GEM-500 Operation Manual v3.32
OPERATION MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Chapter 1 - Getting Started..........................................................................................................................1
Unpacking the GEM-500™ ......................................................................................................................1
Attaching the Hose Assembly..................................................................................................................1
GEM-500™ Keyboard and Port Descriptions..........................................................................................2
Must Do’s Before Using the GEM-500™ .................................................................................................3
Calibration Gases.....................................................................................................................................3
Special Key Functions..............................................................................................................................3
Entering an ID code with Letters and Numbers ...................................................................................3
Backspace Function .............................................................................................................................3
Contrast Adjustment .............................................................................................................................3
Chapter 2 - Using Menu Screens ................................................................................................................4
Starting Up the GEM................................................................................................................................4
GEM-500 Menu Tree ...............................................................................................................................5
Review of the Main Menu and Sub-Menu Screens .................................................................................5
General Utilities ....................................................................................................................................5
Read Gas Levels ..................................................................................................................................6
View/Print Data .....................................................................................................................................6
Download Data .....................................................................................................................................6
Chapter 3 - Field Calibration........................................................................................................................7
Calibration Gas/Span Gases ...................................................................................................................7
Zero Methane ...........................................................................................................................................7
Span Methane ..........................................................................................................................................8
Span Carbon Dioxide ...............................................................................................................................8
Zero Oxygen.............................................................................................................................................8
Span Oxygen............................................................................................................................................8
Equipment ................................................................................................................................................9
Setting Up the Equipment ......................................................................................................................10
General Utilities KEY 5-Gas Calibration ................................................................................................11
Methane (CH4) Calibration - Zero CH4 ...................................................................................................12
Methane (CH4) Calibration ....................................................................................................................13
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Calibration ..........................................................................................................15
Oxygen (O2) Calibration - Zero O2 .........................................................................................................17
Factory Setting Calibrations ...................................................................................................................21
After Completing Gas Calibrations ........................................................................................................22
Chapter 4 - General Utilities Functions .....................................................................................................23
General Utilities Screen Tree Diagram ..................................................................................................23
General Utilities Menu ............................................................................................................................23
General Utilities Functions .....................................................................................................................24
Check Time/Date................................................................................................................................24
Battery Status .....................................................................................................................................26
Zero Pressures ...................................................................................................................................27
Memory ...............................................................................................................................................28
USA/Metric Units ................................................................................................................................30
Gas Calibration ...................................................................................................................................31
Gas Alarms .........................................................................................................................................31
ID Maintenance...................................................................................................................................32
Chapter 5 - Read Gas Levels ....................................................................................................................36
GEM-500™ Hose and Wellhead ...........................................................................................................36
CES-LANDTEC Horizontal Accu-Flo Wellhead.....................................................................................37
CES-LANDTEC Vertical Accu-Flo Wellhead .........................................................................................38
Read Gas Levels Screen Tree Diagram................................................................................................38
Read Gas Levels Menu – Read Using ID? No ......................................................................................39
Read Gas Levels Menu – Read Using ID? Yes ....................................................................................43
Chapter 6 - View Data................................................................................................................................53
View Data ...............................................................................................................................................53
Chapter 7 - Communications.....................................................................................................................55
Installing The Gas Analyzer Communications Program........................................................................55
Starting The Gas Analyzer Communications Program .........................................................................56
Main Menu..............................................................................................................................................57
Configure ............................................................................................................................................58
User Defined Comments ....................................................................................................................59
Well ID Functions................................................................................................................................62
GEM Data Functions ..........................................................................................................................66
Show GEM memory statistics ............................................................................................................70
Clear Functions...................................................................................................................................70
Chapter 8 - Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................72
Servicing.................................................................................................................................................72
Cleaning .................................................................................................................................................72
Sunlight and Heat...................................................................................................................................72
Dust Cap.................................................................................................................................................72
Filters......................................................................................................................................................73
Travel and Storage.................................................................................................................................73
Battery Charging ....................................................................................................................................74
Battery Shut-Off......................................................................................................................................74
Battery Low Symbol ...............................................................................................................................74
Automatic Power-Off..............................................................................................................................75
Emergency Battery Power .....................................................................................................................75
Chapter 9 - Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................................76
Chapter 10 - ...............................................................................................................................................77
Measurement Units & Specifications.........................................................................................................77
Measurement Units ................................................................................................................................77
Operating Temperature..........................................................................................................................77
Range and Resolution............................................................................................................................78
Accuracy.................................................................................................................................................78
Chapter 11 - Field Operations ...................................................................................................................79
Landfill Gas Generation .........................................................................................................................79
Subsurface Fires ....................................................................................................................................79
Techniques for Controlling Landfill Gas.................................................................................................80
Controlling by Wellhead Valve Position .............................................................................................80
Controlling by Wellhead Vacuum .......................................................................................................80
Controlling by Gas Composition.........................................................................................................80
Controlling by Flow Rate ....................................................................................................................81
Well field Monitoring ...............................................................................................................................81
Typical Field Readings .......................................................................................................................81
Abbreviated Field Readings ...............................................................................................................82
Well field Adjustment Criteria.................................................................................................................83
Establishing Target Flows......................................................................................................................84
Well field Optimization............................................................................................................................84
Migration Control—Dealing with Poor Methane Quality ........................................................................84
Well field Adjustment—Purpose and Objectives ...................................................................................85
CES-LANDTEC Technical Tips .............................................................................................................85
Chapter 1 - Getting Started
Unpacking the GEM-500™
The GEM-500™ unit is normally shipped in a special protective Styrofoam shipping unit. An optional
protective hard case with a foam interior offers additional protection, transportation convenience and
component hardware storage. When properly sealed, the hard case is watertight. The hard case is
equipped with a pressure relief valve (located under the handle on the case) that is normally kept
closed. If there is a change in elevation, the hard case may not open until internal pressure is
equalized by turning the pressure relief valve. When shipping a GEM-500™ back to CES-LANDTEC
for calibration or service, always ship it in the original packaging to protect unit from damage.
Carefully unpack the contents of the GEM-500™, inspect and inventory them. The following items
should be contained in your package:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
The GEM-500™ unit
GEM-500™ Operation Manual
Registration/Warranty Card and other instructional information
Soft carrying case with replaceable protective window and carrying strap
External (clear vinyl) sampling hose assembly (5 ft.) with external water trap filter assembly
Blue ¼” vinyl pressure tubing sampling hose (5 ft.)
Spare internal particulate filter element
Polypropylene male connector (hose barb) connects to blue vinyl tubing
Spare external water trap filter element
110-volt Nickel-Cadmium battery charger
GEM-500™ download software disk on 3 ½ inch floppy disk
RS-232 serial cable for computer/printer data downloading
Temperature probe (optional)
Hard carrying case (optional)
Immediately notify shipper if the GEM-500™ unit or accessories are damaged due to shipping.
Contact CES-LANDTEC if any items are missing. If you have any questions, please contact CES/
LANDTEC technical support at (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. Complete the
Registration/Warranty Card and return it to CES-LANDTEC. The model and serial numbers are located
on the back of the GEM-500™ unit.
Attaching the Hose Assembly
The GEM-500™ hose assembly comes fully assembled but it needs to be connected to the GEM500™. Connect the clear tubing with the external filter/water trap assembly to the static pressure/
sampling port (top left corner) on the GEM-500™ (See Figure 1.1). The shorter piece of tubing (from
the water trap filter hosing) should be connected to the GEM-500™. This allows you to see any liquid
entering the hose and shut the unit off before the liquid reaches the GEM-500 TM. Always connect the
hose in the same direction. Connect the blue tubing to the impact pressure port on the GEM-500™
(See Figure 1.1). This port is located on the bottom left corner of the GEM-500™. DO NOT block the
exhaust port (See Figure 1.1).
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GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Quick Connect Fittings
The quick connect fittings will simplify taking well field readings. They are easy to install on your landfill
gas extraction system and on perimeter probes. Many different types are available. CES-LANDTEC
maintains a stock of fittings used on its equipment for your convenience.
The GEM-500™ comes with quick connect fittings for the AccuFlo™ wellhead. Insert the hose barb
end of the male connector into the end of the clear and blue tubing.
GEM-500™ Keyboard and Port Descriptions
1. Red On/Off Key—Turns unit on or off.
2. Blue Number/Letter Toggle Key—
Enables well ID code to be entered by
toggling between number and letter mode
and toggles contrast on the gas read
screens.
3. Receptacle Port—Used for battery
recharging, RS232 serial communications,
temperature probe or gas pod.
4. Backspace/Exit Key—Acts as backspace
key when pressed and held for one
second, to correct entry of wrong
number/letter,
returns
to
previous
procedure or steps back one layer of
menus (similar to pressing the ESCAPE
key in many computer programs).
FIGURE 1.1
5. Exhaust Port—This port must be kept clear. If blocked while operating, over-pressurization may
occur causing damage to internal components and case.
6. Number Keys—Enter numbers 0 through 9.
7. Impact Pressure Port—Measures impact pressure when connected to wellhead impact pressure
port, pitot tube or orifice plate.
8. Cursor-Down Key—Enters number 6, scrolls down lines of information on display screens, and
also scrolls down alphabetic character list.
9. Cursor-Up Key—Enters number 1, scrolls up lines of information on display screens, and also
scrolls up alphabetic character list.
10. Static Pressure/Sampling Port—Measures static pressure and is inlet for gas sampling.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 2
Must Do’s Before Using the GEM-500™
Read Chapter 2 – Using Menu Screens.
Proper operation of the GEM-500™ requires the following functions to be completed before proceeding.
Ø Charge the unit with the battery charger
Ø Check the Time/Date
Ø Field Calibrate the unit
Calibration Gases
Calibration gases are required to field calibrate the GEM-500™. Portable Calibration Gas Kits and 4unit or 12-unit cylinder cases are available from CES-LANDTEC. (See Chapter 2 -- Field Calibration)
Special Key Functions
Entering an ID code with Letters and Numbers
Use the blue toggle key (ƒ) to shift back and forth between number mode and letter mode. When in
number mode, use number keys to enter numbers. When switched to letter mode, use the 1 KEY (UP
ARROW ) or the 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to scroll to desired letter, press 0 KEY to enter the letter on the
display. Repeat this process for all letters. After entry, the first four characters will remain as a default
for ease in entering the next ID. If different characters are desired, replace the defaults by using the
backspace function described below.
Backspace Function
To change or correct an entry, use the 0 KEY ( BACK ARROW ) as a backspace key by holding it down for
one second. In normal use, this key is quickly pressed and released.
Contrast Adjustment
Contrast can be adjusted when the unit is either first turned on or while taking a reading. While taking a
reading, use the Blue ƒ KEY to enter the contrast adjustment screen. To adjust, use 1 KEY (UP
ARROW) to darken the screen and the 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW) to lighten screen.
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GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Chapter 2 - Using Menu Screens
Starting Up the GEM
This procedure is the same each time the GEM-500™ is turned on by pressing the RED On/Off KEY.
The following steps will allow you to proceed to the Main Menu Screen of the GEM-500™ .
1. Turn unit on by pressing the RED On/Off KEY (see Figure 1.1)
Note: If the GEM is turned on and no additional keys are pressed within 15 minutes,
the unit will automatically shut off.
2. The Warning screen appears for five seconds. This is a reminder that the GEM-500™ is not to be
used in areas such as vaults, excavations or other confined spaces. An explosion could result
causing serious injury or death.
FIGURE 2.1
Warning! --Do not use
in confined spaces.
Unit NOT certified
intrinsically safe.
3. The Service Contract screen may appear for five seconds if activated by CES-LANDTEC.
Otherwise, the Not Covered screen is displayed. The GEM-500™ is a portable, scientific, field
instrument that does require factory maintenance and calibration at recommended six-month
intervals under normal landfill usage.
FIGURE 2.2
This analyzer has a
Service Contract
Next service due:dd/mm/yy
FIGURE 2.3
Unit not covered by
Service Contract
Next service due:dd/mm/yy
4. The CES-LANDTEC/Contrast screen allows the user to adjust the contrast of the characters on the
liquid crystal display screen. Press and hold the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) to increase contrast. Press
and hold the 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to decrease the contrast. Adjust the contrast as necessary
(contrast levels are NOT saved when the unit is turned off). Press the 0 KEY to proceed to the
Main Menu screen.
FIGURE 2.4
CES-LANDTEC
GEM 500
(800) 821-0496
↑↓--Contrast 0-Cont
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 4
5. The Main Menu Screen. All the GEM-500™ functions are accessed from the Main Menu Screen.
All subsequent instructions about the GEM-500™ functions will start from this screen.
FIGURE 2.5
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
GEM-500 Menu Tree
The overall menu structure:
OPENING WARNING
SCREEN
CESLANDTEC/ADJUSTMENT
SCREEN
MAIN MENU SCREEN
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
GENERAL UTILITIES
SUB-MENU SCREENS
READ GAS LEVELS
SUB-MENU SCREENS
VIEW/PRINT DATA
SUB-MENU SCREENS
DOWNLOAD DAT A
SUB-MENU SCREENS
Review of the Main Menu and Sub-Menu Screens
General Utilities
Refer to Chapter 4 for further information. The General Utilities function has sub-menu screens that
allow housekeeping and other maintenance including:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
CHECK TIME/DATE: Set or check time and date.
BATTERY STATUS: Graphic display of remaining power in batteries.
ZERO PRESSURES: Zero pressure transducers.
MEMORY: Check memory available or clear all data and ID information.
USA/METRIC UNITS: Select either USA standard or metric measurement units.
GAS CALIBRATION: Allow methane, Carbon Dioxide and oxygen to be field calibrated by the user
with calibration gas mixtures for increased accuracy (see Chapter 3).
7. GAS ALARM: Set gas alarm levels.
8. ID MAINTENANCE: View, enter, edit or delete ID information.
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GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Read Gas Levels
Refer to Chapter 5 for further information. Read Gas Levels function allows gas, pressure, flow and
BTU readings to be viewed and recorded. Sub-menu screens include:
1. Read GAS with Existing ID code.
2. Read GAS without ID code.
View/Print Data
For further information, refer to Chapter 6. The View/Print Data function allows previously stored data
to be scanned on the GEM-500 display screen, individually displayed, or printed via the RS-232 cable
to a serial printer.
Download Data
The Download Data function allows stored data to be downloaded via the RS-232 cable to a computer
in a format that can be uploaded into DataField (CES-LANDTEC database management program) or
onto spreadsheets. See Chapter 7 for further information.
Note: The 0 KEY (BACKSPACE) acts as an exit or ESCAPE key at the end of each sub-menu
by returning to the Main Menu.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 6
Chapter 3 - Field Calibration
Field Calibration is menu guided and can be completed in about ten minutes. To streamline the
procedure, the pump remains running during field calibration. The GEM-500™ contains a calibration
map accessed by its microprocessor for baseline reference data. This reference data was programmed
into the GEM-500™ during factory calibration using various traceable gas mixtures in an environmental
chamber. At any time, the GEM-500™ can be reset to factory settings which clears any user
calibration settings and restores the GEM-500™ to its original factory calibration.
The factory calibration has been designed to give the best possible results over a wide range of
conditions. However, the instrument’s accuracy can be improved in specific operating ranges by
performing a field calibration. Most field instruments are calibrated or adjusted prior to taking a series
of gas or pressure readings. They may also be checked for calibration during and after readings in
order to verify the accuracy of the data collected.
It is important to field calibrate the GEM-500™ on-site after the instrument has stabilized at working
temperature. For this reason, a GEM-500™ that was calibrated in the cool of the morning may not read
as accurately during the hottest part of the day.
Note: Field calibration of the GEM -500™ will improve the data collected in the range of
the calibration gases used. Less accurate readings of concentrations outside the
calibrated range may occur. For example, a GEM-500™ that was field calibrated
using 50% CH4 and 35% CO2 will give improved readings for most gas extraction
systems. Recommended gas mixtures for reading migration probes are 15%
methane, 15% Carbon Dioxide with balance nitrogen. A 4.0% oxygen with balance
nitrogen mixture may be used for both types of testing.
Calibration Gas/Span Gases
Field calibration requires two calibration gas mixtures. One gas mixture is used to span oxygen and
zero methane. The other is used to span methane, Carbon Dioxide and zero oxygen. The oxygen has
two curves: 0-5% and 0-25%. The zero point is the same for both curves; however, the span is
different. The user need only span the instrument using calibration gas below 5% for the 0-5% range or
calibration gas below 25% for the 0-25% range. Regardless of the ranges used, the instrument must
be zeroed. Various calibration gas mixtures are available from CES-LANDTEC.
Zero Methane
Calibration of the GEM-500™ starts by establishing the bottom point of the methane gas curve. The
methane (CH4) is zeroed prior to taking readings at the start of each day. This function significantly
improves the GEM-500™’s CH4 accuracy over the entire range. It is essential that the gas analyzer
be clear of CH 4 when zeroed. Care must be taken if the GEM-500™ is to be zeroed using air near a
landfill site because there are situations where methane could be in the atmosphere.
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GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Span Methane
A field calibration spans the methane range prior to taking readings at the start of each day. The best
results are obtained after the instrument has stabilized at its working temperature. This procedure
alters the methane calibration at all concentrations and stores the revised data in protected memory.
Note: Methane zero must be performed before setting the Methane Span.
Span Carbon Dioxide
Field calibration of CO2 should be performed prior to taking readings at the start of each day after the
instrument has stabilized at its working temperature. This procedure alters the calibration at all
concentrations and stores the revised data in protected memory.
Zero Oxygen
This function is essential where low concentrations of oxygen are expected (below 5%). This
establishes the zero point of an oxygen curve that is stored in the GEM-500™ protected memory.
Span Oxygen
The oxygen calibration map contains two span curves, one for oxygen below 5% and one for oxygen
above 5%. The proper curve is automatically selected. If a calibration gas with less than 5% oxygen is
used, the lower span curve is set. If the calibration gas has more than 5% oxygen, the higher
calibration curve is set.
Note: The Oxygen zero must be set before setting the Oxygen Span.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 8
Equipment
The following items are required to perform a field calibration:
1. Cylinder of methane and Carbon Dioxide span gas
2. Cylinder of 4/96 (4% O2 and 96% N2) calibration gas
3. Pressure regulators for the above cylinders capable of regulating in the range of 0 - 2 psig fitted
with connectors suitable for ¼” tubing
4. CES-LANDTEC regulator and flow meter preset to deliver the required flow of 399-500 cc per
minute at 2 psig. (See Figure 3.1a)
5. Interconnecting lengths of ¼” tubing
This equipment is available from CES-LANDTEC. The calibration equipment set up is shown in Figure
3.1.a and 3.1.b.
FIGURE 3.1.a
Pressure/Flow Regulator
Pressure/
Flow Regulator
Sample Line
Tubing
Calibration
GasCanister
Page 9
Gas Flow
GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
FIGURE 3.1.b
Pressure Regulator with Flow Meter
Pressure Regulator
Sample Line
Tubing
Calibration
Canister
Flow Meter
Gas Flow
Setting Up the Equipment
1. Connect the calibration gas cylinder to the pressure regulator.
2. Connect the sample input line to the regulator and to the GEM-500™.
3. Connect the second 24” section of ¼” tubing to the exhaust nozzle of the GEM-500™. Direct
exhaust away from you and out of the immediate area.
4. If using a CES-LANDTEC regulator, no flow meter is required.
5. If not using the CES-LANDTEC regulator, adjust the regulator discharge pressure to 2 psig and the
flow meter to 500 cc per minute. Pinch the gas supply hose that will attach to the GEM-500™ and
verify the regulator discharge pressure does not exceed 5 psig. Turn off the cylinder valve.
Note: This procedure will be duplicated for the second span gas when oxygen is calibrated.
The Oxygen/N2 calibration gas cylinder will be substituted for the Methane/Carbon
Dioxide calibration gas.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 10
General Utilities KEY 5-Gas Calibration
The GEM-500™ is factory calibrated. To improve accuracy, all standard landfill gas instruments should
be field calibrated, zeroed, or in other ways adjusted prior to every use. Field calibration is performed
from the General Utilities Menu of the GEM-500™.
1. Press 1 KEY for General Utilities on the Main Menu Screen (See Figure 3.2.).
FIGURE 3.2
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
2. The General Utilities Screen appears as shown in Figure 3.3.
FIGURE 3.3
1-Check Time/Date
2-Battery Status
3-Zero Pressures
9-More
0-Exit
3. The gas calibration function is not on the first General Utilities screen. To reach this screen, press
9 KEY for More and 6 KEY for Gas Calibration (Figure 3.4). You may also press the 6 KEY while
at the first General Utilities Screen to proceed directly to the Gas Calibration screen.
FIGURE 3.4
4-Memory
5-USA/Metric Units
6-Gas Calibration
9-More
0-Exit
4. Pressing the 6 KEY for Gas Calibration on the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen, the first Gas
Calibration screen is displayed as shown in Figure 3.5.
FIGURE 3.5
Calibrate Gas Type
1-CH4
2-C02
3-02
5-Factory Settings
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GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Methane (CH4) Calibration - Zero CH4
1. Press 1 KEY, CH4 Calibration, to start the calibration procedure. Pressing the 0 KEY will exit the
screen without changing the previous calibration.
1-Zero CH4
2-Calibrate CH4 Span
0-Previous Menu
FIGURE 3.6
2. Pressing 1 KEY, Zero CH4, initializes the Zero Methane procedure (Figure 3.7). A methane
percentage will not display until the Infrared (IR) Bench warms up. A plus or minus sign may
appear on the far left of the display. This symbol may be ignored.
DO NOT
PERFORM THIS PROCEDURE IN THE PRESENCE OF METHANE.
1-Zero
FIGURE 3.7
+
00.0%
CH4
Gas
Level
5-Pump
0-Exit
3. If using air to zero methane, press the 5 KEY, Pump, to turn on the GEM-500™ sample pump.
Calibration gas hoses should not be attached to the GEM-500™ during this procedure. Allow the
pump to run for two minutes or until gas reading stabilizes. If using oxygen calibration gas to zero
methane, see step 3-6 in the Span Methane section then return to step 2 of this section.
4. Press 1 KEY, Zero level. One of the following screens (Figure 3.8 or Figure 3.9) will be displayed
for three seconds before returning to the Zero Methane Screen shown in Figure 3.7.
CH4 Not Zeroed
F IGURE 3.8
CH4 Zeroed
FIGURE 3.9
5. If the CH4 Not Zeroed screen (Figure 3.8) is displayed, return to the Gas Calibration screen by
pressing the 0 KEY, Exit. Verify methane is not present and re-zero the methane. If the problem
continues, proceed to instructions contained in this section for Factory Settings.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 12
6. If the CH4 Zeroed OK screen (Figure 3.9) is displayed, press 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the Methane
Calibration Screen (Figure 3.10). Press 2 KEY, Calibrate CH4 Span, to proceed to the next
section.
1-Zero CH4
2-Calibrate CH4 Span
0-Previous Menu
FIGURE 3.10
Methane (CH4) Calibration
1. Read the warning below before proceeding with the next steps.
WARNING! The GEM -500™ is not certified intrinsically safe. The following
procedure MUST NOT be performed in a confined area (such as well
vaults, underground or indoors) or where there is any possibility of
sparking or ignition. Ensure that the exhaust port is not blocked
and is properly vented away from you. Ensure that no leaks are
present. Unless all above conditions are maintained, an explosion
could occur resulting in serious injury or death.
2. After selecting the 2 KEY, Calibrate CH4 Span, on the Methane Calibration screen, the following
CH4 Span screen appears (Figure 3.11).
1-Enter
FIGURE 3.11
+
00.0%
CH4
Gas
Gas Con
5-Pump
0-Exit
3. Connect the ¼” tubing from the calibration gas regulator/flow meter to the GEM-500™ gas
sample/impact port (Figure 1.1). It is NOT recommended to use the water trap sample tubing for
calibration. Attach tubing to the exhaust port of the GEM-500™ and direct the exhaust flow away
from you and out of the immediate area.
4. Press the 5 KEY, Pump, on the CH4 Span screen to turn on the sample pump.
5. If not using CES-LANDTEC supplied regulator, make sure the calibration gas flow is 500 cc and
pressure is no greater than 2 psig.
6. Allow the calibration gas to flow into the GEM-500™ for one minute or until instrument gas reading
stabilizes.
7. After one minute, read the methane gas concentration on the screen. It should be stable and not
changing more than a few tenths of one percent at the 15% gas level or 2% at the higher gas level.
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GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
8. Press the 1 KEY, Enter Gas Con, and input the methane concentration of the calibration gas using
the keyboard of the GEM-500™ (Figure 3.12). Enter the percentage as three digits XX.X%. (50%
methane would be input as 500.) The GEM-500™ will automatically place a decimal point in the
proper position. After the percentage is entered, press 0 KEY, Exit.
Enter Concentration
of Calibration Gas
CH4 ?__._ %
0-Exit
FIGURE 3.12
9. The next screen is the Caution Re-Calibrate Screen (Figure 3.13).
CAUTION Re-Calibrate
Are you sure ?
FIGURE 3.13
1-Yes
10.
2-No
Press 1 KEY, Yes, and one of the two following messages will appear (Figure 3.14 or Figure
3.15). .
Calibration Gas NOT
Accepted. Refer to
Operating manual.
Retry?
1-Yes
Calibration OK
2-No
F IGURE 3.14
FIGURE 3.15
11.
If the Calibration OK screen flashes (Figure 3.15), proceed to Step 13.
12.
If the Calibration Gas Not Accepted screen appears (Figure 3.14), press the 1 KEY, Yes, and reenter the methane percentage. If the Calibration Gas Not Accepted screen still appears, press 0
KEY, No, and start procedure again from zero methane. If problem persists, proceed to Factory
Settings, discussed later in this chapter.
13.
If required, proceed to C02 calibration Step 1.
14.
Press the 0 KEY twice. Turn off the calibration gas cylinder. Remove the calibration gas hose
attached to the gas sample/static pressure port on the GEM-500™. Leave the exhaust port hose
connected and turn on the pump and allow it to purge the GEM-500™ with air for 60 seconds.
Press the 5 KEY, Pump, again. The pump turns off and automatically returns to the Calibrate
Methane screen.
15.
If there is no further calibration, press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the Gas Calibration screen.
Field calibration has successfully been completed.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 14
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Calibration
1. Because the cylinder used in this calibration contains methane, the following warning must be
adhered to before proceeding with the steps below.
WARNING!
The GEM -500™ is not certified intrinsically safe. The following
procedure MUST NOT be done in a confined area (such as well
vaults, underground or indoors) or where there is any chance of
sparking or ignition. No smoking, exposed lighting, or other
sources of ignition should be in the area. On the GEM-500™, ensure
that exhaust port is not blocked and properly vented away from you.
Ensure that no leaks are present. Unless all above conditions are
maintained, an explosion could occur resulting in serious injury or
death.
2. Press the 2 KEY, CO2 Calibration, on the Gas Calibration screen (Figure 3.16).
Calibrate Gas Type
1-CH4
2-C02
3-02
FIGURE 3.16
5-Factory Settings
3. There is no Zero CO2 function as there is in the methane or oxygen calibration procedures. The
following CO2 Span screen appears (Figure 3.17).
1-Enter
FIGURE 3.17
+
00.0%
CO2
Gas
Gas Con
5-Pump
0-Exit
4. Press the 1 KEY, Enter Gas Con, to access the Enter Concentration screen (Figure 3.18). Input
the percentage of Carbon Dioxide concentration of the calibration gas as three digits XX.X%. (40%
Carbon Dioxide would be input as 400) The GEM-500™ will automatically place a decimal point in
the proper position. After the percentage is entered, press the 0 KEY, Exit.
FIGURE 3.18
Page 15
Enter Concentration
of Calibration Gas
CO2 ?__._ %
0-Exit
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5. The next screen is the Caution Re-Calibrate screen (Figure 3.19).
CAUTION Re-Calibrate
Are you sure?
FIGURE 3.19
1-Yes
2-No
6. Press the 1 KEY, Yes, and one of the two following messages will appear (Figure 3.20 or Figure
3.21). If the Calibration OK screen appears, go to step 9 below.
Calibration gas NOT
Accepted. Refer to
Operating manual.
Retry ?
Calibration OK
1-Yes / 2-No
F IGURE 3.21
FIGURE 3.22
7. If the Calibration gas NOT Ac cepted screen appears, several things could have happened. Press
the 1 KEY, Yes, and enter the percentage of Carbon Dioxide in the calibration gas. It is possible
that the wrong percentage was input. If on a second attempt this does not work, press the 0 KEY,
No, to return to the Gas Calibration screen and turn to the Factory Settings section for additional
instructions.
8. If O2 is to be zeroed, proceed to O2 Calibration, step 1.
9. If no further calibration is needed, press the 0 KEY to Exit and return to the CO 2 Calibration screen
shown on the prior page.
10. Turn off the calibration gas. Remove the calibration gas hose attached to the gas sample/static
pressure port on the GEM-500™. Leave the exhaust port hose connected. Allow the GEM-500™
to purge with air for 60 seconds. Press the 5 KEY, Pump, to turn off the pump; then press the 0
KEY, Exit, to return to the Gas Calibration screen.
11. You have successfully completed a Carbon Dioxide Field Calibration. Immediately proceed to the
next function, O2 Calibration.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 16
Oxygen (O2) Calibration - Zero O2
1. There are two calibration gas mixtures used for the calibration of oxygen. The methane/ Carbon
Dioxide calibration gas previously used to calibrate the methane and Carbon Dioxide is used to
Zero oxygen. A second calibration gas with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is used to set the
oxygen level in the next section. Because the calibration gas used contains methane, the warning
below must be followed before proceeding with the following steps.
WARNING! The GEM-500™ is not certified as intrinsically safe. The following
procedure MUST NOT be done in a confined area (such as well
vaults, underground and indoors) or where there is any chance of
sparking or ignition. No smoking, exposed lighting, or other
sources of ignition should be in the area . On the GEM -500™,
ensure that exhaust gas port is not blocked and properly vented
away from you. Ensure that no leaks are present. Unless all above
conditions are maintained, an explosion could occur resulting in
serious injury or death.
2. Press Key 3-O2 Calibration on the Gas Calibration Screen (Figure 3.22).
FIGURE 3.22
Calibrate Gas Type
1-CH4
2-C02
3-02
5-Factory Settings
3. The Oxygen Calibration Screen will appear (Figure 2.23).
FIGURE 3.23
1-Zero O2
2-Calibrate O2 Span
0-Previous Menu
4. Pressing the 1 KEY, Zero O2, will bring up the Zero Oxygen screen (Figure 3.24).
1-Zero
FIGURE 3.24
+
00.0%
O2
Gas
Level
5-Pump
0-Exit
Page 17
GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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5. Read the oxygen Gas Concentration on the screen. It should be very near 00.0% and not changing
more than a few tenths of one percent.
Note: Even if the screen displays 00.0% oxygen, proceed with step 6 below, the Oxygen
must be zeroed anyway.
6. Press the 1 KEY, Zero level, and one of the following screens (Figure 3.25 or Figure 3.26) is
displayed for three seconds before returning to the Zero Oxygen screen shown above.
O2 Zeroed
Level NOT Zeroed
Please refer to
Operating Manual
FIGURE 3.25
FIGURE 3.26
7. If the O2 Zeroed screen displays, proceed to step 9 below.
8. If the Oxygen NOT Zeroed screen displays, return to the Oxygen Calibration screen. Check that
the calibration gas contains no oxygen. Connect the correct gas and re-zero the oxygen. If the
problem continues, proceed to instructions contained in this section for Factory Settings.
9. If the Oxygen Zeroed OK screen appears, turn off the calibration gas.
10. Remove the hose from the flow regulator to the GEM-500™. Let the pump run for at least 60
seconds to purge the instrument with air. Press the 5 KEY, Pump, to turn off the pump.
11. Press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the Oxygen Calibration screen and proceed to oxygen span.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 18
O2 Calibration - O2 Span
1. From the Gas Calibration screen, press the 3 KEY, zero O2, and the Oxygen Calibration screen
(Figure 3.27) will appear.
FIGURE 3.27
1-Zero O2
2-Calibrate O2 Span
0-Previous Menu
2. Press the 2 KEY, Calibrate O 2 Span, on the Oxygen Calibration screen will appear (Figure 3.28).
1-Enter
FIGURE 3.28
+
00.0%
O2
Gas
Gas con
5-Pump
0-Exit
Note: The calibration gas used in this procedure is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.
The oxygen concentration by volume can be 2-5% with the remainder N 2.
3. Change the calibration gas mixture to Oxygen/Nitrogen. Install the regulator/flow meter on the new
calibration gas mixture as directed previously in Setting Up the Equipment, page 4. Check and
adjust the gas flow to 500 cc and pressure to 2 psig. Turn off the gas.
4. Connect the ¼” tubing from the calibration gas regulator/flow meter to the GEM-500™ gas
sample/static pressure port (Figure 1.1). Attach tubing to the exhaust port of the GEM-500™, if not
already attached, and direct the exhaust away from you and out of the immediate area.
5. Press the 5 KEY, Pump, displayed on the O2 Span screen shown above. (Figure 3.28)
6. Turn on the calibration gas mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.
7. Allow the calibration gas to flow into the GEM-500™ for 60 seconds.
8. After 60 seconds, read the Oxygen Gas Concentration on the screen. It should be stable and not
changing more than a few tenths of one percent.
9. Press the 1 KEY, Enter Gas Con, and input the oxygen concentration of the calibration gas
(typically 4%) using the keyboard of the GEM-500™ (Figure 3.29). Enter the percentage as three
digits XX.X%. (4% O2 would be input as 040) The GEM-500™ will automatically place a decimal
point in the proper position. After the percentage is entered, press the 0 KEY to Exit.
FIGURE 3.29
Page 19
Enter Concentration
of Calibration Gas
O2 ?__._ %
0-Exit
GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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10. The next screen to appear, Figure 3.30, is the Caution Re-Calibrate Screen.
FIGURE 3.30
CAUTION Re-Calibrate
Are you sure?
1-Yes
2-No
11. Press the 1 KEY, Yes, and one of two screens will appear (Figure 3.31 or Figure 3.32).
12. If the Calibration OK Screen appears proceed to step 15.
Calibration gas NOT
Accepted. Refer to
Operating manual.
Retry ? 1-Yes / 2-No
F IGURE 3.31
Re-Calibrated OK
FIGURE 3.32
13.
If the Calibration Gas NOT Accepted screen appears, press the 1 KEY, Yes, and re-enter the
percentage of oxygen in the calibration gas. It is possible the wrong percentage was input. If, on
a second attempt, this has not worked, press the 0 KEY, No, and return to the Oxygen Calibration
Menu. Start the procedure over again. Zero and then calibrate the oxygen. If there are still
problems, proceed to Factory Settings in this section.
14.
Press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the Oxygen Calibration screen shown on the following page.
15.
Turn off the calibration gas. Remove the calibration gas hose attached to the gas sample/static
pressure port on the GEM-500™.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 20
Factory Setting Calibrations
As previously mentioned, it is sometimes necessary to return the GEM-500™ to factory settings before
trying to field calibrate the unit. If for some reason sampling conditions change radically, overall
accuracy of the GEM-500™ can be improved by returning to factory settings and then re-calibrating.
This procedure will overwrite previous field calibrations.
1. From the Gas Calibration screen, Figure 3.34, press the 5 KEY, Factory Settings.
FIGURE 3.34
Calibrate Gas Type
1-CH4
2-C02
3-02
5-Factory Settings
2. The Caution screen, Figure 3.35, shown below will be displayed. If the 0 KEY, No, is pressed, the
Not Set screen (Figure 3.36) appears for two seconds, then the Gas Calibration screen returns.
CAUTION Return to
factory setting of
calibration & zero ?
1-Yes
0-No
Factory Settings
NOT Set
F IGURE 3.35
FIGURE 3.36
3. Press 1 KEY, Yes, and the Factory Setting Set OK screen (Figure 3.37) is displayed for three
seconds before returning to the Gas Calibration screen shown in step 1.
FIGURE 3.37
Factory Settings
Set OK
4. After loading the factory settings, the methane and oxygen calibration MUST BE RE-ZEROED PRIOR TO
USE. After completing the gas calibrations, the GEM -500™ is ready to read gas levels. Go to
Chapter 5 of this manual, Read Gas Levels.
Page 21
GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
After Completing Gas Calibrations
Additional general utilities functions should be addressed after the GEM-500™ is field calibrated.
These functions are available on the General Utilities menu and include:
Ø Check Time/Date Assures that the data collected is properly time/date stamped.
Ø Check Memory Assures that there is enough memory space in the GEM-500™ to
store the readings you plan to take. Otherwise the memory will need to be cleared.
(See page 28, chapter 4)
Ø Set Gas Alarms Alerts the user to unusual gas conditions.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 22
Chapter 4 - General Utilities
Functions
General Utilities Screen Tree Diagram
FIGURE 4.1
OPENING WARNING
SCREEN
CESLANDTEC/ADJUSTMENT
SCREEN
MAIN MENU SCREEN
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
GENERAL UTILITIES
SUB-MENU SCREENS
READ GAS LEVELS
SUB-MENU SCREENS
VIEW/PRINT DATA
SUB-MENU SCREENS
DOWNLOAD DATA
SUB-MENU SCREENS
1-Check Time/Date
2-Battery Status
3-Zero Pressures
4-Memory
5-USA/Metric Units
6-Gas Calibration
7-Gas Alarms
8-ID Maintenance
General Utilities Menu
The General Utilities functions are displayed on three subsequent screens. (Figures 4.2, 4.3, & 4.4)
Any of the functions may be selected while any of the three screens is displayed. Use the 9 KEY,
More, to move from one screen forward to the next. Press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the main menu.
1-Check Time/Date
2-Battery Status
3- Zero Pressures
9-More
0-Exit
FIGURE 4.2
Page 23
4- Memory
5- USA/Metric Units
6- Gas Calibration
9-More
0-Exit
FIGURE 4.3
7- Gas Alarms
8- ID Maintenance
9-More
0-Exit
FIGURE 4.4
GEM-500 Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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General Utilities Functions
1. CHECK TIME/DATE: Set or check time and date.
2. BATTERY STATUS: Graphic display of the percentage of power remaining in the batteries.
3. ZERO PRESSURES: Zero pressure transducers.
4. MEMORY: Check available memory and facilitate clearing of all data and ID information.
5. USA/METRIC UNITS: Select either USA standard (Imperial) or metric (SI) measurement units.
6. GAS CALIBRATION: Field calibrate methane, Carbon Dioxide and oxygen with special gas
mixtures for increased accuracy.
7. GAS ALARMS: Set gas alarm levels.
8. ID MAINTENANCE: View, enter, edit and delete well ID information.
Check Time/Date
There is an internal clock and calendar in the GEM-500™ powered by a secondary battery that
maintains the clock function when the GEM-500™ is turned off. As each reading is stored in the GEM500™, it is time and date stamped. Both the clock and calendar are set by CES-LANDTEC, however,
they should be reset to the local time zone and checked weekly thereafter.
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
FIGURE 4.5
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
2. (Figure 4.6). Press the 1 KEY, Check Time/Date, on the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen to
access the Check Time/Date function.
FIGURE 4.6
1-Check Time/Date
2-Battery Status
3- Zero Pressures
9-More
0-Exit
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 24
3. Press the 1 KEY, Set Time/Date , to proceed. (Figure 4.7)
15:46:07
09/07/98
FIGURE 4.7
1-Set Time/Date
0-Exit
4. The time and date are displayed on the top line of the screen. A 24-hour clock or military time is
used. If the time is after 12 noon, add 12 to the hour to convert it to the 24-hour format. Example:
3 p.m. is 12+3 = 15:00 hours. The time format is Hours: Minutes. Seconds. The date format used
in the example is in U.S. calendar format with the month first and day second (mm/dd/yy).
5. If the time and date are accurate, end procedure by pressing the 0 KEY to Exit to the General
Utilities Sub-Menu screen. If the time or date, or both, is wrong, press the 1 KEY, Set Time/Date.
6. Set the time and date by entering numbers from the GEM-500™ keyboard. For setting the time hh =
hours, mm = minutes, and ss = seconds. The date is entered in the U.S. calendar format where
mm = months, dd = days, and yy = years. When finished, press the 0 KEY to Set.
?h:mm:ss
FIGURE 4.8
mm/dd/yy
Enter New Time/Date
0-Set
NOTE: If it is necessary to correct an entry error, use the 0 KEY as a Backspace Key by
holding it down for 1 second. In normal use, the 0 KEY is quickly pressed and
released.
7. After setting, one of two screens displays. If the date is valid, Figure 4.9 displays for three seconds.
If the time or date is invalid, Figure 4.10 displays. The time or date is invalid when impossible
numbers are entered into the field. For example, mm=15 is an invalid month. Return to step 5
above and reenter the correct time or date as instructed.
Time/Date Set OK
FIGURE 4.9
Page 25
Invalid Time/Date
Please enter again
FIGURE 4.10
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Battery Status
A Fast charger came with the GEM-500. The Fast charger takes approximately 2.5 hours for a 90%
charge, the charger will automatically switch to a slow charge after this time to prevent damage to the
batteries. The fast charger may be left connected overnight without damage to the NiCad batteries.
When the GEM-500 is fully charged, it should be able to operate continuously for 6-8 hours
depending upon the battery used and how it was charged. The GEM-500 may be operated with
Alkaline batteries, however, ONLY the NiCad batteries can be recharged. If the GEM-500™ is without
batteries for more than 30-45 minutes, memory/data loss will occur and the internal back backup
battery will run down. If this occurs, the unit will need to be returned to the lab for service.
WARNING! DO NOT TRY TO RECHARGE ALKALINE BATTERIES – DAMAGE TO THE
UNIT WILL OCCUR. (Figure 4.11)
w
Figure 4.11
WARNING w
THE BATTERIES MUST BE IN THE UNIT AND
MAKING CONTACT WHEN RECHARGING UNIT.
CHECK FOR CONTACT BY TURNING ON UNIT
AFTER BATTERIES ARE CONNECTED. IF NOTHING
APPEARS ON THE SCREEN, THE BATTERIES ARE
NOT IN CONTACT OR DEFECTIVE.
CLEAN
CONTACTS AND RETRY. IF STILL NO CONTACT,
REPLACE BATTERY STICKS.
FAILURE TO COMPLY CAN CAUSE DAMAGE TO
YOUR GEM
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
2. Press the 2 KEY, Battery Status, on the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen as shown in Figure
4.12.
1-Check Time/Date
FIGURE 4.12
2-Battery Status
3- Zero Pressures
9-More
0-Exit
3. The battery status graph displays the percentage of power remaining in the battery. When the
graph reads 20-30%, a battery symbol indicator displays on the upper right of the screen, indicating
approximately 1 hour of use remaining. When finished viewing the screen, press the 0 KEY to Exit.
FIGURE 4.13
Available Capacity
NiCad
%Full
50
100
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 26
Zero Pressures
The GEM-500™ measures atmospheric pressure as part of the LFG flow calculation. To properly
measure pressure and the vacuum used in landfill gas extraction systems, the pressure transducers
must be reset to zero each time before taking a pressure or vacuum reading.
This procedure may also be done prior to doing any Read Gas Levels because the Zero Pressures
function is also contained on the Read Gas Levels Sub-Menu screen as shown in Chapter 5.
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
2. Press the 3 KEY, Zero Pressures, on the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen as shown in Figure
4.14.
FIGURE 4.14
1-Check Time/Date
2-Battery Status
3- Zero Pressures
9-More
0-Exit
3. Figure 4.15 displays the current readings of the static and differential pressure transducers. If both
pressures do not read 00.0 DISCONNECT ANY HOSES ATTACHED TO THE GEM-500™ and
press 1 KEY, Zero Pressures.
FIGURE 4.15
Static +00.2”H2O
Differential –0.30”H2O
1-Zero Pressures
0-Exit
Note: Units displayed are inches of water column or (millibar) MB depending on
measurement unit selected (USA or metric).
4. After the pressures have been zeroed, Figure 4.16 appears for three seconds. The Zero Pressures
screen (Figure 4.15) then redisplays.
FIGURE 4.16
Zeroed OK
5. Press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen.
Page 27
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Memory
CAUTION: THIS
FUNCTION CAN ERASE ALL STORED DATA.
DATA CANNOT BE RECOVERED.
ONCE CLEARED,
THE
All well ID’s and readings are stored in the GEM-500™’s memory. Eventually the memory becomes
full. After each day’s readings are completed, the remaining amount of memory should be checked.
Normally, the readings for the day are downloaded to a computer. Downloading copies the information
but does not clear it out of memory. That must be done manually, as described below. If the memory
becomes full, a MEMORY FULL message displays. When this happens, the memory must also be
manually cleared.
The GEM-500™ can store many well ID’s. It is, therefore, possible to use it on several landfills.
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
2. Since the Memory function is not on the first General Utilities screen, press the 9 KEY, More, for
the next screen, or enter 4 at this screen.
3. Press the 4 KEY, Memory, on the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen (Figure 4.17).
FIGURE 4.17
4- Memory
5- USA/Metric Units
6- Gas Calibration
9-More
0-Exit
4. The amount of available memory left in the GEM-500™ displays on The Number of Free Readings
screen. (Figure 4.18) Three choices may be made on this screen. Press the 1 KEY, Clear
Readings, to erase all gas/data readings but leave the ID’s. Press the 2 KEY, Clear ID Info, to
erase all ID numbers and the associated readings that have accumulated in the GEM-500™ from
the ID MAINTENANCE and READ GAS functions. Press the 0 KEY, EXIT, to ESCAPE from the
procedure and return to the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen.
FIGURE 4.18
0479 Free Readings
1-Clear Readings
2-Clear ID Info
0-Exit
CAUTION: THIS
STEP ERASES STORED DATA.
THE DATA FIRST SO IT IS NOT LOST .
YOU
MAY WANT TO DOWNLOAD
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 28
5. After making your choice from the screen above, the Caution screen displays (Figure 4.19). As a
final safety check, the code 0102 must be input from the GEM-500™ keyboard to clear the memory.
IF YOU DECIDE NOT TO CLEAR THE MEMORY AT THIS POINT, TURN THE GEM -500™ OFF
BY PRESSING THE RED ON/OFF KEY or enter an incorrect code then press the 0 KEY, EXIT, to
return to the Memory screen. Do not input 0102 unless you want to clear the memory.
FIGURE 4.19
CAUTION!
DATA WILL BE LOST
Enter 0102 to clear
?
6. Enter 0102 from the keyboard and press the 0 KEY, Exit. The Clearing Memory screen displays for
3 seconds if the memory was erased.
FIGURE 4.20
Clearing Memory
After the Clearing Memory screen displays, the Number of Free Readings screen (Figure 4.18)
redisplays. Press the 0 KEY to Exit to the General Utilities Menu screen.
Page 29
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
USA/Metric Units
The GEM-500™ can store and display data in 2 units of measure, Metric (SI) or Imperial (USA). This
function allows setting the unit of measure.
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
2. Since the USA/Metric Units function is not on the first General Utilities screen, press the 9 KEY,
More, for the next screen, or enter 5 at this screen.
3. Press the 5 KEY, USA/Metric Units, on the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen (Figure 4.21).
FIGURE 4.21
4- Memory
5- USA/Metric Units
6- Gas Calibration
9-More
0-Exit
4. The Measurement Units screen (Figure 4.22) displays how the GEM-500™ is currently set (Set to
USA Std or Set to Metric). Press the 1 KEY to change from USA Std to Metric. (This setting acts
as a toggle switching from one to the other.) If the GEM-500™ is currently displaying USA Std
measurement units (Imperial — Btu’s, Standard Cubic Feet, Fahrenheit temperatures, etc.) it
switches to Metric and vice versa. When the GEM-500™ is set to the correct measurement unit,
press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen.
FIGURE 4.22
Measurement Units
Set to USA Std
1-Change to Metric
0-Exit
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 30
Gas Calibration
Please refer to Chapter 2 - Field Calibration for all information and instructions relating to the Gas
Calibration function.
Gas Alarms
The GEM-500™ has two alarm options that can warn the operator if a gas sample contains
concentrations of Methane below established levels or Oxygen above preset levels. If the alarms are
activated, there is a beeping and the affected gas blinks when displayed on the Read Gas Levels
screen.
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
2. Since the Gas Alarms function is not on the first General Utilities screen, press the 9 KEY, More,
for the next screen, or enter 7 at this screen. (Figure 4.23)
FIGURE 4.23
7- Gas Alarms
8- ID Maintenance
9-More
0-Exit
3. The Gas Alarm Set screen displays the alarm set point of both methane and oxygen and presents
the functions to change them. (Figure 4.24). Chose one to change the methane alarm set point or
two to change the oxygen alarm set point. If no change in alarm set points is required, press the 0
KEY, Exit, to return to the General Utilities Sub-Menu screen.
FIGURE 4.24
Methane Below 00.0%
Oxygen Above 25.0%
1-Change Methane
2-Change Oxygen
NOTE: To turn off alarms, set methane alarm to 00.0% and oxygen alarm to 25.0%.
4. If the 1 KEY, Change Methane , is pressed, the Methane Alarm Set Point screen displays. (Figure
4.25) Using the numbered keys on the GEM-500 keyboard, input the new alarm level for
methane (CH4). All three digits must be entered (XX.X%). The decimal point is automatically
inserted. Press the 0 KEY to save and Exit.
F IGURE 4.25
CH4 Level is 00.0%
Level Required ? --.-%
Enter level
0-Exit
Note: If the GEM-500 receives CH 4 at or below this set point during the Read Gas Levels
procedure, an audible alarm sounds to alert the operator.
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GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
5. If the 2 KEY, Change Oxygen, is pressed, the Oxygen Alarm Set Point screen displays. (Figure
4.26). Using the numbered keys on the GEM-500 keyboard input the new alarm level for oxygen
(O2). All three digits must be entered (XX.X%). The decimal point is automatically inserted. Press
the 0 KEY to save and Exit.
F IGURE 4.26
O2 Level is 00.0%
Level Required ? --.-%
Enter level
0-Exit
Note: If the GEM -500 receives O2 at or above this set point during the Read Gas Levels
procedure, an audible alarm sounds to alert the operator.
6. Press the 0 KEY, Exit, to return to the General Utilities Sub Menu screen.
ID Maintenance
Each monitoring point on a site can be assigned a unique ID code using the ID Maintenance function.
This code must be eight characters long. The characters can be any combination of letters and
numbers. Typically, the landfill name or an abbreviation is used for the first four characters. After an ID
code is entered (Step 4), the type of flow device (Accu-Flo, pitot tube, orifice plate or user defined) used
at that ID location must also be entered (Step 5). Depending on the flow device selected, either no
data, pipe ID (inner diameter), or both orifice and pipe ID size must also be entered.
1. From the Main Menu, press the 1 KEY, General Utilities, for the General Utilities Sub-Menu
screen.
2. Since the ID Maintenance function is not on the first or second General Utilities screens, press the
9 KEY, More, twice or enter 8 at this screen. (Figure 4.27)
FIGURE 4.27
7-Gas Alarms
8-ID Maintenance
9-More
0-Exit
The ID Maintenance screen presents two options. If a well already has an ID number, option one,
View/Edit/Delete should be accessed (Step , Figure 4.) If a well has no ID assigned in the GEM-500T M,
press the 2 KEY to Enter New ID.
FIGURE 4.28
ID MAINTENANCE
1-View/Edit/Delete
2-Enter New ID
0-Exit
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Page 32
Both numbers and letters can be input on the Enter ID screen. Use the BLUE ƒ KEY to switch (toggle)
between numbers and letters. See Keyboard Information in the Getting Started Section at the
beginning of this Manual.
♦ For numbers, press the keypad Number KEYS (0-9). (Figure 4.29)
♦ For letters, press the 1 KEY ( UP ARROW ) or 6 KEY ( DOWN ARROW ) to scroll through the alphabet
until the letter of choice appears. Press the 0 KEY to select the letter. (Figure 4.30)
After the final character is entered, the unit displays 0-Cont. Press the 0 KEY if the ID is correct
and ready to enter; otherwise, press and hold the 0 KEY to backspace and make corrections.
Please Enter ID
f- Numbers/ Letters
ID 0000 ?---
Please Enter ID
f- Numbers/ Letters
ID 0000 ?--↑↓-Step
0-Enter
F IGURE 4.29
FIGURE 4.30
Note: When entering the very first well ID, four zeros will hold the first four places in the ID
number. To replace these zeros with the well ID, use the 0 KEY to backspace over
them by holding it down for more than a second. Then enter the first four characters
of the well ID. These first four characters default to the second well ID entered,
saving the user the time of reentering for each well.
5. If an existing code is entered, the unit will ask if you want to overwrite. (Figure 4.31) If so, press
the 1 KEY, Yes, to overwrite. If a mistake was made and an overwrite is not desired, press the 2
KEY, No, to return to the ID Maintenance screen. (Figure 4.28)
FIGURE 4.31
ID 00000000 Already
Exists, overwrite ?
1-Yes
2-No
6. A well flow device is selected in the Flow Device screen. This selection is necessary for the GEM500 to be able to calculate flow when readings are taken. Use the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or the 6
KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to scroll through the choices listed in Figure 4.33. Once the desired flow
device is located in the shaded selection window, press 0 to select and Continue. (Figure 4.32)
FIGURE 4.32
Select Flow Device
Accuflo-1.5V
↑-Scroll Up
↓-Scroll Down 0 -Cont
Note: Selection of User Input allows the entry of flow in SCFM, if known. Those without a
flow device may wish to use this selection to record velocity or other relevant data.
(For example, using a Kurz meter.)
Page 33
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
FIGURE 4.33
Accuflo–1.5V (1½” Accu-Flo Model 150 Vertical Wellhead)
Accuflo–1.5H (1½” Accu-Flo Model 150 Horizontal Wellhead)
Accuflo–2V (2” Accu-Flo Model 200 Vertical Wellhead)
Accuflo–2H (2” Accu-Flo Model 200 Horizontal Wellhead)
Accuflo–3V (3” Accu-Flo Model 300 Vertical Wellhead)
Accuflo–3H (3” Accu-Flo Model 300 Horizontal Wellhead)
Orifice Plate (Orifice diameter and pipe inner diameter required)
Pitot Tube (Pipe ID required)
User Input (Pipe ID required)
7. If an Orifice Plate, Pitot Tube or User Input flow device is selected, additional information is
required. If the pipe or orifice diameter screen appears, input the required size as necessary.
Insert inches or centimeters (depending on whether US or Metric Units were selected on the
USA/Metric Units screen). The unit uses XX.XX as the format and automatically enters the decimal
point. Press the 0 KEY to enter and Continue.
Enter Pipe ID
FIGURE 4.34
?-.-- Inches
8. The ID Stored OK Screen displays for three seconds (Figure 4.35) then the ID Maintenance
displays so the next ID can be entered (Figure 4.36).
FIGURE 4.35
ID Stored OK
9. To View/Edit/Delete ID information, select the 1 KEY. (Figure 4.36)
FIGURE 4.36
ID MAINTENANCE
1-View/Edit/Delete
2-Enter New ID
0-Exit
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Page 34
10. The Well ID screen displays the Well ID and the associated flow device. The orifice and pipe data
is also displayed if associated with a flow device. To scroll through the ID’s stored in memory, use
the 1 KEY, ( UP ARROW ) or the 6 KEY ( DOWN ARROW ). Press the 0 KEY to Exit.
FIGURE 4.37
ID 00000000
[flow device]
[ orifice ]
[ pipe id ]
2-Edit
3-Del
↑↓-Scan
0-Exit
11. To edit the chosen Well ID information, press the 2 KEY, Edit. Use the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or the 6
KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to scroll through the choices listed in Figure 4.33. Once the desired flow
device is located in the shaded selection window, press 0 to select and Continue. Press the 0
KEY, Exit, to return to the ID Maintenance screen. (Figure 4,38)
NOTE: Once the 2 KEY is pressed, the original flow device is erased and new data must be
entered.
FIGURE 4.38
Select Flow Device
Accuflo-1.5V
↑-Scroll Up
↓-Scroll Down 0-Cont
12. To delete a Well ID and the associated flow device, press the 3 KEY, Delete.
FIGURE 4.39
13.
ID 00000000
[flow device]
[ orifice ]
[ pipe id ]
2-Edit
3-Del
↑↓-Scan
0-Exit
The Delete ID screen displays the Well ID chosen and asks for confirmation of the delete. If this
Well ID should not be deleted, press the 2 KEY, No, (Figure 4.40). The unit cancels the delete
command and returns to the Well ID screen (Figure 4.39). If this Well ID should be deleted,
press the 1 KEY, Yes. The ID is deleted and the unit returns to the Well ID screen (Figure 4.39).
Press the 0 KEY to Exit to the ID Maintenance screen.
FIGURE 4.40
DELETE ID ?
00000000
1-Yes
2-No
14. Before leaving this section, store at least three ID’s. These will be necessary for use in the
following chapters.
Page 35
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Chapter 5 - Read Gas Levels
This section instructs the operator in how to use the GEM-500™ to collect data from LFG extraction
system wells and other monitoring points. Several things should be done prior to beginning to collect
data readings with the GEM-500™.
The operator should have performed the following:
Ø Check the TIME/DATE. (See Chapter 4 - General Utilities)
Ø Charge the unit’s factory provided nickel cadmium batteries. (See Chapter 8 - Maintenance)
Ø Perform a Field Calibration on the unit. (See Section 3 - Field Calibration )
The GEM-500™ is a sensitive measuring instrument. Vibration, shock, and great temperature
changes can alter the field calibration. It is suggested that a field calibration be performed just
prior to using the instrument at the site. Additional calibration is sometimes necessary in the
field during the day.
WARNING! Review the warnings given in the beginning of this manual. The
GEM-500™ is NOT to be used in dangerous, explosive or confined
atmospheres. Do not use the GEM -500™ inside vaults, manholes,
trenches or indoors. Do NOT block the exhaust port. If the
exhaust port is blocked while the pump is operating, the pressure
could force the unit to over-pressurize and damage the internal
components and the case.
GEM-500™ Hose and Wellhead
The proper hoses must be connected from the GEM-500™ to the wellhead in order to collect data. As
mentioned in the Getting Started Chapter, the clear tubing with the external filter/water trap assembly is
attached to the static pressure port on the GEM-500™ (Figure 5.1). The almond colored male quick
connect goes on the end of this tubing to read the static pressure on the Accu-Flo Wellhead and the
blue hose is connected to the impact port of the GEM-500™.
On the following pages are examples of the Accu-Flo Wellhead, both vertical and horizontal models.
Note the locations of the Static Pressure Port, Impact Pressure Port, Temperature Gauge, and Gas
Sample Port.
Note: Five O-rings for quick disconnect fittings are supplied with Unit. Replace O-Rings when
necessary because oxygen will be drawn into sample if O-rings are damaged. The GEM 500™ pump will pull up to 80” of vacuum.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 36
FIGURE 5.1
1. Static Pressure/Sampling Port—Measures static
pressure when connected to wellhead static
pressure port by tubing. Always use water trap
assembly.
2. Impact Pressure Port—Measures impact pressure
when connected to wellhead impact pressure port
by tubing.
3. Exhaust Port—This port must be kept clear. If
blocked while operating, over-pressurization and
damage to internal components and case could
occur.
4. Data Port - Used for Temperature Probe, POD, downloading data, and battery recharging.
CES-LANDTEC Horizontal Accu-Flo Wellhead
FIGURE 5.2
Page 37
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
CES-LANDTEC Vertical Accu-Flo Wellhead
FIGURE 5.3
Read Gas Levels Screen Tree Diagram
FIGURE 5.4
OPENING WARNING
SCREEN
CESLANDTEC/ADJUSTMENT
SCREEN
MAIN MENU SCREEN
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
GENERAL UTILITIES
SUB-MENU SCREENS
1-Check Time/Date
2-Battery Status
3-Zero Pressures
4-Memory
5-USA/Metric Units
6-Gas Calibration
7-Gas Alarms
8-ID Maintenance
READ GAS LEVELS
SUB-MENU SCREENS
VIEW/PRINT DATA
SUB-MENU SCREENS
DOWNLOAD DATA
SUB-MENU SCREENS
Read Using ID?
YES
NO
Enter ID
Read Gas
Composition
Read Temp
Pressure
Read Gas
Composition
Read Temp
Pressure
Store Data
Display
Flow
Store Data
As shown in the screen tree diagram above (Figure 5.4), there are two menu paths that can be followed
through the Read Gas Levels function. The path taken depends upon whether or not a well ID has
been defined and stored in the GEM-500™. Well IDs can be added at several points during this
procedure.
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Page 38
Read Gas Levels Menu – Read Using ID? No
1. On the Main Menu screen press the 2 KEY (Figure 5.5) to initialize the Read Using ID screen.
FIGURE 5.5
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
2. The Read Using ID screen is displayed as shown in Figure 5.6. A choice needs to be made
whether or not to read the well using an ID. If yes is chosen, a well ID is selected by scrolling
through a list, or by entering the well ID manually. Typically, NO is chosen when a well only needs
to be monitored or a well ID is not stored in memory in the unit.
Read Using ID?
FIGURE 5.6
1-Yes
2-No
0-Exit
3. Select the 2 KEY, No.
4. Connect the GEM-500 to the wellhead with supplied tubing—Static Pressure/Sampling Port to the
Static Pressure Port and Impact Pressure Port to Impact Pressure Port. The Gas Levels screen is
divided into two parts. The left side of the screen displays current percentages of CH4, CO2, O2,
and BAL, which is the balance of all other gases excluding the CH4, CO2, and O2. The right side of
the screen displays functional choices for this reading (Lower Explosive Limit, Continue to
temperature and pressure data, Pump On/Off, Last Data, Exit) and POD reminder.
FIGURE 5.7
Page 39
CH4 00.0 %
CO2 00.0 %
O2 00.0%
BAL 00.0 %
1-LEL 2-Cont
5-Pump OFF
6-Store
POD? 0-Exit
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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POD refers to interchangeable electrochemical gas pods that are used to extend the measurement
capabilities of the GEM-500 (Figure 5.8). These pods are available in seven different gases with
nine different ranges and easily plug into the data port. The reminder lets the user know that if a
pod were attached at this time, additional gas readings could be taken.
Interchangeable Electrochemical
Gas Pods
FIGURE 5.8
Gas
Range (ppm)
H2S
0 – 50
0 – 200
0 – 1000
0 – 20
0 – 100
0 – 20
0 – 20
0 – 1000
0 – 100
CO
SO2
NO2
Cl2
H2
HCN
Resolution
(ppm)
0.1
1.0
1.0
0.1
1.0
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
5. Press the 5 KEY, Pump, to start the pump and draw a gas sample into the GEM-500. The 5
KEY, Pump, works as a toggle switch to turn the pump on and off. Once the pump is turned on, the
readings are not considered to be accurate until the percentages on the left side of the display
stabilize, typically within 30-45 seconds. A timer displays on the screen to monitor the pump
running time.
FIGURE 5.9
CH4 00.0 %
CO2 00.0 %
O2 00.0%
BAL 00.0 %
1-LEL 2-Cont
5-Pump OFF
9-Last Data
POD? 0-Exit
Note: The GEM -500™ may sound an alarm (beeping) while taking gas readings. The alarm
means that gas levels set in General Utilities Gas Alarms (page 31) have been
reached or exceeded. In addition to the alarm, the screen display of the gas that set
off the alarm will also blink.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 40
6. To monitor the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit), press the 1 KEY (Figure 5.9), to enter the LEL screen.
If the LEL needs to be continuously monitored, just leave the pump running. When the LEL no
longer needs to be monitored, press the 5 KEY again to toggle off the pump. Press the 0 KEY to
Exit back to the Gas Levels screen.
FIGURE 5.10
00.0
000.
CH4 5-Pump
%Gas
OFF
CH4
%LEL 0-Exit
7. To store the current readings press the 6 KEY, Store.
FIGURE 5.11
CH4 00.0 %
CO2 00.0 %
O2 00.0%
BAL 00.0 %
1-LEL 2-Cont
5-Pump OFF
6-Store
POD? 0-Exit
Since a well ID was not entered to begin with, one must now be entered. Use the BLUE ƒ KEY to
switch (toggle) between numbers and letters. See Keyboard Information in the Getting Started Section
at the beginning of this Manual.
♦ For numbers, press the keypad Number KEYS (1-0). (Figure 5.12)
♦ For letters, press the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to step through the alphabet
until the letter of choice appears. Press the 0 KEY to select the letter. (Figure 5.13)
After the final character is entered, the unit displays 0-Cont. Press the 0 KEY if the ID is correct
and ready to enter; otherwise, press and hold the 0 KEY to backspace and make corrections.
Please Enter ID
f-Numbers/ Letters
ID AAAA ?---
F IGURE 5.12
Please Enter ID
f- Numbers/ Letters
ID AAAA ?--↑↓-Step
0-Enter
FIGURE 5.13
Note: Four letters from the previously entered ID default into the first four places of the
ID number. To replace these letters, if needed, use the 0 KEY to backspace over
them by holding it down for more than a second. Change the characters as
needed.
Page 41
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
9.
On the Select Comments screen, use the 1 KEY to Scroll Up or the 6 KEY to Scroll Down
through the comment list (Figure 5.15). When the correct comment appears in the comment
display area, press the 2 KEY, to Select, then the 0 KEY to Store the readings.
COMMENTS
Flex Hose
Labeling
Valve
Air Leakage
Casing Height Water Blockage
Well Bore Seal Other
Select Comments
[ comment display]
↑-Scroll Up
2-Select
↓-Scroll Dn
0-Store
FIGURE 5.14
F IGURE 5.15
10. If the readings are successfully stored, the Readings Stored screen displays for three seconds
(Figure 5.16). The Gas Levels screen (Figure 5.11) redisplays. The unit is now ready to accept
another reading.
FIGURE 5.16
Readings Stored
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Page 42
Read Gas Levels Menu – Read Using ID? Yes
1. On the Main Menu screen, press the 2 KEY (Figure 5.17) to initialize the Read Using ID screen.
FIGURE 5.17
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
2. A choice needs to be made at the Read Using ID screen (Figure 5.18) whether or not to read the
well using an ID. If Y ES is chosen, the well ID is selected by scrolling through a list or by entering
the well ID manually. Typically, NO is chosen when a well only needs to be monitored or a well ID
is not yet in memory.
Read Using ID?
FIGURE 5.18
1-Yes
2 -No
0-Exit
3. Select the 2 KEY Yes.
4. The Manually Enter ID screen allows the user to either scroll through a list of ID’s that are already in
memory or enter an ID manually. (Figure 5.19) If there are few ID’s stored, it might be faster to use
the scroll option; whereas the manual entry option might be faster to use if there are many ID’s
stored.
FIGURE 5.19
Manually enter ID or
Scroll through ?
1-scroll
2 -Manual
5. To scroll through the existing list of well ID’s, press the 1 KEY, scroll. The Select ID screen
displays a single ID at a time. (Figure 5.20) Use the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or the 6 KEY (DOWN
ARROW ) to scroll through the list. When the ID of choice is displayed, press the 2 KEY, Select.
16)
FIGURE 5.20
Page 43
ID [ number ]
↑↓-Scroll
2-Select
0-Exit
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
6. The chosen well ID and the type of flow device (Accu-Flo, Orifice Plate, Pitot Tube, or User Input)
display on the left side of the screen and the Read, Retry, Edit, and Abort options display on the
right. (Figure 5.21) Press the 1 KEY, Read, to continue to the Read Gas screen. (Skip to Step 14.)
FIGURE 5.21
ID [ number ]
[ flow device ]
[ pipe id ]
1-Read
2-Retry
3-Edit
0-Abort
7. To select manual entry press the 2 KEY, Manual.
FIGURE 5.22
Manually enter ID or
Scroll through ?
1-scroll
2-Manual
8. Enter the well ID of choice. Use the BLUE ƒ KEY to switch (toggle) between numbers and letters.
♦ For numbers, press the keypad Number KEYS (0-9). (Figure 5.23)
♦ For letters, press the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to step through the alphabet
until the letter of choice appears. Press the 0 KEY to select the letter. (Figure 5.24)
After the final character is entered, the unit displays 0-Cont. Press the 0 KEY if the ID is correct
and ready to enter; otherwise, press and hold the 0 KEY to backspace and make corrections.
Please Enter ID
f- Numbers/ Letters
ID AAAA ?---
F IGURE 5.23
Please Enter ID
f- Numbers/ Letters
ID AAAA ?--↑↓-Step
0-Enter
FIGURE 5.24
Note: Four letters from the previously entered ID default into the first four places of the ID
number. To replace these letters, if needed, use the 0 KEY to backspace over them
by holding it down for more than a second. Change the characters as needed.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 44
9. If the well ID is not yet entered into the unit, a No Reading screen appears. This screen provides
three options. If the number is correct but has never been previously added, Enter ID Info. allows
entry and flow device definition. If the well ID entered was in error, Retry takes the user back to the
Manually Enter ID screen (Figure 5.22). The Abort command takes the user completely back out to
the Main Menu (Figure 5.17). Press the 1 KEY, Enter ID Info.
FIGURE 5.25
No Reading for ID
XXXX XXXX
1-Enter ID Info.
2-Retry
0-Abort
10. A well flow device is selected in the Flow Device screen. This selection is necessary for the
GEM-500 to be able to calculate flow when readings are taken. Use the 1 KEY ( UP ARROW ) or the
6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to scroll through the choices listed in Figure 5.27. Once the desired flow
device is located in the shaded selection window, press 0 to select and continue.
FIGURE 5.26
Select Flow Device
Accuflo-1.5V
↑-Scroll Up
↓-Scroll Down 0-Cont
Note: Selection of User Input allows the eventual entry of flow in SCFM, if known (see
Step 11). Those without flow devices may wish to use this selection to record
velocity or other relevant data. (For example, when using a Kurz meter.)
FIGURE 5.27
Page 45
Accuflo–1.5V (1½” Accu-Flo Model 150 Vertical Wellhead)
Accuflo–1.5H (1½” Accu-Flo Model 150 Horizontal Wellhead)
Accuflo–2V (2” Accu-Flo Model 200 Vertical Wellhead)
Accuflo–2H (2” Accu-Flo Model 200 Horizontal Wellhead)
Accuflo–3V (3” Accu-Flo Model 300 Vertical Wellhead)
Accuflo–3H (3” Accu-Flo Model 300 Horizontal Wellhead)
Orifice Plate (Orifice diameter and pipe inner diameter required)
Pitot Tube (Pipe ID required)
User Input (Pipe ID required)
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
11. If an Orifice Plate, Pitot Tube or User Input flow device is selected, additional information is
required. If the pipe or orifice diameter screen appears, input the required size as necessary.
Insert inches or centimeters (depending on whether USA or Metric Units were selected on the
General Utilities USA/Metric units screen). The unit uses XX.XX as the format and automatically
enters the decimal point. Press the 0 KEY to enter and continue.
Enter Pipe ID
FIGURE 5.28
?-.-- Inches
12. The ID Stored OK Screen displays for three seconds (Figure 5.29)
FIGURE 5.29
ID Stored OK
13. The chosen well ID and the type of flow device (Accu-Flo, Orifice Plate, Pitot Tube, or User Input)
display on the left side of the screen and the Read, Retry, Edit, and Abort options display on the
right. (Figure 5.30) Press the 1 KEY, Read, to continue to the Read Gas screen.
Figure 5.30
ID [ number ]
[ flow device ]
[ pipe id ]
1-Read
2-Retry
3-Edit
0-Abort
14. Connect the GEM-500 to the wellhead with the supplied tubing—Static Pressure/Sampling Port
to the Static Pressure Port and Impact Pressure Port to Impact Pressure Port. The Gas Levels
screen is divided into two parts. The left side of the screen displays current percentages of CH4,
CO2, O2, and BAL, which is the balance of all other gases excluding the CH4, CO2, and O2. The
right side of the screen displays functional choices for this reading (Lower Explosive Limit,
Continue to temperature and pressure data, Pump On/Off, Last Data, Exit) and a POD reminder.
FIGURE 5.31
CH4 00.0 %
CO2 00.0 %
O2 00.0%
BAL 00.0 %
1-LEL 2-Cont
5-Pump OFF
9-Last Data
POD? 0-Exit
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
©1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 46
POD refers to interchangeable electrochemical gas pods that are used to extend the measurement
capabilities of the GEM-500 (Figure 5.32). These pods are available in seven different gases
with nine different ranges and easily plug into the data port. The reminder lets the user know that if
a pod were attached at this time, additional gas readings could be taken.
Interchangeable Electrochemical
Gas Pods
FIGURE 5.32
Gas
Range (ppm)
H2S
0 – 50
0 – 200
0 – 1000
0 – 20
0 – 100
0 – 20
0 – 20
0 – 1000
0 – 100
CO
SO2
NO2
Cl2
H2
HCN
Resolution
(ppm)
0.1
1.0
1.0
0.1
1.0
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
15. Press the 5 KEY, Pump, to start the pump and draw a gas sample into the GEM-500. The 5
KEY, Pump, works as a toggle switch to turn the pump on and off. Once the pump is turned on,
the readings are not considered to be accurate until the percentages on the left side of the display
stabilize, typically within 30-45 seconds. A timer displays on the screen to monitor the pump
running time.
FIGURE 5.33
CH4 00.0 %
CO2 00.0 %
O2 00.0%
BAL 00.0%
1-LEL 2-Cont
5-Pump OFF
9-Last Data
POD? 0-Exit
Note: The GEM -500™ may sound an alarm (beeping) while taking gas readings. The alarm
means that gas levels set in General Utilities Gas Alarms (page 31) have been
reached or exceeded. In addition to the alarm, the screen display of the gas that set
off the alarm also blinks.
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16. To monitor the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit), press the 1 KEY (Figure 5.33) to enter the LEL screen.
If the LEL needs to be continuously monitored, just leave the pump running. When the LEL no
longer needs to be monitored, press the 5 KEY again to toggle off the pump. Press the 0 KEY to
Exit back to the Gas Levels screen (Figure 5.33).
CH 5-Pump
00.0 %Gas
OFF
CH
000. %LEL
0-Exit
4
FIGURE 5.34
4
17. If at any time, while working on this screen, reference needs to be made to the prior reading on this
wellhead, press the 9 KEY, Last Data. The unit displays the very last stored reading. The 9 KEY
works as a toggle switch between the current reading and the last reading. From the Last Data
(Figures 5.33 & 5.35) screen, the user can go directly into monitoring current LEL or continue
directly to the current Temperature/Pressure screen.
FIGURE 5.35
CH4 00.0 % 1-LEL 2-Cont
CO2 00.0 %
O2 00.0% 9-Curr Data
0-Exit
BAL 00.0 %
18. From the Read Gas Levels screen (Figure 5.33), press the 2 KEY, Continue, for the Temperature
and Pressure screen (Figure 5.36). This screen shows temperature, static pressure, differential
pressure, and a number of functional options. If a temperature probe is used, it should be
connected from the data port on the right side of the GEM-500 (Figure 5.1) to the temperature
gauge port on the wellhead. When the temperature probe is connected to the GEM-500, the
functional option Enter TEMP disappears as it displays only for manual entry. The temperature
probe needs to remain in the wellhead until the entire reading is completed and stored. If a
temperature probe is not used, the temperature can be read on a thermometer placed in the
temperature gauge port on the wellhead and entered manually into the GEM-500. To enter the
temperature manually, press the 1 KEY, Enter TEMP.
T >>>°F
SP+/-00.0”
FIGURE 5.36
1-Enter TEMP
3-Zero Pres
DP+/-0.00” 9-Last Data
0-Back
2-Continue
Note: If flow measurement is required, temperature must be entered either manually or
with the optional temperature probe.
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Page 48
19. Temperature is entered in either Fahrenheit (F) or Celsius (C) depending on whether USA or Metric
was chosen in the General Utilities USA/Metric Units screen (page 30). Number keys and leading
zero(s) are used to enter a three digit temperature value, i.e., 78° is 078 and 5° is 005. Press the 0
KEY to Continue back to the Read Gas Levels screen (Figure 5.36).
Enter Temperature
FIGURE 5.37
?-- °F
0-Cont
20. From the Read Gas Levels screen (Figure 5.36), press the 3 KEY, Zero Pressures, before
proceeding. This is necessary because by taking a LFG sample, the impact port pressure
transducers have been pressurized. The Warning Disconnect hoses screen displays before the
Zero Pressure screen. (Figure 5.38). Disconnect all the hoses from the GEM-500 to the
wellhead and press any key to continue.
FIGURE 5.38
WARNING: Disconnect
Hoses before zeroing
Press any key
21. The pressures displayed on the Static/Differential screen are displayed with either a positive or
negative and need to stabilize (quit changing) before being zeroed. When stabilized, press the 1
KEY to Zero Pressures. (Figure 5.39)
FIGURE 5.39
Static +/-00.0”H2O
Differential +/-0.00”H2O
1-Zero Pressures
0-Exit
Note: The units displayed are in inches of water column or MB depending on whether
USA or Metric was chosen in the General Utilities USA/Metric Units screen (page
30).
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22. The Zeroed OK screen (Figure 5.40) displays for 3 seconds, then the Static/Differential screen
(Figure 5.41) redisplays. Occasionally the pressures will not zero completely. If this happens,
press the 1 KEY, Zero Pressures, again until the pressures are completely zeroed. Once the
static and differential pressures are zeroed, press the 0 KEY to Exit. The Temperature/Pressure
screen then redisplays (Figure 5.42).
Static +/-00.0”H2O
Differential +/-0.00”H2O
1-Zero Pressures
0-Exit
Zeroed OK
FIGURE 5.40
FIGURE 5.41
23. At the Temperature/Pressure screen, reconnect the tubing (Figure 5.43). Allow the instrument to
read, then press the 2 KEY to Continue to the Flow/Btu screen.
T >>>°F
SP+/-00.0”
FIGURE 5.42
1-Enter TEMP
3-Zero Pres
DP+/-0.00” 9-Last Data
0-Back
2-Continue
CONNECTIONS
FIGURE 5.43
1. On an Accu-Flo wellhead, connect the Static Pressure/Sampling
port (top left ) on the GEM -500 to the Static Pressure Port on the
wellhead, and the Impact Pressure Port on the wellhead. (Figures
5.1, 5.2, 5.3)
2. On a pitot tube, connect the hoses from the GEM -500 to the
Impact and static Pressure ports.
3. On an orifice plate, connect the hoses on the GEM-500 to either
side of the orifice plate.
Note: To get a flow reading, the differential pressure (DP) must be positive with respect to
the static pressure. If it is not, reverse the hoses.
The Flow screen displays the reference flow (REF) and adjusted flow (ADJ). The reference flow is static
and will not change unless the Temperature/Pressure screen is re-accessed. Whereas the adjusted
flow is active and is typically used to display changes in flow while adjustments are made. If an AccuFlo, pitot tube, or orifice plate wellhead is in place, the GEM-500 automatically calculates the
reference and adjusted flow. Other functions available here are the ability to store the data, go to the
next wellhead ID, view the last data on this wellhead, or go back to the Temperature/Pressure screen.
The units displayed on this screen, Scfm (Standard cubic feet per minute) and BTU (British Thermal
Units, in thousands) are the USA units that are selected in the General Utilities USA/Metric Units
screen (page 30).
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Page 50
FIGURE 5.44
Scfm 000 BTU 000e3/h REF
Scfm 000 BTU 000e3/h ADJ
1-Flow 6-Store 4-ID>
9-Last Data
0-Back
If the flow needs to be changed, adjust the control valve on the wellhead. Within a few seconds the
new flow is displayed on the GEM-500 as the adjusted value. When satisfied with the flow
adjustment, press the 6 KEY to Store the information and continue to the Select Comments screen.
24. On the Select Comments screen, use the 1 KEY to Scroll Up or the 6 KEY to Scroll Down through
a comment list (Figure 5.45). When the correct comment appears in the comment display area,
press the 2 KEY, to Select, then the 0 KEY to store the readings.
Select Comments
[ comment display]
↑-Scroll Up
2-Select
↓-Scroll Dn
0 -Store
COMMENTS
Flex Hose
Labeling
Valve
Air Leakage
Casing Height Water Blockage
Well Bore Seal Other
FIGURE 5.45
FIGURE 5.46
25. If the readings are successfully stored, the Readings Stored screen displays for three seconds
(Figure 5.47). The Flow screen (Figure 5.44) redisplays.
FIGURE 5.47
Readings Stored
26. Press the 4 KEY, ID to advance to the next wellhead ID in memory. If the wellhead ID’s were
loaded into the GEM-500 in order, the unit will purge and the next ID will display after purge is
completed.
FIGURE 5.48
Page 51
Scfm 000 BTU 000e3/h REF
Scfm 000 BTU 000e3/h ADJ
1-Flow 6-Store 4-ID>
9-Last Data
0-Back
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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27. The Purge Prompt Screen (Figure 5.20) reminds the user that the GEM-500 needs to have any
residual gases purged from its system to guarantee the accuracy of the next reading. Press the 5
KEY, Purge, to initialize the purge process.
FIGURE 5.49
You should purge
After each sample
1-Next ID
2-Purge
0 -Back
28. The Warning screen displays to remind the user to disconnect the hoses from the wellhead before
starting the purge process. Once the hoses are removed, press the 1 KEY to begin the purge
(Figure 5.50).
FIGURE 5.50
WARNING! Disconnect
Hoses from the well
Before purging.
1-Begin Purge
0-Back
29. The pump starts and the Purge in Progress screen displays the number of seconds remaining in
the purge (Figure 5.51). This purge process can be taking place while walking to the next
wellhead.
Purge in progress
60 seconds remaining
FIGURE 5.51
0-Back
30. The pump will run for 60 seconds and then shut off allowing the next well ID to be displayed.
(Figure 5.52)
FIGURE 5.52
ID [ number ]
[ flow device ]
[ pipe id ]
1-Read
2-Retry
3-Edit
0-Abort
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Chapter 6 - View Data
View Data
1. From the Main Menu, select the 3 KEY, View Data (Figure 6.1)
FIGURE 6.1
1-General Utilities
2-Read Gas Levels
3-View/Print Data
4-Download Data
From the View/Print Select screen, the user can choose to view data, print data or return to the
main menu. Press the 1 KEY, View Data to view data in memory in the GEM-500.
FIGURE 6.2
Please Select
1-View Data
2-Print Data
0-Main Menu
To view data from just one wellhead, press the 1 KEY, With Specific ID. This option allows
manual entry of a single wellhead ID. If data from all wellheads needs to be viewed, press the 5
KEY, All Data and proceed to step 4.
View Data
FIGURE 6.3
1-With Specific ID
5-All Data
The Manually Enter ID screen allows the user to either scroll through a list of ID’s that are already in
memory or enter an ID manually. If there are few ID’s stored, it might be faster to use the scroll option;
whereas the manual entry option might be faster to use if there are many ID’s stored (Refer to page 44
number 7). (Figure 6.4)
FIGURE 6.4
Manually enter ID or
Scroll through?
1-scroll
Page 53
2-Manual
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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2. To scroll through the existing list of well ID’s, press the 1 KEY, Scroll. The Select ID screen
displays a single ID at a time. Use the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or the 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to scroll
through the list. When the ID of choice is displayed, press the 2 KEY, Select. (Figure 6.5)
16)
FIGURE 6.5
ID [ number ]
↑↓-Scroll
2-Select
0-Exit
3. The following options are used to move around within the Data screens: (Figure 6.6)
♦ ↑↓-Scan – Use the 1 KEY (UP ARROW ) or the 6 KEY (DOWN ARROW ) to scroll through the list.
♦ 2-Go First – Use the 2 KEY to go to the first well ID in the list.
♦ 5-Change Data Screen – Use the 5 KEY to toggle between the Gas Concentrations screen
(Figure 6.7) and the Flow screen (Figure 6.8).
♦ 7-Go Last – Use the 7 KEY to go to the last well ID in the list.
♦ 0-Exit – Use the 0 KEY to exit at any time.
USE:
FIGURE 6.6
↑↓-Scan
0-Exit
2-Go First 7-Go Last
5-Change data Screen
Any key to continue
ID [ number ]
TAKEN 00:00 00/00/98
CH4 00.0% CO2 00.0%
O2 00.0% BAL 00.0%
F IGURE 6.7
SP+/-00.0” DP+/-0.00”
T 095°F
Scfm 000 BTU 000e3/h REF
Scfm 000 BTU 000e3/h ADJ
FIGURE 6.8
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 54
Chapter 7 - Communications
This chapter details how to:
Ø Install the GEM COMM software, contained on the disk that came with the GEM-500 onto a PC.
Ø Connect the GEM-500 to a PC with the special data interface cable (RS-232) provided with the
GEM-500 by CES-LANDTEC.
Ø Configure the GEM COMM software.
Ø Transfer information from and to the GEM-500.
Ø Add, delete, and manipulate comments, IDs and well data with the GEM COMM software.
The special data interface cable (RS-232) attaches to the GEM with a specially manufactured plug.
The temperature probe, battery charger and data cable all use the same input plug. DO NOT try to
substitute any other cables or plugs for the ones provided by CES-LANDTEC.
Installing The Gas Analyzer Communications Program
The CES-LANDTEC Gas Analyzer Communications software converts the binary data produced by the
GEM-500™ to an ASCII format, comma delimited. The data in ASCII format can then be imported into
Datafield (CES-LANDTEC proprietary software), LOTUS 1-2-3™, Excel™, and many other programs
that accept comma delimited data files.
1. Turn on computer and go to the DOS (Disk Operating System) prompt.
2. Insert the CES-LANDTEC GEM COMM download disk into computer’s floppy drive.
3. Install the GEM software into a subdirectory of your choice, using the drive of your choice, by typing
the following instructions (assuming drive A contains source disk and C is the destination drive).
a) C:\>MD GEM <ENTER>
b) C:\>CD GEM <ENTER>
c) C:\GEM> COPY A:*.* <ENTER>
A:\GEM_COMM.EXE
1 file(s) copied
C:\GEM>
4. The GEM software is now installed on the computer in a directory named GEM.
5. Remove the diskette from drive A and store it in a safe place. One backup copy of the program
disk may be made.
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Starting The Communications Program
1. Make sure that the GEM-500 is off.
2. Attach the RS-232 cable to COM Port 1 or COM Port 2 on the computer and make a note of which
COM Port is used, as this information is needed later. Plug the cable into the receptacle port
(Figure 1.1) on the GEM-500.
3. Access the GEM directory by typing the following at the C:> prompt (DOS prompt) :
a) C:\> CD GEM <Enter>
b) C:\> GEM_COMM<Enter>
4. The Com Link screen sets up the link between the computer and the GEM-500. Now turn on the
GEM-500. Proceed to the Main Menu on the GEM-500 (Figures 2.1 – 2.5). Press the 4 KEY,
Download Data.
GEM Communications Software V3.06
FIGURE 7.1
 22/01/98
Establish Comms Link
Please Select -:
4-Download Data
From the GEM’s Main Menu.
Files:
Units: Imperial [ or metric ]
[ (C) 1994 Geotechnical Instruments (UK) Ltd ]
Waiting for communication. Esc - Cancel
Note: While using the Gas Analyzer Communications Software - Version 3.06, brief function
descriptions and instructions appear, on screen. Use the é KEY and the ê KEY to
move through the options, and the ESC (ESCAPE) key to Exit or abort.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 56
5. Watch for the C to appear for a few seconds at the lower right of the Com Link screen. This is an
indication of a successful communications link.
♦ If this is the first time that the program has been run, the C may not appear because a COM port
has not yet been specified. In this case, press the ESCAPE KEY and continue to Main Menu –
Configure below.
NOTE: The only time that the ESCAPE KEY is used to return to the Main Menu in the
GEM COMM program is during the initial setting. At all other times press the 4
KEY, Download Data on the GEM -500 keyboard.
♦ If the “C” does not appear, and this is NOT the first time that the program has been run, the
cable maybe plugged into the wrong COM port, the cable connections are not stable, there is a
problem with the cable, or a Windows program is also running. In this case, exit out of the
software, turn off the GEM-500, check the cable connections, close any open Windows
program, and start over from Step 1, above.
Establish Comms Link
FIGURE 7.2
Please Select -:
4-Download Data
From the GEM’s Main Menu.
C
Main Menu
After the communication link is established, the Main Menu displays on the computer (Figure 7.3) and
the RS-232 Mode screen (Figure 7.4) displays on the GEM-500. RS-232 MODE means that the
GEM-500 is linked and awaiting instructions from computer.
Well ID functions
User Defined Comments
GEM Data Functions
Clear functions
Show GEM memory statistics
Configure
Exit
FIGURE 7.3
Page 57
4
4
4
4
4
4
RS-232 MODE
Awaiting Instruction
From computer
4
FIGURE 7.4
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Configure
The Configure menu presents options that allow the user to set operating units, select a
communications port, data directory, set well ID sorting, and set stored titles.
1. Using the up é and down ê arrows on the computer keypad, highlight Configure on the Main
Menu screen (Figure 7.3) and press the Enter key.
FIGURE 7.5
Well ID functions
4
User Defined Comments
4
GEM Data Functions
4
Clear functions
4
Show GEM memory statistics
4
Configure
4
Exit
Use Imperial Units4
Set Data Directory
Set Default COM Port
Sort Well Ids
Separate Time/Date Fields
Store CSV with or without Titles
:OFF/ON
:OFF/ON
:OFF/ON
:OFF/ON
2. Set Default COM Port by highlighting the option and pressingenter. This is one of the most
important options because it tells the GEM-500 software which computer communications port
will be used when trading data with the GEM-500. Enter 1 for COM1 and 2 for COM2. To verify
the communication port setting, select Set Default COM Port again and view current setting, press
ESC to exit.
FIGURE 7.6
Set RS-232 port
Press: 1) COM1
2) COM2
Current:
COM1
NOTE: If this is the initial setting of the COM port, once it is set correctly and verified, press
the ESCAPE KEY to save the setting and return to the Main Menu. Use the ê to
highlight the Exit option and press Enter. Re-access the GEM COMM software. This
time at the Com Link screen (Figure 7.2) when the 4 KEY, Download Data, is pressed,
the C should appear.
3. Use Imperial Units. The GEM-500 was set with either USA Standard (Imperial) or Metric units
under General Utilities – USA/Metric Units (page 30). The software needs to match this setting in
order to store the well data properly. Pressing Enter at this option acts as a toggle switch, turning
the use of Imperial units on or off.
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Page 58
4. Set Data Directory. This is the directory where the ID and comment files are located. Press Enter
to access the option. The current data directory appears. In the example below, files are saved in
the Desktop file on the C drive (hard disk). Change this path if necessary.
Set Data Directory
FIGURE 7.7
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP
5. Sort Well ID. This function sorts the well IDs into alphabetic order after being received from the
GEM-500. Pressing Enter at this option acts as a toggle switch, turning the sort function on or
off. IDs remain in the same order as input with this option turned OFF. The default for this
function is OFF.
6. Separate Time/Date Fields. This function sets the file format to separate time and date into two
columns. Pressing Enter at this option acts as a toggle switch, turning the separate function on or
off. The default for this function is OFF.
7. Store CSV with or without Titles. This function sets the file format to include titles at the top of
the data columns. Pressing Enter at this option acts as a toggle switch, turning the addition of titles
on and off. The default for this function is OFF.
8. Press the ESCAPE KEY to return to the main menu.
User Defined Comments
The Custom Comments menu presents options that allow the user to create, edit, send, receive, save,
and load eight user defined comments that can be saved with the well data. (Chapter 5 – Read Gas
Levels, Page 42, Step 10, Figures 5.14 and 5.15 and Page 51, Step 26, Figures 5.45 and 5.46)
Figure 7.8
Page 59
Well ID functions
4
User Defined Comments
4
GEM Data Functions
4
Clear functions
Create new comments4
Show GEMEdit
memory
statistics
4
comments
Configure Send comments to GEM
4
Exit
4
Receive comments from GEM
Save comments to disk
Load comments from disk
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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1. Create New Comments. The Comment screen displays places for eight (8) comments, numbered
one through eight. (Figure 7.9) Since space is so limited, it might be a good idea to use the
preprogrammed comments for a while to get a feel for the additional comments that might be
needed. To add a comment, position the cursor on the C of comment and type over the word
COMMENT1. (Figure 7.9) There are 16 spaces available for the entry of a new comment. In order
for the new comment to fit, words might need to be abbreviated. Use the ESCAPE KEY to back out
of the option without saving or changing anything and the F2 KEY to save the new comments.
Figure 7.9
PREPROGRAMMED COMMENTS
Flex Hose
Labeling
Valve
Air Leakage
Casing Height
Water Blockage
Well Bore Seal
Other
COMMENT1
COMMENT2
COMMENT3
COMMENT4
COMMENT5
COMMENT6
COMMENT7
COMMENT8
FIGURE 7.10
WELLHEAD BROKEN
COMMENT2
COMMENT3
COMMENT4
COMMENT5
COMMENT6
COMMENT7
COMMENT8
FIGURE 7.11
2. Edit Comments. Allows the user to add, change, or correct the custom comments that are already
stored in the system. Before the comments can be edited, they must be received by the GEM
COMM software from either the GEM-500 (See step 4 below) or from disk (See step 6 below). If
the custom comments have just been created using the Create New Comments option, they are
already in the GEM COMM software and do not need to be loaded again. Use the F2 KEY to store
the new comments or the ESCAPE KEY to back out of the option without saving or changing
anything.
3. Send comments to GEM. Once accessed, this option automatically sends the list of user-defined
comments to the GEM-500 for use while reading gas levels. When finished sending to the GEM500, the user is notified that the comments have transferred.
FIGURE 7.12
Send User Comments…
Comments transferred.
Press any key
4. Receive comments from GEM. This option allows the user to load the custom comments into the
GEM COMM software that are stored in the GEM-500. As in the Send Comments option (step 3,
above), this takes place automatically once the option is accessed. Use the F2 Key to store the
new comments or the ESCAPE KEY to back out of the option without saving or changing anything.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 60
5. Save comments to disk. This option allows the user to store the custom comments on either a
floppy disk or the hard drive. In the example below, documents are stored in the Desktop file on the
C drive (hard disk) in the computer.
FIGURE 7.13
DISK FILE
SELECTOR
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.GMC
Files:
\..
.
Selected:
\..
If the path is correct, enter a file name (eight character maximum) in which the custom
comments are to be stored. Numerous sets of comments can be stored in this manner.
Highlight \ . . The cursor displays in the Selected: window. Type the file name over the
contents of the window and press enter. Do not type the .GMC file extension, it is
automatically added by the program. The custom comments are stored in the newly named file
and the system returns to the main Comments menu.
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.14
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.GMC
Files:
\..
.
Selected:
COMMENT2
a) If the path is not correct, use the ESCAPE KEY to return to the Main menu (Figure 7.3).
Access the Set Data Directory option under Configure (Figure 7.7) and change the path.
When the path has been changed, return to the Receive comments from GEM option and
type in the file name for the custom comments.
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6. Load comments from disk. This option allows the user to load a set of custom comments from a
computer file into the GEM COMM software. When this option is accessed, all of the files with a
.GMC extension are displayed. Use the é or ê arrow to highlight the wanted file name (so that it
displays in the Selected: window) and press enter. The computer automatically loads the contents
of the selected file into the GEM-COMM software and returns to the main Comment menu.
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.15
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.GMC
Files:
AREA1.GMC
LOOP2.GMC
COMMENT1.GMC
COMMENT2.GMC
\..
.
Selected:
AREA1.GMC
Well ID Functions
This menu contains options that enable the user to create, edit, receive, send, save and load well IDs.
FIGURE 7.16
Well ID functions
4
User Defined Comments
4
GEM Data Functions
4
Clear functions Create new ID set4
Show GEM memory
Editstatistics
ID Information
4
Configure
Send IDs to GEM4
Exit
Receive IDs from GEM
Save IDs to disk
Loads IDs from disk
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 62
1. Create new ID set. This option allows the easy addition of multiple well IDs. The Code column
contains the 8-character, alpha/numeric well ID. The Flow Device column, when accessed,
displays a complete table of available flow devices. Use the é or ê arrow to highlight the
appropriate device and press enter. If Pitot Tube or User Input is chosen, the Pipe Inner Diameter
must be entered. If Orifice is chosen (Orifice Plate) both the Pipe Inner Diameter and Orifice
Diameter must be entered. These diameters are needed by the GEM-500 when calculating flow
rates. When finished entering, press the F2 KEY to store the new additions. Once the IDs are
entered, they should be saved to disk (See Step 5 below.)
FIGURE 7.17
Code
LNDF0001
LNDF0002
Flow Device
ACCUFLO-1.5V
ACCUFLO-1.5H
ACCUFLO1.5V
ACCUFLO-1.5
ACCUFLO-2V
ACCUFLO-2H
ACCUFLO-3V
ACCUFLO-3H
ORIFICE
PITOT TUBE
USER INPUT
Pipe I.D.(“) Orifice Dia.(“)
2. Edit ID Information. This option allows the editing of ID information. The IDs can be from the
GEM-500 or from a file saved to disk. Use the F9 KEY to delete, F10 KEY to insert, the F2 KEY
to store the changes, and the ESCAPE KEY to cancel.
3. Send IDs to GEM. Once accessed, this option automatically sends the list of IDs to the GEM500. When finished sending to the GEM-500, the user is notified that the comments have
transferred.
FIGURE 7.18
Page 63
Send User Comments…
Comments transferred.
Press any key
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
4. Receive IDs from GEM. This option allows the upload of IDs that are stored on the GEM-500.
Once the option is accessed, the well ID numbers are automatically loaded into the GEM COMM
software where they may be viewed, edited, or saved to disk.
Receive ID Information . . .
FIGURE 7.19
FIGURE 7.20
[ well ID #s received ]
Code
LNDF0001
LNDF0002
LNDF0003
LNDF0004
LNDF0005
LNDF0006
LNDF0007
LNDF0008
LNDF0009
Flow Device
ACCUFLO-1.5V
ACCUFLO-1.5H
ACCUFLO-2V
ACCUFLO-2H
ACCUFLO-3V
ACCUFLO-3H
ORIFICE
PITOT TUBE
USER INPUT
Pipe I.D.(“) Orifice Dia.(“)
2.00
.250
.250
.750
5. Save IDs to disk. This option allows the user to store the IDs on either a floppy disk or the hard
drive. In the example below, documents are stored in the Desktop file on the C drive (hard disk).
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.21
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.IDM
Files:
\..
.
Selected:
\..
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Page 64
a) If the path is correct, enter a file name (eight characters maximum) in which the IDs are to be
stored. Numerous sets of IDs can be stored in this manner. The cursor displays in the
Selected: window. Type the file name over the contents of the window and press enter. Do
not type the .IDM file extension, it is automatically added by the program. The IDs are stored in
the newly named file and the system returns to the main Comments menu.
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.22
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.IDM
Files:
\..
.
Selected:
AREA01
b) If the path is not correct, use the ESCAPE KEY to return to the Main menu (Figure 7.3). Access
the Set Data Directory option under Configure (Figure 7.7) and change the path. When the
path has been changed, return to the Receive comments from GEM option and type in the file
name for the custom comments.
6. Load IDs from disk. This option allows the user to move a selected set of IDs from the file where it
is stored into the GEM COMM software. When this option is accessed, all of the files with an .IDM
extension are displayed. Use the é or ê arrow to highlight the wanted file name (so that it displays
in the Selected: window) and press enter. The computer automatically loads the contents of the
selected file into the GEM COMM software and returns to the main ID menu.
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.23
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.IDM
Files:
Page 65
FILE
AREA01.IDM
LOOP22.IDM
ROUTE03.IDM
\..
.
Selected:
AREA01.IDM
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
GEM Data Functions
This Menu provides options to upload readings from the GEM-500 to the computer and download
readings from the computer to the GEM-500, view and filter the GEM-500 data, and save the GEM500 data to disk or load data from disk to the GEM-500.
1. From the Main Menu, highlight GEM Data functions and press enter.
FIGURE 7.24
Well ID functions
4
User Defined Comments
4
GEM Data Functions
4
Clear functions
4
Show GEM memory
statistics
4GEM
Receive readings from
Configure
Send readings to GEM
4
Exit
View GEM data
Filter GEM data
Save GEM data to disk
Load GEM data from disk
NOTE: There must be readings stored in the GEM -500 to proceed with the following steps.
Refer to Chapter 5 - Read Gas Levels if further information is needed.
2. Receive readings from GEM. The system does an automatic, temporary upload from the GEM500 to the GEM COMM software. The software must receive the readings in order for them to be
viewed or manipulated. While this is happening, the Receive Readings screen displays how many
readings, out of the total, the computer has received (i.e., 3 of 60, 4 of 60, etc.) until all of the
readings have been received. (Figure 7.25) If the readings need to be viewed again after leaving
the Receive readings from GEM option, use the View GEM data option.
FIGURE 7.25
Receive Readings
Receiving . . .
[ # ] of [ # ]
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 66
a)
Once the computer has received the readings, the View Data screen can be displayed for each
reading. Use the é or ê arrows to cycle through the data. Use the ESCAPE KEY to exit or
the F3 KEY to change the filter (See Step 4, below).
ID:
[Well ID]
CH4:
CO2:
O2:
Bal:
06.6 %
20.6 %
0 0.0 %
72.8 %
14:30
Static:
Diff’l:
Temp :
Gas Pod:
View Data
01/20/98
-00.2 “H2O
+0.190 “H2O
°F
[type fitted]
075
4 of 50
Ref Flow:
Adj Flow:
Ref Energy:
Adj Energy:
Pod Value :
0000
0000
0000
0000
Scf/m
Scf/m
BTU/hr
BUT/hr
>>>
Comments:
[comment or custom comment]
FIGURE 7.26
3. View GEM data. Allows the user the view the readings that were received from the GEM-500 in
the previous step. (Figure 7.20). A filter can be set so that specific data can be viewed. (See step
4, below.)
4. Filter GEM data. Allows the user to set parameters for viewing data. This option is used in
conjunction with the View GEM data option above. If data is needed from one specific well, enter
that well ID number into the Code field. If data is needed from a specific time forward, enter that
time in the Time field. If data is needed from a specific date forward, enter that date in the Date
field. Two or more of these fields can be used in combination.
Note: An * instruction is a wildcard and can be used in place of a specific number or letter.
Set Data Filter
FIGURE 7.27
Code
********
Page 67
Time
** **
Date
** ** **
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
5. Save GEM data to disk. This option allows the user to store the well data on either a floppy disk or
the hard drive. In the example below, documents are stored in the Desktop file on the C drive (hard
disk) in the computer. CSV = Comma Separated Value
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.28
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.CSV
Files:
\..
.
Selected:
\..
a) If the path is correct, enter a file name (eight character maximum) in which the well data is to
be stored. Numerous sets of data can be stored in this manner. The cursor displays in the
Selected: window. Type the file name over the contents of the window and press enter. Do
not type the .CSV file extension, it is automatically added by the program. The well data is
stored in the newly named file and the system returns to the main Data Functions menu.
DISK
SELECTOR
FIGURE 7.29
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.CSV
Files:
\..
.
Selected:
DATART02
b) If the path is not correct, use the ESCAPE KEY to return to the Main menu (Figure 7.x).
Access the Set Data Directory option under Configure (Figure 7.7) and change the path.
When the path has been changed, return to the Save GEM data to disk option and type in
the data file name.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
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Page 68
5. Load GEM data from disk. This option allows the user to load a data file from where it is stored in
the computer into GEM COMM software so that it can then be edited or sent to the GEM-500.
When this option is accessed, all of the files with the chosen path are displayed. Data files have a
.CSV extension, so be sure to only select one of those. Use the é or ê arrows to highlight the
wanted file name in the Files box (so that it displays in the Selected: window) and press enter.
(Figure 7.30) The computer automatically loads the contents of the selected file into the GEM
COMM software and returns to the main ID menu.
DISK
SELECTOR
FILE
Path
C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\*.CSV
FIGURE 7.30
Files:
DATART02.CSV
\..
Selected:
DATART02
6. Send readings to GEM. Once accessed, this option automatically sends the list of well data
readings to the GEM-500. When finished sending to the GEM-500, the user is notified that the
data has been sent. (Figure 7.31)
FIGURE 7.31
Send Readings . . .
Readings Sent . . .
Page 69
[ # ] of [ # ]
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Show GEM memory statistics
This option allows the user to view the Memory status of the GEM-500.
1. On the main menu, highlight Show GEM memory statistics and press enter.
FIGURE 7.32
Well ID functions
User Defined Comments
GEM Data Functions
Clear functions
Show GEM memory statistics
Configure
Exit
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2. The GEM Memory Status screen displays the amount of free memory available and the amount of
memory used by stored well Ids and readings. There are 699 blocks of memory available on the
GEM-500. Each block stores a well ID and the corresponding reading. If there are 50 wells in a
field, as in the example shown below, the GEM-500 should be able to store 13 readings of each
well (650) before the need to clear the memory. Once the Memory Status is viewed, press the
ESCAPE key to return to the Main Menu.
FIGURE 7.33
GEM Memory Status
Free Memory: 674
Ids: 50
Readings: 50
Version: GEM 3.17 – 21/01/98
Clear Functions
This Menu provides options to erase the IDs, readings, and user-defined comments in the GEM.
FIGURE 7.34
Well ID functions
4
User Defined Comments
4
GEM Data Functions
4
Clear functions
4
Show GEM memory statistics
4
Configure
Clear IDs in GEM 4
Exit
Clear readings in GEM
Clear user-defined comments in GEM
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 70
1. Clear IDs in GEM. This option erases the well IDs from the GEM-500. If the IDs to be cleared
have readings attached, the readings are also erased.
FIGURE 7.35
Clear GEM
F1 – Clear IDs; Esc - Cancel
WARNING: Pressing F1 will clear memory!
2. Clear readings in GEM. This option clears the readings from the GEM-500 and leaves the IDs in
place, able to accept new readings. Of the three clear options, this is the option most frequently
used. As the GEM-500 becomes full of readings, the readings are uploaded into the computer
and are then cleared from the GEM-500 to make room for more readings.
Clear GEM
FIGURE 7.36
F1 – Clear Readings; Esc - Cancel
WARNING: Pressing F1 will clear memory!
3. Clear user defined comments in GEM. This option erases all of the user defined comments from
the GEM-500. It does leave the preprogrammed options in place.
FIGURE 7.37
Clear GEM
F1 – Restore default comments
WARNING: Pressing F1 will clear memory!
Note: Do not clear IDs or Readings without making copies or archiving the
data to disk.
Page 71
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Chapter 8 - Maintenance
Servicing
The GEM-500™ has been electronically and functionally tested before leaving the factory.
It is
recommended that with normal usage, the unit should be serviced every six months for routine factory
service and maintenance which includes:
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Replace all Filters and O-rings.
Perform Bench Test with 10 Test Gases.
Minor Adjustments.
Check Overall Performance.
If needed, run through Environmental Chamber.
Check Charging Circuit and Battery Pack.
Check Inlet Port Fittings.
Calibrate Transducers.
Check the Pump.
Check the Flow Fail.
Perform Leak Test.
Cleaning
Protect the GEM-500 by keeping it in its protective soft case. The keypad (polycarbonate membrane)
should be wiped clean with soapy water and a damp cloth. Other cleaning agents may damage the
membrane.
Sunlight and Heat
The GEM-500 should not be left out in direct sunlight for long periods of time as this raises the
temperature inside the case and may cause damage to the components. The unit may not operate or
may operate erratically if it gets too hot or cold. The operating temperature range may be extended by
use of heat packs in extremely cold conditions or cold packs in extreme heat conditions, these packs
may be placed in the rear pouch of the soft case.
Dust Cap
Always keep the protective dust cap in place when the data port is not in use.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 72
Filters
The GEM-500 is equipped with two filters:
Water Trap Filter — This filter is external to the GEM-500™ and is located in-line in the sample hose.
Unscrewing the two halves of the filter holder gives easy access to the filter. This
filter should be routinely changed every one hundred hours of use or when water
is sucked through the filter. The filter should also be replaced when the sample
pump has difficulty drawing a sample of gas through it and into the unit. When
this happens, the GEM-500 sounds a continuous audible warning and a Flow
Fail message appears on the screen.
Particulate Filter — This filter is inside the GEM-500 and is located just inside the Static
Pressure/Sampling port. (Figure 1.1, Figure 5.1) This filter is accessed by
unscrewing the port (counter-clockwise) using the wrench provided.
Both filter holders are sealed with o-rings. Periodically inspect the o-rings to check their condition.
Replace the o-rings if they become nicked, cut, swollen, or otherwise damaged. The GEM-500™ unit
is shipped with a spare filter of each type. Only genuine CES-LANDTEC filters should be used and can
be purchased through the CES-LANDTEC Sales Department by dialing 1-800-LANDTEC or on our web
page at CES-LANDTEC.COM.
Travel and Storage
Travel –
The GEM-500™ is a delicate scientific instrument and should be stored in its optional
protective hard case when carrying it from site to site. This case affords maximum
protection for the unit and offers enough storage space to take along all of the required
accessories for the GEM-500™.
Storage –
If the unit is to be stored for a long period, the internal batteries should be charged prior
to storage. Recharge the unit every two weeks during storage.
When loading the GEM-500 into its protective hard case, place the unit with the
keyboard facing out and the CES-LANDTEC logo (upside down) closest to the handle on
the front of the case. This will assure that the unit is stored right-side up when the case is
closed and standing with its handle up in the carry position.
Page 73
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Battery Charging
The internal battery pack of the GEM-500™ is designed to be recharged many times, but as with all
nickel-cadmium cells, certain rules should be observed or the batteries might not provide their full
power or operating time. Please follow these instructions carefully.
WARNING! ONLY CHARGE A GEM-500™ WITH
CHARGER (PROVIDED WITH THE UNIT ).
A
LANDTEC BATTERY
1. Let the batteries almost fully discharge before recharging.
2. Do not top off an almost full battery charge because memory patterns can be established and the
battery may not provide its full capacity.
Note: If the GEM-500™ is repeatedly given small “top-off” charges, the battery capacity can be
reduced. To restore the battery to full capacity, totally discharge the unit and then charge it for a full
14 hour period.
When charging the batteries, let them charge at least 12 to14 hours. If using the optional CESLANDTEC Smart Charger, batteries can be completely recharged in approximately 3 hours.
3. Never let the batteries charge for more than three or four days.
4. Disconnect the charger from the GEM-500™ after the batteries have charged.
Note: Heat from the battery compartment makes the front of the GEM -500™ (under the GEM 500™ label) warm to the touch while the batteries are charging.
Battery Shut-Off
A circuit within the GEM-500™ continuously monitors the battery voltage. If the battery voltage falls
below a predetermined level, the unit automatically shuts itself off in order to prevent memory loss. If
the unit shuts itself off, it requires a full charge of 14 hours (approximately 3 hours with the CESLANDTEC Smart Charger) to restore the battery to its maximum level.
Battery Low Symbol
This Battery Symbol displays in the top right corner of the display screen. It displays as
the battery capacity reaches about 10% of full charge. There are only about 30-45
minutes of full pump power left in the GEM-500™ when the symbol is displayed.
+
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
Page 74
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Automatic Power-Off
The GEM-500™ has an automatic power-off timer to conserve battery power. If no key is pressed for
15 minutes, the unit automatically switches itself off (no stored readings are lost).
Emergency Battery Power
In emergencies, the GEM-500™ may be operated with 6 “C” sized alkaline batteries. To use alkaline
cells, remove the nickel-cadmium battery pack by using a Phillips screwdriver on the back battery
compartment of the GEM-500™. Insert the alkaline battery “C” cells in the correct direction.
WARNING! DO
NOT USE THE BATTERY CHARGER FOR STANDARD ALKALINE
BATTERIES AS THEY MAY EXPLODE.
WARNING!
Page 75
BE
SURE TO REPLACE BATTERIES IN
UNIT WILL BE DAMAGED.
CORRECT DIRECTION OR
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Chapter 9 - Troubleshooting
Problem
Corrective Action/Reason
Unit does not turn on or
operation is erratic
Battery charge is too low-recharge batteries.
Unit is too hot - cool down unit and try again.
Contact the factory.
“Flow Fail” is displayed
and an audible alarm is heard
The inlet is blocked - remove blockage and retry.
The particulate filter or water trap filter needs replacing
– see chapter 8 Maintenance.
Readings taken are not what
was expected
Unit may be cut out of calibration – calibrate unit with known gas
concentration.
Water trap filter or particulate filter are clogged – replace filter.
Unit displays***** or >>>>>
These symbols are substituted when the measured reading is out of
range of the instruments capabilities in some fields or when a value
needs to be entered manually such as temperature.
Oxygen reading is high on
all wells
Check that the water trap housing is screwed on tight. Check or replace
o-rings on the water trap and instrument inlet. Check the wellhead inset
for cracks, replace o-ring on insert. Field calibrate oxygen channel.
Unit will not download readings
or an error occurs while
downloading.
Verify that the communications software is the right version for the
instrument being used. Check that the proper serial port is
selected in the software (see chapter 7).
Contact the factory.
Methane and Carbon Dioxide
readings drift
Perform a field calibration and check well again. Verify cal gas is flowing
when regulator is turned on. Verify all connections are tight
and filters are not clogged. Contact the factory.
Oxygen readings drift
Perform a field calibration – zero and span (see chapter 3)
Contact the factory
Black screen displayed when
unit turned on
Charge unit over night and try again.
Unit too hot – cool down and try again.
Try adjusting contrast level (see chapter 2)
Contact factory
Nothing happens when the
Gas Pod is installed
Remove and re-seat the Gas Pod.
Contact the factory.
Temperature does not update
when temperature probe is
installed
Check the probe fitting is fully seated.
Check the probe plug is screwed together tightly.
Contact the factory.
.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 76
Chapter 10 Measurement Units &
Specifications
Measurement Units
Screen 1
Type
Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen
Balance
Displayed As
CH4%
CO2%
O2%
BAL
USA (Imperial)
% by volume
% by volume
% by volume
% by volume
Metric (SI)
% by volume
% by volume
% by volume
% by volume
Screen 2
Type
Methane
Lower Explosive Limit
Displayed As
CH4%
CH4% LEL
USA (Imperial)
% by volume
% of 5% CH4
Metric (SI)
% by volume
% of 5%CH4
Screen 3
Type
Static Pressure
Differential Pressure
Displayed As
SP”
DP”
USA (Imperial)
“w.c. (H2O)
“w.c. (H2O)
Metric (SI)
mb (millibar)
mb (millibar)
Temperature
Screen 4
Type
Ref (past) BTU
Ref (past) BTU
Ref (past) Gas Flow
Ref (past) Gas Flow
Adj. (present) BTU
Adj. (present) BTU
Adj. (present) Gas Flow
Adj. (present) Gas Flow
T °F/°C
Displayed As
BTU Ref
KJ Ref
scfm Ref
scfm Ref
BTU ADJ
KJ ADJ
scfm ADJ
scfm ADJ
°F (degrees Fahrenheit)
°C (degrees Celsius)
USA (Imperial)
per cubic foot
Metric (SI)
per cubic meter
std. cubic feet per min.
std. cubic meters per min.
per hr.
per hr.
std. cubic feet per min.
std. cubic meters per min.
Operating Temperature
10 to 104° F/-10 to 40° C
Page 77
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Range and Resolution
Sensor Range Imperial
0-100%
0-50%
0-25%
0-10 “w.c.
0-100 “w.c.
Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen
Pressure-Differential
Pressure-Static
Resolution Imperial
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.1
Typical Accuracy
Gas
Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen
0 - 5% Volume
0.3%
0.3%
0.5%
5% - 15% Volume
1.0%
1.0%
1.0%
15% - Full Scale
3.0%
3.0%
1.0%
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 78
Chapter 11 - Field Operations
Landfill Gas Generation
A brief overview of the theory of landfill gas generation and methane recovery follows. Initially, when
decomposable refuse is placed into a solid waste landfill, the refuse is entrained with air from the
surrounding atmosphere. Through a natural process of bacterial decomposition, the oxygen from the
air is consumed and an anaerobic (oxygen free) environment is created within the landfill. This
anaerobic environment is one of several conditions necessary for the formation of methane-CH4.
If oxygen is reintroduced into the landfill, those areas are returned to an aerobic (oxygen present) state
and the methane producing bacteria population are destroyed. A period of time must pass before the
productive capacity is returned to normal. Since there is some methane of a given quality within the
landfill void space, a decline in methane quality is only gradually apparent depending upon the size of
the landfill.
Carbon Dioxide is also produced under either an aerobic or anaerobic condition. Under static
conditions, the landfill gas will be composed of roughly half methane and half Carbon Dioxide with a
little nitrogen.
As air is introduced into the landfill, the oxygen is initially converted to Carbon Dioxide and residual
nitrogen remains. Measurement of residual nitrogen is usually a good indicator of the anaerobic state
of the landfill; however, it cannot be directly measured. It can, however, be assumed and estimated
using a subtraction basis as the balance gas. Hence, the measurement of Carbon Dioxide is an
intermediary step. Because Carbon Dioxide levels may fluctuate depending on the changing
concentrations of the other constituent gases, Carbon Dioxide levels are not evaluated directly but are
considered in light of other data.
In evaluation of residual nitrogen, allowances must be made if there has been any air leakage into the
gas collection system or if there has been serious over pull. If enough air is drawn into the landfill, not
all oxygen is converted into Carbon Dioxide and the oxygen is apparent in the sample. It is ideal to
perform routine analysis of individual wells, as well as an overall well field composite sample, by a gas
chromatography. This is not always practical at every landfill.
Under some conditions there may be a small amount of hydrogen in the LFG, (about 1 percent, usually
much less). This may affect field monitoring response factors, but otherwise it can be ignored.
Subsurface Fires
If very large quantities of air are introduced into the landfill, either through natural occurrence or overly
aggressive operation of the LFG system, a partly unsupported subsurface combustion of the buried
refuse may be initiated. Subsurface fire situations are difficult to control or extinguish once started,
present health and safety hazards, and can be quite costly. Therefore, prevention by good operation of
the collection system and maintenance of the landfill cover, is the best course of action. The presence
of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrogen Sulfide are indicators of poorly supported
combustion within the landfill.
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GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Techniques for Controlling Landfill Gas
There are many techniques for controlling landfill gas extraction. These techniques represent tools
which are used together to control landfill gas. The Accu-FloTM wellhead is designed to work with all of
these techniques. Below is a discussion of the individual techniques, how to use them, and their
limitations. Reliance on only a few of the techniques discussed can lead to misinterpretation of field
data and improper operation of the well field. Later the best use of these techniques to optimize landfill
gas control will be discussed.
Controlling by Wellhead Valve Position
Unless the valve handle is calibrated for a given flow rate, this method is unreliable. The position of the
valve handle alone does not provide sufficient information about the well to control it. It is useful to note
the relative position of the valve, and essential to know which valves are fully open or fully closed.
Controlling by Wellhead Vacuum
This technique relies on the relationship of well pressure/vacuum to flow for a given well. Reliance
upon this method, however, can be misleading. This is because the square root relationship between
flow and pressure is difficult to affect while performing day-to-day well field adjustments. As
decomposition, moisture, and other conditions change, this method shows itself to be inadequate and
imprecise.
Controlling by Gas Composition
This method determines methane, nitrogen (balance gas) and other gas composition parameters at
wellheads and at recovery facilities using portable field instruments and, sometimes, analytical
laboratory equipment. Complete knowledge of gas composition (i.e., major fixed gases: Methane,
Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen and Nitrogen) is desirable. It is also necessary to check other gas
parameters, such as Carbon Monoxide, to fully evaluate the condition of the well field. Reliance on this
information can lead to improper operation of the well field. Indications of excessive extraction often do
not show up right away. This method often leads to a cycle of damage to the methane producing
bacteria population and then to over-correction. This cycling of the well and producing area of the
landfill is not a good practice. It leads to further misinterpretation of the condition of the well field and
has a disruptive effect on the operation of the well field. The use of analytical laboratory
instrumentation such as a gas chromatograph is a valuable supplementary tool to verify gas
composition. This normally requires collection of samples at the wellhead and analysis at some fixed
location where the equipment is located. The drawbacks of this method as a primary means of
obtaining information for well field adjustment are the time expended, cost, and probably most
important, responsiveness to the needs of the well field for timely adjustment. The laboratory
equipment required is also very costly. Some analysis is recommended for verification of field readings
from time to time. It is recommended a monthly sample of the composite gas be taken at the inlet to
the flare or gas recovery facility.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 80
Controlling by Flow Rate
This is a more exacting technique for determining and adjusting gas flow at individual wells. It requires
using a fixed or portable flow measurement device at each wellhead to obtain the data needed to
calculate volumetric (or mass) flow rates. It is normally convenient to use cubic feet per minute or per
day, as a standard unit of measure for volumetric flow. It is important to distinguish between the
volumetric quantity of landfill gas and the volumetric quantity of methane extracted from each well and
the landfill in total. The two variables are somewhat independent of each other and it is the total
quantity of methane extracted we are interested in. It is possible for the total quantity of landfill gas
extracted to increase while the total quantity of methane extracted decreases. To monitor this, the
quantity of methane extracted (LFG flow x percent methane) or the quantity of BTUs recovered per
hour (LFG flow x percent methane x BTUs per cubic foot of methane x 60 minutes per hour) can be
calculated. It is conventional to measure BTUs per hour as a unit of time. There are approximately
1012 BTUs of heat per cubic foot of pure methane (like natural gas), although this figure varies a little
among reference texts.
Measuring flow is an essential part of monitoring and adjusting a well field. The well should be adjusted
until the amount of methane recovered is maximized for the long term. A greater amount of methane or
energy can usually be recovered over the short term; however, this ultimately leads to diminishing
returns. This is seen in stages as increased CO2 and gas temperature and later as increased oxygen
from well over-pull. In time, the methane will also decline. This is the result of a portion of the landfill,
usually at the surface, being driven aerobic. In this portion of the landfill, the methane producing
bacteria will have been destroyed (due to the presence of oxygen). With the methane-producing
capacity of the landfill reduced, the pore space in the area no longer producing may become filled with
landfill gas equilibrating (moving in) from an unaffected producing area. This leaves the impression that
more gas can be recovered from this area, and may lead to the operator opening the well or increasing
flow.
Well field Monitoring
The frequency of LFG well field monitoring varies depending upon field requirements and conditions.
Normal monitoring frequency for a complete field monitoring session with full field readings (suggested
normal and abbreviated field readings list follows) will vary from typically once a month to once a week.
Well field monitoring should not normally be extended beyond one month. The importance of regular,
timely monitoring can not be overemphasized.
Typical Field Readings
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Name of person taking readings
Date/time of each reading
Methane (CH4)
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Balance Gas (primarily nitrogen N2)
Wellhead gas temperature (flowing)
Ambient air temperature
Static pressure (PS) (from GEM-500™ or magnehelic) or other device (anemometer/velometer)
Velocity head (P or PT) (from GEM-500™ or pitot tube and magnehelic)
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GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Ø
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Wellhead gas flow (from GEM-500™, or pitot tube & magnehelic, or anemometer/velometer)
Wellhead adjustment valve position (initial and adjusted)
New wellhead vacuum and flow information after adjustment
Calculation of each well’s LFG and methane flow and sum total
Observations/comments
Additionally, Carbon Monoxide (CO) or Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) readings may be taken if problems are
suspected. Supplementary monitoring once to several times a week may be performed using an
abbreviated form of field readings.
Abbreviated Field Readings
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Name of person taking readings
Date/time of each reading
Methane (CH4)
Oxygen (O2)
Wellhead gas temperature (flowing)
Ambient air temperature
Static pressure (PS) (from GEM-500™, GA-90 or magnehelic)
Velocity head (P or Pt) (from GEM-500™ or pitot tube and magnehelic)
Wellhead gas flow (from GEM-500™, or pitot tube and magnehelic, or anemometer/velometer)
Wellhead adjustment valve position (initial and adjusted)
New wellhead vacuum and flow information after adjustment
Observations/comments
Line vacuums and gas quality may be taken at key points along the main gas collection header and at
subordinate branches. This helps to identify locations of poor performance, excessive pressure drop,
or leakage. Perform systematic monitoring of the well field, taking and logging measurements at each
wellhead and major branch junction in the collection system.
During monitoring, examine landfill and gas collection system for maintenance issues. Record needed
maintenance or unusual conditions. Examples of unusual occurrences or conditions are unusual
settlement, signs of subsurface fires, cracks and fissures, liquid ponding, condensate/leachate weeping
from side slopes, surface emissions and hot spots, and liquid surging and blockage in the gas collection
system. Field readings should be kept in a chronological log and submitted to management on a timely
basis.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 82
Well field Adjustment Criteria
There are several criteria used in well field adjustment. The primary criterion is methane quality.
Methane quality is an indicator of the healthy anaerobic state of the landfill and thus proper operation of
the LFG collection system. However, a decline in the healthy productive state of the landfill is usually
not immediately apparent from methane quality. Due to this several criteria must be considered at
once.
Following are well field adjustment criteria for consideration.
Ø Methane quality (ranging from 26 percent upwards)
Ø The degree to which conditions within the landfill favor methane production. Typical conditions
include:
§ pH
§ temperature
§ general overall quality
§ moisture conditions
§ waste stream characteristics
§ placement chronology
§ Insulation characteristics
Ø Oxygen quality (ranging below 1 percent, preferably less then ½ percent)
Ø Landfill cover porosity and depth in the proximity of the well
Ø Landfill construction factors including:
§ type of fill
§ size and shape of refuse mass
§ depth of fill
§ compaction
§ leachate control methods
Ø Seasonal, climatic, geographical, and recent weather, or other considerations, including seasonally
arid or wet conditions, precipitation, drainage, groundwater
Ø Surrounding topography and geologic conditions
Ø Proximity of the well to side slopes (within 150 to 200 feet and less may require conservative
operation of the well)
Ø Nitrogen (typically 8 to 12 percent and less)
Ø Temperature (between ambient and about 130 °F)
Ø LFG and methane flow from the wellhead
Ø Design of the gas collection system
Ø Landfill perimeter gas migration and surface emission control, or energy recovery objectives
Ø Diurnal fluctuation (day to night) of atmospheric pressure
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GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Establishing Target Flows
For a given individual well, a target flow is established which will likely support maintenance of methane
and oxygen quality objectives while maximizing the recovery of landfill gas. Typically, small
adjustments are made in flow to achieve and maintain quality objectives. The well must not be allowed
to over pull. High well temperatures, (130° to 140° F and greater), are an indication of aerobic activity
and, thus, well over-pull. These effects may not be immediately apparent.
Well adjustment should be made in as small an increment as possible, preferably an increment of ten
percent of the existing flow or less. There may be obvious conditions when this is not appropriate, such
as when first opening up a well or when serious over-pull is recognized. Every effort should be made to
make adjustments and operations as smooth as possible. Dramatic adjustments, or operating while
switching between a high flow mode and a well shutoff mode, should be avoided.
Well field Optimization
Every effort should be made to continuously locate and correct or eliminate conditions (e.g., gas
condensate, surging and blockage, settlement, etc.) which inhibit efficient operation of the gas
collection system. This allows well monitoring and adjustment to be significantly more effective.
Migration Control—Dealing with Poor Methane Quality
If methane and oxygen quality objectives cannot be maintained at a given well, such as a perimeter
migration control well, then an attempt should be made to stabilize the well as closely as is practical,
avoiding significant or rapid down-trending of methane or up-trending of oxygen.
It is not uncommon for perimeter migration control wells to be operated at less than 40 percent
methane or greater than one-percent oxygen. It should be recognized that these wells are likely in a
zone where some aerobic action is being induced, and that there is some risk of introducing or
enhancing the spread of a subsurface fire. Sometimes a judicious compromise is necessary to achieve
critical migration control objectives or because existing conditions do not allow otherwise. Such
situations should be monitored closely.
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
Page 84
Well field Adjustment—Purpose and Objectives
The objective of well field adjustment is to achieve a steady state of operation of the gas collection
system by stabilizing the rate and quality of extracted LFG in order to achieve one or several goals.
Typical reasons for recovery of LFG and close control of the well field are:
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Achieve and maintain effective subsurface gas migration control.
Achieve and maintain effective surface gas emissions control.
Assist with proper operation of control and recovery equipment.
Avoidance of well over pull and maintenance of a healthy anaerobic state within the landfill.
Optimize LFG recovery for energy recovery purposes.
Control nuisance landfill gases odors.
Prevent or control subsurface LFG fires.
Protect structures on and near the landfill.
Meet environmental and regulatory compliance requirements.
Well field adjustment is partly subjective and can be confusing because it involves judgment calls
based on simultaneous evaluation of several variables, as well a general knowledge of site specific field
conditions and historical trends. Well field evaluation and adjustment consist of a collection of
techniques, which may be used, in combination, to achieve a steady state of well field operation.
CES-LANDTEC Technical Tips
Landfill Control Technologies regularly produces technical landfill related information and educational
material. Please call CES-LANDTEC at (800) LANDTEC, to receive the current series of these
Technical Tips.
Page 85
GEM-500™ Operation Manual, Version 3.32
© 1998 CES-LANDTEC, U.S.A. (800) 526-3832 or (800) LANDTEC. GEM-500™ is a product trademark
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