Study Notes for DB Design and Management Exam 1 (Chapters 1-2-3)

Study Notes for DB Design and Management Exam 1 (Chapters 1-2-3)
Study Notes for DB Design and Management Exam 1 (Chapters 1-2-3)
Chapter 1
Glossary Table
data—Raw facts; that is, facts that have not yet been processed to reveal their meaning to
the end user.
field—A character or group of characters (alphabetic or numeric) that defines a
characteristic of a person, place or thing. For example, a person’s social security, address,
phone, bank balance, and so on all constitute fields.
record—A collection of related (logically connected) fields.
file—A named collection of related records.
information—Facts (data) that are arranged in meaningful patterns. Information consists
of transformed data and facilitates decision making.
data management—A process that focuses on data collection, storage and retrieval.
Common data management functions include addition, deletion, modification and listing.
database—A computer structure that houses a collection of related data. A database
contains two types of data: end user data (raw facts) and metadata. The metadata consist
of data about data, that is, the data characteristics and relationships.
metadata—Data about data; that is, data concerning data characteristics and
relationships. See data dictionary.
database management system (DBMS)—Software that serves as an intermediary
between the user and the database. The DBMS translates user requests into the computer
code that is required to fulfill those requests. A DBMS manages the data stored within the
database.
query—A question or task asked by an end user of a database in the form of SQL code.
ad hoc queries—―Spur-of-the-moment‖ questions.
single-user DBMS—A database management system classification that depicts a DBMS
that supports only one user at a time.
desktop database—A single-user database that runs on a personal computer.
multiuser DBMS—A database management system that supports multiple concurrent
users.
workgroup database—A multiuser database that supports a relatively small number of
users (usually fewer than 50) or for a specific department in an organization.
enterprise database—The overall company data representation, which provides support
for present and expected future needs.
centralized DBMS—A database management system that supports a database located at
a single site.
distributed database management system (DDBMS)—A database management system
that supports a database distributed across several different sites; governs the storage
and processing of logically related data over interconnected computer systems in which
both data and processing functions are distributed among several sites.
transactional database—A database designed to keep track of the day to day
transactions of an organization. See also production database.
production database—The main database designed to keep track of the day-to-day
operations of a company. See also transaction database.
data warehouse database—A database that focuses primarily on the storage of data
used to generate information required to make tactical or strategic decisions.
database design—The process that yields the description of the database structure. The
database design process determines the database components. Database design is the
second phase of the database life cycle.
redundant data—Duplicated data that are stored in more than one location.
logical design—A stage in the design phase that matches the conceptual design to the
requirements of the selected DBMS an is, therefore, software-dependent. It is used to
translate the conceptual design into the internal model for a selected database
management system, such as DB2, SQL Server, Oracle, IMS, Informix, Access, and
Ingress.
data processing (DP) specialist—A now obsolete position formed in the conversion
from manual filing systems to computer filing systems; once filled by an employee who
created and programmed the necessary file structures, wrote the software that managed
the data in those structures, and designed the application programs that produced reports
from the file data.
data processing (DP) manager—A DP specialist who evolved into the department
supervisor. Roles include: managing the technical and human resources, supervising the
senior programmers, program troubleshooting.
third-generation language (3GL)—A language that requires the programmer to specify
both what must be done and how it is to be done. Examples include, COBOL, BASIC
and FORTRAN.
fourth-generation language (4GL)—A nonprocedural language, such as SQL, that only
requires the user to define what must be done; the details of how the user’s commands
are executed are handled by the 4GL.
structural dependence—A data characteristic that exists when a change in the database
schema affects data access, thus requiring changes in all access programs.
data dependence—A data condition in which the data representation and manipulation
are dependent on the physical data storage characteristics.
structural independence—A data characteristic that exists when changes in the database
schema do not affect data access.
physical data format—The way in which the computer ―sees‖ the data.
logical data format—The way in which a human being views data.
islands of information—Independent data pools created and managed by different
organizational components. Typical of old-style file systems.
data redundancy—A condition that exists when the data environment contains
redundant—unnecessarily duplicated— data.
data inconsistency—A condition in which different versions of the same data yield
different (inconsistent) results.
data integrity—A condition in which given data always yield the same result. Data
integrity is mandatory in any database.
data anomaly—A data abnormality that exists when inconsistent changes to the database
have been made. Example: An employee moves, but the address change is only corrected
in one file and not across all files in the database.
database system—An organization of components that define and regulate the
collection, storage, management, and use of data in a database environment.
database administrator (DBA)—Person responsible for the planning, organization,
control and monitoring of the centralized and shared corporate database. The DBA is the
general manager of the database-administration department.
data dictionary—A DBMS component that stores metadata – data about data. Thus, the
data dictionary contains the data definition as well as its characteristics and relationships.
A data dictionary may also include data that are external to the DBMS. See also active
data dictionary and passive data dictionary.
performance tuning—Activities that make the database perform more efficiently in
terms of storage and access speed.
data independence—A condition that exists when data access is unaffected by changes
in the physical data storage characteristics.
query language—A nonprocedural language that lets the user specify what is to be done
without specifying how it is to be done. An example of a query language is SQL.
data definition language (DDL)—The language that allows a database administrator to
define the database structure, schema, and subschema.
data manipulation language (DML)—The language (set of commands) that allows the
end user to manipulate the data in the database (Select, Insert, Update, Delete).
Sales Department
File
Management
Programs
File Report
Programs
Customer File
File
Management
Programs
Personnel Department
File
Management
Programs
AgentsFile
File Report
Programs
Sales Files
A Simple File System – showing possible Islands of Information
Contents of an un-Normalized Customer file
File Report
Programs
Contents of the Agents File
A Database System
Compared to
Microsoft Access Metadata
Key Notes to remember:
DBMS helps make data management much more efficient and effective. Because of this
the following points are worth stressing:
 The DBMS helps create an environment in which end users have better access to
more and better data.
 Wider access to well managed data promotes an integrated view of the organization’s
operations and a clearer view of the big picture.
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The probability of data inconsistency is greatly reduced in a properly designed
database that is managed through a DBMS.
A DBMS makes it possible to produce quick answers to AD HOC Queries!!
Database Design is the design of the DB structure that will be used to store and manage
data – NOT the design of the DBMS software.
Proper DB design requires the DB designer to precisely identify the databases expected
use.
A well designed database facilitates data management and becomes a valuable
information generator.
A poorly designed database will most likely become a breeding ground for redundant
data.
Redundant data is unnecessarily duplicated data.
Redundant data are often the source of difficult to trace information errors.
A poorly designed database tends to generate errors that are likely to lead to BAD
decisions and BAD decisions can lead to the failure of an organization.
File systems – A way of managing data that are now largely obsolete. There are several
good reasons for studying them in some detail.
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An understanding of the relatively simple characteristics of file systems makes the
complexities of a DB design easier to understand.
An awareness of the problems the plagued file systems can help you avoid such
pitfalls with DBMS software.
If you intend to convert an obsolete file system to a DB then knowledge of the file
systems basic limitations will be useful.
Although the file systems method of organizing and managing data was a definite
improvement over a manual system many problems and limitations became evident in
this approach.
Understanding the shortcomings of the file system enables us to understand the
development of the modern DB’s.
3rd Generation Languages require the programmer to specify both WHAT must be done
and HOW it is to be done. Examples of this are COBOL, BASIC and FORTRAN.
4th Generation Languages require the programmer to specify both WHAT must be done
WITHOUT specifying HOW it is to be done. Examples of this are SQL.
Programming in a 3GL can be a time consuming, high skilled activity. This is because
programmers must be familiar the physical file structure that is how and where the files
are stored in the computer.
The need to write 3GL Programs to produce even the simplest reports makes AD HOC
Queries impossible!!
DB Specialists and Managers are often harried and having numerous requests for reports
means reports often take weeks and months.
Another problem with 3GL programming is that as the number of files in the system
expands the System Administration becomes very difficult. Each file must have it’s own
file management system composed of programs that allow the user to do:
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Create the file structure
Add data to the file
Delete data from the file
Modify the data contained in the file
List the file contents
Making changes in an existing structure can be difficult in a file system environment.
Changing just one field in the original file (ex: Customers file) requires a program that:
 Puts a new file structure into a special portion of the computers memory known as
a buffer.
 Reads the record from the original file
 Transforms the original data to conform to the new structures storage
requirements
 Deletes the original file
 Modifies all programs that use the file (ex: Customers file) to fit the revised file
structure
To summarize the limitations of file system Data Management:
 It requires extensive programming
 System Administration can be complex and difficult
 It is difficult to make changes to existing structures
 Security features are likely to be inadequate
These limitations in turn lead to problems of structural and data dependency.
A change in any file’s structure requires the modification of all programs using that file.
Such modifications are required because the file system exhibits Structural Dependency
that is access to a file is dependent on its structure.
Structural Independence exists when it is possible to make changes in the DB Structure
without affecting the application programs ability to access the data.
Data Redundancy—A condition that exists when the data environment contains
redundant—unnecessarily duplicated— data.
Uncontrolled Data Redundancy sets the stage for:
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Data Inconsistency—A condition in which different versions of the same data
yield different (inconsistent) results.
Data that display inconsistencies are also referred to data that lack data integrity.
Data Anomilies develop when all the required changes in the redundant data are
not made successfully. (Ex: Modification Anomalies, Insertion Anomalies,
Deletion Anomalies)
Database System—An organization of components that define and regulate the
collection, storage, management, and use of data in a database environment.
Database System is composed of the 5 major parts shown below:
1. Hardware – Refers to all the systems physical devices.
2. Software – Refers to the collection of programs used by the computers within the
DB System. Examples are:
o Operating System Software: DOS, MS, LINUX, UNIX…
o DBMS Software manages the DB within the DB environment: Access,
SQL Server, Oracle, UDB…
o Application Programs and Utility Software are use to manipulate the
data in the DBMS. They Generate Reports, tabulations and other
information to facilitate decision making.
3. People – This component includes all users of the DB System. There are 5 types
of users in a DB System:
o Systems Administrator (SYSADM)—The person responsible for
coordinating the activities of the data processing function. The systems
administrator also manages the use of database software in a data
processing (DP) department; solicits and evaluates database designs,
coordinates the development of applications based on the data resource,
and assigns the right to manage the database(s) to selected individuals.
The systems administrator also coordinates the activities of all database
administrators (DBAs) in a multidatabase operation.
o Database Administrator (DBA)—Person responsible for the planning,
organization, control and monitoring of the centralized and shared
corporate database. The DBA is the general manager of the databaseadministration department.
o Systems Analysts and Programmers – Design and implement the
applications programs. They design and create the data entry screens,
reports and procedures through which end users access data.
o End User – People who use the application programs to run the
organizations daily operations.
4. Procedures – They are the instructions and rules that govern the design and use
of the DB Systems.
5. DATA – The word DATA covers the collection of facts stored in the DB.
DB Systems must be cost effective as well as tactically and strategically effective.
DB levels of system complexity are dedicated by the organizations activities and the
environment within which those activities take place.
DB Technology in use is likely to affect the selection of a DB system.
A DBMS performs several important functions that guarantee the integrity and the
consistency of the data in the DB.
DBMS Functions:
1. Data Dictionary Management – The DBMS stores the definitions of the data
elements and their relationships (metadata) in the Data Dictionary.
2. Data Storage Management – The DBMS creates and manages the complex
structures required for data storage.
3. Data Transformation and Presentation – The DBMS transforms the entered
data to conform to the data structures that are required to store the data. It relieves
is of the chore of distinguishing between Logical and Physical format.
Data Independence—A condition that exists when data access is unaffected by
changes in the physical data storage characteristics. The DBMS formats the
physically retrieved data to make it conform to the users logical expectations.
4. Security Management – The DBMS creates a security system that enforces user
security and data privacy within the DB. Security rules determine which users can
access the DB, which data items each user may access and which data operations
(read, add, modify, delete…) the user may perform.
5. Multi-User Access Control – The DBMS creates the complex structures that
allow multiple users access to the data. In order to provide data integrity and data
consistency the DBMS uses sophisticated algorithms to ensure that multiple users
can access the DB concurrently without compromising the integrity of the DB.
6. Backup and Recovery Management – The DBMS provides backup and data
recovery procedures to ensure data safety and integrity. Current DBMS systems
provide special utilities that allow the DBA to perform routine and special backup
and restore operations.
7. Data Integrity Management – The DBMS promotes and enforces integrity rules
to eliminate data integrity problems. Thus minimizing data redundancy and
maximizing data consistency. The Data Relationships stored in the Data
Dictionary are used to enforce data integrity.
8. Database Access Languages and Application Programming Interfaces – the
DBMS provides data access through a query language.
o A query Language is a Non Procedural Language (4GL)
o The DBMS query language contains two components:
 Data Definition Language (DDL)—The language that
allows a database administrator to define the database
structure, schema, and subschema.
 Data Manipulation Language (DML)—The language
(set of commands) that allows the end user to
manipulate the data in the database (Select, Insert,
Update, Delete).
o The DBMS also provides data access to programmers via Procedural
Languages (3GL) ex: COBAL, C, PASCAL, VB…
9. Database Communication Interface – Current generations of DBMS’s provide
communication interfaces designed to allow the DB to accept end-user request
within a computer network environment. Example: The DBMS might provide
communications functions to access the DB through the Internet using Web
Browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
In this environment communications can be accomplished in several ways:
o End users can generate answers to queries by filling in screen forms
through their preferred Browser.
o The DBMS can automatically publish predefined reports on the
Internet using a Web format that enables and Web user to browse it.
o The DBMS can connect to the 3rd party to distribute information via
email or other productivity applications such as Lotus Notes.
The DBMS allows chores to be done and performed without the tedious and time
consuming programming required in the File Management System.
The role of the DB Specialist or the DB Manager changes from an emphasis on
programming to a focus on the broader aspects of managing the organizations data
resources and on administration of the complex software itself.
Because the File Systems DB Manager performs broader managerial functions in a
database environment they might be promoted to System Administrators – SYS DBAs
The availability of a DBMS makes it possible to tackle far more sophisticated uses of the
DATA resources, if the DB is designed to make use of that available power.
Summary Chap 1
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Information is derived from data, which are usually stored in DB.
To implement a DB and manage its contents you need commercial software
known as a DBMS.
Database design defines the DB Structure.
The DBMS stores the facts about the structure in the DB itself. The DB contains
the data you have collected and the ―data about the data‖ known as Metadata.
Good Database design is important because even a good DBMS will perform
poorly with a poorly designed DB.
DB’s were preceded by File Systems.
Because File Systems lack a DBMS, file management becomes difficult as the file
system grows.
Each file requires it’s own set of basic data management programs and because
files are usually ―owned‖ by those who commission them, the number of files
tends to grow.
Many of the files in a File System often contain redundant data, thus leading to
data inconsistency, data anomalies and a lack of data integrity.
Because each file can be used by many application programs a mature file system
might have generated hundreds or even thousands of programs.
Serious file system data management problems usually stem from data
dependency. Access to any file is dependant on the data characteristics and
storage formats therefore even a minor change in data structure with a file
requires that all programs accessing that file must be modified too.
DB management systems were developed to address the file systems inherent
weaknesses. Rather than depositing data within independent files. A DBMS
presents the DB to the End User as a single repository. This arrangement
promotes data sharing thus at least potentially eliminating the Islands of
Information problem.
DBMS enforces data integrity, eliminates redundancy and promotes data security.
Chapter 2
Glossary Table
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)—The group that accepted the DBTG
recommendations and augmented database standards in 1975 through its SPARC
committee.
Attribute—A characteristic of an entity or object. An attribute has a name and a data
type. See also instance variable and entity.
Business Rules—Narrative descriptions of policies, procedures, or principles within an
organization. Examples: A pilot cannot be on duty for more than ten hours during a
twenty-four hour period. A professor may teach up to four classes during any one
semester.
Chen model—Entity relationship diagram described by Peter Chen, characterized by its
use of diamonds to depict relationships and rectangles to depict entities.
class—A collection of like objects with shared structure (attributes) and behavior
(methods). A class encapsulates the object’s data representation and method’s
implementation. Classes are organized in a class hierarchy. See also abstract data types.
Class Hierarchy—The organization of classes in a hierarchical tree where each ―parent‖
class is a superclass and each ―child‖ class is a subclass.
Conceptual Model—An abstract view of the data as seen by high-level managers and
database designers. Describes the main data objects, avoiding details.
CONFERENCE ON DATA SYSTEMS LANGUAGES (CODASYL)—A group
originally formed to help standardize COBOL; its DBTG subgroup helped to develop
database standards in the early 1970s.
Connectivity—Describes the classification of the relationship between entities.
Classifications include 1:1, 1:M and M:N.
Crow’s Foot Model—A notation of the entity relationship diagram using a threepronged symbol to represent the ―many‖ sides of the relationship.
Data Model—A representation, usually graphic, of a complex ―real-world‖ data
structure. Data models are used in the database design phase of the database life cycle.
See also database models.
Database Task Group (Dbtg)—A CODASYL committee that helped develop database
standards in the early 1970’s. See also CODASYL.
Entity—Something about which you want to store data; typically a person, place, thing,
concept or event. See also attribute.
Entity Instance—A term used in ER modeling to refer to a specific table row. Also
known as an entity occurrence.
Entity occurrence—See entity instance.
Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram—A diagram that depicts an entity relationship
model’s entities, attributes and relations. It also displays connectivity and cardinality.
Entity Relationship (ER) Model—A data model developed by P. Chen in 1975. It
describes relationships (1:1, 1:M, M:N) among entities at the conceptual level with the
help of ER diagrams.
Extended Relational Data Model (ERDM)—A model that includes the object oriented
model’s best features in an inherently simpler relational database structural environment.
External Model—The application programmer’s view of the data environment. Given its
business-unit focus, it works with a data subset of the global database schema.
Generalized Update Access Method (GUAM)—Developed by North American
Rockwell in the late 1960s to control file system redundancies; a precursor to database
development.
Hardware Independence – Means that the model does not depend on the hardware used
in the implementation of the model.
Hierarchic Sequence—See preorder traversal.
Hierarchical Database Model—No longer a major player in the current database
market; important to know, however, because the basic concepts and characteristics form
the basis for subsequent database development. This model is based on an ―upside-down‖
tree structure in which each record is called a segment. The top record is the root
segment. Each segment has a 1:M relationship to the segment directly below it. See also
child, parent, root and segment.
Hierarchical Path—Ordered sequence of segments that must be accessed by the
hierarchical DBMS in order to retrieve a given segment.
Hierarchical Structure—An ordered data arrangement that
(logically) resembles an ―upside-down‖ tree.
Information Management System (IMS)—A hierarchical database model based on
GUAM and developed jointly by North American Rockwell and IBM. IMS became the
hierarchical database standard in the 1970s.
Inheritance—In the object oriented data model, the ability of an object to inherit the data
structure and methods of the classes above it in the class hierarchy. See also class
hierarchy and single inheritance.
Internal Model—In database modeling, refers to a level of data abstraction that adapts
the conceptual model to a specific DBMS model for implementation.
Many-To-Many (M:N or M:M) Relationships—One of three types of relationships
(associations among two or more entities) in which one occurrence of an entity is
associated with many occurrences of a related entity, and one occurrence of the related
entity is associated with many occurrences of the first entity.
Member (Network Database)—One record type in network database terminology; a
member record is equivalent to the hierarchical model’s child.
Method—In the OO data model, a named set of instructions to perform an action.
Methods represent real-world actions. Methods are invoked through messages.
Model—A description or analogy used to visualize something that cannot be directly
observed; simplified abstractions of real-world events or conditions.
Network Model—A data model created to represent complex data relationships more
effectively than the hierarchical model could, to improve database performance, and to
impose a database standard.
Object—An abstract representation of a real-world entity that has a unique identity,
embedded properties, and the ability to interact with other objects and with itself.
Object Oriented Data Model (OODM)—A data model based on object-oriented
concepts. Provides support for new user-defined data types, inheritance, polymorphism,
encapsulation, and so on.
Object Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)—Software used to better
manage data found within an object oriented database model.
Object / Relational Database Management System (O/RDBMS)—DBMS based on
the ERDM
One-To-Many (1:M) Relationship—One of three types of relationships (associations
among two or more entities) which are used by data models. In a 1:M relationship, one
entity instance is associated with many instances of the related entity.
One-To-One (1:1) Relationship—One of three types of relationships (associations
among two or more entities) which are used by data models. In a 1:1 relationship, one
entity instance is associated with only one instance of the related entity. Owner (network
database)—One record type in network database terminology; an owner record is
equivalent to the hierarchical model’s parent.
Physical Model—A model in which the physical characteristics (location, path, and so
on) are described for the data. Both hardware- and software-dependent. See also physical
design.
Pointer—A reference device that ―points‖ to the location of data within the computer
data-storage medium.
Preorder Traversal—A ―left-list‖ path within a hierarchical database. The left-list refers
to the order (always starting from the left of the hierarchical tree) in which segments are
referenced. Also known as the hierarchical sequence.
Relation—In the relation model, a term used to describe a set of associated attributes.
Normally, relations will become relational tables.
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)—A collection of programs that
manages the complexity of a relational database. The RDBMS software translates the
user’s logical requests (queries) into commands that physically locate and retrieve the
requested data. A good RDBMS also creates and maintains a data dictionary (system
catalog) to help provide data security, data integrity, concurrent access, easy access, and
system administration to the data in the database through a query language (SQL) and
application programs.
Relational Model—Developed by E. F. Codd (of IBM) in 1970, it represents a major
breakthrough for users and designers because of its conceptual simplicity. The relational
model produced an ―automatic transmission‖ database to replace the ―standard
transmission‖ databases that preceded it.
Relational Schema—The description of the organization of a database as seen by the
database administrator that shows connecting fields and the relationship type.
Relationship—An association between entities defined by a diamond-shaped symbol in
an ER diagram. Its degree defines the number of related entities: unary, binary, ternary,
or higher.
Root—The starting component of a hierarchical database tree
Schema—A group of database objects (tables, indexes, views, queries, etc.) that are
related to each other. Usually a schema belongs to a single user or application.
Segment—The equivalent of a file record type in the hierarchical database model.
Semantic Data Model (SDM)—The first of a series of data models that more closely
represented the real world, modeling both data and their relationships in a single structure
known as an object. The SDM, published in 1981, was developed by M. Hammer and D.
McLeod.
Set—In the network model, a description of a 1:M relationship between an owner record
type and a member record type.
Software Independence—A property of any model or application that does not depend
on the software used to implement it. See also software-dependent.
Standards Planning And Requirements Committee (SPARC)—The ANSI committee
that augmented database standards in 1975.
Structured Query Language (SQL)—A powerful and flexible relational database
software language composed of commands that enable users to create database and table
structures, perform various types of data manipulation and data administration, and query
the database to extract useful information.
Subschema—A subset of a schema. The subschema defines the portion of the database
as ―seen‖ by the application programs that use it. See also schema.
Table—A (conceptual) matrix comprising intersecting rows (entities) and columns
(attributes) that represent an entity set in the relational model. Also called a relation.
Universal Database Servers—Another name for an object/relational product used in the
object/relational database model.
A Data Model is the relatively simple representation, usually graphical, of complex realworld data structures. This is also known as the Database Model.
A good DB design is the foundation for good applications and a good DB design uses an
appropriate data model as its foundation.
An Entity is something about which you want to store data; typically a person, place,
thing, concept or event. But they may also be abstractions such as flight routes or musical
concerts. (You would store this info in a table)
An Attribute is a characteristic of an entity or object. An attribute has a name and a data
type. (This would be a field in a table)
A Relationship is an association between entities defined by a diamond-shaped symbol
in an ER diagram. Its degree defines the number of related entities: unary, binary, ternary,
or higher.
Data models use 3 types of Relationships:
 One to Many (1:M or N)
 Many to Many (M:N)
 One to One (1:1)
Business Rules are narrative descriptions of policies, procedures, or principles within an
organization. Examples: A pilot cannot be on duty for more than ten hours during a
twenty-four hour period. A professor may teach up to four classes during any one
semester.
Business Rules are essential to DB Design for several reasons:
 They help standardize the companies view of data
 They constitute a communications tool between users and designers
 They allow the designer to understand the nature, role and scope of the data
 They allow the designer to understand business processors
 They allow the designer to develop appropriate relationship participation rules
and constraints
Hierarchical Model
North American Rockwell was a contractor for the Apollo project. They developed
software known as Generalized Update Access Method (GUAM) in the late 1960s to
control file system redundancies.
IBM then later joins Rockwell and they create Information Management System
(IMS), which is a hierarchical database model.
IMS became the hierarchical database standard in the 1970s.
It is a Hierarchical Model, which is no longer a major player in the current database
market. You should understand a few of its characteristics for these reasons:
 It’s basic concept forms the basis for subsequent database development
 It’s limitations lead to a different way of looking at DB Design
 Some of the basic concepts show up in current Data Models
A Hierarchical Structure
Final Assembly
Filing Cabinet
Root Segment
Level 1 Segments
(Root Children)
Component A
Level 2 Segments
(Level 1 Children)
Assembly A
Level 3 Segments
(Level 2 Children)
Part A
Part B
Component B
Component C
Assembly B
Part C
Part D
Assembly C
Part E
A segment is the equivalent of a file systems record type.
The Hierarchical Database is a collection of records that logically organize to conform to
the upside down tree structure shown here.
Within the Hierarchy the top layer (the Root) is perceived as the parent of the segment
directly beneath it. For example the Root segment is the parent of Level 1 segments,
which in turn are the parents of the Level 2 segments.
In short:
 Each Parent can have many Children
 Each Child has only One Parent.
It is therefore easy to trace the DB components and the 1:M relationships among them.
This ordered sequencing of segments tracing the Hierarchical structure is called the
Hierarchical Path.
For example the path to the segment labeled ―Part D‖ can be traced this way:
Final Assembly  Component A  Assembly A  Part A Part B  Component B
 Component C  Assembly B  Part C  Part D
Note that the path traces all segements from the root starting at the left-most segment.
This left-list path is known as the Preorder Traversal or the Hierarchical Sequence.
The Network Model
Network Model—A data model created to represent complex data relationships more
effectively than the hierarchical model could, to improve database performance, and to
impose a database standard.
CONFERENCE ON DATA SYSTEMS LANGUAGES (CODASYL)—A group
originally formed to help standardize COBOL; its DBTG subgroup helped to develop
database standards in the early 1970s.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)—The group that accepted the DBTG
recommendations and augmented database standards in 1975 through its SPARC
committee.
Database Task Group (Dbtg)—A CODASYL committee that helped develop database
standards in the early 1970’s. See also CODASYL.
The DBTG was charged to define standard specifications for an environment that would
facilitate DB creation and manipulation.
The final DBTG report contained specifications for the three crucial DB components:
1. The Network Schema, the conceptual organization of the entire DB as viewed by
the DB Admin. The Schema includes a definition of the DB name, the record type
for each record, and the components that make up those records.
2. The Sub-Schema, which defines the portion of the DB ―seen‖ by the application
programs that actually produce the desired information from the data contained
within the DB. The existence of sub-schema definitions allows all application
programs to simply invoke the sub-schema required to access the appropriate
files.
3. A Data Management Language (DML) to define the data characteristics and the
data structure in order to manipulate the data.
To produce the desired standardization for each of the three components the DBTG
specified 3 distinct data management language components:
1. A Schema Data Definition Language (DDL), which enables the DB Admin to
define components that will be used.
2. A Sub-Schema DDL, which allows application programs to define the database
components that will be used.
3. A DML to manipulate the DB records.
A Network Data Model
SalesREP
Commission Set
Customer
1:M
1:M
Sales Set
Product
INVOICE
SalesREP
SalesREP
1:M
1:M
Payment Set
PAYMENT
SalesREP
SalesREP
1:M
Inventory Set
Line Set
INV_LINE
SalesREP
SalesREP
In Network DB Terminology:
Set = Relationship
1. Owner Record - the equivalent of the Hierarchical Models Parent
2. Member Record – the equivalent of the Hierarchical Models Child
The Relational Model
First developed by E.F. Codd (of IBM) in 1970 and is considered by many the Automatic
Transmission of DB’s.
The Relational data model is implemented through a very sophisticated Relational
DBMS.
The most important advantage of the RDBMS is its ability to let the user/designer
operate in a human logical environment. The RDBMS manages all of the complex
physical details. Thus the Relational DB is perceived by the user to be a collection of
tables in which the data are stored.
Table – Matrix consisting of a series of row/column intersections. Tables are also called
Relations and are related to each other by sharing a common entity characteristic.
Example:
The Customer table might contain a sales agents number that is also contained in the
Agents file.
Relational Schema – A visual representation of the relational DB’s entities, the
attributes within those entities and the relationships between those entities.
For most Relational DB Software the query language is Structured Query Language
(SQL).
Entity Relational Model
Entity Relationship (ER) Model—A data model developed by P. Chen in 1975. It
describes relationships (1:1, 1:M, M:N) among entities at the conceptual level with the
help of ER diagrams.
Entity Relationship (ER) Diagram—A diagram that depicts an entity relationship
model’s entities, attributes and relations. It also displays connectivity and cardinality.
An Entity is represented in the ERD by a Rectangle. Each Row in the Relational Table
is known as an Entity Instance or Entity Occurrence.
A collection of Entities is known as an Entity Set.
Example: an Agent file has 3 agents (entities) in the agent Entity Set.
ERD Models use the term Connectivity to label the types of Relationships.
The Basic CHEN ERD
One to Many (1:M) Relationship
A painter can paint many paintings.
Each painting is painted by one painter
1
Painter
M
Paints
Paintings
Many to Many (M:N) Relationship
An Employee can learn Many Skills
Each Skill is learned by many employees
M
Employee
M
learns
Skill
One to One (1:1) Relationship
An Employee manages One Store
Each Store is managed by One Employee
1
Employee
1
manages
Store
A more current version of the ERD is the Crow’s Foot Model derived from the 3 prong
symbol used to represent the Many side of the relationship. There is NO diamond to
indicate the relationship.
The Basic Crows Foot ERD
One to One (1:M) Relationship
Painter
Painting
Many to Many (M:N) Relationship
Employee
Skill
One to One (1:1) Relationship
Employee
Chen and the Crows Foot are the basic ERD’s used.
Store
The Object Oriented Model
The Semantic Data Model (SDM) modeled both data and their relationships in a single
structure known as an Object.
Object Oriented Data Model (OODM)—A data model based on object-oriented
concepts. Provides support for new user-defined data types, inheritance, polymorphism,
encapsulation, and so on.
In turn the Object Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)—Software
used to better manage data found within an object oriented database model.
An OODM reflects a very different way to define and use Entities. Like the relational
models entity, an object described by it’s factual content. BUT quite unlike an entity, an
Object includes information about relationships between the facts within the object, as
well as well as its information about its relationship with other objects.
ER Model
OO Data Model
M
1
Invoice
Customer
Generates
Invoice
1
Inv_Date
Iinv_Number
Inv_Ship_Date
Inv_Total
Generates
M
Customer
1
Line
M
LINES
Example here shows an OODM model and the same Model as a Chen ER model.
An Object Oriented Data Model is based on the following components.



An Object is an abstraction of a real world entity. An Object may be considered
equivalent to an ER Models Entity. Ex: An Object Class of PERSON.
Object Instance is a particular real world occurrence of an Object. Ex: Brianna
Sheridan is an Instance of the object class PERSON.
Objects that share similar characteristics are grouped in Classes. A Class is a
collection of similar objects with shared structure (attributes) and behaviour
(methods). Ex: A Class’s method represents a real world action such as:
o Finding a persons name
o Changing a persons name
Inheritance is the ability of an Object within the class hierarchy to inherit the
attributes and methods of the classes above it.
Example: We create 2 Classes Customer and Employee as subclasses from the class
Person. In this case Customer and Employee will inherit all attributes and methods from
Person.
The Development of Data Models
Semantics in
Data Models
Hierarchical
least
Network
Difficult to represent M:N relationships
(Heirarchical Only)
Physical Level dependancy
No Ad Hoc Queries
Access path predefined (navigational access)
Relational
Provides Ad Hoc Queries
Set-Oriented Access
Weak semantic content
Entity Relationship
Easy to understand
Incorporates more semantics
Semantic
More semantics in the data model
Support for complex objects
Inheritance
Behavior
Object-Oriented
most
Extended /
Relational
Chapter 3
Glossary Table
abstract data types (ADT)—Data types that describe a set of similar objects with shared
and encapsulated data representation and methods. An abstract data type is generally used
to describe complex objects. See also class.
Attribute Domain—See domain.
Bridge Entity—See composite entity.
Candidate Key—See key.
Composite Entity—An entity designed to transform an M:N relationship into two 1:M
relationships. The composite entity’s primary key comprises at least the primary keys of
the entities that it connects. Also known as a bridge entity.
Data Dictionary—A DBMS component that stores metadata – data about data. Thus, the
data dictionary contains the data definition as well as its characteristics and relationships.
A data dictionary may also include data that are external to the DBMS. See also active
data dictionary and passive data dictionary.
Determination—The role of the key. In the context of a database table, the statement ―A
determines B‖ indicates that knowing the value of attribute A means that you can look up
(determine) the value of attribute B.
Domain—Used to organize and describe an attribute’s set of possible values.
Entity Integrity—Property of a relational table that guarantees that each entity have a
unique value in a primary key and that there are no null values in the primary key.
equiJOIN—A join operator that links tables based on an equality condition that
compares specified columns of the tables.
Flags—Special codes implemented by designers to prevent nulls by bringing attention to
the absence of a value in a table.
Foreign Key—See key.
Full Functional Dependence—A condition in which an attribute is functionally
dependent on a composite key but not on any subset of that composite key.
Homonyms—Indicates the use of the same name to label different attributes; should
generally be avoided. Some relational software automatically checks for homonyms and
either alerts the user to their existence or automatically makes the appropriate
adjustments. See also synonym.
Index—An ordered array composed of index key values and row ID values (pointers).
Indexes are generally used to speed up data retrieval.
Join Columns—Term used to refer to the columns used to join two tables. The join
columns generally share similar values.
Key—An entity identifier based on the concept of functional dependence; may be
classified as follows:
Superkey: An attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies each entity
in the table.
Candidate key: A minimal superkey, that is, one that does not contain a subset of
attributes that is itself a superkey.
Primary key: A candidate key selected as a unique entity identifier.
Secondary key: A key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes. For example, a
customer is not likely to know his or her customer number (primary key) but the
combination of last name, first name, initial and telephone number is likely to make a
match to the appropriate table row.
Foreign key: An attribute (or combination of attributes) in one table whose values must
match the primary key in another table or whose values must be null.
Key Attributes—The attribute(s) that form a primary key. See also prime attribute.
Left Outer Join—In a pair of tables to be joined, a left outer join yields all the rows in
the left table, including those that have no matching values in the other table. For
example, a
left outer join of Customer with Agent will yield all the Customer rows, including the
ones that do not have a matching Agent row. See also outer join.
Linking Table—A table that implements a composite entity. See also composite entity.
Natural Join—A relational operation that links tables by selecting only the rows with
common values in their common attribute(s).
NULL—The absence of an attribute value. Note: a null is not a blank.
Primary Key—See key.
Referential Integrity—A condition by which a dependent table’s foreign key must have
either a null entry or a matching entry in the related table. Even though an attribute may
not have a corresponding attribute, it will be impossible to have an invalid entry.
Relational Algebra—A set of mathematical principles that form the basis of the
manipulation of relational table contents; comprises eight main functions:
SELECT, PROJECT, JOIN, INTERSECT, UNION, DIFFERENCE, PRODUCT,
and DIVIDE.
Right Outer Join—In a pair of tables to be joined, a right outer join yields all the rows
in the right table, including the ones with no matching values in the other table. For
example, a right outer join of CUSTOMER with AGENT will yield all the agent rows,
including the ones that do not have a matching CUSTOMER row. See also outer join.
Secondary Key—A key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes. For example, a
customer is not likely to know his or her customer number (the primary key) but the
combination of last name, first name, initial, and telephone number is likely to make a
match to the appropriate table row.
Superkey—See key.
Synonym—The use of different names to identify the same object, such as an entity, an
attribute, or a relationship; should (generally) be avoided. See also homonym.
System Catalog—A detailed system data dictionary that describes all objects in the
database.
Theta Join—A join operator that links tables using an inequality comparison operator (<,
>, <=, >=) in the join condition.
Tuple—A table row.
Union-Compatible—Two or more tables are union compatible if they share the same
column names and the columns have compatible data types or domains.
Unique Index—An index in which the index key can only have one pointer value (row)
associated with it.
Relational Database Model
Characteristics of a Relational Table
1. A table is perceived as a two-dimensional structure composed of rows and
columns
2. Each table row (tuple) represents a single entity occurrence within the entity set
3. Each table column represents an attribute and each column has a distinct name
4. Each row/column intersection represents a single data value
5. All values in a column must conform to a single data format
6. Each column has a specific range known as an Attribute Domain
7. The order of the rows/columns is immaterial to the DBMS
8. Each table must have an attribute or a combination of attributes that uniquely
identifies each row.
Some older DBMSs might impose the following naming constraints:
1. Table names are restricted to 8 characters
2. Column (attribute) names are limited to 10 characters
3. Column names cannot begin with a digit
Although various DBMSs can support different data types most support at lest the
following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Numeric
Character
Date
Logical (yes/no)
A Key consists of one or more attributes that determine other attributes.
Determination is the role of the key. In the context of a database table, the statement ―A
determines B‖ indicates that knowing the value of attribute A means that you can look up
(determine) the value of attribute B.
Full Functional Dependence is a condition in which an attribute is functionally
dependent on a composite key but not on any subset of that composite key.
The attribute B is functionally dependent on A if A determines B.
A Composite Key is composed of more than one attribute (fields)
An attribute (fields) that is part of a key is known as a Key Attribute
A Superkey is an attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies each
entity in the table.
Candidate key: A minimal Superkey, that is, one that does not contain a subset of
attributes that is itself a Superkey. NO REDUNDANCIES in the key!
Primary key: A candidate key selected as a unique entity identifier.
Secondary key: A key that is used strictly for Search Capabilities. For example, a
customer is not likely to know his or her customer number (primary key) but the
combination of last name, first name, initial and telephone number is likely to make a
match to the appropriate table row.
Foreign key: An attribute (or combination of attributes) in one table whose values must
match the primary key in another table or whose values must be null.
Within a table each Primary Key value must be unique to ensure that each row is
uniquely identified by the Primary Key. When this is the case the table is said to have
Entity Integrity.
To maintain Entity Integrity a null value is not permitted in the Primary Key.
Referential Integrity—A condition by which a dependent table’s foreign key must have
either a null entry or a matching entry in the related table. Even though an attribute may
not have a corresponding attribute, it will be impossible to have an invalid entry.
Integrity Rules
Entity Integrity
Description
Requirement
All Primary Key entries are unique and no part of a primary
key may be null
Guarantees that each entity will have a unique identity and
ensures that foreign key values can properly reference
Primary Key Values
No Invoice can have duplicate Numbers nor can they be
NULL
Purpose
Example
Referential Integrity
Description
Requirement
A foreign Key may have either a NULL entry (as long as it is
not part of THAT tables Primary Key) or an entry that
matches the Primary Keys value.
Makes it possible for an attribute NOT to have a
corresponding value but it will make it impossible to have an
invalid entry
A customer might not yet have an assigned sales rep number
but it will be impossible to have an invalid sales rep number
Purpose
Example
Relational Algebra—A set of mathematical principles that form the basis of the
manipulation of relational table contents; comprises eight main functions:
SELECT, PROJECT, JOIN, INTERSECT, UNION, DIFFERENCE, PRODUCT, and
DIVIDE. Produced through SQL.
1. UNION – must be Union-Compatible meaning all the columns (fields) are the
same in each table. This merges all rows into one output.
2. INTERSECT – yields only the rows that appears in both tables. Must be UnionCompatible
F_Name
George
Jane
Elaine
Wilfred
Jorge
INTERSECT
F_NAME
Jane
William
Jorge
Dennis
Yields
F_NAME
Jane
Jorge
3. DIFFERENCE – Does the opposite from above and give the records NOT found
in the other table.
4. PRODUCT – Yields all possible pairs that the both could produce. So 10 records
in one table and 10 records in another table would produce 100 records.
5. SELECT – yields values for all rows in a table
6. PROJECT - yields values for selected rows chosen
7. JOIN – Allows us to combine information from 2 or more tables

Natural Join links tables by selecting only the rows with common values
in their attributes.
 EquiJoin means the Where condition must ―=‖ a value
 ThetaJoin means the Where condition must be ―>‖ or ―<‖ a value

Left Outer Join yields all the rows in the LEFT table including all those
that do not have a matching value in the RIGHT table
Right Outer Join yields all the rows in the RIGHT table including all
those that do not have a matching value in the LEFT table
INNER JOIN returns all rows from both tables where there is a match. If
there are rows in Employees that do not have matches in Orders, those
rows will not be listed.


8. DIVIDE – Goes something like this
CODE and LOC DIVIDED by CODE = LOC and then it is the only value that the
CODE s had in common.
System Catalogs contains metadata
Homonyms—Indicates the use of the same name to label different attributes; should
generally be avoided. Some relational software automatically checks for homonyms and
either alerts the user to their existence or automatically makes the appropriate
adjustments. See also synonym
Synonym—The use of different names to identify the same object, such as an entity, an
attribute, or a relationship; should (generally) be avoided. See also homonym.
Changing the M:N to a 1:M
1
M
M
Student
ENROLLS
1
Class
Unary Relationship exists when an association is maintained with a single entity.
Unary
M
N
Course
requires
A Binary Relationship exists when an association is maintained between two entities.
Binary
Professor
1
teaches
M
Class
A Ternary Relationship exists when an association is maintained between three entities.
Ternary
M
1
Contributor
CFR
Recipient
P
Funds
An Index is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table.
The Index Key is in effect the index’s reference point.
A Unique Index is an index in which the index key can have only one pointer value
(row) associated with it.
Cardinalities express the specific number of entity occurrences associated with one
occurrence of the related entity.
CHEN
Cardinality Example
Connectivities
1
Professor
M
teaches
Class
(1, 1)
(1, 4)
Cardinalities
Example: The Cardinality (1,4) written next to the professor indicates that the professor
tables foreign key value occurs at least once and no more than four times in the class
table. If the Cardinality had been written (1,N) then there would be no upper limit to the
amount of classes that a professor might teach.
Cardinality
Crows Foot Model
Connectivities
1
M
Professor
teaches
Cardinalities
Class
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