Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments

Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Selector Guide
Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments . . . . . 8
Series 2600A
2651A
Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Power) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Series 2400
2401
2400
2410
2420
2425
2430
2440
SourceMeter Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
21V SourceMeter Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
General-Purpose SourceMeter Instrument
High Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
High Current SourceMeter Instrument
100W SourceMeter Instrument
1kW Pulse Mode SourceMeter Instrument
5A SourceMeter Instrument
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote SourceMeter Instrument . . 48
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System . . . . . . . . . . 52
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
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Source Measurement Unit (SMU ) INSTRUMENTS
System SourceMeter®
Multi-Channel I-V Test Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2601A Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Current)
2602A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Current)
2611A Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V)
2612A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V)
2635A Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(Low Current)
2636A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(Low Current)
C O N F I D E N C E
1
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
All of Keithley’s source measurement unit (SMU)
instruments can source voltage while measuring
current and source current while measuring
voltage. Some also measure resistance. All are
fully programmable instruments that can stand
alone as complete source, measurement, and
automation solutions. They are also easy to integrate into larger systems.
Keithley’s SMU instruments are faster, easier to
use, and more economical than using individual
power supplies and measurement instruments
that are harnessed together. Additionally, they
provide more accurate and repeatable results.
Keithley’s SMU instruments are ideal for production and automation, yet precise and sensitive
enough for laboratory applications.
Voltmeter Configuration
HI
Ileakage
LO
Source I = 0A, Measure V
Ammeter Configuration
+
I meter
Keithley’s SMU instruments include our Series
2400 SourceMeter® instruments, Series 2600A
System SourceMeter instruments, Model 237
High-Voltage Source-Measure unit, and Model
4200-SCS Semiconductor Characterization
System.
V
How does an SMU instrument work?
SMU instruments can be used as stand-alone
constant voltage or constant current sources and
as stand-alone voltmeters or ammeters. However,
their real strength is their ability to simultaneously source and measure—applying voltage to a
device under test (load) and measuring the current flowing through it, or supplying current to a
load and measuring the voltage drop across it.
Ohmmeter Configuration
The SMU instrument topology (Figure 1) protects the device under test (DUT) from damage
due to accidental overloads, thermal runaway,
and other problems. Both the current and voltage source are programmable with readback to
maximize device measurement integrity. If the
readback reaches a programmed compliance
limit, then the source is clamped at the limit,
providing fault protection.
Technical Tip: Use the lowest current range setting to
­minimize Ileakage.
V meter
I = 0A
V = 0V
HI
Technical Tip: Use the lowest voltage source range to
­minimize voltage burden.
Vburden
–
LO
Source V = 0V, Measure I
Technical Tip: The Auto
Ohms feature in Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments
automatically selects the
best test current and voltage
range for optimal resistance
measurements. Use 4-wire
remote sensing (Kelvin
sensing) for the best accuracy.
HI
I meter
Sense HI
I = test
current
V meter
Sense LO
LO
Source I = test current, Measure V and I, Remote Sense ON
Power Supply Configuration
HI
Sense HI
I meter/
limit
Technical Tip: Use 4-wire
remote sensing to deliver an
accurate voltage to the load at
high output current levels.
Load
V
Sense LO
LO
Source V, Measure I, Remote Sense ON
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Power Load Configuration
HI
I meter
V
I
Sense HI
V meter
V meter/
limit
Power
Source
Sense LO
LO
Sink I = Desired load current, Measure V, Remote Sense ON
Figure 1. Basic SMU instrument topology
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I = desired
load
current
Technical Tip: Make sure the
voltage limit is set above the
maximum voltage output of
the power source. Use 4-wire
remote sensing to assure an
accurate voltage measurement
with a large sink current.
Figure 2. SMU instrument configurations
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Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical
Information
Technical
Information
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Speed
0
Source/
Measure
Precision
1
2
3
4
ms
5
6
7
0
10µA measurement
uncertainty = 5nA
1
2
1µV
40V
1µV
3A
1pA
1mV
Current
Current
Source + Sink
6
7
40V
1mA
+I
II
I
–V
II
+V
IV
I
–V
+V
III
–I
SMU instruments offer a much broader
range of voltage and current resolution than
conventional power supplies. This allows
you to use SMU instruments in many more
types of applications.
3A
Source Only
+I
III
5
Voltage
1pA
4 Quadrant
Operation
4
ms
10µA measurement
uncertainty = 2500nA
Voltage
Voltage and
Current
Resolution
3
SMU instruments are optimized for speed
and precision. In most models, both the
source voltages and source currents settle
to within 0.01% of the specified accuracy
in as little as 50µs. This is 50 times faster
than what a conventional power supply
can provide.
IV
–I
A conventional power supply sources
(supplies) voltage and/or current. An
SMU instrument also sources power, but
it can additionally sink (dissipate) power.
It provides four-quadrant operation. In
quadrants I and III it sources power to a
load and in quadrants II and IV it sinks
power from a load. (Voltage, current, and
resistance can be measured during source
or sink operations.) A conventional power
supply only functions in quadrant IV.
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Typical Power Supply
Figure 3. Precision power supplies vs. SMUs
Advantages
Many advantages are achieved by combining source and measurement circuitry into a
single unit:
• Supports faster test times with improved
accuracy and repeatability
• Allows you to source voltage or current while
making time-stamped voltage, current, and
resistance measurements without changing
connections
• Eliminates many of the complex
synchronization, connection, and
programming issues associated with using
multiple instruments
• Minimizes the time required for test station
development, setup, and maintenance
• Lowers the overall cost of system ownership
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What are the most popular SMU
instrument configurations?
The fully isolated, floating configuration of
Keithley’s SMU instruments provide maximum
flexibility in configuring test setups. SMU instruments can be configured as many different
instruments (Figure 2). This makes them invaluable tools in flexible product test racks and in
R&D test bench tools.
How does an SMU instrument
compare to a precision power supply?
The power supply capabilities of Keithley’s
SMU instruments surpass those provided by
conventional power supplies. This is illustrated
in Figure 3. In addition to the highly stable
DC power source, low noise, and readback,
Keithley’s SMU instruments include other
features not usually available on conventional
power supplies. For example, most SMU instru-
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ments offer a Pulse mode, include programmable delays, and provide a test sequencer that
allows you to set up and execute tests without
PC intervention. Figure 4 illustrates a typical
precision power supply test that uses an SMU
instrument.
I-V characterization
Keithley’s SMU instruments are core instruments
for I-V characterization tests. Their ability to
source voltage while simultaneously measuring
current or source current while simultaneously
measuring voltage can be combined with both
DC and sweep operations to perform measurements such as forward voltage (V F), reverse leakage, and reverse breakdown voltage (V B) without
changing a single connection to the device under
test (Figure 5).
Built-in features allow multiple SMU instruments
to be synchronized for parametric measure-
M E A S U R E
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SMU INSTRUMENTS
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
2602A SourceMeter Instrument
C O N F I D E N C E
3
Technical
Information
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
SMU INSTRUMENTS
I (Amps)
SMU
V
VD
Vbias
V
Test
Idd ON (5V)
IC
–100
–V
V meter
GND
Description
Power supply current,
V D = 5V, device active
Idd OFF (5V) Power supply current,
V D = 5V, device in standby
Idd ON (3.3V) Power supply current,
V D = 3.3V, device active
Idd ON (3.3V) Power supply current,
V D = 3.3V, device in standby
Input leakage current
IIL
Reading
14.294 mA
50.361 nA
+100
+V
–I
Figure 5. Typical diode characterization
12.871 mA
c
42.198 nA
b
1.2358 µA
Figure 4. Typical precision power supply tests
ments like threshold voltage, beta, and transconductance. Output interlocks provide controlled
access to a test fixture, which is particularly
important for the extended voltage range of
the Model 237 (up to 1100V). Guarded 4-wire
connections provide high quality measurements
over a wide range (1fA to 10A).
A family of semiconductor curves can be
obtained with just two SMU instruments (Figure
6). At each step of base current from SMU1,
SMU2 sweeps VCE and measures IC. An SMU
instrument can store data from a sweep in its
buffer, thus reducing data transfer time to a computer. A family of curves could also be produced
using pulse-sweeps to reduce power dissipation
within a device.
Built-In Sweeps
Keithley’s SMU instruments simplify capturing
the data needed to characterize a wide range
of devices with the SMU instruments’ built-in
pulsed and DC sweeps, including linear staircase, logarithmic staircase, and custom sweeps
(Figure 7). Sweeps coupled with other throughput enhancements like built-in limit inspection,
digital I/O, and a component handling interface
are ideal for high speed, nonstop production
environments. All sweep configurations can
be programmed for single-event or continuous
operation.
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+I
e
SMU
I source
IC
SMU
Ib3
I meter
V meter
Ib4
Ib2
V V Source
Ib1
VCE
Figure 6. Typical family of curves for transistors
Instrumentation and software solutions
for I-V characterization
Figure 8 illustrates various hardware and software solutions for I-V characterization. In the
first example, Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments are connected to a PC.
In the second example, Series 2600A Source­
Meter instruments are connected to a PC with
TSP-Link® technology. TSP-Link technology
seamlessly integrates multiple Series 2600A
instruments into a single system that can be programmed and controlled as a single instrument
through the master 2600A instrument or the PC.
The third example is the Model 4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System. This
system includes an embedded PC, Windows®
operating system, and mass storage. It is a complete DC characterization solution for semiconductor devices and test structures. It supports
up to nine SMU modules and provides an array
of Windows based software that is so intuitive
that even a novice can use the system with ease.
This point-and-click software supplies a full
range of functionality, including: managing tests,
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generating reports, automating test sequencing,
and creating user libraries. The Model 4200-SCS
is a complete one box solution that combines
sub-femtoamp resolution with real-time plotting
and analysis. Key capabilities include instrument
and prober drivers, interfaces to popular modeling/circuit simulation software, and WLR test
capabilities.
High-Speed I-V Functional Testing
Keithey’s SMU instruments are designed for
maximum throughput on the production floor.
Each SMU instrument provides high-speed measurements, an internal pass/fail comparator, programmable test sequencing, and digital I/O to
control material handlers (Figure 9). Single- or
multi-point pass/fail testing can be performed on
a wide range of components, such as: network
devices, circuit protection devices, active discrete
devices, and sensors. The onboard pass/fail
comparator simplifies high-speed pass/fail tests
by avoiding the delay caused by computer and
GPIB bus interaction. The buffer memory stores
results, again avoiding the computer/GPIB bus
interaction delay.
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Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
SMU Instrument
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Level
Bias
Bias
Fixed Level
LEVEL, COUNT (number of DELAYMEASURE cycles), DELAY, BIAS
A fixed level sweep outputs a single
level of voltage and ­current with
­multiple measurements to bias and/or
stress devices.
Stop
Step
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear Stair
The linear staircase sweep goes from
the start level to the stop level in equal
­linear steps.
START, STOP, STEP, DELAY, BIAS
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
START, STOP, POINTS/DECADE
(5, 10, 25, or 50), DELAY, BIAS
Logarithmic Stair
t off
The logarithmic staircase sweep is
­similar to the linear staircase sweep,
but it is done on a log scale with a
specified number of steps per decade.
t on
Level
Bias
Bias
Pulse
Start
LEVEL, COUNT, ton , toff , BIAS
Stop
Step
Pulsed sweeps greatly reduce the
power dissipation within a device, so
the effects of temperature (drift, device
failure, etc.) are virtually eliminated.
Bias
Bias
Linear Stair Pulse
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Delay
Meas.
Delay
Meas.
START, STOP, STEP, ton , toff , BIAS
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Logarithmic Stair Pulse
Custom
START, STOP, POINTS/DECADE
(5, 10, 25, or 50), ton , toff , BIAS
Custom sweeps allow the user to
program individual steps to create
waveforms
The custom sweep allows you to
­construct special sweeps by specifying
the number of measurement points and
the source level at each point.
Figure 7. Various sweeps supported by SMU instruments.
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Technical
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C O N F I D E N C E
5
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Advanced automation for system throughput
Series 2600A TSP® Technology
Any Series 2600A instrument or 2600A-based system can run high speed,
embedded test scripts with Test Script Processor (TSP) technology. The
test sequence is processed and run on the embedded computer in the
instrument, rather than from an external PC controller, so delays due to
GPIB traffic congestion are eliminated (Figure 11). TSP test scripts allow
throughput gains of up to 10x over equivalent PC-based programs controlling the same instruments via GPIB. TSP test scripts can be loaded and run
from the front panel or over the system’s GPIB interface. A single TSP test
script, running on the master 2600A unit, can control all Series 2600A channels and acquire data from any Series 2600A instrument connected to the
system with TSP-Link technology.
Discrete instruments with
remote control capability
PC
Series 2400
Low Cost
• Modular
Series 2400
• PC control with
LabVIEW, Labtracer, or
ACS Basic
Series 2400
Scalable instruments with
TSP-Link
PC
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Turnkey SMU systems with
built-in Graphical User Interface (GUI)
SMU
Modules
Model
4200-SCS
High Speed
A Series 2600A-based system can stand alone as a complete measurement
and automation solution for semiconductor device or component testing
with the master 2600A unit controlling sourcing, measurements, pass/fail
decisions, test sequence flow control, binning, the component handler,
prober, and much more.
• Scalable, script-based
smart instruments
• PC control or
self-contained
execution for highest
throughput
Series 2400 Source-Memory List
The Source-Memory List in Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments is a key
feature for production testing. This programmable sequencer lets you set
up a complete sequence of up to 100 tests. Each test can contain totally different test conditions, measurements, math, pass/fail, and binning criteria.
The tests are executed sequentially without additional external commands.
Conditional branching leads to different points on the test list, depending
on the results.
Performance +
Capability
• Complete
semiconductor
characterization system
• Configurable
SMU/Pulse/C-V
channels with remote
low current preamps
The Source-Memory Sweep feature allows you to store up to 100 unique
source and measure configurations in nonvolatile memory. This feature
makes it possible to sweep through a group of source memory locations
and execute a complete test sequence all at one time.
Digital I/O
Digital communication is one of the most common requirements of a production test system because of the need to communicate with handlers,
binning equipment, and user controls. The SMU instruments’ digital I/O
can also be used to interact with racks of instruments to trigger events,
start readings, and collect results. Digital triggering and response enable
fast and reliable results that are not dependent on the communication bus
in use. (Digital I/O is not available on the Model 2401.)
Figure 8. Examples of I-V characterization solutions
Need more test pins?
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Keithley’s new TSP-Link technology is a high speed interface for system
expansion. It allows you to connect a virtually unlimited number of Series
2600A SourceMeter instruments in a master/slave c­onfiguration (Figure
10). All connected Series 2600A instruments can be programmed and
operated under the control of the master instrument. TSP-Link technology
provides an easy way to scale your system’s channel count up or down to
match changing application needs. There is no chassis involved.
In Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments, Trigger Link can be used to coordinate multiple instruments with hardware triggers.
Parallel test capability
Series 2600A instruments support true parallel testing. Each 2600A in a
system can run its own test sequences, so the number of devices that can
be tested in parallel is equivalent to the number of 2600A instruments in
the system. Parallel testing coupled with the 20,000 rdgs/s of each 2600A
creates a system that offers extremely high throughput.
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Contact check
The optional Contact Check function eliminates measurement errors and
false product failures by verifying good connections to the DUT quickly
and easily before testing begins. In just 350µs (Series 2400) or 1ms (Series
2600A), this function’s verification and notification routine ensures that
you have good contact to a device before sending energy through it and
spending time testing it (Figure 12). (The Contact Check function is not
available on the Model 2401.)
Some of the problems this function can detect while verifying connector,
fixture, and test harness integrity are contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, corrosion, loose or broken connections, and relay failures. If a bad
contact is detected, it can abort the measurement, protecting the DUT.
Three methods of fault notification are provided.
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Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
Technical
Information
Technical
Information
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
I
Test B
Test A
Test A
Test B
Test C
Test D
Pass/Fail Test
Check Vf(A) at 100mA
against pass/fail limits
Check Vf(B) at 1A
against pass/fail limits
Check leakage current,
Ir(C), at–10V and test
against pass/fail limits
Check Vbr(D)
V
Test C
Test D
Description
Forward voltage
test at 0.1A
Forward voltage
test at 1.0A
Reverse leakage
current at –10V
bias
Breakdown
voltage
Reading
0.6534 V
0.7268 V
Test
Time If Passes Test
300 µs Go to Test B
If A Test Fails
Figure 10. Series 2600A back panel
300 µs Go to Test C
10.122 nA
5 ms
Go to Test D
146.12 V
1 ms
1.Bin part to good bin.
2.Transmit readings to
computer while handler
is placing new part.
3.Return to Test A.
1.Bin part to bad bin.
2.Transmit data to
computer while
handler is placing new
part.
3.Return to Test A.
Figure 9. Typical high speed I-V functional test
• Multi-channel
Source-Measure
capabilities
• Advanced calculations and
flow control
• Pass/Fail test
• Prober/Handler control
• Datalogging/Formatting
SMU Instument
Guard
+
2600A
Test Script
Guard Sense
I meter
V or I
Source
350µs
Contact
Check
(optional)
V meter
In/Out HI
Sense HI
Sense LO
DUT
Pass
In/Out LO
Fail
DUT
Pass
Figure 11. Series 2600A test script
Figure 12. Series 2400 contact check
The Contact Check function was designed for high throughput 4-wire and
6-wire test applications. In Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments, three reference value choices (2W, 15W, and 50W) are supplied. If the resistance of
good connections normally exceeds 50W, then the built-in contact check
function is not suitable for that application and alternative approaches
should be considered. Series 2600A instruments provide more flexibility
with programmable values.
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V meter
–
Technical information: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
SMU Instrument
C O N F I D E N C E
7
Selector Guide
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
20–100W SYSTEM
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Selector guide: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
20–100W BENCH SMU INSTRUMENTS
MODEL
Page
POWER OUTPUT
CURRENT Capability
Min. (default)
Max
VOLTAGE Capability
Min. (default)
Max.
Ohms Range
Basic ACCURACY
I
V
W
FEATURE Summary
Pulse Mode
2410
2410-C
2420
2420-C
2425
2425-C
2440
2440-C
2601A
2602A
33
22 W
33
22 W
33
66 W
33
110W
33
55 W
10
40.4 W/channel
±10 pA
±10 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±1.05 A
±1.05 A
±3.15 A
±3.15 A
±5.25 A
±1 pA
±3.03 A DC and pulsed/10 A
pulsed per channel
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±1 µV
±21/±210 V 2
±1100 V
±63 V
±105 V
±42 V
±40.4 V/channel
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<2.0 W to >200 MW
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.07 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.02 %
0.015%
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Embedded Execution
Embedded Scripting
Contact Check
Selectable Front/Rear Inputs
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Connections
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal, adapters
for banana and/or triax
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
ICL
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488, RS-232
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488, RS-232
communication with embedded
Test Script Processor
(TSP) capability
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces (except
Model 2401).
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
14 digital I/O-trigger lines, 3
TSP-Link trigger lines
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces.
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement 6½-digit measurement
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
resolution. Handler
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
interface. 500µs pass/
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
fail test. Optional
contact check capability contact
check capability. contact check capability. contact check capability. contact check capability.
(except Model 2401).
6½-digit measurement
resolution. Scalable to 64+
channels with TSP-Link®.
Built-in Web-based
characterization software.
Linear/Log/Custom Sweeps
Limit Inspection
Selectable Output-Off Impedance
State
Remote or 4W Voltage Sense
Source Readback
Command Language Protocol
Programming
Memory/Buffer
Trigger
Guard
Digital I/O
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2400, 2401
2400-C
2400-LV
Other
Compliance
1. In pulse mode.
2. Models 2401 and 2400-LV 21V max.
CE, UL
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CE
CE
A
G R E A T E R
CE
M E A S U R E
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
CE
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Cable
CE, UL
>200W POWER SMU INSTRUMENTS
20W LOW CURRENT SMU INSTRUMENTS
2611A
2612A
2430
2430-C
2651A
2635A
2636A
6430
237
10
30.3 W/channel
33
1100 W 1
26
2,000W pulsed/200W DC
10
30.3 W/channel
48
2W
53
11 W
±1 pA
±1.5 A DC and pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±100 pA
±1 pA
±50A (±100 A when two units are
connected in parallel)
±1 fA
±1.5 A DC and pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±10 aA
±100 fA
±10.5 A 1
±105 mA
±100 mA
±1 µV
±40 V (±80 V when two units are
connected in series)
±1 µV
±1 µV
±100 µV
±202 V
±210 V
±1100 V
±1 µV
±1 µV
±202 V
±105 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
<2.0 W to >20 TW
0.02 %
0.015%
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
±0.02 %
±0.015%
0.02 %
0.015%
0.035%
0.012%
0.063%
0.05%
0.03%
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal, adapters
for banana and/or triax
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal,
adapters for banana
Yes
Yes
No
No
Rear and Preamp
Triax
Triax
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Screw terminal, adapters
for banana and/or triax
Yes
Yes
Yes (linear/log/pulse,
fixed, stair, custom)
No
No
No
Rear only
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
ICL
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488,
RS-232 communication with
embedded
Test Script Processor (TSP)
capability
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
Yes
ICL
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488,
RS-232 communication with
embedded
Test Script Processor (TSP)
capability
Yes
Yes
ICL
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488,
RS-232 communication with
embedded
Test Script Processor (TSP)
capability
Yes
Yes
SCPI
Yes
No
DDC
IEEE-488, RS-232
IEEE-488
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with
6 In/Out
Ohms (high current)
and cable
1000 pt.
Banana
IEEE-488, RS-232
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
14 digital I/O-trigger lines,
3 TSP-Link trigger lines
Trigger Link with 6 In/Out
14 digital I/O-trigger lines,
3 TSP-Link trigger lines
14 digital I/O-trigger lines,
3 TSP-Link trigger lines
Cable
Ohms (high current) and cable
Cable
Cable
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
1 In/4 Out with built-in component
handler interfaces (except
Model 2401).
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces
6½-digit measurement resolution.
Scalable to 64+ channels with
TSP-Link®.
Built-in Web-based
characterization software.
6½-digit measurement
resolution. Handler interface.
500µs pass/fail test. Optional
contact check capability.
6½-digit measurement resolution.
1% to 100% pulse duty cycle.
1µs per point measurements.
6½-digit measurement resolution.
Scalable to 64+ channels with
TSP-Link®.
Built-in Web-based
characterization software.
6½-digit measurement
resolution. Handler
interface. 500µs
pass/fail test.
CE, UL
CE
CE, UL
CE, UL
CE
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Selector guide: Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instruments
20–100W SYSTEM
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Source Measurement Unit
(SMU) Instruments
In/Out
Cable
No
CE
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Selector Guide
C O N F I D E N C E
9
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
• Combines a power supply, true
current source, 6½-digit DMM,
arbitrary waveform generator,
V or I pulse generator with
measurement, electronic load,
and trigger controller – all in
one instrument
• Family of products offers wide
dynamic range: 1fA to 50A and
1μV to 200V
• 20,000 rdg/s provides faster
test times and ability to capture
transient device behavior
• Precision timing and channel
synchronization (<500ns)
• USB port for saving data and
test scripts
• LXI Class C compliance supports
high speed data transfer and
enables quick and easy remote
testing, monitoring, and
troubleshooting
• Software:
–– TSP® Express for quick and
easy I-V test (embedded)
–– ACS Basic Edition for
semiconductor component
characterization (optional)
CONNECT DUT
Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments are Keithley’s latest I-V source measurement unit
(SMU) instruments for use as either bench-top I-V characterization tools or as building block components of multi-channel I-V test systems. For bench-top use, Series 2600A instruments feature an
embedded TSP Express Software Tool that allows users to quickly and easily perform common I-V
tests without programming or installing software. For system level applications, the Series 2600A’s
Test Script Processor (TSP) architecture, along with other new capabilities such as parallel test execution and precision timing, provides the highest throughput in the industry, lowering the cost of test.
To simplify the testing, verification, and analysis of semiconductor components, the optional ACS
Basic Edition software is also available.
CONFIGURE Test
COLLECT Data
HI
SMU A
Step VG
Measure IG
SMU B
Sweep VD
Measure ID
LO
SMU INSTRUMENTS
LO
Performing nested sweeps to characterize a transistor with TSP Express is quick and easy. Data can be exported to a .csv file for use with
spreadsheet applications such as Excel.
Quick and Easy Lab and
Bench-Top Use
Each Series 2600A SourceMeter instrument
is a complete I-V measurement solution with
unmatched ease of use, capability, and flexibility.
They simplify the process of making high-performance measurements.
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The TSP Express Software Tool quickly sets up
and runs basic and advanced tests, including:
nested step/sweeps, pulse sweeps, and custom
sweeps for device characterization applications.
The resulting data can be viewed in graphical or
tabular format and exported to a .csv file for use
with spreadsheet applications.
A
G R E A T E R
TSP Express runs on a PC connected to the
SourceMeter instrument via an Ethernet cable
(provided with the instrument). The intuitive
user interface resides on the built-in LXI web
page, so no software installation is needed.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
See page 26 for Model 2651A Single-Channel
System SourceMeter Instrument (High Power)
System SourceMeter Instruments
Simplify Semiconductor Component
Test, Verification, and Analysis
The optional ACS Basic Edition software maximizes the
productivity of customers who perform packaged part characterization during development, quality verification, or failure
analysis, with:
• Rich set of easy-to-access test libraries
• Script editor for fast customization of existing tests
• Data tool for comparing results quickly
• Formulator tool that analyzes captured curves and provides
a wide range of math functions
For more information about the ACS Basic Edition software,
please refer to the ACS Basic Edition data sheet.
Unmatched Throughput and Flexibility
for High Performance I-V Test Systems
When you need to acquire data on a packaged part quickly, the wizard-based user
TSP technology provides remarkable capabilities when a Series interface of ACS Basic Edition makes it easy to find and run the test you want, like
this common FET curve trace test.
2600A is integrated as part of a multi-channel I-V test system.
For example, the embedded scripting capability allows test
PC instead of the instrument itself. Testing multiscripts to be run by the instrument. Test scripts are complete test programs based on an easy to use
ple devices at the same time means dramatically
but highly efficient and compact scripting language called Lua <www.lua.org>. Since test scripts
improved test throughput and reduced overall
can contain any sequence of routines that are executable by conventional programming languages
cost of test.
(including decision making algorithms), this feature allows entire tests to be managed by the instrument without sending readings back to a PC for decision making. This eliminates the delays caused
When all or some of your test requirements
by GPIB traffic congestion and greatly improves overall test times.
change, your Series 2600A system can be reconfigured via software without rewiring. The interAlso, TSP technology offers “mainframe-less channel expansion.” The TSP-Link channel expansion
nal software can match the different pin layouts
bus (which uses a 100 Base T Ethernet cable) allows multiple Series 2600A and other TSP instruof the devices-under-test to the appropriate SMU
ments to be connected in a master-slave configuration and behave as one integrated system. TSP-Link
technology supports up to 32 units or 64 SMU instrument channels per GPIB or IP address, making it instrument-per-pin configurations.
easy to scale a system to fit the particular requirements of an application.
Tight Timing and Synchronization
Parallel Test Capability
Today’s test engineers are challenged with
testing increasingly more complex and more
The Series 2600A takes system level performance to a new height with parallel testing capability. This
feature tests multiple devices in parallel to meet the high throughput requirements of production test sensitive devices that require precise timing
and ­synchronization. Whether you need to
and advanced semiconductor lab applications.
synchronize electrical and optical tests for an
This parallel testing capability enables each instrument in the system to run its own complete test
sequence, creating a fully multi-threaded test environment. Hence, the number of tests that can be
<500ns
running in parallel on a Series 2600A system can be as many as the number of instruments in the
­system. In contrast, most conventional test systems run a single thread test, usually on the ­controller
Test 1
running
Test 2
running
Test 3
running
SMU1
SMU2
SMU3
GPIB or Ethernet
TSP-Link
To
Device 1
To
Device 2
All channels in the system are synchronized
to under 500ns.
Parallel testing with the Series 2600A
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SMU4
To
Device 3
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
®
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Series 2600A
C O N F I D E N C E
11
Ordering Information
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
2601A
2602A
2611A
2612A
2635A
2636A
2651A
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(2000W, 50A Pulse)
Accessories Supplied
2600-ALG-2
Low Noise Triax Cable
with Alligator Clips,
2m (6.6 ft.) (two
supplied with 2636A,
one with 2635A)
2600-Kit Mating Screw
Terminal Connectors
with strain relief
and covers (2601A/
2602A/2611A/2612A)
CA-180-3A
TSP-Link/Ethernet
Cable (two per unit)
TSP Express Software Tool
(embedded)
Test Script Builder Software
(supplied on CD)
ACS Basic Edition Software
(optional)
®
optoelectronic component or ensure that the same stress times are applied to the different pins of
an advanced semiconductor device, providing precision timing and synchronization between SMU
instrument channels (and external instruments) has become a critical requirement.
A high performance trigger model that is hardware driven allows timing at each source-measure step
to be tightly controlled. It also synchronizes the operations between SMU instrument channels and/
or external instrumentation at hardware speeds of <500ns.
Third-generation SMU Instrument
Design Ensures Faster Test Times
Based on the proven architecture of earlier Series 2600 instruments, the Series 2600A’s new SMU instrument design enhances
test speed in several ways. For example, while earlier designs
used a parallel current ranging topology, the Series 2600A uses
a patented series ranging topology, which provides faster and
smoother range changes and outputs that settle more quickly.
The Series 2600A SMU instrument design supports two modes
of operation for use with a variety of loads. In normal mode,
the SMU instrument provides high bandwidth performance for
maximum throughput. In high capacitance (high-C) mode, the
SMU instrument uses a slower bandwidth to provide robust performance with higher capacitive loads.
Each Series 2600A SMU instrument channel offers a highly flexible, four-quadrant source coupled with precision voltage and
current meters. Each channel can be configured as a:
• Precision power supply
• True current source
• DMM (DCV, DCI, ohms, and power with 6½-digit resolution)
• Electronic load (with sink mode capability)
• V or I pulse generator (Pulse width: 100μs and longer)
• V or I waveform generator
Current arbitrary waveforms
maximum output update rates:
12,500 samples/second.
Voltage arbitrary waveforms
maximum output update rates:
20,000 samples/second.
All analog-to-digital (A/D) converters in Series 2600A instruments are both high speed and high
precision for maximum flexibility. The two A/D converters per channel (one for I, one for V) can run
simultaneously, providing precise source-readback without sacrificing test throughput. These A/D
converters offer the versatility of programmable integration rates, allowing you to optimize for either
high speed (>20,000 rdgs/s at 0.001 NPLC setting) or for high resolution (up to 24 bits at 10 NPLC setting) measurements.
In addition to the high speed or high resolution modes, the Model 2651A offers a digitizing measurement mode that enables 1µs per point sampling. See the Model 2651A on page 26 for more information.
Digital I/O Interface
A back panel port on every Series 2600A instrument provides 14 bits of universal digital I/O to link
the instrument to a variety of popular component handlers and/or probe stations. These digital I/O
lines are compatible with the triggering technology of Keithley’s earlier Trigger-Link instruments.
These lines simplify integrating Series 2600A instruments into systems that employ other electrical,
mechanical, optical, or RF equipment.
TSP-Link Trigger Lines
The TSP-Link bus supports dedicated trigger lines that provide synchronous operations between multiple Series 2600A instruments (and other TSP instruments, such as Series 3700 DMM/Switch Systems)
without the need for additional trigger connections.
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System SourceMeter Instruments
A
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M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Series 2600A
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Built-in Contact Check Function
The Contact Check function makes it simple to verify good device-under-test connections quickly and
easily before an automated test sequence begins. This eliminates the measurement errors and false
product failures associated with contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, loose or broken connections, relay failures, etc.
Powerful Software Tools
In addition to the embedded TSP Express and optional ACS Basic Edition software, the free Test
Script Builder software tool is provided to help users create, modify, debug, and store TSP test
scripts. Table 1 describes key features of Series 2600A software tools.
Complete Automated System Solutions
While the ACS Basic Edition software only supports component characterization tests, wafer and cassette level testing can be performed
by Keithley’s ACS Integrated Test Systems. ACS systems are highly
configurable, instrument-based systems that generally include a
number of Series 2600A instruments. These systems are designed for
semiconductor device characterization, reliability/WLR, parametric,
and component functional testing.
The flexible software architecture of ACS Basic Edition allows configuring
systems with a wide range of controllers and test fixtures, as well as the
exact number of SourceMeter instruments the application requires.
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Typical Applications
I-V functional test and
characterization of a
wide range of devices,
including:
• Discrete and passive
components
–– Two-leaded –
Sensors, disk
drive heads, metal
oxide varistors
(MOVs), diodes,
zener diodes,
sensors, capacitors,
thermistors
–– Three-leaded –
Small signal bipolar
junction transistors
(BJTs), field-effect
transistors (FETs),
and more
• Simple ICs – Optos,
drivers, switches,
sensors
• Integrated devices –
small scale integrated
(SSI) and large scale
integrated (LSI)
–– Analog ICs
–– Radio frequency
integrated circuits
(RFICs)
–– Application specific integrated
circuits (ASICs)
–– System on a chip (SOC) devices
• Optoelectronic devices such as lightemitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes,
high brightness LEDs (HBLEDs),
vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers
(VCSELs), displays
• Wafer level reliability
–– NBTI, TDDB, HCI, electromigration
• Solar Cells
• Batteries
System SourceMeter Instruments
Example ACS Integrated
Test System
Table 1. Series 2600A software tools
Feature/
Functionality
Description
Supported
hardware
Supported
buses
ACS Basic Edition
Semiconductor characterization
software for component test,
verification, and analysis
TSP Express
Test Script
Builder (TSB)
Quick Start Tool for fast and easy
Custom script
I-V testing, primarily for bench writing tool for TSP
and lab users
instruments
24xx, 26xxA, 4200-SCS, 237
26xxA
26xxA, 37xx
GPIB, Ethernet
Ethernet only
GPIB, RS-232,
Ethernet
Functionality
Intuitive, wizard-based GUI,
Rich set of test libraries
Data
management
Formulator tool with wide range
of math functions
Installation
Optional purchase
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Linear/Log Sweeps, Pulsing,
Custom sweeps, Single point
source-measures. Note: Uses
new 2600A’s new API’s for
precision timing and channel
synchronization
.csv export, basic curve
tracing (no math formula or
analysis support)
Not necessary.
Embedded in the instrument.
O F
Custom scripts with
total flexibility
N/A
Free Download or
CD Install on PC.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
Series 2600A
C O N F I D E N C E
13
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Cables and Connectors
2600-BAN
Banana Test Leads/Adapter Cable. For a single
2601A/2602A/2611A/2612A SMU instrument channel
2600-KIT
Extra screw terminal connector, strain relief, and cover for a single SourceMeter
channel (one supplied with 2601A/2611A, two with 2602A/2612A)
2600-TRIAX
Triax Adapter. For a single 2601A/2602A/2611A/2612A SMU instrument channel
7078-TRX-*
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable. For use with 2600-TRIAX Adapter
7078-TRX-GND 3-Slot male triax to BNC adapter (guard removed)
8606
High Performance Modular Probe Kit. For use with 2600A-BAN
SC-200
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable. Recommended for general-purpose
use with Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments
Digital I/O, Trigger Link, and TSP-Link
2600-TLINK
Digital I/O to TLINK Adapter Cable, 1m
CA-126-1
Digital I/O and Trigger Cable, 1.5m
CA-180-3A
CAT5 Crossover Cable for TSP-Link and direct Ethernet connection (two supplied)
GPIB Interfaces and Cables
7007-1
Double Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
7007-2
Double Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KPXI-488
IEEE-488 Interface Board for the PXI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Switching
Series 3700
DMM/Switch Systems
707A
Semiconductor Switching Matrix Mainframe
7001
Switch Control Mainframe
Rack Mount Kits
4299-1
Single Rack Mount Kit with front and rear support
4299-2
Dual Rack Mount Kit with front and rear support
4299-5
1U Vent Panel
Software
ACS-BASIC
Component Characterization Software
Extended Warranties
2601A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2601A
2602A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2602A
2611A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2611A
2612A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2612A
2635A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2635A
2636A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2636A
Calibration and Verification
2600-STD-RES Calibration Standard 1GW Resistor for Models 2635A and 2636A
+10A
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
+5A
+3A
+1.5A
+1A
DC
0A
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–3A
–5A
–10A
–40V
–35V
–20V
–6V 0V +6V
+20V
+35V
+40V
Models 2601A and 2602A I-V capability
+10A
+1.5A
+1A
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
DC
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–10A
–200V –180V
–20V
–5V
0V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Models 2611A and 2612A I-V capability
*See page 27 for Model 2651A accessories.
+10A
+50A
+1.5A
+1A
+20A
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–10A
–200V –180V
DC and
Pulse
Pulse
only
–20A
–50A
–20V
–5V
0V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
–40V
Models 2635A and 2636A I-V capability
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+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
DC
–20V
–10V
0V
+10V
+20V
Model 2651A I-V capability
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
+40V
Scalable, integrated source and measure solutions
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE*
In the first and third quadrants, Series 2600A instruments operate as a
source, delivering power to a load. In the second and fourth quadrants,
they operate as a sink, dissipating power internally.
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
100mV, 1V Ranges: <50µs typical.
6V Range: <100µs typical.
40V Range 10: <150µs typical.
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout × R load = 1V
unless noted.
3A Range: <80µs typical (current less than 2.5A, R load >2W).
1A–10mA Ranges: <80µs typical (R load >6W).
1mA Range: <100µs typical.
100µA Range: <150µs typical.
10µA Range: <500µs typical.
1µA Range: <2.5ms typical.
100nA Range: <25ms typical.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC from chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 11:
Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
40V Range: Max. output voltage = 42V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum 1W
per source lead).
6V Range: Max. output voltage = 8V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum 1W per
source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into an 100kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
with source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling Time
for additional test conditions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2601A and
2602A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2601A and 2602A are tested. Upon leaving the factory, the 2601A and 2602A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2601A
and 2602A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2602A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity
2.After 2 hour warm-up
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC)
4. A/D auto-zero enabled
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local operation
6.Calibration period = 1 year
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
100.000mV
  5 µV
0.02% +250 µV
1.00000V
 50 µV
0.02% +400 µV
6.00000V
 50 µV
0.02% + 1.8 mV
40.0000V
500 µV
0.02% + 12 mV
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
 20 µV
 50 µV
100 µV
500 µV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 40.4W per channel maximum.
±40.4V @ ±1.0A, ±6.06V @ ±3.0A, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV peak-peak (typical), <3mV RMS (typical), 6V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 10nA. Accuracy same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) typical. Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load,
maximum ­current limit/compliance.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV typical. Current <10mA.
NOTES
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
6. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
8. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
9. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 100mV range add an additional 60mV of uncertainty.
10.Add 150μs when measuring on the 1A range.
11.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
Current Source Specifications
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + amps)
100.000nA
1 pA
0.06% + 100 pA
1.00000µA
10 pA
0.03% + 800 pA
10.0000 µA
100 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
100.000µA
1 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
1.00000mA
10 nA
0.03% + 300 nA
10.0000mA
100 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
100.000mA
1 µA
0.03% + 30 µA
1.00000A 5
10 µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
10 µA
0.06% + 4mA
3.00000A 5
5,
6
100 µA
0.5  % + 40mA (typical)
10.0000A
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70 µA
150 µA
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 7: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 8: 40.4W per channel maximum.
±1.01A @ ±40.0V , ±3.03A @ ±6.0V , four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 9: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 10mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load; see Current Source
Output Settling Time for additional test conditions).
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Series 2600A specifications
2601A
2602A
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
15
2601A
2602A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 16, 17
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Maximum
Pulse Width 12
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
100 ms
4 ms
1.8 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 13
100%
100%
25%
4%
1%
Range
100.000mV
1.00000V
6.00000V
40.0000V
3
Range
3
2
2
0A
1
DC
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
Pulse
2
2
3
–5A
4
–10A
–40V
–35V
–20V
–6V 0V +6V
+35V
+20V
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
10%
t
SMU INSTRUMENTS
on
off
13.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the reference manual for more information.
14.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
2W
2W
7W
27 W
27 W
2W
7W
2W
6V
20 V
35 V
40 V
1.5 A
3A
5A
10 A
0.2%
1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
0.5%
150µs
200µs
500µs
400µs
1.5ms
150µs
500µs
200µs
Bias Level
toff
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
4 (5) ms
36 (42) ms
5% + 1 W
5% + 0.3 W
1A–3A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1 %
18.Applies when in single channel display mode.
19.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable for 23°C ±5°C only.
20.Applies when in single channel display mode.
21.Four-wire remote sense only with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 100mV or 1V range only.
22.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
23.Compliance equal to 100mA.
24.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable for 23°C ±5°C only.
25.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
10%
ton
MEDIUM
SLOW
16.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
17.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting < 1 by increasing error term.
Add appropriate % of range term using table below.
100mV
1V–40V
100nA
1μA–100mA
NPLC Setting
Range
Ranges
Range
Ranges
0.1
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01
0.08%
0.07%
0.1%
0.05%
0.001
0.8 %
0.6 %
1%
0.5 %
Start toff
10%
FAST
NOTES
90%
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16
Pulse Level
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >10GW.
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
15.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Start ton
0.05% + 100 pA
0.025% + 500 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5 mA
0.05% + 3.5 mA
0.4% +
25 mA (typical)
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
10%
t
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Maximum Measurement
Time To Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
12.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Bias Level
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
Contact Check 25
+40V
NOTES
Start ton
Voltage
Burden 21
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 23: Time
required to reach within 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed
range. Values for Vout = 1V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 24: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Pulse
3
–3A
Default Display
Resolution 20
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A
3.00000A
10.0000A 22
4
+1.5A
+1A
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17
+10A
+3A
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +150 µV
0.015% +200 µV
0.015% + 1mV
0.015% + 8mV
Input
Resistance
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 19: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 14, 15: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 15: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 2µs (typical).
Quadrant Diagram:
+5A
Default Display
Resolution 18
  1 µV
  10 µV
  10 µV
100 µV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
Region
1
1
2
3
4
Maximum
Current Limit
1 A @40 V
3 A @ 6 V
1.5 A @40 V
5 A @35 V
10 A @20 V
2601A
2602A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 10GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (6V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot: <400mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz BW.
NOTES
26.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
27.100nA range is not available in High Capacitance Mode.
28.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
29.Part of KI Factory scripts. See reference manual for details.
GENERAL
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments to
trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
+5V Pin
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
5.1kW
100W
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Chassis
Ground
*
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when rack
mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2601A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2602A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
See pages 24 and 25 for measurement speeds and other specifications.
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Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Digital I/O Pin
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must be
externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the INTERLOCK
signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Series 2600A specifications
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
100mV
200 μs (typical)
1 V
200 μs (typical)
6 V
200 μs (typical)
40 V 7 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after voltage
source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 1V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
3 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 2W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 29: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 26, 27, 28
C O N F I D E N C E
17
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to within reach 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Range
Settling Time
200mV
<50 μs (typical)
2 V
<50 μs (typical)
20 V
<110 μs (typical)
200 V <700 μs (typical)
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout · R load = 2V unless noted.
Current Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<80 μs (typical)
1 mA
<100 μs (typical)
100μA
<150 μs (typical)
10μA
<500 μs (typical)
1μA
<2 ms (typical)
100 nA
<20 ms (typical)
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC from chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 11: Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
200V Range: Max. output voltage = 202.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
20V Range: Max. output voltage = 23.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
– With source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling
Time for additional test conditions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2611A and
2612A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2611A and 2612A are tested. Upon leaving the factory the 2611A and 2612A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2611A and
2612A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2612A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity.
2.After 2 hour warm-up.
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC).
4. A/D auto-zero enabled.
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local sense operation.
6.Calibration period = 1 year.
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
200.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 375 µV
2.00000V
  50 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
20.0000V
500 µV
0.02% + 5 mV
200.000V
  5 mV
0.02% + 50 mV
Typical Noise
(Peak-Peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
20 µV
50 µV
300 µV
2 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±20.2V @ ±1.5A, ±202V @ ±100mA, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV peak-peak (typical), <3mV RMS (typical), 20V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 10nA. Accuracy is the same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum c­ urrent limit/compliance.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV (current <10mA).
NOTES
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Accuracy specifications do not include connector leakage. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 per °C when operating
between 18°–28°C. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 + (0.15·Vout/2E11) per °C when operating <18°C and >28°C.
6. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
7. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
8. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
9. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
10.For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 200mV range add an additional 120mV of uncertainty.
11.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
Current Source Specifications
SMU INSTRUMENTS
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY 5
Range
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A 6
1.50000A 6
10.0000A 6, 7
Programming
Resolution
2 pA
20 pA
200 pA
2 nA
20 nA
200 nA
2 µA
20 µA
50 µA
200 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.06% +100 pA
0.03% +800 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
0.03% +300 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
0.03% + 30 µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
0.06% + 4mA
0.5% + 40mA (typical)
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Region
1
1
2
3 14
4
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 8: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 9: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±1.515A @ ±20V , ±101mA @ ±200V , four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 10: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 20mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load; see Current
Source Output Settling Time for additional test conditions.
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18
Typical Noise
(Peak-Peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70 µA
150 µA
Maximum
Current Limit
100mA @200 V
1.5 A @ 20 V
1 A @180 V
1 A @200 V
10 A @ 5 V
Maximum
Pulse Width 12
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
8.5 ms
2.2 ms
1 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 13
100%
100%
1%
1%
2.2%
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 15, 16: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 16: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 2µs (typical).
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17, 18
Quadrant Diagram:
+10A
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
4
3
2
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
DC
Pulse
2
–1A
–1.5A
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 20: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
2
1
2
3
Pulse
3
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 18, 21
Pulse
4
Range
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A
1.50000A
10.0000A 24
–10A
–200V –180V
–20V
0V
–5V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
NOTES
12.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
Start ton
Bias Level
10%
toff
13.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C.
See power equations in the reference manual for more information.
14.Voltage source operation with 1.5 A current limit.
15.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
5V
20 V
180 V
200 V (1.5 A Limit)
100 mA
1A
1A
10 A
0.5 W
200 W
180 W
200 W
200 W
200 W
180 W
0.5 W
1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
1%
1%
0.2%
0.5%
300 μs
200 μs
5 ms
1.5 ms
200 μs
500 μs
5 ms
300 μs
Start toff
10%
ton
toff
FAST
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
MEDIUM
4 (5) ms
5% + 1 W
SLOW
36 (42) ms
5% + 0.3 W
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >10GW.
90%
10%
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
Pulse Level
Bias Level
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
16.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.06% + 100 pA
0.025% + 500 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5mA
0.05% + 3.5mA
0.4% +
25mA (typical)
Voltage
Burden 23
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Contact Check 27
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
Start ton
Default Display
Resolution 22
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 25: Time
required to reach 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Values for Vout = 2V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 26: ±(0.15 × accuracy specfication)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
10%
ton
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
Series 2600A specifications
3
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +225 µV
0.02% + 350 µV
0.015% + 5mV
0.015% + 50mV
Input
Resistance
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
+1.5A
+1A
Default Display
Resolution 19
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
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M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
19
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
METER SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments
to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
NOTES
17.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
18.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term. Add appropriate % of range term
using table below.
Series 2600A specifications
NPLC Setting
0.1
0.01
0.001
200mV
Range
0.01%
0.08%
0.8 %
2V–200V
Ranges
0.01%
0.07%
0.6 %
100nA
Range
0.01%
0.1%
1%
1μA–100mA
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
0.5 %
1A–1.5A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1 %
19.Applies when in single channel display mode.
20.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
21.Accuracy specifications do not include connector leakage. De-rate accuracy by Vout/2E11 per °C when operating
between 18°–28°C. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 + (0.15 * Vout/2E11) per °C when operating <18° and >28°C.
22.Applies when in single channel display mode.
23.Four-wire remote sense only and with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 200mV or
2V range only.
24.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
25.Compliance equal to 100mA.
26.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
27.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Digital I/O Pin
100W
+5VDC
5.1kW
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
200mV
600 μs (typical)
2 V
600 μs (typical)
20 V
1.5 ms (typical)
200 V 20 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
voltage source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 2V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load >6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 31: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 30GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (20V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot (for 20V range and below): <400mV + 0.1%
of larger range (typical). Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must
be externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down
to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the
INTERLOCK signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
Chassis
Ground
*
NOTES
20
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 28, 29, 30
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when
rack mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2611A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2612A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only. Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
28.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
29.100nA range is not available in High Capacitance Mode.
30.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
31.Part of KI Factory scripts, See reference manual for details.
See pages 24 and 25 for measurement speeds
and other specifications.
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+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
GENERAL
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Range
Settling Time
200mV
<50 μs (typical)
2 V
<50 μs (typical)
20 V
<110 μs (typical)
200 V <700 μs (typical)
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout · R load = 2V unless noted.
Current Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<80 μs (typical)
1 mA
<100 μs (typical)
100μA
<150 μs (typical)
10μA
<500 μs (typical)
1μA
<2 ms (typical)
100 nA
<20 ms (typical)
10 nA
<40 ms (typical)
1 nA
<150 ms (typical)
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 10:Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
200V Range: Max. output voltage = 202.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
20V Range: Max. output voltage = 23.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
– With source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling
Time for additional test condtions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2635A and
2636A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2635A and 2636A are tested. Upon leaving the factory the 2635A and 2636A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as u­ seful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2635A
and 2636A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2636A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity.
2.After 2 hour warm-up
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC)
4. A/D auto-zero enabled
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local sense operation
6.Calibration period = 1 year
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
200.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 375 µV
2.00000V
  50 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
20.0000V
500 µV
0.02% + 5 mV
200.000V
  5 mV
0.02% + 50 mV
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
20 µV
50 µV
300 µV
2 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±20.2V @ ±1.5A, ±202V @ ±100mA, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV pk-pk (typical), <3mV rms (typical), 20V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 100pA. Accuracy is the same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load,
maximum current limit/compliance).
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV (current <10mA).
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Region
1
1
2
3 13
4
Current Source Specifications
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + amps)
1.00000nA 20fA
0.15% + 2 pA
10.0000nA 200fA
0.15% + 5 pA
100.000nA 2pA
0.06% + 50 pA
1.00000µA 20pA
0.03% +700 pA
10.0000µA 200 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
100.000µA 2 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
1.00000mA 20 nA
0.03% + 300 nA
10.0000mA 200 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
100.000mA 2µA
0.03% + 30 µA
20µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
1.00000A 5 50µA
0.06% + 4mA
1.50000A 5 200µA
0.5  % + 40mA (typical)
10.0000A 5, 6 Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
800fA
2pA
5pA
25pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70µA
150µA
Maximum
Pulse Width 11
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
8.5 ms
2.2 ms
1 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 12
100%
100%
1%
1%
2.2%
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 14, 15: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for
settled source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 15: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 50µs (typical).
Quadrant Diagram:
+10A
4
+1.5A
+1A
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 7: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 8: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±1.515A @ ±20V, ±101mA @ ±200V, four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 9: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 20mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum ­
current limit/compliance; see Current Source Output Settling Time for additional
test ­conditions).
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Maximum
Current Limit
100mA @200 V
1.5 A @ 20 V
1 A @180 V
1 A @200 V
10 A @ 5 V
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
3
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
–1A
–1.5A
3
2
2
DC
1
Pulse
2
2
3
Pulse
3
4
–10A
–200V –180V
A
G R E A T E R
–20V
–5V
0V
M E A S U R E
+5V
O F
+20V
+180V +200V
Pulse
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2635A
2636A
C O N F I D E N C E
21
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
NOTES
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 16, 17
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation, refer
to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation, refer
to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
6. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
8. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power
derating information.
9. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 200mV range add an additional 120mV of uncertainty.
10.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
11.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
Range
100.00pA 22, 23
1.00000nA 22, 24
10.0000nA
100.000nA
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A
1.50000A
10.0000A 25
Start toff
10%
10%
ton
toff
12.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the Reference Manual for more information.
13.Voltage source operation with 1.5 A current limit.
14.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
0.5 W
200 W
180 W
200 W
200 W
200 W
180 W
0.5 W
5V
20 V
180 V
200 V (1.5 A Limit)
100 mA
1A
1A
10 A
1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
1%
1%
0.2%
0.5%
300 μs
200 μs
5 ms
1.5 ms
200 μs
500 μs
5 ms
300 μs
Pulse Level
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
90%
Start toff
10%
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.15% + 120 fA
0.15% + 240 fA
0.15% +
3 pA
0.06% + 40 pA
0.025% + 400 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5mA
0.05% + 3.5mA
0.4  % + 25mA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
FAST
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
MEDIUM
4 (5) ms
5% + 1 W
SLOW
36 (42) ms
5% + 0.3 W
10%
ton
toff
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1014W.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
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22
Voltage
Burden 21
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Contact Check 28
15.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Bias Level
Default Display
Resolution 20
1fA
10fA
100fA
1pA
10pA
100 pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
1µA
10µA
10µA
100µA
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 26: Time
required to reach within 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed
range. Values for Vout = 2V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 27: ±(0.15 × accuracy specfication)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
Start ton
>1014 W
>1014 W
>1014 W
>1014 W
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +225 µV
0.02% + 350 µV
0.015% + 5mV
0.015% + 50mV
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17
90%
Bias Level
Input
Resistance
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 19: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Pulse Level
Start ton
Default Display
Resolution 18
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
2635A
2636A
2635A
2636A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
METER SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments
to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
NOTES
16.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
17.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term. Add appropriate % of range term
using table below.
200mV
Range
0.01%
0.08%
0.8 %
2V–200V
Ranges
0.01%
0.07%
0.6 %
100nA
Range
0.01%
0.1%
1%
1μA–100mA
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
0.5 %
1A–1.5A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1 %
18.Applies when in single channel display mode.
19.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
20.Applies when in single channel display mode.
21.Four-wire remote sense only and with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 200mV or
2V range only.
22.10-NPLC, 11-Point Median Filter, <200V range, measurements made within 1 hour after zeroing. 23°C ± 1°C
23.Under default specification conditions: ±(0.15% + 750fA).
24.Under default specification conditions: ±(0.15% + 1pA).
25.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
26.Delay factor set to 1. Compliance equal to 100mA.
27.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
28.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
Digital I/O Pin
100W
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 29, 30, 31
5.1kW
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
200mV
600 μs (typical)
2 V
600 μs (typical)
20 V
1.5 ms (typical)
200 V 20 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
voltage source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 2V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load >6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 32: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 30GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (20V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot (for 20V range and below): <400mV + 0.1%
of larger range (typical). Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must
be externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down
to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the
INTERLOCK signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
Chassis
Ground
*
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when
rack mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2635A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2636A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only. Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
NOTES
29.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
30.100nA range and below are not available in high capacitance mode.
31.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
32.Part of KI Factory scripts. See reference manual for details.
See pages 24 and 25 for measurement speeds
and other specifications.
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+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
NPLC Setting
0.1
0.01
0.001
Series 2600A specifications
GENERAL
C O N F I D E N C E
23
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Applicable to Models 2601A, 2602A, 2611A, 2612A, 2635A, and 2636A.
See page 28 for Model 2651A specifications.
Measurement Speed Specifications 1, 2, 3
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
Trigger Origin
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
20000 (20000)
8100 (8100)
5000 (4000)
3650 (3200)
580 (490)
560 (470)
59 (49)
58 (48)
Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
10500 (10500)
7100 (7100)
4000 (3500)
3400 (3000)
560 (475)
450 (460)
59 (49)
58 (49)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
7000 (7000)
5500 (5500)
3400 (3000)
3000 (2700)
550 (465)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
6200 (6200)
5100 (5100)
3200 (2900)
2900 (2600)
550 (460)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
Sweep API
12000 (12000)
11200 (11200)
4200 (3700)
4150 (3650)
575 (480)
570 (480)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
Sweep API
5900 (5900)
5700 (5700)
3100 (2800)
3050 (2775)
545 (460)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Maximum SINGLE MEASUREMENT RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
Trigger Origin
Measure
To Gpib
Source Measure
To Gpib
Source Measure
Pass/Fail
To Gpib
Internal
Internal
Internal
Internal
1900 (1800)
1450 (1400)
450 (390)
58 (48)
1400 (1400)
1200 (1100)
425 (370)
57 (48)
1400 (1400)
1100 (1100)
425 (375)
57 (48)
Maximum Measurement RANGE CHANGE RATE: <150µs for ranges >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is <450µs, typical.
Maximum SOURCE Range CHANGE RATE: <2.5ms for ranges >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is <5.2ms, typical.
Maximum SOURCE FUNCTION CHANGE RATE: <1ms, typical.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change following the receipt of the smux.source.levelv or smux.source.leveli command. <1ms typical.
NOTES
1. Tests performed with a 2602A, 2612A, or 2636A on Channel A using the following equipment: PC Hardware (Pentium® 4 2.4GHz, 512MB RAM, National Instruments PCI-GPIB). Driver (NI-486.2 Version 2.2 PCI-GPIB). Software
(Microsoft® Windows® 2000, Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, VISA version 4.1).
2. Exclude current measurement ranges less than 1mA.
3. 2635A/2636A with default measurement delays and filters disabled.
TRIGGERING AND SYNCHRONIZATION
SPECIFICATIONS
Triggering:
Trigger in to trigger out: 0.5μs, typical.
Trigger in to source change:4 10 μs, typical.
Trigger Timer accuracy: ±2μs, typical.
Source change4 after LXI Trigger: 280μs, typical.
Synchronization:
Single-node synchronized source change:4 <0.5μs, typical.
Multi-node synchronized source change:4 <0.5μs, typical.
NOTES
SMU INSTRUMENTS
4. Fixed source range, with no polarity change.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A specifications
Series 2600A specifications
Maximum SWEEP OPERATION RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Applicable to Models 2601A, 2602A, 2611A, 2612A, 2635A, and 2636A.
See page 28 for Model 2651A specifications.
FRONT PANEL INTERFACE: Two-line vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) with keypad and rotary knob.
Display:
• Show error messages and user defined messages
• Display source and limit settings
• Show current and voltage measurements
• View measurements stored in dedicated reading buffers
Keypad Operations:
• Change host interface settings
• Save and restore instrument setups
• Load and run factory and user defined test scripts (i.e. sequences) that prompt for input
and send results to the display
• Store measurements into dedicated reading buffers
PROGRAMMING: Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP) accessible from any host interface. Responds
to individual instrument control commands. Responds to high speed test scripts comprised of
instrument control commands and Test Script Language (TSL) statements (e.g. branching, looping,
math, etc.). Able to execute high speed test scripts stored in memory without host intervention.
Minimum Memory Available: 16MB (approximately 250,000 lines of TSL code).
Test Script Builder: Integrated development environment for building, running, and managing
TSP scripts. Includes an instrument console for communicating with any TSP enabled instrument in an interactive manner. Requires:
• VISA (NI-VISA included on CD)
• Microsoft .NET Framework (included on CD)
• Keithley I/O Layer (included on CD)
• Pentium III 800MHz or faster personal computer
• Microsoft Windows 98, NT, 2000, or XP
Software Interface: TSP Express (embedded), Direct GPIB/VISA, READ/WRITE for VB, VC/C++,
LabVIEW, LabWindows/CVI, etc.
READING BUFFERS: Dedicated storage area(s) reserved for measurement data. Reading buffers
are arrays of measurement elements. Each element can hold the following items:
• Measurement
• Measurement status
• Timestamp
• Source setting (at the time the measurement was taken)
• Range information
Two reading buffers are reserved for each SourceMeter channel. Reading buffers can be filled
using the front panel STORE key and retrieved using the RECALL key or host interface.
Buffer Size, with timestamp and source setting: >60,000 samples.
Buffer Size, without timestamp and source setting: >140,000 samples.
Each SourceMeter instrument has two TSP-Link connectors to facilitate chaining instruments
together.
• Once SourceMeter instruments are interconnected via TSP-Link, a computer can access all
of the resources of each SourceMeter instrument via the host interface of any SourceMeter
instrument.
• A maximum of 32 TSP-Link nodes can be interconnected. Each SourceMeter instrument
consumes one TSP-Link node.
TIMER: Free running 47-bit counter with 1MHz clock input. Reset each time instrument powers
up. Rolls over every 4 years.
Timestamp: TIMER value automatically saved when each measurement is triggered.
Resolution: 1µs.
Accuracy: ±100ppm.
Model 2602A/2612A rear panel
(Single channels 2601A, 2611A, 2635A not shown)
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Model 2636A rear panel
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Series 2600A specifications
SYSTEM EXPANSION: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments to
­trigger and communicate with each other. See figure below:
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2600A specifications
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
25
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
• Source or sink:
–– 2,000W of pulsed power
(±40V, ±50A)
–– 200W of DC power
(±[email protected]±20A, ±[email protected]±10A,
±[email protected]±5A)
• Easily connect two units (in
series or parallel) to create
solutions up to ±100A or ±80V
• 1pA resolution enables precise
measurement of very low
leakage currents
• 1μs per point (1MHz),
18-bit sampling, accurately
characterizes transient behavior
• 1% to 100% pulse duty cycle for
pulse width modulated (PWM)
drive schemes and devicespecific drive stimulus
• Combines a precision power
supply, current source, DMM,
arbitrary waveform generator,
V or I pulse generator with
measurement, electronic load,
and trigger controller—all in one
instrument
• Includes TSP® Express I-V
characterization software,
LabVIEW® driver, and Keithley’s
Test Script Builder software
development environment
The high power Model 2651A is the newest addition to the Series 2600A family of System SourceMeter
instruments. Specifically designed to characterize and test high power electronics, these source measurement unit (SMU) instruments can help you improve productivity in applications across the R&D,
reliability, and production spectrums, including high brightness LEDs, power semiconductors, DC-DC
converters, batteries, and other high power materials, components, modules, and subassemblies.
The Model 2651A, like every Series 2600A SourceMeter instrument, offers a highly flexible, fourquadrant voltage and current source/load coupled with precision voltage and current meters. It can
be used as a:
• Semiconductor characterization instrument
• V or I waveform generator
• V or I pulse generator
• Precision power supply
• True current source
• Digital multimeter (DCV, DCI, ohms, and power with 6½-digit resolution)
• Precision electronic load
+50A
+20A
+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
APPLICATIONS
• Power semiconductor,
HBLED, and optical device
characterization and testing
SMU INSTRUMENTS
• Characterization of GaN, SiC, and
other compound materials and
devices
• Semiconductor junction
temperature characterization
• High speed, high precision
digitization
• Electromigration studies
• High current, high power device
testing
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26
DC and
Pulse
Pulse
only
–20A
–50A
–40V
–20V
–10V
0V
+10V
+20V
+40V
The Model 2651A can source or sink up to ±40V and ±50A.
Two Measurement Modes: Digitizing or Integrating
Precisely characterize transient and steady-state behavior, including rapidly changing thermal effects,
with the two measurement modes in the Model 2651A. Each mode is defined by its independent
analog-to-digital (A/D) converters.
The Digitizing Measurement mode enables 1µs per point measurements. Its 18-bit A/D converters allow you to precisely measure transient characteristics. For more accurate measurements,
use its Integrating Measurement mode, which is based on 22-bit A/D converters. The Integrating
Measurement mode is provided in all Series 2600A instruments.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
High power System SourceMeter instrument
High power System SourceMeter instrument
2651A
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Expansion Capabilities
Through TSP-Link® technology, multiple Model
2651As and other Series 2600A instruments can
be combined to form a larger integrated system
with up to 64 channels. Precision timing and
tight channel synchronization are guaranteed
with built-in 500ns trigger controllers. True
SMU instrument-per-pin testing is assured with
the fully isolated, independent channels of the
SourceMeter instruments.
High Power System
SourceMeter®
Instrument
2651A-KIT-1A: Low Impedance
Cable Assembly (1m)
CS-1592-2: High Current
Phoenix Connector (male)
CS-1626-2: High Current
Phoenix Connector (female)
CA-557-1: Sense Line
Cable Assembly (1m)
7709-308A: Digital I/O Connector
CA-180-3A: TSP-Link/Ethernet Cable
Documentation CD
Software Tools and Drivers CD
2651A
2651A
TSP-Link
Low Impedance CAble Assemble, 1m (3.3 ft)
Component Charaterization Software
Rack Mount Kit
Test Socket Kit
Keithley’s TSP and TSP-Link technology
enables true SMU-per-pin testing without
the power and/or channel limitations of a
mainframe-based system.
Two A/D converters are used with each
measurement mode (one for current and the
other for voltage), which run simultaneously
for accurate source readback that does not
sacrifice test throughput.
7
60
6
50
5
Current (A)
40
4
30
3
20
2
10
1
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
Also, when two Model 2651As are connected in
parallel with TSP-Link technology, the current
range is expanded from 50A to 100A. When two
units are connected in series, the voltage range
is expanded from 40V to 80V. Built-in intelligence simplifies testing by enabling the units
to be addressed as a single instrument, thus
creating an industry-best dynamic range (100A
to 1pA). This c­ apability enables you to test a
much wider range of power semiconductors and
other devices.
0
200
60
Time (µs)
Volts
Up to
100A
26XXA
LXI or GPIB
to PC
Controller
Accessories Available
2600-KIT
ACS-BASIC
4299-6
8011
Voltage (V)
Current
50
The dual digitizing A/D converters sample at
up to 1μs/point, enabling full simultaneous
characterization of both current and
voltage waveforms.
High Speed Pulsing
The Model 2651A minimizes the unwanted
effects of self heating during tests by accurately
sourcing and measuring pulses as short as
100μs. Additional control flexibility enables you
to program the pulse width from 100μs to DC
and the duty cycle from 1% to 100%. A single
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40
Id (A)
High power System SourceMeter instrument
Accessories Supplied
Vgs = 2.01V
Vgs = 2.25V
Vgs = 2.50V
Vgs = 2.75V
Vgs = 3.00V
Vgs = 3.25V
Vgs = 3.51V
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
0.018
Id = 10A
Id = 20A
Id = 30A
Id = 40A
Id = 50A
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
Standard Capabilities of
Series 2600A Instruments
Each Model 2651A includes all the features and
capabilities provided in the other Series 2600A
instruments, such as:
• Ability to be used as either a bench-top
I-V characterization tool or as a building
block component of multiple-channel I-V
test systems
• TSP Express software to quickly and
easily perform common I-V tests without
programming or installing software
• ACS Basic Edition software for semiconductor
component characterization (optional).
ACS Basic now features a Trace mode for
generating a suite of characteristic curves.
• Keithley’s Test Script Processor (TSP®), which
enables creation of custom user test scripts to
further automate testing, and also supports
the creation of programming sequences
that allow the instrument to operate
asynchronously without direct PC control.
• Parallel test execution and precision timing
when multiple Series 2600A instruments are
connected together in a system
• LXI Class C compliance
• 14 digital I/O lines for direct interaction with
probe stations, component handlers, or other
automation tools
• USB port for extra data and test program
­storage via USB memory device
4.0
Precision measurements to 50A (100A with
two units) enable a more complete and
accurate characterization.
G R E A T E R
5.0
1μV measurement resolution and current
sourcing up to 50A (100A with two units)
enable low-level Rds measurements to
support next-generation devices.
Vds (V)
A
4.5
Vgs (V)
M E A S U R E
O F
High power System SourceMeter instrument
2651A
0.020
SMU INSTRUMENTS
unit can pulse up to 50A; combine two units
to pulse up to 100A.
Rds (ohms)
Ordering information
C O N F I D E N C E
27
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Specification Conditions
Source and measurement accuracies are specified at the Model 2651A terminals under
these conditions:
• 23° ±5°C, <70 percent relative humidity
• After two-hour warm-up
• Speed normal (1 NPLC)
• A/D autozero enabled
• Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local operation
• Calibration period: One year
VOLTAGE ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS 1, 2
SOURCE
Programming
Resolution
  5 μV
  50 μV
500 μV
500 μV
500 μV
Range
100.000 mV
1.00000 V
10.0000 V
20.0000 V
40.0000 V
Accuracy
±(% reading + volts)
0.02% + 500 μV
0.02% + 500 μV
0.02% +    5 mV
0.02% +    5 mV
0.02% +   12 mV
MEASURE
Noise (Vpp) (typical)
0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
100 μV
500 μV
  1 mV
  1 mV
  2 mV
Default
Display
Resolution
  1 μV
  10 μV
100 μV
100 μV
100 μV
Noise (Ipp) (typical)
0.1Hz to 10Hz
  50 pA
250 pA
500 pA
  5 nA
  10 nA
500 nA
  1 μA
300 μA
300 μA
500 μA
500 μA
N/A
Default
Display
Resolution
  1 pA
  10 pA
100 pA
  1 nA
  10 nA
100 nA
  1 μA
  10 μA
  10 μA
100 μA
100 μA
100 μA
Integrating ADC Accuracy 3
±(% reading + volts)
0.02% + 300 μV
0.02% + 300 μV
0.02% +    3 mV
0.02% +    5 mV
0.02% +   12 mV
High-Speed ADC Accuracy 4
±(% reading + volts)
0.05% + 600 μV
0.05% + 600 μV
0.05% +    8 mV
0.05% +    8 mV
0.05% +   15 mV
CURRENT ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS 5
SOURCE
Range
100.000 nA
1.00000μA
10.0000μA
100.000μA
1.00000 m A
10.0000 m A
100.000 m A
1.00000 A
5.00000 A
10.0000 A
20.0000 A
50.0000 A 6
Programming
Resolution
2pA
20pA
200pA
2nA
20nA
200nA
2μA
200μA
200μA
500μA
500μA
2 mA
Accuracy
±(% reading + amps)
0.1  % +500 pA
0.1  % + 2 nA
0.1  % + 10 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
0.03% +300 nA
0.03% + 8μA
0.03% + 30μA
0.08% +3.5 mA
0.08% +3.5 mA
0.15% + 6 mA
0.15% + 8 mA
0.15% + 80 mA
MEASURE
Integrating ADC Accuracy 3
±(% reading + amps)
0.08% + 500 pA
0.08% + 2 nA
0.08% + 8 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.05% + 3 mA
0.05% + 3 mA
0.12% + 6 mA
0.08% + 8 mA
0.05% + 50 mA 7
High-Speed ADC Accuracy 4
±(% reading + amps)
0.08% + 800 pA
0.08% + 4 nA
0.08% + 10 nA
0.05% + 60 nA
0.05% + 500 nA
0.05% + 10 µA
0.05% + 50 µA
0.05% + 5 mA
0.05% + 5 mA
0.12% + 12 mA
0.08% + 15 mA
0.05% + 90 mA 8
NOTES
SMU INSTRUMENTS
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. For temperatures 0° to 18°C and 28° to 50°C, accuracy is degraded by ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
High-capacitance mode accuracy is applicable at 23° ±5°C only.
3. Derate accuracy specification for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term.
Add appropriate typical percent of range term for resistive loads using the table below.
NPLC Setting
100mV Range
1V to 40V Ranges
100nA Range
1µA to 100mA Ranges
1A to 20A Ranges
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.01%
0.08%
0.8 %
0.01%
0.07%
0.6 %
0.01%
0.1 %
1   %
0.01%
0.05%
0.5 %
0.01%
0.1 %
1.8 %
4. 18-bit ADC. Average of 1000 samples taken at 1µs intervals.
5. At temperatures 0° to 18°C and 28° to 50°C; 100nA to 10µA accuracy is degraded by ±(0.35 × accuracy specification)/°C.
100µA to 50A accuracy is degraded by ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
High-capacitance mode accuracy is applicable at 23° ±5°C only.
6. 50A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. 50A range accuracy measurements are taken at 0.008 NPLC.
8. Average of 100 samples taken at 1µs intervals.
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C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2651A specifications
Model 2651A specifications
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Model 2651A
High Power System SourceMeter instrument. Specifications are the standards against which the
Model 2651A is tested. Upon leaving the factory, the Model 2651A meets these specifications.
Supplemental and typical values are non-warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided solely as
useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high-capacitance modes.
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
+50A
CAUTION: Carefully consider and configure the appropriate output-off state and source and
compliance levels before connecting the Model 2651A to a device that can deliver energy. Failure to
consider the output-off state and source and compliance levels may result in damage to the instrument or to the device under test.
+10A
+5A
0A
–5A
–10A
Pulse SPECIFICATIONS
Minimum programmable pulse width 3: 100μs. Note: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100μs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1μs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 3: ±5μs.
Pulse width jitter: 2μs (typical).
Pulse Rise Time (typical):
–20A
Current Range
50 A
50 A
50 A
20 A
50 A
20 A
10 A
 5A
R load
0.05 W
0.2  W
0.4  W
0.5  W
0.8  W
1   W
2   W
8.2  W
6
5
+30A
7
2
+20A
3
4
DC
1
Pulse
–30A
–50A
–40V
Rise Time (typical)
  26 μs
  57 μs
  85 μs
  95 μs
130 μs
180 μs
330 μs
400 μs
–20V
0V
–10V
Region
Maximums
  5 A at 40 V
10 A at 20 V
20 A at 10 V
30 A at 10 V
20 A at 20 V
10 A at 40 V
50 A at 10 V
50 A at 20 V
50 A at 40 V
Region
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
+10V
+40V
+20V
Maximum
Pulse Width 3
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
  1 ms
  1.5 ms
  1.5 ms
  1 ms
330 μs
300 μs
Maximum
Duty Cycle 4
100%
100%
100%
 50%
 40%
 40%
 35%
 10%
  1%
Model 2651A specifications
Maximum output power: 202W maximum.
Source/Sink Limits 1:
Voltage: ±10.1V at ±20.0A, ±20.2V at ±10.0A, ±40.4V at ±5.0A 2.
Four-quadrant source or sink operation.
Current: ±5.05A at ±40V 2, ±10.1A at ±20V, ±20.2A at ±10V
Four-quadrant source or sink operation.
NOTES
1. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C or power sink operation, refer to
“Operating Boundaries” in the Model 2651A Reference manual for additional power derating information.
2. Quadrants 2 and 4 power envelope is trimmed at 36V and 4.5A.
3. Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
Start ton
Bias Level
10%
10%
ton
toff
4. Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants 2 and 4) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the Model 2651A Reference Manual for more information.
The Model 2651A supports GPIB, LXI, Digital I/O, and Keithley’s TSP-Link for multi-channel synchronization.
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SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2651A specifications
DC POWER SPECIFICATIONS
C O N F I D E N C E
29
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2651A specifications
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Range
 1V
10 V
20 V
40 V
Contact Check 1
Speed
Fast
Medium
Slow
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
for 60Hz (50Hz)
1.1 ms (1.2 ms)
4.1 ms (5 ms)
36 ms (42 ms)
Accuracy (1 Year)
23° ±5°C
±(% reading + ohms)
5% + 15 W
5% +   5 W
5% +   3 W
NOTES
1. Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
Additional meter specifications
Maximum load impedance:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical), 3μH (typical).
High-Capacitance Mode: 50μF (typical), 3μH (typical).
Common mode voltage: 250V DC.
Common mode isolation: >1GW, <4500pF.
Measure input impedance: >10GW.
Sense high input impedance: >10GW.
Maximum sense lead resistance: 1kW for rated accuracy.
Overrange: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
Settling Time (typical)
<  70 μs
<160 μs
<190 μs
<175 μs
Current source output settling time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout × R load.
Current Range
R load
Settling time (typical)
20A
<195 μs
0.5W
10A
<540 μs
1.5W
5A
<560 μs
5
W
1A
<  80 μs
1
W
100mA
<  80 μs
10W
10mA
<210 μs
100 W
1mA
<300 μs
1kW
100μA
<500 μs
10kW
10μA
<  15 ms
100kW
1μA
<  35 ms
1MW
100nA
<110 ms
10MW
HIGH-CAPACITANCE mODE 1,2
Accuracy specifications 3: Accuracy specifications are applicable in both normal and highcapacitance modes.
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1 % of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. 4
Voltage Source
Range
 1V
10 V
20 V
40 V
Transient response time:
10V and 20V Ranges: <70μs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90% step
change in load.
40V Range: <110μs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90% step change in load.
Guard offset voltage: <4mV, current <10mA.
Remote sense operating range 2:
Maximum Voltage between HI and SENSE HI: 3V.
Maximum Voltage between LO and SENSE LO: 3V.
Maximum impedance per source lead:
Maximum impedance limited by 3V drop by remote sense operating range.
Maximum resistance = 3V/source current value (amperes) (maximum of 1W per source lead).
3V = L di/dt.
Voltage output headroom:
5A Range: Maximum output voltage = 48.5V – (Total voltage drop across source leads).
10A Range: Maximum output voltage = 24.5V – (Total voltage drop across source leads).
20A Range: Maximum output voltage = 15.9V – (Total voltage drop across source leads).
Overtemperature protection: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
Limit/compliance: Bipolar limit (compliance) set with single value.
Voltage 3: Minimum value is 10mV; accuracy is the same as voltage source.
Current 4: Minimum value is 10nA; accuracy is the same as current source.
Settling Time with
Cload = 4.7μF (typical)
  75 μs
170 μs
200 μs
180 μs
Mode change delay:
100 μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High-Capacitance Mode: 11ms.
Delay out of High-Capacitance Mode: 11ms.
1 μA and 10 μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High-Capacitance Mode: 250ms.
Delay out of High-Capacitance Mode: 11ms.
Measure input impedance: >10GW in parallel with 25nF.
Voltage source range change overshoot: <400mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz bandwidth.
NOTES
1. High-capacitance mode specifications are for DC measurements only and use locked ranges. Autorange is disabled.
2. 100nA range is not available in high-capacitance mode.
3. Add an additional 2nA to the source current accuracy and measure current accuracy offset for the 1µA range.
4. With measure and compliance set to the maximum current for the specified voltage range.
NOTES
1. With measure and compliance set to the maximum current for the specified voltage range.
2. Add 50 µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
3. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.6% of limit range to the corresponding voltage source
accuracy specifications. For 100mV range add an additional 60mV of uncertainty. Specifications apply with sink
mode enabled.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.6% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode enabled.
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Additional Measurement specifications
Noise (10Hz to 20MHz): <100mV peak-peak (typical), <30mV RMS (typical), 10V range with a
20A limit.
Overshoot:
Voltage: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum
current limit/compliance.
Current: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step Size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load. See
Current Source Output Settling Time specifications for additional test conditions.
Range change overshoot:
Voltage: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (for <20V ranges) (typical).
<400mV + 0.1% of larger range (for ≥20V ranges) (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz bandwidth.
Current: <5% of larger range + 360mV/R load (for >10μA ranges) (typical). Iout × R load = 1V.
Voltage source output settling time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. 1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2651A specifications
2651A
2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Measurement Speed Specifications 1, 2
Trigger Origin
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
20000 (20000)
8100 (8100)
4900 (4000)
3500 (3100)
580 (480)
550 (460)
59 (49)
58 (48)
38500 (38500)
12500 (12500)
Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
9800 (9800)
7100 (7100)
3900 (3400)
3400 (3000)
560 (470)
550 (460)
59 (49)
58 (49)
18000 (18000)
11500 (11500)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
7000 (7000)
5500 (5500)
3400 (3000)
3000 (2700)
550 (465)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
10000 (10000)
7500 (7500)
Readings per
Second
Bursts per Second
 100
 500
1000
2500
5000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
400
 80
 40
 16
  8
Source Measure
To Memory Using
Sweep API
12000 (12000)
11200 (11200)
4200 (3700)
4150 (3650)
560 (470)
560 (470)
59 (49)
59 (49)
14300 (14300)
13200 (13200)
TRIGGERING AND SYNCHRONIZATION
SPECIFICATIONS
High Speed ADC Burst MEASUREMENT RATES 3
Burst Length
(readings)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
6200 (6200)
5100 (5100)
3200 (2900)
2900 (2600)
550 (460)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
9500 (9500)
7000 (7000)
Triggering:
Trigger In to Trigger Out: 0.5μs (typical).
Trigger In to Source Change 1: 10μs (typical).
Trigger Timer Accuracy: ±2μs (typical).
Source Change 1 After LXI Trigger: 280μs (typical).
Synchronization:
Single-Node Synchronized Source Change 1: <0.5μs (typical).
Multi-Node Synchronized Source Change 1: <0.5μs (typical).
Maximum SINGLE MEASUREMENT RATES (operations per
second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz)
A/D Converter
Speed
Trigger
Origin
Measure
To Gpib
Source
Measure
To Gpib
Source
Measure
Pass/Fail
To Gpib
0.001 NPLC
0.01  NPLC
0.1   NPLC
1.0   NPLC
Internal
Internal
Internal
Internal
1900 (1800)
1450 (1400)
450 (390)
58 (48)
1400 (1400)
1200 (1100)
425 (370)
57 (48)
1400 (1400)
1100 (1100)
425 (375)
57 (48)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
Sweep API
5900 (5900)
5700 (5700)
4000 (3500)
3800 (3400)
545 (460)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
6300 (6300)
6000 (6000)
Model 2651A specifications
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
HS ADC
HS ADC
NOTES
1. Fixed source range with no polarity change.
Maximum Measurement RANGE CHANGE RATE: >4000 per second for >10µA (typical).
Maximum SOURCE Range CHANGE RATE: >325 per second for >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is >250 per second, typical.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change following the receipt of the smua.source.levelv or smua.source.leveli command. <1ms typical.
NOTES
1. Tests performed with a Model 2651A on channel A using the following equipment: Computer hardware (Intel®
Pentium® 4 2.4GHz, 2GB RAM, National Instruments™ PCI-GPIB). Driver (NI-488.2 Version 2.2 PCI-GPIB).
Software (Microsoft® Windows® XP, Microsoft Visual Studio® 2010, VISA™ version 4.1).
2. Exclude current measurement ranges less than 1mA.
3. smua.measure.adc has to be enabled and the smua.measure.count set to the burst length.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2651A specifications
Maximum SWEEP OPERATION RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
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2651A
50A, High Power System
SourceMeter Instrument
®
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
GENERAL
Digital I/O Interface:
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850μA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570μA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of digital I/O bit): +960μA.
Maximum Sink Current At Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 250mA, solid-state fuse protected.
Output Enable Pin: Active high input pulled down internally to ground with a 10kW
resistor; when the output enable input function has been activated, the Model 2651A
channel will not turn on unless the output enable pin is driven to >2.1V (nominal
current = 2.1V/10kW = 210μA).
IEEE-488: IEEE Std 488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE Std 488.2 common commands and status
model topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the
active host interface, the Model 2651A can use the RS-232 interface to control other
instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, Auto MDIX.
LXI compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs minimum, 280μs (typical), (not specified)
maximum.
Receive Lan[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown.
Generate Lan[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown.
Expansion interface: The TSP-Link® expansion interface allows TSP-enabled instruments to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable. 3 meters maximum between each
TSP-enabled instrument.
USB: USB 2.0 host controller.
Power supply: 100V to 250V AC, 50Hz to 60Hz (autosensing), 550VA maximum.
Cooling: Forced air; side and top intake and rear exhaust.
Warranty: 1 year.
EMC: Conforms to European Union EMC Directive.
Safety: UL listed to UL61010-1:2004. Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Dimensions: 89mm high × 435mm wide × 549mm deep (3.5 in. × 17.1 in. × 21.6 in.).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 483mm wide × 620mm
deep (4.1 in. × 19 in. × 24.4 in.).
Weight: 9.98kg (22 lb).
Environment: For indoor use only.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0° to 50° C, 70 % relative humidity up to 35°C. Derate 3% relative humidity/°C,
35° to 50°C.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
Node 2
SMU INSTRUMENTS
100W
5.1kW
Node 1
32
Digital I/O Pin
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
To Host Computer
To Additional Nodes
Each Model 2651A has two TSP-Link connectors to make it easier to connect instruments
together in sequence.
• Once source-measure instruments are interconnected through the TSP-Link expansion
interface, a computer can access all of the resources of each source-measure instrument
through the host interface of any Model 2651A
• A maximum of 32 TSP-Link nodes can be interconnected. Each source-measure instrument
consumes one TSP-Link node.
TIMER: Free-running 47-bit counter with 1MHz clock input. Resets each time instrument power is
turned on. If the instrument is not turned off, the timer is reset to zero every 4 years.
Timestamp: TIMER value is automatically saved when each measurement is triggered.
Resolution: 1µs.
Timestamp Accuracy: ±100ppm.
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600mA
Solid State
Fuse
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Keypad Operations:
• Change host interface settings
• Save and restore instrument setups
• Load and run factory and user defined test scripts that prompt for input and send results to
the display
• Store measurements into dedicated reading buffers
PROGRAMMING: Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP®) scripting engine is accessible from any
host interface.
• Responds to individual instrument control commands.
• Responds to high speed test scripts comprised of instrument control commands and Test
Script Language (TSL) statements (for example, branching, looping, and math).
• Able to execute high speed test scripts stored in memory without host intervention.
Minimum User Memory Available: 16MB (approximately 250,000 lines of TSP code).
Test Script Builder: Integrated development environment for building, running, and
managing TSP scripts. Includes an instrument console for communicating with any TSP enabled
instrument in an interactive manner. Requires:
• VISA (NI-VISA included on CD)
• Microsoft® .NET Framework (included on CD)
• Keithley I/O Layer (included on CD)
• Intel® Pentium III 800MHz or faster personal computer
• Microsoft Windows® 2000, XP, Vista®, or 7
TSP Express (embedded): Tool that allows users to quickly and easily perform common I-V tests
without programming or installing software. To run TSP Express, you need:
• Java™ Platform, Standard Edition 6
• Microsoft Internet Explorer®, Mozilla® Firefox®, or another Java-compatible web browser
Software Interface: TSP Express (embedded), direct GPIB/VISA, read/write with Microsoft
Visual Basic®, Visual C/C++®, Visual C#®, LabVIEW™, CEC TestPoint™ Data Acquisition
Software Package, NI LabWindows™/CVI, etc.
READING BUFFERS: Nonvolatile memory uses dedicated storage areas reserved for measurement
data. Reading buffers are arrays of measurement elements. Each element can hold the
following items:
• Source setting (at the time the measurement was taken)
• Measurement
• Range information
• Measurement status
• Timestamp
Two reading buffers are reserved for each Model 2651A channel. Reading buffers can be filled
using the front panel STORE key and retrieved using the RECALL key or host interface.
Buffer Size, with timestamp and source setting: >60,000 samples.
Buffer Size, without timestamp and source setting: >140,000 samples.
SYSTEM EXPANSION: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP-enabled instruments to
­trigger and communicate with each other. See figure below.
+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2651A specifications
Model 2651A specifications
FRONT PANEL INTERFACE: Two-line vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) with keypad and
navigation wheel.
Display:
• Show error messages and user defined messages • Display source and limit settings
• Show current and voltage measurements
• View measurements stored in dedicated
(6½-digit to 4½-digit)
reading buffers
SourceMeter Line
Keithley’s SourceMeter family are source measurement unit
(SMU) instruments designed specifically for test applications
that demand tightly coupled sourcing and measurement. All
SourceMeter models provide precision voltage and current sourcing as well as measurement capabilities. Each SourceMeter instrument is both a highly stable DC power source and a true instrument-grade 6½-digit multimeter. The power source characteristics
include low noise, precision, and readback. The multimeter
capabilities include high repeatability and low noise. The result
is a compact, single-channel, DC parametric tester. In operation,
these instruments can act as a voltage source, a current source, a
voltage meter, a current meter, and an ohmmeter. Manufacturers
of components and modules for the communications, semiconductor, computer, automotive, and medical industries will find the
SourceMeter instruments invaluable for a wide range of characterization and production test applications.
• Five instruments in one
(IV Source, IVR Measure)
• Seven models: 20–100W DC,
1000W pulsed, 1100V to 1µV,
10A to 10pA
• Source and sink (4-quadrant)
operation
• 0.012% basic measure accuracy
with 6½-digit resolution
• 2-, 4-, and 6-wire remote
V-source and measure sensing
• 1700 readings/second at
4½ digits via GPIB
• Pass/Fail comparator for fast
sorting/binning
• Available high speed sense lead
contact check function
• Programmable DIO port for
automation/handler/prober
control (except Model 2401)
• Standard SCPI GPIB, RS-232 and
Keithley Trigger Link interfaces
• Keithley LabTracer 2.0 I-V curve
tracing application software
(download)
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Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit,
these instruments offer a variety of advantages over systems
configured with separate source and measurement instruments.
For example, they minimize the time required for test station
development, setup, and maintenance, while lowering the overall
cost of system ownership. They simplify the test process itself
by eliminating many of the complex synchronization and connection issues associated with using
multiple instruments. And, their compact half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test
rack or bench.
Power of Five Instruments in One (IV Source, IVR Measure)
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many advantages over solutions
configured from separate instruments, such as a precision power supply and a digital multimeter. For
example, it provides faster test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the remote programming
interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to accidental overloads, thermal
runaway, etc. Both the current and voltage source are programmable with readback to help maximize
device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit, then the
source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
TEST LEADS
1754
5804
5805
5808
5809
8607
CA-18-1
AND PROBES
2-Wire Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Spring-Loaded Probes
Low Cost Single-pin Kelvin Probe Set
Low Cost Kelvin Clip Lead Set
2-Wire, 1000V Banana Cables, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded Dual Banana Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
SWITCHING
7001
7002
7019-C
7053
HARDWARE
Two-Slot Switch System
Ten-Slot Switch System
6-Wire Ohms Switch Card
High-Current Switch Card
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7009-5
RS-232 Cable
8620
Shorting Plug
A
G R E A T E R
Communication Interface
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Triggering and Control
2499-DIGIO Digital I/O Expander Assembly
(not for Model 2401)
8501-1
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m (6.6 ft)
8502
Trigger Link to BNC Breakout Box
8503
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-Dual BNC, 1m (3.3 ft)
8505
Male to 2-Female Y-DIN Cable for Trigger Link
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-4
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-5
Shelf Type Side by Side Rack Mounting Kit
4288-9
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
Software
LabTracer 2.0 Curve Tracing Software (downloadable)
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
C O N F I D E N C E
33
Ordering Information
2400
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2400-C
2401
2410
2410-C
2420
2420-C
2425
2425-C
2430
2430-C
2440
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2440-C
200V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
200V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
20V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
1100V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
1100V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
60V, 3A, 60W
SourceMeter Instrument
60V, 3A, 60W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
100V, 3A, 100W
SourceMeter Instrument
100V, 3A, 100W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
100V, 10A, 1000W
Pulse Mode
SourceMeter Instrument
100V, 10A, 1000W
Pulse Mode
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
40V, 5A, 50W
SourceMeter Instrument
40V, 5A, 50W
SourceMeter Instrument
with Contact Check
Accessories Supplied
Model 8605 Test Leads
LabVIEW Software Driver
­(downloadable)
LabTracer Software
­(downloadable)
®
I-V Characteristics
All SourceMeter instruments provide four-quadrant operation. In the first and third quadrants they
­operate as a source, delivering power to a load. In the second and fourth quadrants they operate as a
sink, d­ issipating power internally. Voltage, current, and resistance can be measured during source or
sink ­operation.
Imeter
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Imeter/Compliance
Isource
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Vmeter
Vsource
DUT
DUT
Feedback to
Adjust Vsource
Vmeter/Compliance
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source I, Measure V, I, or W configuration
Source V, Measure I, V, or W configuration
Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments
+1A
Model 2400
SourceMeter
Instrument
–200V
+100mA
–20V
+20V
2400
only
+1A
Model 2401
Low-Voltage
SourceMeter
Instrument
–200V
+200V
+100mA
–20V
+20V
2400
only
Duty cycle limited
Duty cycle limited
–1A
–1A
Model 2410
High-Voltage
SourceMeter
Instrument
Model 2420
3A SourceMeter
Instrument
+1A
+1A
+20V
+200V +1100V
–60V
–20V
+20V
–20mA
–3A
+10A
Model 2430
1kW Pulse Mode
SourceMeter
Instrument
–100V
–60 –20
+1A
–3A
5A
3A
1A
–100V –60 –20
100mA
+20 +60 +100V
–40V
–10V
+10V
+40V
–100mA
–100mA
–1A
–1A
–3A
Pulse mode only
A
G R E A T E R
–3A
Duty cycle limited
–10A
M E A S U R E
O F
+100V
–1A
Duty cycle
limited
Model 2440
5A SourceMeter
Instrument
+3A
+20 +60
–100mA
–1A
Duty cycle
limited
–1A
+100mA
+60V
–100mA
–100mA
+3A
+1A
+100mA
+20mA
–20V
Model 2425
100W SourceMeter
Instrument
+3A
+200mA
–1100V –200V
+200V
–100mA
–100mA
+100mA
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34
SourceMeter Line
–5A
C O N F I D E N C E
Duty cycle limited
Duty cycle
limited
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Standard and Custom Sweeps
Sweep solutions greatly accelerate testing with
automation hooks. Three basic sweep waveforms
are provided that can be programmed for singleevent or continuous operation. They are ideal for
I/V, I/R, V/I, and V/R characterization.
• Linear Staircase Sweep: Moves from the start
level to the stop level in equal linear steps
• Logarithmic Staircase Sweep: Done on a
log scale with a specified number of steps
per decade
• Custom Sweep: Allows construction of
special sweeps by specifying the number of
measurement points and the source level at
each point
• Up to 1700 readings/second at 4½ digits to
the GPIB bus
• 5000 readings can be stored in the nonvolatile buffer memory
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear staircase sweep
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Logarithmic staircase sweep
Stop
Start
User
defined
steps
Built-In Test Sequencer
Bias
Bias
(Source Memory List)
The Source Memory list provides faster and
Custom sweep
easier testing by allowing you to setup and
execute up to 100 different tests that run without
PC intervention.
• Stores up to 100 instrument configurations, each containing source settings, measurement
­settings, pass/fail criteria, etc.
• Pass/fail limit test as fast as 500µs per point
• Onboard comparator eliminates the delay caused when sending data to the computer for analysis
• Built-in, user definable math functions to calculate derived parameters
Typical Applications
Devices:
• Discrete semiconductor devices
• Passive devices
• Transient suppression devices
• ICs, RFICs, MMICs
• Laser diodes, laser diode
modules, LEDs, photodetectors
• Circuit protection devices: TVS,
MOV, Fuses, etc.
• Airbags
• Connectors, switches, relays
• High brightness LEDs
(DC and pulse)
Tests:
• Leakage
• Low voltage/resistances
• LIV
• IDDQ
• I-V characterization
• Isolation and trace resistance
• Temperature coefficient
• Forward voltage, reverse
breakdown, leakage current
• DC parametric test
• DC power source
• HIPOT
• Photovoltaic cell efficiency
(source and sink)
• Dielectric withstanding
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Automation for Speed
A SourceMeter instrument streamlines production testing. It sources voltage or current while making
measurements without needing to change connections. It is designed for reliable operation in nonstop production environments. To provide the throughput demanded by production applications,
the SourceMeter instrument offers many built-in features that allow it to run complex test sequences
without computer control or GPIB communications slowing things down.
Example Test Sequence
I
VF2
IR
VF1
Test 2
Test 1
Test 3
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V
Test
Pass/Fail Test
If Passes Test
Test 1
Check V F1 at
100mA against
pass/fail limits
Go to Test 2
Test 2
Check V F2 at 1A
against pass/fail
limits
Go to Test 3
Test 3
Check leakage
­current at –500V
and test against
pass/fail limits
1.Bin part to good bin
2.Transmit readings to
computer while handler
is placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
A
M E A S U R E
G R E A T E R
If Fails Test
O F
1.Bin part to bad bin
2.Transmit data to
computer while
handler is placing
new part
3.Return to Test 1
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
C O N F I D E N C E
35
SourceMeter Line
®
Digital I/O Interface
The digital I/O interface can link the SourceMeter instrument to many
popular component handlers, including Aetrium, Aeco, and Robotronics.
Other capabilities of the interface include:
• Tight systems integration for applications such as binning and sorting
• Built-in component handler interface
• Start of test and end of test signals
• 5V, 300mA power supply
• Optional expander accessory (Model 2499-DIGIO) adds 16 digital I/O lines
• Locks out parallel current paths when measuring resistor networks or
hybrid ­circuits to isolate the component under test
• Allows users to configure and plot data easily from Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments, making characterization of two, three, and
four terminal devices a snap
+
GUARD SENSE
Imeter
IN/OUT HI
DUT
R2
Isource
Vmeter
R1
R3
SENSE LO
IN/OUT LO
6-Wire Ohms Circuit. All test current flows through R1 because the
high current guard drives the voltage across R2 to 0V.
Pass
-
Vmeter
SENSE HI
GUARD
350µs
Contact Check
GUARD SENSE
IN/OUT HI
SENSE HI
V or I
Source
GUARD
-
Optional Contact Check Function
The Contact Check function makes it simple to verify good connections
quickly and easily before an automated test sequence begins. This eliminates measurement errors and false product failures associated with contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, loose or broken connection, relay
failures, etc. Some capabilities of this function are:
• 350µs verification and notification process time
• The output of the SourceMeter instrument is automatically shut off after
a fault and is not re-activated until good contact is verified, protecting
the device under test from damage and the operator from potential
safety ­hazards
• 3 pass/fail threshold values: 2W, 15W, and 50W
• No energy passes through the device under test during the operation
• Enabled either from the front panel or remotely over the GPIB
• 3 fault notification methods
+
SMU INSTRUMENTS
• Uses guard and guard sense leads in addition to the 4-wire sense and
source leads
Trigger Link Interface
All SourceMeter instruments include Keithley’s unique Trigger Link interface which provides high-speed, seamless communications with many of
Keithley’s other instruments. For example, use the Trigger Link interface
to connect a SourceMeter instrument with a Series 7000 Switching System
for a complete multi-point test solution. With Trigger Link, the 7000 Series
Switching Systems can be controlled by a SourceMeter instrument during a
high-speed test sequence independent of a computer and GPIB.
Imeter
Fail
(optional)
SENSE LO
Pass
IN/OUT LO
Contact check option for 4-wire or 6-wire applications
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36
Unique 6-Wire Ohms Technique
SourceMeter instruments can make standard 4-wire, split Kelvin, and
6-wire, guarded ohms measurements and can be configured for either the
constant current or constant voltage method. The 6-wire ohms technique:
Free LabTracer 2.0 device characterization software (downloadable)
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Series 2400
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Voltage Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2410, 2410-C
2420, 2420-C
2425, 2425-C
2430, 2430-C
2440, 2440-C
Programming
Resolution
5µV
50µV
500µV
5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
50mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
1.5mV
5 µV
50µV
500µV
2.5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
2.5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
5mV
Measurement 2, 3, 4
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.015% + 10 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 50 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 3 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 750 µV
0.015% + 3 mV
Output Slew Rate
(±30%)
Source/Sink Limit
0.08 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
0.15 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.14 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±210 V @ ±105 mA*
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±1100 V @ ±21 mA
±21 V @ ±3.15 A
±63 V @ ±1.05 A
±21 V @ ±3.15 A
±105 V @ ±1.05 A
±105 V @ ±1.05 A
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
±105 V @ ±10.5 A
(pulse mode only)
±10.5 V @ ±5.25 A
±42 V @ ±1.05 A
*Not available on Model 2401.
Additional Pulse Mode Source Specifications
(2430 and 2430-C only)
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = none.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Overshoot: <0.1% typical (full scale step, resistive load, 10mA range).
Maximum Duty Cycle: 8%, hardware limited, 10A range only. All other ranges 100%.
Maximum Pulse Width: 5ms from 90% rising to 90% falling edge, 2.5ms 10A range.
Minimum Pulse Width: 150µs.
Minimum Pulse Resolution: 50µs typical, 70µs max., limited by system ­jitter.
Source Accuracy: Determined by settling time and source range specifications.
Output Settling Time 0.1%:
800µs typ., source I = 10A into 10W, limited by voltage slew rate.
500µs typ., source I = 10A into 1W, limited by voltage slew rate.
Output Slew Rate:
Voltage (10W load): 0.25V/µs ±30% on 100V range. 0.08V/µs ±30% on 20V range, 10A range.
Current (0W load): 0.25A/µs ±30% on 100V range. 0.08A/µs ±30% on 20V range, 10A range.
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (All Models)
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: 30µs minimum for the output to recover to its spec. following a
step change in load.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change
following the receipt of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent <nrf> command. Autorange On: 10ms.
Autorange Off: 7ms.
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after command is processed. 100µs typical. Resistive load. 10µA to 100mA range.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC (Model 2440 ±40VDC) from
chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE: Up to 1V drop per load lead.
COMPLIANCE ACCURACY: Add 0.3% of range and ±0.02% of reading to base specification.
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: Overshoot into a fully resistive 100kW load, 10Hz to 1MHz BW,
adjacent ranges: 100mV typical, except 20V/200V (20V/60V on Model 2420), 20V/100V on Model
2425 and 2430, range boundary, and Model 2440.
MINIMUM COMPLIANCE VALUE: 0.1% of range.
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NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add
0.5%.
3. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
4. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2400 condensed specifications
2400, 2400-C,
2401
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V*
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
1000.00V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
60.0000V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
100.0000 V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
100.0000 V
200.000mV
2.00000V
10.0000V
40.0000V
Default
Measurement
Resolution
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
10 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Model
Source1
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 24 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 100 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 7.2 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 12 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 12 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 1.2 mV
0.02% + 4.8 mV
C O N F I D E N C E
37
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Current Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2400, 2400-C,
2401
2410, 2410-C
2420, 2420-C
2425, 2425-C
2430, 2430-C
SMU INSTRUMENTS
2440, 2440-C
Range
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
20.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
3.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
3.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
3.00000 A 2
10.00000 A4
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
5.00000 A
Programming
Resolution
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
500 µA
500 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range (except Model 2440
5A range 0.05%) + 100pA.
Voltage LIMIT: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
OVERSHOOT: <0.1% typical (1mA step, RL = 10kW, 20V range for Model 2400, 2401, 2410, 2420,
2425, 2430), (10V range for Model 2440).
38
Source/Sink Limit
±1.05A @ ±21 V
±105 mA @ ±210 V 8
±1.05A @ ±21 V
±21 mA @ ±1100 V
±3.15A @ ±21 V
±1.05 A @ ±63 V
±3.15A @ ±21 V
±1.05 A @ ±105 V
±1.05A @ ±105 V
±10.5 A @ ±105 V
(pulse mode only)
±5.25A @ ±10.5 V
±1.05 A @ ±42 V
NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Full operation (1A) regardless of load to 30°C (50°C for Model 2420 and 2440). Above 30°C (50°C for Model
2420 and 2440) ambient, derate 35mA/°C and prorate 35mA/W load. 4-wire mode. For current sink operation
on 1A, 3A, or 5A ranges, maximum continuous power is limited to approximately 1/2 rated power or less,
depending on current, up to 30°C ambient. See power equations in the User’s Manual to calculate allowable
duty cycle for specific conditions.
3. For sink mode, 1µA to 100mA range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(0.15% + offset*4). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(0.5% + offset*3).
For 1A range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(1.5% + offset*8). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(1.5% + offset*3).
4. 10A range only in pulse mode. Limited to 2.5ms pulse width maximum. 10% duty cycle maximum.
5. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges,
add 0.5%.
6. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
7. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
8. Model 2400 and 2400-C only.
Contact Check Specifications (requires -C version)
(Not available for Model 2401)
Speed: 350µs for verification and notification.
Contact Check:
2 W15 W50 W
No contact check failure
<1.00 W<13.5 W<47.5 W
Always contact check failure
>3.00 W>16.5 W>52.5 W
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Default Measurement
Resolution
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
Measurement5, 6, 7
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 1.2 µA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.066% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.082% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.10 % + 3.42 mA
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Model
Source1, 3
Accuracy
(1 Year) 3
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 4 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.7 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.8 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.8 mA
0.089% + 5.9 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.10 % + 5.4 mA
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)1, 2, 5
Default
Resolution
<0.20000 W3
–
–
–
10µW
2400, 2401
2410
2420, 2425, 2430, 2440
2400, 2401
–
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
1A
Normal Accuracy (23°C ±5°C)
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
Source I ACC + Meas VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC 0.17% + 0.0003W
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
20.0000 W 100µW
100mA
100mA
0.10% + 0.003W
0.11% + 0.006W
0.10% + 0.003 W
0.07% + 0.001
W
200.000 W 1mW
10mA
10mA
0.08% + 0.03 W
0.09% + 0.1 W
0.08% + 0.03 W
0.05% + 0.01
W
2.00000kW 10mW
1mA
1mA
0.07% + 0.3 W
0.08% + 0.6 W
0.07% + 0.3
W
0.05% + 0.1
W
20.0000kW 100mW
100µA
100µA
0.06% + 3
W
0.07% + 6
W
0.06% + 3
W
0.04% + 1
W
200.000kW 1
W
10µA
10µA
0.07% + 30
W
0.07% + 60
W
0.07% + 30
W
0.05% + 10
W
W
2.00000MW6 10
1µA
1µA
0.11% +300
W
0.12% +600
W
0.11% +300
W
0.05% +100
W
20.0000MW7 100W
1µA
1µA
0.11% + 1
kW
0.12% + 2.4 kW
0.11% + 1
kW
0.05% +500
W
200.000MW3 >200.000 MW3
100nA
–
1kW
–
–
–
0.66% + 10 kW
0.66% + 24 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy
specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source accuracy + V measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
Source V Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = V source ­accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense. Max.
Guard Output Current: 50mA (except 1A range). Accuracy is load dependent.
Refer to White Paper no. 2033 for calculation ­formula.
Guard Output Impedance: <0.1W in ohms mode.
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
0.35% + 5
kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
NOTES
1. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.05%. For
0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.5%.
2. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
3. Manual ohms only – except 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440 for 2W range and 2400, 2401 or 2410 for 200MW range.
4. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Also available on 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, and 2440 with similar ­accuracy
enhancement.
5. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
6. Except 2440; default test current is 5µA.
7. Except 2440; default test current is 0.5µA.
Services Available
2400-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2400-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2401-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2410-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2410-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2420-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2420-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2425-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2425-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2430-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2430-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2440-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
2440-C-3Y-EW 1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
C/2400-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2400, 2400-C, 2400-LV*
C/2401-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Model 2401*
C/2410-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2410, 2410-C*
C/2420-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2420, 2420-C*
C/2425-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2425, 2425-C*
C/2430-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2430, 2430-C*
C/2440-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2440, 2440-C*
TRN-2400-1-C Course: Unleashing the Power of Your SourceMeter Instrument
*Not available in all countries
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Series 2400 condensed specifications
2.00000 W3 Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C) 4
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
Default Test
Current
2420, 2425,
2430, 2440
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Range
Default Test
Current
2400, 2401, 2410
C O N F I D E N C E
39
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
System Speeds
Measurement1
MAXIMUM RANGE CHANGE RATE: 75/second.
MAXIMUM MEASURE AUTORANGE TIME: 40ms (fixed source).2
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Speed
Fast
IEEE-488.1 Mode
Fast
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Medium
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Normal
IEEE-488.2 Mode
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.10 / internal
0.10 / external
1.00 / internal
1.00 / external
Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
2081 (2030) 1754
1239 (1200) 1254
2081 (2030) 1198 (1210)
1239 (1200) 1079 (1050)
510 (433)
509 (433)
438 (380)
438 (380)
59
(49)
59 (49)
57
(48)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
1551 (1515)
1369
1018 (990)
1035
1551 (1515)
1000 (900)
1018 (990)
916 (835)
470 (405)
470 (410)
409 (360)
409 (365)
58 (48)
58 (48)
57 (48)
57 (47)
Source-Measure5
Pass/Fail Test4, 5
To Mem.
To GPIB
902 (900)
981
830 (830)
886
902 (900)
809 (840)
830 (830)
756 (780)
389 (343)
388 (343)
374 (333)
374 (333)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
Source-Memory4
To Mem.
To GPIB
165 (162)
165
163 (160)
163
165 (162)
164 (162)
163 (160)
162 (160)
133 (126)
132 (126)
131 (125)
131 (125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
Single Reading Operation Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast (488.1)
Fast (488.2)
Medium (488.2)
Normal (488.2)
Measure
To GPIB
537
256 (256)
167 (166)
49
(42)
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
Source-Measure5
To GPIB
140
79 (83)
72 (70)
34 (31)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test4,5
To GPIB
135
79 (83)
69 (70)
35 (30)
Component for 60Hz (50Hz): 4, 6
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / external
0.10 / external
1.00 / external
Measure To GPIB
1.04 ms (1.08 ms)
2.55 ms (2.9 ms)
17.53 ms (20.9 ms)
Source Pass/Fail Test
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test5, 7
To GPIB
4.82 ms (5.3 ms)
6.27 ms (7.1 ms)
21.31 ms (25.0 ms)
NOTES
Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display off,
trigger delay = 0, and binary reading format.
Purely resistive lead. 1µA and 10µA ranges <65ms.
3 1000 point sweep was characterized with the source on a fixed range.
Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making m
­ easurement.
6 Time from falling edge of START OF TEST signal to falling edge of end of test signal.
7 Command processing time of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent:TRIGgered <nrf> command not included.
1
4
5
2
general
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Slow
SMU INSTRUMENTS
1
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
NMRR
—
—
60 dB
Except lowest 2 current ranges = 90dB.
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
Common mode voltage: 250V DC (40V DC for Model 2440).
Common Mode Isolation: >109W, <1000pF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V.
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 1MW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1010W.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <150µV, typical (300µV for Models 2430, 2440).
Source Output modes:
Pulse (Model 2430 only)
Fixed DC level
Memory List (mixed function)
Stair (linear and log)
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5 digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes selected measured
value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery ­backup (3 yr+ battery life).
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SOURCE MEMORY LIST: 100 points max.
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Digital Interface:
Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. [email protected] 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA, diode clamped).
Power Supply: 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up). Model
2400, 2401: 190VA. Model 2410: 210VA. Model 2420: 220VA. Model 2425, 2430: 250VA.
Model 2440: 240VA.
COOLING: Model 2401: Convection. Model 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: Forced air,
variable speed.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Safety: UL listed to UL 61010B-1:2003: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet):104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
WEIGHT: 3.21kg (7.08 lbs) (Model 2425, 2430, 2440: 4.1kg, 9.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
100 dB1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400 condensed specifications
Sweep Operation3 Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
The economical Model 2401 is the latest member
of Keithley’s Series 2400 SourceMeter family,
designed specifically for low voltage test applications that demand tightly coupled sourcing and
measurement. Like all Series 2400 SourceMeter
models, the Model 2401 provides precision
voltage and current sourcing and measurement capabilities (1μV–20V and 10pA–1A). It
is both a highly stable DC power source and
a true instrument-grade 6½-digit multimeter.
The power source characteristics include low
noise, precision, and readback. The multimeter
capabilities include high repeatability and low
noise. The result is a compact, single-channel,
DC parametric tester. In operation, it can act as a
voltage source, a current source, a voltage meter,
a current meter, and an ohmmeter.
• 1μV–20V and 10pA–1A precision
voltage and current sourcing
and measurement capabilities
• Five instruments in one (IV
Source, IVR Measure)
• Source and sink (4-quadrant)
operation
• 0.012% basic measure accuracy
with 6½-digit resolution
• 2-, 4-, and 6-wire remote
V-source and measure sensing
• 1700 readings/second at 4½
digits via GPIB
• Standard SCPI GPIB, RS-232,
and Keithley Trigger Link
interfaces
• Keithley LabTracer 2.0 I-V curve
tracing application software
(download)
The Lowest Cost Precision Source Measurement Unit (SMU) Instrument
on the Market
The Model 2401 is the lowest cost precision SMU instrument on the market, offering an economical
20W I-V source/measure alternative to configuring systems and test benches with separate programmable power supplies and digital multimeters. The Model 2401 also offers an economical alternative
for applications for which precision programmable power supplies cannot deliver sufficient accuracy,
signal range, source setting, or readback resolution.
The Model 2401 offers users all the same accuracy, speed, and measurement functions as the other
instruments in the Series 2400 family. It shares a common operating code base with the rest of the
family, so it can be operated and programmed within its range boundaries just like any other Series
2400 instrument. The only functional differences between the Model 2401 and the Model 2400 are
that the Model 2401 does not include 200V source and measure ranges or back panel Digital I/O port
capabilities. (However, the DB-9 connector is still provided to provide test fixture interlock ­signals.)
Model 2401 Applications
Manufacturers of components and modules for
the communications, semiconductor, computer,
automotive, and medical industries will find the
Model 2401 invaluable for a wide range of characterization and production test applications.
Its [email protected] output makes it ideal for characterizing the current-voltage (I-V) performance of
photovoltaic (solar) cells, high brightness LEDs
(HBLEDs), low voltage materials, CMOS circuits
and low-power semiconductor devices, as well as
resistance measurements on these devices.
The Model 2401 is well suited for use as a gate
bias in applications involving devices with
three or more terminals such as HBLEDs and
photovoltaic cells, reducing total system hardware costs. It also provides sufficient range for
characterizing low voltage materials and devices
(including graphene and other nano- and
MEMs-type structures), which are inherently
low ­voltage ­oriented.
Typical Applications
• High brightness LEDs
(DC and pulse)
• Photovoltaic cell efficiency
(source and sink)
• Precision DC power supply/
current measure
• Discrete semiconductor devices
• Passive devices
• Laser diodes, laser diode
modules, LEDs, photodetectors
• Connectors, switches, relays
• Low voltages/resistances
• LIV
• IDDQ
• I-V characterization
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Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
C O N F I D E N C E
41
Ordering Information
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
Low Voltage
SourceMeter®
Instrument
Accessories Supplied
Model 8605 Test Leads
LabVIEW Software Driver
(downloadable)
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
TEST LEADS
1754
5804
5805
5808
5809
8607
CA-18-1
AND PROBES
2-Wire Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Spring-Loaded Probes
Low Cost Single-pin Kelvin Probe Set
Low Cost Kelvin Clip Lead Set
2-Wire, 1000V Banana Cables, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded Dual Banana Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
SWITCHING
7001
7002
7019-C
7053
HARDWARE
Two-Slot Switch System
Ten-Slot Switch System
6-Wire Ohms Switch Card
High-Current Switch Card
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
®
Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit, the Model 2401 offers a variety of
advantages over systems configured with separate source and measurement instruments. For
­example, it minimizes the time required for test station development, setup, and maintenance, while
lowering the overall cost of system ownership. It simplifies the test process itself by eliminating many
of the complex synchronization and connection issues associated with using multiple instruments. Its
compact half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test rack or bench.
Much More than a Power Supply
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many advantages over solutions
configured from separate instruments such as a precision power supply and a digital multimeter.
For example, the Model 2401 provides faster test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the
remote programming interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to accidental
overloads, thermal runaway, etc. Both the Model 2401’s current and voltage source are programmable with readback to help maximize device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit, then the source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
Imeter
Triggering and Control
8501-1
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m (6.6 ft)
8502
Trigger Link to BNC Breakout Box
8503
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-Dual BNC, 1m (3.3 ft)
8505
Male to 2-Female Y-DIN Cable for Trigger Link
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-4
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-5
Shelf Type Side by Side Rack Mounting Kit
4288-9
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Services Available
C/2401-3Y-ISO
TRN-2400-1C
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within
3 years of purchase
Course: Unleashing the Power of Your
SourceMeter Instrument
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Remote
SENSE HI
DUT
Vmeter/Compliance
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source I, Measure V, I, or W configuration
Imeter/Compliance
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Vmeter
Vsource
DUT
Feedback to
Adjust Vsource
Software
LabTracer 2.0 Curve Tracing Software (downloadable)
2401-3Y-EW
IN/OUT HI
Isource
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7009-5
RS-232 Cable
8620
Shorting Plug
Communication Interface
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488B
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Local
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source V, Measure I, V, or W configuration A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
I-V Characteristics
Like all Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments,
the Model 2401 provides four-quadrant operation. In the first and third quadrants, it operates
as a source, delivering power to a load. In the
second and fourth quadrants, it operates as a
sink, dissipating power internally. Voltage, current, and resistance can be measured during
source or sink operation.
Trigger Link Interface
All SourceMeter instruments include Keithley’s unique Trigger Link interface, which provides high
speed, seamless communications with many of Keithley’s other instruments. For example, use the
Trigger Link interface to connect a SourceMeter instrument with a Series 7000 Switching System for a
complete multipoint test solution. With Trigger Link, Series 7000 Switching Systems can be controlled
by a SourceMeter instrument during a high speed test sequence independent of a c­ omputer and
GPIB.
+1A
+100mA
–200V
–20V
+20V
+200V
–100mA
Duty cycle
limited
–1A
Model 2401 four-quadrant operation
Built-In Test Sequencer
(Source Memory List)
The Source Memory list provides faster and easier testing by allowing you to set up and execute
up to 100 different tests that run without PC
­intervention.
• Stores up to 100 instrument configurations,
each containing source settings, measurement
­settings, pass/fail criteria, etc.
• Pass/fail limit test as fast as 500µs per point
• Onboard comparator eliminates the delay
caused when sending data to the computer
for analysis
• Built-in, user-definable math functions to
calculate derived parameters
Automation for Speed
A SourceMeter instrument streamlines production testing. It sources voltage or current while making
measurements without needing to change connections. It is designed for reliable operation in nonstop production environments. To provide the throughput demanded by production applications,
the SourceMeter instrument offers many built-in features that allow it to run complex test sequences
without computer control or GPIB communications slowing things down.
Standard and Custom Sweeps
Sweep solutions greatly accelerate testing with
automation hooks. Three basic sweep waveforms
are provided that can be programmed for singleevent or continuous operation. They are ideal for
I/V, I/R, V/I, and V/R characterization.
• Linear Staircase Sweep: Moves from the start
level to the stop level in equal linear steps
• Logarithmic Staircase Sweep: Done on a
log scale with a specified number of steps
per decade
• Custom Sweep: Allows construction of
special sweeps by specifying the number of
measurement points and the source level at
each point
• Up to 1700 readings/second at 4½ digits to
the GPIB bus
• 5000 5½-digit readings can be stored in the
non-volatile buffer memory
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear staircase sweep
Stop
Start
Bias
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
Bias
Logarithmic staircase sweep
Stop
Start
User
defined
steps
Bias
Bias
Custom sweep
I
Example Test Sequence
Test
Pass/Fail Test
If Passes Test
If Fails Test
Test 1
Check V F1 at 100mA
against pass/fail limits
Go to Test 2
Test 2
Check V F2 at 1A against
pass/fail limits
Go to Test 3
Test 3
Check leakage ­current at
–500V and test against
pass/fail limits
1.Bin part to good bin
2.Transmit readings to computer
while handler is placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
1.Bin part to bad bin
2.Transmit data to computer while handler is
placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
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G R E A T E R
VF2
VF1 Test 2
Test 1
IR
Test 3
M E A S U R E
O F
V
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
2401
C O N F I D E N C E
43
2401
Low Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
Unique 6-Wire Ohms Technique
The Model 2401 can make standard 4-wire, split Kelvin, and 6-wire, guarded ohms measurements and can be configured for either the constant current or constant voltage method. The 6-wire ohms technique:
Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit, these instruments offer a variety of advantages over systems configured with separate
source and measurement instruments. For example, they minimize the
time required for test station development, setup, and maintenance, while
lowering the overall cost of system ownership. They simplify the test process itself by eliminating many of the complex synchronization and connection issues associated with using multiple instruments. And, their compact
half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test rack or bench.
• Uses guard and guard sense leads in addition to the 4-wire sense and
source leads
• Locks out parallel current paths when measuring resistor networks or
hybrid circuits to isolate the component under test
Power of Five Instruments in One
(IV Source, IVR Measure)
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many
advantages over separate instruments. For example, it provides faster
test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the remote programming interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to
accidental overloads, thermal runaway, etc. Both the current and voltage
source are programmable with readback to help maximize device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit,
then the source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
• Allows users to configure and plot data easily from Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments, making characterization of 2-, 3-, and
4-terminal devices a snap
+
GUARD
GUARD SENSE
Imeter
IN/OUT HI
Unlike narrow-performance SMU platforms, including board-level products, which often deliver sub-optimal analog measurements due to significant loss in signal integrity, accuracy, power, and/or speed due to interconnect, thermal management, and other issues, all Series 2400 SourceMeter
instruments combine the industry’s widest dynamic range with uncompromising throughput and superior measurement integrity.
SENSE HI
DUT
R2
Isource
Vmeter
R1
R3
SENSE LO
IN/OUT LO
Other Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments
If your application requires a wider sourcing or measurement range than
the Model 2401 can provide, other Series 2400 instruments (page 33)
likely offer the range you need. Consult the range graphs shown here or
the instrument specifications for details. Series 2600A System SourceMeter
instruments (page 10) are also available to address applications
that require integrating multiple source and measure channels and/or
pulsing capabilities.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
6-Wire Ohms Circuit. All test current flows through R1 because the
high current guard drives the voltage across R2 to 0V.
Free LabTracer 2.0 device characterization software (downloadable).
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44
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Tightly coupled precision sourcing and measurement
®
Series 2400
Low Voltage SourceMeter Line
®
Voltage Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2400, 2400-C
Programming
Resolution
5µV
50µV
500µV
5mV
5µV
50µV
500µV
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = none.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Overshoot: <0.1% typical (full scale step, resistive load, 10mA range).
Measurement 2, 3, 4
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.015% + 10 mV
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
Output Slew Rate
(±30%)
Source/Sink Limit
0.08 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±210 V @ ±105 mA
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
0.08 V/µs
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (All Models)
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: 30µs minimum for the output to recover to its spec. following a
step change in load.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change
following the receipt of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent <nrf> command. Autorange On: 10ms.
Autorange Off: 7ms.
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after command is processed. 100µs typical. Resistive load. 10µA to 100mA range.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC (Model 2440 ±40VDC) from
chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE: Up to 1V drop per load lead.
COMPLIANCE ACCURACY: Add 0.3% of range and ±0.02% of reading to base specification.
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: Overshoot into a fully resistive 100kW load, 10Hz to 1MHz BW,
adjacent ranges: 100mV typical, except 20V/200V (20V/60V on Model 2420), 20V/100V on Model
2425 and 2430, range boundary, and Model 2440.
MINIMUM COMPLIANCE VALUE: 0.1% of range.
NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add
0.5%.
3. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
4. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
Current Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
Model
2400, 2400-C,
2401
Range
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000A 2
Programming
Resolution
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
Source 1, 3
Accuracy
(1 Year) 3
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range (except Model 2440
5A range 0.05%) + 100pA.
Voltage LIMIT: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
OVERSHOOT: <0.1% typical (1mA step, RL = 10kW, 20V range for Model 2400, 2401, 2410, 2420,
2425, 2430), (10V range for Model 2440).
Source/Sink Limit
±1.05A @ ±21 V
NOTES
1. 2400, 2401, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above
105mA continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Full operation (1A) regardless of load to 30°C (50°C for Model 2420 and 2440). Above 30°C (50°C for Model
2420 and 2440) ambient, derate 35mA/°C and prorate 35mA/W load. 4-wire mode. For current sink operation
on 1A, 3A, or 5A ranges, maximum continuous power is limited to approximately 1/2 rated power or less,
depending on current, up to 30°C ambient. See power equations in the User’s Manual to calculate allowable
duty cycle for specific conditions.
3. For sink mode, 1µA to 100mA range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(0.15% + offset*4). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(0.5% + offset*3).
For 1A range, accuracy is:
Model 2400, 2401: ±(1.5% + offset*8). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(1.5% + offset*3).
4. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges,
add 0.5%.
5. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
6. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
Contact Check Specifications (requires -C version)
(Not available for Model 2401)
Speed: 350µs for verification and notification.
Contact Check:
2 W15 W50 W
No contact check failure
<1.00 W<13.5 W<47.5 W
Always contact check failure
>3.00 W>16.5 W>52.5 W
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Default Measurement
Resolution
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
Measurement 4, 5, 6
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2401 specifications
2401
Range
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
Default
Measurement
Resolution
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
Model 2401 specifications
Model
Source1
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 24 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
C O N F I D E N C E
45
Series 2400
Low Voltage SourceMeter Line
®
Range
Default
Resolution
Default Test
Current
2400, 2401,
2410
<0.20000 W3
–
–
Normal Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C)
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C) 4
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
2400, 2401
2400, 2401
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
2.00000 W3 10µW
20.0000 W 100µW
100mA
0.10% +
0.003W
0.07% +
0.001W
200.000 W 1mW
10mA
0.08% +
0.03 W
0.05% +
0.01 W
2.00000kW 10mW
1mA
0.07% +
0.3 W
0.05% +
0.1 W
20.0000kW 100mW
100µA
0.06% +
3
W
0.04% +
1
200.000kW 1
W
10µA
0.07% + 30
W
0.05% + 10
W
W
2.00000MW6 10
1µA
0.11% + 300
W
0.05% + 100
W
W
20.0000MW7 100
1µA
kW
0.05% + 500
W
200.000MW3 >200.000 MW3
100nA
–
1kW
–
Source I ACC + Meas VACC
–
0.11% +
1
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
0.66% + 10 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C):
±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source
accuracy + V measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
Source V Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = V
source ­accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and
guard sense. Max. Guard Output Current: 50mA (except 1A
range). Accuracy is load dependent. Refer to White Paper no.
2033 for calculation ­formula.
Guard Output Impedance: <0.1W in ohms mode.
NOTES
1. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset
specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC,
add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.5%.
2. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
3. Manual ohms only – except 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440 for 2W range and
2400, 2401, or 2410 for 200MW range.
4. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Also available on
2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, and 2440 with similar ­accuracy enhancement.
5. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
6. Except 2440; default test current is 5µA.
7. Except 2440; default test current is 0.5µA.
W
0.35% + 5 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
System Speeds
Measurement1
MAXIMUM RANGE CHANGE RATE: 75/second.
MAXIMUM MEASURE AUTORANGE TIME: 40ms (fixed source).2
Sweep Operation3 Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast
IEEE-488.1 Mode
Fast
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Medium
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Normal
IEEE-488.2 Mode
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.10 / internal
0.10 / external
1.00 / internal
1.00 / external
Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
2081 (2030) 1754
1239 (1200) 1254
2081 (2030) 1198 (1210)
1239 (1200) 1079 (1050)
510 (433)
509 (433)
438 (380)
438 (380)
59
(49)
59 (49)
57
(48)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
1551 (1515)
1369
1018 (990)
1035
1551 (1515)
1000 (900)
1018 (990)
916 (835)
470 (405)
470 (410)
409 (360)
409 (365)
58 (48)
58 (48)
57 (48)
57 (47)
Source-Measure5
Pass/Fail Test4, 5
To Mem.
To GPIB
902 (900)
981
830 (830)
886
902 (900)
809 (840)
830 (830)
756 (780)
389 (343)
388 (343)
374 (333)
374 (333)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
Source-Memory4
To Mem.
To GPIB
165 (162)
165
163 (160)
163
165 (162)
164 (162)
163 (160)
162 (160)
133 (126)
132 (126)
131 (125)
131 (125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
Single Reading Operation Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast (488.1)
Fast (488.2)
Medium (488.2)
Normal (488.2)
Measure
To GPIB
537
256 (256)
167 (166)
49
(42)
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
Source-Measure5
To GPIB
140
79 (83)
72 (70)
34 (31)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test4,5
To GPIB
135
79 (83)
69 (70)
35 (30)
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Component for 60Hz (50Hz): 4, 6
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / external
0.10 / external
1.00 / external
Measure To GPIB
1.04 ms (1.08 ms)
2.55 ms (2.9 ms)
17.53 ms (20.9 ms)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test5, 7
To GPIB
4.82 ms (5.3 ms)
6.27 ms (7.1 ms)
21.31 ms (25.0 ms)
NOTES
Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display off,
trigger delay = 0, and binary reading format.
2 Purely resistive lead. 1µA and 10µA ranges <65ms.
3 1000 point sweep was characterized with the source on a fixed range.
1
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46
Source Pass/Fail Test
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
4
5
6
7
A
Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making m
­ easurement.
Time from falling edge of START OF TEST signal to falling edge of end of test signal.
Command processing time of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent:TRIGgered <nrf> command not included.
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 2401 specifications
Model 2401 specifications
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)1, 2, 5
Series 2400
Low Voltage SourceMeter Line
®
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Slow
NMRR
—
—
60 dB
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5 digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes selected measured
value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery ­backup (3 yr+ battery life).
SOURCE MEMORY LIST: 100 points max.
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Digital Interface: Interlock: Active low input. Note: DIO Post N/A.
Power Supply: 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up).
Model 2400, 2401: 190VA.
COOLING: Convection.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Safety: UL listed to UL 61010B-1:2003: Conforms to European Union Low Voltage Directive.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet):104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
WEIGHT: 3.21kg (7.08 lbs) (Model 2425, 2430, 2440: 4.1kg, 9.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
100 dB1
Except lowest 2 current ranges = 90dB.
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
Common mode voltage: 250V DC (40V DC for Model 2440).
Common Mode Isolation: >109W, <1000pF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V.
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 1MW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1010W.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <150µV, typical (300µV for Models 2430, 2440).
Source Output modes:
Fixed DC level
Memory List (mixed function)
Stair (linear and log)
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 2401 specifications
1
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
Model 2401 specifications
general
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
47
®
The Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter combines the voltage and current
sourcing and measurement functions of
Keithley’s popular SourceMeter and source
measurement unit (SMU) instruments
with sensitivity, noise, and input resistance
specifications superior to electrometers. This
unique combination of broad functionality and
exceptional measurement integrity is made
possible by the Model 6430’s Remote PreAmp,
which offers a very sensitive bi-directional
amplifier with sensitive feedback elements for
measuring or sourcing currents at the device
being tested. The high level signals output by
the Remote PreAmp are sent to the controlling
mainframe via a two-meter cable. This allows the
user to make a direct or very short connection to
the signal, minimizing the effects of cable noise.
• 0.4fA p-p (4E–16A) noise
(typical)
• Remote PreAmp can be located
at the signal source to minimize
cable noise
• >1016W input resistance on
voltage measurements
• High speed — up to 2000
readings/second
• Up to 6½-digit resolution
• Fast characterization
of components with
programmable digital I/O and
interfaces
The Model 6430 makes voltage, current, and
resistance measurements at speeds no electrometer can match. It can read up to 2000 source/
measure readings per second into internal memory. Currents can be measured in as little as 5ms on
the 100nA range, decreasing to just a few hundred microseconds on the higher ranges.
The Model 6430’s distinguishing features include its excellent low current sensitivity and the Remote
PreAmp, which makes this sensitivity useful by eliminating long input cables. The Remote PreAmp
is an integral part of the Model 6430’s feedback measuring system that cannot be operated independently from the measurement mainframe, although it can be separated from the mainframe by up to
two meters of connection cable carrying high level signals.
Applications
The Model 6430’s capabilities make it equally
useful for research work and for evaluating
sophisticated components in test labs for lowcurrent, high-resistance, or sensitive semiconductor m
­ easurements. The low noise and drift
performance of the Model 6430 also makes it
well suited for research studies in single electron
devices, highly resistive nanowires and nanotubes, polymers, highly resistive nanomaterials,
and electrochemical amperometry applications.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
High Speed Data Handling
The Model 6430 can read more than 2000 readings per second into its internal memory buffer.
The IEEE-488 bus output can transmit up to
75 source/measure readings per second to an
external computer controller, including pass/fail
­indication.
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48
Sub-femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
A
G R E A T E R
+100mA
+10mA
–200V
–20V
+20V
+200V
–10mA
–100mA
The Model 6430 provides four-quadrant
­sourcing of up to 2.2W, as well as measurement ­sensitivity down to sub-femtoamp and
microvolt levels. It can measure currents
from the 1pA range (with just 0.4fA p-p noise
typical) up to the 100mA range at up to 20V.
Voltage ranges from 200mV to 200V are
available. Current and voltage range settings
define the maximum source or sink voltage
or current.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
6430
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Typical applications:
A
D
Gate leakage or channel
D
I
leakage in FET-based comG
G
A
V
ponents can generate errors
+
in MOSFETs, JFETs, a­ nalog
V
switches, and many other
S
S
­circuits. By allowing researchModel 6430
Model 6430
ers to measure extremely
low-level ­currents and voltages, the Model 6430 can help
them understand the design
limitations of these components and investigate alternative device structures or materials.
G
Accessories Supplied
6430-322-1B
Low Noise Triax Cable,
3-slot triax to alligator
clips, 20cm (8 in)
8607
Safety High Voltage
Dual Test Leads
CA-176-1E
PreAmp Cable,
2m (6.6 ft)
CA-186-1B
Banana Lead to Screw
Terminal Adapter
CAP-31 3-lug Protective Cap (2)
Instruction Manual
Accessories Available
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 4m (13.1 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 0.5m (1.6 ft)
3-slot, Low Noise, 0.15m (0.5 ft) Guarded
Triax Cable
Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
Trigger Link Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
Trigger Link Adapter Box
Trigger Link DIN-to-BNC Trigger Cable
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
8501-1
8501-2
8502
8503
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
ID
Services Available
TRN-2400-1-C
Course: Unleashing the Power of Your
SourceMeter Instrument
6430-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/6430-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
+
DS
GS
SET research
The Model 6430’s superior low current measurement ability (0.4fA p-p noise typical) makes it
extremely useful for single electron transistor (SET) and quantum-dot research. Using a technique
similar to a lock-in, the 6430 can measure currents with 1aA sensitivity (10 –18A = 6 electrons/second).
The Measurement Industry’s Lowest Noise and Drift
This data illustrates the Model 6430’s impressive ­stability over a five-hour period, as well as its low
short-term noise performance. This signal trace was acquired using the instrument’s AUTOFILTER
with a 5-­second rise time on the 1pA range. The inset close-up is a snapshot of the filtered signal,
showing the Model 6430’s low noise during the first 100-second period. The data was taken in a
laboratory environment where temperature varied about 1°C, with the instrument’s IN/OUT HI and
SENSE leads capped.
2x10–15A
1 fA
1x10–15A
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
6430Sub-femtoamp
Remote SourceMeter
7007-1
7007-2
7007-4
7007-05
7078-TRX-6IN
Measuring FET Gate Leakage and Channel Currents
Semiconductor
measurements
0
–1x10–15A
–2x10–15A
0
1
2
3
4
5
Hours
1x10–15A
1 fA
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Combines broad functionality with exceptional measurement integrity
Ordering Information
0
–1x10–15A
0
10
20
30
40
50
Seconds
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60
70
80
90
100
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
49
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Condensed Measure Specifications 1
Range
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
Max. Resolution
1µV
10µV
100µV
1mV
Input 2
Resistance
>1016W
>1016W
>1016W
>1016W
Current Measurement Accuracy (2- or 4-wire sense) 4
Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + volts)
0.012% +350 µV
0.012% +350 µV
0.015% + 1.5mV
0.015% + 10 mV
Range
Voltage
Burden5
10 aA
100 aA
1 fA
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Model 6430 specifications
Max.
Resolution
Additional Measure Specifications
Output SETTLING Time (typical to 10% of final value): <2s, 1pA and 10pA ranges; <50ms,
100pA through 10nA ranges; <5ms, 100nA through 100mA ranges.
Current Noise: When observed over 1 minute intervals, peak to peak noise will be within
400aA (typical) during 90% of the intervals using Autofilter (5s 10% to 90% rise time), with triax
connectors capped, Autozero OFF, Source Delay = 0, on the 1pA range for at least 3 minutes.
% + 7 fA
% + 7 fA
% + 30 fA
% + 200 fA
% + 2 pA
% + 20 pA
% + 300 pA
% + 2 nA
% + 6 nA
% + 60 nA
% + 600 nA
% + 6 µA
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense with remote preamp)
Normal Accuracy
Max.
Default
(23°C ± 5°C)
RangeResolution
Test Current
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
<2.00000
W 6
1µW
—
20.0000
W
100µW
100mA
200.000
W
1mW
10mA
2.00000kW
10mW
1mA
20.0000kW
100mW
100µA
200.000kW1
W
10µA
2.00000MW10
W
1µA
20.0000MW100
W
1 µA
200.000MW
1kW
100 nA
2.00000GW
10kW
10 nA
20.0000GW
100kW
1 nA
200.000GW
1MW
100 pA
2.00000TW
10MW
10 pA
20.0000TW
100MW
1 pA
6
>20.0000TW — —
SMU INSTRUMENTS
1.0
0.50
0.15
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.025
0.027
0.035
0.055
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±[(0.15 × accuracy specification) +
1fA]/°C.
Input Current: <3fA at 23°C, <40% RH; typically ±0.5fA/°C around 23°C, <40% RH.
Source I Mode, Auto Ohms
Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C) 7
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Source I ACC + Measure VACC
0.098% +0.003 W
0.077% + 0.03 W
0.066% + 0.3 W
0.063%+ 3 W
0.082%+ 30 W
0.082%+ 300 W
0.085% +
1kW
0.085% + 10kW
0.085% + 100kW
0.085% +
1MW
0.205% + 10MW
0.822% + 100MW
2.06% +
1GW
Source I ACC + Measure VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source ­accuracy + V measure accuracy
(4-wire sense).
Source V Mode: Total uncertainty = V source accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense (mainframe rear panel
only). Max. Guard Output Current: 50 mA. Accuracy is load dependent. Refer to manual for
calculation formula.
Mainframe Guard Output Resistance: 0.1W in ohms mode.
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50
Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year
±(%rdg + amps)
Measure I ACC + Measure VACC
0.068% + 0.001 W
0.048% + 0.01 W
0.040% +
0.1 W
0.038% +
1 W
0.064% +
10 W
0.064% + 100 W
0.067% + 500 W
0.068% +
5 kW
0.070% +
50 kW
0.070% + 500 kW
0.185% +
5 MW
0.619% +
50 MW
1.54% + 500 MW
Measure I ACC + Measure VACC
NOTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Speed = 10 PLC, Autofilter ON, properly zeroed and settled.
Source I mode, I = 0.
Voltage measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp.
Current measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp; however, the 1pA through 100nA ranges
are available only when using a preamp.
5. 4-wire mode.
6. Manual ohms mode only.
7. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Source delay must be pro­g rammed such that the source is
fully settled for each reading.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Model 6430 specifications
Voltage Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense) 3
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Condensed System Speeds
Measurement1
NOTES
Maximum Range Change Rate: 75/second.
Single Reading operation reading rates (rdg/second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
SourceMeasure 3
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
35 (31)
Source-Measure
Pass/Fail Test 2, 3
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
34 (30)
General
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Normal
Condensed Source Specifications4
Voltage Programming Accuracy (4-wire sense) 5
Programming
RangeResolution
200.000mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5mV
Accuracy (1 Year)Noise
23°C ±5°C
(peak-peak)
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4mV
0.02% + 24mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5mV
Current Programming Accuracy (with remote preamp)
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
50 aA
500 aA
5 fA
50 fA
500 fA
5 pA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
Accuracy (1 Year) 4Noise
23°C ±5°C
(peak-peak)
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
1.0 % + 10 fA
0.50 % + 30 fA
0.15 % + 40 fA
0.050% +200 f A
0.050% + 2 pA
0.050% + 20 pA
0.050% +300 pA
0.050% + 2 nA
0.031 % + 20 nA
0.034% +200 nA
0.045 % + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
5 fA
10 fA
20 fA
50 fA
500 fA
3 pA
20 pA
200 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Max. output power: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Source/Sink Limits: ±10.5mA @ ±210V, ±105mA @ ±21V .
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 1fA.
VOLTAGE Limit: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
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NMRR
—
—
60 dB
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
90 dB
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF on the 100mA through 100µA r­ anges, 470pF on the
10µA and 1µA ranges, and 100pF on the nA and pA ranges. Refer to the User’s Manual for
details on measuring large capacitive loads.
Common mode voltage: ±42VDC maximum.
Common Mode Isolation: >10 9W, <1000pF.
Overrange: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V. (To meet
specified accuracy with 4-wire sense, refer to the User’s Manual.)
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 10 W for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT ResistANCE: 1MW.
Mainframe Guard Offset Voltage: 300µV, typical.
Preamp Guard Offset Voltage: 1mV, typical.
Preamp Guard Output Resistance: 110kW.
Source Output modes: Fixed DC level, Memory List (mixed function), Stair (linear
and log).
Source Memory List: 100 points max.
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5½ digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes
selected measured value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery backup (3 yr+ battery life).
Digital Interface:
Safety Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. +5V @ 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA sink, diode
clamped).
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Power Supply: 100V–240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up),
100VA max.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC EN 55011, EN 50082-1, EN 610003-2 and 61000-3-3, FCC part 15 class B.
Safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC EN 61010-1.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F, Class 3.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 8 3⁄8 in × 14 9⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41 ⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
Amplifier: 20mm high × 57mm wide × 97mm deep (0.783 in × 2.225 in × 3.75 in).
WEIGHT: 5.9kg (13 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–40°C, 60% R.H. (non-condensing) up to 35°C. Derate 5%
R.H./°C, 35°–40°C. Storage: –25°C to 65°C. Non-condensing humidity.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Max. Output power: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Source/SINK Limits: ±21V @ ±105mA, ±210V @ ±10.5mA.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
NOISE 10Hz–1MHz (p-p): 10mV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = None.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Programming
RangeResolution
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Model 6430 specifications
Measure
To GPIB
256 (256)
181 (166)
49 (42)
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Model 6430 specifications
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/
Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
1. Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display
off, trigger delay = 0, source auto clear off, and ­binary reading format.
2. Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
3. Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making m
­ easurement.
4. For sink mode, 1pA to 100mA range, accuracy is ±(0.15% + offset*4).
5. Voltage source accuracies are not affected by the remote preamp.
C O N F I D E N C E
51
The easy-to-use Model 4200-SCS performs laboratory grade DC I-V, C-V, and pulse device characterization, real-time plotting, and analysis with
high precision and sub-femtoamp resolution. It
is the best tool available for interactive parametric analysis and device characterization. It offers
the most advanced capabilities available in a
fully integrated characterization system, including a complete, embedded PC with Windows
operating system and mass storage. Its self-­
documenting, point-and-click interface speeds
and simplifies the process of taking data, so
users can begin analyzing their results sooner.
• Characterize devices with up to 9
source-measure units
APPLICATIONS:
Semiconductor Devices
• Ultra-fast I-V module for pulse and
pulse I-V capabilities
• Wafer level reliability
• Ultra low frequency C-V
measurement capability
• Familiar, point-and-click Windows®
environment and intuitive GUI
• Easy to use for both interactive and
automated tests
• Real-time plotting and analysis
allow users to view results before
a test has completed and to take
preemptive action as needed
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Its Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE)
is so intuitive that even a novice can use the
­system with ease. This point-and-click software
offers a full range of functionality, from managing tests, organizing results, and generating
reports to creating user libraries. Sophisticated
and simple test sequencing and external instrument drivers make it simple to perform auto­
mated testing with combined DC I-V, pulse, and
C-V ­measurements.
• Sub-femtoamp resolution
measurements with optional
preamps
• C-V instrument makes C-V
measurements as easy as DC I-V
• Embedded PC provides the
additional benefits of a networked
instrument including mapping
network drives and making test
results available to the corporate
network
• On-wafer parametric test
• Packaged device characterization
• High κ gate charge trapping
• Isothermal testing of devices
and materials subject to selfheating effects
• Charge pumping to characterize
interface state densities in
MOSFET devices
• Resistive or capacitive MEMS
drive characterization
Optoelectronic Devices
• Semiconductor laser diode
DC/CW characterization
• DC/CW characterization of
transceiver modules
• Simultaneously acquires data,
analyzes plots, and prints reports
• PIN and APD characterization
• Ideal for device character­iza­tion,
device modeling, reliability testing,
and failure analysis
Technology Development
• Includes instrument and prober
drivers as well as interfaces to
popular modeling and circuit
simulation software
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52
Semiconductor Characterization System
• Carbon nanotube
characterization
• Materials research
• Electrochemistry
A
G R E A T E R
The modular design of the Model 4200-SCS
provides you with tremendous flexibility. It supports up to nine internal source measurement
unit (SMUs) instruments and optional Remote
Pre-Amps that extend the resolution of any
SMU from 100fA to 0.1fA. Its hardware options
also include four switch matrix configurations,
meters, pulse g­ enerators, and more.
Optional instruments can be integrated into the
Model 4200-SCS, such as dual-channel pulse
generators, a dual-channel digital ­oscillo­scope,
and a C-V instrument, which is a capacitancevoltage instrument that performs capacitance
measurements from fF to nF at frequencies from
1kHz to 10MHz.
The C-V option includes the new C-V Power
package, which supports high power C-V
measurements up to 400V and 300mA, up to
60V of differential DC bias, and quasistatic C-V
­measurements.
The exceptional low current performance of the
Model 4200-SCS makes it the perfect solution
for research studies of single electron transistors (SETs), molecular electronic devices, and
other nanoelectronic devices that require I-V
characterization. The 4200-SCS can also be used
to make four-probe van der Pauw resistivity and
Hall ­voltage measurements.
For more information on the Model 4200-SCS,
see page 56.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Lab grade DC device characterization
Lab grade DC device characterization
4200-SCS
• Four instruments in one (voltage
source, voltage measure, current
source, current measure)
• 10fA, 10µV measurement
sensitivity
• 1100V source and measure
• Standard and custom sweep
capability including pulse
• 1000 source/measurements
per second
• Four quadrant source operation
• Internal 1000-reading memory
Ordering Information
237
High Voltage
Source-Measure Unit
Accessories Supplied
7078-TRX-10 3-Slot Low Noise
Triax Cables, 3m (10 ft) (2)
236-ILC-3 Interlock Cable,
3m (10 ft)
237-ALG-2 Low Noise Triax
Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
237-TRX-NG
1938
1939
7010
7007-1
7007-2
7078-TRX-3
7078-TRX-20
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488B
3-Slot Triax to 3-Lug Female Triax Connector
Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Slide Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Shielded Extender
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable, 6m (20 ft)
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter for USB Port
(requires 7010 Adapter)
Services Available
237-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/237-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
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The Model 237 Source-Measure Unit is a fully programmable instrument, capable of sourc­­­­ing and
measuring voltage or current simultaneously. This system is really four i­nstruments in one: voltage
source, c­ urrent source, voltage measure, and c­ urrent measure.
Applications
This SMU instrument addresses a wide variety of applications, including the characteri­zation of semiconductor devices and the measurement of leakage currents or insulation resistance. It can be used
standalone on a bench, in a test rack with PC control, or integrated with our Model 4200-SCS for
high voltage semicconductor characterization.
Wide Dynamic Range
The Model 237 will source voltage from 100µV to 1100V, and current from 100fA to 100mA. It can
also measure voltage from 10µV to 110V and current from 10fA to 100mA. In the higher voltage
range, current source and measure is 10mA maximum.
Source and measure voltage and current simultaneously
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit
Selectable Sweeps of Voltage and Current
The Model 237 can be programmed to perform source-measurements as a function of a stepped
voltage or current. Voltage and current can be swept linearly, logarithmically, or pulsed. The START,
STOP, STEP method of setting sweep parameters allows operators to become proficient at using the
instru­ment very quickly. Sweep para­me­­ters may be appended (APPEND key) to obtain more complex
test sequences.
Creating custom sweeps of voltage or current is
facilitated by the use of three waveform oper­
a­tions: CREATE, APPEND, and MODIFY. These
allow the user to select waveform parameters,
com­­­­­­­­bine multiple waveforms, and select and
change any points in a waveform previously crea­­
t­­­ed or appended.
Fully-Guarded Four-Terminal
­Measurements
The Model 237 outputs and inputs are fully
guard­ed, and the units are configured to allow
four-terminal measurements. Two-terminal measurements are also available for more standard test
procedures. These outputs can be floated up to
±200V from ground.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Model 237 Source Capability
±110V,
±100mA
100mA
±1100V at
±10mA
10mA
1mA
–1000V –100V –10V
–1V
1V
10V
100V
1000V
–1mA
–10mA
–100mA
O F
SMU INSTRUMENTS
Source and measure voltage and current simultaneously
237
C O N F I D E N C E
53
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit
VOLTAGE
Source V
Source
Value
Source-Delay-Measure Cycle
Default
Delay
Delay
Measure
Integration Time
Model 237 specifications
Default Delay: Fixed delay for instrument settling.
User Delay: Additional delay for device under test or system
capacitance.
MEASURE:
Integration Time
Fast
Medium
Line Cycle
416
4
16.67
20.00
µs
ms
ms (60 Hz)
ms (50 Hz)
4-digit resolution
5-digit resolution
5-digit resolution
EXECUTION SPEED
MINIMUM SOURCE-DELAY-MEASURE CYCLE TIME: 1ms.
RESPONSE TO IEEE-488 COMMAND (as a source): 25ms.
MEASUREMENT RATE: 1ms per point into internal buffer.
CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT SPEED (source DC value over
IEEE-488 bus): 110 readings per second.
TRIGGER LATENCY TIME: <2ms.
SMU INSTRUMENTS
GENERAL
LOAD CAPACITANCE: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
REMOTE SENSE: Corrects for up to 2V drop in each output lead. Maximum
1kW per sense lead for rated accuracy. Residual output resistance (as a voltage source) is 0.5W.
GUARD:Output Resistance: ≤12kW.
Maximum Output Current: ±2mA.
Offset Relative to Output HI: ±2mV max.
ISOLATION (Output LO to chassis): Typically >1010W in parallel with 500pF.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200V.
CONNECTORS: Outputs: 3-lug triax.
Trigger Input/Output: BNC.
Interlock: 3-pin miniature DIN.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.1 × applicable
accuracy specification)/°C.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% relative humidity up to 35°C. Linearly derate 3%
R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (meets
EN61010-1/IEC 1010).
WARM-UP: One hour to rated accuracy.
COOLING: Internal fan forced air cooling.
POWER: 105–125 or 210–250V AC (external switch selectable), 90–110V and
180–220V version available. 100VA max.
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 89mm high × 435mm wide × 448mm deep (3½ in ×
171⁄8 in × 175⁄8 in). Net weight 9kg (19.75 lb).
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54
Range
(Max.
Value)
±1.1000 V
±11.000 V
±110.00 V
±1100.0 V
Measure V
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.033% +650 µV)
±(0.033% + 2.4mV)
±(0.033% + 24mV)
±(0.04  % +240mV)
Step Size
100µV
1mV
10mV
100mV
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.028% +300 µV)
±(0.025% + 1mV)
±(0.025% + 10mV)
±(0.035% +100mV)
Resolution
4-Digit 5-Digit
100µV 10µV
1mV 100µV
10mV 1mV
100mV 10mV
COMPLIANCE: Bipolar current limit set with single value.
Maximum: ±100mA (except ±10mA on 1100V range).
Minimum: ±1% of range, except 0.5% of 1.1V range.
Accuracy, Step Size: Same as current source.
NOISE (p-p):
Range
110 V – 1100 V
11 V
1.1 V
0.1–10Hz
< 3 ppm of range
< 3 ppm of range
<10 ppm of range
DC–20MHz
40 mV
15 mV
15 mV
WIDEBAND NOISE: 0.1 to 20MHz, 8mV p-p typical.
OVERSHOOT: <0.01% (110V step, 10mA range).
SETTLING TIME: <500µs to 0.01% (110V step, 10mA range).
NMRR: >60dB at 50 or 60Hz (LINE CYCLE integration time s­ elected).
CMRR: >120dB at DC, 50 or 60Hz (LINE CYCLE integration time selected).
INPUT IMPEDANCE (as a voltmeter): >1014W paralleled by <20pF.
CURRENT
Source I
Range
(Max.
Value)
±1.0000 nA
±10.000 nA
±100.00 nA
±1.0000 µA
±10.000 µA
±100.00 µA
±1.0000 mA
±10.000 mA
±100.00 mA
Step
Size
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
Measure I
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.3 % + 450 fA)
±(0.3 % + 2 pA)
±(0.21% + 20 pA)
±(0.05% + 200 pA)
±(0.05% + 2 nA)
±(0.05% + 20 nA)
±(0.05% + 200 nA)
±(0.05% + 2 µA)
±(0.1 % + 20 µA)
Resolution
4-Digit
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
5-Digit
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.3 % + 100 fA)1
±(0.3 % + 1 pA)
±(0.21 % + 6 pA)
±(0.04 % + 60 pA)
±(0.035% + 700 pA)
±(0.035% + 6 nA)
±(0.035% + 60 nA)
±(0.038% + 600 nA)
±(0.1 % + 6 µA)
COMPLIANCE: Bipolar voltage limit set with single value.
Maximum: ±1100V (except on 100mA range).
Minimum: ±0.1% of selected current range.
Accuracy, Step Size: Same as voltage source.
NOISE (p-p of range): 0.1–10Hz: <3ppm (<20ppm on 1nA and 10nA ranges).
OVERSHOOT: <0.01% typical (10mA step, R L = 10kW).
SETTLING TIME: <500µs to 0.01% (10mA step, R L = 10kW).
OUTPUT R, C: >1014W paralleled by <20pF (on 1nA range).
NOTES
1. Offset specification applies for 23°C ±1°C with suppression. Temperature coefficient 50fA/°C.
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Model 237 specifications
SOURCE-DELAY-MEASURE CYCLE:
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