User guide | Manjaro 0.8.7 - FTP service of Yuan Ze University

Manjaro 0.8.7 - FTP service of Yuan Ze University
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 1 of 63
User Guide for Beginners
Graphical and Command-Line
Installation Methods
Manjaro 0.8.7
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 2 of 63
The Manjaro Development Team
Core Team
Roland Singer - Project Leader, Designer, Developer, Web Developer, Packager
Guillaume Benoit - Server Manager, Packager, Moderation
Philip Müller - Mirrors Manager, Packager, Developer, Web Developer
Alexandre Albuquerque Arnt – Developer, Moderation
Website and Artwork Team
Tillman Ebert - Web Developer, Web Consultant, Designer
Forum, Community and Support
Allesandro Calo - Community, Forum, Website
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 3 of 63
Contents
Introduction
4
1. Downloading Manjaro
5
2. Checking a Downloaded ISO File for Errors
6
3. Burning an ISO File
8
4. Pre-Installation
10
5. Using the Graphical Installer
12
6. Using the Command Line Installer
21
7. Upon Rebooting...
38
8. Welcome to Manjaro!
39
9. Accessing the Arch User Repository
45
10. Configuring Graphics Cards
48
11. Manjaro Kernels
51
12. Enabling Printing Capabilities
54
13. Pacman
55
14. Changing Servers
57
Appendix A: If Your Screen is Too Dim
60
Appendix B: Manjaro FAQ
61
Appendix C: Useful Links
63
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 4 of 63
Introduction
About Manjaro
Manjaro is a user-friendly Linux distribution based on the independently developed Arch
operating system. Within the Linux community, Arch itself is renowned for being an
exceptionally fast, powerful, and lightweight distribution that provides access to the very latest
cutting edge - and bleeding edge - software. However, Arch is also aimed at more experienced
or technically-minded users. As such, it is generally considered to be beyond the reach of those who
lack the technical expertise (or persistence) required to use it.
Developed in Austria, France, and Germany, Manjaro provides all the benefits of the Arch operating
system combined with a focus on user-friendliness and accessibility. Available in both 32 and 64 bit
versions, Manjaro is suitable for newcomers as well as experienced Linux users. For newcomers, a
user-friendly installer is provided, and the system itself is designed to work fully 'straight out of the box'
with features including:
•
Pre-installed desktop environments
•
Pre-installed graphical applications to easily install software and update your system, and
•
Pre-installed codecs to play multimedia files
Features
Manjaro shares many of the same features as Arch, including:
•
Speed, power, and efficiency
•
Access to the very latest cutting and bleeding edge software
•
A 'rolling release' development model that provides the most up-to-date system possible
without the need to install new versions
•
Access to the Arch User Repositories, and
•
The versatility to be shaped and moulded in every respect to suit personal taste and preference.
However, Manjaro boasts a few extra features of its own, including:
•
A simplifed, user-friendly installation process
•
Automatic detection of your computer's hardware (e.g. graphics cards)
•
Automatic installation of the necessary software (e.g. graphics drivers) for your system
•
Dedicated software repositories that deliver fully tested and stable software packages, and
•
Support for the easy installation and use of multiple kernels
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 5 of 63
1. Downloading Manjaro
32 and 64 bit versions of Manjaro are available for download as ISO files. An ISO file is
itself a literal copy of a disc image, although not in the same sense as a copy and paste
duplicatation. Rather it is a copy of the raw machine code that makes up the files and
folders of that disc. This is why just copying an ISO file to a disc (or USB flashdrive) to
begin installing it won't work; you'll need to use a disc burning application to translate
that raw data into the files and folders. Instructions to do so for both Linux and Windows
operating systems are provided below.
Note: There is an exception to this rule. If you intend on installing Manjaro in a virtual machine
environment using Oracle's Virtualbox , then there will be no need to burn the image as Virtualbox will
be able to read from the ISO file directly as a virtual disc.
ISO images available for 32 bit systems will end in i686.iso, while images for 64 bit systems will end in
x86_64.iso. Please try to ensure that you download the appropriate ISO image for your system as:
• a 64 bit ISO won't run on a 32 bit system, and
• a 32 bit ISO will not be able use the full power or resources of a 64 bit system.
1.1 Manjaro Editions
There are two editions of Manjaro available for download:
1. The full edition: This edition of Manjaro comes complete with everything pre-installed, including a
desktop environment, popular software applications, and codecs. This would of course be the most
appropriate choice for those who wish to try out Manjaro on a Live-CD without having to install it first.
An ISO image for a full edition of Manjaro will list the pre-installed desktop environment in its name. For
example, an ISO image beginning with manjaro-xfce will have the XFCE desktop environment preinstalled.
2. The NET edition: This edition of Manjaro provides only a base installation, stripped of any and all
pre-installed software. Starting from the command line, this is suitable for more experienced users who
may wish to build their own Manjaro systems from the ground up. An ISO image for a NET edition will
always begin with manjaro-net.
1.2 Downloading an ISO Image
Each stable release and test-build of Manjaro has its own particular folder, which will contain all the 32
and 64 bit versions of both the full and NET editions available. Each folder will also contain the relevant
checksum files which can be used to check the integrity of your downloaded ISO file (i.e. to ensure that
it has not been corrupted during download). A link to the guide on doing this has been provided below.
Stable Releases of Manjaro are intended to be used by the general public. As such, will be the
appropriate choice for the majority of users. Each of the stable releases - starting from 0.8.0 - can be
downloaded from the Stable Release section of the Sourceforge website.
Test Builds of Manjaro are intended to be used only by developers and testers, in order to identify any
bugs or issues to be addressed as their development continues towards the next stable release. These
are not suitable - or intended - for use as a main operating system by the general public.
However, should you wish to try out a test build (preferrably in a virtual machine), each current release
can be downloaded from the from the Test Build section of the Sourceforge website.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 6 of 63
2. Checking a Downloaded ISO File for Errors
Prior to burning your downloaded ISO image (or using it as a virtual disc in Virtualbox), it
is strongly recommended that you first check that it hasn't been corrupted. The
consequences of not doing so - especially if you intend on installing Manjaro as your
main operating system - should be obvious (i.e. a corrupted image will result in a
corrupted installation).
To do so, you must first download the appropriate checksum file from the same Sourceforge website
folder as your chosen ISO image. A checksum file will have the same name as the ISO image that it is
to be used with; the only difference is that it will end in either -sha1.sum or -sha256.sum. For
example, the appropriate checksum files for the manjaro-xfce-0.8.6-x86_64.iso file (64 bit Manjaro
release 0.8.6 with the XFCE desktop) would be:
• manjaro-xfce-0.8.6-x86_64-sha1.sum, and/or
• manjaro-xfce-0.8.6-x86_64-sha256.sum
2.1 SHA1 and SHA256
The 'sha' part of the checksum file name stands for Secure Hash Algorithm. This algorithm is used to
generate a particular code unique to the downloaded ISO image. Sha1 and sha256 are different
versions of the algorithm that you can use to do this. Whilst sha1 is the most commonly used version,
sha256 is a later and more secure version. Which you decide to use is entirely your choice. However,
if you are unsure, then it is recommended to use sha256.
The checksum file itself is just a text document that contains a code that should match the code
generated by the sha1 or sha256 algorithm. As such, if the code generated from the ISO file matches
that contained in the checkum file, then the ISO is fine. Otherwise - if the two codes don't match - then
it means that the ISO file has changed in some way, most likely due to being corrupted. You can think
of it like someone using a secret password to identify who they are: if they provide the wrong password,
then something is obviously amiss!
Don't worry if this all sounds a bit much - it's actually very straightforward and easy to use!
2.2 Checking In Linux
To check the integrity of your downloaded
file, it will be necessary to first open the
downloaded checksum file using a text
editor such as Gedit.
Depending on whether you intend to use
sha1 or sha256, ensure that you have
downloaded and opened the appropriate
checksum file (i.e. ending in -sha1.sum or
-sha256.sum, respectively) as they will
contain different codes.
Once the checksum file has been opened and the code is visible - open up your
terminal and change to the directory where
your downloaded ISO is stored.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 7 of 63
For example, if your ISO file is located in the default Downloads folder, you would enter the following
command:
cd Downloads
The command to then perform a checksum uses the following syntax:
[sha1sum or sha256sum] [ISO Image]
For example, the following command will use sha256 to generate a code from the 64 bit Manjaro XFCE
0.8.1 ISO. The code generated can then be compared to the code provided by the appropriate sha256
checksum file:
sha256sum
manjaro-xfce-0.8.6-x86_64.iso
As illustrated above, in this instance both codes match, thus confirming that the downloaded ISO file is
completely fine. The following command would use sha1 to undertake exactly the same task:
sha1sum
manjaro-xfce-0.8.6-x86_64.iso
Where satisifed that both codes match, then it is safe to proceed to either burning the ISO to your
chosen installation, or using it immediately in Virtualbox. Otherwise, it will be necessary to delete the
ISO image and download it again.
2.3 Checking In Windows
It will be necessary to download and install a
checksum utility application. Several free
versions may be found on the Download.com
website .
A very positively reviewed free checksum
utility you may wish to consider is the
MD5 & SHA-1 Checksum Utility .
Note: If you do decide to use the MD5 &
SHA-1 Checksum Utility, then you will only
be able to use the code provided by thesha1 checksum file for your ISO. This utility
does not support using sha256.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 8 of 63
3. Burning an ISO File
An ISO is not simply a 'drag and drop' or 'copy and paste' duplication of Manjaro's
installation files.
It is in fact a copy of the raw computer code that makes up the files themselves. This is
why it is necessary to use a software burning application to 'burn' an ISO file (i.e.
convert its raw code into the files) to a physical medium such as a DVD or USB flashdrive
/ datastick in order to use it.
Once burned / converted, the files on that medium can then be used to run Manjaro directly without
having to install it to your system (referred to as Live-CD mode), and/or install Manjaro on your system.
Again however, it will not be necessary to to burn an ISO if you intend on running Manjaro in a virtual
machine environment using Oracle's Virtualbox. This is because Virtualbox is able to read ISO files
directly as virtual disks.
Note: Manjaro will not have full functionality when run in Live-CD mode. For example, you will not be
able to save any changes to the system, or install updates or new applications.
3.1 Burning to a CD/DVD in Linux
Tip: It is strongly recommended to select the slowest speed available when burning to disc in order
minimise the possibility of corruption during the burning process.
Several different software burning applications - if not already installed - should be available for
installation from your distribution's Software Center / Software Manager / Package Manager /
repositories. Popular burners include XFBurn, K3b, and Brasero. Which one you may choose is entirely
down to personal choice. However, a guide to burning your downloaded Manjaro ISO using Brasero has
been provided below:
1. Insert a Blank CD/DVD (use a DVD if burning an ISO for anything other than the NET Edition)
2. Start the Brasero software burner
3. Click the Burn Image - Burn an existing CD/DVD image to disc button to open the Image
Burning Setup window.
4. Click the button beneath the title Select a disc image to write to open up your file manager.
Locate and double-click the downloaded ISO file to load it. Upon automatically returning to theImage
Burning Setup window, note that the ISO file is now listed as the disc image to write.
5. Underneath the title Select a disc to write to the blank CD/DVD inserted should already have
been automatically listed. Otherwise, click the button to select it manually.
6. Click the properties button to open the properties window, and then click the button beneath the
title Burning Speed. Again, it is strongly recommended to select the slowest speed available. Once
selected, click the Close button.
7. Click the Burn button to start the burning process. If necessary, follow any on-screen instructions
provided.
3.2 Burning to a CD/DVD in Windows
Several free software burner applications are available for Windows. The most popular examples of
these include:
• Imgburn ( Youtube video tutorial )
• Burn Aware free ( Youtube video tutorial ), and
• CDBurnerXP ( Youtube video tutorial )
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 9 of 63
An overview of each of these applications is available on the CD/DVD Burning Article on the
TechSupportAlert website . Additional burners may also be found on the Download.com website ,
although you will have to filter the search results to view only the free applications provided. It will also
be worthwhile to take the time to read any reviews provided for your choice(s).
3.3 Writing to a USB Stick in Linux
ImageWriter should be available for installation from your distribution's Software Center / Software
Manager / Package Manager / repositories. Once Imagewriter has been downloaded and installed,
ensure that your USB stick is plugged in before starting it.
A brief guide to writing the Manjaro .ISO image has been provided:
1. Click on the centre icon
2. Navigate to where the ISO image has been saved and select it
3. Ensure that your USB device has been selected from the drop-down menu
4. Click on the Write button
5. Reboot your system
3.4 Writing to a USB Stick in Windows
Note: Windows Imagewriter does not automatically detect .ISO files, which is why it is necessary to
type *.* in the filename box, in order to find them.
It is recommended to use ImageWriter For Windows , which is a free application designed to write disc
images to USB sticks as well as Compact Flash (CF) and Secure Digital (SD) cards. Once Imagewriter
has been downloaded and installed, ensure that your USB stick is plugged in before starting it.
If you find that ImageWriter is unable to start, then it may be necessary to download Microsoft's .NET
2.0 Runtime Framework , which is used by some software programs to run. In addition, if an error
message is displayed upon starting the process, then you may wish to open ImageWriter by first rightclicking on the icon, and then selecting the Run as Administrator option.
A brief guide to writing the Manjaro .ISO image has been provided:
Tip: Ensure that Windows Explorer is closed prior to attempting to write the ISO image, otherwise it
may block access to the USB stick, resulting in the following error being
displayed:system.componentModel.Win32Exception:Access is denied.
1. Click the seclect button
2. Type *.* in the filename box and then select the Manjaro .ISO image
3. Select your USB Stick
4. Click the Write button.
Should your attempt to write to a USB stick still be unsuccessful, then use a partition tool to format it as
a RAW partition type, and use ImageWriter again.
Warning: Re-partitioning your USB stick as a RAW data type will result in all data present being
destroyed, and will render it unusable for other purposes until reformatted back to its original partition
type.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 10 of 63
4. Pre-Installation
Tip: Manjaro uses a Rolling Release Development Model. As such, by virtue of keeping an existing
installation updated, it is already the latest release. More information can be found in our Blog article:
Manjaro installation up to date? Then you already have the latest release!
Where possible, ensure that you are connected to the internet prior to booting from your installation
media (e.g. disc, USB flash drive, or even an ISO file directly if booting in Oracle's Virtualbox). If you
have a hard-wired connection via an Ethernet cable, then Manjaro will automatically connect to the
internet without you having to do anything. Otherwise, once you have booted into Manjaro's desktop,
you will need to select and then connect to your wireless network.
4.1 Setting Your Language and Keyboard Layout
Once Manjaro has started, you should be
presented with the Manjaro boot screen. However,
don't actually boot into anything just yet! First it
will be necessary to set your preferred
language and keyboard layout. While the
benefits of using your main language and
keyboard layout for the installation process itself
may be obvious, setting these now will also make
configuring your installed system much faster and
easier, too.
Don't worry if your preferred language or keyboard
layout isn't listed, as a far wider range of
languages can be selected during the installation
process itself, if necessary.
Tip: Setting the language and keyboard layout - as shown below - are undertaken through pressing
the F2 key. As many computers have multiple functions assigned to each function key, it may be
necessary to hold down another key first to use them. For example, on a HP G62 laptop, to use the
function keys, the 'fn' key must first be pressed and held.
First, set your preferred language by pressing
the F2 key. The options available can be highlighted
for selection by using the arrow keys on your
keyboard. In this instance, British English has been
highlighted for the user.
Once selected, press <enter> to confirm and to be
taken back to the boot menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 11 of 63
Second, set your preferred keyboard layout
(keymap) by pressing the F2 key, selecting
keyboard, and then pressing <enter> to bring up
the options.
Where selecting your preferred language, the
appropriate keyboard layout should already be
selected. In this instance, English (UK) has been
highlighted for the user.
Once selected, press <enter> to confirm and be
taken back to the boot menu.
Manjaro can now be booted to begin the installation
process. Two options are available:
1. Start Manjaro Linux
2. Start (non-free drivers)
Tip: For the best results, select the 'Start (non-free
drivers)'. This should match the right
manufacturer's driver(s) your particular graphics
card(s).
Again, use the arrow keys to highlight your choice,
and then press <enter> to continue.
As seen here, Manjaro 0.8.5 with the XFCE desktop
environment is to be installed.
Tip: If you wish to connect to the internet using a
wireless connection, now is the time to do it!
To begin the installation process, close the welcome
window, and then double-click the "Manjaro CLI
Installer" icon.
For the Openbox flavour, the Command Lineonly installation process can be started by
right-clicking on the desktop, and then
selecting the 'Install Manjaro' option from the
menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 12 of 63
5. Using the Graphical Installer
Select your preferred language. If you
were able to select this before booting, it
should already be selected for you.
Once selected, click Forward to proceed to
the next step.
Select your time zone. This will consist of
the region you live in, followed by the closest
city.
It should already be selected for you.
Otherwise, click the bar at the bottom of the
screen to chose the appropriate zone.
Once selected, click Forward to proceed to
the next step.
Select your keyboard layout. Again, all
the parameters should already be detected
and selected for you. Otherwise, you may
manually select your keyboard type, layout,
and - where applicable - variant of that
layout.
Once selected, click Forward to proceed to
the next step.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 13 of 63
Define you user account details. Here,
you may select your profile picture, as well
as enter your name, password, and host
name. The host name is itself the name of
the computer, and you may choose anything
you wish. Your account name will be
automatically generated based on your real
name.
Once complete, click Forward to proceed to
the next step.
5.1 Partitioning
Select the hard disk that you wish to
install Manjaro on. Where only one hard
disk is present, this will be listed as/dev/sda.
A second will be listed as /dev/sdb, and so
on.
Once selected, click Forward to proceed to
the next step.
5.1.1 Automatic Partitioning
Where installing on a hard disk that does not
have any existing partitions on it, you will be
asked if you wish for the installer to create
them for you. Click yes to do so, or otherwise
no to create your own partitions manually.
Should you click yes to automatic
partitioning, a simple two-partition table will
be created for you. However, it will still be
necessary to assign the EXT4 partition to
Root prior to proceeding to the next step.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 14 of 63
5.1.2 Deleting Partitions
Should it be necessary to delete any existing
partitions, this can be done so by clicking the
Edit Partitions button, which will
consequently start an application called
GParted.
Note: Where unable to delete a swap
partition, first select the swapoff option
from the right-click menu and then try again.
To delete partitions simply right-click them
and select the delete option. As this is
undertaken, note that these deletions will be
listed in the bottom pane as Pending
Operations. This is essentially just a safety
feature to ensure confirmation is provided to
undertake your desired actions; in this
instance, the deletion of existing partitions.
Once all the desired partitions have been
deleted, now right-click in the Pending
Operations pane and select Apply All
Operations to confirm your intention to
delete them.
A request for confirmation will appear, along
with a warning that proceeding will result in
data-loss. To proceed, click the Apply
button. The deletion process itself may take
some time, depending on the size of the
partitions.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 15 of 63
5.1.3 Creating New Partitions
To create new partitions, ensure that the
Edit Partitions button has been clicked,
which will consequently start the
GPartedapplication to do so.
New partitions can then be added by rightclicking on any unallocated space on the
hard drive, and then selecting the New
option.
Tip: Should you wish to use logical partitions
rather than primary partitions to install
Manjaro, then it will first be necessary to
assign the desired amount of space to be
taken by these partitions as an extended
partition.
An extended partition can be thought of as a
container for logical partitions. Like any other
Linux operating system, it does not matter
whether logical, primary or a mixture of both
partition types are used.
Note: Although Manjaro may be installed on
a little as one partition, in this instance, a
three-partition scheme - Root, Home, and
Swap - will be used.
First, create the Root partition. This is
where the Manjaro system itself will be
stored, along with any downloaded
applications. The size of the partition may be
defined by using the mouse to drag the bar
at the top back or forth. It is recommended
to allocate a minimum of 15GB (15,000MB)
for the Root Partition. The file system of the
Root partition must also be allocated. If you
are unsure which to chose, then EXT4 is the recommended choice.
As illustrated, the Root partition in this instance is 15GB in size, and uses the EXT4 file system. Once
complete, click Add to set the partition.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 16 of 63
Tip: Remember to leave enough space for
your Swap Partition, which generally
should be the same size as the amount of
RAM / memory your computer uses.
Second, create the Home partition. This
is where all your personal files (e.g. music,
videos, documents, etc) will be stored. Again,
the size of the partition may be defined by
dragging the bar at the top back and forth. In
this instance, just over 23GB (23,700MB) has
been allocated, leaving about 2GB of space
remaining for the swap partition. This is
equal to the amount of memory the
computer has.
As with the Root partition, the file system of the Home partition must then allocated where EXT4 is the
recommended choice. Once complete, click Add to set the partition.
Finally, create the swap partition. This is
a special partition that can by used by your
computer as a form of extra memory. As
such, it can be used (particularly for older
computers) to compensate should your
computer run out of memory. However, even
for newer systems with large amounts of
RAM, it may also be used where Hibernating.
In essence, this is where powering the
computer off, but wishing to boot up again at
a later time exactly where you left off.
In this instance, the remaining 2GB of space
has been allocated for the swap partition, which is again equal to the amount of RAM used by this
particular computer. The file system in this instance must be set as linux-swap. Once complete,
click Add to set the partition.
Once all the partitions have been set, rightclick the Pending Operations pane and select
Apply All Operations to confirm your
intention to create them.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 17 of 63
After a few moments - how long depends on
how big the partitions are - a window will
appear to confirm the successful creation of
the partitions. Click Close once shown.
Partitioning complete, click the x located on
the top-right border of the Gparted
application window to close the application
and return back to the installer.
Having returned back to the installer, click
the Refresh button to show the newly
created partitions.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 18 of 63
5.2 Assigning Partitions
Tip: Where only a single partition has been
created for both Root and Home, it need only
be assigned as Root. A Home folder will be
created in this automatically.
Now the Root partition must be assigned
formally as such. To do so, right-click the
partition and select Assign to /. In Linux, '/'
means 'Root'.
Now the Home partition must be assigned
formally as such. To do so, right-click the
partition and select Assign to /home.
Once complete, click Forward to be taken to
the next step.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 19 of 63
5.3 Adding the GRUB
The GRUB – Grand Unified Bootloader must
now be installed.
This is responsible for booting Manjaro up
once the computer has been turned on.
Although it is possible to manually specify
which particular partition to install the GRUB,
in this instance the default setting of
/dev/sda is fine.
As such, simply click Forward to be taken to
the next step.
A confirmation screen will appear, outlining
all the settings defined for the installation of
Manjaro. Where happy with this, simply click
Install to begin the actual installation
process.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 20 of 63
5.4 Completing the Process
During the installation process, a number of
slides will be shown, outlining the
capabilities and features provided by
Manjaro. New users in particular may benefit
from reading them.
The installation process itself may take some
time.
Once the installation process has completed,
a confirmation message will appear. It will
also ask if you wish to restart your computer
to begin using your newly installed system.
To do so, click Yes. Otherwise, to continue
using the Live system, click No.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 21 of 63
6. Command-Line Installation
For those who wish to access advanced features such as UEFI support, the original command-line
installation method is also available. This is the only installation method available for the
Openbox Flavour.
To initiate the command-line installation method in Openbox, right-click the desktop to bring up the
menu, and select the Install Manjaro option. For the remaining flavours, the command sudo setup
must be entered into the terminal.
The installer will begin by stating that there
are two installation versions available: The
Stable Installer and the Testing Installer.
This guide will use the Stable Installer.
Press <enter> to continue.
Select the stable installer.
This option should already be highlighted. If
not, use the arrow keys to highlight it.
Press <enter> to continue.
A confirmation message will appear, stating
that the Stable installer has begun. It also
provides some good advice: Follow the
steps IN ORDER.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 22 of 63
6.1 Setting the Date and Time
Set Date and Time should already be
highlighted. If not use your arrow keys to do
so.
Press <enter> to continue.
Ensure that UTC (Co-ordinated Universal
Time - the primary time standard by which
the world regulates its clocks and times) is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Highlight the region you live in.
In this instance, Europe has been chosen, as
this is the region applicable to Great Britain.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 23 of 63
Select your time zone.
This is understaken by highlighting the
appropriate capital city.
Tip: As there are a lot of cities to chose
from, you can skip forwards in the menu by
entering the first letter of the appropriate
city to be taken to that section.
Press <enter> to continue.
Set the date.
If you are already connected to the internet,
then this should already be set for you.
Otherwise, use the <tab> key to switch
between the day, month, and year elements,
and use the up or down arrow keys to
change them.
Ensure that OK is highlighted, and press
<enter> to continue.
Finally, set the time.
Again, if you are already connected to the
internet, then this should already be set for
you. Otherwise, use the <tab> key to switch
between the hours, minutes, and seconds
elements, and use the up or down arrow
keys to change them.
Ensure that OK is highlighted, and press
<enter> to be taken back to the main
installation menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 24 of 63
6.2 Preparing the Hard Disk
Prepare your computer's hard disk for
installation.
Again, in this tutorial the assisted
preparation method will be chosen, which is
most suitable for beginners.
Ensure that Disk(s) Preparation is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Ensure that Assisted Preparation (erases
the whole disk) is highlighted.
As the option would suggest, this will erase
your entire hard disk. Make sure you have
backed your files up somewhere (e.g. disc,
USB flash drive, internet, etc.).
Press <enter> to continue.
Note: The space to be set aside on your hard disk for each step of this stage is measured in megabytes
(MB). It is also important to keep in mind how much hard disk space you have remaining for each step.
In this tutorial, the total hard disk space being used is 40,960MB (40 gigabytes / GB).
Set the amount of hard disk space for
the GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader).
This is responsible for booting up Manjaro
after your computer is turned on. The default
value of 512MB is actually quite generous far more than sufficient - and is intended to
ensure that users can comfortably install and
use multiple kernels, if desired.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 25 of 63
Set the amount of hard disk space for
the Swap Partition. This is used as virtual
memory if you run out of RAM, and for the
hibernate / suspend functions
The size of the Swap Partition should be
equal to the amount of memory (RAM) used
by your computer . For example, 2000MB
(2GB) of Swap should be set for a computer
using 2GB of RAM.
Once set, press <enter> to continue.
Set the amount of hard disk space for
the Root Partition. This is where Manjaro
and its installed applications will be stored.
Where possible, it is recommended to set the
value of the Root Partition to at least
15,000MB (15GB). Just ensure that this
leaves plenty of space for your Home
Partition, which which where all your
personal files will be stored.
Once you have set the size of your Root
Partition, press <enter> to continue.
Confirm the amount of hard disk space
for the Home Partition. 15GB of 38GB
hard-disk space has already been allocated
to the Root partition, so the remaining
23,448MB (23GB) has been automatically
allocated to the Home partition.
If you are not happy with the amount of
space allocated, highlight No and press
<enter> to go back. Otherwise, ensure that
Yes is highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 26 of 63
Set the file system to manage your
files.
Different file systems can handle different
file sizes, numbers of files, and so on. If you
are unsure which file system to choose, as
illustrated, it is recommend that you
highlight ext4 as this is one of the
latest and perhaps most widely used
Linux file systems.
Press <enter> to continue
Confirm your selected file system.
If you wish to review or perhaps change your
selection, highlight No and press <enter> to
be taken back to the list of available file
systems. Otherwise, ensure that Yes is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Confirm that you wish to proceed with
the assisted preparation.
A warning will now appear that proceeding
will result in your hard disk (referred to as
/dev/sda) being completely erased. If you do
not wish to continue, highlight No and press
<enter> to be taken back to the hard disk
preparation menu. Otherwise, ensure that
Yes is highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 27 of 63
The installer will take a few moments to set
up your hard disk (and in the process,
completely erase any data that was
previously stored on it). Once complete, the
illustrated confirmation message will appear.
Press <enter> to confirm and to be taken
back to the hard disk preparation menu.
Go back to the Main Menu.
As this step has been completed, highlight
Main menu and press <enter> to be taken
back to the installer's main menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 28 of 63
6.3 Installing Manjaro
Ensure that Install System is highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
The installation process will start
automatically.
A progress bar will be displayed to chart the
progress of the installation itself.
After a few moments, a message will appear
confirming Manjaro has been successfully
installed.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 29 of 63
The installer will now automatically configure
your system, detect your hardware, and
install the appropriate drivers. It will also find
the Manjaro servers from which you can
download updates, software packages, and
applications.
Warning: Manjaro will not be able to find
the available servers unless you are
connected to the internet.
Once complete, you will automatically be
returned back to the installer's Main menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 30 of 63
6.4 Configuring Manjaro
It will now be necessary to personalise
Manjaro by configuring a few key
things. Don't worry about this as there will
be no need for any technical expertise or to
manually edit any configuration files. The
process will be quick and painless!
Ensure that Configure System is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
6.4.1 Root Password
Set the Root password. In a nutshell, Root
is a standard user account included in Linux
distributions by default that has full and
unrestricted access to the system. A Root
account is necessary to have in order to
install, change, and remove system files.
Ensure that Change Root Password is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Type in your chosen Root password. You can
enter just about anything you like.
Tip: Passwords will be case sensitive. To use
the password later on, the upper and lower
case letters will have to match exactly.
Once complete, ensuring that OK is
highlighted, press <enter> to continue. You
will then have to re-enter the Root password
again to confirm it.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 31 of 63
6.4.2 User Account
Set up your own personal user account.
To protect the system, you will not be
expected to use the system as a Root user at
all times. As such, you should also create
your own personal account.
Ensure that Setup user account(s) is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Type in your chosen account / login name.
The default name is manjaro, which can be
changed by deleting it and replacing it with
your own. In this instance, the username carl
has been entered.
Warning: Although you can enter almost
anything you like, ensure that any and all
letters in the name are in lower case.
When finished, ensure that OK is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Confirm that you wish to get sudo
rights.
Sudo is short for 'Super User Do', and
means that your own account will be
granted the same system privileges as the
Root account.
However, undertaking such tasks using your
personal account will require you to enter
your password to continue (to be set up
next). Ensure that Yes is highlighted, and
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 32 of 63
Type in your chosen password for your own
personal account. Again, you can enter just
about anything you like.
Tip: To keep things simple, you can just type
the same password used for the Root
account.
Once complete, ensuring that OK is
highlighted, press <enter> to continue. You
will then have to re-enter your password
again to confirm it.
6.4.3 Set Locale (optional)
Set your preferred language.
If you were able to set your preferred
language at the beginning, then you can
skip this step.
Otherwise, ensure that Change locale
(optional) is highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Confirm that you wish to set your preferred
language by ensuring that Set Locale is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 33 of 63
A list of codes will be presented. The lower
case letters stand for the language, and the
upper case letters stand for the country:
language_COUNTRY.
For example, en_GB stands for English,
Great Britain. The UTF-8 and ISO parts of
each line are used by the system. Try to
pick a code that ends in UTF-8 if
possible.
Once you have highlighted your desired
code, press <enter> to set it.
If you are not sure what code represents your language and country, a small selection of examples
are available here: http://www.fincher.org/Utilities/CountryLanguageList.shtml (ignore the use of
Tip:
dashes '-'instead of underscores '_').
Return to the configuration menu my
highlighting Return to Main Menu.
Press <enter> to continue.
6.4.4 Set Keymap (optional)
Set your preferred keyboard layout.
If you were able to set your preferred
keyboard layout at the beginning, then you
can skip this step.
Otherwise, ensure that Change vconsole
keymap (optional) is highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 34 of 63
Confirm that you wish to set your preferred
language by ensuring that Set Keymap is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
If you do not know the necessary code for
your keyboard layout, then it may be
necessary to undertake an internet search to
determine this. In this instance, for
illustrative purposes, the code uk.map.gz
has been selected, as this is the appropriate
code for the keyboard layout used in the
United Kingdom / Great Britain.
Once you have highlighted your desired
code, press <enter> to set it and be taken
back to the keymap menu.
Return to the configuration menu by
highlighting Return to Main Menu.
Press <enter> to continue.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 35 of 63
6.4.5 Exit the Configuration Menu
With the configuration complete, exit from
the configuration menu by highlighting Main
Menu.
Press <enter> to continue.
It will then be necessary to wait a few
moments while the Manjaro installation is
automatically configured according to your
preferences. Once complete, you will
automatically be taken back to the Main
Menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 36 of 63
6.5 Installing the Bootloader
Finally, install the GRUB.
Again, the GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader)
is responsible for booting up (i.e. starting)
Manjaro when you turn your computer on.
Ensure that Install Bootloader is
highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
Ensure that Install GRUB2 (needed to
boot) is highlighted.
Press <enter> to continue.
A confirmation message will appear, stating
the target partition (place on your hard disk)
where GRUB2 is to be installed. The default
setting is fine.
Press <enter> to start the installation.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 37 of 63
A confirmation message will appear after a
few seconds, stating that GRUB2 has been
successfully installed.
Press <enter> to be taken back to the main
installer menu.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 38 of 63
6.6 Completing the Installation
All done - now highlight Quit to finish the
installation!
Press <enter> to continue.
The installer will then take a few moments to
finalise the installation. A confirmation
message will then appear, stating that the
installation process has finished. The installer
will then automatically close, and you will be
returned to the desktop environment.
7. Upon Rebooting...
Upon rebooting, you may either:
1. manually eject or remove the installation
media just as your computer starts, or
2. simply select the Boot an Existing OS
option and press <enter> to start the new
installation. Once booted, you may then
safely remove the installation media.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 39 of 63
8. Welcome to Manjaro!
Here's a brief overview of the key points it is necessary to know in order to get the most out of using the
Manjaro Linux operating system.
Updating The System with Pamac
Developed exclusively by the Manjaro Team, the Pamac Updater will
automatically check and notify you of any available system updates when
launched.
To install updates when listed, simply click the Apply button.
Software Management with Pamac
The Pamac Manager is a very simple yet
powerful tool to add and remove software
packages (e.g. applications) from your
system.
Upon launching, it will automatically check
the official Manjaro Repositories for new and
updated software. Once complete, simply
enter the name or short description of what
you want to install or remove, and click the
Find button.
All installed and available software matching
your search will then be displayed on the
right. Click the name of any result to see
more information about it immediately
below.
A checkbox next to the package name will
indicate whether it is installed or not.
To install a package, click the adjacent box
to mark it.
To remove an installed package, click the
adjacent box to clear it.
Once package boxes have been marked
and/or cleared, you may undertake more
searches before clicking the Apply button to
conform your choice(s).
It really is that simple!
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 40 of 63
Particularly when installing new software applications, on occasion several other software packages will
also be automatically installed as well. These are known as dependencies, as they are necessary for
whatever is being installed to work properly. In other words, the software package being downloaded is
dependent upon them.
Pamac will list the dependencies required for software packages in the information pane.
For example, as illustrated, if the VLC Media Player were to be installed, then several other software
packages - such as to allow it to play different media formats - would also be automatically be
downloaded if not already installed on the system. Without them, the Media Player would not be able to
play certain media formats, or perhaps not be able to play anything at all!
Tip: You won't need to worry about dependencies yourself, as they will be automatically identified and
downloaded for you when necessary.
Software Management with Octopi
1
2
3
4
Octopi is another graphical package manager
available in Manjaro. You can use it to
upgrade your system, install, reinstall,
remove and upgrade selected packages as
well as view their information and file list.
Internally it uses the proven Pacman
command line tool, so you can be sure all
package dependancies will automatically be
taken into account.
Octopi's interface is organized in four parts:
1) a menu, toolbar and search bar ; 2) a
package group selector; 3) a package list and
4) a multiuse tab bar.
1) The menu bar items are easy to understand and most of them will be explained throughout this
session. But two of them deserve some words: File/install local package presents you a file selection
dialog for you to choose a local Manjaro package (*.pkg.tar.xz) to install in your system and File/Open
root terminal enables you to run a terminal with admin rights.
The Sync database button is responsible to get the latest package collection from the nearest
Manjaro mirror.
Wenever there are outdated packages, a link
will appear at the statusbar, showing their
number. By clicking it, the list of outdated
packages will be displayed in a table at
"Output" tab. Clicking on any of these table
items, you will be redirected to the Info tab.
There, you have access to package
information like URL, licenses, conflicts,
packager, etc. This option can be accessed
by the Ctrl+D hotkey.
The Commit button is used to commit the transactions you have started. Whenever you (re)install
or remove a package (or a collection of packages), a transaction is generated and will only be
executed by commiting it. Ctrl+M is the associated hotkey.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 41 of 63
The Rollback button is used to rollback the transaction you have created. Whenever you (re)install
or remove a package (or a collection of packages), and thus automatically generate a transaction,
it will only be reverted by clicking this button. Ctrl+B is the associated hotkey .
The search bar is used to find a package in
the Manjaro database. Whenever you press a
key there, the list of packages will change
according to the entered text. There is even
support for regular expressions. If the search
bar goes yellow, it means some packages
have matched the search. Otherwise, if it
goes gray, it represents a no-match.
Remember that the default search behaviour
is to search for a package name, so if you
type java, a possible result would be icedteaweb-java7. But you can change this by
selecting By description in the Search
menu. Then, that same search will also
return “apache-ant” as this is “A java-based
build tool”. You can also use Ctrl+L as a
shortcut to access the search bar.
2) The package group selector is a combobox widget located at searchbar's side.
There, lies a predefined list of Manjaro package groups.
Package groups are a convenient way to
install/remove a collection of similar
packages. For instance, the group basedevel contains packages which are
indispensable to software
development/compilation. It also contains
the group < Yaourt > if your system
happens to have the Yaourt package. Yaourt
is a tool that enables searching, compiling
and installing AUR packages. AUR packages
are user contributed packages not available
in the official Manjaro repositories (more
information in the next session). The hotkey
Ctrl+Shift+G can be used to view all
packages, as it is shown when Octopi is
started.
3) The package list shows the complete collection of Manjaro packages available in your system. Each
package has an icon indicating its state:
installed
installed but not required by others
uninstalled
foreign (from AUR)
outdated
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 42 of 63
By hovering the mouse cursor at any of
these packages, you can see its description
inside a tooltip. By pressing Ctrl+N you can
toggle the appearance of uninstalled
packages. Double clicking an uninstalled
package redirects you to the Info tab, while
doing so on an installed one, redirects you to
the Files tab.
4) The multiuser tab bar is located at the package list botton.
There, lies 6 tabs:
Info, which provides lots of information
about the selected package.
Use Alt+1 hotkey to access it.
Files, which provides a list of all the selected
package files. You can even search for a
specific file using the "Ctrl+F" hotkey. Use
Alt+2 hotkey to access it.
Transaction, where you find all the packages
awaiting for a commit or rollback command
action. Use Alt+3" hotkey to access it.
Output, which provides all transaction
output. Use Alt+4 hotkey to access it.
News, which shows latest Manjaro news. It's
a very healthy practice to read these before
updating your system. You can use Ctrl+F to
search for any word inside this tab and Alt+5
hotkey to access it.
Usage, which shows a quick start guide to
Octopi. You can use Ctrl+F to search for any word inside this tab and Alt+6 hotkey to access it.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 43 of 63
Usage scenarios
Installing and removing packages
To install or remove a package, it's just a
matter of finding it in the package list and
clicking on the install/remove context menu
item (which appears right clicking the list). At
this moment, a transaction is generated and
showed in the Transaction tab. When you
commit the transaction (by pressing Ctrl+M
or clicking the commit button), a confirmation
dialog will pop up. There, you will be
presented to a list of affected packages as
well as the total download size. By clicking
Run in terminal, an interactive terminal will
appear so you can see the commands being
executed. If you choose Yes, the commands
will also be executed, but inside Octopi at the
Output tab, preventing you to answer any
questions they might ask.
At any time you can remove a package from the To be removed and To be installed transaction tree
items by pressing DEL or using the context menu option Remove item.
Upgrading the system
Whenever there are outdated packages (easy
detectable by a red application icon), you can
press the Ctrl+U hotkey. Similar to installing
or removing a package, a dialog asking for
confirmation will pop up. You can view the list
of packages needed to be upgraded as well
as the total download size. By clicking Run in
terminal the upgrade process will be
executed in an interactive terminal, allowing
you to deal with possible questions that
might appear.
Accessing AUR
If you happen to have Yaourt package
installed in your system, it will appear as your
second package group on the right of the
search bar. By selecting it, you may search
for any AUR package you want. All you need
to do is typing the name of it in the search
bar and pressing ENTER to submit your
query. After a while (and only if there were
any results), the package list will be
populated by the matched packages. If you
want to install or remove any of them, you
can do so by using the Install context menu
item. An interactive terminal will pop up and
automatically execute all needed commands,
as soon as you answer some questions. Just
remember that AUR installation process can
take some time as it always compiles the
selected software.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 44 of 63
The Octopi notifier
Octopi comes with an optional tool called octopi-notifier. As you can guess from its name it
notifies if there are any updates available for you to install in the system. To do so, it
downloads the Manjaro package database every hour. If it finds that any change has occured, its icon
goes from yellow to red and it displays a message in your desktop showing the number of outdated
packages found. By double clicking the red icon or choosing context menu item System upgrade,
Octopi is called with the upgrade option automatically triggered and waiting for your confirmation.
Arch User Repository (AUR)
Although Manjaro is 100% Arch compatible being based on Arch itself - it is not possible
access the official repositories of the Arch
System to download software.
However, it is still possible to access
additional software packages from the Arch
User Repository (AUR), which is managed by
the Arch community (i.e. users) themselves.
Although this repository is unofficial, software
packages first placed here are known to
make their way into Arch's official
repositories if they become popular enough.
Using The Terminal
In simple terms, a terminal (or console) is an
interface that allows for text commands to be
entered and displayed. As it is an
exceptionally powerful and versatile tool to
use, Arch and other Arch-based systems are
notable for relying far more heavily on their
use than other (user-friendly) distributions
such as Ubuntu or Mint, which have placed a
greater focus on the use of Graphical User
Interfaces.
For users who wish to learn more about how
Manjaro works, and for those who wish to
take full advantage of its versatility, it is
highly recommended to learn how to use the
terminal.
Using Multiple Kernels
A Linux kernel is the core of a Linux
operating system, which acts as an interface
between your computer's hardware and the
applications that run on it. Manjaro not only
supports the use of multiple kernels
(selectable from the boot screen), but allows
easy access to the very latest bleeding edge
kernels as well. All available kernels installed
on your system will be presented upon
booting up, including backup copies of each
kernel version installed.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 45 of 63
Manjaro Settings Manager
The Manjaro Settings Manager provides a
set of user-friendly tools to easily and
quickly configure aspects of your system.
Presently, this includes adding/changing
language support and keyboard layouts, as
well as user accounts.
Still a work in progress, new features will
also be added in the near future.
9. Accessing the Arch User Repository
Warning: Use the AUR at your own risk! Support will not be provided by the Manjaro team for any
issues that may arise relating to software installations from the AUR.
Although Manjaro is 100% Arch compatible - being based on Arch itself - it is not possible access the
official repositories of the Arch System to download software. Manjaro instead uses its own official
repositories in order to ensure that any software packages provided (e.g. system updates and
applications) have been fully tested and are completely stable before release.
However, it is still possible to access additional software packages from the Arch User Repository (AUR),
which is managed by the Arch community (i.e. users) themselves. Although this repository is unofficial,
software packages first placed here are known to make their way into Arch's official repositories if they
become popular enough. Unfortunately, as a community maintained repository, using the AUR
does still present potential risks and problems. These include the AUR providing:
• Multiple versions of the same packages
• Out of date packages
• Broken or only partially working packages
• Improperly configured packages (e.g. downloading unnecessary dependencies, and/or not
downloading necessary dependencies)
• Malicious packages (although extremely rare)
As such, although much of the software packages provided by the AUR should work, do not expect the
installation process to always be quite as straightforward as when using the official repositories. On
occasion, it may be necessary to manually identify and install dependencies yourself after an aborted
installation attempt, for example. In addition, there is no guarantee that any installed software will work
properly, if at all.
9.1 The Necessary Software
The XFCE and Cinnamon flavours should already have the necessary software pre-installed.
Otherwise, it will be necessary to consequently install the following software in order to download from
the AUR:
1. The base-developer group of packages: Rather than downloading pre-compiled software
packages for installation, you will instead be downloading the instructions for Manjaro to build and
compile them on your system. The base-developer group package is required to do this.
2. yaourt: This is used to search and download from the AUR, rather like pacman is used to search and
download from from Manjaro's official repositories. Just like pacman it will also automatically find and
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 46 of 63
download the necessary dependencies for downloaded software as well, provided that the software
packages themselves have properly stated which dependencies are needed.
To install the base-developer group and yaourt, enter the following in the terminal:
sudo pacman -S base-devel yaourt
9.2 Searching For and Installing Software From the AUR
Tip: It is strongly recommended to first visit the AUR website and examine the relevant page(s) for
any and all software intended to be installed. These pages contain comments from both existing users
and package developers, which may provide valuable information (e.g. warnings and/or solutions to
problems). The AUR website can be found here.
Yaourt must be used in the terminal, and is itself very similar to pacman to use. Furthermore, as with
pacman, it is not necessary to specify precise or complete package names in order to search for or
download software. For example, if wishing the download the Avant Window Navigator (a popular
dock/toolbar), simply entering 'avant' will yield a list of potential matches to browse and select from.
While the use of the sudo command is a convention when using pacman to install files (e.g. sudo
pacman -S [software package name]), it is not necessary to use this with yaourt.
To search for and install software packages from the AUR, the syntax is:
yaourt [software package name]
For example, to search for the Avant Window Navigator, the following command would be entered:
yaourt avant
As illustrated, a search for the Avant Window
Navigator undertaken has resulted in ten
possible matches being listed. Any
combination of listed packages can be
downloaded by simply entering their
numbers.
For example, entering 3 would install the
package avant-window-navigaor-bzr. Adding
5 after this would also install extra applets
for for this package:
==> Enter No of packages to be installed (ex: 1 2 3 or 1-3)
==> ------------------------------------------------------3 5
Tip: The numbers at the end of each line are user votes for each package. The higher the number, the
more popular the package. Note that option '3' has the highest number of votes by far!
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 47 of 63
Once the number(s) of your chosen software
package(s) have been entered, and the
installation process has begun, user
comments from the AUR website will also be
displayed.
You may also be presented with a standard
warning that the download package is
unsupported and potentially dangerous.
You may also be asked if you wish to Edit
PKGBUILD. Unless you know what you are
doing, always type n for 'no' when asked.
The purpose of this option is to allow
experienced users to inspect the instructions
that will be used to build the package(s) to
be installed. As dependencies may also have to be installed first in the process, it is possible to be
prompted to edit these as well.
Although you should just keep entering 'no' to these prompts, be aware that you will also be prompted
on occasion to continue the installation as well. So make sure you read each prompt properly
before entering anything, else you could end up aborting the installation by accident!
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 48 of 63
10. Configuring Graphics Cards
Note: It will be necessary to manually enable catalyst drivers where using AMD cards. In addition, it
will also be necessary to run the appropriate command to install your graphics card in the
Openbox flavour.
Where installing the full version of Manjaro (i.e. complete with a pre-installed desktop environment,
codecs, and software applications), the mhwd command will be automatically run by the CLI installer to
automatically detect your graphics card and install the most appropriate driver for it. Whether free or
proprietary drivers are installed will depend on your initial choice of using free or nonfree
graphics drivers to boot up.
However, it is also possible to use the mhwd command to install drivers for graphics cards yourself, if
desired.
10.1 Automated Installation Method
This is the recommended method for the detection and installation of graphics drivers. The syntax for
the automated installation method is:
sudo mhwd -a [pci or usb connection] [free or nonfree drivers] 0300
A breakdown of the command used for the automated method is as follows:
• -a: Automatically detect and install the appropriate driver
• [pci or usb]: Install the appropriate driver for devices connected internally via pci, or externally via
usb (again, mhwd currently only supports pci connections at this stage in its development)
• [free or nonfree]: Install either free drivers (e.g. provided by the Linux community), or nonfree
drivers (e.g. provided by hardware manufacturers)
• 0300: Identify that a driver is to be installed for a graphics card (0300 is the ID for graphics cards. As
the mhwd command develops, new ids will be used for other hardware devices).
For example, the following command would result in the automatic detection and installation of the
best available proprietary driver for a pci-connected graphics card:
sudo mhwd -a pci nonfree 0300
Otherwise, the following command would result in the automatic detection and installation of the best
available free driver for a pci-connected graphics card:
sudo mhwd -a pci free 0300
10.2 Manual Installation Method
Taking a do-it-yourself approach is itself relatively easy and straightforward using the mhwd command.
This should be undertaken in two stages:
1. Identify the appropriate driver to be installed, and then
2. Install the driver
Tip: Just ensure that you have identified and are indeed about to install the correct driver for your
particular graphics card!
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 49 of 63
10.2.1 Identifying Available Drivers
Prior to manually installing a graphics driver, it will be necessary to identify what drivers are available
for your system. To list the appropriate drivers available, the basic syntax is:
mhwd -l [optional: detailed view] [optional: --pci or --usb connection]
Using this command without the additional options will list basic information for all the available drivers
for devices connected to your system. All drivers graphics card drivers will have the prefix
(video-) in their name. The basic information provided for all listed drivers will be:
•
•
•
•
Name
Version
Free or proprietary, and
PCI or USB connection
A more detailed list of installed drivers can be obtained by entering:
mhwd -l -d
A detailed list will provide the following information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name
Version
PCI or USB connection
Description
Priority
Free or proprietary
Dependencies
Conflicts
Class ID (e.g. '0300' for graphics card drivers), and
Vendor ID
In addition, using the –pci filter in the following example will list detailed information for only the drivers
available for devices (e.g. graphics cards) using an internal PCI connection:
mhwd -l -d --pci
10.2.2 Installing a Driver
To install a driver for a graphics card, the syntax is:
sudo mhwd -i pci [name of driver]
A breakdown of the command used to manually install a driver is as follows:
• -i: Install a driver
• [pci]: Install a driver for a device connected internally via pci (e.g. graphics cards)
• [name of driver]: The name of the driver to be installed
For example, to install the proprietary nvidia graphics card driver, the following command would be
used:
sudo mhwd -i pci video-nvidia
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 50 of 63
10.2.3 Forcing the (re)Installation a Driver
Warning: use this command with care!
To force the (re)installation of a driver without removing what has already been installed first, the
syntax is:
sudo mhwd -f -i pci [name of driver]
For example, to force the re-installation of a previously installed nvidia graphics card driver, the
following command would be used:
sudo mhwd -f -i pci video-nvidia
10.3 Removing an Installed Driver
On occasion it may be necessary to remove an installed graphics card driver. Similarly to manually
installing a graphics card driver, two steps should be undertaken for removal:
1. Identify the installed driver
2. Remove the identified driver
After all, it would be somewhat difficult to remove an installed driver if you don't know what it's called!
10.3.1 Identifying Installed Drivers
To identify and list Manjaro's installed drivers - including the graphics driver to be removed, the syntax
is:
mhwd
-li [optional: detailed view] [optional: pci or usb devices only]
Using this command without the additional options will list the basic information of all the drivers
currently installed on your system. Once again, all drivers for graphics cards will have the prefix
(video-) in their name. As with listing drivers available for your system, the -d option used in the
following command will list detailed information:
mhwd
-li -d
This information may prove useful to determine any otherwise unforeseen consequences or problems
upon removing a driver. And again, it is also possible to filter your list of installed drivers by whether
they are used on hardware connected via pci or usb. In this instance, a detailed list will be generated
only for installed drivers used on hardware with a PCI connection:
mhwd
-li -d --pci
10.3.2 Removing Installed Drivers
Warning: use this command with care!
To remove an installed driver, the syntax is:
sudo mhwd -r [pci or usb] [name of driver]
For example, to remove the installed driver for a nvidia graphics card (connected internally via pci), the
following command would be used:
sudo mhwd -r pci video-nvidia
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 51 of 63
11. Manjaro Kernels
As the name would imply, as with the kernel of a seed, the Linux kernel is the core of a Linux operating
system. Every other element of a Linux-based operating system is built around the kernel, which acts
as an interface between your computer's hardware and the applications that run on it.
As hardware and software applications become more complex and sophisticated, so do the kernels to
fully utilise them. As such, Linux kernels are continually under development, with new revisions and
versions being regularly released. Further information on the very latest developments in kernel
technology can be found at The Linux Kernel Archives
The first Linux kernel was originally developed by Linus Torvalds, the creator of Linux. As an open
source project, although modern kernels now contain millions of lines of code generated by thousands
of programmers, Linus Torvalds still has the final authority on their development and release.
11.1 Identifying the Kernel Being Used
If the existing Kernel being run in Manjaro is not immediately apparent, then it can be shown by
opening the terminal and then entering the following command:
uname -r
As seen in this example, Manjaro is running
kernel 3.7.8-1-MANJARO. The information
given here is not arbitary; each part means
something about the kernel:
• The 3 indicates the version
• The 7 indicates the major revision
• The 8 indicates the minor revision
• The 1 indicates bug fixing
• MANJARO indicates the specific distribution
it is used for
11.2 Adding New Kernels
Tip: mhwd-kernel will automatically update a newly installed kernel with any modules
currently used in your existing kernel. For example, if you were to update from kernel 3.5 to 3.6,
mhwd-kernel would automatically update 3.6 with any and all modules present in 3.5. How about that!
Manjaro not only supports the use of multiple kernels (selectable from the boot screen), but allows easy
access to the very latest bleeding edge kernels as well. This is undertaken through use of Manjaro's
own MHWD-kernel (Manjaro Hard-Ware Detection) command. The syntax of the command is as follows:
sudo mhwd-kernel -i [new kernel: linux(version)] [optional- remove current kernel:
rmc]
When listing a new kernel to be installed in the command, it is not necessary to write the entire version
number. For example, any version of Kernel 3.5 can be listed simply as 'linux35', and any version of
Kernel 3.6 can be listed as 'linux36', and so on.
The optional rmc (remove current) component is of vital importance. Using this will result in your
existing kernel being deleted upon the installation of the new kernel. Otherwise, if it is not used, then
the existing kernel will be kept, and will be selectable alongside the new kernel at the boot screen.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 52 of 63
It is recommended - especially if updating to the latest bleeding edge kernel - to keep your
old one, even if only for a short time afterwards. This the safer option, and the old kernel can be
easily removed when satisfied with the stability and functionality of the new one.
As an example, once the terminal is opened, the following command will install a new kernel (3.4)
without deleting the existing kernel currently being used:
sudo mhwd-kernel -i linux34
Otherwise, the following command will install a new kernel (3.4) to replace the existing kernel, which
will be deleted:
sudo mhwd-kernel -i linux34 rmc
Either way, Manjaro will automatically configure the new kernel for you, ready for immediate use. Once
completed, close the terminal and re-boot the system for the change to take effect.
11.3 Removing Kernels
Warning: DO NOT attempt to delete an existing kernel while it is actually being used by Manjaro at the
time. You can first identify what kernel is running on your system by using the command uname -r in
the terminal (see above).
Where multiple kernels are present on your system, pacman can be used to remove them in the
terminal. It may be necessary to delete a total of three elements of the kernel in total to completely
remove it:
1. The kernel itself
2. The kernel's headers
3. The kernel's extra modules
Whether or not the headers and extra modules must be deleted depends on whether or not they have
been installed. The syntax of the pacman command to remove a kernel is as follows:
1. To delete a kernel, the syntax is:
sudo pacman -R linux[version]
For example, to delete kernel version 3.4 from the system, the following command would be entered:
sudo pacman -R linux34
2. To delete a kernel's headers, the syntax is:
sudo pacman -R linux[version]-headers
For example, to delete the headers of kernel version 3.4 from the system, the following command
would be entered:
sudo pacman -R linux34-headers
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 53 of 63
3. To delete a kernel's extra modules, the syntax is:
sudo pacman -R linux[version]-extramodules
For example, to completely remove all elements of kernel version 3.4, the following command would be
entered:
sudo pacman -R linux34-extramodules
4. To delete all elements of a kernel at the same time - where they are all present on your system
- the syntax is:
sudo pacman -R linux[version] linux[version]-headers linux[version]-extramodules
For example, to completely remove all elements of kernel version 3.4, the following command would be
entered:
sudo pacman -R linux34 linux34-headers linux34-extramodules
Please note however, that attempting to delete multiple elements at once if they are not present on
your system will result in an error message before the operation itself is aborted. It is also worthwhile
noting if Manjaro is being run in a virtual machine (e.g. Oracle Virtualbox), you may not be able to
delete certain kernels if they contain elements important to the virtualisation process itself.
11.4 Selecting Kernels
All available kernels installed on your system
will be presented upon booting up. As
illustrated, this includes backup copies of
each kernel version installed (which will also
be automatically removed if or when a kernel
version is deleted).
To select a kernel, simply use the arrow keys
to highlight the desired version, and then
press <enter>.
Where a selection is not made, Manjaro will
usually automatically select a kernel version
after waiting five seconds for a key entry.
The version automatically selected will
usually be the one used previously.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 54 of 63
12. Enabling Printing Capabilities
Printing is undertaken through the use of CUPS (previously an acronym for Common Unix Printing
System). This is a popular open source printing system used in most Linux distributions due to its ease
of use. As stated by Wikipedia:
'CUPS consists of a print spooler and scheduler, a filter system that converts the print
data to a format that the printer will understand, and a backend system that sends
this data to the print device. CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) as the
basis for managing print jobs and queues. '
Several software packages must be installed in order to enable full and comprehensive printing
capabilities on your system. Particularly to assist new users, it is possible in Manjaro to install
everything that is required with just a single command. However, once the necessary software
packages have been installed, it will then also be necessary to actually enable printing capabilities as
well.
12.1 Installing the Printer Software
To just install the necessary software packages, enter the following command:
sudo pacman -Sy manjaro-printer
12.2 Enabling Printing
Once the necessary software has been installed, to enable printing capabilities, enter the following
command:
sudo systemctl enable cups.service
Once printing has been enabled, in order to start doing so immediately without rebooting, input the
command:
sudo systemctl start cups.service
12.3 Disabiling Printing
If for any reason you wish to disable CUPS (e.g. in order to use an alternative printing system), open
your terminal and enter the following command:
sudo systemctl disable cups.service
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 55 of 63
13. Pacman
Pacman is a package manager developed specifically for use in Arch Linux. It is used to install,
upgrade, configure and remove software (i.e. to manage software packages). Pacman is used through
typing commands terminal; all the commands listed below to undertake various tasks assume that you
have your terminal open.
13.1 Updating the System
Tip: This should be the first thing you do after installing Manjaro!
To update your system, enter the following command in the terminal:
sudo pacman -Syu
13.2 Synchronising With the Manjaro Repositories
Your Manjaro system has a database of all the software packages (e.g. system updates and
applications) that are available from the official repositories. This is used to help pacman locate and
download these packages for installation.
When updating your system, its database will automatically be refreshed as well. However, using this
command is more thorough, as rather than just refreshing or updating the database, it will actually
rebuild it completely. To synchronise your database with the Manjaro repositories, enter the following
command in the terminal:
sudo pacman -Syy
To simultaneously synchronise with the repositories and update your system, enter the command:
sudo pacman -Syyu
13.3 Searching for Software
It is also possible to use pacman to search Manjaro's software repositories for any desired software,
provided you know the name of what you want. To search for a software package, the basic syntax is:
sudo pacman -Ss [Software Package Name]
For example, to search the repositories to see if a text editor called Leafpad is available, the following
command would be entered:
sudo pacman -Ss leafpad
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 56 of 63
13.4 Installing Software
To install a software package, the basic syntax is:
sudo pacman -S [Software Package Name]
For example, to download and install leafpad, the following command would be entered:
sudo pacman -S leafpad
Tip: many software packages (especially complex applications) will require other software packages known as dependencies - to also be downloaded and installed in order to work. Fortunately, pacman
will automatically detect and install these for you.
13.5 Removing Software
To remove a software package, the basic syntax is:
sudo pacman -R [Software Package Name]
For example, to remove the software application Leafpad, the following command would be entered:
sudo pacman -R leafpad
It is also possible to remove package and its dependencies, provided those dependencies are not being
used by any other packages. Deleting dependencies exclusive to a certain package is wise, as once the
main package is removed, they will become orphans, serving no other purpose than to clutter up your
system. To do so, enter the following command:
sudo pacman -Rs [Software Package Name]
However, Pacman usually also creates backup configuration files when deleting packages. As such, for
a more thorough (and cleaner) removal (ie. the package, its dependencies, and any configuration files
usually generated by pacman) enter the following command:
sudo pacman -Rns [Software Package Name]
13.6 Learning Pacman's Options
It is a very good idea to become familiar with the varied and powerful uses of pacman. A
comprehensive list of options that can be used with pacman can be found by entering the following
command:
man pacman
To exit out of the list, simply press q.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 57 of 63
14. Changing Servers
The official Manjaro repositories (also known as mirrors) are hosted on Software Servers. Physically
located throughout the world, these servers are responsible for receiving requests for software
packages via the terminal and/or pamac, and consequently delivering them to your system. There are
therefore three primary factors that will determine how fast your downloads are:
•Your internet connection
•The speed of the server itself, and
•The proximity of the server to you (i.e. how close or how far away it is)
Barring upgrading your internet package or switching providers, it is therefore potentially possible to
improve the speed of downloads from the Manjaro repositories by selecting a different server to use.
Servers are currently located in the following countries: Africa , Bangladesh , Belgium , Brasil , China ,
France . Germany , Greece , Indonesia , Ireland , Japan , the Netherlands , Romania , Sweden, Taiwan ,
United Kingdom and the United_States .
Those who installed Manjaro 0.8.6 using the this guide will have had a United States server set by
default, irrespective of their actual country of residence. As such, users living in the United Kingdom
may consequently achieve better results by switching to the U.K. server instead, for example.
Note: The closest server may not always necessarily be the fastest!
14.1 Step 1: Changing Servers
Tip: More than one server can be enabled. However, they will be selected in the order they are listed,
and pacman will only select another server if there is a problem with the one before it.
This is undertaken by amending the mirrorlist file, which is used by Manjaro's package manager –
pacman - to tell it the internet addresses of the Manjaro servers in order to download updates and
software applications from them.
14.1.1 Open the pacman-mirrors config file
You will need to first open your terminal in order to edit the pacman-mirrors.conf file. The syntax of the
command to edit the pacman-mirrors.conf is:
sudo [text editor] /etc/pacman-mirrors.conf
For example, if you wish to edit the file within the terminal using nano (a standard terminal-based text
editor) then enter:
sudo nano /etc/pacman-mirrors.conf
Otherwise - if you have installed the full version of Manjaro (i.e. not the NET-Edition) - you may find it
easier to use the pre-installed gedit text editor instead. This will open the pacman-mirrors.conf file up
as a document, making it easier to read and edit. To use gedit instead, the command is:
sudo gedit /etc/pacman-mirrors.conf
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 58 of 63
14.1.2 Edit the pacman-mirrors config file
Lines beginning with a hash '#' will be ignored by pacman. In the example below, we have
pacman-mirrors configurated to use only the stable branch and servers based on rank:
##
## /etc/pacman-mirrors.conf
##
## Branch Pacman should use (stable, testing, unstable)
Branch=stable
## Generation method
## 1) rank
- rank mirrors depending on their access time
## 2) random - randomly generate the output mirrorlist
Method=rank
## Specify to use only mirrors from a specific country
## Disabled by default
#OnlyCountry=Germany
## Input mirrorlist directory
MirrorlistsDir="/etc/pacman.d/mirrors"
## Output mirrorlist
OutputMirrorlist="/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist"
The United States Servers can therefore be enabled by simply removing the hash at the beginning of
the #OnlyCountry= line. Replace Germany with United_Kingdom or any other file name you may
find in the /etc/pacman.d/mirrors folder. In the instance below, the United Kingdom Server has been
enabled:
##
## /etc/pacman-mirrors.conf
##
## Branch Pacman should use (stable, testing, unstable)
Branch=stable
## Generation method
## 1) rank
- rank mirrors depending on their access time
## 2) random - randomly generate the output mirrorlist
Method=rank
## Specify to use only mirrors from a specific country
## Disabled by default
OnlyCountry=United_Kingdom
## Input mirrorlist directory
MirrorlistsDir="/etc/pacman.d/mirrors"
## Output mirrorlist
OutputMirrorlist="/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist"
Warning: Do not remove hashes from any lines that include double-hashes. Those are comments.
Once you have set the desired server(s), save the changes and close the pacman-mirrors.conf by:
• nano: Press CTRL and 'x' to exit, 'y' to save, and <enter> to finish, or
• gedit: Select the 'save' option and then close the window.
All that is required now is to Update your mirrorlist and Synchronise with the newly enabled
server(s).
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 59 of 63
14.2 Step 2: Update your Mirrorlist with the Newly Enabled
Server(s)
Your Manjaro system was configured by default to use the fastest mirror nearest to your destination.
Since we have set pacman-mirrors.conf to only use Servers based in the United States we have to
update our mirrorlist to adopt to that change we did.
To update your mirrorlist enter the following command in the terminal:
sudo pacman-mirrors -g
Once the Mirrorlist has been updated you can go on to synchronise your system to use the new
servers(s).
14.3 Step 3: Synchronising with the Newly Enabled Server(s)
Your Manjaro system has a database of all the software packages that are available from the official
repositories. These are used by pacman to locate and download them for installation. Synchronising
your database after changing servers will therefore ensure that it is up to date, and avoid any potential
problems when subsequently downloading software packages.
To synchronise your database with the Manjaro repositories, enter the following command in the
terminal:
sudo pacman -Syy
Once the Mirrorlist has been amended and the database synchronised, the change will be immediate.
There will be no need to reboot your system for the change to take effect.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 60 of 63
Appendix A: If Your Screen is Too Dim
Some people - particularly those using laptops - are encountering a problem where the screen
brightness is too dim upon replacing Microsoft Windows with a Linux distribution as their main
operating system. Although it affects all Linux distributions, the problem is actually due to the
computer's BIOS settings. Certain hardware manufacturers have set it up so that if Windows is not
detected running on their systems, the backlight is automatically disabled.
This problem can be easily fixed by ensuring that the GRUB bootloader re-activates the backlight. To do
this, first open up your terminal, and enter the following command (all one line):
sudo sed "s/\(GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=\)\"\"/\1\"acpi_osi=Linux acpi_backlight=vendor\"/"
/etc/default/grub -i
You will also have to enter your password to continue. Now enter the second and final command:
sudo update-grub
Once complete, close the terminal and re-boot your system for the changes to take permanent effect. A
Youtube video tutorial is available here.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 61 of 63
Appendix B: Manjaro FAQ
General Linux
What is Linux?
Linux is an open-source operating system, meaning that it is completely free to use and free to
distribute. Originally developed in 1991 by Finnish Programmer Linus Torvalds , Linux is an
exceptionally robust and reliable system most commonly used for internet servers, mobile phones, and
tablets (e.g. Android). However, the use of Linux as an alternative operating system for personal
computers has also been growing over the years, with several million users having already discovered
the benefits of it.
What are the benefits of using Linux?
There are quite a few. Linux is free, highly efficient, and very fast; The 64 bit version of Manjaro with
the XFCE desktop boots up in only a few seconds, and uses only 200MB of memory to run. Linux
systems are also very secure, and are not affected by the huge amount of Windows viruses, trojans,
worms, or malware out there. Anti-virus software is not required. And as for the tens of thousands of
software applications available - including fully compatible equivalents of popular Windows software
such as MS Office - these are also completely free. It is also possible to easily run many popular
Windows applications on Linux using compatibility software such as Wine/PlayonLinux. The examples
given here are far from comprehensive!
Why is Linux free? What's the catch?
There isn't one. Linux operates on a completely different philosophy than those of for-profit
corporations such as Microsoft and Apple. Linux systems and software applications are funded through
sponsorship, donations, and of course, the hard work of many, many enthusiasts. Linux has a dedicated
and highly enthusiastic fan-base for a very good reason.
Why are there so many different Linux distributions?
Different Linux distributions (i.e. operating systems) have been developed for different types of users,
for different purposes, and for different hardware capacities. For example, distributions such as Mint or
Zorin are specifically designed to apply to newcomers or those without technical expertise. At the other
end of the scale, distributions such as Arch are designed for computer enthusiasts. Manjaro is designed
to bridge that gap. Different flavours of a distribution means it comes with different desktop
environments - you're rarely if ever stuck with whatever desktop comes pre-installed.
What is the difference between cutting edge and bleeding edge
technology?
Generally speaking, cutting edge refers to the latest technology that has finished development and has
been fully tested. Bleeding edge technology is that which has not finished development and/or is still
undergoing testing. The use of bleeding edge technology therefore carries the risk of being unreliable
or unstable.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 62 of 63
Manjaro Specific
Is Manjaro just an easy-to-install version of Arch?
No. Manjaro is not like other Arch-based distributions such as Archbang or Bridge Linux, which are.
While there are numerous subtle differences between Manjaro and Arch, the most obvious examples including the use of our own dedicated software repositories - are covered in the About manjaro
Section.
Can Manjaro use the Arch Software Repositories?
No. Manjaro is configured to use its own dedicated software repositories, although you can still access
the community-maintained Arch User Repository (AUR) for additional software, if you wish. In addition,
if you want to access the very latest bleeding-edge software, Manjaro's own testing and unstable
repositories are also available.
Can Manjaro be converted into a full Arch system?
Yes, although only Manjaro versions 0.8.0 and 0.8.1. This course of action is not recommended, and the
Manjaro team cannot offer support for a converted system. Still, a conversion script to test out in
VirtualBox is available on our forum here.
What is the Manjaro Forum like?
Very friendly! Both newcomers and experienced users are more than welcome to participate, ask
questions, and just talk to other members of the Manjaro community, as well as the developers
themselves. You don't even have to register to post on the forum. Even though Manjaro is a new
distribution, there are already many dedicated Manjaro Community members who will be more than
happy to answer your questions and help you out.
How is 'Manjaro' Pronounced?
It's pronounced 'Manjaro'! As in Mount Kilimanjaro, which was the inspiration for the name. Man-ja-ro.
Manjaro 0.8.7 User Guide - Page 63 of 63
Appendix C: Useful Links
Manjaro Homepage
For the latest news, developments, download links, contact details, and more.
http://blog.manjaro.org/
Manjaro Forum
Read and participate in our active form – everybody's welcome!
http://forum.manjaro.org/index.php
Manjaro Wiki
Beginner-friendly guides are available to help you use the system and to solve problems.
http://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php/Main_Page
A special thank-you to Philip Müller – a wonderful friend and mentor
Carl Duff
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising