Digital Photography Mastery Learn How to Start a Digital Photography Business For Fun & Profits! DISCLAIMER / LEGAL NOTICE The information presented in this ebook represents the views of the publisher as of the date of publication. The publisher reserves the rights to alter and update their opinions based on new conditions. The Publisher has strived to be as accurate and complete as possible in the creation of this ebook, notwithstanding the fact that he/she does not warrant or represent at any time that the contents within are accurate due to the rapidly changing nature of the Internet. While all attempts have been made to verify information provided in this publication, the Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or contrary interpretation of the subject matter herein. Any perceived slights of specific persons, peoples, or organizations are unintentional. In practical advice books, like anything else in life, there are no guarantees of income made. 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Table of Contents DISCLAIMER / LEGAL NOTICE .................................................................................... 3 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 1: How to Become a Digital Photographer? ....................................................... 8 The Types of Digital Photographers ....................................................................... 10 Understanding the Resolution ................................................................................ 15 Filtering Systems .................................................................................................... 17 Exposure in Demand .............................................................................................. 18 Chapter 2: Getting into the Scene ................................................................................. 21 Knowing About the Cameras .................................................................................. 22 What Are Film Compact Cameras? ........................................................................ 26 Camera and Studio Accessories............................................................................. 28 Power Accessories ................................................................................................. 30 System Accessories ............................................................................................... 32 Studio Lighting ........................................................................................................ 35 Flashguns ............................................................................................................... 37 Digital Imaging Photography Darkroom and What it holds ..................................... 39 Chapter 3: Choosing the Camera .................................................................................. 43 What Are You Looking for in a Camera? ................................................................ 45 Digital Compact Imaging ......................................................................................... 47 Selecting Lens ........................................................................................................ 48 Chapter 4: Making Pictures for a Living......................................................................... 51 Focusing ................................................................................................................. 52 Red Eye Reduction ................................................................................................. 54 Shadows and Brightness in Contrasting ................................................................. 56 All Sorts of Printing Needs ...................................................................................... 58 The Type of Printers ............................................................................................... 60 Printer Tech Tips .................................................................................................... 62 Choosing the Right Color Gamut for Your Images.................................................. 64 Shuttling the Buttons............................................................................................... 66 Storage Mediums.................................................................................................... 67 Resizing Resolution Issues ..................................................................................... 69 Getting in on the Reflections ................................................................................... 71 Chapter 5: The Tools and Software for Editing the Images ........................................... 74 Image Scanners...................................................................................................... 75 Software for Scanners ............................................................................................ 77 Software Applications and the Like ......................................................................... 79 Software Manipulating Tools .................................................................................. 81 Editing Images ........................................................................................................ 84 Balance and Scheme Editing .................................................................................. 86 Adding Special Effects to Your Images................................................................... 88 Removing Those Dust Marks from Your Photographs............................................ 90 Chapter 6: The Most Commonly Asked Questions ....................................................... 92 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 94 Introduction Digital photography came about some time ago. The first time pictures were developed occurred by in the 1800s when a man named Fox Talbot who mixed the paper, light, wooden boxes and chemicals together. This invention produced the first picture, which guided us into photography. It wasn’t, however, until around hundred fifty years later did the first digital camera came available. This new finding along with technology development made it possible to employ a camera to capture pictures while utilizing a computer to edit, crop, enhance and so forth, making those pictures digital perfect. All you will need to create a fabulous picture now is computer software programs, computer and a digital camera. Some of the cameras available today include the Canon models, Kodak, Nikon, and Fuji. Each camera has something different to offer, yet their primary functions are to deliver quality pictures. At one time, you would snap a shot, take it to a local film publisher or picture store, and wait for the film to arrive at your store. Now, you can use a scanner, upload the pictures to a computer, and saved them as file, printing them after editing, cropping, and enhancing. You can create your own portfolio and store the pictures on your computer, sending them via Internet connection to friends and family all over the world. If you have a quality printer, you can print the film and send them via postal mail. Now you don’t need to stand under a towel with a camera in front of you, angling the scene you want to snap. You can have a quality picture at your demand, without the needs to hide in a dark room, in the corner of a building, wading through ink, paper, and grime. What to be a convenience? Nowadays, cameras are available in all styles, including webcams, video cams, 3D cams, and so forth. You can make your own movies at home, or else produce your own portfolio with little effort. All you need is software to get the film rolling. Action, camera, impact, and produce are the steps to getting a quality portfolio in the making. Heck at one time you needed someone to snap pictures of yourself, but nowadays the new cams will do this for you. All you need to do is position the camera. The traditional pictures did not offer what digital photos offer today also. Digital photos today offer an artistic view, combined with various possible resources in producing quality picture. Digital cams and photos today offer high quality photos to let you have full control over it. Digital cams and photos today leave you without wondering what the pictures will look like once developed, since now you can image and edit the photos as you see fit. Digital imaging enables you to correct the contrasts view, balance the colors, touch up the images, crop elements that you don’t want, while improving focus. Some of the traditional films or pictures were often overexposed. This meant that you would often have overlapping elements within the photo. For example, you might take a picture of a mate, and the background might have elements unwanted in the scene, such as an arm, leg, etc. Digital photos today with overlapping scenes can be cropped so that the topic is displaying in the picture. You can use Adobe programs, GIMP image editing software or any other photo imaging programs to crop, edit, cut, contrast and so forth. Once you snap the picture, you just need to load it into your computer hard drive, open up your photo editor and you are on your way to viewing a quality picture. If you have Adobe, you can work miracles with pictures, and create any style you choose. By starting to become a digital photographer, you will have much exciting journey to the world of photography technology. Without further ado, let’s get started! Chapter 1: How to Become a Digital Photographer? Did you ever want to become a digital photographer, yet didn’t know where to start. The start is becoming familiar with cameras, computers, digital imaging, and software programs for editing. Cameras are either your best friends, or your worst enemies. Digital cameras have many functions that perform various actions, yet it takes you to learn what each function conducts, before you can snap quality photos. If you are going in the photography business, you will also need to know what is required to make a productive network. At one time, digital cameras were too costly to mention, but nowadays you can buy a camera that will make your hair stand up for less cost. The downside is the cheaper range of the camera than the expensive one, the lower the resolution of images. You probably won’t get features that will enhance your photography experience. Features such as, LCD monitoring is a very nice commodity, since you can view the snaps taken immediately after you shoot the picture. This will give you an ideal, whether you want to use the picture or snap another. The resolution is essential, since if you want high quality, large pictures you will need a higher resolution. The low-resolution cameras will only produce pictures in small sizes. You might get lucky to snap a picture the size of 3 by 2 inches respectively. To snap a larger photo, you will need at least medium resolution. You will also need to become friends with peripheral hardware’s, which includes software programs affiliation. You will also need sufficient Random Access Memory (RAM) and hard drive space on your computer to store your pictures, print, edit, or view the pictures, etc. The processing speed is also important which should measure at least 32 Megabytes (MB) or Random Access Memory. If you can get a higher processor the entire better for your photos and tasking duties: You will also need a load of room on your hard drive to perform all digital actions. Now that, you have a camera, computer, software and the like, you will also need a quality colored printer. Now, you can purchase a cheapie if you plan to take a few photos per week, however, if you are moving into the photography business, then you will need a quality printer that will cost a few hundred bucks at most. You will need to invest in quality paper for printing, as well. Now we can consider software. You will need an image-editing program that provides transferring tools, storage mediums, editing features, and the like. Most photographers these days use Adobe or other high quality programs. If you are going into real photography networking, then you will need memory cards, PC cards, Compact Flashes, Smart Media, Card Readers, Adaptors, Floppy Drive, Zip Discs, or other storage mediums, image-edit software, camera accessories and so forth. Some of the camera accessories include tripods, lenses, lights, case, and the like. Don’t forget the dark room. Once you have all the equipment readily to start for your digital photography business, you will also need to understand the pixels, bit depth, resolution, f-stops, processing, and the like. Digital cameras are designed to give out quality photos, yet the images are similar to the traditional cams, which comprise functioning off lights, chemicals, image, lens, and the like. The only difference with traditional verses digital is that image arrays replace the films. Still, other differences linger, yet we are discussing digitally. Two of the wellknown cameras today, which generally perform the same functions, are the cams that work on chips, i.e. the Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and the Charge-coupled Device (CCD). Now you can get out your checklist to see what you will need in your journey to digital photography. The Types of Digital Photographers There is a variety of photographers’ careers to select. You can become a fine arts photographer, close-up, architectural, fashion, sport, documentary, action, still life, night photographer, web photographer, and so forth. It is all up to you, however, whichever career you choose. You should be aware of what is expected of you. So let’s make a list of photographers and see what each of these guys to in their careers. Photographer List: Child photographer: Children photography is one of the most difficult subjects for all the obvious reasons. Children may not be in the mood for what you want to capture. If you are going in this career, you will need loads of patients and a will to get pass frustration. Still, if you are considering child photography as a career understand that some of the best photos are taken of puppies, babies, kittens, and so on. You want to take many pictures of these subjects, and sometimes capture a scene with the parent and child together. As for newborns, you should try to snap shots of babies six months and up. You need to be on your toes at all times and ready to shoot now, since at the wrong time, the expressions, could change. Landscape photographers are one of the most interesting subjects to capture, since you will always have a unique image to capture. Landscape photographers travel frequently, therefore, get accustom to the roads and great outdoors. You will need to make sure you have all your accessories while traveling, including tripod, spare battery, filters, lenses, remote release, cameras and the like. Landscape photographers focus on landscape, however, they compose pictures by considering composition, foreground, weather, filters, warm-ups, Polarizer, timeframe, exposure, impartial density, and so on. If you are off to winter photography, you will need a coat, hat, gloves, and so on obviously. Winter photographers like landscape photographers travel to different areas to capture scenes. If you are shooting snow pictures in the landscape winter photography, then your camera should have an automatic setting prepared. You should also have additional settings for weather, meter, and spot meter ready. Water photographers differ. Some will take shots of water as a landscape setting, while others will dive to capture the underground world. If you are considering water imaging, then prepare to buy a camera that is, waterproof. You will need to learn freezing skills, close-up, landscape feel, and know your speeds to shutter. Action photographers have one of the hardest careers, since it is often difficult to capture a scene in action. The camera has to be controlled much differently than standard photographing. You will need to understand timing, speeds of shutter, techniques of speed and action, panning, freeze actions, range, and so forth. You will also need equipment that works with action shots. Still life photographers require keenness, since the photos differ from other types of shots. You might take shots of flowers in a store, instruments, fruit baskets, parts of a vehicle, and so on. Most of the images are monochrome and in color. In this event, you want to consider macro lens for shots, since it seems to work best. Fine arts photographers capture scenes of creativity. You have to have a nap for art and creativity to capture a fine art scene. You will need style, darkrooms, black & white prints, mood feel, atmosphere feel, color, and so on. Documentary photography is one of my favorites, yet you need to be highly vigilant of life’s situations to be in this field of expertise. If you don’t know what’s going on in your neighborhood, likely this job isn’t for you. What do documentary photographers capture? How do they decide at what time to record documentary? What types of equipment do these photographers employ? What is a documentary photographer’s purpose in digital imaging? If you ever considered documentary photography, you probably already knows the meaning of it after watching scores of documentary programs. Documentary photography requires discipline. You must also have organizing skills, since you will be keeping a photojournalism. If you like, colorful pictures change your attitude now, since most documentary photographers deal with white and black picture. After all, black and white was the originality of photography before digital imaging came into focus. The primary focal point for digital photographers in the documentary is capturing a single picture that leads to a series of events. Documentaries may study activities at a local chain store for a length of time and capture their every move before finalizing the project. Some documentaries will study houses, while others will study their own life. This brings in theme, which is the starting point of documentary photography. Through monochrome captures, the documentary photographers will bring out the point, thru theme, plot, characters, scene, and so on. With passion, all the way through the project from starting to finish the story, a documentary photographer is ultimately writing a book in picture format. Digital photography documentary photographers must have high degrees of discipline, patience, and high levels of observation. These photographers take great effort in their career while showing strong people skills throughout the process. You will also need a feel of order, since the documentary should deliver a start, middle and finish punch line in sequence. Equipment: Most documentary since they are on the rush will use the camera LEICA, which is a rangefinder. You will need a wide-angled lens, since most shots are at a distance. Your lens setting should remain at 16 feet (5m), and the aperture set at f/8-11. As for shutter speed, you can use 400 ISO Films to maintain the speed level. Overall, you will need keenness, patient, long-suffering, sense of humor and the like to become a documentary photographer. The sense of humor will come in as you observe people over a string of time and capture their every move. Somewhere in between someone is going to amaze you, impress you, and astonish you, and so on. You will also need discipline, since many documentary photographers photograph through for years incidents and accidents. For example, some documentaries may study serial killers and document their every move. Other documentary photographers will photograph bombings, shipwrecks, celebrities, and so on. As you see, you have a wide-range of selected themes. The beginning focus is to choose a theme and stick with while accumulating a fitting plot and scene. You will need characters, which similar to book writing should match the theme. For example, if you were documenting a group of people you wouldn’t want to jump off the subject to capture a different group of people. Documentary photographers know when the time is right to capture a scene through feel, record, and experience. The ultimate purpose is to accumulate a working story that will attract the readers or viewers. You will also need a bit of writing skills to subtitle, title, and provide summaries and the like for your documentary. While pictures say it all, attractions such as words could say more. Architectural photographers focus on building’s exterior attractions as well as their interior attractions. Architecture photographers can take a worn out building and dress it up in a picture, which will not only tell a story, but also impress the viewers. In other words, it doesn’t matter what type of building they are considering, since they see something in the picture you may not see at the moment. Architectures will take one object in the scene and combine it with two or more to make a point. These photographers will combine color and shape to point out an interest in buildings. Architecture photographers will understand that what appeals stick out in the daylight hours, may not stick out at night hours and vice versa. Architecture photographers can bring outwards in and inwards out by using the camera skillfully and applying the appropriate lens. These photographers are aware that particular filters can enhance image captures. For example, warm up filters can augment the way a building appears in a picture by making the bricks appear softer. These camera operators consider the daylight and night hours, and are aware as to how a building or scene may look at each event. The light determines the shot, which an architecture photographer will know which time is best during daylight hours to snap a shot that won’t affect shade, warmth, length, and direction. At what time, a building comes into views and seems to fall in a backward direction, it is known as converging vertically. To capture this moment architecture will angle their camera in an upward direction in an effort to make the building appear as though they are staring down at the viewer. The interior of the buildings may require filters to control lighting, otherwise if you are using a digital camera you will need to balance the white mode. Since, buildings have superficial lighting you want to become acquainted with light control. The light affects the camera either negatively or positively. The details comprise an outlook of a specific area. Not every picture snapped by architecture will illustrate an entire building. For instance, the building may have a special point about it, which will attract the camera operator, who in turn will capture the moment. Likewise, architecture who wants to snap shots of a bridge may want to wait until the dark hours. During the daylight hours, the photographer knows after studying features of the bridge that it is merely grey in color and really offers less than what it could offer at night hours. At night, the photographer visits the area and prepares to take a shot of a daylight grey bridge, which is now colorfully green with brilliant lights glaring off the waters. The sky is no long blue with white clouds setting off the background, now the sky is purplish/yellow with white highlights. Imagine a dull, grey, bridge with blue water and blue skies with white clouds in the background. This is almost dull in contrast. Now picture the same area whereas you have a greenlit bridge, orange boundaries from the night sky, with purplish/yellow colors at the boundary area, yellow dancing off an area of the water, purplish colored waters and a dark area under the bridge. What an amazing difference in the same area shot. Understanding the Resolution One of the most important elements of digital photography is to understand the resolution. If you don’t understand, the resolutions you may only come up with wallet size pictures each time you snap a shot. Camera snapping low-resolution shots will only deliver you confusion, especially if you try to enlarge the photo. A high or medium resolution camera, on the other hand, if the pixels are properly adjusted will give you a high quality photo for publishing and/or editing. Accordingly, the resolution will also determine the quality of images taken from your camera. Digital imaging works like thousands of dots dabbled on a surface. Digital images comprise small itsy bitsy pixels in the shape of squares and in the arena of colors. The pixels are measured in inches. The pixels are also known as an element picture, or picture element. Once the pixels all come together, you can actually see what the photo offers. If you enlarge a low-resolution picture, the blurring will shock your eyes. When you try to enlarge the photo with a low resolution, smaller size of picture, the pixels become mixed up. For example, if you ever went on a computer and enlarged a low-resolution picture you know that the pictures were taken on a low-resolution camera because the picture becomes blurred. If you have employed a medium or highresolution camera the picture would be larger than a wallet size picture, or 4 by 6 inch picture and you wouldn’t need to enlarge the photo. Yet, you could edit, crop or do whatever you like in your photo-editing gallery with ease. PPI is the number of pixels per inches that must match the resolution. If you have more pixels per inch at what time you are snapping a picture, the resolution will produce a brighter, colorful picture. For example, if the pixels estimate a resolution of 300 x 150 x 75, you will have a quality picture in front of you to edit. On the other hand, if the pixels are low and the resolution is low, your pictures if enlarged will appear in the photos. That is the pixels will become evident. Thus, if you are printing your pictures onto paper from a printer, the most pixels that will give you a quality picture is around 300 pixels per inch. You will also need to set your resolutions in your printer to achieve high quality photos. Resolutions and pixels go higher in number, however, if you want the best possible pictures, stick with this number of pixels per inch, otherwise prepare to undergo problems. Otherwise, the higher the pixel the less likely you will get quality. If you are putting pictures on a Web Page, bear in mind that the pixels must be low resolution, because anything higher will jam the visitors’ progress. In other words, the higher the pixel the more time it will take to upload or download the web page. What a pain it is? The standard web page images are around 72 or else 96 pixels per inch. Keep it low and your visitors are good to go! Note: You can change pixel size in the editing software programs. However, the down sampling and up sampling process must work properly and respectively; otherwise you can damage the photos by deleting too much information or else by degrading your photos. Up sampling will add pixels while down sampling will delete pixels. The key is up sampling at a low percentage and down sampling at a low percentage also for the best effects. Filtering Systems Many peoples want to become photographers, since it offers them a chance to travel, experience, adventure, and so on, yet many of these people fail to see that photography is more than pointing a camera in the direction of the subject and taking the photo. Photography without doubt is one of the most challenging, fun, and exciting careers on the market. Photographers’ journey through life capturing what many people will miss in a lifetime. After gathering all the equipment, you might as well forget digital photography if you don’t have all the right tools that including a filtering system. Some of the most horrific photos were taken from low-resolution cameras, low pixel per inch, no filters, and the like. Filtering systems is what photographers employ to transform photos. The screw-in filters and slot-filters are the most commonly thought out filters on the market. The screw-in filtering systems attach to the camera's lens, which helps the camera to focus or transfer a photo. The screw-in lens filter is not ideal for photographers that employ a large number of lenses for projects. You will need adjustable lens to handle tasks that include multi-lens usage. The slot-in filtering system is ideal for photographers employing a number of lenses to handle photography demands. You want to be careful, since these filters enable you to ring or adapt the filters onto the lens, meaning you can lap one filter over the other. However, it will blacken the photos if the overlapping filters are spotted by the lens. Therefore, learn and know what you are doing before venturing off into filtering systems. The slot-in comes in a wide variety, which includes size. The small filtering systems often work with a camera or lens around 35mm. You can use the larger filters to work with cameras of medium or large size. The screw-in lens generally customizes to fit nearly any size lens, while the warm-up EMMA filters is ideal for toning the skin within the pictures. If you ever seen a picture where the persons face is peek or bright red around the checks, chin and nose area, it isn’t from a sunburn. You can use the smaller filters with wide-angled lenses. However, this option has a limit. The filters start out at 35mm and reach up pass 100mm. The filter systems also provide you the option of using “step-up and step-down rings” to support the filters. The rings enable you to adjust the filtering threads easily. If you are snapping photos as a professional, you are aware that the rings and filters can do wonders for your photos. One of the photography used a filter while another one did not, and the results of the first shots came out good, while the filtered shot did not. The reason is the photographer probably employed the wrong filter. The first camera shooter probably had resolution intact, lighting in focus, and pixel in inches set properly. Thus, knowing what to purchase for the job makes all the difference in the world. If you are not a professional you probably want to go for the 100mm filter systems, otherwise consider the 67mm if you can afford the systems. To learn more about filter system we encourage you to read up on photography filter systems for cameras and lenses. Exposure in Demand Back in the day when cameras where easy to use, all you had to worry about was black and white colors, since this is basically all the cameras had to offer. Now you have more colors than you bargained for, so what do you do to get the exposure you desire? Exposure is the process of delivering top quality photos. Underexposure is the process of getting a picture you didn’t want in the first place. Sometimes it will occur that the photos come out of the camera with blotches, red-eye, dark, and the like. Most times the tone of pictures taken from a camera is at a scale of eighteen percent grey. With this in mind, you want to consider exposure more deeply, since not all sceneries give off a color that may work with your cameras mode. Background Disturbances Let’s consider backgrounds for a moment. Per see, you are taking a picture of a child, yet in the background, the scenery is dark, or black. What are you to do when that camera pictures the background as a grey area, rather than the color you intended? The trick is to get the camera to recognize the color by shooting at a specific angle or adding grey to the scene, getting a snapper of the tainted grey picture so the camera is confused. Otherwise, you can use programs that will take care of the problem of exposure. Some of the software programs, such as Photo Shop will take care of many exposure problems, by cropping, blurs and so on. The programs are your best bet if you are starting out in photography until you get the hang of camera functions, locks, and the like. Few photographers recommend if you are dealing with scenery, such as black backgrounds or white backgrounds that you place a grey material in front of the scene, which activates a meter light that will recognize the background. Again, this is a point of confusing the camera so that it recognizes what it is targeted in full light. One thing you need to know about cameras that will make all the difference in the world with understanding exposure. Not only do the cameras see grey, they also see the colors be in blue, red, and green. Similar to the eyes of humans they have sort of receptors that contrast the pictures into various colors. Therefore, if you angle the camera in one area of the scene, it will produce a white tone, while if you take the camera off the scene then you get a darker image. If the camera is moving in a few directions, it will distract the grey percentage and produce multi-colors. The downside is not all cameras, specifically some of the digitals work on three base colors. You would have to consider RGB and CMYK to understand these alterations. The values of the colors still change based on the background and what the meter perceives in light. TIP OF THE DAY The prime deal is to purchase the grey cards, which this valuable accessory will almost every time you snap, will produce a quality picture. Learn more about the AE-Locks and grey cards so that you will have a better feel of camera manipulation. Landscape Shots If you are taking shots of landscapes, it is recommended that you point the camera away from the sky. During some shots, you will need to use the AElocks to get the best results. Still, you want to get something grey in front of the camera so that it recognizes what it is to do. Chapter 2: Getting into the Scene In the world of photography, you consider composition, focal point, foreground, background, slants, frames, thirds, lines, perspective, scale, and so forth. The focal point is the objective of the game in a way, yet composition is the target. I used the terms plot because those less familiar with digital imaging might find it easier to relate. Anyway, all there terms sounds nuts if you don’t understand photography; however, the focal point is a natural attraction to the eye, while composition is the plot. Let’s break this down. Okay, you are writing a book on the subject photography. You know the main composition is surrounding photography; however, you must capture cameras, film, and printers etc. in the body to make someone understand what you are seeing and how it works. Likewise, if you are snapping pictures you will need a main attraction, which will lead the eyes to a foreground, background, focal point, and so forth. You need something to hit home in this picture in other words. Yet, while the eye is hitting home, it also wants a feel of the surroundings so that it can see where the picture is leading. What does it mean? What did you see in this picture that I am missing? For example, I am taking a shot of a barn off in the distance and in its surrounding there is a field of yellow flowers of some sort and green grass beneath it. The foreground (flowers) leads me up to the caption that I had targeted, which makes a person wonder why someone would want a picture of the likes. The imagination starts to explore. In this picture, I used the rule of the thirds while adding a foreground to the scene. In the depth of field, I snap a shot of a clear blue sky with sorted clouds dancing in the air. A distant hill captures the sky bringing it down to the earth’s surface, which we know is not real. The foreground takes the front leading you to a boulder half buried in the ground with more boulders spread out in a field of yellow with shades of green grass. In this scene, I would use a lens that focuses on the length the lens will extend, the distance focus, and the aperture option. Since this is a landscape photo, I would use an aperture size of small to reach an effect. If you are taking photos of landscape, the wide-angle lenses are the best choice. The lens will provide a depth deeper than other model lens. An f/22 depth is ideal if you are snapping pictures at a distance. It makes a big difference how you use a camera as to how the film or photo will turn out. If you are starting out in photography, your best bet is becoming acquainted with the terms photographers use, including their definitions. While there are software programs for editing available, if you get the feel of the camera and use it wisely, you will spend less time in front of a computer and more time in the field snapping those shots. However, the one thing I already knew is that your eyes and instincts will guide you better than anyone or any device. If you are working toward professional never, let anyone defy you of your natural instincts and eye, which will only guide you in a wrong direction. Keep it real and go with what you feel! Knowing About the Cameras Cameras are one of the most valuable tools in photography obviously. If you do not have, cameras get out of the photography business because you are heading nowhere. If you are not familiar with cameras and the types available, then we can help you learn while you grow in the digital photo business. Brief Camera History The first cameras available were the old black and white plates. Later other cameras came did not measure up to the following cams, which was known as the Box Brownie. The 35mm cams came available after the Brownie, and then finally someone designed a cam that offered us color. You would think that it would stop here, however digital had to get in on the scene and design its own model, which lead us to digital photography. AF SLR Model 35mm Camera Some of the cameras today can nearly take a picture closest to perfect than any other camera employed. In fact, I am wondering if a cam isn’t available, that doesn’t take the place of developers. The AF SLR is one of the series of AF SLR cameras on the market. The 35mm camera series is one of the most selected items employed by photographers, however the Digital SLR AF series is second runner up. In fact, the AF Digital SLR is a hot looking item that would pick anyone’s interest, especially if you are fascinated with the photography industry. Some of the features on this series include the Main Control Dial, Control Buttons, White Balance, Card Slot, LCD Info Panel, LCD Monitor, Interface, Review Tools, and the like. The cam is an automatic focus device with single reflex lens. Or at least some are. The SLR types are one of the choice cameras that professionals will employ, since this device works wonders with program applications. Some of the features include the lens obviously, custom functions, shutter button, LCD panel, film transport, exposure mode dial, Hot-Shoe, and the like. Features The Lens on this 35mm camera is a zoom in lens. It is important that you read up on the lens types used for this camera since it makes a big difference, especially if you are considering buying for usage. Custom Functions This is commonly found on many devices, including this camera. The functions enable you to adjust to your own preference. Shutter Button The shutter on this camera is not a one-way ride, rather you can press completely down on the shutter and it will sound off, while if you hold it center down it will initiate the automatic focus, and while activate the meter. Hot-Shoe You will need to read up on flashguns to understand that hot-shoe; however, the hotshoe is sort of a connector where a flashgun can connect to the cam making it easier to maneuver the shutter button. LCD Panel This is a center point. LCD is the definition of Liquid Crystal Display. This little window will inform you as to what is going on inside the little box that produces pictures. Exposure Mode Dials You can use this for mode alterations or conduct other functions as you choose. Read the manual to learn more about what this function offers to you. The tool is like a wheel and/or dial button, where you can rotate it one direction or the other. Film Transport Selector This is more of a timer, which you can snap multiple pictures at a single time, or one picture at a given time. These cameras also may include viewfinders, input dials, AF assist beams, Dioptre connection, and integral flash, depot of field preview, auto-focus point selectors, and so forth. The viewfinders are nice, since it enables you to kind of zoom in on the picture to achieve accuracy. The input dials will help you to control your shutters speed levels, while the flash integrals is an incorporated flashbulb more or less. This camera is so appealing that it would make me take my eyes off Tom Select in a New York second. The main control dialers provide you to set modes similar to a 35mm model. You can employ the White Balance to make adjustments, dropping or increasing the temperature of colors. The Control Buttons give you the control you need over the camera by enabling you to use a single or dual control. You can employ the Card Slots to store your images. This machine also has WI-FI capabilities, which enables you to transfer photos at higher speeds. The LCD is a Liquid Crystal Displaying window. You can learn more about file formatting and balance by analyzing this window. The Liquid Crystal Displaying Window (LCD) monitor enables you to adjust formats of files, modes of flash, delete photos, and review the photos while protecting them on a memory slot card. Interfaces are either FireWire cables or USB cables that connect your camera to a working computer in order to upload files to your hard drive for editing. The Review tools enables you to zoom in on the photos taken, or else view them in thumbnail files, which makes it convenient for you to edit your photos at what time editing occurs. Some of the models of the SLR styles include the 35mm cameras, digital, and the 4/3rds system cameras. It is recommended that the LCD’s be used minimal, since it will drain the power of your battery. The camera mentioned in this chapter is one of the nicer cameras for photography, however photographers seem to prefer the 35mm overall other models. The camera digital series has mirrors built-in to its system, as well as a body frame, shutter blind, Pentaprism, power source, DX-coding, and the like. Many of the SLR models have viewfinders, rear dials, eye-start systems and more. It depends on the model, therefore if you are on the hunt for a camera be sure to read up on all the models to make sure you are getting what you want. This particular model appears to be more for professional photographers; however, amateurs could probably put in to good use while working their way into professionalism. Some of the ordinary features that enhance these models of cameras are the White Balance commands, screen focusers, ad meter sensors. The meter sensors monitor the light so to speak, which is highly important, since if the light is off balance the pictures likewise will be off balance too. Other models of cameras include the Film Compacts, Spy Cams, Webcams, Singleuser cams, Luxury Compacts, digital compacts, and so forth. Some of these cameras are more for those that enjoying snapping pictures without intents of publishing or using for promotional purposes. You can check out some of the more sophisticated cameras over the Internet or at a local camera store. Some cameras again offer more than others and it depends on what you are searching to accomplish as to what type of camera will suit your needs. Anyway, I brought this style of camera out, since this is what experts in photography generally choose to work their projects. There are different styles however, so be sure to check them all out. What Are Film Compact Cameras? Some of the most used cameras on the market by photographers are the 35mm SLR models. However before digital photography became a hot item, photographers all around employed the film compact models. One of the most used compact film cameras was also the 35mm models. The cameras make it easy to aim at the target and flash the camera. These models were designed by some of the leading names, including Nikon, Rollei, and so forth. Some of the features include Exposure and Focus Sensors, Built-in Flash, Zoom Lens, Viewfinders, Lens Cover, and the like. These cameras are ideal for low budget photographers, yet many will get the job done. Besides with all the image-manipulating programs on the market, even if the camera didn’t do the intended job you can get help fast. Some of the known compact film cameras are the aim and shoot series, which include prestigious banding along with delivery high-quality photos. The zoom and fixed lens compacts are some of the well-known brands that fit a variety of photography budgets. As for the features, the exposure and focus sensors enable you to control light, which enables the camera to focus at a distance while considering a subject with the proper light control. The built-in flashes is ideal for changing modes if the lighting is off, since it works to reduce red-eye by filling in the contrast, brightness and colors. The viewfinders on the compacts are different with some cameras than the SLR series. For the most part, it helps control images, yet you cannot view the files as you could on some of the modern digital cameras before uploading to a computer. This is a real disadvantage, because you have to load the pictures on a computer to see if you want to keep them or not. Lens covers generally are sliders that protect the lens while the camera is not in use. At what time you open the cover exposing the lens some film compacts will mechanically initiate the camera, readying it for usage. Zoom lens is handy, since you can zoom in on the target. If you ever employed the zoom features in available software programs, you are aware that different levels for zooming in are available. This does not always apply to cameras, since you may have only one or two zooming levels. Function buttons available on some compacts enable you to fire shutters for picture take, or else ready the focus and exposure features. Shutter buttons are obvious, i.e. these buttons activate the cam readying it to shoot. It has a couple different functions, depending on the camera model. Zoom Rockers are incorporated into some of the compact cameras. This function changes the lens focal. You can change to wide-angle, or else set it at a single angle. The sky is the limit with some of these cameras available today. Few of the 35mm compacts have film already inside the cameras. You can purchase these models of cameras for around $2.99 and up. Once you snap the complete roll of film the camera is of no use. Therefore, if you are using one of these cameras find the cheapest versions possible. What’s nice is some of these cameras enable you to go deep sea exploring without ruining the film or camera. The luxury film compacts are small, yet tall. The cameras have a built-in lens and you can easily place these cameras in your shirt pocket. The camera often has a wideangled lens attached. Spy cams produce smaller film. These cameras are optional if you want discreet photo shooting without getting caught. Camera and Studio Accessories Once you have it all together, and your equipment is in place you will need photographer accessories to take care of your equipment. Its part of the career as being a photographer that you take care of the costly equipment you have purchased. Some of the accessories available today, include the sync lead, backgrounds, camera storage, gadget bags, photo rucksacks, converters, lens hood, pouches, zoomsters, hard cases, protective case, masks, cabelite, and so forth. Some of the gadgets work to help you along in the processing of photos, while others work to protect your goodies. Leads It depends on the camera purchased; however, some require the assistance of a reversed-polarity lead. The synchronizing leads are what will connect the camera to the flash heads. Backgrounds Backgrounds are paper or fabric that stand up in an area of the studio and is used as an area to shoot photos. Most photographers will use either black or white backgrounds in paper form, while they will use a variety of fabric colors. If you are going to shoot photos, these backgrounds will come in handy as an offset scene so to speak. If you ever seen pictures taken at Sears you are aware that the camera operator will put backgrounds up that conform to the personality in the photo. For example, they may put up a spider man background for a young boy, while they may put up a streaming river for a couple. Carrying Storage The camera storage is carrying cases where a cam is stored while resting for the next photo. You will need one of these cases to carry your camera along trips, or store it while resting after work is completed. This is important because cameras cost a fortune and the last thing you want is a damaged device. Gadget Bags Gadget bags are a shoulder strapped bag that enables you to carry your camera and accessories along your journey in photography. The bag comes in a variety of sizes and few colors and is a handy tot. The downside if you overstuff the gadget, it will put a load of weight on your shoulders. Cabelite Cabelite is ideal for photographers still motion. Rather, if you take pictures of dinner plates and the like, then you would definitely want one of these gadgets. This thingy will work to remove reflections out of your way. Hard Case Hard cases are ideal for when you are traveling abroad. You can carry your camera in the case without having the inconvenience of a weighty bag. Protective Gear Protective case protects your camera, which the camera generally comes with the casing. Zoomsters will carry your cam with lens in tact. There is no need to dismount your camera, because this bag will handle your equipment without causing damage. Pouches are more for protecting lens. You can carry a variety of lens in this pouch without worrying about damage coming to the property. Lens Accessories Lens accessories include the lens hood, converters, and masks. The masks fits around the lens and works like a pair of binoculars. The masks are not really important, however it is an option if you want to take it and run. Lens hoods are essential accessories. These hoods will shield your images, preventing reduction and contrasting damage. This thingy fits around the lens and will protect it against faulty lighting. The converters enable you to take pictures at long-distance or short-distance or at wide angles and so on. If you are out for the pictures of a lifetime then the converter could make it worth your while. Power Accessories Power accessories are important tools that all photographers consider. Regardless of the level of photography or the level of work you do, accessories come in handy in all areas of digital photography. Cameras are slick little devils, which sometimes slip from your hands; therefore having the right accessories, such as the power SLR grips can save your loads of headaches. Why buy aspirins when you can take care of the problems before they arise. Choosing the right accessories is a job in itself, however if you know what you are searching for then the job is less demanding. Therefore, we have outlined a few accessories offered as well as tips as to which accessories are better choices than other accessories are. The tips are in between the lines, since it is up to you to decide what the better choice is since no one knows your needs like you do. Gripping the camera The power accessories include the SLR power grips, battery packs, battery types, and motor drivers. Power grips are an accessory that grips to the camera while giving you an extra handle on things. This can come in handy when you are awkwardly coordinated, or trying to handle multi tasks. Battery Types Battery types are essential, since if you are taking pictures and your batteries are low it can interrupt your workflow. The newer batteries for cameras are rechargeable, thus you can charge them overnight and take countless of pictures during the daylight hours, or vice versa. Packing the Batteries Battery packs are optional to standard camera batteries. These battery packs can make your journey easier, since the packs function on double A batteries and is far more ready than standard batteries used in cameras. It is your choice, whichever power accessory you select, however choosing wise is choosing the power that will make your camera journey last. Supporting Cameras The nicety about having a tripod is that you can use the stand to seat your camera while angling at the scene and bam you have a picture. Cameras, which you can set at a time to shoot a picture, are also handy, and work well with tripods. Camera support is another issue, yet it revolves around the same thing. Camera supporters include the Tripods, which can make your camera stand on legs. Some of the pods are versatile which makes your moving shots easier to get to along the journey of shooting photos. The common tripods used today are the standard, SLR, carbon-fibre and the studio based pods. Still, this is only a small list. The SLR tripods are widely used by professional photographers and come in a couple different styles. Amateurs often use the standard tripods, yet these pods are handy accessories, since they do the job intended while allowing the photographers hands-off to handle other tasks. The carbonfibre is often used by those traveling while shooting photos. Overall, when considering tripods make sure you consider what you need to handle your jobs as well as the size of your camera. If you camera is bulky and larger than the common smaller cameras be sure to consider the carbon-fibre. If you are operating studio using large equipment, you will need to consider the studio-based tripods, since these are designed to handle large equipment. For more help on finding accessories that suit your photography needs, consider researching the marketplace, since additional information is available to you. You never know, researching could land you the deals of a lifetime while helping you to see more into the details of camera and studio accessories. System Accessories Digital photography is a huge job, and at what time it comes to doing the job right you want to make sure you have all the equipment you need, including accessories. Some of the accessories to consider are the heads, spirit levels, feet, monopods, leg sections, quick-release plates, center columns, anatomy of pods, beanbags, leg locks, suction claims, and so on. While all these accessories relate to a tripod, its importance is still relevant to digital photography. First, realize that the anatomy of tripods is the decision in selecting the correct tripod that is suitable for your needs. The marketplace has a variety of tripods to choose from, however if you do not purchase the choice pod, it will all be in vain. Some of the selections were mentioned earlier, however to give you an ideal of the type of tripods to consider, we will provide a sort of checklist. Some of the tripods include the SLR, Carbon-Fibre, Standard Tripods, and the Studio-based pods. Most tripods include heads, feet, legs locks, quick releasers, columns and so on, as we mentioned earlier. Heads Heads are supporters of cameras that differ from tripods, yet the function is connected directly to a tripod. The heads come in a few different styles, including the three-ways, sockets, tilt, pan, or bails. The heads on a tripod is important, since if you don’t have the right head you might find yourself in a struggle. Understand that not all tripods have heads. Feet You will need a combination of feet while considering a tripod, since walking on one leg sometimes will cause you to trip. Some of the tripod feet types include the spiked feet, rubber and plastic. Understanding the feet is important, since if you select the spike feet and use it on wood floors you might find yourself depressed at what time you need to re-varnish those floors for your boss, or whoever hired you to do the job. Plastic and rubber feet are said to work best in areas where you need to grip to snap a picture. Spike feet are great for snapping photos in the great outdoors. The trick is finding a combo of feet to work with. Quick-release plate These plates are ideal for camera operators who want a quick detachment and removal of camera. Leg Locks Leg locks is a preference camera operators decide on while trying out the types of locks. Some of the leg locks twist while others are hinged. Spirit Level This is a leveler so to speak. If you are taking outdoor pictures, specifically of landscapes, this leveler is the product you definitely want to invest in before snapping those pictures. Leg Suctions Leg suctions are stable functional tools that will hold up the tripods. Most times, you can purchase 2 to four legs on a pod. Centre Column This column will max out the limit a camera will reach during a photo shot. Few tripods have removable columns. Beanbags fit or screw into a cameras base enabling the photographer to have a firmer grip on the camera. Monopods are generally used by sport travelers or photographers, since this pod has only one leg to stand on. The ideal is gripping the leg in the palm of your hand to maneuver the camera. Suction clamps are more an accessory for motor sport shooters, since they can clamp the camera onto a hard surface while targeting a scene from a remote distance. As we discussed, anatomies of tripods is essential, since you want the right device while taking pictures. This is especially true if you are in the photography business. Studio Lighting Studio lighting requires complete control on the photographer’s part. If the lighting is off the cameras will flash pictures likely that will disappoint the photographer. The best said took kit in a studio is the flash outfits for studios. The systems are versatile and provide the photographer the control he needs to get the job done right. The flash system includes slave cells, carry handles, ventilation, audible beeps, power sockets, sync lead sockets, accessory lock rings, model lights, flash tubes, flash output, model lamps, and so on. The slave cells fires up the flashes on a single meter while connected to a camera. Once the trigger is hit, the cells kick in to slave for other cells on the heads, which distinguishes the flashes outputs. The ventilation heads is what generates the heat. Like a computer fan, the heat is modulated so that it won’t blow up. Likewise, if you cover the fan on a computer it will cause harm to the ventilation processing, therefore keep these slots free and exposed to air. The carry handles regulates the heads. You can use the handles to monitor overheat exposure, or move the device. Audible beeps alerts you at what time the device is recharged. The sync lead sockets are what links the flash heads to meters or cameras in a studio. Flash outputs have a sliding switch, which permits the photographer to control the output of flash. It has limits which the photographer must select the mode of choice. Some of the lighting kits have automatic settings for mode selection. Modeling lamps connect output to flash control-defining accuracy as it links to the output sliders. The modeling lights are a bulb that enables the photographer to adjust light. Flash tubes triggers light through a shutter, which regulates light. Accessory locking rings attach reflector dishes or soft boxes. The power sockets attaches from the central power to the flash heads. The studios have a variety of lighting modes. Some of these modes include mono-bloc, power pack, tungsten, portable studio flash, and so forth. Some of the accessories include reflectors, soft-box, umbrella, and snoot. Again, these accessories and kits make a difference, since if the lighting is not adjusted accordingly, the pictures will turn out faulty. There isn’t a photographer in the world that likes to deliver flaky pictures. Anyway, the lighting in studios, such as the mono-bloc are heads on flash that power and control light. This type of light is often used by amateurs. The power packs has recycling capabilities since it functions like a generator. Expert photographers often use these types of light accessories. Tungsten unlike the power-back offers ongoing lighting to a studio. The light is controlled by heat as well as other elements, which puts the photographer in a hot position. The portable flash requires rechargeable batteries, yet is similar to the power pack lighting systems. As for the accessories, each has its own place in a studio. The reflectors for example are similar to a satellite dish, yet it directs the light toward the scene. The umbrellas again are similar to umbrellas, yet the purpose is to tone the pictures. You have to read more into the colored umbrellas to understand the tones it will achieve. The soft-box is a diffusing lighting system, while the snoot is highlighted utilized secondary to the main lights. Okay, now we have touched down on studio lighting kits, lighting, and accessories. If you are ready to hook up your studio, be advised that you will need a deeper understanding of these tools available to photographers if you are just starting out in the industry. Flashguns Assuming you are going pro, we will discuss flashguns, which is often what the pros will use in their photography business. Flashguns have multi-functions that focus mainly on lighting. Many times the lighting is off a camera will deliver a flimsy picture. Photographers focus on deliver high quality pictures to the community, especially those specializing in digital photography. Most times the photographers are up to par on lighting, focus, angle, pixel, resolution, and the likes. Sometimes however, no matter how up to par they are the lighting just will not do what it is supposed to do. This is when a flashgun comes in handy. A flashgun includes functions. Those functions have a specific mission to accomplish. The functions may include test buttons, hot-shoe mounts, control buttons, flash heads, diffuser panel, LCD, ready lamp, and focus assistance lamps. When lens verses camera is working the flashguns, makes light available to zoom in on the scene with better odds of quality pictures arriving. Flashguns has a shutter, which if you press on the shutter it will release a trigger that produces gases that promote lighting. The functions work in various ways, but for the most part each will deliver a form of light the camera or lens may not see. The flash heads The flash heads are optimized, i.e. they will work with particular lenses. While the swiveling from each side either lowers or rises, until a flash bounces out of the lens. The zoom focus is often around 28-80mm. Diffusers Panel The diffusers panel is more for taking photos at a shorter distance. You can pull down on panel to diffuse light appropriate for the shot. Focus Assist Lamps The focus assist lamps are not necessary available with all flashguns. But the ones that have such features includes a AF Assister lamp, which once it is activated it will lower the lighting in an effort to project patterns in a beam which assists in automatically focuses on the target. It locks in on the target in other words. Hot-Shoe Mount The hot-shoe mount is what the camera attaches to, and its purpose is to use metal communications to transmit data through electronic form, i.e. it communicates with the cameras flash to target the subject. The Control Buttons The control buttons are obvious. You can set the modes of flash, which will come into view on LCD format and this enables you to use the flashgun and camera with less distractions. LCD This is the settings information dialogue. Ready Lamp The ready lamp is an indicator light that flashes when the device is ready for usage. Test Button Testing one, two, and three: You can press down on the button and test your flashes exposure level easily with this function, or else use the flashgun without the camera. The modes of flashguns vary. The flashguns may offer automatic flash, red-eye reduction, and fill-in, and slow sync, force-off, flash comp, second-curtain sync, and so forth. The automatic modes will allow you to sit back and allow the gun to work. If the lighting is sufficient the gun will sit back and let the camera do the work, however if the lighting is too low it will automatically kick in and adjust the lighting before you snap a shot. This is the mode photographers employ commonly. The Red-eye reduction is a function that reduces the amount of red in a picture. The slow sync is a synchronizing feature that adjusts the shots so that you can capture background. For additional understanding of flashguns and what these handy devices can do to enhance, your career read up on the different models. Digital Imaging Photography Darkroom and What it holds What’s in a darkroom? How does a darkroom present quality images and photos? Well, first darkrooms are basically replaced now by scanners, printers; computers, and software programs, however, darkrooms have equipment. Some of the equipment includes chemicals, safelights, easels, paper trays, enlargers, thermometers, tongs, focus magnifiers, measuring cylinders, timers, and the like. Darkrooms regardless of digital technology can still deliver quality pictures if the developer knows what he/she is doing. Most darkrooms are around 6 feet in square inches and in a corner of the room is a table that holds merely everything a developer will need to publish a photo. Most darkrooms demand the least amount of light, and running water, therefore many photographers will employ a home restroom to conduct their developing. The chemical trays are often prearranged in the darkroom so that the photographer or developer can move around the area with little hassle. To achieve the mission, the developer will employ the listed items that are found in photography darkrooms, using them in order, which is not provided in this article. Let’s review: Easels No, I didn’t say weasels. Easels are employed during exposure, which the tools hold the prints in place, flat on a surface. Safelights Safelights often have orange or red light bulbs and produce the least amount of light. Rather the safelights conform to the level of light the paper and print require. This protects the sensitivity of the photos in the making. Timers Timers are like oven timers. The photos demand a specific time to start and finish the copies; therefore, the timer watch is set accordingly. Enlargers Enlargers are a lamp in a box. The lamp beams sufficient light onto the film, and then to a base are by using a lens. You can get enlargers in color or in black and white. The colorful enlargers are the better choice. Paper Trays Is what the developer will use to add chemicals for producing photos? The photos are dipped into the chemicals and wham you are on your way to creating a quality image. Thermometers Thermometers keep the chemicals in check, since if the temperature is not according to developing demands, the pictures will not take properly. Focus Magnifiers Of course, these tools zoom in on the picture to make sure everything is in working order while the picture is held down flatly on the surface by the easels. This is like the Zoom features on your computers or in software programs. Tongs This pick up the pictures, since if you get too much of the chemicals on your skin, you may get fried like bacon. Measuring Cylinders This tool measures the chemicals dilution levels. Chemicals You have three times of chemicals in a darkroom, which includes crystal silver, stopbath, and fixer. Each area has its own purpose, yet you must use all three chemicals respectively, otherwise your pictures will meet the day of doom. This is sort of like ink in a printer, if the inks dot more than sufficiency for printing, the photos will appear with low quality. You also want to consider the types of developers on the market, since these will help you to accomplish a higher quality in photos. Before you open up a darkroom, make sure you understand all that is required to make pictures work. You can find valuable information at your local library or over the Internet. Having it together before getting started is ideal for any one thing you will ever do in life. Remember however, as you start you are growing and learning, so take each mistake in stride. Chapter 3: Choosing the Camera What Camera is Right for me in Digital Photography? This is a major question that many photographers may ask. The decision however is based on how much time you are willing to put into reviewing the cameras and what they offer, what you intend to do with the camera, and considering the options as they come your way. Questions to Consider: What are my intentions? Am I creating Web Pages? Am I ultimately attempting to go pro? What type of camera would suit me best? Do I need high-resolution or low-resolution? What do the pixels matter? Do I want film or digital? What are your intentions? If you merely want a camera to perform a few tasks here and there, such as taking your own family photos, you might try out the line of SLR low-end models or else the standard compacts as we discussed on previous chapter. If you are off to the journey of pro photography, you will need an interchangeable camera, to produce the types of pictures desired, especially if you are going for sport photography. If you are venturing to snap wildlife shots, or create, documentary pictures then you will need to consider the rangefinders or the wide-angled cameras. As for documentaries, you may want to toss in a high-quality camcorder, since you could possibly go on air with your doc. Hey, a moment of wishful thinking, but it could happen. One thing you want to keep in mind is that at what time you consider a camera for high- quality pictures, you want to stay in the range of medium formatting cameras since many will deliver quality. You will need a large frame camera if you are considering films, yet other cameras have proven to work wonders. If you are creating web pages, a low-resolution camera will do just fine. The resolution for web page images should remain at 72dpi (dots per inch). If you use a higher resolution it will only slow the process of page downloads. Now is the question, are you going pro or are you flying so low? If you are going pro, you may want to research the line of AF SLR cameras in 35mm logic. On the other hand, if you are thinking so low, you can view the Direct Vision lines, Digital and Film Compact, and the likes. What type of camera would suit you best depends on you. You will need to consider your budget, compatibilities of your systems, film, or digital, and the like. Do you need high or low resolution depends on you again. At least to a degree, the decision is yours. If you are creating web pages then a standard camera with lowresolution is your best bet. Most times, you can find cheaper cameras for website creation. The pixels do matter. Since if you are going to work as pro off the web then you will need the highest pixel camera to achieve high quality photos. On the other hand, if you are designing web pages you will need the lowest pixels, say at around 72dpi for the best results. Well do you want film or digital? Digital works off a scanner, printer, and computer, or even from a card or camera. While some of the film, cameras require that you purchase a roll of film to snap shots. If you want to keep investing in film that may be outdated someday as digital takes over, then go for the film. On the other hand, go digital and produce your own photos on a software program and computer. The pictures may come out more to your likings. What Are You Looking for in a Camera? Now that you have made the decision to get involved in digital photography, it is time to decide on the camera that suits your needs. Today, you can choose from many types of cameras as well as name brands. Some of the cameras include the AF SLR Series, Digital Compacts, Film Compacts, Direct Vision, and so forth. You can purchase cameras today with camcorders built-in for small movie projects, or cameras that include a phone. What more could you ask for in a camera? At previous chapters, we have discussed film and digital compact cameras, as well as the AF SLR series; now we are going to discuss the Direct Vision Cams along with a few other models. If you are off to the amateur division photography scene then you may want to look at the line of direct vision cameras offered by Leica. Few of these direct vision action takers offer high quality pictures while its sounds are nearly noise pollution free. Looking at a few 35mm, which is commonly utilized by photographers in different models, we will consider the Range Finders. This model or it’s like has a variety of features including the viewfinder, battery compartment, self-timer, rangefinder, rewind crank, rewind button, lens, PC socket, film speed dial, and so on. The rangefinder is works to restore viewfinders center images overlaying in the camera. Self-timers are obviously handy for instructing the camera at what time is proper to go off. Some only have a few seconds to time a picture. Many of the direct vision cameras have hot-shoes, shutter speed dial, wind-on levers, frame counters, and shutter release buttons. Some cameras are more optional than others for the pros in the field of digital photography. Other types of cameras include the Mega-Pixel Camcorders, Large Formatting Cams, Instant Cams, Imaging Phones, and Hasselblad XPans 2 and so on. Note that the phone cams are not necessary cameras for photography; however, the phones will transfer files, such as images to a computer. This is ideal at what time you are out in the field snapping shots and need those files on a computer pronto. The Bluetooth Model is one of the most popular phones utilized today. Mega-pixel camcorders are ideal for web page creation, home movie creation and the like. The low pixels and resolution puts this camcorder out of market for publishing quality photos outside of the Internet. Still, it’s a nice camcorder, since you can make movies and play it back. It’s sort of like an Ipod, yet you have a cam built in. Instant cameras are obviously not a choice for photographers, unless you have a quickie in mind. The old Polaroid was at one time one of the most popular cameras. The camera had several models, which pro photographers could use easily, yet it took the sport out developing. At least this is what I felt. Fuji now has an instax camera that has taken the place of Polaroid. The Hasselblad model is a 35mm cam. The cam originated from Fuji lines, and would switch easily to a panoramic mode of shot. The camera kind of puts you in mind of oldmodern technology cameras, since it does more than its history defines. Well, now we have reviewed a variety of cameras, several accessories to enhance cameras, I guess now it is time to decide which camera is best suited for your needs. Digital Compact Imaging The market is swarming with cameras for the taken; however, it depends on your needs as to which camera you should take. If this makes sense let me know, because at what time I was writing it, it made perfect sense. The logic is if you are going into pro photography, you want to make sure you understand the different cameras, what they do, how they work, and which one is for what area of photography. Some cameras work best for sport photographers, while other cameras work best for architectural photographers. Anyway, you get the point. Currently, many photographers are using the 35mm cameras in the AF SLR series; however, other types of photographers prefer the digital compacts. Like the film compacts, many of the digital compacts are aim and shoot devices, which makes it easy to get a quick shot at the target. Different types of these compacts are available; including the digitals that primary focus on getting images and photos on web pages. Other types work wonders for pro photographers, since the cameras have mega-pixels incorporated into the camera. Some of these cameras have features that include built-in flashes, which functions best indoors or under the lowest level of lighting. The lens on the cameras has a zooming tool, which enables you to focus in on the target at a wider angle while reaching the higher aperture. Other features include the common shutter buttons, which like the film compacts and many other cameras enables you to activate the cameras functions, such as the exposure and focus, while the other tool takes the picture itself. Mode selectors are sort of a wheel, which you rotate it to the mode of choice. Some cameras have switches instead of wheels, or dials. The modes may include playback so that you can review your pictures, or else a mode for which type of picture you want to snap. Some will even enable you to take video clips. Now you can create your own miniature video for playback at what time you want memories to reoccur. Other features include the interface, which often connect via FireWire or USB cable to a computer. This enables you to download your images to a computer. Few cameras include microphones. In fact, I have a digital camera, cam cord and so on, all built-in to one system. Before it was stolen the digital device was outstanding, since it presented a picture that no editing was needed and this picture was rated as one of the most valuable pictures in Amateur Photography. The camera is made by Mustek, has a 4.1 Mega-Pixel system, Digital Camcorder, USB Portable Disk, and 4X Digital Zoom. The cam has its own f=6.7mm + 1.5.6 lens and a built-in microphone where you can record sounds as you create your own mini-home movie. What a delight! The memory card is a 64MB Scan-Disk Slot Card. You can actually view the movie or photos on this camera before downloading them to your computer. If you don’t want any of the pictures taken, delete and start over. Anyway, the point is (this is a darn nice camera for amateur and pro photographers), that the microphones will also enable you to voice the images for still movement. Few of the other digital cameras have viewfinders, zoom control, LCD monitors, flash buttons, and macro facility. The Macro Facility command is ideal for short-range shooters. This built-in feature delivers quality photos at a short distance by measuring through a macro. In fact, many of the computers today are built on chips that make it possible to snap high quality photos with ease. Selecting Lens Selecting lenses for digital photography is important like anything else you will consider in the business of digital imaging. The marketplace has a variety of lenses to select, which puts the question in mind, what lens will benefit me and my tasks. The market offers fixed lens, wide-angle lenses, zoom, telephoto, and standard lenses. To help you decide we will provide a bit of detail on each lens offered. Telephoto Lens 50mm The telephoto lens has a 50mm lens, which narrowly views the scene. This makes the lens ideal for anyone shooting long-distance scenes. This lens is ideal for anyone snapping shots during travel, researching for documentary and the likes. Other telephoto lens includes the 70mm - 200mm and the 70mm – 300mm. Some of the lens more powerful is the telezooms lens, which deliver 135-400 to 170-500mm. The higher the MM the more powerful the picture will appear. You can also get the telephoto lens in fixed mm. The mm’s start at 300 and work up to 600mm’s respectively. Fixed Lenses The fixed lenses is more or less an amateurs choice, however these lenses can do more than most people believe. The fixed lenses can deliver visual excellence photos. The fixed lenses are said to have circumference over some of the other types of lens, such as the zoom lens. The fixed lens can provide a top-dog picture since it sees light on a lower grading scale. The downside is these lenses have a sole length in center view. Wide-Angled Lens The wide-angled lens offers a view wider than the other versions offer. The lens out measures the range the human eye can extend. Some of the wide-angles are the 2135mm’s, which produce an ultra-capture, while the 15-20mm’s will appeal to anyone using it. The 16-35mm is one of the most commonly used lens by architectural and/or travelers respectively. Zoom Lenses Zoom lenses combines super-telephoto zooming lens with the wide-angled zooms making this a choice lens. This lens is ideal for anyone considering the fixed lens, yet want the wide-angle lens respectively. Instead of purchasing two separate lens, you would choose this zoom lens, since it will zoom in on lengths surpassing the common fixed or telephoto super lens. Standard The standard lens is a 50mm that will reach the ranges of site up to 28-80mm easily. This is an ideal lens if you are searching for the traditional mark, yet you want a new taste of modernity. The Super-zooms Super zoom lens is versatile and works like the fixed, wide-angle, zoom, standard, and telephoto respectively. This lens ranges from between 28-200 to 28-300mm. This lens has its defects however, since it does not compare to the two-lens, which gives off sound quality pictures while covering sufficient ranges. It also has a diminutive aperture at its max. As you can see selecting the right lens for what you are doing is slightly complex, however the comparison should help you to see what lens will work best in your situation. If you are traveling and snapping photos, you definitely want a lens that will take long-distance shots. On the other hand, if you are taking close ups you want a lens that will be suitable for the tasks. Still, you want to keep wide-angles and fixed angles in mind while selecting a lens for close ups. Other lens available includes the Macro lens, Perspective-Control lens, Mirror lens, Fish-eye lens, Image stabilizer, and so forth. The named lenses are generally for those specializing in photography. Therefore, if you are intending to specialize in photography, make sure you read up on the lenses details to make the right choice since all of them function slightly different than the other does. Chapter 4: Making Pictures for a Living Digital photography in the making considers many details. If you are on your way to making pictures for a living, you need to consider more than cameras, printers, scanners and the like. Digital photography includes composition, focal points, third rules, new slants, scene frames, foreground, perspective, lines, and sense and so on. There is no ending to understanding digital photography, especially if you are going pro. Composition is the plot so to speak. If you wonder what a plot is, it is the specific focus of the storyline. In other words, if I was snapping a picture at a flower, the plot would be the flower. While the plot is the focus, it takes you the camera operator to spot the targets specifics to detail and lay it out on paper. If you see a flower as a plant on the ground, you are missing the point. Any photographer (good photographer that is) will see beyond that flowers plant and growth. The flower brings life to the world, which is something the world often misses. Therefore, if you want to get into photography, get into the composition in full light. Imagine: The sky is orange-yellowish with a tickle of purplish shade, and dark blue waters with shades of light are offsetting the scene. The light is beaming down onto the earth’s surface. In the background is a city at a distance and in front of you is a bridge. The boundaries have a dark surface, and some of the buildings are lit up in the background. Can you capture all of this in one shot? Sure, you can if you are focusing on the entire plot or picture. The concept in this picture is seeing not only the focal point, but the scales that setoff the image. Now the focal points extend to vertical and horizontal lines. There are two points to each line that you want to center in on, while keeping the plot in view. This is the third rules or rules of the thirds in camera or photography language. Now we can consider framing. Pictures have a marquee, or center attraction, but borders often setoff the pictures. If you are snapping a picture at a child, you want to center in on a border while considering scales. For example, you are looking at a child standing in a corner of the room, yet all the walls are white in color. For me, I prefer white as an outside attraction, verses being an inside addition. That is, I’d rather not have white in the scene, unless it sets off a specific portion of the plot. If I am looking at a snow capped mountain, then I definitely want the white to show up in the plot. Okay, the child is in the room, what you can pick up with the eye that will setoff that picture with borders. Are there toy boxes in the room? Are there other pictures in the room? What is in the room that will border your picture? You can use slanting while taking pictures on interesting plots, however if you are taken a shot of a building, it won’t look good slanting. Foregrounds are like distractions so to speak, or guides rather. You can capture a foreground scene that will trail the viewing into the plot. For example, if you are taking a picture of Alabama clay, you could use the cracks in the clay as a foreground to lead the viewing into the scene. Some of the most important things you will learn in digital photography is using common sense, proper lens, cameras, accessories, and the like. Once you have the basics you are off to the start in pro photography. Focusing Focusing is essential in digital photography. One of the biggest topics in digital photography is lighting. If the light isn’t right, then the picture is coming out in trouble. Most cameras will see things in a percentage of gray scale with three difference colors following pursuit. Therefore, photographers focus on backdrops, angles and the like. It is wiser to add light rather than try to do it in some instances. Most cameras have a dimmer switch, which you can hit if the light is too bright. If the area is too light, you want to read your manual to see what exposure affects you can use in this situation. Otherwise, you can change your position or angle to adjust to the lighting. An ideal if you are trying to snap a shot with a dark background is holding up a grey colored card and letting the snaps meter visual this, which will trick the camera and then you can snap the shot. One thing you want to keep in mind is that the fixed cameras are manufactured set. Therefore, if you are using one of these cameras you need to keep distance from the target in focus. The digital cameras today have automatic focus commands, which make it easier to control your focus shots. If you are using the digital cameras with auto focus, you will need to lock in the command to make it work. Go figure! They say automatic and put you to work. With a digital camera, you can target the subject or frame in photographers terms. Once you have the target in focus, you can hold the shutter button down, holding it halfway. Once you have these steps in place, realize that today’s cameras alert you at what time the picture is ready to take. After you have the alert message appearing push the shutter button down and there you have it. Now that you have a focus, let me stop here for a minute, since I received an email that is fascinating. It appears the new I-Stick is one of the latest storage mediums for storing files. This medium comes in 128MB, 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, and 2GB. What a rewarding new commodity for storing images. Apparently, you can store about anything you want, including music, spreadsheets, videos, documents, pictures and more. Anyway, back to focus. Are you focusing on the object or person you want to snap a shot at? Are you missing the shot? If you are, realize there are programs that will help you even if you don’t focus properly. If your camera has auto focus, personally, I prefer not to use this feature, since as a high observational candidate, I trust what I see verses some auto device taking control of my sight. One thing you want to remember while snapping pictures is to stand still without moving the camera out of position while it is targeting the subject. If you move it can cause blurring, which can degrade your picture. If you are taking pictures with the camera positioned on a surface, your best bet is to invest in a tripod. Tripods are designed to keep a camera in place while pictures are being snapped. If you understanding light, cameras and focus you are half ways to the marketing point of taking a good picture. Still, even if you can’t get it going on, you can use softwareediting tools to make necessary changes. Remember, cameras also (most) have automatic timers, which enable you to set the cam to snap a shot at the right time. After all, it’s all about the image. Red Eye Reduction What is red eye reduction? Red eyes is a state of flashbulb verses light whereas the lighting is off and causes the flash to hit the eyes in an off-light balance. Red eye is a condition caused by direct flash photography. Similar, if you don’t get enough sleep, drink too much alcohol, or take drugs you will see red eyes. The flashbulbs and lighting of a camera is similar in contrast to the affects of alcohol, drugs and lack of sleep. The camera however will target the eyes and give off a much powerful view. Using cameras at an angle inappropriately to the light you will get a offtone once the flashbulb hit its target. This will cause the bulb to target the retina in the eye area. Now you have red –eyes. You can avoid red-eye by employing a variety of techniques while controlling the flashbulbs or using different levels of flashers. You can change the direction of the flash by flicking it up, from the side or down. If the lighting targeting the subject is low, it will lead to red-eye. If you are using a camera where the light is lower, the pupils will dilate. This occurs as the flash targets the eyes, thus the lighting will reflect hitting the retina, thus showing the blood vessels. If a person is in an area where the lighting is balanced, the contrast provides better picture. Daylight affects often miss red-eye. A flash will target the subject and flash a couple of times in an effort to reach its target. The pre-flashing may hit while the pupils are contracting. The person may blink however once the photo is taken. ISO and its Settings: What are ISO settings? This is a determiner of how your sensors on your images turnout. If the ISO is at its highest level it will make the flash sensitive. Reducing the shutter time at half the original is when the ISO is doubled. So does that mean that ISO setting should be highest possible? To say the least, if you have a higher ISO setting capacity and a lower time for shutter, you will see a sharper outcome. Still, it is not always true. The sound quality will increase if the ISO is at a higher value. The image may show up flecks or specks. Therefore, the better choice of camera for few is the pointer and shooters, since most have a valued 100 ISO. You can use software’s to remove problem areas in a photo, yet you may remove some of the details in the pictures. Accordingly you want the best possible ISO valued settings while considering light availability. If you already have the picture, you can employ image-manipulation programs of quality to reduce the redness also. Yet, the programs do more, since you can crop, blur, contrast, and the likes by using the proper tools. If the background in the picture has off colors, you can adjust the colors so that the picture is of higher quality. Nowadays, there is less need to worry about red-eyes or imbalanced photos since technology has made it possible to dress up some of the worst pictures taken. The cameras nowadays also have many features that work with lighting, which is why red-eyes occur. Furthermore, you resolution may be off in your camera; therefore you will need to review your user’s manual to determine the resolution level. The highest level of resolution is recommended, unless you are uploading your files to a website. Shadows and Brightness in Contrasting When the lights come down to the final draw what will your picture look like? Some people are gifted and can take a picture straight from a camera and deliver a quality shot. It would be nice if we all could do this, but it is not a reality. Nor is a reality that those fortunate people can do this each time they use a camera. What are we to do? I say we all go bowling and take the rest of the night off, however you are probably waiting to get the brightness adjusted while shadowing and contrasting your photos. Ok, then, i am like Erkle in some ways on the bowling part, except he probably can do better than me. Therefore, let’s edit, since I do have a feel in this area. Anyway, you snapped a photo that you hoped would come out looking like a winner. In the photo is your favorite pet, yet in the background the scene is dark. What are you to do? Crack open the image-manipulator program because you are going to need a few tools. Now that we have an underexposure shot situation, we want to turn this picture inside out and make it an exposure copy. Most editing software’s or at least a lot of them will automatically adjust brightness and contrast by using filters. The downside is the computers can’t read a picture as you can read it, and will adjust the photo to its own liking, which is often not to your liking. Therefore, you want to get out your thinking cap, since you are going to manual adjust your own brightness, contrast and shadow if you like. Assuming you are using Photo Deluxe imaging manipulators, we are going to check out the commands brightness and contrast. Once you select the commands, you will notice a dialogue box appearing in the window. The box should have sliders. With your mouse, click on the brightness slide and move it left or right, depending on what you are seeking to achieve. If you want less brightness, move the slider to the right. Do the same, dragging the slider to the left if you want a darker image. If you notice in the dialogue box, there is a little white box with numbers showing. You can use this box to select your own level of contrast or brightness if you know what you are doing. Likewise, to achieve contrast effect, move the slider either left or right. Tip You should highlight the area you want to contrast or brighten, since if you command brightness and contrast to adjust the entire pictures and some areas are dark while others are light, you will get an off tone shading. That is, the light areas depends if dark or light will either get darker or lighter. Note: YOU can use the saturation command to adjust overexposure colors if they appear flushed down. One downside about Deluxe Photo programs is that it doesn’t give you the sophisticated commands that Photoshop offers. Still, you can do a lot with either program if you know your moves. It pays to learn the commands in all imaging-manipulating programs so that you have a feel of the table when the cards fall down. You can use the Shadows Command to cast a shadow over the image. You are the only one looking at this image now, so it is up to you to adjust accordingly. You can play with each command, experimenting with the image as long as you saved an original copy and backed it up. This will give you the opportunity to learn your stuff. All Sorts of Printing Needs Printers are something I have considered blowing up many times, since these critters cause more trouble sometimes than what they are worth. However, if you are digital photography you realize how valuable these items on in the biz. Digital photographers are aware that they need cameras, printers, software, and much more while working with photography. The software is important since if you do not have the right software it could lead you nowhere. Not only is software important however, you also need to consider printer resolution, paper styles, inks, and more. You will also need to get in on the printer troubleshooting scope, misalignments, banding, roller marks, missing colors or incorrect colors, smeared and blurred photos and more. Oh, what a web we weave while considering digital photography. Software for Printers Printer software is one of the leading programs that photographers employ today, since it has taken the place of many darkrooms. Most any printer you purchase will include a software program, which permits the user to set the printer as he desires, including paper type and print resolution. Print resolution If you are seeking to achieve high-quality photos, the ideals are to optimum your printer’s resolution. Most professional photographers will set the resolution at 300dpi (dots per inch). Some photographers may not like the size of the images and may set the resolution at 200dpi. One of the things you want to keep in mind while setting resolutions is that the dimensions should achieve a height, a width, and a resolution. The upside is if you change the resolution on most printers, it will automatically adjust width and height of image accordingly. For additional printer help you should refer to your user’s manual. Paper Types Printers need to know what type of paper you will use while printer from the machine. Knowing the paper type will help the printer to determine the effects of your images. Therefore, if you do not have a printer that mechanically adjusts to paper type, then you will need to learn the settings on your printer to command the machine. Inkjet paper gloss types in premium demand is one of the better quality papers available that will deliver high-quality photos. Don’t think because you are a pro that you have to run out a buy printer paper that labels your career. Rather, inkjet paper has been around for some time, and accordingly to experts inkjet offers some of the better quality paper overall papers on the market for print. Printer Inks It depends on your printer, but some are laser while others are dye and so on. Inks are important to photographers, since if the colors are off base it can affect the printer. Most printers come with four cartridges; however, there are the elite, which have onecartridge or else six cartridges. The six cartridge printers are said to be one of the elite printers offered. Instead of receiving black, magenta, yellow, and cyan, you also get a lighter version of cyan and magenta ink. Dot inks or printers that spill out dot inks can affect the sharpness of your images. Dyes provides a high-quality image, while the pigment inks are water-proof and fade-resistant inks that work well with photography needs, however the cost outweighs other types of inks. Still if you want quality verses price, the pigments might be the route to take. Now that you have a printer, paper, ink, resolution in check, and software you will need to learn a bit about troubleshooting, since printers often fail. Learn how to deal with issues such as banding, roller marks, missing or incorrect colors, misalignments, smeared and blurred photos and more, to prepare for printer disaster. The Type of Printers If you are in photography, you know how valuable printers are for your business. In the photo biz, the market offers a variety of printers to select, however the prime two printers are the dye sublimations and the Inkjets. In addition, printers are available for home studios, including printers that print from a camera. Epson is one of the name brand printers that have a series that will print from camera through usage of a slot card. Inkjet Printers We will start with the Inkjet printers, since this is the most common name employed over the market. Inkjet printers often provide high quality pictures, providing you select the right choice of printer. If the printer is delivering small dots for print, the higher the odds of photos printing of quality. Dye Sublimation Printers The Dye Subs produce higher quality pictures than the standard inkjets in most instances. The downside is you will pay more for this printer than you will an inkjet and only get a limited amount of prints. Rather, the size is limited. The ideal of selecting a printer for your needs is considering printing resolution, speed, and inks. The higher the resolution the better odds of your film coming out in quality color. The optical resolution for quality pictures should be around 4000dpi or 1440dpi. The speed is essential, since some printers are slow to process quality pictures, which could hold you up. Consider the Canon brands while thinking speed. Tip: If you travel frequently and do not have a working computer and need to print film, there are printers available that will print directly from a compatible camera. Inks are important to consider, since you want a printer that has black and white as well as color inks. Some printers have one cartridge which combines color with black and white, while others have multi-colored cartridges. While considering inks you want to look into the dye inks, since these inks produce quality pictures, as well as look into the amount of cartridges. Some printers for example have six cartridges, which is said to produce higher quality images. The most common inks are cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. The six colored printers may be a choice for those printer pictures continuously, and searching for the best quality pictures available. Large formatting printers are ideal for photographers that create poster size images. These printers are commonly used in studios where professionals are searching to deliver size while reducing cost. Once you have selected the printer of choice, you will next need to consider software for printers, print resolution, paper style, inks, and so forth. You also want to consider details about printers we all hate to experience, such as troubleshooting, banding, misalignments, missing or incorrect colors, smeared or blurred prints, and roller marks. Each detail plays a role in digital photography. Just when you thought, photography equaled camera, operator, and film and that the rest was an easy task, and then someone had to come along and fill you in on all details of photography. What a remarkable ride one will take while considering digital photography: Since digital photography came into light, more and more people are out to get in on the action. If you are one of those people, I encourage you to read all information available to you on digital photography before venturing off into a world that just might rock your mind. Not only does this photography industry take skill and a keen eye for photos, it also takes a lot of equipment, accessories, and the like to get the job done right. Printer Tech Tips Having a printer sometimes can give anyone a major headache. Printers often work smoothly, yet sometimes they just seem to want to take a vacation at what time we need them the most. At what time they take that vacation we are prancing around the room, heads pulling back our hair, and screaming all those words our mommas told us not to use. Printers come in handy while creating digital images. Photographers will often employ printers to print photos. At one time, they relied on a darkroom, but since printers, scanners, and the like came available, printers are the source of reaching the ultimate limit of high quality pictures for print. In this article, we will discuss a few issues and will provide some helpful tips so that you can avoid walking the floor, pulling your hair and using those words momma told you not to use. Here we go! Troubleshoot Troubleshooting is one of the prime considerations as a printer starts acting up. Troubleshooting tools are often available on your printer, or in your printer’s manual. Some of the prime problems printers will face are banding horizontally, misaligning vertically, miss colors or print incorrect colors, blur or smudge photos, and roller marking. Follow the steps below to see the problems and get a solution. Problem I printed my photo, which came out with lines all over the paper. My photo is a disaster. You got that right. After all, who wants to see a picture with lines blocking the view? Solution Go to the locate tavern and get a beer. Just kidding! Anyway, lines on print are known as horizontal banding. The solution is to make sure that the paper is positioned correctly. Be sure the type of media is correct, or run a cleaning, which is often incorporated in the printer, thus cleaning the heads. You will need to refer to your user’s manual for complete details, since it is hard to say what type of printer you own. Problem Roller Marks is just as it appears. This means that at what time you print an image it comes out with marks all over the photo. Solution You will need your manual, since if this problem occurs you want specifics on cleaning the rollers. First, however you want to make sure the paper is in the tray, positioned upward. Problem Vertical Misalignments is a common problem. At what time the photo comes out of the printer you will see a double image around the edges, and sometimes in the middle of the print. Solution Call Ghostbusters. The solution is to correct the type of media, check the paper for correct positioning, clean the heads, use your alignment utilizes, and make sure the inks are refreshed. Refer to your user’s manual for more details on cleaning heads, using alignment utilizes and refreshing inks. Problem Missing colors or incorrect colors are white and black images, which is often what a photographer does not want to see. I want my picture in color! Solution Make sure that the settings for ink are correct. You want the ink settings in color format. Renew the inks if the ink is low. Use your cleaners to clean the heads. Check with your manual to learn more! Problem Smearing and blurring print is one of the most frustrating appearances that come out of a printer. Solution You want to make sure the type of media is correct. Next, you can verify that the paper is facing up and position correctly. Refer to your user’s manual for more details. Happy printing! Choosing the Right Color Gamut for Your Images What is a color gamut? A gamut is correctly categorized as the span of colors that a device can create, such as a printer or monitor. People use different terminology color gamut, device gamut, or simply gamut but they all mean the same thing. The gamut is basically a way of representing the span of colors a printer can print or the scope of colors a monitor can display. There are many colors gamut’s on the marketplace today, like Adobe RGB, sRGB, LAB, Pro-Photo RGB etc. Even though Pro-Photo and LAB are one of the best color gamut’s available and have the vast color range (color range for Pro-Photo is 281 trillion colors!) making it the better choice for images. Most of our inkjet printers and laser printers are pretty much ineffective for this kind of color scope. In fact, almost 99% of the color printers nowadays are based on sRGB. Thus, most of the pictures out there are in sRGB. Well there are some downsides also with using sRGB. As such, it has a very small color spans though it is still larger than CMYK. The problem with sRGB lies in the fact that it does not represent the entire scope of visible spectrum, which means that the color of your image and print output may vary a lot from the original color. Such a small color spectrum clarifies that you would get saturated colors more often than not. Also during some editing work, there is every possibility that you may eliminate the colors that are even close. There are several reasons why the color range must be very large. The first one is so that it has a higher color appeal. In addition, it will print a much better image on a printer that supports more colors than the regular sRGB based printers. Adobe RGB is way larger span than sRGB. It has the same number of colors, because the image is around 8-bits. But these colors are spread over a much larger area, so the colors bright fringes, which are symbolic in RGB Adobe format, yet the sRGB differs. Thus, this brings Pro Adobe to dwarf the RGB. Pro-Photo is a 16-bit RGB space, thus it has trillion of colors. But can a printer actually print all of these? The answer is no, simply because the human eye is unable to as well, yet the point is missed here. The point is that PROPhoto will be able to symbolize the orders of scale more colors than the sRGB, therefore even if you convert to sRGB in the end you're more likely to have an accurate conversion without losing colors. What more can you ask for, since society is moving at the speeds of lightning why not check out gamut’s to see if it works for you. Photographers often have less time to spend on minor details, thus speed is always a need in digital photography. If you want to learn more about gamut and how it works, you best bet is to research the market. This may be a high technology resolution for some people, however for others it might not be an option to consider. Remember, if you are searching to learn what to buy for your new photography career, reading all the information and staying informed is ideal to help you along the way. Many photographers have posted sites that may provide information, however many I’ve noticed only offer photo galleries. Still some content-based informative sites do exist. Shuttling the Buttons Well I guess we talked about every darn thing in photography you can imagine without getting all the details, thus, I guess we need to understand the shutter buttons now, since failing to know what these buttons do, can cause you to miss out on a shot. The shuttle button works to snap a picture as you capture the scene. Shutter buttons have speeds, which is important to understand. If you don’t understand the shutter buttons, you might have a problem with images, since this is a crucial feature. The lens to some people is the most important feature of a camera, however if the lens and shutter button are working in union with a backer, then failure will occur. If you are firing a shot at a bus passing down a highway and fail to hit the shutter button, don’t blame the camera if there is no picture in the housing stored. Setting the Speed This is at what time you want to use a lower shutter speed if you are taking a picture of a moving target. The speeds are based on seconds; therefore if the target is moving try to set the shuttle at 1/3. The picture will come out blurred but it will let the viewer see that the target was on the run. To make sure you are reaching the best possible picture in events of snap shots you want to keep aperture and speed in mind while using the shuttle buttons. If you are targeting a moving image, then try to use a speed at 1/125 or else you can reduce the speed to 1/20. Of course the target is moving, so you want to maneuver the camera in groove with the target. Now you are panning! Some cameras have a shuttle mode. The modes may be labeled T and B. The B stands for bulb, while the T stands for Time. The options are dedicated to giving you a quality picture at a distance. You can control length and exposure with these functions. While using the shuttle button you can hold it halfway down in order to prepare for the shot. Once the scene comes into view as you wish it to appear you can hold down the button and the camera will get the image on its storage. This is the bulb effect. The T mode will drain the battery, depending on the camera; therefore use this function with thought. The slow speeds are often used at what time the photographer is snapping a shot where the lights are low. If you are in a darken area you may want to situate the camera so that it is steady, such as on a tripod. You may want to use your remote control release that comes with most cameras instead of hitting the shuttle button directly. This will cause slight movement, and if the lights are low, you need slowness and sturdiness as much as possible. You can also set the timer to snap the shot while it is situated on the tripod. You can also use the slow speeds at what time you are taking pictures of a moving snake, frog, water, and the like. Faster shutter speeds are often employed at football fields. If you are at a sporting event and want to capture a player in action, your best bet is using the fast speed mode. Some of the better cameras on the marketplace are the SLR series; however, I noticed the Mustek Digital Cams and Camcorders combined are nice photo shooters. Storage Mediums Whether you like it or not, if you are dealing with images, you will need Floppy Discs, Zip discs, memory cards, card readers, adaptors, and the like. Memory cards are handy extras. Cameras often have memory chips or cards available with the purchase. Most of the memory cards however do not offer sufficient memory to hold high-quality images on a single card. Some of the cards include the 2MB, 4MB, and 8MB. One of the cameras I own only has a 64MB card attached. This is ok if you take low-resolution pictures, but if you are taking high-resolutions, the files are large. If you take loads of pictures, be sure to check your manual to see what size the camera photos overall results are. This will help you to determine the amount of memory you will need, yet don’t forget compression. If you compress your files, you can clear up a little space. Flops Floppy disks are the oldest storage mediums in existence. While new technical devices are coming on the market, floppy seems to holds its own in a place of digit delight. The downside the floppy drives and floppy disks are compatible with fewer devices as the revolutionary digital comes into play. You will have to check compatibilities if you are considering floppy disks for image storage. Computer Cards The older model cameras may permit storage of images onto a PC card. You will need to refer to your manual to learn about compatibilities, formats and the like before buying PC cards. Smart Media The Smart Media Cards is dissimilar from a Compact card. The Smart Cards are more compatible with the newer cameras, yet you need to check for compatibility. These cards resemble the 5 ¼ Flops. Compact Flash Cards Compact Flash Cards are available in sizes up to 64Megabytes MB, yet you will pay a pretty penny for these cards. Of course, the price of the other cards named is not cheap either. One of the upsides is that computers today still have workable floppy drives. The disks for these drives are dirt cheap, meaning you can turn 1.5 megabytes into gigabytes at less the price you would pay for half the cards or other storage mediums on the market. If you use the floppies you need to make sure to compress your files, otherwise, a single floppy disk will not hold a large resolution image. Removable storage mediums are available also, which includes the Zips. These are fabulous storage mediums, which I seem to like personally aver all others. Lexar Media is another of the external or removable drives available, which this little gadget costs around $38 yet it will hold an entire hard drive easily. The Jump Drives are secure supposedly. I have one personally and one thing you want to make sure of is to unplug the drive if you are cleaning up files on your hard drive. I lost all my files before I realized this, and now I can share it with you. The Lexar has around 128MB, while other options may be available. Still, Zip drives and disks are my all-time favorites. The zip disks will hold around 100MB of files. According to few, the zip disks will hold around 100 full-length books and covers included. I have to second-guess this, but I do know the disks will hold a surplus of files. Other mediums for photography images storage is the SuperDisks, Super-Floppy, SyQuest SparQ, and the like. The super-floppies hold around 120MB and will work fine on a standard floppy drive. Some of the mediums cost less than many of the cards. Resizing Resolution Issues Resolution and pixels are essential in digital photography. If you do not have the proper resolution camera and pixels per inches, likely you will come up with low quality pictures. This is not only a waste of time, but it is a bummer to a trying photographer. As mentioned in earlier periodicals resolution when medium or high will produce quality pictures. Likewise, if you have higher numbers of pixels per inch you will get a large quality photo. The standard resolution is medium or high, while the standard pixel is around 300 PPI, i.e. pixel per inch. Still, the pixels and resolution is based on web page or photos. For example, if you are creating images for a web page, then you want a low resolution verses a higher resolution image. On the other hand, if you are shooting photos for publications, you want medium or high-resolution images. We mentioned too that if you use photo-editing software to up sample or down sample a photo that it could cause problems, since deleting too many pixels or adding too many can defect the photo or images. Therefore, we need to consider resizing because most photographers are aware that this is the better choice in editing. To change the resolution of your images you can use the resize option in your editing program. Most photographers utilize Photo Adobe Shop, since it is one of the better programs on the market. The editing program will also provide additional features for creating, chopping, cropping, and so forth. During the resize, you want to focus on the pixels and keep them in check. Pixels in resize mode are like bread cooking in the oven. If you put too much ingredients in the mixture it will corrupt the cooking process. On the other hand, if you put in the right amount of ingredients the bread dough will fill in all the necessary details to produce eatable bread. While resizing your photos in your photo-editing software it is important to resize at the highest number of pixels. If you are using Photo Impact as a program to resize the images, it is relatively simple. Merely pull down the pixel or resolution size you want the photo to be and there you have it. If you upload a picture to this program, like most other editing software’s you will notice the higher you set the picture resolution, the smaller the picture will appear. To size your photos you will need to save a copy as backup. Next, from your windows box in your editing software you will need to select the size tab, which will display a dialogue box. You should notice width-pixels, height-pixels, and resolution –pixels/inch respectively. At the bottom of the screen, you will see two boxes checked, one is the proportions box, and the other is file size. Deselect the box labeled file size whereas the check mark will vanish. Now you are ready to adjust the dimensions of the pixels accordingly. You will select the pixel drop down box and select the pixels measured in units, adjusting the height and width. Web page images: Keep the images or pixels and resolution low for web page images. Respectively, keep the images around 72 pixels per inches if the photos are going on a web page. Any pixels above 96 will cause slowness of downloading. This will only annoying visiting users and will turn them away from the website. You will also see less traffic coming to the site, because when one user is disappointed, he/she makes sure others are aware of this disappointment. Photos: Keep the images on medium or high resolution around 300 PPI for photos to print. Getting in on the Reflections Getting on the reflections means getting up to par on the remote and cable releases, short-range infrareds, corded electronic releases, long-range transmitters and receivers, tri-flectors, reflectors, and on and on and on. If you are not familiar with photography then this list probably has you on a trip to no man’s land. On the other hand, if you know the biz then you are aware already as to what these items mean to photos and cameras, or photography as a whole. The short-range infrared shoots units to a shutter up to sixteen feet. The unit is very small and will work wonders on ranges at a distance. Remote release is ideal for shutters that fail to fire on its own. long-range transmitters and receivers are ideal for anyone taking photos of the wildlife. The transmitters target the receiver in a direct course of action, while the receivers take care of the broken rudiments. Its sort of like drums. The function works in a pattern, i.e. there are twenty-six basic rudiments, and from those rudiments, you can create other rudiments by combining them. Comparing to pixels you can see the comparison respectively. There are an infinite number of combinations. A rudiment is a phrase or a beat, or pattern of beats, while pictures have a pattern that a photographer will follow. Cable releases are similar to triggers and pins on a pistol, i.e. the release bolt onto the shutters button and once pressed a pin will extend releasing the shutter by hitting its trigger. Cord Electronic Releases is what most cameras employ to shoot the shutter releasing the camera to act. Once the trigger and shutter is released, the picture in focus is hit. Now that you have an overall view of reflections, you will need to consider lights and its accessories. Lighting is one of the most important issues a photographer will deal with at any given time. If the light is off track, thus the pictures will appear faulty. This is a photographer’s worst nightmare, or at least one of the worst. Photographers often consider various accessories while dealing with light. Some of the accessories include Tri-flectors, reflectors, diffusers, collapsible reflectors, California Sunbounces, exposure meters and more. Tri-flectors are similar to reflectors, i.e. they sort of bounce light onto the area of picture target. Lights work in colors, i.e. most colors are red, green, and blue, which if targeted correctly will appear white. Tri-flectors work to retrieve lost light from a subject. Reflectors again work to target light back to the subject. The reflectors are handy, since it will create a picture of choice, rather a picture of doom. California Sunbounces are reflectors larger than average. These reflectors are often used in studios where portraits are taken or fashion is the subject, since the reflector adds total control to photo shots. Collapsible reflectors are the choice reflectors of many photographers. This reflector will opt, a photographer to have full control of his/her lighting. Diffusers are ideal, since the diffusers will reduce unnecessary lighting. For example, if the lighting is high-pitched obviously you will need some control, which the diffusers come in to give that control. Exposure meters are the better choice if you combine flash control with light control. The market sells three styles of these meters, thus knowing exactly what the meters do is important, since out of three one is the most chosen by photographers. The flash meters, light meters and combined meters function in one way or another. The flash meter gauges flash, while the light meter gauges light, more specifically ambient lights. Chapter 5: The Tools and Software for Editing the Images Many photographers use digital images to promote a website. If you are loading images onto your website for promotional purposes, it is essential that you understand some of the rules. If you load images up on a high resolution or high pixel count, your site will become a problem no one wants to deal with. Digital cameras make it easy to upload photos onto a website. It is important that you are aware that content verses graphics or images are more effective for promotion. Again, the size of graphics and images matter, since if you put up huge files it will take longer to download the images. This is not only a problem for those impatient souls; it is a problem for those using dial-up connections. Most times huge images will freeze up or shut down their Internet connection. To optimize your web pages you want to add more content and keep a single page filled with images around 50K max. The pixels should be around 72 or at most 96 for web pages. The resolution should be low as well. You can employ your photo-editing software to downsize or upsize your photos accordingly. It s important while exploiting your JPEG files that you compress the files on a high setting for the best effects, otherwise you may run into problems. JPEG is one of the wider used formats for websites. JPEG like GIFF enables you to compress at higher levels, still JPEG is the most highly viewed formatting on the Internet. The value is what determines the size. In your photo-editing program, you may see size in the dialogue box believing this determines the size, however the value is what you want to consider when resizing images. You can view image file size by selecting the Files option then Open and clicking on the file name. While putting your files on the Internet avoid saving the files in any other format other than GIF or else JPEG. These are the common file names that websites recognize. It is important that your images match the description of your website. Putting up graphics or images irrelevant to the site will only discourage visitors. That is if the person is looking for something from the website, some picture like pictures and will spend wasted hours on in checking out the photos. There is only a handful of these people existing, therefore keep it relevant. You want to employ text links in the images, especially if the images are downloadable. The text links will prevent downloading of unwanted images. It also links you page to other web pages within the same site, or else text links will link your site to other sites which increases traffic. You can add the text links to hyperlinks respectively. You should add navigational links through text links on the web pages, which gives the visitors the option of selecting the images for downloading. One thing that will steer visitors away from a site is websites that automatically download to a computer without authorization. You do this to my computer and I will tell everyone to stay clear of your site. The size of the images should remain consistent with the pixels provided on your computer. If you try to make the images larger that, your computer pixels prepare to meet trouble. The file size is based on the pixel count. Next, you want to copyright your images. If you intend to use these images as promotional tools, it is important that you realize anyone can take these images from your site and do as they please with them. Image Scanners Scanners are part of the photography biz you truly want to understand. The different types of scanners available could make it difficult to shop for the right model, however if you are not up to par on what scanners make a difference in digital photography, then you are heading down the wrong path. While considering scanners you will need to consider functions, but above all else, you will need to consider (ppi), (dpi) and resolution. Scanners have taken the place of darkrooms basically. Scanners enable photographers to snap a shot, scan the picture, and load it to computer, edit, and print. Scanners convert images into a digital photo, by using light. You can use scanners separately from editing programs, or else you can use photo-editing software to process the images. The resolution of the scanner makes a difference in photography. The tip of the day is to consider a scanner that has high resolution and speed. The types of scanners include the flatbeds and film scanners. The flatbeds, integrates transparent hoods, scan them, and construct the slides or negatives into a working image. Most flatbed scanners are similar to min-photocopiers. The beds are small and will fit comfortable on a small table of choice or even below your computer stand if you choose. Flatbeds are versatile, which makes life easier. Tip: 3200 Dots per inch flatbeds work well with higher resolution images. If you are in the photography business, the ideal scanners are the film scanners, since these handy devices are specifically designed to meet film needs. The downside is if you are working with plain images for play, the scanner may not offer you what the flatbed scanner may offer, since the film does just what it says, works with film only. Most films used on the scanner are taken from a 35mm camera; however, other cameras are used with this scanner. While considering photography and scanners you may want to combine the two and buy both scanners, since the flatbeds will scan 3D photos while the film scanners will not. Most times, you can pick up a flatbed scanner for less than hundred bucks. Now that you know, the types of scanners to consider you can move onto the resolution. This is highly important for digital images. The resolution and pixels is what determines how a picture will appear on paper. If you are publishing the pictures on a website however, you want to keep the resolution low, e.g. around 72ppi (pixels per inch). On the other hand, if you want quality pictures to show in magazines you will need high resolution. Film scanners generally offer 4000dpi (dots per inch), which is ideal for nonInternet pictures. The highest number of resolution to consider for non-Internet publishable images is around 300dpi. If you are editing on a photo-editing program, such as Adobe then you want to set the resolution and pixels according to your needs. Tip: If you have a low resolution, camera, and try to make a picture larger on the on photo-editing software the images will blur. The low-resolution cameras generally deliver smaller pictures. Therefore, while consider resolution for scanners, you will also need to consider resolution for cameras. Now you see you will need a medium to high-resolution camera, high-resolution scanner, and a few other accessories to achieve a high-quality picture. Tip: Optical Resolution is the key factor in determine scanners. The optical is notable in the equation pixel per inch (PPI) verses dots per inch (DPI). Software for Scanners Scanners, cameras, computers, accessories and software all work together to produce quality pictures in photography. At one time, you hid in a darkroom hoping the pictures would come out in color. Nowadays, you can use a camera, scanner, editing software, and accessories to achieve what you once had to do in a darkroom. Talbot is the first man to come up with photography; however as the needs became more demanding, others developed high-resolution solutions for achieving the best possible photos ever. Software for scanners is critical, especially if you are promoting photos for a business. The software’s will cover document style, resolution and image size, mode and user setting, single or batch scanning and so forth. Starting with document styles is an informative tool for scanners, since this function will let the scanner know what type of picture you are dealing with. The transparent is the slide pictures and the reflective is the pints. It depends on the scanner, but few enable you to select color. Mode and user settings optimizes parameters that will mange the pictures overall appearance. If you are setting up a scanner to take shots of publishing photos outside of the Internet, thus the resolution will automatically set accordingly at your command. Typically, photographers stay within the 300dpi or 300ppi areas of resolution. If the photos are going aboard the Internet thus the settings would read 72dpi. Resolution or dots per inch/pixel per inch higher than 72 for web pages will only slow the downloading process, which discourages visitors, or incoming traffic: Resolution and image size is critical. Thus, software will help manage the resolution and size of photos easily. The key is keeping the optical resolution at a limited level, i.e. around 4000dpi otherwise; the size of the picture will alter. Single or batch scans is an option for scanning one image, or multiple images. If you are scanning more than one photo, obviously you want to select batch scan. Regardless of your choice, you have the option of reviewing your images with scanning software. This is an ideal, since in the viewing you can determine if this is what you are seeking to achieve. If the image is not to your likings, you can use the crop features to shorten or heighten the image, or else use the adjustment commands to alter the image or balance the colors. You can also use the saturations command to adjust the colors and brightness with the software. Likewise, you can use histograms to adjust the picture. You have red-eye adjusters in many software programs that will enable you to adjust the redness in the images also. The adjustments made to images typically include crop, auto-exposure, auto and manual focus, histogram, and brightness, contrast, color controls and saturation. Become acquainted with these functions, especially if you are working in the digital photography industry. Auto-exposure determines the overall caption of the images. Histogram adjusts the center tones, shadowing and highlights of the image. Crop enables you to cut out elements within the image. Auto and manual focus provides you the ability to tell the scanner which areas of the photo you want more emphasis on, thus adjusting accordingly. Brightness either adds or deducts the lighting, while contrast enables you to adjust the images level of light. You can use the color controls to add more color or take away some of the coloring in the pictures. If you own Adobe Photoshop, thus other features are available where you can have loads of fun coming up with wacky pictures. You might like this on your day off. For example, if you want to blow up your sister-n-law, making her ten times her normal weight, hey, you can do this. Software Applications and the Like Digital photography is a growing industry where it seems everyone and his brother is out on the market to snap a shot. If you are one of those people in the market for photography, you might want to become acquainted with software applications, since you will be using them a lot. The programs come in all forms and most offer something different, however one of the most valuable tools photographers will employ is imagemanipulation programs. Application programs can help you reach the limited quality of imaging while printing your photos or adding them to web pages. Cataloguing software applications is one of the few application programs that can enhance images in a slightly different method than imaging manipulating programs, i.e. this program organizes your images, which enhances your ability to find those photos with ease. Image-manipulation is another of the software applications available that enables you to change your images at leisure. Cataloguing Software Cataloguing software applications is an image management program or package for albums, which means that you can categorize your photos stored on your computer, thus finding them with ease. Once your pictures are organized, they will be stored in a file cabinet and labeled accordingly. If you want to make adjustments the package often provides manipulation tools, however if you want max capabilities for achieving quality perfect pictures, you will need an image manipulator. Image-manipulation programs With some programs you can crop, convert, add color, change colors, change size, enhance, manipulate and more. One of the choice programs is Adobe, however if you are low on cash, and amateur in the field of photography, you may want to look into other programs that offer similar features. One of the things I like about Adobe, which other manipulating programs will do also, is that you can blur images, blow up the images, and create 3D images and more. I had fun blowing up my sister-n-law making her look three times the size she actually once. Not that she needed additional weight or anything. She sort of looked like a large balloon. Anyway, that is my entertainment, but you can also design book covers and more with these programs. Other types of software programs include Rescue, Website Creation, specialist, and DVD software for view. Most of these programs are marketed for a variety of reasons outside of photography, however many photographers will employ these programs. Rescue programs for images are valuable tools, since if you loose your pictures or images; these programs will recover the files by scanning all areas selected. DVD viewers are a CD burner so to speak. This viewer enables you to burn your images to a DVD and watch them on a VHS or DVD player. This gives a person the upper edge, since what you may miss on a computer you will see live in color on a television screen. Specialist software’s are programs that enable you to create calendars, business cards, and the like. These are also handy for promotional purposes. Website Creation is invaluable at the moment. The programs enable you to walk through a series of steps to create your own website. If you ever paid for web hosting, you know that the prices are costly. Each month you will pay around $50 to keep the site up and running. Why not take the cheaper route and create your own designs. Tip: Always search for versatile programs, since these programs often have more to offer. You also want to consider power while thinking image-manipulation software. Anytime you purchase quality, most times you will receive quality and quantity in return. Software Manipulating Tools Okay, now you may have purchased the image-manipulation programs for enhancing those images. Possibly, you bought one of the most sophisticated programs available, which has tons of options to choose from. So, you are just starting out in photography and have never used these programs before. In front of your computer screen is an open windowpane, and in that pane, it is requesting you to type in a command. What do I choose? Some of the tools offered in the program includes, Crop, Layers, Clone, Exposure, Unsharp Mask, Blur, Color, Desaturation, and so forth. If you are seeing these tools, you want to take carefully notes, since many photographers will employ all of these tools on a single image before completing a task. I remember the first time I opened up Adobe Photo and seen such tools. My first expression was, somebody get me out of here! Well, nobody came so I ventured off to see where it would go, and low in behold; I was in love. These image-manipulating programs are so fascinating that it will blow your mind. Therefore, to un-blow your mind we will offer you a few tips to help you along your journey of manipulating those images. Crop Crop is one of the most frequently employed tools in image-manipulating programs. This feature is utilized to cut out areas of an image or picture that you do not want others to see. For example, if you snapped a shot of a mate and in the background is a detailed view of your home area, you can use crop and come up with your mate in the picture only. You can use other features in certain programs to add colorful backgrounds also. This feature also enables you to speed up the process of image printing, since it will decrease the size of the images. You can save computer hard drive space with this handy buddy. Layers Layers enable you to create multiple copies of one image so to speak. You can alter, manipulate, adjust, crop and so forth but choosing layers will enable you to keep the original image or photo untouched. Imagine that, you can change a picture without touching it. Go figure! Clone This is at what time you want more than one. Just kidding: This feature enables you to take out elements that you do not want in the pictures; rather you can remove entire parts of a picture or the dusty areas in sections. The Clone tool will work with the frame through a clone process and transfer the image. You will need to learn more about the brushes used in these programs, since it plays a part in cloning. The clone will employ a brush to move objects and remove areas of a photo through a backdrop result. Blur Blur is not what it seems. You can use this tool to blur out backgrounds that you don’t want in an image. Like crop, you can do pretty much the same thing with this feature. One of the most common blurs that photographers will use is the Gaussian. Adjusting tools include the Exposure, Color, and Desaturation. Using these tools, you can get a sound picture in color. Exposure Exposure has a couple of different selections, or levels if you will. You can use Curves or Levels in the menu to manipulate images. The tools are confusing, however levels is one of the most popular since it can be employed with ease. With this tool you can tone, shadow or highlight images. With the Curves tool, you can alter the lines or change the shapes of images, yet this is a more complex tool to employ. Color You can use Color to increase the brightness or decrease the brightness within an image. You can manipulate the photo, changing the colors to any desired effect. Desaturation You want to be careful while using this feature, however if you intend to change the entire colors in a picture, this is the option to select, since it converts the images to black and white. You want to learn the Color Tools before considering this option, especially if you are not familiar with the programs. The Color tool will enable you to retouch the photo with colorful scenery. Editing Images Isn’t it amazing how cameras can snap pictures that speak out loud, at what time you view them? Pictures can say so many words, yet one thing people fail to realize is that pictures can lie. After hanging in the fashion and modeling industry for a few years, I came to see how some of those lies are true. For example, did you know that the camera can add ten pounds more weight than what a person really weighs? Hey, I didn’t mean to scare you but it is the truth. If you weigh 120 pounds after the camera is done with you, you will weigh 130 pounds. Likewise, if you angle a camera upwards or changing the camera through backdrop strategies, compositional and the like you will get entirely different pictures with each action. For example, if you use the camera and snap a low-angle picture while the target is staring up in the air, the effect will differ from an upward shot. Well, now you know that cameras or the photographers behind the cameras can deliver you one big whooping lie if they choose to do so. How can we turn our lies into truth? We can use image-manipulation software programs. If you want to expand the lie, you can also use these programs. The ideal however is to use the program with honest intentions, unless you are having fun and entertaining yourself. I do this a lot. Before you begin the editing process, realize that mistakes could occur. However, most programs have an Undo Command, which can quickly restore your images. Some programs enable you to select Undo a limited time before it halts any more progress. The Undo commands can take you as far back as the beginning. What a wonderful computer world we live. I’m waiting for some technology geek to come up with a command so I can go back to the seventies and know what I know now. You can also use revert commands to go back to the last file saved. If you are using Photoshop or Deluxe, you must save the file in a particular format. (PDD) Once the file is saved you have the right away to the revert option. Tip: Always back up your files on disc and hard drive, so if something occurs you will have a backup plan. Tip: The Undo or Revert commands will not work on unsaved files. You also need to select the command UNDO promptly after mistakes are made for it to work properly. Editing steps Begin by backing up your files. Save your files according to the program rules. Use the Layers command to copy files so that you always have a backup plan. The Layers will overlap pictures keeping the original copy in place, while you produce other photos images of the same copy. As for editing your images, you can select areas within the picture that you want to change. For example, if you have a stereo in the background and want to remove it you can crop, blur, or use other options to do so. Depends on your program and what it offers. If you have Deluxe, you can use the Instantaneous Fix command and it will adjust your photo automatically. The function will automatically adjust focus, contrast, exposure, and saturation. Don’t take this information and run, since these commands will work on their own standards. If you want quality photos, you will need to manually, edit the photos on your own. Tip Learn your editing program to achieve a clarification of what it can do before venturing off to editing valuable photos. Balance and Scheme Editing My color is off balance and the variations of the colors do not have the scheme I intended. No problem. Do you have a software program that manipulates pictures or images? If so, get your computer fired up, open up that program, and follow instructions. Just kidding, I like to have a bit of humor after writing scores of articles all day without few breaks in between. Hope you don’t mind. Okay, you have a picture that is off balance, the color needs adjusted and the variations need a scheme. Assuming you have Photo Deluxe you can open the dialogue box that is labeled Quality – Color Balance. You will see a gray box in the window and at the top; you will see a Color Level with little boxes and numbers inside. Down below you will see Cyan – Magenta – and Yellow respectively with each little labeled color having its own slider. You will notice to the right of the box a label Ok and Cancel. You will see a checked box with alongside the area. From here, the rest is basically on you. You will need to drag those sliders either left or right to adjust the colors. Only you can see the picture, therefore you know what areas you want to adjust. You will notice the changes as the numbers box will change the value of your colors. If you don’t like the colors, you will need to adjust them accordingly. You can use the Variations box to adjust the schemes. Go for the Quality command. You can use the thumbnails to adjust the colors scheme. You can also use the Variations box to change the colors, as you like. Note: If you use thumbnails to adjust colors, be sure you watch closely what colors the images are changing too. For example if you use too much cyan it will alter the color distastefully, or else not enough. All depends on the photo. Photoshop has automatic tools that readjust the images; however, the programs often adjust at their own likings. You want to get acquainted with the manual tools in your editing programs so that you can adjust your images as you please. You can also take advantage of the Blur command, which will alter your images bringing more focus on the copy. The Blur will sharpen your images, as you like if you use the command properly. There is a help menu available in all programs, therefore if you come to a stump be sure to take advantage of these features. The help menus provide you detailed instructions for operating all functions provided in your program. You will be amazed at what some of these editing tools will do for your images. You can also scan the Internet to locate detailed steps in performing editing jobs on images. I haven’t done this yet, but I am quite show information is available to you as needed. Photo Deluxe provides you with tools to sharpen images as well. There are three options that will automatically sharpen your image. Be aware that the automatic adjusts as it sees fit, however it might rearrange your photo to the quality level undesirable to you. You can use either Effects or Sharpen to make adjustments to the picture. You can use your Un-sharp Mask filters in Photo Deluxe to adjust your images as well. You can also use Radius, Threshold, and Amount to make some changes to your images as you like. Tip: I recommend that you take a picture you do not want and practice in any editing software before using a picture you truly want to change. Adding Special Effects to Your Images In an effort to create an ever lasting impact from your photo, leaving the impressions on viewer’s minds, it should have something that keeps him glued. You can employ Adobe Photoshop’s special effects tools in the menu to add a lightning effect. You can double your exposures or do whatever you choose. The advantage of owning Adobe Photoshop is the rewards it will bring. In fact, I used this program to design my book covers, make commercials, advertising slicks and more. Lightning Effect: You can use various types of lightning effects and of different colors, applying them to an image using Adobe Photoshop. This will enhance your photo tremendously. How to do it:We’ll follow a stepwise manner in doing this: 1. Open your editor or Adobe Photoshop program 2. Now open the desired image (make sure you open it in RGB format) 3. Now from the filter menu choose Renderer and then select your desired lighting effects. 4. You will see the lighting effect dialogue box opens up i. Choose the desired lighting style from the topmost selection menu; you will notice the options style of lights. ii. Choose the light type and move the sliders to set the intensity and focus. iii. You can also change the properties by toggling the sliders for glass, material, exposure, and ambience. iv. You can also change the color of light. To change the color of light just click on the boxes to the right of the light type and properties. This will open the color, picker dialogue box. Choose a color and press ok. 5. To change the direction or placement of light just drag any of the points on the outside ellipse or center point. Click ok after you have adjusted the direction and placement of light. Creating Double Exposure effect: A double exposure image is created by overlaying two images on one another. Like above we’ll again follow a stepwise procedure: 1. Select all or a part of the image using the selection tools at the top of the toolbar. 2. Now from the edit menu choose copy. 3. Now open a second image file. 4. From the window menu, you can select the show layer. 5. On the ‘show layer’ popup right click and choose new layer and press ok. 6. Now go to the edit menu and press paste. 7. From the layer’s palette, move the opacity slider to 50%. 8. Now drag the mouse from inside the selection to move it. 9. To scale the pasted selection, click on image menu and then select image size. Adjust the size by adjusting the pixels and height from the pop-up window. The editing programs today can do wonders to images. One of the most popular programs is Adobe Photoshop, since this editing program is one of the most sophisticated tools. Most pro photographers will use this program, since you can create websites, book covers, images, movies, and more. Adobe is also used to design manuals, graphics, commercials, fliers, and more. This particular program I miss. I lost my copy during a severe virus attack, and the downside is it costs around $1000 to $1500 to replace. Outside of lightning effects, you can also setup brick backgrounds, or whatever background you choose. If you own this program you know what I am talking about, however if you have never had the experience and can get the opportunity to try out Adobe I promise you will have loads of fun. For additional editing assistance check out your menus, help tools. Removing Those Dust Marks from Your Photographs Well so often, we come across this problem of dust specks becoming apparent on our photographs after we scan them using the low resolution and inexpensive scanners at home. These dust specks can come from either the dust particles that were sticking on the surface of the lens while we might have been shooting the picture or even from our scanner surface. Even though we you may take all precautions and keep the lens as clean as possible, sometime or the other while shooting those invaluable moments the dust appears out of nowhere and sticks on the surface of the lens. Well not to worry anymore because with Adobe’s Photoshop software you can make your photographs totally, free of dust. How to do it? Well first of all if you are scanning the photographs then scan them at the highest possible resolution otherwise just try to copy them from your digital camera with best image quality possible. Now save the images in .TIFF format. Although this might just eat up a little more space but the end result would also be far better. If you are a professional save the images in JPEG or GIFF, especially if you are loading the images upon a webpage, also keep the resolution at 72dpi. With Photoshop, you can realign your photograph and move it a few degrees so as to make it straight. Do this by keeping anything in the background as reference, maybe the horizon or any building in the backdrop or anything that might be straight. Then you can crop the image from the sides to exclude anything that is probably not required. Scratches and particles of dust are common with today’s Ipods that you have to have filters to remove any spots of dust on the Ipods surface. Still, if you are employing filters to remove particles of dust and/or scratching, you must proceed with caution. The entirety of the filtering should never be employed at one time for cleaning images. If the filters are not employed in a correct fashion, it can clear vital details of your files. If you select only the part of the image that has severe dust on it, and then use the filters, you will not affect the rest of the photo. Check out the information available on pixels to read more into this subject. Another handy application for dust is the clone tool. Dust is most often visible in the sky, and since there is little detail there, the clone tool can be used to wipe away the dust spots, which will not be noticeable afterward. Just select the clone tool from the toolbar towards the left and then press ALT. Keep it pressed and select the area, which you want to copy. Now press the Shift Key and take the pointer to area where from where you want to remove the undesired objects. Just try to use it on a small area first to see if it is the right color or not. Eliminating Spoilage: After all the dust is gone, you might want to cleanse spoiling items as well, which you can review in your manual to decide what to move. The tools known as the rubbers stamps will enable you to stamp a section of the IPOD, whereas the area is replaced. The smudging tools are available to use once the stamps is cleared. This will recover natural appearance. It can be quite like finger painting…The photo-editing programs are fun and easy tools to work with photos. However, if you are going pro you may want to consider Adobes editing programs, since these are the most widely used programs on the market, used by pro photographers all over the world. Chapter 6: The Most Commonly Asked Questions One of the most commonly asked questions regarding digital photography are why don’t the colors on my screen and the color of the print out of the same image match, even to a decent extent. Well there is nothing wrong in it. Your monitor is absolutely fine and so is your printer. There is nothing wrong with your digicam either. The reason behind this phenomenon is the fact that your monitor and your printer are using two totally different techniques. One uses the phenomena of illumination and the other color mixing to produce an image signal for your brain. Your monitor uses display colors while the printers mix colors from inks, these are two different processes and hence produce two different results. Even the monitor displays different colors in different types of light. For instance, there is more of a bluish shade in your image in daylight whereas an incandescent light gives them a more reddish tinge. So what to do now? Now that we all know that we cannot get the picture perfect prints out of our photographs, let us aim for the near perfect image. While taking the printout our aim should be to eliminate the purple skin tones or any undesired colors (unless you really want them to be there). To do this just transfer the images from your digicam to your computer and open them using Adobe Photoshop (or any other imaging software that you may have): Now take look at them. Do they look more of a bluish color? Alternatively, more of reddish? Well just, go to your color management settings and make it a little more of red if it looks more bluish or vice versa. Keep changing the color until they are neutralized. Use the preview option if you are using Adobe. This helps in saving a lot of time rather always going back and using the “undo’ function. What next? Well now that you have done a lot of fiddling with the image on your monitor, it is time to get to the real thing. Just go ahead and take a print out of the image on your monitor. Your reaction most probably would be this doesn’t look like the one on my screen. Well this was bound to happen. Wasn’t it? Well now all that you have to do is to analyze this image and see what color is needs to be added to make it look more neutralized. Make some changes and take another print out. This also may or may not be what you want, but it’ll probably be a reasonably acceptable print. If you are still not satisfied, you may still do the same color changing again but one way or the other you’ll have to settle for a print, which is not exactly like the image on your screen. So just keep the settings of the most acceptable color scheme instead of wasting paper and the printer ink trying for that never perfect print. Don’t be depressed that your pictures are not worth what you were searching for… they are like this because they have to be like this. Let’s hope some technology of the future helps us to print the picture perfect. Until then it’s going to be like this. So don’t stop. Keep clicking and keep printing. Remember the resolution plays a large role in determining the image quality. Therefore, read up on the resolution to get the pictures you deserve. Oh, and by the way, don’t forget those little dots known as pixels, since these too play a chief role in how your pictures will appear. Conclusion In conclusion, basically, there is not much difference between using a digital camera and a manual camera. In fact, most experts believe that using a digital camera actually spoils the photographer, making everything so easy for him. Still, there are many who remain daunted by the prospects of using a digital camera especially when their training comes mainly from manual photography. There are a number of skills that one needs to learn before switching to the digital format. Read through and find out some of the things that you need to develop. Computer skills Digital photography involves dealing with computers. In fact, operating the digital camera is like operating a small computer. There are functions that are actually similar to the computer like formatting and delete and a whole lot of other things. You need to be familiar with the functions in order to be able to maximize the digital camera. In addition, you also need to be really familiar with computer when storing your picture files and adjusting your photos. With this, you need to be able to perform computer tasks such as cutting, pasting, copying, renaming and opening and closing of files and folders. There are a number of good books that provide tutorials that will enhance computer skills as well as teach you some of the basics in using the computer with regards to photography. Some books in photography, digital photography will for sure contain sections that deal with computers. Knowledge in graphic programs One can actually adjust photos and create a whole lot of effects with the use of graphic programs such as Photoshop. One can actually change the size of the photo, alter the pixels and even change the format into different file types. One good thing with digital cameras is the fact that one can actually alter the pictures taken before printing it. With the use of these programs, one can erase flaws, sharpen some features of the photo, blur the background and even transfer one photo with another. If one is really good, you can even create one new photo by cutting different elements in various photos and put them all together. Working knowledge with the various functions of the camera As mentioned before, working with a digital camera is similar to working with a small computer. In order to maximize the digital camera, you need to master the functions including adjusting the various levels such as the shutter speed, the brightness, the contrast. There are even digital cameras that you can actually use as a manual camera; you just need to learn to adjust the functions.
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