Agilent Technologies E4440A User's Manual

Agilent Technologies E4440A User's Manual
Getting Started Guide
PSA Series Spectrum Analyzers
This manual provides documentation for the following instruments:
E4440A (3 Hz - 26.5 GHz)
E4443A (3 Hz - 6.7 GHz)
E4445A (3 Hz - 13.2 GHz)
E4446A (3 Hz - 44 GHz)
E4447A (3 Hz - 42.98 GHz)
E4448A (3 Hz - 50 GHz)
Manufacturing Part Number: E4440-90284
Supersedes: E4440-90274
Printed in USA
March 2006
© Copyright 2001-2006 Agilent Technologies, Inc.
Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change
without notice.
Agilent Technologies makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this
material, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Agilent
Technologies shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for
incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
The following safety symbols are used throughout this manual.
Familiarize yourself with the symbols and their meaning before
operating this analyzer.
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note
until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of the analyzer. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until
the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
NOTE
Note calls out special information for the user’s attention. It provides
operational information or additional instructions of which the user
should be aware.
Additional Information
For the latest information about this analyzer, including firmware
upgrades, application information, and product information, see the
following URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/psa/
2
Contents
2. Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear-Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front and Rear Panel Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
29
31
33
3. Making a Basic Measurement
Using the Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Presetting the Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Viewing a Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4. Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
File Menu Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Saving a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Using the Alpha Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5. Options and Accessories
Ordering Options and Accessories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6. In Case of Difficulty
Types of Spectrum Analyzer Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Before Calling Agilent Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Returning an Analyzer for Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3
Table of Contents
1. Installation and Setup
Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Firmware Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Running Internal Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Printer Setup and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table of Contents
Contents
4
Installation and Setup
1
Installation and Setup
5
Installation and Setup
This chapter provides the following information that you may need
when you first receive your spectrum analyzer:
• “Initial Inspection” on page 7
• “Power Requirements” on page 9
• “Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time” on page 13
• “Printer Setup and Operation” on page 18
• “Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge” on page 21
Installation and Setup
• “Running Internal Alignments” on page 17
• “Safety Information” on page 22
Agilent
Technologies
Performance
Spectrum
Analyzer (PSA)
6
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Initial Inspection
Initial Inspection
Inspect the shipping container and the cushioning material for signs of
stress. Retain the shipping materials for future use, as you may wish to
ship the analyzer to another location or to Agilent Technologies for
service. Verify that the contents of the shipping container are complete.
The following table lists the items shipped with the analyzer.
Item
Description
IntuiLink Toolbar software, CD-ROM
Provides a set of connectivity tools that enable you to easily
move data from your analyzer to your PC.
Power Cable (See Table 1-2 on page 11)
Connection for power source
USB Cable (Option 111 only)
Connects PSA USB to USB on a PC, part number 8121-1074
Adapter (E4446A, E4447A, and E4448A
only)
2.4 mm(f) to K(f) front panel connector adapter, part number
1250-2187
Adapter (E4446A, E4447A, and E4448A
only)
2.4 mm(f) to 2.4 mm(f) front panel connector adapter, part
number 1250-2188
Agilent Automation-Ready CD
Assists in quickly and properly connecting instruments to
your PC, part number E2094-60003. Includes: Agilent IO
Libraries Suite, Agilent VEE Pro, T&M Tool Kit, and Agilent
IO Hardware information.
Installation and Setup
Accessories
Standard Documentation Set
Getting Started Guide
Covers unpacking and setting up the analyzer, analyzer
features, and how to make a basic measurement. Includes
information on options and accessories, and what to do if you
have a problem.
User’s/Programmer’s Guide
Describes analyzer features in detail, including front-panel
key descriptions, basic spectrum analyzer programming
information, and SCPI command descriptions.
Measurement Guide
Provides details on how to measure various signals, and how
to use catalogs and files.
Specifications Guide
Documents specifications, safety, and regulatory information.
Instrument Messages and Functional Tests
Includes instrument messages (and suggestions for
troubleshooting them), and manual functional tests.
Programming Conversion Guide
Describes SCPI programming command compatibility for
8590, 8560, 8566, ESA/PSA series analyzers.
Documentation CD-ROM
Includes the documents in the standard set (listed above).
You can view and print the information as needed. See the
CD-ROM jacket for installation information.
Chapter 1
7
Installation and Setup
Initial Inspection
NOTE
If you purchased one or more optional measurement personalities, the
related guides for the options you ordered are included.
Service documentation is not included in the standard documentation
set. See “Options” on page 65 for information on ordering.
Installation and Setup
If There Is a Problem
If the shipping materials are damaged or the contents of the container
are incomplete:
• Contact the nearest Agilent Technologies office to arrange for repair
or replacement (see “Contacting Agilent Technologies” on page 80).
You will not need to wait for a claim settlement.
• Keep the shipping materials for the carrier’s inspection.
• If you must return an analyzer to Agilent Technologies, use the
original (or comparable) shipping materials (see “Returning an
Analyzer for Service” on page 81).
8
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Power Requirements
Power Requirements
The only physical installation of your Agilent spectrum analyzer is a
connection to a power source.
Line voltage does not need to be selected.
This analyzer does not contain customer serviceable fuses.
WARNING
Installation and Setup
Failure to ground the analyzer properly can result in personal
injury. Before turning on the analyzer, you must connect its
protective earth terminals to the protective conductor of the
main power cable. Insert the main power cable plug into a
socket outlet that has a protective earth contact only. DO NOT
defeat the earth-grounding protection by using an extension
cable, power cable, or autotransformer without a protective
ground conductor.
If you are using an autotransformer, make sure its common
terminal is connected to the protective earth contact of the
power source outlet socket.
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective
earthing ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains
plug shall only be inserted in a socket outlet provided with a
protective earth contact. Any interruption of the protective
conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the Agilent
Technologies spectrum analyzer from mains before cleaning.
Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with water to clean
the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean internally.
CAUTION
VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS: When installing the product in a
cabinet, the convection into and out of the product must not be
restricted. The ambient temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less
than the maximum operating temperature of the product by 4°C for
every 100 watts dissipated in the cabinet. If the total power dissipated
in the cabinet is greater than 800 watts, then forced convection must be
used.
This analyzer has autoranging line voltage input. Be sure the supply
voltage is within the specified range.
NOTE
For detailed analyzer specifications, see the Specifications guide.
Chapter 1
9
Installation and Setup
Power Requirements
Table 1-1
Power Requirements
Description
Voltage, Frequency
Specification1
100 to 120 Vrms, 50/60/400 Hz
220 to 240 Vrms, 50/60 Hz
Power Consumption, On
Base
< 260 W
Power Consumption, Standby
< 20 W
Fully Loaded
< 450 W
Installation and Setup
1. For greater detail, refer to the Specifications Guide.
AC Power Cord
The analyzer is equipped with a three-wire power cord, in accordance
with international safety standards. This cable grounds the analyzer
cabinet when connected to an appropriate power line outlet. The cable
appropriate to the original shipping location is included with the
analyzer.
Various AC power cables are available that are unique to specific
geographic areas. You can order additional AC power cables for use in
different areas. AC Power Cords, on page 11 lists the available AC
power cables, illustrates the plug configurations, and identifies the
geographic area in which each cable is appropriate.
NOTE
The front panel switch is a standby switch only; it is not a LINE switch
(power disconnecting device).
WARNING
Install the product so that the detachable power cord is readily
identifiable and easily reached by the operator. The detachable
power cord is the product disconnecting device. It disconnects
the mains circuits from the mains supply before other parts of
the product. The front panel switch is only a standby switch
and is not a LINE switch. Alternatively, an externally installed
switch or circuit breaker (which is readily identifiable and is
easily reached by the operator) may be used as a disconnecting
device.
CAUTION
Always use the three-prong AC power cord supplied with this product.
Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord can
cause product damage.
10
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Power Requirements
Table 1-2
AC Power Cords
Installation and Setup
Chapter 1
11
Installation and Setup
Power Requirements
Battery Information
The analyzer uses a Lithium Polycarbon Monofloride battery to power
the analyzer clock. The battery is located on the CPU board.
Installation and Setup
You can order the service documentation for Agilent spectrum
analyzers through your Agilent Sales and Service office. The
documentation is described under “Options” on page 65.
NOTE
If the analyzer’s clock does not keep time when powered off, the
problem is the battery. See “Returning an Analyzer for Service” on
page 81.
WARNING
Danger of explosion if battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace
only with the same or equivalent type recommended. Discard
used batteries according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
12
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time
❏ Plug in the power cord.
WARNING
The analyzer is shipped with a a transportation disk inserted in the
disk drive to prevent damage to the disk drive during
transportation. This transportation disk, or a blank floppy disk,
should be inserted in the disk drive whenever transporting the
analyzer.
Installation and Setup
CAUTION
If this product is to be energized via an external auto
transformer for voltage reduction, make sure that its common
terminal is connected to a neutral (earthed pole) of the power
supply.
Do not leave a disk in the front-panel disk drive while turning the
analyzer on. Also, ensure that the transportation disk is removed
from the drive.
NOTE
Do not connect anything else to the analyzer yet.
❏ Press the power switch (located in the lower left-hand corner of the
analyzer’s front panel) to turn the analyzer on. See “Front Panel
Overview” on page 24.
NOTE
The instrument requires >2 minutes to power-on.
Information
Screen
An information screen appears during the initialization process. The
information screen contains the analyzer product number and a URL
for accessing product support information on the World Wide Web. See
“Additional Information” on page 2.
NOTE
The information screen displays for approximately 10 seconds before
the initialization process is complete.
Record the firmware revision and serial number, and keep it for
reference. If you should ever need to call Agilent Technologies for
service or with any questions regarding your analyzer, it will be helpful
to have this information readily available. You can also obtain the
firmware revision and serial number by pressing System, More, Show
System.
Chapter 1
13
Installation and Setup
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time
❏ If using LAN, set the IP address of the analyzer to an appropriate
number for your network; one that the network recognizes, but that
is not yet in use. (Consult your local IT group):
— Press System, Config I/O, and note the IP address.
— If the current address is not appropriate, press IP Address and use
the keypad to change it.
— Connect the LAN cable to the LAN connector located on the rear
panel of your analyzer (see “Rear-Panel Features” on page 29).
Installation and Setup
— Cycle the analyzer power.
NOTE
It is necessary to cycle the power to the analyzer after plugging in the
LAN for the analyzer to recognize the network.
❏ Allow the spectrum analyzer to warm-up for 30 minutes before
making a calibrated measurement. To meet its specifications, the
analyzer must meet operating temperature conditions.
NOTE
It is normal to hear clicking when the Auto Alignment function is on.
See “Running Internal Alignments” on page 17 for more information.
Why Aren’t All the Personality Options Loaded in
Memory?
Many measurement personality options are available for use with this
instrument. If the option is loaded in the instrument, you must also
have a license key entered, to use it.
Some versions of instrument hardware may not have enough memory
to accommodate all the options that you have ordered. If this is the case
you will need to swap the applications in/out of memory, as needed. It
may also be possible to upgrade your hardware to have more memory.
Contact your local sales/service office.
If Option 117 is Loaded in Memory
If you ordered Option 117, the Secure Memory Erase option was loaded
into the memory of your instrument and licensed at the factory but not
enabled. DO NOT enable this option until you have fully configured
your instrument (set the System, Config I/O settings as needed, added or
removed options and licenses, and configured the power-up state you
desire). After the security mode is enabled, the main Flash memory
becomes read-only, rather than read/write memory. This makes it
impossible to add or remove personalities or their license keys, or
otherwise change the instrument’s configuration, unless you do a
System, Security, Secure Erase All procedure. This procedure will render
the instrument inoperable. You will then need to run the upgrade
14
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time
procedure (on the Agilent Web site) to reinstall the firmware and
completely reconfigure your instrument. Refer to “Managing Security”
in Chapter 4 of the “User’s and Programmer’s Reference, Volume 1.”
When you are totally satisfied with the configuration of your PSA
analyzer, enable the Secure Memory Erase option by pressing System,
Security, Security, Enabled. The security mode will then be enabled the
next time the analyzer’s power is cycled.
Using an External Reference
1. To use an external frequency reference, connect it to the
2. Enter the frequency of the external reference into the analyzer:
a. Press System, Reference, Freq Ref
b. Select the Ext function.
c. Use the keypad to enter the frequency of the external frequency
reference.
Chapter 1
15
Installation and Setup
EXT REF IN connector on the rear panel (see “Rear-Panel
Features” on page 29).
Installation and Setup
Firmware Revision
Firmware Revision
To view the firmware revision of your analyzer, press System, More,
Show System. If you call Agilent Technologies regarding your analyzer,
it is helpful to have this revision and the analyzer serial number
available.
Installation and Setup
TIP
You can get automatic electronic notification of new firmware releases
and other product updates/information by subscribing to the Agilent
Technologies Test & Measurement E-Mail Notification Service for the
PSA and ESA Series at http://www.agilent.com/find/notifyme
16
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Running Internal Alignments
Running Internal Alignments
Each time the analyzer is powered on, the internal alignment routine
runs automatically.
The analyzer was shipped from the factory with the Alignments mode
set to Auto. This setting enables the alignment routine to run
automatically either every 24 hours, or when the internal analyzer
temperature changes ±3°C.
When the Alignment routine runs, you will hear the attenuator settings
changing, which generates noise. This is not an indication of trouble.
Manually Performing an Alignment
If Auto Align, Off is selected, refer to the Specifications guide for the
conditions required to maintain calibration.
NOTE
For detailed information regarding the alignment routine (including
how to run alignments, and how the analyzer can alert you when
alignments are required) refer to the User’s guide for your analyzer.
Chapter 1
17
Installation and Setup
NOTE
Installation and Setup
Printer Setup and Operation
Printer Setup and Operation
A printer can be connected to your analyzer if it is equipped with an
external I/O interface. Supported printers accept Hewlett-Packard
Printer Control Language Level 3 (PCL3) or 5 (PCL5). Refer to the
documentation or specifications supplied with your printer, or contact
the manufacturer to identify your printer’s language.
Equipment
Installation and Setup
• IEEE 1284 compliant printer cable.
• Supported and tested printers are listed below. Note that there are
many PCL3/5 printers that may work with your analyzer, however,
they have not been tested.
— PCL3 printers include most HP DeskJet printers.
— PCL5 printers include most HP LaserJet printers.
NOTE
The following printers are not compatible with your analyzer.
• HP Deskjet 720C, 722C, 820C and 1600C
• Epson MX-80, FX-85, Stylus, and LQ-570
Printer Models
Language
Type
Color
Capable
HP DeskJet 310, 320, 350C, 400L
PCL3
yes
HP DeskJet 500C, 550C, 600, 660C, 672C,
680C, 682C, 690C, 693C
PCL3
yes
HP DeskJet 840C, 850C, 870C, 890C, 895C
PCL3
yes
HP DeskJet 935C, 970C, 990C
PCL3
yes
HP DeskJet 1120C, 1150C
PCL3
yes
HP Inkjet 2000C
PCL 3
yes
HP LaserJet 4L, 4P, 4 Plus
PCL3/5
no
HP LaserJet 5L, 5M, 5N, 5P, 5SI
PCL3/5
no
PCL5
no
HP LaserJet 6L, 6MP, 6P
HP LaserJet 2100 Series,
PCL3/5
no
HP LaserJet 4050N
PCL3/5
yes
HP LaserJet 5000GN
PCL3/5
yes
HP Professional Series 2500CM
18
PCL3
yes
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Printer Setup and Operation
Printer Models
HP Professional Series 2500CM
Language
Type
Color
Capable
PCL3
yes
Installation and Setup
Chapter 1
19
Installation and Setup
Printer Setup and Operation
Interconnection and Setup
1. Turn off the printer and the analyzer.
2. Using an IEEE 1284 compliant parallel printer cable, connect the
printer to the analyzer parallel I/O interface connector on the rear
panel (see “Rear-Panel Features” on page 29).
3. Turn on the analyzer and printer.
4. On the front panel, press Print Setup, then press the Printer Setup
menu key.
Installation and Setup
5. Select the printer language and color capability appropriate for your
printer. See table above this section for a list of some compatible
printers.
Testing Printer Operation
When you have completed the printer setup for the analyzer, press the
front panel Print key. If the printer is ready and the printer setup was
successful, a printout of the analyzer display will be printed. If the
printer is not ready, the message “Printer not responding” appears
at the bottom of the screen.
NOTE
There may be some small discrepancies in the color mapping of the
analyzer display to your color printer. Due to differences in display and
printer technologies, the default display colors do not map exactly to the
printer colors. For example trace 1 is yellow on your analyzer display
while it maps to green on your printer.
20
Chapter 1
Installation and Setup
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy electronic
components (the possibility of unseen damage caused by ESD is present
whenever components are transported, stored, or used).
Test Equipment and ESD
To help reduce ESD damage that can occur while using test equipment:
• Before connecting any coaxial cable to an analyzer connector for the
• Personnel should be grounded with a 1 MΩ resistor-isolated
wrist-strap before touching the center pin of any connector and
before removing any assembly from the analyzer.
• Be sure that all instruments are properly earth-grounded to prevent
build-up of static charge.
WARNING
Do not use these first three techniques when working on
circuitry with a voltage potential greater than 500 volts.
• Perform work on all components or assemblies at a static-safe
workstation.
• Keep static-generating materials at least one meter away from all
components.
• Store or transport components in static-shielding containers.
• Always handle printed circuit board assemblies by the edges. This
reduces the possibility of ESD damage to components and prevent
contamination of exposed plating.
For information on ordering static-safe accessories, see “Accessories” on
page 71.
Additional Information about ESD
For more information about ESD and how to prevent ESD damage,
contact the Electrostatic Discharge Association (http://www.esda.org).
The ESD standards developed by this agency are sanctioned by the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Chapter 1
21
Installation and Setup
first time each day, momentarily short the center and outer
conductors of the cable together.
Installation and Setup
Safety Information
Safety Information
Installation and Setup
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective
earthing ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains
plug shall be inserted only in a socket outlet provided with a
protective earth contact. Any interruption of the protective
conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided
by the equipment could be impaired. This product must be used
in a normal condition (in which all means for protection are
intact) only.
22
Chapter 1
Front and Rear Panel Features
2
Front and Rear Panel Features
This chapter gives you an overview of the front and rear panels of your
analyzer. For details on analyzer keys and remote programming, refer
to the User’s and Programmer’s Reference. For connector specifications
(including input/output levels), see the Specifications guide.
23
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel Overview
Front Panel Overview
This section provides information on the analyzer’s front panel,
including:
• Front Panel Connectors and Keys, see below
• “Display Annotations” on page 26
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front-Panel Connectors and Keys
Item
Description
#
Name
1
AUDIO INPUT
High-impedance input for audio signal path (Option 107). Maximum input: 7 Vrms,
20 Vdc
2
Softkeys
Menu labels identifying the current function of each softkey appear to the left of each
key. Softkey menus dependent on the active menu. Also see “Using Menu Keys” on page
37.
3
ESC Key
Exits any function without modifying the current parameters. Also blanks the active
function annotation and aborts the power-on alignments.
4
Control Keys
Set parameters used for making measurements in the current measurement mode.
5
Measure Keys
Select and set up specific measurements within the current application.
6
Mode Keys
Select measurement mode and mode parameters.
24
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel Overview
Item
Description
#
Name
7
System Keys
Access features used with all analyzer modes and affect the state of the entire spectrum
analyzer.
8
Vol. Control/
Earphones
Not currently implemented.
9
PROBE PWR
Supplies power for external high frequency probes and accessories (see “Accessories” on
page 71).
10
Marker Keys
Enable markers to obtain specific information about the displayed measurement.
11
EXT TRIGGER
INPUT
Enables you to externally trigger measurements.
12
POWER
ON/OFF
Turns the analyzer on. A green light indicates power on. A yellow light indicates
standby mode.
NOTE
The front-panel switch is a standby switch, not a LINE switch
(disconnecting device); the analyzer continues to draw power
even when the line switch is in standby. Use the detachable
power cord to disconnect the analyzer from the mains supply.
Help Key
Press the Help key, then any other key to get a short description of that key and the
associated SCPI command. The next key you press will remove the help window from
the display.
14
Window Keys
Next Window: On displays with multiple windows, changes the highlighted window that
is currently active.
Zoom: Zooms in on the highlighted window.
15
Navigation
Keys
Move cursor between fields on the display.
16
Return Key
Exits the current menu and returns to the previous menu.
17
Data Controls
Change the numeric value of an active function. Entries appear in the active function
area of the display. Also see “Entering Data” on page 37.
18
Floppy
Disk Drive
Accepts a 3.5 inch 1.44 MB floppy disk.
19
RF Input
Input for an external signal. Make sure that the total power of all signals at the
analyzer input does not exceed +30 dBm (1 watt). The E4446A, E4447A, and E4448A
input connector is 2.4 mm.
20
IF Input, 1st
LO Output
Allows connections for external mixing (Option AYZ)
Chapter 2
25
Front and Rear Panel Features
13
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel Overview
Front and Rear Panel Features
Display Annotations
Ite
m
Description
Associated Function Keys
1
Detector type1
Det/Demod, Detector
2
Reference level
Amplitude, Ref Level
3
Active function block
Refer to the description of the activated function.
4
Screen title
Display, Title
5
Time and date display
System, Time/Date
6
RF attenuationa
Amplitude, Attenuation
7
Display line
Display, Display Line
8
Marker
Marker
9
Active marker
Marker
10
Active marker frequency and
amplitude
Marker
26
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel Overview
Ite
m
Description
Associated Function Keys
11
Data invalid indicator
Asterisk (*) means some or all trace data may not match
annotation due to possible analyzer setting changes.
12
Status message area
Displays status messages (see “Types of Spectrum
Analyzer Messages” on page 77).
13
Key menu title
Dependent on menu selection.
14
Softkey menu
Softkey labels
15
Frequency span or stop frequency
Span or Frequency, Stop Freq
16
Sweep timea
Sweep, Sweep Time
17
Video bandwidtha
BW, Video BW
18
Frequency offset
Frequency, Freq Offset
19
Display status line
Displays informational and error messages (see “Types of
Spectrum Analyzer Messages” on page 77).
20
Resolution bandwidtha
BW, Res BW
21
Center frequency or start frequency
Frequency, Center Freq or Start Freq
22
Internal preamp
Amplitude, Int Preamp
23
Auto alignment routine status
System, Alignments, Auto align
AA: auto alignment of all
analyzer parameters.
24
25
Trigger or Trace
Averagea
AL: analyzer alerts you
when alignment is
needed.
Trig or Trace/Avg
Trigger & sweep modes:
F: free-run trigger
X: external (front) trigger
R: external (rear) trigger
L: line trigger
V: video trigger
C: continuous sweep
S: single sweep
Trace modes:
W: clear-write
S: store blank
m: minimum hold
M: maximum hold
V: view
1: trace 1
2: trace 2
3: trace 3
Trace/Avg, Average: The
VAvg: voltage average
LgAv: log power average
PAvg power average
number shown indicates
current average number.
26
Display line annotation
Display, Display Line
27
Amplitude offset
Amplitude, Ref Lvl Offst
28
Amplitude scale
Amplitude, Scale Type or Amplitude, Scale/Div
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel Features
(If auto alignment is off, no indicator appears)
27
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front Panel Overview
Ite
m
Description
29
Phase noise optimizationa
Associated Function Keys
Auto Couple, PhNoise Opt
Phase noise can be optimized for:
f<50k: frequencies less than 50 kHz from carrier.
f>50k: frequencies greater than 50 kHz from carrier.
FTun: LO for fast tuning.
30
Sweep typea
Sweep, Sweep Type
31
Signal track
Frequency, Signal Track
Could also be CP (Continuous Peak)
Peak Search, Continuous Pk
Front and Rear Panel Features
1. This function can be auto-coupled. A pound (#) symbol in front of this annotation
indicates an uncoupled function.
28
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel Features
Rear-Panel Features
Rear-Panel Features
Item
Description
Name
1
NOISE SOURCE
DRIVE OUT
+28 V (PULSED)
Provides 28 V to drive a noise source. Used on Option 219 Noise Figure personality.
2
PRESEL TUNE
OUT
Outputs tuning voltage for preselected harmonic mixer.
3
10 MHz OUT
(SWITCHED)
A switched output of the analyzer’s internal 10 MHz frequency reference signal used
to lock the frequency reference of other test equipment to the analyzer.
4
EXT REF IN
Input for a 1 to 30 MHz external frequency reference signal.
5
321.4 MHz IF
Out
Provides 321.4 MHz IF output. Not available on E4447A.
6
TRIGGER 1 OUT
A trigger output used to synchronize other test equipment with the analyzer. Trigger
1 is the High=Sweeping (HSWP) signal.
7
TRIGGER 2 IN
Allows external triggering of measurements.
8
VIDEO OUT
Provides a y-axis video out signal. Note that this signal is not available when gating
is being used. (Option 124)
9
21.4 MHz IF OUT
Provides 21.4 MHz IF output. (Option HB2) Not available on E4447A.
10
USB Port
Provides USB interface (Option 111). USB device side I/O only.
Chapter 2
29
Front and Rear Panel Features
#
Front and Rear Panel Features
Rear-Panel Features
Item
#
Description
Name
11
KYBD
Enables connection of an external PS-2 keyboard using a 6-pin mini-DIN connector.
Always turn off power before plugging in keyboard.
This feature not fully implemented. Currently used only for firmware upgrades.
12
Line power
input
The AC power connection. Also see “Power Requirements” on page 5.
13
GPIB
Allows the connection of a General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB, IEEE 488.1) cable,
which enables remote analyzer operation.
14
LAN
A TCP/IP Interface.
Also see “Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time” on page 11 for information on
setting the IP address.
Front and Rear Panel Features
For information on using the analyzer remotely, refer to the User’s/Programmer’s
Guide.
15
TRIGGER 2 OUT
A trigger output used to synchronize other test equipment with the analyzer.
Reserved for future applications.
16
PARALLEL
Supports remote printing (Printing is supported only from the parallel port).
17
70 MHZ IF OUT
Provides 70 MHz IF output (Option H70). Not available on E4447A.
Other IF output options may occupy this rear-panel location.
18
MONITOR
Allows connection of an external VGA monitor.
19
RS-232
Allows connection of a PC, printer, or modem.
This feature is not fully implemented.
20
HNQ IN
H7L IN
H70 IN
These features are only available when special options are installed.
Requires a BNC jumper cable from the rear-panel “321.4 MHz IF Out” to one of
these inputs, depending on the option. Not available on E4447A.
30
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel Features
Key Overview
Key Overview
The keys labeled FREQUENCY Channel, System, and Marker are all
examples of front-panel keys. The front-panel keys are dark gray, light
gray, green, or white in color. Front-panel keys that are white perform
an immediate action rather than bringing up a menu. The only green
key is the Preset key, which performs an analyzer reset (A summary of
all front panel keys and their related menu keys can be found in user’s
guide for your analyzer). Pressing most of the dark or light gray
front-panel keys accesses menus of functions that are displayed along
the right side of the display. These are called menu keys.
Menu keys list functions other than those accessed directly by the front
panel keys. To activate a menu key function, press the key immediately
to the right of the annotation on the screen. The menu keys that are
displayed depend on which front-panel key is pressed and which menu
level is enabled.
A menu key with On and Off in its label can be used to turn the menu
key’s function on or off. To turn the function on, press the menu key so
that On is underlined. To turn the function off, press the menu key so
that Off is underlined. In the manual, when On should be underlined, it
will be indicated as Function (On).
A function with Auto and Man in the label can either be auto-coupled or
have its value manually changed. The value of the function can be
changed manually using the numeric keypad, knob, or step keys. To
auto-couple a function, press the menu key so that Auto is underlined.
In some key menus, one key label will always be highlighted to show
which key has been selected. For example, when you press Marker, you
will access a menu of keys in which some of the keys are grouped
together by a blue bar on the left side of the menu. The Normal key,
which is the Marker menu default key, will be highlighted. When you
press another key within the blue bar region, such as Delta, the
highlight will move to that key to show it has been selected.
Chapter 2
31
Front and Rear Panel Features
If a menu key function’s value can be changed, it is called an active
function. The function label of the active function is highlighted after
that key has been selected. For example, press AMPLITUDE Y Scale. This
calls up the menu of related amplitude functions. Note the function
labeled Ref Level (the default selected key in the Amplitude menu) is
highlighted. Ref Level also appears in the active function block,
indicating that it is the active amplitude function and can now be
changed using any of the data entry controls.
Front and Rear Panel Features
Key Overview
In other key menus, one key label will always be highlighted to show
which key has been selected but the menu is immediately exited when a
selection is made. For example, when you press the Orientation key (on
the Print Setup menu), it will bring up its own menu of keys. The Portrait
key, which is the Orientation menu default key, will be highlighted.
When you press the Landscape key, the highlight will move to that key
to show it has been selected and the screen will return to the Print Setup
menu.
Front and Rear Panel Features
The arrow keys located below the analyzer display (sometimes referred
to as Tab keys) can be used to navigate within tables, for example the
Limit-Line table. These keys are used to move between rows. The
Left-arrow key moves up, while the right-arrow key moves down. While
navigating through the table, the cursor (inverse video highlight) stays
in the same column. Navigating left or right in the table is
accomplished by choosing the desired field using the front-panel keys.
32
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
This symbol is used to indicate power ON (green LED).
This symbol is used to indicate power STANDBY mode
(yellow LED).
This symbol is used to indicate the ON position of the
power button.
This symbol is used to indicate the OFF position of the
power button.
This symbol indicates the input power required is AC.
The instruction documentation symbol. The product is
marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the
user to refer to instructions in the documentation.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the
European Community.
This is a marking of an Industrial Scientific and
Medical Group 1 Class A product, and to indicate
product compliance with the Canadian
Interference-Causing Equipment Standard (ICES-001).
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the
Canadian Standards Association.
This product complies with the WEEE Directive
(2002/96/EC) marking requirements. The affixed label
indicates that you must not discard this electrical/
electronic product in domestic household waste.
Product Category: With reference to the equipment types
in the WEEE Directive Annex I, this product is classed
as a “Monitoring and Control instrumentation” product.
Do not dispose in domestic household waste.
To return unwanted products, contact your local
Agilent office, or see
http://www.agilent.com/environment/product/ for
Chapter 2
33
Front and Rear Panel Features
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the
Australian Spectrum Management Agency.
Front and Rear Panel Features
Front and Rear Panel Symbols
Front and Rear Panel Features
more information.
34
Chapter 2
Making a Basic Measurement
Making a Basic Measurement
3
This chapter provides information on basic analyzer operation. For
more information on making measurements, see the measurement
guide for your analyzer.
35
Making a Basic Measurement
This chapter is divided into the following sections:
• “Using the Front Panel” on page 37
• “Presetting the Spectrum Analyzer” on page 39
• “Viewing a Signal” on page 40
CAUTION
Ensure that the total power of all signals at the analyzer RF input does
not exceed +33 dBm (2 watts).
Basic Assumption
The material in this chapter is presented with the assumption that you
understand the front and rear panel layout, and display annotations of
your analyzer. If you do not, refer to “Front and Rear Panel Features”
on page 23.
The display examples in this book are made using various analyzer
models, you may see some variations depending upon your analyzer.
Making a Basic Measurement
NOTE
36
Chapter 3
Making a Basic Measurement
Using the Front Panel
Using the Front Panel
Entering Data
When setting measurement parameters, there are several ways to enter
or modify the value of the active function:
Knob
Increments or decrements the current value.
Arrow Keys
Increments or decrements the current value.
Numeric
Keypad
Enters a specific value. Then press the desired terminator
(either a unit softkey, or the Enter key).
Unit Softkeys
Terminate a value that requires a unit-of-measurement.
Enter Key
Terminates an entry when either no unit of measure is needed,
or you want to use the default unit.
Using Menu Keys
Menu Keys (which appear along the right side of the display) provide
access to many analyzer functions. Here are examples of menu key
types:
Toggle
Allows you to activate/deactivate states.
Exampl
e:
Submenu
A submenu key allows you to view a new
menu of softkeys related to the submenu
key category.
Y Axis Units
dBm
A choice key displays the currently
selected submenu choice, in this example,
dBm. When the choice is made, the
submenu automatically returns.
CF Step
13.2550000 GHz
Press this type of key and enter a value.
37
Making a Basic Measurement
Highlights the softkey and sets the active function.
Exampl
es:
Chapter 3
Catalog
Allows you to make a selection from a list of values.
Exampl
e:
Adjust
Toggles the selection (underlined choice)
each time you press the key.
Displays a new menu of softkeys.
Exampl
e:
Choice
Signal Track
On
Off
Making a Basic Measurement
Using the Front Panel
The default for softkeys with an
automatic (Auto) or manual (Man) choice
is automatic. After you enter a value, the
selection changes to manual. You can also
press the softkey twice to change to
manual.
Making a Basic Measurement
Attenuation
10.00 dB
Auto
Man
38
Chapter 3
Making a Basic Measurement
Presetting the Spectrum Analyzer
Presetting the Spectrum Analyzer
Preset provides a known starting point for making measurements. The
analyzer has three types of preset:
Factory Preset
Restores the analyzer to its factory-defined state.
User Preset
Restores the analyzer to a user-defined state.
Mode Preset
This type of preset restores the currently selected mode
to a known state.
For details, see the User’s/Programmer’s manual.
When Preset Type is set to Factory, pressing the green Preset key
triggers a factory preset. When Preset Type is set to User, pressing
Preset displays the softkeys Factory Preset, User Preset, and Mode Preset
(if applicable); you then select the preset you want. If Preset Type is set
to Mode, but a personality is not installed, pressing Preset triggers a
factory preset.
Creating a User Preset
If you constantly use settings which are not the factory defaults, use the
following steps to create a user-defined preset:
1. Set analyzer parameters as desired.
2. Press System, Power On/Preset, Save User Preset to set the current
parameters as the user preset state.
3. Press Preset to select User in the same softkey menu to enable user
preset as an option.
Disabling User Preset
Go to the Power On/Preset menu (press System, Power On/Preset) and
select a Preset Type of Factory or Mode.
Making a Basic Measurement
Chapter 3
39
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
Viewing a Signal
1. Press Preset. If the softkeys Factory Preset and User Preset appear,
select Factory Preset.
2. Press System, Reference, then note the 10 MHz Out setting. If Off is
active (underlined), press the softkey to toggle the reference on.
3. Connect the analyzer’s rear panel 10 MHz OUT (SWITCHED) to the
front-panel input.
Setting Reference Level and Center Frequency
NOTE
The display examples in this section are made using various analyzer
models, you may see some variations depending upon your analyzer.
4. Set the reference level to 10 dBm: Press AMPLITUDE, 10, dBm.
5. Set the center frequency to 30 MHz: Press FREQUENCY, Center
Freq, 30, MHz.
The 10 MHz reference signal spectrum appears on the display, as
shown in Figure 3-1.
The display examples in this book are made using various analyzer
models, you may see some variations depending upon your analyzer.
Making a Basic Measurement
NOTE
40
Chapter 3
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
Figure 3-1
10 MHz Internal Reference Signal and Associated Spectrum
10 MHz Peak
Setting Frequency Span
6. Set the frequency span to 50 MHz: Press SPAN, 5, 0, MHz.
This displays the signal as shown in Figure 3-2.
Making a Basic Measurement
Chapter 3
41
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
Figure 3-2
Span Changed to 50 MHz
10 MHz Peak
Reading Frequency & Amplitude
7. Place a marker (labeled 1) on the 10 MHz peak, as shown
in Figure 3-3.
Press Peak Search.
Note that the frequency and amplitude of the marker appear both in
the active function block, and in the upper-right corner of the screen.
You can use the knob, the arrow keys, or the softkeys in the Peak
Search menu to move the marker. Pressing Esc removes the value
from the display.
8. If you have moved the marker, return it to the peak of the 10 MHz
signal.
Changing Reference Level
9. Press AMPLITUDE, and note that reference level (Ref Level) is now
Making a Basic Measurement
the active function. Press Marker ➞, Mkr ➞ Ref Lvl.
Note that changing the reference level changes the amplitude value
of the top graticule line.
Figure 3-4 shows the relationship between center frequency and
reference level. The box represents the analyzer display. Changing
the center frequency changes the horizontal placement of the signal
on the display. Changing the reference level changes the vertical
placement of the signal on the display. Increasing the span increases
the frequency range that appears horizontally across the display.
42
Chapter 3
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
Figure 3-3
A Marker on the 10 MHz Peak
Active function block
Figure 3-4
Marker Annotation
Relationship Between Frequency and Amplitude
Making a Basic Measurement
Chapter 3
43
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
Improving Frequency Accuracy
10. While not all of the zeros following the decimal in the active function
block are significant, the numbers after the decimal in the marker
annotation (upper-right corner of screen) are significant. To increase
the accuracy of the frequency reading in the marker annotation, turn
on the frequency count function.
a. Press Mkr Fctn.
• The Marker Fctn softkeys appear.
b. Press Marker Count.
• The Marker Count softkeys appear.
Note softkey Marker Count On Off. If Off is underlined, press the
softkey to toggle marker count on.
As shown in Figure 3-5 and Figure 3-6:
• The marker annotation changes from Mkr1 to Cntr1.
• The displayed resolution in the marker annotation improves.
NOTE
When you use the frequency count function, if the ratio of the resolution
bandwidth to the span is less than 0.002, the following message
appears on the display: Freq Count: Reduce Span/RBW ratio
This indicates that the resolution bandwidth is too narrow.
11. Press Marker ➞, Mkr ➞ CF to move the 10 MHz peak to the center of the
display.
Valid Marker Count Range
12. Move the marker down the skirt of the 10 MHz peak. Note that
although the readout in the active function changes, as long as the
marker is at least 26 dB above the noise, the counted value
(upper-right corner of display) does not change (see Figure 3-6). For
an accurate count, the marker does not have to be at the exact peak.
Making a Basic Measurement
NOTE
Marker count functions properly only on CW signals or discrete peaks.
For a valid reading, the marker must be ≥26 dB above the noise.
13. Press BW/Avg, Res BW, then enter a new value. This action makes
the resolution bandwidth the active function and allows you to
experiment with different resolution bandwidth (RBW) values.
14. Press Marker, Off to turn the marker off.
NOTE
After properly setting the analyzer to display your signal, you can save
the settings as either a user preset (press System, Power On/Preset, Save
44
Chapter 3
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
User Preset), or a file (see “Saving a File” on page 53).
Figure 3-5
Increasing Marker Frequency Accuracy
Frequency Count
increases accuracy
Making a Basic Measurement
Chapter 3
45
Making a Basic Measurement
Viewing a Signal
Using Marker Counter
Making a Basic Measurement
Figure 3-6
46
Chapter 3
t\
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
4
Viewing Catalogs and Saving
Files
47
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
The analyzer stores and retrieves data similarly to the way that a
personal computer (PC) does: both have internal storage and a floppy
disk drive. While a PC has an internal drive, the analyzer’s internal
storage is nonvolatile (flash) memory, which acts as an internal drive.
As with a PC, both the internal storage and the floppy disk drive have
directory and sub-directory capability.
This chapter tells you how to:
• locate catalogs and view files, on page 49.
• save a file, on page 53.
For more information on catalogs and files, see the
Measurement/Programming Examples.
48
Chapter 4
t\
File Menu Functions
This chapter describes how to use the functions located under the
front-panel File key. Data storage and retrieval are handled similarly to
that of personal computers (PCs). Like PCs, these analyzers include an
internal storage drive and a floppy disk drive, both of which have
directory and sub-directory capability.
You will learn how to do all of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE
locate and view files in the catalog
save a file
load a file
rename a file
copy a file
delete a file
The display examples in this book are made using various analyzer
models, you may see some variations depending upon your analyzer.
Locating and viewing files in the catalog
Techniques for locating files and directories are consistent throughout
the various file menu functions. Although this section provides specific
information about navigation in the catalog, you may wish to refer back
to this section when performing other operations of the file menu.
NOTE
Trace files are not bitmap files. Files saved as Trace cannot be imported
into other applications or converted. If you require the use of other
applications, for example Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel, be sure
to save your files as .gif or .wmf formats using Screen for your file Type.
Comma separated value (csv) files can also be imported into Microsoft®
Excel.
Chapter 4
49
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
File Menu Functions
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
File Menu Functions
Press File, Catalog to bring up a screen display as shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-1
Catalog Menu
NOTE
Use the front-panel Step Keys or Knob and the Dir Up or Dir Select keys
to move up and down within the directory information box.
1. The entry fields show the parameters for the files viewed. Entry
fields that are being modified or are modifiable are indicated by
highlighting (inverse video). Each file menu function has its own
unique set of entry fields pertaining to that function. Below are the
fields listed under the catalog key:
a. Name: field states the filename.
b. Show Type: field displays the type of files viewed.
c. Path: field displays the drive and directory location of the files.
2. The directory information box displays the drives, directories, and/or
files currently described in the entry fields. Highlighting a row of
information selects that location and updates the entry fields. There
are four column headings in this area of the display. They are
described as follows:
a. Name: column states the drive ([-A-] or [-C-]) if at the top level
50
Chapter 4
t\
on the drive, directory name, or filename.
b. Type: column displays the extension of the filename, for example,
.STA or .TRC. Directories are displayed as DIR and drives have
nothing listed under Type:. They are only designated by the
Name: column ([-A-] or [-C-]).
c. Size: column displays the size of the file in bytes.
d. Modified: column displays the date and time the last change
occurred.
3. The softkey menu has four options:
a. Type: allows you to choose the type of file you wish to view. (You
may view all types by using the All key under Type.)
b. Sort: Under the Sort key, you can sort by any of the four columns
and you can choose up (ascending) or down (descending).
c. Dir Up: moves you up one directory level. If you are already at the
top level, this key moves you up to the drive level, displaying the
available disk drives.
d. Dir Select: moves you down into the highlighted directory or up
into the next level (directory or drive) if the “. .” under the Name:
column is highlighted.
NOTE
Navigation keys: Use the front-panel Step Keys or Knob and the Dir Up
or Dir Select keys to move around in the directory information box.
4. The drive space line shows the number of bytes used on the drive
and the number of bytes still free on the drive.
Creating a directory
Directories and sub-directories can be created on both the A: floppy disk
and the internal C: drive. This allows maximum flexibility in
organizing files. For this example, we will create a directory on the C:
drive.
1. Press File, More 1 of 2, Create Dir. Your screen should look similar to
Figure 4-1, except the entry fields will be Dir Name: and Path: and
the Heading will read: Directories.
2. Navigate through the file system until the Path: field displays C:\.
(Use the Step Keys, Knob, Dir Up, and/or Dir Select keys.)
3. Press Name and enter the name, “START” using the Alpha Editor.
(The numeric keypad is also available for the filename.) Press Enter
(hardkey) when the Dir Name: field contains this directory title.
(Use the Bk Sp hardkey on the front panel to make corrections.)
4. Press Create Dir Now to execute the operation. The message:
Chapter 4
51
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
File Menu Functions
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
File Menu Functions
Creating Directory appears on the screen. Then the status bar
displays: Directory C:\START created.
5. To make a sub-directory, scroll down to the START directory you just
created and press Dir Select. The Path: field should now read:
C:\START\. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 above, using a new name. The
status bar now should read: Directory C:\START\new name
created.
52
Chapter 4
t\
Saving a File
You can save files (setups, states, traces, limits, corrections,
measurement results, or screens) to a floppy disk (A:\), or the internal
drive (C:\). In this example you will save a trace to the internal C:
drive.
NOTE
Trace files are not bitmap files. Files saved as Trace cannot be imported
into other applications or converted. If you require the use of other
applications, for example Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel, be sure
to save your files as .gif or .wmf formats using Screen for your file Type.
Step 1. Set up the analyzer trace
1. Perform a factory preset by pressing Preset, Factory Preset (if
present).
2. Turn on the internal 50 MHz alignment signal of the analyzer as
follows:
• Press Input/Output, Input Port, Amptd Ref.
3. Set the center frequency to 50 MHz by pressing press FREQUENCY,
Center Freq, 50, MHz.
4. Set the span to 75 MHz by pressing SPAN, Span, 75, MHz. The
reference signal will appear on the display.
5. View trace 1 and put it into maximum hold by pressing View/Trace,
Max Hold. (Trace 1 should already by underlined, but if not, press
Trace 1 2 3 until 1 is underlined and then press Max Hold.) Your
analyzer display should look similar to Figure 4-3.
Chapter 4
53
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Figure 4-2
Viewing Trace 1
6. Activate trace 2 and put it into minimum hold by pressing Trace (2),
Min Hold. Your analyzer display should look similar to Figure 4-4.
Figure 4-3
Viewing Traces 1 and 2
7. Activate trace 3 by pressing Trace (3), Clear Write. Your analyzer
display should look similar to Figure 4-5.
54
Chapter 4
t\
Figure 4-4
Viewing Traces 1, 2, and 3
Step 2. Save the file
1. To access the Save menu, press, File, Save.
2. Select the type of file you want to save. In this example you are
saving a trace; press Type, Trace.
NOTE
Trace files are not bitmap files. Files saved as Trace cannot be imported
into other applications or converted. If you require the use of other
applications, for example Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel, be
sure to save your files as .gif or .wmf formats using Screen for your
file Type. Comma separated value (csv) files can also be imported
into Microsoft® Excel.
3. Select the trace you wish to save (1, 2, 3, or all traces). In this
example you will save trace 3; press Source (softkey), Trace 3.
4. Select the format you wish to use for saving the trace, either trace
plus state (Trace + State) or comma separated value (CSV). In this
example you will save as trace plus state; press Format, Trace + State.
5. Enter a filename by pressing Name. The Alpha Editor appears. For
this example you will name the file, “TEST1”. (The numeric keypad
is also available for the filename.) Note that the file extension is
always set by the system and for this file type the extension is TRC.
You must now press the Enter (hardkey) to get back to the Save
menu.
Chapter 4
55
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
NOTE
You need to use a filename that does not already exist in the current
directory. The filename is limited to eight characters, alpha (A-Z) or
numeric (0-9) in any combination. The analyzer will not allow you to
overwrite an existing file. If you select a filename that already
exists, the status bar will display the message: File already
exists. If you do not choose a filename, the analyzer will
automatically generate a name based on the type of file you are
saving (Setup: SETUP, State: STATE, Trace: TRACE, Limits: LIMIT,
Corrections: COREC, Screen: SCREN). It also generates a three digit
integer (starting at 000 and extending through 999, remembering
the previously saved value through a power cycle) which it adds to
the name, for example: TRACE056.TRC. Also note that this three digit
integer increments upon each attempted save until a unique
filename is created, without regard to the success of the save.
6. The destination for the saved file is shown in the Path: field. In this
example, you will select the path as C:\START\. If the correct
location is not listed in the Path: field, change directories as follows:
a. Press Dir Up or Dir Select and use the step keys or knob, to
highlight the desired destination directory.
b. Press Dir Select and confirm your choice displayed in the Path:
field.
7. Press Save Now or Save (hardkey) to save the file to the C:\Start\
location. The message Saving Now is displayed during this
operation. For this example, the status line displays:
C:\START\TEST1.TRC file saved.
NOTE
When saving to drive (A:), never remove the floppy disk during the save
operation. To do so could corrupt all data on the floppy disk.
56
Chapter 4
t\
Loading a file
1. Reset the analyzer by pressing Preset, Factory Preset (if present).
2. To access the Load menu, press File, Load.
3. Select the type of file you want to load (setup, state, trace, limits, or
corrections). In this example you are loading a trace file; press Type,
Trace.
NOTE
Not all file types can be loaded back into the analyzer. For example,
Screen files and CSV (comma separated value) files cannot be
loaded. CSV and Screen files are designed for use with a PC.
4. Select the directory where your file is located. In this example, select
the C:\START\ directory. (Use the front-panel step keys, knob, Dir Up,
and/or Dir Select keys to locate the directory.)
5. Select the file you want to load into the analyzer by moving the
cursor with the front-panel knob to highlight the file name. In this
example the file is TEST1.TRC. Select the trace into which you wish
to load the file. In this example, load it into Trace 2. (Destination,
Trace 2).
6. Press Load Now to load the specified file. Your display should look
similar to Figure 4-6. The status bar reads: C:\START\TEST1.TRC
file loaded.
Figure 4-5
File Loaded
Chapter 4
57
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
NOTE
You should notice that the trace you saved, in this example trace 3, is
loaded to trace 2. If you wish to verify this condition, remove the
signal input. Press Input/Output, Input Port, Amptd Ref (Off).
Note that when a trace is loaded, it is placed in view mode. To see
that trace 2 is in view mode, blank traces 1 and 3 by pressing
View/Trace, Trace 1, Blank, Trace 3, Blank. Then press Trace 2. Notice
that trace 2 is the only trace displayed in view mode (the view key is
selected, and the trace is not sweeping). Your display should look
similar to Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-6
Verifying Trace 1
CAUTION
When operating in dc coupled mode, ensure protection of the input
mixer by limiting the input level to 0 Vdc and +30 dBm.
NOTE
When loading Limits files, be sure you have selected the appropriate
X Axis Units: frequency or time (Display, Limits, Properties, X Axis
Units). If you are in time X-Axis Units, and you load frequency limits,
all current limit line data will be erased and the analyzer will switch
to the frequency domain. The reverse of the this situation also holds
true.
58
Chapter 4
t\
Renaming a File
1. To access the Rename menu, press File, Rename.
2. Select the type of file you want to rename (setup, state, trace, limits,
screens, or corrections). In this example you are renaming a trace
file; press Type, Trace.
3. Select the drive and directory where your file is located. In this
example, choose drive C:\START.
4. Select the file you want to rename. In this example, choose the file
TEST1.TRC.
5. Press Name to open the Alpha Editor menu. For this example,
rename the file to RENAME using the Alpha Editor softkeys. (The
Name: field is limited to eight characters.) Your display should look
similar to Figure 4-8.
6. Press Enter, Rename Now: your file is now renamed and visible within
the directory displayed on your analyzer. The status line displays the
message: C:\START\TEST1.TRC file renamed to
C:\START\RENAME.TRC.
Figure 4-7
Renaming a File
Chapter 4
59
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Copying a File
1. To access the Copy menu, press File, Copy. This menu function brings
up 2 directory boxes as described by the From: and To: fields located
directly above the boxes. Refer to Figure 4-9.
Figure 4-8
Copy Menu
2. Put a formatted floppy in the A: drive.
3. Select the type of file you want to copy (setup, state, trace, limits,
screens, or corrections). In this example you are copying a trace file
from the C: drive to the A: drive; press, Type, Trace.
4. Press Dir (in the key menu) to underline From:. Notice the From:
field (just above the top directory box) highlights the location from
which you will be copying. Using the navigation keys (Dir Up, Direct
select, step keys, or front panel knob), locate the C:\START\
directory.
5. Scroll to highlight the file displayed in the directory box from which
you wish to copy. In this example, you will need to highlight the file
RENAME.
6. Press Dir (in the key menu) to underline To:. The To: field (just
above the bottom directory box) is highlighting the location to which
you will be copying. Using the navigation keys as described above,
highlight the A:\ drive.
NOTE
When pressing Dir (To), the file chosen in the From: location is no longer
highlighted, however the Name: field above the From directory box
60
Chapter 4
t\
displays the chosen file; in this example: RENAME.TRC.
NOTE
Highlighting a filename in the To: directory box has no significance.
The file cannot be placed inside another file.
7. Press Copy Now to execute the operation. The message: “Copying
file” is displayed during the copying process. Upon completion, the
status bar reads: “C:\START\RENAME.TRC file copied”. You have
now copied the file RENAME from the C: drive to the A: drive.
Deleting a File
1. To access the Delete menu, press File, Delete.
2. Select the type of file you want to delete (setup, state, trace, limits,
screens, or corrections). In this example, you are deleting a trace file;
press Type, Trace.
3. Select the drive and directory where the file you wish to delete is
located. In this example, choose C:\START\. Use the navigation keys
(Dir Up, Dir Select, step keys, front panel knob) to highlight this
location in the Path: field. (Refer to “Locating and viewing files in
the catalog” on page 49 for more instructions.)
4. Select the file you want to delete. In this example, choose the file
RENAME.TRC. Move the cursor with the navigation keys to highlight
the file name.
5. Press Delete Now. The message: Deleting file pops up on the
display during the operation. Upon completion, the status bar reads:
C:\START\RENAME.TRC file deleted. Your file is now deleted and
is no longer visible in the directory displayed on your analyzer.
Chapter 4
61
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Saving a File
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Viewing Catalogs and Saving Files
Using the Alpha Editor
Using the Alpha Editor
The Alpha Editor enables you to select letters to enter a name for a file
or directory (File, Rename, for example).
1. Use the More keys to display the softkey that lists the character you
want. Each softkey has several characters on it.
2. When you press a softkey, its characters are displayed on individual
softkeys.
3. Select the one you want.
4. Digits are entered using the front panel numeric key pad.
62
Chapter 4
Options and Accessories
5
Options and Accessories
This chapter lists options and accessories available for your analyzer.
63
Options and Accessories
Ordering Options and Accessories
Ordering Options and Accessories
Options and accessories help you configure the analyzer for your
specific applications, and enable you to use the analyzer.
Options and Accessories
Options (see page 65)
Unless specified otherwise, all options are available when you order a
spectrum analyzer; some options are also available as kits that you can
order and install after you receive the analyzer. Order kits through your
local Agilent Sales and Service Office.
For the latest information on Agilent Spectrum Analyzer options and
upgrade kits, visit the following Internet URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/sa_upgrades
Accessories (see page 71)
Order accessories through your local Agilent Sales and Service Office.
64
Chapter 5
Options and Accessories
Options
Options
Option
Number
0B0
Name
Manual Set on CD-ROM
Only
Description
The documentation CD-ROM contains the standard
documentation set as well as Adobe Acrobat Reader with
Search.
An additional set of the standard documentation shipped with
the analyzer. See “Initial Inspection” on page 7 for information
about the standard documentation set.
Service Documentation
The Service guide describes assembly-level troubleshooting
procedures, provides a parts list, and documents post-repair
procedures.
Rack Mount Kit
Includes rack mount flanges and hardware. Used to rack mount
analyzers without front handles (available as P/N 5063-9215).
1CN
Front Handle Kit
Available as P/N 5063-9228.
1CP
Rack Mount Kit with
Handles
Includes the parts necessary to rack mount an analyzer with
front handles attached (available as P/N 5063-9222). (Includes
handles.)
Rack Slide Kit
Available as P/N E4406-60115. Rack slides allow the analyzer
to be pulled out while the analyzer is secured to the rack.
Preamplifier
An internal preamplifier assembly. Not required when Option
110 is installed.
0BW
1CM
1CR
1DS
Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 3 GHz
015
6 GHz Measurement
Accessory Kit
Includes accessories necessary to set up return loss and
loss/gain measurements. Used with Option 215.
Audio Input, 100 kΩ
Audio signal analysis capability that works with the Option 233
Measuring Receiver System. Available in all models. Option
107 cannot be installed if Option 122 or 140 is installed.
Requires Option 233.
RF/µW Internal
Preamplifier
An internal preamplifier assembly that covers all frequency
bands. Available in all models. Option 110 cannot be installed if
Option 1DS is installed.
107
110
Frequency Range: 100 kHz to 50 GHz
111
USB Device Side I/O
Interface
Provides a rear-panel USB interface connector (device side I/O
only).
512 Mb User Memory
Provides additional memory to accommodate a greater number
of applications. Available in all models. Option 115 cannot be
installed if Option 117 is installed.
115
Chapter 5
65
Options and Accessories
Additional Manual Set
0B1
Options and Accessories
Options
Option
Number
Name
Secure Memory Erase
Provides the ability to quickly and easily perform a security
erase, deleting all user-stored data, without affecting the
useability of the analyzer. Option 117 cannot be installed if
Option 115 is installed.
80 MHz Bandwidth
Digitizer
Adds an alternative 80 MHz wide IF path for making
measurements. Cannot be installed if Option 107 is installed.
Additional measurement accuracy can be achieved using the
External Calibration Wizard Option 235, or with the 89600
Vector Signal Analyzer Application calibration. The 80 MHz
functionality is available as part of the added Basic Mode. Basic
Mode includes the measurements:
117
122
Options and Accessories
(E4440A,
43A, & 45A
only)
Description
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
Switchable Preselector
Bypass
Allows you to bypass the tuned filters at the input of the
spectrum analyzer when making measurements in the
3 to 50 GHz range. This improves the sensitivity and increases
the available measurement dynamic range. However it allows
the analyzers internal mixing products and image response
signals to be visible on the display, in addition to the actual
desired signal response. This option is available in all models.
Option 123 cannot be installed if Option AYZ is installed.
Y-axis Video Output
Provides a 0 to 1 V signal that corresponds to the bottom and
top of the display graticule, respectively. The output voltage
tracks the Y-axis position of the trace data while the analyzer is
sweeping. (This output is similar to the 8566B Video Out.)
40 MHz Bandwidth
Digitizer
Adds an alternative 40 MHz wide IF path for making
measurements. Cannot be installed if Option 107 is installed.
The 40 MHz functionality is available as part of the added
Basic Mode. Basic Mode includes the measurements:
123
124
140
(E4440A,
43A, & 45A
only)
202
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
GSM with EDGE
Measurement Personality
General transmitter measurement:
transmit power
Provides GSM (GMSK modulation) transmitter measurements:
power vs. time
phase and frequency error
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
Provides EDGE (8PSK modulation) transmitter measurements:
EVM
power vs. time
output RF spectrum
transmit band spurs
Requires Option B7J hardware.
66
Chapter 5
Options and Accessories
Options
Option
Number
204
Name
1xEV-DO Measurement
Personality
Description
Provides 1xEV transmitter measurements:
channel power
ACPR
intermodulation
spectrum emission mask
occupied BW
code domain power (pilot)
EVM (pilot)
QPSK EVM
power statistics CCDF
210
HSDPA/HSUPA
Measurement Personality
Provides High-Speed Downlink/Uplink Packet Access to
support 16 QAM and modulation accuracy. Requires Option
BAF.
Requires Option B7J hardware.
211
TD-SCDMA Measurement
Personality
Measures the power profile of TD SCDMA BTS and MS.
Requires Option B78 measurement personality and Option B7J
hardware.
214
1xEV-DV
Supports 8 PSK and 16 QAM modulation analysis. Requires
Option B78. Includes measurements:
Composite Rho
Code Domain tests
Requires Option B7J hardware.
215
External Source Control
Measurement Personality
Adds external source control to the PSA analyzer for
stimulus-response measurements.
217
WLAN Measurement
Personality
Provides WLAN transmitter measurements for 802.11 a/b/g.
Requires Option 122 or 140. Also requires Option 123 for center
frequencies above 3 GHz.
Noise Figure Measurement
Personality
Provides noise figure measurements:
(E4440A,
43A, & 45A
only)
219
Limit lines
Loss compensation
Extended frequency (measures up/down converters)
You need the preamp option: Option 1DS to have specified
performance only below 3 GHz, or Option 110 to have specified
performance over the entire frequency range.
226
Phase Noise Measurement
Personality
Chapter 5
Provides phase noise measurements:
Monitor spectrum
Spot frequency
Log plot
67
Options and Accessories
Requires Option B7J hardware.
Options and Accessories
Options
Options and Accessories
Option
Number
Name
Description
233
Measuring Receiver
Personality and PC
software
This option allows you to use your PSA and an Agilent power
meter as a measuring receiver system through the PSA user
interface (UI). It also provides PC software, as an extension of
the built-in measuring receiver personality, offering graphic
and remote UI on an external PC. A sensor module to power
meter adapter, N5532A Option 019, is required for use with
N1911A/12A power meters. Option 233 is available in all
models.
235
80 MHz Digitizer External
Calibration Wizard and
License
This calibration software runs on an external PC to generate a
file of correction factors for PSAs with option 122. You get
improved measurement accuracy using this correction file.
Flexible Digital
Modulation Analysis
Provides flexible demodulating analysis for measuring many
different formats of digital modulation, including:
(E4440A,
43A, & 45A
only)
241
MSK type 1 and type 2
EDGE
QPSK and offset QPSK
8PSK
BPSK
DQPSK and Pi/4 DQPSK
D8PSK
QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256
FSK 2, 4, 8 states
266
Programming Code
Compatibility Suite
Lets you select one of three different modes that let you use a
limited set of 8560 Series, 8566B/8568B, or 8590 Series
programming commands. These modes let you control the PSA
Series analyzers with code from other spectrum analyzer
families. When these modes are enabled, the instruments
native SCPI commands are disabled if the remote language
selected is not SCPI.
422
40 MHz to 80 MHz
Bandwidth Digitizer
Upgrade Kit
Provides firmware and documentation necessary to upgrade
from a 40 MHz IF option (140) to an 80 MHz IF option (122).
Enhanced Memory
Upgrade
For early instruments, replaces existing 48 Mb with 64 Mb
memory on CPU, providing additional memory for storing
optional measurement personalities. The 64 Mb memory was
shipped standard in all PSA instruments with serial numbers
≥ US/MY 42220000.
External Mixing
Provides the ability to use the HP/Agilent 11970 Series
harmonic mixers, and HP/Agilent 11974 preselected harmonic
mixers with the Agilent E4440A, E4446A, or E4448A analyzer
to extend the frequency range to 110 GHz. Operation to 325
GHz is also possible with non-HP/Agilent mixers. Option AYZ
cannot be installed if Option 123 is installed.
(E4440A,
43A, & 45A
only)
ANE
(E4440A,
43A, & 45A
only)
AYZ
68
Chapter 5
Options and Accessories
Options
Option
Number
B78
Name
cdma2000 Measurement
Personality
Description
Provides cdma2000 transmitter measurements:
channel power
ACPR
intermodulation
spectrum emission mask
occupied BW
code domain power
modulation accuracy (composite rho)
QPSK EVM
power statistics CCDF
B7J
Digital Demod Hardware
Adds 1 dB step, electronic attenuator in addition to the existing
manual attenuator. This is required for the personality options:
BAC, BAE, BAF, B78, 202, 204, 210, and 214. This option also
adds the functionality of Basic Mode, including the
measurements:
spectrum (frequency domain)
waveform (time domain)
BAB
APC 3.5 Input Connector
Replaces the standard type-N female connector with an APC
3.5-mm male connector.
cdmaOne Measurement
Personality
Provides IS-95 and J-STD-008 transmitter measurements:
(E4440A
only
BAC
channel power
modulation accuracy (rho)
code domain power
ACPR
spur close
Requires Option B7J hardware.
BAE
NADC/PDC Measurement
Personality
Provides NADC transmitter measurements:
ACP
EVM (error vector magnitude)
Provides PDC transmitter measurements:
ACP
EVM (error vector magnitude)
occupied BW
Requires Option B7J hardware.
BAF
W-CDMA Measurement
Personality
Provides 3GPP W-CDMA transmitter measurements:
channel power
ACPR (ACLR)
intermodulation
multi carrier power
spectrum emission mask
occupied BW
code domain power
modulation accuracy (composite EVM)
QPSK EVM
power statistics CCDF
Requires Option B7J hardware.
Chapter 5
69
Options and Accessories
Requires Option B7J hardware.
Options and Accessories
Options
Options and Accessories
Option
Number
Name
Description
UK6
Commercial Calibration
with Test Data 1
Provides the factory calibration test data and the standard
commercial calibration certificate at initial shipment.
R-51-001-3
C
3-Year Warranty Service
Support1
1-year return-to-Agilent warranty extended to 3 years of
warranty service support. This adds a 2-year service contract to
the base analyzer 1-year warranty.
R-52-001-3
Calibration Software
License1
3-year license Agilent inclusive calibration software for
field-deployed calibration.
R-52-001-L
Calibration Software
License1
Perpetual license Agilent inclusive calibration software for
field-deployed calibration.
R-52-002-3
Calibration Software
License1
3-year license ISO 17025 and ANSI Z540 calibration software
for field-deployed calibration.
R-52-002-L
Calibration Software
License1
Perpetual license ISO 17025 and ANSI Z540 calibration
software for field-deployed calibration.
1. Available only at time of purchase
70
Chapter 5
Options and Accessories
Accessories
Accessories
A number of accessories are available from Agilent Technologies to help
you configure your analyzer for your specific applications. They can be
ordered through your local Agilent Sales and Service Office and are
listed below.
50 Ohm Load
909A: DC to 18 GHz
909C: DC to 2 GHz
909D: DC to 26.5 GHz
50 Ohm/75 Ohm Minimum Loss Pad
The HP/Agilent 11852B is a low VSWR minimum loss pad that allows
you to make measurements on 75 Ohm devices using an analyzer with
a 50 Ohm input. It is effective over a frequency range of dc to 2 GHz.
AC Probe
The Agilent 85024A high frequency probe performs in-circuit
measurements without adversely loading the circuit under test. The
probe has an input capacitance of 0.7 pF shunted by 1 MOhm of
resistance and operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz.
High probe sensitivity and low distortion levels allow measurements to
be made while taking advantage of the full dynamic range of the
spectrum analyzer.
AC Probe (Low Frequency)
The Agilent 41800A low frequency probe has a low input capacitance
and a frequency range of 5 Hz to 500 MHz.
Chapter 5
71
Options and Accessories
The Agilent 909 series of loads come in several models and options
providing a variety of frequency ranges and VSWRs. Also, they are
available in either 50 ohm or 75 Ohm. Some examples include the:
Options and Accessories
Accessories
Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers
Preamplifiers and power amplifiers can be used with your spectrum
analyzer to enhance measurements of very low-level signals.
• The Agilent 8447D preamplifier provides a minimum of 25 dB gain
from 100 kHz to 1.3 GHz.
• The Agilent 83006A preamplifier provides a minimum of 26 dB gain
from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz.
• The 11909A low noise preamplifier provides a minimum of 32 dB
Options and Accessories
gain from 9 kHz to 1 GHz and a typical noise figure of 1.8 dB.
GPIB Cable
The Agilent 10833 Series GPIB cables interconnect GPIB devices and
are available in four different lengths (0.5 to 4 meters). GPIB cables are
used to connect controllers to a spectrum analyzer.
USB/GPIB Interface
The Agilent 82357A USB/GPIB interface provides a direct connection
from the USB port on your laptop or desktop PC to GPIB instruments.
It comes with the SICL and VISA software for Windows® 98
(SE)/Me/2000/XP. Using VISA software, your existing GPIB programs
work immediately, without modification. The 82357A is a standard Plug
and Play device and you can interface with up to 14 GPIB instruments.
HP/Agilent 11970 Series Harmonic Mixers
The 11970 Series harmonic mixers are available to extend the
frequency range of analyzers with Option AYZ up to 110 GHz. The
following six models are available:
Table 5-1
72
HP/Agilent
Model Number
Frequency Range
11970K
18.0 to 26.5 GHz
11970A
26.5 to 40.0 GHz
11970Q
33.0 to 50.0 GHz
11970U
40.0 to 60.0 GHz
11970V
50.0 to 75.0 GHz
11970W
75.0 to 110 GHz
Chapter 5
Options and Accessories
Accessories
HP/Agilent 11974 Series Preselected Millimeter
Mixers
11974 Series preselected millimeter mixers are available to extend the
frequency range of analyzers with Option AYZ (external mixing) up to
75 GHz. Preselection reduces mixer overload from broadband signals,
reduces radiation of local oscillator harmonics back to the device under
test, and reduces the level of image and multiple responses displayed.
The following four models are available:
Table 5-2
Frequency Range
11974A
26.5 to 40.0 GHz
11974Q
33.0 to 50.0 GHz
11974U
40.0 to 60.0 GHz
11974V
50.0 to 75.0 GHz
Options and Accessories
HP/Agilent
Model Number
RF and Transient Limiters
The Agilent 11867A and N9355B RF Limiters protect the analyzer
input circuits from damage due to high power levels. The 11867A
operates over a frequency range of dc to 1800 MHz and begins reflecting
signal levels over 1 mW up to 10 W average power and 100 watts peak
power. The N9355B microwave limiter (0.1 to 18 GHz) guards against
input signals over 1 milliwatt up to 1 watt average power and 10 watts
peak power.
The Agilent 11947A Transient Limiter protects the analyzer input
circuits from damage due to signal transients. It specifically is needed
for use with a line impedance stabilization network (LISN). It operates
over a frequency range of 9 kHz to 200 MHz, with 10 dB of insertion
loss.
Power Splitters
The Agilent 11667A/B/C power splitters are two-resister type splitters
that provide excellent output SWR, at 50 Ω impedance. The tracking
between the two output arms, over a broad frequency range, allows
wideband measurements to be made with a minimum of uncertainty.
11667A: DC to 18 GHz
11667B: DC to 26.5 GHz
11667C: DC to 50 GHz
Chapter 5
73
Options and Accessories
Accessories
RF Bridges
Options and Accessories
The Agilent 86205A 50 Ω RF bridge and 86207A 75 Ω RF bridge can be
used with the ESA series to make reflection measurements using an
analyzer with tracking generator Option 1DN or 1DQ or with an
external signal generator. The Agilent 86205A 50 Ω RF bridge can be
used with the PSA series to make reflection measurements using an
analyzer with the external source control, Option 215.
These external directional bridges offer high directivity and excellent
port match. The 86205A operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to
6 GHz. The 86207A operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3
GHz.
50 Ohm Transmission/Reflection Test Kit
The Agilent 87512A provides the accessories to measure the reflection
and transmission characteristics of 50 Ω devices up to 2 GHz. These
accessories use type N connectors. The kit contains a directional bridge,
2 cables and precision short/load terminations for calibration.
Static Safe Accessories
9300-0797
3M static control mat 0.6 m × 1.2 m (2 ft. × 4 ft.) with a
4.6 cm (15 ft.) ground wire. Does not include wrist strap
or cord
9300-1367
Wrist-strap, color black, stainless steel. Four adjustable
links and a 7 mm post-type connection.
9300-0980
Wrist-strap cord 1.5 m (5 ft.)
9300-1308
ESD heel-strap (reusable 6 to 12 months)
Noise Sources (for use with PSA Option 119)
Agilent 346A
10 MHz to 18 GHz noise source with 5 dB ENR
(nominal)
Agilent 346B
10 MHz to 18 GHz noise source with 15 dB ENR
(nominal)
Agilent 346C
10 MHz to 26.5 GHz noise source with 15 dB ENR
(nominal)
74
Chapter 5
In Case of Difficulty
6
In Case of Difficulty
This chapter includes information on how to check for a problem with
your Agilent Technologies spectrum analyzer, and how to return it for
service.
If you experience a problem or would like additional information about
your analyzer, Agilent Technologies’ worldwide organization is ready to
75
In Case of Difficulty
provide the support you need. Before calling Agilent Technologies,
however (or returning an analyzer for service), perform the quick
checks listed in “Check the Basics” on page 78. This check may
eliminate the problem.
If a problem persists, you may choose to:
• Repair the analyzer yourself. See “Service Options” on page 80.
• Return the analyzer to Agilent Technologies for repair. See
“Returning an Analyzer for Service” on page 81, for more
information.
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove
covers.
NOTE
If the analyzer is still under warranty or is covered by a maintenance
contract, it will be repaired under the terms of the warranty or plan
(the warranty is located at the front of this manual).
In Case of Difficulty
If the analyzer is no longer under warranty or is not covered by an
Agilent Technologies maintenance plan, Agilent Technologies will notify
you of the cost of the repair after examining the analyzer.
76
Chapter 6
In Case of Difficulty
Types of Spectrum Analyzer Messages
Types of Spectrum Analyzer Messages
The analyzer can generate various messages that appear on the display
during operation.
For a complete list of spectrum analyzer messages, see the Instrument
Messages and Functional Tests manual. The following table describes
the four types of spectrum analyzer messages.
Table 6-1
Types of Messages
Location
Notes
Informational messages
typically provide verification
that an action has occurred. In
general, no user intervention is
required.
Bottom of the
display in the
status line (in
green on analyzers
with a color
display).
Messages will remain until the
message is cleared by pressing
Esc or Preset, or is overwritten
by another message.
Pop-up messages prompt you
to verify that an action will be
performed or tell you that an
action is currently being
performed.
Middle of the
display in a
framed box.
Message remains until you
acknowledge the prompt, or the
action is completed.
Status messages indicate a
condition that may result in
erroneous data being displayed.
Multiple status messages may
be displayed at the same time.
Right side of the
display and/or in
the SCPI Status
Register system.
Most messages remain only
until the erroneous condition is
corrected.
User Error messages appear
when an attempt has been
made to set a parameter
incorrectly or an operation has
failed (such as saving a file).
Bottom of the
display in the
status line (in
yellow on
analyzers with a
color display) and
in the SCPI Error
Queue.
Messages remain until you
clear the error (press System,
Chapter 6
Show Errors, Clear Error Queue),
or another message is displayed
in the status line.
Pressing the Esc or Preset keys
will clear error messages from
the display, but the messages
will remain in the error queue.
77
In Case of Difficulty
Type of Message
In Case of Difficulty
Before Calling Agilent Technologies
Before Calling Agilent Technologies
Check the Basics
❏ Is there power at the receptacle?
❏ Make sure there is no disk in the front-panel disk drive.
❏ Is the analyzer turned on? Check to see if the green LED above the
power switch is on. Also, listen for internal fan noise to determine if
the analyzer cooling fans are running.
❏ If other equipment, cables, and connectors are being used with your
spectrum analyzer, make sure they are connected properly and
operating correctly.
❏ Review the measurement procedures being performed when the
problem first appeared. Are all of the settings correct?
❏ If the analyzer is not functioning as expected, return the analyzer to
a known state by pressing Preset, and Factory Preset (if displayed).
NOTE
Some analyzer settings are not affected by a Preset. If you wish to reset
the analyzer configuration to the state it was in when it was
originally sent from the factory, press System, Power On/Preset, Preset
Type, Factory. Then press the green Preset key on the front panel.
In Case of Difficulty
❏ Is the measurement being performed, and the results that are
expected, within the specifications and capabilities of the analyzer?
Refer to the Specifications guide for your analyzer.
❏ If the analyzer is not communicating via the LAN connection, check
for the presence of blinking yellow LEDs on the rear panel LAN
connector. If the Rx (receive) LED is not blinking, check the LAN
cable and LAN integrity.
NOTE
The analyzer must be powered on with the LAN already connected in
order to recognize the LAN port.
❏ To meet specifications, the analyzer must be aligned. Either the Auto
Align (On) feature must be selected (press System, Alignments, Auto
Align, On), or the analyzer must be manually aligned at least once
every 24 hours, or whenever the temperature changes more than
3°C. When Auto Align, On is selected, the AA screen annotation
appears on the left edge of the display.
78
Chapter 6
In Case of Difficulty
Before Calling Agilent Technologies
❏ Perform an Alignment. Press System, Alignments, Align Now, All.
❏ If the previously performed alignments did not resolve the problem,
press System, Alignments, Restore Align Defaults. Then press System,
Alignments, Align All Now.
❏ Is the analyzer displaying an error message? If so, refer to the
Instrument Messages and Functional Tests manual.
❏ If the necessary equipment is available, perform the functional tests
in the Instrument Messages and Functional Tests document for your
analyzer.
❏ If the 10 MHz output is not functioning, verify that it is turned on by
pressing System, Reference, 10 MHz to select On.
TIP
You can get automatic electronic notification of new firmware releases
and other product updates/information by subscribing to the Agilent
Technologies Test & Measurement E-Mail Notification Service for the
PSA or ESA Series at
http://wwwdb.tm.agilent.com/cgi-bin/notification/user.pl
In Case of Difficulty
Chapter 6
79
In Case of Difficulty
Before Calling Agilent Technologies
Read the Warranty
The warranty for your analyzer is in the front of your Specifications
Guide. Please read it and become familiar with its terms.
If your analyzer is covered by a separate maintenance agreement,
please be familiar with its terms.
Service Options
Agilent Technologies offers several optional maintenance plans to
service your analyzer after the warranty has expired. Call your Agilent
Technologies office for full details.
If you want to service the analyzer yourself after the warranty expires,
you can purchase the service documentation that provides all necessary
test and maintenance information.
You can order the service documentation, Option 0BW (assembly level
troubleshooting information) through your Agilent Technologies office.
Calling Agilent Technologies
In Case of Difficulty
Agilent Technologies has offices around the world to provide you with
complete support for your analyzer. To obtain servicing information or
to order replacement parts, contact the nearest Agilent Technologies
office listed below. In any correspondence or telephone conversations,
refer to your analyzer by its product number, full serial number, and
firmware revision.
Press System, More (1 of 3), Show System, and the product number, serial
number, and firmware revision information will be displayed on your
analyzer screen. A serial number label is also attached to the rear panel
of the analyzer.
Contacting Agilent Technologies
Table 6-2
Online assistance: http://www.agilent.com/find/assist
United States
(tel) 1 800 452 4844
Latin America
(tel) (305) 269 7500
(fax) (305) 269 7599
New Zealand
(tel) 0 800 738 378
(fax) 64 4 495 8950
Canada
(tel) 1 877 894 4414
(fax) (905) 282-6495
Japan
(tel) (81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (81) 426 56 7840
Asia Pacific
(tel) (852) 3197 7777
(fax) (852) 2506 9284
Europe
(tel) (31 20) 547 2323
(fax) (31 20) 547 2390
Australia
(tel) 1 800 629 485
(fax) (61 3) 9210 5947
80
Chapter 6
In Case of Difficulty
Returning an Analyzer for Service
Returning an Analyzer for Service
Service Tag
When you are returning an analyzer to Agilent Technologies for service,
fill out and attach one of the blue service tags provided at the end of
this chapter. Please be as specific as possible about the problem. If you
have recorded any error messages that appeared on the display, have
completed a functional test, or have any other specific data on the
performance of your analyzer, please include a copy of this information.
Original Packaging
Before shipping, pack the unit in the original factory packaging
materials if they are available. If the original materials were not
retained, see Other Packaging (below).
NOTE
Install the transportation disk into the floppy drive to reduce the
possibility of damage during transportation. If the original
transportation disk is not available, a blank floppy may be substituted.
Other Packaging
CAUTION
You can repackage the analyzer with commercially available materials,
as follows:
1. Attach a completed service tag to the analyzer.
2. Install the transportation disk or a blank floppy disk into the disk
drive.
3. Wrap the analyzer in antistatic plastic to reduce the possibility of
damage caused by electrostatic discharge.
4. Use a strong shipping container. The carton must be both large
enough and strong enough to accommodate the analyzer. A
double-walled, corrugated cardboard carton with 159 kg (350 lb)
bursting strength is adequate. Allow at least 3 to 4 inches on all
sides of the analyzer for packing material.
Chapter 6
81
In Case of Difficulty
Analyzer damage can result from using packaging materials other than
those specified. Never use styrene pellets in any shape as packaging
materials. They do not adequately cushion the equipment or prevent it
from shifting in the carton. They cause equipment damage by
generating static electricity and by lodging in the analyzer louvers,
blocking airflow.
In Case of Difficulty
Returning an Analyzer for Service
5. Surround the equipment with three to four inches of packing
material and prevent the equipment from moving in the carton. If
packing foam is not available, the best alternative is S.D.-240 Air
Cap™ from Sealed Air Corporation (Hayward, California, 94545).
Air Cap looks like a plastic sheet filled with 1-1/4 inch air bubbles.
Use the pink-colored Air Cap to reduce static electricity. Wrapping
the equipment several times in this material should both protect the
equipment and prevent it from moving in the carton.
6. Seal the shipping container securely with strong nylon adhesive
tape.
7. Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE”
to assure careful handling.
In Case of Difficulty
8. Retain copies of all shipping papers.
82
Chapter 6
Index
Numerics
10 MHz reference, turning on 40
50 ohm load 71, 74
50 ohm RF bridge 74
50 ohm/75 ohm minimum loss pad
71
75 ohm RF bridge 74
A
AC probe 71
Accessories 71
accessories
50 ohm directional bridge 74
50 ohm load 71
50 ohm short/load 74
50 ohm/75 ohm minimum loss
pad 71
AC probe 71
broadband preamplifiers 72
GPIB cable 72
harmonic mixers 72
power splitters 73
preselected millimeter mixers
73
RF bridge 74
RF limiters 73
transient limiters 73
active function 31
address, IP 14
Agilent Technologies, calling 80
alignments, internal 17
alpha editor, using 62
amplifiers 72
annotations, display 26
application information 2
arrow keys, using 37
B
battery information 12
bridge 74
broadband preamplifiers 72
E
electrostatic discharge (ESD)
protecting against 21
Enter key, using 37
ESD safety accessories 74
examples
frequency accuracy 44
signals, viewing 40
external reference (10 MHz),
turning on 40
F
factory preset, description 39
file copying 60
file deleting 61
file formats 49, 53, 55
file menu functions 49
copy 60
delete 61
rename 59
save 53, 55, 57
file renaming 59
file saving 53, 55, 57
files
naming 62
firmware upgrade information 2
frequency accuracy, increasing 44
frequency count, using 44
front panel
connectors and keys 24
display annotations 26
entering data 37
symbols 33
G
GPIB cable 72
I
information screen 13
information, additional 2
internal alignments 17
IntuiLink software 7
IP address 14
K
key overview 31
keypad, using 37
keys 24
knob, using 37
L
LAN, setting IP address 14
limiters
RF and transient 73
load, 50 ohm 71, 74
M
manuals, ordering 65
manuals, standard set 7
marker
frequency and amplitude,
reading 42
moving
to peak 42
to reference level 42
with knob or arrow key 42
turning off 44
marker annotation
change with frequency count 44
location 42
menu keys 31
missing options 14
mixers
External Mixing (Option AYZ)
68
harmonic 72
preselected millimeter 73
moving
data from analyzer 7
data to PC 7
N
navigating
catalogs 50
files 50
tables 32
Navigation keys 50, 51
noise figure 74
noise figure measurement
accessories 74
noise source 74
numeric keypad, using 37
Index
C
cable
GPIB 72
Catalog Menu 50
catalogs
definition 48
naming 62
clock, battery 12
connectivity
tools 7
connectors, front panel 24
copy files 60
D
data, entering from front panel 37
DC probes
use of 71
delete files 61
Dir Select key 51
Dir Up key 51
directional bridge 74
directories, definition 48
directory
creating 51
display annotations 26
display, information screen 13
documentation
additional set 65
CD-ROM 7
CD-ROM only 65
service 65
standard set 7
83
Index
O
options not in instrument memory
14
overview, keys and key menus 31
P
packaging 81
parallel interface connector 30
PC connectivity 7
personality options not in
instrument 14
power amplifiers 72
power splitters 73
preamplifiers 72
preset
factory 39
types 39
user, creating 39
printer setup 18
probes
AC and DC 71
product information 2
Index
R
rear panel
symbols 33
rear panel features 29
reference level, setting 42
reference, turning on 10 MHz 40
rename files 59
RF bridge 74
RF limiters 73
RPG, using 37
RS-232 interface connector 30
S
save files 53, 55, 57
saving
bitmaps 49, 53, 55
trace files 49, 53, 55
screen annotation 26
screen, information 13
service options 80
short, 50 ohm 74
signals, increasing accuracy 44
signals, viewing 40
softkeys, auto and man mode 38
softkeys, basic types 37
software
IntuiLink 7
splitters 73
static safety accessories 74
symbols in titles 62
symbols, on front and rear panels
33
84
T
tab key 32
table
navigation 32
text, entering 62
titles, editing 62
transient limiter 73
turning on the analyzer for the
first time 13
U
unit softkeys, using 37
URL, PSA analyzers 2
URL, sales and service 80
user preset
creating 39
description 39
disabling 39
W
warm-up time 14
warranty 80
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