hoi3 manual
System Requirements
Historical Context
D1.0 Faction
D3.0 Threat (Belligerence) & Neutrality
D4.0 Diplomatic Relations
D5.0 Alignment Drift D6.0 Diplomatic Actions
D7.0 Alliances
D8.0 Trade Agreements
D9.0 Expeditionary Forces
E1.0 Technology Concept in HOI 3
E2.0 Theory vs. Practical
E3.0 Decay of Knowledge
E4.0 Research
E5.0 Technology Upgrades E6.0 Licensing Technology
E7.0 Technology Espionage
F1.0 Governments
F2.0 Internal Politics
F3.0 Events, Decisions and Laws
F4.0 Mobilization
F5.0 National Unity
F6.0 Governments in Exile
F7.0 Occupation Governments & Policies
F8.0 Liberating Countries F9.0 Puppet States
F10.0 Partisans & Rebels
F11.0 War Exhaustion
F12.0 Surrender, Peace & Annexation
G1.0 Intelligence & Espionage Concepts
G2.0 Detection Levels
G3.0 Display of Detected Units
A 1.0 Startup Options & Startup Screen
A2.0 Main Screen Interface
A3.0 Main Map
A4.0 Mapmodes
A5.0 Interfaces
How the HOI 3 World Works
A6.0 Terrain
A7.0 Weather
A8.0 Time of Day
A9.0 Resources
B1.0 Industrial Capacity (IC)
B2.0 Demand for Resources
B3.0 Resources & Trade
B4.0 Debt
B5.0 Special Comintern Rule
B6.0 Oil & Fuel
B7.0 Money
B8.0 Consumer Goods
B9.0 War Exhaustion (WE)
B10.0 Mobilization
C1.0 Manpower
C2.0 Unit Production Interfaces
C3.0 Carrier Air Groups (CAGs)
C4.0 Reserve Divisions
C5.0 Placing Produced Units
H1.0 Infrastructure
H2.0 Throughput
H3.0 Logistics Technology
H4.0 Supply & Supply Lines
H5.0 Out of Supply
H6.0 Supply Mapmode
H7.0 Oil & Fuel
H8.0 Convoys
H9.0 Fleet Supply
H10.0 Airdrop of Supply
H11.0 Logistics Technology
H12.0 Strategic Redeployment
J1.0 Unit Interfaces
J2.0 Movement
J3.0 Manpower
J4.0 Unit Organisation
J5.0 Land Units
J6.0 Air Units
J7.0 Naval Units
K1.0 Management Concepts
K2.0 Headquarters (HQs) & Command Structure
K3.0 Leadership Concepts
K4.0 Theatres & HQ Command
K5.0 Doctrines
K6.0 Bases
K7.0 Repair Rate
L1.0 Movement Is Attack
L2.0 Combat Fronts & Main Line
L3.0 Combat Statistics & Values
L4.0 Combat Resolution
L5.0 Modifiers to Combat Efficiency
L6.0 Post-Combat Considerations
L7.0 Tactical Air and Close Air Support (CAS)
L8.0 Amphibious Landings
M1.0 Air Orders Interface
M2.0 Detection & Air Defence
M3.0 Combat Statistics & Values
M4.0 Air Combat Resolution
M5.0 Modifiers to Efficiency
M6.0 Tactical & Close Support
M7.0 Paradrop Landings
N1.0 Naval Orders Interface
N2.0 Search, Spotting & Detection
N3.0 Ship-to-Ship Combat
N4.0 Modifiers to Combat Efficiency
N5.0 Submarines
N6.0 Convoy/Escort Reserves & Deployment
P1.0 Strategic Warfare Score
P2.0 Rockets
P3.0 Atomic Weapons (Nukes)
R1.0 Starting a Multiplayer Game
R2.0 Multiplayer Start Interface
R3.0 Multiplayer Lobby
R4.0 The Metaserver
R5.0 Multiplayer Gameplay
Customer support
License agreement
System Requirements
To play Hearts of Iron III you will need to meet the following minimum requirements:
• Operating System: Microsoft® Windows® XP / Vista
• Processor: Intel® Pentium® IV 2.4 GHz or AMD 3500+ (single core)
• Memory: 1 GB RAM (2 GB RAM on Vista)
• Hard Disk Space: 2 GB Available HDD Space
• Video Card: NVIDIA® GeForce™ 6800 or ATI™ Radeon® X850XT and above Video Card
• Sound Card: DirectX-compatible Sound Card
• DirectX® Version: DirectX® Version 9.0c (4.09.0000.0904)
Installation Procedure
Place the Hearts of Iron III CD in your CD-ROM drive. If you have AutoPlay enabled on this drive the installation screen will
appear automatically. If the AutoPlay doesn’t start – or is disabled for this drive – then click Start>Run and then type
X:\Setup.exe to launch the installation program (replace “X” with the drive designation for the CD-ROM in which you placed
the Hearts of Iron III CD – usually D or E on most systems). Simply follow the on-screen prompts to install the game.
Keeping Up To Date
Paradox is deeply committed to its customers and in my experience their product support is almost unparalleled in the gaming
industry. The developers read (and frequently participate in) the discussions on the public forums and will often implement
some of the best player-requested features or enhancements post release. They also make minor tweaks or alterations to
existing features and squish the occasional bug that had previously escaped detection. You can go directly to the downloads
page at www.paradoxplaza.com/downloads under the HoI3 heading or visit the thriving community at forum.paradoxplaza.com under the same heading.
Historical Context
The odor of war was in the air throughout Europe and East
Asia in the mid-1930s.
Never had the world as a whole been so agitated and
anxious. Everyone feared a resurgence of war, yet most
refused to think about the possibility. But denial would
not make it go away. Strife increased through the 1920s
and 1930s, so that by 1936 war already raged on two continents and threatened elsewhere. An uneasy and faltering
peace threatened to collapse in Europe. Even the so-called
“Pacific” Ocean roiled with suppressed tension.
The Russians had withdrawn from the Great War in 1917
while in the throes of two revolutions, stomping all vestiges
of one of Europe’s legendary absolute monarchies into the
frozen mud of the steppes. Since then, the Russian people
had suffered a short but bitter counter-revolutionary war at
the hands of western powers, and emerged as the Soviet
Union, which felt isolated and fearful of foreigners. Then
came the disruptions of industrialization and the madness
of Stalinist totalitarianism, making the Russians even more
afraid of each other.
Massive China was a cauldron of competing warlords
who fought with each other for supremacy when they were
not fighting the insurgent communists or the intruding
Japanese. Japan had decided her future lay in the conquest
of China, but she had taken on more than she could handle.
The United States would not countenance the bloodbath in
China, and so cut off Japan from badly needed oil and steel
exports. In the minds of many of her leaders, Japan’s only
“escape route” from the China quagmire would be yet more
war, to capture other lands for the rubber and oil resources
she desperately needed.
But Japan had fallen into turmoil of its own, with political
factions – aligned toward liberal democracy, communism,
fascism, and even Navy versus Army cliques – vying for
power. Assassination had become a political tool, and the
military was on the verge of using a constitutional loophole
to seize de facto control of the government.
And then there was Europe…
Socialism was nothing new to the countries of Europe.
But the Bolshevik revolution in Russia had given Marxism
and Leninism a spark of life worldwide, and ironically
contributed to a resurgence of socialism as a moderate
alternative to “extremist” communism. In the early 1920s,
Benito Mussolini had introduced a nationalistic form of
populist socialism into Italy, calling it “fascism” in honor of
the glories of ancient Rome. Into this tinderbox was tossed
the economic crisis of the late ‘20s. The onset of the worldwide Great Depression enflamed and empowered each of
these non-traditional ideologies, which stood against the
conservative monarchies and liberal democracies across
the continent.
Fascism of one shade or another took hold in Portugal,
Spain, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and elsewhere.
Even the more liberal governments began adopting authoritarian tendencies to combat rising socialist and communist
movements in their countries. But it was in Germany where
fascism fused with ardent racism to form the nationalistsocialist Nazi party of Adolf Hitler, whose gains in the
Weimar Republic elections emboldened him to demand
appointment as Chancellor by President Hindenburg. The
emergency powers previously employed by Depression-era
governments to stabilize the foundering German economy
were just what Hitler needed to seize total control over the
German Reichstag and impose a dictatorship.
As members of the British Commonwealth, Australia
and New Zealand also felt the coming of war. They remained
resentful over their stinging losses in the Great War of 19141918, but this looming conflict was more personal, brewing
closer to their shores.
In similar manner, colonial lands throughout South Asia,
the Middle East, and Africa also sensed a rise in tension.
Virtually every scrap of land in those regions was subject
to the dominance of a European power. Persia and Ethiopia
were key standouts. The independence of Ethiopia tempted
Mussolini into the first of several ventures of imperialist aggrandizement, but his armies were stunned when they failed
to win the rapid victory they expected.
Only North and South America remained havens of
self-absorptive ignorance. Busy with their own economic
troubles, they enforced a distrustful disregard for anything
beyond their shores. Most Americans in the United States
were convinced they had pulled the Europeans’ chestnuts
out of the fire in 1917-18, and had then been rudely slapped
with loan defaults which worsened their experience of the
Great Depression. As such, they swore it would be a frigid
day in Hell before they again involved themselves in a
European war.
It is into this turbid environment that you are placed. You
have the opportunity to craft a better world through artful
diplomacy or violent initiative. One way or another, you are
likely to end up at war despite your best efforts, and so you
would be wise to steady yourself and prepare – a clash between “Hearts of Iron” awaits!
“The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon
be turned upon us. Hitler knows he will have to break
us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to
him, all of Europe may be free and the life of the world
may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we
fail, then the whole world, including the United States,
including all that we have known and cared for will sink
into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister,
and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted
science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties,
and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its
Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still
say, ‘This was their finest hour.’”
– Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister 1939-45
(spoken June 18, 1940, just after the collapse of France)
This is a World War II game designed by enthusiasts of World
War II history. Every effort at maximizing both realism and
playability has been made, and an excellent balance has
been found.
The enormous number of provinces allow more tactical
movement of units in battle, which combines with an hourly
turn format to allow detailed strategies of maneuver to
form, with evening respites from air attacks and dawn assaults by the enemy from more than one direction at once.
It is the first strategy game of its type with a realistic supply
system, which individually accounts for units of supply or
fuel on its way to the units at the front, allowing interdiction
of supply by the enemy, or interruption because of bottlenecks on muddy roads. The weather system is a complex
simulation just by itself, and the impact of weather is realized on the battlefield. An intricate system of research and
development for new weapons will make a difference over
time. There is much here for those who seek historical detail
and accuracy.
At the same time, no game has ever implemented this
degree of flexibility for players who might otherwise be overwhelmed by the detail. The system of Theatre Commanders
and Headquarters networks allow any player to set most or
all of his war on “autopilot” while he or she concentrates
on whatever elements they so desire. You have all the
complex instruments of war at your fingertips if you want
them, and you have the freedom to defer most or all of the
minor decisions to artificial ministers or generals so you can
enjoy the broad overview of the game, or learn how to play
it gradually.
About the Manual
I am going to use a special numbering system in this
Manual as a way of 1) navigating a relatively complicated
set of rules, and 2) indexing subjects that apply to different rule categories so you know where to look without
having to know page numbers (which is difficult to predict
before pages are laid out). Each major subject or concept
will have a designated letter (the letters “I” and “O” are
not used, to avoid confusion with numerals). After that will
be two sets of numbers, separated by a period or decimal.
The first number, before the decimal, is the topic number,
and the number after the decimal is the subtopic number.
So G13.21 would be the 21st subtopic for the 13th topic
under subject section G. This makes creating a Table of
Contents or Index ten times easier, because you’ll always
be able to find rule H2.3, no matter what page it ends on.
Apologies to Star Fleet Battles veterans – this is not the
SFB system, though it is similar.
Generally, when I write a term which involves rules
(i.e. it has its own rules section) I will capitalize that word
to signify as much. This is not always true – for instance,
I do not always capitalize “province” unless I’m referring
to a “Province Interface,” or something similar. When you
see capitalized terms, you can usually find those terms in
the Index.
Please note that this Manual will not often give specific
figures for modifiers or other values in the game because
many of these values may change in future game patches.
The Manual is an attempt to explain the game mechanics
and how the system works. Players seeking specifics such
as exact values for a particular patch should consult the
Paradox Forum at http://forum.paradoxplaza.com.
The Forum is also where you can find not just “patch”
update downloads to bring your game up to the latest version, but also fellow gamers to talk with about any questions about anything related to this or any other of Paradox
Interactive’s many historical strategy games. Also, keep in
mind many gaming writers meet on the Paradox Forum to
write “After Action Reports” (AARs), which tell the story of
their games in a variety of ways, from fictionalized alternate
histories, to straight explanations of gameplay, to dramatic
“fan-fiction” stories. The unique thing about Paradox games
is that each game is quite different from any others are likely
to have played, and so there’s always a new and interesting
story to tell.
Although it’s highly recommended you come back soon
to read the rest of the Manual, some players would prefer
to jump right into the action. Due to space limitations, the
Quick Start lesson has been moved to a downloadable PDF
document which can be found at the Paradox Forum (http://
forum.paradoxplaza.com). The Index for the Manual can be
found in the same document. It’s recommended you look
there for a brief tutorial. The Quickstart section “shows you
the tools without telling you the rules,” which some players may prefer. This is a complicated game, and it’s likely
that new players will find these instructions necessary. The
In-Game Tutorials are also useful for getting into the action
A 1.0 Startup Options
& Startup Screen
Once you’ve clicked the icon to start Hearts of Iron III, you
will see a series of famous World War II scenes as the game
loads. Keep in mind that HOI 3 is a tremendously involved
game, and the game files used to run it are immense. It will
take a while for these files to load for the first time. You will
know the launch is progressing because every minute or so
a new graphic will come up, and the hourglass cursor will be
turning. This process will happen every time you load the
game from the desktop, unless you’ve played since your last
reboot, which may result in a faster startup.
Once you load the game, you will be faced with an introductory graphic and a start menu with various selections. In
the lower-left corner of the screen, you will see the game’s
version number, and a “checksum” (a unique four-letter
code which indicates the specific setup and patch status
of your game). You can use this checksum to verify that
you have correctly installed the game. It’s also important
for Multiplayer games, as each player must have the same
checksum code in order to play against each other. If you
modify any of your game files (i.e. “modding”), it may
change your checksum. This prevents incompatibilities
between players, not to mention cheating. The files you
might be expected to modify (Message Settings, etc.) won’t
change the checksum.
You will have several options when your game fully loads:
• Single Player – Begin a single-player game, playing
against computer opponents as the leader of one of
many governments. This is also where saved games
are reloaded.
• Multiplayer – Begin or host a multiplayer game against
human opponents. You can either play against friends,
or you can find opponents on the Metaserver (described
in more detail in the Multiplayer Section).
• Tutorial – Launch a series of “training” scenarios, which
will explain in brief the basics of how to play the game.
• Options – Make changes to the various settings in the
game (see: Game Options).
• Credits – See the many people who created this game.
• Quick Start (on the lower right) – Begin a preselected
game scenario.
A 1.1 Game Options
Click the “Options” button on the Main Game Menu to
change any of the game’s default settings. Each button at
the top of the interface allows you to adjust a type of option: gameplay, video, audio, or controls. After making
your changes, click the “Apply” button at the bottom of
the menu to save and return to the Main Game Menu. The
“Back” button will cancel your changes and return you to
the Main Game Menu. Many of these settings, with the exception of Video and Difficulty, can also be changed during
play by selecting the “Options” button from the Main Menu
Options Interface.
Game Settings – General settings
• Difficulty changes the overall difficulty of gameplay to
make it more or less challenging than normal. Difficulty
can only be changed before a game.
• Auto-Save Frequency allows you to set the game to automatically save the game every month, every six months,
every year, every five years, or not at all. When you see
the list of saved games, you will also see an “Autosave”
and an “Old Autosave,” the two most recent automatic
saved games. This can prevent the accidental loss of a
game. You can always save manually as well.
Video Settings – These can only be changed at the beginning of a game.
• Resolution allows you to choose the screen resolution
that works best for you. The default is determined by
your current desktop resolution.
• Refresh Rate adjusts the screen refresh rate from the
default value. WARNING: An incorrect setting can cause
damage to your monitor. Please refer to the manual for
your monitor before changing the default screen refresh
• Multisample Level sets the level of multisampling (also
referred to as anti-aliasing) used to display graphics in
the game. Higher levels will produce a more pleasing
visual image, but will also cause a slight reduction in
game performance.
• Gamma adjusts the overall contrast level of the game’s
graphics. For most systems, the middle position should
provide excellent crispness and contrast. Shifting the
slider to the left will reduce contrast, and shifting it to
the right will increase contrast.
• Trees (on/off) allows you to turn the in-game trees off to
avoid overtaxing a system that is close to the minimum
game specifications.
Audio Settings – The game has a full soundtrack of music
as well as numerous sound effects, many of which help you
play the game by informing you as to what’s happening.
• Master volume adjusts the overall volume of the game’s
sound. It will not affect your computer’s master volume.
• Effects adjusts the volume of special sound effects
played in the game.
• Music adjusts the volume of the beautiful musical soundtrack which has been specially composed for this game.
• Ambient adjusts the volume of various ambient effects,
such as the sounds of battle.
Controls Settings – Basic controls that help you to see
the map.
• Scroll speed adjusts the speed at which the game’s Main
Map will move when scrolling from one end of the map
to the other. This can keep your screen movement from
being too jerky.
• Zoom speed adjusts the rate at which your mouse’s scroll
wheel will zoom toward or away from the Main Map.
Windowed Mode – This setting is not in the game menus,
but it is possible to change to Windowed Mode by manually editing (using Windows Notepad) the settings.txt file:
change the line “windowed = no” to “windowed = yes” and
save. Please note that Windowed Mode is not officially sup-
ported, and may cause performance loss, visual issues, or
crashes on some systems.
A 1.2 Tutorials
Click the “Tutorials” button in the Main Game Menu to access Hearts of Iron III’s series of on-screen tutorials. These
are designed to quickly introduce you to the basics of play.
Each tutorial focuses on a different subject, ranging from
domestic management to warfare. Complete mastery of
Hearts of Iron III may take many, many hours of play, so
don’t be discouraged if you don’t catch on right away. This
Manual is designed to provide far more depth to your learning experience than the tutorials.
A 1.3 Quick Start
Clicking on “Quick Start” will take you to a menu with four
options for interesting scenarios that will help you immediately get into the thrill of the game. These are simply preselected scenarios that save you the trouble of choosing
from among more than a half-dozen starting dates or more
than 100 countries to play.
If you think you’d prefer to try the Quick Start, you
should first refer to the downloadable Quick Start & Index
PDF mentioned in the introduction. It may be found on the
Paradox Forum. It might actually be better to try the Online
Tutorials instead, as they provide hands on instruction.
A 1.4 Starting a
Single-Player Game
Click the “Single-Player” button on the Main Game Menu
and you will be taken to the Single-Player Start Screen,
where you can choose to start a new game at any point in
history or from a specifically bookmarked date, or to load
a saved game.
You will see a map of Europe with colour-coded countries, which is where you will choose which country to play.
The map will scroll so that you can explore the entire world,
and choose which country to play. At the very top center,
you will see the default scenario choice, which starts on
January 1, 1936; however, you can choose other scenarios
from the menu at the top left. Clicking on one of the scenarios will change the world map to reflect whichever geographical or historical changes occurred between 1936 and
the start of the scenario.
As a scenario is selected, you will see a brief explanation
of what makes that date an interesting starting point for a
game about World War II. Centered near the bottom are also
a number of flags corresponding to the major world powers
which might be interesting choices to play. Clicking on one
of the flags selects that country for you to play; otherwise,
you may look around to find a more preferable country.
Once the desired country has been chosen, and the ap-
propriate scenario has been selected, click the “Play” button located in the lower right corner. You could also select
“Back” to return to the Startup Menu.
You will see more World War II scenes as the game finishes loading your scenario, which will then lead to the Main
Map and game screen.
A 1.5 Starting a Multiplayer Game
Click the “Multiplayer” button on the Main Game Menu and
you will be taken to the Multiplayer Start Screen, where
there will be several options of ways to play against other
players, either your friends or people you may not even
know. See Section R for more information about your menu
choices, and how to get set up in Multiplayer.
A2.0 Main Screen Interface
as “IC”). The first number is what’s called Wasted IC – it is
IC that you could be using but you’re not (and, of course,
you’ll want to fix that). The next number, on the other side
of the first slash, is the Available IC – how much Industrial
Capacity you actually can use. The last number, to the right
of the slash, is the Base IC – how many “factories” (factory
points, really) your country has, which make up the bulk of
what becomes the Available IC.
To the right of your IC are more Stockpiles – for Supplies,
Fuel, and Money. Again, red numbers are bad and represent
a loss while green is good and represents a gain.
Further to the right, you will see figures for other important values – Manpower, Diplomatic Points, Espionage
Points, Leadership Points, Dissent, and National Unity (all
of which will be explained later in the Manual).
A2.1 Information Bar (Top Bar)
A2.2 In-Game Menu
The Information Bar runs across the top of your screen. On
the far left, your country’s flag will be displayed, as well as
the name of the country. Right above this is the Date on
which you’re starting. You can click on the Date to Pause and
Unpause the game. Immediately to the right of the date are
two red marks that represent a “Pause” indicator, or if you
are not Paused it will show a stack of “up arrows” or “chevrons” which indicates your Speed setting. The “+” and “-”
buttons allow you to increase or decrease the Game Speed.
Hearts of Iron III runs on “turns” of one hour each, and can
be played very slowly, at a rate of about one game-hour every few seconds, or all the way up to a breathtaking 24 hours
in the same amount of time. There is another Pause indicator on the other side of the Game Speed buttons.
Across the very top of the Game Screen, the rest of the
Information Bar displays your Resource Stockpiles first
(from left to right: Energy, Metal, Rare Materials, and Crude
Oil), indicating how many units of each Resource are currently in stock. Green numbers indicate you are adding to
the country’s surplus every day, while red numbers indicate
you have a deficit in that Resource and may someday run
out of it.
If you hover your mouse cursor over the numbers, a
Tooltip will explain more about what that Resource is, and
at what rate you are increasing or depleting your stockpile.
It will also indicate where those Resources are going, and
the source of incoming Resources.
Next, to the right, you will see three subdivided numbers,
which represent your Industrial Capacity (otherwise known
The last icon on the top row of the Information Bar is a Menu
button, which brings up several options:
• Save Game – Allows you to save the current game,
either to keep a record (just in case) or to return to at
a later date.
• Game Options – Allows you to change many of the
settings described earlier (the same settings you can
change from the Start Menu).
• Resign – Ends your current game and shows you the
Victory Progress Screen, where you can then return to
the Start Menu, which allows you to choose a new game
or load a saved game (remember to save first!).
• Message Settings – Allows you to customize how you
want to be informed of all the little details going on inside the game; you can also set it not to bother you.
• Quit – Ends the Hearts of Iron III program, and returns you
to your computer’s Desktop (remember to save first!).
Underneath all this information, but still on the Information
Bar, is a series of six “tabs” which you will use to open important Interfaces which allow you to direct the functions of
your country and its Government.
A2.3 Sprites or Counters
Among the Game Options you can choose is whether you
want your armies represented as “Sprites” (visual models of infantrymen, tanks, etc.) or classic wargame-style
Sprites are three-dimensional graphic images of the
units, and many players prefer this because they are more
visually interesting. Even if you are using Sprites for your
Units, zooming out far enough will cause them to turn into
dow, which will generally be to acknowledge the information
and close the window. Beware, though, that you’re looking
at an informational “Event” button, and not one which requires you to select one of several choices. Most of these
windows do not have a default and thus will not close when
you hit Enter, though you can never be too sure.
If an Event pop-up appears for a category of Event you
don’t want to see in a pop-up, you can right-click to bring
up a menu which allows you to specify Message Settings
for that category, and tell the computer how you want to be
informed of those types of Events.
A2.6 Alerts
Each Counter will show the unit type’s symbol (Infantry,
Armour, etc.), its organisational level (Division, Corps,
etc.), and a numeric indicator roughly showing its Attack
and Defence values (displayed in the format “1 – 2”).
Remember that these values are approximate and only
represent relative Combat values, and not actual Combat
values. Zooming in will reveal more information about the
Counter, including its national flag and the name of the
Leader assigned to the Unit.
A2.4 Pause
The game will start in a paused condition. This will allow
you to set up your Government, examine your world, and
perform other actions before having to worry about events,
wars, etc. While you can click the Date to Pause or Unpause,
it’s often easiest to use the Pause button on your keyboard.
Please also note that you can set your message settings to
automatically pause your game if a certain type of game
event occurs, as you can set preferences for each category
of message.
Alert icons will sometimes appear in the top-left corner of
your screen, and will advise of conditions of which you’ll
need to be aware. These might advise you of newly available Laws which might better fit the world situation, or they
might indicate that you have constructed units which need
to be placed.
A2.7 Tooltips
If you find that the information provided by the game’s visual
cues are not enough to answer all you want to know, you can
usually hover your cursor over the item in question to see a
Tooltip. The Tooltip is an information box that pops up next
to the item to provide additional information. Later patches
may include even more helpful and updated tooltips, should
players express a need for greater levels of information.
A2.5 Event Pop-ups
An Event window (“pop-up”) will inform you of something
that happens to which you may need to react. Event popups will appear in the middle of the screen and may pause
the game, depending on your settings. Using the Message
Settings Interface (see A2.10) accessible through the Main
Menu Options button. In general, these are things you’ll
need as reminders; they will tell you about the beginning
or conclusion of a Combat, when some historical event has
happened, and so on.
Events windows can be moved around the screen by
clicking and dragging any part of the window that is not a
button. The windows can generally be closed by hitting the
“Enter” button on your keyboard, or by clicking the “Close”
button with your mouse. Once you’ve read the Event notice,
hitting Enter will select the default action for the Event win-
A2.8 Diplomatic Offers (Flag Alerts)
Diplomatic messages will appear as round country flags at
the upper left corner of your screen, and as they add up, will
continue to expand along the top row. These indicate other
countries wanting to deal with you. These icons will remain
for 23 days before they start to blink. Once they start to
blink, they will remain for only seven more days. Click on the
message to respond. If you don’t respond before 30 days
are up, you will “auto-decline,” and the offer is automatically refused.
A3.0 Main Map
A2.9 Outliner
The Outliner is a basic information tool you can customize
to provide at-your-fingertips status on all the most important things you need to keep track of – Armies, Navies,
Headquarters structure, ongoing battles, etc. Turn the
Outliner on and off by left-clicking the button in the upperright corner of the Game Screen. A number of tabs across
the top of the Outliner allow you to pick what type of information you want to look at.
If you click on an entry in the Outliner, whether it’s a unit
or a Combat, you will center upon that location, and a Unit
or Battle Interface may open. See J1.5 for more information
about how to use the Outliner.
A2.10 Message Settings
Hearts of Iron III can inform you of most of what’s going
on in your country and around the world through various
interfaces, Event windows, and Alert icons. The Message
Settings allow you to customize what information you want
to receive and how you want to be informed. To adjust the
settings, click on the “Message Settings” button in the Main
Menu Options Interface, which will open a scrollable menu.
Every possible type of message is listed here – it may take
a while to go through them all, but it’s worth it. You don’t
have to go through all of the message types at once; you can
attend to some when the appropriate issues arise. When you
see a Message in the History Log or in an Event pop-up you
want to change, right-click and a menu will ask you how you
want those messages handled.
There is also a manual method of editing these
Settings, which may be easier for those who feel comfortable doing so. Using a text editor, open the file “messagetypes_custom.txt” which may be in the main HOI 3
folder, or if you use Vista it may be in another folder (do
a search to find the file if necessary). Always use a text
editor, like Notepad (not a word processor), because it
results in a “clean” save. Back up the file first, in case you
unintentionally change something improperly, then return
to the original file. Each message type is listed in capitals.
The Message Settings options will be listed, along with
“=yes” or “=no”. Change these, as desired, to provide the
Settings as you like them. Make sure you change no other
characters, and add no extra spaces, etc. – keep the file in
the format it was in, and be very careful what you change.
Then save the file. If the game behaves improperly you
can save (“save as”) the backup file with the file’s original
name, and it will go back to normal.
The Hearts of Iron III map is designed to superficially resemble a historical World War II map in order to aid with the
ambiance and get you into the mood for playing.
The Main Map dominates the screen when you start.
Your game will be paused at the beginning, and you will automatically begin in “Terrain Mapmode,” which shows land,
rivers, mountains and deserts in full colour. When the game
first loads, your screen will be centered on your selected
country. To look around, move the cursor toward the edge
of the screen to make the map scroll in that direction. You
may also scroll by using the arrow keys on your keyboard.
If a province is selected, it will show as a lighter colour
than the normal colour shown in other, unselected provinces of that country. Unselected provinces in your country
or in an Ally’s country will be shown in a normal colour and
with normal brightness. Also, those provinces which are
more than one province from either your country or an
Ally’s country will be shown in a colour darker than the rest
(as if it’s in a fog), and the units in those provinces will be
As your units move around the map (or even as they sit in
place), they will have a certain “range of vision” which allows you to have an idea of that area’s surroundings. This
“vision” also extends from every province Controlled by you
or another country in your Faction or Alliance. This is explained in more detail in Section G (Intelligence). Provinces
or Seazones that are adjacent to your units or allied provinces will appear in a lighter shade than the surrounding
territory (you might say the others are “grayed out”). You
can generally see whatever neutral or enemy units are present in those provinces, though you may not know all you’d
like to about what they are or what Brigade types comprise
each Division.
Most units or provinces will show an informative tooltip
if you hover your mouse over it. Different tooltips will be displayed depending on which Mapmode you’re in. Units which
are not your own will display very limited information
If you hit the keyboard’s “Home” key, the Main Map will
center on your country’s capital.
A3.1 Zooming
If your mouse has a scroll wheel, you can move it back and
forth to zoom the map in and out. The further back you
scroll, the more of the world will be displayed. At maximum
magnification, you can closely examine the detail of the
landscape, soldiers, and other units on the map; at lowest
magnification, you will see most of whole continents.
If you’ve selected the use of “Sprites” (visual models of
infantrymen, tanks, etc.) instead of classic wargame-style
Counters, the map will tilt when zoomed in so you can see
the graphic detail of the Sprite. As you zoom out, these
sprites will turn to Counters, which show more detailed
information about the unit.
A3.2 Mouse Pointer
If you hover your mouse cursor over a province or seazone,
an animation will appear at the back end of the pointer to
indicate whether the area you have selected is friendly or
hostile. A green pulsing arrow will appear if your selected
unit can move into a province which is friendly (controlled by
your own country, or that of an Ally). A red pulsing arrow will
appear if your selected unit can move into a province which
is hostile (your enemy). A red flashing “x” will appear if your
selected unit cannot move into that province or seazone.
A3.3 Provinces & Regions
The map has 10,000 land provinces stretching around the
world, with several thousand more zones at sea. This is
about four times as many provinces as there are in HOI 2.
More provinces should mean more flexibility with movement
and combat, rather than more tedium in conquering your
foes. To that end, things have been carefully balanced and
accounted for.
You will find that the smaller provinces are located in
areas which are expected to feature the most land combat,
while larger provinces exist in areas where armies aren’t expected to go. The enormous number of provinces will enable
more tactical battles and maneuvering, because portions of
armies can quickly move to an adjacent province in order to
outflank or encircle an enemy.
Depending on the Mapmode in use, these provinces will
be different colours. In the default Terrain Mapmode, the map
is coloured to indicate the type of Terrain for each province –
green shades for Forest, tan for Desert, and so on. Mountains
and Rivers are also shown. In other Mapmodes, the province
colour will indicate something specific to that Mapmode.
The red borders divide countries, the black border
divides regions, and the lighter spot within the region
shown is the province of Casablanca. At higher zoom, it
will have a thinner black border around it, too.
Provinces are gathered into larger regions, which are useful
for Air Missions. Most regions have four or five provinces.
Regions are defined by darker lines which encompass more
than one province. As you zoom out, the province borders
will disappear and only the region borders will be visible.
Individual provinces can still be displayed, one by one, by
clicking on it. The province will show as a lighter spot within
the region border.
Country borders are shown as a bright red line.
Countries’ Capitals are shown as a white and red spot, or
“target” symbol.
A3.4 Installations (“Buildings”)
You will see various “icons” on the map, representing what
are called Installations, or “buildings.” Like everything in the
game, Installations can be built with IC (Industrial Capacity
– explained in Section B) via the Production Queue.
A Naval Base which has Ships at dock will be a blue colour,
rather than the unoccupied gray, and will have a ship icon
inside the circle.
An Airbase which has Airwings based there and on the
ground (i.e. not currently away on a Mission) will be a lighter
colour, and there will be an aircraft icon inside the circle.
A3.5 Ownership & Control
Provinces have two statuses – Ownership (what country
the province actually belongs to) and Control (what country currently Occupies and governs that province during
wartime). During times of peace, Control will always match
A province is normally shown in the colour of the Owner,
but when Occupied by a different Controller country, the
province is shown with a crosshatch pattern in the Political
Mapmode. In others only the border is shown. The predominant colour of a province is always the Controlling country’s
colour, but the colour of the Owner is superimposed over the
provinces to indicate the original ownership.
The Japanese control the Chinese city of Shanghai,
where they’re now basing Japanese Ships.
When the only units remaining (i.e. not Retreating) in a province are the enemies of the province Owner, Control changes
hands, and the province will take on a hatchmarked colour
pattern to signify that the conquering country has Control.
A province will typically remain under the Ownership of its
original country through most or all of the game. Control,
however, may switch hands until Control is taken back by
its Owner, or until the country is Liberated by an Ally. The
Owner’s Surrender may transfer certain Core provinces to
Ownership of another country.
A3.6 Minimap
The small map of the world located in the lower-right corner
of the screen is called the Minimap. It shows where you’re
currently looking on the Main Map, as well as offering you
the ability to mouse-click your Main Map to view anywhere in
the world. The white box on the Minimap shows what you’re
currently seeing in the Main Map; it will grow larger as you
zoom out, and smaller as you zoom in. Clicking on a place on
the Minimap will center your Main Map there.
A3.7 History Log
The large arrow or triangle to the right, immediately left of
the Minimap (the small map of the world), is the History Log
toggle button. You can use this toggle to activate or make
visible the History Log, which will show a running, day-byday list of all major and minor events throughout the game,
depending on your Message Settings. An arrow pointing up
allows you to display the History Log, while a down arrow
allows you to close it.
The History Log is located at the bottom-center of the
Main Screen. The log will scroll, displaying a chronological
list of the most recent events in the game. You can scroll
back using the slide bar at the far right of the History Log
to learn what else has happened, up to the point where you
began the current game session. You can also use your
mouse scroll wheel if your pointer is over the History Log.
Left-clicking on an entry in the History Log will center the
Main Map on the location where that event occurred.
You may customize which items will appear in the
History Log by clicking on the Main Menu “Options” button
and choosing Message Settings. You may also right-click on
any Log item to open a menu allowing you to specify how you
want to be informed of future messages of that type. Often,
these will be things you want to know about, but which do
not rise to the importance of needing a pop-up or a pause
to the game. See A2.10 for more information on Message
A4.0 Mapmodes
A4.1 Terrain Mapmode
This Mapmode shows what kind of Terrain each province
contains. It is both the most artistic of the Mapmodes and
the most useful for combat purposes, though Terrain features also appear in other Mapmodes.
Terrain is crucial, so it’s something you should keep an
eye on, whether you play using this Mapmode or use the
graphic textures and Province Interface to keep track of it. The
type of ground on which battles take place can make a huge
difference between who wins or loses: attackers or defenders
may suffer Combat penalties depending on the battlefield’s
terrain. Terrain will be explained in detail in A6.0.
A4.2 Political Mapmode
This Mapmode shows where country boundaries are, and
while other Mapmodes indicate this with a bright red line
along the border, this version is more distinct. It also shows
provinces which are under control of another country. A
striped pattern in a province indicates this mixed (Owner vs.
Controller) status – the colour of the controlling country will
be the predominant colour of the province, but the colour of
the Owner is superimposed in hatchmarks over the province
to indicate the original Ownership.
The underlying Terrain in this and other Mapmodes is displayed using background textures, but it may be necessary to
check the Province Interface to be sure of the Terrain type.
A4.5 Revoltrisk Mapmode
The Revoltrisk Mapmode shows the likelihood of a provincial
revolt. Provinces shown with a green colour are “safe” and
have a low chance of rebelling. Provinces displayed with a
red colour have a higher chance of revolt.
A4.6 Diplomacy Mapmode
The Diplomatic Mapmode graphically shows Wars, Alliances,
and other relationships between your country and others.
Your enemies in war will be shown in red. Non-warring Allies
will be shown in a greenish-blue colour, and Allies which
are currently involved in your war will be coloured green.
If the selected country claims another country’s province
as a Core (see: Diplomacy section), or if it has a Casus Belli
on another country (an excuse to declare war), the target
country will be shown with green hatchmarks or alternating
bands of green and gray.
A4.3 Weather Mapmode
The Weather Mapmode allows you to see what Weather conditions are affecting your battlefields. It can be used to plan
movement routes and offensives. Keeping an eye on the
weather is crucial, particularly for planes, as the Weather
might be different by the time they finish their Mission. It
is also a good idea to keep your fleets away from serious
Storms, as bad Weather or visibility can create the possibility of “friendly fire” casualties.
The following descriptions explain only how each type of
Weather appears on the Weather Mapmode. For information
on how these Weather Conditions develop, see A7.0, or for
Weather effects upon combat, see L5.5.
A4.7 Region Mapmode
Selecting this Mapmode allows you to see colour codes
which organise provinces into their appropriate Regions.
Regions are used for some Air Mission Orders.
A4.8 Supply Mapmode
The Supply Mapmode shows the Supply Routes your country is using to Supply your armies, and the Convoy Routes
you are using to transport Resources and Supplies to and
from your country. It can be useful to know exactly where
the Supplies and Convoys are traveling so that you can protect those areas. It also helps to see where there might be a
backlog in Supply traffic.
A province that is coloured green is receiving all of its requested Supplies and every Unit is In Supply. A red-coloured
province indicates that Supplies have been requested for the
Units’ new location but they have not yet arrived. A yellow
colour, or anything in between, indicates partial Supply.
A4.4 Intelligence Mapmode
There are various types of “Intelligence,” consisting of information about the enemy or surrounding countries. This
information, along with various other types of Intelligence,
is provided to you through the Intelligence Mapmode. You’ll
be able to “see into” adjacent provinces, thereby learning
what military forces are located there.
Other methods will gather intelligence about other
factors, and about units deployed deeper into foreign
territory. These forms of intelligence are described in
Section G.
The Supply Lines in and around besieged Sevastopol.
Overseas Trade Routes are marked with red and blue lines,
extending the length of the Route. Red is an outgoing
Convoy, and blue is for Convoys headed back to your home.
Each Convoy is also listed in the Production Interface, in the
lower right hand corner.
A4.9 Infrastructure Mapmode
The Infrastructure Mapmode shows each province’s
Infrastructure level. Provinces shown with a bright green
colour have high Infrastructure, but the colour shifts from
darker green to yellow as the level lowers, and eventually
to red whenever there are low Infrastructure levels. Dark
brown is the lowest level of Infrastructure.
A4.10 Victory Point Mapmode
This Mapmode will show important provinces worth Victory
Points. Victory Points are a means of determining who’s
currently winning, and who the overall victor is near the end
of the game. In the short term, it gives you an idea of how
close a country is to Breaking, which is a condition that may
lead to Surrender.
Victory Point Provinces controlled by you or your Allies
will be shown in green. Victory Point provinces controlled
by a neutral country will be shown in brown. Enemy Victory
Points are shown in red. Tooltips will show you how many
Victory Points a province is worth if you hover your mouse
over that province.
Interface) or any of the other tabs (which will bring up that
Interface instead); or by hitting the “Escape” key on your
A5.2 Province Interface
The Province Interface appears in the lower left of your
screen when you click on any province, whether it’s your
own or someone else’s, and will display things that you need
to know about each province.
In the upper-left of the Province Interface, you will see a
generalized picture representing the kind of Terrain present
in that province. If you hover your mouse over the picture,
a tooltip describes the Terrain in greater detail. The province name is displayed over the picture, and a flag indicates
which country currently Owns that province. If the province
is Controlled by an enemy power, that country’s flag will be
superimposed over the native flag in a roundel (circle).
A4.11 Theatre Mapmode
Each Theatre will be displayed using a different colour. You
can use this Mapmode to see how each Theatre boundary is
defined, and how you might decide to modify those boundaries to best reflect your military priorities.
A4.12 Resources Mapmode
If you click on the Resources Mapmode, you will see which
provinces are valuable for their Resources. A green colour
indicates the presence of an available Resource, and an
icon will show you which Resource(s) can be found there.
A tooltip will also tell you what that Resource is, if it’s not
immediately clear from the icon.
A5.0 Interfaces
There are a variety of ways in which you are asked to manage your country. One of them is through your Government,
which means overseeing Government Policies, Laws, and
Politics. It can also involve Diplomacy, Economic Production
and Espionage. These things are all controlled through tabs
in the Information Bar along the top of the screen. Each tab
opens an Interface, each one of which is described in more
detail later in this section.
A5.1 Moving and Closing Interface Windows
The main Interface windows described in this section will
generally fill the whole screen and cannot be moved.
Interface windows can be closed by using the “x” in
the upper right-hand corner of the Interface; by selecting
the tab at the top again (the one which initially opened the
To the upper-right of the Interface, you will see each province which borders the selected province. If there is a River
Crossing on that border, it will be shown as a blue “s-curve”
across the green border. Seazones bordering will be blue.
If a province borders a Strait (a waterway which can be
crossed without Ships), it will display as a wider blue band
on the green background.
Underneath the Terrain picture will be a description
of the Weather conditions in that province. Cloud cover
is shown, and rain or snow if appropriate, alongside the
Temperature, and Windspeed. If the ground is Frozen in
that province, you will see a white “Frozen” icon to the right
of the Wind (the Province will also appear “frosted” on the
Terrain Mapmode). Similarly, Mud will be a brown icon.
Across the middle of this Interface is a series of figures
with icons. The camera represents your level of Intelligence
about this province. The rifle shows the Revoltrisk in the
province. The soldiers show the Manpower provided by
the province. The checkered flag shows the amount of
Leadership Points being generated. The second row shows
the Resources being produced, which are, from left to right:
Energy, Metal, Rare Materials, and Crude Oil.
When you’re looking at a province Controlled by someone else who is not in your Faction or Alliance, question
marks (“?”) indicate values which have not been detected
by your Intelligence services and are hidden to you.
At the bottom of this Interface, you will see rows of indicators showing your level of each type of Installation (described in A3.4). If bombing or other damage has reduced
the total value of an Installation in wartime, the Interface
will also show the level to which it will recover.
A5.3 Diplomacy Interface
This is where you manage your country’s Diplomacy, as well as
keep track of where you stand with regard to other countries.
The main feature of this screen is the triangle display
on the right side, which is the Ideological Spectrum. Its
three points represent the three Factions (major Military
and Ideological Alliances) in the game. A country is ranked
on this triangular spectrum according to where they stand,
Ideologically. They will tend to drift gradually according
to internal and external influences, including Diplomatic
Actions from other countries. The amount of drift can be
seen in a tooltip if you hover your mouse cursor over the
country’s roundel on the Spectrum.
Above the Ideological Spectrum are the three Factions
– the Axis (Fascists), the Allies (Democracies), and the
Comintern (Communists). Any countries which have become Members of that Faction have their flag roundels
displayed here. Each Faction’s relative Victory Point total
is also shown here, which can give you an idea of how well
each is doing.
To the left is where you can examine Diplomatic and
Trade information for every country in the world, using
a sortable list. Four rows’ worth of sorting options are located in the upper-left. This also is where you may initiate
Diplomatic Actions toward any country.
Underneath this, in the lower left corner of this Interface is
where any available options for Decisions (see F3.3) are listed.
Near the top-center of the display, you will see the flag
of the selected country along with its current Ruling Party.
Below this is the Surrender Progress Bar, which is normally
green. If the bar is partially red, then that country is at war
and has lost territory, and may be likely to Surrender if
things continue without change.
Below this section is relevant Diplomatic information,
such as what countries they are Allied to or whether they
In the Production Queue, items are colour coded to indicate whether they’re sufficiently funded. Below that is a list
of Asset requests from Theatres, which you can ignore, or can approve to be sent to the Queue by clicking “Build.”
are at War. Your current Relations with them are also shown,
along with relative Threat values, and relative Neutrality
values. Any Treaties or other important Diplomatic
Relationships the country has will be shown underneath
their Relations with you. If you click the double arrow icon
in that box, it will toggle to a list of all of that country’s
Diplomatic Relationships with other countries.
Toward the bottom center of the Interface is a list of
available Diplomatic Actions. Any button which is grayed
out cannot be chosen, and a tooltip will indicate why. If it
is a gold colour, you may use that Diplomatic Action on the
selected country. A tooltip briefly explains what each action
will do, but for more detailed information, see D6.0.
One of the most common Diplomatic Actions is a Trade
Agreement, where use of the list of countries and Resources
(to the left) is advisable. The list of countries and their
Resources is fully sortable. If a country is experiencing a
deficit in its supply of a certain Resource, it will be displayed
with a reddish colour. A tooltip will show the exact figures
as to how much surplus or deficit the country has of that
Resource. D8.0 explains more about Trade Agreements.
A5.4 Production Interface
In the top-right of this screen, you will see a series of sliders
that are used to allocate your Industrial Capacity (IC) toward
specific priorities. These sliders will float, so you will need to
lock them, by either double left-clicking or by right-clicking
once, in order to keep them from moving from the desired
value. Each slider has a number to the right to indicate the
“need” for each. If your allocation does not meet the need
this number will be red. Otherwise it will be white. The need
is also listed to the left on each item, and if you right-click
that need indication it will automatically set your slider to
match the need (and will then lock the slider, so it doesn’t
move from that spot).
The choices are:
• Upgrades: Unless all of your Brigades have been fully
upgraded to the limit of your Technology, you may
wish to spend some of your IC upgrading units so
that they’re using the latest, greatest weapons and
Technologies you have discovered; otherwise, they
might be at a disadvantage in combat. Even if everything is fully upgraded, you may need to Upgrade
some units as soon as you Research a new Technology.
A tooltip will show you how many units you need to
Upgrade, and how much of that investment is covered
by your current allocation.
• Reinforcement: Units engaged in combat will take casualties, and lost men will need to be replaced. Even when
at peace, there is a certain level of Attrition from illness,
retirements, etc. IC allocated to Reinforcement is how
you recover these losses. A tooltip will explain how great
the need is, as well as how your investment compares.
• Supplies: Your units all need Supplies in order to keep
operating properly. These Supplies are of the utmost
importance, especially in combat. Your country has
stockpiles of Supplies in a central location – your Capital
– and also at depots around the world, if you have outlying territories (anywhere they are pre-positioned, or
where your Convoys drop them). You will want to maintain adequate Supplies to ensure success. Some of your
surplus you can Trade for, but if war prevents you from
trading, or if you need to supplement your imports, you
may allocate IC to produce more Supplies.
• Production: IC must be allocated to Production when
you want to use your country’s IC to produce ships,
planes, divisions or a variety of other things. You will
see the current level of Production IC reflected in the
Production Queue on the left-hand portion of the screen
(the window might have to be closed and re-opened to
display updated information), which we will discuss in
a moment.
• Consumer Goods: Just as soldiers need Supplies,
a country’s population requires a certain amount of
Consumer Goods in order to remain happy. They understand if you’re at war and will therefore demand fewer
goods. However, if you do not allocate some of your IC
to meeting current demand for Consumer Goods, the
population will become unhappy and Dissent will rise,
which can become a problem if it gets too high. Soldiers,
too, need Consumer Goods during peacetime.
To the immediate left of the IC sliders is a list of Resources
with values indicating how much of each Resource you
have, and at what rate the stockpile is increasing or decreasing. See A9.0 for more information about what these
Resources are.
Below the normal list of Resources is a slot for Nuclear
Bombs. Once the necessary Technology has been developed, you will be able to Produce Nuclear Bombs. Your
stockpile will be listed here once that happens (see P3.0 for
more information on Nukes).
On the left side of your Production Interface, you will see
three categories of units you can build: Division, Airwing,
and Flotilla (i.e. land, air and naval units). Underneath these
headers are three related types of Production options –
Brigade Attachment (a single Brigade which you can attach
to an existing Division of your choice), Airbase, and Seaport.
The operation of the Unit Production Interfaces is explained
in more detail in C2.0.
Below these buttons, which allow you to Produce things,
is the Production Queue, which shows all the units you are
currently Producing. If the list is longer than the window, you
will see a scroll bar on the right-hand side that will allow you
to scroll to see all of the units.
On the right, each unit in the Production Queue will show
details of the unit being built - ship name, Division designation, etc. To the left, you will see the expected date of completion, whether the unit is proceeding through the Queue
at 100 percent speed or if it’s a lesser amount, and how
much total IC the unit consumes as it progresses through
the Queue. Units which do not have sufficient IC or sufficient
priority to be covered by the assigned IC will show green if
they are being produced at maximum speed, yellow if they
are only partially funded, and red if they are not progressing
through the Queue at all (i.e. insufficient IC).
You may select the exact order of the units to be produced by assigning priority using the red and green arrow
buttons – down buttons reduce priority, up buttons increase it, and the up and down “fast forward” buttons (two
triangles one atop the other) allow you to move that unit to
the very bottom or the very top. This selection of priority will
help you keep the most important units moving through the
Production Queue, even when you do not have sufficient IC
to build everything in the Queue at top speed.
Underneath the Production Queue is a list of Asset requests from your Theatres, listed as numbers of Brigades,
Airwings, and Ships. If you want to start building any of the
requests, click the “Build” button. At the very bottom of
your screen is a checkbox allowing you to ask the computer
to automatically deploy your units as they finish Production.
They will go to a Theatre according either to your instructions, or to the need of the Theatre.
If you click “Automatic Deployment” at the bottom of
the Interface, the computer AI will attempt to make wise decisions about where to send any Units you produce, unless
they are already assigned to a Theatre.
Underneath the IC sliders, you will see two sections related to International Trade. The topmost will list all of your
active Trades, along with what’s being Traded. A Tooltip will
show how much is being Traded. If this Trade has been suspended for some reason (lack of Resources to Trade, or lack
of Convoys for Transport), it will display in red. Clicking the
“x” next to a Trade Agreement will cancel it.
Beneath this box is a box showing all your active
Convoys, which can be either Resource Convoys or Supply
Convoys. It will list each Convoy’s origin and destination,
what it’s carrying via a tooltip, and the number of Convoy
units and Escort units. Inactive or understrength Convoys
display in red. Green indicates it’s operating properly.
Available Transports and Escorts are listed at the top
of the box. Keep in mind that Convoy Transports (freighters) are different from Transport Ships, which are used to
Transport troops. The Create Convoy button allows you to
start a new Convoy, and its operation is described in H8.0.
A5.5 Technology Interface
At the upper-left of this Interface is a set of four sliders,
which you may use to divide the total number of Leadership
Points you have; basically, this is a measure of “intellectual
Leadership Points – Each province Controlled by your
country generates a certain amount of Leadership Points,
which are visible in the Province Interface. These Leadership
Points are pooled at the national level, and you can allocate
them to deal with your national problems and needs in any
of four categories. Think of this pool as your country’s “brain
trust,” which can be used to handle high-level needs.
You can divide up your Leadership Points using the sliders in the Technology Interface. These sliders can be locked,
just like those in the Production Interface, by either rightclicking or double left-clicking.
The categories to which you can allocate Leadership are:
Officers – Officers, including non-commissioned officers (NCOs), become the guiding force behind your military
units. Running short of Officers can have a serious negative
impact on your military’s combat abilities, including the
likelihood they will Shatter more easily. To be fully staffed,
each Division requires 100 Officers.
Research – Any major country’s long-term survival may
well depend upon how much war-related Research it can accomplish, and at what rate. Smaller countries, though they
may never hope to catch up to the major powers, may make
up for shortcomings in some areas through well-selected
Research priorities.
Diplomacy – The number and importance of Diplomatic
missions you send to make Treaties and other Diplomatic
agreements with other countries will depend on how
many Diplomat Points you’ve built up. You can only have a
maximum of 100 points at once, so if you aren’t using these
points allocate them elsewhere.
Espionage – Your country’s Spies and Intelligence managers are supplied through the Leadership Points allocated
to Espionage.
Most of the Interface is taken up by an array of Technologies
which can be Researched. Tabs along the top of the screen allow you to pick Research categories. On the far left of the
Technology Interface, underneath the Leadership sliders, is the
Research Queue, which works much like the Production Queue,
and shows what Techs are being Researched. At the bottom of
the Interface is a full listing of your country’s current Knowledge
levels in a variety of Theoretical or Practical fields.
Much of the function of the Technology Interface relates
to choosing and managing your Research priorities. Since
this is more complicated than the functions of some of the
other Interfaces discussed here, the technical operation of
the Interface, as well as an image of what it looks like, are
all located in E4.0.
A5.6 Politics Interface
Your country’s Political Party situation is located on the
right. The ruling Party is shown at the very top of this column
of political information, along with a colour corresponding
to its Ideology.
The Organisation Chart shows how “strong” the Political
Party structures are for each of the major Parties in your
country. The Popularity Chart, which is not necessarily the
same as Organisation, is shown just below and displays each
Party’s relative support from the Population. Both charts
are colour-coded to show Party Ideology: blue for Western/
liberal, red for socialistic or communist, and gray for fascist
or Nazi. Tooltips will also indicate which colour represents
which Party. We discuss how these Parties interrelate in the
Internal Politics Section (F2.0).
Below the Party information is a Strategic Warfare indicator (see Section P for more information on Strategic Warfare).
If you’re at War, this will indicate the positive or negative status of your Strategic War – i.e. the War as perceived by your
citizens, which will impact your National Unity.
Below this, you’ll see buttons to Mobilize your army (see
F4.0), to Liberate Countries (see F8.0) and Create Puppets
(see F9.0).
The top-left of the Interface shows what Ideology your
Ruling Party follows, along with an icon showing to which
Faction that Party is closest. When or whether Elections are
held under the Ruling Party is also mentioned. Underneath
this is a listing of your Heads of State and Government
as well as the Minister positions, which help run your
At the bottom left is a list of all the categories of Laws
you have the power to select. Click on any category to
change Government Policy through the Laws you enact (see
F3.2). To the right of it is a list of any countries you have
Occupied, along with the type of Occupation Government
you have established there (see F7.0).
This is just a brief overview of the Politics Interface.
More detail about how each section of the Interface operates can be found in Section F.
A5.7 Intelligence Interface
The Intelligence Interface allows for the management of all
aspects of your Espionage and Reconnaissance capabilities.
It also allows you to view important information about different countries that have been discovered through use of
these tools.
At the top-left of this Interface is information about
the Intelligence situation inside your country. The Partisan
Efficiency shown here is a measure of how much you’re
hated in countries you may Occupy – the higher the rating,
the higher the Experience level of Partisans who will appear
to fight you. Below this is a list of all the countries, which
can help you make decisions about where to send Spies,
etc. This list can be filtered with the buttons located directly
above it.
To the right, you will see a wide range of information
about the country you selected from the Map prior to entering the Interface, or any you choose from the country
list. Use the three buttons along the side of the Military
Information list – Army, Airwing, and Flotilla – to switch between information on each form of Military Unit. The amount
of information you have on each country will vary according
to your Intelligence operations there, but it’s here you can
see how many Spies are in that country, indicated by the
number in the circle. You can also see how active that country’s Counter-Intelligence operations are by glancing above
the number of Spies. Setting Missions for your Spies is done
through the interface directly below the number of Spies.
The deeper workings of the Intelligence system are explained in Section G (Intelligence).
A5.8 Statistics Tab (Ledger)
Clicking on the Statistics Tab will provide a series of charts
containing important information about any country, including yours. Each of these charts or lists will be helpful
in determining how well you are doing in certain areas, in
planning how to move forward, and in showing your Military
Units in a format you cannot see elsewhere in the game.
More Charts and Tables are being added at the time of writing, so it is recommended you refer to the HOI 3 Strategy
Guide for more information about what charts are available,
and how these charts can be most useful to you.
How the HOI 3 World Works
There are some things about the world that are best explained before we go into the various game Interfaces and
how to run a country. Keep in mind that these values are
very “moddable,” in that they can be modified by amateur
coders, and so these values may differ from patch to patch
and from “mod” to “mod.”
A6.0 Terrain
Terrain can be critically important in determining the outcome of Combat, as well as the maneuvering and positioning
which leads up to the engagement. Wise players will always
be aware of the type of Terrain on which their units are moving and fighting.
All penalties or bonuses for Terrain are applied at the
Division level. A Brigade which works well in a certain Terrain
type will average its benefit out between all the Brigades of
its own Division.
units receive a Penalty to Attack, as Urban areas are a
nightmare to attack.
• Fortification – While this has already been mentioned
as a “building,” its effect makes it like a type of Terrain
because a land or sea Fort adds certain defensive
modifiers and advantages to the Terrain type when attacked. Attackers suffer a penalty to their Efficiency or
Attack Modifier, so while they stand, Forts reduce the
number of permanent casualties and organisation loss.
Divisions with Engineering Brigades attached have a
reduced penalty on attack. Land Forts protect the whole
province from attack, because strategic considerations
must take it into account. Coastal Forts, however, only
protect against attacks from the sea.
A6.1 Terrain Types
• Plains – Open plains and farmlands which are easy for
armies to move across. There are no penalties or bonuses associated with this Terrain type.
• Desert – Dry landscape with little or no vegetation.
Causes higher Attrition (losses to Manpower and
• Arctic – Frozen landscapes that are hard on men and
equipment. The associated Temperatures will cause
Attrition, too.
• Mountain – High mountain areas which greatly restrict
movement. All attacks in Mountains are penalized, but
Mountain units are penalized less. Attrition is higher.
• Hills – Rolling, uneven Terrain which can impede travel
and limit lines of sight. Motorised and Mechanised units
have movement penalties. Mountain units are penalized
less when attacking.
• Forest – Forests provide Penalties to the movement of
all Units, but Mechanised or Motorised units are penalized more. Attacks by Armoured or Mechanised units
are penalized. Air Units will also have more trouble attacking.
• Woods – A lesser version of a Forest, comprised of
fewer trees. Limitations on combat and movement will
be similar, but reduced.
• Jungle – Like a Forest, but with added complications
like wetness, heat, and undergrowth. Causes penalties
to Movement, and Attack. Infrastructure is also generally lower in these provinces, which complicates the
maintenance of Supply. The frequently associated high
Temperatures may cause Attrition.
• Marsh/Swamp – Waterlogged Terrain similar to
Plains…except for the water. Water is a big problem
for land units, so this Terrain causes Penalties to movement, attack, and supply. Marines have a reduced penalty on attack. Attrition is higher.
• Urban – Cities or otherwise “built-up” areas. NonArmoured units get a Bonus to Defence. Armoured
A6.2 Terrain Sides
Some special Terrain types only apply along one or more
provincial borders.
• River – Rivers are obstacles to Movement, and increase difficulty when attacking. Penalties are reduced
if the Division has an Engineering brigade (for that
Division only). Marines also have a reduced penalty for
Movement and attack.
• Straits – A wider body of water at a seashore which
causes significant delay to movement, but which can
be crossed by ferry or boat, and which does not require
Land Units to board Transport Ships to cross. Straits
can be blocked by enemy Fleets, if they are present, and
the Control of one or more sides of the Strait will block
any non-Submarine Fleet from crossing through the sea
at that point. Movement and attack across a Strait has
serious penalties, which are less for Marines.
• Coastal Fort – As with Land Forts, Coastal Forts protect the defender from casualties and organisation loss
because they reduce the attacker’s Efficiency. Coastal
Forts can only defend against Amphibious attacks.
A7.0 Weather
Unlike other games, which use abstracted weather, HOI 3
has a complex, detailed, and realistic weather system. It
defines high- and low- pressure systems, humidity levels,
as well as temperatures to determine precipitation, wind
speeds and movement of weather systems. This can come
in handy if you can anticipate the weather and/or know how
it develops. Most of this detail is only visible in the Weather
Mapmode (see A4.3), where Tooltips provide yet more information.
Each province’s weather is described by four values:
• Temperature (Celsius) – Temperature can be useful
for predicting upcoming Mud and Frozen Ground conditions.
• Pressure – Barometric Pressure is what moves the
Weather around the Map. Keep an eye on pressure zones
to get an idea of when the Weather might change.
• Wind Speed – Wind Speed impacts where and when
Weather moves. It can also impact Air Missions.
• Humidity – Humidity levels relate to Precipitation, and
helps you to predict.
These values have various effects:
• Cloud Cover – Overcast days may prevent or hinder
certain Air Missions.
• Precipitation/Storm – Rain, Snow or Storm may impact Detection and Combat.
• Ground State – Movement or Combat may be affected
if the land is Muddy or Frozen, it may impact Movement
or Combat.
A7.1 Weather Patterns
Keeping an eye on the Weather patterns as they move
around the Map can help you to anticipate when you may
face conditions that might be helpful, or harmful, to a
planned offensive. At sea, Weather has a large impact on
visibility for Detection purposes, which is a key factor in
Naval Combat. It may also negatively impact on Combat.
See L5.5 for more information about how Weather affects
all aspects of the game.
Much about the Weather and its impact on your operations can be predicted. For instance, it will be Overcast
where it is Raining. This will impact many Air Missions. As
the Rain continues, though, the Humidity level will drop,
and eventually the Rain will lessen because the clouds
have dumped their moisture; this works equally well for
Snow, where the only difference is Temperature. Once the
Humidity drops low enough, the Overcast will begin to break
up, as the Rain lessens all the while. This is when you, as a
Mission planner, must be aware that Air Missions will soon
become possible again for both for you the enemy. The Rain
will eventually stop, though some Partial Cloud cover may
remain, depending on the conditions.
Rain will also increase the likelihood of Muddy Ground,
which can have a tremendous impact on your Combat operations and your ability to Supply your armies. Snow and
freezing Temperatures will eventually cause Frozen Ground,
which will make things difficult on your Combat troops as
the ground thaws from the heat and turns into Mud. Hot
Temperatures make things rough on your soldiers, too.
A7.2 Weather Conditions
The Weather Conditions that may impact you are as follows:
• Overcast – If the Humidity level is high but not sufficient
for Rain to fall, then it will be Overcast, which impacts
Air Missions.
• Rain – If the Humidity level is high, Rain may occur. The
colder the Temperature, the more likely Rain will be at
lower Humidity levels. Hills or Mountains in a province
will also make Rain more likely by allowing it to happen
at lower Humidity levels. Rain, or snow, will cause the
province to “shed” its Humidity, causing the Rain or
Snow to eventually stop.
• Storm – A Storm occurs when you have Rain conditions with a Wind Speed higher than 30 MPH (i.e. Gale
Force on the Beaufort Scale). It will impact Combat and
Detection, as well as prohibit Air Missions.
• Snow – Snow forms under the exact same conditions
as Rain, except that the Temperature must be below
Freezing. As with Rain, Snow will eventually stop once it
sufficiently lowers the province’s Humidity.
• Blizzard – A Blizzard occurs when you have Snow conditions with a Wind Speed higher than 30 MPH (Gale
Force). This is just a winter Storm, with the same effects, plus the effects of winter conditions.
• Frozen Ground – For Frozen Ground to form, the
Temperature must be below Freezing for a period of
time, or the province must be experiencing Snow or
Blizzard conditions. If the Temperature in a province
with Frozen Ground rises above Freezing, then the
ground will eventually un-freeze, which may result in
Muddy Ground.
• Muddy Ground – Muddy Ground may form if a province
is experiencing Rain or Storm conditions, modified
by Infrastructure and Terrain type. It may also occur
if the province has Frozen Ground conditions, and the
Temperature climbs above Freezing. Swamp, Marsh,
and Jungle Terrain have an increased chance of
Muddy Ground. Muddy Ground slows down Land Unit
Movement and adds to the “Supply Tax,” the cost of
getting Supplies to the units.
See the chart in L5.5 for more information.
Keep in mind that, at the time of this writing, Weather is
still being developed and balanced, and so there will be
changes made to the way things work before Hearts of
Iron III reaches you. You would be well advised to refer to
the HOI 3 Strategy Guide for more detailed and accurate
information about how the Weather system will operate,
and what its impact will be on Military operations.
A8.0 Time of Day
Since HOI 3 operates on hourly turns, the Time of Day is a major factor for players, and not just because of the complicated
schedules which must be kept by well-coordinated armies.
Air Missions, especially, must be designated as Daytimeonly, Nighttime-only, or Both. Nighttime has a great negative
impact on the Effectiveness of Missions unless Technologies
like Airsearch or Navigation Radar have been Researched.
Nighttime also has a significant role to play in Land Combat,
where Nighttime attacks also suffer from lower Efficiency.
Timing attacks to occur at a particular time of day can be an
important strategy for winning the game.
A9.0 Resources
• To the immediate left of the IC sliders, you will see a list
of Resources, as well as values indicating how much of
each Resource you have and at what rate the stockpile
is increasing or decreasing. The types of Resource are
as follows:
• Energy: Represents combustibles other than Oil or Fuel
(like coal) that are necessary to keep any country running, as well as hydroelectric or other sources. Factories
will use 2 Energy to produce every 1 IC, and if you’re low
on Energy, your Factories may stop producing your peak
output of IC.
• Metal: Represents the mineral needs of your industry,
like steel and iron, but also lesser-used metals like tin
and copper. Each IC requires 1 Metal, so if you’re low on
Metal, your IC may not be fully utilized.
• Rare Materials: These represent lesser-known or lesseravailable minerals and resources which your country
nevertheless must have to operate a full industrial
complex, such as antimony, manganese, gold, rubber or
phosphates. Because they’re rare, your country may not
produce these things, which will require that you Trade
for them – and if you’re at war, then good luck, as you
may just have to conquer them instead! Each IC requires
a ½ point of Rare Materials.
• Crude Oil: Represents unrefined Oil as it comes out of
the ground, which normally isn’t of much use, except
to burn. Crude Oil must be carried back to your Capital,
where your refineries will convert it into Fuel that can be
used by your military units. The rate of conversion is determined by your Available IC, on a one-for-one basis per
IC point, but can be modified by Technology advances.
• Supplies: These represent materials, like food, any
military unit must use to operate, even if they’re sitting
still. Movement or Combat may significantly increase
the unit’s need for Supplies.
• Money: Represents your cash reserves, which can
sometimes be more useful than ordinary Resources.
You do not spend money to “buy” units (that requires
IC), but Money can be used to Trade for Resources or
Supplies from other countries (see D8.0), which is what
fuels the IC you need for your war machine.
• Fuel: Represents refined, useable fuel needed by machines to run. You must distribute Fuel to all Motorised or
Mechanised units, and Air and Naval Units, wherever they
are, or else they will be unable to move quickly, if at all.
• Nukes: Once you develop the necessary Technology,
you will be able to Produce Nuclear Bombs. Your stockpile is listed here (see P3.0).
B1.0 Industrial Capacity (IC)
In HOI 3, your country’s economic potential is represented
in terms of Industrial Capacity (normally referred to as
IC), which in rough terms is a measure of the number of
“Factories” you have in all of your provinces. Each “Factory”
represents hundreds of factories, modified by Technological
advancements, Ministers, and other factors.
IC is produced on a daily basis, and while it’s tempting to
think of it as a daily income, it doesn’t build up like Money. It
goes away if you don’t use it, so it’s more accurate to think
of it as your daily “bandwidth” (to use a computer term): it’s
what you want your industry working on for that day. While
there’s not a lot that can be accomplished on major projects
in just one day, persistent work on the same project will get
it completed.
As head of state over your economy and commanderin-chief of your armies, you must decide what you want to
produce by allocating IC toward Consumer Goods, Supplies,
Upgrades, Reinforcements, and Production.
The three IC values displayed in the Information Bar
refer to Wasted IC, Available IC, and Base IC.
Wasted IC refers to the amount of Available IC you have
not allocated (i.e. it’s available, but it’s sitting idle). This
figure is an important one to notice, because it means you
are not utilizing your economy to its fullest, and you may
want to consider adding Production orders or changing IC
allocations in order to use the extra points.
Available IC is your Base IC, modified by your Ministers,
your available Resources, your Policies and Laws, and
any Technological advances you’ve made which affect
Base IC refers to the total number of home-country
Factories and a percentage of Occupied Factories minus
any Factories that have been destroyed by enemy bombing
or conquest.
Industrial Capacity must be “fed” by Resources to work,
as explained in A9.0 so keep in mind that Wasted IC is what
you’re not using out of your Available IC, which itself may
be reduced from your potential by Resource shortages
and Combat. Your actual full production potential is only
visible if you have sufficient Resource Stockpiles and can
adequately protect your Industry.
Laws impact Available IC, as do Ministers, some Techs,
and Combat damage as well.
B2.0 Demand for Resources
Each IC (basically, each unit of factories) requires a certain amount of Resources to operate: 2 Energy, 1 Metal, and
1/2 Rare Materials.
You will need to maintain stockpiles of these Resources
so they are ready when needed. If, for any reason, the stockpile of Resources is reduced to below what you need on a
daily basis, your factories will begin to shut down, and your
Available IC will be reduced to a point that is sustainable by
the available Resources. As you put more Resources into
your stockpiles, whether through Trade or the opening of
more Convoy Routes and so on, your IC will again be available to you.
B3.0 Resources & Trade
Resources can only be bought with Money, which you can
acquire through Consumer Goods Production or from other
Trade Agreements. See D8.0 for more information about
how to set up Trade Deals.
International Trade requires shipping to carry the goods
back and forth, which means the Resources you Trade for
can be attacked by enemy Submarines and Raiders during
wartime. The buyer is always required to carry the Trade on
their ships.
There is an exception: if two countries are on the same
continent, they can Trade with each other overland.
B4.0 Debt
During wartime, you have the ability to begin going into
Debt, a Decision you can choose to make or not, and begin
buying things on the world market with War Credit.
This is a two-part decision as it is a Diplomatic exchange
and not a Policy Decision. Both countries must agree in order to bargain with Credit.
B5.0 Special Comintern Rule
Comintern countries can give Resources to another
Comintern country as a gift (i.e. trading for free). At the
start, this is an incidental rule, because the only other
Comintern countries are landlocked and on a different
B6.0 Oil & Fuel
Instead of just having to worry about oil supplies, HOI 3
has a more realistic system for Fuel which requires the
refining of oil. You must first obtain oil and bring it home,
at which point your country’s refining capacity will turn
the crude oil into fuel for your war machine. You may
also convert Energy Resources (i.e. Coal) to Crude Oil,
using a relatively inefficient process which can be made
more efficient through the discovery of new Conversion
Technologies. Improving your Refinery Technologies will
enable you to Convert Oil to Fuel more quickly. Your rate
of Conversion from Oil to Fuel is based on your IC, modified
by your Technology in related Techs. You may Trade for Oil
or Fuel with other countries.
Ships, vehicles and other machines require refined Fuel
rather than Crude Oil to operate. If the units, motorised or
mechanised vehicles in need of Fuel are not directly connected by Supply Line with the Capital, then a Convoy must
carry the Fuel to a Supply Depot near them. See Section H
for more detail on Convoys and Depots.
B7.0 Money
Money is generated as a side effect of your Industrial
Capacity and the production of Consumer Goods. Money
is also acquired on the world market in return for Trading
away your Resource surplus. For this reason, countries are
expected to build up reserves of Money during peacetime.
Money is used to purchase things, such as Resources on the
world market (Trade). If Money runs out during wartime, a
country can make a Decision to go into Debt and begin buying things on “war credit.”
B8.0 Consumer Goods
Consumer goods represent the many things regular people
find necessary for everyday life – food, gasoline, household
utilities, etc. During wartime, the people are generally more
understanding of tough times and have a reduced demand
for Consumer Goods. Even then, it’s necessary to keep a
steady supply of these products available, or else the people
will begin to become dissatisfied, causing Dissent to rise and
National Unity to suffer.
There is a minimum level of Consumer Goods you must
produce, which is below the level at which you begin getting
Dissent. However, if you want to avoid or reduce Dissent, you
must produce a higher level of Consumer Goods by using the
sliders in the Production Interface. The level of demand for
Consumer Goods can be modified through Educational or
Industrial Policy Laws, Ministers, Government Ideology, and
whether or not you are at War. If your country has lost a lot
of its Victory Points in war – if you’re losing – your citizens’
demand for Consumer Goods will also be lower.
All military units also require a certain amount of
Consumer Goods during peacetime, though this need ends
with full Mobilization, as the needs of the units move away
from domestic peacetime concerns and toward more purely
military needs. A higher Neutrality rating lessens your Units’
need for Consumer Goods.
B9.0 War Exhaustion (WE)
Countries which have been at war for a long time will have
increased levels of War Exhaustion (WE), which makes them
less willing to continue. Things such as combat losses, the
loss of territory, and Strategic Warfare will impact the country’s War Exhaustion. This has no effect during war, but
once peace is made, countries with high War Exhaustion will
be less willing to join another war. WE is expressed as an
increase to the country’s Neutrality value, once the country
is no longer at war. This WE-influenced Neutrality value will
reduce over time until WE is gone.
B10.0 Mobilization
B10.1 Peacetime Mobilization
There are restrictions upon how quickly, and in what ways,
you can prepare for War before War is actually declared.
Democracies will have an especially hard time explaining
why they are taking such actions without valid reasons.
These reasons may come in the form of valid international Threats, which is represented by the Threat values
(see D3.0). As the Threat to your country from potential
enemies grows, you may have more freedom in how aggressively you prepare for war. That freedom is reflected in
terms of lower Neutrality values. Otherwise, you may have
to bide your time and set priorities that will enable you to
prepare for war without really having all of the tools you
would like at your disposal.
A Note About Gearing – The term “gearing” has had a
long life in Paradox games, and it’s important to explain how
this term has changed in HOI 3. Production “gearing,” as it
was used in HOI 2, as a bonus for standardizing factory production, no longer exists. This concept has been replaced
by the concept of Practical Knowledge in Tech fields, which
gives you basically the same benefit but in a more permanent and valuable way.
B10.2 Industrial Gearing – War Economy
An economy can generally be considered to be a “civilian
economy,” on “war footing,” or somewhere in-between.
Some Governments (Fascist, for instance) might end up
converting part of their economy to “war footing” even before they’re at war. Other Governments might be at war but
unwilling to fully commit their economy to that war.
The process of committing to a war is called Gearing.
You can affect the Mobilization of your civilian economy
through Economic Laws, choosing to move to a more
Mobilized economy. You can also impact this somewhat
through Industrial Policy Laws. Your Economic Laws may be
limited by Government type and Threat level. If the Threat
goes down, so must your Gearing policies, or else you must
accept a penalty to your National Unity. Some Economic or
Civil Laws are only allowed if you are at War, depending on
your type of Government or if you are under serious Threat.
Your country’s population will expect you to end your
Mobilization once peace is achieved. If you do not, Dissent
will rise. Certain options, such as Laws you may have set,
may have to be undone in order to reflect your non-wartime
status. You may also select Demobilize from the Politics
Interface, if you had previously Mobilized your Reserves.
B10.3 Reserves (Units)
Producing military Divisions such as Reserves can help
build your military potential without quickly increasing the
expenses needed to maintain them. When you Mobilize,
these Units will build their Strength so that they will hopefully be ready. The peacetime cost of Reserves depends on
your Conscription Law.
You must manage your country’s Industrial Production
through the Production Interface and the Production Queue,
the list of currently progressing projects (see A5.4).
C1.0 Manpower
When Producing units, there is not only an economic demand but also a requirement to have sufficient Manpower
to populate the unit. Manpower is generated as a Resource
from every Controlled province, though there is less from
conquered provinces than from your Owned provinces
which you still Control. Overseas provinces, even if Owned,
provide less Manpower than those on the same continent
as your Capital.
Manpower is considered a pool which can be used to
produce units, and is thereafter “contained” by those units.
However, units will also “leak” Manpower in terms of Attrition
through routine turnover, or losses due to sickness or the
environment. As such, each unit has a monthly demand on
Manpower in the form of Reinforcements.Manpower is impacted by Mobilization and Conscription Laws.
C2.0 Unit Production Interfaces
C2.1 Division Construction Interface
New Land Units must be built as Divisions comprising
between two and five Brigades, with a minimum starting
Manpower of 5,000. One-Brigade “Divisions” are constructed using the Brigade Attachment Interface, and these
will start at less than the 5,000 minimum, but cannot be
considered a Division until they meet that qualification. At
the start, your country will have a limit on the number of
Brigades you can have per Division, but increased Tech may
allow you to increase this number.
Brigades are either Combat Brigades or Support
Brigades. You will generally want each Division to have at
least one Combat Brigade. Support Brigades remain behind
the lines to offer assistance to the Combat Brigades.
Across the top of the Interface are listed the different
Combat and Organisational values, and each Brigade has a
number listed for each value representing its ability in that area.
For an explanation of these values see the chart above in C2.0.
As you click on Brigades to select them to build, they
will appear in the Division Composition box to the right,
which will show how many Brigades you’ve selected and the
number you are allowed. The box next to it will show the cumulative stats for the Division you’ve proposed. Clicking the
“x” on a Brigade in the Division Composition box will remove
that Brigade from the planned Division.
Above the Division Composition box will be a picture of
the Brigade type you have selected, as well as a blue icon
next to it that will show what Practical Technology will increase as a result of the Brigade being produced.
Remember that Divisions which have a combined
Softness rating of between 33 and 66 percent will get a
Combined Arms bonus in Combat.
If you would prefer to use preset Divisions, you will see
a variety of Templates at the top-right of the screen. You
can select one of these Templates to build a standardized
Division of the type that your country might normally build.
You can also modify an empty or existing Template and use
Save Template to hold that design for later use.
At the bottom-right of your screen, you’ll see an indicator of how long the proposed Division will take to build,
and its IC Cost and Manpower Cost. You can choose to build
more than one identical unit by selecting either Serial, which
will start the identical unit as soon as the first one finishes
construction, or Parallel, which causes the number of units
selected to all enter the Production Queue at the same time.
If you choose Parallel, the IC Cost and Manpower Cost will
change to reflect the total order being placed. If you choose
Serial, then the Build Time will change to reflect the time
necessary to build all of the ordered units.
You may check the As Reserves box to build the unit
or units that you’re ordering as Reserve units (see C4.0).
When completed, they will appear with the restrictions of
a Reserve Division.
Brigades may be detached and re-attached to another
Division after they are constructed, by using the Reorganise
and Merge buttons. By using the Brigade Attachment button
on the Production Interface, you may also build individual
Brigades for attachment in this way.
When done, you can either Close without saving the unit
build or Start Production with the buttons at the bottom.
C2.2 Brigade Attachment Interface
This is where you build individual Brigades, which can either be attached to an existing Division or may operate on
their own; Brigades operating on their own can be risky, but
it is sometimes useful. It might be easier to do it this way
than to build a Division from scratch. The main portion of
the Brigade Attachment Interface is identical to the chart
described for the Division Construction Interface.
Simply select the Brigade type you want to construct,
and then choose whether you want to build more than one
in Serial or Parallel. The IC Cost, Manpower Cost, and Build
Time will be displayed, and you can also choose to build the
Brigade as a Reserve unit (see C4.0). The Unit values are the
same as for Land Units (see chart in C2.0).
When done, you can either Close without saving the unit
build or Start Production with the buttons at the bottom.
C2.3 Airwing Construction Interface
This Interface is very similar to the Division Construction
Interface, except that there are no templates, because each
Airwing is comprised of only one type of aircraft; the exact
model for each type changes as your Technology changes.
Across the top of the Interface are listed the different
Combat and Organisational values, and each Airwing has a
number listed for each value representing its ability in that area.
For an explanation of these values see the chart above in C2.0.
When you select any type of aircraft, you will see its
specifications listed in a box in the lower-left corner of your
screen. A picture of the specific airplane type will be shown,
along with its name or designation. Below the name, you will
see the Technology level of each of the plane’s component
types. For instance, an aircraft being built in 1941 might
have “Model 1941” component types for its Engine, Fuel
Tank, Airframe, and so on. However, it might also have an
advanced model of Airsearch Radar and an obsolete model
of Armament, depending on your levels of Technology in
each of those categories.
At the bottom-right of your screen, you’ll see an indicator of how long the proposed air unit will take to build, as well
as its IC Cost and Manpower Cost. You can again choose to
build more than one identical unit by selecting either Serial or
Parallel. The stats for costs or build time will change to reflect
the numbers you’ve chosen. Below these stats will also be a
blue icon of an airplane, indicating which Technology will receive a Practical boost when the unit is Produced.
When you’re done, you can use the buttons at the bottom to
either Close without saving the unit build, or Start Production.
C2.4 Flotilla (Naval) Construction Interface
The Flotilla Construction Interface is like the Airwing
Construction Interface in appearance, but its function is more
like the Division Construction Interface in that you have much
control over modifications to the ships you build.
Across the top of the Interface are listed the different
Combat and Organisational values, and each Ship has a number
listed for each value representing its ability in that area. For an
explanation of these values see the chart above in C2.0.
When you select a Ship type from the chart, a “reference
copy” of the Ship in question is moved to a line below the
chart so you can see its values more readily as you modify
the Ship. As in the Airwing Construction Interface, there
is a picture of the Ship, its name and Class (class being a
specific model of ship), and beneath these will be a listing of modifiable components. As your Technology levels
increase, it opens up new and more capable components
which can be added to newly constructed Ships. In certain
circumstances, there may be a cost savings for using a more
obsolete component. This is your choice. Some component
lines may be grayed out, indicating that there are no model
alternatives for that component.
Below the Model Selection screen is a box that asks if
you want to “Add CAG,” though this is grayed out for all ships
other than Aircraft Carriers. This refers to Carrier Air Groups
(see C3.0) which you can choose to build and assign to your
Aircraft Carriers. To do so, just check the box, and the total
number of CAG units the Carrier can carry will be added to
your Production Queue when the order is approved.
Keep in mind that although cruiser-size ships and above
represent individual ships, Destroyers, Submarines, and
Transports actually represent several of those types of
ship, organised into squadrons, flotillas or subrons to work
together as one unit.
At the bottom-right of the screen, you’ll see an indicator
of how long the proposed ship will take to build, its IC Cost,
and the Manpower Cost. You can again choose to build more
than one identical unit by selecting either Serial or Parallel.
The stats for costs or build time will change to reflect the
numbers you’ve chosen. Below these stats will be a blue icon
of a ship, which indicates which Technology will receive a
Practical boost when the ship is Produced.
When you’re done, you can use the buttons at the bottom to either Close without saving the unit build, or Start
C2.5 Installation Construction Interfaces
Each of these buttons allows you to construct one point
of these items for placement in a province of your choice.
The Installations can also be built by clicking their icons in
the Province Interface, which will place the item into the
Production Queue. The Installation will automatically appear in the province once completed.
C3.0 Carrier Air
Groups (CAGs)
The Carrier Air Group represents the aircraft squadrons assigned to an Aircraft Carrier. Different Carriers have different capacities for CAGs. Each CAG has more than one type
of plane assigned, representing the various interceptor and
tactical bombing capabilities of a full Carrier complement.
When you choose to build CAGs for an Aircraft Carrier, the
Production system automatically assigns the proper number of CAG Airwings the Carrier can carry. A CAG does not
need to be Produced with the Carrier – you may build a CAG
independently, through the regular Airwing Construction
The CAG exists independently of the Carrier – it operates in most ways just like a regular Air Unit. It is displayed
in its own section at the bottom of the list of ships in your
Flotilla while it is operating as a CAG. It may also operate
from Airbases like any other Air Unit.
C4.0 Reserve Divisions
Divisions built as Reserves will start at a fraction of their
maximum Strength when produced, and they will remain
there until you increase your Mobilization level. Once you
begin to Mobilize your economy, this level will gradually
increase. Each Mobilization step will add strength to your
Reserve unit’s total on a staggered scale, increasing as you
get closer to full Mobilization. At full Economic Mobilization,
your Reserves will still not be at 100%, which won’t occur
until you Mobilize your army using the Mobilize button on
the Politics Interface. See B10.0 for information about
Reserve Divisions will also consume Supplies according
to their percentage of Strength: at 50% Strength they’re
using 50% of the Supplies a normal non-Reserve unit would
C5.0 Placing Produced Units
Constructed units may only be placed in the home country,
but you can set the Theatre to which they are assigned. As
soon as they are placed, the Theatre will take over moving
the units toward the front lines.
Newly constructed Units may be placed in any Owned
province. Simply click on the Alert button, which will appear
in the upper-left corner of your screen to indicate you have
Units to be placed, and then left-click on the province where
you want the Unit. Production items which are assigned to
a Theatre will be automatically placed with that Theatre.
Naval units operate the same way, but must be placed in a
province containing a Naval Base. Likewise, Air units must
be placed in a province containing an Airbase.
• Allies – Countries who are Members of the Allies are
protected by a universal mutual assistance treaty. If any
Member of the Allies is attacked, all Members consider
it an attack upon all of them and are automatically conD1.0 Faction
sidered at war with the attacker or the attacking Faction.
There are three axes on the triangular political specAllied Faction countries require more Consumer Goods
during peacetime, but less during wartime (because
trum: Allies (i.e. the “Western Democracies”), Axis, and
their people feel a civic duty to support the war).
Comintern. Each of these alliances, historically, was
“philosophically opposed” to each of the others. While that
• Axis – Axis Members have the ability to Declare Limited
War upon another country. They may attack another
model was distorted by “Realpolitik” considerations during
the 1930s and 1940s (i.e. the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), it
country without inviting their Faction Members to join
works well enough for what HOI 3 is trying to simulate. We
them, which will also allow them to keep the territory
refer to these alliances
for themselves and
as Factions.
not share in the victory
spoils. If the country
may choose to “Align
gets into trouble, they
may still issue a Call
to Arms, which invites
toward one of these
their Faction Allies to
great alliances. Later
join and help them.
on, countries may be
Axis countries also
invited to join a Faction
have fewer restricas a Member. Only a few
tions on when they can
countries are members Argentina claims a Chilean province as its own, as shown by hatch- Declare War, and get a
bonus when fighting in
of Factions at the start marks in Diplomatic Mapmode, as well as by the roundel at the
bottom of the Province Interface.
of the game in 1936.
enemy-Owned provBeing Aligned to a Faction is not the same as being a
inces which are Cores for the Axis country.
• Comintern – Because Comintern countries are so
Member of the Faction. Membership is acquired when the
closely joined Ideologically, they pool their Resources
Alliance Leader invites a country to join the Faction. Once
you are a member of a Faction, your country will no longer
for the common good and are able to Trade Resources
Drift on the Ideological Spectrum.
with other Comintern Members without using Money
When one Member declares war on a country, all
(i.e. they can “gift” Resources to another Member).
Members are invited to join that war. The AI will take these
Comintern Faction Spies get a bonus to Effectiveness.
penalties into consideration when deciding whether to join
the war or not. The AI will also inform you, if you’re the one
D2.0 Cores
Core provinces are land whose ownership is a matter of
declaring the war, whether some countries in your Alliance
some dispute between one or more countries. These are ofare unlikely to join you. A country that chooses not to join a
ten the flashpoints for conflict, and may play an important
war at the beginning may later change its mind.
role in sparking World War II in your game, as they did hisD1.1 Faction Special Abilities
torically. A Core is essentially a claim to rightful ownership
Each Faction has a “special ability,” which is something that
over another country’s province (“Core” is used in two ways
– a province can “be” a Core of another country, and that
it alone can do, by nature of the kind of government it has,
country can “have” or “hold” a Core in another country).
and helps it to stand out from the other Factions.
You may use your Diplomatic Influence (Diplomacy Points)
to perform Diplomatic Actions. There are other important
Diplomatic considerations.
If you examine the Diplomatic Mapmode, you will see
any Cores you have on provinces outside of your own borders. A country with a Core in another country will have
more hostility toward that country. Diplomatic Relations
will also be lower between the two, and they will have increased levels of Threat, making it easier to Declare War.
If you conquer a country through War, you will be able to
integrate those Core territories into your own country once
Peace is negotiated.
D3.0 Threat (Belligerence)
& Neutrality
A country has a Threat value which affects nearby countries
according to the size of the Threatening country and their
proximity to the target country. They will react, negatively
or positively, to the Threat you pose.
Threat affects Neutrality through hostile actions against
others, making a country’s population and Government
more willing to consider war, which is the trigger, or threshold, consideration for many Laws and Diplomatic Actions,
including Declarations of War, joining Alliances, etc.
Any country can declare war upon another country
which has a Threat value beyond its own Neutrality.
Additionally, Fascist countries (Axis Faction) may declare
war on any country once their own country’s Threat level
passes a certain heightened level (i.e. they recognize that
they’re threatening and decide to use it to their advantage).
If a country performs a hostile act, that act has an effect
upon the country’s Threat value, and that action’s effects
are immediately felt around the world.
Releasing a country as a Puppet State is seen by some
countries as “benevolent,” and doing so may reduce your
Threat level.
haps hoping to eventually make them part of their Faction.
This competition, and the resulting position of each country
along the triangular political spectrum, is called Alignment.
A move toward one Faction will automatically move it away
from the others.
Countries will tend to Drift in the midst of the triangular
spectrum as the result of competing Diplomatic initiatives,
as well as other factors. Those other factors include the
tendency of a country to be repelled by a neighboring major
power’s Alignment because it may feel threatened, but it
may also gravitate toward it for the same reason.
The major determining factors for Alignment Drift are
Diplomatic Actions, where good attracts and bad repels;
Proximity, in that a country may feel threatened by a powerful neighbor; and Government Ideology (i.e. if a country’s
Government is a Democracy, it will tend to gravitate toward
the Allies). Proximity is measured not just by location, but
also by size.
D4.0 Diplomatic Relations
Every country has a Diplomatic Relation value with every
other country, which determines how well they like each
other. This value may come into play when considering
whether to accept Diplomatic offers, such as proposed
Trade agreements.
D4.1 Revanchism
Revanchism is the desire to retake a territory once claimed
by your own country, and was historically a leading cause of
World War II. Revanchism may also affect Alignment Drift. A
country which has Cores on another country will automatically dislike that country, and will begin moving away from
its Alliance.
D5.0 Alignment Drift
During the game, each Faction will compete with the others
to try to attract other countries toward their philosophy, per-
A country’s choice of Foreign Minister will also affect how
quickly it drifts in a certain Ideological direction.
Threat (or Belligerence) also impacts Drift. If a country
is Threatening, then other countries not of that country’s
Ideology will fear that country and move away from it until
a “tipping point” is reached. Once that point is reached,
their increased fear from a high Threat level begins drawing
those countries towards it instead, as they’ve decided that
resistance is futile.
D5.1 Influence
Members of Factions have the ability to Diplomatically
Influence other countries toward their Faction. This will have
a cost in Diplomatic Points, like other Diplomatic Actions.
This can be a means of changing or slowing shifting a country’s Drift away from the Faction, too.
D5.2 Aligning to Faction
A country may choose to “Align to Faction” (a Diplomatic
Action with the Faction leader), which is a way of influencing
your own country’s Drift in the direction you want.
D6.0 Diplomatic Actions
D6.1 Friendly Actions
Various “friendly actions” allow you to try to shape the world
you live in, even as you’re leading toward war. It can help
you choose who will end up on your side in the war, and who
might avoid joining the other side. It also secures Resources
which may help your economy survive the conflict.
Your ability to perform friendly Diplomatic Actions will be
limited if you are at war with a country. Additionally, only
the Faction Leader can make peace.
• Send Expeditionary Force – This allows you to send
an Expeditionary Force (part of your army, navy or air
force) to be commanded by an Allied country. You must
have an Alliance with that country, and it must be at
War. Once you’ve sent an Expeditionary Force, you can
ask for it back, after a slight delay.
• Offer Alliance – You offer to bind your countries together in a promise to go to war to protect each other
if attacked.
• Non-Aggression Pact – You promise not to attack
each other. It’s just a piece of paper, but it offers some
peace of mind. Dissent penalties follow if you, in fact,
later attack.
• Proclaim Guarantee – The Guarantor offers to Declare
War if the country is attacked, in which case there will be
lessened restrictions for the option to be available.
• Ask for Transit Rights – Ask to be allowed to move your
military units across the other country’s land. This may
allow you to reach a country with which you’re at war.
• Give Transit Rights – You will allow that country to
move its military forces across your own territory.
• Influence Nation – This allows you to spend a portion of
your Diplomatic Points to try to Influence another country’s Drift in a way that brings it closer to your Faction.
This is only allowed to be used by Faction Members.
The one-time effect of this Action may not seem like
much, but persistent gradual Influencing of a nation
may change its whole Ideological orbit, and alter the
flow of history.
• Align/Invite to Faction – Choose to Align your country
with one of the major Factions, which causes your country to Drift Ideologically in that direction. The Faction
leader may ask another country to join as a Member of
their Faction. This is the only way for a country to become a new Member of any Faction: it must be Invited.
Invite to Faction requires that the Member’s Neutrality
be low enough it feels compelled to build an Alliance for
wartime purposes.
• Buy Production License – This allows you to approach
a friendly or neutral country and ask if you may build a
type of Unit or Technology which is beyond your own
Technological ability. This may allow small countries,
for instance, to build Fighters, which they might not
otherwise have the ability to do because of their limited
Research budget.
• Allow Debt – You agree to allow a country to purchase
Resources with Money they don’t have (i.e. you’re
loaning them the Money to make the purchase). These
loans are “expected” to be paid back, but realistically
may never be as the game might be over before much
attempt is made to pay them back.
• Offer Trade Agreement – You are either offering to
Trade Money for Resources the other country has, or
you’re offering to sell your own Resources in exchange
for the other country’s Money. See D8.0 for more information about how to set up Trade Agreements.
Note: Liberate Country – This action is not listed as a
possible Diplomatic Action. Instead, it is accomplished
through the Politics Interface, and more information about
the conditions and procedure are given in F8.0. It is noted
here because it is a “friendly action” and many players will
look for it here.
D6.2 Hostile Actions
• Declare War – The obvious result of this Action is that
you end up at War with the other country. There are
some strict requirements on most countries before they
can Declare War. The Threat between you and the other
nation needs to be higher than your neutrality.
• Declare Limited War (Axis Only) – The same as Declare
War, except that the declaring country’s Allies are not
required, or even asked, to join the war.
• Call to Arms (Axis Only) – This action calls for a
Declaration of War from previously uninvolved Allies
into a Limited War, which will make it a general war. This
would be chosen if, for instance, the war proved too hot
for the initial country to handle by itself.
• Embargo – You refuse to Trade with this country.
Affects your Puppets too.
D7.0 Alliances
Alliances can only be offered to or from countries whose
Neutrality is below a certain level. They must be expecting
war, or else they wouldn’t need to form an Alliance. Alliances
obligate you to come to the aid of that country if they are
attacked, with certain exceptions.
D8.0 Trade Agreements
Selecting Offer a Trade Agreement opens the Trade
Agreement Interface, which allows you to select a Resource
you need or have, and Trade it with another country in return
for Money. You may not Trade one type of Resource for another, but only for Money.
Use the sliders for each Resource to set a quantity. Any
number of Resources, coming in or going out, may be selected to be part of the Trade Agreement, and the cost to the
Trade partner in Money is calculated. The quantity of each
is measured in units per day. Clicking on the Reset icon (the
turned arrow) will reset that slider to zero.
The selections you have made will display underneath
the sliders in the format, “We offer ‘x country’ to trade ‘x’
per day for ‘y’ per day.” Below this running counter, you
will see your Foreign Office’s assessment of how likely the
country you’re dealing with will be to accept the deal you
propose. As you make the Agreement more attractive to
the other country, this estimate will improve, though some
Agreements will remain “Impossible” no matter how attrac-
tive you make them. At the very bottom, two buttons ask
you to either Decline and give up on the Trade Agreement
or Accept. The Trade Agreement is proposed whenever
Accept is clicked, and the other country will probably respond within a few days.
Once Trade Agreement offers are made, there is a time
limit for them to be Accepted. If the offer is not accepted
within a time period of several weeks, the offer is assumed
to be automatically Declined. You may also cancel a Trade
Agreement later, by clicking the “x” to the right of the Trade
Agreement in the Production Interface.
D9.0 Expeditionary Forces
In certain circumstances, you may send an Expeditionary
Force into another country in order to assist with an ongoing War. This may be a Limited War, or it may be your limited
part in a larger War. Sending Expeditionary Forces differs
from regular Unit operations because you are delegating
command of that Unit to another Allied country.
You must be Allied with the country to which you’re
sending an Expeditionary Force, but that does not necessarily mean you are obligated to join their war directly. There
are circumstances where, even if you are already at War,
you can send Expeditionary Forces in order to allow your
Ally to integrate your forces into their command structure;
historically, Britain did this for France in 1939 and 1940.
Expeditionary Forces are a Diplomatic Action. When you
select that Action, the Expeditionary Force Interface will appear. You have three tabs to choose from: Army, Air, and
Navy. Click on whichever single unit you wish to send. You
may send one Unit per week.
The British decide to send their army from Baghdad
to aid the French in Syria. Clicking the arrow next to
Palestine would allow you to send individual divisions
under its command. One level of command (Division,
Corps, etc.) at a time may be transferred to an Ally’s
A “single unit” can be at any level of command, and so
you may assign an entire Theatre Command as easily as a
single Division, with the limit of one assignment per week.
The default view will show the higher-level Headquarters.
Headquarters with smaller units under their command will
feature a darker green arrow next to the unit. If you want
to send a smaller Unit than that, click the arrow, and any
units assigned to that Headquarters will be displayed. You
may then select any of those units, or click another green
arrow to reveal further, smaller Units under the command
of that Headquarters.
You will be asked to confirm the order to send the unit
by clicking “Accept.” If you decide not to send the unit, then
click “Decline.”
Once a Unit has been assigned as an Expeditionary
Force, it will be controlled (moved, sent into Combat, etc.)
by the other country’s AI. The Unit Interface will indicate
the Unit is an Expeditionary Force not under your control. If
you want to ask for the Unit to be returned to your control,
you must ask for it back through another Diplomatic Action.
There will be a 30-day delay so that your Ally can make arrangements. After 30 days, the Expeditionary Force status
will end and you will regain control.
You may also accept Expeditionary Forces from other
countries, if you are in a position to do so. You will have to
Accept the offer when it’s sent, and then you will take command of that Unit as if it’s yours, until and unless the other
country asks for it back. You will also have a 30-day grace
period before having to return the units.
You are not required to have a Military Access treaty
to send an Expeditionary Force; only an Alliance. The Unit
should be able to move to a coastline for recovery, should
you Revoke its Expeditionary Force status. It won’t be able
to return once more unless you either send it back as an
Expeditionary Force or ask for Military Access.
E1.0 Technology
Concept in HOI 3
Hearts of Iron III uses the concept of Leadership points,
which represent intellectual talent. These points may be
directed toward Research and Technology, among other
Researchers do not work on an entire production
model of a machine or unit at once. Instead, they research
Components of the final product, which will separately alter
the Combat values and other statistics of the final product.
As you acquire new elements for each category of technology (say, a light tank gun or a light tank engine), you get
closer to the point where you can produce that new piece
of equipment or implement that warfare theory. Meanwhile,
incremental improvements to existing units may result.
Eventually, upgrades may introduce older units to the use
of new Technology and tactics.
Each piece of Technology has a “start year,” which
means if you develop that Tech after that point in time, you
suffer no penalty for doing so. If your Research moves faster
than it did historically, you will incur a penalty for trying to
achieve a technology that is “ahead of its time.”
E2.0 Theory vs. Practical
Hearts of Iron III separates Theoretical and Practical
Knowledge as being distinct from each other. Research creates Theoretical Knowledge, which helps with new and advanced concepts. Practical Knowledge, on the other hand, is
accumulated experience in working with and implementing
Practical Knowledge cannot be gained through
Research; it can only be gained from making use of the
Theoretical Knowledge you’ve gained. Therefore, you will
need to either Produce units which use these Technologies,
or use those units in Combat, in order to build your Practical
Knowledge. Preferably both.
At the bottom of the Technology Interface, you will
see existing Theoretical and Practical Knowledge values.
Theoretical Knowledge (Theories and Doctrines) are shown
in green while Practical Knowledge Techs are shown in blue.
When you Research a Tech, you’re drawing about 30%
from Theory and 70% from Practical. The higher each of
these values is, the quicker you will be able to Research the
Technology, and you can see the impact of each Technology
in tooltips attached to each Research item.
E3.0 Decay of Knowledge
If you’ve developed a Technology, but you don’t build upon
that Knowledge, it will Decay over time: scientists or engineers who are involved will move on to other things and factories will be re-tooled for other purposes. Both Theoretical
and Practical Knowledge may suffer from Decay. Some
Ministers, however, enable you to reduce Decay for certain
Techs. Units used in Combat will have less Decay for Techs
they employ.
E4.0 Research
Immediately below the Leadership sliders, you will see
any Technologies (often referred to as “Techs”) you have
selected to Research. This is the Research Queue. The indicator just above the list shows how many projects you have
selected to Research, compared to the number of projects
possible to Research at one time with the Leadership you’ve
allocated to Research. Don’t worry; if there are more projects than you can do at once, the others will begin running
as soon as one of the prior projects is completed.
To the right of the Leadership sliders, you will see a row
of tabs displaying different categories of Technology. You
only see those Technologies contained under the header
you have selected at the top (the list of categories, ranging
from Infantry Technologies to Air Technologies). Clicking
each tab will show a different set of specific Technologies,
some of which are further grouped into clusters of related
Techs. Prerequisites for Research are indicated by arrows
pointing from the prerequisite Techs to the more advanced
Techs which rely upon it.
On each Technology’s tab, you will see the name of the
Tech. A number of icons will indicate what categories of
Practical Knowledge (blue icons) and Theoretical Knowledge
(green icons) will improve Research for that Tech.
A number inside a black circle will indicate the relative
difficulty of the Research program, with green numbers
being the easiest and red numbers indicating long-term
Research projects.
If there is no number and there is a bright green checkmark on the top-right corner of the Tech, it means you have
already successfully Researched the Tech. The alreadyResearched Techs will be in beige. Green-coloured Techs
are ones you have met the prerequisites to Research. Graycoloured Techs are still beyond your reach. These colour
codes are further explained by the date on the right of each
Tech tab, which is the year when the Tech was historically
achieved. If you try to Research something years ahead of
its time, such as Atomic Techs in the 1930s, then you will
face penalties to Research time.
Techs with a light green bar extending partially underneath the Tech’s name have been partially Researched,
and subsequent Researching will pick up where previous
Research left off.
Click on the Tech in order to select it, and more detailed
information about it will appear in the slot at the bottom of
the screen. If this is what you want to Research, click the
Start Research button if it is coloured brown, and it will enter
the Research Queue. If it is gray, you have not met the prerequisites (its Tech listing above should also be gray).
On the far left of the Technology Interface, underneath
the Leadership sliders, is the Research Queue, which works
much like the Production Queue. It shows each Tech you’re
Researching and the expected completion date. Displayed
at the top of the Queue is the number of selected projects and the highest possible number of simultaneously
Researchable projects, which should match the number
of Leadership Points allocated to Research. If more Techs
are chosen than Leadership Points will cover, some of the
Techs in the Queue will have to wait. You can prioritize the
Techs using the up and down arrow buttons, as with the
Production Queue.
At the very bottom of the screen is a representation of all
the Practical and Theoretical Knowledge held by your country, as well as your country’s Aptitudes with each, organised
by category. These Techs will assist either the speed of
Research (for Theoretical) or the speed of Production (for
For each level of Technology you advance, you’re likely
to face slightly increased costs to build and operate the
equipment you’ve researched.
E4.1 Field Testing
Using units in Combat will earn you Practical Knowledge in
the fields represented within that unit (i.e. using Infantry will
build up Small Arms Tech), because you are learning things
about your Technology as you put it into practice.
E5.0 Technology Upgrades
As your Technology improves, you will be able to build more
advanced weapons or pieces of equipment, and you can replace the older equipment your armies are using in the field.
You may allocate a percentage of your IC toward Upgrades.
Tooltips in the Production Interface will explain how many
units need to be Upgraded and how long it will take.
Upgraded Techs generally affect one or more statistics for whichever units utilize that Tech. For instance,
upgrading to a new level of Mortar will improve an Infantry
unit’s Toughness while Machine Gun Techs improve
When a unit is Upgraded, it takes on all the qualities of a
newer unit, as though it had been produced with that newer
equipment. For example, if you’ve just developed a Me-109F,
that plane will eventually replace all of your Me-109E models
if you’ve allocated IC for Upgrades.
of a single Brigade (or Airwing, Ship, etc.) at the other country’s Tech level. You cannot license Capital Ships or Nuclear
To do this, go to the Diplomacy Interface, select
the country you want to deal with, and then click “Buy
Production License” from the list of Diplomatic Actions. You
will see a list of unit types that country has which are more
advanced than what you can build. Tooltips explain the unit
stats. A default price is suggested, but you can offer more
if you want to make it more likely that the other country will
accept. Licenses can be purchased for more than one unit
at the same time by using the sliders for Serial or Parallel
Once the deal is concluded, the items you’ve Licensed
will automatically appear in your Production Queue, but you
must still pay IC to build them.
Buying Production Licenses will actually increase your
Practical Knowledge in the area of the units being Produced,
which might make it easier for you to build similar Models on
your own later on.
E7.0 Technology Espionage
Not only can you assign Spies to discover what Technologies
other countries are Researching, but it is also possible to assign Spies to sabotage other countries’ Research projects.
Naturally, the same can be done to you.
E5.1 Ship Upgrades
Ships are in a unique situation in HOI 3. You will Produce a
ship of a certain Class (i.e. Bismarck Class or Alaska Class),
but this ship will contain a set of components. These components do not necessarily need to all be of the same level
of advancement (i.e. you may have a ship with 1918-level
armour but 1934-level engines).
Researching new Naval Techs will later allow you to build
improved Classes of ships. However, only certain components of existing ships and ship Classes can be upgraded
with new Technology. These include Radar, Anti-Aircraft,
and Anti-Submarine weapons.
E5.2 Upgrades of Other Technology
Certain non-unit Technologies can be upgraded as well. For
instance, there are Technologies that allow Radar Stations
to operate as Signals Intercepts Stations, while other
Techs improve the Efficiency of land-based Anti-Aircraft
Installations and allow the building of Forts.
E6.0 Licensing Technology
For a cost, a country can negotiate with another country
and agree to “License Build” a unit type at the Tech Level
of the other country. A License allows for the construction
F1.0 Governments
F1.2 Ministers
Every country has a Government – a set of leaders who lead
their country. In HOI 3, that Government is represented by
you, the Ministers and military Leaders you put in place, as
well as the Decisions, Laws, and other choices you make
over the course of the game.
While you – the player – are quite secure and not liable
to be replaced, that’s not always true of your country’s actual Government and the Ministers who are in power. You
may only choose Ministers who are aligned with the political
Party currently in power in your country, which you do not
have total control over.
Each country has a ruling political Party. This Party exists at the start of the game, and presumably will remain until an Election, Coup, Revolution, or some other game event
causes it to lose power.
When a Party loses power, another Party takes its place,
and your choice of Ministers may change - or it may not,
depending on the type of change.
One way you will shape your country is by choosing which
Ministers are in charge of different parts of your government. Every country has 10 Minister positions, each controlling a part of your Government. Each Minister has an
ideology, which may or may not need to match your government philosophy, a hidden loyalty rating, and various traits
that depend upon which government position that person
is assigned to. They each also have a hidden “start date,”
which dictates when they are available to be employed.
Each Minister’s Traits determine which parts of your
military, economy, production, and such are affected, either
positively or negatively, by their assignment. Your choice of
Foreign Minister, for instance, primarily affects into which
Ideological direction your country will Drift. Click on the
Minister’s “Replace” button to see what your choices are.
Click “Select” to choose that Minister, or cancel.
Because of the open-ended nature of the HOI 3 program, a wide variety of ideologies may be represented by
each country’s pool of Ministers. For instance, if Germany
becomes a Socialist country rather than Fascist, there will
be Socialist Ministers to fill those positions.
F1.1 Ideology
Each Government has an Ideology it tends to follow.
The player cannot control Ideology – it is what it is, per
Party. When a new ruling Party takes over, the country’s
Government Ideology may change, or it may not, if the Party
is of the same Ideology.
F1.3 Capitals
Your Government exists within your country’s Capital city
– your seat of Government. This city is of strategic importance, because its capture will strongly impact your Victory
Points, and usually your industrial base as well. Defeated
Governments can leave their Capitals and take residence in
an Allied Capital as a Government in Exile (see F6.0).
F2.0 Internal Politics
F2.1 Party Organisation & Popularity
Party Organisation typically refers to the power of each
political party, as far as its ability and that of its key opinion
leaders to sway public opinion. Popularity, by contrast, is
how the public in the country really feels (i.e. how “swayed”
they are). The total Organisation of all of a country’s
Political Parties added together is 100 percent. If one gains
in Organisation, others will fall.
The ruling party will generally be a strong Political force,
and the others will be weaker. If that’s not the case, you can
expect that the ruling party may not remain in that position
for very long; your Politics Interface will show when your
next Election is scheduled, if there is one. Party organisation determines how much influence that party has on the
country’s internal political opinions. Only communist agitators can increase the attractiveness of communism to the
people. The military presence of another faction’s troops in
a country increases the influence of that faction’s parties;
for example, in the Spanish Civil War, the communist troops
were backing the Republicans, while German and Italian
troops backed the Nationalists. Spy Missions can also increase a Party’s political influence in a country.
F2.2 Dissent
Dissent acts against the Political Party in power: the Ruling
Party. If Dissent is allowed to build, it is likely to cause
the Ruling Party to lose to a Party of another Ideology. In
Authoritarian regimes that do not hold Elections, high
Dissent makes it more likely a Coup or Civil War might
happen, as well as localized Revolts of a more limited size.
Dissent also greatly harms your nation’s Economic position,
and undermines National Unity. Dissent causes a penalty in
any type of Combat.
F2.3 Elections in Democracies
Parties are given strength in elections by both Popularity
and Party Organisation. Proximity to a Faction member
will strengthen an ideology (popular view) in that country’s
Elections (i.e. neighbors to Nazis become more fascist over time
unless they have a balancing influence on the other side).
F2.4 Authoritarian Parties
If an authoritarian party is elected in a Democratic country, then a national crisis will begin. This is partly dependent upon National Unity, but the ruling Authoritarian
Government will eventually suspend democratic processes
through an Event “to save the country from the crisis.” An
Authoritarian Ruling Party will become strengthened while
its opponents will become weaker. Less dissent from opposing parties means that National Unity improves.
You will continue running the country, but there will be
a new set of Ministers that are Ideologically aligned with
the Authoritarian Ruling Party and with different political
ground rules.
F3.0 Events, Decisions and Laws
F3.1 Events
You will frequently see a pop-up message informing you
that something (an “Event”) has happened. Sometimes,
these simply inform you of a new situation that you must
take into account – it may change gameplay a little, a lot,
or it might completely change the approach you are taking
to the game.
Some Events require you to make a choice between
one or more options. The choice you make will determine
the effects from that Event, and these effects will appear
in a tooltip if you hover the mouse over each option in the
Event window.
Note to Paradox Veterans: Many of the historical
Events you might have seen in previous versions of the
game are now represented very differently. Events in the
past were often scripted to happen at a particular time, in
order to match history, but they often didn’t react realistically in response to major changes from the historical timeline, such as an Axis victory against Britain. Decisions, by
contrast, take the situation into account, and when conditions closely match the conditions that historically resulted
in that event, the Decisions put it into action, or offer players a choice, even if the date isn’t historically accurate. This
allows for more flexibility and a higher degree of realism.
The function served by sliders in previous games has been
replaced by Decisions and Laws, which may be familiar to
In Nomine players. Laws and Decisions are options allowing you to enact policies that match your goals. Some are
country-specific, while others are Ideology-specific. The
two main differences between these and the way previous
games have worked is that a) they are context-sensitive,
and not rigged to fire at a certain historical date, and b) they
do not “reset a time limit” which requires you to wait a year
before making another similar type of decision.
F3.2 Laws
Laws are nationwide policy options, and they are the same
for every country. Some countries, especially Democracies,
may not be able to enact some Laws (Censored Press, for
instance) at certain times, or at all. There are restrictions
on which Laws you have the political power to enact. These
Laws are context-sensitive, which means you can’t start the
draft, for instance, until the public sees some reason for it.
This system makes preparing for war a lot easier as world
powers begin to reveal themselves as a Threat. The more
authoritarian your system of government, the less you need
to worry about what the people want.
Aside from the final military Mobilization, which is
handled through its own button at the bottom right of the
Politics Interface, most Mobilization (see B10.0) options
are controlled through Laws. As the world becomes a more
dangerous place, more countries will find their Mobilization
options opening up. Tooltips, which become visible if you
hover your mouse cursor over the checkbox, will explain
what must happen before you can enact that Law: a green
asterisk (“*”) means you have achieved that condition,
whereas a red asterisk means you must still achieve it. If
you are playing an aggressive power, you should keep in
mind the effects your militarism will have on your enemies’
ability to Mobilize.
F3.3 Decisions
Decisions are choices you make in order to steer your
country’s policy. They may impact military preparedness,
economics, relations with other countries, or a variety of
other things. One major difference between a Decision and
an Event is that the player may decide when to enact the
Decision. Potential Decisions are listed in the Diplomacy
F4.0 Mobilization
At the bottom-right of your Politics Interface is a button
that allows you to Mobilize your Reserve Units. This military
Mobilization is completely separate from the Industrial
Mobilization accomplished through Laws (see B10.0).
There may be internal political prerequisites before you can
Mobilize, or you may suffer political consequences if you
Mobilize when the public does not see a need.
F5.0 National Unity
National Unity is how a country commands support for
its Policies and marshals Resources (mineral, military
or Manpower) to its own defence. A disunited country is
weak and vulnerable so, obviously, it is always better to be
National Unity is affected by Government Decisions, War
losses, and Strategic Warfare. Some Laws or Decisions may
affect National Unity even though they’re not the “smart”
choice – i.e. Soviet Purges create higher National Unity but
hurt the country in some ways. Some Laws will negatively
affect National Unity and/or Dissent.
A country whose National Unity drops too low may suffer a Revolt, or it simply may see a change of Government
through an Election. Naturally, a Party that has allowed the
National Unity to fall so low is not likely to remain in power
after an Election.
F5.1 Coups and Civil Wars
Some Decisions are “reactive” to Decisions made by
other countries. Once a country has made a Decision,
a Decision option may be triggered for other countries.
In this way, the old interlocking Event trigger system is
still used, but in a way that remains realistic according
to the context of the alternate history you’ve developed
in your game (i.e. the USA doesn’t enact Lend Lease if
Britain is not at war).
You will not see a Decision displayed as an option until
its potential triggers have been met, which refer to most of
the conditions required for it to be possible. At that time, it
will appear in your list with a grayed-out checkmark next to
it, meaning you can expect the Decision as a potential option
in the near future. A tooltip will explain what conditions must
still be accomplished in order for the Decision to become an
available option. If and when you meet those conditions, the
checkmark for the Decision will turn green. You may choose
to make the Decision at any time by clicking the checkmark.
You will be asked to confirm.
A country with low National Unity is at risk for a Coup or Civil
War, which might happen through a triggered Event. This
is more likely if there is an opposition Party that has a high
Organisation rating. Well-organised opposition is a recipe
for disaster for a Party that is having difficulty maintaining
National Unity. Though it is rare for a ruling Party to have
low National Unity and high Party Organisation, this situation would make a Coup or Civil War less likely.
A Coup may occur when a strong opposition Party
decides it has a good chance of succeeding against a
weak ruling Party. A Coup is more likely to happen in a
non-Democratic country, as Elections usually balance out
Democracies before conditions reach the level where a
Coup might occur.
Coups may ultimately fail, which may present the possibility of Civil War. Keep in mind that ahistorical Civil Wars are
very unlikely to happen in an un-modded game of HOI 3.
F5.2 Breaking
During wartime, a nation’s National Unity can become so
low that it Breaks. When this happens, a Government has
a choice: it may Surrender, in which case the conquering country may choose whether to Annex the country or
create a Puppet Government, which is different from an
Occupation Government. However, the conquered country
also has an option to create a Government in Exile from
the remnants of the country’s Government and Military.
If this occurs, they relocate to the Capital of an Ally. Any
Military units still engaged in combat in the homeland (i.e.
which are not geographically separated from the capital)
will surrender. Unoccupied provinces will continue to fight
on, under the leadership of the Government in Exile. Other
Governments may also choose to send troops to support the
defence, but if they don’t, these provinces will quickly fall
prey to the victorious army.
The Breaking formula takes into account the percentage of the country’s Victory Points (important provinces)
that have been lost; it then compares that to the National
Unity and the level of Troop commitment from Allies as a
percentage of the defending country’s army, and then applies some more complicated probabilities. Only provinces
in the home country count for purposes of Breaking (i.e.
colonial territories do not).
merges with and becomes the Puppet Government under
the control of that Alliance, along with any military forces;
or if the Alliance Leader hosting the GIE makes peace and
there is no other Alliance also at war with the controlling
country (i.e. there is nowhere left to move).
If the conquering government loses control of the GIE’s
homeland (i.e. it gets Annexed), the GIE ceases to exist.
F7.0 Occupation Governments &
When an Alliance takes over provinces or countries, it must
set an Occupation Policy to determine what kind of rule it
will exercise over the conquered provinces. Generally, the
more exploitative the imposed Occupation Policy, the more
Resources are available to the conquering country, but the
available Manpower is less and the Revolt Risk (Partisans)
is higher. National Decisions will restrict certain countries in
terms of which Occupation Policies they can enact.
F6.0 Governments in Exile
A Government in Exile (GIE) is formed when the home
country Breaks but the Government chooses to continue to
fight after moving its Ministers to a friendly same-Faction
When a Government in Exile forms, all units within the
home country are eliminated, but any units outside of the
home country come under the control of the GIE. If there is
another Alliance at war with the conquering country, the GIE
will move to that country as a result of being “hosted” by the
Alliance Leader. Otherwise, the GIE goes dormant until there
is a war between someone and the conquering country. If an
Alliance Leader makes peace with the country controlling
the home country, the GIE may move to another Alliance
which is at war with the controlling country. The Ideology
of the GIE will always conform to the Ideology of the Alliance
Leader which hosts it, and the Alliance Leader’s Capital is
assumed to be the GIE’s Capital.
The GIE gets five IC, as well as a small amount of
Manpower from exiled citizens joining the cause, which
together can be used to Produce GIE-owned military
units within Technology Restrictions. The Technology
Restrictions remain the same as before the formation of the
GIE, but it can use IC to Research gradual improvements,
though it is often better to instead purchase Licenses to
build higher Tech units. The units Produced by the GIE will
have the Organisation and Doctrine levels of the hosting
Alliance Leader.
If the home country is Liberated, the GIE ceases to exist
and the Government is reinstated in its home capital; if the
home country is re-occupied by a different Alliance which
chooses to install a Puppet State, in which case the GIE
• Collaboration Government – A Collaboration
Government uses members of the existing government
who are willing to run the country for you, and is the least
oppressive of the Occupation Policies. It causes the lowest Revolt Risk, but also the lowest levels of Production,
while Manpower provided to the Controlling government
is highest as people are willing to collaborate by joining
the military.
• Military Government – A faceless, generic military
commander is placed in charge of the conquered provinces and runs them with military efficiency, but without
total repression and the majority of civil administration
is left as-is. This increases the benefit in Production for
the conquering power but is moderately more bothersome for the people, who have an increased likelihood
of revolt. Manpower is also moderately less.
• Full Occupation – The military takes total control of
the provinces, using a heavy-handed police presence
with civilian administrators brought from home. This is
more likely to cause revolt, but it also produces much
more in the way of Production. It is less likely to provide
Manpower for the conqueror.
• Total Exploitation – Every effort is put forth to use
military administrators and police repression to squeeze
every bit of Production out of the conquered provinces.
Naturally, this treatment breeds rebellion, and few natives are willing to join your Manpower pool.
F8.0 Liberating Countries
If your Faction is hosting a friendly Government in Exile and
you have since recaptured some of that country’s Owned
territory, including its Capital, then you may Liberate the
country. The GIE will reclaim its rightful place in control of
its own Government on its own land, and will from then on
operate as the individual country, like it was before. Simply
click the “Liberate Country” button at the bottom-right of
the Politics Interface.
using their Suppression values; having those units present
makes Revolt less likely. The units will also be available to
fight in case the Suppression doesn’t work. Some players
will prefer to use single Brigades of these types for keeping
order behind the lines.
F10.3 Partisan Efficiency
In your country’s Intelligence Interface, you will see a
Partisan Efficiency rating. This is in part a measure of how
much your country is hated, because this value determines
the Experience level of Partisans who will rise up to oppose
you when you Occupy another country.
F9.0 Puppet States
F11.0 War Exhaustion
If you Control another country, you may Release that country by clicking “Create Puppet” in the Politics Interface.
This creates an “independently” governed country in its
own territory, but one which is largely controlled by your
country – it is an Ally, and allows you Transit Rights through
its country. Its foreign policy is yours.
A Puppet State is always Allied with the country which
established it. They will give discounted Trades to their
master country. Any of the Puppet State’s own military
units remain under its own control.
Countries that have been at war for a long time will have increased levels of War Exhaustion (WE), which makes them
less willing to continue. Things such as combat losses,
the loss of territory, and Strategic Warfare will impact the
country’s War Exhaustion. This has no effect during war, but
once peace is made, countries with high War Exhaustion will
be less willing to join another war. WE is expressed as an
increase to the country’s Neutrality value once it is no longer
at war. This WE-influenced Neutrality value will reduce over
time until WE is gone. War Exhaustion builds gradually during wartime. Once peace is achieved the WE will lessen at a
rate faster than it built up.
F10.0 Partisans & Rebels
There are various types of Partisans in HOI 3. The types
of Rebels are Partisans, Nationalists, Patriots, and
Disgruntled Rabble. You’ll see Partisans in conquered lands
and Disgruntled Rabble at home. The actual type of Rebels
matters little, with the exception of Partisans, who actually
become enemy units under the control of another country
or Government in Exile.
F10.1 Revoltrisk
Your Revoltrisk Mapmode provides a good overall guide
to where Partisans or Rebels might pop up. However, the
Province Interface provides detailed information on the
actual risk, as well as the type of Revolters you might see
in that province. Various factors may increase Revoltrisk
in a province (best viewed using the Revoltrisk Mapmode,
but there is also a Revoltrisk Alert), including Dissent and
Nationalism from recent Occupation.
Hover your mouse cursor over the value next to the rifle
icon in the Province Interface (Revoltrisk) and it will show
a tooltip revealing the type of Rebels causing trouble and
the total Revoltrisk. The “minimum Revoltrisk” shows things
such as Nationalism, which always makes Revolt a risk.
F10.2 Suppression
Certain types of Brigades (Military Police, Garrison, etc.)
are good at Suppressing Partisan and Rebel activity by
F12.0 Surrender,
Peace & Annexation
Because of Governments in Exile, there are sometimes no
Surrender negotiations for Faction Members in HOI 3. Also,
World War II Combat was “total warfare,” with no consideration for “separate peace” or “partial victory” negotiations;
some Peace treaties are allowed, but are generally handled
through Events. It is assumed that even if a country has been
entirely occupied, there will always be some members of the
Government who escape and choose to fight on. Therefore,
no Government actually goes away in HOI 3 until the game is
won with a final victory by one Faction over another.
Countries that are not Members of a Faction may fight
and come to peace negotiations on terms of a White Peace,
where there are no territorial changes and the war ends;
Annexation of disputed Core territory, in which the victor
gets to take those provinces they believe to be rightfully
theirs; or Total Annexation, which only occurs if the entire
country has been conquered.
G1.0 Intelligence &
Espionage Concepts
This type of Reconnaissance (Recon) involves only what can
be seen from the ground. Therefore, there is an obvious limitation as to how distant your detection can be from Allied
observation sources. It is assumed that any place outside of
the Fog of War limit will allow you Detection Level 1 on every
unit, updated every hour. Several factors can increase the
Detection Level on these units.
then to select what level of Spy Activity you would like to
initiate in that country – essentially, you’re setting relative
priorities. Your available Spies will be sent by the AI to these
countries based on how you’ve prioritized the country, and
how much you’ve spread out your Spy commitment. Setting
no priority in a country means you will send no spies there.
The more Spy Points you have in a country, the more
likely they are to find the information you’re looking for.
This is negatively modified by the target country’s CounterEspionage commitment.
Discoveries and Detection by Spies are calculated
monthly. When a country Surrenders, some of your Spy
rings may be lost in the turmoil. If you are the Occupier, then
the surviving Spies convert to internal Counter-Espionage;
otherwise, your Spies are transferred into the Occupying
G1.2 Radar Stations & Signal Intercepts
G1.4 Espionage Settings
Radar Stations are not just for “radar,” as they also act as
Signals Intercept stations. They have a limited range for
Radar and Signal Intercepts, but a farther reach than simple
observation. This range is roughly two regions beyond your
nearest unit or observation point. The resulting Detection
Level is less certain than other methods, however. For instance, you might only deduce the Region a unit is in, rather
than a specific Province.
This type of Intelligence can be improved with
Technology advancements, and by improving the level of
the Radar Station (i.e. building another level). Higher-level
Stations can see and Detect further from the point of observation. Headquarters units are easier to detect than other
units through Signals Intercept. The higher the level of HQ,
and the higher the level of Radio Technology being used, the
more likely they are to be detected.
Both Radar Detection and Signals Intercepts can also
give you information on Ships at sea (see N2.0).
In the Intelligence Interface, you may choose one of several
options for your Spies in each country. They include:
• None – Spies are in a Passive role, gathering occasional
Intelligence, but not taking risks that might get them
caught (not that this will always protect them). The
Intelligence they gather might be on any subject.
• Counterespionage – This helps you track and kill opposing Spies from the inside.
• Military – Find the current strengths, organisation, and
location of units in the target country.
• Technical – Seek information on what the target is
• Political – Your Spies will infiltrate Political groups of
your Ideology, and then use them to agitate against the
ruling Party and lower National Unity, making Surrender
or Coups more likely.
• Economic – Discover the target country’s Trade deals, its
current mobilization level, units under construction, etc.
• Support Ruling Party – Perform propaganda and organisational activities to strengthen the current Ruling
Party in the country, regardless of the Ideology.
Any country has three sources of Intelligence: Ground
Reconnaissance, Signal Intercepts, and Spies. Provinces have
nine levels of Intelligence, which affect how much you can
know about the enemy units and conditions within the province. There are five levels of Intelligence for military units.
G1.1 Ground Reconnaissance
G1.3 Spies & Espionage
The Espionage Interface allows you to select a country, and
• Support Our Party – Agitate inside their country, trying
to strengthen the Political Party that is closest to your
own Government Ideology.
• Disrupt National Unity – Perform political agitation activities that will ruin popular trust in the Government.
• Support Rebels – Increases the Revolt Risk for Partisans
in provinces where a country has occupied territory.
• Disrupt Research – Your Spies will try to tamper with or
destroy vital parts of a Research project, hopefully turning their scientists and engineers onto the wrong path.
• Disrupt Production – These are “sabotage” missions
that will cause delays in the target country’s Production
of units or other items.
• If no specific Mission is set for Spies in a country, those
Spies will randomly perform some of each of these types
of Missions.
Spies in other countries can be set to Passive or Active. An
Active Spy is more likely to find information, but he’s also
more likely to be discovered and killed. Setting spies to
“None” sets them in Passive mode, which is one way to try
to preserve them for when you really need them.
G1.5 Internal Espionage Functions
You may also place your own Spies in your own country.
There is a Priority setting for your country (in the upper left
of the Intelligence Interface), which is how you determine
whether and to what degree to concentrate on having Spies
at home.
These internal Spies can be used for one of three missions:
• Counter espionage – This helps you track and kill opposing Spies who have been placed in your own country.
• Support Ruling Party – Perform propaganda and organisational activities to strengthen the current Ruling
Party in the country, regardless of the Ideology.
• Lower Neutrality – These Spies are employed in the
business of leaking information and planting stories in
your own country’s newspapers and radio programs
about the Threat posed by other countries, which can
lower your country’s Neutrality rating.
G2.0 Detection Levels
A province has nine Detection Levels (what is known about
the province) which will reveal a variety of things about the
province, according to your level of Intelligence.
A Unit has five Detection Levels, revealing increasing
degrees of information, which may be discovered as a result
of the province Detection Levels, or through direct Military
Espionage or other means.
When any level of information is discovered, that information is “stored” until either a new detection check is done
and the information is lost or it is already detected at level
3 and is redetected at level 3 at an alternative location. If a
unit is detected at level 1 or 2 in one region and moves to another region, the odds of the detection level falling to 0 are
higher the next time a detection check is done. These values
are saved. Detecting a unit generally reveals little more than
the region it is in. It is possible for a unit to be detected at
level 1 or 2 in more than one region (obviously, both can’t be
true). Note for AI purposes that the closer a detected unit is
to the front line, the more possible ways there are to detect
it, so this information may be considered more reliable than
for units farther away from the front.
G3.0 Display of
Detected Units
Units Detected at a relatively high Detection Level are visible on the map. Detected units are displayed as though
they are in the capital of the Region where they’re detected;
however, they may actually be one or two provinces away,
within that Region. They will initially be marked as “believed
reserves.” If a unit appears on the front lines, within one
province of friendly observers, it is assumed that it may
have been the unit previously spotted behind the lines (if all
Detected information matches), and the previously spotted
unit will disappear.
Units observed to have left the front lines are moved to
an assumed position within the Fog of War but within the
same Region. Eventually, these units will be removed as it
cannot be known whether they’re still in the same area (i.e.
the Intelligence will decay).
Veteran Hearts of Iron players are familiar with the concept
of Transport Capacity, which has been eliminated in HOI 3 and
replaced with a much more realistic system, as follows…
Also note that with Strategic Redeployment, your units
no longer use the “beam me up” system, where they disappear and later reappear in another location, but instead in
HOI 3 units are hurried along fast railway lines where they
are visible and vulnerable to enemy air attack.
H1.0 Infrastructure
Infrastructure is the system of roads and railways which
make it easier to get from place to place without getting
your feet all muddy. Infrastructure greatly affects important things such as how quickly units can move through the
province, and how efficiently Supplies can transit through
en route to your units.
A province’s Infrastructure level is displayed in its Province
Interface, which can be seen by clicking on the province. There
is also a useful Infrastructure Mapmode that provides a good
overview. Infrastructure represents how “built up” a province
is, or perhaps “how civilized.” Improving things like roads, railways, and communication networks in a province will increase
that province’s Infrastructure level. Being the site of Combat,
bombings, or other hostile attacks can reduce a province’s
Infrastructure level.
New Infrastructure may be constructed in provinces by
clicking on the Infrastructure icon in the province screen,
which will enter the Infrastructure construction into the
Production Queue. It will take one year to produce and cost
1 IC. Once constructed, it will gradually come into being over
the course of several days as a new point of Infrastructure.
Damage to a province’s Infrastructure will temporarily
lower the effective ability of that province to meet its potential Supply Throughput.
H2.0 Throughput
Throughput is the volume of Supplies you can fit through
a province per day (which is enabled or limited by the
Infrastructure level). Imagine two-ton trucks lined up
bumper-to-bumper on a narrow, muddy road.
“However will we explain this to the Führer?!” The cut-off
province of Orynyn shows a need of 3.56 Supplies, but a
Throughput of zero, which is bad for the surrounded Unit
(it will draw from its 30-day reserve at first).
Your Supply Throughput is limited by the province with
the lowest Infrastructure along the Supply path, because
it becomes a bottleneck. Your Supply sergeants will try to
route through other paths if one becomes too crowded, but
on busy fronts, those other routes may experience traffic
jams too.
H3.0 Logistics Technology
Some Technologies may allow you to increase your
Throughput of Supplies per Infrastructure point. Technologies
may also reduce each unit’s Supply consumption.
H4.0 Supply & Supply Lines
Every province, and every Unit within that province, draws
supply from a central province in your rear area. Supplies
for your armies must be able to move from their centralized
Depot to your units without being intercepted.
Supplies move along the Supply Line at the rate of one
province per day, until they catch up to the unit they are
supposed to Supply. When a unit moves, its new location
filters back through the lines, and new orders for Supply
are directed to the unit’s new location. This filtering process creates a lag, which may delay the Supply of the unit.
It may take a day or two for the Supply Line to fully adjust
and begin delivering supplies to the unit’s new location. If
new units which require supplies move into a province, you
may see the Mapmode colours turn from green (Supplied)
to brown (partially Supplied), indicating that the rate of
Supply cannot keep up with the increased demand from the
additional units. The Supply route is flexible. If the logistics
management system cannot draw sufficient Supply through
one province, it will search for other routes to deliver the
necessary amount.
Units have a 30-day reserve of Supplies, which may
become exhausted if the unit is constantly running ahead
of its supplies.
Overseas Supply is limited by the size of the Seaport
taking in the Supplies. Sometimes, though, because of the
sheer length of overland Supply lines, it may still be more
efficient to direct Supply by sea.
H4.1 Supply Tax
Since the process of transporting Supplies uses Supplies
(Fuel, etc.), there is a small Supply cost per province, which
can add up over distance. If any part of the Supply Line route
passes through Muddy Ground, that portion of the Line is
impacted by an extra cost of transportation (“supply tax”).
H5.0 Out of Supply
Units that are out of Supply will not be able to recover
Organisation, will not Reinforce, and cannot Upgrade. What
units are or are not in Supply is recalculated each day.
Units which find themselves temporarily out of supply
may suffer from partial Unsupply, and will feel the effects
of that inefficiency. These units will draw upon their 30-day
reserve before they actually go out of Supply (i.e. before
they start feeling the effects).
Extended periods of time outside of Supply will seriously
degrade the fighting Strength of the unit.
H6.0 Supply Mapmode
It is highly recommended that you examine the map in
Logistics Mapmode to get an idea of how your Supply situation is being handled. The use of the Logistics Mapmode is
explained in A4.8. Overseas Trade Routes are marked with
red and blue lines, extending the length of the Route.
Convoys or Supply Lines.
You can Trade for either Oil or Fuel on the world market,
which is the preferred method of meeting your Fuel needs;
it’s cheaper than converting from Energy.
Every country has a limited ability to Convert Energy
Resources to Oil, which basically takes the Energy and turns
it to Oil using a wastefully inefficient ratio. It is preferred
that you meet your Fuel needs by refining Oil.
H8.0 Convoys
If your country has territory in a location geographically
separated from your capital, you will need to maintain some
sort of Supply connection. If a connection is not maintained
with the distant territory, you may quickly lose it during wartime. Presumably, you will also have some military forces
assigned there, which will need Supplies to operate.
To send Supplies overseas, you will need to build and
assign Convoys. Conveys are made of collections of cargo
ships and tankers that carry Supplies and Fuel in groups,
making them easier to protect and more secure from enemy
attack. Resource Trades also require Convoys. The country
making the offer is also required to provide the ships to
carry the Trade. If the Convoy cannot make it to the purchasing home country, those items Traded for are lost.
Convoys are managed through the Production Interface.
At the bottom-right is a list of your current Trade Routes,
describing the Resources being traded but not the Convoys
themselves. Below that is a detailed list of all of your
Convoys, both those for Resource transport and Supply
transport. The list shows origin, destination, cargo carried, and the number of assigned Convoy points and Escort
points. The number of Reserve Transports and Escorts are
listed above the display.
In order to set up a Convoy, click on the “Create Convoy”
button just underneath the Available Escort figure. A display
will come up, asking what the Convoy’s Origin will be with a
list of origination Seaports. Once you select an Origin, you
must select its Destination in the same way, by picking from
a list of overseas Seaports Controlled by you.
H7.0 Oil & Fuel
HOI 3 separates the traditional Resource of Oil so that there
is Crude Oil on the one hand and Refined Fuel on the other.
Crude Oil is a Resource produced at certain locations, which
must then be transported back to the home country, where
it will be Refined at a rate that depends on your actual IC,
modified by Technology.
Refined Fuel will then become available to your units
at home, and can then be transported to your units via
Convoys can be created automatically, if you select that op-
tion, so long as you have available Convoy Ships. Escorts will
be added, too, if they are available.
A formula is used to determine where along a Convoy
Route the Convoy is actually located. If there are enemy
Submarines or surface ships in the Seazone, there is a
chance they may be able to attack the Convoy. If a Convoy
is damaged, the Resources or Supplies being carried will be
lost in proportion to the number of Freighters sunk.
If a Seazone starts to get hit with attacks by Submarines
or a Convoy Raider, the Convoy management system will automatically adjust the Convoy Route to avoid the dangerous
area. This is an ongoing process that should make Convoy
Raiding a guessing game for the enemy.
Aside from the Convoy Escorts assigned through the nor-
mal Convoy system, Ships from your Naval Bases may also be
assigned to Patrol and guard specific Convoy Routes. These
Ships will travel along the assigned Route and try to engage
any Convoy Raiders. They will also hunt for Submarines, but
this will be more difficult than locating surface Ships. Any
Class of Ship may be assigned to this duty, but Destroyer
Flotillas are the most effective at finding Submarines. See N1.1
for more information on this Naval Mission assignment.
H8.1 Naval Bases
The size of the Naval Base determines how large the stockpile can be, as well as how fast it can replenish its stockpile.
It also determines how quickly Ships which Base there can
regain Organisation and Repair their Strength.
There are two types of Escort. Destroyers and Corvettes (called Escorts in the game) can be assigned to the Convoy
itself. Ships can also be. Here, a Submarine Flotilla is assigned to patrol the Convoy’s Route to protect it from
Raiding. The Submarine might also be assigned to Raid Allied Convoys.
H8.2 Supply/Fuel Depots
H11.0 Logistics Technology
A Supply Convoy can leave a Stockpile of Supplies at a
Naval Base, from which all nearby provinces will draw their
Supplies. This will be the central distribution point, and all
nearby units will have to maintain some kind of contact
with this Depot in order to remain in Supply. There are no
overseas Resource stockpiles – you must ship all Resources
home, or they will be lost.
Technology Research can improve your ability to move
Supplies. It can also reduce the Supply consumption rates
of your units, though good Leader Skills or Traits can do
this as well.
H8.3 Escorts
You will also want to build and assign Escorts to protect
your Convoys from Raiding and Submarines. Otherwise,
your Convoys may be sunk faster than you can build replacements. Escort points are produced the same way as
Convoy points, and Escort points are produced and assigned
the same way as Convoy points.
H8.4 Logistics Interdiction
& Convoy Raiding
Land units may interfere with enemy Supply Lines by physically occupying provinces through which the Supply Lines
travel. It is possible to capture or destroy Supplies when overrunning enemy Supply Lines. A portion of captured Supplies
may be used for your own units – this may be just what you
need if you’ve advanced ahead of your own Supply Lines!
Logistical Airstrikes can create additional hardship for
the Supply of outlying units. This is done by Bombing the
Infrastructure of provinces along the path of Supply. These
Logistical Strikes temporarily destroy Infrastructure and
permanently destroy Supplies, meaning the enemy may be
out of Supply for a day.
Convoys, of course, can be attacked at sea by enemy naval forces such as Submarines or Convoy Raiders. Aircraft
can also attack Convoy Routes at sea. Sinking Convoys will
interrupt the provision of Supplies by sea, and may place
units out of Supply.
H9.0 Fleet Supply
A Fleet is always connected to a home Naval Base, and draws
its Supply from that Base, even while it’s not there. So long
as the Base has sufficient Supply for the Fleet, and the Fleet
has not surpassed its maximum range before returning to
Base, it will remain In Supply. If it is unable to reach a Naval
Base before surpassing its maximum range, its speed will
slow considerably.
H10.0 Airdrop of Supply
There is an Air Mission for Transport Planes to deliver a
limited number of Supplies by air to distant or cut-off units.
The Supplies are drawn from what’s available at the Airbase
from where the flight originates.
H12.0 Strategic Redeployment
Strategic Redeployment is a method of quickly moving units
by train from one area to the next. They may move ahead of
their Supply line and will carry Supplies with them, which
should hold them over until Supply can be re-established.
Strategically Redeploying units will move them at a
speed of 20 MPH per point of Infrastructure level, so actual
speed will vary according to the Infrastructure levels along
the route. These units will lose 1 Organisation per day, and
will use twice as much in Supplies. Units that use Fuel, such
as tanks, will not consume Fuel while being Strategically
J1.0 Unit Interfaces
J1.1 Unit Tooltips
If you hover your mouse cursor over a unit or a stack of units,
you will see a tooltip explaining those units. If it is an enemy
or neutral unit, your information will be limited.
Each Division will be listed, with its national flag above
its military symbol (Infantry, etc). The unit name will be
listed on the top line, along with its Strength level and
Organisation level, and the Division’s Leader will be listed
below. If the unit has movement orders, the tooltip will tell
you where it’s moving to and when it will arrive, providing it
doesn’t get involved in combat first.
If they’re present, air units will appear in the tooltip below the land units. They will show the unit type’s icon, along
with the unit’s Strength and Organisation.
J1.2 Selecting Units
A unit must be selected and clicked on in order to be provided with instructions. You may also select a stack of units,
or a number of units in different provinces, by drawing
a Select Box (see below) around all the units you wish to
J1.3 Select Boxes
In a number of circumstances, it is helpful to be able to click
and drag a Select Box across one or more provinces in order
to select more than one unit.
To draw a Select Box, pick one corner of a box that will
cover the area you need, then hold down the mouse button
as you drag your mouse to the opposite corner of the area
you want highlighted. When you let go, any units within that
box will be selected. If there are Land Units present, only
those Units will be selected. If you want to select Air or Naval
Units, select one of those Units individually first, and then
draw the Select Box.
There are some orders which can only be given to a
single unit at a time, to units in a single province or seazone,
or to a single type of unit (such as moving into a seazone,
which land units cannot do).
Any number of land units or other similar units may be given
the same orders, but they may not be combined (see below).
Using a Select Box selects all the Units inside. You may
issue an order to all of them, or choose the one you
want by clicking the “Select” tab next to the Unit.
J1.4 Combining and Dividing Units
Either multiple selected fleets or air units may be merged into a
single unit by using the “Merge” button on the Unit Interface.
Land Units may do the same thing, though only within
the Divisional structure. If all selected Brigades can fit into
one Division without exceeding the maximum number of
Brigades, they can be Merged.
Single Brigades can be built and moved across the map,
and can then be merged into a Division once they arrive by
using the “Merge” buttons. Even a single Support Brigade
may be built, but be very careful that it doesn’t get into
Combat, because it will Shatter almost immediately due to
the lack of Combat troops to save it.
Units in Combat cannot be split or reorganised into
different units. You would need to pull them out of Combat
and reorganise them. Units who are Retreating also cannot
reorganise until they’re outside of the Combat zone where
they were forced to Retreat.
J1.5 Outliner
The Outliner will help you keep track of your military’s
Command Structure, and assist in finding its location.
Click the small “+“ symbol in the upper right corner of your
screen, and the Outliner will appear.
At the very top, there are several selection tabs which
will toggle on (green) or off (black) so you can select which
parts of the total available information you want displayed in
your Outliner. You can change it at any time in order to focus
on more specific things. These items include generally help-
ful things as a list of Units and your HQ Structure, battles
underway, and so on.
path selected by the computer (the “shortest-time route”),
then you can override it. This will require movement in “legs”
– multiple parts to your path. Set the first path normally:
select a province or seazone to which to move that is close
enough to your destination. You may have to experiment to
find the right path. Then, once you’ve set movement close
to where you want, draw the next leg of the path by holding
down the “Shift” key on your keyboard and right-clicking on
your final destination.
The Japanese Outliner, showing some of its
Headquarters, including border guards along the
Manchuria-Soviet border.
J2.0 Movement
To move any unit, it must first be selected, and then you
must right-click on the province to where you want them
to move. You will see an arrow appear (blue for normal
movement, red for attack), indicating the path chosen by
the computer to reach that destination; the computer will
always choose the path that will take the least time, even
if that’s not the path you want, and perhaps not even the
shortest route according to distance. Higher Infrastructure
always allows movement to be more rapid than through
low Infrastructure areas, or sometimes through areas with
complicated Terrain.
If you command movement for all the units in a Select
Box, they will all move to that location, regardless of which
province they’re in. Make sure this is what you want. Keep
in mind that all Divisions move at the speed of their slowest
Brigade; this is sometimes modified if there is an Engineer
Brigade present.
If you command a land unit to move into a province where
an enemy unit exists, you are ordering an attack. HOI 3 assumes “movement is attack,” (see L1.0). Those Units will immediately enter into Combat because the men on each side
would already have been near each other, and those moving
forward would quickly meet enemy skirmishers.
J2.1 Complex Movements
If you do not want your units to follow the default movement
A Japanese Motorised Unit takes a circuitous route by
selecting each leg of its journey using shift-right-click.
Also see L1.1 (Movement/Attack Interface) for more information about using Control-Right-Click to give more specific
commands to your Land Units.
J3.0 Manpower
Manpower is important both for construction of new units
and for Reinforcement of existing units, because there will
always be a certain level of Attrition. This may increase in
hostile conditions or when units are Out of Supply. See C1.0
for more information about Manpower.
J4.0 Unit Organisation
The smallest component used in HOI 3 is the Brigade, but
with a few exceptions you will always want to organise your
Brigades into Divisions. Divisions are organised into Corps,
which are then organised into Armies, and then organised
into Groups. At the top of the Organisational structure is the
Theatre, which is the highest level of organisation in that region. Units at every level are commanded by a certain grade
of Commander. A Brigadier General (or national equivalent)
commands a Brigade, though these lowest generals are
not represented in the game, Major Generals command
Divisions, Lieutenant Generals command Corps, Generals
command Armies, and Field Marshals command Groups
and Theatres. See L5.2 for more information about the
command structure.
Airwings are the smallest Air Unit, which contains about
100 aircraft. Air Units may be grouped to contain one or
more Airwings. When you see these units on the Map, each
Airwing is shown with an “x,” like a Brigade. Because there
is no larger organisational unit other than the unofficial
“groups” of Air Units, you will never see anything larger than
the Airwing in a stack. Air Units can, however, be assigned
to Theatre HQs.
Large ships, down to the Light Cruiser level, exist as
individual ships per unit. But Destroyers, Submarines, and
Transport Ships are each assumed to contain several of the
ships within each unit. Each ship is shown with an “x,” like a
Brigade, in the Unit Interface. Ships are also always considered part of a Fleet, so you will see Fleets on the Map marked
with the “xx” for a Fleet, even if it only contains one ship.
J5.0 Land Units
J5.1 Land Unit Interface
A Division’s counter displays the military symbol for its primary unit (i.e. Infantry for mostly Infantry Brigades). The
Commander is listed on the counter’s side.
When you click on a Division (click again to cycle through
multiple Divisions in a stack), the Land Unit Interface will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the screen.
If the unit you clicked on has more than the “xx” designation for a Division next to its commander’s face, then
you’ve clicked on a Headquarters (see K2.0). If so, click on
a “xx” unit listed in the Headquarters’ Unit Interface so that
you can see a Division.
At the very top-left, you will see a picture of the Division’s
Leader. Next to it, on the right, is the unit’s military symbol,
and next to that is the Division’s name. Below the unit’s
name is the name of the Leader who commands the unit.
To the right of that is the total manpower strength of the
Division, and two coloured columns: the gold-coloured one
indicates Strength and the green column represents
Organisation. Above these is the “x” button, which will close
the Interface.
Below that top row, you will see on the left which province the unit is in, to the right of which is the rate of Attrition
being experienced by the unit, and on the far right is the
maximum speed of the unit (in kilometers per hour).
Underneath that are two coloured rows. The first shows
Supply status (Supplied or Unsupplied), and the second
shows Fuel status (Fueled or Unfueled). Tooltips will indicate what, if anything, your unit lacks. If either of these indicators shows red instead of green, even partial red, the unit
does not have sufficient Supply to perform its duties at top
capacity and its Organisation and Manpower may begin to
suffer. If it lacks Fuel, it may not be able to move as quickly
as it could otherwise.
On the right, slightly below these bars, is a spot which may
or may not display a shovel. If a shovel is shown, it means the
unit is “dug in” and has special modifiers for Defence. A tooltip
will indicate how dug-in it is, the maximum dig-in value, and
how much benefit the unit will receive from it. Dug-In units are
discussed in L5.6. Other modifiers may be shown with their
own icons. Other icons which may appear here will indicate if
the Unit is a Reserve Unit, and will indicate whether it is within
Radio range of its Headquarters.
Below this, a dark bar will display any Orders assigned
to the unit, and underneath that, a row of several buttons.
The first button on the left shows an arrow pointing toward
or away from a Chain of Command icon. If the arrow is green
and pointing toward the chain, clicking on it will allow you
to assign it to any of your Headquarters. If the arrow is red
and points away from the structure grid, clicking it will remove the unit from its assigned Headquarters structure,
and make it independent of any outside command. The next
button to the right, which is only visible if the unit is not part
of a command, allows you to create a new Headquarters,
and the current Division would be assigned to it.
The next seven buttons, from left to right, are as follows.
The first will either display a green star or a gray star with a
red “x” over it. The latter indicates that it is not prioritized
for unit upgrades and reinforcements. The former means
that the unit is prioritized over other units for preference in
upgrades and reinforcements. You should select your most
important or best-positioned units for priority. The next button over – with four soldier images – determines whether
this unit will be eligible to receive available Reinforcement.
Sometimes, it is preferable to prevent some units from
reinforcing so that you don’t dilute the reinforcements by
sending them to units which do not need them as badly.
The next button is a dot and circle inside a circle, and determines whether this unit will be eligible to receive available
Upgrades. As with Reinforcement, you’ll want your most
important units to be Upgraded first. The next button over
allows this unit to be loaded onto a Naval Transport (see
J5.10). The next button over allows this unit to be loaded
onto an Air Transport (see J5.11). The next button over is an
“x” which allows you to disband the unit. The last button is of
two arrows facing opposite directions, which allows you to
reorganise the Brigades in the unit, possibly detaching one
or more Brigades to form their own unit.
Immediately under the row of buttons is a dark gray bar,
which will say how many Brigades are currently attached
to that Division. Underneath that, you’ll see each Brigade,
listed individually, along with its military symbol on the left,
then its unit name, with its unit type listed underneath it.
To the right, you’ll see the number of men assigned to the
unit, and then the Brigade’s individual Strength bar (brown)
and Organisation bar (green). The cumulative total of all the
values for these bars should be reflected in the Division’s
Strength bar and Organisation bar at the top of the
Interface. Individual Brigades may suffer higher casualties
than others, which is why each is shown individually. You
can left-click on a Brigade for more details.
J5.2 Combat Width (Fronts)
Each provincial border, with each other province, generally has enough Combat Frontage to allow three or four
Divisions’ Combat Brigades to be on the Front at once. This
battlefield is represented as several “squares,” with each
Brigade occupying one full square.
Divisions are never separated in Combat. They attack
together and Retreat together. Even if all but one of the
squares along the Combat Front is occupied, another whole
Division (all of its Combat Brigades) may still “squeeze”
onto the battlefield, so the actual Combat Front may be one
or two squares wider than standard.
J5.3 Combined Arms Units
Divisions which have a Softness rating between 33 and 66
percent, meaning they use a mixture of armoured and infantry or other brigades, are considered “Combined Arms” units
and will get a bonus in Combat. Even if your unit was not constructed in this way, you can integrate Brigade Attachments
to accomplish the same before going into battle.
J5.4 Support Units
Some Brigades are not meant to ever intentionally engage
in front-line Combat, and will instead support the Combat
Brigades from behind the lines. If they ever operate as individual Brigades, they will be very vulnerable.
J5.5 Headquarters (HQ) Concept
Most Land Units at the start of any game will be “attached”
to a Headquarters, which is its connection to the army
command, and has a number of important functions. It is
possible for units to exist on the Map without being part
of a Headquarters command structure, but this is not the
preferred method of fighting, especially since HOI 3 has
built-in Leader bonuses which come from every level of
command and provide experience to every other level of
command. A Division or Brigade which is operating as an
individual unit does not communicate any of this benefit
to or from higher levels – does not receive the Leader
bonuses, nor pass along the Combat Experience, both
of which play a critical role in helping a player win wars.
Lower HQ commands which are not attached to higher HQ
commands also lose some of their benefits.
The idea of “Headquarters Units” is familiar to players of
past HOI games, but the concept has changed dramatically
with HOI 3. From now on, this is your way of making sense
of a crowded battlefield, as well as handing off Units to the AI
to direct toward your Objectives if you need to concentrate
on something else.
J5.6 Unit Descriptions
Keep in mind that not all of these Brigade types are available to all countries at the beginning of the game. Some of
them are so specialized that only some major powers had
them by the end of the war. You may prioritize your Land
Combat Technologies to produce some of these units, if
you wish. Most of these Units had some shared capability
– some Infantry in Armoured Brigades, and some Artillery
in Infantry Brigades, which is represented by its “soft” and
“hard” components.
• Armoured – Armoured units are comprised mainly of
tanks, though they may have lighter units attached.
There are different types of Armoured units, from Light
Armour to Super Heavy Armour.
• Mountain – A Mountain Brigade is specially trained to
fight in mountainous conditions, and they get special
Combat bonuses during Combat in their preferred environment; rather, they don’t have a penalty, whereas
everyone else does.
• Infantry – The backbone of any World War II army was its
ground-pounding Infantry – the “boots on the ground” –
who might not be very specialized, but were the core of
the fighting forces. Infantry Brigades were often paired
with specialized Brigades, such as Artillery or Armoured
Cars. Infantry stationed away from the front might be
paired with Military Police or Anti-Aircraft Brigades.
• Cavalry – Up until just before World War II, many of
the world’s armies considered horses, not tanks, to be
their highly mobile forces of maneuver. World War II
saw a small number of Cavalry battles, some of them
infamous, but in the mid-1930s, when HOI 3 starts off,
there were quite a few operational Cavalry Brigades
around the world. Cavalry was used much the same as
Armoured units were used throughout World War II –
they had the maneuverability, but they also desperately
lacked protection. Those armies who hadn’t realized by
the time war started that Cavalry was obsolete in the
main theatre of Combat found it out the hard way.
Militia – These often consisted of conscripted soldiers who were locally raised and trained, and possess
Infantry-like rifle training but not much else. These units
were useful for maintaining order and for filling in when
absolutely necessary, but normally could not be counted
on to be professional military units.
Garrison – Like Militia, these were soldiers who didn’t
have the Combat training or experience of front-line
units, but whose duties mostly included keeping order,
manning Fortresses, and protecting important cities
and other locations behind the lines.
Armoured Car – These Brigades often performed a role
somewhere between the Cavalry and the Armoured
Brigades. Useful for scouting and protected well enough
so they wouldn’t get slaughtered by Infantry, the AC
Brigades add a bit of heft to an Infantry Division, and
add a little flexibility to an Armoured Division.
Motorised – This is basically an Infantry Brigade with
the added benefit and liability of being mounted on
trucks. These Brigades could move more quickly than
a standard Infantry Brigade while fulfilling the same
role a little more rapidly, and whose speed could be a
significant advantage in battle. The liability would be its
reliance on Fuel to move.
Mechanised – An Infantry Brigade that has been
mounted on half-tracks and other lightly armoured
vehicles, often with some heavier units to supplement
their firepower. These relatively well-protected units
were vulnerable to airpower, but otherwise were more
durable than Infantry units, and had the firepower to
punch through where run-of-the-mill Infantry would
have a tough time.
Anti-Tank – Brigades of Infantry armed with large numbers of small, but high-velocity anti-tank guns which
could be positioned in ambushes or along the front
lines in order to take advantage of Armoured targets of
opportunity. Sometimes, the Infantry would carry handheld anti-tank rifles, sneak up to where the enemy tanks
were, and surprise them.
Tank Destroyer – A heavily Armoured tank with a
heavy-bore or high-velocity (or both) gun meant to
punch through standard tank armour. Brigades supplied with packs of these were better off than regular
anti-tank units because they were self-propelled and
had armour to protect them from Infantry and even
from Armoured attacks.
• Anti-Air – Once the importance of airpower on the
modern battlefield had been proven, especially toward
the end of the war, many Divisions made sure to have
special anti-aircraft Brigades in order to offer protection
against preying aircraft.
• Artillery – Howitzers and field artillery have long had a
telling impact on the art of warfare. By the modern age,
Artillery was often a force in itself, and its careful application on the Infantry or Armoured battlefield proved
very useful.
• Engineer – A Brigade of specially trained engineers
that are skilled at working out problems, building things
quickly, and making the impossible happen; they can
come in handy when facing off against Fortresses and
Rivers alike. Engineers are great on defence, too, by
providing bonuses to Entrenchment. Engineers can add
to the overall speed of a Division, and they can especially
help during river crossings.
• Military Police – Military Police are a more inexpensive
Unit to produce than Garrison or Militia, because they
aren’t trained for Combat, but they are more effective
than those other Units at opposing and Suppressing
Partisans and rebels.
• Marines – Infantry units skilled at operation at sea
and Amphibious Invasions. These were the mainstay
of Pacific battles on both sides, but particularly on the
United States side, where the Marines were always the
first units to go in and secure a beachhead.
• Paratroops – A light-Infantry Brigade specially trained
to parachute into a Combat area, and surprise the
enemy with a force behind their lines. Paratroops are
generally very light in combat, and therefore can be
vulnerable. It’s hoped these units would be deployed in
a way so that they can be quickly supported after the
initial surprise wears off.
J5.7 Land Unit Upgrades
A Brigade’s Combat values and statistics do not always
remain the same after it’s produced. As Research develops
improvements to Doctrines or equipment, they will be added
to existing units in the form of Upgrades, so long as those
units are made eligible to receive the Upgrades, and the
Upgrades are funded with IC. These Upgrades may change
the unit’s values and statistics. Brigades, Divisions, or other
whole command structures may be prioritized or excluded
from Upgrades by using the buttons described on the Land
Unit Interface.
J5.8 Reserve Units
A unit built as a Reserve unit costs less to build than a normal unit, depending on your Mobilization level (see B10.0).
It will remain at some level of reduced Strength until fully
Mobilized (i.e. it is waiting for war). These Divisions will cost
less in Supplies, because they are made of fewer men, but
also have lower Strength and Organisation values. These
units may increase their Strength and Organisation once
the country’s army is Mobilized. Once war is declared, these
restrictions are lifted, and the unit rises to normal Strength
and Organisation over time.
Please note, IC must be allocated to Reinforcements
(see A5.4) in order to bring Reserve Units up in Strength.
Otherwise, they will remain understrength.
Please note there are two types of units referred to as
“reserve:” combat and divisions. Reserve units become
regular Divisions after Mobilization, but any unit can be a
“reserve” in Combat, since they are merely units waiting for
an opportunity to fight.
its Organisation will drop.
For more information on Amphibious Assaults, see L8.0.
J5.11 Embarking Troops on Air Transports
In order to load a Paratroop Division onto a Transport Plane,
click on the Division you wish to embark. One of the organisational buttons for Air Transport will not be grayed out if
there is a Transport Airwing at an Airbase in the Division’s
current province. To unload the unit, select the Air Unit, and
then click on the unit as shown at the bottom of the Air Unit
Interface. One of the organisational buttons will allow you to
Unload the Division.
For more information on Paradrops, see M7.0.
J6.0 Air Units
J6.1 Unit Design Concept
J5.9 Brigade Transfers
Brigades are assigned to a certain Division when produced,
but they may also be detached and reassigned later. This allows the player to change the structure of their army to match
the situation, or to adapt to unforeseen circumstances.
J5.10 Embarking Troops on Ships
Airwings are the smallest Air Unit, which contains about
100 aircraft. Air Units may be grouped to contain one or
more Airwings. When you see these units on the Map, each
Airwing is shown with an “x,” like a Brigade. Because there
is no larger organisational unit other than the unofficial
“groups” of Air Units, you will never see anything larger
than the Airwing in a stack. Air Units can, however, be assigned to HQs.
Often, it may be necessary to load Divisions onto ships,
either for an Amphibious Assault or simply to move them
J6.2 Air Unit Interface
to a new base overseas. In order to load a Division onto a
If you click on an Airbase where air units are based, or if
Transport Ship, click on the Division you wish to embark.
you click through the stacks in a province where aircraft
One of the organisational buttons will not be grayed out if
there is a Transport Ship at a Seaport in the Division’s curare based, you will see the Air Unit Interface. Most of the
rent province. Click the button, and the unit will be loaded
Interface is designed exactly like the Land Unit Interface,
and so most of these indicators will be familiar to you. At
Keep in mind that each Transport has a Transport
the top, to the right of the Leader’s name, is the number of
Capability of a certain “Weight,” and if a Division is too
Airwings assigned to this Air Unit. The dark bar underneath
the organisational buttons shows how many Airwings of
“heavy” it may need to lose some Weight by leaving a
Brigade behind.
each type are assigned to the Air Unit. The Unit indicators
To unload the unit, select the fleet, and then click on
themselves are very similar to the Land Unit Interface, and
the unit as shown at the
should be self-explanbottom of the Naval Unit
Interface. One of the
At the bottom of
organisational buttons
the Interface is the
will allow you to Unload
the Division. Embarked
Capacity, which is the
troops never unload
Weight of units the
themselves on arrival –
combined Air Unit can
you must unload them
carry. This requires at
where you want them.
least one Airwing of
The Transport will
Transport Planes; othcarry Supplies for the A Czech Air Unit. To the right is information on a specific Fighter
erwise, the Transport
unit while they are Wing, which is accessed by clicking on the Wing in the Air Unit
Weight Capacity will
always be zero.
embarked. However for Interface. More information, as shown underneath the Air Unit
every day the Transport Interface, can be shown in a Tooltip which is accessed by hovering
If an Air Transport
has embarked troops, your mouse cursor over the Wing in the Air Unit Interface.
Paratroops, those will be shown by Division underneath the
Transport Weight Capacity.
J6.3 Unit Descriptions
• Interceptor – The basic Fighter design, which is meant
to be able to not only shoot down enemy Bombers
by intercepting them en route to the target, but can
also tangle with enemy Escort Fighters or enemy Air
Superiority Missions.
• Multi-Role – Some aircraft were designed to handle a
number of jobs, and so were basically “jack of all trades,
master of none.” A Multi-Role Airwing is effective in Air
Superiority fights, but not as good as an Interceptor
Airwing. They’re also okay at Tactical Bombing or Close
Air Support, but not as good as specialized Bombers.
• Tactical Bomber – Small, two-engine Bombers with a
relatively small payload of Bombs, but which could move
quickly and hit targets with precision. They work in the
role of Strategic Bombing too, but they’re just not as
good at it as a real Strategic Bomber because of their
small payload and inadequate range.
• Close Air Support – Small, maneuverable dive bombers
or low-level attack planes that were specialized for supporting troops on the ground, primarily against tanks.
Good to have around no matter who you were fighting.
• Naval Bomber – A type of aircraft, usually two- or
four-engine, which is specialized or especially useful
at long-range patrol and bombing ships. They may use
torpedoes, or they may prefer level bombing. They also
work great as scouts.
• Strategic Bomber – A large four-engine Bomber which
could carry a large payload of Bombs deep into enemy
territory and strike their cities, Resources, Factories,
and major Installations. These Bombers could often
protect themselves, but were always safest when accompanied by long-range Fighters.
• Flying Bombs & Rockets – These late-war technologies are basically long-range unmanned bombers used
for Strategic Warfare purposes.
• Rocket Interceptor – One of the most advanced
Technologies in the game allows construction of the
Rocket Interceptor, which is often capable of slipping
into a Bomber formation quickly enough to avoid being
hit by defensive fire, while being able to fire rockets or
cannons into enough Bombers to shoot a few down on
each firing run.
• Carrier Air Group – Though not actually a unified Airwing
of planes, like land-based units, the CAG is a mixture of
aircraft meant to be able to strike Naval targets, as well
as defend itself and the Aircraft Carrier from attack. A
CAG cannot operate without an Aircraft Carrier, so if the
Carrier is lost in Combat, so is the CAG.
J6.4 Airwing Upgrades
Incremental upgrades may add improvements to the
Airwings’ statistics or Combat values. Some Techs will make
an old model of Airplane obsolete, and Upgrades will replace
those old planes with a newer Model.
Allocating IC for Upgrades allows these improvements
to be made to the units. Remember that non-essential units
can be marked to not receive Upgrades (at least until all the
other units have been Upgraded, which is how it worked
historically), and other important units can be Prioritized to
get their Upgrades first (these controls are on the Air Unit
Interface), and must be funded with IC. An Air Unit must be
resting and not assigned to Missions.
J6.5 Carrier Air Groups
The Carrier Air Group (CAG) is a type of Air Unit which operates like other Air Units, but which can either use an Airbase
as its base for operations, or an Aircraft Carrier. Only CAGs
may operate from Aircraft Carriers. See C3.0 for more about
CAG operations.
J7.0 Naval Units
J7.1 Naval Design Concept
Ship types are designated as Capital Ships, Screens, or
Other. Screens are meant to move ahead of the Capital
Ships in battle to protect them while Capital Ships will generally try to close toward the Centreline and attack enemy
Capital Ships from relatively long range. Support ships will
generally try to avoid combat.
J7.2 Naval Unit Interface
The Naval Unit Interface is designed very much the same as
the Air Unit Interface, which is very similar to the Land Unit
Interface. The dark bar below the organisational buttons
shows the number of Capital Ships, the number of Screens,
and the number of Others (see: Naval Units for descriptions
of ship categories).
The Naval Transport Capability is listed in the same manner as air units. If a Transport Ship has embarked Divisions,
those will be shown unit by unit underneath the Transport
Weight Capacity.
J7.3 Unit Descriptions
• Battleship – The mainstay of past wars, the Battleship
still formed the core of most major powers’ fleets in the
mid-1930s. Some still held to the dream of a general
fleet action between opposing Battleships on the high
seas; others believed the Battleship had become a powerful support weapon, but would never again decide the
outcome of major battles.
• Super-Heavy Battleship – This is a heavier version of
A French CAG is shown, along with its Fleet, in the Naval
Unit Interface.
the standard Battleship.
• Battlecruiser – A classic compromise design which
made sense on paper but underperformed in practice.
It is basically a Battleship design with less armour
and more speed. The speed made it more versatile in
combat, but the lack of armour made it very vulnerable
when going head-to-head with enemy Battleships or
• Heavy Cruiser – Many fleets who couldn’t afford
Battleships were happy to have a few Heavy Cruisers
around to form the core of their fleets. Strong enough
to do everything but fight Battleships (not that some
didn’t try), the Heavy Cruiser could dominate a battle
with smaller ships.
• Light Cruiser – As a small, fast ship with very little to no
armour, the Light Cruiser was a fast strike vessel, and
could act as a “heavy screen” to protect Capital Ships
against direct attack. Great against Destroyers, but
mismatched against larger vessels, the Light Cruiser
was often best employed as a scout, rather than as a
• Destroyers – Quick and nimble, these lightly-armed,
lightly-armoured vessels were meant to protect Capital
Ships by forming a screen around them. Often, though,
this defensive role was best performed by making a
daring attack upon the enemy formation by using their
potent torpedo armament. Powerful in numbers, these
little craft were not to be underestimated.
• Transport Ships –Troopships generally moved more
quickly than your average cargo ship, and some of them
were actually luxury liners before the war. Transport
Ships have a large capacity for carrying military units,
while leaving the more mundane Convoy duty to smaller
and slower ships.
• Submarine – First tried in large numbers during World
War I, their potential was demonstrated in a way that
led some predict them to be the one weapon that would
bring about victory or defeat for the British. Hard to
detect, these boats could sneak in and deliver a killing
blow before the enemy even knew they were there. Subs
could be used against enemy Capital Ships or against
enemy Convoys.
• Aircraft Carrier – Somewhat of a novelty in the time
period in which HOI 3 starts, some predicted Aircraft
Carriers could revolutionize warfare, while others
refused to believe. Able to carry a Carrier Air Group
(CAG), these vessels allowed a killing punch to be delivered from fairly long range, sometimes even before
the enemy realized there was a threat nearby. Carriers
were notoriously vulnerable to enemy surface action,
J7.4 Naval Upgrades
Only certain components of naval ships may be Upgraded:
Radar, Anti-Aircraft, and Anti-Submarine. Older classes of
ships will remain obsolete, and Tech advances will only improve major components on newly-built ship classes.
J7.5 Carrier Air Groups
The advantage of having a Carrier Air Group (CAG) around
your fleet is that if you happen to find an enemy Fleet nearby
but can’t catch them with ships, you still have a chance at
striking a blow. Carrier Air Groups can protect a Fleet with
airpower even when far beyond land-based airpower. The
CAG packed a hefty punch when it was able to attack first.
See C3.0 for more about CAG operations.
K1.0 Management Concepts
Hearts of Iron III is designed to take many of the tedious,
routine tasks and possibly overwhelming numbers of units
and orders out of the player’s hands until the player is ready
to handle them. It is for that purpose that we have created
an integrated Headquarters and Theatre command structure, all of which can be handed over to the computer’s
Artificial Intelligence (AI).
The Headquarters command structure is so flexible
you can make a battlefield promotion and designate a new
Headquarters under a new General at any time. Any level of
Headquarters may be turned over to AI control (which will
also take over every HQ assigned to it).
The Theatre command structure allows you to hand an
HQ or individual Land, Air or Naval Units over to the computer’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) to manage for you, according
to specifications and guidelines you set.
Note to HOI 2 veterans: Many of us, from many games
of this type, are accustomed to moving stacks of divisions
around the map without any regard to a central command
structure. However, that is not how World War II was fought
(few other wars either!), and the Headquarters command
structure is central to World War II combat. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with how Armies,
Corps and Groups interact with each other, fight alongside
each other, and coordinate with each other, so that you can
make use of the built-in benefits HOI 3 provides to any integrated command structure.
Eisenhower’s Army Group in Italy. Note that his 5-star HQ is part of a Theatre HQ (“Allied Force”), and that he’s
requested a certain number of Air and Land Units in order to fully comply with his orders to hold a Defensive Stance.
The Unit Counters around him which are part of his command will all flash with a blue-green colour, to distinguish
them from Units assigned to other commands.
K2.0 Headquarters (HQs) &
Command Structure
Headquarters can exist at several levels, and are linked together in a “chain of command,” or HQ Command Structure.
When looking at any Division which is part of a
Headquarters command structure, you will see one or
more layers of dark-coloured bars on top of the Land Unit
Interface, above the Division’s unit name. Each layered bar
is a higher Headquarters to which the unit is attached. If
you click on the bar immediately above the Division name,
you will be taken to the Corps or Army Headquarters,
which is hopefully located nearby and the Map should have
shifted so that you’re looking at the location of the HQ. The
Headquarters Interface will show the Headquarters itself,
which is a non-combat Brigade of 3,000 men, and should
then show each of the smaller units which have been placed
under its command.
Corps and Armies are somewhat interchangeable.
They can both contain Divisions directly under their command structure; however, an Army may also contain Corps.
Some Groups may even have Armies, Corps, and Divisions
attached - all three! An HQ may have a maximum of 5 Land
Units attached to it.
Each of these lower-level units are shown in a list, which
will also tell you how many of each command type there
are – Armies, Corps, Divisions, etc. You can tell the command levels apart by the “x” designators. If you click on
any of them above the Division level, you will see another
Headquarters Interface, which may show units assigned underneath it while also showing the higher-level Headquarters
you just came from.
In this way, you can start to see the fluid nature of the
Headquarters command structure: each unit flows into
higher or lower structures smoothly, or at least they should.
It’s sort of like the folder structure you use on your computer in that you have a large folder at the top, with subfolders, and more subfolders (Divisions) inside those folders.
You can move smoothly through the “unit hierarchy” and
will always have a “road map” showing where you can go in
either direction, up or down the chain of command.
Only at the very top of any Headquarters command structure will you no longer have any higher-level
Headquarters displayed in a bar on top of the Headquarters
Interface. If your country’s army is large enough to justify
higher command, as any major power’s army will be, the top
of any command structure will ideally be a Group (“xxxxx”)
or Theatre (“xxxxxx”) HQ, unless you’re looking at the command structure in some colonial outpost.
K2.1 Creating New HQs
Any time you feel there should be a higher command structure (say you have three Armies operating along a front,
but each one is the highest-level HQ on that front), you can
always add one. Any unit, from an unattached Division to an
unattached Headquarters at any level below the Theatre
level, may create an additional Headquarters unit at a
higher level than itself out of the blue. This Headquarters
unit will start as a Brigade of 600 men drawn automatically
from your Manpower pool, and will have a General assigned
to lead it. It will require 100 Officer points. If it is eligible for
Reinforcements, it will grow in Strength to a maximum of
3,000 men. You may then attach each of the previously
independent Armies to the new Group HQ, and there will
be one commander whose responsibility it is to manage
and help each subsidiary command. His Leader bonus will
be passed down the line, and he will gain experience from
every battle that occurs along the entire front.
Keep in mind that Theatre Commanders serve a very
important function: lessening the impact of Coordination
Penalties that prevent large numbers of Divisions from
operating in collaboration with one another. This penalty,
unless offset by a Theatre Commander, can have such an
impact in Combat that it can mean the difference between
victory or defeat! Unless you have a Theatre Commander
and an integrated command structure, you must learn to
deal with that penalty in every battle.
Therefore, given the previous example, it would be
worthwhile to create an additional level of command – a
Theatre HQ – above the Group you just formed. That way, every unit gets the benefit not only of the Group Commander,
who adds bonuses of his own, but also the bonuses from the
Theatre Commander. See K4.0 for more information about
K2.2 Radio Communication Range
Each level of Headquarters (Army, Group, Corps, etc.) has a
certain range for its radios, which allow it to maintain contact with its assigned Units. Units located outside this range
are unable to get the special advantages provided by HQ
Commanders (a different advantage at each level, shown
in L5.2). The radio range of Headquarters can be increased
through Technology Advances.
K2.3 Automating Below Theatre Level
A Headquarters does not have to be a Theatre to be
given its own Objectives and AI instructions. Any level of
Headquarters can be Automated independently (though all
of its assigned units follow the assignment). In the middle of
the Headquarters Unit Interface will be a grayed-out flag, on
the left. Clicking that flag will turn Automation on, and the
flag will turn bright green.
You will then be asked to set a Stance. You do not have
to set Objectives, but it makes sense to do so. To set a
province as an Objective, right-click on a province while the
HQ Unit is selected. This sets that province as an Objective,
and a bright green flag will show in the province in Theatre
Mapmode (not in any other). The HQ Unit will indicate that
province is now an Objective. Objectives in your territory
are defensive Objectives. Those in enemy territory are
Objectives to capture. Any HQ can set a Stance, as described
in K4.5.
The space just under the Objectives list will show your
forces’ estimated power versus what your Commander believes the enemy’s power is. He’s giving his impression of
the odds for his success in taking the assigned Objectives.
Automation may be canceled at any time by clicking the
bright green flag in the HQ Unit Interface again. This can only
be done at the level at which it was initiated.
K3.0 Leadership Concepts
In HOI 3, it is intended that every unit down to the Division
level should have a Commander, and that each level of
Commander will contribute skills and Traits to the overall
battle situation.
Further, you are allowed to construct a “Chain of
Command” from the very top of your country’s military
(the Commander-in-Chief – i.e. You) through Theatre
Commanders to Army Commanders, down to Division
Commanders on the bottom. Different commanders have
different levels of responsibility, and each has the ability to
take independent command of the units under his command
and to fight without your having to tell him what to do.
Leaders will gain Experience, and can gain in Skill points
as they do so. Leaders can also be Promoted, which allows
them to Command larger types of Units (Corps, for instance,
rather than Divisions), but they start over in gaining Skill at
their Promoted rank.
Leader Traits and Skill also provide bonuses. The Skill
rating of Commanders at each level affects a different aspect of the units. For each level up the chain of command,
the bonus applied for every unit is only half of the previous
level, and so a Division Commander’s Division gets the full
benefit, while a Corps Commander only provides half that
bonus, but provides it to every Unit under his command. If
there are five Leaders in the chain of command, a Division
could theoretically benefit from five bonuses, which on a
practical level would equal nearly two full bonuses once all
the halving is subtracted out. Skilled Leaders can modify the
level at which a unit will Shatter.
tary operations in that area. Establishing a Theatre makes it
easier to issue orders to a region where you may not want to
take full control of operations, and reduces the level of micromanagement, no matter the importance of the Theatre.
K4.1 Theatre Interface
If you click on the Unit Interface for any unit, you can then
click on the slot where the name of the Commander is
displayed, whether there is a name or it’s blank, and then
choose a Commander from the list to take charge of that
unit. If you’re replacing a Commander, he will go back into
the Commander Pool.
A Theatre Command is just another Headquarters
Command, which just happens to be at the top of its structure. Therefore, its Interface works exactly as described in
K2.3 for lower level HQs. However, the difference is that at
the Theatre can have units specifically requested and assigned to it for the completion of its duties.
The Theatre AI will make plans for seizing the Objectives
you set, and will also advise you when additional Assets are
needed to accomplish its goal. The Assets you send may be
a combination of different “arms,” such as Land and Naval
forces, allowing the AI to plot out major overseas Invasions.
K3.2 Leader Experience & Skill
K4.2 Assigned Assets
Experience in Combat will gradually increase a leader’s
skills. Experience is shared by all commanders involved in a
battle, even if they’re located at Group Command 200 miles
behind the front lines. Commanders “on the ground” and “at
the front” will gain more, but all will benefit.
Any time any portion of a Leader’s command structure
(underneath his level, not above) is in combat, he gains experience. When his experience level reaches 100, it is set
back to zero and his skill level increases.
You can designate certain Units (Assets) as Assigned to a
Theatre simply by incorporating them into the HQ command
structure of the Theatre. Units under construction can be
assigned a Theatre before they are complete.
When you click on a Theatre Headquarters while it is
under AI control, the HQ will flash bright green around its
Counter edges, and all of the units under that Theatre’s
Command will begin flashing bright blue along their edges,
allowing you to see the extent of the Theatre’s (or HQ’s) responsibility without having to check the Theatre Mapmode.
K3.1 Assigning Commanders
K4.3 Objectives
K3.3 Promotions
Sometimes there will be a need for more Commanders of
higher grade, who can take on higher responsibilities. This will
often happen as your army grows. To Promote a Commander
to a higher level of Generalship, click on the Unit he currently
Commands, and click the Promote button in the Commander
Pool screen. That Commander will no longer be eligible to
Command the Unit he was in charge of. Instead, he can now
take over a Unit one level higher than where he was. Beware:
he may lose some Skill and Experience, then he will begin
building experience in his new Command.
These Promotions are necessary to Command Air Units
and Fleets also, even though they don’t have the grade restrictions Land Units do.
K4.0 Theatres & HQ Command
A Theatre is a region of the battlefield, or a designated portion of the world, where a Commander of Field Marshal level
can be charged with the independent direction of all mili-
You can set Objectives for each Theatre, which can be in
your territory or in your enemy’s. If it’s in your territory, the
goal will be to defend the Objective. If it’s in enemy territory,
the Theatre AI will attempt to seize the Objective, provided
it’s set to Full AI Control.
While the HQ Unit is selected, right-clicking on a province will set that province as an Objective to either be defended or captured. Once AI control is set, right-clicking will
no longer issue Movement orders to the Unit (because the
AI does that now).
K4.4 Asset Requests
When an HQ Commander believes he needs additional
Brigades or Units, he will send a request which will show up
below your Production Queue. If you agree, those units will
be placed into Production and will be automatically assigned
once they’re ready. You are not forced to order this degree
of automation, and can always independently assign units
for Production and to Theatres.
If you approve the requested Brigades, Airwings or
Ships, simply click the “Build All” button. The units will then
Once Automation is selected, the selected HQ (von Brauchitsch’s) is outlined in green, while all its subsidiary commands are outlined in blue. The Theatre’s Stance has been set to Blitzing, and six provinces have been set as Objectives.
The General believes he will need to have additional Armour and Air Units assigned to accomplish his task.
be entered into the Production Queue and assigned to that
Theatre in the Queue.
K4.5 Stances
In order to leave “standing orders” for your Theatre or HQ
Commanders, you can set a Stance. This Stance will determine what actions the AI will take in your absence when
faced with a variety of situations. If you choose an aggressive Stance, the AI will probably attack when opportunity
arises. In a defensive Stance, they may stand by no matter
what the opportunity, and may even prompt you through a
Pop-up Window to ask for more Assets.
The Stances are:
• Prepare – The Theatre or HQ will Repair, Reinforce,
recover and stock up on Supplies in preparation for an
Offensive or to defend against an expected enemy attack. There are few offensive moves planned, though
targets of opportunity may be attacked.
• Defensive – The Theatre or HQ will prepare to defend
against an enemy attack. All its priority is on beating
them back and defending its Objectives from capture.
• Offensive – The Theatre or HQ will move forward steadily
but aggressively to seize its Objectives. Attacking the
enemy becomes the priority, with the emphasis on
pathways toward the assigned Objectives.
• Blitzing – The Theatre or HQ will seek narrow breakthroughs for exploitation and encirclement. It will not
worry about dangers on the flanks or encircled pockets
behind the lines – that’s someone else’s problem, and it
probably won’t matter by the time you win. Holes and
weak spots will be covered by Infantry while the Armour
and Motorised units rush ahead, or else the AI may prefer to keep a mobile reserve to crush resistance. This
Stance works best if the Theatre has a lot of Motorised,
Mechanised, or Armoured Divisions.
If an AI-controlled Theatre has too many Objectives for the
Assigned Assets, it will let you know.
K4.6 Axis of Advance
If you have a HQ/Theatre selected, and they are under AI
control, you can shift-rightclick on a province to set the Axis
of Advance. This is the direction you are demanding the
Commander take to achieve his Objectives.
K5.0 Doctrines
K5.1 Land Doctrines
Your Research into Theoretical battlefield Doctrines will improve the way your military units fight. Some of these Techs
are one-time only, with special effects.
On land, there are four major categories of Doctrines
you can pursue in steps, with each step contributing some
to supporting the overall Doctrine:
• Spearhead Doctrine – German-style doctrines focused
on tanks, breakthroughs, and fast combat and movement. Mobility can extend to improving defence, too,
through “elastic” strategies.
• Superior Firepower Doctrine – American-style doctrines with bigger divisions, combined arms, and a
mechanised and motorised focus. If it won’t budge,
force it! It has a larger demand for Supplies.
• Grand Battle Plan Doctrine – British doctrines with
counterattacks, reserve replacement, and infantry focus. Much planning, obviously, goes into these style of
attacks, where every piece of the army has its role.
• Human Wave Doctrine – Soviet-style, built for an army
made up mostly of Militia and Partisans, with the broad
view that while most of these troops are expendable, the
mass will always overwhelm the enemy and prevail.
useful overall to your war. Researching the same Doctrine
also mutually-supports the other Techs in that category by
improving the Practical and Theoretical Knowledge that will
help with other Techs in the same Doctrine.
• Fighter Doctrine – Focusing on Air Superiority or
Interception strategies, which can be either defensive
or offensive (though in an offensive role you’ll normally
want bombers to go in once the way is clear).
• Tactical Doctrine – Focusing on attack through light
bombers against enemy troops and Installations.
• Close Air Support (CAS) Doctrine – Concentrating on
closely supporting battles as they happen, attacking the
enemy troops on the front line.
• Heavy Bomber Doctrine – Taking the war to the enemy
homeland by attacking factories and morale. This concentrates on Strategic Warfare more than on success on
the tactical battlefield.
• Naval Airpower Doctrine – This Doctrine is meant
mainly for powers that expect much of their war to be
against the enemy navies and island bases.
K5.2 Naval Doctrines
K6.0 Bases
Which Naval Doctrine you concentrate on will depend on
your view of how your navy should be used. Think which of
these elements you consider the most important core units
of your Fleet, and that’s what you should focus on.
• Carrier Doctrine – Using Aircraft Carriers as the main
fighting force at sea, this Doctrine also improves the efficiency of support vessels which are meant to protect
the Carriers. This is a highly mobile Doctrine which takes
the war to the enemy.
• Sea Lane Defence Doctrine – This Doctrine protects
your vital interests by concentration of heavy gunpower
(battleships) where it’s going to be most needed, while
protecting the rest of these vital sea lanes with lighter
patrol Ships. The “Battleship Admirals” would fall in this
category, because they’re looking to defend vital areas
and hope for a decisive engagement with the enemy
where their guns will prevail.
• Submarine/Raiding Doctrine – This Doctrine concentrates on those Ships (or boats) which are most likely to
succeed in hitting the enemy Convoys. The Submarines
and Cruisers will slip through the enemy defences by
sheer numbers and will hit the vital shipping lanes.
Air and Naval units need Airbases and Naval Bases, respectively, in order to operate. Because they rely upon these
Bases for Supply, they must return to their Base from time
to time, depending upon their Range (how far they can go
without refueling). When Airbases or Seaports are captured
by the enemy, the units based there will automatically flee
to the closest friendly Base.
K5.3 Air Doctrines
K7.0 Repair Rate
Air Doctrines are far more free-wheeling than either Naval
or Land Doctrines, because the components of each do not
depend directly upon the others (i.e. there are few pre-requisites). You may Research parts of one Doctrinal path, and
also parts of a different one. The individual Techs do support
each other, though, making that one type of aircraft more
As Units and Installations take damage in Combat or from
Bombing, they rely upon your Repair Rate to gradually repair
the damage done, and bring them up to full Strength.
Repair Rate is a standard game formula which is modified by your Technology levels. The higher your Repair Rate,
the faster your units will recover from Combat damage.
K6.1 Airbase Management
While there is no “stacking limit” for Air Units, the requirement for Supply imposes what is essentially a stacking
limit, because once the number of based Airwings grows
to a certain point, the Airbase will be unable to find enough
Supplies for them. They can temporarily host above this de
facto Stacking Limit because each Airbase keeps a 30-day
Supply reserve for Air Units based there.
K6.2 Naval Base Management
A Naval Base’s size affects how many Ships can Repair there at
one time, and how many Ships can regain Organisation while
in that Base. A Naval Base’s size also determines the total
Throughput of Supplies, which is handled through Convoys.
L1.0 Movement Is Attack
If you choose to move a land unit into a province where an
enemy unit exists, you are ordering an attack. HOI 3 assumes “movement is attack,” which means ordering movement into an adjacent province occupied by enemy units will
immediately trigger Combat. The men on each side would
already have been looking at each other across little more
than a rifle-shot’s distance, as there would not be a large
“no-man’s land” between opposing units, and you can assume once they start moving forward they will quickly meet
enemy skirmishers.
Control-rightclick can either order the Unit(s) to
Support an attack by other Units, or to move via Strategic
Redeployment. See H12.0 for more about how Strategic
Redeployment is handled, and how it can move your forces
quickly “by rail.”
Support Attack is a command you can give to Units so
that they will join an attack, but will remain in place once
the battle is won – they will not move forward to follow the
enemy’s Retreat. Usually this is to avoid Supply shortages,
or to keep a reserve force back so the Units which do advance are not cut off.
L1.1 Unit Orders Interface & Support Attack
L2.0 Combat Fronts & Main Line
There is a more exact way of issuing Movement or Attack
Orders for Land Units. Select the Units you want to order
– individual units or a stack. Then control-rightclick on the
province where you want to move or attack into. The Unit
Orders Interface will appear.
For Hearts of Iron Veterans: The major concept change
implemented for HOI 3 is that every unit has a “frontal
footprint,” called a Combat Width, and every battlefield
has a limited amount of Frontage. Therefore, only a certain
number of units have room to be on the Front Lines. This is
a serious step forward in combat realism, but may require
some adjustment in how combat is understood.
In HOI 3, every Land Unit is assumed to have a certain
“Width” along which its Combat forces spread. This must
be fit together with other Units along a Combat Front – the
available space in which to engage the enemy.
Each provincial border has 10 Squares along its Combat
Front. When combat begins, the primary combat elements
of all the engaged units are assigned at random to these
squares, with one Brigade per square. For purposes of multiple combat (see L4.7), a province will have more squares
on every side, and so a flanking attack from a second province can cause the Combat Front of the province to increase
in Width, allowing more Divisions to move to the Front.
There are two ranks on any battlefield: Front and
Reserve. There is only so much room on any battlefield, and
once the space limit has been reached, the other Divisions
must wait in line for a chance to move forward. These become the Reserves.
There is a Stacking Penalty which penalizes each side for
each Brigade they have in either the Front or the Reserves. It
becomes difficult to coordinate so many Units, but effective
Leadership can counteract that.
Due to the standard composition of most combat units,
You may issue an order through this Interface to simply
“move and attack,” but that is no different from issuing an
attack command normally.
Here, in the Battle Interface on the left, we see two unfortunate Polish Divisions in the province of Naklo nad Notecia
attacked by a German Armoured Division and three Infantry Divisions, with another Infantry Division plus some
Headquarters hanging back in Reserve. The number in the black circle indicates the Combat Front here is 10, and
the German Divisions are 12 Wide – something which is allowed if one square is vacant. The last Infantry Division
must have a Width of three (because 9 + 3 = 12). Above the Combat Front/Width indicator it shows the Germans
have achieved the Breakthrough Combat Event. On either side of that note are the opposing Leaders, and above
them are several icons indicating which Modifiers are active in this battle (a tooltip will show what each means).
The Terrain of the province is displayed between the flags of the combatants. At the top of the Battle Interface, just
under the province name, is a battle progress indicator showing how close the Germans are to winning. This ratio is
also reflected, as you can see, on the Map itself, where the green “86” indicates the attack is 86% won. The tooltip
over the Map on the right shows each Division in the province where the mouse cursor is hovered. One last useful
detail: The Division at the top of the screen, heading toward Danzig, is unopposed, and so it shows a green triangle to
indicate Movement, whereas an Attack would have a red triangle.
each Division will generally have three or four combat
Brigades, which will take those Frontline Squares. Remaining
Divisions will be placed in the Reserve rank. Generally, three
Divisions are required to fully cover a province Front (with
three to four Combat Brigades apiece).
Reserves are both Support units and units intentionally
being kept out of combat, either because they are vulnerable or because they are meant to rush into any gaps that
open and defeat the enemy before he can make progress.
for each Division in the Reserve to move forward into that
position and begin fighting. This chance is random for every Division, and once a Division is chosen, it then takes
the vacant slot.
It is possible that a battle may be lost by those Units on
the Combat Front without any of the Reserve Divisions having been able to participate in Combat. The Reserves must
make way for the Retreat once the guys in the Front lines
start Retreating, even if they’re ready for a fight.
L2.1 Units in Reserve
L3.0 Combat Statistics & Values
Divisions left in the Reserve will not be able to fight unless they are advanced to the Combat Front lines later in
the battle. When Combat Events, Combat casualties, or
other circumstances cause an open space of one or more
squares to open up in the Combat Front, it allows a chance
Land Units have a variety of Statistics and Combat Values.
The Master Unit Values List in C2.0 has a chart showing
most of these explanations.
• Strength – The number of soldiers assigned to the Unit.
As the Unit’s Strength is reduced by Combat or Attrition,
the Strength is shown as a total number of soldiers and
as a percentage of its full Strength.
Organisation – The Unit’s ability to operate the way it’s
supposed to. A Unit with low Organisation will be closer
to Shattering or being forced to Withdraw, even if its
Strength remains high.
Effectiveness – There are two types of Effectiveness
calculations: Attack and Defence. These are shown on
the Unit Tooltips in the Combat Interface, which usually refers to them as the Attack Modifier or Defence
Modifier. It is the same value, and is not to be confused
with the other modifiers to Combat, such Weather,
Experience, Leadership, etc.
Combat Width – The amount of space along the
“Combat Front” in each battle which is occupied by the
Unit. Techs can reduce some Brigades’ Combat Width,
making it possible to fit more firepower into the same
amount of space.
Soft Attack – The Unit’s capability against non-armoured targets.
Hard Attack – The Unit’s capability against armoured
Anti-Aircraft – The Unit’s ability to shoot down attacking aircraft.
Defensiveness – The Unit’s ability to defend itself
against attacking Land Units.
Toughness – The Unit’s ability to defend itself against
defensive fire when it’s attacking enemy Land Units.
Suppression – The Unit’s ability to prevent Partisan
activity or rebellion within a province.
Softness – The percentage of the Unit’s Strength which
is “soft” instead of “hard” (armoured) in nature. As explained in L4.1, this is taken into account in the targeting
phase of each round of Combat, and is used to determine
which of the attacker’s values is used against the target.
When a unit reaches zero Organisation, it must Withdraw
from Combat and begin Retreating, but since this is an
organised retreat (unlike Shattering), a unit may be moved
forward from the Reserve rank to take its place.
Both Strength and Organisation are calculated in
Combat for the entire Division, while losses are spread out
between the Division’s individual Brigades. No Brigade may
be forced to Withdraw, Shatter, or perform any other action
or activity independently of the whole Division.
L4.0 Combat Resolution
The actual progress of a battle is important for some players to understand, but less relevant to others – it depends
on your style of play. When your eyes start glazing over,
it’s time to stop reading this subsection and just pick up the
finer points by playing the game a few times.
To give you an idea, each one-hour period of combat is
played out in a series of one-hour “rounds” and a series of
“shots” and “phases” per round. The shots occur during
the Firing Phase, which is where all the damage to units is
inflicted. The phases after the Firing Phase resolve things
that are not directly related to Unit-on-Unit Combat. Just to recap, the important unit values for direct combat are Soft Attack, Hard Attack, Softness, Defensiveness,
Toughness, and Strength. There are two separate values
called Attack and Defence Effectiveness (Attack or Defence
Modifiers), which are generated by such “conditions” of
Combat as Leadership, Weather, Terrain, and so on. You
can see these Effectiveness values in a tooltip by hovering
your cursor over each Unit’s symbol/name in the Combat
Interface. A Division’s Hard and Soft Attack values are
modified by multiplying them by the Division’s Attack
Effectiveness. A Division’s Defensiveness and Toughness
values are modified by multiplying them by the Division’s
Defence Effectiveness.
Remember that all combat is conducted between two
Divisions, or single Brigades. Unless a Brigade exists by itself and is not assigned to a Division, a Brigade is ignored as
an individual unit and is considered part of its Division.
L4.1 Firing Phase
Only the Divisions that are on the Combat Front may participate in Combat during any particular round. Depending on
who initiated the Combat, Divisions are either considered
Attackers or Defenders: Attackers will be shown to the left
of the Combat Interface, with Defenders on the right. Units
still in Reserve cannot participate, though there is a chance
they may move up and begin to engage later in the battle. The Firing Phase consists of a series of Shots, the number
of which may vary from hour to hour, depending on the capability of the units involved. These are numbered as “Shot
1,” then “Shot 2,” and so on. The Firing Phase will continue
until there are no more Divisions eligible to fire a Shot in the
one-hour Round.
Each Division has a number of shots it may be able to
fire during a single Firing Phase. This number is largely dependent on its Soft and Hard Attack values, modified by its
Effectiveness. It is also lightly affected by random factors. Every round, each Division will randomly select an
enemy Division upon which to fire. Then, it randomly determines whether it will fire at that Division’s Soft or Hard
portion, the likelihood of which is determined by the target’s
Softness value. A Division firing on an Infantry Division with
70% Softness has a 70% chance of selecting its Soft portion, and a 30% chance of selecting its Hard portion. Once
targets are selected for the round, it is determined whether
that Division is allowed to fire that round. To determine firing allowance, the firing unit’s Hard
Attack or Soft Attack is modified by its Effectiveness, depending on whether it is firing at the target’s Hard or Soft
portion; Attackers have Attack Effectiveness and Defenders
have Defensive Effectiveness. If the Attack value, modified
by Attack Effectiveness, is greater than the number of the
Shot, then it may fire (i.e. if a unit’s modified Hard Attack is
7.8, rounded down, then it may fire if it is Shot 5, but not if
it is Shot 8). Keep in mind that even if a Division “sits out” a
round because its attack values didn’t exceed the shot number, it may still have a chance to fire in a later round using a
different, higher value, if it has one. An example would be a
Division with Hard Attack 2 sitting out Shot 3 against a Hard
target, but then firing against a Soft target in round 6 using
its modified Soft Attack value of 6.2.
Once eligibility (“allowance”) has been determined, those
units fire at their targets. The target then has a chance to
avoid being hit. Defending Divisions use their Defensiveness
value, multiplied by their Defence Effectiveness. Attacking
Divisions use their Toughness value, multiplied by their
Defence Effectiveness. Similar to the way the resulting Attack
values determine for how many rounds a Division can fire, the
resulting Defensiveness or Toughness values allow a Division
to avoid that number of shots from enemy Divisions during
a single Firing Phase. So if a defending Division’s modified
Defensiveness is 6.3, it may avoid being hit by the first six
shots aimed at it, while any additional shots would hit.
As you can probably tell from the way the Firing Phase
is set up, being outnumbered in the number of Divisions
on the Combat Front can be dangerous, as can fighting
Divisions whose Hard or Soft Attack greatly exceed your
Defensiveness or Toughness. The latter is especially dangerous, because the enemy will overwhelm your Defensiveness
or Toughness values while you will be unable to avoid being
hit in the later rounds of Combat.
or Organisation, and/or if it has a depleted Officer corps, there
is a chance it will Shatter. Leadership, Officers (the staff) and
unit Experience can help protect against Shattering, but any
unit will eventually reach its breaking point.
The survivors of a Shattered unit will automatically and
immediately Withdraw from combat to the country’s capital, where the unit must be “rebuilt” nearly from scratch
(according to the Repair Rate, and relying upon available
Manpower, etc.). Strength must be recovered through
Reinforcements. The unit will retain whatever portion of its
Experience survived the battle. Any Shattered unit which
does not have a valid supply line instead Surrenders and is
eliminated from the game.
A “near miss” on a Shatter roll results in total
Disorganisation, and the unit is immediately Withdrawn
from Combat without any chance to replace the unit with
a Reserve unit.
L4.4 Pushback Phase
In each Combat Round, there is a chance that a Pushback effect
may occur. This is more likely to happen when the Defender
has suffered serious Combat losses and has been forced to
Withdraw. If it is determined a Pushback has occurred, some
collateral damage is inflicted upon the Infrastructure and any
Installations that exist within that province.
L4.5 Reorganisation Phase
If a Combat Round ends with a vacant Combat Front square
– either because of Combat losses, Withdrawal of a Unit, or
Shattering of a Unit – there is a chance one of the Divisions
being held in Reserve will be able to move forward and take
over that square. It may also take any additional squares
it needs to accommodate its Combat Width, which may
widen the Combat Front. There is also a chance none of the
Reserve Divisions will be able to move forward.
L4.2 Combat Damage
Any Division which has been hit during the Firing Phase
will suffer some damage. It is likely to suffer damage to
Organisation, and may also suffer damage to its Strength.
The amount of damage is dependent on the relevant values
used during the shooting (i.e. Soft or Hard Attack), multiplied by the percentage of that Unit’s Strength. Therefore a
Unit at only 50 percent Strength would only inflict half of the
damage it could have at full Strength.
Once the Combat Phase is finished, the after-combat
phases occur. The after-combat phases are conditional,
only happening when certain conditions exist, so they may
not happen at all in some hours of combat.
L4.3 Shattering
During each Round of Combat, each Division is checked to see
if it will Shatter. Generally, if a unit has lost most of its Strength
L4.6 Combat Events
Combat Events are specific to either Attack or Defence, and
will assist the attacker or defender in a specific way. Each of
the Doctrines you can pursue for land combat has a specific
Combat Event for attack and defence, though any Doctrine
can produce any of the Combat Events.
Keep in mind that these Combat Event effects are likely
to change somewhat in later patches, or even before the
release of the game.
• Assault – The Attacker gets a bonus to the damage
caused to the enemy.
• Encirclement – This increases the battle’s Combat
Width by nearly half, allowing more units on both sides
to be engaged in Combat.
• Delay – The Defender is able to hold the Attacker to a
slower rate of movement on the battlefield.
• Shock – The Defender suffers a negative modifier to the
damage it inflicts.
• Counterattack – The Defender gets a bonus to the damage it inflicts.
• Tactical Withdrawal – This decreases the battlefield’s
Combat Width by nearly half, meaning that the Defender
is able to hold some of the Attackers at a bottleneck
(Terrain, more than likely), preventing an advance
through more than a narrow avenue.
• Breakthrough – This allows the Attacker to move more
quickly on the battlefield, meaning it can advance more
quickly against the enemy.
• Ambush – The Defender is able to lure the Attacker into
a bad situation, and the Attacker will not have the ability
to inflict as much damage that round.
L4.8 Other Considerations
L4.7 Flanking Attacks
L5.0 Modifiers to Combat
In most games, an attack from a second direction (a Flank)
just adds Combat penalties. Realistically, however, the defender would have protected themselves by being careful
and anticipating the possibility. In HOI 3, this is represented
by extending the Combat Front around to the sides of the
battle – an attack on another Flank simply hits any additional units there (i.e. if the Flanks were guarded). There is a
penalty applied for defending on multiple fronts.
In the event an active Attacker is itself attacked on its
Flank (a Counterattack), there is a procedure used to determine how units react to the Flank Attack. The defender
will shift Reserve units to fill the additional squares of the
expanded Combat Front.
This has the effect of widening the Combat Front for the
province: instead of being engaged on only one provincial
border, the Front has spread to a second (or third) provincial
border. This, obviously, allows more Brigades to be engaged
at once, and is a good reason to keep Reserves around to
protect against Flanking Attacks.
If there is more than one Battle underway within a single
province, a defeat on one Front is considered a defeat on
all Fronts.
There is a penalty to defence when being attacked from
a second province (on a second front). The addition of new
fronts adds other penalties. If a unit is completely encircled,
there is an additional penalty.
Things that may change for a Division from one hour of
Combat to the next include Strength, due to losses due
from damage, and Attack and Defence Effectiveness,
which may change according to a number of conditions. A
Division may also be forced to Withdraw from Combat due to
Organisational losses, or other combat results.
L4.9 Ending Combat
Combat ends when one side or another has Withdrawn
all of its units, either as a Combat result or by voluntary
Withdrawal. Whenever one side or the other no longer has
any Brigades on the Front, that side is defeated and the
Combat is over, even if the losing side still has Reserves. If
the Reserves didn’t make it into the Front rank, it’s too late.
Efficiency is shown in the Battle Interface as the Attack
or Defence Modifier. A variety of modifiers may affect the
L5.1 Stacking Penalty
The more Divisions involved in a combat, the harder it
is for them to effectively coordinate. A skilled Theatre
Commander may add to this ability, avoiding the penalty.
This is basically a stacking penalty. Certain Doctrine
Research and Tech Advances can also help. The Stacking
Penalty is approximately 1% per brigade, even if it is not
in combat (reserve), and there will be a 1% reduction for
every skill level of the Theatre Commander. As a result of
this Penalty, an army comprised mostly of Support-heavy
Divisions (i.e. only one Combat Brigade) may face problems
with coordination.
L5.2 Effect of Leadership on Combat
Leaders apply their Experience (gained during each Combat),
their Skill (gained through accumulated Experience) and
their Traits when they lead a military unit. These leadership
factors may make an important difference in combat, and
may also make Combat Events more likely.
If a Leader with Traits or Skill levels is moved to a new
command, he must get his “bearings” and become com-
fortable with his new command before his qualities become
useable again.
negative modifiers to either defence or attack (see A7.0 for
how these conditions come about).
L5.3 Traits (Land Leaders)
L5.6 Entrenchment & Fortification
Like Ministers, commanders of combat units may also have
Traits. These traits may give a specific advantage in Combat,
or may help the Division to get into Combat in the first place
(Advance bonuses, etc.). Remember that not all Traits are
beneficial. See the chart in K3.0 for more detail.
Entrenchment, or being “dug in,” is the way many smaller
military forces survive against much larger opponents. By
remaining still in a province for a period of days, including
remaining on station during peacetime, a land unit will gain
an extra degree of protection by preparing small fortifications such as foxholes, trenches, berms or barricades, which
are collectively known as entrenchments.
A unit will earn a “Dig In” value, which will be shown on
its Land Unit Interface and in the Unit Tooltip. A unit which is
Digging In will gain one level per day to its maximum level. As
soon as a unit moves voluntarily, it loses all Entrenchment
it had gained, and must start over in its new location; even
if it began to move and then stops, it is assumed to have
left the previous entrenchments behind. A unit also loses
some Entrenchment value (one level per Retreat order) if
it is pushed back in combat.
L5.4 Terrain
The Terrain upon which a Combat occurs will provide
penalties to some Units, or to all Units, depending on what
type it is.
Certain Technologies can mitigate or eliminate combat
penalties for certain Terrain types (for instance, the Marine
Tech can reduce penalties for Amphibious Assaults).
L5.5 Weather Conditions
Certain Weather Conditions will affect Combat through
There is a Surprise Bonus which the attacker has a
chance of getting if it’s attacking a Unit which has not dug in
during the first day of a battle.
An actual Fortress (Fort) is a more substantial form
of “Entrenchment” which takes months or years to produce. In the Province Interface, you will see the province’s
Fortification value shown as a series of bright green rectangles after the Fort symbol.
Fortifications (Forts) provide a similar, but far greater,
level of protection. A Fort in an attacked province allows the
defending units to shelter themselves from Strength and
Organisation attacks. A Fort must be occupied by at least
one friendly Unit in order to be useful. Otherwise, the Fort
will fall to the enemy.
Both, Entrenchment and Fortification, provide a modifier to the Attacker’s Efficiency (Attack Modifier), which will
make it harder to hit and damage the defending Units.
L5.7 Multiple Combats
If a single province is being attacked from more than one
adjacent province, the Combat Front will wrap around to
encompass those flanks, thereby widening the field of
battle. If this is happening, the defender will suffer a penalty
in Combat.
must push it 100% of the way. In game terms, the percentage of the battle won is considered equivalent to the amount
of the province’s territory left to capture.
A unit that loses all of its Organisation is forced to begin
Retreating. Some Units (such as those with a deficiency of
Officers (see L6.4) may be forced to Withdraw before their
Organisation reaches zero.
For obvious reasons, a Retreating unit may never be
ordered to Attack. Retreating Brigades also may not participate in a second Defensive battle.
L6.2 Damage to Infrastructure
Infrastructure suffers damage through what’s called a
Pushback Effect, which is more likely to happen the longer
the Combat continues. So a Combat where the Attacker
quickly wins and forces the defenders to retreat will cause
little damage to Infrastructure (which further allows the
Advance to proceed more quickly), whereas a Combat that
drags on through many Rounds is likely to cause more damage to the province and its Infrastructure (and slows the
Advance, which relies upon intact Infrastructure).
L6.3 Damage to Fortifications
When a Shore Bombardment capable Ship (Light Cruiser or
stronger) is in an adjacent seazone to enemy Land Units, it
will use its Shore Bombardment value against the enemy,
which will appear as a Modifier to Combat.
A unit which is located in a Fortress province and is forced
to “retreat” from a combat result will not actually retreat.
Instead, one level of the Fortress is destroyed, and combat
continues with the new values of the reduced Fort (as if it
were that level all along). Further retreat results cause more
levels of the Fort to be destroyed, until the Fort no longer
exists and the Unit is forced to retreat as normal.
L5.9 Out of Supply
L6.4 Officer Casualties
A Unit which is Out of Supply will have a serious penalty to
defense (it also cannot attack). The same is true of Units
which need Fuel but do not have sufficient Fuel.
As your units take Combat losses, your Officers (and NCOs)
will also take Combat losses, and must be replaced from the
national pool (shown in the Information Bar at the top of
your Main Screen). If your Officer corps is severely depleted,
your Officers cannot perform their tasks, and your units will
become more vulnerable to Shattering.
L5.8 Shore Bombardment
L5.10 Dissent
One of the most persistent Combat Modifiers is the rating of
Dissent in the home country, which affects every Combat,
Land, Air or Sea.
L6.0 Post-Combat
L6.1 Retreat
Instead of simply having the losing side’s units Retreat into
the next province, HOI 3 tracks Retreat more carefully.
Individual Divisions will Retreat, and not the whole army.
Each unit Retreats a certain distance through the province,
per Round, at the rate at which the Attacker Advances. If the
Attacker Advances 50% of the way through the province,
the Defender Retreats through 50% of the province. In order
to fully push the Defender out of the province, the Attacker
L6.5 Experience
A unit gains experience while in combat, helping it in future
battles by means of a modifier to combat resolution. As a
unit takes casualties, its experience is reduced accordingly, as inexperienced rookies replace the casualties. Unit
Experience becomes a factor in Combat, by applying an
Efficiency modifier to Attack or Defence.
Keep in mind that Leaders also gain Experience, but of a
different type (see K3.0).
L6.6 Recovery From Combat Damage
As with other things in HOI 3, Land Units will gradually
repair any damage they receive in Combat. If the Unit is
In Supply, it will recover Organisation at a rate related to
the nation’s Repair Rate (see K7.0). Strength losses are
recovered through gradual replacement of Manpower provided there is available Manpower, you have IC allocated for
Reinforcements, and the Unit has not been set to not receive
L7.0 Tactical Air and Close
Air Support (CAS)
When Air Units are assigned to Tactical Air roles against enemy units, they will randomly select squares to bomb. The
number of squares to be bombed will depend on what Air
Doctrine they are using.
L8.0 Amphibious Landings
For detailed information about how Amphibious Landings
are ordered, see N1.1.
Once landed, each Division will have only 30 days of
Supplies. This means that when units land, they must
quickly establish communication with a Seaport, or
else they will be out of Supply and will begin suffering
Organisation loss. Even if the unit has access to a Naval
Base, the unit may still suffer from being Out of Supply if
the Base is too small to handle its required Supply. Naval
Base access becomes critically important for the success
of Amphibious Landings, and effectively limits the size of
the landing to what can be supplied
M1.0 Air Orders Interface
You must right-click on a “target” province or Seazone in
order to give a movement order to an Air Unit (or a stack
of them). The Air Orders Interface will appear. At the very
top, you will see the name of the province where the unit
is based.
Beneath this, on the left, is a list of Mission Orders you
can give to your selected aircraft.
M1.1 Air Missions
• Air Superiority – The Air Unit (which is presumed to be
comprised mainly of Interceptors or Multi-Role Airwings)
will fly to the specified target area with the intent of attacking any enemy Airwings it encounters.
• Air Intercept – The Air Unit is ready to respond
(Scramble) whenever an enemy Air Unit is detected to
be approaching the designated target area. This is like
the Air Superiority Mission, but is less aggressive, and
saves Airwing Organisation and Fuel.
• Strategic Bombing – A Bombing Mission meant to attack the enemy’s home territory or Occupied provinces
in order to destroy Resources or Installations.
• Logistical Bombing – A Bombing Mission meant to
attack the Infrastructure in a province (presumably to
either slow an Advance, or to lessen Supply Throughput
to enemy Units).
• Runway Cratering – An attack upon an enemy Airbase
with the intent of destroying enemy Airwings on the
ground and/or reducing the level of the Airbase.
• Installation Strike – A Mission to destroy Installations
within a province.
• Ground Attack – This is a form of Close Air Support,
meant to destroy the Strength and Organisation of
enemy Land Units.
• Interdiction – This is a broader form of attack upon the
enemy’s Land Units, where Units behind the lines may
also be targeted.
• Port Strike – The Air Unit will fly to the selected enemy
Naval Base, and will attack both the Naval Base facilities
and any Ships based there. This can be a particularly
harrowing and dangerous Mission, because you may
face enemy fighters and Anti-Aircraft fire from both the
Ships and the Naval Base itself. Select the province containing your target Naval Base to begin the Mission.
• Naval Strike – The Air Unit will fly over the ocean and attempt to find enemy Naval Units to attack. The Air Unit will
face Anti-Aircraft fire over the target, and may even face
counterattack by a CAG or enemy land-based air cover
(Air Superiority Missions assigned to enemy land-based
fighters). Select a Seazone, Region at sea, Cone, or Area assignment for this type of Mission, concentrating your attack
where you know or suspect there might be an enemy Fleet.
• Convoy Raiding – The Air Unit will fly over the ocean
and attempt to find enemy Convoys to attack. Convoy
Escorts may provide some resistance through AntiAircraft fire, but this is otherwise not a dangerous
Mission unless there is air cover assigned by in-range
enemy fighters. Select a Seazone, Region at sea, Cone,
or Area assignment for this type of Mission, concentrating your attack where you know or suspect there might
be a Convoy Route.
• Reserve – At an Airbase with multiple Airwings of
same-type aircraft, selecting an Airwing for Reserve will
replace a damaged portion of the other Airwings with
the Strength and Organisation of the Reserve Airwing.
This is a way of backfilling losses and giving more staying power to Airwings on high-risk Missions. Select the
province where the current Airbase is located for this
• Rebase – The aircraft will move their base of operations
from the current Airbase to a new one. Select a province
with the “new” Airbase, and select Rebase. It should
not matter whether it’s Day or Night, but make sure
“Continuous” is not checked.
Each attack Mission will result in the Air Unit attacking the
target for a duration of 4 hours. If there is land-based AntiAircraft Installation (to whatever level), that AA Installation
will fire at the Air Unit each hour.
Obviously, Missions can only be pursued if the selected
aircraft can perform them. If a stack of aircraft is selected,
a Mission can be pursued if at least some of the units in the
stack are capable of carrying it out, though only those aircraft will perform that Mission – other aircraft will support
them in another role. Missions that cannot be performed
by the selected aircraft will be either grayed out, or will not
show up at all in the list.
Stance instructs it on whether it should actively look for
the enemy, or seek not to be noticed. Priority sets the Air
Mission’s likelihood to receive Reinforcements to recoup
losses it faces during its Missions.
You can set whether these Air Units operate only during
the Day, the Night, or if their Airwings continue acting on
their orders 24 hours a day for the duration of their Mission.
Obviously, if they are set for Day and Night, they may not
have time to recover between missions. It’s assumed not all
the unit operates 24 hours, but if the unit sees more than
occasional combat it will not have the flexibility to rest and
recover its strength.
Underneath these controls are two Calendars, which you
can use to set the beginning and ending dates for the Orders
you are setting.
At the very bottom of the Air Orders Interface is a
checkbox which allows you to order the Unit to perform
the Mission repeatedly (“Continuous”), and two buttons to
“Cancel” (and disregard your orders) or “Accept.”
M2.0 Detection & Air Defence
Air Units are Detected when they Attack, when they enter
friendly Airspace, when they are Spotted by friendly Ships,
or when they come into range of friendly Radar Stations.
Enemy Air Units may also Spot the planes if they are in the
same province.
M1.2 Specific Order Controls
M2.1 Radar Stations
Next to the Mission Orders column, on the right, is an
Area Selection tool. Don’t be daunted, even if it looks like
we’ve thrown you a map and compass and told you to plot
a course! This tool can overwhelm you if you let it, but this
shouldn’t happen if you follow instructions carefully.
There are four ways you can direct your Mission, and
each involves clicking on a starting province within the Air
Unit’s range:
• Province – The Mission will be flown over and limited to
just one province you designate.
• Region – The Mission will be flown over a region of three
or four provinces, a region you designate.
• Cone – The Mission will operate in a Cone starting at
the province you designate, and will span outward in the
direction you set with the Interface controls. You must
use these controls to set other parameters for the Cone,
setting the Range slider to show how many Kilometers
out the planes will fly before turning onto the outside
“leg” of their route, and setting the Angle slider to show
how wide the Cone will be at its furthest extent.
• Area – The Mission will operate within a radius of the
province you select, extending to a Range you set with
that slider.
You must then set your Air Mission’s Stance and Priority.
Radar Installations on the ground will, of course, assist in
Detecting enemy Air Units and Air Missions. They also add a
bonus to any friendly Air Units in Combat within its range.
M2.2 Air Unit Radar
Airsearch Radar and Navigation Radar (both aircraft
mounted), fill a different role from land-based Radar
Stations. They aid Air Units in their Combat Missions. Once
Researched, improves certain Air Units’ Detection capabilities against enemy Air Units, depending on which Aircraft
type has the Radar installed.
Aircraft-mounted Radar improves certain Air Units’
Attack and Defence values at Night, because it allows them
to operate with some independence from eyesight-only navigation. Airsearch Radar can be useful during the day, but
is most helpful in fighting enemy Night Bombers. Strategic
Bombers equipped with Navigation Radar have a bonus to
their Strategic Bombing.
M2.3 Scrambling & Intercept
When incoming enemy Air Units are Detected entering
friendly territory, a Scramble order is issued to any Air Units
assigned to Air Superiority or Intercept.
Fighters assigned a Defensive Stance will wait until the
enemy unit enters friendly Airspace before attempting an
intercept. More aggressive Stances will attempt to Intercept
even before the unit enters friendly Airspace.
M2.4 Anti-Aircraft
Any enemy Air Units passing through a province equipped
with an Anti-Aircraft Installation will be attacked by that AA.
Each level of the AA Installation will get one opportunity to
attack the Air Unit. These attacks will most likely cause a
little damage to Strength for each level of AA, and a larger
amount of damage to Organisation.
Land Units also have AA values, especially if the Division
contains an Anti-Aircraft Brigade. This AA value is employed
in the same way against enemy Air Units that attack that
Land Unit, but only if the Land Unit is attacked.
M3.0 Combat Statistics & Values
Air Units are always considered to be Brigade-sized, but
they can be freely reassigned into whatever structure is
desired. Organisation is very important to Air Units because
it’s what allows them to continue performing their Missions
effectively. Every Airwing is assumed to have a Strength of
about 100 planes. As with other types of Units, Strength for
each Unit is assumed to be a percentage of that maximum.
It is also assumed that not every plane flies on every Mission
– that a proportion of the Airwing is held back and rotated
into whatever continuing Mission they have.
See the chart in C2.0 for more information about what
each Combat value means, and how it’s used in Combat. The
chart lists values used in air-to-air as well as air-to-ground
M4.0 Air Combat Resolution
When enemy Air Units meet, or when Air Units attack Land
or Naval Units, Combat ensues. This section discusses how
that Combat is resolved.
M4.1 Air Combat Interfaces
Like the Land Battle Interface, the Air Combat Interface
shows a progress bar at the top indicating relative success
in the battle. The country flags and Commanders are shown,
as well as a row of icons indicating the Modifiers active during that round of battle.
The two columns of combatants are headed by an indicator of how many Airwings are in each battle, or in the
case of an air-to-ground battle, one side will show how
many Land Units are being attacked. Each Unit’s Strength
and Organisation are shown. Tooltips provide more detailed
information about Modifiers to Efficiency.
M4.2 Firing Phase
Air Combat is resolved in a way very similar to that described
for Land Combat, except there are no Fronts, no Reserves,
and no Phases other than the Firing Phase. Each one-hour
Round has a series of Shots. The values, multiplied by the
Attack or Defence Modifier (Efficiency), determine how
many Shots each Unit is eligible to try, and the values interact the same way. Targets are chosen randomly among
those available.
In air-to-air Combat, each side uses his modified Air
Attack value against the other Units’ modified Air Defence
value. In air-to-ground Combat, the Airwing will use its Hard
or Soft Attack value against the Land Unit’s Air Defence
value. The Land Units will use their Air Attack (Anti-Air)
value against the Airwing’s Surface Defence value.
In the case of Installation Attacks, or Strategic Bombing
Attacks, the Air Unit will use its Strategic Attack value.
Attacks upon Ships would use the Sea Attack value
against the Ship’s Air Defence value, whereas the Ship
would use its Air Attack value against the Airwing’s Surface
Defence value.
Two types of Air Combat. An Air Superiority Combat between enemy Airwings is shown on the left, while on the right
is a Bombing Mission. In both Air Combat Interfaces, the Modifiers involved are shown by icons which have Tooltips.
M4.3 Combat Damage
M7.0 Paradrop Landings
Damage is resolved in exactly the same way as with Land
Combat, except that hits on Ships are modified by (divided by) the Ship’s Hull value. Units which lose all their
Organisation, or which fall below their set threshold for
Organisation will Withdraw. In rare circumstances a Unit
may be destroyed from losing all its Strength.
When you want to mount a Paradrop, you must first Embark
the Paratroop Division(s) onto a Transport Airwing, and
then direct the Airwing to a target province, selecting the
Paradrop Mission from the Air Orders Interface. You can
also land the embarked Paratroops at a friendly Airbase.
The Paratroops will load, allowing you to fly the Transport
Planes to their destination Airbase, and then use the Unload
button on the Land Unit Interface.
Paratroop Divisions, like other Units, have a 30-day
Supply which they can use once they are landed in a
Paradrop location.
M4.4 Ending Combat
In air-to-air Combat, once all Air Units belonging to one side
have either left Combat voluntarily, been destroyed, or been
forced to Withdraw by lack of Organisation, the Combat will
end. The same is true of air-to-ground Combat when either
all Air Units have been destroyed, Withdrawn, or driven off,
or the Mission duration comes to its end after four hours.
M4.5 Recovery From Combat Damage
As with other things in HOI 3, Air Units will gradually repair
any damage they receive in Combat. If the Unit’s Airbase is
In Supply, it will recover Organisation at a rate related to
the nation’s Repair Rate (see K7.0). Strength losses are
recovered through gradual replacement, provided you have
IC allocated for Reinforcements, and the Unit has not been
set to not receive Reinforcement.
M5.0 Modifiers to Efficiency
M5.1 Effect of Leadership on Combat
Leaders apply their Experience (gained during each Combat),
their Skill (gained through accumulated Experience) and
their Traits when they lead a military unit. These leadership
factors may make an important difference in combat, and
may also make Combat Events more likely.
M5.2 Traits (Air Leaders)
Like Ministers, commanders of combat units may also
have Traits. These traits may give a specific advantage in
Combat, or may help the Air Unit to get into Combat in the
first place (Spotting bonuses, etc.). Remember that not all
Traits are beneficial.
See the chart in K3.0 for more detail.
M5.3 Dissent
One of the most persistent Combat Modifiers is the rating of
Dissent in the home country, which affects every Combat,
Land, Air or Sea.
M6.0 Tactical & Close Support
Air Units assigned to attack Land Units (Close Air Support,
Interdiction, etc.) will face not only any Anti-Aircraft
Installations in the province, but also the Air Attack (AntiAir) value of any Units they attack.
N1.0 Naval Orders Interface
If you right-click on a Seazone when you have a Fleet selected, the Naval Orders Interface will appear. This will allow
you to set Movement Orders and/or a Mission for the Fleet.
N1.1 Naval Missions
• Move Order – The Fleet will move to the selected
Seazone and remain there.
• Rebase – If you select a Seazone or province with a
Naval Base, the Fleet will change its operating Naval
Base to the one you’ve selected. It may take a few days
for the Fleet’s Supply train to arrive and begin actively
Supplying the Fleet.
• Reserve – The Fleet’s Ships will be used to “backfill”
Missions by another Fleet based out of the same Naval
Base. For instance, if another Fleet has its Mission as-
signed as Patrol but its Ships are losing Organisation
due to Combat or other factors, then the Reserve Fleet’s
Ships will be assigned to fill in for any Ships that might
need to be rested or repaired. The Ships taken out of
their Mission will be sent into the Reserve Fleet instead
while they rest.
• Patrol – The Fleet will move to the selected Seazone, and
will then randomly move into the neighboring Seazones,
looking for enemy Ships or Aircraft. It will continue this
pattern until its Range is used up.
• Intercept – The Fleet will remain in port until an enemy
Fleet is detected nearby, at which point it will leave the
Naval Base and attempt to Intercept the enemy Fleet.
• Sortie – The Fleet will leave its Naval Base and move to
the selected province on a Patrol of sorts, but will then
return to its Naval Base. A Sortie is a brief Patrol, usually
meant for a specific purpose.
• Convoy Raiding – The movement pattern for Convoy
Raiding is similar to the Patrol Mission, except that the
Fleet will look for enemy Convoys (which are normally
hidden from regular Naval Units). These Fleets are visible to enemy Fleets (i.e. they are not “off the map” like
the Convoys), but they will not seek Combat with an
enemy Fleet if they see them first. The enemy may still
engage them.
• Transport – A Mission for loaded Transports (and accompanying Ships) only, this will take the loaded Land
Units to another Naval Base which you select.
• Invasion – Another Mission for loaded Transports (and
accompanying Ships) only. It is wisest to issue a Move
Order to bring you close to the land province where you
want to mount an Amphibious Assault (Invasion), and
then once you’re there, issue the Fleet an order to mount
an Invasion of a specific province.
• Escort From-To – This mission is the opposite of
Convoy Raiding. The Fleet will move across the Map
along a Convoy Route, and will protect the Convoys
along that route. If they Spot an enemy Fleet, they will
attempt to engage, however if the enemy’s Mission is
Convoy Raiding, their Fleet will attempt to not enter
Combat with the Escorting Fleet.
When giving Naval Mission Orders, you should also set
a Stance and a Priority. The Stance will determine how
spread out the Fleet will be – Aggressive seeks Combat, and
so spreads out the formation to increase the likelihood of
Spotting. Defensively Stanced Fleets do the opposite. Priority
determines which Fleets receive Reinforcements and Repair
first, provided they are not set not to receive Reinforcement,
and they have Supply through their Naval Base.
N2.0 Search,
Spotting & Detection
Visibility is your Ship’s likelihood of being detected, while
Surface Detection is your ability to Detect other Ships
(modified by Radar, etc.).
Fleets with an Aggressive Stance will spread out their
formation, trying to detect enemy fleets. Fleets with a
Defensive Stance are trying to keep from being Detected,
and will be harder to Spot.
Radar Detection is possible within range of Ship Radar.
Signals Intercept may also make it possible to determine the
presence of a fleet. This can be conducted from ships with
Radar, as well as from land-based Radar Stations.
If a Fleet enters within a certain radius of an enemy
Naval Base, it risks Detection by patrol aircraft from that
Naval Base.
N3.0 Ship-to-Ship Combat
There are three Ship types – Capitals, Screens, and Other,
excluding the “off the map” Convoys and Escorts – and they
each cooperate in order to protect one another or achieve
the goals of their mission.
Capital Ships – your Battleships, Battlecruisers and
Heavy Cruisers – will move to a position where they can
best fire upon the enemy with their heavy guns. Screens
– Destroyers and Light Cruisers – will attempt to position
themselves to protect your Capital Ships.
See the chart in C2.0 for more information about what
each Combat value means, and how it’s used in Combat. The
chart lists values used in ship-to-ship as well as ship-to-air
if they are avoiding Combat for other reasons (such as massive Combat damage).
More successful rolls will place the Ship closer to its
optimal fighting Range.
Positioning is largely how a Ship’s likelihood to hit its target is calculated. The better its Positioning, the better able it
is to inflict damage upon its target. This takes into account
the Range between the two Ships, where the Ship closest to
its optimal Combat Range has the better Position. This also
takes into account other factors that might seem random,
but which represent other real considerations, like which
Ship can bring all of its guns to bear upon the enemy.
N3.2 Range & Centreline
Each Ship has an optimal fighting Range (the Range shown
in the Ship chart), which is where it can best use its guns or
torpedoes to cause damage to the enemy. Vulnerable Ships,
like Transport Ships or Aircraft Carriers, have their Range
set so they will always attempt to reach a Range outside of
Combat (i.e. to flee). Badly damaged Ships will also attempt
to Withdraw and leave Combat.
In Combat, there is a “Centreline” in the middle of the
Combat area, with the two enemies’ Ships located on either
side. In order to fight each other, each Ship wanting to join
in Combat will need to approach the Centreline as quickly as
possible so as to reach its optimal Range and begin doing
Screens will always place themselves between the
Centreline and their Fleet’s Capital Ships (or vulnerable
“Other” Ships, like Carriers). Capital Ships will approach
Combat behind the Screens, and generally have a Range
allowing them to fight the enemy Capital Ships from their
position near the Centreline, but behind their Screens.
The only exception to the “rush to optimal Range”
behavior is when the enemy Ships have a shorter Range
than the Capital Ship, but there are no “high value” targets
behind the enemy Screens that the Capital Ship wants to
reach. In these cases, the Capital Ships will attempt to reach
an ideal Range further than the enemy’s optimal Range, so
that the Capital Ships may fire, but the enemy cannot.
N3.1 Positioning
Once it’s been determined two Fleets have found each other,
each Ship does a “search roll” to determine its position relative to other Ships at the beginning of the first round. This
search roll is modified by the Ship’s Size (Capital Ships
will have less variability in position), Stance (Aggressive,
Defensive, Passive), and Naval Doctrines.
Some Ships’ position may place them outside the gun
range of any opposing Ship, and so those Ships are not
considered to be in Combat until they can get into range.
However, most Ships will quickly attempt to get into
Combat, unless they are a Transport or Aircraft Carrier, or
N3.3 Screens
The role of Screens is to “screen” (protect) the Capital
Ships from attack by enemy Screens or Capital Ships.
Traditionally, these light units would use their light guns either against the enemy Screens (which normally have little
armour, and therefore can be penetrated by small-caliber
weapons), to harass the enemy Capital Ships with light
gun damage, or to mount torpedo attacks upon the enemy
Capital Ships.
Light Cruisers and Destroyers fill the role of Screens.
They will put themselves in between the Capital Ships and
the enemy’s Ships (no matter what size). To get closer to
the Capital Ships, an enemy must first defeat the Screens.
Once one side no longer has Screens, the other side’s
Screens will rush in to optimal Combat Range to the enemy
Capital Ships and begin fighting them.
If Screens are the only Ships involved in a Combat on one
side, they do not protect anything – they just fight normally.
Their behavior is really the same, since normal Combat
places them in close contact with the enemy, preferably.
Generally, Screens are faster than Capital Ships, and
so are better able to reach and maintain their preferred
Combat Range.
N3.4 Naval Combat Interface
When you have selected a Fleet which is in battle, there will
be a bar at the bottom of the Naval Unit Interface, indicating
as much (in the format: “Battle of ____”). If you click on that
bar, the Naval Combat Interface will appear.
Underneath the icons which represent what Modifiers
are in play during the battle, you will see a coloured bar
showing how many total Ships are on each side (the more
Ships, the higher the Stacking Penalty). The Attacker’s Ships
will be on the left, and the Defender’s on the right. Underneath
will be a list of every Unit, including Ships of Cruiser size or
above, as well as Destroyer Flotillas or Submarine Subrons.
A scrollbar allows you to view all Ships if there are too many
to display. The name of the Ship or Flotilla will be displayed,
along with its Strength and Organisation bars. The Ship itself
will be represented by a generalized illustration of the appropriate size to indicate what type of Ship it is. This illustration
will be dark if the Ship is not yet in Combat; if it is in Combat,
it will be coloured with muzzle flashes coming from its front
turret. Note: This is just a generalized image to say whether
the Ship is in Combat or not; it’s not meant to indicate that
the forward turret of that Ship is able to fire, nor to indicate a
relative heading with regard to the enemy Fleet.
N3.5 Firing Phase
The Naval Battle Interface shows HMS Queen Elizabeth
has cornered two older German Battleships and her
Screens. Three British Ships are positioned to fire,
but the German Destroyers are screening the targets.
Tooltips at the top of the Interface show the Modifiers
at play (Storm, Leadership, etc.). A Tooltip over a
German Destroyer Flotilla shows it is targeting the
Cruiser Achilles, and the Modifiers which specifically
affect her firing.
The name of the battle will appear at the very top, with an
“x” button you can use to close the Interface. Immediately
below the name will be a brown and green bar, showing the
relative estimated Strength on each side of the battle.
Below that estimate bar, you will see the flag of the
navies involved, and the picture and name of the Leader of
each Fleet. The Attacker will be on the left, and the Defender
on the right.
As with Land Combat, Naval Combat is fought in a series
of one-hour Rounds, each with several opportunities for
Shots. The first Round of combat is performed from the
battle’s starting positions, between any ships that have
been determined to be within Range and in Combat. In subsequent Rounds, the ships will move toward the Centreline
(unless they are attempting Evasion), and another round of
Combat will occur between those units. Units not in Combat
close toward the Centreline every Round. Every ship uses its
Speed value to determine how fast it closes.
Targets are chosen randomly from those Ships from
those which are within range and Spotted. Ships will fire
upon their target until it is destroyed or Withdraws, or until
it is no longer in range or visible.
Ships will use their Sea Attack values against the other
ship’s Sea Defence value, the calculations performed in
exactly the same way as for Land and Air Combat except
that they will be modified according to Positioning. Leader
Skill also plays a more important role in Naval Combat than
in other types of Combat. Doctrines may also be important
N3.6 Air Attacks on Ships
Airwings may attack Ships, and will use their Sea Attack values against the Ship’s Air Defence Value. Ships use their Air
Attack (Anti-Air) value to return fire, and the Airwing uses
its Surface Defence value to avoid being hit.
N3.7 Damage in Naval Combat
When a hit has been achieved in any of the Firing Phases,
and the hit was not avoided, there is a good chance it will
score Organisation damage against the target. There is a
lesser chance of Strength damage. The amount of damage
is determined by the firing Sea Attack value, multiplied by
the firing Ship’s Strength (i.e. reduced by Strength losses),
and then divided by the target’s Hull value.
There is also a chance of a Critical Hit, which could quickly
and dramatically damage a Ship’s Organisation or Strength.
N3.8 Recovery From Combat Damage
As with other things in HOI 3, Ships will gradually repair any
damage they receive in Combat. If the Ship’s Naval Base is
In Supply, the Ship will recover Organisation and Strength at
a rate related to the nation’s Repair Rate (see K7.0). Ships
whose Naval Bases are not sufficiently Supplied may have
difficulty repairing.
N3.9 Withdrawal & Evasion
Certain ships will attempt to avoid combat, if they’re vulnerable (like Aircraft Carriers), badly damaged, or simply outnumbered. Badly damaged Ships attempting to Withdraw may find
their efforts more difficult as a result of their damage.
In each round of Naval Combat there is a chance of accidentally breaking contact. Over time, the chance increases,
making it more and more likely to happen, especially if one
side or the other is attempting to Evade and escape. Night
and/or bad Weather make it more likely to break contact,
whether it’s accidental or intentional. Interestingly, Combat
doesn’t automatically end even if Ships of both Fleets are
attempting to Withdraw; it only makes it far more likely.
Ships that have broken contact may still end up rejoining
the Combat later. Ships in Storms or poor visibility may pass
in and out of Combat over a matter of hours.
Once contact is broken between two Fleets, they both
remain in the same Seazone, but their Detection Level is
lowered, so they are less likely to encounter each other
right away.
In each round of Naval Combat, there is a chance of accidentally breaking contact. Over time, the chance increases,
making it more and more likely to happen, especially if one
side or the other is attempting to evade and escape. Radar
makes breaking contact less likely.
If a Fleet loses all of its Organisation, it may be forced to
Retreat to the nearest Naval Base.
N4.0 Modifiers to Combat
N4.1 Stacking Penalty
The more Ships are in Combat during a Round, the more difficult it will be to coordinate their attacks. This is expressed
as a penalty, which affects the Attack or Defence Modifier
(Efficiency). As Ships Withdraw, or are sunk, the Stacking
Penalty will reduce.
Higher level Admirals will reduce Stacking Penalties.
N4.2 Effect of Leadership on Combat
Leaders apply their Experience (gained during each Combat),
their Skill (gained through accumulated Experience) and
their Traits when they lead a military unit. These leadership
factors may make an important difference in combat, and
may also make Combat Events more likely.
A Naval Leader’s Skill has a great influence on how well
his Ships do in Combat. Unlike Air and Land Combat, where
Skill is one of many factors, Skill is one of the leading factors
in success in Naval Combat.
N4.3 Traits (Naval Leaders)
Like Ministers, commanders of Ships may also have Traits.
These traits may give a specific advantage in Combat, or may
help the Ship to get into Combat in the first place (Spotting
bonuses, etc.). Remember that not all Traits are beneficial.
If a Leader with a Trait is moved to a new command, he
must get his “bearings” and become comfortable with his
new command before his Trait becomes useable again.
N4.4 Weather at Sea
Storms (see A7.0) also happen at sea, and can affect your
modifiers during Naval Combat. Whenever the Wind Speed
exceeds Gale Force (30 MPH), a Storm condition will exist, which can negatively affect Combat. Any Precipitation
(Rain, Snow, Storm) will also reduce both, your Spotting
ability and your Firing Range.
N4.5 Dissent
Dissent levels at home will impact your effectiveness in
Naval Combat too.
N5.0 Submarines
Submarines follow different rules in Combat than normal
ships. A Submarine is assigned a Mission and a Stance,
like other Naval Units. But Spotting is handled differently.
Submarines can come into Naval Combat, under special
Against enemy Convoys, the Submarine operates automatically without you being advised of an actual Battle, as
these Battles are usually over in the blink of an eye.
Rather than receiving feedback on your battles in the
form of a Combat Interface, you will find the results of normal Submarine Combat through pop-up Event boxes, unless
they are combined in a Fleet with regular surface Ships.
N6.0 Convoy/Escort
Reserves & Deployment
As you construct new Convoy Transports (freighters) and
Escorts, they will collect in a “reserve pool.” When you use
the “Create Convoy” process to start new Convoys, you will
draw from this pool as you assign new ships to a Convoy.
P1.0 Strategic Warfare Score
Strategic Warfare involves using military power to weaken
the enemy’s resolve, and breaking its will to fight on. There
are several aspects to Strategic Warfare.
Strategic Bombing, Convoy Raiding, and Nuclear Attacks
are all factored into the Strategic Warfare considerations.
The overall effect of Strategic Warfare is to reduce the target country’s National Unity which, if it goes low enough,
causes the country to Break. Victories in battle have a
Strategic Warfare effect, improving the morale and resolve
of the country, just as defeats will reduce it.
Strategic Bombing will damage IC (temporarily – it will
repair in time) and destroy Resources. Rockets and Nukes
may cause damage to these things in the same way. Nukes
may have greater impact than their strength alone.
A concerted Strategic Warfare effort may not necessarily bring a country to its knees on its own, though it may
occur if the target country does not fight back. Failing to
combat against Strategic Warfare will upset the balance of
partial victories versus partial defeats, and will eventually
wear down the country’s National Unity.
No nation will be forced to Surrender without some
“boots on the ground” taking provinces and affecting the
progress of the war.
The Strategic Warfare section of the Production Interface
only tracks what is going on in your own country’s Strategic
Warfare situation. You may be about to cause your enemy to
Break after pounding him badly with Rockets and Strategic
Bombing, but if he slips just one Strategic Bombing raid or
one Convoy Raid past your defences, your own Strategic
Warfare tally may show a negative value (because it’s not
counting all your strikes against your enemy).
P2.0 Rockets
Rockets are special types of equipment (flying bombs or
ballistic missiles) which are intended solely for Strategic
Warfare purposes. Once Researched, they can attack enemy
cities, and there is little that can be done to stop them.
Once developed, Rockets can be Produced in the
Production Queue just like any other Unit. In all respects, a
Rocket Unit acts as an Air Unit would, except that it cannot
fight back if shot at. The Rockets are continually replaced,
so they can fire again.
P2.1 Rocket Test Platforms
The only way to Research Advanced Rocketry Techs is to build
Rocket Test Platforms, which is a prerequisite for Producing
Rocket Units. These Platforms can be built up to 10 levels,
with each level adding more to your Research benefit. They
will also add to your speed of Production, the same way
Research Knowledge always does. Rocket Test Platforms can
be attacked and damaged, like other Installations.
P3.0 Atomic Weapons (Nukes)
Like Rockets, you may Produce Nuclear Bombs once you’ve
acquired the Technology for them. These weapons will have
an effect upon Installations, IC, Infrastructure, Resources
and other things within a province, just like Strategic
Bombing. But they can also cause massive damage to military Units in the target province, and may have an influence
on National Unity.
P3.1 Nuclear Reactors
The only way to Research Advanced Atomic Techs is to build
Nuclear Reactors, which is a prerequisite for Producing
Nuclear Bombs. These Reactors can be built up to 10 levels,
with each level adding more to your Research benefit. They
will also add to your speed of Production, the same way
Research Knowledge always does. Nuclear Reactors can
be attacked and damaged, like other Installations. You can
build as many Reactors as you wish.
Unless you complete a World Conquest (WC), there will usually
not be a moment when you suddenly have “won the game.”
Most players will determine in their own minds what their victory goals are, and will know when they’ve achieved them.
That said, there are set ways to “win the game.” The HOI
3 Victory Point system awards a province’s Victory Points to
the Faction which Controls that province (regardless of who
Owns the province). A running total of Victory Points is kept
for each Faction, and is visible through the Statistics tab, or
when you Resign from the game.
R1.0 Starting a
Multiplayer Game
Starting a Multiplayer game is not much different from
starting a Single-Player game. Once you have clicked on the
Multiplayer button in the Main Game Menu, you will come to
a screen with various options for connecting with Multiplayer
opponents. Hearts of Iron III supports Multiplayer games
with as many as 32 players, though for practical purposes
you can only have this many players on a LAN. Games played
over the Internet are best limited to a dozen or fewer.
One player must always serve as the Host. The other
players will be Clients. An ideal Host is the player with the
highest speed and most reliable Internet connection. Due
to the amount of data transmitted during a Multiplayer
game, it is not practical to play over a conventional dialup modem.
R1.1 Preliminary Requirements
Before launching the game, each player should ensure
that his system is set up to receive and transmit data. Many
computers are set up so that Clients will not need to change
any settings. However, firewall systems may block game
transmissions, so an exception to the firewall rules will need
to be made to play Multiplayer. Many people may want to play
on a computer that is behind a router. Most routers include
firewalls, which can also interfere with the game. A Host that
is behind a router will almost certainly need to enable portforwarding to establish a connection with the Clients.
HOI 3 uses ports 1630-1635 and the UDP transfer
protocol (or, if you’re using the Metaserver, you
will probably be asked to use port 1639 – check the
Forum to be sure). You may need to ensure your firewall
software permits HOI 3 to access the Internet, and that
port-forwarding is enabled on your router, if applicable.
Due to the huge variety of software and hardware, we cannot provide comprehensive instructions on how to do this
with your specific setup. For legal and practical reasons,
we also cannot automate this process. Please refer to your
router and firewall user guides to determine how to meet
these requirements.
If you will be playing a game where players will connect
directly over the Internet without using Paradox’s free
“Metaserver” matchmaking service, the Host will also need
to determine his computer’s current IP address and communicate this to the Clients.
R2.0 Multiplayer Start
When you first click Multiplayer from the Main Game Menu,
you will see the Multiplayer Start Interface. First, you should
type your Player Name into the entry field – this is the name
other players will know you by.
R2.1 Host
To Host a game, select the “Host” button. This allows you to
Host either by a LAN or by direct Internet communication.
You may have to configure your firewall, or specifically open
ports in order to do this properly. Visit the Paradox Forum
for assistance with this.
You will be asked to choose a name for your game session. Then, click “Host” again inside that interface, and you
will be taken to the Multiplayer Lobby, where you will wait for
the other players to arrive.
R2.2 Join LAN Game
To join a LAN game, first click the “Scan” button on the current interface. The Host’s game should appear in the list box
at the top of the menu. Highlight the name, and click on “Join
LAN Game.” This will take you to the Multiplayer Lobby.
R2.3 Join Internet Game
If you will be connecting to a Host directly over the Internet,
click on “Join Internet Game,” and you will be asked to enter the Host’s IP address, which he should have supplied to
you before play. Once you have done so, the computer will
attempt to establish a connection with the Host, and you
will be taken to the Multiplayer Lobby. If it cannot find it,
wait a moment and try again, or contact the Host for more
R2.4 Metaserver
Paradox Interactive offers a free matchmaking service for
finding Multiplayer opponents. Players will meet in the
Metaserver chat lobby to arrange games. The Metaserver
will help create and join games from there. Once the connection is established, the Metaserver releases the Host
and players, who will play the game just as if they had established the connection directly over the Internet.
being accepted into the game. Everything is paused, naturally.
As players are confirmed ready inside the game, each player’s
flag will highlight, indicating they are ready to play. The Host
can then click “Start” and the game will begin.
R3.0 Multiplayer Lobby
R4.0 The Metaserver
The Multiplayer Lobby is where players assemble before
starting a Multiplayer game. All players have to be present
and must choose a country to play before the game can
start. This is controlled by the Host.
The Lobby is very similar to the screen you see when selecting a country for Single Player play. The panel on the left
shows the same options for Bookmarked games or Saved
games. In the middle is the map, showing the current world
situation and what countries can be selected. On the right is
a panel where each player’s name and flag will show up as
new players arrive in the Lobby.
If you are resuming a saved game, the Host should load
the save first. The file will be loaded into the Host’s computer, compressed, and then sent to each of the Clients’
computers. Each Client will unpack and load the saved
game, so that everybody has the same information at the
outset. This process may take a few minutes, depending on
Internet connection speeds. All players must have the save
loaded before the game can begin.
At first, you will see a “Rebel” flag (black and red) next to
the name you gave. When you pick a country, the flag next to
your name will change to that country’s flag. This operates
the same as the Single Player selection interface.
Hearts of Iron III supports cooperative play, so two
or more players may pick the same country. You’ll have
to work it out among yourselves who is to control what.
It’s also polite to have an agreement beforehand that more
than one player will play that country. Otherwise, showing
up in another player’s country can be considered rude.
With proper planning, cooperative play can take much
of the pressure off the players, and allow for a very fun
gaming experience!
You may chat with other players in the Lobby by clicking on the text box at the bottom-left of the screen, typing
your message, and hitting the Enter key on your keyboard.
All players in the Lobby at that time will be able to see it.
Private chat is only available inside the game, though many
players will have alternate means of communicating privately outside of the game.
Once every player has selected a country, the Host’s
“Play” button will highlight in gold, indicating play can begin. It is customary for the Host to confirm through chat that
everybody is ready. Then, by clicking the “Play” button, the
Host initiates the game.
All players will see the game begin to load, and a window in
the middle of the screen will show the process of each player
Paradox Interactive maintains a Multiplayer matching
service for registered owners of HOI 3. When you register
your copy of the game, you will be asked if you also want to
register for the Metaserver. It takes only a minute or two to
go through the steps, create a username and password, and
begin using the Metaserver. There is no fee.
Once you have registered, click the “Metaserver” button
from the Connection Types menu to connect to our service.
You will be asked to enter your username and password. You
will arrive in the Metaserver’s main chat lobby, where you
will see a full listing of all the other players who are online
and who might want to join a game. Make sure you’re set
to use Port 1639 with the Metaserver.
When you’ve found a few players willing to join a game,
you may create a separate chat channel where you can
discuss the details of Hosting and other items. Once everything is arranged, the person selected to Host will click
the “Create Game” button to launch the game’s Multiplayer
Lobby. The other players will see the new game listed, and
can then join it.
Because this is a free and public worldwide service that
may be used by people of all ages, we ask that you remain
polite and respectful of all other members when using the
Metaserver. It is considered impolite to use inappropriate
or vulgar language, and etiquette suggests that you not join
a listed game without first discussing your intentions with
the Host.
Once players have selected their countries using the
same process as detailed for the Multiplayer Lobby earlier,
the Host will click “Play” to start the game. The Metaserver
will ensure that all players are correctly connected, and
then will hand off the game to the Host. From that point
forward, play will continue just as any other Multiplayer
game would.
R5.0 Multiplayer Gameplay
The Artificial Intelligence designed for use in Single Player
games of HOI 3 should provide an enjoyable challenge for
any player, but many crave the incomparable experience of
playing against a living, thinking human opponent. For this
reason, Multiplayer games are more difficult, and present
more complex gameplay.
It is recommended that you examine the hints contained
in the Strategy Guide for more information on how to deal with
Multiplayer gameplay. There is a more comprehensive section
on the challenges of Multiplayer play in that volume.
R5.1 Multiplayer In-Game Chat
The major difference between Single-Player HOI 3 and
Multiplayer is that you have a chat window. Press the Tab
key on your keyboard to activate this feature. Close the chat
window by using the “x” in the window. Text typed by you
and others will appear on the screen, as far to the left as
possible without obscuring open Interfaces. Each player’s
roundel will identify who is speaking.
Hearts of iron III
Paradox Interactive:
PRODUCER: Johan Andersson
GAME DESIGN: Johan Andersson, Chris King
LEAD PROGRAMMER: Thomas Johansson
PROGRAMMING: Thomas Johansson, Dan Lind, Johan
Andersson, Henrik Fåhraeus, Anna Drevendal
2D ARTIST: Jonas Jakobsson
3D ARTIST: Fredrik Persson
ASSISTANT ARTIST: Nina Olsson, Mikael Olsson
TUTORIAL: Thomas Johansson, Chris King
ORIGINAL MUSIC: Andreas Waldetoft
BETA TESTERS: Frank van Aanholt, Gregory Anderson,
David Ballantyne, Jeffrey M Barkhauer Sr., Davide
Benedetti, John S. Boyd, Stewart Bragg, Thomas Broman,
Michael Carrington, Gunnar Carstensen, Luis Miguel
Nunes Corujo, Tony Cristanelli, David DiCicco, Karl Anders
Ellingsen, Alexander John Fowler, Håkan Gunneriusson,
Anders Gärdlund, Edwin Hanks, Charles Hardinger,
Michael Hermann Kurt Herold, Alexander Hochbaum,
David Horkoff, Miha Hribernik, Simon Jäger, Chris Keating,
Nicolas Kowarsch, Chris Krause, Robert Kruse, Vincent
Lahousse, Guillaume Lanthier, Julien Lejeune, Gustaf C.
F. Lindquist, Arne Lindström, Romuald Louvrier, Jacob
Michael Lundgren, Urban Lundqvist, Jorge Martin, Luc
Mangas, Carsten ‘t Mannetje, Nenad Milovanovic, Magnus
Palm, Shervin Patel, Christian A. Pedersen, Maxime Penen,
Mark Potter, Alan Riddell, Mathias Rotgeri, Henrik Rothén
Christoph Safferling, Rick Schirtzinger, Felix Schürmann
Andy Smith, Rick Stewart, Albert Söderqvist, Frederic
Alexandre Tauxe, Lars Thomsen, Mark Kvistgaard Thomsen
Tuomas Tirronen, Russell Venaska, Andrew Sydney Welsh,
Patrick Wegerle, Taylor White, Luke Whitehorn, Gene
Whitmore, Mark Leslie Williams, Roger Wincek Jr., Thomas
Wintersig, Dan Wright, Ivan Zec
CEO: Fredrik Wester
CFO: Lena Eriksson
Finance & Accounting: Annlouise Larsson
EVP Sales & Marketing: Reena M Miranda
Sales Support: Karen Veerasami
Director of PR & Marketing: Susana Meza
PR & Marketing: Boel Bermann
Product Manager: Jeanette Bauer
Cover art research: Carl Zarmén, Army Museum
Cover art photo: Olivia Jeczmyk
Graphic Design/Packaging Layout: Electric Boogie
Design Coop
Manual and Strategy Guide layout: Christian Sabe
Logo: Electric Boogie
Editor: Digital Wordsmithing/Ryan Newman
Marketing Assets: 2Coats
Localization: S&H Entertainment Localization
Special thanks to all our forum members, partners and
supporters, who are integral for our success.
Thanks to all our partners’ worldwide, in particular long-term
partners: Southpeak (USA), Koch Media (Germany), Snowball
(Russia), Ascaron (UK), Friendware (Spain), Cyberfront (Japan),
New Era Interactive Media Co. Ltd (SE Asia), CD Projekt (Poland),
Porto Editora (Portugal), Cenega (Poland), Hell-Tech (Greece),
Plan1 (Finland)
Authors thanks: I would like to offer special thanks to TheLand,
Safferli, Peekee, Piggy, Gen. Schuermann, RHALX, SA Avenger,
Kriegspieler, Kanitatlan, Veldmaarschalk, Potski, Hallsten, DVD-IT,
Johan and King for your extra help in understanding the details of the
game, and for all the work the rest of the Beta and Paradox Teams
have put into making this work as well as possible! Extra special
thanks to Darkrenown for going over the Manual with a fine-toothed
comb! Thanks to my family for understanding as I spent many hours
working away at this. I would also like to remind players that some of
the people who participated in the massive conflict we know as World
War II are still alive in virtually every country of the world, though
fewer and fewer every year. Please make the effort to reach out to
them, make sure they’re cared for, and learn from them! They’re
real people, and once they’re gone, all we will have is this game and
their legacy.
– Sincerely, Ed Hanks (Rensslaer on the Paradox Forum)
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