Broadcast - American Radio History
An INTERTEC/PRIMEDIAPublication
www.broadcastengineering.com
Broadcast
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May 2000
Volume 42
Number 5
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE JOURNAL OF OLG /TAL TELEVISION
www.broadcastengineering.com
Features
64 Evaluating video servers
By Al Kovalick
Video server technology has matured enough to be an integral part
of any broadcast facility.
70 DTV translators: Ensuring
coverage
By Charles Einolf
On- channel boosters for DTV help broadcasters replicate their
NTSC coverage.
76 Wire and connectors
By Dale Reed
Working with high- bandwidth signals means rethinking your wiring
and connectors.
82 HD Production: HD storage servers
By Chris Romine
Uncompressed HD storage is a viable alternative for your facility.
Beyond the Headlines
NEWS
16
18
22
24
NAB 2000
ATSC to revisit 8VSB
Mega- ownership
FCC vs. cable
FCC UPDATE
26
"Class A" TV service established
EXPERT'S CORNER/VENDOR VIEWS
28
In
praise of co- location
Digital Handbook
TRANSITION TO DIGITAL
32
AES /EBU digital audio signals
COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
38
ATM networks for video
ASK DR. DIGITAL
46
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Systems Design & Integration
SYSTEMS DESIGN SHOWCASE
48
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WFLA -TV
TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
58
Even more on lightning protection
PRODUCTION CLIPS
48
62
Shooting for widescreen
New Products & Reviews
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY
90
94
98
Aphex Thermionics: Model 100 mic preamp
Grass Valley Group's Profile XP Media Platform
Digital interoperability in post production
1
FIELD REPORT
102
Vibrint NewsEdit: The right product for 7NBC in Boston
TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSITION
106
Format conversion for DTV
NEW PRODUCTS
112
Accom's Affinity, plus other new products
BUSINESS WIRE
132
Business highlights from broadcast and production
Departments
10
12
ON THE COVER: WFLA's new master control room is equipped with a
152
157
158
Editorial
Reader Feedback
Classifieds
Advertisers' index
EOM
Grass Valley Group M2100 master
control switcher and Ike garni and
Sony monitors. Photo courtesy of
Grass Valley Group.
FREEZE FRAME
WEBSITE DIRECTORY
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Feature Articles
Reader Resources
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Article archives
Departments
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Reviews
Classifieds /Jobs
Contact the Editors
Questions? Contact:
Jim Saladin
jim Saladin @intertec.com
913/967 -1905 fax
Marketing/
Advertising
ó
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
A look at the technology that shaped this industry.
We've come a long way
In the 25th anniversary issue of
Broadcast Engineering, we reviewed
some milestone technology from the
broadcast industry. One of those
technologies is shown here. Name
the device shown and year it was
first demonstrated. Correct entries
received by June 30 will be eligible
for one of the new Broadcast
Engineering t- shirts. Send your entry
to brad dick @intertec.com.
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/(ARR/5
Too scared to move
you a risk taker? Do you embrace new technology and new ideas? Or are you guilty of
dragging your feet? Have you ever dismissed someone's suggestion to install or buy new
equipment simply because it was unfamiliar?
It's interesting that engineers, who typically love new technology, are often roadblocks to a new
technology's implementation. I've even heard broadcasters described as deer caught in the
headlights of new technology, too scared to move.
I cone from the "old school," where a person, at least
a technical guy like me, could fix about everything he
owned. I was brought up believing that there wasn't
much I couldn't piaster, from two -cycle engines to fourbarrel carburetors, from my first five -transistor radio to
my first PC.
Back then, technology moved in years, not months. When
making the shift from tubes to solid -state, I had a couple of
years to adjust. As we moved from transistors to ICs, the
learning curve got steeper. Once everyday technology
moved from ICs to PCs, the educational pace shifted to
warp speed. Engineers are now faced with implementing
and managing technology that is not only new, but may be
so far ahead of the curve that common standards for its use
Are
don't exist.
It's no wonder some are hesitant to adopt new ideas
when there's no record of success, no worn path to offer
comfort and no record to rely upon.
Because the rate of change is so rapidly accelerating,
holding hack, waiting for clearer direction or not taking
chances are no longer options. While making the wrong choice is a risk, choosing not to decide
more perilous.
remember working under a much older and wiser chief named Les. He was a great guy, but to say
he was "old fashioned" is an understatement. He once had to be forced by the GM to install new direct drive turntables in the FM studio. He was convinced the new digital models wouldn't last a month.
In fact, he was so sure that he went to great lengths to preserve the tried -and -true equipment. He
carefully removed the old 16 -inch Gates models, oiled the hearings to prevent rust, and then wrapped
the turntable arms in pape and carefully stored the equipment. He just knew the station would return
to this older, but more reliable, technology. Do you think the station ever went back to the old ways?
Our industry's future is with the new, not the old. As engineering managers, we shouldn't be
frightened of new ideas, but excited by them. We should be grabbing every new idea and examining
it with the zeal of a kid discovering a new hug or coin in the dirt.
So, next time someone claims broadcasters are like deer caught in the headlights, remind them
that when it comes to delivering entertainment, we invented the business. This 60- year-old industry
isn't going to let any upstart dotcom take anything from us.
is even
I
Brad Dick, editor
Send comments to:
direct: brad_dick @intertec.com
website: www.broadcastengineering.com
10
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
Solving the Digital Puzzle
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Reader Fee
or incomplete PSIP tables please let us
know.
I look forward to hearing how we all
could work together to expedite the
deployment of ATSC HDTV.
New age of editors
I liked the article and agreed with most
of it, except the statements about the new
editors of today not lacking depth and
background. I have been in broadcasting for over a decade now, and I started
out like a lot of editors and shooters
today with a hundred pounds of gear
strapped to my hack. There was 10
times that sitting on the desk of the edit
bay back at the station. A good friend
Broadcast
NG/NEE
JOHN B. CASEY
VICE PRESIDENT OF TECHNOLOGY
HAUPPAUGE COMPUTER WORKS
1
MPEG encoding techniques
Bac k up power systems
taught me everything I know about
shooting and editing, and I don't regret
the days of sweating in 100 degree heat
or the days of spending an extra hour in
The Super Bowl in ND
er friendly. Utah presents some unique
the edit bay because I assembled instead
of inserted. I am happy to have had the
background
1
have.
don't think the editors of today are
bad by any means. I just think they
wouldn't be in any worse shape from a
little wear and tear on the road. We are
in a very metamorphic era where video
and audio production is concerned.
I don't know what will happen in the
I
future, I just hope that as I become a
fossil in the broadcast desert I won't be
looked upon for my years of training as
the follow- the -rules guy. Rules were made
to be broken and bent. It doesn't hurt to
be on the wild side every now and then.
It's just wise to know when to do it.
on and create a better balance.
At any rate, you are a breath of fresh
air in this industry. Thanks.
CATHY Ross
ADVERTISING MANAGER
AUFOPATCH
Broadcasters need a
working PSIP
Dear Phil:
just finished your editorial "Mouse
potatoes." It made me laugh out loud.
Thanks to the Internet/chat rooms we
also have new slang to draw from. The
thing I hate the worst about my computer is when it tells me I am not authorized
to do ... whatever. Give me a break!
Maybe things will change (I'm the
eternal optimist). As studies are showing, our kids are getting smarter ... but
markedly less healthy. The reason, I
presume, is exactly what you pointed
out, too much Internet surfing not enough
real surfing. Perhaps society will catch
I read your article on PSIP in the
February 2000 issue of Broadcast Engineering. I am the vice president of technology at Hauppauge Computer Works.
We build TV add -in cards for personal
computers. Our first low -cost ATSC
digital receiver, called WinTV-D, was
introduced last October for $299. This
hoard will receive an ATSC HDTV
broadcast in any of the 18 formats, and
downscale it to 480 lines. The resulting
signal is displayed in a window on
your PC monitor and output as S Video
or composite out the back of our card.
Hauppauge is working on additional
members of this product family that will
support full native resolution display.
We would welcome the opportunity
to work with broadcasters and equipment manufacturers to make our receiver more robust. If you have any
thoughts on how we can make our
receivers more compliant or better behaved in the face of partial, damaged
12
May 2000
JEFF
MCDANIEL,
L.S.M.
STUDIOS
CORINTH, MS
Mouse potatoes
I
Broadcast Engineering
Phil Titus responds:
I welcome John's request for a cooperative effort and applaud Hauppagge
for seeking new avenues to make their
products more bulletproof and consumgeographical challenges to receiving
any signal and is an excellent testing
ground for some of the problems that
face digital television today. I have
spoken to my colleagues at DTV Utah
about John's ideas and we are all excited about using our DTV facilities to
help in testing any new products or
upgrades they might have. The more
we work together to solve these kinds of
problems, the more we benefit. After
all, the sooner John (or anyone else) has
a product that consumers can live with,
the sooner I start seeing a return on my
DTV investment.
Freezeframe winners
The February Frcezetrame displayed
the cover from December 1985, which
shows the use of a laser to create the
grid for a new power tube. This process is also done today by precision
sand blasting. The following BE readers submitted the correct answer and
will receive the new BE T- shirt.
Chris Whittington
NBC News
Washington, D.C.
Gil Houston
CE, KNVN -TV
Chico, CA
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News
NAB2000
BY LARRY BLOOMFIELD
NAB2000 was the biggest of the
Association's conventions to date,
touting turnout of over 113,000. Along
with the latest solutions from the exhibitors, there appeared, at times, to
be an undeclared "biggest booth" contest. The Sands had significantly more
exhibits than last year with both floors
brimming with exhibitors. Most of the
new "dotcoms" vied for attention at
the Sands, along with the other digital
companies providing the answers to
broadcasting's problems.
Streaming video made an appearance at a multitude of booths. Any
number of exhibitors touted the quality of the Mb /s stream and suggested that the viewing audience would
watch their favorite shows on computer monitors. Any television station could feed its programming
over the Internet for anyone to see
simple theory indeed, but much
more difficult in practice. While the
quality of streaming video leaves
1
-a
much to be desired, look for developments allowing better video quality. For example, in a joint venture,
TeraLogic Inc. and
2netFX.com have developed a tech3Com,
Look for developments allowing
better video quality.
nology for transmitting a 20Mb /s
HD stream over a switched IP data
network. This group claims to be
the first to deliver HD streaming
over IP networks using the same
digital TV standard adopted by
broadcasters and the standard Real time Transport Protocol embraced
in the Internet world.
Standouts
The emphasis this year was certainly on digital. Almost every one of the
major manufacturers had something
FRAME GRAB
A look at the issues driving today's technology.
Video streaming getting hotter
Percentage of facilities doing webstreaming as a professional
video application.
TV-Video
Post
Production
-73cz
L
Production/
Film Production
Web Video
10
20
30
40
Percent
Facility Percentage
SOURCE: SC RI International wwwscrl.com
16
Broadcast Engineering
new to show. Many offered refinements
to already established equipment lines.
There were some notable developments in antennas. TCI had a new
broadband pylon antenna that performs much like a
flat panel device but
is capable of higher
May 2000
power.
3DV offered its refinements to the art
of keying. Instead of needing blue or
green walls to key on, it has improved
infrared technology to act like precise
radar. It is capable of keying on any
distance from the ring device on the
lens of the camera. One of its demonstrations included the pitchman and an
audience member interlocking hands
while standing a few feet apart. A
cartoon graphic was then keyed to
come over their shoulder and down
through the area between the connecting arms.
Ross Video has developed a digital
video switcher frame that will accept
Grass Valley Group 100 /110 control
panels. This updates these older, but
familiar, switcher panels to include
digital capabilities. Not only does this
frame provide digital switching, but it
also allows the GVG more capability.
Grass Valley Group made a splash
simply by exhibiting its product line.
This is the first time GVG has been at
NAB in over 20 years as a stand -alone
company.
Leitch had two impressive devices on
display. One was its bidirectional, any thing-in, anything -out frame synchronizer, which seamlessly interfaces both
video and audio between digital and
analog and prevents lip -sync problems. The other was the bidirectional
capability of the I/Os on its servers.
Anyone who has been to NAB knows
that the LVCC is a cavernous steel and
concrete edifice. Indoor reception tests
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allow COFDM modulation. Sinclair
represented the owners of about 300
television stations. Mark Hyman, vice
president of corporate relations said,
"Only a year ago, many people
thought we were the crazy aunt in the
basement, but it is becoming more
evident that we've been right all along."
Graves acknowledged Sinclair's technical objection to the problems with
multipath issues. "The problems created by multipath signals are more
complex than people imagined when
the system was first designed," he
said. Graves acknowledged it was not
possible to re- create field conditions
in the lab.
Sinclair has maintained that 8VSB is
unacceptable for indoor and mobile
reception. Despite the FCC's rejection
of Sinclair's petition, the issue remains alive.
Recriminations continue
With all this backpedaling, could it
be that some have had a technological
epiphany? Other industry players have
raised serious doubts about 8VSB's
prospects as well. As the Sinclair petition was being denied, NBC was in the
process of raising similar concerns
over 8VSB.
The ranks of 8VSB supporters seem
to be diminishing and that concerns
many 8VSB proponents. "Sinclair
should stop pointing fingers and start
getting on the air with digital programs," said David Arland, government relations manager with Thomson Consumer Electronics.
Matt Miller of NxtWave says Sin clair's charges are based on "erroneous and outdated information." Miller said, "I agree it's difficult to envision solutions. That's the definition of
a patent. Patents are supposed to be
non -obvious to experts in the field." It
should be noted NxtWave has two
less than the span predicted by
NBC.
Maximum Service Television
(MSTV), despite a board of directors
that nearly ignored its own technical
findings, and the NAB have expressed
concerns about the performance of 8VSB
receivers. The NAB has avoided a fight
between Sinclair's small station group
allies and larger station groups backing 8VSB. The organization declined
comment until the FCC ruled. In a
politically expedient move, it has called
for tougher receiver standards to be
imposed on equipment makers.
The MSTV board went so far as to
reverse its earlier position, disregard-
ing the technical findings it had commissioned. The Board was troubled by
the conclusions reached by a University of Massachusetts report done by
Dennis Goeckel, whose comparison of
8VSB and COFDM performance was a
component of a larger study presented
to the group's board members. The
study criticized the methods used by
NxtWave and Motorola to improve
8VSB receivers' problems in dealing
with dynamic multipath signals.
The FCC backpedals
to 8VSB problems will reach the market in two years or less, significantly
When the FCC rejected Sinclair's
petition back in February, it said that
within 30 days it would "commence
its biennial review of the DTV transition and, as a part of that proceeding,
would encourage parties to comment
on concerns regarding the 8VSB standard." Many insiders feel this is the
FCC's attempt to say Sinclair was
bringing too much political baggage
to the table while trying to save face
on the whole issue.
Further support for a review has
been mounting steadily. A thorough
Brazilian evaluation concluded that
8VSB was seriously deficient when
compared to COFDM.
In early March, ATSC member Bob
Utne said, "We are in an evolutionary
mode of 8VSB with real solutions to
potential problems available today.
Zenith has developed a DTV receiver,
which, according to Zenith, eliminates ghosting due to multipath."
Charlie Rhodes, from the ATTC,
proposed a new antenna with crossed
dipoles that has an inexpensive multiplier between them. The multiplier is
controlled by some indication of minimum adaptive -equalizer tap energy
20
May 2000
related patents under its belt and a
half dozen more under review.
NBC conducted its own test of 8VSB
reception in December and found problems with both indoor and outdoor
operation. The network predicted it
would be five years before 8VSB reception would be adequate to handle
multipath issues.
According to NxtWave, its patches
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
coming from the set. Utne said the
units are inexpensive, dynamically
changing, optimized automatically for
each receiver and allow a broad (90degree) reception pattern. It also requires a minimum -tap- energy indicator from the DTV receiver.
Utne concluded by saying, "Sinclair
brings to light potential problems. We
have real solutions readily available."
However, within days Utne resigned.
On March 8, he issued the following
predicted it would
be five years before
8VSB reception would
be adequate to handle
NBC
multipath issues.
statement, "I have resigned from the
ATSC after coming to the conclusion
that vested interests preclude a meaningful examination of the deficiencies
of 8VSB and have halted any attempt
to add COFDM to the ATSC terrestrial- delivery standard." The ATSC would
not comment on Ume's resignation.
Even survey results are being questioned. A TWICE Survey asked,
"Should the Advanced Television Standard Committee amend the Digital
Television standard to include both
the 8VSB modulation scheme and the
COFDM scheme that is being championed by Sinclair Broadcasting ?"
With a total of 331 respondents, over
half, 51 percent, voted yes and the
remaining 49 percent voted no. Not
surprisingly, there are those who have
questioned this survey and the possibility of the ballot box being stuffed.
Canada looks at DTV
The Canadian Research Center (CRC)
conducted tests in Ottawa on the use
of ATSC with set -top- receive antennas
and confirmed the failings of 8VSB in
portable reception. The tests were carried out on UHF channels 65 (NTSC,
740kW peak) and 67 (DTV 36kW
average). The transmitters were fed
into a common antenna. A commercial program source was broadcast on
the NTSC channel.
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The Canadians used a 30 -foot antenwith reception being verified on two
DTV receivers. The consumer elecna
town areas where multipath problems
abound, the NTSC was a grade 2 to
2.5. The DTV signal failed completely
"The problems created by multipath
signals are more complex than people
imagined when the system was first
designed,"
ATSC Chairman Robert
Mega- ownership
Under pressure from both the net-
works and group owners, the FCC
is again looking at ownership, including restrictions against one company
owning a broadcast station(s) and a
daily newspaper(s) in the same market.
It is also reprising the old Red and Blue
network scenario, which forced NBC's
break up and brought about the ban on
one entity owning two networks.
Two items of note include the acquisition by Viacom of Chris -Craft's stake
in UPN for $5 million and the acquisition by Chicago Tribune Newspaper
Empire of the nearly as large Times Mirror organization. These two business deals could have long-lasting re-
The indoor
tests were per-
formed with
two antennas.
One was an
active device
with 30dB of
amplifier
Graves said.
tronics industry avoided supplying receivers with the "super chips," so the
tests were done with receivers that
work within the 4dB/20 microsecond
window for multipath and at expected
S/N ratios. The receivers used were
representative so that little change
would be found in newer versions.
The outdoor tests were in the clear.
When the NTSC signal was a grade 4,
the DTV worked with good margins. In
outdoor sites where NTSC was a grade
2.5, the DTV signal proved to be unstable due to dynamic multipath. When
the NTSC was grade 3.5, the DTV
worked at an acceptable level. In down-
under these circumstances.
gain. The other was a small
antenna with
a
log- periodic
front-to -hack ratio of
approximately 5- 7.5dB. It was found
that both had to be near a window
with line -of -sight to the transmitter
and precisely oriented or DTV reception was impossible. When the NTSC
signal grade was 4 to 5, the DTV
reception was good. When the NTSC
signal dropped to a grade 3, however,
the DTV signal was unstable. Below
that, it failed completely. Most indoor
antennas were reported to produce a
grade 2.5 or 3 signal. There was, of
course, the usual pointing requirement and DTV reception was found to
be sensitive to this.
television networks for the first time.
Viacom says it would acquire full
control of the UPN television network
by buying out Chris -Craft Industries'
Viacom, CBS and UPN
Viacom and CRS are in the process
of developing a working relationship.
When complete, the net result will be
one company owning two broadcast
50 percent interest in UPN.
The major stumbling block to this
latest acquisition of UPN by the owners
of CBS is winning approval from the
FCC, which has rules prohibiting the
ownership of two networks. The executives at Viacom, CBS and UPN seem
to think they can win some concession
from the FCC that would allow the
company to own both CBS and UPN.
Viacom believes it can win the necessary concessions from the FCC because of UPN's support for minority
programming, and because Viacom's
continued support for the network
guarantees its survival.
Viacom's Sumner Redstone said he
was hopeful about the prospects of
closing the deal with CBS without
having to divest UPN or spin off any
of its syndicated shows. Redstone said,
"If we keep it, it will succeed."
22
May 2000
percussions in the broadcast industry.
Broadcast Engineering
The Canadian tests proved clearly
that 8VSB does not provide coverage
(reception) equivalent to NTSC at the
power levels used, and it is obvious
that signal strength is not the cause.
Of the 25 sites chosen in the first round
of tests, most gave usable NTSC reception but only 50 percent provided
usable 8VSB reception.
An
alternative viewpoint
Recent developments have taken the
Consumer Electronics Association
(CEA) by surprise. According to CEA
President Gary Shapiro, the "decision
to launch [a[ task force to study DTV
technology is the result of `business
model change' by broadcasters." Shapiro downplayed the impact on the
receiver business. "Broadcasters simply must decide what is their business
model and what is the best standard to
meet that need," he said. "They have
switched from high definition to multiplexing and now to data."
Despite the apparent CEA push for
8VSB, a recent poll conducted primarily
among electronics retailers, distributors
and manufacturers found slightly more
than half of those responding favored
adding COFDM to U.S. DTV.
Tribune -Times Mirror
The (Chicago) Tribune Co. recently
announced the buyout of the (Los
Angeles) Times -Mirror Co. The FCC
forbids cross- ownership of VHF stations and newspapers in the same
market, and Tribune owns KTLA -5,
the WB affiliate in Los Angeles. The
Los Angeles Times is the city's only
metropolitan daily newspaper.
If the FCC didn't have its prohibition, this move would put the L.A.
Times back into the television business. Los Angeles' only daily major
newspaper once owned KTLA's fierce
competitor, KTTV, Channel 11 when
it signed on the air hack in 1949.
The L.A. Times is the third largest
paper in the U.S., second only to the
New York Times and USA Today. The
Times -Mirror Co. owns papers in other major metro areas. This merger
will result in the third largest "national" group owner.
The deal will create a coast -to -coast
media empire encompassing the Los
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Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, New
York's Newsday, The Sun of Baltimore, 22 TV stations, Internet news
sites, and magazines such as Popular
Science, Golf and Field & Stream.
The New York Times and The Wall
Street Journal also face cross ownership issues, as has the San Francisco
Chronicle until recently, but they've
been in place for the last 25 years or
more. However, the Tribune's takeover of other newspaper chains is part
of a major push to get the ban lifted in
these times of consolidation.
This ban was first put in place by the
"Wiley FCC" back in 1974, despite
the fact that stations that are owned by
newspapers have done more local news
and public service than have standalone stations in the same markets.
Support to keep the ban in place comes
from politicians of both parties from
the smaller states.
There is, of course, the possibility
that the FCC may grant a waiver to
permit this cross -ownership. A cross ownership currently exists in New
York City between WNYW and the
New York Post.
The companies are asking for a two year period to sort things out and
come into compliance. For Viacom
and CBS, ownership of two networks
is not the only issue that faces this
merger. It would appear this union
would violate the "reaching more than
35 percent of the U.S. households" rule.
That threshold could be cause for divestiture by the would -be alliance. "We
will continue to fight very hard for
The FCC vs. cable
The first issue is how to label DTV
receivers with different features, including the proper designation for
receivers providing two -way interactive capability; the second is licensing
terms for copy protection technology.
The FCC will "reluctantly" apply its
legal force to unresolved labeling and
Depending on whose figures you
use, between 65 percent and 80
percent of American households are
connected to some form of copper or
fiber for television service. While consumers may own their cable set -top
boxes, many may find their STBs will
relief from the caps because they just
don't make any sense in the world in
which we live today," Redstone said.
The group owners and the other
The FCC
The cable industry has given much
verbal and now actual resistance to
the carriage of local digital television
stations. The FCC's Daily Digest lists
reports of local television stations and
cable companies wrangling over mustcarry issues.
FCC Chairman William Kennard
raised four points in January about the
need for the cable industry to develop
common standards. Despite the pronouncements of consensus, many crucial issues remain unresolved.
The cable industry has until July 1 to
meet the FCC's deadline. With little
progress being made, the FCC is initiating a resolution to the compatibility
issues between cable television providers and DTV receivers, STBs and
consumer equipment.
In a recently issued Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPR), the Commission asks for comments on two
unresolved cable compatibility issues.
apply its legal force by
Broadcast Engineering
initiating the rulemaking
proceeding.
copy protection issues by initiating
the rulemaking proceeding. Further
delay on these issues could derail the
transition to DTV, the FCC has stated.
However, the Commission would allow the cable and consumer electronic
industries to save face by reaching an
agreement before it takes action.
On the set -labeling issue, the Commission wants to know how digital
television receivers with different capabilities can operate within different
digital cable television systems. There
is a good chance that the modulation
technologies adopted may not be the
same. The FCC believes it is important to draw distinction between re-
May 2000
ceivers that are equipped with circuitry for interactivity and those that are
not. The FCC also wants to know if
cable operators should be required to
"offer supplemental equipment to subscribers to enable them to use special
features of their digital TV receivers."
The legacy issues of providing adapters for older NTSC set viewers
who wish to connect to an all digital cable system must be
resolved as well.
On the copy protection issue,
the Commission asked for comment on appropriate regulatory
action, if any, with respect to
copy protection technology licensing. The Commission said
it was focusing on hardware and com-
will "reluctantly"
not work in another cable system
because of incompatible standards.
24
networks have also been on the battlefield attempting to change the caps;
but there is a strong lobby on the part
of locally owned stations to stop any
increase, fearing they would be hand -.
icapped in programming negotiations.
The FCC also is looking at the restriction on ownership of broadcast
stations and newspapers in the same
market but believes its rules still serve
an important function in ensuring consumers have different informational
outlets.
The FCC is waiting to see the impact
of last year's action permitting one
company to own more than one local
TV station in the same market. The
FCC has also eased the prohibition of
ownership with respect to the ownership of both radio and TV stations in
the same market.
patibility standards generally, and
asked for comment on the hardware
implications of copy protection. The
Commission is also seeking input licensing terms of the technology that is
part of the new services digital television brings with it.
Always mindful of those with disabilities, the Commission has asked
for comments in these areas as well.
"I strongly support this Notice of
Proposed Rulemaking," Kennard said,
"addressing these issues that have to
be resolved as part of the conversion
to digital technology that is changing
the television industry."
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FCC U
date
"Class A" TV service established
BY HARRY MARTIN
Tw FCC
has adopted rules making
A"
status available to qualifying LPTV stations. Class A licensees will, in most respects, have "primary" status as television broadcasters. Such status will protect them from
encroachment by both NTSC and DTV
-c lass
stations.
Class A licenses will be subject to the
same license terms and renewal stan-
dards as full -power television licenses
and will be accorded primary interference protection as long as they continue to meet eligibility requirements.
To he eligible, an LPTV station must
broadcast a minimum of 18 hours per
day, including an average of at least
three hours per week of locally pro-
duced programming. Additionally,
from the date it applies for a Class A
license, the station must be in compliance with the Commission's operating
rules for full -power television stations.
Alternatively, LPTV stations may qualify for Class A status if the Commission determines that the "public interest, convenience and necessity" would
be served thereby. The rules adopted
provide for limited circumstances in
which a station may qualify for Class
A status under this criterion.
LPTV licensees intending to seek
Class A designation were required to
complete a certificate of eligibility
and return it to the Commission by
Dateline
Independent stations in
markets 1 -30 and all other
commercial stations must
construct DTV facilities by
May 1, 2002. (Affiliates of
ABC, CBS, NBC and Fox in
the top 30 markets should
have completed construction by Nov. 1, 1999.) Noncommercial stations must
complete DTV construction
by May
26
1,
2003.
Broadcast Engineering
.jan. 28, 2000. The new rules preserve
the service areas of LPTV licenses
from the date the Commission received such an application of eligibility, as long as the Commission ultimately approves the certification.
Class A stations are required to protect existing analog stations and the
facilities proposed in full -power analog applications that have completed
all processing short of grant and for
which the identify of the applicant is
known. Class A stations must also
protect the ability of DTV stations to
replicate the service areas of their
analog stations and to maximize their
digital service areas within the con ,traints established by the statute.
New DTV rules proposed
The FCC has initiated the first in
series
will
a
of biennial rulemakings that
seek to fine tune DTV. The FCC
full replication of NTSC contours and "principal
community" coverage of DTV stations' cities of license. In addition, it
has proposed a process for early selection by DTV stations of post- transition "core" channels and a method for
choosing among conflicting applications for modification of DTV and
NTSC facilities.
Full replication. In adopting the
initial DTV table of allotments, the
FCC attempted to assign DTV channels to existing NTSC television stations in a way that would replicate or
match each station's existing NTSC
Grade B contour. The FCC now is
concerned about loss of coverage because some NTSC stations have proposed to locate their DTV facilities at
a substantial distance from their NTSC
facilities and communities of license.
The FCC asks for comment on whether to require replication and if so
when, how to measure replication,
and what the consequences should be
for stations which do not replicate
their NTSC contours.
has proposed requiring
May 2000
Principal community coverage. The
FCC proposes a DTV station's community of license be served by a stronger
signal than is required for the greater
DTV service contour. It suggests basing
DTV standards on field strength values
that correspond to the current NTSC
principal community signal requirements. The FCC has tentatively proposed DTV stations paired with NTSC
stations meet the new requirement by
May 1, 2004.
Post-transition channel election. The
FCC previously decided DTV service
after the DTV transition should be
limited to the "core" channels 2 -51. It
tentatively concludes that a process
should be set up to ensure early election
by DTV stations of the channel they
will use after the transition, suggesting
a deadline for election of May 1, 2004.
This will allow time for stations converting to "core" channels to make
construction plans. It asks whether it
should select a final, long -term channel
for each station. Another question is
whether stations with an "out -of- core"
DTV channel should be required to use
their "in- core" NTSC channel. The
FCC: is also considering what restrictions to apply to channel election and
use; for instance, whether to avoid
other uses of channels 3 and 4 in order
to benefit cable box users or to give first
priority for relinquished channels to
certain categories of DTV stations.
Choosing among conflicting applications. The FCC also invites comment
on whether to establish DTV application "cut -off" procedures and how to
choose among applications to implement initial DTV allotments. It seeks
input on how to prioritize between
DTV area -expansion applications and
NTSC applications and rulemaking
petitions.
C. Martin is an attorney with Fletcher,
Heald C, Hildretb PLC, Arlington, VA.
Harry
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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Ex
ert'sCornerNendorViews
In praise of co- location
BY JIM SALADIN, SENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR
salient figure was tossed out at
an NAB press conference: There
are likely to be more than 600 orders
for new towers as the broadcast industry continues its DTV march. Last
year the industry put up 15 tall (1000 foot and above) towers, a number that
will increase to about two dozen this
year. Assuming, conservatively, that
only half of the necessary towers fall
into the "tall" category, we're still
looking at more than 12 years before
all orders can be filled.
It's time to start looking at alternatives. Co- location, whether that means
building a new community tower or
leasing some space on an existing one,
has consistently offered the best engi-
neering and bottom -line solutions. This
month we turn to two experts who
know exactly what those solutions
are: Don Doty from SpectraSite and
Phil Titus from the DTV Utah project
in Salt Lake City. What are the benefits of co- location?
are many
advantages in
purchase or lease the necessary broadcast equipment on your own, or lease
it directly at favorable rates. The
leases for equipment and/or space will
be long -term agreements tailored to
your individual requirements.
The company maintains an on -site
manager whose responsibility is to
direct the business activities of the
company, deal with tenant problems
and handle routine facility operations
on a daily basis. The manager also
processes inquiries regarding rentals
and directs the services of sub- contractors. This manager is a facilitator and
an arbitrator whose function is to resolve differences or tenant disputes in
the most equitable manner possible.
An advisory committee composed
of representatives from all of the
tenant broadcasters generally sets a
policy as to the broadcast operations and other operating functions
of the complex. The final arbiter is
the site manager who is the representative of the tower company.
SpectraSite maintains the tower, all
common items and equipment. Local
contractors do the electrical work.
The fee for this work is budgeted in the
operation costs of the complex and
pro -rated to the tenants.
than the basic STL installation, they
may have additional installations
at additional rental.
Arrangements with the local tele-
This
There
having a single
tower for each
metropolitan
area, including
VENDOR
Don Doty,
SpectraSite
having all receiving antennas point
to a specific geographic location.
By having one
tower there are
fewer complica-
tions with flight paths and air navigation. In addition to the FCC, which
encourages community tower sites,
local communities usually prefer a
single location so as not to have smaller towers located on various buildings
or hilltops throughout the area disrupting their view.
There is usually less trouble and
fewer complaints from neighbors if
the single tower is remotely located
away from residential and congested
downtown areas.
A community tower is usually taller
and can serve a larger geographical
area. The tower also makes it easier
for cable companies to obtain their
signals from one location rather than
a number of smaller sites.
A community tower will offer greater
accessibility to parts and maintenance
items common to all broadcasters, including coaxial cable, waveguide and
transmitter parts.
SpectraSite generally owns the site,
the tower and the building. You may
Individual stations are responsible for
maintaining their own transmitters, rack
equipment and antennas. It is required
that all tenants keep their antennas in
compliance with FAA standards.
As part of the basic lease agreement, tenants are authorized to have
an STL/TSL dish and a news radio
installation. If a tenant requires more
28
May 2000
How it works
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
phone company will be made for land line facilities and, if available, fiber
optic networks for video.
SpectraSite Broadcast Group provides emergency power to the corn mon areas of the facility and suggests
that individual broadcasters build redundancy into their operations. We
work with broadcasters to ensure sufficient infrastructure exists.
The tower complex is available to
tenants on a 24 -hour basis. The keying system is such as to have access to
the main entrance, the station module
and to all common areas at any time.
The options and expertise from each
individual local broadcaster are important to SpectraSite. Remember, this
is your tower for your broadcast activities. We need your input in order to
make the tower operate at maximum
efficiency and convenience.
We do not profess that the team
assembled to launch this project has
all of the answers. We have drawn
upon the experience of many in order
to provide you with a tower complex
that will rival any similar installation
anywhere in the world. There may be
unique problems or situations in, say,
South Dakota, but that is why your
continuing contributions to the project
are so important.
Don Doty
is vice
president, Tower Services,
for SpectraSite Broadcast Group, Atlanta,
GA.
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Circle (116) on Free Info Card
Leg mate titutis
MN(
the eight Utah community
broadcasters met to form DTV
Utah, two primary concerns brought
us all to the table. One was the need
to conserve individual station resources in the construction of transmission facilities. The other was the
need to make it
as easy as possible for our viewers to get a good
quality DTV picture. It was quite
clear to us from
When
the beginning
that if our viewers couldn't get
reliable signal,
or had to use anPhil Titus, KUED/ tenna rotors evKULC
ery time they
changed channels, they weren't going to watch.
As we progressed into the design
phase of the project, we discovered
some major benefits for our viewers:
Custom antenna design: One of the
biggest DTV signal killers in early
tests was the presence of multipath
EXPERT'
a
signals. To use the phrase coined by
one of our members, our broadcast
area is "geographically challenged."
Large granite mountains bracket most
of our viewers. This creates a huge
amount of signal being fed into the
backside of their antennas. Using a
single custom antenna design, we were
able to reduce the amount of signal
pointed directly at the mountains nearby while increasing our signal power
to communities farther out in different
directions at the same time.
Single point of transmission: DTV
signal studies suggested that viewers
would need a high gain antenna, perhaps with an antenna -mounted pre amp, to receive a consistently viewable signal. Such an antenna, however, has a narrow beam width. Viewers
accustomed to instant website access
from their desks will not he happy if
they have to get up to turn an antenna
rotor every time they want to switch
channels. A single transmission site
for all DTV stations eliminated the
problem. Viewers will not have to
change their viewing habits. They
will be able to continue to switch
channels as usual, getting consistent signal quality from all stations.
Single antenna: The process of
combining RF signals into a single
antenna reduces the potential for
interference, especially at the fringe
signal areas.
Single tower: Sharing the same
tower saved both time and resources
for each station. In a time of increased environmental awareness,
the opportunity to eliminate (in our
case) seven other towers is a welcome idea. Low community visibility seems to be the cry from the
masses. What better way to accomplish a federal mandate, benefit the
community and still keep the "eyesores" to a minimum. A single tower was the answer.
The decision to form a community
site was one of those decisions that
just feels right. So many of the factors that made financial sense to
also made sense for our viewers.
Phil Titus is the director of engineering for
KUED and KULC in Salt Lake City.
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30
Broadcast Engineering
Circle (117) on Free Info Card
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
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Transitionto Di ital
AES /EBU
digital audio signals
BY MICHAEL ROBIN
processing, recording and distributing audio in a digital format has
some well- recognized advantages.
Among these are:
Superior signal -to -noise ratio
(SNR);
Low total harmonic distortion
(THD); and,
Constant audio quality when operating in the digital domain.
The digital audio concepts were developed in the late 1940s by a team of
scientists working for Bell Telephone.
The two basic parameters of quality
determination are the sampling frequency and the number of hits per sample.
Sampling and quantization
The sampling concept, developed by
Claude Shannon in 1948 and better
known as the (Harry) Nyquist theorem, states the following:
"If a signal contains no frequencies
higher than l
,
the sampling Ire-
Fs must be at least 2Fina.."
This sampling rule must be followed
to avoid aliasing. Aliasing is the generation of unwanted beat frequencies.
The amplitude of the audio signal is
periodically sampled, resulting in
variable amplitude (amplitude modulated) pulses. The mechanism of sampling is better known as pulse code
modulation (PCM). Shannon's concern was the digital transmission of
telephone conversations. The voice
audio signal bandwidth can be limited to a range of 300Hz to 3400Hz, so
Shannon was sampling voice signals
at a frequency of 8kHz, a concept still
valid today. CDs use a sampling rate
of 44.1kHz and studio audio technology uses a 48kHz sampling rate.
The PCM pulses are digitally represented by assigning a binary digital
value to each amplitude modulated
pulse. The accuracy with which the
pulse amplitude is digitally represent-
quency
FRAME GRAB
A look at tomorrow's technology.
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More than half expressed some desire to use COFDM.
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32
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
of bits per
sample, or word length. The higher
the word length, the higher the number of discrete digital levels representing the original analog pulse amplitude, hence the lower the total harmonic distortion (THD). The number
of digital signal levels is equal to 2 ^,
where n is the number of bits per
sample. For example, Shannon selected n =8 for telephone applications,
resulting in 21 =256 discrete signal levels that can represent the original
analog signal. Unlike analog systems,
the THD is highest at low signal
amplitudes and decreases as the input
analog signal level increases, until
saturation occurs and the system
breaks down.
In addition to its effect on the harmonic distortion, the word length also
has an effect on a typical digital signal
ed depends on the number
distortion known
as
quantizing error
(Qe). The Qe manifests itself as random noise in the presence of a signal,
hence the term quantizing noise (Qn).
The Qn results from a peculiar random level variation between two consecutive pulse amplitude representations. Unlike analog random noise,
Qn occurs only in the presence of a
signal. In the absence of a signal, the
system is shut off and there is no
digital noise. In a digital audio system, the signal -to -noise ratio (SNR),
referenced to the highest digital signal
amplitude known as 0dB Full Scale
(OdBFS), is approximately given by:
SNR(dB) = 6n. Hence in a digital
telephone system SNR = 6x8 = 48dB.
A CD with 16 bits per sample can
achieve an impressive figure of 6x16
= 96dB. Studio audio technology uses
20 bits per sample with an incredible
SNR of 120dB.
Maintaining the impressive fidelity
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afforded by digital audio requires that
the signal remain in the digital domain in all subsequent processing and
distribution, including delivery to the
home listener. In a studio environment, this requires that the various
elements such as digital audio tape
recorder and digital mixing console
be digitally interconnected.
OneFrame
Sub.Frame A
ITIPi4TI":"4
Sync
20
VIUICIPI Sync I
Auem Data
Aux
Sub -Frame B
41MM
32 Bes
Aux
32 Bes
20
:4a
Audio Data
I
I
Sync word
Digital interconnection
Early digital audio interconnections
used the bit -parallel concept. In a bitparallel 20 -bit system, the two analog
audio signals are band limited to less
Z'.
'sync Word
Channel A
Channel
B
tl
z.'.
Channel A
M
ChannelB
than half the sampling frequency
(20k1-1z) and subsequently sampled at
48kHz. The amplitude -modulated pulses are then digitally represented with a
20 -bit accuracy resulting in 2 20=
1,048,576 digital signal levels. The
output of the A/D converters consists of
20 pairs of wires, one pair for each bit.
An additional pair of wires carries the
bit clock to identify the start of each bit.
The parallel data rate for each channel
is equal to 48kb/s. While impractical,
this type of interconnection can be used
between two digital audio tape recorders. Early on, this was the way they
were interconnected. Using this type of
interconnection in a large studio with
multiple digital signal sources and destinations and, perhaps, a routing switch er is unthinkable.
A solution to the bit -parallel problem is the use of bit -serial interconnec-
v
Frame 0
Frame
1
Frame 191
Frame
One Audio Black
Figure 1. The structure of the AES /EBU digital audio signal consists of a block of 192
audio frames. Each frame consists of two 32 -bit subframes.
tion. With bit -serial, the instantaneous
binary values (0 or 1) of each of the
bits at the output of the A/D converters
are read out sequentially, beginning
with the least significant bit (LSB) and
ending with the most significant bit
(MSB). The values are then transmitted on a single cable to the destination. The essential bit -serial data rate
(EBR) of each channel is given by the
formula: EBR (kb /s) = n (bits per
sample) x F, (kHz) = 20 x 48,000 =
960kb/s.
The Audio Engineering Society (AES)
together with the European Broad-
Bit Cell
casting Union (EBU) developed a dig-
ital audio transmission standard
known as the AES/EBU standard (also
called AES-1992, ANSI S.40 -1992 or
IEC -958). The transmission medium
is wire, which offers wide bandwidth
capability and allows for the bit -serial
transmission of the digital audio data.
The interface is primarily designed to
carry monophonic or stereophonic signals in a studio environment at a
48kHz sampling frequency and a resolution of 20 or 24 bits per sample.
The bit-parallel data words are serialized by sending the least significant
bits (LSB) first. Word clock data is
added to the bitstream to identify the
start of each sample in the decoding
process.
AES/EBU interface protocol
Signal
Data
o
o
o
1
1
1
o
1
1
1
1
o
o
1
o
o
o
1
1
o
1
1
The AES/EBU signal format has the
structure shown in Figure 1. The signal is transmitted as a succession of
audio blocks. Each block is made up
of 192 frames numbered 0 to 191.
Each frame is made up of two sub frames
(left channel) and B (right
channel). Each of the subframes is
divided into 32 time slots numbered 0
to 31. Subframes combine sample data
from one audio source or channel,
auxiliary data, sync data and associated data. At a 48kHz sampling rate, the
total data rate at the output of the P/S
is 32 x 2 x 48000 = 3.072Mb/s.
Time slots 0 -3 carry one of the sync
words denoted as X, Y or Z.
-A
NRZ
rBPM
Figure 2. Comparison of the encoding format for non -return -to -zero (NRZ) and
biphase mark (BPM). With NRZ, ones are high, and zeros are low. whereas with BPM,
ones are marked with a transition on the center of the bit cell.
34
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
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1
transmission line and facilitates clock
recovery and subframe identification
as they are unique in the datastream.
Interface characteristics
original , \1:S3 -1985 standard
defined the distribution of AES /EBU
signals through a twisted -pair shielded
audio cable. It specified a transmitter
source impedance of 11052 and a receiver input impedance of 25052. It also
stipulated that up to four receivers
I
9.216
Figure
3.
12.288
15.36
18.432
21.504
24.576
The dotted line illustrates the NRZ spectrum, and the BPM spectrum is shown
by the solid line.
Sync word Z: Bit sequence indicating the start of the first frame of an
audio block.
Sync word Y: Bit sequence indicating the start of every B subframe.
Sync word X: Bit sequence indicating the start of all remaining frames.
Time slots 4 -7 carry auxiliary information such as a low- quality auxiliary
audio channel for producer talkback or
studio -to- studio communication. Alternately they can be used to augment the
audio word length to 24 bits.
Time slots 8 -27 carry 20 bits of
audio information starting with the
I SR and ending with the MSB. If the
data channel of the interface.
Channel status bit (C): The C bit
carries, in a fixed format, information
associated with each audio channel.
That information is decodable by any
interface user. Examples of information to be carried are the length of
audio sample words, pre- emphasis,
sampling frequency and timecodes.
Parity bit (P): A parity hit is provided to permit the detection of an odd
number of errors resulting from malfunctions in the interface. The P bit is
always set to indicate an even parity.
The bit -serial datastream uses non return -to -zero (NR71 coding. This
The interface is designed to carry mono- or
stereo signals at a 48kHz sampling frequency
with a resolution of 20 or 24 bits per sample.
source provides fewer than 20 bits the
unused LSBs will be set to a logical 0.
Time slots 28 -31 carry associated
bits as follows:
Validity bit (V): The V bit is set to
zero if the audio sample word data is
correct and suitable for D/A conversion. Otherwise, the receiving equipment is instructed to mute the output
during the presence of defective
samples. Not all manufacturers have
implemented this capability and some
equipment may not generate or verify
the sample word validity.
User bit (U):
subframe is sent
The AES18 -1992
tice specifies the
36
The U bit in each
to a memory array.
recommended prac-
format of the user
Broadcast Engineering
means that a low voltage indicates
binary zero (0) and a high voltage
indicates binary one (1). Consequently,
long strings of zeros and ones have no
transitions and result in difficult signal
decoding in the receiver. The AES/EBU
standard uses a channel encoding method called biphase mark (BPM). This
type of encoding introduces transitions
in the middle of each one -bit interval.
Figure 2 shows the formation of the
BPM signal from an NRZ signal.
After BPM encoding, the datastream
rate is doubled to about 6.144Mb/s.
Figure 3 shows the spectrum of the
NRZ and BPM signals. The sync words
are not BPM encoded. Their structure
minimizes the DC component on the
May 2000
he
could be connected in parallel across
the audio cable. Difficulties with reflections and standing waves resulted,
as the performance of the distribution
link was unpredictable. It depended on
the wide variety of installation conditions encountered in practice. This unpredictability was compounded by the
loose specification of the output signal
amplitude (2V to 7Vp -p), which puts
additional stress on the receiver. The
standard was revised and reissued as
AES3 -1992. This second version specifies a receiver input impedance of
11052 and warns against the use of
more than one receiver across the feeding cable. The AES3id -1996 standard
defines the unbalanced 7552 impedance interface. This version recognizes
the need to narrowly specify impedance tolerances in terms of return loss
and transmitter output signal levels
(1Vp -p). If properly implemented, this
results in more predictable performance
as it is based on well -known SDTV
video signal distribution concepts.
However, many digital audio devices
are fitted with XLR connectors. Use of
unbalanced distribution (coax) requires
conversion to BNC connectors through
the use of 110- to 7552 balun transformers and signal amplitude
normalizers.
Michael Robin, former engineer with the
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation engineering headquarters, is an independent broadcast consultant in Montreal, Canada. He is
the co- author of Digital Television Fundamentals, published by McGraw -Hill.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
Michael Robin's book may
be ordered directly from
the publisher by calling
800-262-4729. It is also
available from several
booksellers.
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Com s uters & Networks
ATM networks for video
BY BRAD GILMER
TM has a number of characteris- critical. QoS is specified with four things; during the transfer, you do not know
tics that make it desirable for use bandwidth (rate), loss, delay and jitter. when the file will get there, but if you
in broadcasting. But like most things
Each of these parameters will have a have ample time, it will not make
in life, it is better suited for some direct effect on how video will look at any difference.
applications than others. The sweet the end of the link. They may also affect
The other factor to consider is delay.
spot for ATM is in wide area networks the cost of the link because a very high Delay is a consideration because the
(WANs), connecting facilities
mechanisms that work in file
over long distances. That is
transfer (TCP, the common relinot to say that you cannot use
File Transfer Stack
ability guarantee layer in a file
Stream Stack
(MPEG, ATSC, DV25,
ATM inside the studio, but
transfer) work best if the delay is
(Raw MPEG bits, or DV)
DV50, etc.)
other technologies may he
short. The problem is in the
more appropriate.
behavior of windowed protocols.
The main advantages of ATM
Windowed protocols such as TCP
for long- distance use are its
TCP
assume a packet is bad if they do
speed, availability, and provinot get an acknowledgement
sions for specifying quality of
within 64kB. If your delay is
service (QoS). One of the biglong and you have a high -bandIP
gest challenges of sending video over ATM is jitter. If jitter is
not sufficiently controlled, it
may severely affect the end
result
video delivered at the
far end of the connection.
width pipe, you can have more
than 64kB of data out there before you get an acknowledgement that a packet was received.
ATM (AAL5 Cells usually...)
Imagine if the delay was a second. If you are sending something out at 64kb/s, a relatively
What to look for
Sonet 0C3 (155Mb/s). 0C12 (622Mb/s). DS3 (45Mb/s)
slow rate, you won't get far
If you have ATM connectivibefore the connection times out
ty, it is likely that you will
and you resend the packets, blowV
want to use it in two distinctive
ing up the operation. If you have
To Network
modes: streaming and file transa long delay, transport protocols
fer. Streaming video involves
that are supposed to guarantee
Figure 1. Both file transfer and stream protocol stacks
sending out a continuous flow can be mapped into an ATM stream. The ATM stream can
delivery might cause more probthen be sent easily over telco network transports.
of isochronous (uninterrupted)
lems than they cure.
video. The second mode, file
With regard to streaming, all
transfer, involves sending a video file, QoS may require better components, tour QoS parameters are important.
perhaps a news story, from one loca- larger buffers, etc.
Delay is important in any situation with
tion to the other. It is important to note
What about file transfer? Because many live talent interaction. Jitter is importhat not all ATM networks support file transfer protocols allow for auto- tant because your receive buffer has to
both streaming and file transfer.
matic resending of cells that were incor- be able to deal with it. Otherwise, the
Generally, you will pay more for rectly received, you might think that jitter can become so great that the link
streaming than for file transfer, as QoS is not an issue when using file begins to drop entire frames. Rate and
streaming requires a higher QoS. Ear- transfer mode. This is not the case; QoS loss are important because every bit lost
ly computer -related video efforts such
is still a concern.
has to be concealed on the receiving end
as teleconferencing and video on CDTwo of the four QoS parameters are because there is no way to resend it.
ROM made it painfully clear that still important. Rate is key because it
video hates to wait. Interruptions in the determines how long it will take to ATM is a different animal
stream are easy to detect and can be transfer the file. (Ask for unspecified rate
One significant difference between
disturbing to the viewer. It takes a high if you have plenty of time the rate may ATM and other transport technoloQoS to deliver uninterrupted video vary 10:1, but it is the least costly rate gies is that ATM networks are not
across an ATM network, and you will because the network provider does video frame -based. ATM has no conpay dearly for that service.
not guarantee a particular rate). Be- cept of what it is carrying. There are
Specifying QoS for a video link is cause the transmission rate will vary no provisions for synchronizing the
-
38
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
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transport layer with video frames.
This can cause significant problems if
you do not understand the concept.
Broadcasters are used to systems that
are intimately aware of the video they
are carrying. As a result, it is a simple
matter to switch between sources on a
frame boundary or vertical interval.
Because ATM has no concept of frame
boundaries, a switch can occur at any
time. It is likely that such a switch will
cause a disruption in synchronization
at the receiver.
Another difference between ATM and
typical broadcast transport technolo-
order of cells during transmission. It
turns out that this is also not true. This
misconception may come from confusion about ATM protocols compared
to protocols that are typically used on
the Web. Web topology and routing
often causes packets to arrive at the
receiver out of order. The TCP/IP
stack can handle this, and will put the
packets back in the correct order.
ATM uses different protocols. These
protocols and the way routing and
connections are handled guarantees
that packets always will arrive in the
order in which they are sent. That
If you have an ATM infrastructure, you are
automatically one step away from connecting
to the outside world.
a finite time to
establish a connection between two
points. Some say that the setup times
for ATM are so long that switching
video with ATM is not possible. The
fact is that most ATM switches can do
a setup in about three milliseconds, an
insignificant amount of time. It does
take longer to set up a connection
between New York and San Francisco, but most people will not require
frame- accurate switching in a WAN
environment like this. In a complex
path, setup time may he significantly
longer than a vertical interval, causing a loss of video during the switch.
Some also criticize ATM by saying
gies is that it takes
-
does not mean that ATM cells could
not become corrupted
they are two
different issues. ATM is frequently
employed in the WAN environment.
The more it becomes WAN connected, the more chance there is that
something could go wrong. But if you
specify the connection correctly, this
unreliable. They claim it
drops cells, causing a disruption in the
received signal. This comes up frequently, but is not true if the rate QoS
parameter is specified correctly. There
are four ways to describe rate in ATM
constant bit rate (CBR), variable hit
rate (VBR), unspecified hit rate (UBR),
and available hit rate (ABR). The only
one that guarantees you a lossless
connection is CBR. CBR guarantees
the switch will set aside a certain
amount of bandwidth for you. In a
number of tests using different manufacturers' equipment, switches in CBR
mode did not lose a single cell, even up
to 100 percent capacity.
While we are addressing myths about
ATM, another one that is frequently
mentioned is that ATM scrambles the
should not be a problem.
One big difference between ATM and
the video transport technologies that are
in common use today is that ATM is selfrouting. When an ATM switch sees a
cell destination, it knows how to route it
there. Video routers do not do that. You
must have an external control to set up
every connection; you cannot route by
address. With ATM, the biggest advantage is that you are building a network.
Video routers are not networks. They
are just space division switches. Video
routers do not grant the advantages of
networking. ATM switches connect to
the outside world. If you have an ATM
infrastructure, you are automatically
one step away from connecting to the
outside world without having to use any
other boxes.
In addition to specifying the quality
of a connection so that it is good
enough to carry video, QoS opens up
another intriguing possibility. Imagine a video link between two distant
points where you could put stamps on
video such that you could specify that
something he sent casually as "third
class" or "first class" when the need is
42
May 2000
that it
is
Broadcast Engineering
urgent. This would not work for
streaming video, of course, because
streaming implies that the stream
moves at the network's optimum
speed. If you want a delay, you are
into store -and- forward applications,
which are entirely different. File transfer grants the choice of delivery rates.
As a sender, you specify what you
want. If you specify CBR, you know
the file will get there within a millisecond. If you go with UBR, it might get
there tomorrow.
Problems and pitfalls
The biggest problem with ATM is
that it is expensive, generally falling
into the class of unaffordable. There
are two kinds of networks. One is
where you own the network (the fiber)
and put ATM over it between buildings or cities for example. In this case,
ATM may be quite economical. However, if you pay a vendor for your
connections the second kind of network it cost millions of dollars for a
point -to -point connection across the
U.S. Few can afford such a luxury.
Additionally, there may be other technologies, such as SDI over satellite,
that may be more economical.
ATM makes sense in some applications: SohoNet in London and HollyNet
in Hollywood. Both use ATM to share
content. You do not need to call up
someone to make a switch even when
you are routing between different vendors. Instead, you just send the video
with a destination address, and ATM
does the rest.
While ATM may be costly, it is
about the only way to stream high bandwidth video over public networks. It is difficult to get anything
greater than 45Mó /s that is not ATM.
And, you can get ATM at OC -3
(155Mó /s), or OC -12 (622Mó /s), with
higher bandwidth connections also
available in some areas.
Another strong point in favor of
ATM is that it can carry a variety of
protocols. You can put IP on top of it,
or if you want to transfer video, you
can map MPEG or other formats onto
it (See Figure 1). ATM can do both file
transfer and streaming. Not many
links can act that way.
ATM connections
How does ATM make
a
connection
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Broadcast Production
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Circle (123) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
(:
from one place to another? Each port
on the switch has a particular address
that is used to set up a connection.
There are two methods used to make
a connection. The first is switched
virtual circuit (SVC) and the second is
a permanent virtual circuit (PVC).
With SVCs, you provide an endpoint address (like a telephone number) which is used to route the message
through the network. Once a connection is made, the cells are mapped
internally. In each cell, there is a
header and an address. That address
is then linked to that connection. From
then on, all packets with that address
go through that connection.
PVCs are more like video routers.
You tell the switch to make a perma-
nent connection, connecting this input
to this output. The process is much the
same as strapping wires from inputs to
outputs. You are simply telling the
switch to route this cell number to that
output port. The process must be repeated for each switch along the way
to build the path. It is a manual way
of setting up a circuit.
SVCs are sophisticated, and most
vendors in the WAN world do not
support them. They only support PVCs
because PVCs are simple to establish
when you are dealing with equipment
from different vendors.
ATM has characteristics that make
it a good tool for moving video, but
it also has some limitations. The
place for ATM is most likely at the
edge of a network, not in the center
of the studio. Any number of transport technologies are likely to exist
inside facilities, but there will also
he a point for a connection to the
outside world. ATM will he the
high -bandwidth choice for this application. If you want to move
things at IOMh/s, don't use ATM.
However, at 45Mb/s or greater,
ATM starts to look like a realistic
choice, especially for file transfer.
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44
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Inside the studio, Fiber Channel and
Gigabit Ethernet using standard IP
routing are winners. Both are easier to
work with than ATM. But Gigabit
Ethernet and Fibre Channel do not
work between cities. That is the natural place for ATM. There is a compelling story for ATM outside the studio.
Specifying an ATM link is different
from specifying a typical video con 1,ection. You will need to specify
QoS, hours, service, support, reliability, back -up schemes, and so on.
Once you have specified these things
in writing, send it to Inter -Exchange
Carriers (IXCs) such as AT &T, MCI,
Sprint or any of the RBOCs. You
must go out to bid on this. You cannot
do it over the phone.
When you get the responses back,
expect to spend considerable time working with the vendors to get to the point
where you can do an apples -to-apples
comparison. Vendors will deliver their
responses to you using differing units,
pricing strategies, etc. It will take some
effort to get to where you can compare
them effectively. Make the vendors
work to present their responses in a
way that you can understand.
Brad Gilmer is president of Gilmer and Associates, a management and technology consulting firm.
Quick! What's wrong?
RF,
SI protocol,
to viewer, programs traverse a vast chain of
equipment. Distortions, protocol violations, interference, timing
errors, can all lead to unacceptable picture quality. Maintaining
a reliable broadcast system in a digital world means that you
must be able to preemptively detect problems anywhere in the
system, isolate and fix the errors quickly. Easier said than done.
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m
18
m
Ask Dr. Digita
Frozen operators
BY STEVE EPSTEIN, TECHNICAL EDITOR
the proper
temperature for the
equipment room and control rooms at a TV stanon? I am asking because an engineer across
town keeps his facility at
62 degrees (F) because "it
is better for the equipment."
Meanwhile the operators
freeze. Here, the various shifts fight
over where the thermostat should be
set. Any insight?
What is
Matt Saplin
Technical Director
WRGB -TV
by the components. Normally, this is
done by providing heat sinks, ventilation, fans or a combination of these
that move heat from inside the box to
outside. I have a love /hate relationship with fans. Certainly, they can do
a wonderful job of moving large quantities of air, but the problem is that air
typically contains dust and other par-
46
May 2000
13c
ditioner (or should I
say refrigerator) to
.ichic
his If so, he could easily be
spending more on electricity than he is
saving on repairs. Regarding your
question, there is no set value that I am
aware of, but a good guideline for
Broadcast Engineering
closer
cause -andeffect relationship between the equipment temperature and the room temperature. Bear in mind that the metal
in the racks can sink a considerable
equipment racks.
videotape storage is 50 percent relative humidity at a temperature that is
comfortable for the operators. There
is no reason this cannot be applied to
equipment and control rooms.
With that said, there are some things
that should be considered. First, a
constant temperature is better than
constantly fluctuating temperatures.
Second, the real concern here is not
really the room temperature, but the
internal temperature of the equipment.
The thermostat is a long way from the
equipment racks. Although there is
some relationship, there are numerous pieces of plastic, aluminum and
steel that separate the two.
Let's look at what influences equipment temperature. Obviously, it will
heat up while in use. Each equipment
manufacturer should have accommodated for the heat produced internally
Does he have an exof cold air, or is
he running an air con-
cess
will provide
a
The thermostat is a long way from the
tides that coat internal components.
That dust coating reduces cooling efficiency. Accumulation can be reduced
with filters, but they require cleaning.
A clogged filter can cause more damage than no filter at all. In addition,
large numbers of fans can get noisy.
Once the heat is moved outside the
equipment, the previous problem is
re- created on a larger scale. In this
new case, the component is a piece of
rack -mounted equipment and the rack
is the box we need to move the heat out
of. Despite the larger scale, the rules
still apply. Sufficient cooling must be
provided by the assembler
in this
case, you. Loading too much equipment into a rack can increase the heat
load significantly. Leaving at least
I RU between equipment can help keep
the heat load down and reduce the
amount of heat directly coupled from
one device to another.
If you've been paying attention,
you probably realize the problem
now exists on an even larger scale.
This time, the racks are the toasty
components and the room is the box
we need to get the heat out of. Determining proper room temperature is a
matter of working backward. Determine the comfort range for that board mounted microprocessor, and set the
room temperature to keep it there.
Good heat dissipation through the
equipment, the racks and then into
Brrrr!! That's cold!
the room
-
amount of heat. Because of this, reducing the room temperature one or
two degrees might not result in noticeably cooler equipment for several
hours, depending on where you take
your reading.
Having several temperature monitoring points is a good way to get a
complete picture of what is happening in your equipment and control
rooms. One location to be sure you
monitor is the rack metal itself. Find
a point near the center of the rack
assembly and away from fans. Mount
a digital thermometer there and check
it from time to time. Finally, leave
yourself a little headroom. Find a
temperature setting that is reasonably comfortable for you and the
equipment and then reduce it one or
two degrees -just in case. The metal
in the racks will change temperature
slowly, whereas the air temperature
throughout the room will change
much quicker. Placing a few temperature alarms around will help you to
spot trouble. That way when the
system begins to fail, you can get it
repaired and back on line before the
control room temperature reaches
dangerous levels.
Questions, comments or suggestions? Drop me a note at drdigital
@compuserve.com.
o You Know What's Happening
B
N
'orld Broadcast
Broadcast
ngineering
Engineering
w.WBEonline.com
www.BroadcastEngineering.co
Digital Webcast DTV Buyer
www.DigitalWebCast.com
www.DTVBuyer.com
HDTV Buyer
BE Radio
www.HDTVBuyer.com
www.BERadio.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
www.digitalmedianet.com
e
.
°''
,;
,.
By Faith Bohnke
long with many of its fellow broadcasters, NBC affiliate WFLA -TV in Tampa Bay, FL,
confronted common issues surrounding the transition to digital, including relocation of facilities,
signal conversion and the appropriate time to make the move to digital. For WFLA-TV, the solution
came from its parent company, Media General.
Working with architect Rees Associates Inc., Media General decided to relocate the television station
and the online company Tampa Bay Online (TBO), next door to the existing Tampa Tribune facility. Rees
designed a campus endive for the three media operations along the Hillsborough River and adjacent to
the central business district. Tampa Bay is the first market where commonly owned newspaper and
television operations share a common facility and resources while maintaining editorial independence
and integrity. In doing so, Media General has combined the depth and resources of a newspaper, the visual
impact and immediacy of television and the interactive character of the Internet. More importantly, it
created a unique "research and development" laboratory, and employees are encouraged to develop new
multimedia products.
48
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
...Kw"'
-.,
in equipping WFLA's new digital facility, the station chose Panasonic's DVCPRO
format for acquisition. Its news studio uses Vinten robotics, Ikegami cameras and
Canon lenses.
May 2000
Broadcast Engineering
49
WFLA
a digital
infrastructure
Building
Media General chose Rees Associates
for its experience in designing television stations. In addition to Rees, construction manager DPR Construction
Inc. was chosen for its proven ability to
manage projects with complicated issues, such as those presented by this
project. Rees and DPR had previously
collaborated on three broadcasting facilities. Professional Communications
Systems Inc. (PCS) worked with Media
General to determine its digital needs
in the Tampa market. Each participant
was able to translate its experience into
cost savings and project value for the
client by making flexibility the driving
force behind the design and development of the News Center.
While many stations convert an analog signal to digital, WFLA will originate a digital signal that will then serve
its analog transmitter. The new five story, 121,500 square foot building is a
fully digital broadcast facility.
Rees, DPR and PCS began the design
work by examining the way the station
functioned. The challenge was to determine how all three media outlets could
benefit from the use of shared personnel, newsgathering resources, data trans-
Editing at WFLA is done in the station's linear suite, which employs
Group switcher and DVE.
from the live feeds of a TV truck on the
of a breaking story to the closely followed particulars of a criminal trial
in the local courthouse via a newspaper
reporter's laptop modem. Weather satellites, NBC and the Associated Press
Newswire feed all three media.
scene
Equipping a fully digital
facility
Working within budget constraints
and allowing flexibility for the future,
PCS began the
difficult process of
assessing the WFLA's needs and match-
ing them with state -of- the -art equip-
A recently developed intranet allows the three entities to
share newsgathering resources.
mission and archives. The new facility
would also need to accommodate future growth.
The solution, in part, materialized in
the design of a shared communications
desk that combines the functions of the
traditional TV assignment desk with
the newspaper's photo assignment and
research desk. At this hub, a multimedia editor identifies stories and projects
that lend themselves to a multimedia
approach and serves as a liaison between the three media. A recently developed intranet allows the three entities to share newsgathering resources
50
Broadcast Engineering
ment or custom building equipment
from components.
At the same time, they considered
existing equipment. Working closely
with Media General, PCS determined
what could be used, what could not,
what could he updated or integrated
from the old facility. This included the
relocation of a significant amount of
the existing graphic systems, digital
editing systems, and vast computer
network and control systems from the
old facility, to be integrated into the
new design and new equipment. Reviewing each activity huh with Media
May 2000
a
Grass Valley
General, PCS configured equipment
and racks to be ergonomically functional and conducive to the eye line of
the staff.
In the master control and rack room,
a new centralized concept was envisioned. Here it would employ a largely tapeless environment with multiple
video and information streams occur ing simultaneously and allowing access by multiple users simultaneously.
Management of multiple channels of
information was a capability must.
This was achieved through an environment much like the multitasking
world of Windows on a PC. Many
traditional functions are monitored
and controlled through a system of
common interfaces and displays provided by Crystal Systems. Overall
system control is complemented by
Florical Automation's AirBoss and
ShowTimer platforms. The main servers are Pinnacle MediaStream and
Pluto AirSpace and HD servers.
In the newsroom, the ability to manage the content from its acquisition
through its delivery was the driving
goal. WFLA chose Panasonic's
DVCPRO for field acquisition, New Star by AvStar for content management and editing of video, and Grass
Valley Profiles for server platforms. In
all, 22 field crews will be capable of
shooting on DVCPRO with eight portable DVCPRO editors in eight live
trucks feeding 24 server channels and
12 EditStar nonlinear editing stations.
This is in addition to the multiple
leading stations to digital integration
takes us down a lot of
s.
r o a d
understand that the road to digital transition and integration for
one station may be very different from that of another. Having been
down a lot of roads in large markets and small, we bring a wealth of
experience planning and managing the digital transition process,
addressing the specific needs of the stations we work for and the unique
markets they serve.
We
have the resources: financial, technical and human. We have the
experience. We have the relationships: architects, contractors, manufacturers. And we have the training systems to get your people up to speed in
a hurry.
We
whether you're managing in Mayberry or maneuvering in
Megalopolos, we can make the road to digital transition and integration
straight and smooth. Give us a call before you begin your journey.
So
Technology Evolves.
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Circle (127) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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www.americanradiohistory.com
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With digital systems delivering
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However, the implementation of these technologies
requires an end -to -end understanding of system
architecture. We have acquired this understanding -and we call it DTV Science.
ADC enables you to take
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to ensure system integrity. Interfaces can be guaranteed, regardless of data rates. From input to
output, signal paths can be maintained. No
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Circle (128) on Free Info Card
WFLA
of the new studios maximizes opportunities to produce a variety of less costly programming to its sister stations. In the production studios, they
will he able to offer the largest and
most fully equipped digital stages in
satellite feeds with over 25 fiber links
to local and regional bureaus throughout the state and the routine incoming the market. The commercial producfeeds of the live trucks and helicopter.
tion unit, West Bank Productions, curNews producers will be
able to browse video of
completed stories for preview and review prior to
WFLA's new digital capabilities open up a n
air, newspaper teams
of multiple programming options.
will be able to see incoming video on PCs and
the online team will he
immediately
able to
stream video on to the Web.
For graphics, the existing Pinnacle
equipment along with Quantel Paintboxes and Chyron iNFiNiT! were reconfigured as "digital capable" in
order to share and move the graphics
rently produces several live and taped
programs for commercial clients. The
new facility will provide the ability to
expand these services.
through
WFLA
flexible, open facility
that can be easily reconfigured with
changing times and technology. Tech-
common network.
is the largest of Media General Broadcast Division's 26 television
stations. In light of the costs of syndication, WFLA's new digital capabilities opened up an array of multiprogramming options, and the flexibility
a
WFLA's master control room features
54
Broadcast Engineering
a
Interior design
Rees created a
nical cores and rack rooms were located next to storage spaces and other
functional areas that could potentially be relocated. Where possible, walls
large console that allows
May 2000
a
were removed not only to maintain
flexibility but also to create a feeling
of interconnection among the varied
personnel and operations.
Rather than the traditional steel columns and drywall cover to create hidden space for critical cabling needs,
Rees designed each of its 30 concrete
structural columns with
array
a
six -inch conduit within the
core and access at both
the floor and ceiling of
each story. This vertical
engineering scheme connects with the traditional
horizontal cable troughs
at each floor creating a
3D grid of cabling interconnectivity
throughout the building. Not only can
WFLA change the working spaces as
needed, they can connect into the signal
power grid every 30 feet horizontally
and produce "product" content from
any location within the building.
Preparing for the storm
While the facility's first floor houses
the broadcasting studios, the floor
contains only "nonessentials" in the
event of a flooding from a passing
variety of systems to be controlled from
a
single point.
Dolby introduces the Dolby DP570 Multichannel Audio Tool for postproduction and
broadcast. Armed with the DP570. mixers can now author and audition Uolby Digital
metadata in real time. so programs will sound their best on consumer home systems
in a variety of listening conditions. One compact unit
eliminates the need for
a
Wootton Bassett
100 Potrero Avenue. San Francisco. C.
Wiltshire
SN4 8(1.1 England
94 103 -48 13
lahorroric. 0
BRE.
\Iul;
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IR
SOUND BARRIERS
35
Telephone 415 -55M -0200
Telephone (44) 1793 -8421011
Dolby and the donhlr -I) symbol arc trademarks of Ihdhy
Fax 1441 1793. 842101
2000 Dolby Laboratories Inc S110/1296 9/13114S
Circle (133) on Free Info Card
ityrnulill
DO Dolby
host of separate components
and eases the transition to DTV multichannel sound.
Dolby Laboratories lne
wn\t'.11n1lIV.cnm
VI'.. \RS
Fax 415 -803 -1373
www.dolhy.com
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C ITY
IGURA
FUNCTIONA
FLIOATION
In the telecom, information technology IT) and Internet equipment worlds,
devices are often designed using the
-
AUTOMATION
the least mature
within the broadcast
industry. In most cases, this plane is completely absent from
broadcast- related devices. Its purpose is to
provide a portal to configure and monitor all
aspects of a device's
operations. The IT industry has taken the
lead in this area.
Broadcast equipment
66
O'
PORT/
(
F
PROTO0OLS
NUMNELS
GH
Figure 1. The three -plane model is used to describe the data, control and management
planes of a device. In this model, each plane offers a specific functionality.
suppliers are just starting to include
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Management Information Base (MIB) support in
their products. SNMP and MIBs form
the basis of the management plane.
When assessing a product, inquire
about the specifics of each plane. As
the broadcast and professional video
industry moves forward, these planes
will become fully standardized. At
this point, the data plane is the most
mature, followed by the control and
management planes.
Before leaving the topic of planes,
it's worth mentioning the need for file
exchange interoperability. Most servers compress the incoming audio and
video and store the content as either
MPEG or DV files. Many scenarios
require that files be transferred be-
tween servers over LANs and WANs.
For this to work smoothly, the file
types and associated metadata must
be standardized. When evaluating a
server, verify whether the exchange
format is a recognized standard.
The
four architectures
There are several manufacturers of
video servers. Each claims an advantage to its architecture. Are servers
really that different or are there some
common themes by which all servers
may be categorized? There are four
fundamental architectures by which
all audio /video servers may be classified, and these four have one theme.
Class 1: Figure 2 shows the simplest
of all the classes. This is the computerlike class. It looks and acts like a
computer, but with specialized I/O,
response time and
storage requirements. Typically,
CPU
viewing.
Of the three planes,
is
(SO.
.)
ÉXpORT
ing keying, output
wipes, trimming and
low -resolution proxy
the management plane
1 /0 FEXMPEG
6p1...)
MONITORING
(
three -plane model, which describes
the data, control and management
aspects of a device. Each plane offers
specific functionality as shown in Figure I. Until recently, most broadcast
equipment was not designed using this
model. This is changing due to industry awareness.
There are operational advantages to
keeping the three planes separate. Each
plane is composed of layers
physical, data- structures, protocol /framing
and application. An SDI (SMPTE
259M) interface on a server may be
considered a data plane component. It
has physical, framing and format layers. The control plane is mainly proprietary command sets (Sony protocol, Louth protocol, etc) over RS -422
links. This, too, is changing as SMPTE
is standardizing various dialects for
machine control. In addition, machine
control over standard LANs is becoming a reality. For example, many
broadcast servers may he controlled
over RS -422 or LAN connections.
Some servers offer only simple control
for recording/playing, while others
offer increased functionality, includ-
GONGNOSTICS
pIA
SUPPORT
The three planes
DATA
MEN
TIO N
M
AN ---
the central connecting bus and CPU
horsepower limits
ENCODER
DECODER
(INPUT)
(OUTPUT)
AN
class. Some systems
use a distributed
MAIN
BUS OR
NETWORK
SWITCH
I/O
STORAGE
FIBRE
CHANNEL
OR ETHERNET
SUBSYSTEM
Figure 2. The fundamental architecture of a Class 1 server is similar
to a compute r. but with specialized /O. response time and storage
I
requirements.
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
performance in this
bus/switch structure
to move beyond a
single bus's performance. Some systems use multiway
processors to improve throughput.
One can build a very
large server of this
nature, but the issues of cost, scalabil-
it,+ and reliability come into play. In
grneral, servers of this class usually
sL..pport less than 15 high- bandwidth
A/V OUTPUT
A/V INPUT
(_.0Mb /s) video channels.
FIBRE CHANNEL
OR SWITCHED
FABRIC
NETWORK
In a traditional computer, most inter-
nal data traffic passes through the
C PU. If the I/O cards are designed
c rrectly, most storage- related data
ti ansfers could bypass the CPU by
moving directly from/to storage and 1/
0 ports, increasing bus performance
by up to two times.
Many servers of this class use replicated components to achieve reliabilit:.. By doubling up on power supplies,
Ens, controllers and storage drives,
these systems achieve a high avail ai,ility status. However, even the most
redundant systems can fail.
Class 2: Figure 3 shows a fundamentrI Class 2 system. This is a cluster of
( ass 1 servers. Usually, the cluster is
formed using a Fibre Channel loop or
switch fabric. There are several advantages to this class. For one, each
node is an independent server. Indep:. ndence improves the fault tolerance
o- the entire cluster. A/V content may
h. encoded into any server and migated to another under automation
control. Most automation vendors can
It ad balance content across this class
o= server. Load balancing is a mature
technology and is used each day in
broadcast facilities worldwide. This
st rver class is ideal for:
Multichannel, satellite feed rece rding;
NVOD server farm;
On -air and satellite playout of
short- and long -form material; and
A truly bulletproof, fault -tolerant
s' stem.
One application space not ideal for
th s architecture is that of collaborati.e editing (news, sports, etc.). Such
au application requires that all content be available to many editors sim altaneously. (Class 3 is ideal in this
situation.)
For applications that require from a
fees to hundreds of audio/video channels, Class 2 shines, it scales beautiful-
and can be made to be fault tolerant.
B' way of example, DirecTV's Los
A igeles Broadcast Center uses a Class
2 server with more than 175 audio/
video channels configured in a faultto' erant architecture.
Class 3: Figure 4 shows server Class
ly
r\MIGRAT;oz;`
AUTOMATION
NODE
LAN/WAN GATEWAY
Figure 3. A Class 2 server is made up of a cluster of Class servers. This cluster is
constructed using a Fibre Channel loop or switch fabric and is composed of
independent servers.
1
3. This is fundamentally a storage -
switched architecture. Each I/O node
connects to a common storage pool
using a switched network. Notice the
dotted box in the figure; the contents
should look familiar. They describe a
Class I architecture. One of the hallmarks of this configuration is the notion of a distributed file system. In
contrast to the Class 2 design where
each node on the ring is an indepen-
any node can access any stored content. Such access is a strength of Class
3. It is most applicable when many
users need access to the storage pool
As our industry embraces
the Internet
as a
new
distribution medium, it
will rely on Video Service
Providers.
dent server, each node in a Class 3
system is a dependent node. The nodes
are dependent especially regarding
the file system. Consider when a node
imports or encodes a new video file.
All other nodes must be immediately
aware of the new file's presence without the assistance of automation. Depending on file access permissions,
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
simultaneously.
Storage switching may be accomplished by a variety of methods. The
most common are:
Fibre Channel loop switching;
Fibre Channel switch fabric;
Ethernet switch; and,
Direct point -to -point access (each
node has direct access to any storage
node).
For correct load balancing, all the
content is usually striped across all the
discs. To a large extent, the performance of this architecture depends on
the nature of the switch. By evenly
distributing all stored files, the available access bandwidth is increased,
thereby supporting more nodes. Even
then, without disc access regulation
rules, it is possible for data queuing
problems to arise. Striping creates
another form of dependence. It the
storage subsystem ever fails in a catastrophic way, then all nodes lose
access to all data and the entire server
is dead. There are strategies to reduce
the effect of disc failure, but they
increase the solution's complexity.
Broadcast Engineering
67
CLASS
1
small in size and duplication of content
is not a major burden. Several companies offer application software to automatically load balance each node's
stored content.
SERVERW /EXT.STORAGE
Hill.1111ht
STORAGE
A/V
NODE
SUBSYSTEM
A/V
SWITCHED
FABRIC
AUTOMATION
. AN
4.
1
Building big, reliable Class 3 systems is no small task. More nodes
usually require more common storage
and more access bandwidth. There
are other exotic variations on this
theme, but practical systems (less than
40 channels) will adhere to the principles outlined here.
Class 4: Figure 5 shows a Class 4
server. This class finds application in
Internet video streaming. Most broadcasters won't have one of these in their
facility. However,
as
our industry
embraces the Internet as
a new distribution medium, it will rely on video
service providers. They will use this
class to serve an unlimited number of
simultaneous streams.
A cluster of Class
servers compose
this class. Internet viewers are directed to a selected server node by a socalled Level 4 router. A Level 3 router
routes at the IP level. A Level 4 router
routes at the application level (TCP
for this discussion). Level 4 routers use
various strategies to load balance user
requests. It should be noted that a
1
68
Broadcast Engineering
The storage subsystem is another
component of the server. In general
terms, there are three types of disk
storage systems. One is the lonely,
single disk drive. As of February
2000, 72GB drives are becoming
available and 144GB units are due
in 2001. A good figure to remember
relates to 10Mb /s encoded (say, with
MPEG -2 compression) audio /video
content. It requires 4.5GB/Hr to store
10Mb /s content. So a 72GB drive
can, excluding various overhead factors, store 16 hours of compressed
video /audio.
A step above the single disk, is a
JBOD (just a bunch of disks) array.
This is usually an array of eight to 10
discs on a common Fibre Channel
loop, typically mounted in a frame
with dual power supplies. This method
linear increase in storage (160
hours with ten 72GB discs) and a
nearly linear increase in R/W disk
bandwidth. Additionally, content is
striped across all the disks in the array.
Striping increases the available array
physical router is not the only way to
bandwidth
to approximately N (numload balance the nodes. Another popber
of
in array) times the banddisks
ular strategy is to use features of a
Domain Name Server (DNS) in as- width of an individual disk.
A JBOD array is in jeopardy of losing
signing IP addresses for the destinaits
stored content if one or more disks
tion node servers. Regardless of the
fail.
RAID (redundant array of indemethod used, the intention of load
pendent, or inexpenbalancing is to popsive, disks) conies to
ulate each server
the rescue. There are
node with the same
When evaluating a server,
many types of RAID
number of users, on
verify whether the
and there is a high
average. The nature
confusion factor asof IP, and of the Inexchange format is a
sociated with it.
ternet in general, alRAID level 0 is data
lows for this class to
recognized standard.
striping. RAID 0 disbe physically distributes the file as
tributed over a wide
several
geographic area. It is not uncommon chunks across
disks. RAID levto have the nodes in different loca- el 1 is mirroring, where the contents of
tions, indeed even in different coun- one drive are duplicated on a second.
tries.
RAID levels 2 -5 use parity data to
One problem with this method of recreate missing data. Most storage
streaming video is that in the worst subsystems that claim fault tolerant
case, every node must have identical
disks use some form of RAID.
stored content. Is this practical? Weh
Scalability
video files (usually Microsoft, Real
After deciding that a small server is
Networks or QuickTime formats) are
Class 3 is fundamentally a storage- switched architecture. Each I/O node
connects to a common storage pool using a switched network. The dotted -line shows
what is typically viewed as a Class architecture. Because the servers are separate from
storage, the interconnection can become complex as the system grows.
Figure
Storage subsystems
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
yields
a
needed for your facility, it might be
that a 2x4 (two input channels and four
output channels) is ideal. What if, in
months, the server needs to be
upgraded to a 2x8. Can it be upgraded?
Let's start with small servers. For a
small number of I/O ports, the Class
l server is the most practical. When
purchasing a Class 1 server, ensure
tlat it can become a node in a Class
2 system. This way, indefinite expansion is possible. Class 2 scales
into the hundreds of ports by adding
small nodes to the ring or switching
fabric. For reliability, the ring /fabr ,. may be of a fault tolerant nature.
Class 3 scales by adding nodes and
separate storage. The SAN switch,
throughput and reliability will limit
the number of nodes in practice. Expanding this class' storage may require
a complete re- striping of all content
a..ross all storage arrays. Scaling complexity increases considerably beyond
a rout 40 channels. Finally, Class 4 can
scale to support terabytes of storage
and millions of viewers.
s x
Reliability
a
`Zany factors affect the reliability of
server system. The following as-
p..cts are key:
CLASS
i
Server and automation software
robustness;
Software complexity, maturity;
Storage protection strategy;
Redundant components (fans, power supplies, codecs, etc);
Redundant nodes
that can be used in all
A JBOD
classes; and
mirror)
N +N (true
jeopardy
or N +1 strategies.
In practice, software fails more often than hardware. A
world -class server
hut they are expensive and do not
scale to a small number of I /Os. We
need to look to Classes 2, 3 and 4 to
achieve true high availability.
The two methods that work in practice are a true mirror (N +N) and the
N +1 approach. In
both instances, N is
the number of live
array is in
active nodes in a
of losing its
stored content if one or
more disks fail.
is
complex device. It
may include more than 50 years of
effort in specialized software. Software reliability can be rated by looking for basics like the track record of
the server, complexity of the design
and the maturity of the solution, including automation control. When in
a
doubt regarding
a
manufacturer's
claims, decide based on these funda-
mentals.
Hardware does fail. In this area,
there are really only two methods
to achieve true fault tolerance. A
Class 1 server cannot, in practice,
be truly fault tolerant. There are
designs that approach the ideal,
SERVERS
C
O
N
T
E
N
T
R
E
P
L
LEVEL 4
ROUTER
IP OUTPUTS
I
(USED TO
TO
C
MANAGE
"VIEWERS"
A
T
I
AND BALANCE
LOADS)
O
N
N
E
T
W
O
R
K
Figure 5. Class 4 architecture is applied to Internet streaming applications. The Leve
4 outer switches at the application level and can use various strategies to balance
the load on the servers. The Class 1 servers can be distributed in separate locations
d
e
cluster. A mirror is a
node replication design. With a mirror
to the nature of the Internet.
approach using four
nodes, imagine two
nodes as active (N =2)
and two in standby. The standby nodes
have identical stored content to the
active nodes. If an active node fails for
any reason, a standby node is called to
resume its work schedule. Many automation vendors support this approach.
Replication by 2X is costly, but it buys
peace of mind because of its simplicity
and performance guarantee.
A more efficient way is to add only
one (hence the N +1 naming) standby
server node. Let's assume that one
active node fails. If the standby node
has copies of the stored content of the
other three, it can take over the workload of any faulty active node. Storage must be duplicated, but this is not
as onerous as you might think. For
example, a four-server system in an
N +1 scheme adds only 10 percent to
15 percent to the total system cost due
to the extra storage on the spare node.
The cost of storage compared to the
cost of the other system components is
falling rapidly. This is a reliable configuration with virtually zero chance
of a total system failure.
For a Class 3 system, the N +l approach also works well. However,
remember that this type of architecture has dependent nodes compared to
the independent nodes in a Class 2.
The storage subsystem and switch
need bulletproof reliability as well.
Despite the cost effectiveness of the
N +1 approach, many facility designers still choose to use a true mirror
(N +N) for either Class 2 or 3 systems.
Why? It has a simple architecture and
automation control during node failure is very mature.
Al Kovalick
is
cast products
chief technology officer, broadSystems, Mountain
for Pinnacle
View, CA.
Mav 2000
Broadcast Engineering
69
42 Miles
5 Miles
-+I
4--I DOCR receive antenna
lator to overcome terrain obstructions and to extend coverage into
areas with weak coverage.
DOCR
DOCR transmit antenna
2
-
DTV Test Vehicle
with reference
receiver in
Charles Town, WV
Primary
transmitter
WUSA -DT (Ch 34)
DOCR site located
at Neersville Peak
on the Blue Ridge
Mountain
Gannett
Figure 1. The ATTC digital on- channel repeater demonstration system consists of the
primary transmitter (WUSA -DT) located in Washington, D.C., the DOCK site located
at Neersville Peak, and the DTV test vehicle with a reference receiver located in Charles
Town, WV. Blue Ridge Mountain blocks Charles Town from directly receiving a strong
primary signal. The DOCK receives and retransmits the DTV signal on the same
channel (34) as the primary signal.
For some broadcasters, particularly
those in mountainous regions, adequate signal coverage requires the use
of translators. There are currently over
5000 translators in the United States, a
large percentage of which are located
in western states. In places like Utah,
as much as 75 percent of the TV
households receive broadcast TV via
this method. Unfortunately, the large
number of frequency translator channels in the U.S. has not been considered in allocation of DTV channels.
The Advanced Television Technology Center (ATTC), having played a
major role in testing DTV systems,
understands the capability of the ATSC
DTV standard to solve these problems
not only for the U.S., but also worldwide. The ATSC standard, using the
8VSB modulation technique, provides
sufficient performance margin to allow for the practical implementation
of a repeater system that utilizes a
single DTV channel thus, the digital
on-channel repeater (DOCR). 8VSB
receivers have been shown to tolerate
echoes as large as -3dB relative to the
primary signal. Therefore, 8VSB permits the implementation of an onchannel repeater, even though echoes
may be introduced by operating on a
single channel.
The ATTC has successfully completed a full -scale field demonstration of the DOCR. The DOCR has the
72
Broadcast Engineering
demonstration
The ATTC implemented a successful demonstration of the DOCR in
the Washington, D.C. area. The demonstration system, shown in Figure
1, consisted of a primary transmitter, the repeater and a truck- mounted DTV reference receiver. The primary transmitter on UHF channel
34 (590- 596MHz) was initially provided by WETA -DT, a PBS station
operating with an experimental license, and later by WUSA -DT, a
potential to aid broadcasters toward
full replication of their coverage area.
The broadcaster can also extend the
coverage area without having to impact the DTV allocation table. The
DOCR allows for the rebroadcast of
a DTV signal, without frequency shifting, into an area previously unable to
receive a signal directly from the
primary transmitter. The DOCR can
replace the traditional frequency trans-
Scala
Paraflector
receiving
WUSA-DT
on
Channel 34
Broadcasting station.
WUSA -DT transmits its DTV signal
at an ERP of 636kW using an omnidirectional antenna. The final field
tests were conducted using WUSADT. The repeater was located at
Neersville Peak on the Blue Ridge
Mountain near Harpers Ferry, WV,
approximately 42 miles from the
primary transmitter. The target area
was the community of Charles Town,
WV, which was effectively blocked
from receiving WUSA-DT by Blue
Ridge Mountain.
DOCR antenna design
The design of the DOCR antenna
system is critical. The amount of
feedback from the DOCR transmit
70 ft
Andrew ALP8
antenna transmitting
to Charles Town,
West Virginia on
Channel 34
Figure 2. The ATTC DOCK antenna system utilized a Scala Paraflector antenna for
receiving the primary signal from WUSA -DT on channel 34 and the Andrew ALP8L1HSNR antenna to retransmit the DTV signal on the same channel. The antennas were
placed on adjacent legs of the tower with as much separation as possible to maximize
the isolation. The system was able to achieve an isolation of 120dB.
May 2000
formance of the DOCR. The test vehicle and procedures conform to those
used in previous ATSC field tests. A
total of 51 sites were selected for
testing. The field tests were divided
into four categories: grid, cluster, arc
and radial. Figure 5 illustrates the
44 MHz
SAW FILTER
CHANNEL 34
BANDPASS
FILTER
CHANNEL 34
BANDPASS
FILTER
GAIN
CONTROL
LOCAL
OSCILLATOR
geographical
lure
3. The ATTC DOCR electronics downconverted the primary DTV signal from
JSA -DT on channel 34 to an intermediate frequency, filtered the out -of -band
s vials and upconverted the signal back to channel 34 before retransmitting. The
d sign easily achieved a transmit ERP of 1.2kW and provided significantly improved
[CV coverage in the service area.
F
V
tenna coupled into the DOCR receive antenna directly limits the total
p ewer transmitted at the repeater. In
acdition, the feedback ultimately limit, the performance of the DTV receive!. The antenna types and placements
were chosen such that the coupling,
and therefore the feedback, was mini n- zed. Both DOCR receive and trans n- t antennas were chosen with high
front-to -back ratios. Because the antennas were placed at different heights
or the tower, antennas with narrow
beam- widths in the vertical direction
were selected to minimize coupling.
The DOCR receive antenna was a
narrow -beam antenna in both planes
because it was aimed directly at the
primary transmitter. The Scala PR-TV
Paraflector was used for the receive
antenna. The Andrew ALP8L1 -HSNR
was used for the transmit antenna.
Figure 2 shows the antenna placements on the Neersville tower. The
measured isolation at the antennas
u<<ng a network analyzer was 120dB.
With this isolation and the signal
st-ength received from WUSA -DT, a
repeater transmit ERP of 1.2kW with
over 20dB of margin was easily obtained for the demonstration system.
a
DOCR
tem. In addition to the post- echoes
generated in the DOCR, a pre -echo
can occur as a result of a direct, but
weak, primary signal reaching the
reference receiver in the test vehicle.
Because the DOCR delays the repeated signal, the timing of the pre echo is dependent upon the delay of
the SAW filter used in the DOCR.
Figure 4 shows the tap weights from
the adaptive equalizer in the reference receiver, highlighting the various echoes that appear. The ATTC
DOCR demonstration used a SAW
filter with a four -microsecond delay
requiring the DTV receiver to be
capable of handling these pre -echoes. All second- and third -generation
consumer DTV receivers have this
capability.
Field test results
ATTC completed a series of field
measurements to investigate the per-
surrounding
strengths.
In general, the signal strength improved by nearly 20dB with the repeater. In addition, the site margin
improved by I6dB. Site margin is
defined as the excess signal strength
above 41dB1.1.V /m (the field strength
1.0
SITE 2
0.8
-
WATER TOWER
.4- REPEATER SIGNAL
0.6
PRIMARY SIGNAL
0.4
electronics design
REPEATER ECHO
'!FTC designed and implemented
they electronics for rebroadcasting a
D IN signal on a single channel (see
Figure 3). The technique converts the
re.eived signal on channel 34 down
an intermediate frequency
(44MHz), filters the signal using a
SAW filter, then upconverts the sign: to the original broadcast channel
3-. The retransmitted signal is a
cc Dy of the primary signal with the
a dition of post -echoes caused by
feedback through the antenna sys-
area
Charles Town and the various DOCR
test sites.
The objective of the grid test was to
determine whether the repeater improved reception in areas where the
primary signal was weak. The twenty grid sites were arranged in a 4x5
matrix on two -mile centers placed
within the Charles Town area. The
grid was located along the main
beam of the DOCR transmit antenna with the first row located four
miles from the repeater and the farthest row 10 miles from the repeater. The grid was a relatively large
rural area with rolling terrain. At
each site, the field strength of the
WUSA -DT primary transmitter was
measured with the repeater off. The
field strength repeated signal was
measured while WUSA -DT was
transmitting. Each site was examined for absolute and relative field
0.2
0.0
-0.2
t(
-5
0
5
10
15
20
EQUALIZER TAP (us)
I
Figure
4. Equalizer tap weights from an 8VSB receiver illustrates the various echoes
introduced by the digital on- channel repeater (DOCR). The primary signal will
introduce a leading echo while feedback in the DOCR antenna system causes a
lagging echo. Both echoes can be successfully handled by the equalizer in the DTV
receiver.
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
73
at the edge of coverage). Further details of
the field tests and test
results are available.
Without the DOCR
the success rate for reception of the primary
signal was 75 percent
(15 out of 20 sites). With
the DOCR, the success
rate increased to 95
percent (19 out of 20
sites). A 4µs leading
echo that the reference
receiver could not correct was the cause of
the failed site.
The objective of the
cluster test was to measure the performance
of the repeater in an
DOCR.
Harpers Ferry
West Vlrginl
1
Test Cluster
t
signal
measurable, indicating
excellent front -to -back
isolation of the DOCR
DOCR Site
Charles Town
West Virginia
The
strength at all sites for
WUSA -DT was acceptable and had a receive
margin in excess of
10dB. The field strength
from the DOCR was not
Test Ares
antenna system.
The objective of the radial test was to compare
the performance of the
To Primary
demonstration DOCR,
which did not have error
Transmitter
WUSA -DT
rif
correction capability,
with
a repeater that provided
error correction at
Figure 5. The digital on- channel repeater was successfully demonthe transport stream levstrated on Blue Ridge Mountain near Charles Town. Various test sites
were used to evaluate the system performance.
el. Details of the test reurban area. Twelve
sults are available. A
sites were selected in the center of
multipath. The repeater significant- DOCR design that provides error
Charles Town. The cluster included
ly increased signal strength at every
correction is especially useful in multhe effects of closely spaced buildsite. The increase in received signal tiple -hop systems where it is necesings. The primary signal suffered
strength with the DOCR was suffisary to improve the overall DTV
from much higher attenuation in ad- cient to override the impaired prima- signal.
dition to more multipath in the urban ry signal. In the cluster, only seven
environment. Several sites had ade- out of 12 successfully received the Findings
quate field strength, but failed due to primary signal. With the DOCR,
The digital on- channel repeater pro100 percent of the sites
vides the broadcaster with an imporin the cluster were suctant tool to improve and extend covcessful.
erage. Because the DOCR utilizes a
The objective of the single channel, it is the most specarc test was to ensure trum- efficient approach for the tranthe DOCR did not ra- sition of translators to digital televidiate appreciable en- sion. ATTC has demonstrated that
ergy into areas that the DOCR is an effective means to
were already capable extend reliable coverage into areas of
of DTV reception marginal DTV service due to signals
from the primary sig- being blocked by the terrain. The
nal. Two arcs were demonstration also confirmed that
measured six and 10
the DOCR is able to improve covermiles behind the re- age into areas of low signal strength
peater (between the or strong multipath. These improveDOCR site and the ments are achieved by increasing the
primary transmitter received signal strength well above
site). At each site on the primary signal to ensure reliable
the arc, a measure- DTV reception.
ment of the primary
The ATTC is now working with
signal was performed Oregon Public Broadcasting and othwith the DTV test ve- ers to apply the DOCR to provide
hicle antenna pointed
coverage in areas that currently rely
at WUSA -DT. The heavily upon translators. Strongly
DOCR was then consider DOCR technology for the
turned on and the sig- full replication of the NTSC coverage
The ATTC DOCR receive antenna had a direct line -ofnal from the DOCR
area.
sight view of the primary station 42 miles away. The
signal was measured
antenna was mounted on a rotor to investigate the effects
Charles Eino!!is the deputy executive director
with the test vehicle for
of antenna orientation and coupling in the DOCR antenna
the Advanced Television Technology
system.
antenna pointed at the Center, Alexandria, VA.
74
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
On- channel boosters to fill DTV coverage gaps
By Sam Zborowski
The rollout of DTV service brings new concerns for signal
coverage to broadcasters. Significant populations of
viewers reside in "propagationally challenged" areas that
are substantially terrain -shielded from primary transmitter
locations. Many of these coverage gaps occur well within
the predicted (noise-limited contour) coverage region of
the associated DTV station. This problem is particularly
acute for stations with UHF DTV channel assignments.
With the cliff effect of the DTV system, many receive
locations which now experience a weak, noisy NTSC
signal may find the DTV signal level below the receiver
input threshold, producing unreliable service or no service
at all. Where channels are not
available for translators, the use of
on- channel signal boosters may
prove to be helpful in filling specific
gaps in coverage.
On- channel boosters have been
employed in cases where the
population to be served is substantially terrain shielded from the
originating transmitter. Boosters can
also be used to fill smaller coverage
gaps where they could result in
interference to the reception of the
originating station at some locations. With careful analysis of
terrain /propagation, demographics,
antenna patterns and receiver
capabilities, on- channel boosters
can be successfully deployed to fill
significant coverage gaps in the
primary DTV service area.
The use of very low -power
boosters by individuals to overcome terrain obstructions is known
from the earliest years of television
broadcast service. The use of signal
boosters in multichannel, multi point distribution service (MMDS)
at 2.5GHz is relatively common to
solve similar terrain obstruction
problems. Both analog and digital
MMDS systems employ boosters.
III.., .:.
t
11
1C!'1ü
.
-
essentially terrain -shielded from adequate DTV
coverage. The problem is especially acute in mountainous areas. A possible fast -track approach to relieving
this problem would be for the FCC to authorize DTV
booster deployments by each Part 73 licensee within its
DTV station service area. The Part 73 booster rules can
and should be separate from the Part 74 rules. Each Part
74 operation would introduce a new service area for
each new station that merits a comprehensive interference study. A comprehensive interference analysis is
performed as part of the existing process for each Part
73 DTV station to obtain its main station license. It is a
much simpler process to add low power boosters within an existing
DTV service area in such a way as
to provide improved coverage
while adding little additional field
strength at the noise -limited
contour. For example, a showing
could be required to predict less
than 1 dB increase at the noise limited contour due to addition of
all planned boosters. This type of
deployment can bring coverage
benefit with little risk of harmful
interference to adjoining service
areas. The FCC has been conducting a biennial review of the new
DTV service. The biennial review
process may provide a convenient
vehicle to incorporate suitable Part
73 DTV booster rules.
!I
Antenna isolation
A critical requirement for onchannel booster applications is to
achieve sufficient isolation between
receive and transmit antennas. The
required isolation is proportionately
greater with greater system gain.
Booster system gain requirements
grow with the need to cover a larger
area (higher output power) and
weaker input signal level (booster
located farther from the originating
station). The MMDS case is generally
Booster regulations
FCC rules govern the use of NTSC translators,
easier to implement than the UHF
As of this writing, the FCC has no
such as at this site near Monroe, UT, to boost
TV broadcast case due to availability
rules in place to authorize the
coverage in mountainous areas. While onof antennas with narrower beam licensing and standard operation of channel boosters could improve DTV serwidth and better sidelobe perforDTV boosters. Translators and
vices in such areas, the FCC has not estabmance in a modest physical size.
lished regulations for DTV translators. Photo
boosters for analog TV service are
MMDS systems can also take
Kent
Parsons.
courtesy
of
covered under Part 74 along with
advantage of cross -polarization from
LPN service. Similarly, as of this
booster input to output to improve antenna isolation. This
writing no regulations are in place to authorize standard
is possible because the system operator provides the
operation of DTV service with translators or in LPTV.
receive equipment with the appropriately polarized
Discussions with various FCC staff members indicate the
antenna for each receive site. In the broadcast TV case the
need for a comprehensive study of Part 74 services
consumer provides the receive antenna, which is
relevant to DTV and digital services in general. Such a
generally assumed to be horizontally polarized. This
study, together with the related petition for rulemaking,
assumption suggests that the broadcast TV booster
comment periods, likely reconsideration and further
should be H -POL input and output.
comment periods, optimistically will take several years to
arrive at adopted rules for these digital services. There are
substantial areas that lie well within the defined service
areas of many DTV broadcast stations, yet they are
Zhorowski is chief technical officer at ADC Telecommunications' broadcast division, McMurray, Pa.
Sam
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
75
There is much more to wiring than simply conni
distribution of a Grass Valley Group router at Dish
in Cheyenne, WY. Photo courtesy of IMMAD ECVS.
76
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
W' 'ng
Connectors
By Dale Reed
HDTV is bringing significant
changes to the video broadcast market, not the least of which
involves the coax used for interconnection. Numerous signal issues have arisen regarding the higher data rates of these new technologies. Despite a number of possible standards, both interlaced and
progressive, some iteration of 1080
remains an industry goal, meaning that even greater bandwidth
i
issues could be on the horizon.
The coax used in television stations, production facilities, mix ing/editing suites, CATV headends
and other video systems will need
a major upgrade to support the
bandwidth requirements of
HDTV. This article examines the
challenges that exist in rewiring a
facility, reviews the RF effects involved and offers some recom-
mendations.
May 2000
Broadcast Engineering
77
Wiring
Connectors
Its about bandwidth
Standard -definition video signals do
not require the bandwidth necessary for
high- definition signals. Bandwidth is a
measure of capacity that describes low to -high frequencies used to transport
signals. Requirements therein vary widely and are based on application. For
example, the bandwidth of an analog
telephone signal is around 3kHz, where-
as the bandwidth of an audio CD is
about 20kHz. The difference is the main
reason why CD audio sounds so much
better than a voice over telephone.
As a practical matter, higher band-
width means higher frequencies. This is
where the fun starts. The science of
electronics must be adjusted when frequencies approach the RF zone and
above. The laws of physics warp when
transmitting signal down a wire. As the
frequency gets higher, wavelength diminishes and the energy transmission
migrates from electrical to electromagnetic in nature.
RF typically refers to frequencies
from 500kHz to 100GHz. In some
circles, RF has come to stand for the
electrical signals sent at high frequency over a controlled impedance
line. For example, HDTV signals
sent over coax cable essentially transform that cable into transmission
line. At these higher frequencies, RF
effects like return loss (or VSWR),
skin effect and insertion loss can
make a big difference.
Return Loss: When signals travel
down a wire, a portion of the signal is
reflected back toward the source at
every discontinuity. The reflected signal returns down the line and meets the
existing inbound or incident wave, creating distortions in the waveform and
its intensity. As a result, energy is lost.
Because the loss is due to reflections,
simply turning up the power level can
worsen the problem.
Discontinuities, those things that
might cause reflections, include abrupt
changes in direction (a 90- degree corner in a signal trace), geometry (small
conductor to a large connector) or in
impedance (a 7512 cable into a 5052
connector). At sub -RF frequencies,
these reflections are minor, but as the
frequency increases reflections can
seriously alter the original signal. If
the reflection is 180 degrees out of
phase and equal in amplitude to the
original signal, the two can cancel
each other completely.
One of the most common errors
committed by broadcast equipment
suppliers is using 5052 jacks on
their equipment and specifying them
for connection to a 7512 connector
and cable assembly. Table
shows
the degradation in line performance
when a 7552 transmission line is
mated to a 5011 component, or vice
versa. At low frequencies you can
see there is no real penalty, but at
higher frequencies the increase in
return loss is significant.
1
Today's high -bandwidth facilities require cabling and connectors designed for the
task, as well as practices to lessen the RF effects associated with the routing of such
signals. Photo courtesy of Professional Communications Systems.
78
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
Skin Effect: In low- frequency designs,
the conductor's size is directly related to
the amount of tolerable temperature
rise allowed in the system. All conductors become resistors and create heat at
some power level. For low- frequency
designs, this is a known and attributable loss value for energy. But this is not
the case with high -frequency signal management. As frequency rises, energy
moves to the outside surface, or skin,
of the conductor (see Table 2). The
-
thickness of the skin region varies with
frequency
the higher the frequency,
the thinner the skin region. For RF
transmission, about 98 percent of the
t.)tal energy in the signal exists in the
region three times the thickness of the
,kin.
Insertion Loss or Attenuation: Attenuation is an alternate name for throughput loss
the total amount by which
power received is less than power transmitted after a device has been inserted.
This applies to the entire connector/
able system. In any signal path, energy
i. used up in conductor losses (transformed to heat), dielectric losses, reflection and radiation. The signal is
thus attenuated or reduced in energy
level. Loss is measured in dB, usually
expressed in dB per 100 feet. Distance
plays a major role in loss values.
For longer transmission lines, properties of attenuation are crucial.
Most coax cable, for example, is
rated based on attenuation per unit
f length. Because the signal is not
11 the connector for long relative to
le time it spends moving through
le cable, attenuation is of less importance for connectors.
Primary wave
1st harmonic
3rd harmonic
-
:r
Full base cari er wave form
t.
t
Rise time using
full wave only
Figure
1.
Using harmonics to square
a
sine wave results in faster signal rise time.
of wave propagation is that the odd
harmonic of a wave can be used to
ly exist. The specification states the
wire line will be 75SZ and capable of square the wave (see Figure 11. The
supporting better than -15dB of return reference to a third harmonic is simply
loss. This level is a compromise in a description of the extent of squaring
performance and that specification will specified. The impact of this on the
most likely be tightened considerably, required bandwidth is that now the
perhaps to -20dB. SMPTE 292 also harmonic needs to be discernable, makt
ing the bandwidth of interest just over 2GHz.
In some cases, it is deThe digital technology
sirable to produce a full
For RF transmission, about 98 percent of the
that allows transmission
.rttenuation of an incomis far more forgiving of
ig signal. This is called
in the signal exists in the region
total
energy
extraneous noise on the
load and is typically a
cable. Because we are only
°rmination resistor that
th ree times the thickness of the skin.
trying to select between a
bsorhs the incoming sigone and zero, and can he
al and eliminates reflecalmost certain when we
ion back to the source.
These RF effects can work in concert specifies the digital signal will utilize have one of these, it becomes easier to
o degrade your signal. And with digithe third harmonic and must be capable discard the other spurious noise.
of handling a data rate of 1.5Mb/s.
-al signals in general, even a single dB
Digital technology involves a series Transmission paths
if degradation matters. Signal degraThe key components of an in-station
lation is not at all gradual. You either of ones and zeros that represent samtransmission line are the patch jacks,
rave enough signal to get a perfect plings of the real or analog situation.
necessary
to deter- cable and connectors (including the
ricture or you get no signal at all, hence Because it is only
mine that a given signal is not a zero, equipment jacks, distribution panel
he term cliff effect.
one of the tricks to increasing process- jacks and cable terminating plugs).
:;MPTE 292
ing speeds is to square up the wave The coax cable used in transporting
SMPTE 292 is still an emerging form so it transitions rapidly from one
.locument and has to contend with the state to the other. One of the properties
One skin depth
Frequency
(in inches)
1 to 20MHz
20 to 300MHz 0.3 to 2GHz
Mating Impedances
60Hz
0.315000
uncertainties in standards that current-
r
r
I
l
75/50
75/-75
75/75
>-30dB
>-30dB
>-30dB
-24dB
-25dB
-7dB
0.027000
10kHz
-12dB
0.000790
10MHz
-25dB
-21 dB
0.000028
10GHz
cable 1. Degradation of RF performance due to impedance mismatch with rising
frequency. The first column shows the two impedances. The following columns show
the resultant return loss at various frequencies.
Table 2. The thickness of the skin region
varies with frequency. Shown are skin region thicknesses for several frequencies.
May 2000
Broadcast Engineering
79
paths, all of which need shielding and
dielectric controls for optimum signal
processing.
Another key element of the transmission line is the BNC connector itself.
Many low -end BNC connectors are not
capable beyond 1GHz. Test results on
the HD digital signal from place to leading BNC connectors supplied to the
place within a facility is quite good. U.S. broadcast market over the last deHowever, in most cases it still needs to cade reveal they can significantly dehe replaced because it was designed for
grade the signal at the upper end of the
lower frequency and higher insertion HD bandwidth. Fortunately, improved
loss conditions. The major cable man- products have entered this market. The
ufacturers have not stopped innovating technology exists to permit BNC conto achieve better insertion loss perfor- nectors that perform through 2.5GHz
mance. Use of low -loss dielectric mate- with better than -30dB of return loss.
rials and lower dielectric constant maAttenuation losses are, to a large
terials is growing. Typical values on extent, cumulative. Many engineersome new cable
ing assignments
types today are 9dB
start out with a loss
loss per 100 feet of
budget that can he
The technology exists to
length at 1GHz.
spent on excellent
(Note that the key
permit BNC connectors
hardware (cable,
technical issue for
connectors, patch
that perform through
cable selection is inproducts) or dissertion loss over distance. The more dB
2.5GHz with betterthan
tance.) Further, the
of loss you can protradeoffs of overall
-30dB of return loss.
vide as headroom
cable diameter, cafor your signal, the
ble weight and cost
less stress you place
are being addressed.
on the system for signal discriminaIn most stations, digital video patch
tion and the more fault -tolerant your
jacks are used to insert new signal installed transmission line will be.
content into a signal stream that is
already in place. For that reason, patch Suggestions
The bandwidth levels in common usjacks are specified as normal through,
meaning that the back end or BNC jack age in today's facility are not such that
side is wired to pass the energy through signal management has been at issue.
the jack and onward if nothing is in the Accordingly, it hasn't been necessary to
front panel or patch side. The interior fully address the engineering problems
of the jack itself is a tough engineering outlined above. With the advent of
assignment, because the switching func- HDTV, this will change. Fortunately,
tion must coexist with multiple signal these problems are well known to
Wiring
Connectors
Characteristic
SDTV
HDTV
Bandwidth
up to 45MHz
up to 2.5GHz
Primary conductor usage full cross section
surface only or skin
Dielectric
voltage barrier
propagation velocity,
tight tolerance, low loss
Impedance matching
modest importance
must be matched,
critically important to
minimize reflection
Connector
insertion loss
resistance (heat)
reflection (VSWR),
potential signal canceling
Losses
conductors (heat)
dielectric (radiation)
Table
80
3.
Differences between SDTV and HDTV relative to signal transmission.
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Make sure that your BNC connectors are up
to the task of routing your signal. Many low end BNC connectors are not capable beyond 1GHz. Photo courtesy of Commscope.
microwave engineers and there are
existing solutions. Consider the following steps to reduce your risk.
Staff your engineering group with
RF -savvy engineers.
Purchase components that conform to performance specifications
like SMPTE 292 and support efforts to
improve this evolving specification.
For manufacturers, incorporate
known solutions in design - i.e. as
frequency goes up, the need to appropriately control the electromagnetic
fields goes up. This is done through
precision control over the dielectric
constant of the insulating material,
proximity (distance) to ground through
the dielectric material, and the geometric precision of the product features. Good design tools for modeling
RF effects are readily available for
achieving designs that consider signal
degradation due to RF effects.
Use suppliers who have a demonstrated track record in RF design. Quiz
them on the issues discussed herein; see
if they know what your problems are
before they offer products that solve
them.
Finally, embrace the change and
have fun. HDTV is the single biggest
event to hit our industry since color
and you are in the middle of it.
Dale Reed is the vice president of marketing
for Trompeter Electronics, Westlake Village,
CA.
To
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By Chris Romine
Now that HD is being widely embraced by
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tion industries, HD server technology is being
examined more closely. In many cases, the early
adopters of HD took what they could get. Their
primary objective was to get something going to
compete for the limited opportunities offered by
their clients. Fortunately, several manufacturers demonstrated a strong commitment to customer relationships with these courageous pioneers and products were made available.
More and more facilities are turning Illiftlffpressed storage
for their HD content. Shown here is the -.main edit [email protected] at
American Production Services' Seattle facility. Photo cou esy
Concept: Benson and Rice
82
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
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Today, as more cost- conscious players enter the market, the demand for
value and flexibility has taken priority over availability. At NAB 2000,
there were several demonstrations of
HD storage solutions for the budgetdriven user. While many of these new
products use compression to reduce
cost, a surprising number of manufacturers now offer uncompressed solutions. So, with compressed storage so
widely available, why spend the extra
money on an uncompressed HD video
server? What are the advantages of
uncompressed storage? Where is it
RGB HD
real -time
Server
SMPTE292M
using SGI HD I/O
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Dual fibre channel
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Y, Pr. Pb HD
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a
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I
I
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used?
storage server?
Figure 1. Using networked digital systems, digital image information can be acquired
manipulated and stored in a variety of formats (compressed or uncompressed) on
either tape or disk.
For purposes of this discussion a true
uncompressed video disk recorder or
storage server records the full bandwidth HD signal at 1.5Gb /s without
modifying the material in any way.
Normally, the four to 16 tracks of
accompanying digital audio are also
recorded without compression. Fields
and /or frames are individually accessible without the need for the supple-
mentary information or boundary
constraints normally associated with
compression algorithms and computer file formats. Unlike compressed
solutions, uncompressed HD storage
devices normally comprise multiple
disk drives in a RAID 0 or RAID 3
configuration striped with image data
by a common controller. Manufacturers differentiate their products by the
What is an uncompressed
HD
value added to this basic storage.
Features such as support for multiple
HD and SD formats, fast computer
interfaces, synchronized audio, frame accurate edit capability and full bandwidth RGB (4:4:4 or 22:22:22) performance are available.
Many manufacturers tout HD I/O
capability using the I080i, 720p and
I 080/24p nomenclature for their vid-
Axon.
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EMBEDDING AND
For
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Take aim and contact Axon.
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Broadcast Engineering
o;
connectors. These converters can be used in the
digital audio channels
And you also have a choice of either 75 L2 coaxial or
84
U
THE MARK OF DIGITAL ACHIEVEMENT
May 2000
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eo storage devices without highlighting the actual internal recording format. Panasonic's HD D5 format utilizing a separate HD processor for
encoding and decoding video signals
popularized a class of disk -based recorders based on their technology.
These recorders rely on the HD processor's mild compression (approximately 5:1) to reduce data rates from
1.5Gb/s to 360Mb /s. Similarly, Sony's HDCAM encoder/decoder board
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The pros and cons of
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While the disadvantages of uncompressed HD storage are few, they are
significant to the decision-making process. Increased initial cost is the most
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Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
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Typical workflow models for HD
servers
Figure 1 shows a simplified workflow model using an uncompressed
HD storage server. In this example,
film -based material is transferred
from a telecine, film scanner or VTR
in full resolution at 30 frames per
second into the server. This can be
either directly or through a color
correction system. The server has the
ability to then transfer high- resolution images to a workstation as data
using either dual -link HD I/O in real
time or a high -speed computer connection such as Fibre Channel in
background. Images can be stored on
attached RAID systems to free up the
video server for projects or backed up
to tape as archive or offline storage
and other evolving technologies that
can render equipment obsolete before a facility can amortize its costs.
This factor can partially neutralize
the initial cost disadvantage of uncompressed storage.
Data vs. video
A recent development in uncompressed image storage and transfer is
worth noting. The notion has been
that image quality could only be maintained if the images were transferred
and stored in an RGB data format.
Moving high -resolution images in
data form around a facility has been
slow and expensive. An argument for
compressed images has been transfer
speed. A proposal currently before
SMPTE, and supported by manufacturers such as Cintel, Philips, Discreet Logic, da
Vinci, ITK and
An argument for
between project
phases.
The
workstation processes selected
images for paint,
Sierra Design
images
has
compressed
compositing, edLabs, specifies
iting and /or resusing
dual
been transfer speed.
toration. In more
1.5Gb/s HD links
efficient
installato transport full
tions, the server
bandwidth RGB
images at up to 125 percent of real has built -in VTR edit capability and
time using 1080/24p material. Look the ability to play out multiple forfor further developments in this tech- mats without reloading the material,
Aphex Thermionics: Model 1100 mic preamp
BY MARVIN CAESAR
preamp combining new design philosophies allows broadcasters to safely run at higher gains
without noise and overload distortion.
Amic
The value of
a
wide dynamic range
Consider dynamic range as a window. The top is the maximum peak
level and the bottom is the noise floor.
These are physical limits existing in
both analog and digital. Ideally, the
window should be wide enough to
accommodate the highest input level
without any overload distortion, while
adding as little noise as possible to the
signal.
Wide dynamic range for a micro-
phone preamplifier is particularly
important, as the level of the input
into the microphone can vary greatly.
In order to accommodate these variations, the gain in the preamplifier is
set so there is no overload distortion
on the highest peaks. The difference
between that nominal gain setting and
the maximum peak level is headroom. Setting the gain too low in the
preamplifier, however, will require
gain in a later stage. Any increase in
this gain will also boost the noise from
the preamplifier. Obviously, the lower the noise floor in the preamplifier,
the lower the noise on the final output.
If the output of the preamplifier is
digitized at too low a level, the conversion will have low resolution. One
bit represents 6dB of dynamic range in
the digital domain. Once the signal is
converted, there is no way to increase
the resolution.
Level variations from live acoustic
sources such as voices or instruments
can be quite high, so it is imperative
that a great amount of headroom be set
in the conventional preamplifier. This
reduces the chance of overload due to
90
Broadcast Engineering
an unexpected increase in input level.
However, this means that the nominal
output level will be low and will have
to be boosted in a following gain stage.
This creates noise buildup, since any
gain taken on the signal after the preamplifier increases the noise from the
preamplifier by the amount of gain in
the second stage. For example, if the
noise of the preamplifier is 60dBu
and the noise of the following stage is
60dBu with 10dB of gain, the noise at
the output of the second stage will be
47dB. When two equal noncorrelated noise sources are summed, the
noise is increased by 3dB. As you can
see, noise builds up very quickly if the
dynamic range of each gain stage is not
a
dynamic range as possible. Sever-
al key inventions combined with a
no- compromise selection of components create a microphone pream-
plifier with unprecedented performance. The EIN with 65dB of gain
is an incredible 135dBu. That
means the Model 1100 adds less
than 1dB of noise to the natural self
noise of a 15052 microphone. The
worst case dynamic range is 97dB to
101dB. But low noise is only part of
the story.
20dB extra headroom. The Model
1100 has two inventions that provide
up to 20dB of extra input headroom so
that it is virtually impossible to overload the preamplifier and a third that
maximized.
That is why it
is essential to
choose
the
Aphs: Thermionics
Cut, Mr
equipment with
the widest possible dynamic
range.
The
most important
gain stage is the
first
the mi-
-
ube Mac Preamp w,th 24.81í AID Converter
crophone
preamplifier.
An important
Aphex Thermionics Model 1100 Discrete Class A microphone tube
preamplifier.
specification
for any microphone preamplifier is
the equivalent input noise (EIN). The
noise is measured with the input shorted and at a specific gain and that
figure is added to the gain to obtain
the EIN. The dynamic range of a
preamplifier at a specific gain setting
is computed by adding the noise and
the maximum output level.
Designing the 1100
One of the primary design goals of
the Model 1100 was to have as wide
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
maximizes available headroom in the
digital domain. The first, the MicLim, comprises a custom- designed
optical attenuator directly on the microphone input line, which smoothly
limits the microphone output signal
prior to the preamplification by up to
20dB. The peak limit detector is located after the preamplifier input stage
and feeds a control current back to the
attenuator so that the input signal
remains below clipping. MicLim has
no effect whatsoever on the input sig-
LC
Fiber Optic Connector Products
Methode Fiber Optic products
manufactures a complete line of LC
connectivity products for voice, video
and data applications. The LC
brochure details product specification
and performance standards of this
small form factor solution.
Singlemode and multi -mode
connectors, adapters, simplex and
duplex patchcords, and cabling
hardware are now available.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Circle (186) on Free Info Card
Quick- Curer" Connectors
SC
Angle Polish Connectors
MPr" Connectors
Broadband Applications require the
back-reflection reducing
capabilities of Methode APC Angle
Polish Connectors. Available in FC,
SC, and LC configurations.
The Methode MP Ribbon Connector
System offers a 12 fiber capacity in
a miniaturized footprint patterned
after SC styles. The MP is ideal for
high -density LAN and data center
applications.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West W Non Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867-9621
Circle (185) on Free Info Card
Circle (184) on Free Info Card
Fibre Channel Loopback
Methode offers several loopback
products to test a variety of optical
network and basic transceiver
operations. Fibre Channel System
(FCS) compatible loopback
connectors are available with
several attenuation levels.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Circle (183) on Free Info Card
Stratos fiber optic
connectors work where
others fail.
The Methode ST® and SC Quick
CureTM system combines patented
polymer ferrule technology with a
rapid cure adhesive. The pedestal tip
reduces fiber breakage, and the 20
second curing interval decrease field
termination procedure time.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867-9621
Circle (187) on Free Info Card
Quantum
QV'
Backplane System
Expanded Beam technology lets your broadcast go through no matter what.
nether
The QUANTUM QXTM fiber optic
backplane connectivity system otters
high -density connectivity in
backplane applications such as
telecom and datacom networking.
QX trunk cables and assemblies are
available in multimode and single
mode versions and are compatible
you're Trying to communicate through dirt, mud,
water. peace - or rtes explosions - Methode new Strati. fiber
but with the ability to handle atn unprotected environment no
optic connectors can do the job. Trot's because they use
Expanded Brain (ER) technology for unsurpassed performance
All Strati. EH connectors are supported by Methode Fiber
Optics offices and personnel located all over the world Its jus;
what you'd expect front Methode Electronics. a $400 million
in harsh environments.
Machumd from advanced materials. Mdhede's Stratus ER
connectors are rase to clean and easy to mate. They have the
wheal characteristics of the high -performance fiber optic
connectors you'd find in
a
nice. clean computer mom
with other backplane systems.
Methode Electronics, Inc.
Fiber Optic Products
7444 West Wilson Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60706
(800) 323-6858 Fax: (708)867 -9621
Circle (188) on Free Info Card
-
matter hou rough.
company and developers of the advanced MP
-
and
Quick-ore
connectors.
(:all I- 14006313-6)451( today to learn more - or to plat ,
for Methode Stratus ER fiber optic connector.
your order
-
EAETHODE ELECTRONICS, INC.
Nethode
F.lerronir, Inc.
Ase
' I:hwaao.IL MIIIII,
I,tnn-323-hMiM
rU l'IM-Nli !a,21 xxxmrlhontccool
loPm(o, mrlhinMmm
9219 -3
ST® is a trademark of Lucent Technologies
Circle (140) on Free Into Card
nal until the preamplifier's output approaches clipping. The second is a
tunable low frequency cancellation
filter (LoCaf) meshed into the nodal
intersections of the first and second
amplifying stages in a servo configuration. Finally, a patented drift- stabilized A/D converter eliminates the DC
in the analog domain without a high
pass filter. This allows the input to be
at the true maximum level, without
requiring extra headroom in the converter to allow for the DC.
Full- featured AES/EBU digital audio output. AES/EBU XLR output is
standard, with clock synchronization
options and digital audio signal controls on the front panel. Digital and
analog outputs may be used independently and respond equally to input
gain, low -cut filter and all front -end
conditioning effects.
Precision three -turn output level
attenuator. In order to match the
analog output of the Model 100 to
the user's system level, the output
gain is adjustable from 0dB (max
gain) to -14dB.
48 -volt phantom power circuit.
1
Very slow rise and fall of the phantom
IbVS
voltage is used to eliminate turn -on
and turn -off thumps.
Series- shunt, optical soft mute attenuator. The second -stage output signal passes through a specialized series -shunt optocoupler circuit to provide a soft mute without introducing
distortion or noise.
Front panel peak headroom meter
and function controls. Each channel
contains a 20- segment LED headroom
meter calibrated in decibels below
clipping, where OdB is the analog
clipping point. The headroom meter
also indicates the digital audio level
accurately.
Rear panel mute jack. The mute
function may be activated by the front
panel control or by a remote switch
plugged into the mute jack.
Internal linear low -noise power
supply. Though it was a heavier
and more expensive option, we
designed the Model 1100 with a
high -quality, fully regulated, linear power supply to maintain the
highest audio performance.
Sound quality by design
While specifications and functions
SD/DOWNSTREAM
LINEAR KfYERS
u
_..!
Masterkey 6
The perfect, cost effective solution for
flawless linear keys.
0
Masterkey 7
Loaded with features: linear keys plus A/B mix, wipes, split screen, fade to black,
chroma key, safe area graticules,
key masking, failsafe bypass, memory,
preview output.
Front control panel of both models may
be remoted.
broadcast video systems corp.
40 West Wilmot St., Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1H8
Ph(905)764 -1584 Fax(905)764 -7438 E -mail: bvs @bvs.on.ca
Website: www.bvs.on.ca
Circle (165) on Free Info Card
92
Broadcast Engineering
tidy
?U'ì
are important, the most important
characteristic of a piece of audio gear,
particularly a microphone preamplifier, is how it sounds. The sound of the
Model 1100 is clean, clear, present,
open and solid. This sound is achieved
through the use of proprietary designs,
careful engineering and the highest quality components as described below.
Ultra low- noise, transformerless,
discrete Class A, bipolar PNP, variable
gain differential input stage. No outer
feedback is used, eliminating the possibility of any dynamic interaction with
the microphone's self-impedance. The
input impedance remains passive, providing an optimal load for any microphone. The solid state, Class A, PNP
bipolar design achieves high common
mode rejection with extremely low
noise, wide bandwidth and low distortion at all gain settings. The gain is
adjustable in 4dB precision steps from
21dB to 65dB.
Tube, discrete Class A differential
second stage. The Aphex -patented "Reflected Plate Amplifier" tube circuit is
configured as a single -triode differential
opamp to further enhance the preamplifier's common mode rejection. This
imparts the tube's sonic warmth and
character while retaining relatively long
and stable operating life.
Tube, discrete Class A output stage.
A "Reflected Plate Amplifier" tube circuit is configured as a low distortion
triode buffer having a very low output
impedance and high output current
drive and a maximum output level of
+27dBu. Matched- impedance balancing assures peak performance whether
driving balanced or unbalanced lines.
A rear panel switch is assigned to insert
a 12dB low impedance pad into the
output line for systems based on IHF
(semi -pro) operating levels. Rear panel
XLR and quarter-inch phone jacks are
both provided for balanced output.
Every circuit and component that went
into the Model 1100 was studied and
scrutinized for optimum performance.
The result of the innovations and careful engineering is a uniquely excellent
preamplifier.
For more information on the Model
1100 microphone preamplifier from
Aphex, circle (278) on the Free Info
Card.
Marvin Caesar is president of Ap/wx Systems.
The People.
The Technology.
The Company.
Your Partner in Digital Solutions.
TANDBERG Television believes that a lasting partnership with a customer
is as important as the technology we provide. And for that partnership to
grow, the people and technology involved must be open enough to fulfill the
broadcast demands of today, yet flexible enough to meet the unknown
requirements of tomorrow.
would like a partner in your quest for the right digital solutions, as
opposed to just another vendor, give us a call or visit our web site.
If you
TANDBERG
Television
3501 Jamboree Rd. Suite 200
Newport Beach, CA 92660
949.725.2552
www.tandbergtv.com
Circle (141) on Free Into Card
Grass Valley Group's Profile XP Media Platform
BY MIKE CRONK
rapid expansion of bandwidth concerns and will support a sound
availability, networking technolo- capital equipment strategy: the Progy, processing speed and storage cafile XP Media Platform. At its inceppacity is creating an unprecedented tion, the Profile XP Media Platform
number of new opportunities for pro- had to meet four objectives. It had to
ducing and distributing content. To handle all formats from high definifully leverage these opportunities
tion to Web video, MPEG to DVCPRO,
to even keep pace with them
engi- AES to Dolby, and NTSC to Internet
neers must chart a capital equipment protocol (IP). Its software architecture
plan that simultaneously accommodates a transition from
analog to digital and the ability to broadcast in high definition and over multiple DTV
channels. It must also build an
infrastructure that enables central casting, interactive television, data services and the Internet. These carefully laid
plans must be flexible and highly scalable, as these new digital distribution mechanisms are
still evolving.
Several questions arise during the development of a sound
plan for a digital business model. How many formats should
I produce in? What are the
implications, if any, to my existing production work flows
Grass Valley Group's Profile XP Media Platform's
in the station? How do I effilar card design.
ciently tailor content for each
medium? What formats should ar- had to be flexible enough to accomchive? Perhaps the most compelling modate the applications currently dequestion is "What is the lowest -risk veloped for the platform, in addition
approach to rapid financial growth in to providing for any future applicaa period of extremely rapid technotions. It had to provide strong links to
logical change ?" The practical an- powerful asset management systems
swer is a capital equipment strategy and have a strong archive solution.
that essentially costs no more than the Today, it is the focus on these design
standard -definition equipment of to- goals that makes the Profile XP Media
day, works within the existing plant Platform more than just a video server
infrastructure and can address the and enables it to provide answers to
needs for these new services.
the challenges today's broadcast engiThe Grass Valley Group has a digi- neers are facing. It is this focus that
tal media platform that addresses these truly defines the Profile XP as the
The
-
I
94
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
media platform for digital broadcasting.
The first characteristic of a media
platform is the ability to support multiple formats, both in terms of compression and I /O. This requires an
architecture that has sufficient bandwidth for all potential formats and
consists of standard, supportable components such as 64 -bit PCI and
Fibre Channel disk drives. The
architecture must also be modular so that it will support
future additions.
At NAB 2000, with this
foundation in place, the Profile XP Media Platform demonstrated its support of standard- definition MPEG 4:2:2
MP @ML and high- definition
MPEG @HL. The Profile XP
also has the technology to support MPEG -I low- resolution
proxies and the ability to generate streaming video in Real Networks and Microsoft formats. These features are all
included on the same platform. In the future, the Profile
XP Media Platform will supmoduport DVCPRO. It supports both
uncompressed and compressed
audio (Dolby E) and will support ancillary data.
I/O format flexibility is also essential. Ideally, a media platform should
be able to exchange media with other
devices in any I/O format available
to the broadcaster; the Profile XP
Media Platform does. These I/O formats include traditional digital video such as SMPTE 259M, SMPTE
292M high -definition video, serial
digital transport interface (SDTI),
MPEG Transport Streams on asynchronous serial interface (ASI), and
Advancing
Remote
Site Control
The number one name in remote site control just got better.
Introducing the highly- innovative, flexible, and
O
user-friendly Lynx software for the GSC3000.
to generate customized or default reports to provide the data
you want. Allows analysis of historical data for improved
Full- Featured Database: Microsoft Access® compatible
logging trends and diagnostics.
How
did
we
improve
the
already
GSC3000? We began by designing
a
great
Windows
-
based software program from the ground up to
enhance
communications, functionality,
and
O
Enhanced Graphical User Interface: Customize the
visual layout for status. command, and metering. Or, simply
use the outstanding default graphics.
O
Scheduled Applications: Start automated processes
such as data collection or report generation anytime. Create
one -time jobs or recurring tasks to be executed daily,
flexibility over the original GSC3000 interface.
weekly, monthly, or yearly.
The result? A more robust, customizable software
O
that increases the GSC3000's operation speed
and functionality.
Genteer
For more information on the new GSC3000,
801.975.7200
please call us at 800.766.4195
-
Or visit
us on the Web at
Circle (142) on Free Info Card
www.gentner.com.
Enhanced Macro Language: Run complex mathematical
expressions for more sophisticated alarm monitoring, to
determine the condition of Mute and Command outputs, and
to view date and time.
O
Start Menu Enabled: All segments of Lynx can be
selected to start whenever your PC is booted. The default
or custom views are automatically displayed.
IP over both Ethernet and Fibre Channel. This flexibility in format support
SMPTE 259M Standard Definition
SMPTE 292 High Definition
is the first step
toward achieving a
true media platform.
However, without the ability to flexibly control and manipulate and reliably play back these different formats, the format flexibility mentioned
above would be of little use. In examining this requirement, the Grass Valley Group was convinced that simple
RS -422 protocols, or their derivatives
encapsulated over Ethernet, alone
would not meet the demands of a
media platform. Instead, a robust software architecture featuring Microsoft's Windows-based application
programming interface (API) was
needed. This software architecture is
now known as the Grass Valley Softwa reBu s.
The SoftwareBus is layered architecture that gives Profile application developers access to the lowest -level
commands for complete flexibility,
but also provides higher levels of API
MPEG 2 4:2:2 @ ML
MPEG 2 @ HL. MPEG
DVCPRO
Video I/O
Codec
F/C Disk
Video I/O
Codec
Network
;Up to8Ch
Video I/O
GPIs
AES
DVB
.-
16 GPIs
Media Platform
true media platform supports multiple formats from high- definition encoding down
to Internet formats. As a user's needs change or new standards are adopted, the
Profile XP can be easily reconfigured with new capability. Codecs can be easily
changed, additional audio channels added and compressed data I/O can be added
with either SDTI or MPEG Transport Streams (MTS).
A
Web page? The goal should be to
provide a system that puts data at the
May 2000
Broadcast Engineering
RS422
Ethernet
8
Profile XP
Transport
Streams
96
moved.
Fibre Channel
100 Base T
Embedded Audio
16 or 32 Audio I/O Ch
Compressed or Uncompressed Audio
It is one thing to be able to convert
high -resolution video into an Internet
video format for the Web, but how
does one access the news script and
associated graphics to build the actual
which slash development time. SNMP
support for remote monitoring is integrated into the SoftwareBus, as are
advanced asset management links via
the company's ContentShare platform
for media management. The Software Bus harnesses the power of Profile XP
Media Platform and provides far more
Flexibility than video servers that rely
only on RS -422 protocols and their
encapsulations over Ethernet. Most
importantly, the SoftwareBus architecture of the Profile platform has
been embraced by more than 50 developers worldwide.
As new applications proliferate, the
ability to flexibly handle video, audio
and data recorded on a server must be
accompanied by efficient media creation and management, including the
ability to locate and access other media and metadata -- be they graphics,
scripts, log files or news rundowns.
Not only must this metadata be accessed, but the relationships between
the data must be represented and preserved as media is modified and
Dual Port
Redundant
Control
user's fingertips. The ContentShare
platform meets this goal by providing
a framework for the location, access
and tracking of metadata across a
distributed array of equipment and
applications. Designed using common
Internet standards such as extensible
mark -up language (XML), extensible style language (XSL) and JAVA,
it can be easily incorporated into
any application. It is supported today by more than 16 companies,
and it is incorporated into the Profile XP Media Platform.
One other defining characteristic of
a media platform is its ability to
support not only online media, but
also a sound digital archive strategy.
A media platform should interface to
a variety of data tape libraries and
support a variety of data tape formats
to meet customer needs. Archive material should be accessible from multiple devices via the network using
standard protocols over TCP/IP. An
archiving solution should have strong
backup and fail -over support as the
archive holds a facility's most precious assets: its media. An archive
solution should be implemented with
proper services from the vendor to
analyze bandwidth requirements, fail over strategies and network topologies. Without this, one does not have
a comprehensive digital media strategy. The Profile XP Media Platform
abstraction with software engines,
1
links very well with the Profile Network Archive in support of a comprehensive digital media strategy.
To be a compelling video server for
today's standard -definition broadcast
environment, the Profile XP Media
Platform needs to meet stringent reliability, performance and quality requirements. It needs technologies such
as dual -loop Fibre Channel disk storage, dual power supplies, NetCentral
SNMP remote monitoring capability,
quick access to all hardware components, audio scrub, high -speed net-
working and future shared storage
capability. However, it is the Profile
XP Media Platform's support of all
necessary formats, its strong SoftwareBus architecture, its links to asset
management via the ContentShare
platform, and its support of a flexible
and robust archive solution
that
make the Profile XP more than just a
video server. It is a media platform.
As you look for a platform to provide
a capital plan that can meet the broadcast requirements of today and tomorrow, the Profile XP Media Platform is
an excellent choice.
For more information on Grass Valley Group's Profile XP Media Platform, circle (276) on the Free Info
Card.
-
is vice president of marketing
Grass Valley Group.
Mike Cronk
for
No smoke. No mirroring.
You already have enough to think about when choosing
a
video server system. So here's some straight talk. The
l
for streamlining your single or multichannel operation.
We
won't dazzle you with the configuration diagrams
SeaChange Broadcast MediaCluster." is the most reliable
here. Visit www.seachangeinternational.com. And see
in the industry. Without costly mirroring. That's the bet-
why we're playing on 27,000 channels worldwide.
ter thinking engineered into SeaChange's entire family of
MediaCluster servers, delivering MPEG -2, 4:2:2 video at
bit rates up to 30Mb /sec. With rock -solid solutions starting well under $iooK, you can buy into open standards
and networked solutions that offer real opportunities
ENE
SEACHANGE
INTERNATIONAL-
www.seachangeinternational.com
Circle (143) on Free Info Card
SeaChange International, Inc. 124 Acton Street, Maynard, MA 01754 phone: 978. 897 -010o fax: 978- 897 -0132 ®2000 SeaChange International, Inc.
All rights reserved. MediaCluster is patented, and a trademark of SeaChange International, Inc.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Digital interoperability in post production
BY STEVE WISE
Contrary to conventional wisdom
surrounding the impact of the
silicon chip on the post -production
industry, some may find it heartening
to find that progress has been relatively sedate. Nevertheless, progress is
being made and much of it concerns
digital content compression and, by
extension, digital interoperability.
If the 1990s' agenda can be summarized, even in general terms, then the
eclipse of all things analog has been
unifying analog formats. It also affords
the benefit of in-
foremost in most manufacturers'
tion. Nowhere
minds. A plethora of competing formats and a new digital status quo not
dissimilar from the old analog regime
cropped up. Ironically, this illustrates
rather well the fundamental premise
of digital technology essentially sampling the real, analog world.
However, it quickly became apparent that the so- called "format
war" was not going to be won overnight. Now, at the beginning of a
new millennium, we can detect an
MPEG forum was inaugurated, uniting the computer industry, in the shape
of IBM and Hewlett- Packard, with
established MPEG proponents Sony,
the BBC and of course, FAST Multimedia. The forum decided MPEG -2
was the way forward, stating "the
basic prerequisite for post production
and editing is frame accuracy and
MPEG -2 (4:2:2 Profile at Main Level
-frame editing) provides this and much
more, including variable digital compression with no quality degradation."
Moreover, MPEG -2 is a standard
unlike its antecedent, Motion JPEG,
which has outlived its usefulness in
this better illustrated than with DVD.
DVD is also
Fast Multimedia's silverDV. The DV option allows silver.
based on MPEG -2
and is a serious users to input DV footage directly from DV cameras.
competitor
in
fact the only competitor
to the Editing" with the promise of "Every
dominant analog VHS distribution In, Any Out." Slick marketing aside,
format. Competitively priced and it's the mark of a good idea that is, if
aggressively marketed to the con- anything, even more relevant.
sumer, it offers the promise of conYet you still can't buy it.
sumer digital conversion within
Why? Well, in hindsight, perhaps
years, not decades.
FAST was getting a bit ahead of itself.
Closely allied with MPEG -2
in
Fulfilling the blue. promise necessicompression technology at least
is
tates the native exchange of a variety
DV and its professional derivatives of digital formats, most of which comDVCAM, DVCPRO, D -9, etc. The prise compressed data. The prevalent
tumbling cost of hard disk storage and serial digital interface SDI or SMPTE
its burgeoning capacity makes it in- 259M
accommodates only uncomcreasingly feasible to simply not both- pressed data. SMPTE has since recoger to use compression at all in high - nized this in the form of Serial Digital
end compositing and multilayering Transfer Interface (SDTI or SMPTE
work.
305M), a connection standard that is
We can already see the emergence of in the process of final definition.
a new digital order that is quite differSo FAST had a choice: dilute the
ent from the previous stratified hierar- message or wait until the standard is
chy. It promises a flexibility
through defined in full. The modified concept
interoperability
that provides new of "Various In, Numerous Out" would
opportunities, both commercial and perhaps appeal to a cynical British
creative.
sense of humor but, in all probability,
Some time ago
NAB97 to be pre- would not be a great selling proposicise FAST Multimedia first unveiled
tion in the United States. It was not a
blue., a "next -generation" nonlinear choice.
editor marketed as "Native Digital
From the outset, it was always
98
May 2000
air of comparative maturity and
reconciliation that enables us to form
a much clearer view of how things
are likely to pan out.
Certainly, it's safe to say that MPEG2 is a done deal. At NAB98, the Pro -
1
Broadcast Engineering
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New Products
Vibrint NewsEdit: The right product for 7NBC in Boston
BY STEVE HARRINGTON
a news organization, Boston based 7NBC News, WHDH -TV,
has two goals: 1) to go live as often as
possible, and 2) to turn video around
quickly and accurately before anyone
else. We believed in the fall of 1999
that we could gain a competitive advantage by replacing our tape- based,
cuts -only bays with the right nonlinear solution. We were already using a
popular high -end nonlinear system
for feature pieces and special projects,
but that system wasn't what we wanted for breaking news.
In choosing a nonlinear solution for
hard news editing, the following criteria were most important:
Speed and ease of use. We wanted
a nonlinear system that we wouldn't
be afraid to use five minutes before
going to air.
Ease of training. We don't have the
luxury of sending editors off for weeks
of training.
Integration with existing systems.
We have to be able to move stories
quickly from scripting, to editing, to
As
a i r.
As
part of the decision- making process, we conducted in -house testing of
editing solutions from a number of
manufacturers. We chose Vibrint's
NewsEdit because it offered most of
the features we wanted right out of the
box. It also appeared to offer the speed
and simplicity needed to get breaking
news to air quickly. We have been
pleased with how well it has met each
of our requirements.
Speed and ease of use
For hard new, xvc wanted a system that offers all of the advantages of nonlinear systems, but won't
bog us down in editing and digitizing. Bells and whistles slow you
down. NewsEdit lets you work
quickly and efficiently
102
-
just as
Broadcast Engineering
fast as tape
because
it's
geared for ed-
iting directly
from tape to
timeline. On
average, we
spend less than
30 minutes on
each package
we put together. If you have
to digitize a
complete 30minute tape
before
you
start editing,
The utility of the NewsEdit system is largely due to the similarity
of its tools to those used in tape -based editing, allowing those
without nonlinear editing skills to transition easily to its use.
you've wasted
all of your time
on the most mundane task.
NewsEdit makes it easier to correct the
inevitable mistakes. If two shots are in
the wrong order, you simply swap them
around in the timeline. If a shot runs too
long, you can use the trim tool to tighten
it up. If you make a bad edit on tape, you
have to start from scratch, usually making a dub and losing a generation in the
process. NewsEdit eliminates that timeconsuming process.
NewsEdit gives you just the right
amount of functionality for hard news
editing. It doesn't include numerous
pages of effects, but it does offer wipes
and dissolves. That's all you really
need for hard news. Also, even though
the effects have to be rendered, it's
quick. Our editors have found the
toolbar easy to navigate and the audio
features, including cross fades, easy to
learn and manipulate.
Training
As we installed NewsEdit, we had
just completed an acquisition format conversion to Sony Betacam
SX and began a move into a new
facility. We were also covering some
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
pretty big news stories, including
JFK Jr.'s crash, the Ryder Cup and
the crash of Flight 990. Despite all
this activity, the implementation of
NewsEdit went well.
We began by installing NewsEdit in
two edit hays. Vibrint provided training for the editors assigned to those
rooms, and the editors then took the
lead on training the rest of the staff.
The flexibility of this approach was
important because we didn't have to
send every one of our editors off -site
for special classes.
NewsEdit is easy to learn, even for
editors who have no prior nonlinear
experience, because it is so similar to
tape editing. It offers L -cuts, insert
edits and three -point edits, just like
tape systems. It uses the same terms
and techniques, so traditional tape
editors don't have to learn a whole
new way of editing.
Integration
Onc of the most important aspects of
my job is to manage the station's
assets. With NewsEdit, I can take
advantage of our existing systems by
An Informational Advertising Feature
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Rocket Network takes audio production beyond the boundaries of studio walls,
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Rocket Network" uses the Internet to allow
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the details of passing your parts to others
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Full Audio
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With Rocket Network, there's no compromise
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And you don't need access to a super -fast
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work productively over a humble 28.8 dial -up.
The system supports multiple user -defined
presets for posting and receiving, and handles
all conversions, letting everyone participate in
their own preferred format. That means you
can conduct a session in a speedy, low
bit -rate "draft" mode, then move on while
the final parts are posted in the background
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Through partnerships with leading audio
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All rights reserved ® Rocket Network, Inc. 2000. All other product and company names are ,v or ® of their respective holders.
Circle (148) on Free Info Card
R
K
-
integrating it with our Avstar News- while Profile is playing to air.
see for NewsEdit
for example, a
room Computing System and Grass
We will also evaluate Vibrint's
mosaic effect for investigative stories
Valley Group Profile video server. FeedClip feed recording application,
and a slate generator to provide a
Integration of NewsEdit and Avstar which will allow us to record feeds video ID for each story. There are
via 100BaseT allows the editors to directly to a hard drive and quickly
also a few housekeeping details to
view rundowns and scripts on their move video either to a NewsEdit or
work out, specifically in the area of
news editing system. This makes it directly to the Profile.
file naming conventions, data maneasier to view the information and
agement and archiving. But we know
eliminates an additional workstation
Choosing the right product
that Vibrint is addressing these isfrom the edit hay. Vibrint's NewsEdit
When looking at nonlinear systems, sues, and solutions will probably he
also automatically enters the slug name it's important to choose the right implemented by the time this report
from the Avstar system as
appears in print.
the name assigned to the
A final word on the
story being edited, thus asimportance
of standards:
News Edit is good to go when you take
suring that the edited seMPEG and NT are the
quence won't have a differtwo most significant techout of the box.
ent name from the script or
nological advances in rerundown. With Profile intecent years. We wouldn't
gration, we will eliminate
be using NewsEdit tothe chaos of trying to find video at the product for the right station at the day if it was not based on both of these
last minute. Completed packages can right time. If you're looking for a standards.
be transferred faster than real time system loaded with options, you probFor more information on Vihrint's
from NewsEdit to the Profile. They ably don't want NewsEdit. If you're NewsEdit, circle (277) on the Free
are available for playback from Pro- looking for something that is fast
Info Card.
file's hard drive even while they are enough for hard news, NewsEdit is
still being transferred. NewsEdit and good to go when you take it out of the Steve Harrington is director 01 news operaProfile are connected via IP over Fibre box.
tions for WHDH-TV in Boston. Additional
Contributors: Bill Holbrook, Stephen Spence,
Channel, allowing simultaneous transAs of the writing of this report, there
Bill Barrier.
fers from multiple NewsEdit bays even are a few additions we would like to
it
\/
SEE EXACTLY WHAT YOU HEAR
Seven selectable PPMNU scales as well as Leq(m)!
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Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
Call
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USE 'EM. DON'T LOSE 'EM.
INTRODUCING MEDIA BROWSE 2000
The
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media never stops flowing in. In the race to
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edits at their desktops
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waiting for feeds to finish, or dubbing and
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passing around tapes.
low -res before going to air. Auto- conforming
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For more
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on high -res systems gets you to air faster.
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YEARS OF
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Open, modular, reliable and easy to use, the
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Avstar Media Browse 2000 makes sure you're
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Anstar Systems. LLC
rs
not affiliated with Avistar Systems Corporation. which provides net worked video products and services and
is
Circle (149) on Free Info Card
MAKING NEWS
AVSTAR
the owner of the trademarks 'Avistar' and "Avistar Systems- and correspondirg logo.
Technolo
InTransition
Format conversion for DTV
BY JOHN LUFF
was a time when conversions
There
between formats fit into a neat 3x3
matrix. Since the advent of color television, the world has relied on essentially three standards, with some minor variants:
NTSC (525 -line interlace with a
3 58MHz color subcarrier and 30f /s)
Add a 625 -line NTSC variant to fill
the options;
PAL (625 -line interlace with a
4.43MHz color subcarrier and 25f/s)
Add a 525 -line variant and a couple of bandwidth options to fill the
-
Options; and,
SECAM (625 -line interlace with
line sequential color and FM subcarriers at 25f/s)
Add
two variants for col-
-
meaningful problem in comparison.
Consider all the conversions that
must be part of the math. For the
best possible conversion, you need
to be aware of the origin sampling.
You need to set up for either progressive to interlace, progressive to
progressive, interlace to progressive or interlace to interlace. Count
those as four main sets.
The simple number of pixels horizontally and vertically must also be
considered. The following numbers of
horizontal pixels are commonly found
in the luminance channel: 640, 704,
720, 960, 1280, 1440 and 1920. The
two chrominance channels could have
525 NTSC
625 NTSC
625 PAL
525 PAL
625
or synchronization
525 NTSC
NV
X
X
X
method to fill the
625 NTSC
X
NV
X
X
options.
625 PAL
The variants to
525 PAL
each of these com625 SECAM H
p!icated the mix but
625 SECAM V
increased the mix to
NV = Not Valid
X = Valid
only eight or nine
practical combina- Figure 1. Conversions required between the three main
worldwide.
tions. One could
make the case that
component 525 and 625 could be the same, one -halt, or one- quarter as
added, but little conversion was done much data.
starting with three wire (RGB or
Vertically, the picture could be samYPrPb). The total number of basic pled 480, 483, 576, 720, 1035 or 1080
conversions from line standards, times. Adding the possible converwith output subcarrier and band- sions from computer line scan stanwidth optional, equals only six ba- dards, which is very much a real
sic input formats and six basic out- world concern, further complicates
put formats
a total of 30 meanthe matter.
ingful conversions.
How do color space conversions figLeap forward to the standards in use
ure into the mix? The reference primatoday. There are now more than 40
ries and color equations for NTSC,
conversions in line scan formats. Do- PAL and HDTV are not the same.
ing the simple math yields at least Conversions from computer formats
1560 conversions. If a designer a few
which are often not "video aware,"
years ago had a complicated task
and therefore may not have nonlinear
designing a standards converter for gammalike conventional video imag-
-
-
-
NTSC, PAL and SECAM, imagine the
task now. The puny size of the infamous ATSC Table 3 is just not a
ing
are also problematic. Published
accounts suggest that a minimum of
six distinct operations need to be done
106
May 200
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
to convert color space, some of which
can be combined.
So far, we have only defined the
scope of the problem for a single
frame. What about the temporal
rates? In common use (or planned
use in the near term) we find the
base rates of 24 -, 25 -, 30 -, 50- and
60f/s. We also have the legacy problem of running our frame rate 1/
1.001 slower to make the color sub carrier work for NTSC. That makes
the additional rates of 23.98, 24.98,
29.97 and 59.94 necessary (I know
of no one who anticipates using
49.95 in the real world). Again,
look out for computer scan rates.
They will be
all over the
SECAM H
625 SECAM V
map, includX
X
MEP
MEW
ing significant content
at rates above
60Hz. With
adequate
hand
television standards
wav-
ing, we come
up with a
staggering
number
of
conversion possibilities. A number
of these would
be
eliminated
as
nonsense conversions by many observers, but an equipment designer
needs to think about the total set
and pick the range of signals that
can be practically handled in the
device.
Exactly how does one convert 30f/s
to 29.97f/s? One suggestion is to
simply drop one frame per thousand
(one every 33 seconds and 10 frames).
Unfortunately, this approach is not
exactly invisible, especially if the
program material has motion in it.
The alternative is to do motion compensation between frames to imperceptibly eliminate the information
content necessary to run the captured image at a new rate. While
Motion images, not test patterns or flower pots.
Success is measured by the number of eyeballs glued
to images on your channels, screens or website.
To be competitive you need to create an Entertainment
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Circle (151) on Free Info Card
temporally compensated conversion
is nothing new, the 3D filtering necessary is not trivial. Going the other
way, back to 30 from 29.97, presents the same problems, as does
any temporal conversion.
What the designer has on his plate is
actually a small supercomputer that
has to load perhaps several thousand
sets of microcode into an image pro-
Now consider the pixel clock
rate necessary to make a conversion.
For a 1080i/29.97 image the pixel
count per second is 62,145,792. In
cessor.
common 4:2:2 sampling, each luminance sample comes with another sample (1/2 sample for Pr, and 1/2 for Pb,
or double the sample rate)
a total of
124,291,584 samples to be processed
-
per second. Converting each pixel
requires the scaling engine to make a
number of calculations and other operations such as color space conversion. Filtering must be done to keep
the output within the filter mask for
the output standard. Your garden -variety PC will not suffice.
Thus, the designer succumbs to pres-
sure from marketing and conies up with
a design but tells marketing that it will
have to live with a couple of input
for I/O and frame rates. The above
entry -level math should impress
upon you just how technically remarkable these machines are and
the cleverness of the designers who
have begun to attack the
"generic" problem of im-
options, a couple of output options,
aspect ratio conversion, color space
For the best possible
age
transformations.
The good news is that the
be
most critical conversions
have been reduced to silicon and are embedded in
things like VTRs and cameras (HD to SD for reuse of
images, monitoring on less expensive monitors, and conversions between 1080i and 720p). These intermediate steps will not solve the systemic need, but they do make it
much easier to choose between "all
format converters" and less expensive special purpose converters for
less demanding needs.
conversion, you need to
aware of the origin sampling.
conversion, a few GPIs and remote
controls. This is the genesis of the first
generation of converters, and the reason why those that claimed to do a
zillion conversion possibilities generally did not do them very well. Systems
optimized for one possible conversion
could not adapt to all possible options.
If you wonder why a format converter
costs tens of thousands of dollars per
rack unit, think about the task at hand.
John 1,41
is presiden!
of Synergistic Technologies In,. in Canonsburg PA.
However, several manufacturers
have recently come up with clever
machines that handle many options
AUDIO CROSSPOINTS ARE Now OBSOLETE
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Circle (150) on Free Info Card
108
Broadcast Engineering
Ma,, 200
www.americanradiohistory.com
Founders Bob & Rick Grant
Please contact us
http //www.lighthousedigital.com
:
ACM4200: the contribution quality
of your Video over ATM network
The new ATM Contribution Multiplexer ACM 4200 is the result of
continuous interaction w th Broadcasters and Operators combined
with THOMSON's MPEG2 and ATM technologies.The ACM 4200
4
iJ..
management software brings user -friendly connection capability to
the Operator's customers while ensuring Operator's network
control. The variety of Tributary Services (DVB -ASI, IP over ATM,
G703...) and Network Interfaces (DS3, 0C3, STS3c, E3...)
associated to the modular design provides an essential growth pa
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8 0 0
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.
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Midwest Office
Indianapolis, Indiana
Tel: (317) 587 -5071
w w
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Englewood, New Jersey
Tel: (201) 569-1650
Circle (152) on Free Into Card
:
BB
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ThOMSON
West Office
Los Angeles, California
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South East Office
Marietta, Georgia
Tel:
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HD
conversion equipment manufacturers
AJA Video
530- 274 -2048
800 -251 -4224
530- 274 -9442
www.aja.com
440
Altinex Inc
714-990-2300
800-ALTINEX
714-990-3303
www.altinex.com
441
Analog Way
212- 269 -1902
212-269 -1943
www.analogway.com
442
Astro Systems
818 -244 -1806
818 -244 -1878
www.astro-systems.com
443
Band Pro Film & Video
818 -841 -9655
888 -BANDPRO 818 -841 -7649
www.bandpro.com
444
Chyron Corp
516- 845 -2000
516 -845 -3867
www.chyron.com
445
800-526 -0242
201 -814 -0510
www.compvideo.com
446
Comprehensive Video Group
Digital Vision Inc
310 -914-5200
888-914 -5200
310- 914-0011
www.digitalvision.se
447
Divicom
408 -490 -6560
877- 348 -4266
408 -490 -6999
www.divi.com
448
Evertz Microsystems Ltd
905- 335 -3700
905-335 -3573
www.evertz.com
449
Extron Electronics
714- 491 -1500
714 -491 -1517
www.extron.com
450
Faroudja Laboratories Inc
408- 735 -1492
408 -735 -1571
www.faroudja.com
451
Focus Enhancements
978 -988 -5888
800 -538 -8865
978 -988 -7555
www.FOCUSinfo.com
452
Folsom Research
916- 859-2500
888-414 -SCAN
916-859 -2515
www.folsom.com
453
For-A Corporation of America
352-371 -1505
352-378 -5320
www.for-a.co.jp
454
Grass Valley Group
800-547 -8949
800-998-3588
503-627-7275
www.grassvalleygroup.com
455
Harris Corp.
513- 459 -3400
800- 622-0022
513- 459 -3890
www.harris.com
456
Hotronic Inc
408 -378 -3883
408 -378 -3888
www.hotronics.com
457
Ikegami Electronics
201 -368 -9171
201 -569 -1626
www.ikegami.com
458
JVC
973 -315 -5000
973 -315 -5030
www.jvc.com/pro
459
Key Digital Systems
212 -595-6721
KeyWest Technology
913-492 -4666
800-331-2019
913-895-7496
www.keywesttechnology.com
461
Leader Instruments
516-231 -6900
800 -645 -5104
516-231 -5295
www.leaderusa.com
462
LeBLANC Broadcast
905-844 -1242
905- 844-8837
www.leblanc-group.com
463
Leitch Inc.
757 -548 -2300
757 -548 -4088
www.leitch.com
464
Miranda Technology
514- 333 -1772
514- 333 -9828
www.miranda.com
465
Panasonic
323 -436 -3500
800-528 -8601
323-436-3660
www.panasonic.com/broadcast 466
Philips
818- 729-7700
800-962 -4287
818- 729-7710
www.broadcast.philips.com
467
Post Impressions (Systems) Ltd.
+44 1635 817 000
+44 1635 817 039
www.postimpressions.com
468
Quantel
203 -656 -3100
203 -656 -3459
www.quantel.com
469
Screen Service Italia
+39 03 03730773
+39 03 0322001
www.screen.it
470
Snell & Wilcox
+44 1730 821 188
+44 1730 821 199
www.snellwilcox.com
471
Sony Electronics
800- 686 -SONY
201- 930 -4752
www.sony.com/professional
472
TeraNex
407 -517 -1086
407 -517 -1101
www.teranex.com
473
Thomson Broadcast
201-569-1650
201-569-1511
www.thomsonbroad.com
474
Visual Matrix
818 -843 -4831
818 -843 -6544
www.visual-matrix.com
475
YEM America
310-544 -9343
310 -544-9363
www.yem.com
476
Zandar Technologies
408- 782 -9725
408 -782 -9825
www.zandar.com
477
800-633 -9876
800-JVC -5825
212 -595 -3334
800 -231 -9673
800- 218 -0051
800-882-1824
460
For more information on format conversion products, circle the corresponding number on the Free Info Card.
1 1
0
Broadcast Engineering
May 200
www.americanradiohistory.com
--
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Pr,
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Panel
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ADC has scoured the broadcast industry to find
leading technologists who understand the science
of digital television systems. The result- formation
VISIONARY OT
.miller
of an elite group made up of ADC patching
&
connectivity,
ITS
transmitters, ALS transport systems, Pathway ATM transports,
and NVISION routing and processing products. All brought
together
to
share
knowledge
and
innovation.
DV8000
1),c un)presserl
1)1;0101 Tru,)spurl
We call it DTV Science.
DTV Science enables ADC customers
to build
a
digital
infrastructure with confidence. System interfaces can be guaranteed, regardless of data rates. From input to output, signal
ACCESSPOM
l ,ii
c'sul .1ledia
Access .S1:Uen,
integrity will be maintained. No longer
about the quality of
can handle,
super
6128
it
BNC connector,
it necessary to worry
the data rates
a
router
compatibility with compressed signals, the
reliability of an
ENVOY
a
is
STL,
or the implementation of
transmitter. ADC can provide all this and more.
i,lrhnurl'"
l)iilrll /',,,Nrr
Circle (153) on Free Into Card
1-800-726-4266
www.adc.com/broadcast
a
digital
New Products
Real -time
uncompressed
digital editing
systems
Accom Affinity
Nonlinear editing
system: now shipping; controls
respond with zero
rendering; provides
an open environment
with Quicktime file
format; allows users
to use any paint, 3D graphics or effects application that
is Quicktime compatible; also allows compressed and
uncompressed clips to be mixed in any project; gives
users true three -point editing or drag & drop plus new
tools for both long -form and short-form work; 650 -3283818; fax: 650 -327-2511; www.accom.com
Circle (351) on Free Info Card
Serial digital video legalizers
VideoTek Inc DL -800: legalizes
601 video
for encod-
ed and vector -based limiting rules, provides presets and
automatically detects input video format; signal is
evaluated in real time on a pixel -by-pixel basis and
provide an output that is guaranteed to be within user
specifications; 800 -800 -5719; 610 -327 -2292; fax: 610 -327-
9295; www.videotek.com
Film and video
restoration system
Snell & Wilcox Archangel: provides fast and
effective detection of
impairments and estimation of quality; provides
one -pass automatic
restoration and user
821 188; fax:
Circle (481) on Free Info Card
Aspect ratio converter
Axon Digital Design ARC -3000: this
19 -inch, 1RU unit
offers quality, optimized conversion for post- production and broadcast applications; all major controls and
presets can be accessed via the unit's control panel,
which includes a comprehensive jog dial rotary encoder;
up to 16 pre -sets, including horizontal scale, horizontal
pan, vertical scale, vertical tilt, GPI output selection and
output timing, can be stored in the nonvolatile memory;
+31 13511 6666; fax: +31 13 511 4151; www.axon.nl
(482) on Free Info Card
1 1
2
Broadcast Engineering
Benchmark AD2408 -96: an eight -channel audio A-toD converter, provides word lengths of up to 24 -bit and
sample rates up to 96kHz; THD +N is -110dB measured at
-1dB
FS
and the A- weighted dynamic range
is
120dB;
features include selectable 16, 20 and 24 -bit word
lengths and 96kHz to 48kHz sample rate conversion;
800 -262 -4675; 315 -437 -6300; fax: 315 -437 -8119;
www.benchmarkmedia.com
Circle (483) on Free Info Card
Rendering engine
BOXX Technologies RenderBOXX: features 800MHz
Pentium Ill or Xeon or Alpha processors; multiple
cabinets can be connected to deliver the rendering
power of up to 1000 processors; supports all material
libraries and 3D animation software including 3D Studio
MAX, Maya, Softimage and LightWave 3D; 877-877 BOXX; 512 -835 -0400; fax: 512- 835 -0434;
www.boxxtech.com
Circle (484) on Free Info Card
Digital downstream linear keyer
Circle (480) on Free Info Card
intervention of critical material; +44 1730
+44 1730 821 199; www.snellwilcox.com
Audio A/D converter system
May 2000
Broadcast Video Systems Masterkey 7: provides
high -quality linear keys with fully adjustable transparenwell as A/B mix, wipes, split screen, chroma key,
4:3 and 16:9 safe area graticules, key masking, preview
output, failsafe bypass, GPI's and full control panel
memory; the front control panel may be unplugged and
remoted; 905 -764 -1584; fax: 905 -764 -7438;
www. bvs. on.ca
cy, as
Circle (485) on Free Info Card
Portable mixing console
Calrec Audio Ltd M3: available in two frame sizes; the
19" rackmount
version is a 10x4x2
and the desktop
version is a 20x4x2;
features include four
auxiliary sends,
choice of input
module types and a
mix -minus send on
each input; offers an
internal power supply; +44 1422 842 159; fax: +44 1422
845 244; www.calrec.com
Circle (486) on Free Info Card
INSPIRATION.
DIGITAL CABLES DESIGNED FOR
DIVINE PERFORMANCE.
WWW.COMMSCOPE.COM
1729
Hickory, NC 28603 -1729
1.800.982.1708 828.324.2200
Fax 828.328.3400
P.O. Box
CommScope
How Intelligence
Travels.
Circle (154) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
SDTV MPEG -2 DVB IRO
Internet news service platform
Tiernan Communications TDR6000: an MPEG -2 DVB
compliant receiver/decoder for television network
Leitch News -In -A-Box: allows newscasters to create
turnkey Internet -ready newsroom; the system can be
used for acquisition of both low- and high-resolution
applications, receives and decodes video at programmable transport rates from 2Mb/s to 70Mb /s depending on selected FEC rate; output include one NTSC or
PAL composite analog video, one stereo analog audio
and an asynchronous data channel; 800-323 -0252; 858587 -0252; fax: 858 -587 -0257; www.tiernan.com
a
video and audio, as well as low- resolution browse;
Leitch's NEWSFIash editor allows integrated online
editing and Callisto Media Systems' Voyager server and
Solaris operating environment form the system's video
server backbone; 800 -231 -9673; 757 -548 -2300; fax: 757548 -4088; www.leitch.com
Circle (487) on Free Info Card
Circle (352) on Free Info Card
Internet server
Nonlinear editing system
SGI
Digital Processing Systems /DPS dpsVelocity -2D:
new configuration of dpsVelocity, a nonlinear editing
system combining DPS' compressed /uncompressed
video hardware and its advanced NLE software;
options include 3-D processing and I/O support for DV,
SDI and digital audio; also features compressed and
uncompressed video editing on a single timeline, digital
card I/O support of BNC and XLR AES /EBU output, and
full three- and four -point edit control of clips and
timeline events; 606 -371 -5533; fax: 606 -371 -3729;
Internet Server:
OS-based
is a completely integrated, Linux
thin server designed for ISPs, ASPS and co-
location facilities; it combines advanced management,
monitoring and security tools with integrated basic
services for Web serving; 16 or more units can be installed in a full- height rack; the system is scalable to
allow users to meet extremely high-volume Internet
serving requirements; 650 -960 -1980; fax: 650-933 -0819;
www.sgi.com /go/broadband
Circle (353) on Free Info Card
www.dps.com
Circle (395) on Free Info Card
Digital broadcast console
Production and post -production mobile
HD Vision HDV -5:
self -contained mobile for high definition video imaging, allowing users to affordably
shoot local events; the unit is available with four Sony
HDC -700 cameras with Canon 65x1 lenses and four Sony
HDC -750 portable cameras with Canon 18x1 lenses;
other equipment available in the 53-foot unit includes
four Sony HDW -500 digital VTRs, a Snell & Wilcox HD1024 digital switcher, a Matrix intercom and a Clarity
HD graphics system by Pixel- Power; 972 -432 -9630; fax:
972-869 -2516; www.hdvision.com
,
a
Circle (350) on Free Info Card
Updated software for POSTBOX 2000
Panasonic POSTBOX
Version 5.0: adds
multicamera editing,
AVI import/export
and 3 -D software
plug-in support to
f
AMS Neve Libra Live Series II: this digital broadcast console provides digital control and digital signal
path and full processing in every channel; it also
features multiformat surround sound options and 24bit analog and digital interfacing, as well as mix -minus,
GPI and other broadcast -specific facilities; 888 -8886383; 212 -965 -1400; fax: 212 -965 -3739; www.amsneve.corn
Circle (354) on Free Info Card
Video processor
Faroudja Laboratories DVP5000: automatically
upconverts 1080i HD signals to 1080p resolution;
automatically upconverts 480p signals to 960p, while
720p signals pass through the device; standard 480i
sources can be upconverted to 1080p, creating a film like image from any source; 408 -735 -1492; fax: 408 -7351571; www.faroudja.com
Circle (489) on Free Info Card
Multivideo processor
Extron MVP 104: allows
Panasonic's post production edit suite,
POSTBOX 2000; also features the option to see multiple
keys up to 99 tracks; 800 -528-8601; 323 -436 -3500; fax:
323- 436 -3660; www.panasonic.com /broadcast
Circle (356) on Free Info Card
user to display up
or PAL video signals simultaneously on a single
screen; each video window may be independently
scaled, positioned or overlapped so the user may
display different window configurations such as picture
in picture or quad splitting; provides 44 factory/ user
presets for convenient one-touch selection of different
windowing configurations; 800 -633 -9876; 714 -491 -1500;
fax: 714 -491 -1517; www.extron.com
NTSC
Circle (488) on Free Info Card
1 1
4
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
to four
Spotting the best
Scan Converter
should always be
this easy.
Serial
Digital
Output
(4:2:2)
Computer
-To-
Video
111...!
!ICY
rwicroso
Broadcast
Quality
Ouput
You're looking at the best autosync
video scan converter available anywhere.
The CGC -4000 can turn your high resolution desktop workstation, PC or Mac
presentations into broadcast -quality videos.
features:
CGC -4000
Broadcast -Quality
NTSC /PAL
RS -232
Output
Interface
Full 24 -bit Digital Signal Processing
True Autosync Operation
Dynamic Pan & Zoom
Optional SDI Output (4:2:2)
Betacam,
S -Video
(Y/C) Outputs
Auto & User -Selectable Filtering
RS -232
Full
3 -year
see a free
for
PC
Applications
visit
Warranty
Circle (155) on Free Info Card
www.folsom.com.
online at:
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H
Enhance Your Image
application.
2000 Folsom Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
us
Folsom
Enhance your image, put a Folsom Video
Scan Converter to work for your next
c
demonstration,
or to order, call us or
Interface
15 -pin Connector
get information,
To
1- 888 -414 -SCAN
1
1
tel 916.859.2500 fax 916.859 2515
101 -A Trade Center Drive Rancho Cordova, CA 95670
Asset management system
Television news solution
Harris NewSource: this module supports both MOS
and Betacart protocols; it combines the Louth automation system with a newsroom computer to allow broadcasters to control news servers, VTRs and cart machines
from one system; changes made in the program rundown are instantly transferred from the newsroom
computers to the automation system, which then
reorders the playlists for all devices it controls; 800-6220022; 513 -459 -3400; fax: 513 -459 -3890; www.harris.com
Avica Vecta AMS:
is an NT -based system providing
backup and archiving to standard SCSI devices,
C2 -level security and multiple-criteria database searches; also offers seamless integration with Vecta DTV
Stillstore; users can view stored images from remote
clients through an Internet browser and utilize centralized reference storage and archival of still and graphic
images; 800 -706-0077; 818 -846-0589; fax: 818 -846 -0175;
www.avicatech.com
Circle (355) on Free Info Card
Circle (361) on Free Info Card
Broadband and production/broadcast
video servers
75S/ BNC connector
Bomar SHADOW: is a true 7512 BNC connector,
engineered for use with commonly used coaxial cables;
the connectors provide superior VSWR, impedance and
return loss at 3GHz; 973-347 -4040; fax: 973 -347-2111;
www.bomarinterconnect.com
Circle (357) on Free Info Card
Time-lapse recorder
Hitachi
SR -800: uses a
removable DVD-RAM drive
as its recording medium with a PEG compression
system; the unit has recording capacity of 2.6GB
and a maximum recording time of 1500 hours;
allows users to determine any combination of
compression ratio, pixel count and recording time;
other features include one -shot and repeat recording, as well as pre -alarm recording for scenes shot
before the alarm signal starts; record modes can
also be remotely controlled via an RS -232C or RS485 port; 516 -921 -7200; fax: 516 -496-3718;
www.hdal.com
Circle (358) on Free Info Card
Widescreen LCD monitor
SGI 1600SW: this LCD monitor features a SuperWide
screen capable of displaying two pages side by side; has
three times the brightness and five times the contrast
of CRTs; it is the first photo-realistic monitor, with
110dpi and 1600x1024 resolution; the interface is all digital; 650 -960 -1980; fax: 650-933 -0819; www.sgi.com/
go /broadband
Circle (359) on Free Info Card
Zoom lens
Canon Digi Super 86xs: incorporates Canon's new
optical stabilization
technology to
eliminate
vibrations at a
frequency of up
to 10Hz; the new
lens system is 19
percent longer
than Canon's Digi
Super 70 lens
system, with a maximum focal length of 1600 mm with a
2X extender; 800 -321 -4388; 201 -816 -2900; fax: 201 -8162909; www.usa.canon.com
SGI Media Server: two new versions of SGI Media
Server, one designed for broadband and the other
for production and broadcast; both feature the
Origin server in an integrated solution; the broadband version utilizes Kasenna MediaBase media
streaming software to deliver content over the
Internet, enterprise and virtual private networks to
multiple client platforms; this version can also
deliver 100,000 high -quality MPEG streams daily;
the production and broadcast version supports
DVCPRO news format and is available in four channel and eight -channel configurations; it
manages video as data, distributing it over existing
LAN /WAN infrastructures; 650-960 -1980; fax: 650933 -0819; www.sgi.com /go /broadband
Circle (362) on Free Info Card
HD interface card
Computer Modules HD-SDI Master:
is a full -size
with interface applications
ranging from video editing workstations and video wall
to HD presentation; the card automatically adapts to
SMPTE-compliant PCI card
1035:601/59.941, 1080:601/59.941 /501, 1080:30P/29.97P/
25P/24P/23.976P and 720:60P/59.94P; also has 256MB
of memory to prevent dropped frames and a built -in
relocking function with genlock; the latter allows it to
be a repeater for long distance runs; 408 -496-1881; fax:
408 -496 -1886; www.compumodules.com
Circle (363) on Free Info Card
Waiver-analysis tool
Decisionmark Corporation WaiverTV: satellite subscribers who feel they cannot receive an adequate
signal from their provider can request a waiver
allowing them to receive a satellite- delivered feed from
broadcasters; according to Congress' Satellite Home
Viewer Improvement Act satellite carriers can forward
these requests to broadcasters, who must act on a
request within 30 days of receipt or the request will be
considered granted; satellite companies can use
Decisionmark's electronic waiver system to forward
these subscriber waiver requests to broadcasters, who
can then access the requests using WaiverTV; 800 -3657629; 319 -365 -5597; fax: 319- 365 -5694;
www.decisionmark.com
Circle (360) on Free Info Card
1
16
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (364) on Free Info Card
THE AIDEN 400UDR
DIIIADCA$TJIHF WITH ALL
63 User -selectable Frequencies
(794- 806Mhz)
THE OPXION
Crystal- controlled and PLL- Synthesized
Tone code squelch
Dual antennas with BNC connectors
XLR output with volume control
Headphone Output with volume control
Operates on 4 AA or 12V DC
LED indicators for A or B antenna status,
X
AF peak, Power On /Reception
status
_
o
41XT Plug -in transmitter to
use with your favorite
low impedance
wired microphone.
-T_
41B1* Available with
omni (EX- 503H).
uni- directional
(EX- 503UH) or SONY
ECM -44H.
41HT Uni -directional
handheld.Also available
with AUDIX OM 3 capsule.
.J AZDEN
147 New Hyde Park Road, Franklin Square, NY 11010
(516) 328-7500
E
DIVERSFIN
UHF TRUE
RECEIVER
-Mail
FAX
(516) 328 -7506
- AZDENUS @AOL.COM
Azden Home Page:
www.azdencorp.com
Circle (156) on Free Into Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Windows to the Web
8VSB
transla-
tor
moo -_-
Ktech
Telecom Inc
44,
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.5w.
su,nt0
J
VSBREMOD-200: receives an 8VSB signal on -air or via cable,
demodulates to baseband data, and corrects multipath
errors by Forward error correction and equalization
techniques; the translator then remodulates the
baseband data into a new 8VSB signal; 818 -361 -2248;
fax: 818 -270-2010; www.ktechtelecom.com
I'.crtr \rrwel0_;..
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Circle (369) on Free Info Card
Colter,
www.rocketnetwork.com
Rocket Network, Inc.
is the first and only company to provide
Internet Recording Studios where audio professionals can meet
online to collaborate and produce original audio from anywhere in
the world. The Companysrevolutionary network provides a costeffective and convenient complement to traditional studios by
reducing production expenses and increasing creative options for
professional -quality audio in TV. film, radio. music and Websites.
H D effects system
Accom Abekas HDveous: this high -definition effects
system is available as an upgrade to DVeous system and
features an identical control surface and interface; it also
offers identical features for easy transition from standard definition to high definition; features include RGB/
YUV color correction, target frame store and SurfaceFX
with dual light sources; can be configured as a single twin
or a dual twin channel system; 650-328 -3818; fax: 650327-2511; www.accom.com
Circle (370) on Free Info Card
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Digital video and audio editing system
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Circle (371) on Free Info Card
www.folsom.com
Folsom Research: Folsom Research offers
a complete line of
scan converters, video format converters, scalers, and other
image processing products. Our easy -to- navigate website
features detailed product specifications, including downloadable
files and articles. The site is continuously updated and is
always full of new information. To get more information visit
www.folsom.com or call toll free at 888 -414 -7226. Come see
us at NAB 2000, Booth #M8532.
Front Page Neefs
VIDEO
(OILING ON YOUR PC.
EAST, CREATIVE
400
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www.pinnaclesys.com
Pinnacle Systems: Pinnacle Systems' broadcast products give
professionals the cutting edge tools needed to create dazzling
productions faster and more affordably than ever before. These
innovative digital video manipulation tools perform a variety of onair, production, and post -production functions such as the
addition of special effects, image management, capture, storage,
and play-out, as well as graphics and title creation.
118
12 -bit digitizer
Forte) ow ADC-331: digitizes an analog component
input (RGB, Betacam or SMPTE component format)
with 12 -bit precision and generates three SDI outputs; it
operates with either 525 or 625 line inputs; EDH
insertion is provided on the SDI output; it also provides
a component analog input channel when used with the
INTEGRITY serial digital router; 800 -530 -5542; 404 -8859555; fax: 404-885 -1501; www.forteldtv.com
Circle (372) on Free Info Card
P?!"llllf
orn., w,n«1. Sass
Sonic Foundry Vegas Video: a multitrack digital video
and audio editing system that provides tools such as
compositors, filters and transitions with real -time
editing and rendering; saves to all popular media
formats; 608 -256 -3133; fax: 608 -256 -7300;
www.sonicfoundry.com
Broadcast Engineering
May2000
Virtual set with NT technology
Orad CyberSet NT: CyberSet NT incorporates NT
technology from Accom; is designed to deliver a low cost system that allows free camara movement and live
virtual set rendering; is configured as a plug -in to 3D
Studio MAX; features live video /O, depth key and
texture processing tools for a photo-realistic look; 212931 -6723; fax: 212- 931 -6730; www.orad -ny.com
I
Circle (373) on Free Info Card
2x2 video/audio changeover switch
A.F. Associates COS -1A: the changeover switch
monitors incoming feeds such as satellite, fiber or
microwave, and switches from a malfunctioning feed to
an operational one; a coax control network interface
allows up to 256 units to be connected to single or
multiple monitoring /control panels for automatic or
remote switching; features operational cards including
New Rules Call for New Tools
MediaStream 1600
Introducing
a
MediaStream 700
MediaStream 300
new member of Pinnacle Systems' comprehensive line of Broadcast Servers.
MediaStream Servers now available in 3,
LAN or WAN. Your
7
or 16 channels. Network them together over
options are limitless!
Need mission -critical reliability to support your play -to -air?
MediaStream delivers
Our wide range of server options result in quality productions, proven reliability, tighter integration and increased
flexibility. Plus, our world -class support and services organization will keep you on -air 24x7. Now you can pick the best
server for each of your server needs. And because we partner with the best, choose your favorite automation software.
Affordable. Reliable. Upgradeable. That's Pinnacle Systems...
( ( (
( ( ( (
The Better Way to Broadcast
(all today for complete Product or Demo information on our line of Broadcast Servers:
Northern Europe (UK): 44 (0) 1895 4242 28 Within the Continental US: 1(800) 963 -3279
Or visit our web site at
1
) ) ) )
) )
P
PINNACLE
SYSTEMS
The Choice For Digital Video
www.pinnaclesys.com/broadcast
Circle (157) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
video detection card; 201- 767 -1200; fax: 201 -7848637; www.afassoc.com
a
Circle (375) on Free Info Card
HD virtual set
Radamec HD Scenario: new HD version of Radamec's
Virtual Scenario System provides easy upgrade for
current users of the system; incorporates real -time
HD or upconverted video for photo-realistic backgrounds; also features a high -definition chromakeyer;
877 -RADAMEC; 732 -246-0906; fax: 732 -448 -1184;
www.radamec.com
Circle (376) on Free Info Card
Video on demand system
Lysis VOD solution: allows for the management
of ondemand digital TV services through catalog
management, asset management, and rights and reporting management systems; users of the systems can
manage catalog items from acquisition to online publication and distribute encoded assets; the solution also
enables the handling of intellectual property and
provides service performance analysis and reports on
content providers; Lysis' VOD solution is integrated to
the Lysis Content Management platform; +41 21 341 97
00; fax: +41 21 341 97 97; www.lysis.com
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Serial digital character generator
Inscriber LIVE!Logo: new
NT -based serial digital
character generator from
Inscriber offers users tools
for scheduling and display
of station branding,
Digital
cinema pre-processor
tagging and advertisements; using the
system, broadcasters can
Miranda Technology DT-4101: features
work with
complex multiple element
screens incorporating logos, clocks, timers, text strings
and audio clips; 800-363 -3400; 519-570 -9111; fax: 519570- 9140; www.inscriber.com
an MPEG
artifact reduction system, noise-reduction technology,
detail enhancement and multiformat conversion; it
allows users to enhance video before scaling or upconversion for display in large screen or digital projectors;
514 -333 -1772; fax: 514-333 -9828; www.miranda.com
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Interactive TV software applications
Limited Value @TV: this suite of interactive TV
software applications enables broadcasters to offer
NDS
interactive programming; the suite's iADs advertising application allows for targeted advertising to
viewers via a smart card in their set -top box; other
applications include SportsActive for interactive
sports viewing and a system for TV commerce that
will allow users to order products in real time; TV
commerce transactions are secured by NDS' Open VideoGuard conditional access solution; +44 20
8476 8000; fax: +44 20 8476 8100; www.nds.com
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High -resolution switcher
Folsom Research Screen Pro 8: offers transition effects including cut, dissolve and wipes; clean,
crisp video scaling is provided by two internal scaling
engines; 888 -414 -SCAN; 916 -859 -2500; fax: 916 -8592515; www.folsom.com
Cell analysis software
Tektronix Cell Analyzer: new
cell analysis software from
Tektronix serves as an add-on package for the Tektronix
K1205 Signalling Protocol Analyzer; combines functions
of Actix' Abis Analyzer with those of the K1205; allows
users to monitor the radio performance of a base
station and solve radio frequency problems; can be
used to perform dropped call analysis and monitor cell
statistics; 800 -426 -2200; 503 -627 -7111; fax: 503 -222-
1542; www.tektronix.com
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Universal power sensor
Anritsu Microwave Measurement MA2481A: designed
for use with ML2400A series power meters; operates at
10MHz to 6GHz and allows measurements to be made
on wide bandwidth signals including W-CDMA, multi tone and HDTV; offers true RMS detection, low power
sensitivity and wide dynamic range; 800 -ANRITSU;
www.global.anritsu.com
Circle (386) on Free Info Card
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MPEG -2 encoder with DVB interface
Exatel Visual Systems DVN -2000: professional
quality, stand-alone encoder accepts signals including
composite, S-video and SDI in PAL and NTSC formats;
offers MPEG -2 encoding at a variable bit rate of
256Kb /s- 24Mb/s with a DVB interface; provides two
balanced analog audio inputs, as well as AES /EBU
digital channels; an RS232 serial interface enables
remote control applications; 781- 221 -7400; fax: 781 -2217407
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120
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
iIityau
olumbine
JDS LinkServer: links information between
DS-DAL automation systems and UDS traffic systems,
reating a unified station database; results in near real Ime information exchange between the traffic schedle and the on -air schedule; 303 -237 -4000; fax: 303-237 boss; www.cjds.com
Circle (387) on Free Info Card
We're eVoMÇ.
Watch the transformation at
www.mediacentral.com
You've been with
us
from the beginning, but we've only just begun.
©a-flimi
o
m
www.mediacentral.com
Your one -click resource for media tools, news and community.
Circle (158) on Free Into Card
Receive/transmit antenna
Video access demultiplexer
Artel Video Systems Cross Stream 155D:
MPEG
video switching platform providing access to ATM
and IP networks; platform is scalable, re-configurable, and capable of accepting feeds from satellite
receivers, encoders and transcoders; combines a
network edge device and an MPEG switch; allows for
jitter-free local video connections; offers DVB-ASI
and DVB -SPI interfaces for MPEG /ATM environments, as well as an OC -3 network interface and a
10 /100BaseT Ethernet port; 800 -225 -0228; 508-3038200; fax: 508 -303-8197; www.artel.com
Andrew NewsFlash
SNG antenna: Ku -band, 1.2 -meter
vehicle mountable, receive /transmit satellite antenna
for use in newsgathering; operates in receive band of
10.95GHz to 12.75GHz and transmit band of 13.75GHz
to 14.5GHz; 800 -DIAL -4-RF; 708 -349 -3300; fax: 708 -3495444; www.andrew.com
Circle (390) on Free Info Card
Software module
mSoft Inc Pro /Spotter
- Film Version:
updates the
TV version of Pro /Spotter for the ServerSound media
retrieval system; new scene and reel levels were added
to original functions including an intuitive audition and
spotting process; 818-716-7081; fax: 818 -716 -0547;
www.msoftinc.com
Circle (388) on Free Info Card
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Video processor
Sarnoff Acadia
offering complex real -time video
processing at 80 GOPS; functions include stabilizing
shaky video, performing full stereo 3D scene analysis,
and detecting and tracking moving targets; designed
for use in PCs, TVs and set -top boxes, also available as a
PCI board for Windows-based computers; 609 -7343178; fax: 609 -734 -2040; www.sarnoff.com
I: chip
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PCI -based MPEG -2 decoder
Vela Cineview Pro XL: new addition to the CineView
family of MPEG -2 decoders; provides 4:2:2 profile
MPEG -2 playback at 50Mb /s; it combines this video
decoding feature with dual stereo audio decoding of
Musicam and Dolby digital, which allows multichannel
audio playback; also allows simultaneous play of MPEG 2 video on VGA and NTSC or PAL monitors; supports
SDI and analog composite outputs; 727 -507 -5300; fax:
727 -507 -5311; www.vela.com
Circle (392) on Free Info Card
Router control system
WHAT AUTOMATION
BACKUP?
Leitch PageBuilder: provides hot -linking of
photos, drawings and other images for easy
routing of audio and video signals; graphic
interface allows touchscreen and computer routing
for audio and video selections; 800 -231 -9673; 757548 -2300; fax: 757 -548 -4088; www.leitch.com
Circle (393) on Free Info Card
Uncompressed HDTV board
Digital Video HDStationPRO: DVS has added
support for 2K high- resolution output to its HDTV
board, in addition to support for HD and post-production standards such as 1035i/1080i, 720p and 1080p24/
30; the board includes analog HD monitoring output
with overlay as well as real -time digital color space
converter to support YUV/4:2:2 and RGB/4:4:4 data
storage modules; RS -422 ports interface for VTR master
control and VTR emulation purposes and Sony RS-422
nine-pin protocol; slow motion, 3:2 pulldown and 24/25
conversion are supported as well; 818 -241 -8680; fax:
818 -241 -8684; www.digitalvideosystems.com
DVS
Circle (394) on Free Info Card
Video servers
Compaq AlphaServer DS20E /ES40: have been
enhanced with 21264A "EV67" processors; dual data rate secondary cache has been increased from 4MB to
8MB; total memory has been doubled for faster
BACKUP YOUR AUTOMATION SYSTEM
IN CASE OF FAILURE. LOAD AND PLAY
ONE CUP OR A GROUP OF CLIPS.
416 at (818) 25á41t98 sr visit ö N Ils mi: inim.Ofcaatrak.ca.
p)M-
processing and data retrieval; 800 -345 -1518; fax: 218 -5148797
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1
22
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (396) on Free Info Card
Outputs:
CH2 - CH69
DVB-ASI
:`DVB-SPI (LVDS)
SMPTE-310M
DVB -ASI
DVB -SPI (LVDS)
SMPTE -310M
ATSC Video Decoding To 60MBP
RGBHV (1080i, 720p, 480p, 48
HD -SDI Option (SMPTE- 292m)'
NTSC (SDI, S- Video, BNC)
AC -3 Audio (XLR)
Analog Audio L&R (XLR)
VGA Monitor
RF
PSIP Display
EPG Display
8 -VSB RF
t
f
RENCL RECEIVER
<MANNri
15501 San Fernando Mission Blvd. Ste 100 Mission Hills, Ca 91345
Phone (818) 361 -2248 Fax (818) 270 -2010
e -mail: [email protected] web: www.ktechtelecom.com
0
2000 ktech telecommunications, Inc.
Circle (160)
on Free
Info
Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Coax adapter
Telemetrics 55B- CA -PT: single cable connection which
attaches directly to robotic pan /tilt mechanisms,
eliminating the need for multiple cables; provides
video, audio and control signals; may be used with a
TM -9255 coax base station to power and control a
camera along with a pan /tilt mechanism; 800 -424-9626;
201 -848 -9818; fax: 201 -848 -9819;
www.telemetricsinc.com
Multiple downstream keyer
Avtek Systems TrikKey Multiple Downstream Keyer:
this keyer allows three separate Downstream key
sources to be keyed over a background in one compact
chassis; it has its own A/B vision mixer which can be
used with the Keyers for a composite transition; in
addition, it features 12 -bit internal processing, an 8/10 bit I/O and a full preview facility; 800-423 -0913;
978 -422 -3466; fax: 978 -422 -5258
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Convertible digital camera
Panasonic AW -E800 16:9/4:3 convertible camera:
2/3-inch, 520,000 -pixel, three -CCD DSP color camera
offers true native 16:9/4:3 aspect ratio; "open- slot"
architecture allows use of plug- and-shoot feature cards
to allow users to select the functions they need;
other features include 850 lines of horizontal
resolution, 63dB signal -to-noise ratio, SMPTE color bars
and a seven -setting, high-speed shutter; also available
are six optional feature cards providing users options
such as component video output and the ability to use
a five -inch viewfinder; 800 -528-8601; 323 -436 -3500; fax:
323 -436 -3660; www.panasonic.com /broadcast
HDSDI standard converter
Astro Systems SC -7033: an HDTV SDI standards
converter for bidirectional conversion among 1080i,
720p and 1035i; frame synchronization between
59.94Hz and 60Hz is also supported along with serial
digital /F; 818 -244 -1806; fax: 818 -244 -1878;
I
www.astro -systems.com
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Custom news truck
Frontline
NT-7A: seven -rack Ku -band video uplink SNG
built on a Sterling chassis; features an Andrew 2.4 meter
antenna, custom dual path analog and digital RF
system; 727 -573 -0400; fax: 727 -571 -3295;
www.frontlinecomm.com
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HDTV upconverters
'
É
YEM HUC-1000/HUC -2000: part of YEM's series
of HDTV upconverters; offer real -time conversion
of component digital signals into digital HDTV
signals; the user can select 1035i, 1080i or 720p
formats at 59.94Hz and 60Hz; the HUC -1000 is the
upgrade for YEM's HSC- 1125D1A and provides
improved resolution through new architecture
and image processing technology; the HUC -2000
fills the blanking area with text or graphics using
either an external device connected through a
601 input or an internally -generated signal; other
features of the HUC -2000 include five modes for
easy picture sizing and positioning, a SMPTE
274M color matrix, and standard D1 -SDI input
connectors; 310 -544 -9343; fax: 310 -544-9363;
Production switcher/routing switcher
interface
Switching Systems Tiger 144x144: an interface
between the Tiger routing switcher and Ross Video's
Synergy production switcher eliminates the need for a
router control panel in the production control room;
Synergy displays router mnemonics for all router
sources from the Tiger's internal mnemonic tables;
router sources can then be saved and recalled by
Synergy to facilitate router source selection during live
production; 800 -328 -1008; 516 -845 -5020; fax: 516 -8455023; www.pesa.com
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124
Broadcast Engineering
Clarion TD Series: a high -power, top -mount
antenna; favorable for omnidirectional applications,
delivering an excellent signal and premium performance; available with custom or standard azimuth
patterns; 800 -762 -7743; 814 -472 -5436; fax: 814 -472 -5552;
www.swr -rf.com
SWR
Circle (404) on Free Info Card
Stadium lens
Band Pro Film & Video Abakus HD Stadium 3.5mm
f1.8 lens: in a B4 mount; 210 -degree diagonal angle of
view and controlled distortion make it ideal for opening shots at stadium sporting events; 888 -BANDPRO;
818-841 -9655; fax: 818 -841 -7649; www.bandpro.com
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Interactive TV creation environment
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PESA
Top -mount antenna
Canal + Technologies Studio +: integrated development environment for the creation of interactive TV
applications based on the Java programming language;
+33- 1- 71715715; fax: +33- 1- 71715578; www.canalplustechnologies.com
Circle (406) on Free Info Card
Media asset management system
Imagine Products ImageMine V 2.0: newest version
offers upgrades of ImageLibrary, ImageLog, ImageBrowse and ImageTrack; integrated modules coordinate activities related to media archive, including
logging and cataloging, searching, browsing, and
tracking functions; 317 -843 -0706; fax: 317-843 -0807;
www.imagineproducts.com
Circle (407) on Free Info Card
May2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
generate
reueraue
while the competition waits.
Improve your workflow
with a SAN solution from Ciprico.
Time
is
money in the fast -paced worlds of entertainment and
broadcasting. You
can't afford to waste either one with inefficient, unnecessary file transfers.
Now you can maximize production time. Speed your operation's workflow. And
increase your revenue potential with
a
totally integrated SAN
solution
from
Ciprico, the leader in direct -attached and networked storage solutions for the visual
imaging market.
Ciprico's superior line of SAN solutions are fast, reliable, easy to install, and ideal
for
work groups
where time saved means revenue gained.
Visit our web site at
www.ciprico.com
companies maximize their capabilities by
to see how we help visual imaging
streamlining project workflow.
Or call 1.800.727.4669
CIPRICO
Protecting your image
Circle (161) on Free Info Card
Ciprico Inc. Headquarters:
612.551.4000 Fax: 612.551 .4002
2800 Campus Drive, Plymouth, Minnesota 55441
Tokyo
Singapore
Ciprico International, Ltd.: United Kingdom
www.americanradiohistory.com
Lens accessories
Animation plug -in
l
1
I
Cambridge Animation Systems Inkworks: a Maya
plug -in that give 3D animation a cartoon cel look in
keeping with the flat painted and colored outline
style of a traditional cartoon, 3D animation can be
exported in Animo compatible format either as 3D
models or as 2D pre -painted Animo levels; +44 1223
578 100; fax: +44 1223 578 101; www.cam -ani.co.uk
Video distribution amps
Netcom PatchAmp:
a combination of five 24- position
patchpanels and 24 1x5 distribution amplifiers internally within a 14RU frame for digital video and AES
applications; features 7512 impedance HD frame, low
power consumption and hot -swappable, redundant
power supply; 201 -837 -8424; fax: 201 -837 -8384
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www.centuryoptics.com
Circle (415) on Free Info Card
Calzone Case Company Escort, Ultima and Proline:
Escort line provides maximum protection, exceeds ATA
specs; features heavy gauge aluminum trim and recessed handles and latches; Ultima Series offers lightweight flight case protection; features aluminum
extrusion, metal corners and polytolene laminate;
Proline Series uses double-angle construction as Escort
Series; 800 -243 -5152; 203 -367 -5766; fax: 203 -336 -4406;
Circle (418) on Free Info Card
Video card for Windows
Viewgraphics VideoPump D1:
GL1: high -quality lens accessories include .55x Fixed
Angle Adapter, .65x Lightweight wide angle converter
and 16:9 widescreen adapter for higher res images; 800228 -1254; 818 -766 -3715; fax: 818 -505 -9865;
Camera cases
Circle (408) on Free Into Card
i
Century Precision Optics Digital Series for Cannon
a real -time,
uncompressed serial digital video with embedded audio I/O
solution for Windows; video I/O is performed to and
from standard files within the standard operating
system; 650- 903 -4900; fax: 650- 969 -6388;
www.viewgraphics.com
Circle (410) on Free Info Card
Graphic board
Compix Media HD-TV Graphic Board: an HDTV
graphic overlay board designed to incorporate VideoCG character generator features; 310 -320 -8937; fax:
310 -320 -8938; www.compixmedia.com
Circle (411) on Free Info Card
Character generator
Compix Media VideoCG Character Generator:
a
broadcast -quality PC- solution character generator;
newly integrated hardware features digital overlaying
with eight -bit Alpha Channel solution, 32 -bit software
with digital I/O and preview/program output; 310-3208937; fax: 310 -320 -8938; www.compixmedia.com
HMI lights
K5600 Joker -Bug
800: comparable
to a 3200/4000W
quartz fixture but
with a power
draw of 12.5
amps; offers
flexible optical
configurations by
achieving spot to
flood ratios of
55:1 with beam
angles from 45 to
five degrees; 800662 -5756; 818 -7625756; fax: 818 -7626629; www.k5600.com
Circle (419) on Free Info Card
HMI lighting
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system
Network infrastructure
DataDirect Networks SAN DataDirector: an intelligent
network infrastructure device that incorporates key
components of current SANs into a single integrated,
reliable, plug- and -play appliance making it easier to
build a SAN; offers high- bandwidth access to shared
data needs in broadband applications; 800 -322 -4744;
818- 700 -7600; fax: 818 -700 -7601;
www.datadirectnet.com
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with beam angles from as
wide as 55 degrees; 800 -662 -5756; 818 -762 -5756;
fax: 818- 762 -6629; www.k5600.com
80:1
AES/EBU audio distributor
to
RDL (Radio Design Labs) RU -AED4: designed for
installation requiring high-quality distribution of
a digital AES /EBU signal; single AES/EBU input is
decoded, reclocked and retransmitted to four individually buffered transformer isolated AES/EBU outputs;
as
800 -281 -2683; 805 -684-5415; fax: 805 -684 -9316;
www.rdlnet.com
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126
Broadcast Engineering
K5600 Joker Bug 400:
comparable to a 1500/
2000W quartz fixture
but with a power draw
of 5.5 amps; offers
flexible optical configurations for location
lighting by achieving
spot to flood ratios of
narrow as five degrees
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle (420) on Free Info Card
Check out hundreds of great
deals at www.dovebid.com
DoveBid announces live Webcast auctions!
Visit www.dovebid.com to receive Webcast e-mail updates.
Video Editing
Audio Mixing
Video Recording
Audio Recording
Video Projectors
Audio Processing
Video Testing
DAT Decks
Professional
Loudspeakers
Open Reel Decks
Densitometers
Rewinds
BID DAILY ON LIVE WEBCAST AND ON-LINE AUCTIONS.
Circle (163) on Free Info Card
DOVEBID
VHF digital and analog transmitters
Technosystem VHF Band I and Ill SS Analog and
Digital TV transmitters: these transmitters are compliant with ITU DVB -T and ATSC DTV standards; they are
available in single and multifrequency networks versions;
feature serial and parallel inputs, automatic bit -rate
adaptation, and front panel and remote control in
digital broadcasting; for increased reliability, they have
one power supply for each power amplifier and full
protection of each power amplifier and power supply;
offer stability of performance under temperature and
power variation; +39 06 225871; fax: +39 06 2282355;
www.technosystem.it
Circle (416) on Free Info Card
Audio meter panels
Systems /Convergence Corp MP-4 Audio
Meter Panels: four independent VU or PPM meters;
feature four XLR connectors; offer four independent
input circuits and precision buffered, balanced, active
bridging amplifiers; come in any combination of VU or
B &B
PPM meters; 818 -551 -5858; fax: 818 -247 -3487
Circle (417) on Free Info Card
Rolling cargo case
a HDTV
pigtail with
a
SMPTE standard connector on one end and an 18" tail
terminated in two FC connectors and one multipin
connector; allows for ease of installation and
maintenance by quickly adapting the hybrid; 800522 -2253; 305 -899-0900; fax: 305 -895-8178;
www.nemal.corn
Circle (425) on Free Info Card
AES/EBU audio converter
RDL (Radio Design Labs) RU -AEC1: designed for
installations that need high -quality analog audio from
an AES /EBU digital audio source; input is 110f2 terminated; audio outputs are available on XLR connectors and
on the full -size barrier block; 800-281 -2683; 805 -6845415; fax: 805-684 -9316; www.rdlnet.com
Circle (427) on Free Info Card
Lens converters/accessories
Century Precision Optics Telephoto Cine to B-4 Lens
Mount adapter: allows Century- or Universal-mounted
telephoto lenses to be used by Sony HD cameras;
800 -228 -1254; 818 -766 -3715; fax: 818 -505 -9865;
Lightware RC1042:
uses new materials to make an ENG
kit ideal for an Arri 650/30 setup with accessories; 800211 -9001; 503 -641 -7873; fax: 503 -643 -9756;
www.lightware.com
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V
Pigtail connector
Nemal Electronics FO- 100PT:
www.centuryoptics.com
Circle (428) on Free Info Card
ENG camera bag
Petrol Camera Cage: lightweight EFP /ENG camera
bag featuring generous padding over a rugged
internal skeleton; comes in three sizes
for larger
DV camcorders, for standard -size EFP cameras and
for HD rigs; 972 3 6731891; fax: 972 3 6731894;
-
compression systems
Faraday Technology ADC -100R: for digitizing
high -quality analog video; can be used where a
10- or 12 -bit output is required; incorporates the
latest in analog filter design technology, A/D
conversion and digital filtering in one module;
www.petrolbags.com
Circle (429) on Free Info Card
EFP camera bag
+44 1782 661 501; fax: +44 1782 630 101;
Petrol Power Bag: includes rugged internal skeleton
www.faradaytech.co.uk
and an internal battery so camera can be demonstrated at airport security without removing it from its case;
fits most EFP cameras and meets carry-on regulations;
972 3 6731891; fax: 972 3 6731894;
Circle (422) on Free Info Card
Signal splitters
Faraday Technology SDI Video and AES, ASI
signal splitters: provides easy and low cost
solution to the problem of providing two SDI and
AES feeds from one source; for short runs of cable it
can replace digital distribution amplifiers; +44 1782
661 501; fax: +44 1782 630 101;
www.faradaytech.co.uk
Circle (423) on Free Into Card
www.petrolbags.com
Circle (430) on Free Info Card
Soft side video case
Lightware XLI, XLS: utilizes
an offset curved
zipper; provides photographer with opportunities
for easy travel and packing of camera and accessories; 800 -211 -9001; 503-641 -7873; fax: 503 -643 -9756;
www.lightware.com
Circle (431) on Free Info Card
HMI/MSR fixtures
Lowel Light Mfg DP Daylight System: these
HMI /MSR fixtures incorporate the design features
and accessory system from DP Light; in addition,
they include a flicker -free triple output lightweight
ballast that can be used to power a 200 -, 400- or
575 -watt fixture with input voltages between 90
and 260v; they feature quick setup and extraordinary
focusing range; 718- 921 -0600; fax: 718 -921 -0303;
www.lowel.com
Weather data system
Weather Central A.D.O.N.I.S MicroCast: this
system provides station -controlled, market -specific,
high -resolution forecasts; it features advanced
visualization of future weather imagery and includes 60-hour forecast duration and output at 15minute timesteps; 608 -274 -5789; fax: 808-278 -2748;
WXC.com
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128
Broadcast Engineering
May2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Nothing beats a new technology
analog scope to get you ready for
ANALOG SCOPES PROVIDE AN OPTIMLM DISPLAY OF
VIDEO WAVEFORMS WITH SUPER-FAST RESPONSE TIME
AND NO ALIASING. THAT MAKES THEM THE IDEAL
CHOICE WHEN MAKING CRITICAL VIDEO MEASUREMENTS.
TRIGGERS FOR PAL/SECAM, NTSC, HDTV
`I
VIDEO PEDESTAL (BACK PORCH) CLAMPING
FIELD AND LINE TRIGGERS
SIMULTANEOUS DUAL CURSOR MEASUREMENTS
DELAYED TIMEBASE SWEEPS
ONLY LECROY OFFERS NEW TECHNOLOGY ANALOG
SCOPES. THEY ARE IDEALLY SUITED FOR TODAY'S
HIGH-SPEED, COMPLEX SIGNALS. VISIT OUR WEB
SITE FOR DETAILS AND SPECIFICAT OMS.
Le Croy
Circle (164) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
www.lecroy.ccm/tm/products/analog
Electronics
Option for nonlinear editor
reference
books
Publishing
Electronics
C.1
tutorial
books:
The
Transistor
Handbook and
The Diode
Handbook are
the latest
additions to this series of technical books written
for the engineer and technician in the electronics or
electrical industries; both books contain practical
theory and circuit -level applications; 913 -764 -3577;
fax: 913- 764 -8909
Circle (380) on Free Info Card
Mwr iftilpipillke
Fast Multimedia FAST601 InTime: this multiprocessor board
requires the FAST -Studio XL software option, which delivers multiprocessor control; offers parallel
processing capacity to accelerate all editing
effects; 800 -249 -FAST; 425 -354 -2002; fax: 425 -3542005; www.fastmultimedia.com
Circle (367) on Free Info Card
Software en ha ncements
for Audicy
Orban Audicy 3.0: this software
update for the Audicy digital audio
workstation supports five new types
of digital effects, including Chorus and Flanging
effects, dual -mono Digital Delay and a "Stereo
Toolkit," which acts as a center channel "vocal
eliminator" for some stereo music; the new software
also offers users a mono-to-stereo synthesizer and
the ability to create up to 20 custom presets for
each class of effects; users can also bundle all
elements in a full -multitrack production into a
single file; 510- 351 -3500; fax: 510- 351 -0500;
www.orban.com
Circle (368) on Free Info Card
Encoder
Scientific -Atlanta PowerVU Plus
Originator: now shipping from
Scientific -Atlanta, the encoder
incorporates the technology of the
PowerVU system; allows users to originate digitally
compressed programming with one box; operators
Modular frame systems
interface
through
Lighthouse Digital Systems Modular II: available modules include SDV
to Fiber, Fiber to SDV, AES to Fiber,
Fiber to AES, AJA 10 -bit NTSC to Fiber,
Fiber to AJA 10 -bit NTSC, Analog Audio
to AES Fiber and AES Fiber to Analog Audio; one RU
frame holds four modules, two RU frames hold 16
modules
14 modules with redundant P /S; 800 -3238287; fax: 530 -272 -8289; www.lighthousedigital.com
-
Circle (365) on Free Info Card
an integral
video source
monitor;
770 -9036057; fax:
770 -903 -6464; www.sciatl.com
Circle (374) on Free Info Card
Datastorage systems
Character generator software
Lacie Limited 6GB & 18GB
Pinnacle Rocket for FXDeko: a
software option that allows users to
enhance titles and create sophisticated business graphics using both 2D
and 3D elements including slabs, line
Pocket -Drive hard drives:these
charts, bar graphs and clocks; graphics can be
manipulated in real time in 3D space and streamed
in real time directly to air by interfacing with live
data streams; uses template -basedapproach to
configure graphics for playback; 650 -526 -1600; fax:
650 -526 -1601; www.pinnaclesys.com
compact hard drives: these compact
hard drives offer both Universal Serial
Bus (USB) and FireWire (IEEE 1394) support; they
allow content developers and audio /video professionals to expand storage on USB- equipped computers and FireWire systems such as PowerBooks; users
also have the option of quickly sharing drive contents with others; the hard drives can serve as full
backup for internal drives; 503 -844 -4500; fax: 503844 -4508; www.lacie.com
Circle (366) on Free Info Card
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130
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Incomparable
Air Command
Live Broadcast
Breakthrough Real-TimeliVE
Production
Switcher
Preditor"
Comprehensive
Real -Time NLE
omplete Set of
raditional 2D and 3D
igital Video Effects
arp Geometry Effects
rap Live Video Onto Any
nimating 3D Shape
ideo Tracing Performs
eal -Time Reflections
nd Refractions
TitleWave"
reate Custom Effects and
Sub -Nanosecond
irtual Sets with Included
On -Air CG
ersonalFX Software
0:rerr;re)k
rinity's Warp Engine is
a
breakthrough DVE,
I,roviding real -time video manipulation never
een before at any price.
In
addition to
traditional 2D /3D
DVE and 32 -bit
animating
graphics, the
Warp Engine
gives you live
production capabilities never before possible
ich
I
I
as Warp Geometry FX and Video Tracing.
combination with Trinity's chroma keyer and
Paint, Animation
production requires
more than just
DVE, and
a
and Compositing
great
that's why
Trinity also includes
a
Deep Freeze.'
broadcast -quality
switcher and still store.
In
integrated, easy -to -use system at
far Trinity can take your productions.
For more information or
Toll -Free 1- 877 -752 -9598
s
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the highest broadcast-
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visit our web site or call today.
ito virtual sets, complete with
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The Complete
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their logos are trademarks of
ay Incorporated. All other trademarks are property of their respective holders. Play and Trinity are registered
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'.mponents are covered by U.S. Patent Numbers 5,872,565. 5,978.876, and 5.941,997: other patents pending.
..ep Freeze. Air Command. Prodder. Warp Engine, TrtleWave, Panamation and
Broadcast Production
Studio -In -A -Box
Circle (166) on Free Into Card
tit
F
BusinessWire
Business highlights from broadcast and production
BY LAURA COLLINS. EDITORIAL ASSISTANT
RT-SET recently acquired Evans &
Sutherland's Digital Video Division
and Mindset, its line of 3D PC- based,
open platform virtual studio
solutions. RT -SET will also
acquire Mindset's intellectual
property, development team,
customer base and distribution
Drake Automation). In the reorganization, all automation products of the
former Drake Automation and CJDS
\ICAS were
moved into the
new division.
Promotions
Screen Shot
Fujinon lens used in
"Strangers with Candy"
made in the
network.
course of the re-
organization
The CNN News Group is
include: Barry
using 30 dual -channel VR300
Goldsmith to
Joseph French
video servers from Leitch for
chief executive
its transition to server -based
officer, Joseph
video playback. Two of its networks
French to vice president of CPS DAL
are currently using the system, with
and John Wadle to director of softadditional networks to he brought ware engineering of CPS DAL.
online later.
Also, four of Leitch's NEWSFIash
NBC- owned -and- operated station
nonlinear editing systems and other WTVJ -TV
chose
Panasonic's
VR Technology desktop workstation
DVCPRO Smart Cart automated
solutions were purchased by ABC. record /playback system for their news
The equipment will provide a 22and commercial archiving. The syschannel solution for ABC's West Coast tem will be implemented fully when
NewsOne Affiliates News Service the station moves to a new digital
operations.
plant in the spring.
In other news, Sheridan College has
The Smart Carts hold DVCPRO
purchased Leitch's 14- channel news25Mb /s and 50Mb /s tapes, which will
room server with two integrated he used to maintain news and comNEWSFIash editors. The server will
mercial archives respectively. Both
be used as part of Sheridan College's
carts will also he programmed to
new postgraduate program in jourserve as backups for playing to air.
nalism -New \Iedia.
Panasonic also delivered digital cin-
--
tra -sue
-- ré
ematography equipment including
four AJ- PD900WA 2/3" camcorders
and four AJ -PD950 studio VTRs to
Plus 8 Video in Hollywood. Plus 8
Video also purchased 12 AJ -D95DC
DVCPROSO desktop VTRs.
Harlan Bosjamin, a director of
photography with Comedy
Central, used Fujinon's 10x5.2
high -definition lens to shoot the
series "Strangers with Candy."
The lens was used because of the
modern look that it would create
for the show: an appearance
somewhere between video and
film. The wideness of the lens
also allowed interior shooting to
be done more easily.
The Comedy Central series, shot
in New Jersey and the outskirts
of New York City, is the first
sitcom to shoot episodes entirely
in high definition.
SSL Axiom-MT captures
symphony debut
Sheffield Remote Recordings
used Solid State Logic's Axiom -
MT digital console for the debut
performance of composer
Philips will provide 16 DD35 and up
to 40 DD I O production switchers for
the 2000 Summer Olympic Games.
The switchers will be deployed at
several major venues and provide coverage of main events.
Michael Kamen's symphony "The
New Moon in the Old Moon's
Arms" at the Kennedy Center in
Washington, D.C.
Los Angeles -based Grotto Studios
Columbine JDS Systems renamed its
new automation division CPS DAL
after its acquisition of DAL (formerly
1
32
Broadcast Engineering
has also purchased Panasonic equip-
ment. The studio installed two DA7
digital mixers and linked them toMay 2000
gether to provide a 48 -track fully
automated digital and analog recording environment.
:4.4-4
;ñ
Introducing Scan Do Studio. The integrated scan converter
and chroma keyer with all -star features and performance.
It's a whole new ball game with
Scan Do' Studio on your team! lis
the all -in -one. professional level video
scan converter and chroma keyer with
major league features and performance
at a price the front office will cheer.
-
Chronta keyer
Use it as a fully capable upstream
chroma keyer or as part of your
downstream video studio chain
Variable size key window for
maximum flexibility
Soft key/hard key control
User- defined key color
A switch -bitter with power both ways
With the e plosive grout th of computer/
video applications, Scan 1)o Studio gives
you unmatched versatility, flexibility and performance to handle anything
they throw at you. Check out the stars:
Designed to score with studio pros
Scan converter
Works with all computer platforms supporting resolutions up
to 1280 x 102,1 with sync rates ranging from 31 to 71 kHz
Composite, S- Video, RGB, component and SDI inputs and outputs
Genlock with full studio timing
Five-step zoom with horizontal and vertical positioning
remote offer full control giving you easy. access to all operating features.
And Scan Do Studio fits right into your line -up. Its compact and
rackmountahle just one rack unit high.
Advanced three-line flicker filter
RS -232 remote control
)
the future
.
-
Give your studio the best double play combination since Tinker to Evers
to Chance. For full details on Scan Do Studio. call us or visit us on the
v111
.
commspecial.com.
WORLD HEADQUARTERS
Hauppauge, New York
Tel: 631-273-0404 Fax: 631-273-1638
Exceeding expectations
Scan Do is
fans of video professionals. Key on/key off lets you switch between
operating Scan Do Studio solely as a scan converter or integrated
with the chroma keying functions. Front panel controls and RS -232
weh at
Communications
IESpeciaities, Inc.
En.
Scan Do Studio has all the big league features and usability to make
a
ASIA PACIFIC
Singapore Representative Office
Tel: +65 293 0258 Fax: +65 2931538
www.commspecial.com
www.commspecial.com
Email: info @commspecial.com
Email: csiasia @commspecial.com
registered trademark of Communications Specialties, Inc. ©2000 Communications Specialties, Inc.
Circle (167) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Uhi Soft recently installed Solid
CBS -owned KUTV-TV in Salt Lake
City recently installed EPNS, the Associated Press' Electronic News Production System, to aid in production of its
weekly on -air news programming.
State Logic's Axiom -MT digital mul-
titrack console
central element of its new
multimedia stuas a
dio complex.
Sinclair Broadcast Group recently
awarded Synergistic Technologies a
multimillion dollar contract to design
and install digital systems for Sin clair's television stations. The systems
will he installed in stations in Columbus, Ashville and Tampa and will
double the number of component digital stations Sinclair operates.
Uhi Soft decided to create the
studio in order
to improve the
audio capacity
for their video
games and interactive software applications.
Peak Broadcast Systems' Everest Virtual Set and 3D graphics software is
being used for the creation of promos
and bumpers for a weekly program by
Turner Sports. The virtual set was
also used for Turner's NBA half -time
show
to enhance game scores and
integrate emersive graphics such as
sponsors' logos.
Euphonix's System 5 digital audio
mixing system and digital R -1 hard
disk multitrack recorders are being
used in Emerald Entertainment
Group's studio, the Mix Room.
-
Utah Scientific, formerly Utah
Comteck Video, recently acquired the
UTAH -Series routing switcher product line from Artel Video Systems,
along with the rights to the Utah
Scientific name. Utah Scientific
founders Lyle O. Keys and Earl Gray
Fiber ( )ptic
Ccimercl Cable
cind Assemblies
Gepco's new HDC920 hybrid fiber optic camera
cable is designed for High Definition cameras
that utilize the new SMPTE optical fiber format.
It features the low loss of optical fiber, along
with the performance that Gepco camera
cable is known for.
Flexible and UL rated versions
Strength member for added durability
Tested for optical return and insertion loss
Terminated assemblies or bulk cable
SMPTE 311M and 304M compliant
GEPCO
rA
1- 800 -966 -0069
l I W
V
UK )V 1
www.gepco.com
1
\(
Tactical fiber for HD & DTV remote
,L)tical systems also available
email: [email protected]
Circle (168) on the Free Into Card
134
Broadcast Engineering
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
will serve in the reformation as honorary chairman and chief executive
officer respectively. Carmelo Catalano will serve as chairman of the
board.
Aerodyne Industries reached a liwith Sinclair Broadcast Group giving Aerodyne the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell
the QUANTUM IOT analog and digital transmitters designed internally
by Sinclair.
cense agreement
NEP and World Wrestling Federation Entertainment are working together to design a remote broadcast
truck for
use in the
production
of
WWFE's
'
live pay per -view
and TV broadcasts. The new remote
truck, the SuperShooter 21, is scheduled for completion this fall.
The SuperShooter 21 will house a
Kalypso Switcher from Grass Valley
Group, making it one of only three
NEP units in the country with the
switcher. The remote truck also includes a "double expando" feature,
which allows a portion of the truck's
outer shell to he extended to provide
more video production space.
Los
Angeles -
based 5.1 Enter-
tainment Group
recently installed
DPC -11 digital
production console
from
Soundtracs. The
installation is part
of 5.1 Entertainment Group's plan to
offer consumers true 5.1, 24- bit/96kHz
music in a DVD -A format.
a
Laser Pacific, a Hollywood -based
post-production facility, purchased a
Tandberg Television E5820 HD ATSC
encoder as part of a system allowing
production teams to view high- definition dailies. The system utilizes Tandberg's encoder in conjunction with a
high -definition VTR, a SMPTE 310
converter and a 8VSB modulator to
produce a Panasonic digital VHS tape.
UNTIL NOW, THE POWER TO CHANGE
THE WORLD WITH THE PUSH OF A BUTTON
WAS SOLELY IN THE HANDS OF
PRESIDENTS, DICTATORS AND FANATICS.
Now, because of OpenTV, the worldwide leader in software that enables digital interactive television,
it's in the hands of
boxes
TV
viewers around the world. We're deployed in over 6 million digital set -top
- more than any other
interactive TV platform. And we've been selected by 25 television network
oven tV,
operators. including digital cable, satellite and terrestrial. Digital TV networks worldwide are running
interactive TV applications like sports, e-mail, e- commerce, advertising, VOD. and more. And hundreds
of content developers worldwide are using OpenTV authoring tools to create applications that command
the TV viewer's attention. But viewers may be too mild a description. A better word might be fanatics
THE NEW VISION FOR TELEVISION-
www.opentv.com
e.[UUu epc
J1V. u
upiiTV
and the OpenTV logo are trademarks of Open
u.
l
..J ullmi -ux .!i.va ru
Circle (169) on Free Info Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
i:.WUi,
p:upuP,
ul
`ee 'eopeunc uwimiS.
Clients can then view the day's work
in HD rather than standard definition, as has been the usual practice.
ScreenShot
Panasonic records Little Women
mances" series
for "Great Perfor-
Panasonic's HDTV truck was used recently by the Houston Grand
Opera to record Mark Adamo's opera "Little Women." The truck
recorded three performances of Adamo's adaptation of Louisa May
Alcott's novel to be broadcast on 13 /WNET New York's "Great
Performances" series. The series will be seen on public broadcasting
stations throughout the country in the next
television season.
Equipment used in the production truck
includes the AQ -7200P 720p studio cameras and AQ -720P hand -held cameras, AJHD2700 1080i/720p D-5 HD VTRs, and AJUFC1800 Universal Format Converters.
Profile video platform supports 72nd Academy Awards
The Grass Valley Group Profile digital video platform was used to
provide digital recording, editing and playback for the 72nd Academy Awards in March. Overall, 20 platforms were used in the production. Thirteen provided source material to rear-screen projectors
onstage. Six more provided playback of segment clips, Oscar-winning
films and pre -produced graphic material. Finally, a stand -alone
platform was utilized to record live camera feeds during the "star
arrivals" segment.
The Profile platform has also been used for the American Comedy
Awards, the Golden Globe Awards and the Grammy Awards this year.
A
VIDEO
A good thing just got better
HD10C HD Serial to Analog Video Converter
Now works with 1080p24!
Reduction system from Digital Vision
to the Digital Vision standard- definition systems already installed in its
facility. The arrangement allows colorists to switch between formats without moving from room to room within the facility.
Chips Davis Designs, named one
of the world's best Sound Design
firms by
Mix Mag-
azine,
supervised the
redesign
and construction of one/eleven's new Studio
One. The new studio includes a
Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound
system, as well as Genelec monitoring and a Ramsa digital automated
mixing console.
Panasonic, prime contractor for the
producers of the 2000 Summer Olympic Games, has selected Videotek to
provide test and measurement equipment for the Games.
NBC has ordered a 56- channel Alpha 100 digital audio console from
Calrec for studio 3A in its headquarters in Rockefeller Center. The order
is part of a wider agreement between
NBC and Calrec to cooperate in the
development of digital audio production consoles for live broadcast
operations.
HD10C Features
HD -SDI Inputs
1080i 50/59.94/60
1080p SF 23.98.24
720p 59.94/60
Outputs
HD Analog RGB/YPbPr
SVGA (multi -sync)
2 HDSDI Outputs
10 bit
Fletcher Chicago purchased the first
Canon Digi Super 86xs, offering their
customers the longest field zoom lens
available. The 86xs allows shooting
to be done in HD or NTSC and
incorporates a new image stabilization system to eliminate vibrations at
a frequency of up to 10Hz.
te
800-251 -4224
Tel 530-274 -2048
www.aia.corn
136
Chicago -based post house Optimus
recently added a DVH2O10 High Definition Adaptive Grain and Noise
Fax 530 -274 -9442
Circle (170) on the Free Info Card
May 2000
Broadcast Engineering
www.americanradiohistory.com
TTC and Wavetek Wandel Golmann
recently merged to create a new, as
yet unnamed, company. The new company will offer expanded products
Building Your
pplications On
Solid Storage
Foundation
Market -leading reliability,
image integrity and
performance make Sierra's
family of advanced storage
solutions the uncompromised
foundation for all of your
imaging applications.
Sierra provides uncompressed
storage solutions that
seamlessly integrate into
your applications for film
mastering and telecine, film
estoration and fixing, computer
I/O and
networking, on -line
editing, or all of the above.
ierra's storage solutions offer
CE1
unprecedented flexibility.
High Definition and Standard
Definition...Open Ended
11L
0
Architecture... Switchable
Formats...Video, Film or Data.
With Sierra you can build
a
solution that fits your needs,
and continue to build as your
IRI
needs grow to the next level.
3427 Goni
Voiicce: 7751.886 5050 ora800.400 8002
Fax:
775.886.5060
www.sdlabs.com
Circle (178) on Free Info Card
d vinci
SIERRA
DESIGN LABS
Serial Digital Video & Audio Monitoring /Conversion
& Alarm Systems
>-
CommScope
7530 HDTV Coax Cables
Achieve Low Loss and
Low Cost Results
CC
W
JJ
II..
7760AVM
The most comprehensive digital video & audio
monitoring/conversion & data alarm system available. This
card based system will house up to 15 units in a 3RU frame and
handles all data from source identifications, status information
to V-Chip ratings, XDS. closed caption decoding and more...
Q
Bulk Composite Encoder
3410 Multivert
practical cost effective method to eliminate those
temporary dongle based products and the associated "wall
A
warts" power supplies. The Multivert is a professional solution for
composite monitoring that includes 10 encoders all in a RU
frame with dual power supplies and front & rear LEDs (for rear
mounting applications to make use of additional space in the
rear of the monitoring wall equipment rack)
www.evertz.com
The 7530 Digital Series is suited
for larger facilities where longer
and uncompressed transmission
capability is required.
Transmits up to 1.5 GBs of
HDTV -quality signal at a distance of 400 feet (using
SMPTE 292M standard)
Smaller size and low
attenuation allows 7530 to be
specified in place of more
expensive fiber optic or larger
size coax cables
Easy to connect and install
1
14
Tel:
1
Fax:
1
(905) 335 -3700
(905) 335 -3573
1-800-982-1708
or www.commscope.com
Circle (172) on Free Info Card
Circle (173) on Free Info Card
Microwave
ENG
Video Equipment
Old- fis.
2.0
FCC TYPE ACCEPTED
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a
saving MicroFrame houses up to 16 modules, and dual regulators. The LA -1 line amp is a onein, two -out DA. The MP- I is a one -in, two -out mic -pre
with 48 V phantom power. All state -of- the -an performance
and priced to fit most anyone's budget... from Benchmark,
of course! Visit our web site today.
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Broadcast Engineering
RU High Chassis
Up to 16 Line Amps
Up to 12 Mic- Preamps
1
Redundant Power
Mix Amp Option
Connector I/O Options
BENCHMARK MEDIA SYSTEMS, INC.
Phone 800-262-4675, FAX 315-437-8119
Circle (174) on Free Info Card
138
& 2.5 CHz Bands
May 2000
Video Links
Tower Cams
Weather Networks
Repeaters
For a Free Catalog
Call 888 -819 -4877
iilTitZ=11R3
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Visit http://www.tron-tek.com
Email: trontionet.net
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74e GALLERY
SPLIT
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HENRY ENGINEERING
503 Key Vista Dove
Sierra Madre. CA 91024 USA
TEL (626) 355.3656 FAX (626) 355-0077
FAX -on- Demand Doc 5103 (626) 355 -4210
USDA is a handy 2 -in, 4 -out
stereo "mini -DA" that can
combine or split audio signals
for distribution. Mix stereo to
mono, get both stereo and
mono outputs from a stereo
source. Gain trims for each
output. Great specs with lots of
headroom. Keep one on hand.
UTILITY 9lAMM/NG 6
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Design and Mix
a
Cable Channel with
Revolutionary Multimedia insertion Technology!
CURRENT ÿ
TE
t
'ERATUI*S
multiple scalable Windows for
f:'t c/Alvse'1[A1S
MPEG -2 and'ùgsr1og video
Berlin
28°
Cairo
36°
Dallas
32°
Geneva
24'
Johannesburg
25'
London
29°
Los Angeles
31°
Back -to -back MPEG audio /video playback
Munich
28'
with genlock for seamless ad insertion
New York City
27`
Nice
26°
Paris
24°
Concurrent display of analog video input and
MPEG -2 video in scalable, movable windows
Scalable, 24 -bit graphics overlays with 256
levels of transparency
Hardware- assisted scrolling and crawling of
multiple graphics windows
graphic övHJay-with trunspurcri(
composite video support,
optional S -video
support
NTSC /PAL
O
to Rome and Venice. Call Travel Network now for current holiday packa
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horizontally crawling text or graphics
Supports multiple boards in
l^Cl - The Professional
1- 888 -478 -2687
a
single system
Windows
NT 4.0
support
Broadcast, Multi- Source Video and Graphics Mixer
Eliseo
www.enseo.com
sales @enseo.com
Circle (177) on Free Info Card
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Broadcast Engineering
143
and services, with a presence in over
80 countries. Corporate headquarters
for the company will be in Germantown, MD. The company will have
more than $800 million in revenue
and more than 4000 employees.
K -mart
recently
purchased
five
Z3 0 0 0 W
camera
systems
from Hitachi for its world headquarters in
Troy, M1. The camera systems will
be used to update K- mart's broadcasting video network.
NBC will use storage and editorial
finishing systems from Avid to handle
nonlinear post -production for the 2000
Summer Olympics Games and the
2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt
Lake City. NBC purchased 12 of Avid's Symphony editorial finishing systems, with a supporting Unity Medi-
aNet system.
AMS Neve was recently honored
with a Scientific and Engineering
Award by the Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Science. AMS Neve
received the award for the design of
its DFC Digital Film Console for
motion picture sound mixing. The
console allows for multiposition
mixing capabilities and stem routing predub inputs. It has been installed in over 40 facilities worldwide and has produced sound for
movies including Toy Story 2,
Star Wars: The Phantom Menace,
and The Matrix.
ABC affiliate WNCF -TV chose Devlin Design Group to assist in the
development of
their new facili-
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Circle (179) on the Free Into Card
Broadcast Engineering
CBS stations WCBS/New York and
KCBS/Los Angeles will use Panasonic's DVCPRO News Automation System for news production and storage.
Six DNA systems will he located at
KCBS and nine systems will be installed at WCBS. The systems will
allow three -channel playback to air.
Sports Net to pro-
vide encoding
and decoding,
ATM interfac-
nous transfer
mode (ATM) based content
contribution and
distribution network will allow
regional production facilities to
exchange regional sports
content.
a
dustry for their
unique accomplishments. John
Battison
-
a
former editor of
Broadcast Engi- John Battison
neering, founder of
SBE and a current writer for BERadio
-
was awarded the Crusty Engineer
Award. He received the award for
being the oldest engineer still earning
a living in the industry and for having
done so for the longest time (55 years).
Joseph Barath, a television engineer
with the Johnson Space Center Television Systems, received the Iron Desk
Award for holding the same position
while being employed by five different organizations. The Rusty Doc
Award went to Dr. Byron St. Clair for
his work with low -power transmitters. Chuck Pharis, senior video engineer with ABC, received the Rust Collector Award for his personal collection of 70 ancient broadcast cameras.
Panasonic re-
cently
launched
their new
Value
-
Days web
s i t e ,
www.i-comindustry.com
144
Television was
chosen by FOX
ing, and a control system for
FOX Video Network. The national asynchro-
AUCTIONS
Machinery and Property
4
three -cam-
ceremony at Itelco's booth at
NAB2000, the Order of the Iron Test
Pattern awarded some of the veterans
of the television in-
newscasting.
O
a
RT -SET.
The system will he used to render
content for simultaneous broadcast
over the internet and traditional television channels. Using the system's
real -time post feature, LAUNCH can
tape programs around the talents'
schedules and recomposite the scenes
later.
In
ty for virtual
-`
LAUNCH purchased
era Larus Post system from
May 2000
www.panasonic.com /valuedays. The
site allows users to purchase Panason-
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is pro video equipment at up to SO
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Harmonic aquired DiviCom busiMicrosystems to provide
delivery systems for cable, satellite,
the launch of Yahoo! Finance Vision.
The new service from Yahoo! will
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and stock quotes by live video.
Richard Fiore, Sr. -- founder, president and CEO of Comark Communications -- died on April 29 at age
71.
Thomson -CSF has acquired Siemens' power grid tube activities.
Jorgen Bredesen, was appointed as
the new president and chief executive
officer of Tandherg Television.
ness C -Cube
telco and wireless networks.
Manufacturing will
360 Systems' TCRS is being used in
the Tonight Shotr for recording duties
including layering and mixing sound
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GloheCast selected Philips seven channel NIPFG -2 /DVB compression
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for its uplink in Miami. Use of Philips'
system will allow GloheCast to expand its satellite -based information
delivery service.
Yahoo!
using
thorities.
New York Media Group appointed
Steve Clark as vice president, audio
engineering.
Capitol Broadcasting's datacasting
unit, DTV Plus, and WaveXpress
Robert Mueller
was recently ap-
formed a strategic partnership to develop an infrastructure for broadcast
F- commerce.
pointed as executive
vice president for
JVC Professional
Products Company.
PEOPLE
A% star's
Newsroom
Computer System (NR(:S) to assist in
is
transferred
from Siemens' Berlin facility to TITE's
technical facilities in eastern France,
pending the approval of national aube
Dick Crippa
Snell & Wilcox
announced the appointment of Dick
Crippa as president
of Snell & \X ilcox,
in Santa Clara, CA.
Robert Mueller
Bland McCartha was named vice
president of business development for
Archion.
`Comprehensive,"`In- depth,"`Vital'
When our readers tell us about Broadcast Engineering, they say it's the best
place to get current and reliable information about the television, cable and
production industries. Just ask Dr. Corey Carbonara:
Dr.
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"One of the biggest challenges of
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Broadcast Engineering al way s has
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"Broadcast Engineering provides
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a
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Associate Vice President for Technology
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Management. Baylor University
Dr.
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
THE JOURNAL
\n
1
46
Broadcast Engineering
IN
!tit
I
I..c.
il'KI\II.UL-\
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Yunl
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May 2000
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Broadcast Engineering
153
Help Wanted
Services
ASSISTANT
ILIIMIC
We
specialize in sustems
Due to growth, Frontline Communications has positions for Broadcast Sys-
integration, hut what we're
tems Engineers and Systems Integrators with experience designing and or
reallu about is solutions.
installing and testing Audio, Video, Satellite Uplink and Microwave Systems
used in Television Broadcast Vehicles.
Send or FAX resume to the attention of
Personnel at Frontline Communications, 12725 Automobile Blvd.,
Clearwater, FL 33762; FAX: 727 -5731135. Frontline offers competitive salary, health and dental insurance, 401 K,
vacation and holidays, EOE. Drug Free
Work Place.
Br;
s)
SYSTEMS,
For details call us at
(818) 551 -5871
or visit us at
www.b -bsystems.com
'I
THE COORDINATOR
MEDIA/TECHNICAL
SUPPORT:
Leading Connecticut State University
seeking
highly
motivated
studio
professional. Experienced in maintaining
and calibrating University TV Studio,
Satellite System, Cable Channel and
editing facilities. Systems include Grass
Valley 200, Panasonic S-VHS, DVC Pro
and Media 100 Non -Linear. Repair and
trouble-shooting of all Media equipment
required. Administrative staff position,
degree or experience, SBE certification
a plus. Salary negotiable, full benefits
including tuition waiver for self and
dependents.
Interested
candidates
should
send
resume
and
three
references to: Jack Boyko, Coordinator
of Media Services Eastern Connecticut
State University 83 Windham Street
Willimantic, CT 06226-2295 ECSU is an
AA /EEO employer, women, members of
protected classes and people with
disabilities are encouraged to apply.
OF
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
Circle (204) on Free Into Card
Help Wanted
!E'RE;.:,.NOT
r41
"-Texas News Channel
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: Immediate
opening for an experienced broadcast
Engineer. Must have a minimum of 2
years
experience
in
broadcast
maintenance, including systems troubleshooting and repair of studio video and
audio equipment to the component
level.
Computer
and
networking
experience a plus. FCC General Class
License or SBE Certification is desired.
Excellent
wage /benefit
program.
Respond with resume to Personnel
Administrator- 139, WTOL-TV, P.O. Box
1111, Toledo, Ohio 43699- 1111. No
phone calls, EOE.
J1rr1
At KXAS -TV, the NBC O & O in Dallas -Fort Worth, we recognize how vital top notch
technical professionals are to our business. This is why we are seeking a seasoned
Maintenance Technician to ensure diverse equipment is always in working order.
You will handle the component level repair, maintenance and construction ut analog aril
digital broadcast equipment as well as assist in planning and installing broadcast
equipment and systems.
You must have
3 -5+ years' experience as an engineer or maintenance technician in
broadcast television. Effective communication and interpersonal skills and the ability to
work in a team environment as well as on individual projects are also essential. A
valid FCC General License or SBE Certification is preferred, as well as a computer
network background.
We offer competitive pay and solid benefits. For immediate consideration, send your
resume to: Director, Employee Relations, KXAS -TV /NBC 5, 3900 Barnett Street, Fort
Worth, TX 76103. Fax: 817-654-6442. E -mail: john.pryor @nbc.com
No Phone calls please. We regret that we will only be able to respond to those
giplicants in whom we have an interest. An equal opportunity employer M /F /D /V
WWW.NBC5DFW.COM
154
Broadcast Engineering
May
2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
STUDIO MAINTENANCE ENGINEER
Must be able to perform the following
duties: install and maintain studio transmission equipment including video
switchers, audio consoles, DVE, CG, SS,
cameras, and robotics. Familiarity with
automation systems and master control
environment. Should possess a general
computer /networking background. Must
be able to work on a rotating shift schedule. Candidates should have an engineering degree or equivalent technical
training. SBE /FCC certification a plus.
If you want to be a part of the exciting
transition to HDTV in the most exciting
city in the world, please send your resume and cover letter to: Kurt Hanson,
Chief Engineer, WABC -TV, 7 Lincoln
Square, New York, NY 10023. No telephone calls or faxes please. We are an
equal opportunity employer.
Help Wanted
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER GW TELEVISION: The George Washington University. a
private institution located in the heart of Washington, D.C., is seeking an Assistant Chief Engi-
neer to supervise the technical operation &
maintenance of GW Television (GWTV). The
successful candidate will coordinate and direct the day to day technical operation and
maintenance of the television and multimedia
production facilities. GWTV is looking for a
hands-on engineer /supervisor to provide expertise, experience, and direction to GW
Television's Engineering and Operations staff.
Knowledge and experience with analog and
digital television systems is essential. Remote
operations experience is a definite plus. GW
Television encompasses three multi.-camera
production studios, EFT equipment and staff,
digital audio /video/data compression systems,
ITFS broadcast channels, multipoint ISDN Teleconference facilities, fiber optic and satellite
communication systems, and a 750MHz campus -wide cable system. GWTV is also in the
planning and design stages of a move into a
new all digital facility. The selected individual
will play a key role in making this new facility
a reality. The individual selected will work
with a group of dedicated professionals using
state-of-the-art equipment in the rapidly developing field of communications and distance
learning. The Assistant Chief Engineer reports
directly to the Chief Engineer of GWTV and is
a key member of the management staff. GW
offers an industry-competitive salary (mid to
high 50k's), a generous benefits package including exceptional education opportunities,
and an opportunity to participate in shaping
the future of technology learning. To apply
reference requisition #R7760 and mall or fax a
resume with cover letter and three professional references to E Dancil, Human Resource
Services, 2033 K Street, N.W., Suite 220, Wash ington, D.C. 20052. (202) 994-9609 fax. E-mail
cdancil'wu.edu. Please see our web page at
www.uwu.edu /-hrs and if possible submit a
completed application and applicant data
form with your resume. GW is an equal opportunity employer.
WE PLACE ENGINEERS
and Mfg. Sales /Marketing
Employer Paid Fees.
20 Years personalized &
confidential service.
All USA States & Canada
Place your
business on
top of the
world with
35,000+
worldwide
circulation!
Advertise in
Broadcast
Engineering!
49 S. Main St..
THE
equal opportunity employer.
WORLD'S NEWS LEADER
KSHB-TV, the NBC affiliate in Kansas City, is
looking for a seasoned SNG operator/broadcast engineer to join our staff. Qualified candidate should have at least 2 years of college or
technical school training majoring in electronics and 3 years experience as both a broadcast engineer and SNG truck operator. Must
be available to work flexible shifts and travel
as job requires. Valid CDL and FCC license
required. Resumes may be addressed to: HR
Administrator, KSHB -TV, 4720 Oak Street, Kansas City, MO 64112; or you may e-mail to
Maximize your company's
exposure in the marketplace by
taking advantage of reprints.
ENGINEERING MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN: KPLR-TV WBI l in St. Louis MO has an
immediate opening for an Engineering Maintenance Tech. Duties include Maintenance of all
broadcast and related equipment including
DVC Pro and Betacam VCRs, GVG & Utah
switchers, ENG/EFP equipment, etc. Microwave & VHF transmitter experience is a plus.
3-5 years broadcast equipment maintenance
required. Come help us move to a new Digital
facility. Please reply with resume to: Dept.
116F, KPLR-TV, 4935 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis,
MO 63108. EEO EMPLOYER M/F/V/ H.
Call Jenny
Eisele for a
quote:
Pittston. PA 18640 USA
website: keystoneint.com
We respond to all
Phone: 404 -827-1638
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER MIN. 4 YEARS
IN TELEVISION BROADCASTING AS A MAINTENANCE ENGINEER MUST HAVE A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF VIDEO BROADCAST
EQUIPMENT, TRANSMITTING EQUIPMENT
FCC RULES AND REGULATIONS. ABILITY TO
TROUBLESHOOT EQUIPMENT PROBLEMS
DOWN TO A COMPONENT LEVEL FCC GENERAL CLASS RADIOTELEPHONE LICENSE AND
OR SBE CERTIFICATION. SEND RESUME AND
SALARY HISTORY TO: CHIEF ENGINEER,
KFWD-TV, 3000 W. STORY RD., IRVING, TX
75038. KFWD IS AN EEOE.
Phone (570)655-7143. Fax (570) 654 -5765
Employee & Employer Inquiries
ALAN CORNISH / MARK KELLY
gineers. These career positions demand an
extensive background in equipment maintenance, digital video and audio, and
knowledge of computer systems and networks. Please mail or fax your resume and
cover letter to:
Jim Brown
Assistant Vice President of Engineering
Services
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
One CNN Center
P.O. Box 105366
Atlanta, GA 30348 -5366
TBS is an
KEYSTONE INT'L., INC.
,
Turner Broadcasting System has career
opportunities for experienced television en-
Fax: 404 -827 -1835
MAIL & FAX:
Dime Bank
ENGINEERS
LaTa
Phone:
913-967 -1966
Fax:
913 -967 -1901
May 2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
Stonerkshb,corq. EOE
Broadcast Engineering
155
Help Wanted
Engineering
FOX Channels Group, a major producer of sports entertainment products, is currently seeking an experienced Director of Engineering.
DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING
Individual will direct and oversee engineering assignments within a wide range of
technical disciplines to design, develop, maintain, and integrate electronic subsystems
and components, software systems, signal distribution subsystems, and other corn ponents required in the operation of the company's Los Angeles Technical Operations facility; will perform, at various professional levels, in one or more technical
disciplines including software engineering, hardware engineering, systems architecture, systems engineering, systems integration, and testing; direct the Engineering
staff involved in the installation maintenance, testing, and repair of all broadcast equipment and systems. Will also establish and maintain standards for Technical quality
within the facility; coordinate with all clients, Net engineering, and Houston Operations concerning all engineering needs and requirements; prepare and maintain department operational budget including forecasting and maintenance of operational
budgets, and Capital budgets; prioritize, plan, and direct all facility engineering projects.
Individual will also plan and direct all technology needs as developed by Operations
and oversee project development; plan and develop new technology for use in broadcast systems to meet ever- changing needs; work with General Manager and staff to
develop Capital plans utilizing future technology.
Requires Bachelor's Degree in Electrical Engineering (BSEE) or the equivalent from a
four-year college or technical school, or 4+ years' experience and/or training or the
equivalent combination of education and experience; in -depth knowledge of engineering principles, design and development techniques and specialization in one or
more of the following technical disciplines: software engineering, hardware engineering, systems architecture, systems engineering, systems integration, and test engineering; developed analytical and research skills and the ability to coordinate technical
projects with other engineering organizations and outside vendors; the ability to work
with engineering as well as non- engineering people with ease, especially in highly
charged production environments. Candidate must also have a solid background in
Budget preparation, especially relating to operating budgets, forecasts, and the preparation of Capital budgets.
We offer competitive salaries and excellent benefits.
For immediate consideration, please submit your resume and salary history to: Fox Channels Group,
Human Resources Dept., Code: JK/DE, 1440 S.
Sepulveda Blvd., Ste. 353, Los Angeles, CA 90025;
fax to: (310) 444-8490. NO PHONE CALLS, PLEASE.
We are an Equal Opportunity Employer.
NBC 25 Director, Engineering, & Information: Successful candidate must be
well versed with news operation and support and all broadcast engineering practices. Hands-on experience with studio operations & UHF transmitters required.
Knowledge of computer systems and digital technologies desired. MCSE or equiv
experience a plus. Should be "quick
thinker" who completes tasks timely and
within budget. Manager, Transmitter &
Studio: Candidate must have a minimum
of 5 yrs hands -on experience with broadcast news & studio operations & UHF
transmitters. Trouble shooting capability
with working knowledge of equipment installation and maintenance to the component level a must. NBC25 is a small market NBC Affiliate. We offer a comprehensive benefit package, including 401(k) and
section 125 plans. Send resume and cover
letter to NBC25, Dept Z, 13 East Washington Street Hagerstown 21740. Drug Screen
Required. EOE.
156
Broadcast Engineering
I
0:11
CHANNELS
GROUP
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER: Bay News
9, Time Warner's digital, state of the art,
24 -hour cable news operation in Tampa
Bay, has an opening for a full time maintenance engineer. The qualified candidate will possess an AS degree or equivalent technical training in equipment
maintenance and repair. Requirements
include at least three years experience
in the Installation and maintenance of
analog and digital television systems.
Should also have a strong background
in ENG /DSNG trucks, microwave systems, satellite systems, fiber networks,
studio automation and computer networking. Must be able to operate Independently or as a team member to complete projects on time and under pressure. Work on the cutting edge of television news presentation technology.
Send resume to Steve Weitekamp, Director of Operations, Bay News 9, 7901 66th
Street North, Pinellas Park, FL 33781.
Email: [email protected] EOE.
May
2000
www.americanradiohistory.com
ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEER (Full-time
Regular) ,JOB DESCRIPTION: WJBK /Fox 2
is seeking an enthusiastic individual to
oversee the day -to-day operations of the
Engineering Department. The position will
serve as the first point of contact for all
News technical related operations. In addition, the position will have direct responsibility for the technical maintenance
of news broadcast equipment and the assignment of the maintenance staff. The position will also assist the Vice President of
Engineering with OSHA and FCC compliance requirements. REOUIREMENTS: Must
have a bachelor's degree or equivalent
experience in a related field, plus 3-5 years
experience in engineering management.
Must have demonstrated success in a
large- scale, fast -pace news engineering
operation. Hands on experience with
Microsoft Office Systems, Novell networking and Internet technical skills are highly
preferred. For consideration, please forward resume and cover letter to Tim
Redmond, Vice President of Engineering
c /o, the Human Resources Department,
WJBK-TV 16550 West 9 Mile Road,
Southfield, MI 48075. EOE/M /F/D/V.
TRANSMITTER /MAINTENANCE ENGINEER MIN. 4 YEARS IN TELEVISION
BROADCASTING AS A MAINTENANCE ENGINEER. MUST HAVE A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF VIDEO BROADCAST EQUIPMENT,
TRANSMITTING EQUIPMENT, MICROWAVE
EQUIPMENT AND FCC RULES AND REGULATIONS. ABILITY TO TROUBLESHOOT
EQUIPMENT PROBLEMS DOWN TO A
COMPONENT LEVEL. FCC GENERAL
CLASS RADIOTELEPHONE LICENSE AND
OR SBE CERTIFICATION. SEND RESUME
AND SALARY HISTORY TO: CHIEF ENGINEER, KFWD -TV, 3000 W, STORY RD., IRVING, TX 75038. KFWD IS AN EEOE.
Because
it works.
Reach mer 45,000* professionals
in the commercial television
industry with the Broadcast
Engineering direct mail list.
H.n.J
91
4
.,n
,e lune
1
1119
Immnauunal
r.n ul.nu.n y.n,.ovn,
-'167 -1872 fax 913- 967 -1897
website www.interteclists.com
Broadcast
ENGINEERINGS
Broadcast
ENGINEERING
Reader
Service
Advertiser
Hotline
Number
Page
Number
19
52 -53
111
Inc.
ADC Broadcast
ADC Broadcast
AJA 'Video
136
Avst;
105
Systems
i
84
117
154
Axo- Digital
Azdk
Corp
Systems
B &
153
138
Bern. mark Media
148 -151
B &H Photo-Video
153
The -roadcast Store
87
Broa.tal Supply Worldwide
92
Binai .:ast Video Systems
Beck Associates
Chyr n
61
Cipo o
125
113
138
133
153
14-15
Conn 1/Scope
Corn
Corn
Digit
Digit
Digit
Digit
i'Scope
lunications Spec
id.com
II Media Net
il Media Net
d Media Net
Dovi )id
DP
voice
156... 516-328-7500
203 ... 818-551-5858
202 ... 512-252-7555
174 ... 800-262-1675
Maxell Corp.
Methode Electronics
Miranda Technologies Inc.
81
134 ....
91
140.... 703-867.91100
11
106 .... 514-333-1772
NOVA Systems
Omneon
Open TV
Oxtel
86
137... 800-358 -NTSC
119.... 408- 558-2113
.. 800-726-0266
170 ... 530-274-2048
153
149 ... 6()8-273-5876
124.. +3142414500
181,182
Microsystems
Extnri Electronics
Faro idja
Fols. in Research
Evert.
per
Cep.)
Gras!. Valley
Group
Ham Corp Broadcast Div.
Harr
Hen- Engineering
-CO ;.% Industry
212-239.75(10
818-551-5858
138 ... 800-426-8434
165 .... 905-764-1584
132 .. 516-845-2000
161 ... 800-727-4669
154 ... 800-982-1708
173 ... 800-982-1708
1 67 ... 516-2734)404
201
..
200.... 301-571-0790
13
107 .... 408-944-6700
143
85
138
59
107
115
95
134
23
Indu,try Click
Indcdry Click
.
55
17
-Stu io Live
Gent
121 .... 8W-363-3400
714424-6100
714-424-6101
714-424-6103
122
63
127
25
DNF ndustries
Dolh Labs
E
Number
39
Intertec Publishing.. 146,147,152
KTech Telecommunications ... 123
145
LDI 20(X)
12 9
Lecroy Corp
35
Leitch Incorporated
160
Leitch Incorporated
108
Lighthouse Digital Sys.
110.. 650-328-3818
128.. 800-7264266
27,47
Divi( )m
Elect
Ense
3
9
143
144
100
121
159.
818-252-0198
133 .... 415ó45-5W0
163
114 .... 606-371-5533
109 ... 616-697-6831
1 77 ... 888-478-2687
Pinnacle Systems
Pixelmetrix Corp
Play, Inc.
Play Inc.
Prime Image Inc.
Professional Comm Sys
Rocket Network
Sachtler Corp
Sanix Corp
Seachange
Sierra Design Labs
Snell & Wilcox
Sony
136...617-273-1512
Tandherg
172 .... 905-335-3700
T C
131 .... 714-391-1500
Telecast Fiber Systems
151 ... 408-735-1492
Telex Communications
TeraNex
Thomson Broadcast
Tiernan Communications
Trompeter Electronics
Tron -tek
Vidkntek, Inc.
Wheatstone Corporation
Windows to the Web
360 Systems
155 ... 916-859-2503
142 ... 801-945-7730
168 ... 847-795-9555
113 .... 800-998-3588
104 ... 606-282-1801
105 ... 650-843-3665
176 .... 626-355-3656
179 .... 703-707-9094
144 ... 816-3010323
158 .... 816300-0323
Electronic
INTERNATIONAL
Richard Woolley
Tony Chapman
P.O. Box 250
Banbury, Oxon 0X16 8YJ U.K.
+44 (0) 1295 278407
FAx: +44 (0) 1295 278408
[email protected]
Iosl; (Tordon
335 tourt Street, Suite #9
Broolyn, NY
11231
1718 302 -0488
FAx: 7181 522 -4751
C
/MIDWEST
Joan e Melton
1773 Broadway, Suite 730
New York, NY 10019
(212 333 -4655
FAx: 212) 459 -0395
joar,e [email protected]
89
Panasonic Broadcast
Philips Broadcast
Domre Heiner
523: Colodny Ave., Suite 108
Agot -a Hills, CA 91301
(818 707 -6476
FAx: 818) 707 -2313
dnhc [email protected]
EAST
33
13 5
7
Panasonic Broadcast
WEST
EAS
Advertiser
Hotline
Number
Inscriber Technology
i
Acu
Reader
Service
Page
REPRINTS
Jenny Eisele
(9131967 -1966
Fax: (913)967 -1901
JAPAN
Orient Echo, Inc.
37
29
119
45
43
131
80-288.8606
160 .... 818-361-2248
164 .... 8(X)-553-2769
120.... 801231 -9673
103 .... 800-231 -9673
150.... 916-272-8240
8W
-533 -2836
69 ... 650-429 -5547
139
800 -528-8601
80 0-528 -8601
116 .... 800-962 -4287
157 .... 650-526 -16W
125 .... 604. 6880202
123 .... 916-631 -1865
166....916-631 -1865
1
51
....406867 -6519
127.... 817-888 -5353
103
148 ....415-538-0123
31
118.. wwwsadtder.de
83
88
97
137
40 -41
4-5
93
104
30
101
57
109
21
44
138
159
171
162 ... 708-677.3000
143...978-897-0100
178... 775-831 -7837
122....408 -26-1003
800 -472 -SONY
141 .... 949-725 -2552
147... 805- 373 -1828
117....508 -754-4858
146 .... 801392 -3497
130 .... 407-517 -1086
152 ... 800 -882 -1824
112
111
75
102
1
.... 619- 587 -0252
... 818 -707 -2020
... 918-663-4877
....
80-8045719
2
101 .. 252 -638-7000
118
99
145 .... 818991 -0360
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Broadcast Engineering
157
Watched lips show slips
BY PAUL MCGOLDRICK
commercial success of DVD
of the most interesting product launches since electronics began. In exactly three years of
machine production, there have been
The
has been one
an estimated 6 million players
shipped. There are now nearly 6000
DVD titles available. During 2000
there are expected to be 200 million
DVDs shipped with a total revenue of
$8 billion. Additionally, an amazing
10 percent penetration of DVD play-
the large amount of processing involved compared to the audio channel, particularly in the compression/
decompression cycles
means that
there is always going to he an issue
with lip sync. This is annoying on the
two DBS feeds when the most highly
-
we have
a consistent compression that
fully correctable for the consumers'
decoders during authoring. If there is a
difference between decoders from different manufacturers of more than a
frame, then we have a standards problem. But I don't believe there is such a
is
... needs to be knocked
when something is not right ...
Even a good standard
ers in U.S. households is expected this
year.
That phenomenal performance continues to be unstoppable. Virtually
every video being released in VHS is
now also being released in DVD, and
there seems to be little or no consumer
resistance to the price of DVD titles.
A lot of the credit for this growth
must be given to the manufacturers
of the players; they were never overly expensive, even for the so- called
reference models. Decent players are
now available for between $250 and
$300 if the Dolby Digital decoder is
not on board. Thank goodness the
standard avoided the subsequent wars
that have been waging around both
digital audio and DTV implementa-
compressed channels have lip sync
errors approaching a full second. On
channels with material such as cartoons, it really doesn't much matter.
But on any channel with real video or
film, it is troublesome. When combined with the motion artifacts of these
higher compressions, the channel becomes unwatchable. Even for nontechnical types, lip sync errors are
annoying.
-
tion itself. Throw a smorgasbord of
abbreviations at the general public
and confusion is completely natural.
Even within the industry, few of us
can completely differentiate between
DVD, DVD -A, DVD -A /V, DVD RAM, DVD -RW, DVD +RW, DVD -V
and, of course, CD, CD -R and CDRW without going to a reference
source for some information.
But even a good standard, one that
brings studio- quality video and audio to the consumer, needs to be
knocked when something is not right
and think there is a major problem brewing.
The nature of digital vide() - with
As channel compression rates reduce
which seems to he the case with
most sports and the premium channels
lip sync problems all but disappear,
so presumably the decoders are optimized for that use. There should, of
course, be little problem in devising a
decoder that varies the audio delay as
the compression ratio changes: All the
information is there in the video path.
The technology for providing a variable audio delay is not exactly difficult
or expensive.
But whereas an audience might he
willing to put up with some lip sync
problems on a low cost service, it is
unlikely to bear the same problems on
an expensive product. That is what
some DVD titles face. I have seen titles
where the lip sync is wrong throughout
the complete production.
have seen
titles where it goes wrong after a while
or within particular segments of the
production. This is inexcusable. Here
158
May 2000
-
1
Broadcast Engineering
1
problem; when you
see a
lip sync error
on DVD it seems to be at least eight
frames.
Some saw the laser disc and
S -VHS
technologies that were too early for
themselves or badly handled. The SVHS machine gave great pictures but
the industry wanted a ridiculous price
and invented a special tape mechanism so that ordinary VHS tape could
not be used. The format would have
been the standard if the machines had
been priced at a par with VHS and all
video releases had been S -VHS. It is
as
interesting to
see
S -VHS
making
a
comeback as prices have dropped and
the public has become more familiar
with S- video.
Laser disc produced great pictures
and audio and was an amazing product for an analog technology. But
how many people do you know with
an LD player? A few, and they're
probably heavy techies. The laser
disc was a good product at the wrong
time. The DVD is a good product at
the right time; but the public will not
tolerate poor presentations of that
product.
Paul McGoldrick is a freelance industry consultant based on the West Coast.
Send questions and comments to:
[email protected]
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