The Book of ViLLE

The Book of ViLLE
ErkkiKaila,EinariKurvinen&ErnoLokkila
Teacher’s manual
Authors
ErkkiKaila,EinariKurvinen&ErnoLokkila
ViLLE Team
TeemuRajala
ErkkiKaila
RikuHaavisto
RikuKajasilta
VilleKaravirta
MarkusKitola
EinariKurvinen
AliLeino
RolfLindén
ErnoLokkila
Mikko-JussiLaakso
Online
http://ville.utu.fi
http://ville.cs.utu.fi
[email protected]
©2015.ViLLETeam.Copyingthisbook,completeandunmodifiedisallowedforteachingpurposes
only.
Latestmodification:11.3.2015Thenewestversioncanalwaysbefoundatville.cs.utu.fi
1
Table of Contents
1
2
Introduction............................................................................................................6 1.1
Technicaldetails.......................................................................................................7
1.2
TerminologyinViLLE..............................................................................................8
1.3
TheGUIelementsinViLLE...................................................................................11
Courses...................................................................................................................14
2.1
Creatinganewcourse...........................................................................................15
2.2
Editingcourses........................................................................................................17
2.2.1 Addingroundstocourses......................................................................................................18
2.2.2 Editingrounds.............................................................................................................................19
2.2.3 Coursesettings............................................................................................................................20
2.3
Addingautomaticallyassessedassignmentstoacourse............................22
2.4
Addingmanuallygradedassignments.............................................................24
2.4.1 Addingdemonstrationstorounds....................................................................................25
2.4.2 Collectingattendancedata....................................................................................................26
2.4.3 Markingattendance..................................................................................................................27
2.4.3.1
MarkingattendanceusinganRFIDreaderorastudentid...................................28
2.4.3.2
Attendancemarkedbytheteacher...............................................................................29
2.4.4 Addingastudyjournal............................................................................................................29
2.4.5 Addingamanuallygradedexam.......................................................................................30
2.4.6 Addingcourseassignments..................................................................................................32
2.4.7 Addinganessayexercise.......................................................................................................33
2.4.8 Addingamanuallygradedexternalactivity................................................................33
2.5
Addinganexercisepooltoaround...................................................................33
2.6
Addingaturn-inexercise.....................................................................................34
2.7
Addingapeer-reviewedexercise.......................................................................36
2.8
Addingassistingteachers.....................................................................................38
2.9
Groups.......................................................................................................................39
2.10
Olemassaolevankurssinkäyttäminen............................................................40
2.11
Buildignanewcoursefromexistingexercisesandrounds.......................42
2.12
Roundsettings.........................................................................................................43
2.12.1
Rounddefaults.......................................................................................................................43
2.12.2
Roundandassignmentsettings....................................................................................43
2.12.3
Settingsforanexamround.............................................................................................45
2
2.12.4
Exammonitors......................................................................................................................48
2.12.5
Personaldeadlines..............................................................................................................49
2.13
3
Addingstudentstocourses..................................................................................50
2.13.1
Usingtheregistrationlink...............................................................................................50
2.13.2
Usingane-mailaddress....................................................................................................52
2.13.3
Usingothermeans...............................................................................................................53
Exercises................................................................................................................57
3.1
Browsingandfilteringexercises........................................................................57
3.1.1 Browsingoptions.......................................................................................................................60
3.1.2 Searchingforexercises...........................................................................................................61
4
3.2
Utilizingexercises..................................................................................................62
3.3
Managingexercisesandfolders.........................................................................62
Creatingexercises...............................................................................................64
4.1
Savingexercisesandversioncontrol................................................................65
4.1.1 Exerciseeditors..........................................................................................................................66
4.2
Generalexercises...................................................................................................68
4.2.1 CreatinganewQuiz..................................................................................................................68
4.2.2 CreatinganewSurvey............................................................................................................72
4.2.3 CreatinganewGeneralsortingexercise.......................................................................76
4.2.4 CreatinganewFillinExercise............................................................................................80
4.2.5 CreatinganArrangesentencesexercise........................................................................82
4.2.6 CreatingaMatchpairsexercise.........................................................................................83
4.2.7 Creatingavocabularytest.....................................................................................................83
4.2.8 Creatingadialogexercise......................................................................................................84
4.2.9 Creatingacompoundexercise............................................................................................85
4.2.10
CreatingaPunctuationandcaseexercise...............................................................85
4.2.11
CreatingaSelectwordsexercise..................................................................................86
4.2.12
CreatingaMatrixselectionexercise..........................................................................86
4.2.13
CreatinganImagetagexercise.....................................................................................88
4.3
Programmingexercises........................................................................................89
4.3.1 CreatingaViLLEClouds&Boxesexercise...................................................................89
4.3.2 CreatingaViLLEvisualizationexercise.........................................................................92
4.3.3 CreatingaViLLESortingExercise.....................................................................................94
4.3.4 CreatinganewViLLEprogrammingexercise.............................................................96
4.3.5 CreatinganewRobotexercise...........................................................................................99
3
4.3.6 Creatinganewconversionexercise..............................................................................101
4.3.7 CreatinganewBinarycalculationexercise...............................................................101
4.4
Mathematicalexercises.....................................................................................102
4.4.1 Solvingquadraticequations...............................................................................................103
4.4.2 Fillthesequence.......................................................................................................................103
4.4.3 What’smissing?........................................................................................................................104
4.4.4 Combineequalitems..............................................................................................................105
4.4.5 Tunnistaluku.............................................................................................................................106
4.4.6 Longdivision..............................................................................................................................106
4.4.7 Calculateinacolumn.............................................................................................................106
4.4.8 Calculatedecimals...................................................................................................................107
4.4.9 Barchartexercise....................................................................................................................108
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4.4.10
Calculatefractions.............................................................................................................108
4.4.11
Convertfractionstodecimalsandviceversa......................................................109
4.4.12
Firstdegreeequations.....................................................................................................109
4.4.13
Mathaudioarithmetic.....................................................................................................110
4.4.14
Filleuqation..........................................................................................................................110
4.4.15
Timedleveltest...................................................................................................................111
4.4.16
Drillinggames......................................................................................................................112
4.4.17
Memorygame......................................................................................................................113
4.4.18
Roundingexercise.............................................................................................................113
4.4.19
Fuzzymathgame................................................................................................................113
4.4.20
Unitconversionexercise................................................................................................114
4.4.21
Expresionexercise.............................................................................................................114
4.4.22
Geometryexercise.............................................................................................................115
4.4.23
Numberlineexercise.......................................................................................................115
4.4.24
Percentageexercise..........................................................................................................115
Materials.............................................................................................................117
5.1
Attachingmaterialstoresources....................................................................117
5.1.1 Attachingamaterialtocourses........................................................................................117
5.1.2 Addingamaterialtorounds..............................................................................................118
5.1.3 Attachingmaterialstoanassignment...........................................................................118
5.1.4 Attachingpreviouslyuploadedmaterials...................................................................119
5.2
Managingownmaterials...................................................................................119
5.3
Browsingpublicmaterials................................................................................121
5.4
Publicorprivatematerial?...............................................................................122
4
6
Tutorials.............................................................................................................123
6.1
Usingexistingtutorials......................................................................................123
6.2
Modifyingtutorials..............................................................................................125
6.2.1 Creatingandeditingtutorialcomponents..................................................................126
6.2.1.1
Addingtext.........................................................................................................................126
6.2.1.2
Addinganimage...............................................................................................................126
6.2.1.3
Addingavideoclip..........................................................................................................127
6.2.1.4
Addinganobject...............................................................................................................127
6.2.1.5
Addingatable....................................................................................................................127
6.2.2 Tutorialsections.......................................................................................................................129
6.2.3 Addingcontenttothetutorial...........................................................................................130
6.2.4 Addingexercisestotutorials.............................................................................................131
6.2.5 Stylesettings..............................................................................................................................132
6.3
7
Tutorialsettings..................................................................................................133
Statisticsandassessment...............................................................................135
7.1
Studentperformance..........................................................................................135
7.2
Manuallygradedassignments.........................................................................136
7.2.1 Markingattendance................................................................................................................137
7.2.2 Markingdemonstrations.....................................................................................................137
7.2.3 Gradingcourseassignment................................................................................................138
7.2.4 Gradingessays...........................................................................................................................139
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9
7.3
Coursestatistics...................................................................................................141
7.4
Surveys...................................................................................................................141
7.5
Exportingstatistics.............................................................................................142
7.6
Inspectingsubmissions.....................................................................................143
Profile,Messagesandsettings......................................................................146
8.1
Messages................................................................................................................146
8.2
Settings...................................................................................................................147
8.3
Bookmarks............................................................................................................148
8.4
Contacts..................................................................................................................149
Suffix1:Quickguide........................................................................................151
5
1 Introduction
ViLLEisalearningenvironmentdevelopedintheUniversityofTurkutodiversify, visualize and assist teaching. The exercises in ViLLE are crafted such, that
they can be utilized when teaching students of any age. Diverse exercise types
makeitstraightforwardtofocusothercontenttoaselectedtargetoragegroup.
Inadditiontoready-madeexercises,thestrengthofViLLEisinitscollaborative
design.Studentsandteachers are broughttogethertointeractandbrainstorm,
which means the social aspect oflearning is also employed. ViLLE is not just a
teaching aid, but also a tool for teachers to improve and share their expertise
withcolleagues.Sharingresourcesavoidshavingtoreinventthewheel,andthe
techniques found good can be shared. Receiving feedback from colleagues also
helpsimprovetheteacherintheirprofession.
ViLLEismorethanjustalearningenvironment.Itisalsoatoolforplanningand
controllingstudiesforboththestudentandtheteacher.Thestudybehaviorand
attainmentsofstudentsarestoredonViLLE,whichmeansboththeteacherand
the student know what has been learned so far, and what still needs to be
learned. For the student, this means constant, and consistent, feedback on the
progressionoftheirstudiesateverystepoftheway.Fortheteacherthismeans
feedback on what the students really know and the chance to focus on recognizedproblem-areas.
Controlling and evaluating studies takes advantage of all the possibilities
broughtforthbymoderntechnology.Keeping trackofattendanceandpossible
preliminary assignments is effortless at lectures and classes. Paperwork is noticeablydecreasedwhenitisnolongernecessarytocollectandmaintainpapers
onlytotheninputthemtothecomputerbyhand.Furthermore,allthecollected
datacanbeusedasafoundationforfutureplanningofeducation,evaluationand
especiallymotivatingstudents.
Informationtechnologymakesstudymaterialsflexibleandeasilyadaptedtothe
needsofthecurrentclass.Thepossibilitiesforvisualizationincreasemany-fold
6
when compared to traditional study materials. Information technology allows
morevisualization,notonlyinquantity,butalsoinquality.
Mostexercisetypescanbeautomaticallyassessed.Afterassessment,immediate feedback can be given to the student regarding the assignment. The feedbackcangentlyshowthestudentswheretheysucceededandwheretheydidnot
alongwithaconcreteexampleofthecorrectanswer.Forexample,inmathematics:whensummingthedecimalnumbers0.1and0.1,theresultis0.2.IntheimmediatefeedbackinViLLE,thiscalculationcanbeshownasafractionandapie
chart,tofacilitatedeeplearningandformingtheconceptofadecimalnumber.
InformationTechnologyallowstheusageofopenassignmentswithoutsacrificingrelevantfeedback automaticassessment.Anotherexamplefrommathematics:Whatnumberssummedgives16?Enumeratingallpossibleanswersissomethingthereoftenisnoroominprintedmaterials(especiallyifrealnumbersare
allowed).However,ViLLEcaneasilyassesstheinputofthestudentandinform
whethertheinputtednumberswerecorrectornot.
ThisdocumentismeantasamanualforusingViLLEandtogivenewthoughtson
howtoplanstudies.Thisintroductionconcentratesonthegeneralaspectsand
features, each of which is covered in their own chapter. This document and
ViLLEareconstantlyunderdevelopment,sothatlearningandteachingwouldbe
aseffortlessandefficientaspossible.ThelatestversionofthisBookofVillecan
bedownloadedfromhttp://villeteam.com.
1.1 Technical details
It's worth noting that ViLLE is moreof an online application than a traditional
website. In practice, this means that browser features, such as the back & forwardbuttons,bookmarksandfavoritesmaynotworkasyouexpect.Inorderto
protectyourinformation,usersareautomaticallyloggedoffafter30minutesof
idletime.
7
ViLLE supports all modern browsers, but it is recommended to use the latest
version of Firefox or Google Chrome. The newest version of Internet Explorer
(IE11atthetimeofwriting)canalsobeused,butduetodefectsinolderversions
of the browser, some of the mathematical features have been disabled for IE.
ViLLEdoesworkonOperaandSafari,andcanalsobeusedonsufficientlypowerfuliPadsandAndroidtablets.
1.2 Terminology in ViLLE
WhilenotaprerequisiteforusingViLLE,itisworthwhiletofamiliarizeoneselfto
the structure and most common terms of ViLLE. This helps in getting maximal
benefitfromusingViLLE:creatingdiverseandeffectivecourses.ViLLEisdivided
intotwoviews:theteacherandstudentviews.Thisbookismeanttoillustrate
how to effectively use the teacher side. For help on the student view, see the
guideonViLLEhomepage(http://villeteam.com/howto/).
Figure 1 visualizes the structure of ViLLE and relations between the common
termsusedinViLLE.
Illustration1Relationsbetweenthecommonterms
AcourseisthebasegroupofViLLE,towhichstudentsenroll.Theconceptofa
courseisquitestraightforwardinhighereducation,whereinacourse-basedsystemisused.However,inschoolswheresuchasystemisnotused,coursesmay
8
bethoughtofasthematicwholes,orperiods.Examplesofthesethematicwholes
are”Fractions”or”Finnishhistory1900-1921”.
Coursesconsistofrounds,whichareapart,or”asection”,ofacourse.Rounds
areacollectionofexercisesandmaterialsappropriatefortheselectedthematic
whole.Thetimearoundisopencanbesetseparatelyfromotherroundsandthe
course.Inadditiontothetime,alsothevisibilityofaroundcanbeset;invisible
roundsareonlyshowntoteachersandassistingteachers,butnotstudents.For
example, rounds”Additionof fractions” and ”Subtractionof fractions” could be
found on a ”Fractions” course, conversely, on a course named ”Programming
1.01”,roundsnamed”Loops”and”If-clauses”arelikelytoappear.
Exercise types are templates for exercises that can be created; it creates the
frame upon which the teacher can build an exercise. The exercise type determinesthetypeoftheexercise.Severaldozensofexercisetypescanbefoundon
ViLLE,fromwhichteacherscancreatenewexercises.Anexercisetypebecomes
anexerciseaftertheteacherdefinestheparametersfortheexercisetype.Anexampleoftheseparametersarethequestionandansweringoptionsforquizzes,
ortherangefornumbersandtheamountofquestionsina mathematicalexercisetype.
Anexerciseisbasedonanexercisetypeandiscreatedbyeitheryouoranother
teacher.Aftera teacherhascharacterizedanexercisetype,i.e.givenita name,
descriptionandparameters,theexercisetypebecomesanexercise.Thisallows
one exercise type to be used as a base for multiple exercises for different subjects.
An assignment is an exercise added to a round. There are several differences
betweenanassignmentandanexercise,buttherearetwonotableones.Firstly,
becauseanassignmentisaddedtoa round,itmayhavea descriptionordirectionsshownspecificallytostudentswhichanexercisecannothave.Secondly,an
assignment also has a maximum number ofpoints, which an exercise does not
9
have.Asa generalruleofthumb,oneexercisecanbeusedformultipleassignments.
Materials are additional materials designed for a course, round or exercise.
Thesecanbethoughtofasillustrativehandouts,excepttheycanbeanything:an
image,avoiceclip,anarticleorevenvideo.Themostcommonuseformaterials
is to provide study materials for a round or course. This material can then be
usedbythestudentsasabasetosolveassignmentsorprovideadditionalinformation.Thesamematerialcanbeusedmultipletimesondifferentinstancesof
theround(orcourse),souploadingasinglematerialmultipletimesisnotnecessary.Thisalsomakesitstraightforwardtosharematerialswithotherteachers.
A resource is an umbrella term for all exercises, courses and materials. Resources may be public, which means all teachers can utilize, comment on and
evaluatethem.Resourcescanbedefinedasprivatebytheowneroftheresource.
Privateresourcescannotbeseenbyothersusers.ExercisesbasedontheexercisetypesinViLLEarealwayspublic.
A browser is a basic tool in the teacher viewused to browse public resources
madebyotherteachers.Therearefourseparatebrowserviews:exercisebrowser, course browser, materials browser and a tutorial browser view. The basic
functionalityofeachbrowseristhesame,onlywhatisbrowseddiffers.
Allresourceshaveanowner.Theownerofaresourceistheuserwhohascreatedthatresource.Donotethatoncearesourceiscopied,theuserwhocopiedthe
resourcebecomesthenewownerofthatcopiedresource;theowneroftheoriginal resource is not changed. Copied resources have no link to the original, so
evenifthecopyismodifiedtheoriginalremainsunchanged.
10
1.3 The GUI elements in ViLLE
The teacher view in ViLLE contains three main elements, which are often referred to in this manual. The picture below demonstrates these parts of the
teacherview.
Illustration2Userinterfaceelementsintheteacherview
1. Username,whichcanbeclickedtoopenamenutoswitchbetweenthe
studentandteacherviews,changesettingsorlogoutofViLLE.
2. Side menu, which is used to navigate the teacher side of ViLLE. Many
menu items contain submenus, which can be opened by clicking on the
item. The presence of an unfolded sub menu is indicated with a plus,
whileaminussignindicatesanunfoldedsubmenu.Thesidemenucanbe
minimized to free screen space by pressing the
button.
The
samebuttoncanbeusedtorestorethesidemenu.
3. Contentarea,showsthecurrentlychosencontent.Agrey actionbaris
shown above the content area, from which all possible actions on the
contentcanbeperformed.
11
Illustration3AbrowserviewinViLLE
Illustration 3 shows the browserview in ViLLE, which is used when browsing
publicresources
1. The browsing mode is chosen from the top left corner. The menu has
optionstobrowseeitherthebest,mostpopular,mostusedorthenewest
resources.Insomebrowsersthewaytheresultsareshowncanbechosen
totheleftofthismenu.Availablechoicesaretoshowtheresultsinalist
orasatable.
2. Using the search field it is easy to find resources of interest. Write the
searchterminthefieldandpress<enter>.Toreturntotheoriginalstate,
clearallcharactersfromthefieldandpress<enter>.
3. Filteringisahandyfeaturewhenonlyresourcesofacertaintypeareof
interest. To open the filtering menu, click on the Filter button. It is
possible to filter resources by type, difficulty, programming or exercise
language.
4. The search results are shown below the search options. To inspect a
resource,justclickonitintheresultsview.
12
5. The pager appears whenever there is more search results than what is
chosentobeshown.
6. Thechosenresourceisshownintheframetotherightofthescreen.
Clickingoneithertheusernameortheprofilepictureonthetoprightcornerof
thescreenwillopentheactionmenu(illustration4).
Illustration4theactionmenu
Theactionmenuallowsyoutoswitchbetweentheteacherandstudentview,
navigatedirectlytotheprofilepageorsettings.Theactionmenualsoallowsyou
togethelporlogoutofViLLE.
13
2 Courses
CoursesarethebasictoolsofteachersinViLLE.Thebasicworkflowconsistsof
fivesteps.First,createacourse.Second,sharetheregistrationlinktostudentsso
they can join the course. Third, teach the course. Fourth, grade any manually
graded exercises. Fifth and lastly, grade the course and give each student their
grade. Most exercises in ViLLE are automatically graded, which decreases the
amountoftimeittakestogradecourses.Itisalsopossibletooptimizethetakeit
takestocreatecoursesandexercises byutilizingtheexistingpoolofresources
availabletoallViLLEteachers.Noteveryteacherneedstoreinventthewheel.
Createa
course
Teach
students
Grade
After registering yourself to ViLLE, it is possible to create your own courses.
CoursesarethebasicunitinViLLEandisagoodanalogytothecoursesincollegesanduniversities.Onamorestrictlycurriculum-basedsystems,acoursecanbe
thoughtofathematicwhole,suchas”Fractions”or”Crossingthetensboundary”.
Therearethreewaystocreateanewcourse.Onewayistocreateacompletely
new course from scratch. Another way is to copy an existing course. The third
wayistocreateanewcourse,butuseresourcesfromexistingcourses.Theseexistingcoursesmayhavebeenmadebyeitheryouorsomeoneelse.Thisallows
teachers to e.g. improve the course they kept last year, or improve on a good
coursekeptbyateacherinaneighboringschool.Thisrecyclingofcoursesallows
forsharingandapplyingnewworkingideas.Italsofreestimeandfocusonthe
teacher'sparttoworkonthesmalldetailsofthecourse.Thus,therecyclingdone
inViLLEmakesforbettercourses.Allthesethreeoptionsarefurtherexplained
inthefollowingchapters.
14
2.1 Creating a new course
Inthefollowingexample,acourseaboutfractionsiscreatedfor3 rdgrademathematics.Whiletheexampleisaboutcreatingacourseaboutfractions,thedifferent steps and options for creating a course and how they affect the course are
explainedindetail.ViLLEcoursescanbeusedinanysubject,suchaslanguages
andhistory,butViLLEhasastrongsupportspecificallyforlearningandteaching
mathematicsandprogramming.Becauseofthisbreadth,thereareseveraldifferent options to consider when creating a course in either mathematics or programming.
Creating a new course is as easy as navigating to Profile àMy courses and
clickingonNewcourse.
Givethecourseaname,”3rdgradeFractions,2014”.Itisgoodpracticetoname
coursesappropriately,especiallywhencreatingpubliccourses.Itisoftenfitting
to append information about the instance of the course (e.g. the year) so the
courseheldondifferentyearswillbeorganizedinchronologicalorder.
Itispossibletomakethiscoursepublicbychecking visibletootherteachers.
ThismeansthatthiscoursewillbevisibletootherViLLEusers.Studentactivity
isnotandwillneverbevisibletootherteachers,butthecourseitselfandall
publicresourceswithinitwillbe.Checkingthisoptionishighlyrecommended,
asitenablesotherteacherstoevaluateandcommentonthecourse.Thisallows
theownertoreceivefeedbackanduseitnotonlytoimprovethecourse,butimproveyourteachingaswell.Feedbackmayalsocontaincompletelynovelideas
forfuturerevisionsonthecourse.
IfAddroundischecked,thenanemptyroundwillbeaddedtothiscourseupon
creationautomatically.
Thedescriptionfieldcontainsapublicdescriptionofthecourse.Thisdescription is visible to students and teachers alike. For our example course, the de-
15
scription will be ”Third grade fractions. Let's practice converting fractions to
decimalnumbersandviceversa,addition,subtractionandexpandingfractions.”
The”Coursekey”fieldisa'password'forthecourse.ViLLEasksforthecourse
keyonlyoncewhenregisteringtothatcourse.Itisthusimpossibletoregisteron
acoursewithoutthekey.Thepurposeofthecoursekeyistoensurenounwantedpeopleenrolloncourses.Donotethatsettingacoursekeyismandatory,regardless of the method used to add students to the course. For our example
course, the course key is set to the name of the class mascot, ”Blacky”, so it is
easyenoughtoremember.
Inadditiontothecoursekey,registrationforthecoursecanbelimitedbyhaving
awindowoftimewhenregistrationisallowed.Registrationbeginsisthetime
whenitisfirstpossibletoregister,i.e.enroll,tothecourse.Registrationendsis
the time and date when it is no longer possible to register on the course anymore.Thetimemaybeenteredbymanuallytypingit,orbyclickingonthecalendar buttonto the right of the field.On ourexample course, practically every
student,bartheonessickorotherwiseabsent,registeronthecourseonthefirst
lessontogetherwiththeteacherpresent.Becauseofpossibleabsentees,theregistration is allowed for two weeks. The duration of the registration window is
possibletobesetatwill.In somecasesitis suitabletohavethecourse accept
newstudentsthroughoutthecourse,whileinothersitmaybebeneficialnotto.
The Language is set according to the teaching language. E.g. if the majority of
assignments are in English, then English is the appropriate choice. For our examplecourse,thelanguagewillbeFinnish.Thelanguagecanbechangedatalaterdate.Donotethatthislanguagechoicehasaneffectontheregistrationofnew
students:whenstudentsregisterontheirfirstcourseforthefirsttime,theuser
interfacelanguageofViLLEforthestudentissettothesamelanguageasthatof
thecourse.Thisonlyappliestostudentswhohaveneverbeforeregisteredtoa
course.
16
For programmingcourses,it is obligatory to choose the programming language
usedonthecourse.Asourexamplecourseisformathematics,thereisnoprogramminglanguageand”–”isselected.
Thesavebuttonwillletyouaddtagstothecourse.Tagsarewordsrepresentativeofthecontentofthecourse.TagshelpusersofViLLEfindresourcesrelated
toaspecifictopic.Itispossibletochoosefromanexistingpooloftagsorcreate
tagsofyourown.Choosingtagsisdonebyselectinganappropriatetagfromthe
tag-listwhichappearsasyoustarttypingatag.Ifnosuitabletagswereinthetag
pool,finishwritingthetagandonewiththatnamewillbecreated.Onceataghas
beenchosen,pressentertofinalizetheselectionandpossiblyaddmoretags.Finalizedtagsturnblueandaremovedtotheleftofthetextfield.Removingtagsis
done by pressing the x to the right of the tag-to-be-removed. For our example
coursethefollowingtagsareadded:”3 rdgrade”,”fractions”,”addition”,”subtraction”,”expanding”and”reducing”.
PressingSavenowwillsavethecourseinyourcourses.Thenewcoursewillappearonyourcourselist.Thenextstepistostartmakingassignments. Clicking
onthenameofthecoursewillstarteditingthecourse.
2.2 Editing courses
The course edit view is divided into sub views which are used to manage the
rounds in the course, its settings, assignments, assistant teachers, groups and
news.Itisalsopossibletoaddassignmentstothecoursefromoneofthesubmenus.
17
Illustration5Courseeditview
2.2.1 Adding rounds to courses
Beforeassignmentscanbeaddedtoacourse,theremustbeatleastoneround.
Roundsarelikechaptersinabook:theycontainasingletopic.Thistopiccanbe
a thematic one, our example course couldhave a roundlike: ”Addition of fractions with the same denominator”, or a chronological topic: ”Week 4”. Rounds
dividecoursesintosensiblepartsandgiveaclearindicationofhowthecourse
progresses.
It has been found to be good practice to commit students to completing a
course by having them complete a few assignments at the beginning of a
course.Theassignmentsshouldbefairly,asthemainideaistoactivatestudents.
AddingroundsisdoneintheRoundsincoursetab.ClickingontheCreatenew
round-linkbelowanyexistingroundswillopenamenutochoosethetypeofthe
newround:
1. Normalround:ThisroundtypeisusedfornormalstudyinginViLLE.
18
2. Exam round: This round type is used for exams; feedback and correct
answersarehiddeninassignmentsaddedtothisround.
3. Conditionalround:Thisroundopensnewassignmentstostudentsashe
orshegathersenoughpointsfromthepreviousassignments.
Afterchoosingthetypeoftheround,anew”empty”roundiscreatedatthebottomoftheroundlist.Thenewlyaddedroundisautomaticallyineditmode.
Illustration6Anewroundaddedtotheroundlist
2.2.2 Editing rounds
Anewroundisautomaticallyineditmode,andexistingroundscanbeeditedby
first expanding it by clicking on its name and pressing the Edit button onthat
round.
19
Thenameoftheroundcanbesetinthetextfieldintheupperleftcornerofthe
round editor. The name should be descriptiveof both the contents and assignmentsofthatround.Roundsarecourse-specific,whichmeansthereisnoneedto
repeatthenameorthemeofthecourse.Thetypeoftheroundcanbechanged
fromthedropdownmenutotherightofthenamefield.
The opening and closing dates can be set for each round separately. Rounds
areopenoneweekbydefault.Settingtimelimitsonroundscanhelptoenforce
studentsmaketheirsubmissionsontime.Timelimitsalsoclarifytheprogression
ofthecourse.Whethertheroundisopenorclosedhasadifferenteffectonthe
rounddependingonthetypeoftheround:
Roundtype
Normalround
Beforeopening Assignments
Examround
are Assignments
unavailable
Roundopen
unavailable
Assignments
are Assignments
available
available
Conditionalround
are Assignments
are
unavailable
are Assignments
available,
are
provided
the previous assignmentsaredone
Roundclosed
Assignments
are Assignments
available,
no unavailable
available,
are
the previous assign-
but
submissions
saved
are Assignments
are
provided
ments are done, but
no submissions are
saved
Illustration7Differencesbetweenthepossibletypesofrounds
Afterallinformationforaroundhasbeeninputted,pressSave.
2.2.3 Course settings
ItispossibletoeditthesettingsforthecoursefromtheCoursesettingstab.
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Illustration8Coursesettingstab
Thesettingsforacoursehavebeendividedintothreesubsections:
1) The course information –section contains basic information about the
course. Basic information contains the name, course key, public
descriptionandnotesvisibletootherteachers.Allthesecanbemodified.
This section also contains the registration link for the course, which
allowsstudentstoregistertothiscourse.IfyourschoolusestheHAKAloginsystem,checktheShowHAKAregistrationlinkbeforecopyingthe
registrationlink.
2) TheSettings-sectioncontainsthebasicsettingsforthecourse.Thestart
and end dates for registration can be set here. The minimum score
required -setting sets the minimum score forpassing the course. Other
modifiable settings are the course language, and the programming
21
language used on the course. If you include yourself in the course as
student,youareshowninthecoursestatistics,whichmaymakeiteasier
to e.g. test the course. Students assess assignment difficulty allows
studentstoranktheassignmentstheydo.Visibleforotherteacherssets
thecourseaseitherpublicorprivate.
3) IntheTagssectionthetagsforthecoursecanbemodified.TheAttached
materials section can be used to add study materials to the course, like
slideshowsorvideos.Itisalsopossibletoattachmaterialstoroundsand
assignments.
2.3 Adding automatically assessed assignments to a
course
Thissubchapterdemonstrateshowtoaddassignmentstocourses.Assignments
arealwaysaddedtoaroundonthecourse.Iftherearenoroundsonthecourse
yet,seetheprevioussubchapter.Assignmentsareaddedwhileinthecourseedit
modefromtheAddassignmentstab.
Illustration9Addassignmentstab
The most effortless assignments for the teacher are the automatically assessed
assignments in ViLLE. ViLLE automatically assesses the correctness of the answergivenbythestudenttothecorrectanswerandgradestheexercise.Automaticallyassessedexercisescontain,butarenotlimitedtothefollowing:mathematical,programming,sorting,Fill-in,andmultiplechoiceexercises.Briefopen
questionscanalsobeautomaticallyassessed,butlongeropenendedquestions,
suchasessaysrequiremanualgradingbyateacher.
22
Beforeanyautomaticallyassessed exercisescanbeaddedtoacourse,there
mustbeatleastoneexistingexerciseinyourexercisefolders.Creatingand
usingexercisesarefurtherexplainedinthefollowingchapters.
Inordertoaddanautomaticallyassessedassignmenttoacourse,selecttheexercisefromthecorrectfolder(1).Afterselectingtheexercise,thenameandmaximumpointscanbechanged(2).Itisalsoappropriatetosetadescriptionofthe
assignment,sothestudentsknowwhattodobeforetestingtheexerciseyourself
(3). When the name, score and description have been set, select the round the
assignmentistobeaddedfromtherightside(4),andclickonthegreenarrow
(5).
Illustration10Addingandautomaticallyassessedassignment
23
Inadditiontoyourownexercises,youmayalsoaddonesfromyourbookmarks.
To open your bookmarks list, select Bookmarked exercises from the dropdownmenuabovetheexercisefolders.
TIP:Exercisescanalsobeaddedfromtheexercisebrowserbyfirstselecting
theexerciseandthenpressingtheUtilizebutton.
2.4 Adding manually graded assignments
Manuallygradedexercises canalso be addedtorounds.Manuallygradedexercises include for example, class attendance, demonstrations, file uploads and
writingexercises,likeessays.NavigatetotheAddassignmentstabasexplained
intheabovesubchapterandclickontheManuallygradedbutton.Theexercise
isaddedthesamewayasinchapter2.3.
Illustration11Addingmanuallygradedassignments
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2.4.1 Adding demonstrations to rounds
Inhighereducation,teachinginsmallgroupsisoftenpreferred.ViLLEcallsthese
sessions demonstrations, or demos for short. Demonstrations proceed as follows: Before each demo session, students receive homework which should be
donetothebestoftheirabilitiesforthedemo.Thishomeworkisreviewedatthe
demosbyselectingonestudenttopresenthisorhersolutiontotheproblemin
frontoftheclass.Otherstudentsareencouragedtoaskclarifyingquestionsregarding the solution. The attending teacher, called the demonstrator, helps in
solving the problems if necessary. Demos are a learning environment, which
providestheopportunitytoanalyzeproblemstogetherwithotherstudentsand
a teacher. Often courses have one demonstration a week. ViLLE helps demonstrations by keeping track of the attendees, the problems they solve and the
timestheywereinfrontoftheclass.
To add a new demonstration to a round, Navigate to the add manually graded
assignments view as described in chapter 2.4, and click on Demonstrations.
Addinganexistingdemonstrationisdonethesamewayasanyexercise,asdescribedinchapter2.3.Tocreateanewdemonstration,clickonNewdemonstrationwhichopenstheEditdemonstrationdialog.
Givethedemonstrationaname,forexample”Demo1”.
ThefirstrequiredfieldisforAttendance.Ithasan empty Maxpointsfieldby
default,whichmeansthatattendanceisrecorded,butnopointsaregiven.
Exercise fields are for the exercises given to the students before the demos.
Each preliminary assignment is listed separately and the maximum points for
that assignment is marked to the Maxpointsfield. To avoidrepetitive manual
fillingofthesefields,itispossibletouseanAutofillfeature.TheAutofillbutton
opensanewwindowwhichasksforthenumberofexercisesandthename.The
nameis”Exercise”bydefault,whichmeanstheaddedexercisesarenamed”Ex-
25
ercise1”,”Exercise2”,”Exercise3”,etc.,dependingonhowmanyexerciseswere
chosen.Themaximumscoreforeachexerciseisalsogivenhere.Thesamemax
scoreisusedforeachexercise.AcceptthechangesbypressingOK.
SavethedemonstrationbypressingSave.
Toaddthenewlycreateddemo,selectitfromthelistofdemonstrations,inthis
example”Demo1”.Theviewchangestoshowtheexercisesandpointsawarded
forthemintheselecteddemo.Nextclickontheroundthisdemonstrationisto
beaddedto,andclickonthegreenarrow.
Note,thatthesamedemonstrationtemplatecanbeusedinmultipledemonstrations.Onedemonstrationtemplateisenoughforeachcoursethathasthesame
numberofexercisesandpointsawardedforthem.Touseademotemplate,just
selectthedemofromthelistontheleft,thenselecttheroundyouwishtoaddit
toandpressthegreenarrowforallroundsthatthedemonstrationwillbekept
on.
2.4.2 Collecting attendance data
It is often beneficial to collect attendance data from students. This data can be
used, for example, as data for research studying how active attendance affects
learningresults.
Collectingdatacanalsobeusedtomotivatestudents.Activeparticipationin
lecturescanberewardedinmanyways, suchasgivingbonuspointsorthe
possibility to answer one less question in the exam. Multiple studies have
foundtheproverbialcarrottobemoreeffectivethanthestick.
IncaseyoureducationalinstituteusestheRFIDsystembyViLLE,attendancecan
beregisteredautomaticallybyflashingacardtoanRFIDreaderinstalledineitherthecomputerusedbytheteacherorthelecturehall.IfnoRFIDsystemis
available,itisalsopossibletoinputattendancesmanuallytoViLLE.
26
AnattendanceneedsaName.”Lecture1”issuitableforourexample.
Anattendancecanalsobescoredbygivingitamaximumscore.Thegreaterthe
maximum score is compared to other performances on the course, the more
weightisputonthatparticularattendance.
It is recommended to add a description to an attendance by pressing the Edit
description button.Anappropriatedescriptionisthelocationandtopicofthe
lecture,forexample.
Attendancesareaddedtoroundsthesamewayasassignmentsare.Firstselect
theroundtheattendanceistobeaddedto,thenclickonthegreenarrow.There
maybeseveralattendancesforagivenround.Inourexample,oneroundcorrespondstoa week,andbecausetherearetwolecturesperweekonourcourse,
eachroundwillhavetwoattendancesaddedtothem.
2.4.3 Marking attendance
Asdescribedinthepreviouschapter,attendancecanbecollectedfromlectures,
demonstrations, or any event defined by the teacher. In case your educational
instituteusesanRFIDsystem,markingattendancebystudentsisdoneaseasily
asflashingtheRFID-cardofthe studenttoan RFIDreader.Shouldtherebeno
RFIDsysteminuse,attendancecanalsobeinputtedtoViLLEdirectlybywriting
studentIDstoViLLE.Thiscaneasilybedonealongarollcalloraftereachstudenthasmarkedtheirattendanceonapaper.Eveniftheattendancedatahasto
beinputtedmanually,thebenefitisthatallattendancedataiscollectedtoaunified database, so all data pertaining to the course is in a single location. This
chapterexplainshowtogatherattendancedatausingRFIDreadersandhowto
inputattendancedatamanually.
27
Illustration12InputattendancedatausinganRFIDreaderorstudentid
2.4.3.1 Marking attendance using an RFID reader or a student id
LogontoViLLEandnavigatetoStatistics–Manuallygraded.Selectthecorrect
courseandassignmentfromtheassignmentdropdownmenu(1).Thestatistics
forthatattendancearenowshownintable(3).Nowitispossibletomovetoa
view,wherestudentsmarktheirownattendance,bypressingtheStudentinput
mode (2) button. ViLLE will open a view wherein students can input their attendancebyeither
1) UsinganRFID-cardortagonanRFIDreader.
2) Writingtheirstudentidinatextfieldandpressing<enter>.
Rememberthatclosingtheinputviewrequiresateacherpassword.Thisfeature
isimplementedsothatitissafetoleavestudentsmarktheirattendanceswithIfyouhaveloggedonusingHAKA-login,youcannotusetheHAKApassword
to close the attendance window. If you are unable to close the attendance
window, ask ViLLE Team for a local password. Our contact information is
foundonthefirstpage
28
outsupervision.
2.4.3.2 Attendance marked by the teacher
Attendancecanalsobemarkedbytheteacheroranyassistingteacher.Logonto
ViLLE and navigate to Statistics– Manuallygraded. Select the correct course
andassignmentfromthedropdownmenus(Illustration12,1).Attendancescan
be manually marked by checking the boxes from the Attendance column (3).
ViLLE saves the state after each click, so a separate save is not required after
eachclick.
2.4.4 Adding a study journal
Astudyjournalcanbeusedtoconvenientlygatherthelearningexperiencesof
students. Study journals in ViLLE can containone ormore entry pages, for exampleoneforeachroundonthecourse.Theteacherofthecoursealwayssees
thejournalsofthestudentsonacourseasawhole.
Begin adding a study journal by navigatingto Addassignments in course edit
mode, then click on manually graded and Study journal. Create a new Study
journal by clicking on the Create a new journal link. Give the journal a name
andpress<enter>toaddthejournaltothelist.Clickingonthenameofthenewly
createdjournalentersthejournaleditmode.
29
Illustration13Aselectedstudyjournal
EntrypagesmaybeaddedtoaroundbyclickingontheAddentrypagesbutton.
Selectthesurveythisentrypagecontains(Creatingsurveysisexplainedinchapter4),andchecktheroundsthisentrypagewillbeadded.Entrypagescanalso
beaddedtoroundsatalaterdate,shouldmoreroundsbeaddedtothecourse.
After selecting the survey and rounds, click on the OK button to add the entry
pages.
In addition to the entry pages, a grading assignment has to be added to the
course.Thisgradingassignmentcollectsallentrypagesofthestudentandcreates a journal, which the teacher can read and assess. To add the grading assignment,giveitanameandmaximumpoints,andclickonthegreenarrowto
addittoaround.
2.4.5 Adding a manually graded exam
Amanuallygradedexamcanbeusedtocollectingexamresultsandnotifyingof
their results within ViLLE. One exam can contain more than one attempt; the
studentwillalwaysseethebestreturnashisorherfinalgrade.
30
Beginaddinganexambynavigatingtothe Addassignmentstabinthecourse
edit mode and clickingon Manuallygraded and Exam. Create a new exam by
clickingonNewexam.
Illustration14Editinganexam
Anexamconsistsofdemonstrations(seechapter2.4.1),eachofwhichisrepresentative of one exam attempt. Ensure the maximum score for each attempt is
thesame,tomakesuretheexamsworkproperly.Examattemptsareaddedusing
theAddinstancebutton.Anexamwillalsorequireagradescale.Itispossible
to use a ready-made template by pressing the Grading templates button, or
make a scale of your own. The grade scale is created by giving a commaseparated list of the grades in ascending order, i.e. starting from the lowest. A
gradescalecouldthusbeforexample:“Fail,1,2,3,4,5”.Afterhavingdefinedthe
name,gradescaleandexamattempts,theexammustbesavedbypressingSave.
After having created the exam template, it is possible to add it to a course by
clickingonitsname,givingtheexamaname,selectingtheroundtoaddtheexam
toandclickingonthegreenarrow.
31
2.4.6 Adding course assignments
Withcourseassignments,itisconvenienttogroupseveralstagesofalargerassignment under one ViLLE assignment. A course assignment could be divided
intoaplan,theactualassignmentandafinaldocumentation.Eachstageiscompletedseparatelyandinorder,thatis,thefollowingstageopensonlyafterthe
previous has been completed and approved by the teacher. The course assignmentcanbegradedasawhole,oreachstageindividually,orboth.Additionally,
theteachercangivethestudentfeedbackonthecompletedwork.
BeginaddingacourseassignmentbynavigatingtotheAddassignmentstabin
thecourseeditmode,thenclickonManuallygradedandCourseassignment.
CreatethenewcourseassignmentbyclickingonNewcourseassignment.
Illustration15Editingacourseassignment
Toaddstagesintothecourseassignment,clickontheAddstagebutton.Suitable
stagesareeitherafileuploadoranysurveyexercise.Creatingsurveysisfurther
explainedinchapter4.Afterallthestageshavebeendefinedandthecourseassignmenthasbeengivenaname,pressSave.
Nowthatthecourseassignmenttemplatehasbeencreated,itisreadytobeadded to courses. Click the assignment on the list, give it a name, and click on the
greenarrow.
32
2.4.7 Adding an essay exercise
Essays in ViLLE are a survey with a textbox survey component. Creating new
surveysisexplainedindetailinchapter4.Afterthesurveyhasbeencreated,it
canbeaddedtoacourseinthesamemannerasanyotherexercise(seechapter
2.3).Whenaddingthesurvey,adialogwillappear,inwhichViLLEasksthetype
ofgrading.BychoosingManualgrading,anyteachercangradethereturnedessay.
2.4.8 Adding a manually graded external activity
At times it is convenient to add an exercise where no actual submission is involved,butstudentscanbegivenpointsforregardless.Externalactivities(such
asclassroomactivity)canberegisteredintoViLLEusingtheexercisetype Other.
BegincreatinganassignmentlikethisbynavigatingtotheAddassignmentstab
inthecourseeditmodeandclickingonManuallygraded,thenonOther.Give
this activity a name and a maximum score, click on the round this activity belongstoandclickonthegreenarrow.
2.5 Adding an exercise pool to a round
Insomecasesitispracticalnottohaveeachstudentdothesameexercises.Itis
possibletodefineanexercisepoolinViLLE,whichallowsspecificexercisestobe
giventospecificstudents.Theexercisesinexercisepoolsfordifferentstudents
donotneedtobebasedonthesameexercisetype,insteaditmaycontainforinstancecalculationforsomestudents,andamultiplechoicequestionforothers,
basedontheteacher’sdiscretion.
Anexercisepoolcanbecreatedbymovingtothecourseeditmode,openingthe
Add assignments tab and clicking on Exercise pool. The exercise pool must
thenbegivenanameandthemaximumscore.Adescriptioncanalsobegiven
bypressingtheEditdescriptionbutton.
33
Illustration16Addingexercisestoanexercisepool
Toaddassignmentsfortheexercisepool,firstselecttheroundthepoolshould
be added, then clickon the green arrow. A window appears which contains all
yourexercises.Selectanexercise andclickonthegreen arrowtoaddittothe
pool. Repeat, until the pool contains all exercises that should be shown to students.Exercisescanbedeletedfromthepoolbyclickingontheredcrosstothe
rightoftheexercise.Thereisnoneedtosavetheexercisepoolwhenitiscomplete; it is saved after every added or removed exercise. To close the window,
clickonthecrossinthetoprightcornerofthedialogwindow.
2.6 Adding a turn-in exercise
Teachers may, at their discretion, have students return submissions as Word
documents,Excelsheets,Powerpointslideshowsorimages.Itisgoodpractice
tokeepallturn-insrelatedtoonecourseinthesameplace.Asitisoftennotfun
tosearchthroughone’se-mailforaspecificturn-in,ViLLEhasanuploadexercise.
34
An upload exercise can be created by first navigating to the Addassignments
tabincourseeditmode,thenclickingonAssignmentsubmission.
Illustration17Assignmentsubmission
ItisrequiredtochoosetheMaximumfilesizeforthesubmission.Thesizeisin
kilobytes.Thesizelimitistopreventoversizedfilesbeingsent.Especiallyimages
andPowerpointslideshowswilleasilybecometoolarge.Atextualsubmission
willeasilyfitinto512kilobytes.Incasethedocumentcontainsimages,1024or
2048kilobytesisareasonablechoice.
Anassignmentsubmissionmusthaveadescriptivename.Givingtheassignment
amaximumscoreisalsoprudent,shouldthedefaultof10pointsproveinappropriate.ThedescriptionshowntostudentscanalsobechangedfromtheEditdescriptionbutton.
Finally, the assignment must be added to a round by clicking on the correct
roundandthenclickingonthegreenarrow.
35
2.7 Adding a peer-reviewed exercise
Only a submission type exercise (see 2.6) can be peer-reviewed. Students first
turnintheirassignments,thenpeer-reviewersareassigned,eitherautomatically
orasdeterminedbytheteacher.
Peerreviewisanexcellenttoolinateacher’stoolbox.Thistechniqueisespeciallysuitableforstudentsinhighereducation,butcanbeusedwithyounger
studentsaswell.Peerreviewingteacherstudentsvaluablesoftskills,asitis
imperative to think about one’s own stance and how to justify it. Because
reasonable assessment requires justification, the reviewer must also be
knowledgeable in the topic of the assignment. As the student assesses the
topic,heorshemustalsoreflectonhisorheronviewpointtotheassignment,inadditiontothepossibleconflictsandwhytheseconflictsmightexist.
ApeerreviewexercisecanbecreatedbynavigatingtotheAddassignmentstab
inthecourseeditmodeandclickingonPeerreviewed.
Illustration18Peerrevision
36
Apeerrevisioncanbedoneforonestudentatatime,sothatallothers,butthe
submitter, review a submitted assignment. This feature allows assessment of
group works so that each group reviews the submissions of all other groups.
Choosethestudent(s)whoseassignmentistobepeerreviewedfromtheSelect
usetoreviewdrop-downmenu.
Illustration19Creatinganewevaluationset
Each and every peer reviewed exercise must have an evaluationset. If an appropriateevaluationsetexists,itcanbechosenfromthe Selectevaluationset
drop down menu. A selected evaluation set can be edited with the Edit button
anddeletedwiththeDeletebutton.
Ifnoappropriateevaluationsetshavebeencreated,clickontheNewbutton.
Thefirstthingtodoistogiveanevaluationsetits nameanddescription.The
description may define any criterion for evaluation and give general advice on
howtoperformpeerreviewing.Thisdescriptionisshowntoallstudents.
37
In addition to thegeneral description, an evaluation set may contain questions
whicheachrevieweranswers.Examplequestionsare:“Howwellcanyoudiscern
theexpertiseofthewriter?”,“Canthewriter’sownthinkingbeseeninthetext?”
or“Howfluentlydoesthewriterexpresshimorherself?”.Eachquestionmustbe
giventhemaximumofascaleusedtogradethequestions.Theminimumisone.
If“2”ischosen,thenthereviewerwillseetheoptions“yes/no”.
Itispossibletonestquestionsbysettinganestedquestionasaheader.Finally,
savetheevaluationsetbyclickingonSave.
A peerreviewexercisemustalsobegivena nameandmaximumscore.Adescriptionisoptional,andcanbeinputbypressingtheEditdescriptionbutton.
Addthepeerreviewingexercisetoaroundbyclickingonaroundandclicking
onthegreenarrow.
2.8 Adding assisting teachers
Acoursemaycontainassistingteachersinadditiontotheowner.Theassisting
teacherswillalwayshaveaccesstotheperformancerecordsofthestudentson
thecourse,andtheownerofthecoursemaygivetheassistingteachersediting
rightstothecourse.Inpractice,assistingteachersmaybedemonstrators,tutors
orothercoursepersonnel.Inprimaryschool,specialeducationteachersmayrequireaccesstothestudent’sstatistics,orincasethespecialeducationteacheris
usingViLLE,itisvitalfortheclass’teachertoknowofthestudents’progress
A user must be registered to ViLLE before they can be added as an assisting
teacher.Toeditassistingteachers,navigatetothecourseeditmodeandclickon
theAssistantteacherstab.
38
Illustration20Theassistantteacherstab
AddingassistingteachersisdonebyclickingontheAddbutton.Thisopenadialog, to which the ViLLE user id of the assistant teacher. It is also possible to
choose whether to grant this user editing rights to the course; with no editing
rights,theassistantteachercanonlyaccessstudents’performance(statisticsand
evaluations)inViLLE.
To remove an assisting teacher from a course, select the user and click on the
Delete button. Modifying a teaching assistant’s rights is done by selecting the
user,andclickingonModify.
2.9 Groups
Itisoftennecessarytodividestudentsintogroups.Anexamplesituationcould
beaViLLEcoursethatisbeingusedbyseveraldifferentclasses.
Tocreategroups,navigatetothecourseeditviewandclickontheGroupstab.
39
Illustration21Editinggroups
Tocreateanewgrouponacourse,clickonNewgroup.Adialogopensthatasks
foragroupname.Afterenteringthename,clickOk.Thenameofthegroupcan
bechanged bypressing Editgroup;the Deletebuttondeletesagroupandassignsthestudentsinthatgroupintotheunassignedpool.
Groups can also be created randomly, if there are no existing groups outside
ViLLE, by pressing the Assign automatically button. This will divide the studentsintogroupssothatthegroupswillbeasevenlysizedaspossible.Itisalso
possible to divide the students into groups manually: after having created the
groups,addstudentstothembydragginganddroppingstudentsfromtheliston
therighttothecorrectgroup.Morethanonestudentcanbechosenanddragged
fromthestudentlistpressingandholdingthe<ctrl>-keyastheyareselected.
2.10 Reusing an existing course
Reusing an existing course will noticeably decrease the time spent on creating
newcoursematerial.Thiswayitispossibletoapplytheknow-howandexpertise
of colleagues. It is also problem-free tomodify the courses to make them your
own and create assignments appropriate for precisely your students. The next
paragraphsexplainhowtosearchandreuseexistingcourses.
40
Remember to as for feedback and suggestions from your students to keep
improvingthecourse.
Utilizinganexistingcourseismuchlikecreatinganewcourse;byloggingonto
ViLLEandnavigatingtoCourses–Browse.Thefeaturesandfunctionalityofthe
browserisexplainedindetailinchapter1.3.
Illustration22Thecoursebrowseview
The course browser shows the name, number of rounds and assignments, the
gradegiventothecourseandhowmanycopieshavebeencreatedofthatcourse.
Agradeof0meansthatcoursehasnotbeengraded.
ItispossibletotestcourseswithinterestingnamesbypressingtheViewbutton.
Thisallowsyoutopreviewthecourse,evenifitisclosed.Anysubmissiondone
inpreviewmodearenotsavedorrecordedinanyway.Thisviewalsoallowsthe
copyingoftheroundsandassignmentsinthiscourse(seechapter2.11).
41
Afterafittingcoursehasbeenfound,itmaybecopiedbypressingtheCopybutton.Copyingacoursewillcreateacopyoftheexistingcourseandtheownership
ofthecopywillbetransferredtothecopier.Thecopiedcoursewillalsoappear
inthelistunderProfile-Mycourses.Rememberthattheoriginalcoursewillbe
separate from the new copy; no changes made on the copy will be reflected in
theoriginal.
TIP:Youcanalsocopyyourowncourses.Thismakesiteasytocreateanew
courseinstanceforanewsemester.TheeasiestwayistonavigatetoProfile
–Owncoursesandclickonthecopybutton.
2.11 Building a new course from existing exercises and
rounds
Thereisanalternativetobuildingacoursefromscratch;sometimestheeasiest
andmostreasonablethingtodoistousewelldesignedroundsorexercisesfrom
severalothercourses.Howthisisachieved,isexplainedindetailinthischapter.
First a course must be created (see chapter Error! Reference source not
ound.). After an empty course is created, existing exercises and rounds can be
searchedforinthedifferentbrowserviewsofViLLE.Analternativeistosearch
for existing courses for the same subject, then copy the good assignments and
roundstoyourcourse.ViewingthecoursecanbedonebypressingtheViewbutton.
Tocopyacompleteround,clickonthecopybuttonlocatedtotheright
ofthenameoftheround:
ViLLEwillthenrequirethedestinationcourse.Copyingassignmentsisdonethe
sameway:clickonthecopybuttonandselecttheroundtocopytheassignment
to.
42
2.12 Round settings
Asharedopeningandclosingdatecanbesettoallroundsonacourse,ascana
common maximum score. Chapter 2.12.1 explains setting round defaults, and
chapter2.12.2furtherdemonstratessettingroundspecificsettings,suchasvisibility, ordering and assignment scoring. Chapter 2.12.3 explains how exam
rounds function, while chapter 2.12.4 illustrates how exams are monitored.
Chapter2.12.5demonstrateshowtosetpersonaldeadlinesforstudents.
2.12.1
Round defaults
A shared opening and closing date, along with a minimum score (as a percentage) can be set in the Courseeditmode, after pressing on the Setround
defaultsbutton.Whenroundvaluesaresetthisway,thenewvalueswillaffect
allroundsonthecourse.Thevaluescanalwaysbechangedlateronforindividualrounds.
2.12.2
Round and assignment settings
Noteveryroundsharesitsopeningandclosingdateorminimumscorestopass
theroundwithotherrounds.Oftentheorderingandvisibilityofroundsmustbe
adjustedaswell.Thischapterwillfirstexplainhowtoadjustroundsettings,then
howtomodifyroundscoring,orderingandupdatingrounds.Illustration6containstherelevantelementsforthissection.
43
Illustration23Modifyingroundsettings
OpenthecourseeditmodeandtheRoundsincoursetab.
Allroundsareunfoldedinthebasicview.Theorderofroundscanbechanged
usingthearrowbuttons(4).
Ifanyroundsshouldbeinvisibletostudents, theycanbehiddenfromthestudentviewbypressingthe eyeicon(4).Theeyeiconwillturngreyandhavea
redslashoverit.Hidingroundssimplifiesthestudentviewbyreducingclutter,
butalsomakesithardertograspthecoreofthecourse.Itmaybeeasierforstudentstofollowtheprogressionofthecoursewithcompletedroundsvisible.
TIP:Theabilitytohideroundsishandywhenyouneedtoeditthecourseafterteachinghasbegun.Hidingallowsyoutofinishtheroundbeforestudents
haveaccesstoit.Youwillalwaysseeallroundsoncoursesyouown,whether
theyareclosedoropen.
44
Roundsettingscanbemodifiedfromtheroundeditmode.Toenterroundedit
mode,clickontheroundsotheroundunfoldsandallinformationpertainingto
theroundisvisible.TheEditbutton(3)turnsallfieldsintheroundeditablesoit
ispossibletochangethename,type,description,openingandclosingdates,
therequiredminimumscoreandthemaximumscoreofassignments.Itisoftenbettertogiveagenerousnumberofpointsforassignments,becauseagreater number of points give the feeling of a greater achievement. The feeling of
achievementmotivatesstudentsandcommitsthemtocompletingthecourse.All
changesaresavedbypressingSave.
Theassignmentsonaroundarelistedabovethesettingsfortheround(Illustration13,1.).Theorderoftheassignmentscanbemodifiedwiththeblackarrows
(2).Itisalsopossibletomoveanassignmenttoanotherroundwiththe
icon.
The destination round is chosen from the dialog window. Pressing OK will
movetheassignmenttothatround.Thetrashbinicon canbeusedtoremove
anassignmentfromthecourse.
2.12.3
Settings for an exam round
Exam round have several features other rounds do not have. For example, the
amount of feedback can be chosen on exam rounds or whether to include the
scoreoftheexamroundinthecoursetotalscore.Thesesettingscanbemodified
fromthedialogwindowthatopensafterpressingthe Examsettingsbuttonon
anexamround:
45
Illustration24Examsettings
Examsettingshavebeendividedintofivedifferentcategories,thefirstofwhich
isdevotedtothegeneralsettingsfortheexamandtheremainingfourforspecificexercisetypes.
Generalsettings
·
Includeincoursetotalscore:determineswhetherthepointsfromthisexamroundareincludedinthecoursetotalpointsonthestudentandstatisticsview.Ifthisisthefinalexaminationforthecourse,itisadvisableto
nocheckthisbox.
·
Showuser’spreviousanswersinassignments:determines whether to hide
or show the previous answer on a resubmit. Unless there is a specific
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need to now show the previous answer, this checkbox should remain
checked.
·
Showsubmissionfeedbacktostudent:determineswhethertogivethestudent immediate feedback when submitting answers. In exams, students
generallydonotreceivefeedback.
·
Showsubmissionscoretostudent:determineswhethertohideorshowthe
student’s points in the assignment, round and course views. The points
areshowntotheteacherregardless.
·
Students see the best submission instead of the last: determines whether
thisassignmentsavesthebestorthemostrecentsubmission.
Settingsforquizassignments:
·
Showquizquestionsinrandomorder:determines whether the questions
areshownintheordergivenintheexerciseeditororinarandomorder.
Arandomordermaybejustifiedinanexam,forexampletohindercheaters.
·
Quizquestionscanbeansweredinanyorder:determineswhetherthequiz
questionsareansweredinorderstartingfromthefirstone,orifthestudentmayanswerinanyorder.
Settingsforvisualizationassignments:
·
Showoutput/variables/codelineexplanations: determines which componentsofthevisualizationexerciseareshowntothestudentonthisexam round. It may be appropriate to hide some of the help shown to the
studentinanexam.
Settingsforsortingassignments:
·
Indentcodelines:Ifthisoptionischecked,ViLLEwillindentcodelinesaccording to the original code input to the editor. Indentation helps tremendouslywhensolvingcodingproblems,especiallywhenthecodecontainsloops,if-clausesorotherblocks.
·
Allowcodevisualizationaftersorting: determines whether the visualizationofthestudent’sanswerisshownafterthesubmission.
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Settingsforprogrammingassignments:
·
Showstudentoutput:determines whether thestudent sees the output of
theprogramheorshewrote.Generallythereisnoreasontohidetheoutput, since debugging a program without output is generally considered
extremelyhard.
·
Show correct output: determines whether the student sees the output
fromthemodelanswernexttotheoutputofhisorherprogram.
·
Showruntimeerrors: determines whether runtime errors are shown to
thestudent.Compilationerrorsareshownregardlessofthischoice.
2.12.4
Exam monitors
It is possible to start an exam monitor from the exam round view. The exam
monitormonitorstheprogressofindividualstudentontheexamroundinreal
time.OpenthemonitorviewbypressingtheExammonitorbuttonintheexam
roundview:
Illustration25Monitoringanexamwiththeexammonitor
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The view is refreshed automatically every 60 seconds, but it is possible to refreshityourselfbyclickingontheUpdatebutton.Thefirstcolumnofthetable
showsthestatusofstudents:Startedmeansthestudenthasopenedtheviewin
studentmode,FinishedmeansthestudenthasclosedtheexamroundbypressingtheFinishexambutton,andNotstartedmeansthestudenthasregisteredon
thecourse,butnotyetopenedtheexamround.
You can change the status of a student by clicking on the link in the status
column.Forexampleyoucanreopenanexamshouldastudentaccidentally
closeit.
TheStartedandFinishedcolumnstotherightofthenamecolumnindicatewhen
thestudenthasstartedandfinishedtheexam.Furthertotheright,thedeadline
columnindicatesthelastpossibletimetoturnintheexam.Theexamclosesat
the same time for each student when the round is set to close by default. It is,
however, possible to extend the time allotted for the exam on a student-tostudentbasisbyclickingonthedeadlinelinkandselectinganewdeadline.Press
Savetoapplythenewdeadline.
2.12.5
Personal deadlines
Students can be given personal deadlines forrounds. This makes it possible to
givecertainstudentsextratimetofinisharoundoranexam.Personaldeadlines
canbesetfromboththeStudentstabandtheroundview.OpeningthePersonal
deadlinedialogisdonebypressingthe PersonaldeadlinesbuttonontheStudentstab.
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Illustration26Managingpersonaldeadlines
To add a new personal deadline for a student, press the Adddeadline button.
Thenewlyopeneddialogwindowwillaskforthee-mailaddressofthestudent
andthenewdeadline.AnymodificationsaresavedbypressingSave.Toeditan
existingdeadline,presstheEditbutton,andtodeleteadeadline,usetheDelete
button.TheClosetheroundforastudentbuttonclosestheroundimmediately
fortheselectedstudent.
TIP:Thedeadlinescanalsobecontrolledfromtheexammonitorview.In
fact,ifaroundisanexamround,controllingdeadlinesisofteneasierfrom
there.Theinsandoutsoftheexammonitorareexplainedintheprevious
chapter.
2.13 Adding students to courses
ViLLEprovidesavarietyofwaystoaddstudentstocourses.However,notevery
methodisavailabletoallteachers:forinstance,primaryschoolteacherscanadd
studentstoViLLEwhoseinformationisnotsaved.
2.13.1
Using the registration link
Meantforstudentswhohaveaworkinge-mailaddressandwhosenamescan
besavedtoViLLE.
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Themoststraightforwardwaytoaddstudentsistousearegistrationlink.Itcan
befoundbyfirstloggingontoViLLEandnavigatingtoCourses–Owncourses
andclickingonthenameofacourseyouwanttoaddstudentsto.
Illustration27ClickonthenameofthecourseintheOwncoursesviewtomovetothecourseedit
mode.
TheregistrationlinkcanbefoundundertheCoursesettingstab,whichcanbe
giventostudents:
Illustration28TheregistrationlinkontheCoursesettingstabincourseeditmode
Thecoursekeyrequiredforregisteringtothecoursecanbefoundinthesame
viewunderthecoursename.
Donotethatthesameregistrationlinkcanbeusedby allstudents;itdoesnot
matterwhetherthey’veusedViLLEbefore.Pre-existingViLLEusersgivetheiremailandpasswordwhenregisteringonacourse,whilethosewhoarenotregisteredtoViLLEwilladditionallygivetheirnameandeducationalinstituteaswell
aschoosingapassword.
TIP:Checkingthe”ShowHAKAregistrationlink”willchangetheregistration
linksothatregistrationcanbedonethroughtheHAKAsystem,ifyourinstituteusesHAKA-logins.Notethatit’spossibletousebothformstoregister
studentsonyourcourse,asbothformsleadtothesamecourse.However,onlystudentswithHAKA-loginscanregistertothecourseusingtheHAKAlink.
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2.13.2
Using an e-mail address
Meantforstudentswhohaveaworkinge-mailaddress;thestudent’sname
canbesavedtoViLLE.
StudentscanbeaddedtoViLLEbytheteacheraswell.Addingstudentsmanually
isdonebyfirstnavigatingtoStudents,thenpressingtheEnrollbuttonintheactionmenu:
Illustration29TheenrollbuttonintheStudentsview
SelectEmailfromthenewlyopeneddialogwindow(iftherewasnodialog,the
emailselectionwillopenautomatically).Thenextdialogwillallowaddinganalreadyregisteredusertoyourcoursebyenteringtheemailofthestudentintothe
textfield.Iftheenterede-mailaddressisnotregisteredtoViLLE,theoptionexiststoaddthestudent.
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Illustration30TheEnrollwindow
Enter the required information and press OK. Remember to write down the
password(oraskthestudentto)!Itisnotpossibletoretrievethepasswordafter
ithasbeenadded.
2.13.3
Using other means
Meant for students, who do not have a working e-mail address or whose emailcan(orwill)notbeusedwhenregistering;itisnotnecessarytogivethe
student’snameorotherinformation.
Addingstudentsbyusinganotheridentifierthan[email protected]institution_id.Theidcanbearbitrarily
chosen, but must be unique. The option to add students like this is offered to
teachersinprimaryandsecondarylevelsofeducation.
In case a student partakes in more than one ViLLE course, it is extremely recommendedtousethesameidentifierforeachofthesecourses.Thestudentmust
then only memorize one password, furthermore, all statistics on the student’s
performanceiscollectedunderoneaccount(evenifteachersgettoseestatistics
ononlythecoursestheyteachin).
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NavigatetotheStudentsviewandclickonEnroll:
Illustration31Thestudentsviewandtheenrollbutton
ChooseOtheridfromtheopeneddialogwindow:
Illustration32Selectingtheregistrationtype.Ifthisdialogwindowdoesnotopenafterpressingthe
Enrollbutton,youronlyoptionistoaddstudentsbytheiremail.
The opened dialog window asks for the registration information pertaining to
the students-to-be-registered. If the inputted user id is already registered to
ViLLE,thatuserisaddedtothechosencourse.Iftheuseridisnotfound,anew
userwillbecreatedaccordingtothefollowingrules:
1) Ifboththeuseridandnamehavebothbeeninputted,anewuseriscreatedusingtheinputtedvalues.
2) Ifonlyauseridhasbeeninputted,thatidwillalsobeusedasthenameof
thestudent.
3) Ifonlythenamewasinputted,a useridwillbegeneratedautomatically
basedonthename.
4) Eachnewuserisalsogeneratedauniquepassword.Thedifficultyofthe
passwordscanbechosen,alternativelysome(orall)ofthepasswordcan
bemanuallyinputted.
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Illustration33Adialogwindowforinputtingthestudentregistrationinformation.
Afterhavinginputtheuserinformation,chooseNextfrombelowthetable.It
is now possible to preview the generated user ids. If there are any errors,
pressPrevioustofixthem,otherwiseSavethenewlygenerateduseridsand
addthemtotheselectedcourse.
Illustration34Apreviewofthenewstudents
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AfterhavingpressedSave,atextfilecanbedownloaded,whichcontainsall
thenewuserinformationandpasswords.Ifyouchoosetodownloadthisfile,
remembertokeepitinasafeplacetopreventmisuse.
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3 Exercises
Theexercisesmenuitemhasoptionsforcreatinganewexercise,examiningexercisesyouownandbrowsingexercisescreatedbyothers.Anexerciseiscreatedbygivingparametersto an exercisetypeusingan exerciseeditor.Forexample, an exercise on fractions could be parametrized by giving the available
numberrangesandavailablemathematicaloperators,aquizexercisebydefining
the questions and answering options, or a programming exercise by giving the
modelanswerandtheproblemdescription.
AllexercisesinViLLEarepublic.Thismeansthatallteacherscanuseexercises
createdbyanyoneelse.Furthermore,everyteachercanuseanyexerciseontheir
own courses. Exercises are used to create assignments (creating assignments
are explained in the previous chapter). One exercise can be used in more than
oneassignment;converselyanexercisecanbecreatedwithoutitbeingusedin
anyassignment,forexampleforotherteachers.
ViLLEhasabuilt-inversioncontrolforexerciseswhichensuresthatallexercises
are always synchronizedwith their corresponding assignments. Whenever you
modifyanexerciseyouown,ViLLEwillalwaysaskwhichassignmentsshouldbe
updated toreflect the changes. When utilizing an exercise created by someone
elseinyourowncourse,theversioncontrolinViLLEwillmakesureanychanges
madebytheoriginalteacherarenotreflectedintheexercisesonyourcourses;
youcanalwayscountontheexercises stayingliketheywerewhenyoucopied
them.
Thischapterillustratesbrowsing,filteringandutilizingexistingexercises.Creatingnewexercisesiscoveredonthenextchapter.
3.1 Browsing and filtering exercises
Theexercisebrowserisusedtobrowseexistingexercises.Touseit,navigateto
Exercises–Browse.
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Illustration35Theexercisebrowser
Thedetailsofusingthebrowserviewhavebeencoveredinchapter1.3,sohere
thefocusisonbrowsingexercisesspecifically.ViLLEshowsthe25topranking
exercisesbydefault.Thebrowsingcriterioncanbechangedfromthedropdown
menu in the top left corner of the view. The options are Best, Most popular,
NewestandMostcommented.Thedefaultviewforbrowsingisthethumbnail
view:
Illustration36Thethumbnailgivesallpertinentinfoonanexercise
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Thethumbnailsshowtheiconfortheexercisetypeatthetop.Theiconsaredepictedwiththeexerciseeditorsinthenextchapter.Thenameoftheexercise,difficulty,programminglanguage(incaseofaprogrammingexercise),andthelanguageusedintheexerciseare shownbelowtheicon.Thebottom-mostfieldin
thethumbnailgivestheaverageoftheratingsgiventothisexercise.
Clickingonathumbnailwillshowfurtherinformationabouttheexercisein an
infopaneltotherightofthescreen:
Illustration37Exerciseinformationinaninfopanel
This panel provides information on the owner, date of creation, the public descriptionandnotesmeantforotherteachers.Thesameinformationasshownon
thethumbnailisdisplayedbelow;thedifficulty,languageandprogramminglanguage.Belowtheprogramminglanguage,tagsareshown.Tagsareusedtoannotate,orcategorize,exercises.Belowthetags,exerciseratingandanycomments
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byotherteachersabouttheexerciseareshown.Ifyouseeagoodexercise,please
leaveacommentonit.
3.1.1 Browsing options
ExercisesonViLLEcanbebrowsedintwodifferentviews.Browsingisdoneas
thumbnails(describedinchapter3.1).Theotheroptionistobrowseasatable.
Theviewscanbechangedfromthebuttonsinthetopleftcornerofthebrowser.
Thetableviewshowsexactlythesameexercisesasthethumbnailview,butasa
tableinstead.
Illustration38Browsingexercisesinatableview
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The number of shown exercises and changing the display pages can be done
throughthebuttonsbelowthebrowser.Itispossibletolimitthenumberofexercises being shown by filtering the results. Filtering is done by unfolding the
Filterview:
Illustration39Theunfoldedfilterview
Thefilteringtaballowsthefilteringofexercisesbytype,difficulty,languageor
programming language. It is possible to pick and choose options, for instance
showonlyeasyexerciseswritteninEnglish.
3.1.2 Searching for exercises
Searchingforexercisesisdonethroughasearchfieldinthetoprightcorner.You
canbegina searchbytypingthesearchtermintothesearchfieldandpressing
<enter>. The search is done through the name, description, tags and notes for
teachers.
Illustration40Searchfield
ViLLE will suggest search terms as you type your search. When you are done
searchingandwishtoviewallexercises,clearthesearchfieldandpress<enter>.
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3.2 Utilizing exercises
After an interesting exercise has been found either by browsing or searching,
therearethreechoicesonhowtousetheexercise:
1) Immediatelystartusingtheexerciseononeofyourcourses:iftheexercise is suitable as-is for a course youown, just press the Utilize button,
choose the course and round the assignment is to be added, and click
Save.Theexercisewillbeaddedasanassignmenttotheroundyouchose.
2) Add a bookmark: if the exercise is well done,but there is no immediate
needtouseitonacourseyouown,abookmarkshouldbeaddedtothe
exercise.PresstheAddbookmarkbutton,choosethebookmarkfolderto
saveitinandpressSave.Youmayalsorenameandgivethebookmarkits
own description before saving it. Saved bookmarks can be browsed by
navigatingtoProfile–Bookmarks.Youcanaddexercisestoyourrounds
directlyfromyourbookmarks.
3) Copytheexercise:inordertomodifyanexercisetobesuitabletoacourse
oryoursitneedstobecopied.Tocopyanexercise,presstheCopybutton.
ViLLEwillsaveacopyoftheexercisetothefirstexercisefolderinyour
exercise browser. Note that copying an exercise explicitly is often not
necessary; ViLLE creates a copy when the exercise is added to a round.
Theaddedassignmentcanbemodifiedfromyourcourseeditviewunder
the Rounds tab. Press the Edit button to the right of the added assignment.
Wheneveranexercisemadebyothersisutilized,itispolitetogivetheoriginal
exercisearatingand,ifpossible,leaveacomment.
3.3 Managing exercises and folders
The exercises you own can be examined from the main menu by navigating to
Exercises–Ownexercises.
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Illustration41theownexercisesview
Thisviewcontainsallyourexercisesfolders.ViLLEcreatesafoldernamed”Exercises”onyourfirstloginbydefault.Toseethecontentsofafolder,clickoneitherthenameoritsiconinthefolderview.Noticethatitispossibletomoveexercises to other folders by dragging an exercise over another folder. Creating
new folders isdone from the Newfolder button, giving the folder a name and
clickingOK.
Thisviewcontainsallthesamebuttonsforcopyingandutilizingexercisesasthe
exercisebrowseview.IntheOwnexercisesview,exercisescanbedeletedbyselectingitfromafolder,thenclickingonDelete.Shouldtheexerciseyouareattemptingtodeletebeinusebyeitheryourownorsomeoneelse’scourse,ViLLE
willremoveitfromthefolderview,butwillnotpermanentlydestroytheexercisesothatitisstillusablebyanyonewhohasaddedittoaround.Thedelete
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button will also remove folders, on the condition that the folder is empty. To
modifyanexistingexercise,selectitfromtheviewandpresstheEditbutton.
4 Creating exercises
Exercises are parts of a course that are added to rounds so students can solve
them. Any answers submitted by students will be stored in ViLLE for later inspection and assessment. There are three types of exercises in ViLLE, each of
whichisdescribedbelow:
1. Generalexercises
Generalexercisescanbeconvenientlyusedwithanysubjectmatter.Someof
the exercises have been designed with a particular subject in mind (for example,thefillinexerciseisacommonexercisetypeintheFinnishmatriculationexam),butwithsomeimagination,alltheseexercisetypescanbeused
whenteachinganysubject.
2. Programmingexercise
Programmingexercisesaredesignedwithaparticularfocusinprogramming.
ViLLEcurrentlysupportsseveralprogramminglanguages(e.g.Java,Python,
C#andC++).Someoftheseexercisetypesareparticularlyusefulinteaching
programmingbasics(e.g.thevisualizationexercise),whiletheotherscanbe
usedonanylevel.
3. Mathematicalexercises
There are several different mathematical exercise types in ViLLE. Some of
these exercises are aimed directly at teaching primary school mathematics,
whilesomearemoresuitableinhigherlevelmath.
Inthischapter,creatingnewexercisesusingtheabovementionedexercisetemplatesare explained.Beforeshowingthenutsandboltsoftheexercise editors,
let’sfamiliarizeourselveswithsavingexercisesandtheversioncontrolsystem
inViLLE.
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4.1 Saving exercises and version control
Oneexercisecanbeusedinmultipleassignments.Itisalsoverylikelythatother
teachers are using an exercise you have created. To prevent possible conflicts
created by the situation, ViLLE has a separate mechanism for keeping track
which exercise is used in which assignment. The below table describes all the
possiblecombinations:
The exercise
Action
New exercise
Save the exercise in the chosen folder
A modified exercise which is not used in Save the exercise in the chosen folder
any assignments
A modified exercise used in one or more ViLLE will ask which assignments should
assignments owned by you
be updated with the modified exercise;
the old assignment will be used in exercises which were not chosen, and the
modified version will be applied to the
chosen assignments
A modified exercise used in one or more ViLLE will automatically create a copy of
assignments in use by other teachers.
the old version so the assignments
owned by other teachers are not modified. The modified assignment is saved in
the chosen folder.
AttheendofthesavingprocessViLLEwillaskfortags.Tagsallowforannotating,orcategorizing,exercisessothatothersmayeasilyfindexercisesofinterest.
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Illustration42savinganexercise
Itispreferredtoaddthesubjectbeingtaught,butmorecontent-specifictagsare
alsorecommended.Longdescriptionsshouldbedividedintoseveraltags.Toadd
moretags,press<enter>afterhavingwrittenatag.
4.1.1 Exercise editors
Creatinganewexerciseispossiblefromtwoplaces:eithernavigatetoExercises
–Newexerciseor to Exercises– Ownexercises andpressing the Newexercisebutton.Bothleadtothesameplace;theexerciseselectionview,whereinthe
exercisetypeofthenewexercisecanbeselected.Choosethecategoryoftheexercisefromtheleftandtheexercisetypefromthelisttotheright.Toviewthe
full description of exercises, click on the
button.
Therearesomesharedfeaturesinallexerciseeditors.Theeditorviewcontainsa
field for the name and description for the exercise. Additionally, a text area
meantfornotesforotherteacherscanbefoundbelowthese.Notesforteachers
mayconsistof,forexample,thetargetdemographicorwhatthematicwholethe
exerciseispartof.
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Three buttons can be found in each editor view: test, save and close. The test
buttonwillallowpreviewingtheexercisebeingcreated.
Illustration43Thetestingviewforaquizexercise
Toreturntotheexerciseeditor,clickonExit.
TheSavebuttonwillsavetheexercise.Savingexercisesisexplainedinmoredetailinchapter4.1.Note,thatunlikeinearlierversionsofViLLE,savingtheexercisewillnotautomaticallyexittheeditor.Thisistomakeitmoreconvenientto
makeintermediatesaves.ExitingtheeditorisdonebypressingtheClosebutton.
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4.2 General exercises
Unlike the programming and mathematical exercises, the general exercises in
ViLLEareverygeneralandnottiedtoaspecifictopicorsubject.Yourimaginationisthelimitwhenusingtheseexercises.Thischapterexplainshowtocreate
differenttypesofgeneralexercisesandalsogivesafewpointersonhowtouse
them.
4.2.1 Creating a new Quiz
A ViLLE quiz the student is quizzed on questions made by the teacher.
Teacherscanalsoattachimagesandtexttothequizandmakequestions
basedonthese.Questionsmayalsobeopenquestions,towhichthestudentmust
type in a short answer. The answer to these questions is predefined by the
teacher.ThesequestionsarecalledShortanswerquestions.
To create a new ViLLE Quiz Exercise, navigate to Exercises – New exercise.
Choose Generalexerciseson the left and ViLLE QuizExercise from the list to
theright.
Itisoftenworthwhiletoaddfeedbacktoquizquestions.Feedbackinquizzescan
beaterseexplanationofwhytheanswerwaseitherrightorwrong.Goodfeedback allows for an effective learning situation whether the student knows the
answerornot.
Whenwritingfeedback,rememberthatitisoftennotenoughtorationalize
thecorrectanswer.Fromalearningpointofview,oftenreasoningwhythe
answerwaswrongcanbehugelybeneficial.Thisexpandstheunderstanding
termorphenomenabetterforthestudentmorethanjustgivingthecorrect
answer.
Theshortanswerquestionsareappropriateforallquestionswhereaterse,one-
or two-word answer is sufficient. There is only one correct answer so the studentsmustwritetheiranswercorrecttotheletter.
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The short answer questions can be frustrating to the student due to lost
points because of a simple typo. The correct answer should be simple
enoughsothereisnoconfusionastothespellingoftheanswer.Agoodoption is to have the answer mentioned in the study materialor alternatively
giveaprecisedescriptionofthecorrectspelling.Iftheanswerisinflectedin
anyway,this shouldbementionedinthequestion(i.e.theanswermustbe
writteninthepasttense).
As with all other exercises, a ViLLE quiz exercise is also gives certain basic information.Inthefollowingexample,aquizonfractionswillbecreated.Thus,the
exerciseisnamed”AQuizonFractions”.
A short description should be written to the description field. This description
willalsobevisibletoallstudentsdoingthequiz,soasuitabledescriptionis:“A
quizonfractionsandarithmeticoperationsperformedonthem.”
Thenotesforteachers-fieldisoptional,andcancontaincommentsthatarenot
showntostudents.
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Illustration44CreatingaViLLEquizexercise
Toaddmorequestions,clickonthe Addquestionlinktoopenapopupmenu
containingallthepossiblequestiontypes.Thechoicesareatraditionalmultiple
choice question, short answer, math multiple choice and multiple choice questionswithmultipleweightedcorrectanswers.
An ordinary multiple choice question is created by clicking on the Multiple
choiceoptioninthepopupmenu.Thefirstthingtodoittowritethequestion,
forexample“Theorderingoftwofractionsiseasilydiscernible.”Givingfeedback
tothestudentoneitheracorrectorwronganswerisattheteacher’sdiscretion.
Thefeedbackisshownafterthestudenthasgivenananswer.Thequestionmust
begivenoneCorrectanswerandatmostfiveOtheranswers.Theorderofthe
answerswillberandomizedoneachattempttopreventcheating.
A Math multiple choice is created exactly as above, but there will be a math
toolbartoassistinwritingmathematicalformulae.ItisalsopossibletowriteLaTeX-codetothetextfields.
Amultiplechoicequestionwithpercentagescanbecreatedbychoosing Multiplechoicepercentagesselectmanyfromthepopupmenu.Thisquestionwill
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allow there to be multiple correct answers with a different weight. A possible
scenario is a question with three correct answers, one of which will give 50%
andtheothertwo25%;thecombinedscoremustalwaysbe100%.
A short answer question can be created by choosing the Short answer option
from the pop up menu. As with the multiple choice questions the Question is
writtenfirst,andthenthepossiblefeedbacktothestudentforboththecorrect
andincorrectanswers.ThecorrectanswermustbeinputtedtotheCorrectanswerfield.BycheckingAnswercasesensitivetheanswerbythestudentmust
contain the same capitalization as in the correct answer. When left unchecked,
bothAnSWErandanswerwillbeaccepted,ifthecorrectansweris“answer”.
TIP:Itispossibletogivemultiplecorrectchoicestoashortanswerbyseparatingthealternativeswithahashtag#.Forexample,ifthequestionis“Name
ofanephewofDonaldDuck’s”thecorrectanswerfieldcouldcontain
“huey#dewey#louie”soanysingleoneofthemwillbeacceptedasthecorrectanswer.
Thequestioncanbemodifiedbyselectingaquestionfromthetableandclicking
ontheEditQuestionbuttonandremovedfromthequizbypressingtheDelete
questionbutton.
Animageortextcanbeattachedtoaquizfromthe Attachedmaterialspanel.
ImagescanbeattachedusingtheUploadbutton,andtextcanbewrittentothe
textfieldtotherightoftheimageupload.Theuploadbuttonwillopenadialog
windowtoselecttheimagefromyourharddrive.Theimagecanbedeletedby
pressingtheDeletebuttontotherightofthenameofthefile.
ThequizcanbepreviewedbypressingtheTestbuttoninthetopleftcornerof
theeditor.Thisallowsyoutoseehowthequizlooksliketothestudents.
Remembertosavethequizwhenitisdone.Tosavethequiz,presstheSavebuttoninthetopleftcorneroftheeditor.Thesaveexercisedialogwillallowyouto
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choosethefoldertheexerciseistobesaved,itsdifficultyandlanguage.Theprogramminglanguagecanbeleftat“-”.Itisadvisabletoaddtagstotheexerciseso
otherteacherscansearchforit.
4.2.2 Creating a new Survey
Asurveyisaveryversatileexercisetype,becauseitcombinesseveraldifferentmethodsofcollectinganswers;e.g.multiplechoice,openquestions,
scalesandfileuploads.Thesurveyexerciseisveryeffectiveforcollectingopinions,feedbackandgeneralinformationfromstudents.Surveyscanalsobeused
toreturnessaysandpracticalwork.
Notethatsurveyscanbedesignedtobeverygeneral,sothesamesurveycan
beusedonmultiplecourses.Aoncewelldesignedsurveycanbeatimesaver.
AnewsurveyiscreatedbyselectingExercises–NewexerciseandSurveyfrom
theGeneralExercises
Firstthegeneralinformationfortheexerciseneedstobeenteredtothepanelon
theleft.TheExercisenamecanbe“Coursefeedback”forthisexample.TheDefault description for this survey is “2014 Course feedback for fractions”. The
Notesforteachersfieldcanbeusedtogiveanextradescriptionvisibleonlyto
teachers.
ComponentscanbeaddedtothesurveybyclickingontheAddnewcomponent
tosurveylinkbutton.Itisnotnecessarytouseeverycomponentinasurvey,insteaditisoftenbettertopickandchoose.Next,allthedifferentoptionsandhow
tousethemarecoveredindetail.
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Illustration45creatinganewsurvey
Options is a multiple choice question. After clicking on this choice, the Add a
questionwithmultipleoptionsdialogisopened.First,thequestioniswritten
down,forexample“Themostimportanttopiconthiscoursewere”.Eachquestion can be given six options. This example provides the options “Reduction”,
“Expansion”,“Arithmeticoperationsonfractions”.Bycheckingthe Thisfieldis
requiredfield,ViLLEmakessurethisanswerisprovidedbythestudentbefore
itcanbesubmitted.BycheckingSelectmultipleoptions,thestudentisallowed
toselectmultipleoptions,ifleftunchecked,thestudentcanonlypickoneoption.
Intheexamplesurvey,bothboxesarechecked,becausewewantthestudentto
haveansweredthisquestion,possiblywithmultipleoptions.Pressing Savewill
addthequestiontothesurveyandCancelwillclosethewindowanddiscardall
changes.
Checkboxisayes/notypeofquestion,wherethequestionshouldbeposedso
that a simple yes or no is sufficient. The answering is done by either ticking a
box,orleavingitunticked.
Thisquestionshouldnotbeusedhaphazardly,asitgivesnoexplanationfor
thechoice,andthustheinformationcontentoftheanswerisrelativelylow.
Forexample.thequestion“Thiscoursewastooeasy”isnotagoodquestion.
Abetteroptionwouldbeascale.Acheckboxis,however,agoodchoicefor
examplethefollowingquestion:”Ihavecompletedthiscoursebefore”.
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The Textfield gives the student anoption towrite a short,one line long, open
answer.Firstthequestionmustbewrittendown.Inthisexample,thequestion
is ”The name of your math book.” A maximum length can be given, which defaultsto16characters.Inaddition,thisquestioncanbesetmandatorybyselectingThisfieldisrequired.
TheTextboxissimilartothetextfield,exceptthetextboxacceptsalongeranswer.Thetextboxmustbegivenaquestionandthenumberofrows,whichdefaultsto3.Donotethatthenumberofrowsonlylimitsthevisiblesizeofthetext
box,notthelengthoftheanswer.Thequestionforourexampleis“Howwould
youimprovethiscourse?”andthenumberofrowsissetto10,sostudentshave
enoughspacetoanswer. Thisfieldisrequiredisalsoselected,soallstudents
givetheirinput.
Scalequestionsareexceptionallywellsuitedforaskingstudent’sopinions.First
thequestionforthescaleiswrittendown,forexample“Howusefuldothinkthis
coursewas?”Thescaleissetnext:From,Toandthesizeofonestep.Bydefault
thescaleisthenormalLikertscaleof1-5withastepofone.Theextremesofthe
scalecanbegiventitlesinthetextfieldsforScalelefttitleandScalerighttitle
for the left and right titles respectively. Naming the extremes is recommended
unlessthequestionclearlystateswhateachstepstandsfor.Oftenthelefttitleis
“Completelydisagree”andtherighttitle“Completelyagree”.Itisgenerallyconsideredgoodpracticetonameeachsteptoavoidambiguities,thenamescanbe
definedafterthequestion.ThisquestioncanbesetmandatorybyselectingThis
fieldisrequired.
When using a Likert scale of 1–5, 3 is in the middle and as such the informationvaluemightnotbegreat.Itisworthconsideringgrowingthescaleto
1–6, which obscures the midpoint and the scale provides a higher informationload.
An Explanation field is used to give further information or guide in filling the
survey. There are no components the studentcan interact withon an explana-
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tioncomponent.Thesolepurposeofanexplanationfieldistogiveinformation
tothepersonfillingthesurvey.
Optionswithtextareaisamultiplechoicequestionwithanoptionalshortanswer.ThisquestioniscreatedlikethenormalOptionsquestion,butashortansweroptionmustalsobegiven.Thedefaultis”Other,pleasespecify”.Thisquestiontypeisespeciallyusefulwhengatheringbackgroundinformationandmost
oftheanswerershaveapre-specifiedfeature,butotheroptionsarealsoofinterest.Inourexamplesurvey,thisquestionwillbe”Haveyoucalculatedwithfractionsbefore?Ifso,where?”Theansweringoptionsaresetto”Atschool”,”Home”,
”Pre-school” and the open question is set to ”Somewhere else, where?”. This
question is not mandatory, as the students may not have any previous experiencewithcalculatingwithfractions,soThisfieldisrequiredisleftunchecked,
but Select multiple options is checked, since they might have calculated with
fractionsatmultiplelocations.
TheAnswergridcomponentwillcreateagridoftextfields,eachofwhichwill
acceptonecharacter.Theanswergridisespeciallysuitableformathematicalexercises,wherethestudentsarerequiredtoformtheequationthemselves.
TheUploadfieldisbestsuitedforcollectinglargeworksorvisualmaterialfrom
students.TheDescriptionfieldshouldcontainthepurposeoftheexercise;what
theuploadedfileshouldcontain.Ourexamplesurveyisinterestedinimagesof
differentfractions,sothedescriptionis“Uploadanimageofacircle,½ofwhich
iscolored.”ItispossibletospecifytheMaximumfilesizefortheupload.Thedefaultsizeis0,i.e.unlimited.Torequireafileupload,checkthe Thisfieldisrequiredcheckbox.
Pagebreakwilladdapagebreaktothesurvey.Tomovethepagebreaktothe
correctlocationonthesurvey,thegreenarrowsmustbeused.Apagebreakwill
preventadvancinginthesurveyuntilallrequiredfieldsarecompleted.
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The Picture component can be used to upload an image from the teacher’s
computertoshowtothestudent.Itworksmuchlikeanexplanationcomponent,
butwithanaddedpicture.
A long survey should be divided into multiple pages, so the answerers can
easily keep track of their progress. Filling thesurvey also feels more fluent
whentherearecheckpoints.
Thequestioncomponentsareenteredtothesurveyintheorderthey’readded.
Tomovethecomponents,eitherdraganddropthemtotheircorrectplaceoruse
the
buttons
Removing a question from the survey is done with the
button
Toeditacreatedquestioncomponent,clickonthe
icon
4.2.3 Creating a new General sorting exercise
TheGeneralsortingexercisehastwoseparatestates:ImagePuzzleand
Text Shuffle. Both require that the objects provided by the teacher be
sortedtotheorderspecifiedbytheteacher.InTextShuffle,rowsoftextareshuffled and they must be reordered, whereas in the Image puzzle the teacher uploadsanimageandspecifieshowmanypiecesitshouldbedividedto.Theimage
pieces arethenshuffledandthestudentneedstoreorderthem,muchlikeina
jigsawpuzzle.
AnimagepuzzleiscreatedbynavigatingtoExercises–NewexerciseandclickingonGeneralsortingexerciseintheGeneralexercisescategory.ChooseImage
Puzzlefromtheopeningdialogwindow.
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Illustration46Thedialogwindowtochoosethetypeofthesortingexercise
firsttheexercisemustbegiventhebasicinformation;name,defaultdescription
visible to students and optionally notes for teachers, which are visible only to
otherteachers.
Illustration47Creatinganimagepuzzle
ThejigsawimagecanbeuploadedtotheeditorbypressingtheUploadbutton.
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Illustration48ThejigsawimageisuploadedusingtheUploadfiledialogwindow.
UsetheRowsandColsdropdownmenustodeterminethenumberofrowsand
columnsthejigsawimagewillbesplitinto.Afterselectingthenumberofpieces,
uploadtheimagefromyourfilesystembypressingtheSelectfilebutton.Press
OKaftertheimagehasbeenuploaded.
Thepiecesinthejigsawpuzzlecanbelockedtoplacebyclickingonthe
button
Textshuffleisanexercisetypewhererowsoftext,writtenbytheteacher,are
shuffledandthestudentmustreorganizethembacktothecorrectorder.
ThisexercisetypecanbeusedforexampleinEnglish,whereinasensiblestoryshouldbecreatedbyreorganizingthetext,orinbiology,whereanimals
mustbeorderedbysizeinascendingorder.
Thetextshuffleexercisemustbegivenaname,adefaultdescriptionvisibleto
students,whichshouldalsoincludeinformationonhowthelinesshouldbeorganized (e.g. alphabetically). Notes for teachers can also be added, which are
notvisibletostudents.
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Illustration49Creatingatextshuffleexercise
Thelinestobeorganizedarewrittentothepanelontheright.Theelementsthat
needtobeorganizedbythestudentarewrittentothetextareaontheright.The
elementsmustbewritteninthecorrectorder.Thelinesareshownasplaintext
bydefault,buttheycanbestylizedfromtheStylesettingswindow.
ThestylesettingswindowhasaPresetsdropdownmenu,whichcontainsseveralreadystylesthatcanbeusedasatemplateforyourownstyles.Forexample
theTableTitleroundedlargepaddingstylestylizesthemovableelementsinto
rounded rectangles with a yellow background, bolded text and plenty of room
betweenthetextandborders.StylesareappliedbypressingSaveatthebottom
oftheStylesettingsdialogwindow.
YoucanpreviewthegeneralsortingexercisebypressingtheTestbutton.Thisis
theeasiestwaytoseetheappliedstyling.
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4.2.4 Creating a new Fill in Exercise
TheFillinexerciseconsistsofatextwithgapsofoneormorewords,that
thestudentmustfillin.Thegapscanbefilledinbyeitherwritingorselectingfromapoolofgivenoptions.
Fillinexercisesareespeciallysuitableforlearninglanguages. Gapexercises
testnotonlyknowledgeofaword,butalsothecontextandinflection.
However,gapexercisesarenotlimitedtolearningforeignlanguages,because
theycanalsobeusedtocreatediverseappliedexercisesina widerangeof
subjects,suchashistory,sciencesorgeography,tonameafew.
AFillinexerciseiscreatedbyfirstnavigatingtoExercises–Newexerciseand
clickingonFillinexercisefromtheGeneralexercisescategory.
Illustration50Creatingafillinexercise
Creating a new exercise is done in three phases. The first phase consists of
providingthecompletetextusedintheexerciseandselectingthelocationsfor
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thegaps.Tocreateagap,painttheword(s)inonegapwiththemousebydraggingoverthemandpresstheInsertholebuttoninthetoolbarabove.Thechosen area will be colored to indicate a gap. Toremove a gap, repaint the words
andclickonthe Insertholebuttonagain.Afterallgapsareinserted,pressthe
Nextbuttontomovetothenextphase.
The second phase contains settings for the functionality of the exercise. There
aretwooptions:Onelargeanswerpoolorgapspecificoptions.Thefirstone
haveonelargecollectionofpossibleanswers,andthestudentmustpickthecorrectoneforeachgap.Thelatterhasgapspecificoptions,whichallowsforalargernumberofansweroptions.Thisoptionisalsousedwhenthestudentsshould
writetheirownanswertoagap.
Havingonelargeanswerpoolallowsforhoaxoptionsinadditiontothecorrect
answer. These wrong answers are written to the Hoaxoptions text area. Only
thewronganswersshouldbewrittenhere,asthecorrectonesareautomatically
addedtothelist. Pooloptionscanbe setto eitherhavethe answersdisappear
fromthepoolwhenusedinagap(Draggable),orremaininthepoolallowing
formultipleusesofthesameoption(Replenishingpool).
Choosing Gapspecific,itisalsopossibletochoosewhethertheusewritesthe
answer(Userinput)orpickstherightoneoutofadropdownmenu(Gapspecific pool). Because the answer options are now gap specific, each gap can be
either one of these types. Moving between the gaps is done with the previous
andnextgapbuttonsorthedropdownmenubetweenthem.Incaseagapuses
thegapspecificpoolofanswers,eachgapmustbespecifieditsownpoolofanswers.Thecorrectanswersareaddedautomaticallysoonlythewronganswers
needbeadded:eachoptionmustbewrittenonitsownline.Press Savetosave
theansweroptions.
WhenthegaptypeisUserinput,theprecisionusedtogradetheanswermust
alsobedefined.Therearethreeoptions:Case-sensitiverequiresthecapitalizationtobeexactlyasthemodelanswer,butnopunctuationistakenintoaccount.
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Exact requires both the capitalization and punctuation to be exactly as in the
model answer. Finally, the Noformatting option does not take punctuation or
capitalizationintoaccount.
Afterallsettingsforeachgaphasbeenset,the Testbuttoncanbeusedtopreviewtheexercise.Aftertheexercisehasbeenpreviewed,presstheNextbutton
toenterthefinalphaseofexercisecreation.
Inthelastphase,theexerciseisgivenanameandadefaultdescription,which
thestudentssee.Optionallyyoucanleavenotesforteachers,whicharenotvisible to students. After all data has been set, press Save, choose the folder to
save the exercise in, the difficulty and the language used in the exercise. The
programminglanguagecanbeleftatthedefault“-“andpressOK.Lastlyenter
sometagstomakeiteasierforotherteacherstofindit.
4.2.5 Creating an Arrange sentences exercise
Thearrangesentencesexercisecanbeusedtopracticewordorder.One
exercisecanconsistof1-10sentences.TheteacherinputsthemodelanswersintotheeditorandViLLEwillshufflethewordswithinthesentences.The
studentmustthenreorderthewordsinthesentencesbydraggingeachwordin
itscorrectposition.
Tocreateanarrangesentencesexercise,navigateto Exercises–Newexercise
andchooseArrangesentencesfromtheGeneralexercisescategory.
Theleftsideoftheeditorisreservedforthegeneralproperties(name,description,notesforteachers)oftheexerciseandtherightsideconsistsoftheactual
exercise editor. The sentences are written into the table one at a time starting
fromtheuppermostrow;donotskipanyrows!Oneexercisecancontain1-10
sentences,albeit10sentencesisalotforoneexercise.
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4.2.6 Creating a Match pairs exercise
Inthematchpairsexercise,studentsmustcombinethecorrectanswer
withthecorrectquestion.Thequestionsareshowninonecolumnonthe
left,andtheanswersareshuffledinacolumnontheright.Thisexercisetypeis
especiallysuitableforlearningvocabulary,butcanbeusedinanysubject,where
wordsorshortsentencesneedtobecombined.
AMatchpairsexerciseiscreatedbyfirstnavigatingtoExercises–Newexercise
andselectingMatchpairsfromtheGeneralExercisescategory.
The left side of the editor is reserved for the general properties of an exercise
(name, description, notes for teacher), and the actual exercise editor is located
ontheright.Theleftcolumnintableintheeditorismeantforthestaticwords
(questions)andtherightcolumnwhatthestudentshouldenter(answers).
4.2.7 Creating a vocabulary test
AVocabularytestcanbeusedtoeasilypracticevocabulary.Thetestconsistsof1-60words,whichthestudentsmusttranslatefromonelanguage
to another. It is possible to randomly pick words from a larger pool of word
pairs.
TheexerciseiscreatedbynavigatingtoExercises–Newexerciseandselecting
VocabularytestfromtheGeneralExercisescategory.
Theleftsideoftheexerciseeditorisreservedforthegeneralpropertiesofanexercise(name,description,notesforteachers)andtheactualexerciseeditorison
therightside.Wordpairsareinputtothetablesothatthestaticword(question)
iswrittentocolumnontheleftandthecorrectanswertotherightside.
TIP:Thereisoftenmorethanoneappropriatetranslationforaword.Togive
alternativeanswers,separatethealternativeswithasemicolon.Forexample
the translations for the Finnish word ’koira’ would be dog; hound. Having
donethis,ViLLEwillacceptanyoneofthewordslistedasthecorrectanswer.
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Theoptionsunderthewordpairtable:
-
Askallwordinassignment:Ifthisisselected,eachwordpairinthetablewillbeaskedeverytime.
-
Numberofwordsinassignment:Thisoptiondeterminesthenumberof
wordsaskedfromthestudentsandisonlyenabledwhentheaboveselectionisunchecked.Ifthisnumberislessthanthenumberofwordsinthe
table, the questions will be randomly selected from all available word
pairs.
-
Wordsinrandomorder:Ifthisoptionisselected,thequestionswillbe
shuffledandrandomizedwheneveranewexerciseisstarted(orthereset
buttonispressed).
-
Wordscasesensitive:Ifthisoptionischecked,theanswerswrittenby
studentsmustmatchthemodelanswerexactly.Thismeanscapitalization
matters. If the model answer is ”car” and the student enters ”Car”, no
pointswillbeawarded.Ifthisoptionsisunchecked,capitalizationwillnot
matterandtheaboveexamplewouldgivefullpoints.
The exercise can be previewed at any time by pressing the Test button in the
upperleftcorneroftheeditor.
4.2.8 Creating a dialog exercise
ThedialogexercisehasbeencreatedtobeusedintheFinnishmatriculationexamination,andisthereforenotanautomaticallyassessedexercise.
Theexerciseisvisualizedtothestudentsothatifthereisevenoneballooncomponent, the answering areas, headings and speech bubbles are all organized to
their own columns to imitate a dialog. When the speech balloons are not used
(e.g.completingadialog),allthecomponentsareshowninonecolumn.
Thecomponentsprovidedbythedialogexercise,thespeechballoonalwaysreferstothecommentmadebytheotherperson(notthestudent)andtherefore
doesnotprovideanymethodtomodifyoraddtext.TheAnswerareacomponent
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allowsbothaddingastatictextandlettingthestudentfillinhisorheranswer.
Additionally,itispossibletoaddahinttoan answerarea(e.g.atranslationof
thereply)andthefeedbackgiventothestudentafterasubmission(e.g.acorrect
answer).
4.2.9 Creating a compound exercise
Inthecompoundexercise,studentsneedtorecognizecompoundwords
andeitherconnectthemorbreakthemapart.Anexerciseofthistypeis
created by first navigating to Exercises – New exercise and clicking on CompoundexerciseintheGeneralExercisescategory.
1-10 sentences can be added to one exercise. The teacher must input the sentence so that any possible compound word ismarked with an underscore (e.g.
snow_storm)Ifthereareanywordsthatshouldn’taffectthegrading,theyneed
to be marked with a star. It is also possible to form the exercise by writing all
wordsseparately,thenpressingtheEditbuttontomarkthecompounds.
Below the sentences are two checkboxes that affect the exercise. Checking the
Studentanswersmustmatchthemodelanswerexactlytoscorepoints option means what it says: unless the answer given by the student matches the
model answer exactly, no points are awarded; no fractions are awarded. By
checkingtheRandomizetheorderofsentencesoption,allsentencesprovided
bytheteacherareshuffledbeforepresentingthemtothestudent.
4.2.10
Creating a Punctuation and case exercise
Thepunctuationandcaseexercisecanbeusedtopracticepunctuationand
capitalization. The exercise is created by first navigating to Exercises –
New exercise and clicking on Punctuation and caseexercise in the General
exercisescategory.
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Tocreateapunctuationandcaseexercise,itissufficienttowritethemodelanswertotheeditor,completewithpunctuationandcasing.ViLLEwillautomaticallyswitchallcapitalizedletterstolowercaseandremoveallpunctuationlisten
under All punctuation characters stripped. This allows practicing specific
punctuation.
There are two options at the bottom of the editor. The Student answer must
match the model answer exactly to gain points option means points are
awardedonlywhentheanswerprovidedbythestudentmatchesthemodelanswerexactly;fractionsofpointsarenotawarded.TheoptiontoShowdetailed
feedbacktostudentdetermineswhethertoshowcharacterspecificfeedbackto
thestudent;notethatthefeedbackisalwaysdisabledregardlessofthisoption.
4.2.11
Creating a Select words exercise
The select words exercise has the students picking words out of a text
based on certain criteria. This exercise type is designed with English in
mind(topracticee.g.wordclasses),butissuitableforothersubjectsaswell.A
SelectwordsexerciseiscreatedbyfirstnavigatingtoExercises–NewExercise
andclickingonSelectwordsexerciseintheGeneralexercisescategory.
One or more questions can be input in the exercise editor. Each question involvesadescription(question)andatext,fromwhichthewordsarepickedout.
Firstbothtextareasshouldbefilled,andthenpressthe Selectwordbuttonto
selectthewordsfromthesecondtextareathestudentneedstopickoutofthe
text.PresstheEdittextbuttontoswitchback toeditmodetoinputmoretext.
AddingmorequestionsisdonebypressingtheAddquestionbuttonatthebottomoftheeditor.ThenewestquestioncanberemovedbypressingtheRemove
questionbutton.
4.2.12
Creating a Matrix selection exercise
IntheMatrixselectionexercisethestudentneedstoselectoneormore
answers(incolumns)toaquestion(onrows).TheMatrixselectionexer-
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ciseallowsformorefreedominsettingthequestionsandanswersthanatraditionalmultiplechoicequiz.Theexercisedescriptioncouldbeforexample:“combinewordstotheirrespectivewordclasses”,thequestionsthewordclassesand
theanswerswordtobeclassified.Soevenifthefirstcolumnisformallynamed
thequestions(andconverselythefirstrowtheanswers),thecontentsoftheexercisecanbecompletelyuptothecreatoroftheexercise.AMatrixselectionexerciseatitsbesthasmultiplequestionsofthesametopicwithseveralpossible
correctanswers.
TocreateaMatrixselectionexercise,navigateto Exercises–Newexerciseand
selectMatrixselectionexercisefromtheGeneralexercisescategory.
Theleftsideoftheeditorpanelisreservedforthegeneralpropertiesoftheexercise(name,descriptionandnotesforteachers)andtherightsideistheactual
exerciseeditor.
ThetopmostSettingspanelcontainsthescoringoptions.Themaximumnumber
of selections per row can be set using a dropdownmenu. This limitation is in
place to allow prevention of cheating, by first selecting all options, and then
checking the immediate feedback to see which options were the correct ones.
Columnsthestudentdidnotchooseareignoredinthefeedback.Thescoringcan
bebalancedusingtheprovidedslider: setting ittothefarrightmakesthestudent lose a point (as much as is received from the correct answer) for each
wronganswer.Naturallythefinalscorecanneverdropbelowzero.
Theheadermenucanbeusedtosetquestionsandanswersdescriptiveheaders
(e.g.wordclasses&words).Theheadersareshownonthetopleftcornerafter
pressingtheUpdateheadersbutton.Ifthinkingofheadersseemsdifficult,they
maybeleftempty.
Theshufflepanelcanbeusedtoshuffleeitherthequestionsoranswers,orboth.
Theyareshuffledbydefaultsothattheexercisevariesslightlyforeachstudent.
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Ifthequestions(oranswers)haveanexplicitordering,theshufflingmaybedisabled.
The matrix itself is formed in the Matrix selection exercise panel. The default
valuesare5columnsandrows,howeveritispossibletoaddandremovethem
using the buttons below. The Addrow and Addcolumn buttons add a row at
thebottomoracolumntotherightrespectively.Similarly,the Deleterowand
Deletecolumn buttons remove the bottommost rowor the rightmost column,
respectively. The question and answer titles can be modified by clicking on it.
Additionally,thecorrectanswersareinputtothematrixbyclickingonthecorrectoptions.
ImagesandtextcanbeaddedfromtheAttachedimageandtextpanel.Images
areuploadedfromtheteacher’scomputerbyclickingonUpload,thenselecting
thecorrectimage.TheimagecanbedeletedbypressingtheDeletebutton.Text
canalsobeattachedtothematrixexercise;thistextshouldbewrittentothetext
arearightoftheimageupload.Itwillbeshownabovethepossiblyattachedimage.
4.2.13
Creating an Image tag exercise
Intheimagetagexercisestudentsneedtotaganimage,whichisprovided
byeithertheteacherorthestudenthim(orher)self,accordingtotheexercise description. The tags may contain additional commentary by the student.
Imagetagexercisesarealwaysassessedmanually;thereisnoautomaticassessment.
Tocreateanimagetagexercise,navigatetoExercises–Newexerciseandclick
onImagetagexerciseintheGeneralexercisescategory.
Tocreateanexercisewherethestudentsmarkanimageprovidedbytheteacher,theimagewillhavetobeuploadedusingtheUploadbutton.Itisalsorecom-
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mendedtowriteadescriptionofwhatisexpectedofthestudentstotheDefault
descriptiontextarea.
Tocreateanexercisewherethestudentsfindataganimageontheirown,itis
sufficienttowritetheexercisedescriptiontotheDefaultdescriptiontextarea.
Beforesavingtheexercise,anamewillhavetobeprovided.
4.3 Programming exercises
ViLLE programming exercises are, as their name suggests, meant for teaching
andpracticingprogramming.ViLLEcontainsanin-builtsupportforvariousprogramminglanguages,suchasJava,Python,JavaScript,C++,PSEUDO-language,C,
C#andPHP.Theideabehindtheseprogrammingexercisesistobringforththe
executionofprogramcodethroughvisualization.
4.3.1 Creating a ViLLE Clouds & Boxes exercise
IntheViLLEClouds&Boxes(CAB)exercise,thestudent’staskistosimulatetheexecutionofacomputerprogrambymaintainingthestateofthe
programasitisexecuted.Thegoalistoclarifyhowprogramsareexecuted,built
andhowthepreviousstateinvariablyaffectsthefollowing.Theillustrationbelowshowsthegeneralview,whichissharedbetweenthefirstthreeprograming
exercises.
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Illustration51Creatingaprogrammingexercise
1. Thephasesincreatinganewexercise.ThePreviousandNextbuttons
areusedtomovebetweenthedifferentphases.
2. The program code field. The program code involved in the exercise is
writtenhere.
3. Theoutputfieldshowstheoutputofthewrittenprogram.
4. Testing, saving and closing. Testing the exercise is only possible from
thethirdphaseonwards,andsavinginthelast.
TocreateaViLLEClouds&Boxesexercise,navigateto Exercises–NewexerciseandclickonViLLEClouds&BoxesintheCodingexercisescategory.
TheprogramcodeusedintheCABexerciseiswritteninJavatotheCodingarea.
AnyoutputgivenbytheprogramwillbeshownintheOutputpanel.Ourexampleprogramwillcontainthefollowingprogramcode:
public static void main(String[] args){
int a = 1;
int b = 2;
int c = 3;
90
}
int d = a+b+c;
if(d==6) {
System.out.println("Goal!");
}
Fourintegervariables a,b,canddarecreatedinthecode.Thevariablesa,b
andcaregivenvalues1,2and3.Thevariabledformsitsvaluefromthesumof
thevariablesa,b,andc.Thenifthevalueofvariabledequalssix,thetext“Goal!”
isoutput.Aftertheprogramcodehasbeenwritten,theTranslatebuttoninthe
toprightcornermustbepressed.Iftheprogramcompiles,the Nextbuttoncan
beusedtomoveontothenextphase.
Thenextphaseconsistsofexaminingtheprogramcodetranslations(toPython,
JavaScript,PHP,C,C#,PSEUDO)made byViLLE.Anynecessarychangescan be
performedtothecode,althoughitisoftennotnecessary.Afterperformingany
necessary changes, and checking the correctness of the translated code, press
Nexttomoveontothenextphase.
Thetypeofthesimulationprogramischoseninthethirdphase.Therearethree
types:
1) Nocodelinehighlight–Thecurrentlyexecutingcodelineisnothighlighted.Thestudentmustformthestatesoftheprograminthecorrectorder
withnohelp.
2) Currentlineofcodehighlighted–Thecurrentlyexecutinglineofcodeis
highlighted.Thestudentmustformthestatesoftheprograminthecorrectorderwithnohelp.
3) Completeeachstatebeforecontinuing–Thecurrentstatemustbecorrect
beforethestudentisallowedtomovetothefollowingstate.
Thetypesarelistedindescendingorderofdifficulty;fromthehardesttoeasiest.
Thefirstoptionrequiresindependentthinkingandknowledgeofhowprograms
areexecuted.Thethirdoptionisbestforthebeginner,asitconstantlyguidesthe
studentandwillnotlethimorhermoveonbeforecompletingeachstatecorrectly.
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EachtypecanbetestedbypressingtheTestbutton.
For this example, the third type is selected, and the Next button is pressed to
moveontothenextphase.
The Nameand Defaultdescriptionoftheexercisearegiveninthelastphase.
Additional notesforteachers can be given; these are only shown to teachers,
whereasthedefaultdescriptionisshowntostudents. Savetheexercise,choose
the folder to save it in, the difficulty level and the language of the exercise.
Choose the programminglanguage the exercise should be given in and press
OK.Finally,addtagstotheexercisesootherteacherscanfinditeasier.
4.3.2 Creating a ViLLE visualization exercise
Thevisualizationexerciseisa veryversatileexercisetype,whereinthe
execution of the program is combined with multiple choice or array
questionscreatedbytheteacherandplacedonarbitrarylinesofcode.Visualizationconcretizestheexecutionofaprogramandlearningcanbeenhancedwith
questionscreatedbytheteacher.
Avisualizationexerciseiscreatedbyfirstnavigatingto Exercises–NewexerciseandclickingonViLLEVisualizationExerciseintheCodingexercisescategory.
A visualization exercise is built in4 phases. As with the CAB exercise, the programcodeiswritteninthefirstphase.Theprogramcodeusedisthesameasin
the previous chapter. Before moving to the next phase, the code must be compiledusingtheTranslatebutton.TheNextbuttonbeginsthenextphase.
ViLLE automatically translates the code to the following programming languages:Python,JavaScript,PHP,C,PSEUDOandC#.Thesecondphaseistocheck
thetranslationforthelanguagetheexerciseismeanttobeusedwithiscorrect.
Ifthetranslationiscorrect,presstheNextbuttontomoveontothenextphase.
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Illustration52Addingaquestiontoavisualizationexercise
Thethirdphaseconsistsofaddingquestionstolinesofcode.AnArrayquestion
canonlybeusedonlineswhereanarrayoperationtakesplace.Theotherquestionstypescanbeusedonanyline.
AMultiplechoicequestioncanbeaddedbypressingthe Newmultiplechoice
questionbutton.Thequestion,feedback,correctanswerandotheranswers
are input in the newly opened dialog window. For a more thorough look into
creatingamultiplechoicequestion,seechapter4.2.1.
Inadditiontoamultiplechoicequestion,aShortanswerquestioncanbeadded
fromtheShortanswerbutton.Ashortanswerquestionisansweredbywriting
inafewwords.Formoreinformationontheshortanswerquestion,seechapter
4.2.1.
Theaddedquestionsareshowninthetablebelowtheprogramcodearea.Clickingaquestionwillmovetheexecutiontothestatethequestionwasadded.SelectingaquestionandpressingtheEditbuttonwillbegineditingaquestion.The
Deletebuttonwilldeleteaquestioncompletely,whereastheDetachbuttonwill
onlydetachthequestionfromtherow,sothequestioncanbemovedtoanother
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one.Re-addingaquestionisdonebyfirstselectingthestateatwhichthequestionshouldbeshown,thenpressingAttach.
PreviewingtheexerciseisdonebypressingTest.Afterallquestionsareaddedto
theirrespectiverows,pressNexttomoveontothenextphase.
The Nameand Defaultdescriptionoftheexercisearegiveninthelastphase.
Additional notesforteachers can be given; these are only shown to teachers,
whereasthedefaultdescriptionisshowntostudents. Savetheexercise,choose
the folder to save it in, the difficulty level and the language of the exercise.
Choose the programminglanguage the exercise should be given in and press
OK.Finally,addtagstotheexercisesootherteacherscanfinditeasier.
4.3.3 Creating a ViLLE Sorting Exercise
In a ViLLE Sorting Exercise the lines of code input by the teacher are
shuffledandstudentsmustreorganizethemsothattheprogramresults
intherequiredoutcome.Thisexercisetypecanbeusedtotestthestudents’understandingofprogramcodeexecutionandstructureofasimpleprogram.
AViLLEsortingexerciseiscreatedbyfirstnavigatingtoExercises–NewexerciseandclickingonViLLESortingExerciseintheCodingexercisescategory.
The creation of a ViLLE Sorting Exercise is done in four phases. The program
codeiswrittenandcompiledinthefirstphase.Forexample,thefollowingcode
couldbewritten:
public static void main(String[] args){
int a = 5;
while (a<10) {
a++;
System.out.println(a);
}
}
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The integer variable a is initialized with the value 5. The value is increased by
oneuntilitreachesthevalueof10Thevalueofthevariableisoutputeachtime
isitincreasedbyone,thuscreatingtheoutput6,7,8,9,10.Compilethecodeby
pressingtheTranslatebuttoninthetoprightcorner.Aftercompilingthecode,
movetothenextphaseusingtheNextbutton.
ViLLE automatically translates the code to the following programming languages:Python,JavaScript,PHP,C,PSEUDOandC#.Thesecondphaseistocheck
thetranslationforthelanguagetheexerciseismeanttobeusedwithiscorrect.
Ifthetranslationiscorrect,presstheNextbuttontomoveontothenextphase.
Thethirdphaseconsistsofselectingthelineswhichwillbeshuffledforthestudents.ThelinesarechosenusingtheFromandToselectors.Thebluehighlight
indicateswhichlineswillbeshuffled.Thecorrectnessisdeterminedbycomparingtheoutputsofthestudent’sandteacher’sprogramsbydefault.Ifthe Exact
matchoptionisselected,thecorrectnesswillinsteadbedeterminedbytheorderingofthelinesofcode.Topreviewtheexercise,presstheTestbuttoninthe
topleftcorner.Whentheexerciseiscomplete,presstheNextbuttontomoveon
tothenextphase.
Illustration53Selectingthelinesto-be-shuffled
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The Nameand Defaultdescriptionoftheexercisearegiveninthelastphase.
Additional notesforteachers can be given; these are only shown to teachers,
whereasthedefaultdescriptionisshowntostudents. Savetheexercise,choose
the folder to save it in, the difficulty level and the language of the exercise.
Choose the programminglanguage the exercise should be given in and press
OK.Finally,addtagstotheexercisesootherteacherscanfinditeasier.
4.3.4 Creating a new ViLLE programming exercise
InaViLLEprogrammingexercisethetaskofthestudentistowriteaJava
program, whose outcome – the output – must match that of the model
answer.
AnewViLLEprogrammingexerciseiscreatedbynavigatingtoExercises–New
exerciseandselectingViLLEProgrammingExercisefromtheCodingExercisescategory.
Thisexercisetypetakesintoaccountthecreativityinvolvedinprogramming;
thesameendresultcanbe achievedinmultipleways.Thestudentisgiven
relativelyfreehandsinthisexercisetypetoexploreandbecreativewithout
sacrificingtheabilitytoautomaticallyassesstheexercise andprovidefeedbackontheanswer.
A programming exercise needs a program code, which results in one or more
lines of output. The programming languages available depend on user rights;
everyonecancreateprogrammingexercisesinJava,buttheothersupportedlanguages (C, C++, C#, JavaScript. MySQL, MATMAB) are only visible to specific
teachers. If the programming listdoes not contain a language you need, please
contacttheViLLETeam.
Ourexampleexercisehascodetooutputthemultiplicationtableof3withmultiplicands of 0-10. Compile the program by pressing the Translate button in the
toprightcorneroftheeditor.TheOutputfielddisplaystheoutputgivenbythe
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program.PresstheNextbuttontomovetothenextphaseafterthecodeiscomplete.
public class Test{
public static void main(String[] args){
for(int i=0; i<11; i++) {
System.out.println(i*3);
}
}
}
Tip: There are several language independent tags available for the ViLLE
programmingexercise:
Codebetween<hide>and</hide>tagsarehiddenfromthestudent:
<hide>random.setSeed(Long.parseLong(args[0])); </hide>
The<ignore>tagscanbeusedtomarkoputputwhichisignoredwhencomparingthestudent’sandthemodelanswer’soutput.Itispossibletooutput
thecontentsofanarraybeforethestudentneedstosortit:
print "<ignore>Elements of a list ", list
Inthesecondphase,ViLLEtranslatesthejavacodetootherlanguages(Python,
javascript, PHP, C, C#, PSEUDO). It is possible to modify these translations,
shoulda needarise.Afterhavingdonealltherequiredchanges,pressthe Next
buttontomovetothenextphase.
Illustration54Settingsforaprogrammingexercise
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Inthenextphase,thehiddenlinesarechosen.Itisusuallyrecommendedtogive
studentsatleasttheclass,whichneedstobeimplemented.Thebluelineswillbe
hidden,andtheselectioncanbechangedusingtheToandFromselectors.
TheShowoutputoptioncanbeusedtoshowtheoutputsofthewrittenprogram
andthemodelanswersidebysideafterasubmission.
TheoptiontoHidenonselectedcodelineswillhideallthoselinesofcodethat
havenotbeen selected,i.e.thestudenthas anemptytextareatowriteto.Itis
notgenerallyrecommendedtocheckthisoption,butitcanbeusedtoe.g.hide
the class. If this option is not checked, all non-highlighted lines of code will be
showntothestudent.
The Indentstudentcode option can be used to indent the student code automatically when submitted. This choice is recommended when programming in
Python,orotherlanguagesthatdependsyntacticallyontheindentation.
Previewingtheexerciseisdonebypressingthe Testbutton.Previewingallows
youtomakesuretheexerciselookexactlyyouwantitto.
When all the appropriate rows are selected, press the Next button in the top
rightcorneroftheeditor.
The Nameand Defaultdescriptionoftheexercisearegiveninthelastphase.
Additional notesforteachers can be given; these are only shown to teachers,
whereasthedefaultdescriptionisshowntostudents. Savetheexercise,choose
the folder to save it in, the difficulty level and the language of the exercise.
Choose the programminglanguage the exercise should be given in and press
OK.Finally,addtagstotheexercisesootherteacherscanfinditeasier.
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TIP:Itisrecommendedtouserandomnessinprogrammingexercises,sothe
studentscannothard-codevaluesintheiranswers.Forinstance,aJavaprogrammingexercisereceivesavariableoftypeLongasitsfirstparameterand
thatvariablecanbeusedasaseedfortherandomgenerator.Thismeansthe
sameseedisgiventothemodelandstudent’sanswer.
Havingthesameseedmeansthatthesamerandomnumberwillbeoutputin
boththemodelanswerandthestudent’sanswer:
final Random r = new Random();
<hide>r.setSeed(Long.parseLong(args[0]));</hide>
System.out.println(r.nextInt(100));
4.3.5 Creating a new Robot exercise
IntheRobotexercise,thetaskofthestudentistocreateaprograminJava,
whichusingthecranerobotonscreen,willmovetheboxesintheircorrectlocations.ThefocusontheRobotexerciseistousemethodsincreatingalgorithmsandteachloopsspecifically.Theeditorlooksasfollows:
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Illustration55TheeditorfortheRobotexercise
TheeditorspecifiestheNumberofboxesandtheirstartandendpoints.The
controls below the crane can be used to define the starting position of the
crane.Itisalsopossibletoaddemptyboxes(onesthatareignoreswhenchecking the submission) using the Number of empty boxes slider. The Max drop
sliderdefinesthemaximumdropacratecanhandlewithoutbreaking.TheCost
limits slider can be used to set a ‘cost limit’ for the answer; if the solution exceedsthisnumberofmoves,itwillbepenalized.Solutionsarescoredaccording
to the code and movements of the crane: the more code and movement of the
crane,themoreexpensivethesolutionis.
ThestudentwillsolvetherobotexercisebywritingaJavaprogramwhichmoves
the crane. The exercise provides an instance of the RobotCommander class,
namedrc,whichistheinterfacetomovethecrane.Therobotacceptsthefollowingcommands:
rc.up()
rc.down() Movesthecraneup
Movesthecranedown
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rc.extend()
Movestheclawofthecraneright
rc.withdraw()
Movestheclawofthecraneleft
rc.grab() Grabsaboxifpossible
rc.drop() Dropsagrabbedbox
4.3.6 Creating a new conversion exercise
Intheconversionexercise,decimal,hexandbinarynumbersareconvertedfromonebasetoanother.Thestudentcanpracticeconvertingnumbers
from a given base to a specified base. Binary and hex numbers are often seen
whenprogramming.
AnewconversionexerciseiscreatedbyfirstnavigatingtoExercises–NewexerciseandclickingonConversionExerciseintheCodingexercisescategory.
Theactualconversionexerciseismadebychoosinghowmanyconversionsare
donefrom onebasetoanotherandthe minimumandmaximumvaluesfor
thenumbersthatareconverted.
The exercise should be previewed before saving to make sure the settings are
appropriate.PreviewingtheexerciseisdonefromthePreviewbutton.
Whentheexerciseiscomplete,giveitanameandadefaultdescription,which
thestudentssee.Optionallyyoucanleavenotesforteachers,whicharenotvisible to students. After all data has been set, press Save, choose the folder to
save the exercise in, the difficulty and the language used in the exercise. The
programminglanguagecanbeleftatthedefault“-“andpressOK.Lastlyenter
sometagstomakeiteasierforotherteacherstofindit.
4.3.7 Creating a new Binary calculation exercise
In the binary calculation exercise, basic arithmetic operations are performedonbinarynumbers.Becausecomputersoftenoperateinthebina-
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rynumbersystem,beingfamiliarwiththeseoperationsisoftennecessary.This
exercisetypestrengthenstheaddition,subtractionandmultiplicationofbinary
numbers.
A new binary calculation exercise is created by first navigating to Exercises –
NewexerciseandclickingonBinarycalculationsintheCodingexercisescategory.
Youcansethowmanybinary multiplication,additionandsubtractionquestionsareaskedintheexercise.Additionally,the minimumandmaximumvaluesoftheoperandsaresetasdecimalnumbers.Thenumberiscappedat15for
all binary multiplication questions. Before saving the exercise, it is prudent to
previewitbypressingPreview.
Whentheexerciseiscomplete,giveitanameandadefaultdescription,which
thestudentssee.Optionallyyoucanleavenotesforteachers,whicharenotvisible to students. After all data has been set, press Save, choose the folder to
save the exercise in, the difficulty and the language used in the exercise. The
programminglanguagecanbeleftatthedefault“-“andpressOK.Lastlyenter
sometagstomakeiteasierforotherteacherstofindit.
4.4 Mathematical exercises
ViLLEmathematicalexercisesaremeanttopracticemathoneverylevelofeducation. Some of the exercise types are designed with primary school in mind,
whereasothersaremeantforhigherleveleducation.Inmostmathexercisesitis
possibletoindividualizeexercisestostudentsofdifferentskilllevels.Individualizingisdonebygivingthethreedifficultysettingsofeachexercisedifferentsettings.Thedifficultylevelcanbevariedbygivingdifferentstartingvaluesoroperations.
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Illustration56Individualizingmathexercisesisdonebygivingdifferentparameterstodifferent
difficultysettings.TheEasysettingisselectedintheillustration.
Whenstudentsstarttheexercise,theycanchoosethemostappropriatedifficulty
settingforthemselves.Thiswaythestudentswillnotbefrustratedwithexercisestoodifficultoreasyforthem.Remembertotestexercisesonalldifficultysettingsbeforeusingit!
4.4.1 Solving quadratic equations
InaSolvingquadraticequationsexercise,theteacherdefinesrangesfor
equations that the student needs to solve. The equations are randomly
generatedbasedontheseranges.Itisoftenrequiredtohaveapen(cil)andpaper
whensolvingtheseexercises.Theimmediatefeedbackgivenbythisexercisenot
onlyguidesstudentstosolvequadraticequationsindependentlybutalsodraws
agraphoftheequationinquestion.Simplecubicequationscanalsobepracticed
usingthisexercisetype.
First the numberof roots, i.e. answers, for the equation is chosen. Next choose
whether to solve quadratic or cubic equations. After these settings, the special
propertiesoftheequationsarechosen.Usingtheseproperties,specialcasescan
be practiced. The choice of root characterizes the difficulty of an equation and
canthusbeusedtocontrolthedifficultyofanequation.Thegeneraloptionscan
beusedwhethertoshowthepolynomialinitspossiblyreducedformorexpanded.
Finallytherangesfortherootsandthenumberofrepetitionsarechosen.
4.4.2 Fill the sequence
The fill the sequence exercise has the students practice arithmetic pro-
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gressionandtheconceptofnumberquantity.Movingforward,backwardandin
differentstepsispracticedonanumberline.Thisstrengthensthestudent’sabilitytorealizethenaturalorderofnumbers,quantitizenumbersandunderstand
thepropertiesofnaturalnumbers.
Naturalnumbersbegin,dependingonthesource,fromoneorzero;inprimary
schoolmath,oftenfromzero.Thereisnogreatestnumber,asonecanbeadded
toanynumber.Notwodifferentnumbershavethesamenextnumber.
Theteachercandefinethenumberrangeforthenumberlinebymodifyingthe
smallest and greatest value. The addition, subtraction, multiplication and divisionoptionsdefinehowthenextelementinthenumberlineiscalculated.Inaddition, the first element is added arandom number from the numberrange, in
multiplication the first element is multiplied by a random number, etc. The
lengthofthenumberlineoptiondetermineshowmanynumbersareshownon
screentothestudent.Thenumberofholesdetermineshowmanygapsareput
inthenumberline.Thegapscanbeinsertedintorandompositionsinthelineto
maketheexercisemorechallenging;thegapsareputtotheendofthelinebydefault.
4.4.3 What’s missing?
Recognizingthemissingnumberadvancesthemathematicalthinkingof
students, because the correct answer is not clearly calculated from the
expressionbutthelocationofthetermsandtheoperationneedtobe‘switched’.
These exercises form the basis of solving equations. These exercises can turn
quitedifficultifthelengthoftheexpressionisincreased.
Finding the right answer can be practiced by visualizing the options and dragging and dropping the correct answer. With small numbers, small circles work
wellwithvisualizing.Thedifferentobjectsusedintheexerciserepresentquantities:Circles,blocksandmoneymakequantitiesobvioustothestudent.Thewrit-
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tenformofthenumberstrengthenstheconnectionbetweenthenumbersymbol
andthenumberword.
Moredifficultandformalexercisescanbedonebyturningofftheoptiontodrag
answers. The answer area then turns into a text field where the student can
writetheanswer.Whenusinglargenumbersthevisualizationoptionshouldbe
turnedoff,soastoshowonlythenumbers.TheoptionPracticeten-pairscanbe
turnedonfortheyoungeststudents,sotheresultofadditionisalways10and
the student must recognize the missing number. Subtraction exercises always
subtractfrom10.
Largenumberscanbemadeeasiertocomprehendbyusingnumbersdivisibleby
10or100.TheoptiontoMakeallnumbersevenmakesallnumbersintheexpressioneven.Withoutthisoption,onlythefirstnumberiseven.
4.4.4 Combine equal items
The combine equal items exercise builds up the student’s concept of
number, in which quantity, the number word and symbol combine.
Theseskillsareaprerequisitefornumberlineskills.
Thisexercisetypeisbuilttoenforcethestudent’sunderstandingofnumerosity
and clarify the connection between numerosity, the word and symbol for the
number.Theobjectsusedintheexerciserepresentquantities.Circles,blocksand
moneyconcretizethemeaningofnumerosityforthestudent.Thewrittenform
orthenumberstrengthenstheconnectionbetweenthesymbolandthenumber
word.
Thenumberofboxesisthenumberofwrongoptionsincludedintheanswering
options.
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4.4.5 Tunnista luku
Thecombineequalitemsexercisebuildsupthestudent’sconceptofnumber,inwhichquantity,thenumberwordandsymbolcombine.Theseskills
areaprerequisitefornumberlineskills.
Thisexercisetypeisbuilttoenforcethestudent’sunderstandingofnumerosity
and clarify the connection between numerosity, the word and symbol for the
number.Theobjectsusedintheexerciserepresentquantities.Circles,blocksand
moneyconcretizethemeaningofnumerosityforthestudent.Thewrittenform
orthenumberstrengthenstheconnectionbetweenthesymbolandthenumber
word.
Itispossibletoinfluencethedifficultyoftheexercisebyvaryingtheobjectsbeing asked. Money is more challenging than circles, because it is not enough to
merelycountthenumberofcoinsornotes.However,thequantityofcirclescan
behardtocountiftheamountislargeenough.Thequestionscanconcentrateon
a specific property of numbers, such as the connection between the word and
symbolfornumbers,orvarythequestionsevenmore.
4.4.6 Long division
IntheLongdivisionexercise,thestudentspracticedivisionstepbystep.
The editor settings contain options to set the number of questions, the
number range for the division and the minimum and maximum of the answer.
Additionallytheoptionatthebottomcanbeusedtodecideshouldthedivision
leavearemainderornot.
4.4.7 Calculate in a column
Calculatinginacolumnmakesiteasiertoperformbasicarithmeticoperations with large numbers, as they can be divided into smaller operationsonmorefamiliarnumberranges.Thisexercisetypemakesitpossibletodo
addition,subtractionandmultiplicationcalculations.Ineachofthelattertheun-
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derstandingofthedecimalsystemisheightened(positionandcrossingthetens
boundary),evenifitisnotalwayssoobvious.
Whencalculatinginacolumn,thenumbersarearrangedsuchthattheones,tens,
hundreds,etc.areintheirrespectivecolumns.Thecalculationisdonefromright
toleft,whichiscontrarytotheusualdirectionofcalculating,andthisissomething topay attention to. When borrowing, it is important to say that any borrowing is done from the tens or hundreds (not from the neighbor, or from the
left),soastomaintaintheconnectiontothedecimalsystem.
Thecalculationinacolumnexercisecanbeusedtopracticememorynumbersas
wellbycheckingtheGradememorynumbersoption.Thiswillalsoincludethe
memorynumbersinthegradingprocess.Inmultiplicationexercises,themultiplier can be chosen tohave either oneor more numbers. If there is more than
onenumberinthemultiplier,thecalculationwillalsoincludeanaddingphase.
Incasethecalculationshouldbedoneon,forexamplenumbersdivisibleby10,
thentheSeparatetermrangesandForcedivisibilityoptionsmustbecheckedon
bothterms.Thedivisibilityshouldbe10.0.Thetermsmayhaveseparatedivisibilityfromoneanother.
4.4.8 Calculate decimals
Calculationisdoneondecimalnumbersinthesamemannerasonnatural
numbers,withthedifferenceofthesmallestlocationbeingthetenthsinstead of ones. Crossing the tens boundary is difficult for many young students,
andifthisisthecase,thencrossingtheonesboundarywillmostlikelybehard
here as well. Calculation strategies work equally well for decimal numbers as
theydofornaturalnumbers.Itisworthwhiletopayattentiontothese.
Theoptionsinthisexerciseareadditionorsubtractionandwhethertoshowany
visualization.TheAnswerbychoosingoptionallowsthestudenttoclickonan
appropriate number of bars, whereas the normal method of answering is to
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write the answer to a text field. It is not recommended to use visualization for
decimalsnumbersover2.
Visualizationcanbeusedtohelpinthecalculation,becausegreenbarsturnto
redonesbyclickingwiththemouse.Itisthuspossibletovisualizethecalculation0.8-0.4byfirstcoloring4barsredfromthefirstnumberandthencounting
thegreenbars.
4.4.9 Bar chart exercise
Readingagraphteachesinterpretingthemandgivesthestudentsideas
onthescalesofnumbers.Thegraphcontainsascalebasedontherandomizednumbers.Tomakethetaskeasier,thesettingscanbesetsothatallvaluesofthebarsare shownatalltimes,oronlywhenthemousehoversonthe,.
Both of them can be turned off, which really tests the number and chart interpretingskillsofthestudent!
Thedescriptioncanbeanytopicthatiscontemporaryorinterestingtothestudents.Thenamescanalsobemodifiedsothattheyaremorefamiliartothestudents.Thenumberrangesusedforthenumbersusedintheexpressionandthe
solutioncanbe setintheeditor.Thesecanbeusedtonoticeablyinfluencethe
difficultyoftheexercise.
Whenwritingnamesfortheexercisedescription,@1standsforthefirstname,
@2forthesecondandsoforth.Forexample,ifthefirstnameis“Mike”,“Mike’s”
[email protected]’s.
4.4.10
Calculate fractions
Fractionsareanewwaytowritenumbers.Afractioncorrespondstoa
division and the value of a fraction corresponds to the dividend of the
division. Still, 1/3 is not equal to 0.3333..., because 1/3 is the exact value and
0.3333…isjustanestimate.
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Calculating with fractions is more difficult because there are more rules than
whencalculatingwithwholenumbers.Inadditionandsubtraction,thedenominators must be the same, if not the fractions will have to be expanded so that
theyhavethesamedenominator.Inmultiplication,thenominatorsandthedenominatorsaremultipliedseparately.Divisionisperformedas amultiplication
withthedifferencethatoneofthefractionsis‘upsidedown’.
Therangesforthevalueofthefractionsarechosenintheeditor.Inadditionto
thevalue,alsorangesforthenominatoranddenominatorareset.Withoutthese
ranges, a fraction 4/1 is quite likely. When the maximum value of a fractionis
cappedatone,theresultisbetterfractionsforcalculation.Theoptiontohavethe
samedenominatoralsoexists,withanadditionaloptiontochoosewhichoperationsareallowed.Thefractionscanalsobedisplayedasmixedfractions,where
thewholesaredisplayedinfrontofthefraction,e.g.21/2.
4.4.11
Convert fractions to decimals and vice versa
Theconversionexerciseiscreatedtopractice convertingbothdecimals
tofractionsandfractionstodecimals.Thenumberofquestionsandthe
number range is chosen in the editor. Notice that the range is given as whole
numbers.
Theteachercanadditionallychoosewhichconversionsareperformed,orifboth
aredoneandhowmanyvisibledecimalsareshown.IftheAnswerbychoosing
option is checked, the correct answer will be given by coloring the required
numberofbarsinthegivenimage;otherwisetheansweriswritteninnormally.
4.4.12
First degree equations
Intheeditorforthefirstdegreeequations,theequationsaregivenranges
fortheequationspresentedtothestudents.Theequationsarefirstgiven
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thetypeofroots;youcanchooseoneormoretypes.Afterthisthevaluerange
for the root is given. The answer will always be within this range. Finally the
numberofrepetitions(howmanyquestionsthestudentwillbegiven)ischosen.
4.4.13
Math audio arithmetic
In this exercise type, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
canbepracticedonnaturalnumbers.This exerciseallowsdisplayinga
calculationnormally,butalsotolistentoitspokenoutloud.Currentlyallaudiois
onlyinFinnish.Boththecalculationandtheresultcanbevisualizedgraphically.
The number of questions, range for numbers and the minimum and maximum
valuesforthesolutioncanbechosenintheeditor.Theoperatorsusedinthecalculationsarealsochosen.Theoptionsbelowthesecanbeusedtochoosewhethertheexpressionisshown,iftheexpressionisspokenoutloudandwhetherto
visualizethenumbers.
4.4.14
Fill euqation
This exercise type can be used to display simple equations, which the
student must complete. The teacher enters the complete equations and
chooseswhichpartsarehidden.Thestudentwillthensolvetheequationsbyeitherdraggingorenteringnumbersandoperatorstothegaps.Oneexercisemay
consistofmorethanoneequation.
Theequationscontaintwonumbers,anoperatorbetweenthemandtheresult.
Thenumbers,operatorandsolutionarewrittentothebluerectangles:
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Illustration57TheFillEquationeditor.Theteacherhasenteredtheequation1+2=3.
Theequationcanbecontinuedonthefollowinglinestartingwiththesolutionof
thepreviousequationbypressingAdd.TheUpdatevaluesbuttonwillcheckthe
equationholds.
Thesettingsforthisexercisearefoundundertheblueeditorscreen.Extravalues
canbeenteredintheNumberfield.Similarly,theOperatorfieldcanbeusedto
addextraoperatorsavailabletothestudent.Itisalsopossibletochoosewhethertoallowreusingtheequationelementsornot.
4.4.15
Timed level test
Theideainthetimedleveltestistocomputeasmanybasicarithmetic
operationsaspossibleinagiventime.Thistestcaneasilyshowanylevel
differences between students, and it is especially suitable for individualizing
teaching.Theeditorcanbeusedtosetthetimeavailableforthetest,andwhethertoshowthequestionsindividuallyorallatonce.Theeditoralsoallowsdefin-
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ing the value ranges for the terms and the solutions andthe operators used in
thecalculations.
4.4.16
Drilling games
ViLLE offers several different games to practice primary school math.
Gamesmakeroutinecalculationmoreinterestingandincreasestudents’
motivation.Thecompetitiveelementprovidedbygamesalsomakesthemmore
interesting.
Therearesixdifferentgames:
·
Laddergame:Theobjectofthegameistoclimbladdersbychoosingthe
ladderthatshowsthecorrectanswertoagivencalculation.
·
Flyingobjects: Calculations fly at the player, and the player’s task is to
choosethecorrectsolutiontothegivencalculationasfastaspossible.
·
Droppingnumbers:Acalculationisshownatthetopofthescreen,and
the player must choose the correct solution from balls that are falling
down.
·
Racer/Racersand/Racersunset:Inthegame,theplayerdrivesarace
carandisrequiredtochangelanessothattheracerhitsthecorrectanswertothegivencalculation.Therearedifferentbackdropsfortheracing
game.
Allgamesletyouchoosewhetherthequestionsaregeneratedonthefly,orifa
pre-made set is used. If the questions are pre-made, the games can be used to
practicesubjectsotherthanmath.
By selecting the Randomize calculations option at the top of the editor, the
typesandvaluerangesforthecalculationscanbesetfortherandomgenerator.
Ifthisisnotchecked,the calculationscanbeinputmanually.Pressingthe Add
questionsbuttonwillincreasethenumberofquestionsinthegame.The Gen-
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erate calculations button allows you to generate templates for the questions
andthenmodifythemtosuityourneeds.
4.4.17
Memory game
TheMemorygameistheclassiccardgame,wherecardsareflippedover
inordertofindmatchingpairs.InViLLE,thecardscanhaveeithertextor
an image, which allow this exercise type to be used in most subjects. The card
pairscouldbedefinedinmathsothatonecardcontainsthemathematicaloperationandtheotherthesolution.Inbiology,thepairscouldbedefinedsothatone
cardcontainstheimageofaplantandtheotherthename.
Inthememorygameeditorthenumberandtheircontentisdefined.Thecontent
maybeeithertextoranimage.ByclickingtheGeneratequestionsthecardscan
easilybefilledwithmathematicalcomputations.
4.4.18
Rounding exercise
Theroundingexerciseisusedtopracticeroundingintegersanddecimal
numbers. The exercise can be answered in two ways, specified by the
teacher:eitherdraggingthenumberontothecorrectalternative,orwritingthe
correctanswer.Bothmethodscanalsobeusedinthesameexercise.
Thenumberofchoiceandopenquestionsisfirstdecidedonintheeditor.Then,
the rounding targets are chosen; by choosingfor instance 100, the given numberswillhavetoberoundedtothenearest100.
4.4.19
Fuzzy math game
Thefuzzymathgameisusedtopracticerecognizingnumbersandquantities.Thestudentisshownballsof2-4colorsforapre-specifiedtime,and
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thenaskedtoassesshowmany(orhowbigaportion)oftheballswasofacertain color. E.g. “Howmany of the balls were blue?” or “What percentage of the
ballsweregreen?”
Theeditorcanbeusedtodeterminethegroupingoftheballs.Theycaneitherbe
showninagridorplacedrandomlyonthescreen.Then,thenumberofgroups
(i.e.colors)ischosen.Theteachercanalsodecideonwhethertheballsareorganizedbycolor,orshuffledandchoosingthetypesofthequestions.
4.4.20
Unit conversion exercise
The unit conversion exercise is used to practice time, length, volume,
weightandareaconversions.Theteachercanchosewhichunitsareused
intheconversionsandoneexercisecanhavemultipleunits,thusitispossibleto
haveanexercisewherebothweightandareaconversionsarepracticed.
Theeditorcanbeusedtoaddconversionquestionsbyfirstselectingthedesired
quantityandtasktypeandthenclickingonAddtask.Noticethattheexercise
needsatleastonetaskoneachdifficultyfortheexercisetobeusable.Afteradding a task, its parameters can be modified, for example by choosing the units,
theirminimumandmaximumvaluesandtheprecisionoftheconversion.Asalways,itisrecommendedtopreviewtheexercisebeforesavingtoensuretheexerciseisdiverseenoughandpedagogicallysuccessful.
4.4.21
Expresion exercise
Theexpressionexercisecan beusedtopracticebasic arithmeticoperations(addition,subtraction,multiplicationanddivision)andtheorderof
calculation within a given range. The teacher can choose the number of questions,thevaluerangeforthesolutionandthetermsindependentlyofoneanother.Itisalsopossibletochoosewhichoperatorsareincludedinthecalculations.
TheElementtohideoptioncanbeusedtodecidewhichpartoftheequationthe
studentneedstofillin.
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4.4.22
Geometry exercise
Thegeometryexerciseisusedtopracticegeometricshapesandbasicoperations on them. The exercise currently contains basic geometric
shapes, suchascircles,trianglesandrectangles.Thepossiblequestionsinclude
calculatingtheareaorperimeter.
Theteachermustfirstselectthenumberofquestionsandtheirtype.Thenitis
possibletochoosewhichshapesareincludedintheexerciseandwhethertoallowdecimalsorshouldthenumbersbeforcedtointegers.Thereisalsoanoption to limit the size of the shape on the coordinate system to prevent e.g. the
creationofhugeshapes.
4.4.23
Number line exercise
Thenumberlineexerciseshelpstudentstoperceivenumbersandtheir
natural order. This exercise type strengthens the number skills of the
studentandgivesthefoundationforlatermathematicalskills,suchascrossing
thetensboundaryinbothdirectionsandmultiplication.
This exercise type asks the student to choose a number from within the given
range.Thisrangecanbedeterminedfromtheeditorusingaslider.Thenumbers
shouldremainonthepositiveside,soiftherangeis4,thenthesmallestvalue
should also be 4. When the asked range is 4, a possible question is “Choose a
numbergreaterthan2butsmallerthan10.”Thestudentmustthenclickonan
appropriatespotonthenumberline.
4.4.24
Percentage exercise
Thepercentageexercisecanbeusedtopracticetherelationshipbetween
percentages,fractionsanddecimalnumbers.Theexercisegivesanumber
eitheraspercentageorafractionandasksthestudenttofillagridappropriately.
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Thegivenfractionorpercentagecanalsobeconvertedtoeitherafraction,percentageoradecimalnumber.Whethertoreducethefinalfractionornotcanalso
bechosenformtheeditor.
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5 Materials
Even though the focal point of ViLLE is exercises and constructivist learning,
teaching can be reinforced through providing various study materials. This
chapter explains how touse materials and attach them to courses, rounds and
assignments.Thischapteralsocovershowtomanagematerialsandutilizematerialscreatedbyotherteachers.
5.1 Attaching materials to resources
Materials uploaded to ViLLE can be used as a part of any resource; courses,
rounds and assignments. Any material can be uploaded to ViLLE: text, images,
videoandsoforth.Anuploadedmaterialcanbeusedinmultipleresources,diminishingtheneedtouploadamaterialtoViLLEmultipletimesjustaddittoa
differentresource.
5.1.1 Attaching a material to courses
AmaterialcanbeattachedtoacoursebyenteringthecourseeditmodebynavigatingtoProfile–Owncoursesandclickingonthenameofthecourseonthe
list.OpentheCoursesettingstab.Attachingthematerialisdonefromthepanel
locatedinthelowerrightcorner:
Illustration58materialscanbeaddedtoacoursebydraggingittotheAddedmaterialspanel.
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MaterialscanbedeletedbyclickingontheDeletebuttontotherightofthematerial.Notethatthematerialisaddedtothefirstmaterialfolderuponupload.Managingmaterialsisfurtherdetailedinchapter5.2.
5.1.2 Adding a material to rounds
Ifamaterialisonlyrelevanttoaround,andnotthewholecourse,itisrecommendedtoaddthematerialtothatspecificroundinsteadofthewholecourse.To
add materials to a round, navigate to Profile – Own courses and click on the
coursenamethatcontainstheround.Thematerialisaddedtotheroundinthe
samewayastoacourse;draggingthematerialtotheAttachedMaterialspanel
locatedinthelowerrightcorneroftheroundeditor.
5.1.3 Attaching materials to an assignment
Materials can also be attached to an assignment. Attaching materials to an assignment is done by first navigating to the course edit mode (Profile – Own
courses, click on the name of the course) and then opening the Rounds in
course tab. Click on the assignment the material needs to be attached to open
theEditassignmentdialogwindow.:
Illustration59Editassignmentdialogwindow
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AttachingthematerialisdonebydraggingtotheDraganddropfileherefield
intheAttachedmaterialspanel.
5.1.4 Attaching previously uploaded materials
ToattachapreviouslyuploadedmaterialtoViLLEtoanyresource,seethecorresponding chapter above, but rather than dragging the material to the panel,
presstheEditbutton:
Illustration60Addingexistingmaterialsfromfolders
DragtherequiredmaterialstotheDraganddropfileherefield.
5.2 Managing own materials
Add uploaded materials are automatically added to your material folders. To
browsethesematerials,navigatetoMaterials–Ownmaterials.
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Illustration61Ownmaterialsview
Thematerialbrowserisdividedintotwosectionsmuchliketheotherbrowser
viewsinViLLE:Thematerialfoldersontheleft,andthedetailsofthechosenmaterialontheright.Touploadanewmaterial,butnotattachittoanyresource,
theAddmaterialbuttoncanbeused.Afteruploadingthematerial,giveitaname
andadescription.Additionally,thevisibilityofthematerialcanbechosen:public
isvisibletoallotherteachers,whereas a privatematerialis visibletoonlythe
owner. Notice that if a private material is added to a course, round or assignment,itisshowntothestudents,regardlessofthevisibilitychoice.
ToactuallyuploadthematerialtoViLLE,draganddropthefiletothebottommostfield.Ifthewrongfileisuploadedbyaccident,clickingthe
buttonwill
deletetheuploadedfile
IfalotofmaterialisuploadedtoViLLE,itisprudenttosortthematerialstodifferent folders. To create new material folders, click on the Newfolder button.
GivethefolderanameandpressSave.
ItispossibletodownloadtheselectedmaterialbypressingtheDownloadbuttoninthetoolbar.Additionallyitispossibletomodifythepropertiesofyourma-
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terial – the name, description and visibility setting – by selecting the material
andpressingtheEditbutton.Todeleteamaterialorafolder(mustbeempty),
selectitandpresstheDeletebutton.Tomovematerialsfromonefoldertoanother,simplyperformadraganddrop.
5.3 Browsing public materials
AnyuploadedmaterialcanbesetpublicinViLLE.Thisallowsteacherstoshare
materialswithouthassle;anuploadedlectureslideornotescaneasilybefound
inthesamesystemastheassignments.Tobrowsepublicmaterials,navigateto
Materials–Browse.
Illustration62Thematerialbrowseview
The material browser works the same way as all other browsers (See chapter
Error! Reference source not found.). To download a material to your own
omputer,selectitfromthelistandclicktheDownloadbutton.Ifyoufindaninteresting material, it can be added to your bookmarks by clicking the Add
bookmarkbutton.Bookmarksmakeitpossibletoaddamaterialtoaresource
directly from the bookmarks browser (see chapter 5.1.4), and choosing Bookmarkedmaterialsfromthedropdownmenu.
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5.4 Public or private material?
AccordingtotheEndUserLicenseagreementofViLLE,youareonlyallowedto
uploadmaterialstowhichyouhavecopyrights.Thisappliestomaterialssetprivate.However,youareallowedtouploadmaterialstowhichonlyyouhavethe
copyright. In fact the option to set materials private, and thus hide them from
otherteacherswasimplementedforthisexactreason.Anyprivatematerialsattachedtocourseswillnotbecopied,ifthecourse,roundorassignmentiscopied
byanotherteacher.
Whenshouldyousetamaterialpublic?OneofthegoalsofViLLEistoimprove
collaborationbetweenteachers,andthisisachievedbestbysharing,ratingand
commentingonpublicresources.TheViLLETeamopenlyrecommendsopening
allstudymaterialsforpeerreviewandusebyothers!
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6 Tutorials
TutorialsinViLLEmeanapedagogicwholecomprisedofassignmentsandmaterials.Tutorials,then,allowcombiningtext,imagesandvideostotheautomaticallyassessedassignmentsofViLLE.AswithanyotherViLLEresource,usersmay
sharetheirtutorialswithotherusers.
6.1 Using existing tutorials
BrowsingexistingtutorialsispossiblefromtheTutorialbrowser.Tobrowsetutorialsmadebyothers,navigatetoTutorials–Browse.
Illustration63Publictutorialbrowser
Inspectingatutorialispossiblebyfirstselectingitfromthelist.
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Illustration64Tutorialdetails
Thetutorialdetailspanelcontainsthefollowingsections:
1. Thetutorialnameandownerareshownontop.
2. Thepublicdescriptionandnotesforteachersareshownbelowthename
andowner.
3. Thenextsectioncontainsthetagsattachedtothetutorialalongsidewith
the comments and rating of the tutorial. The comments and rating are
partofthesocialaspectofViLLE.
Topreviewatutorial,selectitfromthebrowserandclickontheViewbutton.It
isalsopossibletocopyatutorialsoitcanbeusedonacourseyouownbyclickingtheUtilizebutton.
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TutorialsareroundsinViLLE–onetutorialoftencontainsmorethanoneassignment.NotethatuponintroductionViLLEcreatesacopyofthetutorialso
anymodificationsmadetotheintroducedtutorialwillnotbereflectedinthe
originaltutorial.
6.2 Modifying tutorials
NavigatetoTutorials–Owntutorialsinordertoviewtutorialsownedbyyou.
ClickonNewtutorialtocreateanewtutorialorchooseanexistingtutorialand
clickonEdittoenterthetutorialeditmode.
Illustration65Tutorialeditor
Thetutorialeditorisdividedintothreeareas:
-
The library can be used to collect resources that can easily be reused.
Addinganimageortextherewillmakeiteasytouseitonmultipletutorials.
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-
The Outline shows the current outline of the tutorial being edited; the
panel shows all theheadings of the tutorial by default, but checking the
ShowcontentinOutlineoptionalsoshowsthecontentsections.
-
The components of the tutorial are shown on the large panel to the
right.Thispanelisusedtoconstructthetutorialitself.
6.2.1 Creating and editing tutorial components
Atutorialcomprisesofseveraldifferentcomponents.Thesecomponentsinclude
text, images, videos, assignments or tables. Components can be embedded
straightintothetutorialitself,ortheycanbeaddedtothelibraryfirstandadded
tothetutorialfromthere.Componentsaddedtothelibrarycanalsobeusedin
othertutorials.Toaddanewcomponenttothelibrary,clickonthe
button.
Thecomponentmenuisopened:
Illustration66Addingacomponenttothelibrary
Choose the component type you wish to add to the tutorial toopen the editor
view.Eachoftheseeditorsrequiresthecomponentbegivenaname.Thisname
isnotshowninthetutorialitself,insteadthisnameisshownintheLibrarypanel
andthetutorialeditor.Thenextsubchaptersdiscussthepropertiesoftheavailabletutorialcomponentsbriefly.
6.2.1.1 Adding text
TheeditorusedtocreateatextcomponentissimilartoanyotherViLLEtexteditor.Thecommonformattingoptionsarepresent,ande.g.linkscanbeembedded
inthetext.
6.2.1.2 Adding an image
Animagecomponentcanbeusedtoshowanimagefromtheteacher’sowncomputer(orfromDropboxorGoogleDrive).Therequiredimageischosenbypress-
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ingtheSelectfilebutton.Aftertheimagehasbeenchosen,presstheOKbutton.
Theimagestillrequiresanamebegiveninthepreviewwindow.
ViLLEdoesnorestricttheimageformatsbeingused. However,donotethat
theimagesaddedtothetutorialsareshownas-is,soitisbesttouseoneof
thecommonimageformats:png,jpegandgifthatarecertaintoworkonall
browsers.
6.2.1.3 Adding a video clip
Videoscanbeaddedtothetutorialwiththevideocomponent.CurrentlyViLLE
will only show videos available on YouTube. This means, if you want to add a
video to your tutorial, it must be uploaded to YouTube first. When adding the
videotothetutorial,a URLisrequired,whichcanbecopiedfromtheYouTube
page.IftheowneroftheYouTubevideohasforbiddenembeddingthevideo,that
videocannotbeaddedtothetutorial.
6.2.1.4 Adding an object
An Object in this context means any resource available online. In practice it is
possibletoadd,e.g.anotherwebsite–orapartofit–toyourtutorial.Remember
toonlyusematerialthatyouhavetherighttouse!Addinganobjectisdoneby
givingtheURLoftheobjectandgivingthecomponentaname.
6.2.1.5 Adding a table
Tablescanbecreatedtothetutorialeitherbyembeddingthemasobjectsorcreatingthemwiththetutorial’stableeditor.Firstthenumberofrowsandcolumns
ischosen:
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Illustration67Selectingthenumberofrowsandcolumns
Note that it is possible to modify the numberof rows and columns later. After
clickingtheOKbutton,thetableeditorisopened:
Illustration68Thetableeditor
Thetoolstopreviewandmodifythenumberofrowsandcolumnscanbefound
underthename.TheStylesettingsbuttoncanbeusedtomodifythestyleofthe
wholetable(e.g.thedistanceofthetabletoothercomponentsorthebordersurrounding the table itself). The Cell master style allows modifying the style of
everycellinthetable.Thestylesettingsarecoveredinmoredetaillater.
Therearetwowaystoeditatable:
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1) Ifthecontentofthecellisrelativelyshort–afewwords–itcanbewrittendirectlytothetextareainthecell.
2) Forlongercontentsitismostlikelyeasiertousethecelleditor:toeditthe
contents of a cell, press the edit button . The style of a single cell, the
wholeroworcolumncanbemodifiedbyclickingonthe button.Deletingaroworacolumnisdonewiththe button.
After the content of the table has been entered and named, it is ready to be
saved.Tomodifythecontentsata laterpoint,selectitfromthe Librarypanel
andclickonthe
button.
6.2.2 Tutorial sections
Tutorialsarealwayscomprisedofsections.Thesectionsfunctionascontainers
of the actual tutorial content. Tutorials have three kinds of sections: headers,
contentsectionsandpagebreaks.AddinganewcontentsectionisdonebyclickingtheAddsectionlinkbuttonbelowthecurrentlyaddedtutorialcomponents.
Themenubelowwillbeopened:
Illustration69Choosingthetutorialsectiontoadd
Headersareusedtodefinestructureinthetutorial.Whenaddingaheading,its
nameandlevelaregiven.Thedifferentlevelsoftheheadingsareautomatically
nestedwithintheOutlinepanel(thatis,allleveltwoheadersarebelowtheprevious level one header etc.). The page break section will, as its name implied,
createapagebreakforthetutorial.
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Therestofthesectionsarecontentsections.Thenames(andicons)ofthesectionscanbeusedtodeducehowmanycomponentseachsectioncontains.These
sectionscanbeusedtodefinewherethedifferentcomponentsofthetutorialare
positionedrelativetoeachother:ifthereisneedtohavetwocomponentssideby
side,theDoublesectionisagoodchoice.
Addingasectionintroducesanemptyframeinthetutorialeditor.
Illustration70ADoublesectionaddedtoatutorial
Sectionscanberenamed,movedupordownwardsusingthesettingsicon .–
Anystylesettingscanbesetbyclickingonthe icon.Deletingasectionandall
contentrelatedtoitcanbedonebyclickingonthe icon.
6.2.3 Adding content to the tutorial
Afteratleastonesectionhasbeenaddedtothetutorial,contentcanbeaddedto
it.Therearetwooptionstointroducecontent:
1) Addanexistingcomponentfromthelibrary
2) Createanewcomponentdirectlyintothetutorial
Itisoftenbettertocreateanycontentcomponentintothelibrarysotheycanbe
reusedinothertutorials.Thenagain,averyspecificexplanationtextthisspecific
tutorialisbettertobeaddeddirectlytothetutorial.
To add content to the tutorial, click on the Add content link button inside an
emptyframe:
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Illustration71Addingcontenttotutorials
Addingcomponents(text,images,video,objectsortables)hasbeencoveredearlier.Whencreatingacomponentdirectlyintoaframedoesnotsavethatcomponenttothelibrary,unlessthisisspecificallydefinedintheeditor.
Acomponentchoseninthelibrarywillbeaddedtothetutorialbyselectionthe
optionFromlibrary.Notethatthesamecomponentcanbeaddedtothetutorial
severaltimes.
Notethatwhenacomponentisaddedtothetutorialfromthelibraryitisno
longerlinkedtotheinstanceinthelibrary–Thismakesitpossibletomodify
the instance in the tutorial without having the changes reflected in the instance in the library. Vice versa, modifying a component in the library will
havenoeffectinthecopiesaddedtotutorials.
6.2.4 Adding exercises to tutorials
Atutorialnaturallyneedsexercises.Itispossibletoaddalmostanyautomatically assessed assignment to a tutorial in addition to the file upload assignments.
Currentlythetutorialsdonothavesupportformanuallygradedexercises,peer
reviewedexercisesnorexercisepools
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Anassignmentisaddedbyselectingtheassignmentoptionfromthemenu(see
illustration72).Thiswillopenadialogwindowwhereinyouaregivenachoice
towhetheruseanexerciseyouownorhavebookmarked.Theassignmentisgivenaname,descriptionandamaximumscoreaswithanyotherassignment.All
thesecanbemodifiedlater.Noticethatitisnotpossibletomodifyanassignment
attachedtoatutorialdirectly;theonlywaytomodifyanassignmentaddedtoa
tutorialistodeletetheassignment,modifyitnormallyusingtheViLLEexercise
editorandreattachittothetutorial.
6.2.5 Style settings
Tutorialscanbegivenstylesettingsonmultipledifferentlevels:foracomplete
content section, the frame(s) within a section or specific components within a
section(suchastables).Thestyledialogwindowcanbeopenedbypressingthe
iconontheelementthestyleshouldbeaddedto:
Illustration72Thestylesettingswindow
Thesectionsforthisdialogwindowfromthetop:
-
Presets:Itispossibletousepreviouslysavedpresetsorsavethecurrent
settingsasanewpreset.Previouslycreated(andtheonesreadymadeby
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ViLLE)canbeappliedfromthedropdownmenu.Thecurrentsettingscan
be saved by clicking the icon. The dialog window can be reset to its
startingvaluesfromthereset button.
-
Colors: This section defines the colors for the background and text.
Changing the color is done by pressing the button. If Transparent is
checked,nobackgroundcolorisused.
-
Border:Thissectiondefinesthetypeoflineusedtoborderthecomponent. The style can be NONE, SOLID or DOTTED. Additionally, the color
and width of the border can be set in pixels. Rounding determines how
manypixelsareroundedoffthecorners.
-
Font:Thissectiondeterminesthefontusedinthecomponent;itssizeand
possible bolding or italics. Notice that any font settings in a component
withinthisone,theirfontsettingsmayoverridethesesettings.
-
Margin: This section determines how far apart this element is from its
surroundingelements.IfSymmetricisnotchecked,marginsforeachside
canbedefinedseparately.
-
Padding:Thissettingdefinesthespacebetweentheborderandthecontentoftheelement.Symmetryworksasitdoeswithmargins.
Illustration73Therelationshipbetweenmargins,bordersandpaddingtothecontent
6.3 Tutorial settings
TutorialsettingscanbemodifiedbyselectingSettingsfromthetoolbar:
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Illustration74Tutorialsettings
Tutorialsaregiventhesamebasicpropertiesasanyotherresource:
TheNameisshowntobothstudentsandteachers,descriptiongivesfurtherinformation of the tutorial to the students, and notes for teachers give information about the tutorial to other teachers only; notes for teachers are not
showntostudents.Ifthetutorialisnotpublic,notesforteacherscanbeusedto
givenotestoyourself.TheSettingsdialogwindowcontainsthesettingstosetthe
visibility,language,possibleprogramminglanguageanddifficultyofthetutorial.
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7 Statistics and assessment
Accessingstudentstatisticsandprogressionduringacourseisanindispensable
sourceofinformation.Forthispurpose,ViLLEoffersmulti-facetedstatisticson
every course. These statistics are accessible to the course owner and assisting
teachersalike.
StatisticsinViLLEaredividedintofourdifferentsections:
1. Studentperformance
2. Assignmentsgradedmanuallybytheteacher
3. Coursestatistics
4. Surveys
Remember that the course statistics are accessible to both the course owner
andallassistingteachers(seechapter2.8)onthecourse.Itisalsoworthnoting
thatonmasscourseswithmanystudentsandassignments,computingthestatisticsmaytakeanoticeableamountoftime(overtenseconds).
7.1 Student performance
TheStudentperformancesectionispossiblythesinglemostimportantoneofthe
statisticsviewsinViLLE.Thissectionallowsexaminingthepointsandtimeusage of each student for rounds and assignments alike. To examine the performanceofstudents,navigatetoStatistics–Studentperformance:
Illustration75Studentperformance
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Thecourseandroundcanbeselectedfromabovethetable.Thesamemenubar
canbeusedtoselectwhichareaofthecourseistobeinspected.Therearefour
options:
1. Scores – Shows the scores the student has achieved. Each assignment
showsthebestsubmissionbydefault.
2. Number of submissions – Displays the number of submissions to the
assignmentorroundinquestion.
3. Time used – Displays the combined time spent by the student on the
assignmentorroundinquestion.
4. Scorepersecondratio–Displaystheratioofscoretotimespent.This
metriccanbeusedtomeasurethedifficultyofanassignment:themore
points per second, the easier the assignment is. The values are often
between0.01:1–0.5:1.
Therightmostdropdownmenucanbeusedtochoosewhichvaluestoinspect.
Forinstance,thelatestsubmissioncanbeexaminedinsteadofthebestoneinthe
scoringview(usefulinexamswhenthelatestsubmissionisassessedinsteadof
the latest) or the averages of all submissions. In the time view itis possible to
examinetheaverageorthetimespentonthelatestsubmission.
7.2 Manually graded assignments
Submissionstomanuallygradedassignments(seechapter2.4)canbeexamined
andgradedbynavigatingtoStatistics–Manuallygraded.Thecontentsofthe
viewdependonthechosenexercisetype.Thetoolbaratthetopoftheviewcan
beusedtochoosethecorrectcourseandassignment:
Illustration76Choosingthecourseandassignment
Gradingdifferenttheexercisetypesareexplainedinthenextchapter.
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7.2.1 Marking attendance
Attendancecanbemarkeddirectlyintothetable:
Illustration77Markingattendance
Notthatthereisnoneedtoperformaseparatesave,astheyaresavedautomaticallybyViLLEeachtimeacheckboxisclicked.Thisfeatureisexplainedinmore
detailinchapter2.4.3.
7.2.2 Marking demonstrations
Demonstrationscanbemarkedintwodifferentways:
1) TheteachersentersthedemonstrationscorestoViLLE
2) Thestudentsentertheirowndemonstrationattendance,andtheteacher
savesthemtoViLLE.
Thelatteroptionisrecommendedespeciallyforlargercourses.Thestudentscan
entertheirattendanceinthestudentinputviewwhichcanbeopenedbypressingStudentinputmode.
Studentscanentertheirattendanceby
1. UsingtheirRFIDtagorcardonareader;thisfunctionalityrequiresthat
theschoolhasanactiveRFID-feature.
2. Writingtheirstudentnumberandpressing<enter>.
3. Clickingontheirnameinthelist.
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Thestudentthencheckstheassignmentsheorshehasdoneintheopeneddialog
windowandpressesOK.
After all students have input their attendance, the input view can be closed by
pressingClose.Closingthestudentviewrequiresateacherpassword;thepasswordisthelocalpasswordusedforViLLE,ifHAKA-loginhasbeenused,thelocal
passwordcanbesetfromProfile–Settings.
Thenextviewisacompilationoftheattendancedatainputbythestudents.Studentscanbedividedtosmallergroupsbyclicking Assignstudygroups.ViLLE
willdoitsbesttocreatethegroupssothateachgrouphastheanswertoeach
assignment.
Thesameviewcanbeusedtochoosethestudentstopresenttheirassignments
by pressing Assign presenters. ViLLE takes into account previous presentations, so the same student should not have to present his or her assignments
multipletimesinarow.BypressingShowpresenters,ViLLEwillshowacompilationofeachassignmentandtheirpresenter;thisishandytoshowtothestudentsusingaprojector.
Theattendancemarkingscanbemodifiedorenteredbytheteacherbyclicking
onthenameofthestudent,makingthemodificationsandclickingOk.
7.2.3 Grading course assignment
Thegradingviewforacourseassignmentisfurtherdividedintothree:theOverall,Stageandfinalgradingviews.ChangingtheviewisdonefromtheViewdrop
drownmenu.TheOverallviewdisplaystheoverallprogressofeachstudentor
group:
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Illustration78Gradingcourseassignments:theoverallview
To examine each stage separately, choose that stage from the Viewdrop down
menu.Toexaminethesubmissionsmadebythestudents,clickonthelinkinthe
Submission column. Evaluating the stage is done by clicking on the Evaluate
link. Note that students are not allowed to advance to the next stage until a
teacherhasacceptedthepreviousstage.
Inadditiontoevaluatingeachstageseparately,a finalgradecanbegivenfrom
theFinalgradingviewfromthedropdownmenu.
7.2.4 Grading essays
Students’essayscanconvenientlybegatheredinViLLEusingtheSurveyexercise
type (see chapter 4.2.2). When the exercise is added to a round as Manually
graded,thesubmissionscanbeannotatedandgradedbyhandafterthesubmissionhasbeenmade.Firstchoosethecoursetheessayison,thentheessayassignmentfromtheassignmentlist.ClickontheEvaluatelinkintheSubmission
columntobeginevaluation.Theevaluationwindowisopens:
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Illustration79Submissionevaluatingdialogwindow
Youcangradetheexerciseinthe Gradeselectorandcommentonthesubmission in the Comment textbox. The student’s submission can be annotated by
movingthecursorontothestudent’ssubmission.Ahighlighterappears,which
allows the highlighting and annotation of the submission. After highlighting a
portionoftheanswer,adialogwindowappearstotherightofthescreen:
Illustration80Annotatingananswer
Clickingthe +Addanotebuttonletsyouattachanotetotheannotatingcolor.
Thesamedialogallowschangingthehighlightercoloraswell.
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SavetheannotationandgradingbyclickingSaveatthetopofthedialogwindow.
Toviewthesubmissionsofeitherthenextorpreviousstudent,simplyclickon
thePreviousorNextbuttons.
7.3 Course statistics
The course statistics view shows a condensed compilation of the statistics for
roundsandassignments.ViewthestatisticsbynavigatingtoStatistics–Course
statistics.
Illustration81Coursestatisticsview
To examine the total statistics for the course, open the Coursetotalstatistics
tab. Viewing individual rounds is possible by unfolding the corresponding tab.
The show statistics for all assignments link button displays all statistics on
assignments:submissions,scoringandaveragesoftimespent.
7.4 Surveys
ThereisasectionreservedforViLLEsurveys.BynavigatingtoStatistics–Surveys, all surveys on a specific course can be examined. There are two views
available for surveys: a compilation of all answers from all students in a table
view,oraviewforviewinganswersforindividualstudents.Themostappropri-
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ateviewdependsonthekindofsurvey:surveyswithshortanswers(scales,or
multiple choices) are best viewed in table mode, whereas surveys with long,
openanswers,suchasessays,arebestviewedindividually.Toopentheindividualview,clickonthenameofastudent.
7.5 Exporting statistics
Even though ViLLE provides a plethora of views to examine student performance, post processing the statistics is often easier on external tools. Statistics
canbeexportedeitherasanExcelsheetoraCSVtextfile.
Illustration82Exportingstudentperformanceasanexcelsheet
The file format and statistics to export can bechosen depending on the export
view.Thedefaultistheviewshowninillustration82.
TheFilenamefieldcontainsthenameofthefilethatthedatashouldbesaved
in.Avoidusingspecialcharactersinthefilename;numbers,letters(a-z)andthe
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underscore are characters that are guaranteed to work with all operating systemsandbrowsers.
TheExportfileformatchoicedeterminesthetypeofthedatabeingexported.If
Textfileischosen,thedelimitermustalsobeenteredintotheDelimitfieldsby
textfield.Alwaysuseacharacterthatisnotusedinanysubmissions,asthedelimiterisusedtoseparatelinesinthedata.
TIP:Notethatduetobrowserlimitations,downloadingthefilemaynotwork
correctlyinolderbrowsers.Ifthereisaproblemwhendownloading,trythe
newest version of Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome – these browsers are
guaranteedtowork.
7.6 Inspecting submissions
Submissionstoindividualassignmentscanbeviewedbyfirstselectingastudent,
thenpressingtheSubmissionsbutton:
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Illustration83Submissions
It is only possible to inspect submissions by navigating to Statistics – Student
performanceandthenbyselectinganexerciseround.Astudentalsoneedstobe
selected;iftherearemanystudentsonthecourse,searchingforaspecific studentispossiblebyinputtinganameoruseridtothefieldsabovethetableand
pressing<enter>.
The assignment to be inspected is chosen from the Assignments drop down
menu. The panel below the drop down menushows the scores and number of
submissions for the assignment in addition to the student’s basic information.
Overridingthescoreforanassignmentcanbedonebyenteringthenewscoreby
pressingtheEditbutton.Thisallowsyouto,forinstance,givesomepointsfora
submissionthatwaspartiallycorrect,butnopointsweregivenbytheautomatic
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assessment (e.g. a partially correct programming exercise, or a quiz where the
answerswerealmostcorrect).
TheExportdatabuttonwillexportselectedassignmentdataofchosenstudents
toatextfile.Thisenablesyoutoe.g.archiveanswersorgivethesubmissionsto
theassistingteachersforgrading.
ClickingtheExitbuttonwillreturntotheStudentperformanceview.
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8 Profile, Messages and settings
Sections for changing settings, bookmarks and browsing contacts can be found
undertheProfilemenuitemInadditiontoownedcourses.Thecurrentversion
hasmovedMessagesasitsownsectioninthemainmenu.
8.1 Messages
ViLLEhasaninbuiltmessagingsystemwithwhichyoucansendmessagestoeitheryourteachercolleaguesorthestudentsenrolledtoyourcourses.Messages
canonlybesenttoteachersonyourcontactlistandtheemailsoftheenrolled
students.
Toviewmessagesyouhavereceived,navigatetoMessages–Inbox.
Illustration84MessageInbox
Sending a reply or a new message is possible from this view. Notice that only
peopleaddedtoyourcontactscanreceivemessagesfromyou.
TheNewmessageviewisopenedwhenevera newmessageora replyisbeing
written:
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Illustration85Newmessageview
ClickingontheSelectrecipient(s)buttonletyouchoosetherecipientsforyour
message.BycheckingtheSendalsoasE-mailoption,thesamemessageissent
totheemailaddressoftherecipientsinadditiontotheinboxinViLLE;whether
the message is received as an email depends on whether the recipient has allowedmessagestobesenttotheiremailaddressfromViLLE.
8.2 Settings
AllsettingsrelatedtoViLLEcanbechangedbyeithernavigatingtoProfile–SettingsorselectingSettingsfromthedropdownmenuontheusername.
Illustration86SettingsinViLLE
Thesettingsfromthetop:
1. Name
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2. Studentiforotheridcode:incaseyouarenota student,chooseanyid
you remember; in case you forget the password, you can ask ViLLE to
sendyouanewpasswordusingViLLEviaemail.
3. Educationalinstitute:TheeducationalinstitutefromwhichViLLEisbeing
used.
4. Language:ThelanguageusedintheViLLEuserinterface;notethatifyou
are a teacher, the languages can be set separately for the student and
teacherviews.
5. Dateformat:DetermineshowalldatesaredisplayedinViLLE.
6. Profile visible to otherusers: Determines whether your public profile is
showntootherusers.
7. Preferreddecimalseparator:determineswhetherthecommaora dotis
usedtoseparatedecimals.
8. Password:IftheHAKAloginsystemisnotbeingused,yourpasswordcan
bechangedfromthispanel.
Additionally,aprofilepicturecanbesetforyourViLLEaccountfromtheUpload
button on the left side of the Settings view. This picture is shown in comment
threadsandthecontactview.RemovingtheprofilepictureisdonefromtheRemoveyourprofilepicture.
RemembertofinallypresstheSavebutton,ifanysettingshavebeenmodified.
8.3 Bookmarks
Bookmarksareahandytoolformarkinginterestingresources;courses,assignments and materials for later use. Adding a bookmark is done in any browser
viewbyselectingtheresourceandclickingontheAddbookmarkbutton.
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TIP:BecauseViLLEisanonlineapplicationworkingundervirtuallyoneaddress, it is not possible to use the browser’s bookmarks and favorites featurestosaveapagewithinViLLE.Anytimeaninterestingresourceisfound,
itisworthwhiletosetabookmark.Thisletsyouaddthatresourceeasilylateronwithouthavingtospendextratimesearchingforitagain.
Tobrowseandmanageyourbookmarks,navigatetoProfile–Bookmarks.
Illustration87Bookmarks
ThebookmarkbrowserworksjustlikeanyotherbrowserviewinViLLE.Topreviewtheresourceabookmarkreferences(e.g.acourseorassignment)clickthe
Viewbutton.DeletingabookmarkisdonebypressingDeleteandmodifyingthe
bookmark details (name and description of the bookmark, not the resource it
pointsto)isdonefromtheEditbutton.Creatingnewbookmarkfoldersisdone
bypressingNewfolderandgivingitaname,thenpressingOK.
Selecting a bookmark will open an info panel which has two tabs: Bookmark
and Bookmarked resource. The Bookmark tab displays the information you
haveaddedtothebookmark(i.e.itsnameanddescription),whereastheBookmarked resource tab displays the information of the resource the bookmark
pointsto.
8.4 Contacts
Inspecting contacts can be done by navigating to Profile– Contacts. Note that
the contacts list shows only those teachers you have added as contacts; the
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teacherswhohaveaddedyouasacontact,butyouhavenotaddedthemwillnot
beshownonthelist.
Choosingacontactfromthelistwillshowyouthatperson’spublicprofile,which
showsallthepubliccoursesandassignmentsofthatuser.
Toaddauserasacontact,clickontheuser’s nameinanybrowserwindowin
ViLLE.Clickingthenameoftheuserwillopenadropdownmenu:
Illustration88Themenuthatopensafterclickingonauser’sname.
Themenuinillustration88allowsaddingtheuserasacontact,viewthisuser’s
profile(ifitispublic)orsendhimamessage.
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9 Suffix 1: Quick guide
Thequickguideshowsbuttons,linksandbuttonsin boldandtargetsasitalics.
Thus,thepathProfile>Owncourses>chooseacourse>courserounds>Create
newround,meansfirstclickonProfileinthemainmenu,Owncoursesunderit
andpresstheNewcoursebuttoninthetoolbar.
Courses and rounds
Action
Instructions
Creatinganewcourse
Profile>Owncourses>Newcourse
Creatingaround
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course > Rounds in course > Create
newround
Copyingaround(owncourse)
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course>Test>Press
on the
roundyouwanttocopy
Copyingaround(publiccourse)
Courses>Browse >Choose a course >
View > Press
on the round
youwanttocopy
Deletingaround
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course > Rounds in course > Open
theround-to-be-deletedbyclickingits
name>Delete
Togglingroundvisibility
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course > Rounds in course > Click
ontheroundtotogglevisibility
Registrationlinkforstudents
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course > Course settings > The link
can be found at “Registration link for
students”
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Exams
Action
Instructions
Creatinganewexamround
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course > Rounds in course > Create
newround>Choose“Examround”as
theroundtype.
Definingtheopeningandclosing
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
datesforexams
course>Roundsincourse>Opena
roundbyclickingitsname>Edit>Set
theopeningandclosingdates>Save
Monitoringanexam
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course > Rounds in course > Open a
round by clicking its name > Exam
monitor
Reopeninganexamforastudent(in Profile > Own courses > Choose a
caseclosedbyaccident)
course > Round in course > Open a
round by clicking its name > Exam
monitor > Click the link under State
forthestudent.
Extendingadeadlineforastudent
Profile > Own courses > Choose a
course>Roundsincourse>Opena
round by clicking its name > Monitor
view > Click the link under Closing
date>Setnewclosingdate>Save
Exercises
Action
Instructions
Creatinganewexercise
Exercises>Newexercise
Selecting an owned exercise from Exercises > Own exercises > Open a
thebrowser
folder by clicking its name > Click on
thenameoftheexercise
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Modifyinganexercise
Exercises> Ownexercises>Choose the
exercise>Edit
Adding an owned exercise to a Exercises> Ownexercises>Choose the
course
exercise>Utilize
Addingapublicexercisetoacourse Exercises > Browse > Choose the exercise>Utilize
Removing an assignment from a Profile > Own courses > Choose the
course
course>Roundsincourse>Aopen
the round you want by clicking its
name > Click
on the assignment
whichshouldberemoved
Statistics and assessment
Action
Instructions
Examiningscoresforaround/ex-
Statistics > Student performance >
am
Choosethecourse>Choosetheround
Publishinigexamresults
Statistics > Student performance >
Choose the course > Choose the exam
round > Select “Visible to students”
frombelowthetable
Evaluatingassignments(e.g.essays) Statistics > Manually graded > Choose
thecourse> Choosethe assignment>
Begin the evaluation by clicking Evaluateonthestudent’srow
Modifyingautomaticassessments
Statistics > Student performance >
Choosethecourse>Choosetheround
>Submissions
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