 58816 111612
0
0 300 1632 2423 10189 2 62 0 36
0 1
144 13648 60324 111612
0
0 754
0 1910 2843 1 27 0 72
0 0
144 12928 60948 111612
0
0 312 418 1346 1258 0 14 57 29
0 0
144 12928 60948 111612
0
0
0
0 977
19 0 0 100 0
0 0
144 12988 60948 111612
0
0
0
0 977
15 0 0 100 0
0 0
144 12988 60948 111612
0
0
0
0 978
18 0 0 100 0
[[email protected] ~]$
213
resource monitoring
19.6. iostat
The iostat tool can display disk and cpu statistics. The -d switch below makes iostat only
display disk information (500 times every two seconds). The first block displays statistics
since the last reboot.
[[email protected] ~]$ iostat -d 2 500
Linux 2.6.9-34.EL (RHELv4u3.localdomain)
01/27/2007
Device:
hdc
sda
sda1
sda2
dm-0
dm-1
tps
0.00
0.52
0.00
1.13
1.13
0.00
Blk_read/s
0.01
5.07
0.01
5.06
5.05
0.00
Blk_wrtn/s
0.00
7.78
0.00
7.78
7.77
0.00
Blk_read
1080
941798
968
939862
939034
360
Blk_wrtn
0
1445148
4
1445144
1444856
288
Device:
hdc
sda
sda1
sda2
dm-0
dm-1
...
[[email protected]
tps
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Blk_read/s
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Blk_wrtn/s
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Blk_read
0
0
0
0
0
0
Blk_wrtn
0
0
0
0
0
0
~]$
You can have more statistics using iostat -d -x, or display only cpu statistics with iostat -c.
[[email protected] ~]$ iostat -c 5 500
Linux 2.6.9-34.EL (RHELv4u3.localdomain)
01/27/2007
avg-cpu: %user
%nice
%sys %iowait
0.31
0.02
0.52
0.23
98.92
%idle
avg-cpu: %user
%nice
%sys %iowait
0.62
0.00
52.16
47.23
0.00
%idle
avg-cpu: %user
%nice
%sys %iowait
2.92
0.00
36.95
60.13
0.00
%idle
avg-cpu: %user
%nice
%sys %iowait
0.63
0.00
36.63
62.32
0.42
%idle
avg-cpu: %user
%nice
%sys %iowait
0.00
0.00
0.20
0.20
99.59
%idle
[[email protected] ~]$
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resource monitoring
19.7. mpstat
On multi-processor machines, mpstat can display statistics for all, or for a selected cpu.
[email protected]:~$ mpstat -P ALL
Linux 2.6.20-3-generic (laika)
CPU %user %nice
all 1.77
0.03
0 1.73
0.02
1 1.81
0.03
[email protected]:~$
%sys %iowait
1.37
1.03
1.47
1.93
1.27
0.13
02/09/2007
%irq
0.02
0.04
0.00
%soft
0.39
0.77
0.00
%steal
0.00
0.00
0.00
%idle
95.40
94.04
96.76
intr/s
1304.91
1304.91
0.00
19.8. sadc and sar
The sadc tool writes system utilization data to /var/log/sa/sa??, where ?? is replaced with
the current day of the month. By default, cron runs the sal script every 10 minutes, the sal
script runs sadc for one second. Just before midnight every day, cron runs the sa2 script,
which in turn invokes sar. The sar tool will read the daily data generated by sadc and put it
in /var/log/sa/sar??. These sar reports contain a lot of statistics.
You can also use sar to display a portion of the statistics that were gathered. Like this example
for cpu statistics.
[[email protected] sa]$ sar -u | head
Linux 2.6.9-34.EL (RHELv4u3.localdomain)
12:00:01 AM
CPU
12:10:01 AM
all
12:20:01 AM
all
12:30:01 AM
all
12:40:02 AM
all
12:50:01 AM
all
01:00:01 AM
all
01:10:01 AM
all
[[email protected] sa]$
%user
0.48
0.49
0.49
0.44
0.42
0.47
0.45
%nice
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
01/27/2007
%system
0.60
0.60
0.64
0.62
0.60
0.65
0.68
%iowait
0.04
0.06
0.25
0.07
0.10
0.08
0.08
%idle
98.87
98.84
98.62
98.86
98.87
98.80
98.78
There are other useful sar options, like sar -I PROC to display interrupt activity per interrupt
and per CPU, or sar -r for memory related statistics. Check the manual page of sar for more.
215
resource monitoring
19.9. ntop
The ntop tool is not present in default Red Hat installs. Once run, it will generate a very
extensive analysis of network traffic in html on http://localhost:3000 .
19.10. iftop
The iftop tool will display bandwidth by socket statistics for a specific network device. Not
available on default Red Hat servers.
1.91Mb
3.81Mb
5.72Mb
7.63Mb
9.54Mb
--------------|-------------|--------------|-------------|--------|---laika.local
=> barry
4.94Kb 6.65Kb 69.9Kb
<=
7.41Kb 16.4Kb
766Kb
laika.local
=> ik-in-f19.google.com
0b
1.58Kb 14.4Kb
<=
0b
292b
41.0Kb
laika.local
=> ik-in-f99.google.com
0b
83b
4.01Kb
<=
0b
83b
39.8Kb
laika.local
=> ug-in-f189.google.com
0b
42b
664b
<=
0b
42b
406b
laika.local
=> 10.0.0.138
0b
0b
149b
<=
0b
0b
256b
laika.local
=> 224.0.0.251
0b
0b
86b
<=
0b
0b
0b
laika.local
=> ik-in-f83.google.com
0b
0b
39b
<=
0b
0b
21b
19.11. iptraf
Use iptraf for a colourful display of ip traffic over the network cards.
[[email protected] ~]# iptraf
[[email protected] ~]# iptraf -i eth0
216
resource monitoring
19.12. nmon
Another popular and all round tool is nmon.
19.13. htop
You can use htop instead of top.
217
Chapter 20. package management
Most Linux distributions have a package management system with online repositories
containing thousands of packages. This makes it very easy to install and remove applications,
operating system components, documentation and much more.
We first discuss the Debian package format .deb and its tools dpkg, apt-get and aptitude.
This should be similar on Debian, Ubuntu, Mint and all derived distributions.
Then we look at the Red Hat package format .rpm and its tools rpm and yum. This should
be similar on Red Hat, Fedora, CentOS and all derived distributions.
218
package management
20.1. package terminology
20.1.1. repository
A lot of software and documentation for your Linux distribution is available as packages
in one or more centrally distributed repositories. These packages in such a repository are
tested and very easy to install (or remove) with a graphical or command line installer.
20.1.2. .deb packages
Debian, Ubuntu, Mint and all derivatives from Debian and Ubuntu use .deb packages. To
manage software on these systems, you can use aptitude or apt-get, both these tools are
a front end for dpkg.
20.1.3. .rpm packages
Red Hat, Fedora, CentOS, OpenSUSE, Mandriva, Red Flag and others use .rpm packages.
The tools to manage software packages on these systems are yum and rpm.
20.1.4. dependency
Some packages need other packages to function. Tools like apt-get, aptitude and yum will
install all dependencies you need. When using dpkg or rpm, or when building from source,
you will need to install dependencies yourself.
20.1.5. open source
These repositories contain a lot of independent open source software. Often the source code
is customized to integrate better with your distribution. Most distributions also offer this
modified source code as a package in one or more source repositories.
You are free to go to the project website itself (samba.org, apache.org, github.com, ...) an
download the vanilla (= without the custom distribution changes) source code.
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package management
20.1.6. GUI software management
End users have several graphical applications available via the desktop (look for 'add/remove
software' or something similar).
Below a screenshot of Ubuntu Software Center running on Ubuntu 12.04. Graphical tools
are not discussed in this book.
220
package management
20.2. deb package management
20.2.1. about deb
Most people use aptitude or apt-get to manage their Debian/Ubuntu family of Linux
distributions. Both are a front end for dpkg and are themselves a back end for synaptic and
other graphical tools.
20.2.2. dpkg -l
The low level tool to work with .deb packages is dpkg. Here you see how to obtain a list
of all installed packages on a Debian server.
[email protected]:~# dpkg -l | wc -l
265
Compare this to the same list on a Ubuntu Desktop computer.
[email protected]~# dpkg -l | wc -l
2527
20.2.3. dpkg -l $package
Here is an example on how to get information on an individual package. The ii at the
beginning means the package is installed.
[email protected]:~# dpkg -l rsync | tail -1 | tr -s ' '
ii rsync 3.0.7-2 fast remote file copy program (like rcp)
20.2.4. dpkg -S
You can find the package that installed a certain file on your computer with dpkg -S. This
example shows how to find the package for three files on a typical Debian server.
[email protected]:~# dpkg -S /usr/share/doc/tmux/ /etc/ssh/ssh_config /sbin/ifconfig
tmux: /usr/share/doc/tmux/
openssh-client: /etc/ssh/ssh_config
net-tools: /sbin/ifconfig
20.2.5. dpkg -L
You can also get a list of all files that are installed by a certain program. Below is the list
for the tmux package.
[email protected]:~# dpkg -L tmux
/.
/etc
/etc/init.d
/etc/init.d/tmux-cleanup
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/lintian
/usr/share/lintian/overrides
/usr/share/lintian/overrides/tmux
/usr/share/doc
221
package management
/usr/share/doc/tmux
/usr/share/doc/tmux/TODO.gz
/usr/share/doc/tmux/FAQ.gz
/usr/share/doc/tmux/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/tmux/NEWS.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/tmux/changelog.gz
/usr/share/doc/tmux/copyright
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples/tmux.vim.gz
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples/h-boetes.conf
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples/n-marriott.conf
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples/screen-keys.conf
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples/t-williams.conf
/usr/share/doc/tmux/examples/vim-keys.conf
/usr/share/doc/tmux/NOTES
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/man1
/usr/share/man/man1/tmux.1.gz
/usr/bin
/usr/bin/tmux
20.2.6. dpkg
You could use dpkg -i to install a package and dpkg -r to remove a package, but you'd have
to manually keep track of dependencies. Using apt-get or aptitude is much easier.
222
package management
20.3. apt-get
Debian has been using apt-get to manage packages since 1998. Today Debian and
many Debian-based distributions still actively support apt-get, though some experts claim
aptitude is better at handling dependencies than apt-get.
Both commands use the same configuration files and can be used alternately; whenever you
see apt-get in documentation, feel free to type aptitude.
We will start with apt-get and discuss aptitude in the next section.
20.3.1. apt-get update
When typing apt-get update you are downloading the names, versions and short description
of all packages available on all configured repositories for your system.
In the example below you can see some repositories at the url be.archive.ubuntu.com
because this computer was installed in Belgium. This url can be different for you.
[email protected]~# apt-get update
Ign http://be.archive.ubuntu.com precise InRelease
Ign http://extras.ubuntu.com precise InRelease
Ign http://security.ubuntu.com precise-security InRelease
Ign http://archive.canonical.com precise InRelease
Ign http://be.archive.ubuntu.com precise-updates InRelease
...
Hit http://be.archive.ubuntu.com precise-backports/main Translation-en
Hit http://be.archive.ubuntu.com precise-backports/multiverse Translation-en
Hit http://be.archive.ubuntu.com precise-backports/restricted Translation-en
Hit http://be.archive.ubuntu.com precise-backports/universe Translation-en
Fetched 13.7 MB in 8s (1682 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
[email protected]~#
Run apt-get update every time before performing other package operations.
20.3.2. apt-get upgrade
One of the nicest features of apt-get is that it allows for a secure update of all software
currently installed on your computer with just one command.
[email protected]:~# apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
[email protected]:~#
The above screenshot shows that all software is updated to the latest version available for
my distribution.
20.3.3. apt-get clean
apt-get keeps a copy of downloaded packages in /var/cache/apt/archives, as can be seen
in this screenshot.
223
package management
[email protected]~# ls /var/cache/apt/archives/ | head
accountsservice_0.6.15-2ubuntu9.4_i386.deb
apport_2.0.1-0ubuntu14_all.deb
apport-gtk_2.0.1-0ubuntu14_all.deb
apt_0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.3_i386.deb
apt-transport-https_0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.3_i386.deb
apt-utils_0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.3_i386.deb
bind9-host_1%3a9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu0.4_i386.deb
chromium-browser_20.0.1132.47~r144678-0ubuntu0.12.04.1_i386.deb
chromium-browser-l10n_20.0.1132.47~r144678-0ubuntu0.12.04.1_all.deb
chromium-codecs-ffmpeg_20.0.1132.47~r144678-0ubuntu0.12.04.1_i386.deb
Running apt-get clean removes all .deb files from that directory.
[email protected]~# apt-get clean
[email protected]~# ls /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb
ls: cannot access /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb: No such file or directory
20.3.4. apt-cache search
Use apt-cache search to search for availability of a package. Here we look for rsync.
[email protected]~# apt-cache search rsync | grep ^rsync
rsync - fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool
rsyncrypto - rsync friendly encryption
20.3.5. apt-get install
You can install one or more applications by appending their name behind apt-get install.
The screenshot shows how to install the rsync package.
[email protected]~# apt-get install rsync
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
rsync
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 8 not upgraded.
Need to get 299 kB of archives.
After this operation, 634 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 http://be.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise/main rsync i386 3.0.9-1ubuntu1 [299 kB]
Fetched 299 kB in 0s (740 kB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package rsync.
(Reading database ... 323649 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking rsync (from .../rsync_3.0.9-1ubuntu1_i386.deb) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead ...
Setting up rsync (3.0.9-1ubuntu1) ...
Removing any system startup links for /etc/init.d/rsync ...
[email protected]~#
20.3.6. apt-get remove
You can remove one or more applications by appending their name behind apt-get remove.
The screenshot shows how to remove the rsync package.
[email protected]~# apt-get remove rsync
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
224
package management
The following packages will be REMOVED:
rsync ubuntu-standard
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 2 to remove and 8 not upgraded.
After this operation, 692 kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
(Reading database ... 323681 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing ubuntu-standard ...
Removing rsync ...
* Stopping rsync daemon rsync
Processing triggers for ureadahead ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
[email protected]~#
Note however that some configuration information is not removed.
[email protected]~# dpkg -l rsync | tail -1 | tr -s ' '
rc rsync 3.0.9-1ubuntu1 fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool
20.3.7. apt-get purge
You can purge one or more applications by appending their name behind apt-get purge.
Purging will also remove all existing configuration files related to that application. The
screenshot shows how to purge the rsync package.
[email protected]~# apt-get purge rsync
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
rsync*
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 8 not upgraded.
After this operation, 0 B of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
(Reading database ... 323651 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing rsync ...
Purging configuration files for rsync ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead ...
[email protected]~#
Note that dpkg has no information about a purged package, except that it is uninstalled and
no configuration is left on the system.
[email protected]~# dpkg -l rsync | tail -1 | tr -s ' '
un rsync <none> (no description available)
225
package management
20.4. aptitude
Most people use aptitude for package management on Debian, Mint and Ubuntu systems.
To synchronize with the repositories.
aptitude update
To patch and upgrade all software to the latest version on Debian.
aptitude upgrade
To patch and upgrade all software to the latest version on Ubuntu and Mint.
aptitude safe-upgrade
To install an application with all dependencies.
aptitude install $package
To search the repositories for applications that contain a certain string in their name or
description.
aptitude search $string
To remove an application.
aptitude remove $package
To remove an application and all configuration files.
aptitude purge $package
226
package management
20.5. apt
Both apt-get and aptitude use the same configuration information in /etc/apt/. Thus adding
a repository for one of them, will automatically add it for both.
20.5.1. /etc/apt/sources.list
The resource list used by apt-get and aptitude is located in /etc/apt/sources.list. This file
contains a list of http or ftp sources where packages for the distribution can be downloaded.
This is what that list looks like on my Debian server.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://ftp.be.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main
deb-src http://ftp.be.debian.org/debian/ squeeze main
deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main
# squeeze-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
deb http://ftp.be.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main
deb-src http://ftp.be.debian.org/debian/ squeeze-updates main
On my Ubuntu there are four times as many online repositories in use.
[email protected]~# wc -l /etc/apt/sources.list
63 /etc/apt/sources.list
There is much more to learn about apt, explore commands like add-apt-repository, aptkey and apropos apt.
227
package management
20.6. rpm
20.6.1. about rpm
The Red Hat package manager can be used on the command line with rpm or in a graphical
way going to Applications--System Settings--Add/Remove Applications. Type rpm --help
to see some of the options.
Software distributed in the rpm format will be named foo-version.platform.rpm .
20.6.2. rpm -qa
To obtain a list of all installed software, use the rpm -qa command.
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -qa | grep samba
system-config-samba-1.2.39-1.el5
samba-3.0.28-1.el5_2.1
samba-client-3.0.28-1.el5_2.1
samba-common-3.0.28-1.el5_2.1
20.6.3. rpm -q
To verify whether one package is installed, use rpm -q.
[email protected]:~# rpm -q gcc
gcc-3.4.6-3
[email protected]:~# rpm -q laika
package laika is not installed
20.6.4. rpm -Uvh
To install or upgrade a package, use the -Uvh switches. The -U switch is the same as -i
for install, except that older versions of the software are removed. The -vh switches are for
nicer output.
[email protected]:~# rpm -Uvh gcc-3.4.6-3
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20.6.5. rpm -e
To remove a package, use the -e switch.
[email protected]:~# rpm -e gcc-3.4.6-3
rpm -e verifies dependencies, and thus will prevent you from accidentailly erasing packages
that are needed by other packages.
[[email protected] ~]# rpm -e gcc-4.1.2-42.el5
error: Failed dependencies:
gcc = 4.1.2-42.el5 is needed by (installed) gcc-c++-4.1.2-42.el5.i386
gcc = 4.1.2-42.el5 is needed by (installed) gcc-gfortran-4.1.2-42.el5.i386
gcc is needed by (installed) systemtap-0.6.2-1.el5_2.2.i386
20.6.6. /var/lib/rpm
The rpm database is located at /var/lib/rpm. This database contains all meta information
about packages that are installed (via rpm). It keeps track of all files, which enables complete
removes of software.
20.6.7. rpm2cpio
We can use rpm2cpio to convert an rpm to a cpio archive.
[[email protected] ~]# file kernel.src.rpm
kernel.src.rpm: RPM v3 src PowerPC kernel-2.6.18-92.1.13.el5
[[email protected] ~]# rpm2cpio kernel.src.rpm > kernel.cpio
[[email protected] ~]# file kernel.cpio
kernel.cpio: ASCII cpio archive (SVR4 with no CRC)
But why would you want to do this ?
Perhaps just to see of list of files in the rpm file.
[[email protected] ~]# rpm2cpio kernel.src.rpm | cpio -t | head -5
COPYING.modules
Config.mk
Module.kabi_i686
Module.kabi_i686PAE
Module.kabi_i686xen
Or to extract one file from an rpm package.
[[email protected] ~]# rpm2cpio kernel.src.rpm | cpio -iv Config.mk
Config.mk
246098 blocks
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20.7. yum
20.7.1. about yum
The Yellowdog Updater, Modified (yum) is an easier command to work with rpm
packages. It is installed by default on Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux since version 5.2.
20.7.2. yum list
Issue yum list available to see a list of available packages. The available parameter is
optional.
[email protected]:/etc# yum list | wc -l
This system is receiving updates from Red Hat Subscription Management.
3935
[email protected]:/etc#
Issue yum list $package to get all versions (in different repositories) of one package.
[[email protected] ~]# yum list samba
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Installed Packages
samba.i386
3.0.33-3.28.el5
Available Packages
samba.i386
3.0.33-3.29.el5_5
installed
rhel-i386-server-5
20.7.3. yum search
To search for a package containing a certain string in the description or name use yum
search $string.
[[email protected] ~]# yum search gcc44
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
========================== Matched: gcc44 ===========================
gcc44.i386 : Preview of GCC version 4.4
gcc44-c++.i386 : C++ support for GCC version 4.4
gcc44-gfortran.i386 : Fortran support for GCC 4.4 previe
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package management
20.7.4. yum provides
To search for a package containing a certain file (you might need for compiling things) use
yum provides $filename.
[email protected]:/etc# yum provides /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5.gz
Loaded plugins: product-id, subscription-manager
This system is receiving updates from Red Hat Subscription Management.
rhel-6-server-cf-tools-1-rpms
| 2.8 kB
00:00
rhel-6-server-rpms
| 3.7 kB
00:00
man-pages-3.22-12.el6.noarch : Man (manual) pages from the Linux Documenta...
Repo
: rhel-6-server-rpms
Matched from:
Filename
: /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5.gz
man-pages-3.22-20.el6.noarch : Man (manual) pages from the Linux Documenta...
Repo
: rhel-6-server-rpms
Matched from:
Filename
: /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5.gz
man-pages-3.22-17.el6.noarch : Man (manual) pages from the Linux Documenta...
Repo
: rhel-6-server-rpms
Matched from:
Filename
: /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5.gz
man-pages-3.22-20.el6.noarch : Man (manual) pages from the Linux Documenta...
Repo
: installed
Matched from:
Other
: Provides-match: /usr/share/man/man5/passwd.5.gz
[email protected]:/etc#
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package management
20.7.5. yum install
To install an application, use yum install $package. Naturally yum will install all the
necessary dependencies.
[[email protected] ~]# yum install sudo
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package sudo.i386 0:1.7.2p1-7.el5_5 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
=======================================================================
Package
Arch
Version
Repository
Size
=======================================================================
Installing:
sudo
i386
1.7.2p1-7.el5_5
rhel-i386-server-5
230 k
Transaction Summary
=======================================================================
Install
1 Package(s)
Upgrade
0 Package(s)
Total download size: 230 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
sudo-1.7.2p1-7.el5_5.i386.rpm
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing
: sudo
| 230 kB
00:00
1/1
Installed:
sudo.i386 0:1.7.2p1-7.el5_5
Complete!
You can add more than one parameter here.
yum install $package1 $package2 $package3
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package management
20.7.6. yum update
To bring all applications up to date, by downloading and installing them, issue yum update.
All software that was installed via yum will be updated to the latest version that is available
in the repository.
yum update
If you only want to update one package, use yum update $package.
[[email protected] ~]# yum update sudo
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Skipping security plugin, no data
Setting up Update Process
Resolving Dependencies
Skipping security plugin, no data
--> Running transaction check
---> Package sudo.i386 0:1.7.2p1-7.el5_5 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
=====================================================================
Package
Arch
Version
Repository
Size
=====================================================================
Updating:
sudo
i386
1.7.2p1-7.el5_5
rhel-i386-server-5
230 k
Transaction Summary
=====================================================================
Install
0 Package(s)
Upgrade
1 Package(s)
Total download size: 230 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
sudo-1.7.2p1-7.el5_5.i386.rpm
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Updating
: sudo
Cleanup
: sudo
| 230 kB
00:00
1/2
2/2
Updated:
sudo.i386 0:1.7.2p1-7.el5_5
Complete!
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package management
20.7.7. yum software groups
Issue yum grouplist to see a list of all available software groups.
[[email protected] ~]# yum grouplist
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Setting up Group Process
Installed Groups:
Administration Tools
Authoring and Publishing
DNS Name Server
Development Libraries
Development Tools
Editors
GNOME Desktop Environment
GNOME Software Development
Graphical Internet
Graphics
Legacy Network Server
Legacy Software Development
Legacy Software Support
Mail Server
Network Servers
Office/Productivity
Printing Support
Server Configuration Tools
System Tools
Text-based Internet
Web Server
Windows File Server
X Software Development
X Window System
Available Groups:
Engineering and Scientific
FTP Server
Games and Entertainment
Java Development
KDE (K Desktop Environment)
KDE Software Development
MySQL Database
News Server
OpenFabrics Enterprise Distribution
PostgreSQL Database
Sound and Video
Done
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package management
To install a set of applications, brought together via a group, use yum groupinstall
$groupname.
[[email protected] ~]# yum groupinstall 'Sound and video'
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Setting up Group Process
Package alsa-utils-1.0.17-1.el5.i386 already installed and latest version
Package sox-12.18.1-1.i386 already installed and latest version
Package 9:mkisofs-2.01-10.7.el5.i386 already installed and latest version
Package 9:cdrecord-2.01-10.7.el5.i386 already installed and latest version
Package cdrdao-1.2.1-2.i386 already installed and latest version
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package cdda2wav.i386 9:2.01-10.7.el5 set to be updated
---> Package cdparanoia.i386 0:alpha9.8-27.2 set to be updated
---> Package sound-juicer.i386 0:2.16.0-3.el5 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: libmusicbrainz >= 2.1.0 for package: sound-juicer
--> Processing Dependency: libmusicbrainz.so.4 for package: sound-juicer
---> Package vorbis-tools.i386 1:1.1.1-3.el5 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: libao >= 0.8.4 for package: vorbis-tools
--> Processing Dependency: libao.so.2 for package: vorbis-tools
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libao.i386 0:0.8.6-7 set to be updated
---> Package libmusicbrainz.i386 0:2.1.1-4.1 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
...
Read the manual page of yum for more information about managing groups in yum.
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package management
20.7.8. /etc/yum.conf and repositories
The configuration of yum repositories is done in /etc/yum/yum.conf and /etc/yum/repos.d/
.
Configurating yum itself is done in /etc/yum.conf. This file will contain the location of a
log file and a cache directory for yum and can also contain a list of repositories.
Recently yum started accepting several repo files with each file containing a list of
repositories. These repo files are located in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory.
One important flag for yum is enablerepo. Use this command if you want to use a repository
that is not enabled by default.
yum $command $foo --enablerepo=$repo
An example of the contents of the repo file: MyRepo.repo
[$repo]
name=My Repository
baseurl=http://path/to/MyRepo
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-MyRep
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package management
20.8. alien
alien is experimental software that converts between rpm and deb package formats (and
others).
Below an example of how to use alien to convert an rpm package to a deb package.
[email protected]:~$ ls -l netcat*
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 123912 2009-06-04 14:58 netcat-0.7.1-1.i386.rpm
[email protected]:~$ alien --to-deb netcat-0.7.1-1.i386.rpm
netcat_0.7.1-2_i386.deb generated
[email protected]:~$ ls -l netcat*
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 123912 2009-06-04 14:58 netcat-0.7.1-1.i386.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 125236 2009-06-04 14:59 netcat_0.7.1-2_i386.deb
In real life, use the netcat tool provided by your distribution, or use the .deb file from their
website.
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package management
20.9. downloading software outside the
repository
First and most important, whenever you download software, start by reading the README
file!
Normally the readme will explain what to do after download. You will probably receive
a .tar.gz or a .tgz file. Read the documentation, then put the compressed file in a directory.
You can use the following to find out where the package wants to install.
tar tvzpf $downloadedFile.tgz
You unpack them like with tar xzf, it will create a directory called applicationName-1.2.3
tar xzf $applicationName.tgz
Replace the z with a j when the file ends in .tar.bz2. The tar, gzip and bzip2 commands are
explained in detail in the Linux Fundamentals course.
If you download a .deb file, then you'll have to use dpkg to install it, .rpm's can be installed
with the rpm command.
20.10. compiling software
First and most important, whenever you download source code for installation, start by
reading the README file!
Usually the steps are always the same three : running ./configure followed by make (which
is the actual compiling) and then by make install to copy the files to their proper location.
./configure
make
make install
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package management
20.11. practice: package management
1. Verify whether gcc, sudo and wesnoth are installed.
2. Use yum or aptitude to search for and install the scp, tmux, and man-pages packages. Did
you find them all ?
3. Search the internet for 'webmin' and figure out how to install it.
4. If time permits, search for and install samba including the samba docs pdf files (thousands
of pages in two pdf's).
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package management
20.12. solution: package management
1. Verify whether gcc, sudo and wesnoth are installed.
On Red Hat/CentOS:
rpm -qa | grep gcc
rpm -qa | grep sudo
rpm -qa | grep wesnoth
On Debian/Ubuntu:
dpkg -l | grep gcc
dpkg -l | grep sudo
dpkg -l | grep wesnoth
2. Use yum or aptitude to search for and install the scp, tmux, and man-pages packages. Did
you find them all ?
On Red Hat/CentOS:
yum search scp
yum search tmux
yum search man-pages
On Debian/Ubuntu:
aptitude search scp
aptitude search tmux
aptitude search man-pages
3. Search the internet for 'webmin' and figure out how to install it.
Google should point you to webmin.com.
There are several formats available there choose .rpm, .deb or .tgz .
4. If time permits, search for and install samba including the samba docs pdf files (thousands
of pages in two pdf's).
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Part V. network management
Table of Contents
21. general networking ........................................................................................................ 244
21.1. network layers ...................................................................................................... 245
21.2. unicast, multicast, broadcast, anycast ........................................................................ 248
21.3. lan-wan-man ........................................................................................................ 250
21.4. internet - intranet - extranet .................................................................................... 252
21.5. tcp/ip .................................................................................................................. 253
22. interface configuration ................................................................................................... 254
22.1. to gui or not to gui ............................................................................................... 255
22.2. Debian/Ubuntu nic configuration ............................................................................. 256
22.3. Red Hat/Fedora nic configuration ............................................................................ 258
22.4. ifconfig ............................................................................................................... 260
22.5. hostname ............................................................................................................. 262
22.6. arp ..................................................................................................................... 263
22.7. route ................................................................................................................... 264
22.8. ping .................................................................................................................... 264
22.9. optional: ethtool .................................................................................................... 265
22.10. practice: interface configuration ............................................................................. 266
22.11. solution: interface configuration ............................................................................. 267
23. network sniffing ............................................................................................................. 269
23.1. wireshark ............................................................................................................. 270
23.2. tcpdump .............................................................................................................. 274
23.3. practice: network sniffing ....................................................................................... 275
23.4. solution: network sniffing ....................................................................................... 276
24. binding and bonding ...................................................................................................... 277
24.1. binding on Redhat/Fedora ....................................................................................... 278
24.2. binding on Debian/Ubuntu ...................................................................................... 279
24.3. bonding on Redhat/Fedora ...................................................................................... 280
24.4. bonding on Debian/Ubuntu ..................................................................................... 282
24.5. practice: binding and bonding ................................................................................. 284
24.6. solution: binding and bonding ................................................................................. 285
25. ssh client and server ...................................................................................................... 286
25.1. about ssh ............................................................................................................. 287
25.2. log on to a remote server ....................................................................................... 289
25.3. executing a command in remote .............................................................................. 289
25.4. scp ..................................................................................................................... 290
25.5. setting up passwordless ssh ..................................................................................... 291
25.6. X forwarding via ssh ............................................................................................. 292
25.7. troubleshooting ssh ................................................................................................ 293
25.8. sshd .................................................................................................................... 294
25.9. sshd keys ............................................................................................................ 294
25.10. ssh-agent ........................................................................................................... 294
25.11. practice: ssh ....................................................................................................... 295
25.12. solution: ssh ....................................................................................................... 296
26. introduction to nfs ......................................................................................................... 298
26.1. nfs protocol versions ............................................................................................. 299
26.2. rpcinfo ................................................................................................................ 299
26.3. server configuration ............................................................................................... 300
26.4. /etc/exports ........................................................................................................... 300
26.5. exportfs ............................................................................................................... 300
26.6. client configuration ............................................................................................... 301
26.7. practice: introduction to nfs .................................................................................... 302
27. introduction to networking ............................................................................................. 303
27.1. introduction to iptables .......................................................................................... 304
27.2. practice : iptables .................................................................................................. 305
27.3. solution : iptables .................................................................................................. 306
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network management
27.4.
27.5.
27.6.
27.7.
xinetd and inetd ....................................................................................................
practice : inetd and xinetd ......................................................................................
network file system ...............................................................................................
practice : network file system ..................................................................................
243
307
309
310
312
Chapter 21. general networking
While this chapter is not directly about Linux, it does contain general networking concepts
that will help you in troubleshooting networks on Linux.
244
general networking
21.1. network layers
21.1.1. seven OSI layers
When talking about protocol layers, people usually mention the seven layers of the osi
protocol (Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link and Physical).
We will discuss layers 2 and 3 in depth, and focus less on the other layers. The reason is
that these layers are important for understanding networks. You will hear administrators use
words like "this is a layer 2 device" or "this is a layer 3 broadcast", and you should be able
to understand what they are talking about.
21.1.2. four DoD layers
The DoD (or tcp/ip) model has only four layers, roughly mapping its network access layer
to OSI layers 1 and 2 (Physical and Datalink), its internet (IP) layer to the OSI network
layer, its host-to-host (tcp, udp) layer to OSI layer 4 (transport) and its application layer
to OSI layers 5, 6 and 7.
Below an attempt to put OSI and DoD layers next to some protocols and devices.
245
general networking
21.1.3. short introduction to the physical layer
The physical layer, or layer 1, is all about voltage, electrical signals and mechanical
connections. Some networks might still use coax cables, but most will have migrated to utp
(cat 5 or better) with rj45 connectors.
Devices like repeaters and hubs are part of this layer. You cannot use software to 'see'
a repeater or hub on the network. The only thing these devices are doing is amplifying
electrical signals on cables. Passive hubs are multiport amplifiers that amplify an incoming
electrical signal on all other connections. Active hubs do this by reading and retransmitting
bits, without interpreting any meaning in those bits.
Network technologies like csma/cd and token ring are defined on this layer.
This is all we have to say about layer 1 in this book.
21.1.4. short introduction to the data link layer
The data link layer, or layer 2 is about frames. A frame has a crc (cyclic redundancy check).
In the case of ethernet (802.3), each network card is identifiable by a unique 48-bit mac
address (media access control address).
On this layer we find devices like bridges and switches. A bridge is more intelligent than a
hub because a bridge can make decisions based on the mac address of computers. A switch
also understands mac addresses.
In this book we will discuss commands like arp and ifconfig to explore this layer.
21.1.5. short introduction to the network layer
Layer 3 is about ip packets. This layer gives every host a unique 32-bit ip address. But ip
is not the only protocol on this layer, there is also icmp, igmp, ipv6 and more. A complete
list can be found in the /etc/protocols file.
On this layer we find devices like routers and layer 3 switches, devices that know (and
have) an ip address.
In tcp/ip this layer is commonly referred to as the internet layer.
21.1.6. short introduction to the transport layer
We will discuss the tcp and udp protocols in the context of layer 4. The DoD model calls
this the host-to-host layer.
21.1.7. layers 5, 6 and 7
The tcp/ip application layer includes layers 5, 6 and 7. Details on the difference between
these layers are out of scope of this course.
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general networking
21.1.8. network layers in this book
Stacking of layers in this book is based on the Protocols in Frame explanation in the
wireshark sniffer. When sniffing a dhcp packet, we notice the following in the sniffer.
[Protocols in Frame: eth:ip:udp:bootp]
Sniffing for ntp (Network Time Protocol) packets gives us this line, which makes us
conclude to put ntp next to bootp in the protocol chart below.
[Protocols in Frame: eth:ip:udp:ntp]
Sniffing an arp broadcast makes us put arp next to ip. All these protocols are explained
later in this chapter.
[Protocols in Frame: eth:arp]
Below is a protocol chart based on wireshark's knowledge. It contains some very common
protocols that are discussed in this book. The chart does not contain all protocols.
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general networking
21.2. unicast, multicast, broadcast, anycast
21.2.1. unicast
A unicast communication originates from one computer and is destined for exactly one other
computer (or host). It is common for computers to have many unicast communications.
21.2.2. multicast
A multicast is destined for a group (of computers).
Some examples of multicast are Realplayer (.sdp files) and ripv2 (a routing protocol).
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general networking
21.2.3. broadcast
A broadcast is meant for everyone.
Typical example here is the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) broadcasting to
everyone. In datacommunications a broadcast is most common confined to the lan.
Careful, a layer 2 broadcast is very different from a layer 3 broadcast. A layer two
broadcast is received by all network cards on the same segment (it does not pass any router),
whereas a layer 3 broadcast is received by all hosts in the same ip subnet.
21.2.4. anycast
The root name servers of the internet use anycast. An anycast signal goes the the
(geographically) nearest of a well defined group.
With thanks to the nice anonymous wikipedia contributor to put these pictures in the public
domain.
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general networking
21.3. lan-wan-man
The term lan is used for local area networks, as opposed to a wan for wide area networks.
The difference between the two is determined by the distance between the computers, and
not by the number of computers in a network. Some protocols like atm are designed for use
in a wan, others like ethernet are designed for use in a lan.
21.3.1. lan
A lan (Local Area Network) is a local network. This can be one room, or one floor, or even
one big building. We say lan as long as computers are close to each other. You can also
define a lan when all computers are ethernet connected.
A lan can contain multiple smaller lan's. The picture below shows three lan's that together
make up one lan.
21.3.2. man
A man (Metropolitan Area Network) is something inbetween a lan and a wan, often
comprising several buildings on the same campus or in the same city. A man can use fddi
or ethernet or other protocols for connectivity.
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general networking
21.3.3. wan
A wan (Wide Area Network) is a network with a lot of distance between the computers (or
hosts). These hosts are often connected by leased lines. A wan does not use ethernet, but
protocols like fddi, frame relay, ATM or X.25 to connect computers (and networks).
The picture below shows a branch office that is connected through Frame Relay with
headquarters.
The acronym wan is also used for large surface area networks like the internet.
Cisco is known for their wan technology. They make routers that connect many lan
networks using wan protocols.
21.3.4. pan-wpan
Your home network is called a pan (Personal Area Network). A wireless pan is a wpan.
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general networking
21.4. internet - intranet - extranet
The internet is a global network. It connects many networks using the tcp/ip protocol stack.
The origin of the internet is the arpanet. The arpanet was created in 1969, that year only
four computers were connected in the network. In 1971 the first e-mail was sent over the
arpanet. E-mail took 75 percent of all arpanet traffic in 1973. 1973 was also the year ftp
was introduced, and saw the connection of the first European countries (Norway and UK). In
2009 the internet was available to 25 percent of the world population. In 2011 it is estimated
that only a quarter of internet webpages are in English.
An intranet is a private tcp/ip network. An intranet uses the same protocols as the internet,
but is only accessible to people from within one organization.
An extranet is similar to an intranet, but some trusted organizations (partners/clients/
suppliers/...) also get access.
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general networking
21.5. tcp/ip
21.5.1. history of tcp/ip
In the Sixties development of the tcp/ip protocol stack was started by the US Department of
Defense. In the Eighties a lot of commercial enterprises developed their own protocol stack:
IBM created sna, Novell had ipx/spx, Microsoft completed netbeui and Apple worked with
appletalk. All the efforts from the Eighties failed to survive the Nineties. By the end of the
Nineties, almost all computers in the world were able to speak tcp/ip.
In my humble opinion, the main reason for the survival of tcp/ip over all the other protocols
is its openness. Everyone is free to develop and use the tcp/ip protocol suite.
21.5.2. rfc (request for comment)
The protocols that are used on the internet are defined in rfc's. An rfc or request
for comment describes the inner working of all internet protocols. The IETF (Internet
Engineering Task Force) is the sole publisher of these protocols since 1986.
The official website for the rfc's is http://www.rfc-editor.org. This website contains all
rfc's in plain text, for example rfc2132 (which defines dhcp and bootp) is accessible at http://
www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2132.txt.
21.5.3. many protocols
For reliable connections, you use tcp, whereas udp is connectionless but faster. The icmp
error messages are used by ping, multicast groups are managed by igmp.
These protocols are visible in the protocol field of the ip header, and are listed in the /etc/
protocols file.
[email protected]:~$ grep tcp /etc/protocols
tcp
6
TCP
# transmission control protocol
21.5.4. many services
Network cards are uniquely identified by their mac address, hosts by their ip address and
applications by their port number.
Common application level protocols like smtp, http, ssh, telnet and ftp have fixed port
numbers. There is a list of port numbers in /etc/services.
[email protected]:~$ grep ssh /etc/services
ssh
22/tcp
# SSH Remote Login Protocol
ssh
22/udp
253
Chapter 22. interface configuration
This chapter explains how to configure network interface cards to work with tcp/ip.
254
interface configuration
22.1. to gui or not to gui
Recent Linux distributions often include a graphical application to configure the network.
Some people complain that these applications mess networking configurations up when
used simultaneously with command line configurations. Notably Network Manager (often
replaced by wicd) and yast are known to not care about configuration changes via the
command line.
Since the goal of this course is server administration, we will assume our Linux servers are
always administered through the command line.
This chapter only focuses on using the command line for network interface configuration!
Unfortunately there is no single combination of Linux commands and /etc files that works on
all Linux distributions. We discuss networking on two (large but distinct) Linux distribution
families.
We start with Debian/Ubuntu, then continue with Fedora/RHEL.
255
interface configuration
22.2. Debian/Ubuntu nic configuration
22.2.1. /etc/network/interfaces
The /etc/network/interfaces file is a core network interface card configuration file on
Ubuntu and Debian.
dhcp client
The screenshot below shows that our current Ubuntu 11.04 is configured for dhcp on eth0
(the first network interface card or nic).
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
Configuring network cards for dhcp is good practice for clients, but servers usually require
a fixed ip address.
fixed ip
The screenshot below shows /etc/network/interfaces configured with a fixed ip address.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.33.100
network 192.168.33.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.33.1
The screenshot above also shows that you can provide more configuration than just the
ip address. See interfaces(5) for help on setting a gateway, netmask or any of the other
options.
256
interface configuration
22.2.2. /sbin/ifdown
It is adviced (but not mandatory) to down an interface before changing its configuration.
This can be done with the ifdown command.
The command will not give any output when downing an interface with a fixed ip address.
However ifconfig will no longer show the interface.
[email protected]:~# ifdown eth0
[email protected]:~# ifconfig
lo
Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:106 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:106 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:11162 (11.1 KB) TX bytes:11162 (11.1 KB)
An interface that is down cannot be used to connect to the network.
22.2.3. /sbin/ifup
Below a screenshot of ifup bringing the eth0 ethernet interface up using dhcp. (Note that
this is a Ubuntu 10.10 screenshot, Ubuntu 11.04 omits ifup output by default.)
[email protected]:/etc/network# ifup eth0
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client V3.1.3
Copyright 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/
Listening on LPF/eth0/08:00:27:cd:7f:fc
Sending on
LPF/eth0/08:00:27:cd:7f:fc
Sending on
Socket/fallback
DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.1.34 on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPNAK from 192.168.33.100
DHCPDISCOVER on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 3
DHCPOFFER of 192.168.33.77 from 192.168.33.100
DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.33.77 on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK of 192.168.33.77 from 192.168.33.100
bound to 192.168.33.77 -- renewal in 95 seconds.
ssh stop/waiting
ssh start/running, process 1301
[email protected]:/etc/network#
The details of dhcp are covered in a separate chapter in the Linux Servers course.
257
interface configuration
22.3. Red Hat/Fedora nic configuration
22.3.1. /etc/sysconfig/network
The /etc/sysconfig/network file is a global (across all network cards) configuration file.
It allows us to define whether we want networking (NETWORKING=yes|no), what the
hostname should be (HOSTNAME=) and which gateway to use (GATEWAY=).
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=rhel6
GATEWAY=192.168.1.1
There are a dozen more option settable in this file, details can be found in /usr/share/doc/
initscripts-*/sysconfig.txt.
22.3.2. /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfgEach network card can be configured individually using the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
ifcfg-* files. When you have only one network card, then this will probably be /etc/
sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0.
dhcp client
Below a screenshot of /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 configured for dhcp
(BOOTPROTO="dhcp"). Note also the NM_CONTROLLED paramater to disable control
of this nic by Network Manager. This parameter is not explained (not even mentioned) in
/usr/share/doc/initscripts-*/sysconfig.txt, but many others are.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE="eth0"
HWADDR="08:00:27:DD:0D:5C"
NM_CONTROLLED="no"
BOOTPROTO="dhcp"
ONBOOT="yes"
The BOOTPROTO variable can be set to either dhcp or bootp, anything else will be
considered static meaning there should be no protocol used at boot time to set the interface
values.
fixed ip
Below a screenshot of a fixed ip configuration in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfgeth0.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE="eth0"
HWADDR="08:00:27:DD:0D:5C"
NM_CONTROLLED="no"
BOOTPROTO="none"
IPADDR="192.168.1.99"
NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
GATEWAY="192.168.1.1"
ONBOOT="yes"
258
interface configuration
The HWADDR can be used to make sure that each network card gets the correct name
when multiple network cards are present in the computer. It can not be used to assign a mac
address to a network card. For this, you need to specify the MACADDR variable. Do not
use HWADDR and MACADDR in the same ifcfg-ethx file.
The BROADCAST= and NETWORK= parameters from previous RHEL/Fedora versions
are obsoleted.
22.3.3. /sbin/ifup and /sbin/ifdown
The ifup and ifdown commands will set an interface up or down, using the configuration
discussed above. This is identical to their behaviour in Debian and Ubuntu.
[[email protected] ~]# ifdown eth0 && ifup eth0
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedd:d5c/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:2452 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1881 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:257036 (251.0 KiB) TX bytes:184767 (180.4 KiB)
259
interface configuration
22.4. ifconfig
The use of /sbin/ifconfig without any arguments will present you with a list of all active
network interface cards, including wireless and the loopback interface. In the screenshot
below eth0 has no ip address.
[email protected]:~# ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:26:bb:5d:2e:52
UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
Interrupt:43 Base address:0xe000
eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:26:bb:12:7a:5e
inet addr:192.168.1.30 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::226:bbff:fe12:7a5e/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:11141791 errors:202 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:11580126
TX packets:6473056 errors:3860 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:3476531617 (3.4 GB) TX bytes:2114919475 (2.1 GB)
Interrupt:23
lo
Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:2879 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:2879 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:486510 (486.5 KB) TX bytes:486510 (486.5 KB)
You can also use ifconfig to obtain information about just one network card.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedd:d5c/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:2969 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1918 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:335942 (328.0 KiB) TX bytes:190157 (185.7 KiB)
When /sbin is not in the $PATH of a normal user you will have to type the full path, as
seen here on Debian.
[email protected]:~$ /sbin/ifconfig eth3
eth3 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:ab:67:30
inet addr:192.168.1.29 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:feab:6730/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:27155 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:30527 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:13095386 (12.4 MiB) TX bytes:25767221 (24.5 MiB)
260
interface configuration
22.4.1. up and down
You can also use ifconfig to bring an interface up or down. The difference with ifup is that
ifconfig eth0 up will re-activate the nic keeping its existing (current) configuration, whereas
ifup will read the correct file that contains a (possibly new) configuration and use this config
file to bring the interface up.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 down
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 up
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedd:d5c/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:2995 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1927 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:339030 (331.0 KiB) TX bytes:191583 (187.0 KiB)
22.4.2. setting ip address
You can temporary set an ip address with ifconfig. This ip address is only valid until the
next ifup/ifdown cycle or until the next reboot.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 | grep 192
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 192.168.33.42 netmask 255.255.0.0
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 | grep 192
inet addr:192.168.33.42 Bcast:192.168.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0
[[email protected] ~]# ifdown eth0 && ifup eth0
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 | grep 192
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
22.4.3. setting mac address
You can also use ifconfig to set another mac address than the one hard coded in the network
card. This screenshot shows you how.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 | grep HWaddr
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 hw ether 00:42:42:42:42:42
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 | grep HWaddr
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:42:42:42:42:42
22.4.4. dhclient
Home and client Linux desktops often have /sbin/dhclient running. This is a daemon that
enables a network interface to lease an ip configuration from a dhcp server. When your
adapter is configured for dhcp or bootp, then /sbin/ifup will start the dhclient daemon.
When a lease is renewed, dhclient will override your ifconfig set ip address!
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interface configuration
22.5. hostname
Every host receives a hostname, often placed in a DNS name space forming the fqdn or
Fully Qualified Domain Name.
This screenshot shows the hostname command and the configuration of the hostname on
Red Hat/Fedora.
[[email protected] ~]# grep rhel /etc/sysconfig/network
HOSTNAME=rhel6
[[email protected] ~]# hostname
rhel6
Ubuntu/Debian uses the /etc/hostname file to configure the hostname.
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/hostname
ubu1010
[email protected]:~$ hostname
ubu1010
On all Linux distributions you can change the hostname using the hostname $newname
command. This is not a permanent change.
[[email protected] ~]# hostname server42
[[email protected] ~]# hostname
server42
On any Linux you can use sysctl to display and set the hostname.
[[email protected] ~]#
kernel.hostname
[[email protected] ~]#
kernel.hostname
[[email protected] ~]#
kernel.hostname
[[email protected] ~]#
rhel6
sysctl kernel.hostname
= server42
sysctl kernel.hostname=rhel6
= rhel6
sysctl kernel.hostname
= rhel6
hostname
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interface configuration
22.6. arp
The ip to mac resolution is handled by the layer two broadcast protocol arp. The arp table
can be displayed with the arp tool. The screenshot below shows the list of computers that
this computer recently communicated with.
[email protected]:~# arp -a
? (192.168.1.191) at 00:0C:29:3B:15:80 [ether] on eth1
agapi (192.168.1.73) at 00:03:BA:09:7F:D2 [ether] on eth1
anya (192.168.1.1) at 00:12:01:E2:87:FB [ether] on eth1
faith (192.168.1.41) at 00:0E:7F:41:0D:EB [ether] on eth1
kiss (192.168.1.49) at 00:D0:E0:91:79:95 [ether] on eth1
laika (192.168.1.40) at 00:90:F5:4E:AE:17 [ether] on eth1
pasha (192.168.1.71) at 00:03:BA:02:C3:82 [ether] on eth1
shaka (192.168.1.72) at 00:03:BA:09:7C:F9 [ether] on eth1
[email protected]:~#
Anya is a Cisco Firewall, faith is a laser printer, kiss is a Kiss DP600, laika is a laptop and
Agapi, Shaka and Pasha are SPARC servers. The question mark is a Red Hat Enterprise
Linux server running on a virtual machine.
You can use arp -d to remove an entry from the arp table.
[[email protected] ~]# arp
Address
HWtype HWaddress
Flags Mask
Iface
ubu1010
ether
00:26:bb:12:7a:5e
C
eth0
anya
ether
00:02:cf:aa:68:f0
C
eth0
[[email protected] ~]# arp -d anya
[[email protected] ~]# arp
Address
HWtype HWaddress
Flags Mask
Iface
ubu1010
ether
00:26:bb:12:7a:5e
C
eth0
anya
(incomplete)
eth0
[[email protected] ~]# ping anya
PING anya (192.168.1.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from anya (192.168.1.1): icmp_seq=1 ttl=254 time=10.2 ms
...
[[email protected] ~]# arp
Address
HWtype HWaddress
Flags Mask
Iface
ubu1010
ether
00:26:bb:12:7a:5e
C
eth0
anya
ether
00:02:cf:aa:68:f0
C
eth0
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interface configuration
22.7. route
You can see the computer's local routing table with the /sbin/route command (and also with
netstat -r ).
[email protected] ~]# netstat -r
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
Genmask
192.168.1.0
*
255.255.255.0
[[email protected] ~]# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
Genmask
192.168.1.0
*
255.255.255.0
[[email protected] ~]#
Flags
U
MSS Window
0 0
Flags Metric Ref
U
0
0
irtt Iface
0 eth0
Use Iface
0 eth0
It appears this computer does not have a gateway configured, so we use route add default
gw to add a default gateway on the fly.
[[email protected] ~]# route add default gw 192.168.1.1
[[email protected] ~]# route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
Genmask
Flags Metric Ref
192.168.1.0
*
255.255.255.0 U
0
0
default
192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0
UG
0
0
[[email protected] ~]#
Use Iface
0 eth0
0 eth0
Unless you configure the gateway in one of the /etc/ file from the start of this chapter, your
computer will forget this gateway after a reboot.
22.8. ping
If you can ping to another host, then tcp/ip is configured.
[[email protected] ~]# ping 192.168.1.5
PING 192.168.1.5 (192.168.1.5) 56(84)
64 bytes from 192.168.1.5: icmp_seq=0
64 bytes from 192.168.1.5: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 192.168.1.5: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 192.168.1.5: icmp_seq=3
bytes of data.
ttl=64 time=1004 ms
ttl=64 time=1.19 ms
ttl=64 time=0.494 ms
ttl=64 time=0.419 ms
--- 192.168.1.5 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3009ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.419/251.574/1004.186/434.520 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]#
264
interface configuration
22.9. optional: ethtool
To display or change network card settings, use ethtool. The results depend on the
capabilities of your network card. The example shows a network that auto-negotiates it's
bandwidth.
[email protected]:~# ethtool eth0
Settings for eth0:
Supported ports: [ TP ]
Supported link modes:
10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
1000baseT/Full
Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
1000baseT/Full
Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
Speed: 1000Mb/s
Duplex: Full
Port: Twisted Pair
PHYAD: 0
Transceiver: internal
Auto-negotiation: on
Supports Wake-on: pumbg
Wake-on: g
Current message level: 0x00000033 (51)
Link detected: yes
This example shows how to use ethtool to switch the bandwidth from 1000Mbit to 100Mbit
and back. Note that some time passes before the nic is back to 1000Mbit.
[email protected]:~# ethtool
Speed: 1000Mb/s
[email protected]:~# ethtool
[email protected]:~# ethtool
Speed: 100Mb/s
[email protected]:~# ethtool
[email protected]:~# ethtool
Speed: 1000Mb/s
eth0 | grep Speed
-s eth0 speed 100
eth0 | grep Speed
-s eth0 speed 1000
eth0 | grep Speed
265
interface configuration
22.10. practice: interface configuration
1. Verify whether dhclient is running.
2. Display your current ip address(es).
3. Display the configuration file where this ip address is defined.
4. Follow the nic configuration in the book to change your ip address from dhcp client to
fixed. Keep the same ip address to avoid conflicts!
5. Did you also configure the correct gateway in the previous question ? If not, then do
this now.
6. Verify that you have a gateway.
7. Verify that you can connect to the gateway, that it is alive.
8. Change the last two digits of your mac address.
9. Which ports are used by http, pop3, ssh, telnet, nntp and ftp ?
Note that sctp was ommitted from the screenshot.
10. Explain why e-mail and websites are sent over tcp and not udp.
11. Display the hostname of your computer.
12. Which ip-addresses did your computer recently have contact with ?
266
interface configuration
22.11. solution: interface configuration
1. Verify whether dhclient is running.
[email protected]:~$ ps fax | grep dhclient
2. Display your current ip address(es).
[email protected]:~$ /sbin/ifconfig | grep 'inet '
inet addr:192.168.1.31 Bcast:192.168.1.255
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
Mask:255.255.255.0
3. Display the configuration file where this ip address is defined.
Ubuntu/Debian: cat /etc/network/interfaces
Redhat/Fedora: cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth*
4. Follow the nic configuration in the book to change your ip address from dhcp client to
fixed. Keep the same ip address to avoid conflicts!
Ubuntu/Debian:
ifdown eth0
vi /etc/network/interfaces
ifup eth0
Redhat/Fedora:
ifdown eth0
vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
ifup eth0
5. Did you also configure the correct gateway in the previous question ? If not, then do
this now.
6. Verify that you have a gateway.
[email protected]:~$ /sbin/route
Kernel IP routing table
Destination
Gateway
Genmask
192.168.1.0
*
255.255.255.0
default
192.168.1.1
0.0.0.0
Flags Metric Ref
U
0
0
UG
0
0
Use Iface
0 eth0
0 eth0
7. Verify that you can connect to the gateway, that it is alive.
[email protected]:~$ ping -c3 192.168.1.1
PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1) 56(84)
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=3
bytes of data.
ttl=254 time=2.28 ms
ttl=254 time=2.94 ms
ttl=254 time=2.34 ms
--- 192.168.1.1 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2008ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 2.283/2.524/2.941/0.296 ms
8. Change the last two digits of your mac address.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth0 hw ether 08:00:27:ab:67:XX
9. Which ports are used by http, pop3, ssh, telnet, nntp and ftp ?
[email protected] ~# grep ^'http ' /etc/services
267
interface configuration
http
http
[email protected]
smtp
smtp
[email protected]
ssh
ssh
[email protected]
telnet
telnet
[email protected]
nntp
nntp
[email protected]
ftp
ftp
80/tcp
80/udp
~# grep
25/tcp
25/udp
~# grep
22/tcp
22/udp
~# grep
23/tcp
23/udp
~# grep
119/tcp
119/udp
~# grep
21/tcp
21/udp
www www-http
# WorldWideWeb HTTP
www www-http
# HyperText Transfer Protocol
^'smtp ' /etc/services
mail
mail
^'ssh ' /etc/services
# The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol
# The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol
^'telnet ' /etc/services
^'nntp ' /etc/services
readnews untp
readnews untp
^'ftp ' /etc/services
# USENET News Transfer Protocol
# USENET News Transfer Protocol
fsp fspd
Note that sctp was ommitted from the screenshot.
10. Explain why e-mail and websites are sent over tcp and not udp.
Because tcp is reliable and udp is not.
11. Display the hostname of your computer.
[email protected]:~$ hostname
debian5
12. Which ip-addresses did your computer recently have contact with ?
[email protected] ~# arp -a
? (192.168.1.1) at 00:02:cf:aa:68:f0 [ether] on eth2
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:26:bb:12:7a:5e [ether] on eth2
? (192.168.1.31) at 08:00:27:8e:8a:a8 [ether] on eth2
268
Chapter 23. network sniffing
A network administrator should be able to use a sniffer like wireshark or tcpdump to
troubleshoot network problems.
A student should often use a sniffer to learn about networking. This chapter introduces you
to network sniffing.
269
network sniffing
23.1. wireshark
23.1.1. installing wireshark
This example shows how to install wireshark on .deb based distributions (including Debian,
Mint, Xubuntu, and others).
[email protected]:~# apt-get install wireshark
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
... (output truncated)
On .rpm based distributions like CentOS, RHEL and Fedora you can use yum to install
wireshark.
[[email protected] ~]# yum install wireshark
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
... (output truncated)
23.1.2. selecting interface
When you start wireshark for the first time, you will need to select an interface. You will
see a dialog box that looks similar to this one.
It is possible that there are no interfaces available because some distributions only allow
root to sniff the network. You may need to use sudo wireshark.
Or you can follow the general advice to sniff using tcpdump or any other tool, and save the
capture to a file. Any saved capture can be analyzed using wireshark at a later time.
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23.1.3. minimize traffic
Sniffing a network can generate many thousands of packets in a very short time. This can
be overwhelming. Try to mitigate by isolating your sniffer on the network. Preferably sniff
an isolated virtual network interface over which you control all traffic.
If you are at home to learn sniffing, then it could help to close all network programs on
your computer, and disconnect other computers and devices like smartphones and tablets
to minimize the traffic.
Even more important than this is the use of filters which will be discussed in this chapter.
23.1.4. sniffing ping
I started the sniffer and captured all packets while doing these three ping commands (there
is no need for root to do this):
[email protected]:~# ping -c2 ns1.paul.local
PING ns1.paul.local (10.104.33.30) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.104.33.30: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.010 ms
64 bytes from 10.104.33.30: icmp_req=2 ttl=64 time=0.023 ms
--- ns1.paul.local ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1001ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.010/0.016/0.023/0.007 ms
[email protected]:~# ping -c3 linux-training.be
PING linux-training.be (188.93.155.87) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from antares.ginsys.net (188.93.155.87): icmp_req=1 ttl=56 time=15.6 ms
64 bytes from antares.ginsys.net (188.93.155.87): icmp_req=2 ttl=56 time=17.8 ms
64 bytes from antares.ginsys.net (188.93.155.87): icmp_req=3 ttl=56 time=14.7 ms
--- linux-training.be ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 14.756/16.110/17.881/1.309 ms
[email protected]:~# ping -c1 centos7.paul.local
PING centos7.paul.local (10.104.33.31) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.104.33.31: icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.590 ms
--- centos7.paul.local ping statistics --1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.590/0.590/0.590/0.000 ms
In total more than 200 packets were sniffed from the network. Things become clearer when
you enter icmp in the filter field and press the apply button.
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23.1.5. sniffing ping and dns
Using the same capture as before, but now with a different filter. We want to see both dns
and icmp traffic, so we enter both in the filter field.
We put dns or icmp in the filter to achieve this. Putting dns and icmp would render nothing
because there is no packet that matches both protocols.
In the screenshot above you can see that packets 25 and 26 both have 10.104.33.30 as source
and destination ip address. That is because the dns client is the same computer as the dns
server.
The same is true for packets 31 and 32, since the machine is actually pinging itself.
23.1.6. specific ip address
This is a screenshot that filters for dns packets that contain a certain ip address. The filter
in use is ip.addr==10.104.33.30 and dns. The and directive forces each displayed packet
to match both conditions.
Packet 93 is the dns query for the A record of linux-training.be. Packet 98 is the response
from the dns server. What do you think happened in the packets between 93 and 98 ? Try
to answer this before reading on (it always helps to try to predict what you will see, and
then checking your prediction).
23.1.7. filtering by frame
The correct technical term for a packet as sniffed is a frame (because we sniff on layer two).
So to display packets with certain numbers, we use frame.number in the filter.
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23.1.8. looking inside packets
The middle pane can be expanded. When selecting a line in this pane, you can see the
corresponding bytes in the frame in the bottom panel.
This screenshot shows the middle pane with the source address of my laptop selected.
Note that the above works fine when sniffing one interface. When sniffing with for example
tcpdump -i any you will end up with Linux cooked at this level.
23.1.9. other filter examples
You can combine two protocols with a logical or between them. The example below shows
how to filter only arp and bootp (or dhcp) packets.
This example shows how to filter for dns traffic containing a certain ip address.
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23.2. tcpdump
Sniffing on the command line can be done with tcpdump. Here are some examples.
Using the tcpdump host $ip command displays all traffic with one host (192.168.1.38 in
this example).
[email protected]:~# tcpdump host 192.168.1.38
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 96 bytes
Capturing only ssh (tcp port 22) traffic can be done with tcpdump tcp port $port. This
screenshot is cropped to 76 characters for readability in the pdf.
[email protected]:~# tcpdump tcp port 22
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 96 bytes
14:22:20.716313 IP deb503.local.37973 > rhel53.local.ssh: P 666050963:66605
14:22:20.719936 IP rhel53.local.ssh > deb503.local.37973: P 1:49(48) ack 48
14:22:20.720922 IP rhel53.local.ssh > deb503.local.37973: P 49:113(64) ack
14:22:20.721321 IP rhel53.local.ssh > deb503.local.37973: P 113:161(48) ack
14:22:20.721820 IP deb503.local.37973 > rhel53.local.ssh: . ack 161 win 200
14:22:20.722492 IP rhel53.local.ssh > deb503.local.37973: P 161:225(64) ack
14:22:20.760602 IP deb503.local.37973 > rhel53.local.ssh: . ack 225 win 200
14:22:23.108106 IP deb503.local.54424 > ubuntu910.local.ssh: P 467252637:46
14:22:23.116804 IP ubuntu910.local.ssh > deb503.local.54424: P 1:81(80) ack
14:22:23.116844 IP deb503.local.54424 > ubuntu910.local.ssh: . ack 81 win 2
^C
10 packets captured
10 packets received by filter
0 packets dropped by kernel
Same as above, but write the output to a file with the tcpdump -w $filename command.
[email protected]:~# tcpdump -w sshdump.tcpdump tcp port 22
tcpdump: listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 96 bytes
^C
17 packets captured
17 packets received by filter
0 packets dropped by kernel
With tcpdump -r $filename the file created above can be displayed.
[email protected]:~# tcpdump -r sshdump.tcpdump
Many more examples can be found in the manual page of tcpdump.
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23.3. practice: network sniffing
1. Install wireshark on your computer (not inside a virtual machine).
2. Start a ping between your computer and another computer.
3. Start sniffing the network.
4. Display only the ping echo's in the top pane using a filter.
5. Now ping to a name (like www.linux-training.be) and try to sniff the DNS query and
response. Which DNS server was used ? Was it a tcp or udp query and response ?
6. Find an amateur/hobby/club website that features a login prompt. Attempt to login with
user 'paul' and password 'hunter2' while your sniffer is running. Now find this information
in the sniffer.
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23.4. solution: network sniffing
1. Install wireshark on your computer (not inside a virtual machine).
Debian/Ubuntu: aptitude install wireshark
Red Hat/Mandriva/Fedora: yum install wireshark
2. Start a ping between your computer and another computer.
ping $ip_address
3. Start sniffing the network.
(sudo) wireshark
select an interface (probably eth0)
4. Display only the ping echo's in the top pane using a filter.
type 'icmp' (without quotes) in the filter box, and then click 'apply'
5. Now ping to a name (like www.linux-training.be) and try to sniff the DNS query and
response. Which DNS server was used ? Was it a tcp or udp query and response ?
First start the sniffer.
Enter 'dns' in the filter box and click apply.
[email protected]:~# ping www.linux-training.be
PING www.linux-training.be (88.151.243.8) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from fosfor.openminds.be (88.151.243.8): icmp_seq=1 ttl=58 time=14.9 ms
64 bytes from fosfor.openminds.be (88.151.243.8): icmp_seq=2 ttl=58 time=16.0 ms
^C
--- www.linux-training.be ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 14.984/15.539/16.095/0.569 ms
The wireshark screen should look something like this.
The details in wireshark will say the DNS query was inside a udp packet.
6. Find an amateur/hobby/club website that features a login prompt. Attempt to login with
user 'paul' and password 'hunter2' while your sniffer is running. Now find this information
in the sniffer.
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Chapter 24. binding and bonding
Sometimes a server needs more than one ip address on the same network card, we call this
binding ip addresses.
Linux can also activate multiple network cards behind the same ip address, this is called
bonding.
This chapter will teach you how to configure binding and bonding on the most common
Linux distributions.
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24.1. binding on Redhat/Fedora
24.1.1. binding extra ip addresses
To bind more than one ip address to the same interface, use ifcfg-eth0:0, where the last
zero can be anything else. Only two directives are required in the files.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:0
DEVICE="eth0:0"
IPADDR="192.168.1.133"
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0:1
DEVICE="eth0:0"
IPADDR="192.168.1.142"
24.1.2. enabling extra ip-addresses
To activate a virtual network interface, use ifup, to deactivate it, use ifdown.
[[email protected] ~]# ifup eth0:0
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig | grep 'inet '
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet addr:192.168.1.133 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
[[email protected] ~]# ifup eth0:1
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig | grep 'inet '
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet addr:192.168.1.133 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet addr:192.168.1.142 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
24.1.3. verifying extra ip-addresses
Use ping from another computer to check the activation, or use ifconfig like in this
screenshot.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
inet addr:192.168.1.99 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedd:d5c/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1259 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:545 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:115260 (112.5 KiB) TX bytes:84293 (82.3 KiB)
eth0:0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
inet addr:192.168.1.133 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
inet addr:192.168.1.142 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
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24.2. binding on Debian/Ubuntu
24.2.1. binding extra ip addresses
The configuration of multiple ip addresses on the same network card is done in /etc/network/
interfaces by adding eth0:x devices. Adding the netmask is mandatory.
debian5:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.1.34
network 192.168.1.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
auto eth0
auto eth0:0
iface eth0:0 inet static
address 192.168.1.233
netmask 255.255.255.0
auto eth0:1
iface eth0:1 inet static
address 192.168.1.242
netmask 255.255.255.0
24.2.2. enabling extra ip-addresses
Use ifup to enable the extra addresses.
debian5:~# ifup eth0:0
debian5:~# ifup eth0:1
24.2.3. verifying extra ip-addresses
Use ping from another computer to check the activation, or use ifconfig like in this
screenshot.
debian5:~#
inet
inet
inet
inet
ifconfig | grep 'inet '
addr:192.168.1.34 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
addr:192.168.1.233 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
addr:192.168.1.242 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
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24.3. bonding on Redhat/Fedora
We start with ifconfig -a to get a list of all the network cards on our system.
[[email protected] network-scripts]# ifconfig -a | grep Ethernet
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DD:0D:5C
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DA:C1:49
eth2
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:40:03:3B
In this demo we decide to bond eth1 and eth2.
We will name our bond bond0 and add this entry to modprobe so the kernel can load the
bonding module when we bring the interface up.
[[email protected] network-scripts]# cat /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf
alias bond0 bonding
Then we create /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0 to configure our bond0
interface.
[[email protected] network-scripts]# pwd
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
[[email protected] network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-bond0
DEVICE=bond0
IPADDR=192.168.1.199
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
USERCTL=no
Next we create two files, one for each network card that we will use as slave in bond0.
[[email protected] network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-eth1
DEVICE=eth1
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
[[email protected] network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-eth2
DEVICE=eth2
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
Finally we bring the interface up with ifup bond0.
[[email protected] network-scripts]# ifup bond0
[[email protected] network-scripts]# ifconfig bond0
bond0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:DA:C1:49
inet addr:192.168.1.199 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:feda:c149/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:251 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:21 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:39852 (38.9 KiB) TX bytes:1070 (1.0 KiB)
The bond should also be visible in /proc/net/bonding.
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binding and bonding
[[email protected] network-scripts]# cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.5.0 (November 4, 2008)
Bonding Mode: load balancing (round-robin)
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 0
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0
Slave Interface: eth1
MII Status: up
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 08:00:27:da:c1:49
Slave Interface: eth2
MII Status: up
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 08:00:27:40:03:3b
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24.4. bonding on Debian/Ubuntu
We start with ifconfig -a to get a list of all the network cards on our system.
debian5:~# ifconfig -a | grep Ethernet
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:bb:18:a4
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:63:9a:95
eth2
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:27:a4:92
In this demo we decide to bond eth1 and eth2.
We also need to install the ifenslave package.
debian5:~# aptitude search ifenslave
p ifenslave
- Attach and detach slave interfaces to a bonding device
p ifenslave-2.6 - Attach and detach slave interfaces to a bonding device
debian5:~# aptitude install ifenslave
Reading package lists... Done
...
Next we update the /etc/network/interfaces file with information about the bond0 interface.
debian5:~# tail -7 /etc/network/interfaces
iface bond0 inet static
address 192.168.1.42
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.1.1
slaves eth1 eth2
bond-mode active-backup
bond_primary eth1
On older version of Debian/Ubuntu you needed to modprobe bonding, but this is no longer
required. Use ifup to bring the interface up, then test that it works.
debian5:~# ifup bond0
debian5:~# ifconfig bond0
bond0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 08:00:27:63:9a:95
inet addr:192.168.1.42 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fe63:9a95/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:212 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:39 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:31978 (31.2 KiB) TX bytes:6709 (6.5 KiB)
The bond should also be visible in /proc/net/bonding.
debian5:~# cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.2.5 (March 21, 2008)
Bonding Mode: fault-tolerance (active-backup)
Primary Slave: eth1
Currently Active Slave: eth1
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 0
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0
Slave Interface: eth1
MII Status: up
Link Failure Count: 0
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Permanent HW addr: 08:00:27:63:9a:95
Slave Interface: eth2
MII Status: up
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 08:00:27:27:a4:92
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24.5. practice: binding and bonding
1. Add an extra ip address to one of your network cards. Test that it works (have your
neighbour ssh to it)!
2. Use ifdown to disable this extra ip address.
3. Make sure your neighbour also succeeded in binding an extra ip address before you
continue.
4. Add an extra network card (or two) to your virtual machine and use the theory to bond
two network cards.
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24.6. solution: binding and bonding
1. Add an extra ip address to one of your network cards. Test that it works (have your
neighbour ssh to it)!
Redhat/Fedora:
add an /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX:X file
as shown in the theory
Debian/Ubuntu:
expand the /etc/network/interfaces file
as shown in the theory
2. Use ifdown to disable this extra ip address.
ifdown eth0:0
3. Make sure your neighbour also succeeded in binding an extra ip address before you
continue.
ping $extra_ip_neighbour
or
ssh $extra_ip_neighbour
4. Add an extra network card (or two) to your virtual machine and use the theory to bond
two network cards.
Redhat/Fedora:
add ifcfg-ethX and ifcfg-bondX files in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
as shown in the theory
and don't forget the modprobe.conf
Debian/Ubuntu:
expand the /etc/network/interfaces file
as shown in the theory
and don't forget to install the ifenslave package
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Chapter 25. ssh client and server
The secure shell or ssh is a collection of tools using a secure protocol for communications
with remote Linux computers.
This chapter gives an overview of the most common commands related to the use of the
sshd server and the ssh client.
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25.1. about ssh
25.1.1. secure shell
Avoid using telnet, rlogin and rsh to remotely connect to your servers. These older protocols
do not encrypt the login session, which means your user id and password can be sniffed by
tools like wireshark or tcpdump. To securely connect to your servers, use ssh.
The ssh protocol is secure in two ways. Firstly the connection is encrypted and secondly
the connection is authenticated both ways.
An ssh connection always starts with a cryptographic handshake, followed by encryption of
the transport layer using a symmetric cypher. In other words, the tunnel is encrypted before
you start typing anything.
Then authentication takes place (using user id/password or public/private keys) and
communication can begin over the encrypted connection.
The ssh protocol will remember the servers it connected to (and warn you in case something
suspicious happened).
The openssh package is maintained by the OpenBSD people and is distributed with a lot of
operating systems (it may even be the most popular package in the world).
25.1.2. /etc/ssh/
Configuration of ssh client and server is done in the /etc/ssh directory. In the next sections
we will discuss most of the files found in /etc/ssh/.
25.1.3. ssh protocol versions
The ssh protocol has two versions (1 and 2). Avoid using version 1 anywhere, since it
contains some known vulnerabilities. You can control the protocol version via /etc/ssh/
ssh_config for the client side and /etc/ssh/sshd_config for the openssh-server daemon.
[email protected]:/etc/ssh$ grep Protocol ssh_config
#
Protocol 2,1
[email protected]:/etc/ssh$ grep Protocol sshd_config
Protocol 2
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ssh client and server
25.1.4. public and private keys
The ssh protocol uses the well known system of public and private keys. The below
explanation is succinct, more information can be found on wikipedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
Imagine Alice and Bob, two people that like to communicate with each other. Using public
and private keys they can communicate with encryption and with authentication.
When Alice wants to send an encrypted message to Bob, she uses the public key of Bob.
Bob shares his public key with Alice, but keeps his private key private! Since Bob is the
only one to have Bob's private key, Alice is sure that Bob is the only one that can read the
encrypted message.
When Bob wants to verify that the message came from Alice, Bob uses the public key of
Alice to verify that Alice signed the message with her private key. Since Alice is the only
one to have Alice's private key, Bob is sure the message came from Alice.
25.1.5. rsa and dsa algorithms
This chapter does not explain the technical implementation of cryptographic algorithms,
it only explains how to use the ssh tools with rsa and dsa. More information about these
algorithms can be found here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_(algorithm)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Signature_Algorithm
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ssh client and server
25.2. log on to a remote server
The following screenshot shows how to use ssh to log on to a remote computer running
Linux. The local user is named paul and he is logging on as user admin42 on the remote
system.
[email protected]:~$ ssh [email protected]
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.30 (192.168.1.30)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is b5:fb:3c:53:50:b4:ab:81:f3:cd:2e:bb:ba:44:d3:75.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
As you can see, the user paul is presented with an rsa authentication fingerprint from the
remote system. The user can accepts this bu typing yes. We will see later that an entry will
be added to the ~/.ssh/known_hosts file.
[email protected]:~$ ssh [email protected]
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.30 (192.168.1.30)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is b5:fb:3c:53:50:b4:ab:81:f3:cd:2e:bb:ba:44:d3:75.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.30' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
[email protected]'s password:
Welcome to Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.2.0-26-generic-pae i686)
* Documentation:
https://help.ubuntu.com/
1 package can be updated.
0 updates are security updates.
Last login: Wed Jun 6 19:25:57 2012 from 172.28.0.131
[email protected]:~$
The user can get log out of the remote server by typing exit or by using Ctrl-d.
[email protected]:~$ exit
logout
Connection to 192.168.1.30 closed.
[email protected]:~$
25.3. executing a command in remote
This screenshot shows how to execute the pwd command on the remote server. There is no
need to exit the server manually.
[email protected]:~$ ssh [email protected] pwd
[email protected]'s password:
/home/admin42
[email protected]:~$
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ssh client and server
25.4. scp
The scp command works just like cp, but allows the source and destination of the copy to
be behind ssh. Here is an example where we copy the /etc/hosts file from the remote server
to the home directory of user paul.
[email protected]:~$ scp [email protected]:/etc/hosts /home/paul/serverhosts
[email protected]'s password:
hosts
100% 809
0.8KB/s
00:00
Here is an example of the reverse, copying a local file to a remote server.
[email protected]:~$ scp ~/serverhosts [email protected]:/etc/hosts.new
[email protected]'s password:
serverhosts
100% 809
0.8KB/s
00:00
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ssh client and server
25.5. setting up passwordless ssh
To set up passwordless ssh authentication through public/private keys, use ssh-keygen to
generate a key pair without a passphrase, and then copy your public key to the destination
server. Let's do this step by step.
In the example that follows, we will set up ssh without password between Alice and Bob.
Alice has an account on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux server, Bob is using Ubuntu on his
laptop. Bob wants to give Alice access using ssh and the public and private key system. This
means that even if Bob changes his password on his laptop, Alice will still have access.
25.5.1. ssh-keygen
The example below shows how Alice uses ssh-keygen to generate a key pair. Alice does
not enter a passphrase.
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/alice/.ssh/id_rsa):
Created directory '/home/alice/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/alice/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/alice/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
9b:ac:ac:56:c2:98:e5:d9:18:c4:2a:51:72:bb:45:eb [email protected]
[[email protected] ~]$
You can use ssh-keygen -t dsa in the same way.
25.5.2. ~/.ssh
While ssh-keygen generates a public and a private key, it will also create a hidden .ssh
directory with proper permissions. If you create the .ssh directory manually, then you need
to chmod 700 it! Otherwise ssh will refuse to use the keys (world readable private keys are
not secure!).
As you can see, the .ssh directory is secure in Alice's home directory.
[[email protected] ~]$ ls -ld .ssh
drwx------ 2 alice alice 4096 May
[[email protected] ~]$
1 07:38 .ssh
Bob is using Ubuntu at home. He decides to manually create the .ssh directory, so he needs
to manually secure it.
[email protected]:~$
[email protected]:~$
drwxr-xr-x 2
[email protected]:~$
[email protected]:~$
mkdir .ssh
ls -ld .ssh
bob bob 4096 2008-05-14 16:53 .ssh
chmod 700 .ssh/
25.5.3. id_rsa and id_rsa.pub
The ssh-keygen command generate two keys in .ssh. The public key is named ~/.ssh/
id_rsa.pub. The private key is named ~/.ssh/id_rsa.
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ssh client and server
[[email protected] ~]$ ls -l .ssh/
total 16
-rw------- 1 alice alice 1671 May
-rw-r--r-- 1 alice alice 393 May
1 07:38 id_rsa
1 07:38 id_rsa.pub
The files will be named id_dsa and id_dsa.pub when using dsa instead of rsa.
25.5.4. copy the public key to the other computer
To copy the public key from Alice's server tot Bob's laptop, Alice decides to use scp.
[[email protected] .ssh]$ scp id_rsa.pub [email protected]:~/.ssh/authorized_keys
[email protected]'s password:
id_rsa.pub
100% 393
0.4KB/s
00:00
Be careful when copying a second key! Do not overwrite the first key, instead append the
key to the same ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file!
cat id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Alice could also have used ssh-copy-id like in this example.
ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub [email protected]
25.5.5. authorized_keys
In your ~/.ssh directory, you can create a file called authorized_keys. This file can contain
one or more public keys from people you trust. Those trusted people can use their private
keys to prove their identity and gain access to your account via ssh (without password). The
example shows Bob's authorized_keys file containing the public key of Alice.
[email protected]:~$ cat .ssh/authorized_keys
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEApCQ9xzyLzJes1sR+hPyqW2vyzt1D4zTLqk\
MDWBR4mMFuUZD/O583I3Lg/Q+JIq0RSksNzaL/BNLDou1jMpBe2Dmf/u22u4KmqlJBfDhe\
yTmGSBzeNYCYRSMq78CT9l9a+y6x/shucwhaILsy8A2XfJ9VCggkVtu7XlWFDL2cum08/0\
mRFwVrfc/uPsAn5XkkTscl4g21mQbnp9wJC40pGSJXXMuFOk8MgCb5ieSnpKFniAKM+tEo\
/vjDGSi3F/bxu691jscrU0VUdIoOSo98HUfEf7jKBRikxGAC7I4HLa+/zX73OIvRFAb2hv\
tUhn6RHrBtUJUjbSGiYeFTLDfcTQ== [email protected]
25.5.6. passwordless ssh
Alice can now use ssh to connect passwordless to Bob's laptop. In combination with ssh's
capability to execute commands on the remote host, this can be useful in pipes across
different machines.
[[email protected] ~]$ ssh [email protected] "ls -l .ssh"
total 4
-rw-r--r-- 1 bob bob 393 2008-05-14 17:03 authorized_keys
[[email protected] ~]$
25.6. X forwarding via ssh
Another popular feature of ssh is called X11 forwarding and is implemented with ssh -X.
Below an example of X forwarding: user paul logs in as user greet on her computer to start the
graphical application mozilla-thunderbird. Although the application will run on the remote
computer from greet, it will be displayed on the screen attached locally to paul's computer.
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ssh client and server
[email protected]:~/PDF$ ssh -X [email protected] -p 55555
Warning: Permanently added the RSA host key for IP address \
'81.240.174.161' to the list of known hosts.
Password:
Linux raika 2.6.8-2-686 #1 Tue Aug 16 13:22:48 UTC 2005 i686 GNU/Linux
Last login: Thu Jan 18 12:35:56 2007
[email protected]:~$ ps fax | grep thun
[email protected]:~$ mozilla-thunderbird &
[1] 30336
25.7. troubleshooting ssh
Use ssh -v to get debug information about the ssh connection attempt.
[email protected]:~$ ssh -v [email protected]
OpenSSH_4.3p2 Debian-8ubuntu1, OpenSSL 0.9.8c 05 Sep 2006
debug1: Reading configuration data /home/paul/.ssh/config
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: Applying options for *
debug1: Connecting to 192.168.1.192 [192.168.1.192] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file /home/paul/.ssh/identity type -1
debug1: identity file /home/paul/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: identity file /home/paul/.ssh/id_dsa type -1
debug1: Remote protocol version 1.99, remote software version OpenSSH_3
debug1: match: OpenSSH_3.9p1 pat OpenSSH_3.*
debug1: Enabling compatibility mode for protocol 2.0
...
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ssh client and server
25.8. sshd
The ssh server is called sshd and is provided by the openssh-server package.
[email protected]~# dpkg -l openssh-server | tail -1
ii openssh-server
1:5.9p1-5ubuntu1
secure shell (SSH) server,...
25.9. sshd keys
The public keys used by the sshd server are located in /etc/ssh and are world readable. The
private keys are only readable by root.
[email protected]~# ls
-rw------- 1 root
-rw-r--r-- 1 root
-rw------- 1 root
-rw-r--r-- 1 root
-l /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*
root 668 Jun 7 2011
root 598 Jun 7 2011
root 1679 Jun 7 2011
root 390 Jun 7 2011
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
25.10. ssh-agent
When generating keys with ssh-keygen, you have the option to enter a passphrase to protect
access to the keys. To avoid having to type this passphrase every time, you can add the key
to ssh-agent using ssh-add.
Most Linux distributions will start the ssh-agent automatically when you log on.
[email protected]~# ps -ef | grep ssh-agent
paul
2405 2365 0 08:13 ?
00:00:00 /usr/bin/ssh-agent...
This clipped screenshot shows how to use ssh-add to list the keys that are currently added
to the ssh-agent
[email protected]:~$ ssh-add -L
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAvgI+Vx5UrIsusZPl8da8URHGsxG7yivv3/\
...
wMGqa48Kelwom8TGb4Sgcwpp/VO/ldA5m+BGCw== [email protected]
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ssh client and server
25.11. practice: ssh
0. Make sure that you have access to two Linux computers, or work together with a partner
for this exercise. For this practice, we will name one of the machines the server.
1. Install sshd on the server
2. Verify in the ssh configuration files that only protocol version 2 is allowed.
3. Use ssh to log on to the server, show your current directory and then exit the server.
4. Use scp to copy a file from your computer to the server.
5. Use scp to copy a file from the server to your computer.
6. (optional, only works when you have a graphical install of Linux) Install the xeyes package
on the server and use ssh to run xeyes on the server, but display it on your client.
7. (optional, same as previous) Create a bookmark in firefox, then quit firefox on client and
server. Use ssh -X to run firefox on your display, but on your neighbour's computer. Do you
see your neighbour's bookmark ?
8. Use ssh-keygen to create a key pair without passphrase. Setup passwordless ssh between
you and your neighbour. (or between your client and your server)
9.Verify that the permissions on the server key files are correct; world readable for the public
keys and only root access for the private keys.
10. Verify that the ssh-agent is running.
11. (optional) Protect your keypair with a passphrase, then add this key to the ssh-agent
and test your passwordless ssh to the server.
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ssh client and server
25.12. solution: ssh
0. Make sure that you have access to two Linux computers, or work together with a partner
for this exercise. For this practice, we will name one of the machines the server.
1. Install sshd on the server
apt-get install openssh-server (on Ubuntu/Debian)
yum -y install openssh-server (on Centos/Fedora/Red Hat)
2. Verify in the ssh configuration files that only protocol version 2 is allowed.
grep Protocol /etc/ssh/ssh*_config
3. Use ssh to log on to the server, show your current directory and then exit the server.
[email protected]$ ssh [email protected]
[email protected]$ pwd
/home/user
[email protected]$ exit
4. Use scp to copy a file from your computer to the server.
scp localfile [email protected]:~
5. Use scp to copy a file from the server to your computer.
scp [email protected]:~/serverfile .
6. (optional, only works when you have a graphical install of Linux) Install the xeyes package
on the server and use ssh to run xeyes on the server, but display it on your client.
on the server:
apt-get install xeyes
on the client:
ssh -X [email protected]
xeyes
7. (optional, same as previous) Create a bookmark in firefox, then quit firefox on client and
server. Use ssh -X to run firefox on your display, but on your neighbour's computer. Do you
see your neighbour's bookmark ?
8. Use ssh-keygen to create a key pair without passphrase. Setup passwordless ssh between
you and your neighbour. (or between your client and your server)
See solution in book "setting up passwordless ssh"
9. Verify that the permissions on the server key files are correct; world readable for the
public keys and only root access for the private keys.
ls -l /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*
10. Verify that the ssh-agent is running.
ps fax | grep ssh-agent
11. (optional) Protect your keypair with a passphrase, then add this key to the ssh-agent
and test your passwordless ssh to the server.
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ssh client and server
man ssh-keygen
man ssh-agent
man ssh-add
297
Chapter 26. introduction to nfs
The network file system (or simply nfs) enables us since the Eighties to share a directory
with other computers on the network.
In this chapter we see how to setup an nfs server and an nfs client computer.
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introduction to nfs
26.1. nfs protocol versions
The older nfs versions 2 and 3 are stateless (udp) by default (but they can use tcp). The more
recent nfs version 4 brings a stateful protocol with better performance and stronger security.
NFS version 4 was defined in rfc 3010 in 2000 and rfc 3530 in 2003 and requires tcp (port
2049). It also supports Kerberos user authentication as an option when mounting a share.
NFS versions 2 and 3 authenticate only the host.
26.2. rpcinfo
Clients connect to the server using rpc (on Linux this can be managed by the portmap
daemon). Look at rpcinfo to verify that nfs and its related services are running.
[email protected]:~# /etc/init.d/portmap status
portmap (pid 1920) is running...
[email protected]:~# rpcinfo -p
program vers proto
port
100000
2
tcp
111 portmapper
100000
2
udp
111 portmapper
100024
1
udp 32768 status
100024
1
tcp 32769 status
[email protected]:~# service nfs start
Starting NFS services:
Starting NFS quotas:
Starting NFS daemon:
Starting NFS mountd:
The same rpcinfo command when nfs is started.
[email protected]:~# rpcinfo -p
program vers proto
port
100000
2
tcp
111 portmapper
100000
2
udp
111 portmapper
100024
1
udp 32768 status
100024
1
tcp 32769 status
100011
1
udp
985 rquotad
100011
2
udp
985 rquotad
100011
1
tcp
988 rquotad
100011
2
tcp
988 rquotad
100003
2
udp
2049 nfs
100003
3
udp
2049 nfs
100003
4
udp
2049 nfs
100003
2
tcp
2049 nfs
100003
3
tcp
2049 nfs
100003
4
tcp
2049 nfs
100021
1
udp 32770 nlockmgr
100021
3
udp 32770 nlockmgr
100021
4
udp 32770 nlockmgr
100021
1
tcp 32789 nlockmgr
100021
3
tcp 32789 nlockmgr
100021
4
tcp 32789 nlockmgr
100005
1
udp
1004 mountd
100005
1
tcp
1007 mountd
100005
2
udp
1004 mountd
100005
2
tcp
1007 mountd
100005
3
udp
1004 mountd
100005
3
tcp
1007 mountd
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[
[
[
OK
OK
OK
OK
]
]
]
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introduction to nfs
26.3. server configuration
nfs is configured in /etc/exports. You might want some way (ldap?) to synchronize userid's
across computers when using nfs a lot.
The rootsquash option will change UID 0 to the UID of a nobody (or similar) user account.
The sync option will write writes to disk before completing the client request.
26.4. /etc/exports
Here is a sample /etc/exports to explain the syntax:
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/exports
# Everyone can read this share
/mnt/data/iso *(ro)
# Only the computers named pasha and barry can readwrite this one
/var/www pasha(rw) barry(rw)
# same, but without root squashing for barry
/var/ftp pasha(rw) barry(rw,no_root_squash)
# everyone from the netsec.local domain gets access
/var/backup
*.netsec.local(rw)
# ro for one network, rw for the other
/var/upload
192.168.1.0/24(ro) 192.168.5.0/24(rw)
More recent incarnations of nfs require the subtree_check option to be explicitly set (or
unset with no_subtree_check). The /etc/exports file then looks like this:
[email protected] ~# cat /etc/exports
# Everyone can read this share
/srv/iso *(ro,no_subtree_check)
# Only the computers named pasha and barry can readwrite this one
/var/www pasha(rw,no_subtree_check) barry(rw,no_subtree_check)
# same, but without root squashing for barry
/var/ftp pasha(rw,no_subtree_check) barry(rw,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)
26.5. exportfs
You don't need to restart the nfs server to start exporting your newly created exports. You
can use the exportfs -va command to do this. It will write the exported directories to /var/
lib/nfs/etab, where they are immediately applied.
[email protected] ~# exportfs -va
exporting pasha:/var/ftp
exporting barry:/var/ftp
exporting pasha:/var/www
exporting barry:/var/www
exporting *:/srv/iso
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introduction to nfs
26.6. client configuration
We have seen the mount command and the /etc/fstab file before.
[email protected]:~# mount -t nfs barry:/mnt/data/iso /home/project55/
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/fstab | grep nfs
barry:/mnt/data/iso
/home/iso
nfs
defaults
0 0
[email protected]:~#
Here is another simple example. Suppose the project55 people tell you they only need a
couple of CD-ROM images, and you already have them available on an nfs server. You
could issue the following command to mount this storage on their /home/project55 mount
point.
[email protected]:~# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.40:/mnt/data/iso /home/project55/
[email protected]:~# ls -lh /home/project55/
total 3.6G
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 17:55 RHELv4u1
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 14:14 RHELv4u2
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 14:54 RHELv4u3
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 11:09 RHELv4u4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.6G Oct 13 15:22 sled10-vmwarews5-vm.zip
[email protected]:~#
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introduction to nfs
26.7. practice: introduction to nfs
1. Create two directories with some files. Use nfs to share one of them as read only, the other
must be writable. Have your neighbour connect to them to test.
2. Investigate the user owner of the files created by your neighbour.
3. Protect a share by ip-address or hostname, so only your neighbour can connect.
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Chapter 27. introduction to
networking
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introduction to networking
27.1. introduction to iptables
27.1.1. iptables firewall
The Linux kernel has a built-in stateful firewall named iptables. To stop the iptables firewall
on Red Hat, use the service command.
[email protected]:~# service iptables stop
Flushing firewall rules:
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter
Unloading iptables modules:
[email protected]:~#
[
[
[
OK
OK
OK
]
]
]
The easy way to configure iptables, is to use a graphical tool like KDE's kmyfirewall
or Security Level Configuration Tool. You can find the latter in the graphical menu,
somewhere in System Tools - Security, or you can start it by typing system-configsecuritylevel in bash. These tools allow for some basic firewall configuration. You can
decide whether to enable or disable the firewall, and what typical standard ports are allowed
when the firewall is active. You can even add some custom ports. When you are done, the
configuration is written to /etc/sysconfig/iptables on Red Hat.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/sysconfig/iptables
# Firewall configuration written by system-config-securitylevel
# Manual customization of this file is not recommended.
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:RH-Firewall-1-INPUT - [0:0]
-A INPUT -j RH-Firewall-1-INPUT
-A FORWARD -j RH-Firewall-1-INPUT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type any -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p 50 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p 51 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p udp --dport 5353 -d 224.0.0.251 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 631 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
-A RH-F...NPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-F...NPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-F...NPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 21 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-F...NPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 25 -j ACCEPT
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
COMMIT
[email protected]:~#
To start the service, issue the service iptables start command. You can configure iptables
to start at boot time with chkconfig.
[email protected]:~# service iptables start
Applying iptables firewall rules:
[email protected]:~# chkconfig iptables on
[email protected]:~#
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OK
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introduction to networking
One of the nice features of iptables is that it displays extensive status information when
queried with the service iptables status command.
[email protected]:~# service iptables status
Table: filter
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target
prot opt source
destination
RH-Firewall-1-INPUT all -- 0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target
prot opt source
RH-Firewall-1-INPUT all -- 0.0.0.0/0
destination
0.0.0.0/0
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target
prot opt source
destination
Chain RH-Firewall-1-INPUT (2
target prot opt source
ACCEPT all -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT icmp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT esp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT ah
-- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT udp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT udp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT all -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0
ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0
REJECT all -- 0.0.0.0/0
references)
destination
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
224.0.0.251
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
icmp type 255
udp dpt:5353
udp dpt:631
state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
state NEW tcp dpt:22
state NEW tcp dpt:80
state NEW tcp dpt:21
state NEW tcp dpt:25
reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
[email protected]:~#
Mastering firewall configuration requires a decent knowledge of tcp/ip. Good iptables
tutorials can be found online here http://iptables-tutorial.frozentux.net/iptables-tutorial.html
and here http://tldp.org/HOWTO/IP-Masquerade-HOWTO/.
27.2. practice : iptables
1. Verify whether the firewall is running.
2. Stop the running firewall.
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27.3. solution : iptables
1. Verify whether the firewall is running.
[email protected] ~# service iptables status | head
Table: filter
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
num target
prot opt source
destination
1
RH-Firewall-1-INPUT all -- 0.0.0.0/0
0.0.0.0/0
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
num target
prot opt source
1
RH-Firewall-1-INPUT all --
0.0.0.0/0
destination
0.0.0.0/0
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
2. Stop the running firewall.
[email protected] ~# service iptables stop
Flushing firewall rules:
Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter
Unloading iptables modules:
[email protected] ~# service iptables status
Firewall is stopped.
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27.4. xinetd and inetd
27.4.1. the superdaemon
Back when resources like RAM memory were limited, a super-server was devised to listen
to all sockets and start the appropriate daemon only when needed. Services like swat, telnet
and ftp are typically served by such a super-server. The xinetd superdaemon is more recent
than inetd. We will discuss the configuration both daemons.
Recent Linux distributions like RHEL5 and Ubuntu10.04 do not activate inetd or xinetd by
default, unless an application requires it.
27.4.2. inetd or xinetd
First verify whether your computer is running inetd or xinetd. This Debian 4.0 Etch is
running inetd.
[email protected]:~# ps fax | grep inet
3870 ?
Ss
0:00 /usr/sbin/inetd
This Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 update 4 is running xinetd.
[[email protected] ~]# ps fax | grep inet
3003 ?
Ss
0:00 xinetd -stayalive -pidfile /var/run/xinetd.pid
Both daemons have the same functionality (listening to many ports, starting other daemons
when they are needed), but they have different configuration files.
27.4.3. xinetd superdaemon
The xinetd daemon is often called a superdaemon because it listens to a lot of incoming
connections, and starts other daemons when they are needed. When a connection request
is received, xinetd will first check TCP wrappers (/etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny) and
then give control of the connection to the other daemon. This superdaemon is configured
through /etc/xinetd.conf and the files in the directory /etc/xinetd.d. Let's first take a look
at /etc/xinetd.conf.
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/xinetd.conf
#
# Simple configuration file for xinetd
#
# Some defaults, and include /etc/xinetd.d/
defaults
{
instances
log_type
log_on_success
log_on_failure
cps
=
=
=
=
=
60
SYSLOG authpriv
HOST PID
HOST
25 30
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introduction to networking
}
includedir /etc/xinetd.d
[email protected]:~$
According to the settings in this file, xinetd can handle 60 client requests at once. It uses the
authpriv facility to log the host ip-address and pid of successful daemon spawns. When a
service (aka protocol linked to daemon) gets more than 25 cps (connections per second), it
holds subsequent requests for 30 seconds.
The directory /etc/xinetd.d contains more specific configuration files. Let's also take a look
at one of them.
[email protected]:~$ ls /etc/xinetd.d
amanda
chargen-udp echo
klogin
rexec
talk
amandaidx cups-lpd
echo-udp krb5-telnet rlogin telnet
amidxtape daytime
eklogin
kshell
rsh
tftp
auth
daytime-udp finger
ktalk
rsync
time
chargen
dbskkd-cdb
gssftp
ntalk
swat
time-udp
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/swat
# default: off
# description: SWAT is the Samba Web Admin Tool. Use swat \
#
to configure your Samba server. To use SWAT, \
#
connect to port 901 with your favorite web browser.
service swat
{
port
= 901
socket_type
= stream
wait
= no
only_from
= 127.0.0.1
user
= root
server
= /usr/sbin/swat
log_on_failure += USERID
disable
= yes
}
[email protected]:~$
The services should be listed in the /etc/services file. Port determines the service port, and
must be the same as the port specified in /etc/services. The socket_type should be set to
stream for tcp services (and to dgram for udp). The log_on_failure += concats the userid
to the log message formatted in /etc/xinetd.conf. The last setting disable can be set to yes
or no. Setting this to no means the service is enabled!
Check the xinetd and xinetd.conf manual pages for many more configuration options.
27.4.4. inetd superdaemon
This superdaemon has only one configuration file /etc/inetd.conf. Every protocol or daemon
that it is listening for, gets one line in this file.
[email protected]:~# grep ftp /etc/inetd.conf
tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/in.tftpd /boot/tftp
[email protected]:~#
308
introduction to networking
You can disable a service in inetd.conf above by putting a # at the start of that line. Here an
example of the disabled vmware web interface (listening on tcp port 902).
[email protected]:~$ grep vmware /etc/inetd.conf
#902 stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/vmware-authd vmware-authd
27.5. practice : inetd and xinetd
1. Verify on all systems whether they are using xinetd or inetd.
2. Look at the configuration files.
3. (If telnet is installable, then replace swat in these questions with telnet) Is swat installed ?
If not, then install swat and look at the changes in the (x)inetd configuration. Is swat enabled
or disabled ?
4. Disable swat, test it. Enable swat, test it.
309
introduction to networking
27.6. network file system
27.6.1. protocol versions
The older nfs versions 2 and 3 are stateless (udp) by default, but they can use tcp. Clients
connect to the server using rpc (on Linux this is controlled by the portmap daemon. Look
at rpcinfo to verify that nfs and its related services are running.
[email protected]:~# /etc/init.d/portmap status
portmap (pid 1920) is running...
[email protected]:~# rpcinfo -p
program vers proto
port
100000
2
tcp
111 portmapper
100000
2
udp
111 portmapper
100024
1
udp 32768 status
100024
1
tcp 32769 status
[email protected]:~# service nfs start
Starting NFS services:
Starting NFS quotas:
Starting NFS daemon:
Starting NFS mountd:
[
[
[
[
OK
OK
OK
OK
]
]
]
]
The same rpcinfo command when nfs is started.
[email protected]:~# rpcinfo -p
program vers proto
port
100000
2
tcp
111 portmapper
100000
2
udp
111 portmapper
100024
1
udp 32768 status
100024
1
tcp 32769 status
100011
1
udp
985 rquotad
100011
2
udp
985 rquotad
100011
1
tcp
988 rquotad
100011
2
tcp
988 rquotad
100003
2
udp
2049 nfs
100003
3
udp
2049 nfs
100003
4
udp
2049 nfs
100003
2
tcp
2049 nfs
100003
3
tcp
2049 nfs
100003
4
tcp
2049 nfs
100021
1
udp 32770 nlockmgr
100021
3
udp 32770 nlockmgr
100021
4
udp 32770 nlockmgr
100021
1
tcp 32789 nlockmgr
100021
3
tcp 32789 nlockmgr
100021
4
tcp 32789 nlockmgr
100005
1
udp
1004 mountd
100005
1
tcp
1007 mountd
100005
2
udp
1004 mountd
100005
2
tcp
1007 mountd
100005
3
udp
1004 mountd
100005
3
tcp
1007 mountd
[email protected]:~#
nfs version 4 requires tcp (port 2049) and supports Kerberos user authentication as an
option. nfs authentication only takes place when mounting the share. nfs versions 2 and 3
authenticate only the host.
310
introduction to networking
27.6.2. server configuration
nfs is configured in /etc/exports. Here is a sample /etc/exports to explain the syntax. You
need some way (NIS domain or LDAP) to synchronize userid's across computers when
using nfs a lot. The rootsquash option will change UID 0 to the UID of the nfsnobody user
account. The sync option will write writes to disk before completing the client request.
[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/exports
# Everyone can read this share
/mnt/data/iso *(ro)
# Only the computers barry and pasha can readwrite this one
/var/www pasha(rw) barry(rw)
# same, but without root squashing for barry
/var/ftp pasha(rw) barry(rw,no_root_squash)
# everyone from the netsec.lan domain gets access
/var/backup
*.netsec.lan(rw)
# ro for one network, rw for the other
/var/upload
192.168.1.0/24(ro) 192.168.5.0/24(rw)
You don't need to restart the nfs server to start exporting your newly created exports. You
can use the exportfs -va command to do this. It will write the exported directories to /var/
lib/nfs/etab, where they are immediately applied.
27.6.3. client configuration
We have seen the mount command and the /etc/fstab file before.
[email protected]:~# mount -t nfs barry:/mnt/data/iso /home/project55/
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/fstab | grep nfs
barry:/mnt/data/iso
/home/iso
nfs
defaults
0 0
[email protected]:~#
Here is another simple example. Suppose the project55 people tell you they only need a
couple of CD-ROM images, and you already have them available on an nfs server. You
could issue the following command to mount this storage on their /home/project55 mount
point.
[email protected]:~# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.40:/mnt/data/iso /home/project55/
[email protected]:~# ls -lh /home/project55/
total 3.6G
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 17:55 RHELv4u1
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 14:14 RHELv4u2
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 14:54 RHELv4u3
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4.0K Jan 16 11:09 RHELv4u4
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.6G Oct 13 15:22 sled10-vmwarews5-vm.zip
[email protected]:~#
311
introduction to networking
27.7. practice : network file system
1. Create two directories with some files. Use nfs to share one of them as read only, the other
must be writable. Have your neighbour connect to them to test.
2. Investigate the user owner of the files created by your neighbour.
3. Protect a share by ip-address or hostname, so only your neighbour can connect.
312
Part VI. kernel management
Table of Contents
28. the Linux kernel ............................................................................................................
28.1. about the Linux kernel ...........................................................................................
28.2. Linux kernel source ...............................................................................................
28.3. kernel boot files ....................................................................................................
28.4. Linux kernel modules ............................................................................................
28.5. compiling a kernel ................................................................................................
28.6. compiling one module ...........................................................................................
29. library management .......................................................................................................
29.1. introduction .........................................................................................................
29.2. /lib and /usr/lib .....................................................................................................
29.3. ldd .....................................................................................................................
29.4. ltrace ..................................................................................................................
29.5. dpkg -S and debsums ............................................................................................
29.6. rpm -qf and rpm -V ..............................................................................................
29.7. tracing with strace .................................................................................................
314
315
316
319
323
325
330
333
335
336
336
336
337
337
338
339
Chapter 28. the Linux kernel
315
the Linux kernel
28.1. about the Linux kernel
28.1.1. kernel versions
In 1991 Linux Torvalds wrote (the first version of) the Linux kernel. He put it online, and
other people started contributing code. Over 4000 individuals contributed source code to the
latest kernel release (version 2.6.27 in November 2008).
Major Linux kernel versions used to come in even and odd numbers. Versions 2.0, 2.2, 2.4
and 2.6 are considered stable kernel versions. Whereas 2.1, 2.3 and 2.5 were unstable (read
development) versions. Since the release of 2.6.0 in January 2004, all development has been
done in the 2.6 tree. There is currently no v2.7.x and according to Linus the even/stable vs
odd/development scheme is abandoned forever.
28.1.2. uname -r
To see your current Linux kernel version, issue the uname -r command as shown below.
This first example shows Linux major version 2.6 and minor version 24. The rest -22-generic
is specific to the distribution (Ubuntu in this case).
[email protected]:~$ uname -r
2.6.24-22-generic
The same command on Red Hat Enterprise Linux shows an older kernel (2.6.18) with
-92.1.17.el5 being specific to the distribution.
[[email protected] ~]$ uname -r
2.6.18-92.1.17.el5
28.1.3. /proc/cmdline
The parameters that were passed to the kernel at boot time are in /proc/cmdline.
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/cmdline
ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
316
the Linux kernel
28.1.4. single user mode
When booting the kernel with the single parameter, it starts in single user mode. Linux can
start in a bash shell with the root user logged on (without password).
Some distributions prevent the use of this feature (at kernel compile time).
28.1.5. init=/bin/bash
Normally the kernel invokes init as the first daemon process. Adding init=/bin/bash to the
kernel parameters will instead invoke bash (again with root logged on without providing a
password).
28.1.6. /var/log/messages
The kernel reports during boot to syslog which writes a lot of kernel actions in /var/log/
messages. Looking at this file reveals when the kernel was started, including all the devices
that were detected at boot time.
[[email protected] ~]# grep -A16 "syslogd 1.4.1:" /var/log/messages|cut -b24syslogd 1.4.1: restart.
kernel: klogd 1.4.1, log source = /proc/kmsg started.
kernel: Linux version 2.6.18-128.el5 ([email protected]
kernel: BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
kernel: BIOS-e820: 0000000000000000 - 000000000009f800 (usable)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 000000000009f800 - 00000000000a0000 (reserved)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 00000000000ca000 - 00000000000cc000 (reserved)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 00000000000dc000 - 0000000000100000 (reserved)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 0000000000100000 - 000000001fef0000 (usable)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 000000001fef0000 - 000000001feff000 (ACPI data)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 000000001feff000 - 000000001ff00000 (ACPI NVS)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 000000001ff00000 - 0000000020000000 (usable)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 00000000fec00000 - 00000000fec10000 (reserved)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 00000000fee00000 - 00000000fee01000 (reserved)
kernel: BIOS-e820: 00000000fffe0000 - 0000000100000000 (reserved)
kernel: 0MB HIGHMEM available.
kernel: 512MB LOWMEM available.
This example shows how to use /var/log/messages to see kernel information about /dev/sda.
[[email protected] ~]# grep sda /var/log/messages | cut -b24kernel: SCSI device sda: 41943040 512-byte hdwr sectors (21475 MB)
kernel: sda: Write Protect is off
kernel: sda: cache data unavailable
kernel: sda: assuming drive cache: write through
kernel: SCSI device sda: 41943040 512-byte hdwr sectors (21475 MB)
kernel: sda: Write Protect is off
kernel: sda: cache data unavailable
kernel: sda: assuming drive cache: write through
kernel: sda: sda1 sda2
kernel: sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi disk sda
kernel: EXT3 FS on sda1, internal journal
317
the Linux kernel
28.1.7. dmesg
The dmesg command prints out all the kernel bootup messages (from the last boot).
[[email protected] ~]# dmesg | head
Linux version 2.6.18-128.el5 ([email protected])
BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
BIOS-e820: 0000000000000000 - 000000000009f800 (usable)
BIOS-e820: 000000000009f800 - 00000000000a0000 (reserved)
BIOS-e820: 00000000000ca000 - 00000000000cc000 (reserved)
BIOS-e820: 00000000000dc000 - 0000000000100000 (reserved)
BIOS-e820: 0000000000100000 - 000000001fef0000 (usable)
BIOS-e820: 000000001fef0000 - 000000001feff000 (ACPI data)
BIOS-e820: 000000001feff000 - 000000001ff00000 (ACPI NVS)
BIOS-e820: 000000001ff00000 - 0000000020000000 (usable)
Thus to find information about /dev/sda, using dmesg will yield only kernel messages from
the last boot.
[[email protected] ~]# dmesg | grep sda
SCSI device sda: 41943040 512-byte hdwr sectors (21475 MB)
sda: Write Protect is off
sda: Mode Sense: 5d 00 00 00
sda: cache data unavailable
sda: assuming drive cache: write through
SCSI device sda: 41943040 512-byte hdwr sectors (21475 MB)
sda: Write Protect is off
sda: Mode Sense: 5d 00 00 00
sda: cache data unavailable
sda: assuming drive cache: write through
sda: sda1 sda2
sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi disk sda
EXT3 FS on sda1, internal journal
318
the Linux kernel
28.2. Linux kernel source
28.2.1. ftp.kernel.org
The home of the Linux kernel source is ftp.kernel.org. It contains all official releases of
the Linux kernel source code from 1991. It provides free downloads over http, ftp and rsync
of all these releases, as well as changelogs and patches. More information can be otained
on the website www.kernel.org.
Anyone can anonymously use an ftp client to access ftp.kernel.org
[email protected]:~$ ftp ftp.kernel.org
Connected to pub3.kernel.org.
220 Welcome to ftp.kernel.org.
Name (ftp.kernel.org:paul): anonymous
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230Welcome to the
230230LINUX KERNEL ARCHIVES
230ftp.kernel.org
All the Linux kernel versions are located in the pub/linux/kernel/ directory.
ftp> ls pub/linux/kernel/v*
200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV.
150 Here comes the directory listing.
drwxrwsr-x
2 536
536
4096 Mar 20 2003 v1.0
drwxrwsr-x
2 536
536
20480 Mar 20 2003 v1.1
drwxrwsr-x
2 536
536
8192 Mar 20 2003 v1.2
drwxrwsr-x
2 536
536
40960 Mar 20 2003 v1.3
drwxrwsr-x
3 536
536
16384 Feb 08 2004 v2.0
drwxrwsr-x
2 536
536
53248 Mar 20 2003 v2.1
drwxrwsr-x
3 536
536
12288 Mar 24 2004 v2.2
drwxrwsr-x
2 536
536
24576 Mar 20 2003 v2.3
drwxrwsr-x
5 536
536
28672 Dec 02 08:14 v2.4
drwxrwsr-x
4 536
536
32768 Jul 14 2003 v2.5
drwxrwsr-x
7 536
536
110592 Dec 05 22:36 v2.6
226 Directory send OK.
ftp>
319
the Linux kernel
28.2.2. /usr/src
On your local computer, the kernel source is located in /usr/src. Note though that the
structure inside /usr/src might be different depending on the distribution that you are using.
First let's take a look at /usr/src on Debian. There appear to be two versions of the complete
Linux source code there. Looking for a specific file (e1000_main.c) with find reveals it's
exact location.
[email protected]:~$ ls -l /usr/src/
drwxr-xr-x 20 root root
4096 2006-04-04 22:12 linux-source-2.6.15
drwxr-xr-x 19 root root
4096 2006-07-15 17:32 linux-source-2.6.16
[email protected]:~$ find /usr/src -name e1000_main.c
/usr/src/linux-source-2.6.15/drivers/net/e1000/e1000_main.c
/usr/src/linux-source-2.6.16/drivers/net/e1000/e1000_main.c
This is very similar to /usr/src on Ubuntu, except there is only one kernel here (and it is
newer).
[email protected]:~$ ls -l /usr/src/
drwxr-xr-x 23 root root
4096 2008-11-24 23:28 linux-source-2.6.24
[email protected]:~$ find /usr/src -name "e1000_main.c"
/usr/src/linux-source-2.6.24/drivers/net/e1000/e1000_main.c
Now take a look at /usr/src on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
[[email protected] ~]$ ls -l /usr/src/
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Dec 5 19:23 kernels
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Oct 11 13:22 redhat
We will have to dig a little deeper to find the kernel source on Red Hat!
[[email protected] ~]$ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD/
[[email protected] BUILD]$ find . -name "e1000_main.c"
./kernel-2.6.18/linux-2.6.18.i686/drivers/net/e1000/e1000_main.c
320
the Linux kernel
28.2.3. downloading the kernel source
Debian
Installing the kernel source on Debian is really simple with aptitude install linux-source.
You can do a search for all linux-source packeges first, like in this screenshot.
[email protected]:~# aptitude search linux-source
v
linux-source
v
linux-source-2.6
id linux-source-2.6.15
- Linux kernel source
i
linux-source-2.6.16
- Linux kernel source
p
linux-source-2.6.18
- Linux kernel source
p
linux-source-2.6.24
- Linux kernel source
for
for
for
for
version
version
version
version
2.6.15
2.6.16
2.6.18
2.6.24
And then use aptitude install to download and install the Debian Linux kernel source code.
[email protected]:~# aptitude install linux-source-2.6.24
When the aptitude is finished, you will see a new file named /usr/src/linux-source<version>.tar.bz2
[email protected]:/usr/src# ls -lh
drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 4.0K 2006-04-04 22:12 linux-source-2.6.15
drwxr-xr-x 19 root root 4.0K 2006-07-15 17:32 linux-source-2.6.16
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45M 2008-12-02 10:56 linux-source-2.6.24.tar.bz2
Ubuntu
Ubuntu is based on Debian and also uses aptitude, so the task is very similar.
[email protected]:~# aptitude search linux-source
i
linux-source
- Linux kernel source with Ubuntu patches
v
linux-source-2.6
i A linux-source-2.6.24
- Linux kernel source for version 2.6.24
[email protected]:~# aptitude install linux-source
And when aptitude finishes, we end up with a /usr/src/linux-source-<version>.tar.bz file.
[email protected]:~# ll /usr/src
total 45M
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 45M 2008-11-24 23:30 linux-source-2.6.24.tar.bz2
321
the Linux kernel
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The Red Hat kernel source is located on the fourth source cdrom. The file is called
kernel-2.6.9-42.EL.src.rpm (example for RHELv4u4). It is also available online at ftp://
ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/enterprise/5Server/en/os/SRPMS/ (example for RHEL5).
To download the kernel source on RHEL, use this long wget command (on one line, without
the trailing \).
wget ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/enterprise/5Server/en/os/\
SRPMS/kernel-`uname -r`.src.rpm
When the wget download is finished, you end up with a 60M .rpm file.
[[email protected]
total 60M
-rw-r--r-- 1
drwxr-xr-x 5
drwxr-xr-x 7
src]# ll
root root 60M Dec 5 20:54 kernel-2.6.18-92.1.17.el5.src.rpm
root root 4.0K Dec 5 19:23 kernels
root root 4.0K Oct 11 13:22 redhat
We will need to perform some more steps before this can be used as kernel source code.
First, we issue the rpm -i kernel-2.6.9-42.EL.src.rpm command to install this Red Hat
package.
[[email protected]
total 60M
-rw-r--r-- 1
drwxr-xr-x 5
drwxr-xr-x 7
[[email protected]
src]# ll
root root 60M Dec 5 20:54 kernel-2.6.18-92.1.17.el5.src.rpm
root root 4.0K Dec 5 19:23 kernels
root root 4.0K Oct 11 13:22 redhat
src]# rpm -i kernel-2.6.18-92.1.17.el5.src.rpm
Then we move to the SPECS directory and perform an rpmbuild.
[[email protected] ~]# cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS
[[email protected] SPECS]# rpmbuild -bp -vv --target=i686 kernel-2.6.spec
The rpmbuild command put the RHEL Linux kernel source code in /usr/src/redhat/BUILD/
kernel-<version>/.
[[email protected] kernel-2.6.18]# pwd
/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.18
[[email protected] kernel-2.6.18]# ll
total 20K
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Dec 6 2007 config
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3.1K Dec 5 20:58 Config.mk
drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 4.0K Dec 5 20:58 linux-2.6.18.i686
drwxr-xr-x 19 root root 4.0K Sep 20 2006 vanilla
drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4.0K Dec 6 2007 xen
322
the Linux kernel
28.3. kernel boot files
28.3.1. vmlinuz
The vmlinuz file in /boot is the compressed kernel.
[email protected]:~$ ls -lh /boot | grep vmlinuz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.2M 2006-03-06 16:22 vmlinuz-2.6.15-1-486
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.1M 2006-03-06 16:30 vmlinuz-2.6.15-1-686
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.3M 2008-02-11 00:00 vmlinuz-2.6.18-6-686
[email protected]:~$
28.3.2. initrd
The kernel uses initrd (an initial RAM disk) at boot time. The initrd is mounted before
the kernel loads, and can contain additional drivers and modules. It is a compressed cpio
archive, so you can look at the contents in this way.
[email protected]:/boot# mkdir /mnt/initrd
[email protected]:/boot# cp initrd-2.6.9-42.0.3.EL.img TMPinitrd.gz
[email protected]:/boot# gunzip TMPinitrd.gz
[email protected]:/boot# file TMPinitrd
TMPinitrd: ASCII cpio archive (SVR4 with no CRC)
[email protected]:/boot# cd /mnt/initrd/
[email protected]:/mnt/initrd# cpio -i | /boot/TMPinitrd
4985 blocks
[email protected]:/mnt/initrd# ls -l
total 76
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 bin
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 dev
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 etc
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1607 Feb 5 08:36 init
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 lib
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 loopfs
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 proc
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root
3 Feb 5 08:36 sbin -> bin
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 sys
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 5 08:36 sysroot
[email protected]:/mnt/initrd#
323
the Linux kernel
28.3.3. System.map
The System.map contains the symbol table and changes with every kernel compile. The
symbol table is also present in /proc/kallsyms (pre 2.6 kernels name this file /proc/ksyms).
[email protected]:/boot# head System.map-`uname -r`
00000400 A __kernel_vsyscall
0000041a A SYSENTER_RETURN_OFFSET
00000420 A __kernel_sigreturn
00000440 A __kernel_rt_sigreturn
c0100000 A _text
c0100000 T startup_32
c01000c6 t checkCPUtype
c0100147 t is486
c010014e t is386
c010019f t L6
[email protected]:/boot# head /proc/kallsyms
c0100228 t _stext
c0100228 t calibrate_delay_direct
c0100228 t stext
c0100337 t calibrate_delay
c01004db t rest_init
c0100580 t do_pre_smp_initcalls
c0100585 t run_init_process
c01005ac t init
c0100789 t early_param_test
c01007ad t early_setup_test
[email protected]:/boot#
28.3.4. .config
The last file copied to the /boot directory is the kernel configuration used for compilation.
This file is not necessary in the /boot directory, but it is common practice to put a copy
there. It allows you to recompile a kernel, starting from the same configuration as an existing
working one.
324
the Linux kernel
28.4. Linux kernel modules
28.4.1. about kernel modules
The Linux kernel is a monolithic kernel with loadable modules. These modules contain parts
of the kernel used typically for device drivers, file systems and network protocols. Most of
the time the necessary kernel modules are loaded automatically and dynamically without
administrator interaction.
28.4.2. /lib/modules
The modules are stored in the /lib/modules/<kernel-version> directory. There is a separate
directory for each kernel that was compiled for your system.
[email protected]:~$ ll /lib/modules/
total 12K
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4.0K 2008-11-10 14:32 2.6.24-16-generic
drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4.0K 2008-12-06 15:39 2.6.24-21-generic
drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4.0K 2008-12-05 12:58 2.6.24-22-generic
28.4.3. <module>.ko
The file containing the modules usually ends in .ko. This screenshot shows the location of
the isdn module files.
[email protected]:~$ find /lib/modules -name isdn.ko
/lib/modules/2.6.24-21-generic/kernel/drivers/isdn/i4l/isdn.ko
/lib/modules/2.6.24-22-generic/kernel/drivers/isdn/i4l/isdn.ko
/lib/modules/2.6.24-16-generic/kernel/drivers/isdn/i4l/isdn.ko
28.4.4. lsmod
To see a list of currently loaded modules, use lsmod. You see the name of each loaded
module, the size, the use count, and the names of other modules using this one.
[[email protected] ~]# lsmod | head
Module
Size
autofs4
24517
hidp
23105
rfcomm
42457
l2cap
29505
-5
Used by
2
2
0
10 hidp,rfcomm
325
the Linux kernel
28.4.5. /proc/modules
/proc/modules lists all modules loaded by the kernel. The output would be too long to
display here, so lets grep for the vm module.
We see that vmmon and vmnet are both loaded. You can display the same information with
lsmod. Actually lsmod only reads and reformats the output of /proc/modules.
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/modules | grep vm
vmnet 36896 13 - Live 0xffffffff88b21000 (P)
vmmon 194540 0 - Live 0xffffffff88af0000 (P)
[email protected]:~$ lsmod | grep vm
vmnet
36896 13
vmmon
194540 0
[email protected]:~$
28.4.6. module dependencies
Some modules depend on others. In the following example, you can see that the nfsd module
is used by exportfs, lockd and sunrpc.
[email protected]:~$ cat /proc/modules | grep nfsd
nfsd 267432 17 - Live 0xffffffff88a40000
exportfs 7808 1 nfsd, Live 0xffffffff88a3d000
lockd 73520 3 nfs,nfsd, Live 0xffffffff88a2a000
sunrpc 185032 12 nfs,nfsd,lockd, Live 0xffffffff889fb000
[email protected]:~$ lsmod | grep nfsd
nfsd
267432 17
exportfs
7808 1 nfsd
lockd
73520 3 nfs,nfsd
sunrpc
185032 12 nfs,nfsd,lockd
[email protected]:~$
326
the Linux kernel
28.4.7. insmod
Kernel modules can be manually loaded with the insmod command. This is a very simple
(and obsolete) way of loading modules. The screenshot shows insmod loading the fat
module (for fat file system support).
[email protected]:/lib/modules/2.6.17-2-686# lsmod | grep fat
[email protected]:/lib/modules/2.6.17-2-686# insmod kernel/fs/fat/fat.ko
[email protected]:/lib/modules/2.6.17-2-686# lsmod | grep fat
fat
46588 0
insmod is not detecting dependencies, so it fails to load the isdn module (because the isdn
module depends on the slhc module).
[[email protected] drivers]# pwd
/lib/modules/2.6.18-92.1.18.el5/kernel/drivers
[[email protected] kernel]# insmod isdn/i4l/isdn.ko
insmod: error inserting 'isdn/i4l/isdn.ko': -1 Unknown symbol in module
28.4.8. modinfo
As you can see in the screenshot of modinfo below, the isdn module depends in the slhc
module.
[[email protected] drivers]# modinfo isdn/i4l/isdn.ko | head -6
filename:
isdn/i4l/isdn.ko
license:
GPL
author:
Fritz Elfert
description:
ISDN4Linux: link layer
srcversion:
99650346E708173496F6739
depends:
slhc
28.4.9. modprobe
The big advantage of modprobe over insmod is that modprobe will load all necessary
modules, whereas insmod requires manual loading of dependencies. Another advantage is
that you don't need to point to the filename with full path.
This screenshot shows how modprobe loads the isdn module, automatically loading slhc in
background.
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
isdn
slhc
[[email protected]
kernel]# lsmod | grep isdn
kernel]# modprobe isdn
kernel]# lsmod | grep isdn
122433 0
10561 1 isdn
kernel]#
327
the Linux kernel
28.4.10. /lib/modules/<kernel>/modules.dep
Module dependencies are stored in modules.dep.
[[email protected] 2.6.18-92.1.18.el5]# pwd
/lib/modules/2.6.18-92.1.18.el5
[[email protected] 2.6.18-92.1.18.el5]# head -3 modules.dep
/lib/modules/2.6.18-92.1.18.el5/kernel/drivers/net/tokenring/3c359.ko:
/lib/modules/2.6.18-92.1.18.el5/kernel/drivers/net/pcmcia/3c574_cs.ko:
/lib/modules/2.6.18-92.1.18.el5/kernel/drivers/net/pcmcia/3c589_cs.ko:
28.4.11. depmod
The modules.dep file can be updated (recreated) with the depmod command. In this
screenshot no modules were added, so depmod generates the same file.
[email protected]:/lib/modules/2.6.17-2-686# ls -l modules.dep
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 310676 2008-03-01 16:32 modules.dep
[email protected]:/lib/modules/2.6.17-2-686# depmod
[email protected]:/lib/modules/2.6.17-2-686# ls -l modules.dep
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 310676 2008-12-07 13:54 modules.dep
28.4.12. rmmod
Similar to insmod, the rmmod command is rarely used anymore.
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]#
ERROR: Module slhc
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]#
[[email protected] ~]#
modprobe isdn
rmmod slhc
is in use by isdn
rmmod isdn
rmmod slhc
lsmod | grep isdn
28.4.13. modprobe -r
Contrary to rmmod, modprobe will automatically remove unneeded modules.
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
isdn
slhc
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
[[email protected]
~]# modprobe isdn
~]# lsmod | grep isdn
133537 0
7233 1 isdn
~]# modprobe -r isdn
~]# lsmod | grep isdn
~]# lsmod | grep slhc
~]#
28.4.14. /etc/modprobe.conf
The /etc/modprobe.conf file and the /etc/modprobe.d directory can contain aliases (used
by humans) and options (for dependent modules) for modprobe.
[[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/modprobe.conf
alias scsi_hostadapter mptbase
alias scsi_hostadapter1 mptspi
alias scsi_hostadapter2 ata_piix
alias eth0 pcnet32
alias eth2 pcnet32
328
the Linux kernel
alias eth1 pcnet32
329
the Linux kernel
28.5. compiling a kernel
28.5.1. extraversion
Enter into /usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.9/linux-2.6.9/ and change the extraversion
in the Makefile.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# pwd
/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.18/linux-2.6.18.i686
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# vi Makefile
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# head -4 Makefile
VERSION = 2
PATCHLEVEL = 6
SUBLEVEL = 18
EXTRAVERSION = -paul2008
28.5.2. make mrproper
Now clean up the source from any previous installs with make mrproper. If this is your
first after downloading the source code, then this is not needed.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# make mrproper
CLEAN
scripts/basic
CLEAN
scripts/kconfig
CLEAN
include/config
CLEAN
.config .config.old
28.5.3. .config
Now copy a working .config from /boot to our kernel directory. This file contains the
configuration that was used for your current working kernel. It determines whether modules
are included in compilation or not.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# cp /boot/config-2.6.18-92.1.18.el5 .config
28.5.4. make menuconfig
Now run make menuconfig (or the graphical make xconfig). This tool allows you to select
whether to compile stuff as a module (m), as part of the kernel (*), or not at all (smaller
kernel size). If you remove too much, your kernel will not work. The configuration will be
stored in the hidden .config file.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# make menuconfig
28.5.5. make clean
Issue a make clean to prepare the kernel for compile. make clean will remove most
generated files, but keeps your kernel configuration. Running a make mrproper at this point
would destroy the .config file that you built with make menuconfig.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# make clean
330
the Linux kernel
28.5.6. make bzImage
And then run make bzImage, sit back and relax while the kernel compiles. You can use
time make bzImage to know how long it takes to compile, so next time you can go for a
short walk.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# time make bzImage
HOSTCC scripts/basic/fixdep
HOSTCC scripts/basic/docproc
HOSTCC scripts/kconfig/conf.o
HOSTCC scripts/kconfig/kxgettext.o
...
This command will end with telling you the location of the bzImage file (and with time info
if you also specified the time command.
Kernel: arch/i386/boot/bzImage is ready
(#1)
real 13m59.573s
user 1m22.631s
sys 11m51.034s
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]#
You can already copy this image to /boot with cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz<kernel-version>.
28.5.7. make modules
Now run make modules. It can take 20 to 50 minutes to compile all the modules.
[[email protected] linux-2.6.18.i686]# time make modules
CHK
include/linux/version.h
CHK
include/linux/utsrelease.h
CC [M] arch/i386/kernel/msr.o
CC [M] arch/i386/kernel/cpuid.o
CC [M] arch/i386/kernel/microcode.o
28.5.8. make modules_install
To copy all the compiled modules to /lib/modules just run make modules_install (takes
about 20 seconds). Here's a screenshot from before the command.
[[email protected]
total 20
drwxr-xr-x 6
drwxr-xr-x 6
drwxr-xr-x 6
[[email protected]
linux-2.6.18.i686]# ls -l /lib/modules/
root root 4096 Oct 15 13:09 2.6.18-92.1.13.el5
root root 4096 Nov 11 08:51 2.6.18-92.1.17.el5
root root 4096 Dec 6 07:11 2.6.18-92.1.18.el5
linux-2.6.18.i686]# make modules_install
And here is the same directory after. Notice that make modules_install created a new
directory for the new kernel.
[[email protected]
total 24
drwxr-xr-x 6
drwxr-xr-x 6
drwxr-xr-x 6
drwxr-xr-x 3
linux-2.6.18.i686]# ls -l /lib/modules/
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
4096
4096
4096
4096
Oct 15 13:09 2.6.18-92.1.13.el5
Nov 11 08:51 2.6.18-92.1.17.el5
Dec 6 07:11 2.6.18-92.1.18.el5
Dec 6 08:50 2.6.18-paul2008
331
the Linux kernel
28.5.9. /boot
We still need to copy the kernel, the System.map and our configuration file to /boot. Strictly
speaking the .config file is not obligatory, but it might help you in future compilations of
the kernel.
[[email protected] ]# pwd
/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.18/linux-2.6.18.i686
[[email protected] ]# cp System.map /boot/System.map-2.6.18-paul2008
[[email protected] ]# cp .config /boot/config-2.6.18-paul2008
[[email protected] ]# cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-paul2008
28.5.10. mkinitrd
The kernel often uses an initrd file at bootup. We can use mkinitrd to generate this file.
Make sure you use the correct kernel name!
[[email protected] ]# pwd
/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.18/linux-2.6.18.i686
[[email protected] ]# mkinitrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-paul2008 2.6.18-paul2008
28.5.11. bootloader
Compilation is now finished, don't forget to create an additional stanza in grub or lilo.
332
the Linux kernel
28.6. compiling one module
28.6.1. hello.c
A little C program that will be our module.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# cat hello.c
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <section>
int init_module(void)
{
printk(KERN_INFO "Start Hello World...\n");
return 0;
}
void cleanup_module(void)
{
printk(KERN_INFO "End Hello World... \n");
}
28.6.2. Makefile
The make file for this module.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# cat Makefile
obj-m += hello.o
all:
make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) modules
clean:
make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) clean
These are the only two files needed.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# ll
total 16
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 250 Feb 15 19:14 hello.c
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 153 Feb 15 19:15 Makefile
333
the Linux kernel
28.6.3. make
The running of the make command.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# make
make -C /lib/modules/2.6.9-paul-2/build M=~/kernel_module modules
make[1]: Entering dir... `/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.9/linux-2.6.9'
CC [M] /home/paul/kernel_module/hello.o
Building modules, stage 2.
MODPOST
CC
/home/paul/kernel_module/hello.mod.o
LD [M] /home/paul/kernel_module/hello.ko
make[1]: Leaving dir... `/usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.9/linux-2.6.9'
[[email protected] kernel_module]#
Now we have more files.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# ll
total 172
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul
250 Feb
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 64475 Feb
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root
632 Feb
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 37036 Feb
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 28396 Feb
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul
153 Feb
[[email protected] kernel_module]#
15
15
15
15
15
15
19:14
19:15
19:15
19:15
19:15
19:15
hello.c
hello.ko
hello.mod.c
hello.mod.o
hello.o
Makefile
28.6.4. hello.ko
Use modinfo to verify that it is really a module.
[[email protected]4a kernel_module]# modinfo hello.ko
filename:
hello.ko
vermagic:
2.6.9-paul-2 SMP 686 REGPARM 4KSTACKS gcc-3.4
depends:
[[email protected] kernel_module]#
Good, so now we can load our hello module.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# lsmod | grep hello
[[email protected] kernel_module]# insmod ./hello.ko
[[email protected] kernel_module]# lsmod | grep hello
hello
5504 0
[[email protected] kernel_module]# tail -1 /var/log/messages
Feb 15 19:16:07 rhel4a kernel: Start Hello World...
[[email protected] kernel_module]# rmmod hello
[[email protected] kernel_module]#
Finally /var/log/messages has a little surprise.
[[email protected] kernel_module]# tail -2 /var/log/messages
Feb 15 19:16:07 rhel4a kernel: Start Hello World...
Feb 15 19:16:35 rhel4a kernel: End Hello World...
[[email protected] kernel_module]#
334
Chapter 29. library management
335
library management
29.1. introduction
With libraries we are talking about dynamically linked libraries (aka shared objects). These
are binaries that contain functions and are not started themselves as programs, but are called
by other binaries.
Several programs can use the same library. The name of the library file usually starts with
lib, followed by the actual name of the library, then the chracters .so and finally a version
number.
29.2. /lib and /usr/lib
When you look at the /lib or the /usr/lib directory, you will see a lot of symbolic links. Most
libraries have a detailed version number in their name, but receive a symbolic link from a
filename which only contains the major version number.
[email protected] ~# ls -l /lib/libext*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root
16 Feb 18 16:36 /lib/libext2fs.so.2 -> libext2fs.so.2.4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 113K Jun 30 2009 /lib/libext2fs.so.2.4
29.3. ldd
Many programs have dependencies on the installation of certain libraries. You can display
these dependencies with ldd.
This example shows the dependencies of the su command.
[email protected] ~$ ldd /bin/su
linux-gate.so.1 => (0x003f7000)
libpam.so.0 => /lib/libpam.so.0 (0x00d5c000)
libpam_misc.so.0 => /lib/libpam_misc.so.0 (0x0073c000)
libcrypt.so.1 => /lib/libcrypt.so.1 (0x00aa4000)
libdl.so.2 => /lib/libdl.so.2 (0x00800000)
libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x00ec1000)
libaudit.so.0 => /lib/libaudit.so.0 (0x0049f000)
/lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x4769c000)
336
library management
29.4. ltrace
The ltrace program allows to see all the calls made to library functions by a program. The
example below uses the -c option to get only a summary count (there can be many calls),
and the -l option to only show calls in one library file. All this to see what calls are made
when executing su - serena as root.
[email protected]:~# ltrace -c -l /lib/libpam.so.0 su - serena
[email protected]:~$ exit
logout
% time
seconds usecs/call
calls
function
------ ----------- ----------- --------- -------------------70.31
0.014117
14117
1 pam_start
12.36
0.002482
2482
1 pam_open_session
5.17
0.001039
1039
1 pam_acct_mgmt
4.36
0.000876
876
1 pam_end
3.36
0.000675
675
1 pam_close_session
3.22
0.000646
646
1 pam_authenticate
0.48
0.000096
48
2 pam_set_item
0.27
0.000054
54
1 pam_setcred
0.25
0.000050
50
1 pam_getenvlist
0.22
0.000044
44
1 pam_get_item
------ ----------- ----------- --------- -------------------100.00
0.020079
11 total
29.5. dpkg -S and debsums
Find out on Debian/Ubuntu to which package a library belongs.
[email protected]:/lib$ dpkg -S libext2fs.so.2.4
e2fslibs: /lib/libext2fs.so.2.4
You can then verify the integrity of all files in this package using debsums.
[email protected]:~$ debsums e2fslibs
/usr/share/doc/e2fslibs/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/e2fslibs/copyright
/lib/libe2p.so.2.3
/lib/libext2fs.so.2.4
Should a library be broken, then reinstall it with aptitude reinstall $package.
[email protected]:~# aptitude reinstall e2fslibs
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Reading extended state information
Initializing package states... Done
Reading task descriptions... Done
The following packages will be REINSTALLED:
e2fslibs
...
337
OK
OK
OK
OK
library management
29.6. rpm -qf and rpm -V
Find out on Red Hat/Fedora to which package a library belongs.
[email protected] ~$ rpm -qf /lib/libext2fs.so.2.4
e2fsprogs-libs-1.39-8.el5
You can then use rpm -V to verify all files in this package. In the example below the output
shows that the Size and the Time stamp of the file have changed since installation.
[email protected] ~# rpm -V e2fsprogs-libs
prelink: /lib/libext2fs.so.2.4: prelinked file size differs
S.?....T
/lib/libext2fs.so.2.4
You can then use yum reinstall $package to overwrite the existing library with an original
version.
[email protected] lib# yum reinstall e2fsprogs-libs
Loaded plugins: rhnplugin, security
Setting up Reinstall Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package e2fsprogs-libs.i386 0:1.39-23.el5 set to be erased
---> Package e2fsprogs-libs.i386 0:1.39-23.el5 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
...
The package verification now reports no problems with the library.
[email protected] lib# rpm -V e2fsprogs-libs
[email protected] lib#
338
library management
29.7. tracing with strace
More detailed tracing of all function calls can be done with strace. We start by creating a
read only file.
[email protected]:~# echo hello > 42.txt
[email protected]:~# chmod 400 42.txt
[email protected]:~# ls -l 42.txt
-r-------- 1 root root 6 2011-09-26 12:03 42.txt
We open the file with vi, but include the strace command with an output file for the trace
before vi. This will create a file with all the function calls done by vi.
[email protected]:~# strace -o strace.txt vi 42.txt
The file is read only, but we still change the contents, and use the :w! directive to write to
this file. Then we close vi and take a look at the trace log.
[email protected]:~# grep chmod strace.txt
chmod("42.txt", 0100600)
= -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
chmod("42.txt", 0100400)
= 0
[email protected]:~# ls -l 42.txt
-r-------- 1 root root 12 2011-09-26 12:04 42.txt
Notice that vi changed the permissions on the file twice. The trace log is too long to show
a complete screenshot in this book.
[email protected]:~# wc -l strace.txt
941 strace.txt
339
Part VII. backup management
Table of Contents
30. backup ..........................................................................................................................
30.1. About tape devices ................................................................................................
30.2. Compression ........................................................................................................
30.3. tar ......................................................................................................................
30.4. Backup Types ......................................................................................................
30.5. dump and restore ..................................................................................................
30.6. cpio ....................................................................................................................
30.7. dd ......................................................................................................................
30.8. split ....................................................................................................................
30.9. practice: backup ....................................................................................................
341
342
342
343
343
345
346
346
347
348
348
Chapter 30. backup
30.1. About tape devices
Don't forget that the name of a device strictly speaking has no meaning since the kernel will
use the major and minor number to find the hardware! See the man page of mknod and the
devices.txt file in the Linux kernel source for more info.
30.1.1. SCSI tapes
On the official Linux device list (http://www.lanana.org/docs/device-list/) we find the names
for SCSI tapes (major 9 char). SCSI tape devices are located underneath /dev/st and are
numbered starting with 0 for the first tape device.
/dev/st0
/dev/st1
/dev/st2
First tape device
Second tape device
Third tape device
To prevent automatic rewinding of tapes, prefix them with the letter n.
/dev/nst0
/dev/nst1
/dev/nst2
First no rewind tape device
Second no rewind tape device
Third no rewind tape device
By default, SCSI tapes on Linux will use the highest hardware compression that is supported
by the tape device. To lower the compression level, append one of the letters l (low), m
(medium) or a (auto) to the tape name.
/dev/st0l
/dev/st0m
/dev/nst2m
First low compression tape device
First medium compression tape device
Third no rewind medium compression tape device
30.1.2. IDE tapes
On the official Linux device list (http://www.lanana.org/docs/device-list/) we find the names
for IDE tapes (major 37 char). IDE tape devices are located underneath /dev/ht and are
numbered starting with 0 for the first tape device. No rewind and compression is similar
to SCSI tapes.
/dev/ht0
/dev/nht0
/dev/ht0m
First IDE tape device
Second no rewind IDE tape device
First medium compression IDE tape device
30.1.3. mt
To manage your tapes, use mt (Magnetic Tape). Some examples.
342
backup
To receive information about the status of the tape.
mt -f /dev/st0 status
To rewind a tape...
mt -f /dev/st0 rewind
To rewind and eject a tape...
mt -f /dev/st0 eject
To erase a tape...
mt -f /dev/st0 erase
30.2. Compression
It can be beneficial to compress files before backup. The two most popular tools for
compression of regular files on Linux are gzip/gunzip and bzip2/bunzip2. Below you can
see gzip in action, notice that it adds the .gz extension to the file.
[email protected]:~/test$ ls -l allfiles.tx*
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 8813553 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt
[email protected]:~/test$ gzip allfiles.txt
[email protected]:~/test$ ls -l allfiles.tx*
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 931863 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt.gz
[email protected]:~/test$ gunzip allfiles.txt.gz
[email protected]:~/test$ ls -l allfiles.tx*
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 8813553 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt
[email protected]:~/test$
In general, gzip is much faster than bzip2, but the latter one compresses a lot better. Let us
compare the two.
[email protected]:~/test$ cp allfiles.txt bllfiles.txt
[email protected]:~/test$ time gzip allfiles.txt
real
0m0.050s
user
0m0.041s
sys
0m0.009s
[email protected]:~/test$ time bzip2 bllfiles.txt
real
0m5.968s
user
0m5.794s
sys
0m0.076s
[email protected]:~/test$ ls -l ?llfiles.tx*
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 931863 Feb 27 05:38 allfiles.txt.gz
-rw-rw-r-- 1 paul paul 708871 May 12 10:52 bllfiles.txt.bz2
[email protected]:~/test$
30.3. tar
The tar utility gets its name from Tape ARchive. This tool will receive and send files to
a destination (typically a tape or a regular file). The c option is used to create a tar archive
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backup
(or tarfile), the f option to name/create the tarfile. The example below takes a backup of /
etc into the file /backup/etc.tar .
[email protected]:~# tar cf /backup/etc.tar /etc
[email protected]:~# ls -l /backup/etc.tar
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 47800320 May 12 11:47 /backup/etc.tar
[email protected]:~#
Compression can be achieved without pipes since tar uses the z flag to compress with gzip,
and the j flag to compress with bzip2.
[email protected]:~# tar czf /backup/etc.tar.gz /etc
[email protected]:~# tar cjf /backup/etc.tar.bz2 /etc
[email protected]:~# ls -l /backup/etc.ta*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 47800320 May 12 11:47 /backup/etc.tar
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6077340 May 12 11:48 /backup/etc.tar.bz2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8496607 May 12 11:47 /backup/etc.tar.gz
[email protected]:~#
The t option is used to list the contents of a tar file. Verbose mode is enabled with v (also
useful when you want to see the files being archived during archiving).
[email protected]:~# tar tvf /backup/etc.tar
drwxr-xr-x root/root
0 2007-05-12
-rw-r--r-- root/root
2657 2004-09-27
-rw-r--r-- root/root
13136 2006-11-03
drwxr-xr-x root/root
0 2004-11-03
...
09:38:21
10:15:03
17:34:50
13:35:50
etc/
etc/warnquota.conf
etc/mime.types
etc/sound/
To list a specific file in a tar archive, use the t option, added with the filename (without
leading /).
[email protected]:~# tar tvf /backup/etc.tar etc/resolv.conf
-rw-r--r-- root/root
77 2007-05-12 08:31:32 etc/resolv.conf
[email protected]:~#
Use the x flag to restore a tar archive, or a single file from the archive. Remember that by
default tar will restore the file in the current directory.
[email protected]:~# tar xvf /backup/etc.tar etc/resolv.conf
etc/resolv.conf
[email protected]:~# ls -l /etc/resolv.conf
-rw-r--r-- 2 root root 40 May 12 12:05 /etc/resolv.conf
[email protected]:~# ls -l etc/resolv.conf
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 77 May 12 08:31 etc/resolv.conf
[email protected]:~#
You can preserve file permissions with the p flag. And you can exclude directories or file
with --exclude.
root ~# tar cpzf /backup/etc_with_perms.tgz /etc
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backup
root ~# tar cpzf /backup/etc_no_sysconf.tgz /etc --exclude /etc/sysconfig
root ~# ls -l /backup/etc_*
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8434293 May 12 12:48 /backup/etc_no_sysconf.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 8496591 May 12 12:48 /backup/etc_with_perms.tgz
root ~#
You can also create a text file with names of files and directories to archive, and then supply
this file to tar with the -T flag.
[email protected]:~# find /etc -name *.conf > files_to_archive.txt
[email protected]:~# find /home -name *.pdf >> files_to_archive.txt
[email protected]:~# tar cpzf /backup/backup.tgz -T files_to_archive.txt
The tar utility can receive filenames from the find command, with the help of xargs.
find /etc -type f -name "*.conf" | xargs tar czf /backup/confs.tar.gz
You can also use tar to copy a directory, this is more efficient than using cp -r.
(cd /etc; tar -cf - . ) | (cd /backup/copy_of_etc/; tar -xpf - )
Another example of tar, this copies a directory securely over the network.
(cd /etc;tar -cf - . )|(ssh [email protected] 'cd /backup/cp_of_etc/; tar -xf - ')
tar can be used together with gzip and copy a file to a remote server through ssh
cat backup.tar | gzip | ssh [email protected] "cat - > backup.tgz"
Compress the tar backup when it is on the network, but leave it uncompressed at the
destination.
cat backup.tar | gzip | ssh [email protected] "gunzip|cat - > backup.tar"
Same as the previous, but let ssh handle the compression
cat backup.tar | ssh -C [email protected] "cat - > backup.tar"
30.4. Backup Types
Linux uses multilevel incremental backups using distinct levels. A full backup is a backup
at level 0. A higher level x backup will include all changes since the last level x-1 backup.
Suppose you take a full backup on Monday (level 0) and a level 1 backup on Tuesday, then
the Tuesday backup will contain all changes since Monday. Taking a level 2 on Wednesday
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backup
will contain all changes since Tuesday (the last level 2-1). A level 3 backup on Thursday
will contain all changes since Wednesday (the last level 3-1). Another level 3 on Friday
will also contain all changes since Wednesday. A level 2 backup on Saturday would take
all changes since the last level 1 from Tuesday.
30.5. dump and restore
While dump is similar to tar, it is also very different because it looks at the file system.
Where tar receives a lists of files to backup, dump will find files to backup by itself by
examining ext2. Files found by dump will be copied to a tape or regular file. In case the
target is not big enough to hold the dump (end-of-media), it is broken into multiple volumes.
Restoring files that were backed up with dump is done with the restore command. In the
example below we take a full level 0 backup of two partitions to a SCSI tape. The no rewind
is mandatory to put the volumes behind each other on the tape.
dump 0f /dev/nst0 /boot
dump 0f /dev/nst0 /
Listing files in a dump archive is done with dump -t, and you can compare files with dump
-C.
You can omit files from a dump by changing the dump attribute with the chattr command.
The d attribute on ext will tell dump to skip the file, even during a full backup. In the
following example, /etc/hosts is excluded from dump archives.
chattr +d /etc/hosts
To restore the complete file system with restore, use the -r option. This can be useful to
change the size or block size of a file system. You should have a clean file system mounted
and cd'd into it. Like this example shows.
mke2fs /dev/hda3
mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/data
cd /mnt/data
restore rf /dev/nst0
To extract only one file or directory from a dump, use the -x option.
restore -xf /dev/st0 /etc
30.6. cpio
Different from tar and dump is cpio (Copy Input and Output). It can be used to receive
filenames, but copies the actual files. This makes it an easy companion with find! Some
examples below.
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backup
find sends filenames to cpio, which puts the files in an archive.
find /etc -depth -print | cpio -oaV -O archive.cpio
The same, but compressed with gzip
find /etc -depth -print | cpio -oaV | gzip -c > archive.cpio.gz
Now pipe it through ssh (backup files to a compressed file on another machine)
find /etc -depth -print|cpio -oaV|gzip -c|ssh server "cat - > etc.cpio.gz"
find sends filenames to cpio | cpio sends files to ssh | ssh sends files to cpio 'cpio extracts files'
find /etc -depth -print | cpio -oaV | ssh [email protected] 'cpio -imVd'
the same but reversed: copy a dir from the remote host to the local machine
ssh [email protected] "find path -depth -print | cpio -oaV" | cpio -imVd
30.7. dd
30.7.1. About dd
Some people use dd to create backups. This can be very powerful, but dd backups can only
be restored to very similar partitions or devices. There are however a lot of useful things
possible with dd. Some examples.
30.7.2. Create a CDROM image
The easiest way to create a .ISO file from any CD. The if switch means Input File, of is the
Output File. Any good tool can burn a copy of the CD with this .ISO file.
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/path/to/cdrom.ISO
30.7.3. Create a floppy image
A little outdated maybe, but just in case : make an image file from a 1.44MB floppy.
Blocksize is defined by bs, and count contains the number of blocks to copy.
dd if=/dev/floppy of=/path/to/floppy.img bs=1024 count=1440
30.7.4. Copy the master boot record
Use dd to copy the MBR (Master Boot Record) of hard disk /dev/hda to a file.
dd if=/dev/hda of=/MBR.img bs=512 count=1
30.7.5. Copy files
This example shows how dd can copy files. Copy the file summer.txt to
copy_of_summer.txt .
dd if=~/summer.txt of=~/copy_of_summer.txt
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backup
30.7.6. Image disks or partitions
And who needs ghost when dd can create a (compressed) image of a partition.
dd if=/dev/hdb2 of=/image_of_hdb2.IMG
dd if=/dev/hdb2 | gzip > /image_of_hdb2.IMG.gz
30.7.7. Create files of a certain size
dd can be used to create a file of any size. The first example creates a one MEBIbyte file,
the second a one MEGAbyte file.
dd if=/dev/zero of=file1MB count=1024 bs=1024
dd if=/dev/zero of=file1MB count=1000 bs=1024
30.7.8. CDROM server example
And there are of course endless combinations with ssh and bzip2. This example puts a bzip2
backup of a cdrom on a remote server.
dd if=/dev/cdrom |bzip2|ssh [email protected] "cat - > /backups/cd/cdrom.iso.bz2"
30.8. split
The split command is useful to split files into smaller files. This can be useful to fit the file
onto multiple instances of a medium too small to contain the complete file. In the example
below, a file of size 5000 bytes is split into three smaller files, with maximum 2000 bytes
each.
[email protected]:~/test$ ls -l
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 5000
[email protected]:~/test$ split -b
[email protected]:~/test$ ls -l
total 20
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 5000
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 2000
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 2000
-rw-r--r-- 1 paul paul 1000
2007-09-09 20:46 bigfile1
2000 bigfile1 splitfile.
2007-09-09
2007-09-09
2007-09-09
2007-09-09
20:46
20:47
20:47
20:47
bigfile1
splitfile.aa
splitfile.ab
splitfile.ac
30.9. practice: backup
!! Careful with tar options and the position of the backup file, mistakes can destroy your
system!!
1. Create a directory (or partition if you like) for backups. Link (or mount) it under /mnt/
backup.
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backup
2a. Use tar to backup /etc in /mnt/backup/etc_date.tgz, the backup must be gzipped. (Replace
date with the current date)
2b. Use tar to backup /bin to /mnt/backup/bin_date.tar.bz2, the backup must be bzip2'd.
2c. Choose a file in /etc and /bin and verify with tar that the file is indeed backed up.
2d. Extract those two files to your home directory.
3a. Create a backup directory for your neighbour, make it accessible under /mnt/
neighbourName
3b. Combine ssh and tar to put a backup of your /boot on your neighbours computer in /
mnt/YourName
4a. Combine find and cpio to create a cpio archive of /etc.
4b. Choose a file in /etc and restore it from the cpio archive into your home directory.
5. Use dd and ssh to put a backup of the master boot record on your neighbours computer.
6. (On the real computer) Create and mount an ISO image of the ubuntu cdrom.
7. Combine dd and gzip to create a 'ghost' image of one of your partitions on another partition.
8. Use dd to create a five megabyte file in ~/testsplit and name it biggest. Then split this file
in smaller two megabyte parts.
mkdir testsplit
dd if=/dev/zero of=~/testsplit/biggest count=5000 bs=1024
split -b 2000000 biggest parts
349
Part VIII. Appendices
Table of Contents
A. disk quotas .....................................................................................................................
A.1. About Disk Quotas ................................................................................................
A.2. Practice Disk quotas ...............................................................................................
B. introduction to vnc ..........................................................................................................
B.1. About VNC ..........................................................................................................
B.2. VNC Server ..........................................................................................................
B.3. VNC Client ..........................................................................................................
B.4. Practice VNC ........................................................................................................
C. License ..........................................................................................................................
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352
352
352
353
353
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354
355
Appendix A. disk quotas
A.1. About Disk Quotas
To limit the disk space used by user, you can set up disk quotas. This requires adding
usrquota and/or grpquota to one or more of the file systems in /etc/fstab.
[email protected]:~# cat /etc/fstab | grep usrquota
/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol02
/home
ext3
usrquota,grpquota
0 0
Next you need to remount the file system.
[email protected]:~# mount -o remount /home
The next step is to build the quota.user and/or quota.group files. These files (called the
quota files) contain the table of the disk usage on that file system. Use the quotacheck
command to accomplish this.
[email protected]:~# quotacheck -cug /home
[email protected]:~# quotacheck -avug
The -c is for create, u for user quota, g for group, a for checking all quota enabled file systems
in /etc/fstab and v for verbose information. The next step is to edit individual user quotas
with edquota or set a general quota on the file system with edquota -t. The tool will enable
you to put hard (this is the real limit) and soft (allows a grace period) limits on blocks and
inodes. The quota command will verify that quota for a user is set. You can have a nice
overview with repquota.
The final step (before your users start complaining about lack of disk space) is to enable
quotas with quotaon(1).
[email protected]:~# quotaon -vaug
Issue the quotaoff command to stop all complaints.
[email protected]:~# quotaoff -vaug
A.2. Practice Disk quotas
1. Implement disk quotas on one of your new partitions. Limit one of your users to 10
megabyte.
2. Test that they work by copying many files to the quota'd partition.
352
Appendix B. introduction to vnc
B.1. About VNC
VNC can be configured in gnome or KDE using the Remote Desktop Preferences. VNC
can be used to run your desktop on another computer, and you can also use it to see and take
over the Desktop of another user. The last part can be useful for help desks to show users
how to do things. VNC has the added advantage of being operating system independent, a
lot of products (realvnc, tightvnc, xvnc, ...) use the same protocol on Solaris, Linux, BSD
and more.
B.2. VNC Server
Starting the vnc server for the first time.
[[email protected] conf]# rpm -qa | grep -i vnc
vnc-server-4.0-8.1
vnc-4.0-8.1
[[email protected] conf]# vncserver :2
You will require a password to access your desktops.
Password:
Verify:
xauth: creating new authority file /root/.Xauthority
New 'RHELv4u3.localdomain:2 (root)' desktop is RHELv4u3.localdomain:2
Creating default startup script /root/.vnc/xstartup
Starting applications specified in /root/.vnc/xstartup
Log file is /root/.vnc/RHELv4u3.localdomain:2.log
[[email protected] conf]#
B.3. VNC Client
You can now use the vncviewer from another machine to connect to your vnc server. It will
default to a very simple graphical interface...
[email protected]:~$ vncviewer 192.168.1.49:2
VNC viewer version 3.3.7 - built Nov 20 2006 13:05:04
Copyright (C) 2002-2003 RealVNC Ltd.
Copyright (C) 1994-2000 AT&T Laboratories Cambridge.
See http://www.realvnc.com for information on VNC.
VNC server supports protocol version 3.8 (viewer 3.3)
Password:
VNC authentication succeeded
Desktop name "RHELv4u3.localdomain:2 (root)"
Connected to VNC server, using protocol version 3.3
...
If you don't like the simple twm window manager, you can comment out the last two lines
of ~/.vnc/xstartup and add a gnome-session & line to have vnc default to gnome instead.
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introduction to vnc
[[email protected] ~]# cat .vnc/xstartup
#!/bin/sh
# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:
# unset SESSION_MANAGER
# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc
[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
vncconfig -iconic &
# xterm -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
# twm &
gnome-session &
[[email protected] ~]#
Don't forget to restart your vnc server after changing this file.
[[email protected] ~]# vncserver -kill :2
Killing Xvnc process ID 5785
[[email protected] ~]# vncserver :2
New 'RHELv4u3.localdomain:2 (root)' desktop is RHELv4u3.localdomain:2
Starting applications specified in /root/.vnc/xstartup
Log file is /root/.vnc/RHELv4u3.localdomain:2.log
B.4. Practice VNC
1. Use VNC to connect from one machine to another.
354
Appendix C. License
GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0. PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
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This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
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to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee,
and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify
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A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
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The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
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there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
* J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it
was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may
omit a network location for a work that was published at least four
years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the
version it refers to gives permission.
* K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the
substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
dedications given therein.
* L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the
equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
* M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.
* N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
"Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
* O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
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These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
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You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
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358
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you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
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imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
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License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
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Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
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Entitled "Endorsements".
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
documents released under this License, and replace the individual
copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
aggregate.
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8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
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or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
title.
9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
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Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
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violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
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your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
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10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
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detail to address new problems or concerns. See
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
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following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
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number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies
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used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version
permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
11. RELICENSING
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World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
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means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
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license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
published by that same organization.
"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in
part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
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somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole
or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections,
and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
361
Index
Symbols
/bin/dmesg, 36
/bin/login, 165
/boot/grub/grub.conf, 152
/boot/grub/menu.lst, 152
/dev, 47
/dev/hdX, 34
/dev/ht, 342
/dev/nst, 342
/dev/sdb, 86
/dev/sdX, 34
/dev/st, 342
/etc/apt/sources.list, 227
/etc/at.allow, 187
/etc/at.deny, 187
/etc/cron.allow, 188
/etc/cron.d, 189
/etc/cron.deny, 188
/etc/crontab, 189
/etc/default/grub, 157
/etc/exports, 300, 311
/etc/filesystems, 58, 65
/etc/fstab, 61, 69, 86, 207, 301, 311, 352
/etc/grub.conf, 152
/etc/grub.d/40_custom, 157
/etc/hostname, 262
/etc/inetd.conf, 308
/etc/init.d/, 167, 169
/etc/init.d/rc, 164
/etc/init.d/rcS, 163
/etc/inittab, 162, 164, 165
/etc/lvm/.cache, 111
/etc/modprobe.conf, 328
/etc/modprobe.d/, 328
/etc/mtab, 66, 163
/etc/network/interfaces, 256, 279, 282
/etc/passwd, 165
/etc/protocols, 253
/etc/raidtab, 94
/etc/rc.d/rc, 164
/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit, 163
/etc/rcS.d/, 163
/etc/rcX.d/, 164
/etc/rsyslog.conf, 198
/etc/services, 253, 308
/etc/shutdown.allow, 173
/etc/ssh, 287
/etc/ssh/ssh_config, 287
/etc/ssh/sshd_config, 287
/etc/sysconfig/iptables, 304
/etc/sysconfig/network, 258
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/, 258
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0, 280
/etc/syslog.conf, 196
/etc/xinetd.conf, 307
/etc/xinetd.d, 307
/etc/yum.conf, 236
/etc/yum.repos.d/, 236
/lib, 336
/lib/modules, 325, 331
/lib/modules/<kernel-version>/modules.dep, 328
/proc/cmdline, 154, 316
/proc/devices, 47, 47
/proc/filesystems, 58, 65
/proc/kallsyms, 324
/proc/mdstat, 94
/proc/meminfo, 204, 205
/proc/modules, 326
/proc/mounts, 66
/proc/net/bonding, 280, 282
/proc/partitions, 47
/proc/scsi/scsi, 39
/proc/swaps, 206
/sbin, 260
/sbin/init, 162
/sbin/mingetty, 165
/sbin/telinit, 172
/usr/lib, 336
/usr/share/doc, 258
/usr/src, 320
/var/lib/nfs/etab, 300, 311
/var/lib/rpm, 229
/var/log/auth.log, 195
/var/log/btmp, 193, 194
/var/log/lastlog, 193
/var/log/messages, 317, 334
/var/log/sa, 215
/var/log/secure, 195
/var/log/wtmp, 173, 193
/var/run/utmp, 193
./configure, 238
.deb, 218
.rpm, 218
.ssh, 291
~/.ssh/authorized_keys, 292
$$, 5
$PPID, 5
A
access time, 32
active partition, 155
Alica and Bob, 288
anycast, 249
apt-get(8), 219, 223
aptitude, 337
aptitude(1), 321
aptitude(8), 219, 226
arp(1), 263
arp table, 263
at(1), 185, 186
ata, 32
atapi, 32
362
Index
atm, 251
atq(1), 186
atrm(1), 187
B
badblocks(8), 40
bg(1), 24
Bill Callkins, 150
binding, 278
binding(ip), 277
BIOS, 149
block device, 33
bonding(ip), 277
boot(grub), 154
bootloader, 151
bootp, 258, 273
broadcast, 249
BSD, 149
btrfs, 57
bum(8), 171
bzImage, 154
bzip2, 154
bzip2(1), 343
C
cable select, 32
Canonical, 161
chainloader, 155
chainloading, 155
character device, 33
chattr(1), 346
chkconfig, 167
chkconfig(8), 168
chroot, 78
CHS, 33
Cisco, 251
cpio(1), 229, 346
cron(8), 185
crontab(1), 188
crontab(5), 188
Ctrl-Alt-Delete, 173, 173
Ctrl-Z, 23
cylinder, 32
D
daemon, 4, 167
dd(1), 51, 151, 207, 347
deb(5), 219
debsums, 337
default(grub), 153, 155
default gateway, 264
depmod(1), 328
device driver, 47
devices.txt, 47
df, 211
df(1), 67, 67
dhclient(1), 261
dhcp, 258, 273
dhcp client, 256, 261
directory, 55
disk platters, 32
dmesg(1), 36
dmesg(8), 318
dns, 273
DOS, 155
dpkg(8), 219, 221
dpkg -S, 337
dsa, 288
du, 211
du(1), 67
dump(1), 346
E
e2fsck(1), 61
echo(1), 5
edquota(1), 352
egrep, 163
elilo, 151
el torito, 57
Eric Allman, 196
eth0, 256
ethtool(1), 265
Evi Nemeth, 167
exec, 6
exportfs(1), 300, 311
ext2, 56, 59
ext3, 56
extended partition, 46
F
fallback(grub), 153
fat16, 57
fat32, 57
fd (partition type), 93
fddi, 251
fdisk, 133
fdisk(1), 47, 49, 50, 93
fdisk(8), 35
fg(1), 24
file system, 54
fixed ip, 258
fixed ip address, 256
fork, 6
FQDN, 262
frame relay, 251
free, 211, 212
free(1), 204, 205
fsck(1), 61
ftp, 307
ftp://ftp.kernel.org, 319
fuser, 77, 77
G
gateway, 264
363
Index
gnome-session, 353
grep, 163, 326
grpquota, 352
grub, 148, 151, 155
grub2, 152
grub-install, 156
gzip(1), 154, 343
H
halt(8), 173
hdparm(8), 41
head (hard disk device), 32
hiddenmenu(grub), 153
hostname, 262
hostname(1), 262
http://www.kernel.org, 319
I
icmp, 253
id_dsa, 292
id_dsa.pub, 292
id_rsa, 291
id_rsa.pub, 291
ide, 47
ifcfg(1), 278
ifcfg-eth0, 259
ifconfig(1), 260, 261, 278, 279, 280, 282
ifdown(1), 257, 259, 261, 278
ifenslave, 282
iftop(1), 216
ifup(1), 257, 259, 261, 278, 279, 280
igmp, 253
inetd, 307
init, 4, 162, 173
init=/bin/bash, 317
initiator(iSCSI), 125
initng, 161
initrd, 323
initrd(grub), 154
insmod(1), 327, 327
Intel, 149
iostat, 79
iostat(1), 214
iotop, 80
iptables, 304
iSCSI, 125
iscsiadm, 132
iso9660, 57, 347
J
jbod, 91
jobs, 23
joliet, 57
journaling, 56
K
Kerberos, 299, 310
kernel(grub), 154
kill(1), 4, 9, 9, 165, 166
killall(1), 11
kmyfirewall, 304
L
LAN, 250
last(1), 173, 193
lastb(1), 194
lastlog(1), 194
LBA, 33
ldap, 300
ldd, 336
libraries, 336
lilo, 151, 158
lilo.conf, 158
logger(1), 199
logical drive, 46
logical drives, 51
login, 193
logrotate(1), 200
lsmod, 326
lsmod(1), 325
lsof, 76
lsscsi(1), 38
ltrace, 337
lvcreate(1), 101, 103, 117
lvdisplay(1), 104, 112
lvextend(1), 104, 118
lvm, 78
LVM, 98
lvmdiskscan(1), 109
lvol0, 117
lvremove(1), 117
lvrename(1), 118
lvs(1), 112
lvscan(1), 112
M
mac address, 261
major number, 47
make, 334
make(1), 238
make bzImage, 331
make clean, 330
make menuconfig, 330
make modules, 331
make mrproper, 330
make xconfig, 330
MAN, 250
master (hard disk device), 32
master boot record, 51, 151
mbr, 51, 51, 151
MBR, 347
mdadm(1), 94
mingetty, 165
minor number, 47
364
Index
mirror, 91
mkdir, 65
mke2fs(1), 56, 59, 103
mkfifo, 16
mkfile(1), 207
mkfs(1), 56, 59
mkinitrd(1), 56, 332
mknod(1), 342
mkswap(1), 206
modinfo, 334
modinfo(1), 327
modprobe(1), 327, 328
mount, 65
mount(1), 64, 66, 301, 311
mounting, 64
mount point, 64
mpstat(1), 215
mt(1), 342
multicast, 248
multipath, 138
N
netstat(1), 264
network file system, 298
nfs, 298, 299
NFS, 310
nice, 18
nice(1), 16
no_subtree_check(nfs), 300
noacl(mount), 70
nodev, 58, 65
noexec(mount), 70
nosuid(mount), 70
ntop(1), 216
O
od(1), 151
OpenBoot(Sun), 150
OpenBSD, 287
openssh, 287
openssh-server, 294
OS/2, 155
P
package management, 218
paging, 204
PAN, 251
Parallel ATA, 32
parity(raid), 91
parted(1), 49
partition, 46
partition table, 51, 51
partprobe(1), 51
password(grub), 153
pgrep(1), 8
PID, 4
pidof(1), 5
ping, 253, 264
pipes, 16
pkill(1), 11
portmap, 299, 310
POST, 149
poweroff(8), 173
Power On Self Test, 149
PPID, 4
primary partition, 46, 151, 155
private key, 288
process, 4
process id, 4
ps, 7, 211
ps -ef, 7
ps fax, 7
public key, 288
pvchange(1), 114
pvcreate(1), 101, 103, 113
pvdisplay(1), 103, 110
pvmove(1), 114
pvremove(1), 113
pvresize(1), 113
pvs(1), 109
pvscan(1), 109
Q
quota.group, 352
quota.user, 352
quota's, 352
quota(1), 352
quotacheck(1), 352
quotaoff(1), 352
quotaon(1), 352
R
RAID, 90
raid 1, 91
reboot(8), 173
reiserfs, 57
Remote Desktop, 353
renice, 17
renice(1), 16
repository, 218, 219
repquota(1), 352
resize2fs(1), 104
respawn(init), 165, 165
restore(1), 346
rfc 3010, 299
rfc 3530, 299
rlogin, 287
rmmod(1), 328
rock ridge, 57
root(grub), 154
root servers(DNS), 249
rootsquash, 300, 311
rotational latency, 32
route(1), 264, 264
365
Index
router, 251
rpc, 299
RPC, 310
rpcinfo(1), 299, 310
rpm, 228
rpm(8), 219
rpm2cpio(8), 229
rpm -qf, 338
rpm -V, 338
rsa, 288
rsh, 287
rsyslog, 76
runlevel, 162
runlevel(1), 172
S
sa2(1), 215
sadc(1), 215
sal, 215
sar(1), 215, 215
sata, 32
savedefault(grub), 155
scp(1), 292
scsi, 32
scsi id, 32
sector, 32
seek time, 32
service(1), 167, 304
setuid, 70
sfdisk(1), 51
shutdown(8), 172
SIGHUP, 9
SIGKILL, 172
SIGTERM, 11, 172
silo, 151
single user mode, 317
slave (hard disk device), 32
SMF, 161
Solaris, 149
solid state drive, 33
SPARC, 150
split(1), 348
ssd, 33
ssh, 287
ssh_host_dsa_key, 294
ssh_host_dsa_key.pub, 294
ssh_host_rsa_key, 294
ssh_host_rsa_key.pub, 294
sshd, 294
ssh-keygen, 291
ssh-keygen(1), 291
ssh -X, 292
stanza(grub), 154
strace, 339
striped disk, 91
su, 336
subtree_check(nfs), 300
Sun, 149, 161
swapoff(1), 206
swapon(1), 206
swap partition, 57
swap partition(s), 208
swapping, 204
swap space, 206
swat, 307
sysctl(1), 262
syslog, 317
syslogd, 196, 196
System.map, 324
system-config-securitylevel, 304
System V, 161
T
tail(1), 199
tar(1), 238, 343, 344
tcp, 253, 299
tcpdump, 269, 274, 274
telinit(8), 172
telnet, 287, 307
time(1), 331
timeout(grub), 153
title(grub), 153
top, 11
top(1), 8, 204, 205, 212
track, 32
tune2fs(1), 56, 60, 85
U
udf, 57
udp, 253, 299
uname(1), 316
universally unique identifier, 84
update-grub, 157
update-rc.d, 167
update-rc.d(8), 170
upstart, 161
usrquota, 352
uuid, 84
V
vanilla, 219
vfat, 57
vgchange(1), 116
vgcreate(1), 101, 103, 115
vgdisplay(1), 111
vgextend(1), 115
vgmerge(1), 116
vgreduce(1), 115
vgremove(1), 115
vgs(1), 111
vgscan(1), 111
vi, 339
virtual memory, 204
vmlinuz, 323
vmstat, 81, 208
366
Index
vmstat(1), 213
vnc, 353
vncviewer(1), 353
vol_id(1), 85
W
WAN, 251
watch(1), 199, 213
who(1), 172, 193
wireshark, 269, 287
WPAN, 251
X
X.25, 251
x86, 149
xinetd, 307, 307
xstartup(vnc), 353
Y
yaboot, 151
yum, 338
yum(8), 230
Z
z/IPL, 151
zfs, 57
zImage, 154
zombie, 4
367
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