The Components Book
The Components Book
Version: master
generated on March 24, 2015
The Components Book (master)
This work is licensed under the “Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported” license (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by-sa/3.0/).
You are free to share (to copy, distribute and transmit the work), and to remix (to adapt the work) under the
following conditions:
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• Share Alike: If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work
only under the same, similar or a compatible license. For any reuse or distribution, you must make
clear to others the license terms of this work.
The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty. Although every precaution
has been taken in the preparation of this work, neither the author(s) nor SensioLabs shall have any liability to
any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by
the information contained in this work.
If you find typos or errors, feel free to report them by creating a ticket on the Symfony ticketing system
(http://github.com/symfony/symfony-docs/issues). Based on tickets and users feedback, this book is
continuously updated.
Contents at a Glance
How to Install and Use the Symfony Components................................................................................6
The Asset Component.........................................................................................................................8
The ClassLoader Component ............................................................................................................14
The PSR-0 Class Loader ....................................................................................................................15
The PSR-4 Class Loader ....................................................................................................................17
MapClassLoader ...............................................................................................................................19
Cache a Class Loader ........................................................................................................................20
Debugging a Class Loader .................................................................................................................22
The Class Map Generator..................................................................................................................23
The Config Component ....................................................................................................................26
Loading Resources ............................................................................................................................27
Caching Based on Resources .............................................................................................................30
Defining and Processing Configuration Values ...................................................................................32
The Console Component ..................................................................................................................43
Using Console Commands, Shortcuts and Built-in Commands...........................................................53
Changing the Default Command .......................................................................................................56
Building a single Command Application ............................................................................................58
Understanding how Console Arguments Are Handled........................................................................60
Using Events.....................................................................................................................................62
Using the Logger...............................................................................................................................66
Dialog Helper ...................................................................................................................................69
Formatter Helper ..............................................................................................................................75
Process Helper ..................................................................................................................................77
Progress Bar ......................................................................................................................................80
Progress Helper.................................................................................................................................87
Question Helper ...............................................................................................................................89
Table ................................................................................................................................................94
Table Helper.....................................................................................................................................97
Debug Formatter Helper ...................................................................................................................99
The CssSelector Component ........................................................................................................... 102
The Debug Component................................................................................................................... 104
Debugging a Class Loader ............................................................................................................... 106
The DependencyInjection Component ............................................................................................ 107
Types of Injection ........................................................................................................................... 112
Introduction to Parameters.............................................................................................................. 115
Working with Container Service Definitions .................................................................................... 119
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Contents at a Glance | iii
Compiling the Container................................................................................................................. 122
Working with Tagged Services ........................................................................................................ 131
Using a Factory to Create Services ................................................................................................... 135
Configuring Services with a Service Configurator ............................................................................. 137
Managing common Dependencies with parent Services .................................................................... 140
Advanced Container Configuration ................................................................................................. 144
Lazy Services................................................................................................................................... 148
Container Building Workflow ......................................................................................................... 150
The DomCrawler Component ......................................................................................................... 152
The EventDispatcher Component.................................................................................................... 161
The Container Aware Event Dispatcher ........................................................................................... 172
The Generic Event Object ............................................................................................................... 175
The Immutable Event Dispatcher .................................................................................................... 177
The Traceable Event Dispatcher ...................................................................................................... 178
The ExpressionLanguage Component.............................................................................................. 180
The Expression Syntax .................................................................................................................... 183
Extending the ExpressionLanguage ................................................................................................. 189
Caching Expressions Using Parser Caches........................................................................................ 192
The Filesystem Component............................................................................................................. 194
LockHandler................................................................................................................................... 200
The Finder Component................................................................................................................... 202
The Form Component .................................................................................................................... 208
Creating a custom Type Guesser...................................................................................................... 219
Form Events ................................................................................................................................... 223
The HttpFoundation Component.................................................................................................... 234
Session Management....................................................................................................................... 245
Configuring Sessions and Save Handlers .......................................................................................... 252
Testing with Sessions ...................................................................................................................... 257
Integrating with Legacy Sessions...................................................................................................... 259
Trusting Proxies.............................................................................................................................. 261
The HttpKernel Component............................................................................................................ 263
The Intl Component ....................................................................................................................... 280
The OptionsResolver Component ................................................................................................... 287
The Process Component ................................................................................................................. 300
The PropertyAccess Component...................................................................................................... 306
The Routing Component ................................................................................................................ 314
How to Match a Route Based on the Host ....................................................................................... 321
The Security Component................................................................................................................. 324
The Firewall and Authorization ....................................................................................................... 325
Authentication................................................................................................................................ 328
Authorization ................................................................................................................................. 334
Securely Comparing Strings and Generating Random Numbers........................................................ 339
The Serializer Component ............................................................................................................... 341
The Stopwatch Component............................................................................................................. 350
The Templating Component ........................................................................................................... 353
Slots Helper .................................................................................................................................... 357
Assets Helper .................................................................................................................................. 359
iv | Contents at a Glance
Contents at a Glance | 4
The Translation Component ........................................................................................................... 362
Using the Translator ....................................................................................................................... 366
Adding Custom Format Support ..................................................................................................... 372
The VarDumper Component........................................................................................................... 375
Advanced Usage of the VarDumper Component .............................................................................. 381
The Yaml Component..................................................................................................................... 386
The YAML Format.......................................................................................................................... 390
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Contents at a Glance | v
Chapter 1
How to Install and Use the Symfony
Components
If you're starting a new project (or already have a project) that will use one or more components, the
easiest way to integrate everything is with Composer1. Composer is smart enough to download the
component(s) that you need and take care of autoloading so that you can begin using the libraries
immediately.
This article will take you through using The Finder Component, though this applies to using any
component.
Using the Finder Component
1. If you're creating a new project, create a new empty directory for it.
2. Open a terminal and use Composer to grab the library.
Listing 1-1
1 $ composer require symfony/finder
The name symfony/finder is written at the top of the documentation for whatever component you want.
Install composer2 if you don't have it already present on your system. Depending on how you
install, you may end up with a composer.phar file in your directory. In that case, no worries! Just
run php composer.phar require symfony/finder.
If you know you need a specific version of the library, add that to the command:
Listing 1-2
1 $ composer require symfony/finder
3. Write your code!
1. http://getcomposer.org
2. http://getcomposer.org/download/
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Chapter 1: How to Install and Use the Symfony Components | 6
Once Composer has downloaded the component(s), all you need to do is include the vendor/
autoload.php file that was generated by Composer. This file takes care of autoloading all of the libraries
so that you can use them immediately:
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// File example: src/script.php
// update this to the path to the "vendor/" directory, relative to this file
require_once __DIR__.'/../vendor/autoload.php';
use Symfony\Component\Finder\Finder;
$finder = new Finder();
$finder->in('../data/');
// ...
Using all of the Components
If you want to use all of the Symfony Components, then instead of adding them one by one, you can
include the symfony/symfony package:
Listing 1-4
1 $ composer require symfony/symfony
This will also include the Bundle and Bridge libraries, which you may or may not actually need.
Now what?
Now that the component is installed and autoloaded, read the specific component's documentation to
find out more about how to use it.
And have fun!
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Chapter 1: How to Install and Use the Symfony Components | 7
Chapter 2
The Asset Component
The Asset component manages URL generation and versioning of web assets such as CSS
stylesheets, JavaScript files and image files.
In the past, it was common for web applications to hardcode URLs of web assets. For example:
Listing 2-1
1 <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/css/main.css">
2
3 <!-- ... -->
4
5 <a href="/"><img src="/images/logo.png"></a>
This practice is no longer recommended unless the web application is extremely simple. Hardcoding
URLs can be a disadvantage because:
• Templates get verbose: you have to write the full path for each asset. When using the Asset
component, you can group assets in packages to avoid repeating the common part of their
path;
• Versioning is difficult: it has to be custom managed for each application. Adding a version to
the asset URLs is essential for some applications because it allows to control how the assets are
cached. The Asset component allows to define different versioning strategies for each package;
• Moving assets location is cumbersome and error-prone: it requires you to carefully update
the URLs of all assets included in all templates. The Asset component allows to move assets
effortlessly just by changing the base path value associated with the package of assets;
• It's nearly impossible to use multiple CDNs: this technique requires to change the URL of
the asset randomly for each request. The Asset component provides out-of-the-box support for
any number of multiple CDNs, both regular (http://) and secure (https://).
Installation
You can install the component in two different ways:
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Chapter 2: The Asset Component | 8
• Install it via Composer (symfony/asset on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Asset2).
Usage
Asset Packages
The Asset component manages assets through packages. A package groups all the assets which share
the same properties: versioning strategy, base path, CDN hosts, etc. In the following basic example, a
package is created to manage assets without any versioning:
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\Package;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\VersionStrategy\EmptyVersionStrategy;
$package = new Package(new EmptyVersionStrategy());
echo $package->getUrl('/image.png');
// result: /image.png
Packages implement the PackageInterface3, which defines the following two methods:
getVersion()4
Returns the asset version for an asset.
getUrl()5
Returns an absolute or root-relative public path.
Versioned Assets
One of the main features of the Asset component is to manage the versioning of the application's assets.
Asset versions are commonly used to control how these assets are cached.
Instead of relying on a simple version mechanism, the Asset component allows to define advanced
versioning strategies via PHP classes. The two built-in strategies provided by the component are
EmptyVersionStrategy6, which doesn't add any version to the asset and StaticVersionStrategy7,
which allows to set the version with a format string.
In this example, the StaticVersionStrategy is used to append the v1 suffix to any asset path:
Listing 2-3
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\Package;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\VersionStrategy\StaticVersionStrategy;
$package = new Package(new StaticVersionStrategy('v1'));
echo $package->getUrl('/image.png');
// result: /image.png?v1
In case you want to modify the version format, pass a sprintf-compatible format string as the second
argument of the StaticVersionStrategy constructor:
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/asset
2. https://github.com/symfony/Asset
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/PackageInterface.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/PackageInterface.html#getVersion()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/PackageInterface.html#getUrl()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/VersionStrategy/EmptyVersionStrategy.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/VersionStrategy/StaticVersionStrategy.html
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// put the 'version' word before the version value
$package = new Package(new StaticVersionStrategy('v1', '%s?version=%s'));
echo $package->getUrl('/image.png');
// result: /image.png?version=v1
// put the asset version before its path
$package = new Package(new StaticVersionStrategy('v1', '%2$s/%1$s'));
echo $package->getUrl('/image.png');
// result: /v1/image.png
Custom Version Strategies
Use the VersionStrategyInterface8 to define your own versioning strategy. For example, your
application may need to append the current date to all its web assets in order to bust the cache every day:
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\VersionStrategy\VersionStrategyInterface;
class DateVersionStrategy implements VersionStrategyInterface
{
private $version;
public function __construct()
{
$this->version = date('Ymd');
}
public function getVersion($path)
{
return $this->version;
}
public function applyVersion($path)
{
return sprintf('%s?v=%s', $path, $this->getVersion($path));
}
}
Grouped Assets
It's common for applications to store their assets in a common path. If that's your case, replace the default
Package9 class by PathPackage10 to avoid repeating the same path time and again:
Listing 2-6
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\PathPackage;
// ...
$package = new PathPackage('/static/images', new StaticVersionStrategy('v1'));
echo $package->getUrl('/logo.png');
// result: /static/images/logo.png?v1
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/VersionStrategy/VersionStrategyInterface.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/Package.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/PathPackage.html
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Chapter 2: The Asset Component | 10
Request Context Aware Assets
If you are also using the HttpFoundation component in your project, for example in a Symfony
application, the PathPackage class can take into account the context of the current request:
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\PathPackage;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\Context\RequestStackContext;
// ...
$package = new PathPackage(
'/static/images',
new StaticVersionStrategy('v1'),
new RequestStackContext($requestStack)
);
echo $package->getUrl('/logo.png');
// result: /somewhere/static/images/logo.png?v1
When the request context is set (via an optional third argument), in addition to the configured base path,
PathPackage also prepends the current request base URL (/somewhere/ in this example) to assets. This
allows your website to be hosted anywhere under the web server root directory.
Absolute Assets and CDNs
Applications that host their assets on different domains and CDNs (Content Delivery Networks) should
use the UrlPackage11 class to generate absolute URLs for their assets:
Listing 2-8
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\UrlPackage;
// ...
$package = new UrlPackage(
'http://static.example.com/images/',
new StaticVersionStrategy('v1')
);
echo $package->getUrl('/logo.png');
// result: http://static.example.com/images/logo.png?v1
In case you serve assets from more than one domain to improve application performance, pass an array
of URLs as the first argument of UrlPackage constructor:
Listing 2-9
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\UrlPackage;
// ...
$urls = array(
'http://static1.example.com/images/',
'http://static2.example.com/images/',
);
$package = new UrlPackage($urls, new StaticVersionStrategy('v1'));
echo $package->getUrl('/logo.png');
// result: http://static1.example.com/images/logo.png?v1
The selection of the domain which will serve the asset is deterministic, meaning that each asset will be
always served by the same domain. This behavior simplifies the management of HTTP cache.
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/UrlPackage.html
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Chapter 2: The Asset Component | 11
Request Context Aware Assets
Similarly to application-relative assets, absolute assets can also take into account the context of the
current request. In this case, only the request scheme is considered, in order to select the appropriate base
URL (HTTPs or protocol-relative URLs for HTTPs requests, any base URL for HTTP requests):
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\UrlPackage;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\Context\RequestStackContext;
// ...
$package = new UrlPackage(
array('http://example.com/', 'https://example.com/'),
new StaticVersionStrategy('v1'),
new RequestStackContext($requestStack)
);
echo $package->getUrl('/logo.png');
// result: https://example.com/logo.png?v1
Named Packages
Applications that manage lots of different assets may need to group them in packages with the same
versioning strategy and base path. The Asset component includes a Packages12 class to simplify
management of several packages.
In the following example, all packages use the same versioning strategy, but they all have different base
paths:
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use Symfony\Component\Asset\Package;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\PathPackage;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\UrlPackage;
use Symfony\Component\Asset\Packages;
// ...
$versionStrategy = new StaticVersionStrategy('v1');
$defaultPackage = new Package($versionStrategy);
$namedPackages = array(
'img' => new UrlPackage('http://img.example.com/', $versionStrategy),
'doc' => new PathPackage('/somewhere/deep/for/documents', $versionStrategy),
);
$packages = new Packages($defaultPackage, $namedPackages)
The Packages class allows to define a default package, which will be applied to assets that don't define
the name of package to use. In addition, this application defines a package named img to serve images
from an external domain and a doc package to avoid repeating long paths when linking to a document
inside a template:
Listing 2-12
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echo $packages->getUrl('/main.css');
// result: /main.css?v1
echo $packages->getUrl('/logo.png', 'img');
// result: http://img.example.com/logo.png?v1
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Asset/Packages.html
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Chapter 2: The Asset Component | 12
6
7 echo $packages->getUrl('/resume.pdf', 'doc');
8 // result: /somewhere/deep/for/documents/resume.pdf?v1
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Chapter 2: The Asset Component | 13
Chapter 3
The ClassLoader Component
The ClassLoader component provides tools to autoload your classes and cache their locations for
performance.
Usage
Whenever you reference a class that has not been required or included yet, PHP uses the autoloading
mechanism1 to delegate the loading of a file defining the class. Symfony provides three autoloaders, which
are able to load your classes:
• The PSR-0 Class Loader: loads classes that follow the PSR-0 class naming standard;
• The PSR-4 Class Loader: loads classes that follow the PSR-4 class naming standard;
• MapClassLoader: loads classes using a static map from class name to file path.
Additionally, the Symfony ClassLoader component ships with a set of wrapper classes which can be used
to add additional functionality on top of existing autoloaders:
• Cache a Class Loader
• Debugging a Class Loader
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/class-loader on Packagist2);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/ClassLoader3).
1. http://php.net/manual/en/language.oop5.autoload.php
2. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/class-loader
3. https://github.com/symfony/ClassLoader
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Chapter 3: The ClassLoader Component | 14
Chapter 4
The PSR-0 Class Loader
If your classes and third-party libraries follow the PSR-01 standard, you can use the ClassLoader2 class
to load all of your project's classes.
You can use both the ApcClassLoader and the XcacheClassLoader to cache a ClassLoader
instance or the DebugClassLoader to debug it.
Usage
Registering the ClassLoader3 autoloader is straightforward:
Listing 4-1
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require_once '/path/to/src/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassLoader.php';
use Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\ClassLoader;
$loader = new ClassLoader();
// to enable searching the include path (eg. for PEAR packages)
$loader->setUseIncludePath(true);
// ... register namespaces and prefixes here - see below
$loader->register();
The autoloader is automatically registered in a Symfony application (see app/autoload.php).
1. http://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-0/
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassLoader.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassLoader.html
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Chapter 4: The PSR-0 Class Loader | 15
Use the addPrefix()4 or addPrefixes()5 methods to register your classes:
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// register a single namespaces
$loader->addPrefix('Symfony', __DIR__.'/vendor/symfony/symfony/src');
// register several namespaces at once
$loader->addPrefixes(array(
'Symfony' => __DIR__.'/../vendor/symfony/symfony/src',
'Monolog' => __DIR__.'/../vendor/monolog/monolog/src',
));
// register a prefix for a class following the PEAR naming conventions
$loader->addPrefix('Twig_', __DIR__.'/vendor/twig/twig/lib');
$loader->addPrefixes(array(
'Swift_' => __DIR__.'/vendor/swiftmailer/swiftmailer/lib/classes',
'Twig_' => __DIR__.'/vendor/twig/twig/lib',
));
Classes from a sub-namespace or a sub-hierarchy of PEAR6 classes can be looked for in a location list to
ease the vendoring of a sub-set of classes for large projects:
Listing 4-3
1 $loader->addPrefixes(array(
2
'Doctrine\\Common'
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'Doctrine\\DBAL\\Migrations'
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'Doctrine\\DBAL'
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'Doctrine'
6 ));
=>
=>
=>
=>
__DIR__.'/vendor/doctrine/common/lib',
__DIR__.'/vendor/doctrine/migrations/lib',
__DIR__.'/vendor/doctrine/dbal/lib',
__DIR__.'/vendor/doctrine/orm/lib',
In this example, if you try to use a class in the Doctrine\Common namespace or one of its children, the
autoloader will first look for the class under the doctrine-common directory. If not found, it will then
fallback to the default Doctrine directory (the last one configured) before giving up. The order of the
prefix registrations is significant in this case.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassLoader.html#addPrefix()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassLoader.html#addPrefixes()
6. http://pear.php.net/manual/en/standards.naming.php
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Chapter 4: The PSR-0 Class Loader | 16
Chapter 5
The PSR-4 Class Loader
Libraries that follow the PSR-41 standard can be loaded with the Psr4ClassLoader.
If you manage your dependencies via Composer, you get a PSR-4 compatible autoloader out of the
box. Use this loader in environments where Composer is not available.
All Symfony components follow PSR-4.
Usage
The following example demonstrates how you can use the Psr4ClassLoader2 autoloader to use
Symfony's Yaml component. Imagine, you downloaded both the ClassLoader and Yaml component as
ZIP packages and unpacked them to a libs directory. The directory structure will look like this:
Listing 5-1
1 libs/
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ClassLoader/
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Psr4ClassLoader.php
4
...
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Yaml/
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Yaml.php
7
...
8 config.yml
9 demo.php
In demo.php you are going to parse the config.yml file. To do that, you first need to configure the
Psr4ClassLoader:
1. http://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-4/
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/Psr4ClassLoader.html
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Chapter 5: The PSR-4 Class Loader | 17
Listing 5-2
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use Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\Psr4ClassLoader;
use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Yaml;
require __DIR__.'/lib/ClassLoader/Psr4ClassLoader.php';
$loader = new Psr4ClassLoader();
$loader->addPrefix('Symfony\\Component\\Yaml\\', __DIR__.'/lib/Yaml');
$loader->register();
$data = Yaml::parse(file_get_contents(__DIR__.'/config.yml'));
First of all, the class loader is loaded manually using a require statement, since there is no autoload
mechanism yet. With the addPrefix()3 call, you tell the class loader where to look for classes with the
Symfony\Component\Yaml\ namespace prefix. After registering the autoloader, the Yaml component is
ready to be used.
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/Psr4ClassLoader.html#addPrefix()
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Chapter 5: The PSR-4 Class Loader | 18
Chapter 6
MapClassLoader
The MapClassLoader1 allows you to autoload files via a static map from classes to files. This is useful
if you use third-party libraries which don't follow the PSR-02 standards and so can't use the PSR-0 class
loader.
The MapClassLoader can be used along with the PSR-0 class loader by configuring and calling the
register() method on both.
The default behavior is to append the MapClassLoader on the autoload stack. If you want to use it
as the first autoloader, pass true when calling the register() method. Your class loader will then
be prepended on the autoload stack.
Usage
Using it is as easy as passing your mapping to its constructor when creating an instance of the
MapClassLoader class:
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require_once '/path/to/src/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/MapClassLoader.php';
$mapping = array(
'Foo' => '/path/to/Foo',
'Bar' => '/path/to/Bar',
);
$loader = new MapClassLoader($mapping);
$loader->register();
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/MapClassLoader.html
2. http://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-0/
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Chapter 6: MapClassLoader | 19
Chapter 7
Cache a Class Loader
Introduction
Finding the file for a particular class can be an expensive task. Luckily, the ClassLoader component
comes with two classes to cache the mapping from a class to its containing file. Both the
ApcClassLoader1 and the XcacheClassLoader2 wrap around an object which implements a findFile()
method to find the file for a class.
Both the ApcClassLoader and the XcacheClassLoader can be used to cache Composer's
autoloader3.
ApcClassLoader
ApcClassLoader wraps an existing class loader and caches calls to its findFile() method using APC4:
Listing 7-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
require_once '/path/to/src/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ApcClassLoader.php';
// instance of a class that implements a findFile() method, like the ClassLoader
$loader = ...;
// sha1(__FILE__) generates an APC namespace prefix
$cachedLoader = new ApcClassLoader(sha1(__FILE__), $loader);
// register the cached class loader
$cachedLoader->register();
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ApcClassLoader.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/XcacheClassLoader.html
3. http://getcomposer.org/doc/01-basic-usage.md#autoloading
4. http://php.net/manual/en/book.apc.php
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Chapter 7: Cache a Class Loader | 20
11
12 // deactivate the original, non-cached loader if it was registered previously
13 $loader->unregister();
XcacheClassLoader
XcacheClassLoader uses XCache5 to cache a class loader. Registering it is straightforward:
Listing 7-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
require_once '/path/to/src/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/XcacheClassLoader.php';
// instance of a class that implements a findFile() method, like the ClassLoader
$loader = ...;
// sha1(__FILE__) generates an XCache namespace prefix
$cachedLoader = new XcacheClassLoader(sha1(__FILE__), $loader);
// register the cached class loader
$cachedLoader->register();
// deactivate the original, non-cached loader if it was registered previously
$loader->unregister();
5. http://xcache.lighttpd.net
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Chapter 7: Cache a Class Loader | 21
Chapter 8
Debugging a Class Loader
The DebugClassLoader from the ClassLoader component was deprecated in Symfony 2.5 and will
be removed in Symfony 3.0. Use the DebugClassLoader provided by the Debug component.
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Chapter 9
The Class Map Generator
Loading a class usually is an easy task given the PSR-01 and PSR-42 standards. Thanks to the Symfony
ClassLoader component or the autoloading mechanism provided by Composer, you don't have to map
your class names to actual PHP files manually. Nowadays, PHP libraries usually come with autoloading
support through Composer.
But from time to time you may have to use a third-party library that comes without any autoloading
support and therefore forces you to load each class manually. For example, imagine a library with the
following directory structure:
Listing 9-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
library/
├── bar/
│
├── baz/
│
│
└── Boo.php
│
└── Foo.php
└── foo/
├── bar/
│
└── Foo.php
└── Bar.php
These files contain the following classes:
File
Class Name
library/bar/baz/Boo.php Acme\Bar\Baz
library/bar/Foo.php
Acme\Bar
library/foo/bar/Foo.php Acme\Foo\Bar
library/foo/Bar.php
Acme\Foo
To make your life easier, the ClassLoader component comes with a ClassMapGenerator3 class that
makes it possible to create a map of class names to files.
1. http://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-0
2. http://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-4
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassMapGenerator.html
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Generating a Class Map
To generate the class map, simply pass the root directory of your class files to the createMap()4 method:
Listing 9-2
1 use Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\ClassMapGenerator;
2
3 print_r(ClassMapGenerator::createMap(__DIR__.'/library'));
Given the files and class from the table above, you should see an output like this:
Listing 9-3
1 Array
2 (
3
[Acme\Foo] => /var/www/library/foo/Bar.php
4
[Acme\Foo\Bar] => /var/www/library/foo/bar/Foo.php
5
[Acme\Bar\Baz] => /var/www/library/bar/baz/Boo.php
6
[Acme\Bar] => /var/www/library/bar/Foo.php
7 )
Dumping the Class Map
Writing the class map to the console output is not really sufficient when it comes to autoloading. Luckily,
the ClassMapGenerator provides the dump()5 method to save the generated class map to the filesystem:
Listing 9-4
1 use Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\ClassMapGenerator;
2
3 ClassMapGenerator::dump(__DIR__.'/library', __DIR__.'/class_map.php');
This call to dump() generates the class map and writes it to the class_map.php file in the same directory
with the following contents:
Listing 9-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
<?php return array (
'Acme\\Foo' => '/var/www/library/foo/Bar.php',
'Acme\\Foo\\Bar' => '/var/www/library/foo/bar/Foo.php',
'Acme\\Bar\\Baz' => '/var/www/library/bar/baz/Boo.php',
'Acme\\Bar' => '/var/www/library/bar/Foo.php',
);
Instead of loading each file manually, you'll only have to register the generated class map with, for
example, the MapClassLoader6:
Listing 9-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\MapClassLoader;
$mapping = include __DIR__.'/class_map.php';
$loader = new MapClassLoader($mapping);
$loader->register();
// you can now use the classes:
use Acme\Foo;
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassMapGenerator.html#createMap()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/ClassMapGenerator.html#dump()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ClassLoader/MapClassLoader.html
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Chapter 9: The Class Map Generator | 24
10 $foo = new Foo();
11
12 // ...
The example assumes that you already have autoloading working (e.g. through Composer7 or one
of the other class loaders from the ClassLoader component.
Besides dumping the class map for one directory, you can also pass an array of directories for which to
generate the class map (the result actually is the same as in the example above):
Listing 9-7
1 use Symfony\Component\ClassLoader\ClassMapGenerator;
2
3 ClassMapGenerator::dump(
4
array(__DIR__.'/library/bar', __DIR__.'/library/foo'),
5
__DIR__.'/class_map.php'
6 );
7. http://getcomposer.org
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Chapter 10
The Config Component
The Config component provides several classes to help you find, load, combine, autofill and
validate configuration values of any kind, whatever their source may be (YAML, XML, INI files, or
for instance a database).
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/config on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Config2).
Sections
• Loading Resources
• Caching Based on Resources
• Defining and Processing Configuration Values
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/config
2. https://github.com/symfony/Config
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Chapter 10: The Config Component | 26
Chapter 11
Loading Resources
The IniFileLoader parses the file contents using the parse_ini_file1 function. Therefore, you
can only set parameters to string values. To set parameters to other data types (e.g. boolean,
integer, etc), the other loaders are recommended.
Locating Resources
Loading the configuration normally starts with a search for resources – in most cases: files. This can be
done with the FileLocator2:
Listing 11-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
$configDirectories = array(__DIR__.'/app/config');
$locator = new FileLocator($configDirectories);
$yamlUserFiles = $locator->locate('users.yml', null, false);
The locator receives a collection of locations where it should look for files. The first argument of
locate() is the name of the file to look for. The second argument may be the current path and when
supplied, the locator will look in this directory first. The third argument indicates whether or not the
locator should return the first file it has found, or an array containing all matches.
1. http://php.net/manual/en/function.parse-ini-file.php
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/FileLocator.html
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Chapter 11: Loading Resources | 27
Resource Loaders
For each type of resource (YAML, XML, annotation, etc.) a loader must be defined. Each loader should
implement LoaderInterface3 or extend the abstract FileLoader4 class, which allows for recursively
importing other resources:
Listing 11-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
use Symfony\Component\Config\Loader\FileLoader;
use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Yaml;
class YamlUserLoader extends FileLoader
{
public function load($resource, $type = null)
{
$configValues = Yaml::parse(file_get_contents($resource));
// ... handle the config values
// maybe import some other resource:
// $this->import('extra_users.yml');
}
public function supports($resource, $type = null)
{
return is_string($resource) && 'yml' === pathinfo(
$resource,
PATHINFO_EXTENSION
);
}
}
Finding the right Loader
The LoaderResolver5 receives as its first constructor argument a collection of loaders. When a resource
(for instance an XML file) should be loaded, it loops through this collection of loaders and returns the
loader which supports this particular resource type.
The DelegatingLoader6 makes use of the LoaderResolver7. When it is asked to load a resource, it
delegates this question to the LoaderResolver8. In case the resolver has found a suitable loader, this
loader will be asked to load the resource:
Listing 11-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\Config\Loader\LoaderResolver;
use Symfony\Component\Config\Loader\DelegatingLoader;
$loaderResolver = new LoaderResolver(array(new YamlUserLoader($locator)));
$delegatingLoader = new DelegatingLoader($loaderResolver);
$delegatingLoader->load(__DIR__.'/users.yml');
/*
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Loader/LoaderInterface.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Loader/FileLoader.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Loader/LoaderResolver.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Loader/DelegatingLoader.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Loader/LoaderResolver.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Loader/LoaderResolver.html
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Chapter 11: Loading Resources | 28
9 The YamlUserLoader will be used to load this resource,
10 since it supports files with a "yml" extension
11 */
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Chapter 11: Loading Resources | 29
Chapter 12
Caching Based on Resources
When all configuration resources are loaded, you may want to process the configuration values and
combine them all in one file. This file acts like a cache. Its contents don’t have to be regenerated every
time the application runs – only when the configuration resources are modified.
For example, the Symfony Routing component allows you to load all routes, and then dump a URL
matcher or a URL generator based on these routes. In this case, when one of the resources is modified
(and you are working in a development environment), the generated file should be invalidated and
regenerated. This can be accomplished by making use of the ConfigCache1 class.
The example below shows you how to collect resources, then generate some code based on the resources
that were loaded, and write this code to the cache. The cache also receives the collection of resources that
were used for generating the code. By looking at the "last modified" timestamp of these resources, the
cache can tell if it is still fresh or that its contents should be regenerated:
Listing 12-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
use Symfony\Component\Config\ConfigCache;
use Symfony\Component\Config\Resource\FileResource;
$cachePath = __DIR__.'/cache/appUserMatcher.php';
// the second argument indicates whether or not you want to use debug mode
$userMatcherCache = new ConfigCache($cachePath, true);
if (!$userMatcherCache->isFresh()) {
// fill this with an array of 'users.yml' file paths
$yamlUserFiles = ...;
$resources = array();
foreach ($yamlUserFiles as $yamlUserFile) {
// see the previous article "Loading resources" to
// see where $delegatingLoader comes from
$delegatingLoader->load($yamlUserFile);
$resources[] = new FileResource($yamlUserFile);
}
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/ConfigCache.html
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21
22
// the code for the UserMatcher is generated elsewhere
23
$code = ...;
24
25
$userMatcherCache->write($code, $resources);
26 }
27
28 // you may want to require the cached code:
29 require $cachePath;
In debug mode, a .meta file will be created in the same directory as the cache file itself. This .meta file
contains the serialized resources, whose timestamps are used to determine if the cache is still fresh. When
not in debug mode, the cache is considered to be "fresh" as soon as it exists, and therefore no .meta file
will be generated.
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Chapter 13
Defining and Processing Configuration Values
Validating Configuration Values
After loading configuration values from all kinds of resources, the values and their structure can be
validated using the "Definition" part of the Config Component. Configuration values are usually
expected to show some kind of hierarchy. Also, values should be of a certain type, be restricted in number
or be one of a given set of values. For example, the following configuration (in YAML) shows a clear
hierarchy and some validation rules that should be applied to it (like: "the value for auto_connect must
be a boolean value"):
Listing 13-1
1 auto_connect: true
2 default_connection: mysql
3 connections:
4
mysql:
5
host:
localhost
6
driver: mysql
7
username: user
8
password: pass
9
sqlite:
10
host:
localhost
11
driver: sqlite
12
memory: true
13
username: user
14
password: pass
When loading multiple configuration files, it should be possible to merge and overwrite some values.
Other values should not be merged and stay as they are when first encountered. Also, some keys are only
available when another key has a specific value (in the sample configuration above: the memory key only
makes sense when the driver is sqlite).
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Defining a Hierarchy of Configuration Values Using the TreeBuilder
All the rules concerning configuration values can be defined using the TreeBuilder1.
A TreeBuilder2 instance should be returned from a custom Configuration class which implements the
ConfigurationInterface3:
Listing 13-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
namespace Acme\DatabaseConfiguration;
use Symfony\Component\Config\Definition\ConfigurationInterface;
use Symfony\Component\Config\Definition\Builder\TreeBuilder;
class DatabaseConfiguration implements ConfigurationInterface
{
public function getConfigTreeBuilder()
{
$treeBuilder = new TreeBuilder();
$rootNode = $treeBuilder->root('database');
// ... add node definitions to the root of the tree
return $treeBuilder;
}
}
Adding Node Definitions to the Tree
Variable Nodes
A tree contains node definitions which can be laid out in a semantic way. This means, using indentation
and the fluent notation, it is possible to reflect the real structure of the configuration values:
Listing 13-3
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->booleanNode('auto_connect')
4
->defaultTrue()
5
->end()
6
->scalarNode('default_connection')
7
->defaultValue('default')
8
->end()
9
->end()
10 ;
The root node itself is an array node, and has children, like the boolean node auto_connect and the
scalar node default_connection. In general: after defining a node, a call to end() takes you one step up
in the hierarchy.
Node Type
It is possible to validate the type of a provided value by using the appropriate node definition. Node types
are available for:
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/TreeBuilder.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/TreeBuilder.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/ConfigurationInterface.html
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Chapter 13: Defining and Processing Configuration Values | 33
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
scalar (generic type that includes booleans, strings, integers, floats and null)
boolean
integer
float
enum (similar to scalar, but it only allows a finite set of values)
array
variable (no validation)
and are created with node($name, $type) or their associated shortcut xxxxNode($name) method.
Numeric Node Constraints
Numeric nodes (float and integer) provide two extra constraints - min()4 and max()5 - allowing to
validate the value:
Listing 13-4
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->integerNode('positive_value')
4
->min(0)
5
->end()
6
->floatNode('big_value')
7
->max(5E45)
8
->end()
9
->integerNode('value_inside_a_range')
10
->min(-50)->max(50)
11
->end()
12
->end()
13 ;
Enum Nodes
Enum nodes provide a constraint to match the given input against a set of values:
Listing 13-5
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->enumNode('gender')
4
->values(array('male', 'female'))
5
->end()
6
->end()
7 ;
This will restrict the gender option to be either male or female.
Array Nodes
It is possible to add a deeper level to the hierarchy, by adding an array node. The array node itself, may
have a pre-defined set of variable nodes:
Listing 13-6
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->arrayNode('connection')
4
->children()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder.html#min()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder.html#max()
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Chapter 13: Defining and Processing Configuration Values | 34
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 ;
->scalarNode('driver')->end()
->scalarNode('host')->end()
->scalarNode('username')->end()
->scalarNode('password')->end()
->end()
->end()
->end()
Or you may define a prototype for each node inside an array node:
Listing 13-7
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->arrayNode('connections')
4
->prototype('array')
5
->children()
6
->scalarNode('driver')->end()
7
->scalarNode('host')->end()
8
->scalarNode('username')->end()
9
->scalarNode('password')->end()
10
->end()
11
->end()
12
->end()
13
->end()
14 ;
A prototype can be used to add a definition which may be repeated many times inside the current node.
According to the prototype definition in the example above, it is possible to have multiple connection
arrays (containing a driver, host, etc.).
Array Node Options
Before defining the children of an array node, you can provide options like:
useAttributeAsKey()
Provide the name of a child node, whose value should be used as the key in the resulting array.
requiresAtLeastOneElement()
There should be at least one element in the array (works only when isRequired() is also called).
addDefaultsIfNotSet()
If any child nodes have default values, use them if explicit values haven't been provided.
An example of this:
Listing 13-8
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->arrayNode('parameters')
4
->isRequired()
5
->requiresAtLeastOneElement()
6
->useAttributeAsKey('name')
7
->prototype('array')
8
->children()
9
->scalarNode('value')->isRequired()->end()
10
->end()
11
->end()
12
->end()
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Chapter 13: Defining and Processing Configuration Values | 35
13
14 ;
->end()
In YAML, the configuration might look like this:
Listing 13-9
1 database:
2
parameters:
3
param1: { value: param1val }
In XML, each parameters node would have a name attribute (along with value), which would be
removed and used as the key for that element in the final array. The useAttributeAsKey is useful for
normalizing how arrays are specified between different formats like XML and YAML.
Default and required Values
For all node types, it is possible to define default values and replacement values in case a node has a
certain value:
defaultValue()
Set a default value
isRequired()
Must be defined (but may be empty)
cannotBeEmpty()
May not contain an empty value
default*()
(null, true, false), shortcut for defaultValue()
treat*Like()
(null, true, false), provide a replacement value in case the value is *.
Listing 13-10
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->arrayNode('connection')
4
->children()
5
->scalarNode('driver')
6
->isRequired()
7
->cannotBeEmpty()
8
->end()
9
->scalarNode('host')
10
->defaultValue('localhost')
11
->end()
12
->scalarNode('username')->end()
13
->scalarNode('password')->end()
14
->booleanNode('memory')
15
->defaultFalse()
16
->end()
17
->end()
18
->end()
19
->arrayNode('settings')
20
->addDefaultsIfNotSet()
21
->children()
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22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30 ;
->scalarNode('name')
->isRequired()
->cannotBeEmpty()
->defaultValue('value')
->end()
->end()
->end()
->end()
Documenting the Option
All options can be documented using the info()6 method.
The info will be printed as a comment when dumping the configuration tree with the config:dump
command.
New in version 2.6: Since Symfony 2.6, the info will also be added to the exception message when an
invalid type is given.
Optional Sections
If you have entire sections which are optional and can be enabled/disabled, you can take advantage of
the shortcut canBeEnabled()7 and canBeDisabled()8 methods:
Listing 13-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
$arrayNode
->canBeEnabled()
;
// is equivalent to
$arrayNode
->treatFalseLike(array('enabled' => false))
->treatTrueLike(array('enabled' => true))
->treatNullLike(array('enabled' => true))
->children()
->booleanNode('enabled')
->defaultFalse()
;
The canBeDisabled method looks about the same except that the section would be enabled by default.
Merging Options
Extra options concerning the merge process may be provided. For arrays:
performNoDeepMerging()
When the value is also defined in a second configuration array, don’t try to merge an array, but
overwrite it entirely
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/NodeDefinition.html#info()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/ArrayNodeDefinition.html#canBeEnabled()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/ArrayNodeDefinition.html#canBeDisabled()
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For all nodes:
cannotBeOverwritten()
don’t let other configuration arrays overwrite an existing value for this node
Appending Sections
If you have a complex configuration to validate then the tree can grow to be large and you may want to
split it up into sections. You can do this by making a section a separate node and then appending it into
the main tree with append():
Listing 13-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
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20
21
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23
24
25
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27
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29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
public function getConfigTreeBuilder()
{
$treeBuilder = new TreeBuilder();
$rootNode = $treeBuilder->root('database');
$rootNode
->children()
->arrayNode('connection')
->children()
->scalarNode('driver')
->isRequired()
->cannotBeEmpty()
->end()
->scalarNode('host')
->defaultValue('localhost')
->end()
->scalarNode('username')->end()
->scalarNode('password')->end()
->booleanNode('memory')
->defaultFalse()
->end()
->end()
->append($this->addParametersNode())
->end()
->end()
;
return $treeBuilder;
}
public function addParametersNode()
{
$builder = new TreeBuilder();
$node = $builder->root('parameters');
$node
->isRequired()
->requiresAtLeastOneElement()
->useAttributeAsKey('name')
->prototype('array')
->children()
->scalarNode('value')->isRequired()->end()
->end()
->end()
;
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47
48 }
return $node;
This is also useful to help you avoid repeating yourself if you have sections of the config that are repeated
in different places.
Normalization
When the config files are processed they are first normalized, then merged and finally the tree is used
to validate the resulting array. The normalization process is used to remove some of the differences that
result from different configuration formats, mainly the differences between YAML and XML.
The separator used in keys is typically _ in YAML and - in XML. For example, auto_connect in YAML
and auto-connect in XML. The normalization would make both of these auto_connect.
The target key will not be altered if it's mixed like foo-bar_moo or if it already exists.
Another difference between YAML and XML is in the way arrays of values may be represented. In YAML
you may have:
Listing 13-13
1 twig:
2
extensions: ['twig.extension.foo', 'twig.extension.bar']
and in XML:
Listing 13-14
1 <twig:config>
2
<twig:extension>twig.extension.foo</twig:extension>
3
<twig:extension>twig.extension.bar</twig:extension>
4 </twig:config>
This difference can be removed in normalization by pluralizing the key used in XML. You can specify
that you want a key to be pluralized in this way with fixXmlConfig():
Listing 13-15
1 $rootNode
2
->fixXmlConfig('extension')
3
->children()
4
->arrayNode('extensions')
5
->prototype('scalar')->end()
6
->end()
7
->end()
8 ;
If it is an irregular pluralization you can specify the plural to use as a second argument:
Listing 13-16
1 $rootNode
2
->fixXmlConfig('child', 'children')
3
->children()
4
->arrayNode('children')
5
// ...
6
->end()
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Chapter 13: Defining and Processing Configuration Values | 39
7
8 ;
->end()
As well as fixing this, fixXmlConfig ensures that single XML elements are still turned into an array. So
you may have:
Listing 13-17
1 <connection>default</connection>
2 <connection>extra</connection>
and sometimes only:
Listing 13-18
1 <connection>default</connection>
By default connection would be an array in the first case and a string in the second making it difficult to
validate. You can ensure it is always an array with fixXmlConfig.
You can further control the normalization process if you need to. For example, you may want to allow a
string to be set and used as a particular key or several keys to be set explicitly. So that, if everything apart
from name is optional in this config:
Listing 13-19
1 connection:
2
name:
3
host:
4
driver:
5
username:
6
password:
my_mysql_connection
localhost
mysql
user
pass
you can allow the following as well:
Listing 13-20
1 connection: my_mysql_connection
By changing a string value into an associative array with name as the key:
Listing 13-21
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->arrayNode('connection')
4
->beforeNormalization()
5
->ifString()
6
->then(function ($v) { return array('name' => $v); })
7
->end()
8
->children()
9
->scalarNode('name')->isRequired()
10
// ...
11
->end()
12
->end()
13
->end()
14 ;
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Validation Rules
More advanced validation rules can be provided using the ExprBuilder9. This builder implements a
fluent interface for a well-known control structure. The builder is used for adding advanced validation
rules to node definitions, like:
Listing 13-22
1 $rootNode
2
->children()
3
->arrayNode('connection')
4
->children()
5
->scalarNode('driver')
6
->isRequired()
7
->validate()
8
->ifNotInArray(array('mysql', 'sqlite', 'mssql'))
9
->thenInvalid('Invalid database driver "%s"')
10
->end()
11
->end()
12
->end()
13
->end()
14
->end()
15 ;
A validation rule always has an "if" part. You can specify this part in the following ways:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ifTrue()
ifString()
ifNull()
ifArray()
ifInArray()
ifNotInArray()
always()
A validation rule also requires a "then" part:
•
•
•
•
then()
thenEmptyArray()
thenInvalid()
thenUnset()
Usually, "then" is a closure. Its return value will be used as a new value for the node, instead of the node's
original value.
Processing Configuration Values
The Processor10 uses the tree as it was built using the TreeBuilder11 to process multiple arrays of
configuration values that should be merged. If any value is not of the expected type, is mandatory and
yet undefined, or could not be validated in some other way, an exception will be thrown. Otherwise the
result is a clean array of configuration values:
Listing 13-23
1 use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Yaml;
2 use Symfony\Component\Config\Definition\Processor;
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/ExprBuilder.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Processor.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/Definition/Builder/TreeBuilder.html
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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
use Acme\DatabaseConfiguration;
$config1 = Yaml::parse(file_get_contents(__DIR__.'/src/Matthias/config/config.yml'));
$config2 = Yaml::parse(file_get_contents(__DIR__.'/src/Matthias/config/config_extra.yml'));
$configs = array($config1, $config2);
$processor = new Processor();
$configuration = new DatabaseConfiguration();
$processedConfiguration = $processor->processConfiguration(
$configuration,
$configs
);
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Chapter 14
The Console Component
The Console component eases the creation of beautiful and testable command line interfaces.
The Console component allows you to create command-line commands. Your console commands can be
used for any recurring task, such as cronjobs, imports, or other batch jobs.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/console on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Console2).
Creating a basic Command
To make a console command that greets you from the command line, create GreetCommand.php and add
the following to it:
Listing 14-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
namespace Acme\Console\Command;
use
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Console\Command\Command;
Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputArgument;
Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputInterface;
Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputOption;
Symfony\Component\Console\Output\OutputInterface;
class GreetCommand extends Command
{
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/console
2. https://github.com/symfony/Console
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45 }
protected function configure()
{
$this
->setName('demo:greet')
->setDescription('Greet someone')
->addArgument(
'name',
InputArgument::OPTIONAL,
'Who do you want to greet?'
)
->addOption(
'yell',
null,
InputOption::VALUE_NONE,
'If set, the task will yell in uppercase letters'
)
;
}
protected function execute(InputInterface $input, OutputInterface $output)
{
$name = $input->getArgument('name');
if ($name) {
$text = 'Hello '.$name;
} else {
$text = 'Hello';
}
if ($input->getOption('yell')) {
$text = strtoupper($text);
}
$output->writeln($text);
}
You also need to create the file to run at the command line which creates an Application and adds
commands to it:
Listing 14-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
#!/usr/bin/env php
<?php
// application.php
require __DIR__.'/vendor/autoload.php';
use Acme\Console\Command\GreetCommand;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
$application = new Application();
$application->add(new GreetCommand);
$application->run();
Test the new console command by running the following
Listing 14-3
1 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien
This will print the following to the command line:
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Listing 14-4
1 Hello Fabien
You can also use the --yell option to make everything uppercase:
Listing 14-5
1 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien --yell
This prints:
Listing 14-6
1 HELLO FABIEN
Coloring the Output
By default, the Windows command console doesn't support output coloring. The Console
component disables output coloring for Windows systems, but if your commands invoke other
scripts which emit color sequences, they will be wrongly displayed as raw escape characters. Install
the ConEmu3 or ANSICON4 free applications to add coloring support to your Windows command
console.
Whenever you output text, you can surround the text with tags to color its output. For example:
Listing 14-7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// green text
$output->writeln('<info>foo</info>');
// yellow text
$output->writeln('<comment>foo</comment>');
// black text on a cyan background
$output->writeln('<question>foo</question>');
// white text on a red background
$output->writeln('<error>foo</error>');
It is possible to define your own styles using the class OutputFormatterStyle5:
Listing 14-8
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Console\Formatter\OutputFormatterStyle;
// ...
$style = new OutputFormatterStyle('red', 'yellow', array('bold', 'blink'));
$output->getFormatter()->setStyle('fire', $style);
$output->writeln('<fire>foo</fire>');
Available foreground and background colors are: black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and
white.
And available options are: bold, underscore, blink, reverse and conceal.
You can also set these colors and options inside the tagname:
Listing 14-9
3. https://code.google.com/p/conemu-maximus5/
4. https://github.com/adoxa/ansicon/releases
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Formatter/OutputFormatterStyle.html
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
// green text
$output->writeln('<fg=green>foo</fg=green>');
// black text on a cyan background
$output->writeln('<fg=black;bg=cyan>foo</fg=black;bg=cyan>');
// bold text on a yellow background
$output->writeln('<bg=yellow;options=bold>foo</bg=yellow;options=bold>');
Verbosity Levels
New in version 2.3: The VERBOSITY_VERY_VERBOSE and VERBOSITY_DEBUG constants were introduced in
version 2.3
The console has 5 levels of verbosity. These are defined in the OutputInterface6:
Mode
Value
OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_QUIET
Do not output any messages
OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_NORMAL
The default verbosity level
OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_VERBOSE
Increased verbosity of messages
OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_VERY_VERBOSE Informative non essential messages
OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_DEBUG
Debug messages
You can specify the quiet verbosity level with the --quiet or -q option. The --verbose or -v option is
used when you want an increased level of verbosity.
The full exception stacktrace is printed if the VERBOSITY_VERBOSE level or above is used.
It is possible to print a message in a command for only a specific verbosity level. For example:
Listing 14-10
1 if (OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_VERBOSE <= $output->getVerbosity()) {
2
$output->writeln(...);
3 }
There are also more semantic methods you can use to test for each of the verbosity levels:
Listing 14-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
if ($output->isQuiet()) {
// ...
}
if ($output->isVerbose()) {
// ...
}
if ($output->isVeryVerbose()) {
// ...
}
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/OutputInterface.html
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12
13 if ($output->isDebug()) {
14
// ...
15 }
When the quiet level is used, all output is suppressed as the default write()7 method returns without
actually printing.
The MonologBridge provides a ConsoleHandler8 class that allows you to display messages on the
console. This is cleaner than wrapping your output calls in conditions. For an example use in the
Symfony Framework, see How to Configure Monolog to Display Console Messages.
Using Command Arguments
The most interesting part of the commands are the arguments and options that you can make available.
Arguments are the strings - separated by spaces - that come after the command name itself. They are
ordered, and can be optional or required. For example, add an optional last_name argument to the
command and make the name argument required:
Listing 14-12
1 $this
2
// ...
3
->addArgument(
4
'name',
5
InputArgument::REQUIRED,
6
'Who do you want to greet?'
7
)
8
->addArgument(
9
'last_name',
10
InputArgument::OPTIONAL,
11
'Your last name?'
12
);
You now have access to a last_name argument in your command:
Listing 14-13
1 if ($lastName = $input->getArgument('last_name')) {
2
$text .= ' '.$lastName;
3 }
The command can now be used in either of the following ways:
Listing 14-14
1 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien
2 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien Potencier
It is also possible to let an argument take a list of values (imagine you want to greet all your friends). For
this it must be specified at the end of the argument list:
Listing 14-15
1 $this
2
// ...
3
->addArgument(
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/Output.html#write()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Monolog/Handler/ConsoleHandler.html
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4
5
6
7
'names',
InputArgument::IS_ARRAY,
'Who do you want to greet (separate multiple names with a space)?'
);
To use this, just specify as many names as you want:
Listing 14-16
1 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien Ryan Bernhard
You can access the names argument as an array:
Listing 14-17
1 if ($names = $input->getArgument('names')) {
2
$text .= ' '.implode(', ', $names);
3 }
There are 3 argument variants you can use:
Mode
Value
InputArgument::REQUIRED The argument is required
InputArgument::OPTIONAL The argument is optional and therefore can be omitted
InputArgument::IS_ARRAY
The argument can contain an indefinite number of arguments and
must be used at the end of the argument list
You can combine IS_ARRAY with REQUIRED and OPTIONAL like this:
Listing 14-18
1 $this
2
// ...
3
->addArgument(
4
'names',
5
InputArgument::IS_ARRAY | InputArgument::REQUIRED,
6
'Who do you want to greet (separate multiple names with a space)?'
7
);
Using Command Options
Unlike arguments, options are not ordered (meaning you can specify them in any order) and are specified
with two dashes (e.g. --yell - you can also declare a one-letter shortcut that you can call with a single
dash like -y). Options are always optional, and can be setup to accept a value (e.g. --dir=src) or simply
as a boolean flag without a value (e.g. --yell).
There is nothing forbidding you to create a command with an option that optionally accepts a
value. However, there is no way you can distinguish when the option was used without a value
(command --yell) or when it wasn't used at all (command). In both cases, the value retrieved for the
option will be null.
For example, add a new option to the command that can be used to specify how many times in a row the
message should be printed:
Listing 14-19
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1 $this
2
// ...
3
->addOption(
4
'iterations',
5
null,
6
InputOption::VALUE_REQUIRED,
7
'How many times should the message be printed?',
8
1
9
);
Next, use this in the command to print the message multiple times:
Listing 14-20
1 for ($i = 0; $i < $input->getOption('iterations'); $i++) {
2
$output->writeln($text);
3 }
Now, when you run the task, you can optionally specify a --iterations flag:
Listing 14-21
1 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien
2 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien --iterations=5
The first example will only print once, since iterations is empty and defaults to 1 (the last argument of
addOption). The second example will print five times.
Recall that options don't care about their order. So, either of the following will work:
Listing 14-22
1 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien --iterations=5 --yell
2 $ php application.php demo:greet Fabien --yell --iterations=5
There are 4 option variants you can use:
Option
Value
InputOption::VALUE_IS_ARRAY
This option accepts multiple values (e.g. --dir=/foo --dir=/
bar)
InputOption::VALUE_NONE
Do not accept input for this option (e.g. --yell)
InputOption::VALUE_REQUIRED This value is required (e.g. --iterations=5), the option itself
is still optional
InputOption::VALUE_OPTIONAL This option may or may not have a value (e.g. --yell or -yell=loud)
You can combine VALUE_IS_ARRAY with VALUE_REQUIRED or VALUE_OPTIONAL like this:
Listing 14-23
1 $this
2
// ...
3
->addOption(
4
'colors',
5
null,
6
InputOption::VALUE_REQUIRED | InputOption::VALUE_IS_ARRAY,
7
'Which colors do you like?',
8
array('blue', 'red')
9
);
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Console Helpers
The console component also contains a set of "helpers" - different small tools capable of helping you with
different tasks:
•
•
•
•
Question Helper: interactively ask the user for information
Formatter Helper: customize the output colorization
Progress Bar: shows a progress bar
Table: displays tabular data as a table
Testing Commands
Symfony provides several tools to help you test your commands. The most useful one is the
CommandTester9 class. It uses special input and output classes to ease testing without a real console:
Listing 14-24
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
use Acme\Console\Command\GreetCommand;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Tester\CommandTester;
class ListCommandTest extends \PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase
{
public function testExecute()
{
$application = new Application();
$application->add(new GreetCommand());
$command = $application->find('demo:greet');
$commandTester = new CommandTester($command);
$commandTester->execute(array('command' => $command->getName()));
$this->assertRegExp('/.../', $commandTester->getDisplay());
// ...
}
}
The getDisplay()10 method returns what would have been displayed during a normal call from the
console.
You can test sending arguments and options to the command by passing them as an array to the
execute()11 method:
Listing 14-25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Acme\Console\Command\GreetCommand;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Tester\CommandTester;
class ListCommandTest extends \PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase
{
// ...
public function testNameIsOutput()
{
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Tester/CommandTester.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Tester/CommandTester.html#getDisplay()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Tester/CommandTester.html#execute()
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24 }
$application = new Application();
$application->add(new GreetCommand());
$command = $application->find('demo:greet');
$commandTester = new CommandTester($command);
$commandTester->execute(array(
'command'
=> $command->getName(),
'name'
=> 'Fabien',
'--iterations' => 5,
));
$this->assertRegExp('/Fabien/', $commandTester->getDisplay());
}
You can also test a whole console application by using ApplicationTester12.
Calling an Existing Command
If a command depends on another one being run before it, instead of asking the user to remember the
order of execution, you can call it directly yourself. This is also useful if you want to create a "meta"
command that just runs a bunch of other commands (for instance, all commands that need to be run
when the project's code has changed on the production servers: clearing the cache, generating Doctrine2
proxies, dumping Assetic assets, ...).
Calling a command from another one is straightforward:
Listing 14-26
1 protected function execute(InputInterface $input, OutputInterface $output)
2 {
3
$command = $this->getApplication()->find('demo:greet');
4
5
$arguments = array(
6
'command' => 'demo:greet',
7
'name'
=> 'Fabien',
8
'--yell' => true,
9
);
10
11
$input = new ArrayInput($arguments);
12
$returnCode = $command->run($input, $output);
13
14
// ...
15 }
First, you find()13 the command you want to execute by passing the command name.
Then, you need to create a new ArrayInput14 with the arguments and options you want to pass to the
command.
Eventually, calling the run() method actually executes the command and returns the returned code from
the command (return value from command's execute() method).
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Tester/ApplicationTester.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Application.html#find()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Input/ArrayInput.html
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Most of the time, calling a command from code that is not executed on the command line is not
a good idea for several reasons. First, the command's output is optimized for the console. But
more important, you can think of a command as being like a controller; it should use the model to
do something and display feedback to the user. So, instead of calling a command from the Web,
refactor your code and move the logic to a new class.
Learn More!
•
•
•
•
•
Using Console Commands, Shortcuts and Built-in Commands
Building a single Command Application
Changing the Default Command
Using Events
Understanding how Console Arguments Are Handled
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Chapter 14: The Console Component | 52
Chapter 15
Using Console Commands, Shortcuts and Builtin Commands
In addition to the options you specify for your commands, there are some built-in options as well as a
couple of built-in commands for the Console component.
These examples assume you have added a file application.php to run at the cli:
Listing 15-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
#!/usr/bin/env php
<?php
// application.php
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
$application = new Application();
// ...
$application->run();
Built-in Commands
There is a built-in command list which outputs all the standard options and the registered commands:
Listing 15-2
1 $ php application.php list
You can get the same output by not running any command as well
Listing 15-3
1 $ php application.php
The help command lists the help information for the specified command. For example, to get the help
for the list command:
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Listing 15-4
1 $ php application.php help list
Running help without specifying a command will list the global options:
Listing 15-5
1 $ php application.php help
Global Options
You can get help information for any command with the --help option. To get help for the list
command:
Listing 15-6
1 $ php application.php list --help
2 $ php application.php list -h
You can suppress output with:
Listing 15-7
1 $ php application.php list --quiet
2 $ php application.php list -q
You can get more verbose messages (if this is supported for a command) with:
Listing 15-8
1 $ php application.php list --verbose
2 $ php application.php list -v
The verbose flag can optionally take a value between 1 (default) and 3 to output even more verbose
messages:
Listing 15-9
1
2
3
4
$
$
$
$
php
php
php
php
application.php
application.php
application.php
application.php
list
list
list
list
--verbose=2
-vv
--verbose=3
-vvv
If you set the optional arguments to give your application a name and version:
Listing 15-10
1 $application = new Application('Acme Console Application', '1.2');
then you can use:
Listing 15-11
1 $ php application.php list --version
2 $ php application.php list -V
to get this information output:
Listing 15-12
1 Acme Console Application version 1.2
If you do not provide both arguments then it will just output:
Listing 15-13
1 console tool
You can force turning on ANSI output coloring with:
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Listing 15-14
1 $ php application.php list --ansi
or turn it off with:
Listing 15-15
1 $ php application.php list --no-ansi
You can suppress any interactive questions from the command you are running with:
Listing 15-16
1 $ php application.php list --no-interaction
2 $ php application.php list -n
Shortcut Syntax
You do not have to type out the full command names. You can just type the shortest unambiguous name
to run a command. So if there are non-clashing commands, then you can run help like this:
Listing 15-17
1 $ php application.php h
If you have commands using : to namespace commands then you just have to type the shortest
unambiguous text for each part. If you have created the demo:greet as shown in The Console Component
then you can run it with:
Listing 15-18
1 $ php application.php d:g Fabien
If you enter a short command that's ambiguous (i.e. there are more than one command that match), then
no command will be run and some suggestions of the possible commands to choose from will be output.
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Chapter 16
Changing the Default Command
The Console component will always run the ListCommand when no command name is passed. In order
to change the default command you just need to pass the command name to the setDefaultCommand
method:
Listing 16-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
namespace Acme\Console\Command;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Command\Command;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputInterface;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Output\OutputInterface;
class HelloWorldCommand extends Command
{
protected function configure()
{
$this->setName('hello:world')
->setDescription('Outputs \'Hello World\'');
}
protected function execute(InputInterface $input, OutputInterface $output)
{
$output->writeln('Hello World');
}
}
Executing the application and changing the default Command:
Listing 16-2
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2
3
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7
8
// application.php
use Acme\Console\Command\HelloWorldCommand;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
$command = new HelloWorldCommand();
$application = new Application();
$application->add($command);
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9 $application->setDefaultCommand($command->getName());
10 $application->run();
Test the new default console command by running the following:
Listing 16-3
1 $ php application.php
This will print the following to the command line:
Listing 16-4
1 Hello World
This feature has a limitation: you cannot use it with any Command arguments.
Learn More!
• Building a single Command Application
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Chapter 16: Changing the Default Command | 57
Chapter 17
Building a single Command Application
When building a command line tool, you may not need to provide several commands. In such case,
having to pass the command name each time is tedious. Fortunately, it is possible to remove this need by
extending the application:
Listing 17-1
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namespace Acme\Tool;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputInterface;
class MyApplication extends Application
{
/**
* Gets the name of the command based on input.
*
* @param InputInterface $input The input interface
*
* @return string The command name
*/
protected function getCommandName(InputInterface $input)
{
// This should return the name of your command.
return 'my_command';
}
/**
* Gets the default commands that should always be available.
*
* @return array An array of default Command instances
*/
protected function getDefaultCommands()
{
// Keep the core default commands to have the HelpCommand
// which is used when using the --help option
$defaultCommands = parent::getDefaultCommands();
$defaultCommands[] = new MyCommand();
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33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49 }
return $defaultCommands;
}
/**
* Overridden so that the application doesn't expect the command
* name to be the first argument.
*/
public function getDefinition()
{
$inputDefinition = parent::getDefinition();
// clear out the normal first argument, which is the command name
$inputDefinition->setArguments();
return $inputDefinition;
}
When calling your console script, the command MyCommand will then always be used, without having to
pass its name.
You can also simplify how you execute the application:
Listing 17-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
#!/usr/bin/env php
<?php
// command.php
use Acme\Tool\MyApplication;
$application = new MyApplication();
$application->run();
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Chapter 18
Understanding how Console Arguments Are
Handled
It can be difficult to understand the way arguments are handled by the console application. The Symfony
Console application, like many other CLI utility tools, follows the behavior described in the docopt1
standards.
Have a look at the following command that has three options:
Listing 18-1
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namespace Acme\Console\Command;
use
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Console\Command\Command;
Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputArgument;
Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputInterface;
Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputOption;
Symfony\Component\Console\Output\OutputInterface;
class DemoArgsCommand extends Command
{
protected function configure()
{
$this
->setName('demo:args')
->setDescription('Describe args behaviors')
->setDefinition(
new InputDefinition(array(
new InputOption('foo', 'f'),
new InputOption('bar', 'b', InputOption::VALUE_REQUIRED),
new InputOption('cat', 'c', InputOption::VALUE_OPTIONAL),
))
);
}
protected function execute(InputInterface $input, OutputInterface $output)
1. http://docopt.org/
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Chapter 18: Understanding how Console Arguments Are Handled | 60
26
27
28
29 }
{
// ...
}
Since the foo option doesn't accept a value, it will be either false (when it is not passed to the command)
or true (when --foo was passed by the user). The value of the bar option (and its b shortcut respectively)
is required. It can be separated from the option name either by spaces or = characters. The cat option
(and its c shortcut) behaves similar except that it doesn't require a value. Have a look at the following
table to get an overview of the possible ways to pass options:
Input
foo
bar
cat
--bar=Hello
false
"Hello"
null
--bar Hello
false
"Hello"
null
-b=Hello
false
"Hello"
null
-b Hello
false
"Hello"
null
-bHello
false
"Hello"
null
-fcWorld -b Hello true
"Hello"
"World"
-cfWorld -b Hello false
"Hello"
"fWorld"
-cbWorld
null
"bWorld"
false
Things get a little bit more tricky when the command also accepts an optional argument:
Listing 18-2
1 // ...
2
3 new InputDefinition(array(
4
// ...
5
new InputArgument('arg', InputArgument::OPTIONAL),
6 ));
You might have to use the special -- separator to separate options from arguments. Have a look at the
fifth example in the following table where it is used to tell the command that World is the value for arg
and not the value of the optional cat option:
Input
bar
cat
arg
--bar Hello
"Hello"
null
null
--bar Hello World
"Hello"
null
"World"
--bar "Hello World"
"Hello World"
null
null
--bar Hello --cat World
"Hello"
"World"
null
--bar Hello --cat -- World "Hello"
null
"World"
-b Hello -c World
"World"
null
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"Hello"
Chapter 18: Understanding how Console Arguments Are Handled | 61
Chapter 19
Using Events
New in version 2.3: Console events were introduced in Symfony 2.3.
The Application class of the Console component allows you to optionally hook into the lifecycle of a
console application via events. Instead of reinventing the wheel, it uses the Symfony EventDispatcher
component to do the work:
Listing 19-1
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2
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5
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7
8
use Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcher;
$dispatcher = new EventDispatcher();
$application = new Application();
$application->setDispatcher($dispatcher);
$application->run();
Console events are only triggered by the main command being executed. Commands called by the
main command will not trigger any event.
The ConsoleEvents::COMMAND Event
Typical Purposes: Doing something before any command is run (like logging which command is going
to be executed), or displaying something about the event to be executed.
Just before executing any command, the ConsoleEvents::COMMAND event is dispatched. Listeners receive
a ConsoleCommandEvent1 event:
Listing 19-2
1 use Symfony\Component\Console\Event\ConsoleCommandEvent;
2 use Symfony\Component\Console\ConsoleEvents;
3
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Event/ConsoleCommandEvent.html
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4 $dispatcher->addListener(ConsoleEvents::COMMAND, function (ConsoleCommandEvent $event) {
5
// get the input instance
6
$input = $event->getInput();
7
8
// get the output instance
9
$output = $event->getOutput();
10
11
// get the command to be executed
12
$command = $event->getCommand();
13
14
// write something about the command
15
$output->writeln(sprintf('Before running command <info>%s</info>',
16 $command->getName()));
17
18
// get the application
19
$application = $command->getApplication();
});
Disable Commands inside Listeners
New in version 2.6: Disabling commands inside listeners was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
Using the disableCommand()2 method, you can disable a command inside a listener. The application
will then not execute the command, but instead will return the code 113 (defined in
ConsoleCommandEvent::RETURN_CODE_DISABLED). This code is one of the reserved exit codes3 for console
commands that conform with the C/C++ standard.:
Listing 19-3
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3
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
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15
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17
18
use Symfony\Component\Console\Event\ConsoleCommandEvent;
use Symfony\Component\Console\ConsoleEvents;
$dispatcher->addListener(ConsoleEvents::COMMAND, function (ConsoleCommandEvent $event) {
// get the command to be executed
$command = $event->getCommand();
// ... check if the command can be executed
// disable the command, this will result in the command being skipped
// and code 113 being returned from the Application
$event->disableCommand();
// it is possible to enable the command in a later listener
if (!$event->commandShouldRun()) {
$event->enableCommand();
}
});
The ConsoleEvents::TERMINATE Event
Typical Purposes: To perform some cleanup actions after the command has been executed.
After the command has been executed, the ConsoleEvents::TERMINATE event is dispatched. It can be
used to do any actions that need to be executed for all commands or to cleanup what you initiated in a
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Event/ConsoleCommandEvent.html#disableCommand()
3. http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/exitcodes.html
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Chapter 19: Using Events | 63
ConsoleEvents::COMMAND listener (like sending logs, closing a database connection, sending emails, ...).
A listener might also change the exit code.
Listeners receive a ConsoleTerminateEvent4 event:
Listing 19-4
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7
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9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
use Symfony\Component\Console\Event\ConsoleTerminateEvent;
use Symfony\Component\Console\ConsoleEvents;
$dispatcher->addListener(ConsoleEvents::TERMINATE, function (ConsoleTerminateEvent $event)
{
// get the output
$output = $event->getOutput();
// get the command that has been executed
$command = $event->getCommand();
// display something
$output->writeln(sprintf('After running command <info>%s</info>',
$command->getName()));
// change the exit code
$event->setExitCode(128);
});
This event is also dispatched when an exception is thrown by the command. It is then dispatched
just before the ConsoleEvents::EXCEPTION event. The exit code received in this case is the
exception code.
The ConsoleEvents::EXCEPTION Event
Typical Purposes: Handle exceptions thrown during the execution of a command.
Whenever an exception is thrown by a command, the ConsoleEvents::EXCEPTION event is dispatched.
A listener can wrap or change the exception or do anything useful before the exception is thrown by the
application.
Listeners receive a ConsoleExceptionEvent5 event:
Listing 19-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\Console\Event\ConsoleExceptionEvent;
use Symfony\Component\Console\ConsoleEvents;
$dispatcher->addListener(ConsoleEvents::EXCEPTION, function (ConsoleExceptionEvent $event)
{
$output = $event->getOutput();
$command = $event->getCommand();
$output->writeln(sprintf('Oops, exception thrown while running command
<info>%s</info>', $command->getName()));
// get the current exit code (the exception code or the exit code set by a
ConsoleEvents::TERMINATE event)
$exitCode = $event->getExitCode();
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Event/ConsoleTerminateEvent.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Event/ConsoleExceptionEvent.html
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15
16
// change the exception to another one
$event->setException(new \LogicException('Caught exception', $exitCode,
$event->getException()));
});
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Chapter 20
Using the Logger
The Console component comes with a standalone logger complying with the PSR-31 standard.
Depending on the verbosity setting, log messages will be sent to the OutputInterface2 instance passed
as a parameter to the constructor.
The logger does not have any external dependency except php-fig/log. This is useful for console
applications and commands needing a lightweight PSR-3 compliant logger:
Listing 20-1
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13
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namespace Acme;
use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface;
class MyDependency
{
private $logger;
public function __construct(LoggerInterface $logger)
{
$this->logger = $logger;
}
public function doStuff()
{
$this->logger->info('I love Tony Vairelles\' hairdresser.');
}
}
You can rely on the logger to use this dependency inside a command:
Listing 20-2
1
2
3
4
5
namespace Acme\Console\Command;
use Acme\MyDependency;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Command\Command;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Input\InputInterface;
1. http://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-3/
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/OutputInterface.html
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6
7
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28
use Symfony\Component\Console\Output\OutputInterface;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Logger\ConsoleLogger;
class MyCommand extends Command
{
protected function configure()
{
$this
->setName('my:command')
->setDescription(
'Use an external dependency requiring a PSR-3 logger'
)
;
}
protected function execute(InputInterface $input, OutputInterface $output)
{
$logger = new ConsoleLogger($output);
$myDependency = new MyDependency($logger);
$myDependency->doStuff();
}
}
The dependency will use the instance of ConsoleLogger3 as logger. Log messages emitted will be
displayed on the console output.
Verbosity
Depending on the verbosity level that the command is run, messages may or may not be sent to the
OutputInterface4 instance.
By default, the console logger behaves like the Monolog's Console Handler. The association between
the log level and the verbosity can be configured through the second parameter of the ConsoleLogger5
constructor:
Listing 20-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
// ...
$verbosityLevelMap = array(
LogLevel::NOTICE => OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_NORMAL,
LogLevel::INFO
=> OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_NORMAL,
);
$logger = new ConsoleLogger($output, $verbosityLevelMap);
Color
The logger outputs the log messages formatted with a color reflecting their level. This behavior is
configurable through the third parameter of the constructor:
Listing 20-4
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Logger/ConsoleLogger.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/OutputInterface.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/ConsoleLogger.html
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1
2
3
4
5
6
// ...
$formatLevelMap = array(
LogLevel::CRITICAL => self::INFO,
LogLevel::DEBUG
=> self::ERROR,
);
$logger = new ConsoleLogger($output, array(), $formatLevelMap);
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Chapter 21
Dialog Helper
The Dialog Helper was deprecated in Symfony 2.5 and will be removed in Symfony 3.0. You
should now use the Question Helper instead, which is simpler to use.
The DialogHelper1 provides functions to ask the user for more information. It is included in the default
helper set, which you can get by calling getHelperSet()2:
Listing 21-1
1 $dialog = $this->getHelper('dialog');
All the methods inside the Dialog Helper have an OutputInterface3 as the first argument, the question
as the second argument and the default value as the last argument.
Asking the User for Confirmation
Suppose you want to confirm an action before actually executing it. Add the following to your command:
Listing 21-2
1 // ...
2 if (!$dialog->askConfirmation(
3
$output,
4
'<question>Continue with this action?</question>',
5
false
6
)) {
7
return;
8 }
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DialogHelper.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Command/Command.html#getHelperSet()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/OutputInterface.html
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Chapter 21: Dialog Helper | 69
In this case, the user will be asked "Continue with this action?", and will return true if the user answers
with y or false if the user answers with n. The third argument to askConfirmation()4 is the default
value to return if the user doesn't enter any input. Any other input will ask the same question again.
Asking the User for Information
You can also ask question with more than a simple yes/no answer. For instance, if you want to know a
bundle name, you can add this to your command:
Listing 21-3
1 // ...
2 $bundle = $dialog->ask(
3
$output,
4
'Please enter the name of the bundle',
5
'AcmeDemoBundle'
6 );
The user will be asked "Please enter the name of the bundle". They can type some name which will
be returned by the ask()5 method. If they leave it empty, the default value (AcmeDemoBundle here) is
returned.
Autocompletion
You can also specify an array of potential answers for a given question. These will be autocompleted as
the user types:
Listing 21-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$dialog = $this->getHelper('dialog');
$bundleNames = array('AcmeDemoBundle', 'AcmeBlogBundle', 'AcmeStoreBundle');
$name = $dialog->ask(
$output,
'Please enter the name of a bundle',
'FooBundle',
$bundleNames
);
Hiding the User's Response
You can also ask a question and hide the response. This is particularly convenient for passwords:
Listing 21-5
1 $dialog = $this->getHelper('dialog');
2 $password = $dialog->askHiddenResponse(
3
$output,
4
'What is the database password?',
5
false
6 );
When you ask for a hidden response, Symfony will use either a binary, change stty mode or use
another trick to hide the response. If none is available, it will fallback and allow the response to
be visible unless you pass false as the third argument like in the example above. In this case, a
RuntimeException would be thrown.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DialogHelper.html#askConfirmation()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DialogHelper.html#ask()
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Validating the Answer
You can even validate the answer. For instance, in the last example you asked for the bundle name.
Following the Symfony naming conventions, it should be suffixed with Bundle. You can validate that by
using the askAndValidate()6 method:
Listing 21-6
1 // ...
2 $bundle = $dialog->askAndValidate(
3
$output,
4
'Please enter the name of the bundle',
5
function ($answer) {
6
if ('Bundle' !== substr($answer, -6)) {
7
throw new \RuntimeException(
8
'The name of the bundle should be suffixed with \'Bundle\''
9
);
10
}
11
12
return $answer;
13
},
14
false,
15
'AcmeDemoBundle'
16 );
This methods has 2 new arguments, the full signature is:
Listing 21-7
1 askAndValidate(
2
OutputInterface $output,
3
string|array $question,
4
callback $validator,
5
integer $attempts = false,
6
string $default = null,
7
array $autocomplete = null
8 )
The $validator is a callback which handles the validation. It should throw an exception if there is
something wrong. The exception message is displayed in the console, so it is a good practice to put some
useful information in it. The callback function should also return the value of the user's input if the
validation was successful.
You can set the max number of times to ask in the $attempts argument. If you reach this max number it
will use the default value. Using false means the amount of attempts is infinite. The user will be asked
as long as they provide an invalid answer and will only be able to proceed if their input is valid.
Validating a Hidden Response
You can also ask and validate a hidden response:
Listing 21-8
1 $dialog = $this->getHelper('dialog');
2
3 $validator = function ($value) {
4
if ('' === trim($value)) {
5
throw new \Exception('The password can not be empty');
6
}
7
8
return $value;
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DialogHelper.html#askAndValidate()
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Chapter 21: Dialog Helper | 71
9 };
10
11 $password = $dialog->askHiddenResponseAndValidate(
12
$output,
13
'Please enter your password',
14
$validator,
15
20,
16
false
17 );
If you want to allow the response to be visible if it cannot be hidden for some reason, pass true as the
fifth argument.
Let the User Choose from a List of Answers
If you have a predefined set of answers the user can choose from, you could use the ask method described
above or, to make sure the user provided a correct answer, the askAndValidate method. Both have the
disadvantage that you need to handle incorrect values yourself.
Instead, you can use the select()7 method, which makes sure that the user can only enter a valid string
from a predefined list:
Listing 21-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
$dialog = $this->getHelper('dialog');
$colors = array('red', 'blue', 'yellow');
$color = $dialog->select(
$output,
'Please select your favorite color (default to red)',
$colors,
0
);
$output->writeln('You have just selected: ' . $colors[$color]);
// ... do something with the color
The option which should be selected by default is provided with the fourth argument. The default is
null, which means that no option is the default one.
If the user enters an invalid string, an error message is shown and the user is asked to provide the answer
another time, until they enter a valid string or the maximum attempts is reached (which you can define
in the fifth argument). The default value for the attempts is false, which means infinite attempts. You
can define your own error message in the sixth argument.
New in version 2.3: Multiselect support was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
Multiple Choices
Sometimes, multiple answers can be given. The DialogHelper provides this feature using comma
separated values. This is disabled by default, to enable this set the seventh argument to true:
Listing 21-10
1 // ...
2
3 $selected = $dialog->select(
4
$output,
5
'Please select your favorite color (default to red)',
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DialogHelper.html#select()
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Chapter 21: Dialog Helper | 72
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
$colors,
0,
false,
'Value "%s" is invalid',
true // enable multiselect
);
$selectedColors = array_map(function ($c) use ($colors) {
return $colors[$c];
}, $selected);
$output->writeln(
'You have just selected: ' . implode(', ', $selectedColors)
);
Now, when the user enters 1,2, the result will be: You have just selected: blue, yellow.
Testing a Command which Expects Input
If you want to write a unit test for a command which expects some kind of input from the command line,
you need to overwrite the HelperSet used by the command:
Listing 21-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Console\Application;
Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\DialogHelper;
Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\HelperSet;
Symfony\Component\Console\Tester\CommandTester;
// ...
public function testExecute()
{
// ...
$application = new Application();
$application->add(new MyCommand());
$command = $application->find('my:command:name');
$commandTester = new CommandTester($command);
$dialog = $command->getHelper('dialog');
$dialog->setInputStream($this->getInputStream("Test\n"));
// Equals to a user inputting "Test" and hitting ENTER
// If you need to enter a confirmation, "yes\n" will work
$commandTester->execute(array('command' => $command->getName()));
// $this->assertRegExp('/.../', $commandTester->getDisplay());
}
protected function getInputStream($input)
{
$stream = fopen('php://memory', 'r+', false);
fputs($stream, $input);
rewind($stream);
return $stream;
}
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Chapter 21: Dialog Helper | 73
By setting the input stream of the DialogHelper, you imitate what the console would do internally with
all user input through the cli. This way you can test any user interaction (even complex ones) by passing
an appropriate input stream.
You find more information about testing commands in the console component docs about testing console
commands.
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Chapter 21: Dialog Helper | 74
Chapter 22
Formatter Helper
The Formatter helpers provides functions to format the output with colors. You can do more advanced
things with this helper than you can in Coloring the Output.
The FormatterHelper1 is included in the default helper set, which you can get by calling
getHelperSet()2:
Listing 22-1
1 $formatter = $this->getHelper('formatter');
The methods return a string, which you'll usually render to the console by passing it to the
OutputInterface::writeln3 method.
Print Messages in a Section
Symfony offers a defined style when printing a message that belongs to some "section". It prints the
section in color and with brackets around it and the actual message to the right of this. Minus the color,
it looks like this:
Listing 22-2
1 [SomeSection] Here is some message related to that section
To reproduce this style, you can use the formatSection()4 method:
Listing 22-3
1 $formattedLine = $formatter->formatSection(
2
'SomeSection',
3
'Here is some message related to that section'
4 );
5 $output->writeln($formattedLine);
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/FormatterHelper.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Command/Command.html#getHelperSet()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/OutputInterface.html#writeln()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/FormatterHelper.html#formatSection()
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Print Messages in a Block
Sometimes you want to be able to print a whole block of text with a background color. Symfony uses this
when printing error messages.
If you print your error message on more than one line manually, you will notice that the background is
only as long as each individual line. Use the formatBlock()5 to generate a block output:
Listing 22-4
1 $errorMessages = array('Error!', 'Something went wrong');
2 $formattedBlock = $formatter->formatBlock($errorMessages, 'error');
3 $output->writeln($formattedBlock);
As you can see, passing an array of messages to the formatBlock()6 method creates the desired output.
If you pass true as third parameter, the block will be formatted with more padding (one blank line above
and below the messages and 2 spaces on the left and right).
The exact "style" you use in the block is up to you. In this case, you're using the pre-defined error style,
but there are other styles, or you can create your own. See Coloring the Output.
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/FormatterHelper.html#formatBlock()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/FormatterHelper.html#formatBlock()
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Chapter 23
Process Helper
New in version 2.6: The Process Helper was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
The Process Helper shows processes as they're running and reports useful information about process
status.
To display process details, use the ProcessHelper1 and run your command with verbosity. For example,
running the following code with a very verbose verbosity (e.g. -vv):
Listing 23-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Process\ProcessBuilder;
$helper = $this->getHelper('process');
$process = ProcessBuilder::create(array('figlet', 'Symfony'))->getProcess();
$helper->run($output, $process);
will result in this output:
It will result in more detailed output with debug verbosity (e.g. -vvv):
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProcessHelper.html
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In case the process fails, debugging is easier:
Arguments
There are three ways to use the process helper:
• Using a command line string:
Listing 23-2
1 // ...
2 $helper->run($output, 'figlet Symfony');
• An array of arguments:
Listing 23-3
1 // ...
2 $helper->run($output, array('figlet', 'Symfony'));
When running the helper against an array of arguments, be aware that these will be
automatically escaped.
• Passing a Process2 instance:
Listing 23-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Process\ProcessBuilder;
// ...
$process = ProcessBuilder::create(array('figlet', 'Symfony'))->getProcess();
$helper->run($output, $process);
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html
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Customized Display
You can display a customized error message using the third argument of the run()3 method:
Listing 23-5
1 $helper->run($output, $process, 'The process failed :(');
A custom process callback can be passed as the fourth argument. Refer to the Process Component for
callback documentation:
Listing 23-6
1 use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
2
3 $helper->run($output, $process, 'The process failed :(', function ($type, $data) {
4
if (Process::ERR === $type) {
5
// ... do something with the stderr output
6
} else {
7
// ... do something with the stdout
8
}
9 });
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProcessHelper.html#run()
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Chapter 23: Process Helper | 79
Chapter 24
Progress Bar
When executing longer-running commands, it may be helpful to show progress information, which
updates as your command runs:
To display progress details, use the ProgressBar1, pass it a total number of units, and advance the
progress as the command executes:
Listing 24-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
use Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\ProgressBar;
// create a new progress bar (50 units)
$progress = new ProgressBar($output, 50);
// start and displays the progress bar
$progress->start();
$i = 0;
while ($i++ < 50) {
// ... do some work
// advance the progress bar 1 unit
$progress->advance();
// you can also advance the progress bar by more than 1 unit
// $progress->advance(3);
}
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html
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20 // ensure that the progress bar is at 100%
21 $progress->finish();
Instead of advancing the bar by a number of steps (with the advance()2 method), you can also set the
current progress by calling the setProgress()3 method.
New in version 2.6: The setProgress() method was called setCurrent() prior to Symfony 2.6.
Prior to version 2.6, the progress bar only works if your platform supports ANSI codes; on other
platforms, no output is generated.
New in version 2.6: If your platform doesn't support ANSI codes, updates to the progress bar are added
as new lines. To prevent the output from being flooded, adjust the setRedrawFrequency()4 accordingly.
By default, when using a max, the redraw frequency is set to 10% of your max.
If you don't know the number of steps in advance, just omit the steps argument when creating the
ProgressBar5 instance:
Listing 24-2
1 $progress = new ProgressBar($output);
The progress will then be displayed as a throbber:
Listing 24-3
1 # no max steps (displays it like a throbber)
2
0 [>---------------------------]
3
5 [----->----------------------]
4
5 [============================]
5
6 # max steps defined
7 0/3 [>---------------------------]
0%
8 1/3 [=========>------------------] 33%
9 3/3 [============================] 100%
Whenever your task is finished, don't forget to call finish()6 to ensure that the progress bar display is
refreshed with a 100% completion.
If you want to output something while the progress bar is running, call clear()7 first. After you're
done, call display()8 to show the progress bar again.
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#advance()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#setProgress()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#setRedrawFrequency()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#finish()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#clear()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#display()
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Customizing the Progress Bar
Built-in Formats
By default, the information rendered on a progress bar depends on the current level of verbosity of the
OutputInterface instance:
Listing 24-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
# OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_NORMAL (CLI with no verbosity flag)
0/3 [>---------------------------]
0%
1/3 [=========>------------------] 33%
3/3 [============================] 100%
# OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_VERBOSE (-v)
0/3 [>---------------------------]
0% 1 sec
1/3 [=========>------------------] 33% 1 sec
3/3 [============================] 100% 1 sec
# OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_VERY_VERBOSE
0/3 [>---------------------------]
0%
1/3 [=========>------------------] 33%
3/3 [============================] 100%
(-vv)
1 sec
1 sec
1 sec
# OutputInterface::VERBOSITY_DEBUG (-vvv)
0/3 [>---------------------------]
0% 1 sec/1 sec
1/3 [=========>------------------] 33% 1 sec/1 sec
3/3 [============================] 100% 1 sec/1 sec
1.0 MB
1.0 MB
1.0 MB
If you call a command with the quiet flag (-q), the progress bar won't be displayed.
Instead of relying on the verbosity mode of the current command, you can also force a format via
setFormat():
Listing 24-5
1 $bar->setFormat('verbose');
The built-in formats are the following:
•
•
•
•
normal
verbose
very_verbose
debug
If you don't set the number of steps for your progress bar, use the _nomax variants:
•
•
•
•
normal_nomax
verbose_nomax
very_verbose_nomax
debug_nomax
Custom Formats
Instead of using the built-in formats, you can also set your own:
Listing 24-6
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1 $bar->setFormat('%bar%');
This sets the format to only display the progress bar itself:
Listing 24-7
1 >--------------------------2 =========>-----------------3 ============================
A progress bar format is a string that contains specific placeholders (a name enclosed with the %
character); the placeholders are replaced based on the current progress of the bar. Here is a list of the
built-in placeholders:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
current: The current step;
max: The maximum number of steps (or 0 if no max is defined);
bar: The bar itself;
percent: The percentage of completion (not available if no max is defined);
elapsed: The time elapsed since the start of the progress bar;
remaining: The remaining time to complete the task (not available if no max is defined);
estimated: The estimated time to complete the task (not available if no max is defined);
memory: The current memory usage;
message: The current message attached to the progress bar.
For instance, here is how you could set the format to be the same as the debug one:
Listing 24-8
1 $bar->setFormat(' %current%/%max% [%bar%] %percent:3s%% %elapsed:6s%/%estimated:-6s%
%memory:6s%');
Notice the :6s part added to some placeholders? That's how you can tweak the appearance of the bar
(formatting and alignment). The part after the colon (:) is used to set the sprintf format of the string.
The message placeholder is a bit special as you must set the value yourself:
Listing 24-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$bar->setMessage('Task starts');
$bar->start();
$bar->setMessage('Task in progress...');
$bar->advance();
// ...
$bar->setMessage('Task is finished');
$bar->finish();
Instead of setting the format for a given instance of a progress bar, you can also define global formats:
Listing 24-10
1 ProgressBar::setFormatDefinition('minimal', 'Progress: %percent%%');
2
3 $bar = new ProgressBar($output, 3);
4 $bar->setFormat('minimal');
This code defines a new minimal format that you can then use for your progress bars:
Listing 24-11
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Chapter 24: Progress Bar | 83
1 Progress: 0%
2 Progress: 33%
3 Progress: 100%
It is almost always better to redefine built-in formats instead of creating new ones as that allows
the display to automatically vary based on the verbosity flag of the command.
When defining a new style that contains placeholders that are only available when the maximum number
of steps is known, you should create a _nomax variant:
Listing 24-12
1
2
3
4
5
ProgressBar::setFormatDefinition('minimal', '%percent%% %remaining%');
ProgressBar::setFormatDefinition('minimal_nomax', '%percent%%');
$bar = new ProgressBar($output);
$bar->setFormat('minimal');
When displaying the progress bar, the format will automatically be set to minimal_nomax if the bar does
not have a maximum number of steps like in the example above.
A format can contain any valid ANSI codes and can also use the Symfony-specific way to set colors:
Listing 24-13
1 ProgressBar::setFormatDefinition(
2
'minimal',
3
'<info>%percent%</info>\033[32m%\033[0m <fg=white;bg=blue>%remaining%</>'
4 );
A format can span more than one line; that's very useful when you want to display more contextual
information alongside the progress bar (see the example at the beginning of this article).
Bar Settings
Amongst the placeholders, bar is a bit special as all the characters used to display it can be customized:
Listing 24-14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// the finished part of the bar
$progress->setBarCharacter('<comment>=</comment>');
// the unfinished part of the bar
$progress->setEmptyBarCharacter(' ');
// the progress character
$progress->setProgressCharacter('|');
// the bar width
$progress->setBarWidth(50);
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For performance reasons, be careful if you set the total number of steps to a high number. For
example, if you're iterating over a large number of items, consider setting the redraw frequency to
a higher value by calling setRedrawFrequency()9, so it updates on only some iterations:
Listing 24-15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
$progress = new ProgressBar($output, 50000);
$progress->start();
// update every 100 iterations
$progress->setRedrawFrequency(100);
$i = 0;
while ($i++ < 50000) {
// ... do some work
$progress->advance();
}
Custom Placeholders
If you want to display some information that depends on the progress bar display that are not available
in the list of built-in placeholders, you can create your own. Let's see how you can create a
remaining_steps placeholder that displays the number of remaining steps:
Listing 24-16
1 ProgressBar::setPlaceholderFormatterDefinition(
2
'remaining_steps',
3
function (ProgressBar $bar, OutputInterface $output) {
4
return $bar->getMaxSteps() - $bar->getProgress();
5
}
6 );
New in version 2.6: The getProgress() method was called getStep() prior to Symfony 2.6.
Custom Messages
The %message% placeholder allows you to specify a custom message to be displayed with the progress
bar. But if you need more than one, just define your own:
Listing 24-17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
$bar->setMessage('Task starts');
$bar->setMessage('', 'filename');
$bar->start();
$bar->setMessage('Task is in progress...');
while ($file = array_pop($files)) {
$bar->setMessage($filename, 'filename');
$bar->advance();
}
$bar->setMessage('Task is finished');
$bar->setMessage('', 'filename');
$bar->finish();
For the filename to be part of the progress bar, just add the %filename% placeholder in your format:
Listing 24-18
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressBar.html#setRedrawFrequency()
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1 $bar->setFormat(" %message%\n %step%/%max%\n Working on %filename%");
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Chapter 25
Progress Helper
New in version 2.3: The setCurrent method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
The Progress Helper was deprecated in Symfony 2.5 and will be removed in Symfony 3.0. You
should now use the Progress Bar instead which is more powerful.
When executing longer-running commands, it may be helpful to show progress information, which
updates as your command runs:
To display progress details, use the ProgressHelper1, pass it a total number of units, and advance the
progress as your command executes:
Listing 25-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
$progress = $this->getHelper('progress');
$progress->start($output, 50);
$i = 0;
while ($i++ < 50) {
// ... do some work
// advances the progress bar 1 unit
$progress->advance();
}
$progress->finish();
You can also set the current progress by calling the setCurrent()2 method.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressHelper.html
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If you want to output something while the progress bar is running, call clear()3 first. After you're done,
call display()4 to show the progress bar again.
The appearance of the progress output can be customized as well, with a number of different levels of
verbosity. Each of these displays different possible items - like percentage completion, a moving progress
bar, or current/total information (e.g. 10/50):
Listing 25-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$progress->setFormat(ProgressHelper::FORMAT_QUIET);
$progress->setFormat(ProgressHelper::FORMAT_NORMAL);
$progress->setFormat(ProgressHelper::FORMAT_VERBOSE);
$progress->setFormat(ProgressHelper::FORMAT_QUIET_NOMAX);
// the default value
$progress->setFormat(ProgressHelper::FORMAT_NORMAL_NOMAX);
$progress->setFormat(ProgressHelper::FORMAT_VERBOSE_NOMAX);
You can also control the different characters and the width used for the progress bar:
Listing 25-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
// the finished part of the bar
$progress->setBarCharacter('<comment>=</comment>');
// the unfinished part of the bar
$progress->setEmptyBarCharacter(' ');
$progress->setProgressCharacter('|');
$progress->setBarWidth(50);
To see other available options, check the API documentation for ProgressHelper5.
For performance reasons, be careful if you set the total number of steps to a high number. For
example, if you're iterating over a large number of items, consider setting the redraw frequency to
a higher value by calling setRedrawFrequency()6, so it updates on only some iterations:
Listing 25-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
$progress->start($output, 50000);
// updates every 100 iterations
$progress->setRedrawFrequency(100);
$i = 0;
while ($i++ < 50000) {
// ... do some work
$progress->advance();
}
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressHelper.html#setCurrent()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressHelper.html#clear()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressHelper.html#display()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressHelper.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/ProgressHelper.html#setRedrawFrequency()
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Chapter 26
Question Helper
The QuestionHelper1 provides functions to ask the user for more information. It is included in the
default helper set, which you can get by calling getHelperSet()2:
Listing 26-1
1 $helper = $this->getHelper('question');
The Question Helper has a single method ask()3 that needs an InputInterface4 instance as the first
argument, an OutputInterface5 instance as the second argument and a Question6 as last argument.
Asking the User for Confirmation
Suppose you want to confirm an action before actually executing it. Add the following to your command:
Listing 26-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\ConfirmationQuestion;
// ...
$helper = $this->getHelper('question');
$question = new ConfirmationQuestion('Continue with this action?', false);
if (!$helper->ask($input, $output, $question)) {
return;
}
In this case, the user will be asked "Continue with this action?". If the user answers with y it returns true
or false if they answer with n. The second argument to __construct()7 is the default value to return if
the user doesn't enter any valid input. If the second argument is not provided, true is assumed.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/QuestionHelper.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Command/Command.html#getHelperSet()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Command/Command.html#ask()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/InputInterface.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Output/OutputInterface.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/Question.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/ConfirmationQuestion.html#__construct()
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You can customize the regex used to check if the answer means "yes" in the third argument of the
constructor. For instance, to allow anything that starts with either y or j, you would set it to:
Listing 26-3
1 $question = new ConfirmationQuestion(
2
'Continue with this action?',
3
false,
4
'/^(y|j)/i'
5 );
The regex defaults to /^y/i.
New in version 2.7: The regex argument was introduced in Symfony 2.7. Before, only answers
starting with y were considered as "yes".
Asking the User for Information
You can also ask a question with more than a simple yes/no answer. For instance, if you want to know a
bundle name, you can add this to your command:
Listing 26-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\Question;
// ...
$question = new Question('Please enter the name of the bundle', 'AcmeDemoBundle');
$bundle = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
The user will be asked "Please enter the name of the bundle". They can type some name which will
be returned by the ask()8 method. If they leave it empty, the default value (AcmeDemoBundle here) is
returned.
Let the User Choose from a List of Answers
If you have a predefined set of answers the user can choose from, you could use a ChoiceQuestion9 which
makes sure that the user can only enter a valid string from a predefined list:
Listing 26-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\ChoiceQuestion;
// ...
$helper = $this->getHelper('question');
$question = new ChoiceQuestion(
'Please select your favorite color (defaults to red)',
array('red', 'blue', 'yellow'),
0
);
$question->setErrorMessage('Color %s is invalid.');
$color = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
$output->writeln('You have just selected: '.$color);
// ... do something with the color
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/QuestionHelper.html#ask()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/ChoiceQuestion.html
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The option which should be selected by default is provided with the third argument of the constructor.
The default is null, which means that no option is the default one.
If the user enters an invalid string, an error message is shown and the user is asked to provide the answer
another time, until they enter a valid string or reach the maximum number of attempts. The default value
for the maximum number of attempts is null, which means infinite number of attempts. You can define
your own error message using setErrorMessage()10.
Multiple Choices
Sometimes, multiple answers can be given. The ChoiceQuestion provides this feature using comma
separated values. This is disabled by default, to enable this use setMultiselect()11:
Listing 26-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\ChoiceQuestion;
// ...
$helper = $this->getHelper('question');
$question = new ChoiceQuestion(
'Please select your favorite colors (defaults to red and blue)',
array('red', 'blue', 'yellow'),
'0,1'
);
$question->setMultiselect(true);
$colors = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
$output->writeln('You have just selected: ' . implode(', ', $colors));
Now, when the user enters 1,2, the result will be: You have just selected: blue, yellow.
If the user does not enter anything, the result will be: You have just selected: red, blue.
Autocompletion
You can also specify an array of potential answers for a given question. These will be autocompleted as
the user types:
Listing 26-7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\Question;
// ...
$bundles = array('AcmeDemoBundle', 'AcmeBlogBundle', 'AcmeStoreBundle');
$question = new Question('Please enter the name of a bundle', 'FooBundle');
$question->setAutocompleterValues($bundles);
$name = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
Hiding the User's Response
You can also ask a question and hide the response. This is particularly convenient for passwords:
Listing 26-8
1
2
3
4
5
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\Question;
// ...
$question = new Question('What is the database password?');
$question->setHidden(true);
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/ChoiceQuestion.html#setErrorMessage()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/ChoiceQuestion.html#setMultiselect()
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6 $question->setHiddenFallback(false);
7
8 $password = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
When you ask for a hidden response, Symfony will use either a binary, change stty mode or use
another trick to hide the response. If none is available, it will fallback and allow the response to
be visible unless you set this behavior to false using setHiddenFallback()12 like in the example
above. In this case, a RuntimeException would be thrown.
Validating the Answer
You can even validate the answer. For instance, in a previous example you asked for the bundle name.
Following the Symfony naming conventions, it should be suffixed with Bundle. You can validate that by
using the setValidator()13 method:
Listing 26-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\Question;
// ...
$question = new Question('Please enter the name of the bundle', 'AcmeDemoBundle');
$question->setValidator(function ($answer) {
if ('Bundle' !== substr($answer, -6)) {
throw new \RuntimeException(
'The name of the bundle should be suffixed with \'Bundle\''
);
}
return $answer;
});
$question->setMaxAttempts(2);
$name = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
The $validator is a callback which handles the validation. It should throw an exception if there is
something wrong. The exception message is displayed in the console, so it is a good practice to put some
useful information in it. The callback function should also return the value of the user's input if the
validation was successful.
You can set the max number of times to ask with the setMaxAttempts()14 method. If you reach this max
number it will use the default value. Using null means the amount of attempts is infinite. The user will
be asked as long as they provide an invalid answer and will only be able to proceed if their input is valid.
Validating a Hidden Response
You can also use a validator with a hidden question:
Listing 26-10
1 use Symfony\Component\Console\Question\Question;
2 // ...
3
4 $helper = $this->getHelper('question');
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/Question.html#setHiddenFallback()
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/Question.html#setValidator()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Question/Question.html#setMaxAttempts()
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
$question = new Question('Please enter your password');
$question->setValidator(function ($value) {
if (trim($value) == '') {
throw new \Exception('The password can not be empty');
}
return $value;
});
$question->setHidden(true);
$question->setMaxAttempts(20);
$password = $helper->ask($input, $output, $question);
Testing a Command that Expects Input
If you want to write a unit test for a command which expects some kind of input from the command line,
you need to set the helper input stream:
Listing 26-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
use Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\QuestionHelper;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\HelperSet;
use Symfony\Component\Console\Tester\CommandTester;
// ...
public function testExecute()
{
// ...
$commandTester = new CommandTester($command);
$helper = $command->getHelper('question');
$helper->setInputStream($this->getInputStream('Test\\n'));
// Equals to a user inputting "Test" and hitting ENTER
// If you need to enter a confirmation, "yes\n" will work
$commandTester->execute(array('command' => $command->getName()));
// $this->assertRegExp('/.../', $commandTester->getDisplay());
}
protected function getInputStream($input)
{
$stream = fopen('php://memory', 'r+', false);
fputs($stream, $input);
rewind($stream);
return $stream;
}
By setting the input stream of the QuestionHelper, you imitate what the console would do internally
with all user input through the cli. This way you can test any user interaction (even complex ones) by
passing an appropriate input stream.
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Chapter 27
Table
When building a console application it may be useful to display tabular data:
Listing 27-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| ISBN
| Title
| Author
|
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| 99921-58-10-7 | Divine Comedy
| Dante Alighieri |
| 9971-5-0210-0 | A Tale of Two Cities
| Charles Dickens |
| 960-425-059-0 | The Lord of the Rings
| J. R. R. Tolkien |
| 80-902734-1-6 | And Then There Were None | Agatha Christie |
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
To display a table, use Table1, set the headers, set the rows and then render the table:
Listing 27-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\Table;
$table = new Table($output);
$table
->setHeaders(array('ISBN',
->setRows(array(
array('99921-58-10-7',
array('9971-5-0210-0',
array('960-425-059-0',
array('80-902734-1-6',
))
;
$table->render();
'Title', 'Author'))
'Divine Comedy', 'Dante Alighieri'),
'A Tale of Two Cities', 'Charles Dickens'),
'The Lord of the Rings', 'J. R. R. Tolkien'),
'And Then There Were None', 'Agatha Christie'),
You can add a table separator anywhere in the output by passing an instance of TableSeparator2 as a
row:
Listing 27-3
1 use Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\TableSeparator;
2
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/Table.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableSeparator.html
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3 $table->setRows(array(
4
array('99921-58-10-7',
5
array('9971-5-0210-0',
6
new TableSeparator(),
7
array('960-425-059-0',
8
array('80-902734-1-6',
9 ));
Listing 27-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
'Divine Comedy', 'Dante Alighieri'),
'A Tale of Two Cities', 'Charles Dickens'),
'The Lord of the Rings', 'J. R. R. Tolkien'),
'And Then There Were None', 'Agatha Christie'),
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| ISBN
| Title
| Author
|
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| 99921-58-10-7 | Divine Comedy
| Dante Alighieri |
| 9971-5-0210-0 | A Tale of Two Cities
| Charles Dickens |
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
| 960-425-059-0 | The Lord of the Rings
| J. R. R. Tolkien |
| 80-902734-1-6 | And Then There Were None | Agatha Christie |
+---------------+--------------------------+------------------+
The table style can be changed to any built-in styles via setStyle()3:
Listing 27-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
// same as calling nothing
$table->setStyle('default');
// changes the default style to compact
$table->setStyle('compact');
$table->render();
This code results in:
Listing 27-6
1
2
3
4
5
ISBN
99921-58-10-7
9971-5-0210-0
960-425-059-0
80-902734-1-6
Title
Divine Comedy
A Tale of Two Cities
The Lord of the Rings
And Then There Were None
Author
Dante Alighieri
Charles Dickens
J. R. R. Tolkien
Agatha Christie
You can also set the style to borderless:
Listing 27-7
1 $table->setStyle('borderless');
2 $table->render();
which outputs:
Listing 27-8
1 =============== ========================== ==================
2 ISBN
Title
Author
3 =============== ========================== ==================
4 99921-58-10-7 Divine Comedy
Dante Alighieri
5 9971-5-0210-0 A Tale of Two Cities
Charles Dickens
6 960-425-059-0 The Lord of the Rings
J. R. R. Tolkien
7 80-902734-1-6 And Then There Were None
Agatha Christie
8 =============== ========================== ==================
If the built-in styles do not fit your need, define your own:
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/Table.html#setStyle()
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Listing 27-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\Console\Helper\TableStyle;
// by default, this is based on the default style
$style = new TableStyle();
// customize the style
$style
->setHorizontalBorderChar('<fg=magenta>|</>')
->setVerticalBorderChar('<fg=magenta>-</>')
->setCrossingChar(' ')
;
// use the style for this table
$table->setStyle($style);
Here is a full list of things you can customize:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
setPaddingChar()4
setHorizontalBorderChar()5
setVerticalBorderChar()6
setCrossingChar()7
setCellHeaderFormat()8
setCellRowFormat()9
setBorderFormat()10
setPadType()11
You can also register a style globally:
Listing 27-10
1
2
3
4
5
// register the style under the colorful name
Table::setStyleDefinition('colorful', $style);
// use it for a table
$table->setStyle('colorful');
This method can also be used to override a built-in style.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setPaddingChar()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setHorizontalBorderChar()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setVerticalBorderChar()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setCrossingChar()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setCellHeaderFormat()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setCellRowFormat()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setBorderFormat()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableStyle.html#setPadType()
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Chapter 28
Table Helper
New in version 2.3: The table helper was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
The Table Helper was deprecated in Symfony 2.5 and will be removed in Symfony 3.0. You should
now use the Table class instead which is more powerful.
When building a console application it may be useful to display tabular data:
To display a table, use the TableHelper1, set headers, rows and render:
Listing 28-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
$table = $this->getHelper('table');
$table
->setHeaders(array('ISBN', 'Title', 'Author'))
->setRows(array(
array('99921-58-10-7', 'Divine Comedy', 'Dante Alighieri'),
array('9971-5-0210-0', 'A Tale of Two Cities', 'Charles Dickens'),
array('960-425-059-0', 'The Lord of the Rings', 'J. R. R. Tolkien'),
array('80-902734-1-6', 'And Then There Were None', 'Agatha Christie'),
))
;
$table->render($output);
The table layout can be customized as well. There are two ways to customize table rendering: using
named layouts or by customizing rendering options.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html
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Customize Table Layout using Named Layouts
The Table helper ships with three preconfigured table layouts:
• TableHelper::LAYOUT_DEFAULT
• TableHelper::LAYOUT_BORDERLESS
• TableHelper::LAYOUT_COMPACT
Layout can be set using setLayout()2 method.
Customize Table Layout using Rendering Options
You can also control table rendering by setting custom rendering option values:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
setPaddingChar()3
setHorizontalBorderChar()4
setVerticalBorderChar()5
setCrossingChar()6
setCellHeaderFormat()7
setCellRowFormat()8
setBorderFormat()9
setPadType()10
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setLayout()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setPaddingChar()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setHorizontalBorderChar()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setVerticalBorderChar()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setCrossingChar()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setCellHeaderFormat()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setCellRowFormat()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setBorderFormat()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/TableHelper.html#setPadType()
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Chapter 29
Debug Formatter Helper
New in version 2.6: The Debug Formatter helper was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
The DebugFormatterHelper1 provides functions to output debug information when running an external
program, for instance a process or HTTP request. For example, if you used it to output the results of
running ls -la on a UNIX system, it might output something like this:
Using the debug_formatter
The formatter is included in the default helper set and you can get it by calling getHelper()2:
Listing 29-1
1 $debugFormatter = $this->getHelper('debug_formatter');
The formatter accepts strings and returns a formatted string, which you then output to the console (or
even log the information or do anything else).
All methods of this helper have an identifier as the first argument. This is a unique value for each
program. This way, the helper can debug information for multiple programs at the same time. When
using the Process component, you probably want to use spl_object_hash3.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DebugFormatterHelper.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Command/Command.html#getHelper()
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This information is often too verbose to be shown by default. You can use verbosity levels to only
show it when in debugging mode (-vvv).
Starting a Program
As soon as you start a program, you can use start()4 to display information that the program is started:
Listing 29-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
// ...
$process = new Process(...);
$output->writeln($debugFormatter->start(
spl_object_hash($process),
'Some process description'
));
$process->run();
This will output:
Listing 29-3
1 RUN Some process description
You can tweak the prefix using the third argument:
Listing 29-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$output->writeln($debugFormatter->start(
spl_object_hash($process),
'Some process description',
'STARTED'
));
// will output:
// STARTED Some process description
Output Progress Information
Some programs give output while they are running. This information can be shown using progress()5:
Listing 29-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
// ...
$process = new Process(...);
$process->run(function ($type, $buffer) use ($output, $debugFormatter, $process) {
$output->writeln(
$debugFormatter->progress(
spl_object_hash($process),
$buffer,
Process::ERR === $type
)
3. http://php.net/manual/en/function.spl-object-hash.php
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DebugFormatterHelper.html#start()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DebugFormatterHelper.html#progress()
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13
);
14 });
15 // ...
In case of success, this will output:
Listing 29-6
1 OUT The output of the process
And this in case of failure:
Listing 29-7
1 ERR The output of the process
The third argument is a boolean which tells the function if the output is error output or not. When true,
the output is considered error output.
The fourth and fifth argument allow you to override the prefix for the normal output and error output
respectively.
Stopping a Program
When a program is stopped, you can use run()6 to notify this to the users:
Listing 29-8
1 // ...
2 $output->writeln(
3
$debugFormatter->stop(
4
spl_object_hash($process),
5
'Some command description',
6
$process->isSuccessfull()
7
)
8 );
This will output:
Listing 29-9
1 RES Some command description
In case of failure, this will be in red and in case of success it will be green.
Using multiple Programs
As said before, you can also use the helper to display more programs at the same time. Information about
different programs will be shown in different colors, to make it clear which output belongs to which
command.
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Console/Helper/DebugFormatterHelper.html#run()
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Chapter 30
The CssSelector Component
The CssSelector component converts CSS selectors to XPath expressions.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/css-selector on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/CssSelector2).
Usage
Why to Use CSS selectors?
When you're parsing an HTML or an XML document, by far the most powerful method is XPath.
XPath expressions are incredibly flexible, so there is almost always an XPath expression that will find
the element you need. Unfortunately, they can also become very complicated, and the learning curve is
steep. Even common operations (such as finding an element with a particular class) can require long and
unwieldy expressions.
Many developers -- particularly web developers -- are more comfortable using CSS selectors to find
elements. As well as working in stylesheets, CSS selectors are used in JavaScript with the
querySelectorAll function and in popular JavaScript libraries such as jQuery, Prototype and
MooTools.
CSS selectors are less powerful than XPath, but far easier to write, read and understand. Since they are
less powerful, almost all CSS selectors can be converted to an XPath equivalent. This XPath expression
can then be used with other functions and classes that use XPath to find elements in a document.
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/css-selector
2. https://github.com/symfony/CssSelector
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The CssSelector Component
The component's only goal is to convert CSS selectors to their XPath equivalents:
Listing 30-1
1 use Symfony\Component\CssSelector\CssSelector;
2
3 print CssSelector::toXPath('div.item > h4 > a');
This gives the following output:
Listing 30-2
1 descendant-or-self::div[@class and contains(concat(' ',normalize-space(@class), ' '), '
item ')]/h4/a
You can use this expression with, for instance, DOMXPath3 or SimpleXMLElement4 to find elements in a
document.
The Crawler::filter()5 method uses the CssSelector component to find elements based on a
CSS selector string. See the The DomCrawler Component for more details.
Limitations of the CssSelector Component
Not all CSS selectors can be converted to XPath equivalents.
There are several CSS selectors that only make sense in the context of a web-browser.
• link-state selectors: :link, :visited, :target
• selectors based on user action: :hover, :focus, :active
• UI-state selectors: :invalid, :indeterminate (however, :enabled, :disabled, :checked and
:unchecked are available)
Pseudo-elements (:before, :after, :first-line, :first-letter) are not supported because they
select portions of text rather than elements.
Several pseudo-classes are not yet supported:
• *:first-of-type, *:last-of-type, *:nth-of-type, *:nth-last-of-type, *:only-oftype. (These work with an element name (e.g. li:first-of-type) but not with *.
3. http://php.net/manual/en/class.domxpath.php
4. http://php.net/manual/en/class.simplexmlelement.php
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#filter()
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Chapter 31
The Debug Component
The Debug component provides tools to ease debugging PHP code.
New in version 2.3: The Debug component was introduced in Symfony 2.3. Previously, the classes were
located in the HttpKernel component.
Installation
You can install the component in many different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/debug on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Debug2).
Usage
The Debug component provides several tools to help you debug PHP code. Enabling them all is as easy
as it can get:
Listing 31-1
1 use Symfony\Component\Debug\Debug;
2
3 Debug::enable();
The enable()3 method registers an error handler, an exception handler and a special class loader.
Read the following sections for more information about the different available tools.
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/debug
2. https://github.com/symfony/Debug
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Debug/Debug.html#enable()
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You should never enable the debug tools in a production environment as they might disclose
sensitive information to the user.
Enabling the Error Handler
The ErrorHandler4 class catches PHP errors and converts them to exceptions (of class ErrorException5
or FatalErrorException6 for PHP fatal errors):
Listing 31-2
1 use Symfony\Component\Debug\ErrorHandler;
2
3 ErrorHandler::register();
Enabling the Exception Handler
The ExceptionHandler7 class catches uncaught PHP exceptions and converts them to a nice PHP
response. It is useful in debug mode to replace the default PHP/XDebug output with something prettier
and more useful:
Listing 31-3
1 use Symfony\Component\Debug\ExceptionHandler;
2
3 ExceptionHandler::register();
If the HttpFoundation component is available, the handler uses a Symfony Response object; if not,
it falls back to a regular PHP response.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Debug/ErrorHandler.html
5. http://php.net/manual/en/class.errorexception.php
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Debug/Exception/FatalErrorException.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Debug/ExceptionHandler.html
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Chapter 32
Debugging a Class Loader
The DebugClassLoader1 attempts to throw more helpful exceptions when a class isn't found by the
registered autoloaders. All autoloaders that implement a findFile() method are replaced with a
DebugClassLoader wrapper.
Using the DebugClassLoader is as easy as calling its static enable()2 method:
Listing 32-1
1 use Symfony\Component\Debug\DebugClassLoader;
2
3 DebugClassLoader::enable();
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Debug/DebugClassLoader.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Debug/DebugClassLoader.html#enable()
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Chapter 33
The DependencyInjection Component
The DependencyInjection component allows you to standardize and centralize the way objects are
constructed in your application.
For an introduction to Dependency Injection and service containers see Service Container.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/dependency-injection on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/DependencyInjection2).
Basic Usage
You might have a simple class like the following Mailer that you want to make available as a service:
Listing 33-1
1 class Mailer
2 {
3
private $transport;
4
5
public function __construct()
6
{
7
$this->transport = 'sendmail';
8
}
9
10
// ...
11 }
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/dependency-injection
2. https://github.com/symfony/DependencyInjection
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You can register this in the container as a service:
Listing 33-2
1 use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
2
3 $container = new ContainerBuilder();
4 $container->register('mailer', 'Mailer');
An improvement to the class to make it more flexible would be to allow the container to set the
transport used. If you change the class so this is passed into the constructor:
Listing 33-3
1 class Mailer
2 {
3
private $transport;
4
5
public function __construct($transport)
6
{
7
$this->transport = $transport;
8
}
9
10
// ...
11 }
Then you can set the choice of transport in the container:
Listing 33-4
1 use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
2
3 $container = new ContainerBuilder();
4 $container
5
->register('mailer', 'Mailer')
6
->addArgument('sendmail');
This class is now much more flexible as you have separated the choice of transport out of the
implementation and into the container.
Which mail transport you have chosen may be something other services need to know about. You can
avoid having to change it in multiple places by making it a parameter in the container and then referring
to this parameter for the Mailer service's constructor argument:
Listing 33-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$container->setParameter('mailer.transport', 'sendmail');
$container
->register('mailer', 'Mailer')
->addArgument('%mailer.transport%');
Now that the mailer service is in the container you can inject it as a dependency of other classes. If you
have a NewsletterManager class like this:
Listing 33-6
1 class NewsletterManager
2 {
3
private $mailer;
4
5
public function __construct(\Mailer $mailer)
6
{
7
$this->mailer = $mailer;
8
}
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Chapter 33: The DependencyInjection Component | 108
9
10
11 }
// ...
Then you can register this as a service as well and pass the mailer service into it:
Listing 33-7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Reference;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$container->setParameter('mailer.transport', 'sendmail');
$container
->register('mailer', 'Mailer')
->addArgument('%mailer.transport%');
$container
->register('newsletter_manager', 'NewsletterManager')
->addArgument(new Reference('mailer'));
If the NewsletterManager did not require the Mailer and injecting it was only optional then you could
use setter injection instead:
Listing 33-8
1 class NewsletterManager
2 {
3
private $mailer;
4
5
public function setMailer(\Mailer $mailer)
6
{
7
$this->mailer = $mailer;
8
}
9
10
// ...
11 }
You can now choose not to inject a Mailer into the NewsletterManager. If you do want to though then
the container can call the setter method:
Listing 33-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Reference;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$container->setParameter('mailer.transport', 'sendmail');
$container
->register('mailer', 'Mailer')
->addArgument('%mailer.transport%');
$container
->register('newsletter_manager', 'NewsletterManager')
->addMethodCall('setMailer', array(new Reference('mailer')));
You could then get your newsletter_manager service from the container like this:
Listing 33-10
1 use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
2
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3 $container = new ContainerBuilder();
4
5 // ...
6
7 $newsletterManager = $container->get('newsletter_manager');
Avoiding your Code Becoming Dependent on the Container
Whilst you can retrieve services from the container directly it is best to minimize this. For example, in the
NewsletterManager you injected the mailer service in rather than asking for it from the container. You
could have injected the container in and retrieved the mailer service from it but it would then be tied to
this particular container making it difficult to reuse the class elsewhere.
You will need to get a service from the container at some point but this should be as few times as possible
at the entry point to your application.
Setting up the Container with Configuration Files
As well as setting up the services using PHP as above you can also use configuration files. This allows you
to use XML or YAML to write the definitions for the services rather than using PHP to define the services
as in the above examples. In anything but the smallest applications it makes sense to organize the service
definitions by moving them into one or more configuration files. To do this you also need to install the
Config component.
Loading an XML config file:
Listing 33-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Loader\XmlFileLoader;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$loader = new XmlFileLoader($container, new FileLocator(__DIR__));
$loader->load('services.xml');
Loading a YAML config file:
Listing 33-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Loader\YamlFileLoader;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$loader = new YamlFileLoader($container, new FileLocator(__DIR__));
$loader->load('services.yml');
If you want to load YAML config files then you will also need to install the Yaml component.
If you do want to use PHP to create the services then you can move this into a separate config file and
load it in a similar way:
Listing 33-13
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Loader\PhpFileLoader;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$loader = new PhpFileLoader($container, new FileLocator(__DIR__));
$loader->load('services.php');
You can now set up the newsletter_manager and mailer services using config files:
Listing 33-14
1 parameters:
2
# ...
3
mailer.transport: sendmail
4
5 services:
6
mailer:
7
class:
Mailer
8
arguments: ["%mailer.transport%"]
9
newsletter_manager:
10
class:
NewsletterManager
11
calls:
12
- [setMailer, ["@mailer"]]
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Chapter 34
Types of Injection
Making a class's dependencies explicit and requiring that they be injected into it is a good way of making
a class more reusable, testable and decoupled from others.
There are several ways that the dependencies can be injected. Each injection point has advantages
and disadvantages to consider, as well as different ways of working with them when using the service
container.
Constructor Injection
The most common way to inject dependencies is via a class's constructor. To do this you need to add an
argument to the constructor signature to accept the dependency:
Listing 34-1
1 class NewsletterManager
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
5
public function __construct(\Mailer $mailer)
6
{
7
$this->mailer = $mailer;
8
}
9
10
// ...
11 }
You can specify what service you would like to inject into this in the service container configuration:
Listing 34-2
1 services:
2
my_mailer:
3
# ...
4
newsletter_manager:
5
class:
NewsletterManager
6
arguments: ["@my_mailer"]
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Type hinting the injected object means that you can be sure that a suitable dependency has
been injected. By type-hinting, you'll get a clear error immediately if an unsuitable dependency
is injected. By type hinting using an interface rather than a class you can make the choice of
dependency more flexible. And assuming you only use methods defined in the interface, you can
gain that flexibility and still safely use the object.
There are several advantages to using constructor injection:
• If the dependency is a requirement and the class cannot work without it then injecting it via
the constructor ensures it is present when the class is used as the class cannot be constructed
without it.
• The constructor is only ever called once when the object is created, so you can be sure that the
dependency will not change during the object's lifetime.
These advantages do mean that constructor injection is not suitable for working with optional
dependencies. It is also more difficult to use in combination with class hierarchies: if a class uses
constructor injection then extending it and overriding the constructor becomes problematic.
Setter Injection
Another possible injection point into a class is by adding a setter method that accepts the dependency:
Listing 34-3
1 class NewsletterManager
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
5
public function setMailer(\Mailer $mailer)
6
{
7
$this->mailer = $mailer;
8
}
9
10
// ...
11 }
Listing 34-4
1 services:
2
my_mailer:
3
# ...
4
newsletter_manager:
5
class:
NewsletterManager
6
calls:
7
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
This time the advantages are:
• Setter injection works well with optional dependencies. If you do not need the dependency,
then just do not call the setter.
• You can call the setter multiple times. This is particularly useful if the method adds the
dependency to a collection. You can then have a variable number of dependencies.
The disadvantages of setter injection are:
• The setter can be called more than just at the time of construction so you cannot be sure the
dependency is not replaced during the lifetime of the object (except by explicitly writing the
setter method to check if it has already been called).
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• You cannot be sure the setter will be called and so you need to add checks that any required
dependencies are injected.
Property Injection
Another possibility is just setting public fields of the class directly:
Listing 34-5
1 class NewsletterManager
2 {
3
public $mailer;
4
5
// ...
6 }
Listing 34-6
1 services:
2
my_mailer:
3
# ...
4
newsletter_manager:
5
class: NewsletterManager
6
properties:
7
mailer: "@my_mailer"
There are mainly only disadvantages to using property injection, it is similar to setter injection but with
these additional important problems:
• You cannot control when the dependency is set at all, it can be changed at any point in the
object's lifetime.
• You cannot use type hinting so you cannot be sure what dependency is injected except by
writing into the class code to explicitly test the class instance before using it.
But, it is useful to know that this can be done with the service container, especially if you are working
with code that is out of your control, such as in a third party library, which uses public properties for its
dependencies.
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Chapter 35
Introduction to Parameters
You can define parameters in the service container which can then be used directly or as part of service
definitions. This can help to separate out values that you will want to change more regularly.
Getting and Setting Container Parameters
Working with container parameters is straightforward using the container's accessor methods for
parameters. You can check if a parameter has been defined in the container with:
Listing 35-1
1 $container->hasParameter('mailer.transport');
You can retrieve a parameter set in the container with:
Listing 35-2
1 $container->getParameter('mailer.transport');
and set a parameter in the container with:
Listing 35-3
1 $container->setParameter('mailer.transport', 'sendmail');
The used . notation is just a Symfony convention to make parameters easier to read. Parameters are
just flat key-value elements, they can't be organized into a nested array
You can only set a parameter before the container is compiled. To learn more about compiling the
container see Compiling the Container.
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Parameters in Configuration Files
You can also use the parameters section of a config file to set parameters:
Listing 35-4
1 parameters:
2
mailer.transport: sendmail
As well as retrieving the parameter values directly from the container you can use them in the config
files. You can refer to parameters elsewhere by surrounding them with percent (%) signs, e.g.
%mailer.transport%. One use for this is to inject the values into your services. This allows you to
configure different versions of services between applications or multiple services based on the same class
but configured differently within a single application. You could inject the choice of mail transport into
the Mailer class directly. But declaring it as a parameter makes it easier to change rather than being tied
up and hidden with the service definition:
Listing 35-5
1 parameters:
2
mailer.transport: sendmail
3
4 services:
5
mailer:
6
class:
Mailer
7
arguments: ['%mailer.transport%']
The values between parameter tags in XML configuration files are not trimmed.
This means that the following configuration sample will have the value \n sendmail\n:
Listing 35-6
1 <parameter key="mailer.transport">
2
sendmail
3 </parameter>
In some cases (for constants or class names), this could throw errors. In order to prevent this, you
must always inline your parameters as follow:
Listing 35-7
1 <parameter key="mailer.transport">sendmail</parameter>
If you were using this elsewhere as well, then you would only need to change the parameter value in one
place if needed.
The percent sign inside a parameter or argument, as part of the string, must be escaped with
another percent sign:
Listing 35-8
1 arguments: ["http://symfony.com/?foo=%%s&bar=%%d"]
Array Parameters
Parameters do not need to be flat strings, they can also contain array values. For the XML format, you
need to use the type="collection" attribute for all parameters that are arrays.
Listing 35-9
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1 parameters:
2
my_mailer.gateways:
3
- mail1
4
- mail2
5
- mail3
6
my_multilang.language_fallback:
7
en:
8
- en
9
- fr
10
fr:
11
- fr
12
- en
Constants as Parameters
The container also has support for setting PHP constants as parameters. To take advantage of this feature,
map the name of your constant to a parameter key, and define the type as constant.
Listing 35-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services http://symfony.com/schema/
dic/services/services-1.0.xsd">
<parameters>
<parameter key="global.constant.value" type="constant">GLOBAL_CONSTANT</parameter>
<parameter key="my_class.constant.value"
type="constant">My_Class::CONSTANT_NAME</parameter>
</parameters>
</container>
This does not work for YAML configurations. If you're using YAML, you can import an XML file
to take advantage of this functionality:
Listing 35-11
1 imports:
2
- { resource: parameters.xml }
PHP Keywords in XML
By default, true, false and null in XML are converted to the PHP keywords (respectively true, false
and null):
Listing 35-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
<parameters>
<parameter key="mailer.send_all_in_once">false</parameter>
</parameters>
<!-- after parsing
$container->getParameter('mailer.send_all_in_once'); // returns false
-->
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To disable this behavior, use the string type:
Listing 35-13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
<parameters>
<parameter key="mailer.some_parameter" type="string">true</parameter>
</parameters>
<!-- after parsing
$container->getParameter('mailer.some_parameter'); // returns "true"
-->
This is not available for YAML and PHP, because they already have built-in support for the PHP
keywords.
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Chapter 36
Working with Container Service Definitions
Getting and Setting Service Definitions
There are some helpful methods for working with the service definitions.
To find out if there is a definition for a service id:
Listing 36-1
1 $container->hasDefinition($serviceId);
This is useful if you only want to do something if a particular definition exists.
You can retrieve a definition with:
Listing 36-2
1 $container->getDefinition($serviceId);
or:
Listing 36-3
1 $container->findDefinition($serviceId);
which unlike getDefinition() also resolves aliases so if the $serviceId argument is an alias you will
get the underlying definition.
The service definitions themselves are objects so if you retrieve a definition with these methods and make
changes to it these will be reflected in the container. If, however, you are creating a new definition then
you can add it to the container using:
Listing 36-4
1 $container->setDefinition($id, $definition);
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Working with a Definition
Creating a new Definition
If you need to create a new definition rather than manipulate one retrieved from the container then the
definition class is Definition1.
Class
First up is the class of a definition, this is the class of the object returned when the service is requested
from the container.
To find out what class is set for a definition:
Listing 36-5
1 $definition->getClass();
and to set a different class:
Listing 36-6
1 $definition->setClass($class); // Fully qualified class name as string
Constructor Arguments
To get an array of the constructor arguments for a definition you can use:
Listing 36-7
1 $definition->getArguments();
or to get a single argument by its position:
Listing 36-8
1 $definition->getArgument($index);
2 // e.g. $definition->getArgument(0) for the first argument
You can add a new argument to the end of the arguments array using:
Listing 36-9
1 $definition->addArgument($argument);
The argument can be a string, an array, a service parameter by using %parameter_name% or a service id
by using:
Listing 36-10
1 use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Reference;
2
3 // ...
4
5 $definition->addArgument(new Reference('service_id'));
In a similar way you can replace an already set argument by index using:
Listing 36-11
1 $definition->replaceArgument($index, $argument);
You can also replace all the arguments (or set some if there are none) with an array of arguments:
Listing 36-12
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Definition.html
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1 $definition->setArguments($arguments);
Method Calls
If the service you are working with uses setter injection then you can manipulate any method calls in the
definitions as well.
You can get an array of all the method calls with:
Listing 36-13
1 $definition->getMethodCalls();
Add a method call with:
Listing 36-14
1 $definition->addMethodCall($method, $arguments);
Where $method is the method name and $arguments is an array of the arguments to call the method
with. The arguments can be strings, arrays, parameters or service ids as with the constructor arguments.
You can also replace any existing method calls with an array of new ones with:
Listing 36-15
1 $definition->setMethodCalls($methodCalls);
There are more examples of specific ways of working with definitions in the PHP code blocks of the
configuration examples on pages such as Using a Factory to Create Services and Managing common
Dependencies with parent Services.
The methods here that change service definitions can only be used before the container is
compiled. Once the container is compiled you cannot manipulate service definitions further. To
learn more about compiling the container see Compiling the Container.
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Chapter 37
Compiling the Container
The service container can be compiled for various reasons. These reasons include checking for any
potential issues such as circular references and making the container more efficient by resolving
parameters and removing unused services. Also, certain features - like using parent services - require the
container to be compiled.
It is compiled by running:
Listing 37-1
1 $container->compile();
The compile method uses Compiler Passes for the compilation. The DependencyInjection component
comes with several passes which are automatically registered for compilation. For example the
CheckDefinitionValidityPass1 checks for various potential issues with the definitions that have been
set in the container. After this and several other passes that check the container's validity, further
compiler passes are used to optimize the configuration before it is cached. For example, private services
and abstract services are removed, and aliases are resolved.
Managing Configuration with Extensions
As well as loading configuration directly into the container as shown in The DependencyInjection
Component, you can manage it by registering extensions with the container. The first step in the
compilation process is to load configuration from any extension classes registered with the container.
Unlike the configuration loaded directly, they are only processed when the container is compiled. If
your application is modular then extensions allow each module to register and manage their own service
configuration.
The extensions must implement ExtensionInterface2 and can be registered with the container with:
Listing 37-2
1 $container->registerExtension($extension);
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Compiler/CheckDefinitionValidityPass.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Extension/ExtensionInterface.html
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The main work of the extension is done in the load method. In the load method you can load
configuration from one or more configuration files as well as manipulate the container definitions using
the methods shown in Working with Container Service Definitions.
The load method is passed a fresh container to set up, which is then merged afterwards into the
container it is registered with. This allows you to have several extensions managing container definitions
independently. The extensions do not add to the containers configuration when they are added but are
processed when the container's compile method is called.
A very simple extension may just load configuration files into the container:
Listing 37-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Loader\XmlFileLoader;
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Extension\ExtensionInterface;
Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
class AcmeDemoExtension implements ExtensionInterface
{
public function load(array $configs, ContainerBuilder $container)
{
$loader = new XmlFileLoader(
$container,
new FileLocator(__DIR__.'/../Resources/config')
);
$loader->load('services.xml');
}
// ...
}
This does not gain very much compared to loading the file directly into the overall container being
built. It just allows the files to be split up amongst the modules/bundles. Being able to affect the
configuration of a module from configuration files outside of the module/bundle is needed to make a
complex application configurable. This can be done by specifying sections of config files loaded directly
into the container as being for a particular extension. These sections on the config will not be processed
directly by the container but by the relevant Extension.
The Extension must specify a getAlias method to implement the interface:
Listing 37-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// ...
class AcmeDemoExtension implements ExtensionInterface
{
// ...
public function getAlias()
{
return 'acme_demo';
}
}
For YAML configuration files specifying the alias for the Extension as a key will mean that those values
are passed to the Extension's load method:
Listing 37-5
1 # ...
2 acme_demo:
3
foo: fooValue
4
bar: barValue
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If this file is loaded into the configuration then the values in it are only processed when the container is
compiled at which point the Extensions are loaded:
Listing 37-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Loader\YamlFileLoader;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$container->registerExtension(new AcmeDemoExtension);
$loader = new YamlFileLoader($container, new FileLocator(__DIR__));
$loader->load('config.yml');
// ...
$container->compile();
When loading a config file that uses an extension alias as a key, the extension must already have
been registered with the container builder or an exception will be thrown.
The values from those sections of the config files are passed into the first argument of the load method
of the extension:
Listing 37-7
1 public function load(array $configs, ContainerBuilder $container)
2 {
3
$foo = $configs[0]['foo']; //fooValue
4
$bar = $configs[0]['bar']; //barValue
5 }
The $configs argument is an array containing each different config file that was loaded into the
container. You are only loading a single config file in the above example but it will still be within an array.
The array will look like this:
Listing 37-8
1 array(
2
array(
3
'foo' => 'fooValue',
4
'bar' => 'barValue',
5
),
6 )
Whilst you can manually manage merging the different files, it is much better to use the Config component
to merge and validate the config values. Using the configuration processing you could access the config
value this way:
Listing 37-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
use Symfony\Component\Config\Definition\Processor;
// ...
public function load(array $configs, ContainerBuilder $container)
{
$configuration = new Configuration();
$processor = new Processor();
$config = $processor->processConfiguration($configuration, $configs);
$foo = $config['foo']; //fooValue
$bar = $config['bar']; //barValue
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12
13
14 }
// ...
There are a further two methods you must implement. One to return the XML namespace so that the
relevant parts of an XML config file are passed to the extension. The other to specify the base path to
XSD files to validate the XML configuration:
Listing 37-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
public function getXsdValidationBasePath()
{
return __DIR__.'/../Resources/config/';
}
public function getNamespace()
{
return 'http://www.example.com/symfony/schema/';
}
XSD validation is optional, returning false from the getXsdValidationBasePath method will
disable it.
The XML version of the config would then look like this:
Listing 37-11
1 <?xml version="1.0" ?>
2 <container xmlns="http://symfony.com/schema/dic/services"
3
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
4
xmlns:acme_demo="http://www.example.com/symfony/schema/"
5
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.example.com/symfony/schema/ http://www.example.com/
6 symfony/schema/hello-1.0.xsd">
7
8
<acme_demo:config>
9
<acme_demo:foo>fooValue</acme_hello:foo>
10
<acme_demo:bar>barValue</acme_demo:bar>
11
</acme_demo:config>
</container>
In the Symfony full stack framework there is a base Extension class which implements these
methods as well as a shortcut method for processing the configuration. See How to Load Service
Configuration inside a Bundle for more details.
The processed config value can now be added as container parameters as if it were listed in a parameters
section of the config file but with the additional benefit of merging multiple files and validation of the
configuration:
Listing 37-12
1 public function load(array $configs, ContainerBuilder $container)
2 {
3
$configuration = new Configuration();
4
$processor = new Processor();
5
$config = $processor->processConfiguration($configuration, $configs);
6
7
$container->setParameter('acme_demo.FOO', $config['foo']);
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8
9
10 }
// ...
More complex configuration requirements can be catered for in the Extension classes. For example, you
may choose to load a main service configuration file but also load a secondary one only if a certain
parameter is set:
Listing 37-13
1 public function load(array $configs, ContainerBuilder $container)
2 {
3
$configuration = new Configuration();
4
$processor = new Processor();
5
$config = $processor->processConfiguration($configuration, $configs);
6
7
$loader = new XmlFileLoader(
8
$container,
9
new FileLocator(__DIR__.'/../Resources/config')
10
);
11
$loader->load('services.xml');
12
13
if ($config['advanced']) {
14
$loader->load('advanced.xml');
15
}
16 }
Just registering an extension with the container is not enough to get it included in the processed
extensions when the container is compiled. Loading config which uses the extension's alias as a
key as in the above examples will ensure it is loaded. The container builder can also be told to load
it with its loadFromExtension()3 method:
Listing 37-14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$extension = new AcmeDemoExtension();
$container->registerExtension($extension);
$container->loadFromExtension($extension->getAlias());
$container->compile();
If you need to manipulate the configuration loaded by an extension then you cannot do it from
another extension as it uses a fresh container. You should instead use a compiler pass which works
with the full container after the extensions have been processed.
Prepending Configuration Passed to the Extension
An Extension can prepend the configuration of any Bundle before the load() method is called by
implementing PrependExtensionInterface4:
Listing 37-15
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/ContainerBuilder.html#loadFromExtension()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Extension/PrependExtensionInterface.html
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Extension\PrependExtensionInterface;
// ...
class AcmeDemoExtension implements ExtensionInterface, PrependExtensionInterface
{
// ...
public function prepend()
{
// ...
$container->prependExtensionConfig($name, $config);
// ...
}
}
For more details, see How to Simplify Configuration of multiple Bundles, which is specific to the Symfony
Framework, but contains more details about this feature.
Creating a Compiler Pass
You can also create and register your own compiler passes with the container. To create a compiler pass it
needs to implement the CompilerPassInterface5 interface. The compiler pass gives you an opportunity
to manipulate the service definitions that have been compiled. This can be very powerful, but is not
something needed in everyday use.
The compiler pass must have the process method which is passed the container being compiled:
Listing 37-16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Compiler\CompilerPassInterface;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
class CustomCompilerPass implements CompilerPassInterface
{
public function process(ContainerBuilder $container)
{
// ...
}
}
The container's parameters and definitions can be manipulated using the methods described in the
Working with Container Service Definitions. One common thing to do in a compiler pass is to search for
all services that have a certain tag in order to process them in some way or dynamically plug each into
some other service.
Registering a Compiler Pass
You need to register your custom pass with the container. Its process method will then be called when
the container is compiled:
Listing 37-17
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Compiler/CompilerPassInterface.html
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1 use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
2
3 $container = new ContainerBuilder();
4 $container->addCompilerPass(new CustomCompilerPass);
Compiler passes are registered differently if you are using the full stack framework, see How to
Work with Compiler Passes in Bundles for more details.
Controlling the Pass Ordering
The default compiler passes are grouped into optimization passes and removal passes. The optimization
passes run first and include tasks such as resolving references within the definitions. The removal passes
perform tasks such as removing private aliases and unused services. You can choose where in the order
any custom passes you add are run. By default they will be run before the optimization passes.
You can use the following constants as the second argument when registering a pass with the container
to control where it goes in the order:
•
•
•
•
•
PassConfig::TYPE_BEFORE_OPTIMIZATION
PassConfig::TYPE_OPTIMIZE
PassConfig::TYPE_BEFORE_REMOVING
PassConfig::TYPE_REMOVE
PassConfig::TYPE_AFTER_REMOVING
For example, to run your custom pass after the default removal passes have been run:
Listing 37-18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Compiler\PassConfig;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$container->addCompilerPass(
new CustomCompilerPass,
PassConfig::TYPE_AFTER_REMOVING
);
Dumping the Configuration for Performance
Using configuration files to manage the service container can be much easier to understand than using
PHP once there are a lot of services. This ease comes at a price though when it comes to performance as
the config files need to be parsed and the PHP configuration built from them. The compilation process
makes the container more efficient but it takes time to run. You can have the best of both worlds though
by using configuration files and then dumping and caching the resulting configuration. The PhpDumper
makes dumping the compiled container easy:
Listing 37-19
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Dumper\PhpDumper;
$file = __DIR__ .'/cache/container.php';
if (file_exists($file)) {
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7
require_once $file;
8
$container = new ProjectServiceContainer();
9 } else {
10
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
11
// ...
12
$container->compile();
13
14
$dumper = new PhpDumper($container);
15
file_put_contents($file, $dumper->dump());
16 }
ProjectServiceContainer is the default name given to the dumped container class, you can change this
though this with the class option when you dump it:
Listing 37-20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
// ...
$file = __DIR__ .'/cache/container.php';
if (file_exists($file)) {
require_once $file;
$container = new MyCachedContainer();
} else {
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
// ...
$container->compile();
$dumper = new PhpDumper($container);
file_put_contents(
$file,
$dumper->dump(array('class' => 'MyCachedContainer'))
);
}
You will now get the speed of the PHP configured container with the ease of using configuration files.
Additionally dumping the container in this way further optimizes how the services are created by the
container.
In the above example you will need to delete the cached container file whenever you make any changes.
Adding a check for a variable that determines if you are in debug mode allows you to keep the speed
of the cached container in production but getting an up to date configuration whilst developing your
application:
Listing 37-21
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
// ...
// based on something in your project
$isDebug = ...;
$file = __DIR__ .'/cache/container.php';
if (!$isDebug && file_exists($file)) {
require_once $file;
$container = new MyCachedContainer();
} else {
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
// ...
$container->compile();
if (!$isDebug) {
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17
18
19
20
21
22
23 }
$dumper = new PhpDumper($container);
file_put_contents(
$file,
$dumper->dump(array('class' => 'MyCachedContainer'))
);
}
This could be further improved by only recompiling the container in debug mode when changes have
been made to its configuration rather than on every request. This can be done by caching the resource
files used to configure the container in the way described in "Caching Based on Resources" in the config
component documentation.
You do not need to work out which files to cache as the container builder keeps track of all the resources
used to configure it, not just the configuration files but the extension classes and compiler passes as well.
This means that any changes to any of these files will invalidate the cache and trigger the container being
rebuilt. You just need to ask the container for these resources and use them as metadata for the cache:
Listing 37-22
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
// ...
// based on something in your project
$isDebug = ...;
$file = __DIR__ .'/cache/container.php';
$containerConfigCache = new ConfigCache($file, $isDebug);
if (!$containerConfigCache->isFresh()) {
$containerBuilder = new ContainerBuilder();
// ...
$containerBuilder->compile();
$dumper = new PhpDumper($containerBuilder);
$containerConfigCache->write(
$dumper->dump(array('class' => 'MyCachedContainer')),
$containerBuilder->getResources()
);
}
require_once $file;
$container = new MyCachedContainer();
Now the cached dumped container is used regardless of whether debug mode is on or not. The difference
is that the ConfigCache is set to debug mode with its second constructor argument. When the cache is
not in debug mode the cached container will always be used if it exists. In debug mode, an additional
metadata file is written with the timestamps of all the resource files. These are then checked to see if the
files have changed, if they have the cache will be considered stale.
In the full stack framework the compilation and caching of the container is taken care of for you.
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Chapter 38
Working with Tagged Services
Tags are a generic string (along with some options) that can be applied to any service. By themselves,
tags don't actually alter the functionality of your services in any way. But if you choose to, you can ask a
container builder for a list of all services that were tagged with some specific tag. This is useful in compiler
passes where you can find these services and use or modify them in some specific way.
For example, if you are using Swift Mailer you might imagine that you want to implement a "transport
chain", which is a collection of classes implementing \Swift_Transport. Using the chain, you'll want
Swift Mailer to try several ways of transporting the message until one succeeds.
To begin with, define the TransportChain class:
Listing 38-1
1 class TransportChain
2 {
3
private $transports;
4
5
public function __construct()
6
{
7
$this->transports = array();
8
}
9
10
public function addTransport(\Swift_Transport $transport)
11
{
12
$this->transports[] = $transport;
13
}
14 }
Then, define the chain as a service:
Listing 38-2
1 services:
2
acme_mailer.transport_chain:
3
class: TransportChain
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Define Services with a custom Tag
Now you might want several of the \Swift_Transport classes to be instantiated and added to the chain
automatically using the addTransport() method. For example you may add the following transports as
services:
Listing 38-3
1 services:
2
acme_mailer.transport.smtp:
3
class: \Swift_SmtpTransport
4
arguments:
5
- "%mailer_host%"
6
tags:
7
- { name: acme_mailer.transport }
8
acme_mailer.transport.sendmail:
9
class: \Swift_SendmailTransport
10
tags:
11
- { name: acme_mailer.transport }
Notice that each was given a tag named acme_mailer.transport. This is the custom tag that you'll use
in your compiler pass. The compiler pass is what makes this tag "mean" something.
Create a CompilerPass
Your compiler pass can now ask the container for any services with the custom tag:
Listing 38-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Compiler\CompilerPassInterface;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Reference;
class TransportCompilerPass implements CompilerPassInterface
{
public function process(ContainerBuilder $container)
{
if (!$container->has('acme_mailer.transport_chain')) {
return;
}
$definition = $container->findDefinition(
'acme_mailer.transport_chain'
);
$taggedServices = $container->findTaggedServiceIds(
'acme_mailer.transport'
);
foreach ($taggedServices as $id => $tags) {
$definition->addMethodCall(
'addTransport',
array(new Reference($id))
);
}
}
}
The process() method checks for the existence of the acme_mailer.transport_chain service, then
looks for all services tagged acme_mailer.transport. It adds to the definition of the
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acme_mailer.transport_chain service a call to addTransport() for each "acme_mailer.transport"
service it has found. The first argument of each of these calls will be the mailer transport service itself.
Register the Pass with the Container
You also need to register the pass with the container, it will then be run when the container is compiled:
Listing 38-5
1 use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
2
3 $container = new ContainerBuilder();
4 $container->addCompilerPass(new TransportCompilerPass());
Compiler passes are registered differently if you are using the full stack framework. See How to
Work with Compiler Passes in Bundles for more details.
Adding additional Attributes on Tags
Sometimes you need additional information about each service that's tagged with your tag. For example,
you might want to add an alias to each member of the transport chain.
To begin with, change the TransportChain class:
Listing 38-6
1 class TransportChain
2 {
3
private $transports;
4
5
public function __construct()
6
{
7
$this->transports = array();
8
}
9
10
public function addTransport(\Swift_Transport $transport, $alias)
11
{
12
$this->transports[$alias] = $transport;
13
}
14
15
public function getTransport($alias)
16
{
17
if (array_key_exists($alias, $this->transports)) {
18
return $this->transports[$alias];
19
}
20
}
21 }
As you can see, when addTransport is called, it takes not only a Swift_Transport object, but also a
string alias for that transport. So, how can you allow each tagged transport service to also supply an alias?
To answer this, change the service declaration:
Listing 38-7
1 services:
2
acme_mailer.transport.smtp:
3
class: \Swift_SmtpTransport
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
arguments:
- "%mailer_host%"
tags:
- { name: acme_mailer.transport, alias: foo }
acme_mailer.transport.sendmail:
class: \Swift_SendmailTransport
tags:
- { name: acme_mailer.transport, alias: bar }
Notice that you've added a generic alias key to the tag. To actually use this, update the compiler:
Listing 38-8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Compiler\CompilerPassInterface;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Reference;
class TransportCompilerPass implements CompilerPassInterface
{
public function process(ContainerBuilder $container)
{
if (!$container->hasDefinition('acme_mailer.transport_chain')) {
return;
}
$definition = $container->getDefinition(
'acme_mailer.transport_chain'
);
$taggedServices = $container->findTaggedServiceIds(
'acme_mailer.transport'
);
foreach ($taggedServices as $id => $tags) {
foreach ($tags as $attributes) {
$definition->addMethodCall(
'addTransport',
array(new Reference($id), $attributes["alias"])
);
}
}
}
}
The double loop may be confusing. This is because a service can have more than one tag. You tag a
service twice or more with the acme_mailer.transport tag. The second foreach loop iterates over the
acme_mailer.transport tags set for the current service and gives you the attributes.
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Chapter 39
Using a Factory to Create Services
New in version 2.6: The new setFactory()1 method was introduced in Symfony 2.6. Refer to older
versions for the syntax for factories prior to 2.6.
Symfony's Service Container provides a powerful way of controlling the creation of objects, allowing
you to specify arguments passed to the constructor as well as calling methods and setting parameters.
Sometimes, however, this will not provide you with everything you need to construct your objects. For
this situation, you can use a factory to create the object and tell the service container to call a method on
the factory rather than directly instantiating the class.
Suppose you have a factory that configures and returns a new NewsletterManager object:
Listing 39-1
1 class NewsletterManagerFactory
2 {
3
public static function createNewsletterManager()
4
{
5
$newsletterManager = new NewsletterManager();
6
7
// ...
8
9
return $newsletterManager;
10
}
11 }
To make the NewsletterManager object available as a service, you can configure the service container to
use the NewsletterFactory::createNewsletterManager() factory method:
Listing 39-2
1 services:
2
newsletter_manager:
3
class: NewsletterManager
4
factory: [NewsletterManagerFactory, createNewsletterManager]
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Definition.html#setFactory()
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When using a factory to create services, the value chosen for the class option has no effect on the
resulting service. The actual class name only depends on the object that is returned by the factory.
However, the configured class name may be used by compiler passes and therefore should be set
to a sensible value.
Now, the method will be called statically. If the factory class itself should be instantiated and the resulting
object's method called, configure the factory itself as a service. In this case, the method (e.g. get) should
be changed to be non-static.
Listing 39-3
1 services:
2
newsletter_manager.factory:
3
class: NewsletterManagerFactory
4
newsletter_manager:
5
class: NewsletterManager
6
factory: ["@newsletter_manager.factory", createNewsletterManager]
Passing Arguments to the Factory Method
If you need to pass arguments to the factory method, you can use the arguments options inside the
service container. For example, suppose the createNewsletterManager method in the previous example
takes the templating service as an argument:
Listing 39-4
1 services:
2
newsletter_manager.factory:
3
class: NewsletterManagerFactory
4
5
newsletter_manager:
6
class: NewsletterManager
7
factory: ["@newsletter_manager.factory", createNewsletterManager]
8
arguments:
9
- "@templating"
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Chapter 40
Configuring Services with a Service
Configurator
The Service Configurator is a feature of the Dependency Injection Container that allows you to use a
callable to configure a service after its instantiation.
You can specify a method in another service, a PHP function or a static method in a class. The service
instance is passed to the callable, allowing the configurator to do whatever it needs to configure the
service after its creation.
A Service Configurator can be used, for example, when you have a service that requires complex setup
based on configuration settings coming from different sources/services. Using an external configurator,
you can maintain the service implementation cleanly and keep it decoupled from the other objects that
provide the configuration needed.
Another interesting use case is when you have multiple objects that share a common configuration or
that should be configured in a similar way at runtime.
For example, suppose you have an application where you send different types of emails to users. Emails
are passed through different formatters that could be enabled or not depending on some dynamic
application settings. You start defining a NewsletterManager class like this:
Listing 40-1
1 class NewsletterManager implements EmailFormatterAwareInterface
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
protected $enabledFormatters;
5
6
public function setMailer(Mailer $mailer)
7
{
8
$this->mailer = $mailer;
9
}
10
11
public function setEnabledFormatters(array $enabledFormatters)
12
{
13
$this->enabledFormatters = $enabledFormatters;
14
}
15
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16
17 }
// ...
and also a GreetingCardManager class:
Listing 40-2
1 class GreetingCardManager implements EmailFormatterAwareInterface
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
protected $enabledFormatters;
5
6
public function setMailer(Mailer $mailer)
7
{
8
$this->mailer = $mailer;
9
}
10
11
public function setEnabledFormatters(array $enabledFormatters)
12
{
13
$this->enabledFormatters = $enabledFormatters;
14
}
15
16
// ...
17 }
As mentioned before, the goal is to set the formatters at runtime depending on application settings. To
do this, you also have an EmailFormatterManager class which is responsible for loading and validating
formatters enabled in the application:
Listing 40-3
1 class EmailFormatterManager
2 {
3
protected $enabledFormatters;
4
5
public function loadFormatters()
6
{
7
// code to configure which formatters to use
8
$enabledFormatters = array(...);
9
// ...
10
11
$this->enabledFormatters = $enabledFormatters;
12
}
13
14
public function getEnabledFormatters()
15
{
16
return $this->enabledFormatters;
17
}
18
19
// ...
20 }
If your goal is to avoid having to couple NewsletterManager and GreetingCardManager with
EmailFormatterManager, then you might want to create a configurator class to configure these instances:
Listing 40-4
1 class EmailConfigurator
2 {
3
private $formatterManager;
4
5
public function __construct(EmailFormatterManager $formatterManager)
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6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18 }
{
$this->formatterManager = $formatterManager;
}
public function configure(EmailFormatterAwareInterface $emailManager)
{
$emailManager->setEnabledFormatters(
$this->formatterManager->getEnabledFormatters()
);
}
// ...
The EmailConfigurator's job is to inject the enabled filters into NewsletterManager and
GreetingCardManager because they are not aware of where the enabled filters come from. In the other
hand, the EmailFormatterManager holds the knowledge about the enabled formatters and how to load
them, keeping the single responsibility principle.
Configurator Service Config
The service config for the above classes would look something like this:
Listing 40-5
1 services:
2
my_mailer:
3
# ...
4
5
email_formatter_manager:
6
class:
EmailFormatterManager
7
# ...
8
9
email_configurator:
10
class:
EmailConfigurator
11
arguments: ["@email_formatter_manager"]
12
# ...
13
14
newsletter_manager:
15
class:
NewsletterManager
16
calls:
17
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
18
configurator: ["@email_configurator", configure]
19
20
greeting_card_manager:
21
class:
GreetingCardManager
22
calls:
23
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
24
configurator: ["@email_configurator", configure]
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Chapter 41
Managing common Dependencies with parent
Services
As you add more functionality to your application, you may well start to have related classes that share
some of the same dependencies. For example you may have a Newsletter Manager which uses setter
injection to set its dependencies:
Listing 41-1
1 class NewsletterManager
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
protected $emailFormatter;
5
6
public function setMailer(Mailer $mailer)
7
{
8
$this->mailer = $mailer;
9
}
10
11
public function setEmailFormatter(EmailFormatter $emailFormatter)
12
{
13
$this->emailFormatter = $emailFormatter;
14
}
15
16
// ...
17 }
and also a Greeting Card class which shares the same dependencies:
Listing 41-2
1 class GreetingCardManager
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
protected $emailFormatter;
5
6
public function setMailer(Mailer $mailer)
7
{
8
$this->mailer = $mailer;
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9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17 }
}
public function setEmailFormatter(EmailFormatter $emailFormatter)
{
$this->emailFormatter = $emailFormatter;
}
// ...
The service config for these classes would look something like this:
Listing 41-3
1 services:
2
my_mailer:
3
# ...
4
5
my_email_formatter:
6
# ...
7
8
newsletter_manager:
9
class: NewsletterManager
10
calls:
11
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
12
- [setEmailFormatter, ["@my_email_formatter"]]
13
14
greeting_card_manager:
15
class: "GreetingCardManager"
16
calls:
17
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
18
- [setEmailFormatter, ["@my_email_formatter"]]
There is a lot of repetition in both the classes and the configuration. This means that if you changed, for
example, the Mailer of EmailFormatter classes to be injected via the constructor, you would need to
update the config in two places. Likewise if you needed to make changes to the setter methods you would
need to do this in both classes. The typical way to deal with the common methods of these related classes
would be to extract them to a super class:
Listing 41-4
1 abstract class MailManager
2 {
3
protected $mailer;
4
protected $emailFormatter;
5
6
public function setMailer(Mailer $mailer)
7
{
8
$this->mailer = $mailer;
9
}
10
11
public function setEmailFormatter(EmailFormatter $emailFormatter)
12
{
13
$this->emailFormatter = $emailFormatter;
14
}
15
16
// ...
17 }
The NewsletterManager and GreetingCardManager can then extend this super class:
Listing 41-5
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1 class NewsletterManager extends MailManager
2 {
3
// ...
4 }
and:
Listing 41-6
1 class GreetingCardManager extends MailManager
2 {
3
// ...
4 }
In a similar fashion, the Symfony service container also supports extending services in the configuration
so you can also reduce the repetition by specifying a parent for a service.
Listing 41-7
1 # ...
2 services:
3
# ...
4
mail_manager:
5
abstract: true
6
calls:
7
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
8
- [setEmailFormatter, ["@my_email_formatter"]]
9
10
newsletter_manager:
11
class: "NewsletterManager"
12
parent: mail_manager
13
14
greeting_card_manager:
15
class: "GreetingCardManager"
16
parent: mail_manager
In this context, having a parent service implies that the arguments and method calls of the parent service
should be used for the child services. Specifically, the setter methods defined for the parent service will
be called when the child services are instantiated.
If you remove the parent config key, the services will still be instantiated and they will still of
course extend the MailManager class. The difference is that omitting the parent config key will
mean that the calls defined on the mail_manager service will not be executed when the child
services are instantiated.
The scope, abstract and tags attributes are always taken from the child service.
The parent service is abstract as it should not be directly retrieved from the container or passed into
another service. It exists merely as a "template" that other services can use. This is why it can have no
class configured which would cause an exception to be raised for a non-abstract service.
In order for parent dependencies to resolve, the ContainerBuilder must first be compiled. See
Compiling the Container for more details.
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In the examples shown, the classes sharing the same configuration also extend from the same
parent class in PHP. This isn't necessary at all. You can just extract common parts of similar service
definitions into a parent service without also extending a parent class in PHP.
Overriding parent Dependencies
There may be times where you want to override what class is passed in for a dependency of one child
service only. Fortunately, by adding the method call config for the child service, the dependencies set
by the parent class will be overridden. So if you needed to pass a different dependency just to the
NewsletterManager class, the config would look like this:
Listing 41-8
1 # ...
2 services:
3
# ...
4
my_alternative_mailer:
5
# ...
6
7
mail_manager:
8
abstract: true
9
calls:
10
- [setMailer, ["@my_mailer"]]
11
- [setEmailFormatter, ["@my_email_formatter"]]
12
13
newsletter_manager:
14
class: "NewsletterManager"
15
parent: mail_manager
16
calls:
17
- [setMailer, ["@my_alternative_mailer"]]
18
19
greeting_card_manager:
20
class: "GreetingCardManager"
21
parent: mail_manager
The GreetingCardManager will receive the same dependencies as before, but the NewsletterManager
will be passed the my_alternative_mailer instead of the my_mailer service.
You can't override method calls. When you defined new method calls in the child service, it'll be
added to the current set of configured method calls. This means it works perfectly when the setter
overrides the current property, but it doesn't work as expected when the setter appends it to the
existing data (e.g. an addFilters() method). In those cases, the only solution is to not extend the
parent service and configuring the service just like you did before knowing this feature.
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Chapter 42
Advanced Container Configuration
Marking Services as public / private
When defining services, you'll usually want to be able to access these definitions within your application
code. These services are called public. For example, the doctrine service registered with the container
when using the DoctrineBundle is a public service. This means that you can fetch it from the container
using the get() method:
Listing 42-1
1 $doctrine = $container->get('doctrine');
In some cases, a service only exists to be injected into another service and is not intended to be fetched
directly from the container as shown above.
In these cases, to get a minor performance boost, you can set the service to be not public (i.e. private):
Listing 42-2
1 services:
2
foo:
3
class: Example\Foo
4
public: false
What makes private services special is that, if they are only injected once, they are converted from services
to inlined instantiations (e.g. new PrivateThing()). This increases the container's performance.
Now that the service is private, you should not fetch the service directly from the container:
Listing 42-3
1 $container->get('foo');
This may or may not work, depending on if the service could be inlined. Simply said: A service can be
marked as private if you do not want to access it directly from your code.
However, if a service has been marked as private, you can still alias it (see below) to access this service
(via the alias).
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Services are by default public.
Synthetic Services
Synthetic services are services that are injected into the container instead of being created by the
container.
For example, if you're using the HttpKernel component with the DependencyInjection component, then
the request service is injected in the ContainerAwareHttpKernel::handle()1 method when entering
the request scope. The class does not exist when there is no request, so it can't be included in the container
configuration. Also, the service should be different for every subrequest in the application.
To create a synthetic service, set synthetic to true:
Listing 42-4
1 services:
2
request:
3
synthetic: true
As you see, only the synthetic option is set. All other options are only used to configure how a service
is created by the container. As the service isn't created by the container, these options are omitted.
Now, you can inject the class by using Container::set2:
Listing 42-5
1 // ...
2 $container->set('request', new MyRequest(...));
Aliasing
You may sometimes want to use shortcuts to access some services. You can do so by aliasing them and,
furthermore, you can even alias non-public services.
Listing 42-6
1 services:
2
foo:
3
class: Example\Foo
4
bar:
5
alias: foo
This means that when using the container directly, you can access the foo service by asking for the bar
service like this:
Listing 42-7
1 $container->get('bar'); // Would return the foo service
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/DependencyInjection/ContainerAwareHttpKernel.html#handle()
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/Container.html#set()
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In YAML, you can also use a shortcut to alias a service:
Listing 42-8
1 services:
2
foo:
3
class: Example\Foo
4
bar: "@foo"
Requiring Files
There might be use cases when you need to include another file just before the service itself gets loaded.
To do so, you can use the file directive.
Listing 42-9
1 services:
2
foo:
3
class: Example\Foo\Bar
4
file: "%kernel.root_dir%/src/path/to/file/foo.php"
Notice that Symfony will internally call the PHP statement require_once, which means that your file
will be included only once per request.
Decorating Services
When overriding an existing definition, the old service is lost:
Listing 42-10
1
2
3
4
5
$container->register('foo', 'FooService');
// this is going to replace the old definition with the new one
// old definition is lost
$container->register('foo', 'CustomFooService');
Most of the time, that's exactly what you want to do. But sometimes, you might want to decorate the old
one instead. In this case, the old service should be kept around to be able to reference it in the new one.
This configuration replaces foo with a new one, but keeps a reference of the old one as bar.inner:
Listing 42-11
1 bar:
2
public: false
3
class: stdClass
4
decorates: foo
5
arguments: ["@bar.inner"]
Here is what's going on here: the setDecoratedService() method tells the container that the bar service
should replace the foo service, renaming foo to bar.inner. By convention, the old foo service is going
to be renamed bar.inner, so you can inject it into your new service.
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The generated inner id is based on the id of the decorator service (bar here), not of the decorated
service (foo here). This is mandatory to allow several decorators on the same service (they need to
have different generated inner ids).
Most of the time, the decorator should be declared private, as you will not need to retrieve it as bar
from the container. The visibility of the decorated foo service (which is an alias for bar) will still
be the same as the original foo visibility.
You can change the inner service name if you want to:
Listing 42-12
1 bar:
2
class: stdClass
3
public: false
4
decorates: foo
5
decoration_inner_name: bar.wooz
6
arguments: ["@bar.wooz"]
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Chapter 43
Lazy Services
New in version 2.3: Lazy services were introduced in Symfony 2.3.
Why lazy Services?
In some cases, you may want to inject a service that is a bit heavy to instantiate, but is not always used
inside your object. For example, imagine you have a NewsletterManager and you inject a mailer service
into it. Only a few methods on your NewsletterManager actually use the mailer, but even when you
don't need it, a mailer service is always instantiated in order to construct your NewsletterManager.
Configuring lazy services is one answer to this. With a lazy service, a "proxy" of the mailer service is
actually injected. It looks and acts just like the mailer, except that the mailer isn't actually instantiated
until you interact with the proxy in some way.
Installation
In order to use the lazy service instantiation, you will first need to install the ProxyManager bridge1:
Listing 43-1
1 $ composer require symfony/proxy-manager-bridge:~2.3
If you're using the full-stack framework, the proxy manager bridge is already included but the
actual proxy manager needs to be included. So, run:
Listing 43-2
1 $ php composer.phar require ocramius/proxy-manager:~0.5
Afterwards compile your container and check to make sure that you get a proxy for your lazy
services.
1. https://github.com/symfony/symfony/tree/master/src/Symfony/Bridge/ProxyManager
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Configuration
You can mark the service as lazy by manipulating its definition:
Listing 43-3
1 services:
2
foo:
3
class: Acme\Foo
4
lazy: true
You can then require the service from the container:
Listing 43-4
1 $service = $container->get('foo');
At this point the retrieved $service should be a virtual proxy2 with the same signature of the class
representing the service. You can also inject the service just like normal into other services. The object
that's actually injected will be the proxy.
To check if your proxy works you can simply check the interface of the received object.
Listing 43-5
1 var_dump(class_implements($service));
If the class implements the ProxyManager\Proxy\LazyLoadingInterface your lazy loaded services are
working.
If you don't install the ProxyManager bridge3, the container will just skip over the lazy flag and
simply instantiate the service as it would normally do.
The proxy gets initialized and the actual service is instantiated as soon as you interact in any way with
this object.
Additional Resources
You can read more about how proxies are instantiated, generated and initialized in the documentation of
ProxyManager4.
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_pattern
3. https://github.com/symfony/symfony/tree/master/src/Symfony/Bridge/ProxyManager
4. https://github.com/Ocramius/ProxyManager/blob/master/docs/lazy-loading-value-holder.md
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Chapter 44
Container Building Workflow
In the preceding pages of this section, there has been little to say about where the various files and classes
should be located. This is because this depends on the application, library or framework in which you
want to use the container. Looking at how the container is configured and built in the Symfony full stack
framework will help you see how this all fits together, whether you are using the full stack framework or
looking to use the service container in another application.
The full stack framework uses the HttpKernel component to manage the loading of the service container
configuration from the application and bundles and also handles the compilation and caching. Even if
you are not using HttpKernel, it should give you an idea of one way of organizing configuration in a
modular application.
Working with a Cached Container
Before building it, the kernel checks to see if a cached version of the container exists. The HttpKernel has
a debug setting and if this is false, the cached version is used if it exists. If debug is true then the kernel
checks to see if configuration is fresh and if it is, the cached version of the container is used. If not then the
container is built from the application-level configuration and the bundles's extension configuration.
Read Dumping the Configuration for Performance for more details.
Application-level Configuration
Application level config is loaded from the app/config directory. Multiple files are loaded which are
then merged when the extensions are processed. This allows for different configuration for different
environments e.g. dev, prod.
These files contain parameters and services that are loaded directly into the container as per Setting Up
the Container with Configuration Files. They also contain configuration that is processed by extensions as
per Managing Configuration with Extensions. These are considered to be bundle configuration since each
bundle contains an Extension class.
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Bundle-level Configuration with Extensions
By convention, each bundle contains an Extension class which is in the bundle's DependencyInjection
directory. These are registered with the ContainerBuilder when the kernel is booted. When the
ContainerBuilder is compiled, the application-level configuration relevant to the bundle's extension
is passed to the Extension which also usually loads its own config file(s), typically from the bundle's
Resources/config directory. The application-level config is usually processed with a Configuration
object also stored in the bundle's DependencyInjection directory.
Compiler Passes to Allow Interaction between Bundles
Compiler passes are used to allow interaction between different bundles as they cannot affect each
other's configuration in the extension classes. One of the main uses is to process tagged services,
allowing bundles to register services to be picked up by other bundles, such as Monolog loggers, Twig
extensions and Data Collectors for the Web Profiler. Compiler passes are usually placed in the bundle's
DependencyInjection/Compiler directory.
Compilation and Caching
After the compilation process has loaded the services from the configuration, extensions and the compiler
passes, it is dumped so that the cache can be used next time. The dumped version is then used during
subsequent requests as it is more efficient.
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Chapter 45
The DomCrawler Component
The DomCrawler component eases DOM navigation for HTML and XML documents.
While possible, the DomCrawler component is not designed for manipulation of the DOM or redumping HTML/XML.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/dom-crawler on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/DomCrawler2).
Usage
The Crawler3 class provides methods to query and manipulate HTML and XML documents.
An instance of the Crawler represents a set (SplObjectStorage4) of DOMElement5 objects, which are
basically nodes that you can traverse easily:
Listing 45-1
1 use Symfony\Component\DomCrawler\Crawler;
2
3 $html = <<<'HTML'
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/dom-crawler
2. https://github.com/symfony/DomCrawler
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html
4. http://php.net/manual/en/class.splobjectstorage.php
5. http://php.net/manual/en/class.domelement.php
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>
<p class="message">Hello World!</p>
<p>Hello Crawler!</p>
</body>
</html>
HTML;
$crawler = new Crawler($html);
foreach ($crawler as $domElement) {
print $domElement->nodeName;
}
Specialized Link6 and Form7 classes are useful for interacting with html links and forms as you traverse
through the HTML tree.
The DomCrawler will attempt to automatically fix your HTML to match the official specification.
For example, if you nest a <p> tag inside another <p> tag, it will be moved to be a sibling of
the parent tag. This is expected and is part of the HTML5 spec. But if you're getting unexpected
behavior, this could be a cause. And while the DomCrawler isn't meant to dump content, you can
see the "fixed" version of your HTML by dumping it.
Node Filtering
Using XPath expressions is really easy:
Listing 45-2
1 $crawler = $crawler->filterXPath('descendant-or-self::body/p');
DOMXPath::query is used internally to actually perform an XPath query.
Filtering is even easier if you have the CssSelector component installed. This allows you to use jQuerylike selectors to traverse:
Listing 45-3
1 $crawler = $crawler->filter('body > p');
Anonymous function can be used to filter with more complex criteria:
Listing 45-4
1 use Symfony\Component\DomCrawler\Crawler;
2 // ...
3
4 $crawler = $crawler
5
->filter('body > p')
6
->reduce(function (Crawler $node, $i) {
7
// filter even nodes
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Link.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Form.html
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8
9
return ($i % 2) == 0;
});
To remove a node the anonymous function must return false.
All filter methods return a new Crawler8 instance with filtered content.
Both the filterXPath()9 and filter()10 methods work with XML namespaces, which can be either
automatically discovered or registered explicitly.
Consider the XML below:
Listing 45-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<entry
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
xmlns:media="http://search.yahoo.com/mrss/"
xmlns:yt="http://gdata.youtube.com/schemas/2007"
>
<id>tag:youtube.com,2008:video:kgZRZmEc9j4</id>
<yt:accessControl action="comment" permission="allowed"/>
<yt:accessControl action="videoRespond" permission="moderated"/>
<media:group>
<media:title type="plain">Chordates - CrashCourse Biology #24</media:title>
<yt:aspectRatio>widescreen</yt:aspectRatio>
</media:group>
</entry>
This can be filtered with the Crawler without needing to register namespace aliases both with
filterXPath()11:
Listing 45-6
1 $crawler = $crawler->filterXPath('//default:entry/media:group//yt:aspectRatio');
and filter()12:
Listing 45-7
1 use Symfony\Component\CssSelector\CssSelector;
2
3 CssSelector::disableHtmlExtension();
4 $crawler = $crawler->filter('default|entry media|group yt|aspectRatio');
The default namespace is registered with a prefix "default". It can be changed with the
setDefaultNamespacePrefix()13 method.
The default namespace is removed when loading the content if it's the only namespace in the
document. It's done to simplify the xpath queries.
Namespaces can be explicitly registered with the registerNamespace()14 method:
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#filterXPath()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#filter()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#filterXPath()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#filter()
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#setDefaultNamespacePrefix()
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Listing 45-8
1 $crawler->registerNamespace('m', 'http://search.yahoo.com/mrss/');
2 $crawler = $crawler->filterXPath('//m:group//yt:aspectRatio');
To query XML with a CSS selector, the HTML extension needs to be disabled with
CssSelector::disableHtmlExtension15 to avoid converting the selector to lowercase.
Node Traversing
Access node by its position on the list:
Listing 45-9
1 $crawler->filter('body > p')->eq(0);
Get the first or last node of the current selection:
Listing 45-10
1 $crawler->filter('body > p')->first();
2 $crawler->filter('body > p')->last();
Get the nodes of the same level as the current selection:
Listing 45-11
1 $crawler->filter('body > p')->siblings();
Get the same level nodes after or before the current selection:
Listing 45-12
1 $crawler->filter('body > p')->nextAll();
2 $crawler->filter('body > p')->previousAll();
Get all the child or parent nodes:
Listing 45-13
1 $crawler->filter('body')->children();
2 $crawler->filter('body > p')->parents();
All the traversal methods return a new Crawler16 instance.
Accessing Node Values
New in version 2.6: The nodeName()17 method was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
Access the node name (HTML tag name) of the first node of the current selection (eg. "p" or "div"):
Listing 45-14
1 // will return the node name (HTML tag name) of the first child element under <body>
2 $tag = $crawler->filterXPath('//body/*')->nodeName();
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#registerNamespace()
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/CssSelector/CssSelector.html#disableHtmlExtension()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#nodeName()
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Access the value of the first node of the current selection:
Listing 45-15
1 $message = $crawler->filterXPath('//body/p')->text();
Access the attribute value of the first node of the current selection:
Listing 45-16
1 $class = $crawler->filterXPath('//body/p')->attr('class');
Extract attribute and/or node values from the list of nodes:
Listing 45-17
1 $attributes = $crawler
2
->filterXpath('//body/p')
3
->extract(array('_text', 'class'))
4 ;
Special attribute _text represents a node value.
Call an anonymous function on each node of the list:
Listing 45-18
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\DomCrawler\Crawler;
// ...
$nodeValues = $crawler->filter('p')->each(function (Crawler $node, $i) {
return $node->text();
});
New in version 2.3: As seen here, in Symfony 2.3, the each and reduce Closure functions are passed a
Crawler as the first argument. Previously, that argument was a DOMNode18.
The anonymous function receives the node (as a Crawler) and the position as arguments. The result is an
array of values returned by the anonymous function calls.
Adding the Content
The crawler supports multiple ways of adding the content:
Listing 45-19
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$crawler = new Crawler('<html><body /></html>');
$crawler->addHtmlContent('<html><body /></html>');
$crawler->addXmlContent('<root><node /></root>');
$crawler->addContent('<html><body /></html>');
$crawler->addContent('<root><node /></root>', 'text/xml');
$crawler->add('<html><body /></html>');
$crawler->add('<root><node /></root>');
18. http://php.net/manual/en/class.domnode.php
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When dealing with character sets other than ISO-8859-1, always add HTML content using the
addHTMLContent()19 method where you can specify the second parameter to be your target
character set.
As the Crawler's implementation is based on the DOM extension, it is also able to interact with native
DOMDocument20, DOMNodeList21 and DOMNode22 objects:
Listing 45-20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$document = new \DOMDocument();
$document->loadXml('<root><node /><node /></root>');
$nodeList = $document->getElementsByTagName('node');
$node = $document->getElementsByTagName('node')->item(0);
$crawler->addDocument($document);
$crawler->addNodeList($nodeList);
$crawler->addNodes(array($node));
$crawler->addNode($node);
$crawler->add($document);
Manipulating and Dumping a Crawler
These methods on the Crawler are intended to initially populate your Crawler and aren't intended
to be used to further manipulate a DOM (though this is possible). However, since the Crawler
is a set of DOMElement23 objects, you can use any method or property available on DOMElement24,
DOMNode25 or DOMDocument26. For example, you could get the HTML of a Crawler with something
like this:
Listing 45-21
1 $html = '';
2
3 foreach ($crawler as $domElement) {
4
$html .= $domElement->ownerDocument->saveHTML($domElement);
5 }
Or you can get the HTML of the first node using html()27:
Listing 45-22
1 $html = $crawler->html();
The html method is new in Symfony 2.3.
Links
To find a link by name (or a clickable image by its alt attribute), use the selectLink method on an
existing crawler. This returns a Crawler instance with just the selected link(s). Calling link() gives you
a special Link28 object:
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#addHTMLContent()
20. http://php.net/manual/en/class.domdocument.php
21. http://php.net/manual/en/class.domnodelist.php
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
http://php.net/manual/en/class.domnode.php
http://php.net/manual/en/class.domelement.php
http://php.net/manual/en/class.domelement.php
http://php.net/manual/en/class.domnode.php
http://php.net/manual/en/class.domdocument.php
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Crawler.html#html()
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Link.html
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Listing 45-23
1
2
3
4
5
$linksCrawler = $crawler->selectLink('Go elsewhere...');
$link = $linksCrawler->link();
// or do this all at once
$link = $crawler->selectLink('Go elsewhere...')->link();
The Link29 object has several useful methods to get more information about the selected link itself:
Listing 45-24
1 // return the proper URI that can be used to make another request
2 $uri = $link->getUri();
The getUri() is especially useful as it cleans the href value and transforms it into how it should
really be processed. For example, for a link with href="#foo", this would return the full URI of
the current page suffixed with #foo. The return from getUri() is always a full URI that you can
act on.
Forms
Special treatment is also given to forms. A selectButton() method is available on the Crawler which
returns another Crawler that matches a button (input[type=submit], input[type=image], or a button)
with the given text. This method is especially useful because you can use it to return a Form30 object that
represents the form that the button lives in:
Listing 45-25
1
2
3
4
5
6
$form = $crawler->selectButton('validate')->form();
// or "fill" the form fields with data
$form = $crawler->selectButton('validate')->form(array(
'name' => 'Ryan',
));
The Form31 object has lots of very useful methods for working with forms:
Listing 45-26
1 $uri = $form->getUri();
2
3 $method = $form->getMethod();
The getUri()32 method does more than just return the action attribute of the form. If the form method
is GET, then it mimics the browser's behavior and returns the action attribute followed by a query string
of all of the form's values.
You can virtually set and get values on the form:
Listing 45-27
1 // set values on the form internally
2 $form->setValues(array(
3
'registration[username]' => 'symfonyfan',
4
'registration[terms]'
=> 1,
5 ));
6
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Link.html
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Form.html
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Form.html
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DomCrawler/Form.html#getUri()
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7
8
9
10
11
12
// get back an array of values - in the "flat" array like above
$values = $form->getValues();
// returns the values like PHP would see them,
// where "registration" is its own array
$values = $form->getPhpValues();
To work with multi-dimensional fields:
Listing 45-28
1 <form>
2
<input name="multi[]" />
3
<input name="multi[]" />
4
<input name="multi[dimensional]" />
5 </form>
Pass an array of values:
Listing 45-29
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
// Set a single field
$form->setValues(array('multi' => array('value')));
// Set multiple fields at once
$form->setValues(array('multi' => array(
1
=> 'value',
'dimensional' => 'an other value'
)));
This is great, but it gets better! The Form object allows you to interact with your form like a browser,
selecting radio values, ticking checkboxes, and uploading files:
Listing 45-30
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
$form['registration[username]']->setValue('symfonyfan');
// check or uncheck a checkbox
$form['registration[terms]']->tick();
$form['registration[terms]']->untick();
// select an option
$form['registration[birthday][year]']->select(1984);
// select many options from a "multiple" select
$form['registration[interests]']->select(array('symfony', 'cookies'));
// even fake a file upload
$form['registration[photo]']->upload('/path/to/lucas.jpg');
Using the Form Data
What's the point of doing all of this? If you're testing internally, you can grab the information off of your
form as if it had just been submitted by using the PHP values:
Listing 45-31
1 $values = $form->getPhpValues();
2 $files = $form->getPhpFiles();
If you're using an external HTTP client, you can use the form to grab all of the information you need to
create a POST request for the form:
Listing 45-32
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1
2
3
4
5
6
$uri = $form->getUri();
$method = $form->getMethod();
$values = $form->getValues();
$files = $form->getFiles();
// now use some HTTP client and post using this information
One great example of an integrated system that uses all of this is Goutte33. Goutte understands the
Symfony Crawler object and can use it to submit forms directly:
Listing 45-33
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Goutte\Client;
// make a real request to an external site
$client = new Client();
$crawler = $client->request('GET', 'https://github.com/login');
// select the form and fill in some values
$form = $crawler->selectButton('Log in')->form();
$form['login'] = 'symfonyfan';
$form['password'] = 'anypass';
// submit that form
$crawler = $client->submit($form);
Selecting Invalid Choice Values
By default, choice fields (select, radio) have internal validation activated to prevent you from setting
invalid values. If you want to be able to set invalid values, you can use the disableValidation() method
on either the whole form or specific field(s):
Listing 45-34
1
2
3
4
5
6
// Disable validation for a specific field
$form['country']->disableValidation()->select('Invalid value');
// Disable validation for the whole form
$form->disableValidation();
$form['country']->select('Invalid value');
33. https://github.com/fabpot/goutte
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Chapter 46
The EventDispatcher Component
The EventDispatcher component provides tools that allow your application components to
communicate with each other by dispatching events and listening to them.
Introduction
Object Oriented code has gone a long way to ensuring code extensibility. By creating classes that have
well defined responsibilities, your code becomes more flexible and a developer can extend them with
subclasses to modify their behaviors. But if they want to share the changes with other developers who
have also made their own subclasses, code inheritance is no longer the answer.
Consider the real-world example where you want to provide a plugin system for your project. A plugin
should be able to add methods, or do something before or after a method is executed, without interfering
with other plugins. This is not an easy problem to solve with single inheritance, and multiple inheritance
(were it possible with PHP) has its own drawbacks.
The Symfony EventDispatcher component implements the Mediator1 pattern in a simple and effective
way to make all these things possible and to make your projects truly extensible.
Take a simple example from The HttpKernel Component. Once a Response object has been created, it
may be useful to allow other elements in the system to modify it (e.g. add some cache headers) before
it's actually used. To make this possible, the Symfony kernel throws an event - kernel.response. Here's
how it works:
• A listener (PHP object) tells a central dispatcher object that it wants to listen to the
kernel.response event;
• At some point, the Symfony kernel tells the dispatcher object to dispatch the kernel.response
event, passing with it an Event object that has access to the Response object;
• The dispatcher notifies (i.e. calls a method on) all listeners of the kernel.response event,
allowing each of them to make modifications to the Response object.
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediator_pattern
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Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/event-dispatcher on Packagist2);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/EventDispatcher3).
Usage
Events
When an event is dispatched, it's identified by a unique name (e.g. kernel.response), which any
number of listeners might be listening to. An Event4 instance is also created and passed to all of the
listeners. As you'll see later, the Event object itself often contains data about the event being dispatched.
Naming Conventions
The unique event name can be any string, but optionally follows a few simple naming conventions:
• use only lowercase letters, numbers, dots (.), and underscores (_);
• prefix names with a namespace followed by a dot (e.g. kernel.);
• end names with a verb that indicates what action is being taken (e.g. request).
Here are some examples of good event names:
• kernel.response
• form.pre_set_data
Event Names and Event Objects
When the dispatcher notifies listeners, it passes an actual Event object to those listeners. The base Event
class is very simple: it contains a method for stopping event propagation, but not much else.
Often times, data about a specific event needs to be passed along with the Event object so that the
listeners have needed information. In the case of the kernel.response event, the Event object that's
created and passed to each listener is actually of type FilterResponseEvent5, a subclass of the base
Event object. This class contains methods such as getResponse and setResponse, allowing listeners to
get or even replace the Response object.
The moral of the story is this: When creating a listener to an event, the Event object that's passed to
the listener may be a special subclass that has additional methods for retrieving information from and
responding to the event.
The Dispatcher
The dispatcher is the central object of the event dispatcher system. In general, a single dispatcher is
created, which maintains a registry of listeners. When an event is dispatched via the dispatcher, it notifies
all listeners registered with that event:
Listing 46-1
2. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/event-dispatcher
3. https://github.com/symfony/EventDispatcher
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/FilterResponseEvent.html
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1 use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcher;
2
3 $dispatcher = new EventDispatcher();
Connecting Listeners
To take advantage of an existing event, you need to connect a listener to the dispatcher so that it can be
notified when the event is dispatched. A call to the dispatcher's addListener() method associates any
valid PHP callable to an event:
Listing 46-2
1 $listener = new AcmeListener();
2 $dispatcher->addListener('foo.action', array($listener, 'onFooAction'));
The addListener() method takes up to three arguments:
• The event name (string) that this listener wants to listen to;
• A PHP callable that will be notified when an event is thrown that it listens to;
• An optional priority integer (higher equals more important, and therefore that the listener will
be triggered earlier) that determines when a listener is triggered versus other listeners (defaults
to 0). If two listeners have the same priority, they are executed in the order that they were
added to the dispatcher.
A PHP callable6 is a PHP variable that can be used by the call_user_func() function and returns
true when passed to the is_callable() function. It can be a \Closure instance, an object
implementing an __invoke method (which is what closures are in fact), a string representing a
function, or an array representing an object method or a class method.
So far, you've seen how PHP objects can be registered as listeners. You can also register PHP
Closures7 as event listeners:
Listing 46-3
1 use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event;
2
3 $dispatcher->addListener('foo.action', function (Event $event) {
4
// will be executed when the foo.action event is dispatched
5 });
Once a listener is registered with the dispatcher, it waits until the event is notified. In the above example,
when the foo.action event is dispatched, the dispatcher calls the AcmeListener::onFooAction method
and passes the Event object as the single argument:
Listing 46-4
1 use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event;
2
3 class AcmeListener
4 {
5
// ...
6
7
public function onFooAction(Event $event)
8
{
9
// ... do something
6. http://www.php.net/manual/en/language.pseudo-types.php#language.types.callback
7. http://php.net/manual/en/functions.anonymous.php
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10
11 }
}
In many cases, a special Event subclass that's specific to the given event is passed to the listener.
This gives the listener access to special information about the event. Check the documentation or
implementation of each event to determine the exact Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event
instance that's being passed. For example, the kernel.response event passes an instance of
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Event\FilterResponseEvent:
Listing 46-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Event\FilterResponseEvent;
public function onKernelResponse(FilterResponseEvent $event)
{
$response = $event->getResponse();
$request = $event->getRequest();
// ...
}
Registering Event Listeners in the Service Container
When you are using the ContainerAwareEventDispatcher8 and the DependencyInjection
component, you can use the RegisterListenersPass9 to tag services as event listeners:
Listing 46-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
use
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Definition;
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ParameterBag\ParameterBag;
Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\Reference;
Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\DependencyInjection\RegisterListenersPass;
$containerBuilder = new ContainerBuilder(new ParameterBag());
$containerBuilder->addCompilerPass(new RegisterListenersPass());
// register the event dispatcher service
$containerBuilder->setDefinition('event_dispatcher', new Definition(
'Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher',
array(new Reference('service_container'))
));
// register your event listener service
$listener = new Definition('AcmeListener');
$listener->addTag('kernel.event_listener', array(
'event' => 'foo.action',
'method' => 'onFooAction',
));
$containerBuilder->setDefinition('listener_service_id', $listener);
// register an event subscriber
$subscriber = new Definition('AcmeSubscriber');
$subscriber->addTag('kernel.event_subscriber');
$containerBuilder->setDefinition('subscriber_service_id', $subscriber);
By default, the listeners pass assumes that the event dispatcher's service id is event_dispatcher,
that event listeners are tagged with the kernel.event_listener tag and that event subscribers are
tagged with the kernel.event_subscriber tag. You can change these default values by passing
custom values to the constructor of RegisterListenersPass.
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Creating and Dispatching an Event
In addition to registering listeners with existing events, you can create and dispatch your own events.
This is useful when creating third-party libraries and also when you want to keep different components
of your own system flexible and decoupled.
The Static Events Class
Suppose you want to create a new Event - store.order - that is dispatched each time an order is created
inside your application. To keep things organized, start by creating a StoreEvents class inside your
application that serves to define and document your event:
Listing 46-7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
namespace Acme\StoreBundle;
final class StoreEvents
{
/**
* The store.order event is thrown each time an order is created
* in the system.
*
* The event listener receives an
* Acme\StoreBundle\Event\FilterOrderEvent instance.
*
* @var string
*/
const STORE_ORDER = 'store.order';
}
Notice that this class doesn't actually do anything. The purpose of the StoreEvents class is just to
be a location where information about common events can be centralized. Notice also that a special
FilterOrderEvent class will be passed to each listener of this event.
Creating an Event Object
Later, when you dispatch this new event, you'll create an Event instance and pass it to the dispatcher. The
dispatcher then passes this same instance to each of the listeners of the event. If you don't need to pass
any information to your listeners, you can use the default Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event
class. Most of the time, however, you will need to pass information about the event to each listener. To
accomplish this, you'll create a new class that extends Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event.
In this example, each listener will need access to some pretend Order object. Create an Event class that
makes this possible:
Listing 46-8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
namespace Acme\StoreBundle\Event;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event;
use Acme\StoreBundle\Order;
class FilterOrderEvent extends Event
{
protected $order;
public function __construct(Order $order)
{
$this->order = $order;
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/ContainerAwareEventDispatcher.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/DependencyInjection/RegisterListenersPass.html
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13
14
15
16
17
18
19 }
}
public function getOrder()
{
return $this->order;
}
Each listener now has access to the Order object via the getOrder method.
Dispatch the Event
The dispatch()10 method notifies all listeners of the given event. It takes two arguments: the name of
the event to dispatch and the Event instance to pass to each listener of that event:
Listing 46-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
use Acme\StoreBundle\StoreEvents;
use Acme\StoreBundle\Order;
use Acme\StoreBundle\Event\FilterOrderEvent;
// the order is somehow created or retrieved
$order = new Order();
// ...
// create the FilterOrderEvent and dispatch it
$event = new FilterOrderEvent($order);
$dispatcher->dispatch(StoreEvents::STORE_ORDER, $event);
Notice that the special FilterOrderEvent object is created and passed to the dispatch method. Now,
any listener to the store.order event will receive the FilterOrderEvent and have access to the Order
object via the getOrder method:
Listing 46-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
// some listener class that's been registered for "store.order" event
use Acme\StoreBundle\Event\FilterOrderEvent;
public function onStoreOrder(FilterOrderEvent $event)
{
$order = $event->getOrder();
// do something to or with the order
}
Using Event Subscribers
The most common way to listen to an event is to register an event listener with the dispatcher. This
listener can listen to one or more events and is notified each time those events are dispatched.
Another way to listen to events is via an event subscriber. An event subscriber is a PHP class that's
able to tell the dispatcher exactly which events it should subscribe to. It implements the
EventSubscriberInterface11 interface, which requires a single static method called
getSubscribedEvents. Take the following example of a subscriber that subscribes to the
kernel.response and store.order events:
Listing 46-11
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/EventDispatcher.html#dispatch()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/EventSubscriberInterface.html
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1
2
3
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5
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7
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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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23
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28
29
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31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
namespace Acme\StoreBundle\Event;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventSubscriberInterface;
use Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Event\FilterResponseEvent;
class StoreSubscriber implements EventSubscriberInterface
{
public static function getSubscribedEvents()
{
return array(
'kernel.response' => array(
array('onKernelResponsePre', 10),
array('onKernelResponseMid', 5),
array('onKernelResponsePost', 0),
),
'store.order'
=> array('onStoreOrder', 0),
);
}
public function onKernelResponsePre(FilterResponseEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
public function onKernelResponseMid(FilterResponseEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
public function onKernelResponsePost(FilterResponseEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
public function onStoreOrder(FilterOrderEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
}
This is very similar to a listener class, except that the class itself can tell the dispatcher which events it
should listen to. To register a subscriber with the dispatcher, use the addSubscriber()12 method:
Listing 46-12
1 use Acme\StoreBundle\Event\StoreSubscriber;
2
3 $subscriber = new StoreSubscriber();
4 $dispatcher->addSubscriber($subscriber);
The dispatcher will automatically register the subscriber for each event returned by the
getSubscribedEvents method. This method returns an array indexed by event names and whose values
are either the method name to call or an array composed of the method name to call and a priority.
The example above shows how to register several listener methods for the same event in subscriber
and also shows how to pass the priority of each listener method. The higher the priority, the earlier
the method is called. In the above example, when the kernel.response event is triggered, the methods
onKernelResponsePre, onKernelResponseMid, and onKernelResponsePost are called in that order.
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/EventDispatcher.html#addSubscriber()
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Stopping Event Flow/Propagation
In some cases, it may make sense for a listener to prevent any other listeners from being called. In other
words, the listener needs to be able to tell the dispatcher to stop all propagation of the event to future
listeners (i.e. to not notify any more listeners). This can be accomplished from inside a listener via the
stopPropagation()13 method:
Listing 46-13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Acme\StoreBundle\Event\FilterOrderEvent;
public function onStoreOrder(FilterOrderEvent $event)
{
// ...
$event->stopPropagation();
}
Now, any listeners to store.order that have not yet been called will not be called.
It is possible to detect if an event was stopped by using the isPropagationStopped()14 method which
returns a boolean value:
Listing 46-14
1 $dispatcher->dispatch('foo.event', $event);
2 if ($event->isPropagationStopped()) {
3
// ...
4 }
EventDispatcher aware Events and Listeners
The EventDispatcher always passes the dispatched event, the event's name and a reference to itself to
the listeners. This can be used in some advanced usages of the EventDispatcher like dispatching other
events in listeners, event chaining or even lazy loading of more listeners into the dispatcher object as
shown in the following examples.
Lazy loading listeners:
Listing 46-15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcherInterface;
use Acme\StoreBundle\Event\StoreSubscriber;
class Foo
{
private $started = false;
public function myLazyListener(
Event $event,
$eventName,
EventDispatcherInterface $dispatcher
) {
if (false === $this->started) {
$subscriber = new StoreSubscriber();
$dispatcher->addSubscriber($subscriber);
}
$this->started = true;
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html#stopPropagation()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html#isPropagationStopped()
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20
21
22
23 }
// ... more code
}
Dispatching another event from within a listener:
Listing 46-16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcherInterface;
class Foo
{
public function myFooListener(
Event $event,
$eventName,
EventDispatcherInterface $dispatcher
) {
$dispatcher->dispatch('log', $event);
// ... more code
}
}
While this above is sufficient for most uses, if your application uses multiple EventDispatcher instances,
you might need to specifically inject a known instance of the EventDispatcher into your listeners. This
could be done using constructor or setter injection as follows:
Constructor injection:
Listing 46-17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcherInterface;
class Foo
{
protected $dispatcher = null;
public function __construct(EventDispatcherInterface $dispatcher)
{
$this->dispatcher = $dispatcher;
}
}
Or setter injection:
Listing 46-18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcherInterface;
class Foo
{
protected $dispatcher = null;
public function setEventDispatcher(EventDispatcherInterface $dispatcher)
{
$this->dispatcher = $dispatcher;
}
}
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Choosing between the two is really a matter of taste. Many tend to prefer the constructor injection as
the objects are fully initialized at construction time. But when you have a long list of dependencies, using
setter injection can be the way to go, especially for optional dependencies.
Dispatcher Shortcuts
The EventDispatcher::dispatch15 method always returns an Event16 object. This allows for various
shortcuts. For example, if one does not need a custom event object, one can simply rely on a plain Event17
object. You do not even need to pass this to the dispatcher as it will create one by default unless you
specifically pass one:
Listing 46-19
1 $dispatcher->dispatch('foo.event');
Moreover, the EventDispatcher always returns whichever event object that was dispatched, i.e. either the
event that was passed or the event that was created internally by the dispatcher. This allows for nice
shortcuts:
Listing 46-20
1 if (!$dispatcher->dispatch('foo.event')->isPropagationStopped()) {
2
// ...
3 }
Or:
Listing 46-21
1 $barEvent = new BarEvent();
2 $bar = $dispatcher->dispatch('bar.event', $barEvent)->getBar();
Or:
Listing 46-22
1 $bar = $dispatcher->dispatch('bar.event', new BarEvent())->getBar();
and so on...
Event Name Introspection
New in version 2.4: Before Symfony 2.4, the event name and the event dispatcher had to be requested
from the Event instance. These methods are now deprecated.
The EventDispatcher instance, as well as the name of the event that is dispatched, are passed as
arguments to the listener:
Listing 46-23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Event;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcherInterface;
class Foo
{
public function myEventListener(Event $event, $eventName, EventDispatcherInterface
$dispatcher)
{
echo $eventName;
}
}
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/EventDispatcher.html#dispatch()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html
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Other Dispatchers
Besides the commonly used EventDispatcher, the component comes with 2 other dispatchers:
• The Container Aware Event Dispatcher
• The Immutable Event Dispatcher
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Chapter 47
The Container Aware Event Dispatcher
Introduction
The ContainerAwareEventDispatcher1 is a special EventDispatcher implementation which is coupled
to the service container that is part of the DependencyInjection component. It allows services to be
specified as event listeners making the EventDispatcher extremely powerful.
Services are lazy loaded meaning the services attached as listeners will only be created if an event is
dispatched that requires those listeners.
Setup
Setup
is
straightforward
by
ContainerAwareEventDispatcher3:
Listing 47-1
1
2
3
4
5
injecting
a
ContainerInterface2
into
the
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerBuilder;
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher;
$container = new ContainerBuilder();
$dispatcher = new ContainerAwareEventDispatcher($container);
Adding Listeners
The Container Aware EventDispatcher can either load specified services directly, or services that
implement EventSubscriberInterface4.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/ContainerAwareEventDispatcher.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/ContainerInterface.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/ContainerAwareEventDispatcher.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/EventSubscriberInterface.html
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The following examples assume the service container has been loaded with any services that are
mentioned.
Services must be marked as public in the container.
Adding Services
To connect existing service definitions, use the addListenerService()5 method where the $callback is
an array of array($serviceId, $methodName):
Listing 47-2
1 $dispatcher->addListenerService($eventName, array('foo', 'logListener'));
Adding Subscriber Services
EventSubscribers can be added using the addSubscriberService()6 method where the first argument
is the service ID of the subscriber service, and the second argument is the service's class name (which
must implement EventSubscriberInterface7) as follows:
Listing 47-3
1 $dispatcher->addSubscriberService(
2
'kernel.store_subscriber',
3
'StoreSubscriber'
4 );
The EventSubscriberInterface will be exactly as you would expect:
Listing 47-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventSubscriberInterface;
// ...
class StoreSubscriber implements EventSubscriberInterface
{
public static function getSubscribedEvents()
{
return array(
'kernel.response' => array(
array('onKernelResponsePre', 10),
array('onKernelResponsePost', 0),
),
'store.order'
=> array('onStoreOrder', 0),
);
}
public function onKernelResponsePre(FilterResponseEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
public function onKernelResponsePost(FilterResponseEvent $event)
{
// ...
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/ContainerAwareEventDispatcher.html#addListenerService()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/ContainerAwareEventDispatcher.html#addSubscriberService()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/EventSubscriberInterface.html
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25
26
27
28
29
30
31 }
}
public function onStoreOrder(FilterOrderEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
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Chapter 48
The Generic Event Object
The base Event1 class provided by the EventDispatcher component is deliberately sparse to allow the
creation of API specific event objects by inheritance using OOP. This allows for elegant and readable
code in complex applications.
The GenericEvent2 is available for convenience for those who wish to use just one event object
throughout their application. It is suitable for most purposes straight out of the box, because it follows
the standard observer pattern where the event object encapsulates an event 'subject', but has the addition
of optional extra arguments.
GenericEvent3 has a simple API in addition to the base class Event4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
__construct()5: Constructor takes the event subject and any arguments;
getSubject()6: Get the subject;
setArgument()7: Sets an argument by key;
setArguments()8: Sets arguments array;
getArgument()9: Gets an argument by key;
getArguments()10: Getter for all arguments;
hasArgument()11: Returns true if the argument key exists;
The GenericEvent also implements ArrayAccess12 on the event arguments which makes it very
convenient to pass extra arguments regarding the event subject.
The following examples show use-cases to give a general idea of the flexibility. The examples assume
event listeners have been added to the dispatcher.
Simply passing a subject:
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Event.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#__construct()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#getSubject()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#setArgument()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#setArguments()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#getArgument()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#getArguments()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/GenericEvent.html#hasArgument()
12. http://php.net/manual/en/class.arrayaccess.php
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Listing 48-1
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7
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9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\GenericEvent;
$event = new GenericEvent($subject);
$dispatcher->dispatch('foo', $event);
class FooListener
{
public function handler(GenericEvent $event)
{
if ($event->getSubject() instanceof Foo) {
// ...
}
}
}
Passing and processing arguments using the ArrayAccess13 API to access the event arguments:
Listing 48-2
1
2
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5
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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18
19
20
21
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\GenericEvent;
$event = new GenericEvent(
$subject,
array('type' => 'foo', 'counter' => 0)
);
$dispatcher->dispatch('foo', $event);
echo $event['counter'];
class FooListener
{
public function handler(GenericEvent $event)
{
if (isset($event['type']) && $event['type'] === 'foo') {
// ... do something
}
$event['counter']++;
}
}
Filtering data:
Listing 48-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\GenericEvent;
$event = new GenericEvent($subject, array('data' => 'Foo'));
$dispatcher->dispatch('foo', $event);
echo $event['data'];
class FooListener
{
public function filter(GenericEvent $event)
{
$event['data'] = strtolower($event['data']);
}
}
13. http://php.net/manual/en/class.arrayaccess.php
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Chapter 49
The Immutable Event Dispatcher
The ImmutableEventDispatcher1 is a locked or frozen event dispatcher. The dispatcher cannot register
new listeners or subscribers.
The ImmutableEventDispatcher takes another event dispatcher with all the listeners and subscribers.
The immutable dispatcher is just a proxy of this original dispatcher.
To use it, first create a normal dispatcher (EventDispatcher or ContainerAwareEventDispatcher) and
register some listeners or subscribers:
Listing 49-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcher;
$dispatcher = new EventDispatcher();
$dispatcher->addListener('foo.action', function ($event) {
// ...
});
// ...
Now, inject that into an ImmutableEventDispatcher:
Listing 49-2
1 use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\ImmutableEventDispatcher;
2 // ...
3
4 $immutableDispatcher = new ImmutableEventDispatcher($dispatcher);
You'll need to use this new dispatcher in your project.
If you are trying to execute one of the methods which modifies the dispatcher (e.g. addListener), a
BadMethodCallException is thrown.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/ImmutableEventDispatcher.html
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Chapter 50
The Traceable Event Dispatcher
The TraceableEventDispatcher1 is an event dispatcher that wraps any other event dispatcher and can
then be used to determine which event listeners have been called by the dispatcher. Pass the event
dispatcher to be wrapped and an instance of the Stopwatch2 to its constructor:
Listing 50-1
1
2
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4
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6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\Debug\TraceableEventDispatcher;
use Symfony\Component\Stopwatch\Stopwatch;
// the event dispatcher to debug
$eventDispatcher = ...;
$traceableEventDispatcher = new TraceableEventDispatcher(
$eventDispatcher,
new Stopwatch()
);
Now, the TraceableEventDispatcher can be used like any other event dispatcher to register event
listeners and dispatch events:
Listing 50-2
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
// ...
// register an event listener
$eventListener = ...;
$priority = ...;
$traceableEventDispatcher->addListener(
'event.the_name',
$eventListener,
$priority
);
// dispatch an event
$event = ...;
$traceableEventDispatcher->dispatch('event.the_name', $event);
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Debug/TraceableEventDispatcher.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html
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After your application has been processed, you can use the getCalledListeners()3 method to retrieve
an array of event listeners that have been called in your application. Similarly, the
getNotCalledListeners()4 method returns an array of event listeners that have not been called:
Listing 50-3
1 // ...
2
3 $calledListeners = $traceableEventDispatcher->getCalledListeners();
4 $notCalledListeners = $traceableEventDispatcher->getNotCalledListeners();
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Debug/TraceableEventDispatcherInterface.html#getCalledListeners()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/EventDispatcher/Debug/
TraceableEventDispatcherInterface.html#getNotCalledListeners()
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Chapter 51
The ExpressionLanguage Component
The ExpressionLanguage component provides an engine that can compile and evaluate
expressions. An expression is a one-liner that returns a value (mostly, but not limited to, Booleans).
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/expression-language on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/expression-language2).
How can the Expression Engine Help Me?
The purpose of the component is to allow users to use expressions inside configuration for more complex
logic. For some examples, the Symfony2 Framework uses expressions in security, for validation rules and
in route matching.
Besides using the component in the framework itself, the ExpressionLanguage component is a perfect
candidate for the foundation of a business rule engine. The idea is to let the webmaster of a website
configure things in a dynamic way without using PHP and without introducing security problems:
Listing 51-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
# Get the special price if
user.getGroup() in ['good_customers', 'collaborator']
# Promote article to the homepage when
article.commentCount > 100 and article.category not in ["misc"]
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/expression-language
2. https://github.com/symfony/expression-language
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7 # Send an alert when
8 product.stock < 15
Expressions can be seen as a very restricted PHP sandbox and are immune to external injections as you
must explicitly declare which variables are available in an expression.
Usage
The ExpressionLanguage component can compile and evaluate expressions. Expressions are one-liners
that often return a Boolean, which can be used by the code executing the expression in an if statement.
A simple example of an expression is 1 + 2. You can also use more complicated expressions, such as
someArray[3].someMethod('bar').
The component provides 2 ways to work with expressions:
• evaluation: the expression is evaluated without being compiled to PHP;
• compile: the expression is compiled to PHP, so it can be cached and evaluated.
The main class of the component is ExpressionLanguage3:
Listing 51-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionLanguage;
$language = new ExpressionLanguage();
echo $language->evaluate('1 + 2'); // displays 3
echo $language->compile('1 + 2'); // displays (1 + 2)
Expression Syntax
See The Expression Syntax to learn the syntax of the ExpressionLanguage component.
Passing in Variables
You can also pass variables into the expression, which can be of any valid PHP type (including objects):
Listing 51-3
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2
3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionLanguage;
$language = new ExpressionLanguage();
class Apple
{
public $variety;
}
$apple = new Apple();
$apple->variety = 'Honeycrisp';
echo $language->evaluate(
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionLanguage.html
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14
15
16
17
18 );
'fruit.variety',
array(
'fruit' => $apple,
)
This will print "Honeycrisp". For more information, see the The Expression Syntax entry, especially
Working with Objects and Working with Arrays.
Caching
The component provides some different caching strategies, read more about them in Caching Expressions
Using Parser Caches.
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Chapter 52
The Expression Syntax
The ExpressionLanguage component uses a specific syntax which is based on the expression syntax of
Twig. In this document, you can find all supported syntaxes.
Supported Literals
The component supports:
•
•
•
•
•
•
strings - single and double quotes (e.g. 'hello')
numbers - e.g. 103
arrays - using JSON-like notation (e.g. [1, 2])
hashes - using JSON-like notation (e.g. { foo: 'bar' })
booleans - true and false
null - null
Working with Objects
When passing objects into an expression, you can use different syntaxes to access properties and call
methods on the object.
Accessing Public Properties
Public properties on objects can be accessed by using the . syntax, similar to JavaScript:
Listing 52-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
class Apple
{
public $variety;
}
$apple = new Apple();
$apple->variety = 'Honeycrisp';
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9 echo $language->evaluate(
10
'fruit.variety',
11
array(
12
'fruit' => $apple,
13
)
14 );
This will print out Honeycrisp.
Calling Methods
The . syntax can also be used to call methods on an object, similar to JavaScript:
Listing 52-2
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11
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20
21
class Robot
{
public function sayHi($times)
{
$greetings = array();
for ($i = 0; $i < $times; $i++) {
$greetings[] = 'Hi';
}
return implode(' ', $greetings).'!';
}
}
$robot = new Robot();
echo $language->evaluate(
'robot.sayHi(3)',
array(
'robot' => $robot,
)
);
This will print out Hi Hi Hi!.
Working with Functions
You can also use registered functions in the expression by using the same syntax as PHP and JavaScript.
The ExpressionLanguage component comes with one function by default: constant(), which will return
the value of the PHP constant:
Listing 52-3
1 define('DB_USER', 'root');
2
3 echo $language->evaluate(
4
'constant("DB_USER")'
5 );
This will print out root.
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To read how to register your own functions to use in an expression, see "Extending the
ExpressionLanguage".
Working with Arrays
If you pass an array into an expression, use the [] syntax to access array keys, similar to JavaScript:
Listing 52-4
1 $data = array('life' => 10, 'universe' => 10, 'everything' => 22);
2
3 echo $language->evaluate(
4
'data["life"] + data["universe"] + data["everything"]',
5
array(
6
'data' => $data,
7
)
8 );
This will print out 42.
Supported Operators
The component comes with a lot of operators:
Arithmetic Operators
•
•
•
•
•
•
+ (addition)
- (subtraction)
* (multiplication)
/ (division)
% (modulus)
** (pow)
For example:
Listing 52-5
1 echo $language->evaluate(
2
'life + universe + everything',
3
array(
4
'life' => 10,
5
'universe' => 10,
6
'everything' => 22,
7
)
8 );
This will print out 42.
Bitwise Operators
• & (and)
• | (or)
• ^ (xor)
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Comparison Operators
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
== (equal)
=== (identical)
!= (not equal)
!== (not identical)
< (less than)
> (greater than)
<= (less than or equal to)
>= (greater than or equal to)
matches (regex match)
To test if a string does not match a regex, use the logical not operator in combination with the
matches operator:
Listing 52-6
1 $language->evaluate('not ("foo" matches "/bar/")'); // returns true
You must use parenthesis because the unary operator not has precedence over the binary operator
matches.
Examples:
Listing 52-7
1
2
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5
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
$ret1 = $language->evaluate(
'life == everything',
array(
'life' => 10,
'universe' => 10,
'everything' => 22,
)
);
$ret2 = $language->evaluate(
'life > everything',
array(
'life' => 10,
'universe' => 10,
'everything' => 22,
)
);
Both variables would be set to false.
Logical Operators
• not or !
• and or &&
• or or ||
For example:
Listing 52-8
1 $ret = $language->evaluate(
2
'life < universe or life < everything',
3
array(
4
'life' => 10,
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5
6
7
8 );
'universe' => 10,
'everything' => 22,
)
This $ret variable will be set to true.
String Operators
• ~ (concatenation)
For example:
Listing 52-9
1 echo $language->evaluate(
2
'firstName~" "~lastName',
3
array(
4
'firstName' => 'Arthur',
5
'lastName' => 'Dent',
6
)
7 );
This would print out Arthur Dent.
Array Operators
• in (contain)
• not in (does not contain)
For example:
Listing 52-10
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2
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6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
class User
{
public $group;
}
$user = new User();
$user->group = 'human_resources';
$inGroup = $language->evaluate(
'user.group in ["human_resources", "marketing"]',
array(
'user' => $user,
)
);
The $inGroup would evaluate to true.
Numeric Operators
• .. (range)
For example:
Listing 52-11
1 class User
2 {
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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
public $age;
}
$user = new User();
$user->age = 34;
$language->evaluate(
'user.age in 18..45',
array(
'user' => $user,
)
);
This will evaluate to true, because user.age is in the range from 18 to 45.
Ternary Operators
• foo ? 'yes' : 'no'
• foo ?: 'no' (equal to foo ? foo : 'no')
• foo ? 'yes' (equal to foo ? 'yes' : '')
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Chapter 53
Extending the ExpressionLanguage
The ExpressionLanguage can be extended by adding custom functions. For instance, in the Symfony
Framework, the security has custom functions to check the user's role.
If you want to learn how to use functions in an expression, read "Working with Functions".
Registering Functions
Functions are registered on each specific ExpressionLanguage instance. That means the functions can
be used in any expression executed by that instance.
To register a function, use register()1. This method has 3 arguments:
• name - The name of the function in an expression;
• compiler - A function executed when compiling an expression using the function;
• evaluator - A function executed when the expression is evaluated.
Listing 53-1
1
2
3
4
5
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7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionLanguage;
$language = new ExpressionLanguage();
$language->register('lowercase', function ($str) {
return sprintf('(is_string(%1$s) ? strtolower(%1$s) : %1$s)', $str);
}, function ($arguments, $str) {
if (!is_string($str)) {
return $str;
}
return strtolower($str);
});
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionLanguage.html#register()
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13
14 echo $language->evaluate('lowercase("HELLO")');
This will print hello. Both the compiler and evaluator are passed an arguments variable as their first
argument, which is equal to the second argument to evaluate() or compile() (e.g. the "values" when
evaluating or the "names" if compiling).
Using Expression Providers
New in version 2.6: Expression providers were introduced in Symfony 2.6.
When you use the ExpressionLanguage class in your library, you often want to add custom functions.
To do so, you can create a new expression provider by creating a class that implements
ExpressionFunctionProviderInterface2.
This interface requires one method: getFunctions()3, which returns an array of expression functions
(instances of ExpressionFunction4) to register.
Listing 53-2
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18
19
20
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionFunction;
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionFunctionProviderInterface;
class StringExpressionLanguageProvider implements ExpressionFunctionProviderInterface
{
public function getFunctions()
{
return array(
new ExpressionFunction('lowercase', function ($str) {
return sprintf('(is_string(%1$s) ? strtolower(%1$s) : %1$s)', $str);
}, function ($arguments, $str) {
if (!is_string($str)) {
return $str;
}
return strtolower($str);
}),
);
}
}
You can register providers using registerProvider()5 or by using the second argument of the
constructor:
Listing 53-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionLanguage;
// using the constructor
$language = new ExpressionLanguage(null, array(
new StringExpressionLanguageProvider(),
// ...
));
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionFunctionProviderInterface.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionFunctionProviderInterface.html#getFunctions()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionFunction.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionLanguage.html#registerProvider()
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9 // using registerProvider()
10 $language->registerProvider(new StringExpressionLanguageProvider());
It is recommended to create your own ExpressionLanguage class in your library. Now you can
add the extension by overriding the constructor:
Listing 53-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionLanguage as
BaseExpressionLanguage;
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ParserCache\ParserCacheInterface;
class ExpressionLanguage extends BaseExpressionLanguage
{
public function __construct(ParserCacheInterface $parser = null, array
$providers = array())
{
// prepend the default provider to let users override it easily
array_unshift($providers, new StringExpressionLanguageProvider());
parent::__construct($parser, $providers);
}
}
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Chapter 54
Caching Expressions Using Parser Caches
The ExpressionLanguage component already provides a compile()1 method to be able to cache the
expressions in plain PHP. But internally, the component also caches the parsed expressions, so
duplicated expressions can be compiled/evaluated quicker.
The Workflow
Both evaluate()2 and compile() need to do some things before each can provide the return values. For
evaluate(), this overhead is even bigger.
Both methods need to tokenize and parse the expression. This is done by the parse()3 method. It
returns a ParsedExpression4. Now, the compile() method just returns the string conversion of this
object. The evaluate() method needs to loop through the "nodes" (pieces of an expression saved in the
ParsedExpression) and evaluate them on the fly.
To save time, the ExpressionLanguage caches the ParsedExpression so it can skip the tokenize and
parse steps with duplicate expressions. The caching is done by a ParserCacheInterface5 instance (by
default, it uses an ArrayParserCache6). You can customize this by creating a custom ParserCache and
injecting this in the object using the constructor:
Listing 54-1
1
2
3
4
5
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\ExpressionLanguage;
use Acme\ExpressionLanguage\ParserCache\MyDatabaseParserCache;
$cache = new MyDatabaseParserCache(...);
$language = new ExpressionLanguage($cache);
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionLanguage.html#compile()
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionLanguage.html#evaluate()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ExpressionLanguage.html#parse()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ParsedExpression.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ParserCache/ParserCacheInterface.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/ExpressionLanguage/ParserCache/ArrayParserCache.html
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The DoctrineBridge7 provides a Parser Cache implementation using the doctrine cache library8,
which gives you caching for all sorts of cache strategies, like Apc, Filesystem and Memcached.
Using Parsed and Serialized Expressions
Both evaluate() and compile() can handle ParsedExpression and SerializedParsedExpression:
Listing 54-2
Listing 54-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
// ...
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use Symfony\Component\ExpressionLanguage\SerializedParsedExpression;
// ...
// the parse() method returns a ParsedExpression
$expression = $language->parse('1 + 4', array());
echo $language->evaluate($expression); // prints 5
$expression = new SerializedParsedExpression(
'1 + 4',
serialize($language->parse('1 + 4', array()))
);
echo $language->evaluate($expression); // prints 5
7. https://github.com/symfony/DoctrineBridge
8. http://docs.doctrine-project.org/projects/doctrine-common/en/latest/reference/caching.html
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Chapter 55
The Filesystem Component
The Filesystem component provides basic utilities for the filesystem.
The lock handler feature was introduced in symfony 2.6. See the documentation for more
information.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/filesystem on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Filesystem2).
Usage
The Filesystem3 class is the unique endpoint for filesystem operations:
Listing 55-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\Filesystem\Filesystem;
use Symfony\Component\Filesystem\Exception\IOExceptionInterface;
$fs = new Filesystem();
try {
$fs->mkdir('/tmp/random/dir/'.mt_rand());
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/filesystem
2. https://github.com/symfony/Filesystem
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html
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8 } catch (IOExceptionInterface $e) {
9
echo "An error occurred while creating your directory at ".$e->getPath();
10 }
Methods mkdir()4, exists()5, touch()6, remove()7, chmod()8, chown()9 and chgrp()10 can
receive a string, an array or any object implementing Traversable11 as the target argument.
mkdir
mkdir()12 creates a directory. On POSIX filesystems, directories are created with a default mode value
0777. You can use the second argument to set your own mode:
Listing 55-2
1 $fs->mkdir('/tmp/photos', 0700);
You can pass an array or any Traversable13 object as the first argument.
exists
exists()14 checks for the presence of all files or directories and returns false if a file is missing:
Listing 55-3
1
2
3
4
5
// this directory exists, return true
$fs->exists('/tmp/photos');
// rabbit.jpg exists, bottle.png does not exists, return false
$fs->exists(array('rabbit.jpg', 'bottle.png'));
You can pass an array or any Traversable15 object as the first argument.
copy
copy()16 is used to copy files. If the target already exists, the file is copied only if the source modification
date is later than the target. This behavior can be overridden by the third boolean argument:
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#mkdir()
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#exists()
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#touch()
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#remove()
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#chmod()
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#chown()
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#chgrp()
http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#mkdir()
13. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#exists()
15. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#copy()
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Listing 55-4
1
2
3
4
5
// works only if image-ICC has been modified after image.jpg
$fs->copy('image-ICC.jpg', 'image.jpg');
// image.jpg will be overridden
$fs->copy('image-ICC.jpg', 'image.jpg', true);
touch
touch()17 sets access and modification time for a file. The current time is used by default. You can set
your own with the second argument. The third argument is the access time:
Listing 55-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
// set modification time to the current timestamp
$fs->touch('file.txt');
// set modification time 10 seconds in the future
$fs->touch('file.txt', time() + 10);
// set access time 10 seconds in the past
$fs->touch('file.txt', time(), time() - 10);
You can pass an array or any Traversable18 object as the first argument.
chown
chown()19 is used to change the owner of a file. The third argument is a boolean recursive option:
Listing 55-6
1
2
3
4
// set the owner of the lolcat video to www-data
$fs->chown('lolcat.mp4', 'www-data');
// change the owner of the video directory recursively
$fs->chown('/video', 'www-data', true);
You can pass an array or any Traversable20 object as the first argument.
chgrp
chgrp()21 is used to change the group of a file. The third argument is a boolean recursive option:
Listing 55-7
1
2
3
4
// set the group of the lolcat video to nginx
$fs->chgrp('lolcat.mp4', 'nginx');
// change the group of the video directory recursively
$fs->chgrp('/video', 'nginx', true);
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#touch()
18. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#chown()
20. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#chgrp()
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You can pass an array or any Traversable22 object as the first argument.
chmod
chmod()23 is used to change the mode of a file. The fourth argument is a boolean recursive option:
Listing 55-8
1
2
3
4
// set the mode of the video to 0600
$fs->chmod('video.ogg', 0600);
// change the mod of the src directory recursively
$fs->chmod('src', 0700, 0000, true);
You can pass an array or any Traversable24 object as the first argument.
remove
remove()25 is used to remove files, symlinks, directories easily:
Listing 55-9
1 $fs->remove(array('symlink', '/path/to/directory', 'activity.log'));
You can pass an array or any Traversable26 object as the first argument.
rename
rename()27 is used to rename files and directories:
Listing 55-10
1
2
3
4
// rename a file
$fs->rename('/tmp/processed_video.ogg', '/path/to/store/video_647.ogg');
// rename a directory
$fs->rename('/tmp/files', '/path/to/store/files');
symlink
symlink()28 creates a symbolic link from the target to the destination. If the filesystem does not support
symbolic links, a third boolean argument is available:
Listing 55-11
22. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#chmod()
24. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#remove()
26. http://php.net/manual/en/class.traversable.php
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#rename()
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#symlink()
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1
2
3
4
5
// create a symbolic link
$fs->symlink('/path/to/source', '/path/to/destination');
// duplicate the source directory if the filesystem
// does not support symbolic links
$fs->symlink('/path/to/source', '/path/to/destination', true);
makePathRelative
makePathRelative()29 returns the relative path of a directory given another one:
Listing 55-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
// returns '../'
$fs->makePathRelative(
'/var/lib/symfony/src/Symfony/',
'/var/lib/symfony/src/Symfony/Component'
);
// returns 'videos/'
$fs->makePathRelative('/tmp/videos', '/tmp')
mirror
mirror()30 mirrors a directory:
Listing 55-13
1 $fs->mirror('/path/to/source', '/path/to/target');
isAbsolutePath
isAbsolutePath()31 returns true if the given path is absolute, false otherwise:
Listing 55-14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
// return true
$fs->isAbsolutePath('/tmp');
// return true
$fs->isAbsolutePath('c:\\Windows');
// return false
$fs->isAbsolutePath('tmp');
// return false
$fs->isAbsolutePath('../dir');
dumpFile
New in version 2.3: The dumpFile() was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
dumpFile()32 allows you to dump contents to a file. It does this in an atomic manner: it writes a
temporary file first and then moves it to the new file location when it's finished. This means that the user
will always see either the complete old file or complete new file (but never a partially-written file):
Listing 55-15
1 $fs->dumpFile('file.txt', 'Hello World');
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#makePathRelative()
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#mirror()
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#isAbsolutePath()
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Filesystem.html#dumpFile()
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The file.txt file contains Hello World now.
A desired file mode can be passed as the third argument.
Error Handling
Whenever something wrong happens, an exception implementing ExceptionInterface33 or
IOExceptionInterface34 is thrown.
An IOException35 is thrown if directory creation fails.
33. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Exception/ExceptionInterface.html
34. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Exception/IOExceptionInterface.html
35. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/Exception/IOException.html
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Chapter 56
LockHandler
New in version 2.6: The lock handler feature was introduced in Symfony 2.6
What is a Lock?
File locking is a mechanism that restricts access to a computer file by allowing only one user or process
access at any specific time. This mechanism was introduced a few decades ago for mainframes, but
continues being useful for modern applications.
Symfony provides a LockHelper to help you use locks in your project.
Usage
The lock handler only works if you're using just one server. If you have several hosts, you must not
use this helper.
A lock can be used, for example, to allow only one instance of a command to run.
Listing 56-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\Filesystem\LockHandler;
$lockHandler = new LockHandler('hello.lock');
if (!$lockHandler->lock()) {
// the resource "hello" is already locked by another process
return 0;
}
The first argument of the constructor is a string that it will use as part of the name of the file used to
create the lock on the local filesystem. A best practice for Symfony commands is to use the command
name, such as acme:my-command. LockHandler sanitizes the contents of the string before creating the file,
so you can pass any value for this argument.
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The .lock extension is optional, but it's a common practice to include it. This will make it easier
to find lock files on the filesystem. Moreover, to avoid name collisions, LockHandler also appends
a hash to the name of the lock file.
By default, the lock will be created in the temporary directory, but you can optionally select the directory
where locks are created by passing it as the second argument of the constructor.
The lock()1 method tries to acquire the lock. If the lock is acquired, the method returns true, false
otherwise. If the lock method is called several times on the same instance it will always return true if the
lock was acquired on the first call.
You can pass an optional blocking argument as the first argument to the lock() method, which defaults
to false. If this is set to true, your PHP code will wait indefinitely until the lock is released by another
process.
Be aware of the fact that the resource lock is automatically released as soon as PHP applies the
garbage-collection process to the LockHandler object. This means that if you refactor the first
example shown in this article as follows:
Listing 56-2
1 use Symfony\Component\Filesystem\LockHandler;
2
3 if (!(new LockHandler('hello.lock'))->lock()) {
4
// the resource "hello" is already locked by another process
5
6
return 0;
7 }
Now the code won't work as expected because PHP's garbage collection mechanism removes the
reference to the LockHandler object and thus, the lock is released just after it's been created.
Another alternative way to release the lock explicitly when needed is to use the release()2
method.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/LockHandler.html#lock()
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Filesystem/LockHandler.html#release()
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Chapter 57
The Finder Component
The Finder component finds files and directories via an intuitive fluent interface.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/finder on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Finder2).
Usage
The Finder3 class finds files and/or directories:
Listing 57-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\Finder\Finder;
$finder = new Finder();
$finder->files()->in(__DIR__);
foreach ($finder as $file) {
// Print the absolute path
print $file->getRealpath()."\n";
// Print the relative path to the file, omitting the filename
print $file->getRelativePath()."\n";
// Print the relative path to the file
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/finder
2. https://github.com/symfony/Finder
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html
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14
15 }
print $file->getRelativePathname()."\n";
The $file is an instance of SplFileInfo4 which extends SplFileInfo5 to provide methods to work with
relative paths.
The above code prints the names of all the files in the current directory recursively. The Finder class uses
a fluent interface, so all methods return the Finder instance.
A Finder instance is a PHP Iterator6. So, instead of iterating over the Finder with foreach, you
can also convert it to an array with the iterator_to_array7 method, or get the number of items
with iterator_count8.
When searching through multiple locations passed to the in()9 method, a separate iterator is
created internally for every location. This means we have multiple result sets aggregated into one.
Since iterator_to_array10 uses keys of result sets by default, when converting to an array, some
keys might be duplicated and their values overwritten. This can be avoided by passing false as a
second parameter to iterator_to_array11.
Criteria
There are lots of ways to filter and sort your results.
Location
The location is the only mandatory criteria. It tells the finder which directory to use for the search:
Listing 57-2
1 $finder->in(__DIR__);
Search in several locations by chaining calls to in()12:
Listing 57-3
1 $finder->files()->in(__DIR__)->in('/elsewhere');
Use wildcard characters to search in the directories matching a pattern:
Listing 57-4
1 $finder->in('src/Symfony/*/*/Resources');
Each pattern has to resolve to at least one directory path.
Exclude directories from matching with the exclude()13 method:
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/SplFileInfo.html
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
http://php.net/manual/en/class.splfileinfo.php
http://php.net/manual/en/class.iterator.php
http://php.net/manual/en/function.iterator-to-array.php
http://php.net/manual/en/function.iterator-count.php
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#in()
http://php.net/manual/en/function.iterator-to-array.php
http://php.net/manual/en/function.iterator-to-array.php
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#in()
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#exclude()
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Listing 57-5
1 $finder->in(__DIR__)->exclude('ruby');
New in version 2.3: The ignoreUnreadableDirs()14 method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
It's also possible to ignore directories that you don't have permission to read:
Listing 57-6
1 $finder->ignoreUnreadableDirs()->in(__DIR__);
As the Finder uses PHP iterators, you can pass any URL with a supported protocol15:
Listing 57-7
1 $finder->in('ftp://example.com/pub/');
And it also works with user-defined streams:
Listing 57-8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\Finder\Finder;
$s3 = new \Zend_Service_Amazon_S3($key, $secret);
$s3->registerStreamWrapper("s3");
$finder = new Finder();
$finder->name('photos*')->size('< 100K')->date('since 1 hour ago');
foreach ($finder->in('s3://bucket-name') as $file) {
// ... do something
print $file->getFilename()."\n";
}
Read the Streams16 documentation to learn how to create your own streams.
Files or Directories
By default, the Finder returns files and directories; but the files()17 and directories()18 methods
control that:
Listing 57-9
1 $finder->files();
2
3 $finder->directories();
If you want to follow links, use the followLinks() method:
Listing 57-10
1 $finder->files()->followLinks();
By default, the iterator ignores popular VCS files. This can be changed with the ignoreVCS() method:
Listing 57-11
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#ignoreUnreadableDirs()
15. http://www.php.net/manual/en/wrappers.php
16. http://www.php.net/streams
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#files()
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#directories()
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1 $finder->ignoreVCS(false);
Sorting
Sort the result by name or by type (directories first, then files):
Listing 57-12
1 $finder->sortByName();
2
3 $finder->sortByType();
Notice that the sort* methods need to get all matching elements to do their jobs. For large
iterators, it is slow.
You can also define your own sorting algorithm with sort() method:
Listing 57-13
1
2
3
4
5
6
$sort = function (\SplFileInfo $a, \SplFileInfo $b)
{
return strcmp($a->getRealpath(), $b->getRealpath());
};
$finder->sort($sort);
File Name
Restrict files by name with the name()19 method:
Listing 57-14
1 $finder->files()->name('*.php');
The name() method accepts globs, strings, or regexes:
Listing 57-15
1 $finder->files()->name('/\.php$/');
The notName() method excludes files matching a pattern:
Listing 57-16
1 $finder->files()->notName('*.rb');
File Contents
Restrict files by contents with the contains()20 method:
Listing 57-17
1 $finder->files()->contains('lorem ipsum');
The contains() method accepts strings or regexes:
Listing 57-18
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#name()
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#contains()
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1 $finder->files()->contains('/lorem\s+ipsum$/i');
The notContains() method excludes files containing given pattern:
Listing 57-19
1 $finder->files()->notContains('dolor sit amet');
Path
Restrict files and directories by path with the path()21 method:
Listing 57-20
1 $finder->path('some/special/dir');
On all platforms slash (i.e. /) should be used as the directory separator.
The path() method accepts a string or a regular expression:
Listing 57-21
1 $finder->path('foo/bar');
2 $finder->path('/^foo\/bar/');
Internally, strings are converted into regular expressions by escaping slashes and adding delimiters:
Listing 57-22
1 dirname
2 a/b/c
===>
===>
/dirname/
/a\/b\/c/
The notPath()22 method excludes files by path:
Listing 57-23
1 $finder->notPath('other/dir');
File Size
Restrict files by size with the size()23 method:
Listing 57-24
1 $finder->files()->size('< 1.5K');
Restrict by a size range by chaining calls:
Listing 57-25
1 $finder->files()->size('>= 1K')->size('<= 2K');
The comparison operator can be any of the following: >, >=, <, <=, ==, !=.
The target value may use magnitudes of kilobytes (k, ki), megabytes (m, mi), or gigabytes (g, gi). Those
suffixed with an i use the appropriate 2**n version in accordance with the IEC standard24.
File Date
Restrict files by last modified dates with the date()25 method:
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#path()
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#notPath()
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#size()
24. http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/binary.html
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#date()
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Listing 57-26
1 $finder->date('since yesterday');
The comparison operator can be any of the following: >, >=, <, <=, ==. You can also use since or after
as an alias for >, and until or before as an alias for <.
The target value can be any date supported by the strtotime26 function.
Directory Depth
By default, the Finder recursively traverse directories. Restrict the depth of traversing with depth()27:
Listing 57-27
1 $finder->depth('== 0');
2 $finder->depth('< 3');
Custom Filtering
To restrict the matching file with your own strategy, use filter()28:
Listing 57-28
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$filter = function (\SplFileInfo $file)
{
if (strlen($file) > 10) {
return false;
}
};
$finder->files()->filter($filter);
The filter() method takes a Closure as an argument. For each matching file, it is called with the file as
a SplFileInfo29 instance. The file is excluded from the result set if the Closure returns false.
Reading Contents of Returned Files
The contents of returned files can be read with getContents()30:
Listing 57-29
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\Finder\Finder;
$finder = new Finder();
$finder->files()->in(__DIR__);
foreach ($finder as $file) {
$contents = $file->getContents();
// ...
}
26. http://www.php.net/manual/en/datetime.formats.php
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#depth()
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/Finder.html#filter()
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/SplFileInfo.html
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Finder/SplFileInfo.html#getContents()
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Chapter 58
The Form Component
The Form component allows you to easily create, process and reuse HTML forms.
The Form component is a tool to help you solve the problem of allowing end-users to interact with the
data and modify the data in your application. And though traditionally this has been through HTML
forms, the component focuses on processing data to and from your client and application, whether that
data be from a normal form post or from an API.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/form on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Form2).
Configuration
If you are working with the full-stack Symfony framework, the Form component is already
configured for you. In this case, skip to Creating a simple Form.
In Symfony, forms are represented by objects and these objects are built by using a form factory. Building
a form factory is simple:
Listing 58-1
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/form
2. https://github.com/symfony/Form
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1 use Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
2
3 $formFactory = Forms::createFormFactory();
This factory can already be used to create basic forms, but it is lacking support for very important
features:
• Request Handling: Support for request handling and file uploads;
• CSRF Protection: Support for protection against Cross-Site-Request-Forgery (CSRF) attacks;
• Templating: Integration with a templating layer that allows you to reuse HTML fragments
when rendering a form;
• Translation: Support for translating error messages, field labels and other strings;
• Validation: Integration with a validation library to generate error messages for submitted
data.
The Symfony Form component relies on other libraries to solve these problems. Most of the time you will
use Twig and the Symfony HttpFoundation, Translation and Validator components, but you can replace
any of these with a different library of your choice.
The following sections explain how to plug these libraries into the form factory.
For a working example, see https://github.com/bschussek/standalone-forms3
Request Handling
New in version 2.3: The handleRequest() method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
To process form data, you'll need to call the handleRequest()4 method:
Listing 58-2
1 $form->handleRequest();
Behind the scenes, this uses a NativeRequestHandler5 object to read data off of the correct PHP
superglobals (i.e. $_POST or $_GET) based on the HTTP method configured on the form (POST is default).
If you need more control over exactly when your form is submitted or which data is passed to it, you can use
the submit()6 for this. Read more about it in the cookbook.
3. https://github.com/bschussek/standalone-forms
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#handleRequest()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/NativeRequestHandler.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormInterface.html#submit()
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Integration with the HttpFoundation Component
If you use the HttpFoundation component, then you should add the HttpFoundationExtension7
to your form factory:
Listing 58-3
1 use Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
2 use Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\HttpFoundation\HttpFoundationExtension;
3
4 $formFactory = Forms::createFormFactoryBuilder()
5
->addExtension(new HttpFoundationExtension())
6
->getFormFactory();
Now, when you process a form, you can pass the Request8 object to handleRequest()9:
Listing 58-4
1 $form->handleRequest($request);
For more information about the HttpFoundation component or how to install it, see The
HttpFoundation Component.
CSRF Protection
Protection against CSRF attacks is built into the Form component, but you need to explicitly enable it or
replace it with a custom solution. The following snippet adds CSRF protection to the form factory:
Listing 58-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Csrf\CsrfExtension;
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Csrf\CsrfProvider\SessionCsrfProvider;
Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
// generate a CSRF secret from somewhere
$csrfSecret = '<generated token>';
// create a Session object from the HttpFoundation component
$session = new Session();
$csrfProvider = new SessionCsrfProvider($session, $csrfSecret);
$formFactory = Forms::createFormFactoryBuilder()
// ...
->addExtension(new CsrfExtension($csrfProvider))
->getFormFactory();
To secure your application against CSRF attacks, you need to define a CSRF secret. Generate a random
string with at least 32 characters, insert it in the above snippet and make sure that nobody except your
web server can access the secret.
Internally, this extension will automatically add a hidden field to every form (called __token by default)
whose value is automatically generated and validated when binding the form.
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Extension/HttpFoundation/HttpFoundationExtension.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#handleRequest()
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If you're not using the HttpFoundation component, you can use DefaultCsrfProvider10 instead,
which relies on PHP's native session handling:
Listing 58-6
1 use Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Csrf\CsrfProvider\DefaultCsrfProvider;
2
3 $csrfProvider = new DefaultCsrfProvider($csrfSecret);
Twig Templating
If you're using the Form component to process HTML forms, you'll need a way to easily render your form
as HTML form fields (complete with field values, errors, and labels). If you use Twig11 as your template
engine, the Form component offers a rich integration.
To use the integration, you'll need the TwigBridge, which provides integration between Twig and several
Symfony components. If you're using Composer, you could install the latest 2.3 version by adding the
following require line to your composer.json file:
Listing 58-7
1 {
2
3
4
5 }
"require": {
"symfony/twig-bridge": "2.3.*"
}
The TwigBridge integration provides you with several Twig Functions that help you render the HTML
widget, label and error for each field (as well as a few other things). To configure the integration, you'll
need to bootstrap or access Twig and add the FormExtension12:
Listing 58-8
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use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
Symfony\Bridge\Twig\Extension\FormExtension;
Symfony\Bridge\Twig\Form\TwigRenderer;
Symfony\Bridge\Twig\Form\TwigRendererEngine;
// the Twig file that holds all the default markup for rendering forms
// this file comes with TwigBridge
$defaultFormTheme = 'form_div_layout.html.twig';
$vendorDir = realpath(__DIR__.'/../vendor');
// the path to TwigBridge so Twig can locate the
// form_div_layout.html.twig file
$vendorTwigBridgeDir =
$vendorDir.'/symfony/twig-bridge/Symfony/Bridge/Twig';
// the path to your other templates
$viewsDir = realpath(__DIR__.'/../views');
$twig = new Twig_Environment(new Twig_Loader_Filesystem(array(
$viewsDir,
$vendorTwigBridgeDir.'/Resources/views/Form',
)));
$formEngine = new TwigRendererEngine(array($defaultFormTheme));
$formEngine->setEnvironment($twig);
// add the FormExtension to Twig
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Extension/Csrf/CsrfProvider/DefaultCsrfProvider.html
11. http://twig.sensiolabs.org
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Twig/Extension/FormExtension.html
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25
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$twig->addExtension(
new FormExtension(new TwigRenderer($formEngine, $csrfProvider))
);
// create your form factory as normal
$formFactory = Forms::createFormFactoryBuilder()
// ...
->getFormFactory();
The exact details of your Twig Configuration13 will vary, but the goal is always to add the
FormExtension14 to Twig, which gives you access to the Twig functions for rendering forms. To do this,
you first need to create a TwigRendererEngine15, where you define your form themes (i.e. resources/files
that define form HTML markup).
For general details on rendering forms, see How to Customize Form Rendering.
If you use the Twig integration, read "Translation" below for details on the needed translation
filters.
Translation
If you're using the Twig integration with one of the default form theme files (e.g.
form_div_layout.html.twig), there are 2 Twig filters (trans and transChoice) that are used for
translating form labels, errors, option text and other strings.
To add these Twig filters, you can either use the built-in TranslationExtension16 that integrates with
Symfony's Translation component, or add the 2 Twig filters yourself, via your own Twig extension.
To use the built-in integration, be sure that your project has Symfony's Translation and Config
components installed. If you're using Composer, you could get the latest 2.3 version of each of these by
adding the following to your composer.json file:
Listing 58-9
1 {
2
3
4
5
6 }
"require": {
"symfony/translation": "2.3.*",
"symfony/config": "2.3.*"
}
Next, add the TranslationExtension17 to your Twig_Environment instance:
Listing 58-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
Symfony\Component\Translation\Translator;
Symfony\Component\Translation\Loader\XliffFileLoader;
Symfony\Bridge\Twig\Extension\TranslationExtension;
// create the Translator
$translator = new Translator('en');
// somehow load some translations into it
13. http://twig.sensiolabs.org/doc/intro.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Twig/Extension/FormExtension.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Twig/Form/TwigRendererEngine.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Twig/Extension/TranslationExtension.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Twig/Extension/TranslationExtension.html
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9
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$translator->addLoader('xlf', new XliffFileLoader());
$translator->addResource(
'xlf',
__DIR__.'/path/to/translations/messages.en.xlf',
'en'
);
// add the TranslationExtension (gives us trans and transChoice filters)
$twig->addExtension(new TranslationExtension($translator));
$formFactory = Forms::createFormFactoryBuilder()
// ...
->getFormFactory();
Depending on how your translations are being loaded, you can now add string keys, such as field labels,
and their translations to your translation files.
For more details on translations, see Translations.
Validation
The Form component comes with tight (but optional) integration with Symfony's Validator component.
If you're using a different solution for validation, no problem! Simply take the submitted/bound data of
your form (which is an array or object) and pass it through your own validation system.
To use the integration with Symfony's Validator component, first make sure it's installed in your
application. If you're using Composer and want to install the latest 2.3 version, add this to your
composer.json:
Listing 58-11
1 {
2
3
4
5 }
"require": {
"symfony/validator": "2.3.*"
}
If you're not familiar with Symfony's Validator component, read more about it: Validation. The Form
component comes with a ValidatorExtension18 class, which automatically applies validation to your
data on bind. These errors are then mapped to the correct field and rendered.
Your integration with the Validation component will look something like this:
Listing 58-12
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15
use Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
use Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Validator\ValidatorExtension;
use Symfony\Component\Validator\Validation;
$vendorDir = realpath(__DIR__.'/../vendor');
$vendorFormDir = $vendorDir.'/symfony/form/Symfony/Component/Form';
$vendorValidatorDir =
$vendorDir.'/symfony/validator/Symfony/Component/Validator';
// create the validator - details will vary
$validator = Validation::createValidator();
// there are built-in translations for the core error messages
$translator->addResource(
'xlf',
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Extension/Validator/ValidatorExtension.html
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16
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$vendorFormDir.'/Resources/translations/validators.en.xlf',
'en',
'validators'
);
$translator->addResource(
'xlf',
$vendorValidatorDir.'/Resources/translations/validators.en.xlf',
'en',
'validators'
);
$formFactory = Forms::createFormFactoryBuilder()
// ...
->addExtension(new ValidatorExtension($validator))
->getFormFactory();
To learn more, skip down to the Form Validation section.
Accessing the Form Factory
Your application only needs one form factory, and that one factory object should be used to create any
and all form objects in your application. This means that you should create it in some central, bootstrap
part of your application and then access it whenever you need to build a form.
In this document, the form factory is always a local variable called $formFactory. The point here
is that you will probably need to create this object in some more "global" way so you can access it
from anywhere.
Exactly how you gain access to your one form factory is up to you. If you're using a Service Container,
then you should add the form factory to your container and grab it out whenever you need to. If your
application uses global or static variables (not usually a good idea), then you can store the object on some
static class or do something similar.
Regardless of how you architect your application, just remember that you should only have one form
factory and that you'll need to be able to access it throughout your application.
Creating a simple Form
If you're using the Symfony framework, then the form factory is available automatically as a
service called form.factory. Also, the default base controller class has a createFormBuilder()19
method, which is a shortcut to fetch the form factory and call createBuilder on it.
Creating a form is done via a FormBuilder20 object, where you build and configure different fields. The
form builder is created from the form factory.
Listing 58-13
1 $form = $formFactory->createBuilder()
2
->add('task', 'text')
3
->add('dueDate', 'date')
4
->getForm();
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bundle/FrameworkBundle/Controller.html#createFormBuilder()
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormBuilder.html
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5
6 echo $twig->render('new.html.twig', array(
7
'form' => $form->createView(),
8 ));
As you can see, creating a form is like writing a recipe: you call add for each new field you want to
create. The first argument to add is the name of your field, and the second is the field "type". The Form
component comes with a lot of built-in types.
Now that you've built your form, learn how to render it and process the form submission.
Setting default Values
If you need your form to load with some default values (or you're building an "edit" form), simply pass in
the default data when creating your form builder:
Listing 58-14
1 $defaults = array(
2
'dueDate' => new \DateTime('tomorrow'),
3 );
4
5 $form = $formFactory->createBuilder('form', $defaults)
6
->add('task', 'text')
7
->add('dueDate', 'date')
8
->getForm();
In this example, the default data is an array. Later, when you use the data_class option to bind data
directly to objects, your default data will be an instance of that object.
Rendering the Form
Now that the form has been created, the next step is to render it. This is done by passing a special form
"view" object to your template (notice the $form->createView() in the controller above) and using a set
of form helper functions:
Listing 58-15
1 <form action="#" method="post" {{ form_enctype(form) }}>
2
{{ form_widget(form) }}
3
4
<input type="submit" />
5 </form>
That's it! By printing form_widget(form), each field in the form is rendered, along with a label and error
message (if there is one). As easy as this is, it's not very flexible (yet). Usually, you'll want to render
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each form field individually so you can control how the form looks. You'll learn how to do that in the
"Rendering a Form in a Template" section.
Changing a Form's Method and Action
New in version 2.3: The ability to configure the form method and action was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
By default, a form is submitted to the same URI that rendered the form with an HTTP POST request.
This behavior can be changed using the action and method options (the method option is also used by
handleRequest() to determine whether a form has been submitted):
Listing 58-16
1 $formBuilder = $formFactory->createBuilder('form', null, array(
2
'action' => '/search',
3
'method' => 'GET',
4 ));
5
6 // ...
Handling Form Submissions
To handle form submissions, use the handleRequest()21 method:
Listing 58-17
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use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\RedirectResponse;
$form = $formFactory->createBuilder()
->add('task', 'text')
->add('dueDate', 'date')
->getForm();
$request = Request::createFromGlobals();
$form->handleRequest($request);
if ($form->isValid()) {
$data = $form->getData();
// ... perform some action, such as saving the data to the database
$response = new RedirectResponse('/task/success');
$response->prepare($request);
return $response->send();
}
// ...
This defines a common form "workflow", which contains 3 different possibilities:
1. On the initial GET request (i.e. when the user "surfs" to your page), build your form and render
it;
If the request is a POST, process the submitted data (via handleRequest()). Then:
2. if the form is invalid, re-render the form (which will now contain errors);
3. if the form is valid, perform some action and redirect.
Luckily, you don't need to decide whether or not a form has been submitted. Just pass the current request
to the handleRequest() method. Then, the Form component will do all the necessary work for you.
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#handleRequest()
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Form Validation
The easiest way to add validation to your form is via the constraints option when building each field:
Listing 58-18
1 use Symfony\Component\Validator\Constraints\NotBlank;
2 use Symfony\Component\Validator\Constraints\Type;
3
4 $form = $formFactory->createBuilder()
5
->add('task', 'text', array(
6
'constraints' => new NotBlank(),
7
))
8
->add('dueDate', 'date', array(
9
'constraints' => array(
10
new NotBlank(),
11
new Type('\DateTime'),
12
)
13
))
14
->getForm();
When the form is bound, these validation constraints will be applied automatically and the errors will
display next to the fields on error.
For a list of all of the built-in validation constraints, see Validation Constraints Reference.
Accessing Form Errors
You can use the getErrors()22 method to access the list of errors. It returns a FormErrorIterator23
instance:
Listing 58-19
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$form = ...;
// ...
// a FormErrorIterator instance, but only errors attached to this
// form level (e.g. "global errors)
$errors = $form->getErrors();
// a FormErrorIterator instance, but only errors attached to the
// "firstName" field
$errors = $form['firstName']->getErrors();
// a FormErrorIterator instance in a flattened structure
// use getOrigin() to determine the form causing the error
$errors = $form->getErrors(true);
// a FormErrorIterator instance representing the form tree structure
$errors = $form->getErrors(true, false);
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormInterface.html#getErrors()
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormErrorIterator.html
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In older Symfony versions, getErrors() returned an array. To use the errors the same way in
Symfony 2.5 or newer, you have to pass them to PHP's iterator_to_array24 function:
Listing 58-20
1 $errorsAsArray = iterator_to_array($form->getErrors());
This is useful, for example, if you want to use PHP's array_ function on the form errors.
24. http://php.net/manual/en/function.iterator-to-array.php
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Chapter 59
Creating a custom Type Guesser
The Form component can guess the type and some options of a form field by using type guessers. The
component already includes a type guesser using the assertions of the Validation component, but you
can also add your own custom type guessers.
Form Type Guessers in the Bridges
Symfony also provides some form type guessers in the bridges:
• PropelTypeGuesser1 provided by the Propel1 bridge;
• DoctrineOrmTypeGuesser2 provided by the Doctrine bridge.
Create a PHPDoc Type Guesser
In this section, you are going to build a guesser that reads information about fields from the PHPDoc of
the properties. At first, you need to create a class which implements FormTypeGuesserInterface3. This
interface requires 4 methods:
•
•
•
•
guessType()4 - tries to guess the type of a field;
guessRequired()5 - tries to guess the value of the required option;
guessMaxLength()6 - tries to guess the value of the max_length option;
guessPattern()7 - tries to guess the value of the pattern option.
Start by creating the class and these methods. Next, you'll learn how to fill each on.
Listing 59-1
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Propel1/Form/PropelTypeGuesser.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bridge/Doctrine/Form/DoctrineOrmTypeGuesser.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormTypeGuesserInterface.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormTypeGuesserInterface.html#guessType()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormTypeGuesserInterface.html#guessRequired()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormTypeGuesserInterface.html#guessMaxLength()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormTypeGuesserInterface.html#guessPattern()
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1
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22
namespace Acme\Form;
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormTypeGuesserInterface;
class PHPDocTypeGuesser implements FormTypeGuesserInterface
{
public function guessType($class, $property)
{
}
public function guessRequired($class, $property)
{
}
public function guessMaxLength($class, $property)
{
}
public function guessPattern($class, $property)
{
}
}
Guessing the Type
When guessing a type, the method returns either an instance of TypeGuess8 or nothing, to determine that
the type guesser cannot guess the type.
The TypeGuess constructor requires 3 options:
• The type name (one of the form types);
• Additional options (for instance, when the type is entity, you also want to set the class
option). If no types are guessed, this should be set to an empty array;
• The confidence that the guessed type is correct. This can be one of the constants of the Guess9
class: LOW_CONFIDENCE, MEDIUM_CONFIDENCE, HIGH_CONFIDENCE, VERY_HIGH_CONFIDENCE.
After all type guessers have been executed, the type with the highest confidence is used.
With this knowledge, you can easily implement the guessType method of the PHPDocTypeGuesser:
Listing 59-2
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15
namespace Acme\Form;
use Symfony\Component\Form\Guess\Guess;
use Symfony\Component\Form\Guess\TypeGuess;
class PHPDocTypeGuesser implements FormTypeGuesserInterface
{
public function guessType($class, $property)
{
$annotations = $this->readPhpDocAnnotations($class, $property);
if (!isset($annotations['var'])) {
return; // guess nothing if the @var annotation is not available
}
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Guess/TypeGuess.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Guess/Guess.html
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53
54 }
// otherwise, base the type on the @var annotation
switch ($annotations['var']) {
case 'string':
// there is a high confidence that the type is text when
// @var string is used
return new TypeGuess('text', array(), Guess::HIGH_CONFIDENCE);
case 'int':
case 'integer':
// integers can also be the id of an entity or a checkbox (0 or 1)
return new TypeGuess('integer', array(), Guess::MEDIUM_CONFIDENCE);
case 'float':
case 'double':
case 'real':
return new TypeGuess('number', array(), Guess::MEDIUM_CONFIDENCE);
case 'boolean':
case 'bool':
return new TypeGuess('checkbox', array(), Guess::HIGH_CONFIDENCE);
default:
// there is a very low confidence that this one is correct
return new TypeGuess('text', array(), Guess::LOW_CONFIDENCE);
}
}
protected function readPhpDocAnnotations($class, $property)
{
$reflectionProperty = new \ReflectionProperty($class, $property);
$phpdoc = $reflectionProperty->getDocComment();
// parse the $phpdoc into an array like:
// array('type' => 'string', 'since' => '1.0')
$phpdocTags = ...;
return $phpdocTags;
}
This type guesser can now guess the field type for a property if it has PHPdoc!
Guessing Field Options
The other 3 methods (guessMaxLength, guessRequired and guessPattern) return a ValueGuess10
instance with the value of the option. This constructor has 2 arguments:
• The value of the option;
• The confidence that the guessed value is correct (using the constants of the Guess class).
null is guessed when you believe the value of the option should not be set.
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Guess/ValueGuess.html
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You should be very careful using the guessPattern method. When the type is a float, you cannot
use it to determine a min or max value of the float (e.g. you want a float to be greater than 5,
4.512313 is not valid but length(4.512314) > length(5) is, so the pattern will succeed). In this
case, the value should be set to null with a MEDIUM_CONFIDENCE.
Registering a Type Guesser
The last thing you need to do is registering your custom type guesser by using addTypeGuesser()11 or
addTypeGuessers()12:
Listing 59-3
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use Symfony\Component\Form\Forms;
use Acme\Form\PHPDocTypeGuesser;
$formFactory = Forms::createFormFactoryBuilder()
// ...
->addTypeGuesser(new PHPDocTypeGuesser())
->getFormFactory();
// ...
When you use the Symfony framework, you need to register your type guesser and tag it with
form.type_guesser. For more information see the tag reference.
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormFactoryBuilder.html#addTypeGuesser()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormFactoryBuilder.html#addTypeGuessers()
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Chapter 60
Form Events
The Form component provides a structured process to let you customize your forms, by making use of
the EventDispatcher component. Using form events, you may modify information or fields at different
steps of the workflow: from the population of the form to the submission of the data from the request.
Registering an event listener is very easy using the Form component.
For example, if you wish to register a function to the FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT event, the following code
lets you add a field, depending on the request values:
Listing 60-1
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// ...
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormEvent;
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormEvents;
$listener = function (FormEvent $event) {
// ...
};
$form = $formFactory->createBuilder()
// add form fields
->addEventListener(FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT, $listener);
// ...
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The Form Workflow
The Form Submission Workflow
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1) Pre-populating the Form (FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA and FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA)
Two events are dispatched during pre-population of a form, when Form::setData()1 is called:
FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA and FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA.
A) The FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA Event
The FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA event is dispatched at the beginning of the Form::setData() method.
It can be used to:
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#setData()
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• Modify the data given during pre-population;
• Modify a form depending on the pre-populated data (adding or removing fields dynamically).
Form Events Information Table
Data Type
Value
Model data
null
Normalized data null
View data
null
During FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA, Form::setData()2 is locked and will throw an exception if
used. If you wish to modify data, you should use FormEvent::setData()3 instead.
FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA in the Form component
The
collection
form
type
relies
on
the
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Core\EventListener\ResizeFormListener subscriber,
listening to the FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA event in order to reorder the form's fields depending
on the data from the pre-populated object, by removing and adding all form rows.
B) The FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA Event
The FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA event is dispatched at the end of the Form::setData()4 method. This
event is mostly here for reading data after having pre-populated the form.
Form Events Information Table
Data Type
Value
Model data
Model data injected into setData()
Normalized data Model data transformed using a model transformer
View data
Normalized data transformed using a view transformer
FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA in the Form component
New in version 2.4: The data collector extension was introduced in Symfony 2.4.
The
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\DataCollector\EventListener\DataCollectorListener
class is subscribed to listen to the FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA event in order to collect
information about the forms from the denormalized model and view data.
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#setData()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormEvent.html#setData()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#setData()
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2) Submitting a Form (FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT, FormEvents::SUBMIT and
FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT)
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Three events are dispatched when Form::handleRequest()5 or Form::submit()6 are called:
FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT, FormEvents::SUBMIT, FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT.
A) The FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT Event
The FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT event is dispatched at the beginning of the Form::submit()7 method.
It can be used to:
• Change data from the request, before submitting the data to the form;
• Add or remove form fields, before submitting the data to the form.
Form Events Information Table
Data Type
Value
Model data
Same as in FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA
Normalized data Same as in FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA
View data
Same as in FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA
FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT in the Form component
The Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Core\EventListener\TrimListener subscriber
subscribes to the FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT event in order to trim the request's data (for string
values).
The
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Csrf\EventListener\CsrfValidationListener
subscriber subscribes to the FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT event in order to validate the CSRF token.
B) The FormEvents::SUBMIT Event
The FormEvents::SUBMIT event is dispatched just before the Form::submit()8 method transforms back
the normalized data to the model and view data.
It can be used to change data from the normalized representation of the data.
Form Events Information Table
Data Type
Value
Model data
Same as in FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA
Normalized
data
Data from the request reverse-transformed from the request using a view transformer
View data
Same as in FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA
At this point, you cannot add or remove fields to the form.
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#handleRequest()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#submit()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#submit()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#submit()
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FormEvents::SUBMIT in the Form component
The
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Core\EventListener\ResizeFormListener
subscribes to the FormEvents::SUBMIT event in order to remove the fields that need to be removed
whenever manipulating a collection of forms for which allow_delete has been enabled.
C) The FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT Event
The FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT event is dispatched after the Form::submit()9 once the model and view
data have been denormalized.
It can be used to fetch data after denormalization.
Form Events Information Table
Data Type
Value
Model data
Normalized data reverse-transformed using a model transformer
Normalized data Same as in FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT
View data
Normalized data transformed using a view transformer
At this point, you cannot add or remove fields to the form.
FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT in the Form component
New in version 2.4: The data collector extension was introduced in Symfony 2.4.
The
Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\DataCollector\EventListener\DataCollectorListener
subscribes to the FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT event in order to collect information about the forms.
The Symfony\Component\Form\Extension\Validator\EventListener\ValidationListener
subscribes to the FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT event in order to automatically validate the
denormalized object, and update the normalized as well as the view's representations.
Registering Event Listeners or Event Subscribers
In order to be able to use Form events, you need to create an event listener or an event subscriber, and
register it to an event.
The name of each of the "form" events is defined as a constant on the FormEvents10 class. Additionally,
each event callback (listener or subscriber method) is passed a single argument, which is an instance of
FormEvent11. The event object contains a reference to the current state of the form, and the current data
being processed.
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/Form.html#submit()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormEvents.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Form/FormEvent.html
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Name
FormEvents Constant
Event's Data
form.pre_set_data
FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA
Model data
form.post_set_data
FormEvents::POST_SET_DATA
Model data
form.pre_bind
FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT
Request data
form.bind
FormEvents::SUBMIT
Normalized data
form.post_bind
FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT
View data
New in version 2.3: Before Symfony 2.3, FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT, FormEvents::SUBMIT and
FormEvents::POST_SUBMIT were called FormEvents::PRE_BIND, FormEvents::BIND and
FormEvents::POST_BIND.
The FormEvents::PRE_BIND, FormEvents::BIND and FormEvents::POST_BIND constants will be
removed in version 3.0 of Symfony. The event names still keep their original values, so make sure
you use the FormEvents constants in your code for forward compatibility.
Event Listeners
An event listener may be any type of valid callable.
Creating and binding an event listener to the form is very easy:
Listing 60-2
1
2
3
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7
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9
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11
12
13
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15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
// ...
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormEvent;
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormEvents;
$form = $formFactory->createBuilder()
->add('username', 'text')
->add('show_email', 'checkbox')
->addEventListener(FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT, function (FormEvent $event) {
$user = $event->getData();
$form = $event->getForm();
if (!$user) {
return;
}
//
//
//
if
Check whether the user has chosen to display his email or not.
If the data was submitted previously, the additional value that is
included in the request variables needs to be removed.
(true === $user['show_email']) {
$form->add('email', 'email');
} else {
unset($user['email']);
$event->setData($user);
}
})
->getForm();
// ...
When you have created a form type class, you can use one of its methods as a callback for better
readability:
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Listing 60-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
// ...
class SubscriptionType extends AbstractType
{
public function buildForm(FormBuilderInterface $builder, array $options)
{
$builder->add('username', 'text');
$builder->add('show_email', 'checkbox');
$builder->addEventListener(
FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA,
array($this, 'onPreSetData')
);
}
public function onPreSetData(FormEvent $event)
{
// ...
}
}
Event Subscribers
Event subscribers have different uses:
• Improving readability;
• Listening to multiple events;
• Regrouping multiple listeners inside a single class.
Listing 60-4
1
2
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6
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22
23
24
25
26
27
28
use Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventSubscriberInterface;
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormEvent;
use Symfony\Component\Form\FormEvents;
class AddEmailFieldListener implements EventSubscriberInterface
{
public static function getSubscribedEvents()
{
return array(
FormEvents::PRE_SET_DATA => 'onPreSetData',
FormEvents::PRE_SUBMIT => 'onPreSubmit',
);
}
public function onPreSetData(FormEvent $event)
{
$user = $event->getData();
$form = $event->getForm();
// Check whether the user from the initial data has chosen to
// display his email or not.
if (true === $user->isShowEmail()) {
$form->add('email', 'email');
}
}
public function onPreSubmit(FormEvent $event)
{
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29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46 }
$user = $event->getData();
$form = $event->getForm();
if (!$user) {
return;
}
//
//
//
if
Check whether the user has chosen to display his email or not.
If the data was submitted previously, the additional value that
is included in the request variables needs to be removed.
(true === $user['show_email']) {
$form->add('email', 'email');
} else {
unset($user['email']);
$event->setData($user);
}
}
To register the event subscriber, use the addEventSubscriber() method:
Listing 60-5
1 // ...
2
3 $form = $formFactory->createBuilder()
4
->add('username', 'text')
5
->add('show_email', 'checkbox')
6
->addEventSubscriber(new AddEmailFieldListener())
7
->getForm();
8
9 // ...
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Chapter 61
The HttpFoundation Component
The HttpFoundation component defines an object-oriented layer for the HTTP specification.
In PHP, the request is represented by some global variables ($_GET, $_POST, $_FILES, $_COOKIE,
$_SESSION, ...) and the response is generated by some functions (echo, header, setcookie, ...).
The Symfony HttpFoundation component replaces these default PHP global variables and functions by
an object-oriented layer.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/http-foundation on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/HttpFoundation2).
Request
The most common way to create a request is to base it on the current PHP global variables with
createFromGlobals()3:
Listing 61-1
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
2
3 $request = Request::createFromGlobals();
which is almost equivalent to the more verbose, but also more flexible, __construct()4 call:
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/http-foundation
2. https://github.com/symfony/HttpFoundation
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#createFromGlobals()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#__construct()
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Listing 61-2
1 $request = new Request(
2
$_GET,
3
$_POST,
4
array(),
5
$_COOKIE,
6
$_FILES,
7
$_SERVER
8 );
Accessing Request Data
A Request object holds information about the client request. This information can be accessed via several
public properties:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
request: equivalent of $_POST;
query: equivalent of $_GET ($request->query->get('name'));
cookies: equivalent of $_COOKIE;
attributes: no equivalent - used by your app to store other data (see below);
files: equivalent of $_FILES;
server: equivalent of $_SERVER;
headers: mostly equivalent to a sub-set of $_SERVER ($request->headers->get('UserAgent')).
Each property is a ParameterBag5 instance (or a sub-class of), which is a data holder class:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
request: ParameterBag6;
query: ParameterBag7;
cookies: ParameterBag8;
attributes: ParameterBag9;
files: FileBag10;
server: ServerBag11;
headers: HeaderBag12.
All ParameterBag13 instances have methods to retrieve and update its data:
all()14
Returns the parameters.
keys()15
Returns the parameter keys.
replace()16
Replaces the current parameters by a new set.
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/FileBag.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ServerBag.html
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/HeaderBag.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#all()
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#keys()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#replace()
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add()17
Adds parameters.
get()18
Returns a parameter by name.
set()19
Sets a parameter by name.
has()20
Returns true if the parameter is defined.
remove()21
Removes a parameter.
The ParameterBag22 instance also has some methods to filter the input values:
getAlpha()23
Returns the alphabetic characters of the parameter value;
getAlnum()24
Returns the alphabetic characters and digits of the parameter value;
getDigits()25
Returns the digits of the parameter value;
getInt()26
Returns the parameter value converted to integer;
filter()27
Filters the parameter by using the PHP filter_var28 function.
All getters takes up to three arguments: the first one is the parameter name and the second one is the
default value to return if the parameter does not exist:
Listing 61-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
// the query string is '?foo=bar'
$request->query->get('foo');
// returns bar
$request->query->get('bar');
// returns null
$request->query->get('bar', 'bar');
// returns 'bar'
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#add()
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#get()
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#set()
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#has()
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#remove()
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#getAlpha()
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#getAlnum()
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#getDigits()
26. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#getInt()
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html#filter()
28. http://php.net/manual/en/function.filter-var.php
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When PHP imports the request query, it handles request parameters like foo[bar]=bar in a special way
as it creates an array. So you can get the foo parameter and you will get back an array with a bar element.
But sometimes, you might want to get the value for the "original" parameter name: foo[bar]. This is
possible with all the ParameterBag getters like get()29 via the third argument:
Listing 61-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
// the query string is '?foo[bar]=bar'
$request->query->get('foo');
// returns array('bar' => 'bar')
$request->query->get('foo[bar]');
// returns null
$request->query->get('foo[bar]', null, true);
// returns 'bar'
Thanks to the public attributes property, you can store additional data in the request, which is also an
instance of ParameterBag30. This is mostly used to attach information that belongs to the Request and
that needs to be accessed from many different points in your application. For information on how this is
used in the Symfony framework, see the Symfony book.
Finally, the raw data sent with the request body can be accessed using getContent()31:
Listing 61-5
1 $content = $request->getContent();
For instance, this may be useful to process a JSON string sent to the application by a remote service using
the HTTP POST method.
Identifying a Request
In your application, you need a way to identify a request; most of the time, this is done via the "path info"
of the request, which can be accessed via the getPathInfo()32 method:
Listing 61-6
1 // for a request to http://example.com/blog/index.php/post/hello-world
2 // the path info is "/post/hello-world"
3 $request->getPathInfo();
Simulating a Request
Instead of creating a request based on the PHP globals, you can also simulate a request:
Listing 61-7
1 $request = Request::create(
2
'/hello-world',
3
'GET',
4
array('name' => 'Fabien')
5 );
The create()33 method creates a request based on a URI, a method and some parameters (the query
parameters or the request ones depending on the HTTP method); and of course, you can also override all
other variables as well (by default, Symfony creates sensible defaults for all the PHP global variables).
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#get()
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ParameterBag.html
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getContent()
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getPathInfo()
33. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#create()
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Based on such a request, you can override the PHP global variables via overrideGlobals()34:
Listing 61-8
1 $request->overrideGlobals();
You can also duplicate an existing request via duplicate()35 or change a bunch of parameters with
a single call to initialize()36.
Accessing the Session
If you have a session attached to the request, you can access it via the getSession()37 method; the
hasPreviousSession()38 method tells you if the request contains a session which was started in one of
the previous requests.
Accessing Accept-* Headers Data
You can easily access basic data extracted from Accept-* headers by using the following methods:
getAcceptableContentTypes()39
Returns the list of accepted content types ordered by descending quality.
getLanguages()40
Returns the list of accepted languages ordered by descending quality.
getCharsets()41
Returns the list of accepted charsets ordered by descending quality.
getEncodings()42
Returns the list of accepted encodings ordered by descending quality.
New in version 2.4: The getEncodings() method was introduced in Symfony 2.4.
If you need to get full access to parsed data from Accept, Accept-Language, Accept-Charset or AcceptEncoding, you can use AcceptHeader43 utility class:
Listing 61-9
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\AcceptHeader;
2
3 $accept = AcceptHeader::fromString($request->headers->get('Accept'));
4 if ($accept->has('text/html')) {
5
$item = $accept->get('text/html');
6
$charset = $item->getAttribute('charset', 'utf-8');
7
$quality = $item->getQuality();
34. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#overrideGlobals()
35. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#duplicate()
36. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#initialize()
37. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getSession()
38. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#hasPreviousSession()
39. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getAcceptableContentTypes()
40. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getLanguages()
41. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getCharsets()
42. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getEncodings()
43. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/AcceptHeader.html
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8 }
9
10 // Accept header items are sorted by descending quality
11 $accepts = AcceptHeader::fromString($request->headers->get('Accept'))
12
->all();
Accessing other Data
The Request class has many other methods that you can use to access the request information. Have a
look at the Request API44 for more information about them.
Overriding the Request
The Request class should not be overridden as it is a data object that represents an HTTP message. But
when moving from a legacy system, adding methods or changing some default behavior might help. In
that case, register a PHP callable that is able to create an instance of your Request class:
Listing 61-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
Request::setFactory(function (
array $query = array(),
array $request = array(),
array $attributes = array(),
array $cookies = array(),
array $files = array(),
array $server = array(),
$content = null
) {
return SpecialRequest::create(
$query,
$request,
$attributes,
$cookies,
$files,
$server,
$content
);
});
$request = Request::createFromGlobals();
Response
A Response45 object holds all the information that needs to be sent back to the client from a given request.
The constructor takes up to three arguments: the response content, the status code, and an array of
HTTP headers:
Listing 61-11
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;
2
3 $response = new Response(
44. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
45. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html
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4
5
6
7 );
'Content',
Response::HTTP_OK,
array('content-type' => 'text/html')
This information can also be manipulated after the Response object creation:
Listing 61-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
$response->setContent('Hello World');
// the headers public attribute is a ResponseHeaderBag
$response->headers->set('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
$response->setStatusCode(Response::HTTP_NOT_FOUND);
When setting the Content-Type of the Response, you can set the charset, but it is better to set it via the
setCharset()46 method:
Listing 61-13
1 $response->setCharset('ISO-8859-1');
Note that by default, Symfony assumes that your Responses are encoded in UTF-8.
Sending the Response
Before sending the Response, you can ensure that it is compliant with the HTTP specification by calling
the prepare()47 method:
Listing 61-14
1 $response->prepare($request);
Sending the response to the client is then as simple as calling send()48:
Listing 61-15
1 $response->send();
Setting Cookies
The response cookies can be manipulated through the headers public attribute:
Listing 61-16
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Cookie;
2
3 $response->headers->setCookie(new Cookie('foo', 'bar'));
The setCookie()49 method takes an instance of Cookie50 as an argument.
You can clear a cookie via the clearCookie()51 method.
Managing the HTTP Cache
The Response52 class has a rich set of methods to manipulate the HTTP headers related to the cache:
46. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setCharset()
47. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#prepare()
48. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#send()
49. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ResponseHeaderBag.html#setCookie()
50. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Cookie.html
51. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ResponseHeaderBag.html#clearCookie()
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
setPublic()53;
setPrivate()54;
expire()55;
setExpires()56;
setMaxAge()57;
setSharedMaxAge()58;
setTtl()59;
setClientTtl()60;
setLastModified()61;
setEtag()62;
setVary()63;
The setCache()64 method can be used to set the most commonly used cache information in one method
call:
Listing 61-17
1 $response->setCache(array(
2
'etag'
=> 'abcdef',
3
'last_modified' => new \DateTime(),
4
'max_age'
=> 600,
5
's_maxage'
=> 600,
6
'private'
=> false,
7
'public'
=> true,
8 ));
To check if the Response validators (ETag, Last-Modified) match a conditional value specified in the
client Request, use the isNotModified()65 method:
Listing 61-18
1 if ($response->isNotModified($request)) {
2
$response->send();
3 }
If the Response is not modified, it sets the status code to 304 and removes the actual response content.
Redirecting the User
To redirect the client to another URL, you can use the RedirectResponse66 class:
Listing 61-19
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\RedirectResponse;
2
3 $response = new RedirectResponse('http://example.com/');
52. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html
53. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setPublic()
54. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setPrivate()
55. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#expire()
56. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setExpires()
57. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setMaxAge()
58. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setSharedMaxAge()
59. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setTtl()
60. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setClientTtl()
61. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setLastModified()
62. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setEtag()
63. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setVary()
64. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#setCache()
65. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#isNotModified()
66. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/RedirectResponse.html
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Streaming a Response
The StreamedResponse67 class allows you to stream the Response back to the client. The response
content is represented by a PHP callable instead of a string:
Listing 61-20
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9
10
11
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\StreamedResponse;
$response = new StreamedResponse();
$response->setCallback(function () {
echo 'Hello World';
flush();
sleep(2);
echo 'Hello World';
flush();
});
$response->send();
The flush() function does not flush buffering. If ob_start() has been called before or the
output_buffering php.ini option is enabled, you must call ob_flush() before flush().
Additionally, PHP isn't the only layer that can buffer output. Your web server might also buffer
based on its configuration. Even more, if you use fastcgi, buffering can't be disabled at all.
Serving Files
When sending a file, you must add a Content-Disposition header to your response. While creating
this header for basic file downloads is easy, using non-ASCII filenames is more involving. The
makeDisposition()68 abstracts the hard work behind a simple API:
Listing 61-21
1
2
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4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\ResponseHeaderBag;
$d = $response->headers->makeDisposition(
ResponseHeaderBag::DISPOSITION_ATTACHMENT,
'foo.pdf'
);
$response->headers->set('Content-Disposition', $d);
Alternatively, if you are serving a static file, you can use a BinaryFileResponse69:
Listing 61-22
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\BinaryFileResponse;
2
3 $file = 'path/to/file.txt';
4 $response = new BinaryFileResponse($file);
The BinaryFileResponse will automatically handle Range and If-Range headers from the request. It
also supports X-Sendfile (see for Nginx70 and Apache71). To make use of it, you need to determine
whether or not the X-Sendfile-Type header should be trusted and call trustXSendfileTypeHeader()72
if it should:
67. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/StreamedResponse.html
68. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/ResponseHeaderBag.html#makeDisposition()
69. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/BinaryFileResponse.html
70. http://wiki.nginx.org/XSendfile
71. https://tn123.org/mod_xsendfile/
72. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/BinaryFileResponse.html#trustXSendfileTypeHeader()
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Listing 61-23
1 BinaryFileResponse::trustXSendfileTypeHeader();
You can still set the Content-Type of the sent file, or change its Content-Disposition:
Listing 61-24
1 $response->headers->set('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
2 $response->setContentDisposition(
3
ResponseHeaderBag::DISPOSITION_ATTACHMENT,
4
'filename.txt'
5 );
New in version 2.6: The deleteFileAfterSend() method was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
It is possible to delete the file after the request is sent with the deleteFileAfterSend()73 method. Please
note that this will not work when the X-Sendfile header is set.
Creating a JSON Response
Any type of response can be created via the Response74 class by setting the right content and headers. A
JSON response might look like this:
Listing 61-25
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2
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5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;
$response = new Response();
$response->setContent(json_encode(array(
'data' => 123,
)));
$response->headers->set('Content-Type', 'application/json');
There is also a helpful JsonResponse75 class, which can make this even easier:
Listing 61-26
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\JsonResponse;
$response = new JsonResponse();
$response->setData(array(
'data' => 123
));
This encodes your array of data to JSON and sets the Content-Type header to application/json.
To avoid XSSI JSON Hijacking76, you should pass an associative array as the outer-most array to
JsonResponse and not an indexed array so that the final result is an object (e.g. {"object": "not
inside an array"}) instead of an array (e.g. [{"object": "inside an array"}]). Read the
OWASP guidelines77 for more information.
Only methods that respond to GET requests are vulnerable to XSSI 'JSON Hijacking'. Methods
responding to POST requests only remain unaffected.
73. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/BinaryFileResponse.html#deleteFileAfterSend()
74. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html
75. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/JsonResponse.html
76. http://haacked.com/archive/2009/06/25/json-hijacking.aspx
77. https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_AJAX_Security_Guidelines#Always_return_JSON_with_an_Object_on_the_outside
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JSONP Callback
If you're using JSONP, you can set the callback function that the data should be passed to:
Listing 61-27
1 $response->setCallback('handleResponse');
In this case, the Content-Type header will be text/javascript and the response content will look like
this:
Listing 61-28
1 handleResponse({'data': 123});
Session
The session information is in its own document: Session Management.
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Chapter 62
Session Management
The Symfony HttpFoundation component has a very powerful and flexible session subsystem which is
designed to provide session management through a simple object-oriented interface using a variety of
session storage drivers.
Sessions are used via the simple Session1 implementation of SessionInterface2 interface.
Make sure your PHP session isn't already started before using the Session class. If you have a legacy
session system that starts your session, see Legacy Sessions.
Quick example:
Listing 62-1
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16
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
$session = new Session();
$session->start();
// set and get session attributes
$session->set('name', 'Drak');
$session->get('name');
// set flash messages
$session->getFlashBag()->add('notice', 'Profile updated');
// retrieve messages
foreach ($session->getFlashBag()->get('notice', array()) as $message) {
echo '<div class="flash-notice">'.$message.'</div>';
}
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionInterface.html
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Symfony sessions are designed to replace several native PHP functions. Applications should avoid
using session_start(), session_regenerate_id(), session_id(), session_name(), and
session_destroy() and instead use the APIs in the following section.
While it is recommended to explicitly start a session, a session will actually start on demand, that
is, if any session request is made to read/write session data.
Symfony sessions are incompatible with php.ini directive session.auto_start =
directive should be turned off in php.ini, in the webserver directives or in .htaccess.
1 This
Session API
The Session3 class implements SessionInterface4.
The Session5 has a simple API as follows divided into a couple of groups.
Session Workflow
start()6
Starts the session - do not use session_start().
migrate()7
Regenerates the session ID - do not use session_regenerate_id(). This method can optionally
change the lifetime of the new cookie that will be emitted by calling this method.
invalidate()8
Clears all session data and regenerates session ID. Do not use session_destroy().
getId()9
Gets the session ID. Do not use session_id().
setId()10
Sets the session ID. Do not use session_id().
getName()11
Gets the session name. Do not use session_name().
setName()12
Sets the session name. Do not use session_name().
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionInterface.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#start()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#migrate()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#invalidate()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#getId()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#setId()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#getName()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#setName()
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Session Attributes
set()13
Sets an attribute by key.
get()14
Gets an attribute by key.
all()15
Gets all attributes as an array of key => value.
has()16
Returns true if the attribute exists.
replace()17
Sets multiple attributes at once: takes a keyed array and sets each key => value pair.
remove()18
Deletes an attribute by key.
clear()19
Clear all attributes.
The attributes are stored internally in a "Bag", a PHP object that acts like an array. A few methods exist
for "Bag" management:
registerBag()20
Registers a SessionBagInterface21.
getBag()22
Gets a SessionBagInterface23 by bag name.
getFlashBag()24
Gets the FlashBagInterface25. This is just a shortcut for convenience.
Session Metadata
getMetadataBag()26
Gets the MetadataBag27 which contains information about the session.
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#set()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#get()
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#all()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#has()
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#replace()
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#remove()
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#clear()
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#registerBag()
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionBagInterface.html
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#getBag()
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionBagInterface.html
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#getFlashBag()
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html
26. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#getMetadataBag()
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/MetadataBag.html
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Session Data Management
PHP's session management requires the use of the $_SESSION super-global, however, this interferes
somewhat with code testability and encapsulation in an OOP paradigm. To help overcome this, Symfony
uses session bags linked to the session to encapsulate a specific dataset of attributes or flash messages.
This approach also mitigates namespace pollution within the $_SESSION super-global because each bag
stores all its data under a unique namespace. This allows Symfony to peacefully co-exist with other
applications or libraries that might use the $_SESSION super-global and all data remains completely
compatible with Symfony's session management.
Symfony provides two kinds of storage bags, with two separate implementations. Everything is written
against interfaces so you may extend or create your own bag types if necessary.
SessionBagInterface28 has the following API which is intended mainly for internal purposes:
getStorageKey()29
Returns the key which the bag will ultimately store its array under in $_SESSION. Generally this
value can be left at its default and is for internal use.
initialize()30
This is called internally by Symfony session storage classes to link bag data to the session.
getName()31
Returns the name of the session bag.
Attributes
The purpose of the bags implementing the AttributeBagInterface32 is to handle session attribute
storage. This might include things like user ID, and remember me login settings or other user based state
information.
AttributeBag33
This is the standard default implementation.
NamespacedAttributeBag34
This implementation allows for attributes to be stored in a structured namespace.
Any plain key-value storage system is limited in the extent to which complex data can be stored since
each key must be unique. You can achieve namespacing by introducing a naming convention to the keys
so different parts of your application could operate without clashing. For example, module1.foo and
module2.foo. However, sometimes this is not very practical when the attributes data is an array, for
example a set of tokens. In this case, managing the array becomes a burden because you have to retrieve
the array then process it and store it again:
Listing 62-2
1 $tokens = array(
2
'tokens' => array(
3
'a' => 'a6c1e0b6',
4
'b' => 'f4a7b1f3',
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionBagInterface.html
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionBagInterface.html#getStorageKey()
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionBagInterface.html#initialize()
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionBagInterface.html#getName()
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html
33. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBag.html
34. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/NamespacedAttributeBag.html
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5
6 );
),
So any processing of this might quickly get ugly, even simply adding a token to the array:
Listing 62-3
1 $tokens = $session->get('tokens');
2 $tokens['c'] = $value;
3 $session->set('tokens', $tokens);
With structured namespacing, the key can be translated to the array structure like this using a namespace
character (defaults to /):
Listing 62-4
1 $session->set('tokens/c', $value);
This way you can easily access a key within the stored array directly and easily.
AttributeBagInterface35 has a simple API
set()36
Sets an attribute by key.
get()37
Gets an attribute by key.
all()38
Gets all attributes as an array of key => value.
has()39
Returns true if the attribute exists.
keys()40
Returns an array of stored attribute keys.
replace()41
Sets multiple attributes at once: takes a keyed array and sets each key => value pair.
remove()42
Deletes an attribute by key.
clear()43
Clear the bag.
35. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html
36. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#set()
37. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#get()
38. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#all()
39. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#has()
40. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#keys()
41. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#replace()
42. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#remove()
43. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Attribute/AttributeBagInterface.html#clear()
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Flash Messages
The purpose of the FlashBagInterface44 is to provide a way of setting and retrieving messages on a per
session basis. The usual workflow would be to set flash messages in a request and to display them after
a page redirect. For example, a user submits a form which hits an update controller, and after processing
the controller redirects the page to either the updated page or an error page. Flash messages set in the
previous page request would be displayed immediately on the subsequent page load for that session. This
is however just one application for flash messages.
AutoExpireFlashBag45
In this implementation, messages set in one page-load will be available for display only on the next
page load. These messages will auto expire regardless of if they are retrieved or not.
FlashBag46
In this implementation, messages will remain in the session until they are explicitly retrieved or
cleared. This makes it possible to use ESI caching.
FlashBagInterface47 has a simple API
add()48
Adds a flash message to the stack of specified type.
set()49
Sets flashes by type; This method conveniently takes both single messages as a string or multiple
messages in an array.
get()50
Gets flashes by type and clears those flashes from the bag.
setAll()51
Sets all flashes, accepts a keyed array of arrays type => array(messages).
all()52
Gets all flashes (as a keyed array of arrays) and clears the flashes from the bag.
peek()53
Gets flashes by type (read only).
peekAll()54
Gets all flashes (read only) as keyed array of arrays.
has()55
Returns true if the type exists, false if not.
keys()56
Returns an array of the stored flash types.
44. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html
45. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/AutoExpireFlashBag.html
46. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBag.html
47. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html
48. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#add()
49. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#set()
50. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#get()
51. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#setAll()
52. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#all()
53. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#peek()
54. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#peekAll()
55. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#has()
56. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#keys()
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clear()57
Clears the bag.
For simple applications it is usually sufficient to have one flash message per type, for example a
confirmation notice after a form is submitted. However, flash messages are stored in a keyed array by
flash $type which means your application can issue multiple messages for a given type. This allows the
API to be used for more complex messaging in your application.
Examples of setting multiple flashes:
Listing 62-5
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
$session = new Session();
$session->start();
// add flash messages
$session->getFlashBag()->add(
'warning',
'Your config file is writable, it should be set read-only'
);
$session->getFlashBag()->add('error', 'Failed to update name');
$session->getFlashBag()->add('error', 'Another error');
Displaying the flash messages might look as follows.
Simple, display one type of message:
Listing 62-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
// display warnings
foreach ($session->getFlashBag()->get('warning', array()) as $message) {
echo '<div class="flash-warning">'.$message.'</div>';
}
// display errors
foreach ($session->getFlashBag()->get('error', array()) as $message) {
echo '<div class="flash-error">'.$message.'</div>';
}
Compact method to process display all flashes at once:
Listing 62-7
1 foreach ($session->getFlashBag()->all() as $type => $messages) {
2
foreach ($messages as $message) {
3
echo '<div class="flash-'.$type.'">'.$message.'</div>';
4
}
5 }
57. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Flash/FlashBagInterface.html#clear()
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Chapter 63
Configuring Sessions and Save Handlers
This section deals with how to configure session management and fine tune it to your specific needs.
This documentation covers save handlers, which store and retrieve session data, and configuring session
behavior.
Save Handlers
The PHP session workflow has 6 possible operations that may occur. The normal session follows open,
read, write and close, with the possibility of destroy and gc (garbage collection which will expire any
old sessions: gc is called randomly according to PHP's configuration and if called, it is invoked after the
open operation). You can read more about this at php.net/session.customhandler1
Native PHP Save Handlers
So-called native handlers, are save handlers which are either compiled into PHP or provided by PHP
extensions, such as PHP-Sqlite, PHP-Memcached and so on.
All native save handlers are internal to PHP and as such, have no public facing API. They must be
configured by php.ini directives, usually session.save_path and potentially other driver specific
directives. Specific details can be found in the docblock of the setOptions() method of each class. For
instance, the one provided by the Memcached extension can be found on php.net/memcached.setoption2
While native save handlers can be activated by directly using ini_set('session.save_handler',
$name);, Symfony provides a convenient way to activate these in the same way as it does for custom
handlers.
Symfony provides drivers for the following native save handler as an example:
• NativeFileSessionHandler3
Example usage:
1. http://php.net/session.customhandler
2. http://php.net/memcached.setoption
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/NativeFileSessionHandler.html
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Listing 63-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\NativeSessionStorage;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\Handler\NativeFileSessionHandler;
$storage = new NativeSessionStorage(array(), new NativeFileSessionHandler());
$session = new Session($storage);
With the exception of the files handler which is built into PHP and always available, the
availability of the other handlers depends on those PHP extensions being active at runtime.
Native save handlers provide a quick solution to session storage, however, in complex systems
where you need more control, custom save handlers may provide more freedom and flexibility.
Symfony provides several implementations which you may further customize as required.
Custom Save Handlers
Custom handlers are those which completely replace PHP's built-in session save handlers by providing
six callback functions which PHP calls internally at various points in the session workflow.
The Symfony HttpFoundation component provides some by default and these can easily serve as
examples if you wish to write your own.
•
•
•
•
•
PdoSessionHandler4
MemcacheSessionHandler5
MemcachedSessionHandler6
MongoDbSessionHandler7
NullSessionHandler8
Example usage:
Listing 63-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\NativeSessionStorage;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\Handler\PdoSessionHandler;
$pdo = new \PDO(...);
$storage = new NativeSessionStorage(array(), new PdoSessionHandler($pdo));
$session = new Session($storage);
Configuring PHP Sessions
The NativeSessionStorage9 can configure most of the php.ini configuration directives which are
documented at php.net/session.configuration10.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/PdoSessionHandler.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/MemcacheSessionHandler.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/MemcachedSessionHandler.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/MongoDbSessionHandler.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/NullSessionHandler.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/NativeSessionStorage.html
10. http://php.net/session.configuration
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To configure these settings, pass the keys (omitting the initial session. part of the key) as a key-value
array to the $options constructor argument. Or set them via the setOptions()11 method.
For the sake of clarity, some key options are explained in this documentation.
Session Cookie Lifetime
For security, session tokens are generally recommended to be sent as session cookies. You can configure
the lifetime of session cookies by specifying the lifetime (in seconds) using the cookie_lifetime key in
the constructor's $options argument in NativeSessionStorage12.
Setting a cookie_lifetime to 0 will cause the cookie to live only as long as the browser remains open.
Generally, cookie_lifetime would be set to a relatively large number of days, weeks or months. It is not
uncommon to set cookies for a year or more depending on the application.
Since session cookies are just a client-side token, they are less important in controlling the fine details of
your security settings which ultimately can only be securely controlled from the server side.
The cookie_lifetime setting is the number of seconds the cookie should live for, it is not a
Unix timestamp. The resulting session cookie will be stamped with an expiry time of time() +
cookie_lifetime where the time is taken from the server.
Configuring Garbage Collection
When a session opens, PHP will call the gc handler randomly according to the probability set by
session.gc_probability / session.gc_divisor. For example if these were set to 5/100 respectively, it
would mean a probability of 5%. Similarly, 3/4 would mean a 3 in 4 chance of being called, i.e. 75%.
If the garbage collection handler is invoked, PHP will pass the value stored in the php.ini directive
session.gc_maxlifetime. The meaning in this context is that any stored session that was saved more
than gc_maxlifetime ago should be deleted. This allows one to expire records based on idle time.
You can configure these settings by passing gc_probability, gc_divisor and gc_maxlifetime in an
array to the constructor of NativeSessionStorage13 or to the setOptions()14 method.
Session Lifetime
When a new session is created, meaning Symfony issues a new session cookie to the client, the cookie
will be stamped with an expiry time. This is calculated by adding the PHP runtime configuration value in
session.cookie_lifetime with the current server time.
PHP will only issue a cookie once. The client is expected to store that cookie for the entire lifetime.
A new cookie will only be issued when the session is destroyed, the browser cookie is deleted, or
the session ID is regenerated using the migrate() or invalidate() methods of the Session class.
The initial cookie lifetime can be set by configuring NativeSessionStorage using the
setOptions(array('cookie_lifetime' => 1234)) method.
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/NativeSessionStorage.html#setOptions()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/NativeSessionStorage.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/NativeSessionStorage.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/NativeSessionStorage.html#setOptions()
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A cookie lifetime of 0 means the cookie expires when the browser is closed.
Session Idle Time/Keep Alive
There are often circumstances where you may want to protect, or minimize unauthorized use of a session
when a user steps away from their terminal while logged in by destroying the session after a certain period
of idle time. For example, it is common for banking applications to log the user out after just 5 to 10
minutes of inactivity. Setting the cookie lifetime here is not appropriate because that can be manipulated
by the client, so we must do the expiry on the server side. The easiest way is to implement this via
garbage collection which runs reasonably frequently. The cookie_lifetime would be set to a relatively
high value, and the garbage collection gc_maxlifetime would be set to destroy sessions at whatever the
desired idle period is.
The other option is specifically check if a session has expired after the session is started. The session can
be destroyed as required. This method of processing can allow the expiry of sessions to be integrated into
the user experience, for example, by displaying a message.
Symfony records some basic metadata about each session to give you complete freedom in this area.
Session Metadata
Sessions are decorated with some basic metadata to enable fine control over the security settings.
The session object has a getter for the metadata, getMetadataBag()15 which exposes an instance of
MetadataBag16:
Listing 63-3
1 $session->getMetadataBag()->getCreated();
2 $session->getMetadataBag()->getLastUsed();
Both methods return a Unix timestamp (relative to the server).
This metadata can be used to explicitly expire a session on access, e.g.:
Listing 63-4
1 $session->start();
2 if (time() - $session->getMetadataBag()->getLastUsed() > $maxIdleTime) {
3
$session->invalidate();
4
throw new SessionExpired(); // redirect to expired session page
5 }
It is also possible to tell what the cookie_lifetime was set to for a particular cookie by reading the
getLifetime() method:
Listing 63-5
1 $session->getMetadataBag()->getLifetime();
The expiry time of the cookie can be determined by adding the created timestamp and the lifetime.
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Session.html#getMetadataBag()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/MetadataBag.html
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PHP 5.4 Compatibility
Since PHP 5.4.0, SessionHandler17 and SessionHandlerInterface18 are available. Symfony provides
forward compatibility for the SessionHandlerInterface19 so it can be used under PHP 5.3. This greatly
improves interoperability with other libraries.
SessionHandler20 is a special PHP internal class which exposes native save handlers to PHP user-space.
In order to provide a solution for those using PHP 5.4, Symfony has a special class called
NativeSessionHandler21 which under PHP 5.4, extends from \SessionHandler and under PHP 5.3 is
just a empty base class. This provides some interesting opportunities to leverage PHP 5.4 functionality if
it is available.
Save Handler Proxy
A Save Handler Proxy is basically a wrapper around a Save Handler that was introduced to seamlessly
support the migration from PHP 5.3 to PHP 5.4+. It further creates an extension point from where
custom logic can be added that works independently of which handler is being wrapped inside.
There are two kinds of save handler class proxies which inherit from AbstractProxy22: they are
NativeProxy23 and SessionHandlerProxy24.
NativeSessionStorage25 automatically injects storage handlers into a save handler proxy unless already
wrapped by one.
NativeProxy26 is used automatically under PHP 5.3 when internal PHP save handlers are specified using
the Native*SessionHandler classes, while SessionHandlerProxy27 will be used to wrap any custom
save handlers, that implement SessionHandlerInterface28.
From PHP 5.4 and above, all session handlers implement SessionHandlerInterface29 including
Native*SessionHandler classes which inherit from SessionHandler30.
The proxy mechanism allows you to get more deeply involved in session save handler classes. A proxy for
example could be used to encrypt any session transaction without knowledge of the specific save handler.
Before PHP 5.4, you can only proxy user-land save handlers but not native PHP save handlers.
17. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandler.php
18. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandlerinterface.php
19. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandlerinterface.php
20. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandler.php
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/NativeSessionHandler.html
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/AbstractProxy.html
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/NativeProxy.html
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/SessionHandlerProxy.html
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/NativeSessionStorage.html
26. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/NativeProxy.html
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/Handler/SessionHandlerProxy.html
28. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandlerinterface.php
29. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandlerinterface.php
30. http://php.net/manual/en/class.sessionhandler.php
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Chapter 64
Testing with Sessions
Symfony is designed from the ground up with code-testability in mind. In order to make your code which
utilizes session easily testable we provide two separate mock storage mechanisms for both unit testing
and functional testing.
Testing code using real sessions is tricky because PHP's workflow state is global and it is not possible to
have multiple concurrent sessions in the same PHP process.
The mock storage engines simulate the PHP session workflow without actually starting one allowing you
to test your code without complications. You may also run multiple instances in the same PHP process.
The mock storage drivers do not read or write the system globals session_id() or session_name().
Methods are provided to simulate this if required:
•
•
•
•
getId()1: Gets the session ID.
setId()2: Sets the session ID.
getName()3: Gets the session name.
setName()4: Sets the session name.
Unit Testing
For unit testing where it is not necessary to persist the session, you should simply swap out the default
storage engine with MockArraySessionStorage5:
Listing 64-1
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\MockArraySessionStorage;
2 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
3
4 $session = new Session(new MockArraySessionStorage());
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionStorageInterface.html#getId()
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionStorageInterface.html#setId()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionStorageInterface.html#getName()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/SessionStorageInterface.html#setName()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/MockArraySessionStorage.html
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Functional Testing
For functional testing where you may need to persist session data across separate PHP processes, simply
change the storage engine to MockFileSessionStorage6:
Listing 64-2
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
2 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\MockFileSessionStorage;
3
4 $session = new Session(new MockFileSessionStorage());
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/MockFileSessionStorage.html
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Chapter 65
Integrating with Legacy Sessions
Sometimes it may be necessary to integrate Symfony into a legacy application where you do not initially
have the level of control you require.
As stated elsewhere, Symfony Sessions are designed to replace the use of PHP's native session_*()
functions and use of the $_SESSION superglobal. Additionally, it is mandatory for Symfony to start the
session.
However when there really are circumstances where this is not possible, you can use a special storage
bridge PhpBridgeSessionStorage1 which is designed to allow Symfony to work with a session started
outside of the Symfony Session framework. You are warned that things can interrupt this use-case unless
you are careful: for example the legacy application erases $_SESSION.
A typical use of this might look like this:
Listing 65-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Session;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\Storage\PhpBridgeSessionStorage;
// legacy application configures session
ini_set('session.save_handler', 'files');
ini_set('session.save_path', '/tmp');
session_start();
// Get Symfony to interface with this existing session
$session = new Session(new PhpBridgeSessionStorage());
// symfony will now interface with the existing PHP session
$session->start();
This will allow you to start using the Symfony Session API and allow migration of your application to
Symfony sessions.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Session/Storage/PhpBridgeSessionStorage.html
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Symfony sessions store data like attributes in special 'Bags' which use a key in the $_SESSION
superglobal. This means that a Symfony session cannot access arbitrary keys in $_SESSION that
may be set by the legacy application, although all the $_SESSION contents will be saved when the
session is saved.
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Chapter 66
Trusting Proxies
If you're using the Symfony Framework, start by reading How to Configure Symfony to Work behind
a Load Balancer or a Reverse Proxy.
If you find yourself behind some sort of proxy - like a load balancer - then certain header information
may be sent to you using special X-Forwarded-* headers. For example, the Host HTTP header is usually
used to return the requested host. But when you're behind a proxy, the true host may be stored in a XForwarded-Host header.
Since HTTP headers can be spoofed, Symfony does not trust these proxy headers by default. If you are
behind a proxy, you should manually whitelist your proxy.
New in version 2.3: CIDR notation support was introduced in Symfony 2.3, so you can whitelist whole
subnets (e.g. 10.0.0.0/8, fc00::/7).
Listing 66-1
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
2
3 // only trust proxy headers coming from this IP addresses
4 Request::setTrustedProxies(array('192.0.0.1', '10.0.0.0/8'));
Configuring Header Names
By default, the following proxy headers are trusted:
•
•
•
•
X-Forwarded-For Used in getClientIp()1;
X-Forwarded-Host Used in getHost()2;
X-Forwarded-Port Used in getPort()3;
X-Forwarded-Proto Used in getScheme()4 and isSecure()5;
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getClientIp()
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getHost()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getPort()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#getScheme()
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If your reverse proxy uses a different header name for any of these, you can configure that header name
via setTrustedHeaderName()6:
Listing 66-2
1
2
3
4
Request::setTrustedHeaderName(Request::HEADER_CLIENT_IP, 'X-Proxy-For');
Request::setTrustedHeaderName(Request::HEADER_CLIENT_HOST, 'X-Proxy-Host');
Request::setTrustedHeaderName(Request::HEADER_CLIENT_PORT, 'X-Proxy-Port');
Request::setTrustedHeaderName(Request::HEADER_CLIENT_PROTO, 'X-Proxy-Proto');
Not Trusting certain Headers
By default, if you whitelist your proxy's IP address, then all four headers listed above are trusted. If you
need to trust some of these headers but not others, you can do that as well:
Listing 66-3
1 // disables trusting the ``X-Forwarded-Proto`` header, the default header is used
2 Request::setTrustedHeaderName(Request::HEADER_CLIENT_PROTO, '');
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#isSecure()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html#setTrustedHeaderName()
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Chapter 67
The HttpKernel Component
The HttpKernel component provides a structured process for converting a Request into a
Response by making use of the EventDispatcher. It's flexible enough to create a full-stack
framework (Symfony), a micro-framework (Silex) or an advanced CMS system (Drupal).
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/http-kernel on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/HttpKernel2).
The Workflow of a Request
Every HTTP web interaction begins with a request and ends with a response. Your job as a developer is
to create PHP code that reads the request information (e.g. the URL) and creates and returns a response
(e.g. an HTML page or JSON string).
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/http-kernel
2. https://github.com/symfony/HttpKernel
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Typically, some sort of framework or system is built to handle all the repetitive tasks (e.g. routing,
security, etc) so that a developer can easily build each page of the application. Exactly how these systems
are built varies greatly. The HttpKernel component provides an interface that formalizes the process of
starting with a request and creating the appropriate response. The component is meant to be the heart of
any application or framework, no matter how varied the architecture of that system:
Listing 67-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
namespace Symfony\Component\HttpKernel;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
interface HttpKernelInterface
{
// ...
/**
* @return Response A Response instance
*/
public function handle(
Request $request,
$type = self::MASTER_REQUEST,
$catch = true
);
}
Internally,
HttpKernel::handle()3
the
concrete
implementation
of
HttpKernelInterface::handle()4 - defines a workflow that starts with a Request5 and ends with a
Response6.
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/HttpKernel.html#handle()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/HttpKernelInterface.html#handle()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html
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The exact details of this workflow are the key to understanding how the kernel (and the Symfony
Framework or any other library that uses the kernel) works.
HttpKernel: Driven by Events
The HttpKernel::handle() method works internally by dispatching events. This makes the method
both flexible, but also a bit abstract, since all the "work" of a framework/application built with
HttpKernel is actually done in event listeners.
To help explain this process, this document looks at each step of the process and talks about how one
specific implementation of the HttpKernel - the Symfony Framework - works.
Initially, using the HttpKernel7 is really simple, and involves creating an EventDispatcher and a controller
resolver (explained below). To complete your working kernel, you'll add more event listeners to the
events discussed below:
Listing 67-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel;
Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcher;
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Controller\ControllerResolver;
// create the Request object
$request = Request::createFromGlobals();
$dispatcher = new EventDispatcher();
// ... add some event listeners
// create your controller resolver
$resolver = new ControllerResolver();
// instantiate the kernel
$kernel = new HttpKernel($dispatcher, $resolver);
// actually execute the kernel, which turns the request into a response
// by dispatching events, calling a controller, and returning the response
$response = $kernel->handle($request);
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/HttpKernel.html
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20
21
22
23
24
25
// send the headers and echo the content
$response->send();
// triggers the kernel.terminate event
$kernel->terminate($request, $response);
See "A full Working Example" for a more concrete implementation.
For general information on adding listeners to the events below, see Creating an Event Listener.
Fabien Potencier also wrote a wonderful series on using the HttpKernel component and other
Symfony components to create your own framework. See Create your own framework... on top of
the Symfony2 Components8.
1) The kernel.request Event
Typical Purposes: To add more information to the Request, initialize parts of the system, or return a
Response if possible (e.g. a security layer that denies access).
Kernel Events Information Table
The first event that is dispatched inside HttpKernel::handle9 is kernel.request, which may have a
variety of different listeners.
Listeners of this event can be quite varied. Some listeners - such as a security listener - might have enough
information to create a Response object immediately. For example, if a security listener determined that a
user doesn't have access, that listener may return a RedirectResponse10 to the login page or a 403 Access
Denied response.
If a Response is returned at this stage, the process skips directly to the kernel.response event.
8. http://fabien.potencier.org/article/50/create-your-own-framework-on-top-of-the-symfony2-components-part-1
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/HttpKernel.html#handle()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/RedirectResponse.html
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Other listeners simply initialize things or add more information to the request. For example, a listener
might determine and set the locale on the Request object.
Another common listener is routing. A router listener may process the Request and determine the
controller that should be rendered (see the next section). In fact, the Request object has an "attributes"
bag which is a perfect spot to store this extra, application-specific data about the request. This means
that if your router listener somehow determines the controller, it can store it on the Request attributes
(which can be used by your controller resolver).
Overall, the purpose of the kernel.request event is either to create and return a Response directly, or to
add information to the Request (e.g. setting the locale or setting some other information on the Request
attributes).
When setting a response for the kernel.request event, the propagation is stopped. This means
listeners with lower priority won't be executed.
kernel.request in the Symfony Framework
The most important listener to kernel.request in the Symfony Framework is the
RouterListener11. This class executes the routing layer, which returns an array of information
about the matched request, including the _controller and any placeholders that are in the route's
pattern (e.g. {slug}). See Routing component.
This array of information is stored in the Request12 object's attributes array. Adding the routing
information here doesn't do anything yet, but is used next when resolving the controller.
2) Resolve the Controller
Assuming that no kernel.request listener was able to create a Response, the next step in HttpKernel is
to determine and prepare (i.e. resolve) the controller. The controller is the part of the end-application's
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/EventListener/RouterListener.html
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
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code that is responsible for creating and returning the Response for a specific page. The only requirement
is that it is a PHP callable - i.e. a function, method on an object, or a Closure.
But how you determine the exact controller for a request is entirely up to your application. This is the job
of the "controller resolver" - a class that implements ControllerResolverInterface13 and is one of the
constructor arguments to HttpKernel.
Your job is to create a class that implements the interface and fill in its two methods: getController and
getArguments. In fact, one default implementation already exists, which you can use directly or learn
from: ControllerResolver14. This implementation is explained more in the sidebar below:
Listing 67-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
namespace Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Controller;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
interface ControllerResolverInterface
{
public function getController(Request $request);
public function getArguments(Request $request, $controller);
}
Internally, the HttpKernel::handle method first calls getController()15 on the controller resolver.
This method is passed the Request and is responsible for somehow determining and returning a PHP
callable (the controller) based on the request's information.
The second method, getArguments()16, will be called after another event - kernel.controller - is
dispatched.
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolverInterface.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolver.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolverInterface.html#getController()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolverInterface.html#getArguments()
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Resolving the Controller in the Symfony Framework
The Symfony Framework uses the built-in ControllerResolver17 class (actually, it uses a subclass with some extra functionality mentioned below). This class leverages the information that
was placed on the Request object's attributes property during the RouterListener.
getController
The ControllerResolver looks for a _controller key on the Request object's attributes property
(recall that this information is typically placed on the Request via the RouterListener). This
string is then transformed into a PHP callable by doing the following:
1. The AcmeDemoBundle:Default:index format of the _controller key is changed to
another string that contains the full class and method name of the controller by following
the
convention
used
in
Symfony
e.g.
Acme\DemoBundle\Controller\DefaultController::indexAction.
This
transformation is specific to the ControllerResolver18 sub-class used by the Symfony
Framework.
2. A new instance of your controller class is instantiated with no constructor arguments.
3. If the controller implements ContainerAwareInterface19, setContainer is called on
the controller object and the container is passed to it. This step is also specific to the
ControllerResolver20 sub-class used by the Symfony Framework.
There are also a few other variations on the above process (e.g. if you're registering your
controllers as services).
3) The kernel.controller Event
Typical Purposes: Initialize things or change the controller just before the controller is executed.
Kernel Events Information Table
After the controller callable has been determined, HttpKernel::handle dispatches the
kernel.controller event. Listeners to this event might initialize some part of the system that needs
to be initialized after certain things have been determined (e.g. the controller, routing information) but
before the controller is executed. For some examples, see the Symfony section below.
17.
18.
19.
20.
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolver.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bundle/FrameworkBundle/Controller/ControllerResolver.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/DependencyInjection/ContainerAwareInterface.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bundle/FrameworkBundle/Controller/ControllerResolver.html
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Listeners to this event can also change the controller callable completely by calling
FilterControllerEvent::setController21 on the event object that's passed to listeners on this event.
kernel.controller in the Symfony Framework
There are a few minor listeners to the kernel.controller event in the Symfony Framework, and
many deal with collecting profiler data when the profiler is enabled.
One interesting listener comes from the SensioFrameworkExtraBundle22, which is packaged with
the Symfony Standard Edition. This listener's @ParamConverter23 functionality allows you to pass
a full object (e.g. a Post object) to your controller instead of a scalar value (e.g. an id parameter
that was on your route). The listener - ParamConverterListener - uses reflection to look at each
of the arguments of the controller and tries to use different methods to convert those to objects,
which are then stored in the attributes property of the Request object. Read the next section to
see why this is important.
4) Getting the Controller Arguments
Next, HttpKernel::handle calls getArguments()24. Remember that the controller returned in
getController is a callable. The purpose of getArguments is to return the array of arguments that
should be passed to that controller. Exactly how this is done is completely up to your design, though the
built-in ControllerResolver25 is a good example.
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/FilterControllerEvent.html#setController()
22. http://symfony.com/doc/current/bundles/SensioFrameworkExtraBundle/index.html
23. http://symfony.com/doc/current/bundles/SensioFrameworkExtraBundle/annotations/converters.html
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolverInterface.html#getArguments()
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolver.html
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At this point the kernel has a PHP callable (the controller) and an array of arguments that should be
passed when executing that callable.
Getting the Controller Arguments in the Symfony Framework
Now that you know exactly what the controller callable (usually a method inside a controller
object) is, the ControllerResolver uses reflection26 on the callable to return an array of the names
of each of the arguments. It then iterates over each of these arguments and uses the following tricks
to determine which value should be passed for each argument:
1. If the Request attributes bag contains a key that matches the name of the argument, that
value is used. For example, if the first argument to a controller is $slug, and there is
a slug key in the Request attributes bag, that value is used (and typically this value
came from the RouterListener).
2. If the argument in the controller is type-hinted with Symfony's Request27 object, then the
Request is passed in as the value.
5) Calling the Controller
The next step is simple! HttpKernel::handle executes the controller.
26. http://php.net/manual/en/book.reflection.php
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
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The job of the controller is to build the response for the given resource. This could be an HTML page, a
JSON string or anything else. Unlike every other part of the process so far, this step is implemented by
the "end-developer", for each page that is built.
Usually, the controller will return a Response object. If this is true, then the work of the kernel is just
about done! In this case, the next step is the kernel.response event.
But if the controller returns anything besides a Response, then the kernel has a little bit more work to do
- kernel.view (since the end goal is always to generate a Response object).
A controller must return something. If a controller returns null, an exception will be thrown
immediately.
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6) The kernel.view Event
Typical Purposes: Transform a non-Response return value from a controller into a Response
Kernel Events Information Table
If the controller doesn't return a Response object, then the kernel dispatches another event kernel.view. The job of a listener to this event is to use the return value of the controller (e.g. an array
of data or an object) to create a Response.
This can be useful if you want to use a "view" layer: instead of returning a Response from the controller,
you return data that represents the page. A listener to this event could then use this data to create a
Response that is in the correct format (e.g HTML, JSON, etc).
At this stage, if no listener sets a response on the event, then an exception is thrown: either the controller
or one of the view listeners must always return a Response.
When setting a response for the kernel.view event, the propagation is stopped. This means
listeners with lower priority won't be executed.
kernel.view in the Symfony Framework
There is no default listener inside the Symfony Framework for the kernel.view event. However,
one core bundle - SensioFrameworkExtraBundle28 - does add a listener to this event. If your
controller returns an array, and you place the @Template29 annotation above the controller, then
this listener renders a template, passes the array you returned from your controller to that template,
and creates a Response containing the returned content from that template.
Additionally, a popular community bundle FOSRestBundle30 implements a listener on this event
which aims to give you a robust view layer capable of using a single controller to return many
different content-type responses (e.g. HTML, JSON, XML, etc).
28. http://symfony.com/doc/current/bundles/SensioFrameworkExtraBundle/index.html
29. http://symfony.com/doc/current/bundles/SensioFrameworkExtraBundle/annotations/view.html
30. https://github.com/friendsofsymfony/FOSRestBundle
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7) The kernel.response Event
Typical Purposes: Modify the Response object just before it is sent
Kernel Events Information Table
The end goal of the kernel is to transform a Request into a Response. The Response might be created
during the kernel.request event, returned from the controller, or returned by one of the listeners to the
kernel.view event.
Regardless of who creates the Response, another event - kernel.response is dispatched directly
afterwards. A typical listener to this event will modify the Response object in some way, such as
modifying headers, adding cookies, or even changing the content of the Response itself (e.g. injecting
some JavaScript before the end </body> tag of an HTML response).
After this event is dispatched, the final Response object is returned from handle()31. In the most typical
use-case, you can then call the send()32 method, which sends the headers and prints the Response
content.
kernel.response in the Symfony Framework
There are several minor listeners on this event inside the Symfony Framework, and most modify
the response in some way. For example, the WebDebugToolbarListener33 injects some JavaScript
at the bottom of your page in the dev environment which causes the web debug toolbar to be
displayed. Another listener, ContextListener34 serializes the current user's information into the
session so that it can be reloaded on the next request.
8) The kernel.terminate Event
Typical Purposes: To perform some "heavy" action after the response has been streamed to the user
Kernel Events Information Table
The final event of the HttpKernel process is kernel.terminate and is unique because it occurs after the
HttpKernel::handle method, and after the response is sent to the user. Recall from above, then the code
that uses the kernel, ends like this:
Listing 67-4
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2
3
4
5
// send the headers and echo the content
$response->send();
// triggers the kernel.terminate event
$kernel->terminate($request, $response);
As you can see, by calling $kernel->terminate after sending the response, you will trigger the
kernel.terminate event where you can perform certain actions that you may have delayed in order to
return the response as quickly as possible to the client (e.g. sending emails).
Internally, the HttpKernel makes use of the fastcgi_finish_request35 PHP function. This means
that at the moment, only the PHP FPM36 server API is able to send a response to the client
while the server's PHP process still performs some tasks. With all other server APIs, listeners to
kernel.terminate are still executed, but the response is not sent to the client until they are all
completed.
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/HttpKernel.html#handle()
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html#send()
33. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Bundle/WebProfilerBundle/EventListener/WebDebugToolbarListener.html
34. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/Firewall/ContextListener.html
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Using the kernel.terminate event is optional, and should only be called if your kernel
implements TerminableInterface37.
kernel.terminate in the Symfony Framework
If you use the SwiftmailerBundle with Symfony and use memory spooling, then the
EmailSenderListener38 is activated, which actually delivers any emails that you scheduled to send
during the request.
Handling Exceptions: the kernel.exception Event
Typical Purposes: Handle some type of exception and create an appropriate Response to return for the
exception
Kernel Events Information Table
If an exception is thrown at any point inside HttpKernel::handle, another event - kernel.exception is
thrown. Internally, the body of the handle function is wrapped in a try-catch block. When any exception
is thrown, the kernel.exception event is dispatched so that your system can somehow respond to the
exception.
Each listener to this event is passed a GetResponseForExceptionEvent39 object, which you can use to
access the original exception via the getException()40 method. A typical listener on this event will check
for a certain type of exception and create an appropriate error Response.
For example, to generate a 404 page, you might throw a special type of exception and then add a listener
on this event that looks for this exception and creates and returns a 404 Response. In fact, the HttpKernel
35. http://php.net/manual/en/function.fastcgi-finish-request.php
36. http://php.net/manual/en/install.fpm.php
37. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/TerminableInterface.html
38. https://github.com/symfony/SwiftmailerBundle/blob/master/EventListener/EmailSenderListener.php
39. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/GetResponseForExceptionEvent.html
40. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/GetResponseForExceptionEvent.html#getException()
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component comes with an ExceptionListener41, which if you choose to use, will do this and more by
default (see the sidebar below for more details).
When setting a response for the kernel.exception event, the propagation is stopped. This means
listeners with lower priority won't be executed.
kernel.exception in the Symfony Framework
There are two main listeners to kernel.exception when using the Symfony Framework.
ExceptionListener in HttpKernel
The first comes core to the HttpKernel component and is called ExceptionListener42. The
listener has several goals:
1. The thrown exception is converted into a FlattenException43 object, which contains all
the information about the request, but which can be printed and serialized.
2. If the original exception implements HttpExceptionInterface44, then getStatusCode
and getHeaders are called on the exception and used to populate the headers and status
code of the FlattenException object. The idea is that these are used in the next step
when creating the final response.
3. A controller is executed and passed the flattened exception. The exact controller to
render is passed as a constructor argument to this listener. This controller will return the
final Response for this error page.
ExceptionListener in Security
The other important listener is the ExceptionListener45. The goal of this listener is to handle
security exceptions and, when appropriate, help the user to authenticate (e.g. redirect to the login
page).
Creating an Event Listener
As you've seen, you can create and attach event listeners to any of the events dispatched during the
HttpKernel::handle cycle. Typically a listener is a PHP class with a method that's executed, but it can
be anything. For more information on creating and attaching event listeners, see The EventDispatcher
Component.
The name of each of the "kernel" events is defined as a constant on the KernelEvents46 class.
Additionally, each event listener is passed a single argument, which is some sub-class of KernelEvent47.
This object contains information about the current state of the system and each event has their own event
object:
Name
KernelEvents Constant
Argument passed to the listener
kernel.request
KernelEvents::REQUEST
GetResponseEvent48
kernel.controller
KernelEvents::CONTROLLER
FilterControllerEvent49
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/EventListener/ExceptionListener.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/EventListener/ExceptionListener.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Exception/FlattenException.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Exception/HttpExceptionInterface.html
http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/Firewall/ExceptionListener.html
46. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/KernelEvents.html
47. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/KernelEvent.html
48. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/GetResponseEvent.html
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Name
KernelEvents Constant
Argument passed to the listener
kernel.view
KernelEvents::VIEW
GetResponseForControllerResultEvent50
kernel.response
KernelEvents::RESPONSE
FilterResponseEvent51
kernel.finish_request KernelEvents::FINISH_REQUEST FinishRequestEvent52
kernel.terminate
KernelEvents::TERMINATE
PostResponseEvent53
kernel.exception
KernelEvents::EXCEPTION
GetResponseForExceptionEvent54
A full Working Example
When using the HttpKernel component, you're free to attach any listeners to the core events and use
any controller resolver that implements the ControllerResolverInterface55. However, the HttpKernel
component comes with some built-in listeners and a built-in ControllerResolver that can be used to
create a working example:
Listing 67-5
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13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel;
Symfony\Component\EventDispatcher\EventDispatcher;
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Controller\ControllerResolver;
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\EventListener\RouterListener;
Symfony\Component\Routing\RouteCollection;
Symfony\Component\Routing\Route;
Symfony\Component\Routing\Matcher\UrlMatcher;
Symfony\Component\Routing\RequestContext;
$routes = new RouteCollection();
$routes->add('hello', new Route('/hello/{name}', array(
'_controller' => function (Request $request) {
return new Response(
sprintf("Hello %s", $request->get('name'))
);
}
)
));
$request = Request::createFromGlobals();
$matcher = new UrlMatcher($routes, new RequestContext());
$dispatcher = new EventDispatcher();
$dispatcher->addSubscriber(new RouterListener($matcher));
$resolver = new ControllerResolver();
$kernel = new HttpKernel($dispatcher, $resolver);
$response = $kernel->handle($request);
49. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/FilterControllerEvent.html
50. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/GetResponseForControllerResultEvent.html
51. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/FilterResponseEvent.html
52. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/FinishRequestEvent.html
53. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/PostResponseEvent.html
54. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/GetResponseForExceptionEvent.html
55. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Controller/ControllerResolverInterface.html
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33 $response->send();
34
35 $kernel->terminate($request, $response);
Sub Requests
In addition to the "main" request that's sent into HttpKernel::handle, you can also send so-called "sub
request". A sub request looks and acts like any other request, but typically serves to render just one small
portion of a page instead of a full page. You'll most commonly make sub-requests from your controller
(or perhaps from inside a template, that's being rendered by your controller).
To execute a sub request, use HttpKernel::handle, but change the second argument as follows:
Listing 67-6
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12
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
use Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernelInterface;
// ...
// create some other request manually as needed
$request = new Request();
// for example, possibly set its _controller manually
$request->attributes->set('_controller', '...');
$response = $kernel->handle($request, HttpKernelInterface::SUB_REQUEST);
// do something with this response
This creates another full request-response cycle where this new Request is transformed into a Response.
The only difference internally is that some listeners (e.g. security) may only act upon the master request.
Each listener is passed some sub-class of KernelEvent56, whose isMasterRequest()57 can be used to
check if the current request is a "master" or "sub" request.
For example, a listener that only needs to act on the master request may look like this:
56. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/KernelEvent.html
57. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Event/KernelEvent.html#isMasterRequest()
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Listing 67-7
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11
use Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernelInterface;
// ...
public function onKernelRequest(GetResponseEvent $event)
{
if (!$event->isMasterRequest()) {
return;
}
// ...
}
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Chapter 68
The Intl Component
A PHP replacement layer for the C intl extension1 that also provides access to the localization data
of the ICU library2.
New in version 2.3: The Intl component was introduced in Symfony 2.3. In earlier versions of Symfony,
you should use the Locale component instead.
The replacement layer is limited to the locale "en". If you want to use other locales, you should
install the intl extension3 instead.
Installation
You can install the component in two different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/intl on Packagist4);
• Using the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Intl5).
If you install the component via Composer, the following classes and functions of the intl extension will
be automatically provided if the intl extension is not loaded:
• Collator6
• IntlDateFormatter7
• Locale8
1. http://www.php.net/manual/en/book.intl.php
2. http://site.icu-project.org/
3. http://www.php.net/manual/en/intl.setup.php
4. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/intl
5. https://github.com/symfony/Intl
6. http://php.net/manual/en/class.collator.php
7. http://php.net/manual/en/class.intldateformatter.php
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•
•
•
•
•
NumberFormatter9
intl_error_name10
intl_is_failure11
intl_get_error_code12
intl_get_error_message13
When the intl extension is not available, the following classes are used to replace the intl classes:
•
•
•
•
•
Collator14
IntlDateFormatter15
Locale16
NumberFormatter17
IntlGlobals18
Composer automatically exposes these classes in the global namespace.
If you don't use Composer but the Symfony ClassLoader component, you need to expose them manually
by adding the following lines to your autoload code:
Listing 68-1
1 if (!function_exists('intl_is_failure')) {
2
require '/path/to/Icu/Resources/stubs/functions.php';
3
4
$loader->registerPrefixFallback('/path/to/Icu/Resources/stubs');
5 }
Writing and Reading Resource Bundles
The ResourceBundle19 class is not currently supported by this component. Instead, it includes a set of
readers and writers for reading and writing arrays (or array-like objects) from/to resource bundle files.
The following classes are supported:
•
•
•
•
•
•
TextBundleWriter
PhpBundleWriter
BinaryBundleReader
PhpBundleReader
BufferedBundleReader
StructuredBundleReader
Continue reading if you are interested in how to use these classes. Otherwise skip this section and jump
to Accessing ICU Data.
8. http://php.net/manual/en/class.locale.php
9. http://php.net/manual/en/class.numberformatter.php
10. http://php.net/manual/en/function.intl-error-name.php
11. http://php.net/manual/en/function.intl-is-failure.php
12. http://php.net/manual/en/function.intl-get-error-code.php
13. http://php.net/manual/en/function.intl-get-error-message.php
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/Collator/Collator.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/DateFormatter/IntlDateFormatter.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/Locale/Locale.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/NumberFormatter/NumberFormatter.html
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/Globals/IntlGlobals.html
19. http://php.net/manual/en/class.resourcebundle.php
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TextBundleWriter
The TextBundleWriter20 writes an array or an array-like object to a plain-text resource bundle. The
resulting .txt file can be converted to a binary .res file with the BundleCompiler21 class:
Listing 68-2
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14
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Writer\TextBundleWriter;
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Compiler\BundleCompiler;
$writer = new TextBundleWriter();
$writer->write('/path/to/bundle', 'en', array(
'Data' => array(
'entry1',
'entry2',
// ...
),
));
$compiler = new BundleCompiler();
$compiler->compile('/path/to/bundle', '/path/to/binary/bundle');
The command "genrb" must be available for the BundleCompiler22 to work. If the command is located
in a non-standard location, you can pass its path to the BundleCompiler23 constructor.
PhpBundleWriter
The PhpBundleWriter24 writes an array or an array-like object to a .php resource bundle:
Listing 68-3
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9
10
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Writer\PhpBundleWriter;
$writer = new PhpBundleWriter();
$writer->write('/path/to/bundle', 'en', array(
'Data' => array(
'entry1',
'entry2',
// ...
),
));
BinaryBundleReader
The BinaryBundleReader25 reads binary resource bundle files and returns an array or an array-like
object. This class currently only works with the intl extension26 installed:
Listing 68-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Reader\BinaryBundleReader;
$reader = new BinaryBundleReader();
$data = $reader->read('/path/to/bundle', 'en');
echo $data['Data']['entry1'];
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Writer/TextBundleWriter.html
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Compiler/BundleCompiler.html
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Compiler/BundleCompiler.html
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Compiler/BundleCompiler.html
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Writer/PhpBundleWriter.html
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Reader/BinaryBundleReader.html
26. http://www.php.net/manual/en/book.intl.php
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PhpBundleReader
The PhpBundleReader27 reads resource bundles from .php files and returns an array or an array-like
object:
Listing 68-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Reader\PhpBundleReader;
$reader = new PhpBundleReader();
$data = $reader->read('/path/to/bundle', 'en');
echo $data['Data']['entry1'];
BufferedBundleReader
The BufferedBundleReader28 wraps another reader, but keeps the last N reads in a buffer, where N is a
buffer size passed to the constructor:
Listing 68-6
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2
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7
8
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10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Reader\BinaryBundleReader;
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Reader\BufferedBundleReader;
$reader = new BufferedBundleReader(new BinaryBundleReader(), 10);
// actually reads the file
$data = $reader->read('/path/to/bundle', 'en');
// returns data from the buffer
$data = $reader->read('/path/to/bundle', 'en');
// actually reads the file
$data = $reader->read('/path/to/bundle', 'fr');
StructuredBundleReader
The StructuredBundleReader29 wraps another reader and offers a readEntry()30 method for reading an
entry of the resource bundle without having to worry whether array keys are set or not. If a path cannot
be resolved, null is returned:
Listing 68-7
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12
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Reader\BinaryBundleReader;
use Symfony\Component\Intl\ResourceBundle\Reader\StructuredBundleReader;
$reader = new StructuredBundleReader(new BinaryBundleReader());
$data = $reader->read('/path/to/bundle', 'en');
// Produces an error if the key "Data" does not exist
echo $data['Data']['entry1'];
// Returns null if the key "Data" does not exist
echo $reader->readEntry('/path/to/bundle', 'en', array('Data', 'entry1'));
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Reader/PhpBundleReader.html
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Reader/BufferedBundleReader.html
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Reader/StructuredBundleReader.html
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Reader/StructuredBundleReaderInterface.html#readEntry()
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Additionally, the readEntry()31 method resolves fallback locales. For example, the fallback locale of
"en_GB" is "en". For single-valued entries (strings, numbers etc.), the entry will be read from the fallback
locale if it cannot be found in the more specific locale. For multi-valued entries (arrays), the values of the
more specific and the fallback locale will be merged. In order to suppress this behavior, the last parameter
$fallback can be set to false:
Listing 68-8
1 echo $reader->readEntry(
2
'/path/to/bundle',
3
'en',
4
array('Data', 'entry1'),
5
false
6 );
Accessing ICU Data
The ICU data is located in several "resource bundles". You can access a PHP wrapper of these bundles
through the static Intl32 class. At the moment, the following data is supported:
•
•
•
•
Language and Script Names
Country Names
Locales
Currencies
Language and Script Names
The translations of language and script names can be found in the language bundle:
Listing 68-9
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11
12
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14
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16
17
18
use Symfony\Component\Intl\Intl;
\Locale::setDefault('en');
$languages = Intl::getLanguageBundle()->getLanguageNames();
// => array('ab' => 'Abkhazian', ...)
$language = Intl::getLanguageBundle()->getLanguageName('de');
// => 'German'
$language = Intl::getLanguageBundle()->getLanguageName('de', 'AT');
// => 'Austrian German'
$scripts = Intl::getLanguageBundle()->getScriptNames();
// => array('Arab' => 'Arabic', ...)
$script = Intl::getLanguageBundle()->getScriptName('Hans');
// => 'Simplified'
All methods accept the translation locale as the last, optional parameter, which defaults to the current
default locale:
Listing 68-10
1 $languages = Intl::getLanguageBundle()->getLanguageNames('de');
2 // => array('ab' => 'Abchasisch', ...)
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/Reader/StructuredBundleReaderInterface.html#readEntry()
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/Intl.html
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Country Names
The translations of country names can be found in the region bundle:
Listing 68-11
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8
9
use Symfony\Component\Intl\Intl;
\Locale::setDefault('en');
$countries = Intl::getRegionBundle()->getCountryNames();
// => array('AF' => 'Afghanistan', ...)
$country = Intl::getRegionBundle()->getCountryName('GB');
// => 'United Kingdom'
All methods accept the translation locale as the last, optional parameter, which defaults to the current
default locale:
Listing 68-12
1 $countries = Intl::getRegionBundle()->getCountryNames('de');
2 // => array('AF' => 'Afghanistan', ...)
Locales
The translations of locale names can be found in the locale bundle:
Listing 68-13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use Symfony\Component\Intl\Intl;
\Locale::setDefault('en');
$locales = Intl::getLocaleBundle()->getLocaleNames();
// => array('af' => 'Afrikaans', ...)
$locale = Intl::getLocaleBundle()->getLocaleName('zh_Hans_MO');
// => 'Chinese (Simplified, Macau SAR China)'
All methods accept the translation locale as the last, optional parameter, which defaults to the current
default locale:
Listing 68-14
1 $locales = Intl::getLocaleBundle()->getLocaleNames('de');
2 // => array('af' => 'Afrikaans', ...)
Currencies
The translations of currency names and other currency-related information can be found in the currency
bundle:
Listing 68-15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use Symfony\Component\Intl\Intl;
\Locale::setDefault('en');
$currencies = Intl::getCurrencyBundle()->getCurrencyNames();
// => array('AFN' => 'Afghan Afghani', ...)
$currency = Intl::getCurrencyBundle()->getCurrencyName('INR');
// => 'Indian Rupee'
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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
$symbol = Intl::getCurrencyBundle()->getCurrencySymbol('INR');
// => '?'
$fractionDigits = Intl::getCurrencyBundle()->getFractionDigits('INR');
// => 2
$roundingIncrement = Intl::getCurrencyBundle()->getRoundingIncrement('INR');
// => 0
All methods (except for getFractionDigits()33 and getRoundingIncrement()34) accept the translation
locale as the last, optional parameter, which defaults to the current default locale:
Listing 68-16
1 $currencies = Intl::getCurrencyBundle()->getCurrencyNames('de');
2 // => array('AFN' => 'Afghanische Afghani', ...)
That's all you need to know for now. Have fun coding!
33. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/CurrencyBundleInterface.html#getFractionDigits()
34. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Intl/ResourceBundle/CurrencyBundleInterface.html#getRoundingIncrement()
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Chapter 69
The OptionsResolver Component
The OptionsResolver component is array_replace1 on steroids. It allows you to create an options
system with required options, defaults, validation (type, value), normalization and more.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/options-resolver on Packagist2);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/OptionsResolver3).
Notes on Previous Versions
New in version 2.6: This documentation was written for Symfony 2.6 and later. If you use an older
version, please read the Symfony 2.5 documentation4. For a list of changes, see the CHANGELOG5.
Usage
Imagine you have a Mailer class which has four options: host, username, password and port:
Listing 69-1
1 class Mailer
2 {
3
protected $options;
1. http://php.net/manual/en/function.array-replace.php
2. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/options-resolver
3. https://github.com/symfony/OptionsResolver
4. http://symfony.com/doc/2.5/components/options_resolver.html
5. https://github.com/symfony/symfony/blob/master/src/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/CHANGELOG.md#260
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4
5
6
7
8
9 }
public function __construct(array $options = array())
{
$this->options = $options;
}
When accessing the $options, you need to add a lot of boilerplate code to check which options are set:
Listing 69-2
1 class Mailer
2 {
3
// ...
4
public function sendMail($from, $to)
5
{
6
$mail = ...;
7
8
$mail->setHost(isset($this->options['host'])
9
? $this->options['host']
10
: 'smtp.example.org');
11
12
$mail->setUsername(isset($this->options['username'])
13
? $this->options['username']
14
: 'user');
15
16
$mail->setPassword(isset($this->options['password'])
17
? $this->options['password']
18
: 'pa$$word');
19
20
$mail->setPort(isset($this->options['port'])
21
? $this->options['port']
22
: 25);
23
24
// ...
25
}
26 }
This boilerplate is hard to read and repetitive. Also, the default values of the options are buried in the
business logic of your code. Use the array_replace6 to fix that:
Listing 69-3
1 class Mailer
2 {
3
// ...
4
5
public function __construct(array $options = array())
6
{
7
$this->options = array_replace(array(
8
'host'
=> 'smtp.example.org',
9
'username' => 'user',
10
'password' => 'pa$$word',
11
'port'
=> 25,
12
), $options);
13
}
14 }
Now all four options are guaranteed to be set. But what happens if the user of the Mailer class makes a
mistake?
6. http://php.net/manual/en/function.array-replace.php
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Listing 69-4
1 $mailer = new Mailer(array(
2
'usernme' => 'johndoe',
3 ));
No error will be shown. In the best case, the bug will appear during testing, but the developer will spend
time looking for the problem. In the worst case, the bug might not appear until it's deployed to the live
system.
Fortunately, the OptionsResolver7 class helps you to fix this problem:
Listing 69-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
use Symfony\Component\OptionsResolver\OptionsResolver;
class Mailer
{
// ...
public function __construct(array $options = array())
{
$resolver = new OptionsResolver();
$resolver->setDefaults(array(
'host'
=> 'smtp.example.org',
'username' => 'user',
'password' => 'pa$$word',
'port'
=> 25,
));
$this->options = $resolver->resolve($options);
}
}
Like before, all options will be guaranteed to be set. Additionally, an UndefinedOptionsException8 is
thrown if an unknown option is passed:
Listing 69-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
$mailer = new Mailer(array(
'usernme' => 'johndoe',
));
// UndefinedOptionsException: The option "usernme" does not exist.
// Known options are: "host", "password", "port", "username"
The rest of your code can access the values of the options without boilerplate code:
Listing 69-7
1 // ...
2 class Mailer
3 {
4
// ...
5
6
public function sendMail($from, $to)
7
{
8
$mail = ...;
9
$mail->setHost($this->options['host']);
10
$mail->setUsername($this->options['username']);
11
$mail->setPassword($this->options['password']);
12
$mail->setPort($this->options['port']);
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/Exception/UndefinedOptionsException.html
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13
14
15 }
// ...
}
It's a good practice to split the option configuration into a separate method:
Listing 69-8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
public function __construct(array $options = array())
{
$resolver = new OptionsResolver();
$this->configureOptions($resolver);
$this->options = $resolver->resolve($options);
}
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
$resolver->setDefaults(array(
'host'
=> 'smtp.example.org',
'username'
=> 'user',
'password'
=> 'pa$$word',
'port'
=> 25,
'encryption' => null,
));
}
}
First, your code becomes easier to read, especially if the constructor does more than processing options.
Second, sub-classes may now override the configureOptions() method to adjust the configuration of
the options:
Listing 69-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
// ...
class GoogleMailer extends Mailer
{
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
parent::configureOptions($resolver);
$resolver->setDefaults(array(
'host' => 'smtp.google.com',
'encryption' => 'ssl',
));
}
}
Required Options
If an option must be set by the caller, pass that option to setRequired()9. For example, to make the
host option required, you can do:
Listing 69-10
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setRequired()
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setRequired('host');
}
}
New in version 2.6: As of Symfony 2.6, setRequired() accepts both an array of options or a single
option. Prior to 2.6, you could only pass arrays.
If you omit a required option, a MissingOptionsException10 will be thrown:
Listing 69-11
1 $mailer = new Mailer();
2
3 // MissingOptionsException: The required option "host" is missing.
The setRequired()11 method accepts a single name or an array of option names if you have more than
one required option:
Listing 69-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setRequired(array('host', 'username', 'password'));
}
}
New in version 2.6: The methods isRequired()12 and getRequiredOptions()13 were introduced in
Symfony 2.6.
Use isRequired()14 to find out if an option is required. You can use getRequiredOptions()15 to retrieve
the names of all required options:
Listing 69-13
1 // ...
2 class GoogleMailer extends Mailer
3 {
4
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
5
{
6
parent::configureOptions($resolver);
7
8
if ($resolver->isRequired('host')) {
9
// ...
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/Exception/MissingOptionsException.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setRequired()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isRequired()
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#getRequiredOptions()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isRequired()
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#getRequiredOptions()
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10
11
12
13
14 }
}
$requiredOptions = $resolver->getRequiredOptions();
}
New in version 2.6: The methods isMissing()16 and getMissingOptions()17 were introduced in
Symfony 2.6.
If you want to check whether a required option is still missing from the default options, you can use
isMissing()18. The difference between this and isRequired()19 is that this method will return false if a
required option has already been set:
Listing 69-14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setRequired('host');
}
}
// ...
class GoogleMailer extends Mailer
{
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
parent::configureOptions($resolver);
$resolver->isRequired('host');
// => true
$resolver->isMissing('host');
// => true
$resolver->setDefault('host', 'smtp.google.com');
$resolver->isRequired('host');
// => true
$resolver->isMissing('host');
// => false
}
}
The method getMissingOptions()20 lets you access the names of all missing options.
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isMissing()
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#getMissingOptions()
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isMissing()
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isRequired()
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#getMissingOptions()
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Type Validation
You can run additional checks on the options to make sure they were passed correctly. To validate the
types of the options, call setAllowedTypes()21:
Listing 69-15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setAllowedTypes('host', 'string');
$resolver->setAllowedTypes('port', array('null', 'int'));
}
}
For each option, you can define either just one type or an array of acceptable types. You can pass any type
for which an is_<type>() function is defined in PHP. Additionally, you may pass fully qualified class or
interface names.
If you pass an invalid option now, an InvalidOptionsException22 is thrown:
Listing 69-16
1
2
3
4
5
6
$mailer = new Mailer(array(
'host' => 25,
));
// InvalidOptionsException: The option "host" with value "25" is
// expected to be of type "string"
In sub-classes, you can use addAllowedTypes()23 to add additional allowed types without erasing the
ones already set.
New in version 2.6: Before Symfony 2.6, setAllowedTypes() and addAllowedTypes() expected the
values to be given as an array mapping option names to allowed types: $resolver>setAllowedTypes(array('port' => array('null', 'int')));
Value Validation
Some options can only take one of a fixed list of predefined values. For example, suppose the Mailer
class has a transport option which can be one of sendmail, mail and smtp. Use the method
setAllowedValues()24 to verify that the passed option contains one of these values:
Listing 69-17
1 // ...
2 class Mailer
3 {
4
// ...
5
6
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
7
{
8
// ...
9
$resolver->setDefault('transport', 'sendmail');
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setAllowedTypes()
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/Exception/InvalidOptionsException.html
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#addAllowedTypes()
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setAllowedValues()
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10
11
12 }
$resolver->setAllowedValues('transport', array('sendmail', 'mail', 'smtp'));
}
If you pass an invalid transport, an InvalidOptionsException25 is thrown:
Listing 69-18
1
2
3
4
5
6
$mailer = new Mailer(array(
'transport' => 'send-mail',
));
// InvalidOptionsException: The option "transport" has the value
// "send-mail", but is expected to be one of "sendmail", "mail", "smtp"
For options with more complicated validation schemes, pass a closure which returns true for acceptable
values and false for invalid values:
Listing 69-19
1 $resolver->setAllowedValues(array(
2
// ...
3
$resolver->setAllowedValues('transport', function ($value) {
4
// return true or false
5
});
6 ));
In sub-classes, you can use addAllowedValues()26 to add additional allowed values without erasing the
ones already set.
New in version 2.6: Before Symfony 2.6, setAllowedValues() and addAllowedValues() expected the
values to be given as an array mapping option names to allowed values: $resolver>setAllowedValues(array('transport' => array('sendmail', 'mail', 'smtp')));
Option Normalization
Sometimes, option values need to be normalized before you can use them. For instance, assume that the
host should always start with http://. To do that, you can write normalizers. Normalizers are executed
after validating an option. You can configure a normalizer by calling setNormalizer()27:
Listing 69-20
1 // ...
2 class Mailer
3 {
4
// ...
5
6
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
7
{
8
// ...
9
10
$resolver->setNormalizer('host', function ($options, $value) {
11
if ('http://' !== substr($value, 0, 7)) {
12
$value = 'http://'.$value;
13
}
14
15
return $value;
16
});
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/Exception/InvalidOptionsException.html
26. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#addAllowedValues()
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setNormalizer()
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17
18 }
}
New in version 2.6: The method setNormalizer()28 was introduced in Symfony 2.6. Before, you had to
use setNormalizers()29.
The normalizer receives the actual $value and returns the normalized form. You see that the closure also
takes an $options parameter. This is useful if you need to use other options during normalization:
Listing 69-21
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setNormalizer('host', function ($options, $value) {
if (!in_array(substr($value, 0, 7), array('http://', 'https://'))) {
if ('ssl' === $options['encryption']) {
$value = 'https://'.$value;
} else {
$value = 'http://'.$value;
}
}
return $value;
});
}
}
Default Values that Depend on another Option
Suppose you want to set the default value of the port option based on the encryption chosen by the user
of the Mailer class. More precisely, you want to set the port to 465 if SSL is used and to 25 otherwise.
You can implement this feature by passing a closure as the default value of the port option. The closure
receives the options as argument. Based on these options, you can return the desired default value:
Listing 69-22
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
use Symfony\Component\OptionsResolver\Options;
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setDefault('encryption', null);
$resolver->setDefault('port', function (Options $options) {
if ('ssl' === $options['encryption']) {
return 465;
}
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setNormalizer()
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setNormalizers()
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17
18
19
20 }
return 25;
});
}
The argument of the callable must be type hinted as Options. Otherwise, the callable itself is
considered as the default value of the option.
The closure is only executed if the port option isn't set by the user or overwritten in a sub-class.
A previously set default value can be accessed by adding a second argument to the closure:
Listing 69-23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setDefaults(array(
'encryption' => null,
'host' => 'example.org',
));
}
}
class GoogleMailer extends Mailer
{
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
parent::configureOptions($resolver);
$options->setDefault('host', function (Options $options, $previousValue) {
if ('ssl' === $options['encryption']) {
return 'secure.example.org'
}
// Take default value configured in the base class
return $previousValue;
});
}
}
As seen in the example, this feature is mostly useful if you want to reuse the default values set in parent
classes in sub-classes.
Options without Default Values
In some cases, it is useful to define an option without setting a default value. This is useful if you need
to know whether or not the user actually set an option or not. For example, if you set the default value
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for an option, it's not possible to know whether the user passed this value or if it simply comes from the
default:
Listing 69-24
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setDefault('port', 25);
}
// ...
public
{
//
//
if
function sendMail($from, $to)
Is this the default value or did the caller of the class really
set the port to 25?
(25 === $this->options['port']) {
// ...
}
}
}
New in version 2.6: The method setDefined()30 was introduced in Symfony 2.6. Before, you had to use
setOptional()31.
You can use setDefined()32 to define an option without setting a default value. Then the option will
only be included in the resolved options if it was actually passed to resolve()33:
Listing 69-25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setDefined('port');
}
// ...
public function sendMail($from, $to)
{
if (array_key_exists('port', $this->options)) {
echo 'Set!';
} else {
echo 'Not Set!';
}
}
}
$mailer = new Mailer();
$mailer->sendMail($from, $to);
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setDefined()
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setOptional()
32. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#setDefined()
33. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#resolve()
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25
26
27
28
29
30
31
// => Not Set!
$mailer = new Mailer(array(
'port' => 25,
));
$mailer->sendMail($from, $to);
// => Set!
You can also pass an array of option names if you want to define multiple options in one go:
Listing 69-26
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
// ...
class Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
$resolver->setDefined(array('port', 'encryption'));
}
}
New in version 2.6: The method isDefined()34 and getDefinedOptions()35 were introduced in
Symfony 2.6.
The methods isDefined()36 and getDefinedOptions()37 let you find out which options are defined:
Listing 69-27
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
// ...
class GoogleMailer extends Mailer
{
// ...
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
parent::configureOptions($resolver);
if ($resolver->isDefined('host')) {
// One of the following was called:
// $resolver->setDefault('host', ...);
// $resolver->setRequired('host');
// $resolver->setDefined('host');
}
$definedOptions = $resolver->getDefinedOptions();
}
}
Performance Tweaks
With the current implementation, the configureOptions() method will be called for every single
instance of the Mailer class. Depending on the amount of option configuration and the number of
34. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isDefined()
35. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#getDefinedOptions()
36. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#isDefined()
37. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html#getDefinedOptions()
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created instances, this may add noticeable overhead to your application. If that overhead becomes a
problem, you can change your code to do the configuration only once per class:
Listing 69-28
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
// ...
class Mailer
{
private static $resolversByClass = array();
protected $options;
public function __construct(array $options = array())
{
// What type of Mailer is this, a Mailer, a GoogleMailer, ... ?
$class = get_class($this);
// Was configureOptions() executed before for this class?
if (!isset(self::$resolversByClass[$class])) {
self::$resolversByClass[$class] = new OptionsResolver();
$this->configureOptions(self::$resolversByClass[$class]);
}
$this->options = self::$resolversByClass[$class]->resolve($options);
}
protected function configureOptions(OptionsResolver $resolver)
{
// ...
}
}
Now the OptionsResolver38 instance will be created once per class and reused from that on. Be aware
that this may lead to memory leaks in long-running applications, if the default options contain references
to objects or object graphs. If that's the case for you, implement a method clearOptionsConfig() and
call it periodically:
Listing 69-29
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// ...
class Mailer
{
private static $resolversByClass = array();
public static function clearOptionsConfig()
{
self::$resolversByClass = array();
}
// ...
}
That's it! You now have all the tools and knowledge needed to easily process options in your code.
38. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/OptionsResolver/OptionsResolver.html
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Chapter 70
The Process Component
The Process component executes commands in sub-processes.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/process on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Process2).
Usage
The Process3 class allows you to execute a command in a sub-process:
Listing 70-1
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use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
$process->run();
// executes after the command finishes
if (!$process->isSuccessful()) {
throw new \RuntimeException($process->getErrorOutput());
}
echo $process->getOutput();
The component takes care of the subtle differences between the different platforms when executing the
command.
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/process
2. https://github.com/symfony/Process
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html
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The getOutput() method always return the whole content of the standard output of the command and
getErrorOutput() the content of the error output. Alternatively, the getIncrementalOutput()4 and
getIncrementalErrorOutput()5 methods returns the new outputs since the last call.
The clearOutput()6 method clears the contents of the output and clearErrorOutput()7 clears the
contents of the error output.
The mustRun() method is identical to run(), except that it will throw a ProcessFailedException8 if the
process couldn't be executed successfully (i.e. the process exited with a non-zero code):
Listing 70-2
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use Symfony\Component\Process\Exception\ProcessFailedException;
use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
try {
$process->mustRun();
echo $process->getOutput();
} catch (ProcessFailedException $e) {
echo $e->getMessage();
}
Getting real-time Process Output
When executing a long running command (like rsync-ing files to a remote server), you can give feedback
to the end user in real-time by passing an anonymous function to the run()9 method:
Listing 70-3
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use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
$process->run(function ($type, $buffer) {
if (Process::ERR === $type) {
echo 'ERR > '.$buffer;
} else {
echo 'OUT > '.$buffer;
}
});
Running Processes Asynchronously
You can also start the subprocess and then let it run asynchronously, retrieving output and the status in
your main process whenever you need it. Use the start()10 method to start an asynchronous process, the
isRunning()11 method to check if the process is done and the getOutput()12 method to get the output:
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#getIncrementalOutput()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#getIncrementalErrorOutput()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#clearOutput()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#clearErrorOutput()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Exception/ProcessFailedException.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#run()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#start()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#isRunning()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#getOutput()
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Listing 70-4
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$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
$process->start();
while ($process->isRunning()) {
// waiting for process to finish
}
echo $process->getOutput();
You can also wait for a process to end if you started it asynchronously and are done doing other stuff:
Listing 70-5
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$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
$process->start();
// ... do other things
$process->wait(function ($type, $buffer) {
if (Process::ERR === $type) {
echo 'ERR > '.$buffer;
} else {
echo 'OUT > '.$buffer;
}
});
The wait()13 method is blocking, which means that your code will halt at this line until the
external process is completed.
Stopping a Process
New in version 2.3: The signal parameter of the stop method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
Any asynchronous process can be stopped at any time with the stop()14 method. This method takes two
arguments: a timeout and a signal. Once the timeout is reached, the signal is sent to the running process.
The default signal sent to a process is SIGKILL. Please read the signal documentation below to find out
more about signal handling in the Process component:
Listing 70-6
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$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
$process->start();
// ... do other things
$process->stop(3, SIGINT);
Executing PHP Code in Isolation
If you want to execute some PHP code in isolation, use the PhpProcess instead:
Listing 70-7
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#wait()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#stop()
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\Process\PhpProcess;
$process = new PhpProcess(<<<EOF
<?php echo 'Hello World'; ?>
EOF
);
$process->run();
To make your code work better on all platforms, you might want to use the ProcessBuilder15 class
instead:
Listing 70-8
1 use Symfony\Component\Process\ProcessBuilder;
2
3 $builder = new ProcessBuilder(array('ls', '-lsa'));
4 $builder->getProcess()->run();
New in version 2.3: The ProcessBuilder::setPrefix16 method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
In case you are building a binary driver, you can use the setPrefix()17 method to prefix all the generated
process commands.
The following example will generate two process commands for a tar binary adapter:
Listing 70-9
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16
use Symfony\Component\Process\ProcessBuilder;
$builder = new ProcessBuilder();
$builder->setPrefix('/usr/bin/tar');
// '/usr/bin/tar' '--list' '--file=archive.tar.gz'
echo $builder
->setArguments(array('--list', '--file=archive.tar.gz'))
->getProcess()
->getCommandLine();
// '/usr/bin/tar' '-xzf' 'archive.tar.gz'
echo $builder
->setArguments(array('-xzf', 'archive.tar.gz'))
->getProcess()
->getCommandLine();
Process Timeout
You can limit the amount of time a process takes to complete by setting a timeout (in seconds):
Listing 70-10
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5
use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('ls -lsa');
$process->setTimeout(3600);
$process->run();
If the timeout is reached, a RuntimeException18 is thrown.
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/ProcessBuilder.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/ProcessBuilder.html#setPrefix()
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#setPrefix()
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Process/Exception/RuntimeException.html
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For long running commands, it is your responsibility to perform the timeout check regularly:
Listing 70-11
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$process->setTimeout(3600);
$process->start();
while ($condition) {
// ...
// check if the timeout is reached
$process->checkTimeout();
usleep(200000);
}
Process Idle Timeout
In contrast to the timeout of the previous paragraph, the idle timeout only considers the time since the
last output was produced by the process:
Listing 70-12
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use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('something-with-variable-runtime');
$process->setTimeout(3600);
$process->setIdleTimeout(60);
$process->run();
In the case above, a process is considered timed out, when either the total runtime exceeds 3600 seconds,
or the process does not produce any output for 60 seconds.
Process Signals
New in version 2.3: The signal method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
When running a program asynchronously, you can send it POSIX signals with the signal()19 method:
Listing 70-13
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7
use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('find / -name "rabbit"');
$process->start();
// will send a SIGKILL to the process
$process->signal(SIGKILL);
Due to some limitations in PHP, if you're using signals with the Process component, you may have
to prefix your commands with exec20. Please read Symfony Issue#575921 and PHP Bug#3999222 to
understand why this is happening.
POSIX signals are not available on Windows platforms, please refer to the PHP documentation23
for available signals.
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#signal()
20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exec_(operating_system)
21. https://github.com/symfony/symfony/issues/5759
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Process Pid
New in version 2.3: The getPid method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
You can access the pid24 of a running process with the getPid()25 method.
Listing 70-14
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use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('/usr/bin/php worker.php');
$process->start();
$pid = $process->getPid();
Due to some limitations in PHP, if you want to get the pid of a symfony Process, you may have
to prefix your commands with exec26. Please read Symfony Issue#575927 to understand why this is
happening.
Disabling Output
As standard output and error output are always fetched from the underlying process, it might be
convenient to disable output in some cases to save memory. Use disableOutput()28 and
enableOutput()29 to toggle this feature:
Listing 70-15
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5
use Symfony\Component\Process\Process;
$process = new Process('/usr/bin/php worker.php');
$process->disableOutput();
$process->run();
You can not enable or disable the output while the process is running.
If you disable the output, you cannot access getOutput, getIncrementalOutput, getErrorOutput
or getIncrementalErrorOutput. Moreover, you could not pass a callback to the start, run or
mustRun methods or use setIdleTimeout.
22. https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=39992
23. http://php.net/manual/en/pcntl.constants.php
24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_identifier
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#getPid()
26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exec_(operating_system)
27. https://github.com/symfony/symfony/issues/5759
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#disableOutput()
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Process/Process.html#enableOutput()
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Chapter 71
The PropertyAccess Component
The PropertyAccess component provides function to read and write from/to an object or array
using a simple string notation.
Installation
You can install the component in two different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/property-access on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/PropertyAccess2).
Usage
The entry point of this component is the PropertyAccess::createPropertyAccessor3 factory. This
factory will create a new instance of the PropertyAccessor4 class with the default configuration:
Listing 71-1
1 use Symfony\Component\PropertyAccess\PropertyAccess;
2
3 $accessor = PropertyAccess::createPropertyAccessor();
New in version 2.3: The createPropertyAccessor()5 method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
Previously, it was called getPropertyAccessor().
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/property-access
2. https://github.com/symfony/PropertyAccess
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccess.html#createPropertyAccessor()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccess.html#createPropertyAccessor()
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Reading from Arrays
You can read an array with the PropertyAccessor::getValue6 method. This is done using the index
notation that is used in PHP:
Listing 71-2
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// ...
$person = array(
'first_name' => 'Wouter',
);
echo $accessor->getValue($person, '[first_name]'); // 'Wouter'
echo $accessor->getValue($person, '[age]'); // null
As you can see, the method will return null if the index does not exists.
You can also use multi dimensional arrays:
Listing 71-3
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10
11
12
// ...
$persons = array(
array(
'first_name' => 'Wouter',
),
array(
'first_name' => 'Ryan',
)
);
echo $accessor->getValue($persons, '[0][first_name]'); // 'Wouter'
echo $accessor->getValue($persons, '[1][first_name]'); // 'Ryan'
Reading from Objects
The getValue method is a very robust method, and you can see all of its features when working with
objects.
Accessing public Properties
To read from properties, use the "dot" notation:
Listing 71-4
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10
11
// ...
$person = new Person();
$person->firstName = 'Wouter';
echo $accessor->getValue($person, 'firstName'); // 'Wouter'
$child = new Person();
$child->firstName = 'Bar';
$person->children = array($child);
echo $accessor->getValue($person, 'children[0].firstName'); // 'Bar'
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html#getValue()
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Accessing public properties is the last option used by PropertyAccessor. It tries to access the
value using the below methods first before using the property directly. For example, if you have a
public property that has a getter method, it will use the getter.
Using Getters
The getValue method also supports reading using getters. The method will be created using common
naming conventions for getters. It camelizes the property name (first_name becomes FirstName) and
prefixes it with get. So the actual method becomes getFirstName:
Listing 71-5
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13
14
// ...
class Person
{
private $firstName = 'Wouter';
public function getFirstName()
{
return $this->firstName;
}
}
$person = new Person();
echo $accessor->getValue($person, 'first_name'); // 'Wouter'
Using Hassers/Issers
And it doesn't even stop there. If there is no getter found, the accessor will look for an isser or hasser.
This method is created using the same way as getters, this means that you can do something like this:
Listing 71-6
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23
24
25
// ...
class Person
{
private $author = true;
private $children = array();
public function isAuthor()
{
return $this->author;
}
public function hasChildren()
{
return 0 !== count($this->children);
}
}
$person = new Person();
if ($accessor->getValue($person, 'author')) {
echo 'He is an author';
}
if ($accessor->getValue($person, 'children')) {
echo 'He has children';
}
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This will produce: He is an author
Magic __get() Method
The getValue method can also use the magic __get method:
Listing 71-7
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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
// ...
class Person
{
private $children = array(
'Wouter' => array(...),
);
public function __get($id)
{
return $this->children[$id];
}
}
$person = new Person();
echo $accessor->getValue($person, 'Wouter'); // array(...)
Magic __call() Method
At last, getValue can use the magic __call method, but you need to enable this feature by using
PropertyAccessorBuilder7:
Listing 71-8
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27
// ...
class Person
{
private $children = array(
'wouter' => array(...),
);
public function __call($name, $args)
{
$property = lcfirst(substr($name, 3));
if ('get' === substr($name, 0, 3)) {
return isset($this->children[$property])
? $this->children[$property]
: null;
} elseif ('set' === substr($name, 0, 3)) {
$value = 1 == count($args) ? $args[0] : null;
$this->children[$property] = $value;
}
}
}
$person = new Person();
// Enable magic __call
$accessor = PropertyAccess::createPropertyAccessorBuilder()
->enableMagicCall()
->getPropertyAccessor();
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessorBuilder.html
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28
29 echo $accessor->getValue($person, 'wouter'); // array(...)
New in version 2.3: The use of magic __call() method was introduced in Symfony 2.3.
The __call feature is disabled by default, you can enable it by
PropertyAccessorBuilder::enableMagicCallEnabled8 see Enable other Features.
calling
Writing to Arrays
The PropertyAccessor class can do more than just read an array, it can also write to an array. This can
be achieved using the PropertyAccessor::setValue9 method:
Listing 71-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
// ...
$person = array();
$accessor->setValue($person, '[first_name]', 'Wouter');
echo $accessor->getValue($person, '[first_name]'); // 'Wouter'
// or
// echo $person['first_name']; // 'Wouter'
Writing to Objects
The setValue method has the same features as the getValue method. You can use setters, the magic
__set method or properties to set values:
Listing 71-10
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7
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
// ...
class Person
{
public $firstName;
private $lastName;
private $children = array();
public function setLastName($name)
{
$this->lastName = $name;
}
public function __set($property, $value)
{
$this->$property = $value;
}
// ...
}
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessorBuilder.html#enableMagicCallEnabled()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html#setValue()
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
$person = new Person();
$accessor->setValue($person, 'firstName', 'Wouter');
$accessor->setValue($person, 'lastName', 'de Jong');
$accessor->setValue($person, 'children', array(new Person()));
echo $person->firstName; // 'Wouter'
echo $person->getLastName(); // 'de Jong'
echo $person->children; // array(Person());
You can also use __call to set values but you need to enable the feature, see Enable other Features.
Listing 71-11
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22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
// ...
class Person
{
private $children = array();
public function __call($name, $args)
{
$property = lcfirst(substr($name, 3));
if ('get' === substr($name, 0, 3)) {
return isset($this->children[$property])
? $this->children[$property]
: null;
} elseif ('set' === substr($name, 0, 3)) {
$value = 1 == count($args) ? $args[0] : null;
$this->children[$property] = $value;
}
}
}
$person = new Person();
// Enable magic __call
$accessor = PropertyAccess::createPropertyAccessorBuilder()
->enableMagicCall()
->getPropertyAccessor();
$accessor->setValue($person, 'wouter', array(...));
echo $person->getWouter(); // array(...)
Checking Property Paths
When you want to check whether PropertyAccessor::getValue10 can safely be called without actually
calling that method, you can use PropertyAccessor::isReadable11 instead:
Listing 71-12
1 $person = new Person();
2
3 if ($accessor->isReadable($person, 'firstName')) {
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html#getValue()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html#isReadable()
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4
5 }
// ...
The same is possible for PropertyAccessor::setValue12: Call the PropertyAccessor::isWritable13
method to find out whether a property path can be updated:
Listing 71-13
1 $person = new Person();
2
3 if ($accessor->isWritable($person, 'firstName')) {
4
// ...
5 }
Mixing Objects and Arrays
You can also mix objects and arrays:
Listing 71-14
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13
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17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
// ...
class Person
{
public $firstName;
private $children = array();
public function setChildren($children)
{
$this->children = $children;
}
public function getChildren()
{
return $this->children;
}
}
$person = new Person();
$accessor->setValue($person, 'children[0]', new Person);
// equal to $person->getChildren()[0] = new Person()
$accessor->setValue($person, 'children[0].firstName', 'Wouter');
// equal to $person->getChildren()[0]->firstName = 'Wouter'
echo 'Hello '.$accessor->getValue($person, 'children[0].firstName'); // 'Wouter'
// equal to $person->getChildren()[0]->firstName
Enable other Features
The PropertyAccessor14 can be configured to enable extra features. To do that you could use the
PropertyAccessorBuilder15:
Listing 71-15
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html#setValue()
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html#isWritable()
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessor.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/PropertyAccess/PropertyAccessorBuilder.html
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2
3
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7
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
// ...
$accessorBuilder = PropertyAccess::createPropertyAccessorBuilder();
// Enable magic __call
$accessorBuilder->enableMagicCall();
// Disable magic __call
$accessorBuilder->disableMagicCall();
// Check if magic __call handling is enabled
$accessorBuilder->isMagicCallEnabled(); // true or false
// At the end get the configured property accessor
$accessor = $accessorBuilder->getPropertyAccessor();
// Or all in one
$accessor = PropertyAccess::createPropertyAccessorBuilder()
->enableMagicCall()
->getPropertyAccessor();
Or you can pass parameters directly to the constructor (not the recommended way):
Listing 71-16
1 // ...
2 $accessor = new PropertyAccessor(true); // this enables handling of magic __call
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Chapter 72
The Routing Component
The Routing component maps an HTTP request to a set of configuration variables.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/routing on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Routing2).
Usage
In order to set up a basic routing system you need three parts:
• A RouteCollection3, which contains the route definitions (instances of the class Route4)
• A RequestContext5, which has information about the request
• A UrlMatcher6, which performs the mapping of the request to a single route
Here is a quick example. Notice that this assumes that you've already configured your autoloader to load
the Routing component:
Listing 72-1
1
2
3
4
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Routing\Matcher\UrlMatcher;
Symfony\Component\Routing\RequestContext;
Symfony\Component\Routing\RouteCollection;
Symfony\Component\Routing\Route;
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/routing
2. https://github.com/symfony/Routing
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Route.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RequestContext.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Matcher/UrlMatcher.html
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5
6
7
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14
15
$route = new Route('/foo', array('controller' => 'MyController'));
$routes = new RouteCollection();
$routes->add('route_name', $route);
$context = new RequestContext($_SERVER['REQUEST_URI']);
$matcher = new UrlMatcher($routes, $context);
$parameters = $matcher->match('/foo');
// array('controller' => 'MyController', '_route' => 'route_name')
Be careful when using $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'], as it may include any query parameters on the
URL, which will cause problems with route matching. An easy way to solve this is to use the
HttpFoundation component as explained below.
You can add as many routes as you like to a RouteCollection7.
The RouteCollection::add()8 method takes two arguments. The first is the name of the route. The
second is a Route9 object, which expects a URL path and some array of custom variables in its
constructor. This array of custom variables can be anything that's significant to your application, and is
returned when that route is matched.
If no matching route can be found a ResourceNotFoundException10 will be thrown.
In addition to your array of custom variables, a _route key is added, which holds the name of the
matched route.
Defining Routes
A full route definition can contain up to seven parts:
1. The URL path route. This is matched against the URL passed to the RequestContext, and can
contain named wildcard placeholders (e.g. {placeholders}) to match dynamic parts in the
URL.
2. An array of default values. This contains an array of arbitrary values that will be returned when
the request matches the route.
3. An array of requirements. These define constraints for the values of the placeholders as regular
expressions.
4. An array of options. These contain internal settings for the route and are the least commonly
needed.
5. A host. This is matched against the host of the request. See How to Match a Route Based on the
Host for more details.
6. An array of schemes. These enforce a certain HTTP scheme (http, https).
7. An array of methods. These enforce a certain HTTP request method (HEAD, GET, POST, ...).
Take the following route, which combines several of these ideas:
Listing 72-2
1 $route = new Route(
2
'/archive/{month}', // path
3
array('controller' => 'showArchive'), // default values
4
array('month' => '[0-9]{4}-[0-9]{2}', 'subdomain' => 'www|m'), // requirements
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html#add()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Route.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Exception/ResourceNotFoundException.html
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5
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16
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21
22
array(), // options
'{subdomain}.example.com', // host
array(), // schemes
array() // methods
);
// ...
$parameters = $matcher->match('/archive/2012-01');
// array(
//
'controller' => 'showArchive',
//
'month' => '2012-01',
//
'subdomain' => 'www',
//
'_route' => ...
// )
$parameters = $matcher->match('/archive/foo');
// throws ResourceNotFoundException
In this case, the route is matched by /archive/2012-01, because the {month} wildcard matches the
regular expression wildcard given. However, /archive/foo does not match, because "foo" fails the
month wildcard.
If you want to match all URLs which start with a certain path and end in an arbitrary suffix you
can use the following route definition:
Listing 72-3
1 $route = new Route(
2
'/start/{suffix}',
3
array('suffix' => ''),
4
array('suffix' => '.*')
5 );
Using Prefixes
You can add routes or other instances of RouteCollection11 to another collection. This way you can
build a tree of routes. Additionally you can define a prefix and default values for the parameters,
requirements, options, schemes and the host to all routes of a subtree using methods provided by the
RouteCollection class:
Listing 72-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
$rootCollection = new RouteCollection();
$subCollection = new RouteCollection();
$subCollection->add(...);
$subCollection->add(...);
$subCollection->addPrefix('/prefix');
$subCollection->addDefaults(array(...));
$subCollection->addRequirements(array(...));
$subCollection->addOptions(array(...));
$subCollection->setHost('admin.example.com');
$subCollection->setMethods(array('POST'));
$subCollection->setSchemes(array('https'));
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html
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13
14 $rootCollection->addCollection($subCollection);
Set the Request Parameters
The RequestContext12 provides information about the current request. You can define all parameters of
an HTTP request with this class via its constructor:
Listing 72-5
1 public function __construct(
2
$baseUrl = '',
3
$method = 'GET',
4
$host = 'localhost',
5
$scheme = 'http',
6
$httpPort = 80,
7
$httpsPort = 443,
8
$path = '/',
9
$queryString = ''
10 )
Normally you can pass the values from the $_SERVER variable to populate the RequestContext13. But If
you use the HttpFoundation component, you can use its Request14 class to feed the RequestContext15 in
a shortcut:
Listing 72-6
1 use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
2
3 $context = new RequestContext();
4 $context->fromRequest(Request::createFromGlobals());
Generate a URL
While the UrlMatcher16 tries to find a route that fits the given request you can also build a URL from a
certain route:
Listing 72-7
1
2
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5
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7
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9
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12
13
use Symfony\Component\Routing\Generator\UrlGenerator;
$routes = new RouteCollection();
$routes->add('show_post', new Route('/show/{slug}'));
$context = new RequestContext($_SERVER['REQUEST_URI']);
$generator = new UrlGenerator($routes, $context);
$url = $generator->generate('show_post', array(
'slug' => 'my-blog-post',
));
// /show/my-blog-post
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RequestContext.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RequestContext.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RequestContext.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Matcher/UrlMatcher.html
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If you have defined a scheme, an absolute URL is generated if the scheme of the current
RequestContext17 does not match the requirement.
Load Routes from a File
You've already seen how you can easily add routes to a collection right inside PHP. But you can also load
routes from a number of different files.
The Routing component comes with a number of loader classes, each giving you the ability to load a
collection of route definitions from an external file of some format. Each loader expects a FileLocator18
instance as the constructor argument. You can use the FileLocator19 to define an array of paths in which
the loader will look for the requested files. If the file is found, the loader returns a RouteCollection20.
If you're using the YamlFileLoader, then route definitions look like this:
Listing 72-8
1 # routes.yml
2 route1:
3
path:
4
defaults:
5
6 route2:
7
path:
8
defaults:
/foo
{ _controller: 'MyController::fooAction' }
/foo/bar
{ _controller: 'MyController::foobarAction' }
To load this file, you can use the following code. This assumes that your routes.yml file is in the same
directory as the below code:
Listing 72-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\Config\FileLocator;
use Symfony\Component\Routing\Loader\YamlFileLoader;
// look inside *this* directory
$locator = new FileLocator(array(__DIR__));
$loader = new YamlFileLoader($locator);
$collection = $loader->load('routes.yml');
Besides YamlFileLoader21 there are two other loaders that work the same way:
• XmlFileLoader22
• PhpFileLoader23
If you use the PhpFileLoader24 you have to provide the name of a PHP file which returns a
RouteCollection25:
Listing 72-10
1 // RouteProvider.php
2 use Symfony\Component\Routing\RouteCollection;
3 use Symfony\Component\Routing\Route;
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RequestContext.html
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/FileLocator.html
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Config/FileLocator.html
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/YamlFileLoader.html
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/XmlFileLoader.html
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/PhpFileLoader.html
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/PhpFileLoader.html
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
$collection = new RouteCollection();
$collection->add(
'route_name',
new Route('/foo', array('controller' => 'ExampleController'))
);
// ...
return $collection;
Routes as Closures
There is also the ClosureLoader26, which calls a closure and uses the result as a RouteCollection27:
Listing 72-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\Routing\Loader\ClosureLoader;
$closure = function () {
return new RouteCollection();
};
$loader = new ClosureLoader();
$collection = $loader->load($closure);
Routes as Annotations
Last but not least there are AnnotationDirectoryLoader28 and AnnotationFileLoader29 to load route
definitions from class annotations. The specific details are left out here.
The all-in-one Router
The Router30 class is an all-in-one package to quickly use the Routing component. The constructor
expects a loader instance, a path to the main route definition and some other settings:
Listing 72-12
1 public function __construct(
2
LoaderInterface $loader,
3
$resource,
4
array $options = array(),
5
RequestContext $context = null,
6
array $defaults = array()
7 );
With the cache_dir option you can enable route caching (if you provide a path) or disable caching (if it's
set to null). The caching is done automatically in the background if you want to use it. A basic example
of the Router31 class would look like:
Listing 72-13
1 $locator = new FileLocator(array(__DIR__));
2 $requestContext = new RequestContext($_SERVER['REQUEST_URI']);
3
26. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/ClosureLoader.html
27. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/RouteCollection.html
28. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/AnnotationDirectoryLoader.html
29. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Loader/AnnotationFileLoader.html
30. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Router.html
31. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Routing/Router.html
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4 $router = new Router(
5
new YamlFileLoader($locator),
6
'routes.yml',
7
array('cache_dir' => __DIR__.'/cache'),
8
$requestContext
9 );
10 $router->match('/foo/bar');
If you use caching, the Routing component will compile new classes which are saved in the
cache_dir. This means your script must have write permissions for that location.
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Chapter 73
How to Match a Route Based on the Host
You can also match on the HTTP host of the incoming request.
Listing 73-1
1 mobile_homepage:
2
path:
/
3
host:
m.example.com
4
defaults: { _controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:mobileHomepage }
5
6 homepage:
7
path:
/
8
defaults: { _controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:homepage }
Both routes match the same path /, however the first one will match only if the host is m.example.com.
Using Placeholders
The host option uses the same syntax as the path matching system. This means you can use placeholders
in your hostname:
Listing 73-2
1 projects_homepage:
2
path:
/
3
host:
"{project_name}.example.com"
4
defaults: { _controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:mobileHomepage }
5
6 homepage:
7
path:
/
8
defaults: { _controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:homepage }
You can also set requirements and default options for these placeholders. For instance, if you want to
match both m.example.com and mobile.example.com, you use this:
Listing 73-3
1 mobile_homepage:
2
path:
/
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3
host:
"{subdomain}.example.com"
4
defaults:
5
_controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:mobileHomepage
6
subdomain: m
7
requirements:
8
subdomain: m|mobile
9
10 homepage:
11
path:
/
12
defaults: { _controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:homepage }
You can also use service parameters if you do not want to hardcode the hostname:
Listing 73-4
1 mobile_homepage:
2
path:
/
3
host:
"m.{domain}"
4
defaults:
5
_controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:mobileHomepage
6
domain: "%domain%"
7
requirements:
8
domain: "%domain%"
9
10 homepage:
11
path: /
12
defaults: { _controller: AcmeDemoBundle:Main:homepage }
Make sure you also include a default option for the domain placeholder, otherwise you need to
include a domain value each time you generate a URL using the route.
Using Host Matching of Imported Routes
You can also set the host option on imported routes:
Listing 73-5
1 acme_hello:
2
resource: "@AcmeHelloBundle/Resources/config/routing.yml"
3
host:
"hello.example.com"
The host hello.example.com will be set on each route loaded from the new routing resource.
Testing your Controllers
You need to set the Host HTTP header on your request objects if you want to get past url matching in
your functional tests.
Listing 73-6
1 $crawler = $client->request(
2
'GET',
3
'/homepage',
4
array(),
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5
6
7 );
array(),
array('HTTP_HOST' => 'm.' . $client->getContainer()->getParameter('domain'))
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Chapter 74
The Security Component
The Security component provides a complete security system for your web application. It ships
with facilities for authenticating using HTTP basic or digest authentication, interactive form login
or X.509 certificate login, but also allows you to implement your own authentication strategies.
Furthermore, the component provides ways to authorize authenticated users based on their roles,
and it contains an advanced ACL system.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/security on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Security2).
Sections
• The Firewall and Authorization
• Authentication
• Authorization
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/security
2. https://github.com/symfony/Security
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Chapter 75
The Firewall and Authorization
Central to the Security component is authorization. This is handled by an instance of
AuthorizationCheckerInterface1. When all steps in the process of authenticating the user have been
taken successfully, you can ask the authorization checker if the authenticated user has access to a certain
action or resource of the application:
Listing 75-1
1
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7
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11
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13
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17
18
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23
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\AuthorizationChecker;
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Exception\AccessDeniedException;
// instance of
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Token\Storage\TokenStorageInterface
$tokenStorage = ...;
// instance of
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\AuthenticationManagerInterface
$authenticationManager = ...;
// instance of Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\AccessDecisionManagerInterface
$accessDecisionManager = ...;
$authorizationChecker = new AuthorizationChecker(
$tokenStorage,
$authenticationManager,
$accessDecisionManager
);
// ... authenticate the user
if (!$authorizationChecker->isGranted('ROLE_ADMIN')) {
throw new AccessDeniedException();
}
New in version 2.6: As of Symfony 2.6, the SecurityContext2 class was split in the
AuthorizationChecker3 and TokenStorage4 classes.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/AuthorizationCheckerInterface.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/SecurityContext.html
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Read the dedicated sections to learn more about Authentication and Authorization.
A Firewall for HTTP Requests
Authenticating a user is done by the firewall. An application may have multiple secured areas, so the
firewall is configured using a map of these secured areas. For each of these areas, the map contains a
request matcher and a collection of listeners. The request matcher gives the firewall the ability to find out
if the current request points to a secured area. The listeners are then asked if the current request can be
used to authenticate the user:
Listing 75-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\Security\Http\FirewallMap;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\RequestMatcher;
use Symfony\Component\Security\Http\Firewall\ExceptionListener;
$map = new FirewallMap();
$requestMatcher = new RequestMatcher('^/secured-area/');
// instances of Symfony\Component\Security\Http\Firewall\ListenerInterface
$listeners = array(...);
$exceptionListener = new ExceptionListener(...);
$map->add($requestMatcher, $listeners, $exceptionListener);
The firewall map will be given to the firewall as its first argument, together with the event dispatcher that
is used by the HttpKernel5:
Listing 75-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\Security\Http\Firewall;
use Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\KernelEvents;
// the EventDispatcher used by the HttpKernel
$dispatcher = ...;
$firewall = new Firewall($map, $dispatcher);
$dispatcher->addListener(
KernelEvents::REQUEST,
array($firewall, 'onKernelRequest')
);
The firewall is registered to listen to the kernel.request event that will be dispatched by the HttpKernel
at the beginning of each request it processes. This way, the firewall may prevent the user from going any
further than allowed.
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/AuthorizationChecker.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/Storage/TokenStorage.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/HttpKernel.html
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Firewall Listeners
When the firewall gets notified of the kernel.request event, it asks the firewall map if the request
matches one of the secured areas. The first secured area that matches the request will return a set of
corresponding firewall listeners (which each implement ListenerInterface6). These listeners will all
be asked to handle the current request. This basically means: find out if the current request contains
any information by which the user might be authenticated (for instance the Basic HTTP authentication
listener checks if the request has a header called PHP_AUTH_USER).
Exception Listener
If any of the listeners throws an AuthenticationException7, the exception listener that was provided
when adding secured areas to the firewall map will jump in.
The exception listener determines what happens next, based on the arguments it received when it was
created. It may start the authentication procedure, perhaps ask the user to supply their credentials
again (when they have only been authenticated based on a "remember-me" cookie), or transform the
exception into an AccessDeniedHttpException8, which will eventually result in an "HTTP/1.1 403:
Access Denied" response.
Entry Points
When the user is not authenticated at all (i.e. when the token storage has no token yet), the firewall's
entry point will be called to "start" the authentication process. An entry point should implement
AuthenticationEntryPointInterface9, which has only one method: start()10. This method receives
the current Request11 object and the exception by which the exception listener was triggered. The
method should return a Response12 object. This could be, for instance, the page containing the login
form or, in the case of Basic HTTP authentication, a response with a WWW-Authenticate header, which
will prompt the user to supply their username and password.
Flow: Firewall, Authentication, Authorization
Hopefully you can now see a little bit about how the "flow" of the security context works:
1. The Firewall is registered as a listener on the kernel.request event;
2. At the beginning of the request, the Firewall checks the firewall map to see if any firewall should
be active for this URL;
3. If a firewall is found in the map for this URL, its listeners are notified;
4. Each listener checks to see if the current request contains any authentication information - a
listener may (a) authenticate a user, (b) throw an AuthenticationException, or (c) do nothing
(because there is no authentication information on the request);
5. Once a user is authenticated, you'll use Authorization to deny access to certain resources.
Read the next sections to find out more about Authentication and Authorization.
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/Firewall/ListenerInterface.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Exception/AuthenticationException.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpKernel/Exception/AccessDeniedHttpException.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/EntryPoint/AuthenticationEntryPointInterface.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/EntryPoint/AuthenticationEntryPointInterface.html#start()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Response.html
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Chapter 76
Authentication
New in version 2.6: The TokenStorageInterface was introduced in Symfony 2.6. Prior, you had to use
the getToken() method of the SecurityContextInterface1.
When a request points to a secured area, and one of the listeners from the firewall map is able to
extract the user's credentials from the current Request2 object, it should create a token, containing these
credentials. The next thing the listener should do is ask the authentication manager to validate the given
token, and return an authenticated token if the supplied credentials were found to be valid. The listener
should then store the authenticated token using the token storage3:
Listing 76-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
use
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Security\Http\Firewall\ListenerInterface;
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Token\Storage\TokenStorageInterface;
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\AuthenticationManagerInterface;
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\Event\GetResponseEvent;
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Token\UsernamePasswordToken;
class SomeAuthenticationListener implements ListenerInterface
{
/**
* @var TokenStorageInterface
*/
private $tokenStorage;
/**
* @var AuthenticationManagerInterface
*/
private $authenticationManager;
/**
* @var string Uniquely identifies the secured area
*/
private $providerKey;
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/SecurityContextInterface.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/HttpFoundation/Request.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/Storage/TokenStorageInterface.html
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Chapter 76: Authentication | 328
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45 }
// ...
public function handle(GetResponseEvent $event)
{
$request = $event->getRequest();
$username = ...;
$password = ...;
$unauthenticatedToken = new UsernamePasswordToken(
$username,
$password,
$this->providerKey
);
$authenticatedToken = $this
->authenticationManager
->authenticate($unauthenticatedToken);
$this->tokenStorage->setToken($authenticatedToken);
}
A token can be of any class, as long as it implements TokenInterface4.
The Authentication Manager
The default authentication manager is an instance of AuthenticationProviderManager5:
Listing 76-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\AuthenticationProviderManager;
// instances of
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\AuthenticationProviderInterface
$providers = array(...);
$authenticationManager = new AuthenticationProviderManager($providers);
try {
$authenticatedToken = $authenticationManager
->authenticate($unauthenticatedToken);
} catch (AuthenticationException $failed) {
// authentication failed
}
The AuthenticationProviderManager, when instantiated, receives several authentication providers,
each supporting a different type of token.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/TokenInterface.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/AuthenticationProviderManager.html
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You may of course write your own authentication manager, it only has to implement
AuthenticationManagerInterface6.
Authentication Providers
Each provider (since it implements AuthenticationProviderInterface7) has a method supports()8
by which the AuthenticationProviderManager can determine if it supports the given token. If this
is
the
case,
the
manager
then
calls
the
provider's
method
AuthenticationProviderInterface::authenticate9. This method should return an authenticated
token or throw an AuthenticationException10 (or any other exception extending it).
Authenticating Users by their Username and Password
An authentication provider will attempt to authenticate a user based on the credentials they provided.
Usually these are a username and a password. Most web applications store their user's username and
a hash of the user's password combined with a randomly generated salt. This means that the average
authentication would consist of fetching the salt and the hashed password from the user data storage,
hash the password the user has just provided (e.g. using a login form) with the salt and compare both to
determine if the given password is valid.
This functionality is offered by the DaoAuthenticationProvider11. It fetches the user's data from a
UserProviderInterface12, uses a PasswordEncoderInterface13 to create a hash of the password and
returns an authenticated token if the password was valid:
Listing 76-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Provider\DaoAuthenticationProvider;
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\User\UserChecker;
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\User\InMemoryUserProvider;
Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Encoder\EncoderFactory;
$userProvider = new InMemoryUserProvider(
array(
'admin' => array(
// password is "foo"
'password' =>
'5FZ2Z8QIkA7UTZ4BYkoC+GsReLf569mSKDsfods6LYQ8t+a8EW9oaircfMpmaLbPBh4FOBiiFyLfuZmTSUwzZg==',
'roles'
=> array('ROLE_ADMIN'),
),
)
);
// for some extra checks: is account enabled, locked, expired, etc.?
$userChecker = new UserChecker();
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/AuthenticationManagerInterface.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Provider/AuthenticationProviderInterface.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Provider/
AuthenticationProviderInterface.html#supports()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Provider/
AuthenticationProviderInterface::authenticate.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Exception/AuthenticationException.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Provider/DaoAuthenticationProvider.html
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/User/UserProviderInterface.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/PasswordEncoderInterface.html
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20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
// an array of password encoders (see below)
$encoderFactory = new EncoderFactory(...);
$provider = new DaoAuthenticationProvider(
$userProvider,
$userChecker,
'secured_area',
$encoderFactory
);
$provider->authenticate($unauthenticatedToken);
The example above demonstrates the use of the "in-memory" user provider, but you may use any
user provider, as long as it implements UserProviderInterface14. It is also possible to let multiple
user providers try to find the user's data, using the ChainUserProvider15.
The Password Encoder Factory
The DaoAuthenticationProvider16 uses an encoder factory to create a password encoder for a given
type of user. This allows you to use different encoding strategies for different types of users. The default
EncoderFactory17 receives an array of encoders:
Listing 76-4
1
2
3
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5
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Encoder\EncoderFactory;
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Encoder\MessageDigestPasswordEncoder;
$defaultEncoder = new MessageDigestPasswordEncoder('sha512', true, 5000);
$weakEncoder = new MessageDigestPasswordEncoder('md5', true, 1);
$encoders = array(
'Symfony\\Component\\Security\\Core\\User\\User' => $defaultEncoder,
'Acme\\Entity\\LegacyUser'
=> $weakEncoder,
// ...
);
$encoderFactory = new EncoderFactory($encoders);
Each encoder should implement PasswordEncoderInterface18 or be an array with a class and an
arguments key, which allows the encoder factory to construct the encoder only when it is needed.
Creating a custom Password Encoder
There are many built-in password encoders. But if you need to create your own, it just needs to follow
these rules:
1. The class must implement PasswordEncoderInterface19;
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/User/UserProviderInterface.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/User/ChainUserProvider.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Provider/DaoAuthenticationProvider.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/EncoderFactory.html
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/PasswordEncoderInterface.html
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/PasswordEncoderInterface.html
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2. The implementations of encodePassword()20 and isPasswordValid()21 must first of all make
sure the password is not too long, i.e. the password length is no longer than 4096 characters.
This is for security reasons (see CVE-2013-575022), and you can use the
isPasswordTooLong()23 method for this check:
Listing 76-5
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7
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12
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17
18
19
20
21
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Exception\BadCredentialsException;
class FoobarEncoder extends BasePasswordEncoder
{
public function encodePassword($raw, $salt)
{
if ($this->isPasswordTooLong($raw)) {
throw new BadCredentialsException('Invalid password.');
}
// ...
}
public function isPasswordValid($encoded, $raw, $salt)
{
if ($this->isPasswordTooLong($raw)) {
return false;
}
// ...
}
Using Password Encoders
When the getEncoder()24 method of the password encoder factory is called with the user object as its
first argument, it will return an encoder of type PasswordEncoderInterface25 which should be used to
encode this user's password:
Listing 76-6
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12
13
14
// a Acme\Entity\LegacyUser instance
$user = ...;
// the password that was submitted, e.g. when registering
$plainPassword = ...;
$encoder = $encoderFactory->getEncoder($user);
// will return $weakEncoder (see above)
$encodedPassword = $encoder->encodePassword($plainPassword, $user->getSalt());
$user->setPassword($encodedPassword);
// ... save the user
Now, when you want to check if the submitted password (e.g. when trying to log in) is correct, you can
use:
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/PasswordEncoderInterface.html#encodePassword()
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/PasswordEncoderInterface.html#isPasswordValid()
22. http://symfony.com/blog/cve-2013-5750-security-issue-in-fosuserbundle-login-form
23. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/BasePasswordEncoder.html#isPasswordTooLong()
24. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/EncoderFactory.html#getEncoder()
25. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Encoder/PasswordEncoderInterface.html
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Listing 76-7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// fetch the Acme\Entity\LegacyUser
$user = ...;
// the submitted password, e.g. from the login form
$plainPassword = ...;
$validPassword = $encoder->isPasswordValid(
$user->getPassword(), // the encoded password
$plainPassword,
// the submitted password
$user->getSalt()
);
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Chapter 77
Authorization
When any of the authentication providers (see Authentication Providers) has verified the stillunauthenticated token, an authenticated token will be returned. The authentication listener should set
this token directly in the TokenStorageInterface1 using its setToken()2 method.
From then on, the user is authenticated, i.e. identified. Now, other parts of the application can use the
token to decide whether or not the user may request a certain URI, or modify a certain object. This
decision will be made by an instance of AccessDecisionManagerInterface3.
An authorization decision will always be based on a few things:
• The current token
For instance, the token's getRoles()4 method may be used to retrieve the roles of the
current user (e.g. ROLE_SUPER_ADMIN), or a decision may be based on the class of the
token.
• A set of attributes
Each attribute stands for a certain right the user should have, e.g. ROLE_ADMIN to make
sure the user is an administrator.
• An object (optional)
Any object for which access control needs to be checked, like an article or a comment
object.
New in version 2.6: The TokenStorageInterface was introduced in Symfony 2.6. Prior, you had to use
the setToken() method of the SecurityContextInterface5.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/Storage/TokenStorageInterface.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/Storage/TokenStorageInterface.html#setToken()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/AccessDecisionManagerInterface.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/TokenInterface.html#getRoles()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/SecurityContextInterface.html
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Access Decision Manager
Since deciding whether or not a user is authorized to perform a certain action can be a complicated
process, the standard AccessDecisionManager6 itself depends on multiple voters, and makes a final
verdict based on all the votes (either positive, negative or neutral) it has received. It recognizes several
strategies:
affirmative (default)
grant access as soon as any voter returns an affirmative response;
consensus
grant access if there are more voters granting access than there are denying;
unanimous
only grant access if none of the voters has denied access;
Listing 77-1
1
2
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5
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7
8
9
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\AccessDecisionManager;
// instances of Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\Voter\VoterInterface
$voters = array(...);
// one of "affirmative", "consensus", "unanimous"
$strategy = ...;
// whether or not to grant access when all voters abstain
$allowIfAllAbstainDecisions = ...;
// whether or not to grant access when there is no majority (applies only to the
"consensus" strategy)
$allowIfEqualGrantedDeniedDecisions = ...;
$accessDecisionManager = new AccessDecisionManager(
$voters,
$strategy,
$allowIfAllAbstainDecisions,
$allowIfEqualGrantedDeniedDecisions
);
You can change the default strategy in the configuration.
Voters
Voters are instances of VoterInterface7, which means they have to implement a few methods which
allows the decision manager to use them:
supportsAttribute($attribute)
will be used to check if the voter knows how to handle the given attribute;
supportsClass($class)
will be used to check if the voter is able to grant or deny access for an object of the given class;
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/AccessDecisionManager.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/Voter/VoterInterface.html
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vote(TokenInterface $token, $object, array $attributes)
this method will do the actual voting and return a value equal to one of the class constants of
VoterInterface8, i.e. VoterInterface::ACCESS_GRANTED, VoterInterface::ACCESS_DENIED or
VoterInterface::ACCESS_ABSTAIN;
The Security component contains some standard voters which cover many use cases:
AuthenticatedVoter
The
AuthenticatedVoter9
voter
supports
the
attributes
IS_AUTHENTICATED_FULLY,
IS_AUTHENTICATED_REMEMBERED, and IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY and grants access based on the
current level of authentication, i.e. is the user fully authenticated, or only based on a "remember-me"
cookie, or even authenticated anonymously?
Listing 77-2
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2
3
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5
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7
8
9
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11
12
13
14
15
16
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\AuthenticationTrustResolver;
$anonymousClass = 'Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Token\AnonymousToken';
$rememberMeClass = 'Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Token\RememberMeToken';
$trustResolver = new AuthenticationTrustResolver($anonymousClass, $rememberMeClass);
$authenticatedVoter = new AuthenticatedVoter($trustResolver);
// instance of Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authentication\Token\TokenInterface
$token = ...;
// any object
$object = ...;
$vote = $authenticatedVoter->vote($token, $object, array('IS_AUTHENTICATED_FULLY');
RoleVoter
The RoleVoter10 supports attributes starting with ROLE_ and grants access to the user when the required
ROLE_* attributes can all be found in the array of roles returned by the token's getRoles()11 method:
Listing 77-3
1 use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\Voter\RoleVoter;
2
3 $roleVoter = new RoleVoter('ROLE_');
4
5 $roleVoter->vote($token, $object, array('ROLE_ADMIN'));
RoleHierarchyVoter
The RoleHierarchyVoter12 extends RoleVoter13 and provides some additional functionality: it knows
how to handle a hierarchy of roles. For instance, a ROLE_SUPER_ADMIN role may have subroles
ROLE_ADMIN and ROLE_USER, so that when a certain object requires the user to have the ROLE_ADMIN
role, it grants access to users who in fact have the ROLE_ADMIN role, but also to users having the
ROLE_SUPER_ADMIN role:
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/Voter/VoterInterface.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/Voter/AuthenticatedVoter.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/Voter/RoleVoter.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/TokenInterface.html#getRoles()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/Voter/RoleHierarchyVoter.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/Voter/RoleVoter.html
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Listing 77-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\Voter\RoleHierarchyVoter;
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Role\RoleHierarchy;
$hierarchy = array(
'ROLE_SUPER_ADMIN' => array('ROLE_ADMIN', 'ROLE_USER'),
);
$roleHierarchy = new RoleHierarchy($hierarchy);
$roleHierarchyVoter = new RoleHierarchyVoter($roleHierarchy);
When you make your own voter, you may of course use its constructor to inject any dependencies
it needs to come to a decision.
Roles
Roles are objects that give expression to a certain right the user has. The only requirement is that they
implement RoleInterface14, which means they should also have a getRole()15 method that returns a
string representation of the role itself. The default Role16 simply returns its first constructor argument:
Listing 77-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Role\Role;
$role = new Role('ROLE_ADMIN');
// will echo 'ROLE_ADMIN'
echo $role->getRole();
Most authentication tokens extend from AbstractToken17, which means that the roles given to its
constructor will be automatically converted from strings to these simple Role objects.
Using the Decision Manager
The Access Listener
The access decision manager can be used at any point in a request to decide whether or not the current
user is entitled to access a given resource. One optional, but useful, method for restricting access based
on a URL pattern is the AccessListener18, which is one of the firewall listeners (see Firewall Listeners)
that is triggered for each request matching the firewall map (see A Firewall for HTTP Requests).
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Role/RoleInterface.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Role/Role/RoleInterface.html#getRole()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Role/Role.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authentication/Token/AbstractToken.html
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/Firewall/AccessListener.html
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It uses an access map (which should be an instance of AccessMapInterface19) which contains request
matchers and a corresponding set of attributes that are required for the current user to get access to the
application:
Listing 77-6
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
use Symfony\Component\Security\Http\AccessMap;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\RequestMatcher;
use Symfony\Component\Security\Http\Firewall\AccessListener;
$accessMap = new AccessMap();
$requestMatcher = new RequestMatcher('^/admin');
$accessMap->add($requestMatcher, array('ROLE_ADMIN'));
$accessListener = new AccessListener(
$securityContext,
$accessDecisionManager,
$accessMap,
$authenticationManager
);
Authorization Checker
The access decision manager is also available to other parts of the application via the isGranted()20
method of the AuthorizationChecker21. A call to this method will directly delegate the question to the
access decision manager:
Listing 77-7
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2
3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Authorization\AuthorizationChecker;
use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Exception\AccessDeniedException;
$authorizationChecker = new AuthorizationChecker(
$tokenStorage,
$authenticationManager,
$accessDecisionManager
);
if (!$authorizationChecker->isGranted('ROLE_ADMIN')) {
throw new AccessDeniedException();
}
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Http/AccessMapInterface.html
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/AuthorizationChecker.html#isGranted()
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Authorization/AuthorizationChecker.html
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Chapter 78
Securely Comparing Strings and Generating
Random Numbers
The Symfony Security component comes with a collection of nice utilities related to security. These
utilities are used by Symfony, but you should also use them if you want to solve the problem they address.
Comparing Strings
The time it takes to compare two strings depends on their differences. This can be used by an attacker
when the two strings represent a password for instance; it is known as a Timing attack1.
Internally, when comparing two passwords, Symfony uses a constant-time algorithm; you can use the
same strategy in your own code thanks to the StringUtils2 class:
Listing 78-1
1 use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Util\StringUtils;
2
3 // is some known string (e.g. password) equal to some user input?
4 $bool = StringUtils::equals($knownString, $userInput);
To avoid timing attacks, the known string must be the first argument and the user-entered string
the second.
Generating a Secure random Number
Whenever you need to generate a secure random number, you are highly encouraged to use the Symfony
SecureRandom3 class:
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timing_attack
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Util/StringUtils.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Util/SecureRandom.html
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Listing 78-2
1 use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Util\SecureRandom;
2
3 $generator = new SecureRandom();
4 $random = $generator->nextBytes(10);
The nextBytes()4 method returns a random string composed of the number of characters passed as an
argument (10 in the above example).
The SecureRandom class works better when OpenSSL is installed. But when it's not available, it falls back
to an internal algorithm, which needs a seed file to work correctly. Just pass a file name to enable it:
Listing 78-3
1 use Symfony\Component\Security\Core\Util\SecureRandom;
2
3 $generator = new SecureRandom('/some/path/to/store/the/seed.txt');
4 $random = $generator->nextBytes(10);
If you're using the Symfony Framework, you can access a secure random instance directly from the
container: its name is security.secure_random.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Security/Core/Util/SecureRandom.html#nextBytes()
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Chapter 79
The Serializer Component
The Serializer component is meant to be used to turn objects into a specific format (XML, JSON,
YAML, ...) and the other way around.
In order to do so, the Serializer component follows the following simple schema.
As you can see in the picture above, an array is used as a man in the middle. This way, Encoders will only
deal with turning specific formats into arrays and vice versa. The same way, Normalizers will deal with
turning specific objects into arrays and vice versa.
Serialization is a complicated topic, and while this component may not work in all cases, it can be a useful
tool while developing tools to serialize and deserialize your objects.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
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• Install it via Composer (symfony/serializer on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Serializer2).
Usage
Using the Serializer component is really simple. You just need to set up the Serializer3 specifying which
Encoders and Normalizer are going to be available:
Listing 79-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Serializer;
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Encoder\XmlEncoder;
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Encoder\JsonEncoder;
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Normalizer\GetSetMethodNormalizer;
$encoders = array(new XmlEncoder(), new JsonEncoder());
$normalizers = array(new GetSetMethodNormalizer());
$serializer = new Serializer($normalizers, $encoders);
There are several normalizers available, e.g. the GetSetMethodNormalizer4 or the
PropertyNormalizer5. To read more about them, refer to the Normalizers section of this page. All the
examples shown below use the GetSetMethodNormalizer.
Serializing an Object
For the sake of this example, assume the following class already exists in your project:
Listing 79-2
1 namespace Acme;
2
3 class Person
4 {
5
private $age;
6
private $name;
7
private $sportsman;
8
9
// Getters
10
public function getName()
11
{
12
return $this->name;
13
}
14
15
public function getAge()
16
{
17
return $this->age;
18
}
19
20
// Issers
21
public function isSportsman()
22
{
23
return $this->sportsman;
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/serializer
2. https://github.com/symfony/Serializer
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Serializer.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/GetSetMethodNormalizer.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/PropertyNormalizer.html
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24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 }
}
// Setters
public function setName($name)
{
$this->name = $name;
}
public function setAge($age)
{
$this->age = $age;
}
public function setSportsman($sportsman)
{
$this->sportsman = $sportsman;
}
Now, if you want to serialize this object into JSON, you only need to use the Serializer service created
before:
Listing 79-3
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2
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$person = new Acme\Person();
$person->setName('foo');
$person->setAge(99);
$person->setSportsman(false);
$jsonContent = $serializer->serialize($person, 'json');
// $jsonContent contains {"name":"foo","age":99,"sportsman":false}
echo $jsonContent; // or return it in a Response
The first parameter of the serialize()6 is the object to be serialized and the second is used to choose
the proper encoder, in this case JsonEncoder7.
Ignoring Attributes when Serializing
New in version 2.3: The GetSetMethodNormalizer::setIgnoredAttributes8 method was introduced in
Symfony 2.3.
As an option, there's a way to ignore attributes from the origin object when serializing. To remove those
attributes use the setIgnoredAttributes()9 method on the normalizer definition:
Listing 79-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Serializer;
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Encoder\JsonEncoder;
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Normalizer\GetSetMethodNormalizer;
$normalizer = new GetSetMethodNormalizer();
$normalizer->setIgnoredAttributes(array('age'));
$encoder = new JsonEncoder();
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Serializer.html#serialize()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Encoder/JsonEncoder.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/GetSetMethodNormalizer.html#setIgnoredAttributes()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/GetSetMethodNormalizer.html#setIgnoredAttributes()
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9 $serializer = new Serializer(array($normalizer), array($encoder));
10 $serializer->serialize($person, 'json'); // Output: {"name":"foo","sportsman":false}
Deserializing an Object
You'll now learn how to do the exact opposite. This time, the information of the Person class would be
encoded in XML format:
Listing 79-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$data = <<<EOF
<person>
<name>foo</name>
<age>99</age>
<sportsman>false</sportsman>
</person>
EOF;
$person = $serializer->deserialize($data, 'Acme\Person', 'xml');
In this case, deserialize()10 needs three parameters:
1. The information to be decoded
2. The name of the class this information will be decoded to
3. The encoder used to convert that information into an array
Converting Property Names when Serializing and Deserializing
New in version 2.7: The NameConverterInterface11 interface was introduced in Symfony 2.7.
Sometimes serialized attributes must be named differently than properties or getter/setter methods of
PHP classes.
The Serializer Component provides a handy way to translate or map PHP field names to serialized names:
The Name Converter System.
Given you have the following object:
Listing 79-6
1 class Company
2 {
3
public name;
4
public address;
5 }
And in the serialized form, all attributes must be prefixed by org_ like the following:
Listing 79-7
1 {"org_name": "Acme Inc.", "org_address": "123 Main Street, Big City"}
A custom name converter can handle such cases:
Listing 79-8
1 use Symfony\Component\Serializer\NameConverter\NameConverterInterface;
2
3 class OrgPrefixNameConverter implements NameConverterInterface
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Serializer.html#deserialize()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/NameConverter/NameConverterInterface.html
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4 {
5
public function normalize($propertyName)
6
{
7
return 'org_'.$propertyName;
8
}
9
10
public function denormalize($propertyName)
11
{
12
// remove org_ prefix
13
return 'org_' === substr($propertyName, 0, 4) ? substr($propertyName, 4) :
14 $propertyName;
15
}
}
The custom normalizer can be used by passing it as second parameter of any class extending
AbstractNormalizer12, including GetSetMethodNormalizer13 and PropertyNormalizer14:
Listing 79-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Encoder\JsonEncoder
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Normalizer\PropertyNormalizer;
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Serializer;
$nameConverter = new OrgPrefixNameConverter();
$normalizer = new PropertyNormalizer(null, $nameConverter);
$serializer = new Serializer(array(new JsonEncoder()), array($normalizer));
$obj = new Company();
$obj->name = 'Acme Inc.';
$obj->address = '123 Main Street, Big City';
$json = $serializer->serialize($obj);
// {"org_name": "Acme Inc.", "org_address": "123 Main Street, Big City"}
$objCopy = $serializer->deserialize($json);
// Same data as $obj
CamelCase to snake_case
New in version 2.7: The CamelCaseToUnderscoreNameConverter15 interface was introduced in Symfony
2.7.
In many formats, it's common to use underscores to separate words (also known as snake_case).
However, PSR-1 specifies that the preferred style for PHP properties and methods is CamelCase.
Symfony provides a built-in name converter designed to transform between snake_case and CamelCased
styles during serialization and deserialization processes:
Listing 79-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\NameConverter\CamelCaseToSnakeCaseNameConverter;
use Symfony\Component\Serializer\Normalizer\GetSetMethodNormalizer;
$normalizer = new GetSetMethodNormalizer(null, new CamelCaseToSnakeCaseNameConverter());
class Person
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/AbstractNormalizer.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/GetSetMethodNormalizer.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/PropertyNormalizer.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/NameConverter/CamelCaseToUnderscoreNameConverter.html
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
{
private $firstName;
public function __construct($firstName)
{
$this->firstName = $firstName;
}
public function getFirstName()
{
return $this->firstName;
}
}
$kevin = new Person('Kévin');
$normalizer->normalize($kevin);
// ['first_name' => 'Kévin'];
$anne = $normalizer->denormalize(array('first_name' => 'Anne'), 'Person');
// Person object with firstName: 'Anne'
Serializing Boolean Attributes
If you are using isser methods (methods prefixed by is, like Acme\Person::isSportsman()), the
Serializer component will automatically detect and use it to serialize related attributes.
Using Callbacks to Serialize Properties with Object Instances
When serializing, you can set a callback to format a specific object property:
Listing 79-11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
use
use
use
use
Acme\Person;
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Encoder\JsonEncoder;
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Normalizer\GetSetMethodNormalizer;
Symfony\Component\Serializer\Serializer;
$encoder = new JsonEncoder();
$normalizer = new GetSetMethodNormalizer();
$callback = function ($dateTime) {
return $dateTime instanceof \DateTime
? $dateTime->format(\DateTime::ISO8601)
: '';
};
$normalizer->setCallbacks(array('createdAt' => $callback));
$serializer = new Serializer(array($normalizer), array($encoder));
$person = new Person();
$person->setName('cordoval');
$person->setAge(34);
$person->setCreatedAt(new \DateTime('now'));
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24 $serializer->serialize($person, 'json');
25 // Output: {"name":"cordoval", "age": 34, "createdAt": "2014-03-22T09:43:12-0500"}
Normalizers
There are several types of normalizers available:
GetSetMethodNormalizer16
This normalizer reads the content of the class by calling the "getters" (public methods starting with
"get"). It will denormalize data by calling the constructor and the "setters" (public methods starting
with "set").
Objects are serialized to a map of property names (method name stripped of the "get" prefix and
converted to lower case) to property values.
PropertyNormalizer17
This normalizer directly reads and writes public properties as well as private and protected
properties. Objects are normalized to a map of property names to property values.
New in version 2.6: The PropertyNormalizer18 class was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
Handling Circular References
New in version 2.6: Handling of circular references was introduced in Symfony 2.6. In previous versions
of Symfony, circular references led to infinite loops.
Circular references are common when dealing with entity relations:
Listing 79-12
1 class Organization
2 {
3
private $name;
4
private $members;
5
6
public function setName($name)
7
{
8
$this->name = $name;
9
}
10
11
public function getName()
12
{
13
return $this->name;
14
}
15
16
public function setMembers(array $members)
17
{
18
$this->members = $members;
19
}
20
21
public function getMembers()
22
{
23
return $this->members;
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/GetSetMethodNormalizer.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/PropertyNormalizer.html
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/PropertyNormalizer.html
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24
25
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33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
}
}
class Member
{
private $name;
private $organization;
public function setName($name)
{
$this->name = $name;
}
public function getName()
{
return $this->name;
}
public function setOrganization(Organization $organization)
{
$this->organization = $organization;
}
public function getOrganization()
{
return $this->organization;
}
}
To avoid infinite loops, GetSetMethodNormalizer19 throws a CircularReferenceException20 when
such a case is encountered:
Listing 79-13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$member = new Member();
$member->setName('Kévin');
$org = new Organization();
$org->setName('Les-Tilleuls.coop');
$org->setMembers(array($member));
$member->setOrganization($org);
echo $serializer->serialize($org, 'json'); // Throws a CircularReferenceException
The setCircularReferenceLimit() method of this normalizer sets the number of times it will serialize
the same object before considering it a circular reference. Its default value is 1.
Instead of throwing an exception, circular references can also be handled by custom callables. This is
especially useful when serializing entities having unique identifiers:
Listing 79-14
1
2
3
4
5
6
$encoder = new JsonEncoder();
$normalizer = new GetSetMethodNormalizer();
$normalizer->setCircularReferenceHandler(function ($object) {
return $object->getName();
});
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Normalizer/GetSetMethodNormalizer.html
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Serializer/Exception/CircularReferenceException.html
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7
8 $serializer = new Serializer(array($normalizer), array($encoder));
9 echo $serializer->serialize($org, 'json');
10 // {"name":"Les-Tilleuls.coop","members":[{"name":"K\u00e9vin", organization:
"Les-Tilleuls.coop"}]}
JMSSerializer
A popular third-party library, JMS serializer21, provides a more sophisticated albeit more complex
solution. This library includes the ability to configure how your objects should be serialized/deserialized
via annotations (as well as YAML, XML and PHP), integration with the Doctrine ORM, and handling of
other complex cases.
21. https://github.com/schmittjoh/serializer
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Chapter 80
The Stopwatch Component
The Stopwatch component provides a way to profile code.
Installation
You can install the component in two different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/stopwatch on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Stopwatch2).
Usage
The Stopwatch component provides an easy and consistent way to measure execution time of certain
parts of code so that you don't constantly have to parse microtime by yourself. Instead, use the simple
Stopwatch3 class:
Listing 80-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\Stopwatch\Stopwatch;
$stopwatch = new Stopwatch();
// Start event named 'eventName'
$stopwatch->start('eventName');
// ... some code goes here
$event = $stopwatch->stop('eventName');
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/stopwatch
2. https://github.com/symfony/Stopwatch
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html
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The StopwatchEvent4 object can be retrieved from the start()5, stop()6, lap()7 and getEvent()8
methods. The latter should be used when you need to retrieve the duration of an event while it is still
running.
You can also provide a category name to an event:
Listing 80-2
1 $stopwatch->start('eventName', 'categoryName');
You can consider categories as a way of tagging events. For example, the Symfony Profiler tool uses
categories to nicely color-code different events.
Periods
As you know from the real world, all stopwatches come with two buttons: one to start and stop the
stopwatch, and another to measure the lap time. This is exactly what the lap()9 method does:
Listing 80-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$stopwatch = new Stopwatch();
// Start event named 'foo'
$stopwatch->start('foo');
// ... some code goes here
$stopwatch->lap('foo');
// ... some code goes here
$stopwatch->lap('foo');
// ... some other code goes here
$event = $stopwatch->stop('foo');
Lap information is stored as "periods" within the event. To get lap information call:
Listing 80-4
1 $event->getPeriods();
In addition to periods, you can get other useful information from the event object. For example:
Listing 80-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$event->getCategory();
$event->getOrigin();
$event->ensureStopped();
$event->getStartTime();
$event->getEndTime();
$event->getDuration();
$event->getMemory();
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Returns the category the event was started in
Returns the event start time in milliseconds
Stops all periods not already stopped
Returns the start time of the very first period
Returns the end time of the very last period
Returns the event duration, including all periods
Returns the max memory usage of all periods
Sections
Sections are a way to logically split the timeline into groups. You can see how Symfony uses sections to
nicely visualize the framework lifecycle in the Symfony Profiler tool. Here is a basic usage example using
sections:
Listing 80-6
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/StopwatchEvent.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html#start()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html#stop()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html#lap()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html#getEvent()
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html#lap()
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$stopwatch = new Stopwatch();
$stopwatch->openSection();
$stopwatch->start('parsing_config_file', 'filesystem_operations');
$stopwatch->stopSection('routing');
$events = $stopwatch->getSectionEvents('routing');
You can reopen a closed section by calling the openSection()10 method and specifying the id of the
section to be reopened:
Listing 80-7
1 $stopwatch->openSection('routing');
2 $stopwatch->start('building_config_tree');
3 $stopwatch->stopSection('routing');
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Stopwatch/Stopwatch.html#openSection()
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Chapter 81
The Templating Component
The Templating component provides all the tools needed to build any kind of template system.
It provides an infrastructure to load template files and optionally monitor them for changes. It also
provides a concrete template engine implementation using PHP with additional tools for escaping
and separating templates into blocks and layouts.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/templating on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Templating2).
Usage
The PhpEngine3 class is the entry point of the component. It needs a template name parser
(TemplateNameParserInterface4) to convert a template name to a template reference
(TemplateReferenceInterface5). It also needs a template loader (LoaderInterface6) which uses the
template reference to actually find and load the template:
Listing 81-1
1 use Symfony\Component\Templating\PhpEngine;
2 use Symfony\Component\Templating\TemplateNameParser;
3 use Symfony\Component\Templating\Loader\FilesystemLoader;
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/templating
2. https://github.com/symfony/Templating
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/TemplateNameParserInterface.html
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/TemplateReferenceInterface.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Loader/LoaderInterface.html
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4
5 $loader = new FilesystemLoader(__DIR__.'/views/%name%');
6
7 $templating = new PhpEngine(new TemplateNameParser(), $loader);
8
9 echo $templating->render('hello.php', array('firstname' => 'Fabien'));
Listing 81-2
1 <!-- views/hello.php -->
2 Hello, <?php echo $firstname ?>!
The render()7 method parses the views/hello.php file and returns the output text. The second
argument of render is an array of variables to use in the template. In this example, the result will be
Hello, Fabien!.
Templates will be cached in the memory of the engine. This means that if you render the same
template multiple times in the same request, the template will only be loaded once from the file
system.
The $view Variable
In all templates parsed by the PhpEngine, you get access to a mysterious variable called $view. That
variable holds the current PhpEngine instance. That means you get access to a bunch of methods that
make your life easier.
Including Templates
The best way to share a snippet of template code is to create a template that can then be included by other
templates. As the $view variable is an instance of PhpEngine, you can use the render method (which was
used to render the template originally) inside the template to render another template:
Listing 81-3
1 <?php $names = array('Fabien', ...) ?>
2 <?php foreach ($names as $name) : ?>
3
<?php echo $view->render('hello.php', array('firstname' => $name)) ?>
4 <?php endforeach ?>
Global Variables
Sometimes, you need to set a variable which is available in all templates rendered by an engine (like the
$app variable when using the Symfony framework). These variables can be set by using the addGlobal()8
method and they can be accessed in the template as normal variables:
Listing 81-4
1 $templating->addGlobal('ga_tracking', 'UA-xxxxx-x');
In a template:
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html#render()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html#addGlobal()
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Listing 81-5
1 <p>The google tracking code is: <?php echo $ga_tracking ?></p>
The global variables cannot be called this or view, since they are already used by the PHP engine.
The global variables can be overridden by a local variable in the template with the same name.
Output Escaping
When you render variables, you should probably escape them so that HTML or JavaScript code isn't
written out to your page. This will prevent things like XSS attacks. To do this, use the escape()9 method:
Listing 81-6
1 <?php echo $view->escape($firstname) ?>
By default, the escape() method assumes that the variable is outputted within an HTML context. The
second argument lets you change the context. For example, to output something inside JavaScript, use
the js context:
Listing 81-7
1 <?php echo $view->escape($var, 'js') ?>
The component comes with an HTML and JS escaper. You can register your own escaper using the
setEscaper()10 method:
Listing 81-8
1 $templating->setEscaper('css', function ($value) {
2
// ... all CSS escaping
3
4
return $escapedValue;
5 });
Helpers
The Templating component can be easily extended via helpers. Helpers are PHP objects that provide
features useful in a template context. The component has 2 built-in helpers:
• Assets Helper
• Slots Helper
Before you can use these helpers, you need to register them using set()11:
Listing 81-9
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html#escape()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html#setEscaper()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html#set()
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1 use Symfony\Component\Templating\Helper\AssetsHelper;
2 // ...
3
4 $templating->set(new AssetsHelper());
Custom Helpers
You can create your own helpers by creating a class which implements HelperInterface12. However,
most of the time you'll extend Helper13.
The Helper has one required method: getName()14. This is the name that is used to get the helper from
the $view object.
Creating a Custom Engine
Besides providing a PHP templating engine, you can also create your own engine using the Templating
component. To do that, create a new class which implements the EngineInterface15. This requires 3
method:
• render($name, array $parameters = array())16 - Renders a template
• exists($name)17 - Checks if the template exists
• supports($name)18 - Checks if the given template can be handled by this engine.
Using Multiple Engines
It is possible to use multiple engines at the same time using the DelegatingEngine19 class. This class
takes a list of engines and acts just like a normal templating engine. The only difference is that it
delegates the calls to one of the other engines. To choose which one to use for the template, the
EngineInterface::supports()20 method is used.
Listing 81-10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Acme\Templating\CustomEngine;
use Symfony\Component\Templating\PhpEngine;
use Symfony\Component\Templating\DelegatingEngine;
$templating = new DelegatingEngine(array(
new PhpEngine(...),
new CustomEngine(...),
));
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/HelperInterface.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/Helper.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/HelperInterface.html#getName()
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/EngineInterface.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/EngineInterface.html#render()
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/EngineInterface.html#exists()
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/EngineInterface.html#supports()
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/DelegatingEngine.html
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/EngineInterface.html#supports()
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Chapter 82
Slots Helper
More often than not, templates in a project share common elements, like the well-known header and
footer. Using this helper, the static HTML code can be placed in a layout file along with "slots", which
represent the dynamic parts that will change on a page-by-page basis. These slots are then filled in by
different children template. In other words, the layout file decorates the child template.
Displaying Slots
The slots are accessible by using the slots helper ($view['slots']). Use output()1 to display the content
of the slot on that place:
Listing 82-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
<!-- views/layout.php -->
<!doctype html>
<html>
<head>
<title>
<?php $view['slots']->output('title', 'Default title') ?>
</title>
</head>
<body>
<?php $view['slots']->output('_content') ?>
</body>
</html>
The first argument of the method is the name of the slot. The method has an optional second argument,
which is the default value to use if the slot is not available.
The _content slot is a special slot set by the PhpEngine. It contains the content of the subtemplate.
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/SlotsHelper.html#output()
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If you're using the standalone component, make sure you registered the SlotsHelper2:
Listing 82-2
1 use Symfony\Component\Templating\Helper\SlotsHelper;
2
3 // ...
4 $templateEngine->set(new SlotsHelper());
Extending Templates
The extend()3 method is called in the sub-template to set its parent template. Then $view['slots']>set()4 can be used to set the content of a slot. All content which is not explicitly set in a slot is in the
_content slot.
Listing 82-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
<!-- views/page.php -->
<?php $view->extend('layout.php') ?>
<?php $view['slots']->set('title', $page->title) ?>
<h1>
<?php echo $page->title ?>
</h1>
<p>
<?php echo $page->body ?>
</p>
Multiple levels of inheritance is possible: a layout can extend another layout.
For large slots, there is also an extended syntax:
Listing 82-4
1 <?php $view['slots']->start('title') ?>
2
Some large amount of HTML
3 <?php $view['slots']->stop() ?>
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/SlotsHelper.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/PhpEngine.html#extend()
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/SlotsHelper.html#set()
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Chapter 83
Assets Helper
The assets helper's main purpose is to make your application more portable by generating asset paths:
Listing 83-1
1 <link href="<?php echo $view['assets']->getUrl('css/style.css') ?>" rel="stylesheet">
2
3 <img src="<?php echo $view['assets']->getUrl('images/logo.png') ?>">
The assets helper can then be configured to render paths to a CDN or modify the paths in case your assets
live in a sub-directory of your host (e.g. http://example.com/app).
Configure Paths
By default, the assets helper will prefix all paths with a slash. You can configure this by passing a base
assets path as the first argument of the constructor:
Listing 83-2
1 use Symfony\Component\Templating\Helper\AssetsHelper;
2
3 // ...
4 $templateEngine->set(new AssetsHelper('/foo/bar'));
Now, if you use the helper, everything will be prefixed with /foo/bar:
Listing 83-3
1
2
3
4
<img src="<?php echo $view['assets']->getUrl('images/logo.png') ?>">
<!-- renders as:
<img src="/foo/bar/images/logo.png">
-->
Absolute Urls
You can also specify a URL to use in the second parameter of the constructor:
Listing 83-4
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1 // ...
2 $templateEngine->set(new AssetsHelper(null, 'http://cdn.example.com/'));
Now URLs are rendered like http://cdn.example.com/images/logo.png.
You can also use the third argument of the helper to force an absolute URL:
Listing 83-5
1
2
3
4
<img src="<?php echo $view['assets']->getUrl('images/logo.png', null, true) ?>">
<!-- renders as:
<img src="http://yourwebsite.com/foo/bar/images/logo.png">
-->
If you already set a URL in the constructor, using the third argument of getUrl will not affect the
generated URL.
Versioning
To avoid using the cached resource after updating the old resource, you can use versions which you bump
every time you release a new project. The version can be specified in the third argument:
Listing 83-6
1 // ...
2 $templateEngine->set(new AssetsHelper(null, null, '328rad75'));
Now, every URL is suffixed with ?328rad75. If you want to have a different format, you can specify the
new format in fourth argument. It's a string that is used in sprintf1. The first argument is the path and
the second is the version. For instance, %s?v=%s will be rendered as /images/logo.png?v=328rad75.
You can also generate a versioned URL on an asset-by-asset basis using the fourth argument of the helper:
Listing 83-7
1
2
3
4
<img src="<?php echo $view['assets']->getUrl('images/logo.png', null, false, '3.0') ?>">
<!-- renders as:
<img src="/images/logo.png?v=3.0">
-->
Multiple Packages
Asset path generation is handled internally by packages. The component provides 2 packages by default:
• PathPackage2
• UrlPackage3
You can also use multiple packages:
Listing 83-8
1 use Symfony\Component\Templating\Asset\PathPackage;
2
1. http://php.net/manual/en/function.sprintf.php
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Asset/PathPackage.html
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Asset/UrlPackage.html
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3
4
5
6
7
// ...
$templateEngine->set(new AssetsHelper());
$templateEngine->get('assets')->addPackage('images', new PathPackage('/images/'));
$templateEngine->get('assets')->addPackage('scripts', new PathPackage('/scripts/'));
This will setup the assets helper with 3 packages: the default package which defaults to / (set by the
constructor), the images package which prefixes it with /images/ and the scripts package which prefixes
it with /scripts/.
If you want to set another default package, you can use setDefaultPackage()4.
You can specify which package you want to use in the second argument of getUrl()5:
Listing 83-9
1
2
3
4
<img src="<?php echo $view['assets']->getUrl('foo.png', 'images') ?>">
<!-- renders as:
<img src="/images/foo.png">
-->
Custom Packages
You can create your own package by extending Package6.
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/AssetsHelper.html#setDefaultPackage()
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Helper/AssetsHelper.html#getUrl()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Templating/Asset/Package.html
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Chapter 84
The Translation Component
The Translation component provides tools to internationalize your application.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/translation on Packagist1);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Translation2).
Constructing the Translator
The main access point of the Translation component is Translator3. Before you can use it, you need to
configure it and load the messages to translate (called message catalogs).
Configuration
The constructor of the Translator class needs one argument: The locale.
Listing 84-1
1 use Symfony\Component\Translation\Translator;
2 use Symfony\Component\Translation\MessageSelector;
3
4 $translator = new Translator('fr_FR', new MessageSelector());
1. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/translation
2. https://github.com/symfony/Translation
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Translator.html
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The locale set here is the default locale to use. You can override this locale when translating strings.
The term locale refers roughly to the user's language and country. It can be any string that your
application uses to manage translations and other format differences (e.g. currency format). The
ISO 639-14 language code, an underscore (_), then the ISO 3166-1 alpha-25 country code (e.g.
fr_FR for French/France) is recommended.
Loading Message Catalogs
The messages are stored in message catalogs inside the Translator class. A message catalog is like a
dictionary of translations for a specific locale.
The Translation component uses Loader classes to load catalogs. You can load multiple resources for the
same locale, which will then be combined into one catalog.
The component comes with some default Loaders and you can create your own Loader too. The default
loaders are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ArrayLoader6 - to load catalogs from PHP arrays.
CsvFileLoader7 - to load catalogs from CSV files.
IcuDatFileLoader8 - to load catalogs from resource bundles.
IcuResFileLoader9 - to load catalogs from resource bundles.
IniFileLoader10 - to load catalogs from ini files.
MoFileLoader11 - to load catalogs from gettext files.
PhpFileLoader12 - to load catalogs from PHP files.
PoFileLoader13 - to load catalogs from gettext files.
QtFileLoader14 - to load catalogs from QT XML files.
XliffFileLoader15 - to load catalogs from Xliff files.
JsonFileLoader16 - to load catalogs from JSON files.
YamlFileLoader17 - to load catalogs from Yaml files (requires the Yaml component).
All file loaders require the Config component.
You can also create your own Loader, in case the format is not already supported by one of the default
loaders.
At first, you should add one or more loaders to the Translator:
Listing 84-2
1 // ...
2 $translator->addLoader('array', new ArrayLoader());
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ISO_639-1_codes
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-1#Current_codes
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/ArrayLoader.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/CsvFileLoader.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/IcuDatFileLoader.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/IcuResFileLoader.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/IniFileLoader.html
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/MoFileLoader.html
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/PhpFileLoader.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/PoFileLoader.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/QtFileLoader.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/XliffFileLoader.html
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/JsonFileLoader.html
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/YamlFileLoader.html
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The first argument is the name to which you can refer the loader in the translator and the second
argument is an instance of the loader itself. After this, you can add your resources using the correct
loader.
Loading Messages with the ArrayLoader
Loading messages can be done by calling addResource()18. The first argument is the loader name (this
was the first argument of the addLoader method), the second is the resource and the third argument is
the locale:
Listing 84-3
1 // ...
2 $translator->addResource('array', array(
3
'Hello World!' => 'Bonjour',
4 ), 'fr_FR');
Loading Messages with the File Loaders
If you use one of the file loaders, you should also use the addResource method. The only difference is
that you should put the file name to the resource file as the second argument, instead of an array:
Listing 84-4
1 // ...
2 $translator->addLoader('yaml', new YamlFileLoader());
3 $translator->addResource('yaml', 'path/to/messages.fr.yml', 'fr_FR');
The Translation Process
To actually translate the message, the Translator uses a simple process:
• A catalog of translated messages is loaded from translation resources defined for the locale
(e.g. fr_FR). Messages from the Fallback Locales are also loaded and added to the catalog, if
they don't already exist. The end result is a large "dictionary" of translations;
• If the message is located in the catalog, the translation is returned. If not, the translator returns
the original message.
You start this process by calling trans()19 or transChoice()20. Then, the Translator looks for the exact
string inside the appropriate message catalog and returns it (if it exists).
Fallback Locales
If the message is not located in the catalog of the specific locale, the translator will look into the catalog
of one or more fallback locales. For example, assume you're trying to translate into the fr_FR locale:
1. First, the translator looks for the translation in the fr_FR locale;
2. If it wasn't found, the translator looks for the translation in the fr locale;
3. If the translation still isn't found, the translator uses the one or more fallback locales set
explicitly on the translator.
For (3), the fallback locales can be set by calling setFallbackLocale()21:
Listing 84-5
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Translator.html#addResource()
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Translator.html#trans()
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Translator.html#transChoice()
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Translator.html#setFallbackLocale()
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1 // ...
2 $translator->setFallbackLocale(array('en'));
Using Message Domains
As you've seen, message files are organized into the different locales that they translate. The message files
can also be organized further into "domains".
The domain is specified in the fourth argument of the addResource() method. The default domain
is messages. For example, suppose that, for organization, translations were split into three different
domains: messages, admin and navigation. The French translation would be loaded like this:
Listing 84-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
// ...
$translator->addLoader('xliff', new XliffLoader());
$translator->addResource('xliff', 'messages.fr.xliff', 'fr_FR');
$translator->addResource('xliff', 'admin.fr.xliff', 'fr_FR', 'admin');
$translator->addResource(
'xliff',
'navigation.fr.xliff',
'fr_FR',
'navigation'
);
When translating strings that are not in the default domain (messages), you must specify the domain as
the third argument of trans():
Listing 84-7
1 $translator->trans('Symfony is great', array(), 'admin');
Symfony will now look for the message in the admin domain of the specified locale.
Usage
Read how to use the Translation component in Using the Translator.
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Chapter 85
Using the Translator
Imagine you want to translate the string "Symfony is great" into French:
Listing 85-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\Translation\Translator;
use Symfony\Component\Translation\Loader\ArrayLoader;
$translator = new Translator('fr_FR');
$translator->addLoader('array', new ArrayLoader());
$translator->addResource('array', array(
'Symfony is great!' => 'J\'aime Symfony!',
), 'fr_FR');
echo $translator->trans('Symfony is great!');
In this example, the message "Symfony is great!" will be translated into the locale set in the constructor
(fr_FR) if the message exists in one of the message catalogs.
Message Placeholders
Sometimes, a message containing a variable needs to be translated:
Listing 85-2
1 // ...
2 $translated = $translator->trans('Hello '.$name);
3
4 echo $translated;
However, creating a translation for this string is impossible since the translator will try to look up the
exact message, including the variable portions (e.g. "Hello Ryan" or "Hello Fabien"). Instead of writing
a translation for every possible iteration of the $name variable, you can replace the variable with a
"placeholder":
Listing 85-3
1 // ...
2 $translated = $translator->trans(
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3
'Hello %name%',
4
array('%name%' => $name)
5 );
6
7 echo $translated;
Symfony will now look for a translation of the raw message (Hello %name%) and then replace the
placeholders with their values. Creating a translation is done just as before:
Listing 85-4
1 <?xml version="1.0"?>
2 <xliff version="1.2" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:document:1.2">
3
<file source-language="en" datatype="plaintext" original="file.ext">
4
<body>
5
<trans-unit id="1">
6
<source>Hello %name%</source>
7
<target>Bonjour %name%</target>
8
</trans-unit>
9
</body>
10
</file>
11 </xliff>
The placeholders can take on any form as the full message is reconstructed using the PHP strtr
function1. But the %...% form is recommended, to avoid problems when using Twig.
As you've seen, creating a translation is a two-step process:
1. Abstract the message that needs to be translated by processing it through the Translator.
2. Create a translation for the message in each locale that you choose to support.
The second step is done by creating message catalogs that define the translations for any number of
different locales.
Creating Translations
The act of creating translation files is an important part of "localization" (often abbreviated L10n2).
Translation files consist of a series of id-translation pairs for the given domain and locale. The source is
the identifier for the individual translation, and can be the message in the main locale (e.g. "Symfony is
great") of your application or a unique identifier (e.g. symfony.great - see the sidebar below).
Translation files can be created in several different formats, XLIFF being the recommended format. These
files are parsed by one of the loader classes.
Listing 85-5
1 <?xml version="1.0"?>
2 <xliff version="1.2" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:document:1.2">
3
<file source-language="en" datatype="plaintext" original="file.ext">
4
<body>
5
<trans-unit id="1">
6
<source>Symfony is great</source>
7
<target>J'aime Symfony</target>
8
</trans-unit>
9
<trans-unit id="2">
1. http://php.net/manual/en/function.strtr.php
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization_and_localization
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10
<source>symfony.great</source>
11
<target>J'aime Symfony</target>
12
</trans-unit>
13
</body>
14
</file>
15 </xliff>
Using Real or Keyword Messages
This example illustrates the two different philosophies when creating messages to be translated:
Listing 85-6
1 $translator->trans('Symfony is great');
2
3 $translator->trans('symfony.great');
In the first method, messages are written in the language of the default locale (English in this case).
That message is then used as the "id" when creating translations.
In the second method, messages are actually "keywords" that convey the idea of the message. The
keyword message is then used as the "id" for any translations. In this case, translations must be
made for the default locale (i.e. to translate symfony.great to Symfony is great).
The second method is handy because the message key won't need to be changed in every
translation file if you decide that the message should actually read "Symfony is really great" in the
default locale.
The choice of which method to use is entirely up to you, but the "keyword" format is often
recommended.
Additionally, the php and yaml file formats support nested ids to avoid repeating yourself if you
use keywords instead of real text for your ids:
Listing 85-7
1 symfony:
2
is:
3
great: Symfony is great
4
amazing: Symfony is amazing
5
has:
6
bundles: Symfony has bundles
7 user:
8
login: Login
The multiple levels are flattened into single id/translation pairs by adding a dot (.) between every
level, therefore the above examples are equivalent to the following:
Listing 85-8
1
2
3
4
symfony.is.great: Symfony is great
symfony.is.amazing: Symfony is amazing
symfony.has.bundles: Symfony has bundles
user.login: Login
Pluralization
Message pluralization is a tough topic as the rules can be quite complex. For instance, here is the
mathematical representation of the Russian pluralization rules:
Listing 85-9
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1 (($number % 10 == 1) && ($number % 100 != 11))
2
? 0
3
: ((($number % 10 >= 2)
4
&& ($number % 10 <= 4)
5
&& (($number % 100 < 10)
6
|| ($number % 100 >= 20)))
7
? 1
8
: 2
9 );
As you can see, in Russian, you can have three different plural forms, each given an index of 0, 1 or 2.
For each form, the plural is different, and so the translation is also different.
When a translation has different forms due to pluralization, you can provide all the forms as a string
separated by a pipe (|):
Listing 85-10
1 'There is one apple|There are %count% apples'
To translate pluralized messages, use the transChoice()3 method:
Listing 85-11
1 $translator->transChoice(
2
'There is one apple|There are %count% apples',
3
10,
4
array('%count%' => 10)
5 );
The second argument (10 in this example) is the number of objects being described and is used to
determine which translation to use and also to populate the %count% placeholder.
Based on the given number, the translator chooses the right plural form. In English, most words have a
singular form when there is exactly one object and a plural form for all other numbers (0, 2, 3...). So, if
count is 1, the translator will use the first string (There is one apple) as the translation. Otherwise it
will use There are %count% apples.
Here is the French translation:
Listing 85-12
1 'Il y a %count% pomme|Il y a %count% pommes'
Even if the string looks similar (it is made of two sub-strings separated by a pipe), the French rules are
different: the first form (no plural) is used when count is 0 or 1. So, the translator will automatically use
the first string (Il y a %count% pomme) when count is 0 or 1.
Each locale has its own set of rules, with some having as many as six different plural forms with complex
rules behind which numbers map to which plural form. The rules are quite simple for English and
French, but for Russian, you'd may want a hint to know which rule matches which string. To help
translators, you can optionally "tag" each string:
Listing 85-13
1 'one: There is one apple|some: There are %count% apples'
2
3 'none_or_one: Il y a %count% pomme|some: Il y a %count% pommes'
The tags are really only hints for translators and don't affect the logic used to determine which plural
form to use. The tags can be any descriptive string that ends with a colon (:). The tags also do not need
to be the same in the original message as in the translated one.
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Translator.html#transChoice()
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As tags are optional, the translator doesn't use them (the translator will only get a string based on
its position in the string).
Explicit Interval Pluralization
The easiest way to pluralize a message is to let the Translator use internal logic to choose which string
to use based on a given number. Sometimes, you'll need more control or want a different translation for
specific cases (for 0, or when the count is negative, for example). For such cases, you can use explicit
math intervals:
Listing 85-14
1 '{0} There are no apples|{1} There is one apple|]1,19] There are %count% apples|[20,Inf]
There are many apples'
The intervals follow the ISO 31-114 notation. The above string specifies four different intervals: exactly
0, exactly 1, 2-19, and 20 and higher.
You can also mix explicit math rules and standard rules. In this case, if the count is not matched by a
specific interval, the standard rules take effect after removing the explicit rules:
Listing 85-15
1 '{0} There are no apples|[20,Inf] There are many apples|There is one apple|a_few: There are
%count% apples'
For example, for 1 apple, the standard rule There is one apple will be used. For 2-19 apples, the
second standard rule There are %count% apples will be selected.
An Interval5 can represent a finite set of numbers:
Listing 85-16
1 {1,2,3,4}
Or numbers between two other numbers:
Listing 85-17
1 [1, +Inf[
2 ]-1,2[
The left delimiter can be [ (inclusive) or ] (exclusive). The right delimiter can be [ (exclusive) or ]
(inclusive). Beside numbers, you can use -Inf and +Inf for the infinite.
Forcing the Translator Locale
When translating a message, the Translator uses the specified locale or the fallback locale if necessary.
You can also manually specify the locale to use for translation:
Listing 85-18
1 $translator->trans(
2
'Symfony is great',
3
array(),
4
'messages',
5
'fr_FR'
6 );
7
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interval_(mathematics)#Notations_for_intervals
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Interval.html
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8 $translator->transChoice(
9
'{0} There are no apples|{1} There is one apple|]1,Inf[ There are %count% apples',
10
10,
11
array('%count%' => 10),
12
'messages',
13
'fr_FR'
14 );
Retrieving the Message Catalogue
In case you want to use the same translation catalogue outside your application (e.g. use translation on
the client side), it's possible to fetch raw translation messages. Just specify the required locale:
Listing 85-19
1 $messages = $translator->getMessages('fr_FR');
The $messages variable will have the following structure:
Listing 85-20
1 array(
2
'messages' => array(
3
'Hello world' => 'Bonjour tout le monde',
4
),
5
'validators' => array(
6
'Value should not be empty' => 'Valeur ne doit pas être vide',
7
'Value is too long' => 'Valeur est trop long',
8
),
9 );
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Chapter 86
Adding Custom Format Support
Sometimes, you need to deal with custom formats for translation files. The Translation component is
flexible enough to support this. Just create a loader (to load translations) and, optionally, a dumper (to
dump translations).
Imagine that you have a custom format where translation messages are defined using one line for each
translation and parentheses to wrap the key and the message. A translation file would look like this:
Listing 86-1
1 (welcome)(accueil)
2 (goodbye)(au revoir)
3 (hello)(bonjour)
Creating a Custom Loader
To define a custom loader that is able to read these kinds of files, you must create a new class that
implements the LoaderInterface1. The load()2 method will get a filename and parse it into an array.
Then, it will create the catalog that will be returned:
Listing 86-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
use Symfony\Component\Translation\MessageCatalogue;
use Symfony\Component\Translation\Loader\LoaderInterface;
class MyFormatLoader implements LoaderInterface
{
public function load($resource, $locale, $domain = 'messages')
{
$messages = array();
$lines = file($resource);
foreach ($lines as $line) {
if (preg_match('/\(([^\)]+)\)\(([^\)]+)\)/', $line, $matches)) {
$messages[$matches[1]] = $matches[2];
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/LoaderInterface.html
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Loader/LoaderInterface.html#load()
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14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23 }
}
}
$catalogue = new MessageCatalogue($locale);
$catalogue->add($messages, $domain);
return $catalogue;
}
Once created, it can be used as any other loader:
Listing 86-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\Translation\Translator;
$translator = new Translator('fr_FR');
$translator->addLoader('my_format', new MyFormatLoader());
$translator->addResource('my_format', __DIR__.'/translations/messages.txt', 'fr_FR');
echo $translator->trans('welcome');
It will print "accueil".
Creating a Custom Dumper
It is also possible to create a custom dumper for your format, which is useful when using the extraction
commands. To do so, a new class implementing the DumperInterface3 must be created. To write the
dump contents into a file, extending the FileDumper4 class will save a few lines:
Listing 86-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
use Symfony\Component\Translation\MessageCatalogue;
use Symfony\Component\Translation\Dumper\FileDumper;
class MyFormatDumper extends FileDumper
{
protected function format(MessageCatalogue $messages, $domain = 'messages')
{
$output = '';
foreach ($messages->all($domain) as $source => $target) {
$output .= sprintf("(%s)(%s)\n", $source, $target);
}
return $output;
}
protected function getExtension()
{
return 'txt';
}
}
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Dumper/DumperInterface.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Dumper/FileDumper.html
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The format()5 method creates the output string, that will be used by the dump()6 method of the
FileDumper class to create the file. The dumper can be used like any other built-in dumper. In the
following example, the translation messages defined in the YAML file are dumped into a text file with the
custom format:
Listing 86-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\Translation\Loader\YamlFileLoader;
$loader = new YamlFileLoader();
$catalogue = $loader->load(__DIR__ . '/translations/messages.fr_FR.yml' , 'fr_FR');
$dumper = new MyFormatDumper();
$dumper->dump($catalogue, array('path' => __DIR__.'/dumps'));
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Dumper/FileDumper.html#format()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Translation/Dumper/FileDumper.html#dump()
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Chapter 87
The VarDumper Component
The VarDumper component provides mechanisms for walking through any arbitrary PHP variable.
Built on top, it provides a better dump() function that you can use instead of var_dump1.
New in version 2.6: The VarDumper component was introduced in Symfony 2.6.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/var-dumper on Packagist2);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/var-dumper3).
The dump() Function
The VarDumper component creates a global dump() function that you can use instead of e.g. var_dump4.
By using it, you'll gain:
• Per object and resource types specialized view to e.g. filter out Doctrine internals while
dumping a single proxy entity, or get more insight on opened files with
stream_get_meta_data5;
• Configurable output formats: HTML or colored command line output;
• Ability to dump internal references, either soft ones (objects or resources) or hard ones (=&
on arrays or objects properties). Repeated occurrences of the same object/array/resource won't
1. http://php.net/manual/en/function.var-dump.php
2. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/var-dumper
3. https://github.com/symfony/var-dumper
4. http://php.net/manual/en/function.var-dump.php
5. http://php.net/manual/en/function.stream-get-meta-data.php
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appear again and again anymore. Moreover, you'll be able to inspect the reference structure of
your data;
• Ability to operate in the context of an output buffering handler.
For example:
Listing 87-1
1
2
3
4
5
require __DIR__.'/vendor/autoload.php';
// create a variable, which could be anything!
$someVar = '...';
dump($someVar);
By default, the output format and destination are selected based on your current PHP SAPI:
• On the command line (CLI SAPI), the output is written on STDOUT. This can be surprising to
some because this bypasses PHP's output buffering mechanism;
• On other SAPIs, dumps are written as HTML in the regular output.
If you want to catch the dump output as a string, please read the advanced documentation6 which
contains examples of it. You'll also learn how to change the format or redirect the output to
wherever you want.
In order to have the dump() function always available when running any PHP code, you can install
it globally on your computer:
1. Run composer global require symfony/var-dumper;
2. Add auto_prepend_file = ${HOME}/.composer/vendor/autoload.php to your
php.ini file;
3. From time to time, run composer global update to have the latest bug fixes.
DebugBundle and Twig Integration
The DebugBundle allows greater integration of the component into the Symfony full stack framework. It
is enabled by default in the dev and test environment of the standard edition since version 2.6.
Since generating (even debug) output in the controller or in the model of your application may just break
it by e.g. sending HTTP headers or corrupting your view, the bundle configures the dump() function so
that variables are dumped in the web debug toolbar.
But if the toolbar can not be displayed because you e.g. called die/exit or a fatal error occurred, then
dumps are written on the regular output.
In a Twig template, two constructs are available for dumping a variable. Choosing between both is mostly
a matter of personal taste, still:
• {% dump foo.bar %} is the way to go when the original template output shall not be modified:
variables are not dumped inline, but in the web debug toolbar;
• on the contrary, {{ dump(foo.bar) }} dumps inline and thus may or not be suited to your
use case (e.g. you shouldn't use it in an HTML attribute or a <script> tag).
By default for nested variables, dumps are limited to a subset of their original value. You can configure
the limits in terms of:
• maximum number of items to dump,
6. #components-var_dumper-advanced
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• maximum string length before truncation.
Listing 87-2
1 debug:
2
max_items: 250
3
max_string_length: -1
Dump Examples and Output
For simple variables, reading the output should be straightforward. Here are some examples showing
first a variable defined in PHP, then its dump representation:
Listing 87-3
1 $var = array(
2
'a simple string' => "in an array of 5 elements",
3
'a float' => 1.0,
4
'an integer' => 1,
5
'a boolean' => true,
6
'an empty array' => array(),
7 );
8 dump($var);
The gray arrow is a toggle button for hiding/showing children of nested structures.
Listing 87-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$var = "This is a multi-line string.\n";
$var .= "Hovering a string shows its length.\n";
$var .= "The length of UTF-8 strings is counted in terms of UTF-8 characters.\n";
$var .= "Non-UTF-8 strings length are counted in octet size.\n";
$var .= "Because of this `\xE9` octet (\\xE9),\n";
$var .= "this string is not UTF-8 valid, thus the `b` prefix.\n";
dump($var);
Listing 87-5
1 class PropertyExample
2 {
3
public $publicProperty = 'The `+` prefix denotes public properties,';
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4
protected $protectedProperty = '`#` protected ones and `-` private ones.';
5
private $privateProperty = 'Hovering a property shows a reminder.';
6 }
7
8 $var = new PropertyExample();
9 dump($var);
#14 is the internal object handle. It allows comparing two consecutive dumps of the same object.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
class DynamicPropertyExample
{
public $declaredProperty = 'This property is declared in the class definition';
}
Listing 87-7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
class ReferenceExample
{
public $info = "Circular and sibling references are displayed as `#number`.\nHovering
them highlights all instances in the same dump.\n";
}
$var = new ReferenceExample();
$var->aCircularReference = $var;
dump($var);
Listing 87-8
1 $var = new \ErrorException(
2
"For some objects, properties have special values\n"
3
."that are best represented as constants, like\n"
4
."`severity` below. Hovering displays the value (`2`).\n",
5
0,
Listing 87-6
$var = new DynamicPropertyExample();
$var->undeclaredProperty = 'Runtime added dynamic properties have `"` around their name.';
dump($var);
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6
E_WARNING
7 );
8 dump($var);
Listing 87-9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$var = array();
$var[0] = 1;
$var[1] =& $var[0];
$var[1] += 1;
$var[2] = array("Hard references (circular or sibling)");
$var[3] =& $var[2];
$var[3][] = "are dumped using `&number` prefixes.";
dump($var);
Listing 87-10
1
2
3
4
5
$var = new \ArrayObject();
$var[] = "Some resources and special objects like the current";
$var[] = "one are sometimes best represented using virtual";
$var[] = "properties that describe their internal state.";
dump($var);
Listing 87-11
1 $var = new AcmeController(
2
"When a dump goes over its maximum items limit,\n"
3
."or when some special objects are encountered,\n"
4
."children can be replaced by an ellipsis and\n"
5
."optionally followed by a number that says how\n"
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6
."many have been removed; `9` in this case.\n"
7 );
8 dump($var);
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Chapter 88
Advanced Usage of the VarDumper Component
The dump() function is just a thin wrapper and a more convenient way to call VarDumper::dump()1.
You can change the behavior of this function by calling VarDumper::setHandler($callable)2. Calls to
dump() will then be forwarded to $callable.
By adding a handler, you can customize the Cloners, Dumpers and Casters as explained below. A simple
implementation of a handler function might look like this:
Listing 88-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
use
use
use
use
Symfony\Component\VarDumper\VarDumper;
Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Cloner\VarCloner;
Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Dumper\CliDumper;
Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Dumper\HtmlDumper;
VarDumper::setHandler(function ($var) {
$cloner = new VarCloner();
$dumper = 'cli' === PHP_SAPI ? new CliDumper() : new HtmlDumper();
$dumper->dump($cloner->cloneVar($var));
});
Cloners
A cloner is used to create an intermediate representation of any PHP variable. Its output is a Data3 object
that wraps this representation.
You can create a Data4 object this way:
Listing 88-2
1 use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Cloner\VarCloner;
2
3 $cloner = new VarCloner();
1. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/VarDumper.html#dump()
2. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/VarDumper.html#setHandler()
3. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
4. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
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4
5
6
7
$data = $cloner->cloneVar($myVar);
// this is commonly then passed to the dumper
// see the example at the top of this page
// $dumper->dump($data);
A cloner also applies limits when creating the representation, so that the corresponding Data object could
represent only a subset of the cloned variable. Before calling cloneVar()5, you can configure these limits:
• setMaxItems()6 configures the maximum number of items that will be cloned past the first
nesting level. Items are counted using a breadth-first algorithm so that lower level items have
higher priority than deeply nested items;
• setMaxString()7 configures the maximum number of characters that will be cloned before
cutting overlong strings;
• in both cases, specifying -1 removes any limit.
Before dumping it, you can further limit the resulting Data8 object by calling its getLimitedClone()9
method:
• the first $maxDepth argument allows limiting dumps in the depth dimension,
• the second $maxItemsPerDepth limits the number of items per depth level,
• and the last $useRefHandles defaults to true, but allows removing internal objects' handles
for sparser output,
• but unlike the previous limits on cloners that remove data on purpose, these can be changed
back and forth before dumping since they do not affect the intermediate representation
internally.
When no limit is applied, a Data10 object is as accurate as the native serialize11 function, and
thus could be for purposes beyond dumping for debugging.
Dumpers
A dumper is responsible for outputting a string representation of a PHP variable, using a Data12 object as
input. The destination and the formatting of this output vary with dumpers.
This component comes with an HtmlDumper13 for HTML output and a CliDumper14 for optionally colored
command line output.
For example, if you want to dump some $variable, just do:
Listing 88-3
1 use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Cloner\VarCloner;
2 use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Dumper\CliDumper;
3
4 $cloner = new VarCloner();
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/VarCloner.html#cloneVar()
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/VarCloner.html#setMaxItems()
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/VarCloner.html#setMaxString()
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html#getLimitedClone()
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
11. http://php.net/manual/en/function.serialize.php
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Dumper/HtmlDumper.html
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Dumper/CliDumper.html
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5 $dumper = new CliDumper();
6
7 $dumper->dump($cloner->cloneVar($variable));
By using the first argument of the constructor, you can select the output stream where the dump will be
written. By default, the CliDumper writes on php://stdout and the HtmlDumper on php://output. But
any PHP stream (resource or URL) is acceptable.
Instead of a stream destination, you can also pass it a callable that will be called repeatedly for each
line generated by a dumper. This callable can be configured using the first argument of a dumper's
constructor, but also using the setOutput()15 method or the second argument of the dump()16 method.
For example, to get a dump as a string in a variable, you can do:
Listing 88-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Cloner\VarCloner;
use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Dumper\CliDumper;
$cloner = new VarCloner();
$dumper = new CliDumper();
$output = '';
$dumper->dump(
$cloner->cloneVar($variable),
function ($line, $depth) use (&$output) {
// A negative depth means "end of dump"
if ($depth >= 0) {
// Adds a two spaces indentation to the line
$output .= str_repeat(' ', $depth).$line."\n";
}
}
);
// $output is now populated with the dump representation of $variable
Another option for doing the same could be:
Listing 88-5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Cloner\VarCloner;
use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Dumper\CliDumper;
cloner = new VarCloner();
$dumper = new CliDumper();
$output = fopen('php://memory', 'r+b');
$dumper->dump($cloner->cloneVar($variable), $output);
rewind($output);
$output = stream_get_contents($output);
// $output is now populated with the dump representation of $variable
Dumpers implement the DataDumperInterface17 interface that specifies the dump(Data $data)18
method. They also typically implement the DumperInterface19 that frees them from re-implementing the
logic required to walk through a Data20 object's internal structure.
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Dumper/AbstractDumper.html#setOutput()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Dumper/AbstractDumper.html#dump()
17. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Dumper/DataDumperInterface.html
18. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Dumper/DataDumperInterface.html#dump()
19. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/DumperInterface.html
20. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
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Casters
Objects and resources nested in a PHP variable are "cast" to arrays in the intermediate Data21
representation. You can tweak the array representation for each object/resource by hooking a Caster
into this process. The component already includes many casters for base PHP classes and other common
classes.
If you want to build your own Caster, you can register one before cloning a PHP variable. Casters are
registered using either a Cloner's constructor or its addCasters() method:
Listing 88-6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
use Symfony\Component\VarDumper\Cloner\VarCloner;
$myCasters = array(...);
$cloner = new VarCloner($myCasters);
// or
$cloner->addCasters($myCasters);
The provided $myCasters argument is an array that maps a class, an interface or a resource type to a
callable:
Listing 88-7
1 $myCasters = array(
2
'FooClass' => $myFooClassCallableCaster,
3
':bar resource' => $myBarResourceCallableCaster,
4 );
As you can notice, resource types are prefixed by a : to prevent colliding with a class name.
Because an object has one main class and potentially many parent classes or interfaces, many casters can
be applied to one object. In this case, casters are called one after the other, starting from casters bound
to the interfaces, the parents classes and then the main class. Several casters can also be registered for the
same resource type/class/interface. They are called in registration order.
Casters are responsible for returning the properties of the object or resource being cloned in an array.
They are callables that accept four arguments:
•
•
•
•
the object or resource being casted,
an array modelled for objects after PHP's native (array) cast operator,
a Stub22 object representing the main properties of the object (class, type, etc.),
true/false when the caster is called nested in a structure or not.
Here is a simple caster not doing anything:
Listing 88-8
1 function myCaster($object, $array, $stub, $isNested)
2 {
3
// ... populate/alter $array to your needs
4
5
return $array;
6 }
For objects, the $array parameter comes pre-populated using PHP's native (array) casting operator or
with the return value of $object->__debugInfo() if the magic method exists. Then, the return value of
one Caster is given as the array argument to the next Caster in the chain.
21. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Data.html
22. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/VarDumper/Cloner/Stub.html
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When casting with the (array) operator, PHP prefixes protected properties with a \0*\0 and private
ones with the class owning the property. For example, \0Foobar\0 will be the prefix for all private
properties of objects of type Foobar. Casters follow this convention and add two more prefixes: \0~\0
is used for virtual properties and \0+\0 for dynamic ones (runtime added properties not in the class
declaration).
Although you can, it is advised to not alter the state of an object while casting it in a Caster.
Before writing your own casters, you should check the existing ones.
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Chapter 89
The Yaml Component
The Yaml component loads and dumps YAML files.
What is It?
The Symfony Yaml component parses YAML strings to convert them to PHP arrays. It is also able to
convert PHP arrays to YAML strings.
YAML1, YAML Ain't Markup Language, is a human friendly data serialization standard for all
programming languages. YAML is a great format for your configuration files. YAML files are as
expressive as XML files and as readable as INI files.
The Symfony Yaml Component implements a selected subset of features defined in the YAML 1.2 version
specification2.
Learn more about the Yaml component in the The YAML Format article.
Installation
You can install the component in 2 different ways:
• Install it via Composer (symfony/yaml on Packagist3);
• Use the official Git repository (https://github.com/symfony/Yaml4).
1. http://yaml.org/
2. http://yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html
3. https://packagist.org/packages/symfony/yaml
4. https://github.com/symfony/Yaml
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Why?
Fast
One of the goals of Symfony Yaml is to find the right balance between speed and features. It supports
just the needed features to handle configuration files. Notable lacking features are: document directives,
multi-line quoted messages, compact block collections and multi-document files.
Real Parser
It sports a real parser and is able to parse a large subset of the YAML specification, for all your
configuration needs. It also means that the parser is pretty robust, easy to understand, and simple enough
to extend.
Clear Error Messages
Whenever you have a syntax problem with your YAML files, the library outputs a helpful message with
the filename and the line number where the problem occurred. It eases the debugging a lot.
Dump Support
It is also able to dump PHP arrays to YAML with object support, and inline level configuration for pretty
outputs.
Types Support
It supports most of the YAML built-in types like dates, integers, octals, booleans, and much more...
Full Merge Key Support
Full support for references, aliases, and full merge key. Don't repeat yourself by referencing common
configuration bits.
Using the Symfony YAML Component
The Symfony Yaml component is very simple and consists of two main classes: one parses YAML strings
(Parser5), and the other dumps a PHP array to a YAML string (Dumper6).
On top of these two classes, the Yaml7 class acts as a thin wrapper that simplifies common uses.
Reading YAML Files
The parse()8 method parses a YAML string and converts it to a PHP array:
Listing 89-1
1 use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Parser;
2
3 $yaml = new Parser();
5. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Parser.html
6. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Dumper.html
7. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Yaml.html
8. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Parser.html#parse()
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4
5 $value = $yaml->parse(file_get_contents('/path/to/file.yml'));
If an error occurs during parsing, the parser throws a ParseException9 exception indicating the error
type and the line in the original YAML string where the error occurred:
Listing 89-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Exception\ParseException;
try {
$value = $yaml->parse(file_get_contents('/path/to/file.yml'));
} catch (ParseException $e) {
printf("Unable to parse the YAML string: %s", $e->getMessage());
}
As the parser is re-entrant, you can use the same parser object to load different YAML strings.
It may also be convenient to use the parse()10 wrapper method:
Listing 89-3
1 use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Yaml;
2
3 $yaml = Yaml::parse(file_get_contents('/path/to/file.yml'));
The parse()11 static method takes a YAML string or a file containing YAML. Internally, it calls the
parse()12 method, but enhances the error if something goes wrong by adding the filename to the
message.
Because it is currently possible to pass a filename to this method, you must validate the input first.
Passing a filename is deprecated in Symfony 2.2, and will be removed in Symfony 3.0.
Writing YAML Files
The dump()13 method dumps any PHP array to its YAML representation:
Listing 89-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Dumper;
$array = array(
'foo' => 'bar',
'bar' => array('foo' => 'bar', 'bar' => 'baz'),
);
$dumper = new Dumper();
$yaml = $dumper->dump($array);
9. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Exception/ParseException.html
10. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Yaml.html#parse()
11. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Yaml.html#parse()
12. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Parser.html#parse()
13. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Dumper.html#dump()
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11
12 file_put_contents('/path/to/file.yml', $yaml);
Of course, the Symfony Yaml dumper is not able to dump resources. Also, even if the dumper is
able to dump PHP objects, it is considered to be a not supported feature.
If an error occurs during the dump, the parser throws a DumpException14 exception.
If you only need to dump one array, you can use the dump()15 static method shortcut:
Listing 89-5
1 use Symfony\Component\Yaml\Yaml;
2
3 $yaml = Yaml::dump($array, $inline);
The YAML format supports two kind of representation for arrays, the expanded one, and the inline one.
By default, the dumper uses the inline representation:
Listing 89-6
1 { foo: bar, bar: { foo: bar, bar: baz } }
The second argument of the dump()16 method customizes the level at which the output switches from the
expanded representation to the inline one:
Listing 89-7
1 echo $dumper->dump($array, 1);
Listing 89-8
1 foo: bar
2 bar: { foo: bar, bar: baz }
Listing 89-9
1 echo $dumper->dump($array, 2);
Listing 89-10
1 foo: bar
2 bar:
3
foo: bar
4
bar: baz
14. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Exception/DumpException.html
15. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Yaml.html#dump()
16. http://api.symfony.com/master/Symfony/Component/Yaml/Dumper.html#dump()
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Chapter 90
The YAML Format
According to the official YAML1 website, YAML is "a human friendly data serialization standard for all
programming languages".
Even if the YAML format can describe complex nested data structure, this chapter only describes the
minimum set of features needed to use YAML as a configuration file format.
YAML is a simple language that describes data. As PHP, it has a syntax for simple types like strings,
booleans, floats, or integers. But unlike PHP, it makes a difference between arrays (sequences) and hashes
(mappings).
Scalars
The syntax for scalars is similar to the PHP syntax.
Strings
Strings in YAML can be wrapped both in single and double quotes. In some cases, they can also be
unquoted:
Listing 90-1
1 A string in YAML
2
3 'A singled-quoted string in YAML'
4
5 "A double-quoted string in YAML"
Quoted styles are useful when a string starts or end with one or more relevant spaces, because unquoted
strings are trimmed on both end when parsing their contents. Quotes are required when the string
contains special or reserved characters.
When using single-quoted strings, any single quote ' inside its contents must be doubled to escape it:
Listing 90-2
1 'A single quote '' inside a single-quoted string'
1. http://yaml.org/
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Strings containing any of the following characters must be quoted. Although you can use double quotes,
for these characters it is more convenient to use single quotes, which avoids having to escape any
backslash \:
• :, {, }, [, ], ,, &, *, #, ?, |, -, <, >, =, !, %, @, \`
The double-quoted style provides a way to express arbitrary strings, by using \ to escape characters and
sequences. For instance, it is very useful when you need to embed a \n or a Unicode character in a string.
Listing 90-3
1 "A double-quoted string in YAML\n"
If the string contains any of the following control characters, it must be escaped with double quotes:
• \0, \x01, \x02, \x03, \x04, \x05, \x06, \a, \b, \t, \n, \v, \f, \r, \x0e, \x0f, \x10, \x11,
\x12, \x13, \x14, \x15, \x16, \x17, \x18, \x19, \x1a, \e, \x1c, \x1d, \x1e, \x1f, \N, \_, \L,
\P
Finally, there are other cases when the strings must be quoted, no matter if you're using single or double
quotes:
• When the string is true or false (otherwise, it would be treated as a boolean value);
• When the string is null or ~ (otherwise, it would be considered as a null value);
• When the string looks like a number, such as integers (e.g. 2, 14, etc.), floats (e.g. 2.6, 14.9)
and exponential numbers (e.g. 12e7, etc.) (otherwise, it would be treated as a numeric value);
• When the string looks like a date (e.g. 2014-12-31) (otherwise it would be automatically
converted into a Unix timestamp).
When a string contains line breaks, you can use the literal style, indicated by the pipe (|), to indicate that
the string will span several lines. In literals, newlines are preserved:
Listing 90-4
1 |
2
\/ /| |\/| |
3
/ / | | | |__
Alternatively, strings can be written with the folded style, denoted by >, where each line break is replaced
by a space:
Listing 90-5
1 >
2
This is a very long sentence
3
that spans several lines in the YAML
4
but which will be rendered as a string
5
without carriage returns.
Notice the two spaces before each line in the previous examples. They won't appear in the resulting
PHP strings.
Numbers
Listing 90-6
1 # an integer
2 12
Listing 90-7
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1 # an octal
2 014
Listing 90-8
1 # an hexadecimal
2 0xC
Listing 90-9
1 # a float
2 13.4
Listing 90-10
1 # an exponential number
2 1.2e+34
Listing 90-11
1 # infinity
2 .inf
Nulls
Nulls in YAML can be expressed with null or ~.
Booleans
Booleans in YAML are expressed with true and false.
Dates
YAML uses the ISO-8601 standard to express dates:
Listing 90-12
1 2001-12-14t21:59:43.10-05:00
Listing 90-13
1 # simple date
2 2002-12-14
Collections
A YAML file is rarely used to describe a simple scalar. Most of the time, it describes a collection. A
collection can be a sequence or a mapping of elements. Both sequences and mappings are converted to
PHP arrays.
Sequences use a dash followed by a space:
Listing 90-14
1 - PHP
2 - Perl
3 - Python
The previous YAML file is equivalent to the following PHP code:
Listing 90-15
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Chapter 90: The YAML Format | 392
1 array('PHP', 'Perl', 'Python');
Mappings use a colon followed by a space (: ) to mark each key/value pair:
Listing 90-16
1 PHP: 5.2
2 MySQL: 5.1
3 Apache: 2.2.20
which is equivalent to this PHP code:
Listing 90-17
1 array('PHP' => 5.2, 'MySQL' => 5.1, 'Apache' => '2.2.20');
In a mapping, a key can be any valid scalar.
The number of spaces between the colon and the value does not matter:
Listing 90-18
1 PHP:
5.2
2 MySQL: 5.1
3 Apache: 2.2.20
YAML uses indentation with one or more spaces to describe nested collections:
Listing 90-19
1 "symfony 1.0":
2
PHP:
5.0
3
Propel: 1.2
4 "symfony 1.2":
5
PHP:
5.2
6
Propel: 1.3
The following YAML is equivalent to the following PHP code:
Listing 90-20
1 array(
2
'symfony 1.0' => array(
3
'PHP'
=> 5.0,
4
'Propel' => 1.2,
5
),
6
'symfony 1.2' => array(
7
'PHP'
=> 5.2,
8
'Propel' => 1.3,
9
),
10 );
There is one important thing you need to remember when using indentation in a YAML file: Indentation
must be done with one or more spaces, but never with tabulations.
You can nest sequences and mappings as you like:
Listing 90-21
1 'Chapter 1':
2
- Introduction
3
- Event Types
4 'Chapter 2':
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5
6
- Introduction
- Helpers
YAML can also use flow styles for collections, using explicit indicators rather than indentation to denote
scope.
A sequence can be written as a comma separated list within square brackets ([]):
Listing 90-22
1 [PHP, Perl, Python]
A mapping can be written as a comma separated list of key/values within curly braces ({}):
Listing 90-23
1 { PHP: 5.2, MySQL: 5.1, Apache: 2.2.20 }
You can mix and match styles to achieve a better readability:
Listing 90-24
1 'Chapter 1': [Introduction, Event Types]
2 'Chapter 2': [Introduction, Helpers]
Listing 90-25
1 "symfony 1.0": { PHP: 5.0, Propel: 1.2 }
2 "symfony 1.2": { PHP: 5.2, Propel: 1.3 }
Comments
Comments can be added in YAML by prefixing them with a hash mark (#):
Listing 90-26
1 # Comment on a line
2 "symfony 1.0": { PHP: 5.0, Propel: 1.2 } # Comment at the end of a line
3 "symfony 1.2": { PHP: 5.2, Propel: 1.3 }
Comments are simply ignored by the YAML parser and do not need to be indented according to
the current level of nesting in a collection.
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